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  1. Social networks and infant feeding in Oaxaca, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wutich, Amber; McCarty, Christopher

    2008-04-01

    The health benefits of delaying the introduction of complementary foods to infants' diets are widely known. Many studies have shown that mothers with the support of close social network members are more compliant with medical recommendations for infant feeding. In our study, we examine the effects of a broader spectrum of network members (40 people) on mothers' infant feeding decisions. The survey was conducted in Oaxaca, Mexico as part of a follow-up to a nationwide Mexican Social Security Institute survey of infant health. Sixty mothers were interviewed from a stratified random sample of the original respondents. Multivariate tests were used to compare the efficacy of network-level variables for predicting the introduction of 36 foods into infants' diets, when compared with respondent-level variables. The study yields four findings. First, network-level variables were better predictors of the timing of food introduction than socio-demographic variables. Second, mothers with more indigenous networks delayed the introduction of some grains (oatmeal, cereal, noodle soup, rice) and processed pork products (sausage and ham) to the infant's diet longer than mothers with less indigenous networks. Third, mothers who had stronger ties to their networks delayed the introduction of rice and processed pork products (sausage and ham) to the infant's diet longer than mothers who had weaker ties to their networks. Fourth, mothers who heeded the advice of distant network members introduced some grains (rice and cereal) earlier than mothers who did not heed the advice of distant network members.

  2. Network analysis of perception-action coupling in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naama eRotem-Kohavi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The functional networks that support action observation are of great interest in understanding the development of social cognition and motor learning. How infants learn to represent and understand the world around them remains one of the most intriguing questions in developmental cognitive neuroscience. Recently, mathematical measures derived from graph theory have been used to study connectivity networks in the developing brain. Thus far, this type of analysis in infancy has only been applied to the resting state. In this study, we recorded electroencephalography (EEG from infants (ages 4-11 months of age and adults while they observed three types of actions: a reaching for an object, b walking and c object motion. Graph theory based analysis was applied to these data to evaluate changes in brain networks. Global metrics that provide measures of the structural properties of the network (characteristic path, density, global efficiency, and modularity were calculated for each group and for each condition. We found statistically significant differences in measures for the observation of walking condition only. Specifically, in comparison to adults, infants showed increased density and global efficiency in combination with decreased modularity during observation of an action that is not within their motor repertoire (i.e. independent walking, suggesting a less structured organization. There were no group differences in global metric measures for observation of object motion or for observation of actions that are within the repertoire of infants (i.e. reaching. These preliminary results suggest that infants and adults may share a basic functional network for action observation that is sculpted by experience. Motor experience may lead to a shift towards a more efficient functional network.

  3. Infant Joint Attention, Neural Networks and Social Cognition

    OpenAIRE

    Mundy, Peter; Jarrold, William

    2010-01-01

    Neural network models of attention can provide a unifying approach to the study of human cognitive and emotional development (Posner & Rothbart, 2007). This paper we argue that a neural networks approach to the infant development of joint attention can inform our understanding of the nature of human social learning, symbolic thought process and social cognition. At its most basic, joint attention involves the capacity to coordinate one’s own visual attention with that of another person. We pr...

  4. Single-Dose Pharmacokinetics of Famciclovir in Infants and Population Pharmacokinetic Analysis in Infants and Children ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumer, Jeffrey; Rodriguez, Adib; Sánchez, Pablo J.; Sallas, William; Kaiser, Guenther; Hamed, Kamal

    2010-01-01

    A multicenter, open-label study evaluated the single-dose pharmacokinetics and safety of a pediatric oral famciclovir (prodrug of penciclovir) formulation in infants aged 1 to 12 months with suspicion or evidence of herpes simplex virus infection. Individualized single doses of famciclovir based on the infant's body weight ranged from 25 to 175 mg. Eighteen infants were enrolled (1 to <3 months old [n = 8], 3 to <6 months old [n = 5], and 6 to 12 months old [n = 5]). Seventeen infants were included in the pharmacokinetic analysis; one infant experienced immediate emesis and was excluded. Mean Cmax and AUC0-6 values of penciclovir in infants <6 months of age were ∼3- to 4-fold lower than those in the 6- to 12-month age group. Specifically, mean AUC0-6 was 2.2 μg·h/ml in infants aged 1 to <3 months, 3.2 μg·h/ml in infants aged 3 to <6 months, and 8.8 μg·h/ml in infants aged 6 to 12 months. These data suggested that the dose administered to infants <6 months was less than optimal. Eight (44.4%) infants experienced at least one adverse event with gastrointestinal events reported most commonly. An updated pharmacokinetic analysis was conducted, which incorporated the data in infants from the present study and previously published data on children 1 to 12 years of age. An eight-step dosing regimen was derived that targeted exposure in infants and children 6 months to 12 years of age to match the penciclovir AUC seen in adults after a 500-mg dose of famciclovir. PMID:20160046

  5. Predicting developmental disorder in infants using an artificial neural network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farin Soleimani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Early recognition of developmental disorders is an important goal, and equally important is avoiding misdiagnosing a disorder in a healthy child without pathology. The aim of the present study was to develop an artificial neural network using perinatal information to predict developmental disorder at infancy. A total of 1,232 mother-child dyads were recruited from 6,150 in the original data of Karaj, Alborz Province, Iran. Thousands of variables are examined in this data including basic characteristics, medical history, and variables related to infants.  The validated Infant Neurological International Battery test was employed to assess the infant's development. The concordance indexes showed that true prediction of developmental disorder in the artificial neural network model, compared to the logistic regression model, was 83.1% vs. 79.5% and the area under ROC curves, calculated from testing data, were 0.79 and 0.68, respectively. In addition, specificity and sensitivity of the ANN model vs. LR model was calculated 93.2% vs. 92.7% and 39.1% vs. 21.7%. An artificial neural network performed significantly better than a logistic regression model.

  6. Predicting developmental disorder in infants using an artificial neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleimani, Farin; Teymouri, Robab; Biglarian, Akbar

    2013-07-13

    Early recognition of developmental disorders is an important goal, and equally important is avoiding misdiagnosing a disorder in a healthy child without pathology. The aim of the present study was to develop an artificial neural network using perinatal information to predict developmental disorder at infancy. A total of 1,232 mother-child dyads were recruited from 6,150 in the original data of Karaj, Alborz Province, Iran. Thousands of variables are examined in this data including basic characteristics, medical history, and variables related to infants.  The validated Infant Neurological International Battery test was employed to assess the infant's development. The concordance indexes showed that true prediction of developmental disorder in the artificial neural network model, compared to the logistic regression model, was 83.1% vs. 79.5% and the area under ROC curves, calculated from testing data, were 0.79 and 0.68, respectively. In addition, specificity and sensitivity of the ANN model vs. LR model was calculated 93.2% vs. 92.7% and 39.1% vs. 21.7%. An artificial neural network performed significantly better than a logistic regression model.

  7. Single-system ureteroceles in infants and children: imaging features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zerin, J.M.; Baker, D.R. [Dept. of Radiology, Indiana University Medical Center, James Whitcomb Riley Hospital for Children, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Casale, J.A. [Dept. of Urology, Indiana University Medical Center, James Whitcomb Riley Hospital for Children, Indianapolis, IN (United States)

    2000-03-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this manuscript is to describe the clinical and imaging findings in children who have single-system ureteroceles.Materials and methods. We reviewed the urology records and imaging studies in 32 consecutive infants and children who were diagnosed in our department with single-system ureteroceles.Results. There were 35 ureteroceles in the 32 patients - 29 were unilateral (14 right-sided, 15 left-sided) and 3 were bilateral. Twenty-five patients were boys (78 %) and 7 girls. Mean age at presentation was 0.7 years (0-9.2 years). Prenatally detected hydronephrosis or cystic renal dysplasia was the most common presentation (24 patients). Four presented with urinary infection, 2 with abdominal mass, 1 had myelomeningocele, and 1 had hypospadias. Three patients also had multiple non-urologic, congenital anomalies. Thirty-three ureteroceles were intravesical, and 2 were ectopic to the bladder neck. Twenty-four ureteroceles were associated with ipsilateral hydroureteronephrosis and 10 with ipsilateral multicystic dysplastic kidney. One patient had a normal ipsilateral kidney and a contralateral multicystic dysplastic kidney. The ureterocele was identified on at least one imaging study in each patient. Sixteen ureteroceles (47 %) everted at VCUG, mimicking paraureteral diverticula. Other variations included ureterocele prolapse and inadvertent ureterocele catheterization (1 each).Conclusions. Single-system ureterocele is an important, although uncommon cause of hydronephrosis and renal dysplasia in infants and children. Single-system ureterocele is distinguished clinically from the more common duplex-system ureterocele by its frequent occurrence in boys and its association with multicystic dysplastic kidney. Because these ureteroceles are frequently small and have a propensity to evert at VCUG, they can be mistaken for paraureteral diverticula. (orig.)

  8. Data-driven automated acoustic analysis of human infant vocalizations using neural network tools

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    Warlaumont, Anne S.; Oller, D. Kimbrough; Buder, Eugene H.; Dale, Rick; Kozma, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Acoustic analysis of infant vocalizations has typically employed traditional acoustic measures drawn from adult speech acoustics, such as f0, duration, formant frequencies, amplitude, and pitch perturbation. Here an alternative and complementary method is proposed in which data-derived spectrographic features are central. 1-s-long spectrograms of vocalizations produced by six infants recorded longitudinally between ages 3 and 11 months are analyzed using a neural network consisting of a self-organizing map and a single-layer perceptron. The self-organizing map acquires a set of holistic, data-derived spectrographic receptive fields. The single-layer perceptron receives self-organizing map activations as input and is trained to classify utterances into prelinguistic phonatory categories (squeal, vocant, or growl), identify the ages at which they were produced, and identify the individuals who produced them. Classification performance was significantly better than chance for all three classification tasks. Performance is compared to another popular architecture, the fully supervised multilayer perceptron. In addition, the network’s weights and patterns of activation are explored from several angles, for example, through traditional acoustic measurements of the network’s receptive fields. Results support the use of this and related tools for deriving holistic acoustic features directly from infant vocalization data and for the automatic classification of infant vocalizations. PMID:20370038

  9. Predicting Developmental Disorder in Infants Using an Artificial Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farin Soleimani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Early recognition of developmental disorders is an important goal, and equally important is avoiding misdiagnosing a disorder in a healthy child without pathology. The aim of the present study was to develop an artificial neural network using perinatal information to predict developmental disorder at infancy. A total of 1,232 mother–child dyads were recruited from 6,150 in the original data of Karaj, Alborz Province, Iran. Thousands of variables are examined in this data including basic characteristics, medical history, and variables related to infants. The validated Infant Neurological International Battery test was employed to assess the infant’s development. The concordance indexes showed that true prediction of developmental disorder in the artificial neural network model, compared to the logistic regression model, was 83.1% vs. 79.5% and the area under ROC curves, calculated from testing data, were 0.79 and 0.68, respectively. In addition, specificity and sensitivity of the ANN model vs. LR model was calculated 93.2% vs. 92.7% and 39.1% vs. 21.7%. An artificial neural network performed significantly better than a logistic regression model.

  10. Low-power hybrid wireless network for monitoring infant incubators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, D I; Shin, K H; Kim, I K; Park, K S; Lee, T S; Kim, S I; Lim, K S; Huh, S J

    2005-10-01

    We have created a pilot wireless network for the convenient monitoring of temperature and humidity of infant incubators. This system combines infrared and radio frequency (RF) communication in order to minimize the power consumption of slave devices, and we therefore call it a hybrid wireless network. The slave module installed in the infant incubator receives the calling signal from the host with an infrared receiver, and sends temperature and humidity data to the host with an RF transmitter. The power consumption of the host system is not critical, and hence it uses the maximum power of infrared transmission and continuously operating RF receiver. In our test implementation, we included four slave devices. The PC calls each slave device every second and then waits for 6 s, resulting in a total scan period of 10 s. Slave devices receive the calling signals and transmit three data values (temperature, moisture, and skin temperature); their power demand is 1 mW, and can run for about 1000 h on four AA-size nickel-hydride batteries.

  11. Single-Seed Cascades on Clustered Networks

    CERN Document Server

    McSweeney, John K

    2015-01-01

    We consider a dynamic network cascade process developed by Watts applied to a random networks with a specified amount of clustering, belonging to a class of random networks developed by Newman. We adapt existing tree-based methods to formulate an appropriate two-type branching process to describe the spread of a cascade started with a single active node, and obtain a fixed-point equation to implicitly express the extinction probability of such a cascade. In so doing, we also recover a special case of a formula of Hackett et al. giving conditions for certain extinction of the cascade.

  12. Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy After a Single Dose of Dexamethasone in a Preterm Infant

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    Yusuf Kale

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Dexamethasone is widely used in preterm infants with severe pulmonary disease. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM is a transient side effect observed after multiple doses of dexamethasone. We report a preterm infant with myocardial hypertrophy after a single dose of dexamethasone (0.5 mg/kg used to treat laryngeal edema secondary to prolonged intubation. A benign course was observed without left ventricular outflow tract obstruction and with recovery within 4 weeks. Myocardial effects of dexamethasone may be independent of dose and duration of treatment. The risk/benefit ratio must be carefully considered before using even a single dose of dexamethasone in preterm infants.

  13. Improving Outcomes for Infants with Single Ventricle Physiology through Standardized Feeding during the Interstage

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    Cindy Weston

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital heart disease is identified as the most common birth defect with single ventricle physiology carrying the highest mortality. Staged surgical palliation is required for treatment, with mortality historically as high as 22% in the four- to six-month period from the first- to second-stage surgical palliation, known as the interstage. A standardized postoperative feeding approach was implemented through an evidence-based protocol, parent engagement, and interprofessional team rounds. Five infants with single ventricle physiology preprotocol were compared with five infants who received the standardized feeding approach. Mann-Whitney U tests were conducted to evaluate the hypotheses that infants in the intervention condition would consume more calories and have a positive change in weight-to-age z-score (WAZ and shorter length of stay (LOS following the first and second surgeries compared to infants in the control condition. After the protocol, the change in WAZ during the interstage increased by virtually one standard deviation from 0.05 to 0.91. Median LOS dropped 32% after the first surgery and 43% after the second surgery. Since first- and second-stage palliative surgeries occur within the same year of life, this represents savings of $500,000 to $800,000 per year in a 10-infant model. The standardized feeding approach improved growth in single ventricle infants while concurrently lowering hospital costs.

  14. Bone mineral content measurement in small infants by single-photon absorptiometry: current methodologic issues

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    Steichen, J.J.; Asch, P.A.; Tsang, R.C.

    1988-07-01

    Single-photon absorptiometry (SPA), developed in 1963 and adapted for infants by Steichen et al. in 1976, is an important tool to quantitate bone mineralization in infants. Studies of infants in which SPA was used include studies of fetal bone mineralization and postnatal bone mineralization in very low birth weight infants. The SPA technique has also been used as a research tool to investigate longitudinal bone mineralization and to study the effect of nutrition and disease processes such as rickets or osteopenia of prematurity. At present, it has little direct clinical application for diagnosing bone disease in single patients. The bones most often used to measure bone mineral content (BMC) are the radius, the ulna, and, less often, the humerus. The radius appears to be preferred as a suitable bone to measure BMC in infants. It is easily accessible; anatomic reference points are easily palpated and have a constant relationship to the radial mid-shaft site; soft tissue does not affect either palpation of anatomic reference points or BMC quantitation in vivo. The peripheral location of the radius minimizes body radiation exposure. Trabecular and cortical bone can be measured separately. Extensive background studies exist on radial BMC in small infants. Most important, the radius has a relatively long zone of constant BMC. Finally, SPA for BMC in the radius has a high degree of precision and accuracy. 61 references.

  15. Correlates of diurnal sleep patterns in infants of adolescent and adult single mothers.

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    Becker, P T; Chang, A; Kameshima, S; Bloch, M

    1991-04-01

    Sleep behavior has been related to both child and environmental factors, but the relative importance of these factors is not yet clear. This study was an examination of the relation of diurnal sleep patterns to perinatal risk, infant temperament, home environment, parenting stress, emotional support, and social class. Twenty-three adolescent and 23 single adult mothers and infants were assessed in the home at 4 and 12 months. Percent sleep during the night was most strongly related to parenting stress and variability of night sleep to emotional support. Emotional support mediated effects of stress at 4 months. Results support the value of clinical assessment of sleep behavior.

  16. Perioperative Feeding Approaches in Single Ventricle Infants: A Survey of 46 Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slicker, Julie; Sables-Baus, Sharon; Lambert, Linda M; Peterson, Laura E; Woodard, Frances K; Ocampo, Elena C

    2016-12-01

    Background Feeding dysfunction occurs commonly in infants with single ventricle heart disease and impacts growth and long-term outcomes. Little evidence exists to guide safe feeding in this population. This study surveyed centers participating in the National Pediatric Cardiology Quality Improvement Collaborative to assess prevailing feeding practices amongthose caring for single ventricle neonates. Methods Web-based survey of 56 pediatric cardiac surgical centers was conducted. Questions addressed peri-operative feeding approaches and responses were presented and analyzed descriptively. Results Of 56 centers, 46 (82%) completed a survey. Preoperative feeding was common in single ventricle infants (30/46; 65%), routes varied. Centers who did not feed infants preoperatively cited the risk of necrotizing enterocolitis (16/16; 100%), presence of umbilical artery catheter (12/16; 75%), and prostaglandin infusion (9/16; 56%) as main concerns. 67% of centers reported no specific vital sign thresholds for withholding enteral feedings. In the postoperative period, most centers used an "internal guideline" (21/46; 46%) or an "informal practice" (15/46; 33%) to determine feeding readiness. Approaches to findings were significantly different among centers. About 40% of centers did not send patients home with feeding tubes, and there was no clear consensus between preferred feeding tube modality at discharge. Conclusion Considerable variation exists in feeding practices for infants with single ventricle congenital heart disease among 46 centers participating in a quality improvement collaborative. Although most centers generally feed infants preoperatively, feeding practices remain center-specific. Variability continues in the immediate post-operative and interstage periods. Further opportunities exist for investigation, standardization and development of best-practice feeding guidelines.

  17. Deep convolutional neural networks for multi-modality isointense infant brain image segmentation.

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    Zhang, Wenlu; Li, Rongjian; Deng, Houtao; Wang, Li; Lin, Weili; Ji, Shuiwang; Shen, Dinggang

    2015-03-01

    The segmentation of infant brain tissue images into white matter (WM), gray matter (GM), and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) plays an important role in studying early brain development in health and disease. In the isointense stage (approximately 6-8 months of age), WM and GM exhibit similar levels of intensity in both T1 and T2 MR images, making the tissue segmentation very challenging. Only a small number of existing methods have been designed for tissue segmentation in this isointense stage; however, they only used a single T1 or T2 images, or the combination of T1 and T2 images. In this paper, we propose to use deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs) for segmenting isointense stage brain tissues using multi-modality MR images. CNNs are a type of deep models in which trainable filters and local neighborhood pooling operations are applied alternatingly on the raw input images, resulting in a hierarchy of increasingly complex features. Specifically, we used multi-modality information from T1, T2, and fractional anisotropy (FA) images as inputs and then generated the segmentation maps as outputs. The multiple intermediate layers applied convolution, pooling, normalization, and other operations to capture the highly nonlinear mappings between inputs and outputs. We compared the performance of our approach with that of the commonly used segmentation methods on a set of manually segmented isointense stage brain images. Results showed that our proposed model significantly outperformed prior methods on infant brain tissue segmentation. In addition, our results indicated that integration of multi-modality images led to significant performance improvement. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Comparison of stool containment in cloth and single-use diapers using a simulated infant feces.

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    Kubiak, M; Kressner, B; Raynor, W; Davis, J; Syverson, R E

    1993-03-01

    Single-use diapers and cloth diapers with vinyl pants were compared for their relative abilities to contain stool within the diaper. Artificial feces with carbon black as an additive allowed a quantitative measure of fecal containment by image analysis in 60 infants. This method showed complete containment of feces in the diaper in 50% of the single-use diapers whereas only 10% of the cloth diapers showed complete containment. In infants where the border of the vinyl pants was used as the boundary of containment with the cloth diapers, complete containment occurred only 33% of the time. Fluorescein dye ratings for containment/leakage in 69 infants showed that 83% of single-use diapers and 30% of the cloth diapers were rated as having no or minor leakage of feces. Cultures were taken of laundered vinyl pants that had previously been used over cloth diapers to determine microbial contamination. Thirty-nine percent of the pants contained Gram-negative, lactose-fermenting bacilli indicating fecal contamination. This study comparing single-use and cloth diapers for containment of artificial feces by use of image analysis and fluorescein dye ratings showed better containment by single-use diapers. The study also raises the question of possible spread of feces-borne pathogens by the vinyl pants used over cloth diapers, particularly in a day-care center.

  19. Language or Music, Mother or Mozart? Structural and Environmental Influences on Infants' Language Networks

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    Dehaene-Lambertz, G.; Montavont, A.; Jobert, A.; Allirol, L.; Dubois, J.; Hertz-Pannier, L.; Dehaene, S.

    2010-01-01

    Understanding how language emerged in our species calls for a detailed investigation of the initial specialization of the human brain for speech processing. Our earlier research demonstrated that an adult-like left-lateralized network of perisylvian areas is already active when infants listen to sentences in their native language, but did not…

  20. Language or Music, Mother or Mozart? Structural and Environmental Influences on Infants' Language Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehaene-Lambertz, G.; Montavont, A.; Jobert, A.; Allirol, L.; Dubois, J.; Hertz-Pannier, L.; Dehaene, S.

    2010-01-01

    Understanding how language emerged in our species calls for a detailed investigation of the initial specialization of the human brain for speech processing. Our earlier research demonstrated that an adult-like left-lateralized network of perisylvian areas is already active when infants listen to sentences in their native language, but did not…

  1. Multi-feature classifiers for burst detection in single EEG channels from preterm infants

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    Navarro, X.; Porée, F.; Kuchenbuch, M.; Chavez, M.; Beuchée, Alain; Carrault, G.

    2017-08-01

    Objective. The study of electroencephalographic (EEG) bursts in preterm infants provides valuable information about maturation or prognostication after perinatal asphyxia. Over the last two decades, a number of works proposed algorithms to automatically detect EEG bursts in preterm infants, but they were designed for populations under 35 weeks of post menstrual age (PMA). However, as the brain activity evolves rapidly during postnatal life, these solutions might be under-performing with increasing PMA. In this work we focused on preterm infants reaching term ages (PMA  ⩾36 weeks) using multi-feature classification on a single EEG channel. Approach. Five EEG burst detectors relying on different machine learning approaches were compared: logistic regression (LR), linear discriminant analysis (LDA), k-nearest neighbors (kNN), support vector machines (SVM) and thresholding (Th). Classifiers were trained by visually labeled EEG recordings from 14 very preterm infants (born after 28 weeks of gestation) with 36-41 weeks PMA. Main results. The most performing classifiers reached about 95% accuracy (kNN, SVM and LR) whereas Th obtained 84%. Compared to human-automatic agreements, LR provided the highest scores (Cohen’s kappa  =  0.71) using only three EEG features. Applying this classifier in an unlabeled database of 21 infants  ⩾36 weeks PMA, we found that long EEG bursts and short inter-burst periods are characteristic of infants with the highest PMA and weights. Significance. In view of these results, LR-based burst detection could be a suitable tool to study maturation in monitoring or portable devices using a single EEG channel.

  2. FULLY CONVOLUTIONAL NETWORKS FOR MULTI-MODALITY ISOINTENSE INFANT BRAIN IMAGE SEGMENTATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Dong; Wang, Li; Gao, Yaozong; Shen, Dinggang

    The segmentation of infant brain tissue images into white matter (WM), gray matter (GM), and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) plays an important role in studying early brain development. In the isointense phase (approximately 6-8 months of age), WM and GM exhibit similar levels of intensity in both T1 and T2 MR images, resulting in extremely low tissue contrast and thus making the tissue segmentation very challenging. The existing methods for tissue segmentation in this isointense phase usually employ patch-based sparse labeling on single T1, T2 or fractional anisotropy (FA) modality or their simply-stacked combinations without fully exploring the multi-modality information. To address the challenge, in this paper, we propose to use fully convolutional networks (FCNs) for the segmentation of isointense phase brain MR images. Instead of simply stacking the three modalities, we train one network for each modality image, and then fuse their high-layer features together for final segmentation. Specifically, we conduct a convolution-pooling stream for multimodality information from T1, T2, and FA images separately, and then combine them in high-layer for finally generating the segmentation maps as the outputs. We compared the performance of our approach with that of the commonly used segmentation methods on a set of manually segmented isointense phase brain images. Results showed that our proposed model significantly outperformed previous methods in terms of accuracy. In addition, our results also indicated a better way of integrating multi-modality images, which leads to performance improvement.

  3. Probing Intrinsic Resting-State Networks in the Infant Rat Brain

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    Bajic, Dusica; Craig, Michael M.; Borsook, David; Becerra, Lino

    2016-01-01

    Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) measures spontaneous fluctuations in blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal in the absence of external stimuli. It has become a powerful tool for mapping large-scale brain networks in humans and animal models. Several rs-fMRI studies have been conducted in anesthetized and awake adult rats, reporting consistent patterns of brain activity at the systems level. However, the evolution to adult patterns of resting-state activity has not yet been evaluated and quantified in the developing rat brain. In this study, we hypothesized that large-scale intrinsic networks would be easily detectable but not fully established as specific patterns of activity in lightly anesthetized 2-week-old rats (N = 11). Independent component analysis (ICA) identified 8 networks in 2-week-old-rats. These included Default mode, Sensory (Exteroceptive), Salience (Interoceptive), Basal Ganglia-Thalamic-Hippocampal, Basal Ganglia, Autonomic, Cerebellar, as well as Thalamic-Brainstem networks. Many of these networks consisted of more than one component, possibly indicative of immature, underdeveloped networks at this early time point. Except for the Autonomic network, infant rat networks showed reduced connectivity with subcortical structures in comparison to previously published adult networks. Reported slow fluctuations in the BOLD signal that correspond to functionally relevant resting-state networks in 2-week-old rats can serve as an important tool for future studies of brain development in the settings of different pharmacological applications or disease. PMID:27803653

  4. Identification of infants at high-risk for autism spectrum disorder using multiparameter multiscale white matter connectivity networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yan; Wee, Chong-Yaw; Shi, Feng; Thung, Kim-Han; Ni, Dong; Yap, Pew-Thian; Shen, Dinggang

    2015-12-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a wide range of disabilities that cause life-long cognitive impairment and social, communication, and behavioral challenges. Early diagnosis and medical intervention are important for improving the life quality of autistic patients. However, in the current practice, diagnosis often has to be delayed until the behavioral symptoms become evident during childhood. In this study, we demonstrate the feasibility of using machine learning techniques for identifying high-risk ASD infants at as early as six months after birth. This is based on the observation that ASD-induced abnormalities in white matter (WM) tracts and whole-brain connectivity have already started to appear within 24 months after birth. In particular, we propose a novel multikernel support vector machine classification framework by using the connectivity features gathered from WM connectivity networks, which are generated via multiscale regions of interest (ROIs) and multiple diffusion statistics such as fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity, and average fiber length. Our proposed framework achieves an accuracy of 76% and an area of 0.80 under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), in comparison to the accuracy of 70% and the AUC of 70% provided by the best single-parameter single-scale network. The improvement in accuracy is mainly due to the complementary information provided by multiparameter multiscale networks. In addition, our framework also provides the potential imaging connectomic markers and an objective means for early ASD diagnosis.

  5. Automatic Network Fingerprinting through Single-Node Motifs

    CERN Document Server

    Echtermeyer, Christoph; Rodrigues, Francisco A; Kaiser, Marcus; 10.1371/journal.pone.0015765

    2011-01-01

    Complex networks have been characterised by their specific connectivity patterns (network motifs), but their building blocks can also be identified and described by node-motifs---a combination of local network features. One technique to identify single node-motifs has been presented by Costa et al. (L. D. F. Costa, F. A. Rodrigues, C. C. Hilgetag, and M. Kaiser, Europhys. Lett., 87, 1, 2009). Here, we first suggest improvements to the method including how its parameters can be determined automatically. Such automatic routines make high-throughput studies of many networks feasible. Second, the new routines are validated in different network-series. Third, we provide an example of how the method can be used to analyse network time-series. In conclusion, we provide a robust method for systematically discovering and classifying characteristic nodes of a network. In contrast to classical motif analysis, our approach can identify individual components (here: nodes) that are specific to a network. Such special nodes...

  6. Generic, network schema agnostic sparse tensor factorization for single-pass clustering of heterogeneous information networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Qinggang; Deng, Su; Huang, Hongbin; Wu, Yahui; Badii, Atta

    2017-01-01

    Heterogeneous information networks (e.g. bibliographic networks and social media networks) that consist of multiple interconnected objects are ubiquitous. Clustering analysis is an effective method to understand the semantic information and interpretable structure of the heterogeneous information networks, and it has attracted the attention of many researchers in recent years. However, most studies assume that heterogeneous information networks usually follow some simple schemas, such as bi-typed networks or star network schema, and they can only cluster one type of object in the network each time. In this paper, a novel clustering framework is proposed based on sparse tensor factorization for heterogeneous information networks, which can cluster multiple types of objects simultaneously in a single pass without any network schema information. The types of objects and the relations between them in the heterogeneous information networks are modeled as a sparse tensor. The clustering issue is modeled as an optimization problem, which is similar to the well-known Tucker decomposition. Then, an Alternating Least Squares (ALS) algorithm and a feasible initialization method are proposed to solve the optimization problem. Based on the tensor factorization, we simultaneously partition different types of objects into different clusters. The experimental results on both synthetic and real-world datasets have demonstrated that our proposed clustering framework, STFClus, can model heterogeneous information networks efficiently and can outperform state-of-the-art clustering algorithms as a generally applicable single-pass clustering method for heterogeneous network which is network schema agnostic. PMID:28245222

  7. Generic, network schema agnostic sparse tensor factorization for single-pass clustering of heterogeneous information networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jibing; Meng, Qinggang; Deng, Su; Huang, Hongbin; Wu, Yahui; Badii, Atta

    2017-01-01

    Heterogeneous information networks (e.g. bibliographic networks and social media networks) that consist of multiple interconnected objects are ubiquitous. Clustering analysis is an effective method to understand the semantic information and interpretable structure of the heterogeneous information networks, and it has attracted the attention of many researchers in recent years. However, most studies assume that heterogeneous information networks usually follow some simple schemas, such as bi-typed networks or star network schema, and they can only cluster one type of object in the network each time. In this paper, a novel clustering framework is proposed based on sparse tensor factorization for heterogeneous information networks, which can cluster multiple types of objects simultaneously in a single pass without any network schema information. The types of objects and the relations between them in the heterogeneous information networks are modeled as a sparse tensor. The clustering issue is modeled as an optimization problem, which is similar to the well-known Tucker decomposition. Then, an Alternating Least Squares (ALS) algorithm and a feasible initialization method are proposed to solve the optimization problem. Based on the tensor factorization, we simultaneously partition different types of objects into different clusters. The experimental results on both synthetic and real-world datasets have demonstrated that our proposed clustering framework, STFClus, can model heterogeneous information networks efficiently and can outperform state-of-the-art clustering algorithms as a generally applicable single-pass clustering method for heterogeneous network which is network schema agnostic.

  8. Factors Associated with Serum B-Type Natriuretic Peptide in Infants with Single Ventricles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butts, Ryan J.; Zak, Victor; Hsu, Daphne; Cnota, James; Colan, Steven D.; Hehir, David; Kantor, Paul; Levine, Jami C.; Margossian, Renee; Richmond, Marc; Szwast, Anita; Williams, Derek; Williams, Richard; Atz, Andrew M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Data regarding the value of B-type natriuretic peptide measurements (BNP) in infants with single ventricle (SV) physiology are lacking. The objective of this analysis was to describe the changes in BNP in infants with SV physiology before and after superior cavopulmonary connection (SCPC) surgery. Methods BNP levels were measured by a core laboratory pre-SCPC (5.0 ± 1.6 months) and at age 14 months during a multicenter trial of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition therapy in infants with SV. Multivariable longitudinal analysis was utilized to model the associations between BNP with three sets of grouped variables (echocardiographic, catheterization, growth). Multivariable analysis was performed to assess associations with patient characteristics at both visits. Associations between BNP and neurodevelopmental variables were investigated at the 14 month visit as neurodevelopmental assessment was performed only at this visit. Results BNP was significantly higher before SCPC (n=173) than at 14 months (n=134); median [IQR] 80.8 pg/ml [35–187] v. 34.5 pg/ml [17–67], p 100 pg/ml was present in 72 (42%) subjects pre-SCPC and 21 (16%) at 14 months. In the 117 patients who had BNP at both visits, the median BNP decreased 32 pg/mL [1–79 pg/mL], p<0.01. In longitudinal multivariable analysis, higher BNP were associated with a higher end-systolic volume z-score (p=0.01), greater degree of atrioventricular (AV) valve regurgitation (p<0.01), lower weight z-score (p<0.01), and lower length z-score (p=0.02) In multivariable analyses, higher BNP at 14 months was associated with presence of arrhythmia post-SCPC surgery (p<0.01), prior Norwood procedure (p<0.01), longer length of hospital stay post-SCPC surgery (p=0.04), and lower Bayley Psychomotor Developmental Index (p=0.02). Conclusion BNP decreases in infants with SV from the pre- SCPC visit to 14 months. Higher BNP is associated with increased ventricular dilation in systole, increased AV valve

  9. [Social network, social support and feeding habits of infants in their fourth month of life].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgado, Caroline Maria da Costa; Werneck, Guilherme Loureiro; Hasselmann, Maria Helena

    2013-02-01

    The scope of this study was to investigate the association between the social network, social support and the feeding habits of infants in their fourth month of life. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 294 children selected at 4 Primary Health Care Units in Rio de Janeiro/ Brazil. A 24-hour dietary recall was applied to the mothers to evaluate the feeding habits. Questions related to the number of people upon whom the woman can rely were asked as well as their participation in social activities to measure the social network. The scale in the Medical Outcomes Study was used to measure social support. The analysis was based on multinomial logistic regression models. Most of the infants (84%) received breast milk, but only 16% were exclusively breastfed. Children whose mothers had a small number of relatives to rely on and with low social support were more likely to be bottle-fed rather than exclusively breastfed. The need to integrate members of the social network of the woman during pre-natal care, birth and the after birth period should be encouraged, in such a way that social support can serve the mother's requirements, contributing to exclusive breastfeeding.

  10. An elementary quantum network of single atoms in optical cavities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Stephan; Nölleke, Christian; Hahn, Carolin; Reiserer, Andreas; Neuzner, Andreas; Uphoff, Manuel; Mücke, Martin; Figueroa, Eden; Bochmann, Joerg; Rempe, Gerhard

    2012-04-11

    Quantum networks are distributed quantum many-body systems with tailored topology and controlled information exchange. They are the backbone of distributed quantum computing architectures and quantum communication. Here we present a prototype of such a quantum network based on single atoms embedded in optical cavities. We show that atom-cavity systems form universal nodes capable of sending, receiving, storing and releasing photonic quantum information. Quantum connectivity between nodes is achieved in the conceptually most fundamental way-by the coherent exchange of a single photon. We demonstrate the faithful transfer of an atomic quantum state and the creation of entanglement between two identical nodes in separate laboratories. The non-local state that is created is manipulated by local quantum bit (qubit) rotation. This efficient cavity-based approach to quantum networking is particularly promising because it offers a clear perspective for scalability, thus paving the way towards large-scale quantum networks and their applications.

  11. An Elementary Quantum Network of Single Atoms in Optical Cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Ritter, Stephan; Hahn, Carolin; Reiserer, Andreas; Neuzner, Andreas; Uphoff, Manuel; Mücke, Martin; Figueroa, Eden; Bochmann, Jörg; Rempe, Gerhard

    2012-01-01

    Quantum networks are distributed quantum many-body systems with tailored topology and controlled information exchange. They are the backbone of distributed quantum computing architectures and quantum communication. Here we present a prototype of such a quantum network based on single atoms embedded in optical cavities. We show that atom-cavity systems form universal nodes capable of sending, receiving, storing and releasing photonic quantum information. Quantum connectivity between nodes is achieved in the conceptually most fundamental way: by the coherent exchange of a single photon. We demonstrate the faithful transfer of an atomic quantum state and the creation of entanglement between two identical nodes in independent laboratories. The created nonlocal state is manipulated by local qubit rotation. This efficient cavity-based approach to quantum networking is particularly promising as it offers a clear perspective for scalability, thus paving the way towards large-scale quantum networks and their applicati...

  12. Economical quantum secure direct communication network with single photons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deng Fu-Guo; Li Xi-Han; Li Chun-Yan; Zhou Ping; Zhou Hong-Yu

    2007-01-01

    In this paper a scheme for quantum secure direct communication (QSDC) network is proposed with a sequence of polarized single photons. The single photons are prepared originally in the same state |0> by the servers on the network,which will reduce the difficulty for the legitimate users to check eavesdropping largely. The users code the information on the single photons with two unitary operations which do not change their measuring bases. Some decoy photons,which are produced by operating the sample photons with a Hadamard, are used for preventing a potentially dishonest server from eavesdropping the quantum lines freely. This scheme is an economical one as it is the easiest way for QSDC network communication securely.

  13. Single-mode fiber systems for deep space communication network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutes, G.

    1982-01-01

    The present investigation is concerned with the development of single-mode optical fiber distribution systems. It is pointed out that single-mode fibers represent potentially a superior medium for the distribution of frequency and timing reference signals and wideband (400 MHz) IF signals. In this connection, single-mode fibers have the potential to improve the capability and precision of NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN). Attention is given to problems related to precise time synchronization throughout the DSN, questions regarding the selection of a transmission medium, and the function of the distribution systems, taking into account specific improvements possible by an employment of single-mode fibers.

  14. Recovery processes and dynamics in single and interdependent networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majdandzic, Antonio

    Systems composed of dynamical networks --- such as the human body with its biological networks or the global economic network consisting of regional clusters --- often exhibit complicated collective dynamics. Three fundamental processes that are typically present are failure, damage spread, and recovery. Here we develop a model for such systems and find phase diagrams for single and interacting networks. By investigating networks with a small number of nodes, where finite-size effects are pronounced, we describe the spontaneous recovery phenomenon present in these systems. In the case of interacting networks the phase diagram is very rich and becomes increasingly more complex as the number of interacting networks increases. In the simplest example of two interacting networks we find two critical points, four triple points, ten allowed transitions, and two forbidden transitions, as well as complex hysteresis loops. Remarkably, we find that triple points play the dominant role in constructing the optimal repairing strategy in damaged interacting systems. To test our model, we analyze an example of real interacting financial networks and find evidence of rapid dynamical transitions between well-defined states, in agreement with the predictions of our model.

  15. A common single nucleotide polymorphism can exacerbate long-QT type 2 syndrome leading to sudden infant death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nof, Eyal; Cordeiro, Jonathan M; Pérez, Guillermo J

    2010-01-01

    the mother (both asymptomatic), led to 2 cases of sudden infant death. METHODS AND RESULTS: KCNQ1, KCNH2, SCN5A, KCNE1, KCNE2, CACNA1c, CACNB2b, and KCNJ2 genes were amplified and analyzed by direct sequencing. Functional electrophysiological studies were performed with the single nucleotide polymorphism...... and mutation expressed singly and in combination in Chinese ovary (CHO-K1) and COS-1 cells. An asymptomatic woman presenting after the death of her 2-day-old infant and spontaneous abortion of a second baby in the first trimester was referred for genetic analysis. The newborn infant had nearly incessant...... ventricular tachycardia while in utero and a prolonged QTc (560 ms). The mother was asymptomatic but displayed a prolonged QTc. Genetic screening of the mother revealed a heterozygous nonsense mutation (P926AfsX14) in KCNH2, predicting a stop codon. The father was asymptomatic with a normal QTc but had...

  16. Growth and Neurodevelopmental Outcomes of Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants: A Single Center’s Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Chieh Lin

    2011-12-01

    Conclusion: ELBW infants have a high incidence of growth and developmental delay at corrected age of 2 years, particularly in male infants or those with BW less than 750 g. This study reveals that ELBW infants require well predischarge planning and postdischarge follow-up.

  17. Analysing social support personal networks of single mothers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lumino, Rosaria; van Duijn, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Social support networks play a relevant role in defining successful coping strategies by female-headed families, especially in presence of children and when they live alone. In the last decades, indeed, there was a steady increase of single parent families in all European countries, and consequently

  18. Efficient and Secure Single Sign on Mechanism for Distributed Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhavi A. Indalkar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Distributed network act as core part to access the various services which are available in the network. But the security related to distributed network is main concern. In this paper single sign-on SSO mechanism is introduced which gives access to all services by allowing to sign on only once by users. In this mechanism once user logs in to the Trusted Authority Center TAC then application or services which are register to trusted center will automatically verifies the user’s credentials details and these credentials like password or digital signature will be only one for all applications or services. Unlike all other previous mechanisms where in, if user wants to have access multiple services then for every service distinct user credentials (username, password must be required. SSO act as single authentication window to user for admittance multiple service providers in networks. Previously introduced technique based SSO technology proved to be secure over well-designed SSO system, but fails to provide security during communication. So here emphasis is given on authentication as open problem and on to refining the already proposed SSO process. And to do this along with RSA algorithm which was used in previous SSO process, we will be using MAC algorithm, which is intended to provide secured pathway for communication over distributed network.TAC i.e. Trusted Authority Center is used for sending token integrated with private and shared public key to user. Keywords -

  19. Neurobehavioral Assessment from Fetus to Infant: The NICU Network Neurobehavioral Scale and the Fetal Neurobehavior Coding Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salisbury, Amy L.; Fallone, Melissa Duncan; Lester, Barry

    2005-01-01

    This review provides an overview and definition of the concept of neurobehavior in human development. Two neurobehavioral assessments used by the authors in current fetal and infant research are discussed: the NICU Network Neurobehavioral Assessment Scale and the Fetal Neurobehavior Coding System. This review will present how the two assessments…

  20. From Designing A Single Neural Network to Designing Neural Network Ensembles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Yong; Zou Xiu-fer

    2003-01-01

    This paper introduces supervised learning model,and surveys related research work. The paper is organised as follows. A supervised learning model is firstly described. The bias variance trade-off is then discussed for the supervised learning model. Based on the bias variance trade-off, both the single neural network approaches and the neural network en semble approaches are overviewed, and problems with the existing approaches are indicated. Finally, the paper concludes with specifying potential future research directions.

  1. Network analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms in asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renkonen, Jutta; Joenväärä, Sakari; Parviainen, Ville; Mattila, Pirkko; Renkonen, Risto

    2010-01-01

    Background: Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways with a complex genetic background. In this study, we carried out a meta-analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) thought to be associated with asthma. Methods: The literature (PubMed) was searched for SNPs within genes relevant in asthma. The SNP-modified genes were converted to corresponding proteins, and their protein–protein interactions were searched from six different databases. This interaction network was analyzed using annotated vocabularies (ontologies), such as the Gene Ontology and Nature pathway interaction databases. Results: In total, 127 genes with SNPs related to asthma were found in the literature. The corresponding proteins were then entered into a large protein–protein interaction network with the help of various databases. Ninety-six SNP-related proteins had more than one interacting protein each, and a network containing 309 proteins and 644 connections was generated. This network was significantly enriched with a gene ontology entitled “protein binding” and several of its daughter categories, including receptor binding and cytokine binding, when compared with the background human proteome. In the detailed analysis, the chemokine network, including eight proteins and 13 toll-like receptors, were shown to interact with each other. Of great interest are the nonsynonymous SNPs which code for an alternative amino acid sequence of proteins and, of the toll-like receptor network, TLR1, TLR4, TLR5, TLR6, TLR10, IL4R, and IL13 are among these. Conclusions: Protein binding, toll-like receptors, and chemokines dominated in the asthma-related protein interaction network. Systems level analysis of allergy-related mutations can provide new insights into the pathogenetic mechanisms of disease. PMID:21437052

  2. Global parameter identification of stochastic reaction networks from single trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Christian L; Ramaswamy, Rajesh; Sbalzarini, Ivo F

    2012-01-01

    We consider the problem of inferring the unknown parameters of a stochastic biochemical network model from a single measured time-course of the concentration of some of the involved species. Such measurements are available, e.g., from live-cell fluorescence microscopy in image-based systems biology. In addition, fluctuation time-courses from, e.g., fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) provide additional information about the system dynamics that can be used to more robustly infer parameters than when considering only mean concentrations. Estimating model parameters from a single experimental trajectory enables single-cell measurements and quantification of cell-cell variability. We propose a novel combination of an adaptive Monte Carlo sampler, called Gaussian Adaptation (GaA), and efficient exact stochastic simulation algorithms (SSA) that allows parameter identification from single stochastic trajectories. We benchmark the proposed method on a linear and a non-linear reaction network at steady state and during transient phases. In addition, we demonstrate that the present method also provides an ellipsoidal volume estimate of the viable part of parameter space and is able to estimate the physical volume of the compartment in which the observed reactions take place.

  3. A Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Network Gas Sensing Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I-Ju Teng

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this research was to develop a chemical gas sensing device based on single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT networks. The SWCNT networks are synthesized on Al2O3-deposted SiO2/Si substrates with 10 nm-thick Fe as the catalyst precursor layer using microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD. The development of interconnected SWCNT networks can be exploited to recognize the identities of different chemical gases by the strength of their particular surface adsorptive and desorptive responses to various types of chemical vapors. The physical responses on the surface of the SWCNT networks cause superficial changes in the electric charge that can be converted into electronic signals for identification. In this study, we tested NO2 and NH3 vapors at ppm levels at room temperature with our self-made gas sensing device, which was able to obtain responses to sensitivity changes with a concentration of 10 ppm for NO2 and 24 ppm for NH3.

  4. Policy content and stakeholder network analysis for infant and young child feeding in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasheed, Sabrina; Roy, Swapan Kumar; Das, Susmita; Chowdhury, Syeda Nafisa; Iqbal, Mohammad; Akter, Syeda Mahsina; Jahan, Khurshid; Uddin, Shahadat; Thow, Anne Marie

    2017-06-13

    Appropriate infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices are essential for nutrition of infants and young children. Bangladesh has one of the highest levels of malnutrition globally along with sub-optimal IYCF practices. A supportive policy environment is essential to ensure that effective IYCF interventions are scaled up. The objectives of our study were to assess the support for IYCF in the national policy environment through policy analysis and stakeholder analysis and in so doing identify opportunities to strengthen the policy environment. We used a matrix developed by SAIFRN (the South Asian Infant Feeding Research Network) to systematically identify supportive national policies, plans and guidelines for IYCF. We adapted narrative synthesis and descriptive approaches to analyze policy content, based on four themes with a focus on support for mothers. We conducted three Net-Map interviews to identify stakeholders who influenced the policies and programs related to IYCF. We identified 19 national policy documents relevant to IYCF. Overall, there was good level of support for IYCF practices at policy level - particularly regarding general support for IYCF and provision of information to mothers - but these were not consistently supported at implementation level, particularly regarding specificity and population coverage. We identified gaps regarding the training of health workers, capacity building, the monitoring and targeting of vulnerable mothers and providing an enabling environment to mothers, specifically with respect to maternity leave for working women. Urban populations and providers outside the public sector remained uncovered by policy. Our stakeholder analysis identified government entities such as the National Nutrition Service, as the most influential in terms of both technical and funding support as they had the mandate for formulation and implementation of policies and national programs. Stakeholders from different sectors played important

  5. Treatment of pneumonia in infants with daily single oral dose of cefixime Tratamiento de la neumonía del lactante con cefixima en dosis única diaria

    OpenAIRE

    1997-01-01

    Treatment of pneumonia in infants with dail y single oral dose of cefixime Twenty five male and female Infants aged two to twenty-three months suffering from bacterial pneumonia were treated with cefixime in order to evaluate clinical efficiency and tolerance. A daily single oral dose of 8 mg kg was given for fourteen days. Clinical status and radiologic and laboratory findings improved during the course of therapy. A case of gastrointestinal intolerance (4%) and twelve (48%) of high levels o...

  6. Changing Survival Rate of Infants Born Before 26 Gestational Weeks; Single-centre study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asad Rahman

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the changing survival rate and morbidities among infants born before 26 gestational weeks at the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital (SQUH in Muscat, Oman. Methods: This retrospective study assessed the mortality and morbidities of all premature infants born alive at 23–26 gestational weeks at SQUH between June 2006 and May 2013. Infants referred to SQUH within 72 hours of birth during this period were also included. Electronic records were reviewed for gestational age, gender, birth weight, maternal age, mode and place of delivery, antenatal steroid administration, morbidity and outcome. The survival rate was calculated and findings were then compared with those of a previous study conducted in the same hospital from 1991 to 1998. Rates of major morbidities were also calculated. Results: A total of 81 infants between 23–26 gestational weeks were admitted to the neonatal unit during the study period. Of these, 58.0% were male and 42.0% were female. Median gestational age was 25 weeks and mean birth weight was 770 ± 150 g. Of the 81 infants, 49 survived. The overall survival rate was 60.5% compared to 41% reported in the previous study. Respiratory distress syndrome (100.0%, retinopathy of prematurity (51.9%, bronchopulmonary dysplasia (34.6%, intraventricular haemorrhage (30.9% and patent ductus arteriosus (28.4% were the most common morbidities. Conclusion: The overall survival rate of infants between 23–26 gestational weeks during the study period had significantly improved in comparison to that found at the same hospital from 1991 to 1998. There is a need for the long-term neurodevelopmental follow-up of premature infants.

  7. Microrheology of single microtubule filaments and synthesized cytoskeletal networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Matthias; Rohrbach, Alexander

    2015-03-01

    The ability to sense and respond to external mechanical forces is crucial for cells in many processes such as cell growth and division. Common models on mechanotransduction rely on the conversion of mechanical stimuli to chemical signals in the cell periphery and their translocation by diffusion (passive) or molecular motors (active). These processes are rather slow (~ seconds) and it has been argued that the cytoskeleton itself might be able to transport a mechanical signal within microseconds via stress waves. Microtubules are the stiffest component of the cytoskeleton and thus ideal candidates for this purpose. We study the frequency dependent response of single microtubule filaments and small networks thereof in a bottom-up approach using several (N =2-10) time-multiplexed optical tweezers together with back focal plane interferometry. Small synthesized networks with a defined geometry are constructed using trapped Neutravidin beads as anchor points for biotinylated filaments. The network is then probed by a defined oscillation of one anchor (actor). The frequency dependent response of the remaining beads (sensors) is analyzed experimentally and modeled theoretically over a wide frequency range.

  8. Evidence for single top quark production using Bayesian neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kau, Daekwang [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States)

    2007-01-01

    We present results of a search for single top quark production in p$\\bar{p}$ collisions using a dataset of approximately 1 fb-1 collected with the D0 detector. This analysis considers the muon+jets and electron+jets final states and makes use of Bayesian neural networks to separate the expected signals from backgrounds. The observed excess is associated with a p-value of 0.081%, assuming the background-only hypothesis, which corresponds to an excess over background of 3.2 standard deviations for a Gaussian density. The p-value computed using the SM signal cross section of 2.9 pb is 1.6%, corresponding to an expected significance of 2.2 standard deviations. Assuming the observed excess is due to single top production, we measure a single top quark production cross section of σ(p$\\bar{p}$ → tb + X, tqb + X) = 4.4 ± 1.5 pb.

  9. Single-trial EEG RSVP classification using convolutional neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamwell, Jared; Lee, Hyungtae; Kwon, Heesung; Marathe, Amar R.; Lawhern, Vernon; Nothwang, William

    2016-05-01

    Traditionally, Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCI) have been explored as a means to return function to paralyzed or otherwise debilitated individuals. An emerging use for BCIs is in human-autonomy sensor fusion where physiological data from healthy subjects is combined with machine-generated information to enhance the capabilities of artificial systems. While human-autonomy fusion of physiological data and computer vision have been shown to improve classification during visual search tasks, to date these approaches have relied on separately trained classification models for each modality. We aim to improve human-autonomy classification performance by developing a single framework that builds codependent models of human electroencephalograph (EEG) and image data to generate fused target estimates. As a first step, we developed a novel convolutional neural network (CNN) architecture and applied it to EEG recordings of subjects classifying target and non-target image presentations during a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) image triage task. The low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of EEG inherently limits the accuracy of single-trial classification and when combined with the high dimensionality of EEG recordings, extremely large training sets are needed to prevent overfitting and achieve accurate classification from raw EEG data. This paper explores a new deep CNN architecture for generalized multi-class, single-trial EEG classification across subjects. We compare classification performance from the generalized CNN architecture trained across all subjects to the individualized XDAWN, HDCA, and CSP neural classifiers which are trained and tested on single subjects. Preliminary results show that our CNN meets and slightly exceeds the performance of the other classifiers despite being trained across subjects.

  10. Application for Single Price Auction Model (SPA) in AC Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachi, Tsunehisa; Fukutome, Suguru; Chen, Luonan; Makino, Yoshinori; Koshimizu, Gentarou

    This paper aims to develop a single price auction model with AC transmission network, based on the principle of maximizing social surplus of electricity market. Specifically, we first formulate the auction market as a nonlinear optimization problem, which has almost the same form as the conventional optimal power flow problem, and then propose an algorithm to derive both market clearing price and trade volume of each player even for the case of market-splitting. As indicated in the paper, the proposed approach can be used not only for the price evaluation of auction or bidding market but also for analysis of bidding strategy, congestion effect and other constraints or factors. Several numerical examples are used to demonstrate effectiveness of our method.

  11. A Low Power Single Phase Clock Distribution Multiband Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.A.Muruganandham#1,

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Frequency synthesizer is one of the important elements for wireless communication application. The speed of VCO and prescaler determines how fast the frequency synthesizer is. A dual modulus prescaler contains logic gates and flip-flops. This project aim for developing a low power single clock multiband network which will supply for the multi clock domain network. The multiband divider consists of a proposed wideband multi modulus 32/33/47/48 prescaler and an improved bitcell for swallow (S counter and can divide the frequencies in the three bands of 2.4–2.484 GHz, 5.15–5.35 GHz, and 5.725– 5.825 GHz with a resolution selectable from 1 to 25 MHz The proposed multiband flexible divider is silicon verified and consumes power of 0.96 and 2.2 mW in 2.4- and 5-GHz bands, respectively, when operated at 1.8-V power supply.

  12. Single-Cell Phenotype Classification Using Deep Convolutional Neural Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dürr, Oliver; Sick, Beate

    2016-10-01

    Deep learning methods are currently outperforming traditional state-of-the-art computer vision algorithms in diverse applications and recently even surpassed human performance in object recognition. Here we demonstrate the potential of deep learning methods to high-content screening-based phenotype classification. We trained a deep learning classifier in the form of convolutional neural networks with approximately 40,000 publicly available single-cell images from samples treated with compounds from four classes known to lead to different phenotypes. The input data consisted of multichannel images. The construction of appropriate feature definitions was part of the training and carried out by the convolutional network, without the need for expert knowledge or handcrafted features. We compare our results against the recent state-of-the-art pipeline in which predefined features are extracted from each cell using specialized software and then fed into various machine learning algorithms (support vector machine, Fisher linear discriminant, random forest) for classification. The performance of all classification approaches is evaluated on an untouched test image set with known phenotype classes. Compared to the best reference machine learning algorithm, the misclassification rate is reduced from 8.9% to 6.6%.

  13. Uniting functional network topology and oscillations in the fronto-parietal single unit network of behaving primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dann, Benjamin; Michaels, Jonathan A; Schaffelhofer, Stefan; Scherberger, Hansjörg

    2016-08-15

    The functional communication of neurons in cortical networks underlies higher cognitive processes. Yet, little is known about the organization of the single neuron network or its relationship to the synchronization processes that are essential for its formation. Here, we show that the functional single neuron network of three fronto-parietal areas during active behavior of macaque monkeys is highly complex. The network was closely connected (small-world) and consisted of functional modules spanning these areas. Surprisingly, the importance of different neurons to the network was highly heterogeneous with a small number of neurons contributing strongly to the network function (hubs), which were in turn strongly inter-connected (rich-club). Examination of the network synchronization revealed that the identified rich-club consisted of neurons that were synchronized in the beta or low frequency range, whereas other neurons were mostly non-oscillatory synchronized. Therefore, oscillatory synchrony may be a central communication mechanism for highly organized functional spiking networks.

  14. Longitudinal change of selected human milk oligosaccharides and association to infants' growth, an observatory, single center, longitudinal cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprenger, Norbert; Lee, Le Ye; De Castro, Carlos Antonio; Steenhout, Philippe; Thakkar, Sagar K

    2017-01-01

    Human milk is the recommended and sole nutrient source for newborns. One of the largest components of human milk is oligosaccharides (HMOs) with major constituents determined by the mother genotype for the fucosyltransferase 2 (FUT2, secretor) gene. HMO variation has been related with infant microbiota establishment, diarrhea incidence, morbidity and mortality, IgE associated eczema and body composition. We investigated the (i) dependence of several major representative HMOs on the FUT2 status assessed through breast milk 2'Fucosyllactose (2'FL) and (ii) the relation of the 2'FL status with infant growth up to 4 months of life. From an open observatory, single center, longitudinal cohort study with quantitative human milk collection at 30, 60, and 120 days postpartum from 50 mothers, who gave birth to 25 female and 25 male singleton infants, we collected a representative sample of human milk. We quantified the following 5 representative HMOs: 2'FL, Lacto-N-tetraose (LNT), Lacto-N-neotetraose (LNnT), 3'Sialyllactose (3'SL) and 6'Sialyllactose (6'SL). We grouped the milk samples and corresponding infants according to the measured milk 2'FL concentrations at 30 days of lactation, which clustered around low concentrations (95% CI of mean 12-42 mg/L) and high concentrations (95% CI of mean 1880-2460 mg/L) with the former likely representing Secretor negative mothers. Infant anthropometric measures were recorded at birth, 1, 2 and 4 months of age. Relations among the quantified HMOs and the relation of the high and low 2'FL HMOs groups with infant growth parameters were investigated via linear mixed models. The milk samples with low 2'FL concentration had higher LNT and lower LNnT concentrations compared to the samples with high 2'FL. The milk 3'- and 6'SL concentrations were independent of 2'FL. Over lactation time we observed a drop in the concentration of 2'FL, LNT, LNnT and 6'SL, especially from 1 to 2 months, while 3'SL remained at relatively constant concentration

  15. Structural Controllability of Temporal Networks with a Single Switching Controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Peng; Hou, Bao-Yu; Pan, Yu-Jian; Li, Xiang

    2017-01-01

    Temporal network, whose topology evolves with time, is an important class of complex networks. Temporal trees of a temporal network describe the necessary edges sustaining the network as well as their active time points. By a switching controller which properly selects its location with time, temporal trees are used to improve the controllability of the network. Therefore, more nodes are controlled within the limited time. Several switching strategies to efficiently select the location of the controller are designed, which are verified with synthetic and empirical temporal networks to achieve better control performance. PMID:28107538

  16. Targeting single neuronal networks for gene expression and cell labeling in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshel, James H; Mori, Takuma; Nielsen, Kristina J; Callaway, Edward M

    2010-08-26

    To understand fine-scale structure and function of single mammalian neuronal networks, we developed and validated a strategy to genetically target and trace monosynaptic inputs to a single neuron in vitro and in vivo. The strategy independently targets a neuron and its presynaptic network for specific gene expression and fine-scale labeling, using single-cell electroporation of DNA to target infection and monosynaptic retrograde spread of a genetically modifiable rabies virus. The technique is highly reliable, with transsynaptic labeling occurring in every electroporated neuron infected by the virus. Targeting single neocortical neuronal networks in vivo, we found clusters of both spiny and aspiny neurons surrounding the electroporated neuron in each case, in addition to intricately labeled distal cortical and subcortical inputs. This technique, broadly applicable for probing and manipulating single neuronal networks with single-cell resolution in vivo, may help shed new light on fundamental mechanisms underlying circuit development and information processing by neuronal networks throughout the brain.

  17. Risk factors for febrile urinary tract infection in infants with prenatal hydronephrosis: comprehensive single center analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zareba, Piotr; Lorenzo, Armando J; Braga, Luis H

    2014-05-01

    We assessed risk factors for urinary tract infection in children with prenatal hydronephrosis We identified 376 infants with prenatal hydronephrosis in an institutional database. The occurrence of febrile urinary tract infection in the first 2 years of life was ascertained by chart review. Febrile urinary tract infection was defined as a positive culture from a catheterized urine specimen in a patient with a fever of 38.0C or greater. Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess gender, circumcision status, hydronephrosis grade, vesicoureteral reflux grade and antibiotic prophylaxis as predictors of the risk of urinary tract infection. Included in analysis were 277 males and 99 females. Hydronephrosis was high grade in 128 infants (34.0%) and vesicoureteral reflux was present in 79 (21.0%). Antibiotic prophylaxis was prescribed in 60.4% of patients, preferentially to females vs males (70.7% vs 56.7%), those with high vs low grade hydronephrosis (70.3% vs 55.2%) and those with vs without vesicoureteral reflux (96.2% vs 50.8%). On multivariate analysis there was an association between high grade hydronephrosis and an increased risk of urinary tract infection (adjusted OR 2.40, 95% CI 1.26-4.56). Females (adjusted OR 3.16, 95% CI 0.98-10.19) and uncircumcised males (adjusted OR 3.63, 95% CI 1.18-11.22) were also at higher risk than circumcised males. Antibiotic prophylaxis was not associated with a decreased risk of urinary tract infection (adjusted OR 0.93, 95% CI 0.45-1.94). High grade hydronephrosis, female gender and uncircumcised status in males are independent risk factors for febrile urinary tract infection in infants with prenatal hydronephrosis. Antibiotic prophylaxis did not reduce the risk of urinary tract infection in the study group. Copyright © 2014 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Determination of vitamin A (retinol) in infant and medical nutritional formulas with AOAC method 992.06 using a modified extraction procedure: single-laboratory validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Linda B; Schimpf, Karen J; Stiner, Lisa A; Schmitz, Daniel J

    2010-01-01

    The applicability of AOAC Official Method 992.06, vitamin A (retinol) in milk-based infant formula can be extended to specialty infant formulas, and medical and adult nutritional products with a few minor modifications to the sample preparation procedure. Currently, AOAC Official Method 992.06 is only applicable to milk-based infant formulas containing >500 IU vitamin A per reconstituted quart. When this method is used as written to test specialty infant formulas, vitamin A recoveries are low compared to results generated with alternate validated vitamin A methods. AOAC Method 992.06 vitamin A recoveries can be improved significantly in specialty infant formulas if the amount of potassium hydroxide used during the saponification step is doubled. With this one minor modification to the sample preparation procedure, AOAC Method 992.06 demonstrates acceptable precision and accuracy for the quantitation of vitamin A (retinol) in specialty infant formulas, milk- and soy-based infant formulas, and adult and medical nutritionals. Because increasing the amount of potassium hydroxide can cause emulsions to form, 2-4 mL aliquots of reagent alcohol may need to be added to some samples to separate the organic and aqueous layers during the extraction step. A single-laboratory validation of these modifications was completed. During validation, 15 different product matrixes were analyzed. The intermediate precision averaged 2.70% RSD, and spike recovery data averaged 96.3%.

  19. Policy content and stakeholder network analysis for infant and young child feeding in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puri, Seema; Fernandez, Sylvia; Puranik, Amrita; Anand, Deepika; Gaidhane, Abhay; Quazi Syed, Zahiruddin; Patel, Archana; Uddin, Shahadat; Thow, Anne Marie

    2017-06-13

    Over the last decade, infant and young child feeding (IYCF) indicators in India have improved. However, poor IYCF practices are still apparent, associated with pervasive high rates of child under-nutrition. Interventions to improve IYCF need augmentation by appropriate policy support to consolidate gains. The aim of this study was to identify opportunities to strengthen and support IYCF policies through a policy content and stakeholder network analysis. IYCF policies and guidelines were systematically mapped and coded using predetermined themes. Six 'net-map' group interviews were conducted for stakeholder analysis with data analyzed using ORA (organizational risk analyzer, copyright Carley, Carnegie Mellon University) software. The study was carried out at a national level and in the states of Maharashtra and unified Andhra Pradesh. Thirty relevant policy documents were identified. Support for IYCF was clearly apparent and was actioned within sectoral policies and strategic plans. We identified support for provision of information to mothers and caregivers in both sectoral and high-level/strategic policy documents. At a sectoral level, there was support for training health care workers and for enabling mothers to access IYCF. Opportunities to strengthen policy included expanding coverage and translating policy goals into implementation level documents. At the national level, Ministry of Women and Child Development [MoWCD], Ministry of Health and Family Welfare [MoHFW] and the Prime Minister's Nutrition Council [PMNC] were the most influential actors in providing technical support while MoHFW, MoWCD, and Bill Melinda Gates Foundation were the most influential actors in providing funding and were therefore influential stakeholders in shaping IYCF policies and programs. We identified a wide range of strengths in the IYCF policy environment in India and also opportunities for improvement. One key strength is the integration of IYCF policies into a range of agendas and

  20. Preterm prelabor rupture of membranes and outcome of very-low-birth-weight infants in the German Neonatal Network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin Hanke

    Full Text Available It was the aim of our study to evaluate the independent effect of preterm prelabor rupture of membranes (PPROM as a cause of preterm delivery on mortality during primary hospital stay and significant morbidities in very-low-birth-weight (VLBW infants < 32 weeks of gestation.Observational, epidemiological study design.Population-based cohort, German Neonatal Network (GNN.6102 VLBW infants were enrolled in GNN from 2009-2012, n=4120 fulfilled criteria for primary analysis (< 32 gestational weeks, no pre-eclampsia, HELLP (highly elevated liver enzymes and low platelets syndrome or placental abruption as cause of preterm birth.Multivariable logistic regression analyses included PPROM as potential risk factors for adverse outcomes and well established items such as gestational age in weeks, birth weight, antenatal steroids, center, inborn delivery, multiple birth, gender and being small-for-gestational-age.PPROM as cause of preterm delivery had no independent effect on the risk of early-onset sepsis, clinical sepsis and blood-culture proven sepsis, while gestational age proved to be the most important contributor to sepsis risk. The diagnosis of PPROM was associated with an increased risk for bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD; OR: 1.25, 95% CI: 1.02-1.55, p=0.03 but not with other major outcomes.The diagnosis of PPROM per se is not associated with adverse outcome in VLBW infants < 32 weeks apart from a moderately increased risk for BPD. Randomized controlled trials with primary neonatal outcomes are needed to determine which subgroup of VLBW infants benefit from expectant or intentional management of PPROM.

  1. The Complexity of Recognition in the Single-Layered PLN Network with Feedback Connections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    Regarding a single-layered PLN network with feedback connections as an associative memory network,the complexity of recognitions is discussed.We have the main result:if the size of the network N is m,then the complexity of recognition is an exponential function of m.The necessary condition under which the complexity of recognition is polynomial is given.

  2. Late-onset sepsis in very low birth weight infants: a Brazilian Neonatal Research Network Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Rugolo, Ligia Maria Suppo; Bentlin, Maria Regina; Mussi-Pinhata, Marisa; de Almeida, Maria Fernanda Branco; Lopes, José Maria de Andrade; Marba, Sergio Tadeu Martins; Fiori, Humberto Holmer; Procianoy, Renato Soibelmann; Leone, Clea Rodrigues

    2014-12-01

    Late-onset sepsis (LOS) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. To determine the incidence, risk factors and etiology of LOS. LOS was investigated in a multicenter prospective cohort of infants at eight public university neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). Inclusion criteria included inborn, 23-33 weeks of gestational age, 400-1499 g birth weight, who survived >3 days. Of 1507 infants, 357 (24%) had proven LOS and 345 (23%) had clinical LOS. Infants with LOS were more likely to die. The majority of infections (76%) were caused by Gram-positive organisms. Independent risk factors for proven LOS were use of central venous catheter and mechanical ventilation, age at the first feeding and number of days on parenteral nutrition and on mechanical ventilation. LOS incidence and mortality are high in Brazilian VLBW infants. Most risk factors are associated with routine practices at NICU. © The Author [2014]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. The nutritional requirements of infants. Towards EU alignment of reference values: the EURRECA network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermoso, Maria; Tabacchi, Garden; Iglesia-Altaba, Iris; Bel-Serrat, Silvia; Moreno-Aznar, Luis A; García-Santos, Yurena; García-Luzardo, Ma del Rosario; Santana-Salguero, Beatriz; Peña-Quintana, Luis; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Moran, Victoria Hall; Dykes, Fiona; Decsi, Tamás; Benetou, Vassiliki; Plada, Maria; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Raats, Monique M; Doets, Esmée L; Berti, Cristiana; Cetin, Irene; Koletzko, Berthold

    2010-10-01

    This paper presents a review of the current knowledge regarding the macro- and micronutrient requirements of infants and discusses issues related to these requirements during the first year of life. The paper also reviews the current reference values used in European countries and the methodological approaches used to derive them by a sample of seven European and international authoritative committees from which background scientific reports are available. Throughout the paper, the main issues contributing to disparities in micronutrient reference values for infants are highlighted. The identification of these issues in relation to the specific physiological aspects of infants is important for informing future initiatives aimed at providing standardized approaches to overcome variability of micronutrient reference values across Europe for this age group. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. The nutritional requirements of infants. Towards EU alignment of reference values: the EURRECA network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermoso, M.; Tabacchi, G.; Iglesia-Altaba, I.; Bel-Serrat, S.; Moreno-Aznar, L.A.; Garcia-Santos, Y.; Rosario Garcia-Luzardo, Del M.; Santana-Salguero, B.; Pena-Quintana, L.; Serra-Majem, L.; Hall Moran, V.; Dykes, F.; Decsi, T.; Benetou, V.; Plada, M.; Trichopoulou, A.; Raats, M.M.; Doets, E.L.; Berti, C.; Cetin, I.; Koletzko, B.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a review of the current knowledge regarding the macro- and micronutrient requirements of infants and discusses issues related to these requirements during the first year of life. The paper also reviews the current reference values used in European countries and the methodological

  5. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in AGTR1, TFAP2B, and TRAF1 are not associated with the incidence of patent ductus arteriosus in Japanese preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawase, Koya; Sugiura, Tokio; Nagaya, Yoshiaki; Yamada, Takaharu; Sugimoto, Mari; Ito, Koichi; Togawa, Takao; Nagasaki, Rika; Kato, Takenori; Kouwaki, Masanori; Koyama, Norihisa; Saitoh, Shinji

    2016-06-01

    Persistent patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is a frequent complication in preterm infants. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in several genes, including angiotensin II receptor, type 1 (AGTR1), transcription factor AP-2 beta (TFAP2B) and tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 1 (TRAF1), have been reported to be associated with PDA in preterm infants. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationships between PDA in preterm infants and polymorphisms in AGTR1, TFAP2B and TRAF1 in the Japanese population. The subjects consisted of 107 preterm infants with gestational age AGTR1, rs987237 and rs6930924 in TFAP2B, and rs1056567 and rs10985070 in TRAF1, were genotyped using TaqMan SNP genotyping assays. There were no significant differences in the distributions of the genotypes and allele frequencies of all studied SNP between the PDA group (n = 46) and the non-PDA group (n = 61). There were no significant associations between the studied SNP and the incidence of PDA in Japanese preterm infants. These SNP may not be clinically important predisposing factors for PDA in Japanese preterm infants. © 2015 Japan Pediatric Society.

  6. FACTORS INFLUENCING MORBIDITY AND MORTALITY IN INFANTS WITH SEVERE RESPIRATORY-DISTRESS SYNDROME TREATED WITH SINGLE OR MULTIPLE DOSES OF A NATURAL PORCINE SURFACTANT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HERTING, E; HARMS, K; CURSTEDT, T; COMPAGNONE, D; MCCLURE, G; TUBMAN, R; NOACK, G; KOPPE, J; LAUFKOTTER, E; BOENISCH, H; ROLL, C; HAIM, M; Okken, Albert; GRONECK, P; RELIER, JP; SPEER, CP; ROBERTSON, B; HALLIDAY, HL; GEFELLER, O; REID, M; HERIN, P; KOK, J; VANSONDEREN, L; KOHLER, W; ALBRECHT, K; HANSSLER, L; OETOMO, SB; ALTFELD, PC; KACHEL, W; WALTI, H

    1992-01-01

    In an international multicenter trial infants with clinical and radiological signs of severe RDS (age 2-15 h, birthweight 700-2,000 g, mechanical ventilation, FiO2 greater-than-or-equal-to 0.6, no complicating disease) were randomized to receive either a single dose (n = 176) or up to three

  7. Comparing Metabolic Energy Expenditure Estimation Using Wearable Multi-Sensor Network and Single Accelerometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Bo; Biswas, Subir; Montoye, Alexander; Pfeiffer, Karin

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the implementation details, system architecture and performance of a wearable sensor network that was designed for human activity recognition and energy expenditure estimation. We also included ActiGraph GT3X+ as a popular single sensor solution for detailed comparison with the proposed wearable sensor network. Linear regression and Artificial Neural Network are implemented and tested. Through a rigorous system study and experiment, it is shown that the wearable multi-sensor network outperforms the single sensor solution in terms of energy expenditure estimation. PMID:24110325

  8. Prefrontal Function Engaging in External-Focused Attention in 5- to 6-Month-Old Infants: A Suggestion for Default Mode Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Mingdi; Hoshino, Eiichi; Yatabe, Kiyomi; Matsuda, Soichiro; Sato, Hiroki; Maki, Atsushi; Yoshimura, Mina; Minagawa, Yasuyo

    2016-01-01

    The present study used functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) to measure 5- to 6-month-old infants' hemodynamic response in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) to visual stimuli differing in saliency and social value. Nineteen Japanese 5- to 6-month-old infants watched video clips of Peek-a-Boo (social signal) performed by an anime character (AC) or a human, and hand movements without social signal performed by an AC. The PFC activity of infants was measured by 22-channel fNIRS, while behaviors including looking time were recorded simultaneously. NIRS data showed that infants' hemodynamic responses in the PFC generally decreased due to these stimuli, and the decrease was most prominent in the frontopolar (FP), covering medial PFC (MPFC), when infants were viewing Peek-a-Boo performed by an AC. Moreover, the decrease was more pronounced in the dorsolateral PFC (DLPFC) when infants were viewing Peek-a-Boo performed by an AC than by a human. Accordingly, behavioral data revealed significantly longer looking times when Peek-a-Boo was performed by an AC than by a human. No significant difference between Peek-a-Boo and non-Peek-a-Boo conditions was observed in either measure. These findings indicate that infants at this age may prefer stimuli with more salient features, which may be more effective in attracting their attentions. In conjunction with our previous findings on responses to self-name calling in infants of similar age, we hypothesize that the dynamic function of the MPFC and its vicinity (as part of default mode network (DMN): enhanced by self-focused stimuli, attenuated by externally focused stimuli), which is consistently observed in adults, may have already emerged in 5- to 6-month-old infants.

  9. Leveraging percolation theory to single out influential spreaders in networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radicchi, Filippo; Castellano, Claudio

    2016-06-01

    Among the consequences of the disordered interaction topology underlying many social, technological, and biological systems, a particularly important one is that some nodes, just because of their position in the network, may have a disproportionate effect on dynamical processes mediated by the complex interaction pattern. For example, the early adoption of a commercial product by an opinion leader in a social network may change its fate or just a few superspreaders may determine the virality of a meme in social media. Despite many recent efforts, the formulation of an accurate method to optimally identify influential nodes in complex network topologies remains an unsolved challenge. Here, we present the exact solution of the problem for the specific, but highly relevant, case of the susceptible-infected-removed (SIR) model for epidemic spreading at criticality. By exploiting the mapping between bond percolation and the static properties of the SIR model, we prove that the recently introduced nonbacktracking centrality is the optimal criterion for the identification of influential spreaders in locally tree-like networks at criticality. By means of simulations on synthetic networks and on a very extensive set of real-world networks, we show that the nonbacktracking centrality is a highly reliable metric to identify top influential spreaders also in generic graphs not embedded in space and for noncritical spreading.

  10. Leveraging percolation theory to single out influential spreaders in networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radicchi, Filippo; Castellano, Claudio

    2016-06-01

    Among the consequences of the disordered interaction topology underlying many social, technological, and biological systems, a particularly important one is that some nodes, just because of their position in the network, may have a disproportionate effect on dynamical processes mediated by the complex interaction pattern. For example, the early adoption of a commercial product by an opinion leader in a social network may change its fate or just a few superspreaders may determine the virality of a meme in social media. Despite many recent efforts, the formulation of an accurate method to optimally identify influential nodes in complex network topologies remains an unsolved challenge. Here, we present the exact solution of the problem for the specific, but highly relevant, case of the susceptible-infected-removed (SIR) model for epidemic spreading at criticality. By exploiting the mapping between bond percolation and the static properties of the SIR model, we prove that the recently introduced nonbacktracking centrality is the optimal criterion for the identification of influential spreaders in locally tree-like networks at criticality. By means of simulations on synthetic networks and on a very extensive set of real-world networks, we show that the nonbacktracking centrality is a highly reliable metric to identify top influential spreaders also in generic graphs not embedded in space and for noncritical spreading.

  11. Psychosocial differences related to parenting infants among single and married mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, Debra Beach; Harbaugh, Bonnie Lee

    2010-01-01

    This study compared the psychosocial factors, self-esteem, sense of mastery, life stress, and social support among first-time married and single mothers in early parenthood. A cross-sectional comparative design was used to study secondary data. A convenience sample of 80 first-time mothers completed self-report instruments on self-esteem, sense of mastery, social, and life stress at 6-8 weeks after birth. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, chi-square tests and ANOVA. A statistically significant difference was found between married and single mothers on self esteem (F = 9.314, df = 1, p = .003) and sense of mastery (F = 4.919, df = 1, p = .030). There were no statistical differences found between married and single mothers on social support and life stress. Findings support Belsky's (1984) theoretical assertion that personal psychological resources are most indicative of successful parenting. Further, interventions directed toward enhancing single mothers' sense of mastery and self-esteem may be needed to facilitate maternal role transition.

  12. Altered small-world topology of structural brain networks in infants with intrauterine growth restriction and its association with later neurodevelopmental outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batalle, Dafnis; Eixarch, Elisenda; Figueras, Francesc; Muñoz-Moreno, Emma; Bargallo, Nuria; Illa, Miriam; Acosta-Rojas, Ruthy; Amat-Roldan, Ivan; Gratacos, Eduard

    2012-04-02

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) due to placental insufficiency affects 5-10% of all pregnancies and it is associated with a wide range of short- and long-term neurodevelopmental disorders. Prediction of neurodevelopmental outcomes in IUGR is among the clinical challenges of modern fetal medicine and pediatrics. In recent years several studies have used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to demonstrate differences in brain structure in IUGR subjects, but the ability to use MRI for individual predictive purposes in IUGR is limited. Recent research suggests that MRI in vivo access to brain connectivity might have the potential to help understanding cognitive and neurodevelopment processes. Specifically, MRI based connectomics is an emerging approach to extract information from MRI data that exhaustively maps inter-regional connectivity within the brain to build a graph model of its neural circuitry known as brain network. In the present study we used diffusion MRI based connectomics to obtain structural brain networks of a prospective cohort of one year old infants (32 controls and 24 IUGR) and analyze the existence of quantifiable brain reorganization of white matter circuitry in IUGR group by means of global and regional graph theory features of brain networks. Based on global and regional analyses of the brain network topology we demonstrated brain reorganization in IUGR infants at one year of age. Specifically, IUGR infants presented decreased global and local weighted efficiency, and a pattern of altered regional graph theory features. By means of binomial logistic regression, we also demonstrated that connectivity measures were associated with abnormal performance in later neurodevelopmental outcome as measured by Bayley Scale for Infant and Toddler Development, Third edition (BSID-III) at two years of age. These findings show the potential of diffusion MRI based connectomics and graph theory based network characteristics for estimating differences in the

  13. Leveraging percolation theory to single out influential spreaders in networks

    CERN Document Server

    Radicchi, Filippo

    2016-01-01

    Among the consequences of the disordered interaction topology underlying many social, techno- logical and biological systems, a particularly important one is that some nodes, just because of their position in the network, may have a disproportionate effect on dynamical processes mediated by the complex interaction pattern. For example, the early adoption by an opinion leader in a social network may change the fate of a commercial product, or just a few super-spreaders may determine the virality of a meme in social media. Despite many recent efforts, the formulation of an accurate method to optimally identify influential nodes in complex network topologies remains an unsolved challenge. Here, we present the exact solution of the problem for the specific, but highly relevant, case of the Susceptible-Infected-Removed (SIR) model for epidemic spreading at criticality. By exploiting the mapping between bond percolation and the static properties of SIR, we prove that the recently introduced Non-Backtracking central...

  14. Intestinal inflammation in nursing infants: different causes and a single treatment ... but of protected origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pancaldi, Mariaelena; Mariotti, Ilaria; Balli, Fiorella

    2008-08-01

    Three case histories of nursing infants suffering from different forms of intestinal problems, who underwent special dietary therapy in order to solve situations that would be difficult to deal with using the special artificial milk varieties on the market, are presented. These children were administered a homemade food consisting ofParmigiano Reggiano cheese seasoned for at least 36 months, rice or maize custard and tapioca, sugar, maize oil. In the first case the diagnosis of "widespread nonspecific acute colitis" was made compatible with "antibiotic-associated colitis" and Clostridium difficile was isolated from the feces. The second case, under the suspicion of cow's milk allergy, was fed by soya and hydrolyzed milk with persitent disturbed alvus with greenish feces and mucus. The third case was represented by a nursing child with persistent diarrhoic alvus after an acute episode with subsequent intolerance to rice milk. After the introduction of the food based on Parmigiano Reggiano cheese, all cases showed a rapid and progressive improvement of symptoms and alvus characteristics and were discharged with increased weight. The Parmigiano Reggiano cheese shows a high concentration of easily absorbed amino acids and oligopeptides like a hydrolyzed proteic preparation. As regards the lipoid component the medium and short chain fatty acids are directly absorbed in the bowel and immediately usable as a significant source of energy. Finally, another relevant characteristic of Parmigiano Reggiano cheese is the complete absence of lactose. The use of Parmigiano Reggiano cheese as a dietary therapy is appropriate not only for its high nutritional value, but also for its characteristics as a functional food that produces beneficial effects on health with regards to the gastrointestinal tract and the inflammatory problems resulting from alimentary intolerance, post-therapeutic antibiotic dismicrobism, or post-infective conditions. Moreover, its efficay on these pathologic

  15. Evaluation of a single round polymerase chain reaction assay using dried blood spots for diagnosis of HIV-1 infection in infants in an African setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ng'ayo Musa

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to develop an economical 'in-house' single round polymerase chain reaction (PCR assay using filter paper-dried blood spots (FP-DBS for early infant HIV-1 diagnosis and to evaluate its performance in an African setting. Methods An 'in-house' single round PCR assay that targets conserved regions in the HIV-1 polymerase (pol gene was validated for use with FP-DBS; first we validated this assay using FP-DBS spiked with cell standards of known HIV-1 copy numbers. Next, we validated the assay by testing the archived FP-DBS (N = 115 from infants of known HIV-1 infection status. Subsequently this 'in-house' HIV-1 pol PCR FP-DBS assay was then established in Nairobi, Kenya for further evaluation on freshly collected FP-DBS (N = 186 from infants, and compared with findings from a reference laboratory using the Roche Amplicor® HIV-1 DNA Test, version 1.5 assay. Results The HIV-1 pol PCR FP-DBS assay could detect one HIV-1 proviral copy in 38.7% of tests, 2 copies in 46.9% of tests, 5 copies in 72.5% of tests and 10 copies in 98.1% of tests performed with spiked samples. Using the archived FP-DBS samples from infants of known infection status, this assay was 92.8% sensitive and 98.3% specific for HIV-1 infant diagnosis. Using 186 FP-DBS collected from infants recently defined as HIV-1 positive using the commercially available Roche Amplicor v1.5 assay, 178 FP-DBS tested positive by this 'in-house' single-round HIV-1 pol PCR FP-DBS PCR assay. Upon subsequent retesting, the 8 infant FP-DBS samples that were discordant were confirmed as HIV-1 negative by both assays using a second blood sample. Conclusions HIV-1 was detected with high sensitivity and specificity using both archived and more recently collected samples. This suggests that this 'in-house' HIV-1 pol FP-DBS PCR assay can provide an alternative cost-effective, reliable and rapid method for early detection of HIV-1 infection in infants.

  16. Reliability in Single, Double and N2R Ring Network Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, T.; Pedersen, L.; Pedersen, Jens Myrup

    This paper studies the properties of single, double and N2R ring network structures during link errors. The structure of the network infrastructure must be redesigned in order to fulfil the requirements of services using the Internet in the future; hence, N2R structures have been suggested. N2R...

  17. Reliability in single, double and N2R ring network structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, T.; Pedersen, L.; Pedersen, Jens Myrup

    2005-01-01

    This paper studies the properties of single, double and N2R ring network structures during link errors. The structure of the network infrastructure must be redesigned in order to fulfil the requirements of services using the Internet in the future; hence, N2R structures have been suggested. N2R...

  18. Transmission of nevirapine-resistant HIV type 1 via breast milk to infants after single-dose nevirapine in Beira, Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micek, Mark A; Dross, Sandra; Blanco, Ana Judith; Beck, Ingrid A; Matunha, Laurinda; Seidel, Kristy; Montoya, Pablo; Matediana, Eduardo; Gantt, Soren; Gloyd, Stephen; Frenkel, Lisa

    2014-08-15

    Acquisition of nevirapine (NVP)-resistant human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) by breast-feeding infants after receipt of single-dose NVP to prevent mother-to-child transmission is not well defined. A prospective observational study of 307 infants evaluated the rate of breast milk transmission of NVP-resistant HIV and the concentrations of mutants over time. NVP resistance was detected in 9 of 24 infants (37.5%; 95% confidence interval, 18.8%-59.4%) infected via breast milk. Eight had a pure mutant HIV population at the time infection was first detected, and majority mutant populations persisted in all 6 infants with follow-up specimens. Infection of breast-feeding infants with NVP-resistant HIV resulted in mutants persisting as the dominant virus, which may indefinitely compromise treatment with NVP-based antiretroviral regimens. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Safety of cardiac magnetic resonance and contrast angiography for neonates and small infants: a 10-year single-institution experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rangamani, Sheela; Li, Ling; Harvey, Lisa; Fletcher, Scott E.; Danford, David A.; Kutty, Shelby [University of Nebraska College of Medicine/Creighton University School of Medicine, Joint Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Omaha, NE (United States); Varghese, Joby [Children' s Hospital and Medical Center, Division of Pediatric Cardiac Anesthesia, Omaha, NE (United States); Hammel, James M.; Duncan, Kim F. [Children' s Hospital and Medical Center, Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Omaha, NE (United States)

    2012-11-15

    With increasing applications of cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) for evaluation of congenital heart disease (CHD), safety of this technology in the very young is of particular interest. We report our 10-year experience with CMR in neonates and small infants with particular focus on the safety profile and incidence of adverse events (AEs). We reviewed clinical, anesthesia and nursing records of all children {<=}120 days of age who underwent CMR. We recorded variables including cardiac diagnosis, study duration, anesthesia type and agents, prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) dependence and gadolinium (Gd) use. Serially recorded temperature, systemic saturation (SpO{sub 2}) and cardiac rhythm were analyzed. Primary outcome measure was any AE during or <24 h after the procedure, including minor AEs such as hypothermia (axillary temperature {<=}95 F), desaturation (SpO{sub 2} drop {>=}10% below baseline) and bradycardia (heart rate {<=}100 bpm). Secondary outcome measure was unplanned overnight hospitalization of outpatients. Children (n = 143; 74 boys, 69 girls) had a median age of 6 days (1-117), and 98 were {<=}30 days at the time of CMR. The median weight was 3.4 kg (1.4-6 kg) and body surface area 0.22 m{sup 2} (0.13-0.32 m{sup 2}). There were 118 (83%) inpatients (108 receiving intensive care) and 25 (17%) outpatients. Indications for CMR were assessment of aortic arch (n = 57), complex CHD (n = 41), pulmonary veins (n = 15), vascular ring (n = 8), intracardiac mass (n = 8), pulmonary artery (n = 7), ventricular volume (n = 4), and systemic veins (n = 3). CMR was performed using a 1.5-T scanner and a commercially available coil. CMR utilized general anesthesia (GA) in 86 children, deep sedation (DS) in 50 and comforting methods in seven. MRA was performed in 136 children. Fifty-nine children were PGE1-dependent and 39 had single-ventricle circulation. Among children on PGE1, 43 (73%) had GA and 10 (17%) had DS. Twelve children (9%) had

  20. Technical Refinements in Single-Port Laparoscopic Surgery of Inguinal Hernia in Infants and Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Tang Chang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The techniques of minimal access surgery for pediatric inguinal hernia are numerous and they continue to evolve, with a trend toward increasing use of extracorporeal knotting and decreasing use of working ports and endoscopic instruments. Single-port endoscopic-assisted percutaneous extraperitoneal closure seems to be the ultimate attainment, and numerous techniques have mushroomed in the past decade. This article comprehensively reviews and compares the various single-port techniques. These techniques mainly vary in their approaches to the hernia defect with different devices, which are designed to pass a suture to enclose the orifice of the defect. However, most of these emerging techniques fail to entirely enclose the hernia defect and have the potential to lead to higher incidence of hernia recurrence. Accompanying preperitoneal hydrodissection and keeping identical subcutaneous path for introducing and withdrawing the suture, the suture could tautly enclose the hernia defect without upper subcutaneous tissues and a lower peritoneal gap, and a trend towards achieving a near-zero recurrence rate.

  1. Nevirapine resistance and breast-milk HIV transmission: effects of single and extended-dose nevirapine prophylaxis in subtype C HIV-infected infants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anitha Moorthy

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Daily nevirapine (NVP prophylaxis to HIV-exposed infants significantly reduces breast-milk HIV transmission. We assessed NVP-resistance in Indian infants enrolled in the "six-week extended-dose nevirapine" (SWEN trial who received single-dose NVP (SD-NVP or SWEN for prevention of breast-milk HIV transmission but who also acquired subtype C HIV infection during the first year of life. METHODS/FINDINGS: Standard population sequencing and cloning for viral subpopulations present at > or =5% frequency were used to determine HIV genotypes from 94% of the 79 infected Indian infants studied. Timing of infection was defined based on when an infant's blood sample first tested positive for HIV DNA. SWEN-exposed infants diagnosed with HIV by six weeks of age had a significantly higher prevalence of NVP-resistance than those who received SD-NVP, by both standard population sequencing (92% of 12 vs. 38% of 29; p = 0.002 and low frequency clonal analysis (92% of 12 vs. 59% of 29; p = 0.06. Likelihood of infection with NVP-resistant HIV through breast-milk among infants infected after age six weeks was substantial, but prevalence of NVP-resistance did not differ among SWEN or SD-NVP exposed infants by standard population sequencing (15% of 13 vs. 15% of 20; p = 1.00 and clonal analysis (31% of 13 vs. 40% of 20; p = 0.72. Types of NVP-resistance mutations and patterns of persistence at one year of age were similar between the two groups. NVP-resistance mutations did differ by timing of HIV infection; the Y181C variant was predominant among infants diagnosed in the first six weeks of life, compared to Y188C/H during late breast-milk transmission. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Use of SWEN to prevent breast-milk HIV transmission carries a high likelihood of resistance if infection occurs in the first six weeks of life. Moreover, there was a continued risk of transmission of NVP-resistant HIV through breastfeeding during the first year of life, but did not

  2. [Anesthetic management of an infant with a single ventricle (asplenia syndrome) for non-cardiac surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, K; Ando, T; Okuda, C

    1992-11-01

    Ketamine and fentanyl were used for surgery of esophageal hiatus hernia in a 9 month old boy with single ventricle (asplenia syndrome). The patient was orally premedicated with diazepam 2.5 mg, and intravenously with atropine 0.04 mg. General anesthesia was induced with ketamine-fentanyl-pancuronium-100% oxygen, and maintained with fentanyl-pancuronium-100% oxygen. The total dose of ketamine or fentanyl was 0.8 mg.kg-1 or 15 micrograms.kg-1, respectively. Systolic blood pressure and heart rate of the patient were stable during ketamine-fentanyl anesthesia. Arterial oxygen saturation measured by pulse oximetry was over 90% and arterial oxygen tension was above 60 mmHg during the operation. Ketamine-fentanyl anesthesia might be useful for non-cardiac surgery of a child with cyanotic congenital heart disease.

  3. Support Networks of Single Puerto Rican Mothers of Children with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Vivian I.; Bonilla, Zobeida E.; Reyes-MacPherson, Maria E.

    2011-01-01

    The social support networks of 25 Puerto Rican single mothers of young children with disabilities were examined and compared with current models of family support for children with disabilities. This study was designed to assess the support systems of Latino single mothers in light of dominant models of family support. The Family Support Scale,…

  4. Failure load prediction of single lap adhesive joints using artificial neural networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdi Tosun

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper was to predict the failure load in single lap adhesive joints subjected to tensile loading by using artificial neural networks. Experimental data obtained from the literature cover the single lap adhesive joints with various geometric models under the tensile loading. The data are arranged in a format such that two input parameters cover the length and width of bond area in single lap adhesive joints and the corresponding output is the ultimate failure load. An artificial neural network model was developed to estimate relationship between failure loads by using geometric dimensions of bond area as input data. A three-layer feedforward artificial neural network that utilized Levenberg–Marquardt learning algorithm model was used in order to train network. It was observed that artificial neural network model can estimate failure load of single lap adhesive joints with acceptable error. Mean absolute percentage error and Nash–Sutcliffe coefficient of efficiency values of both training and testing data were 3.523 and 3.524 and 0.997 and 0.992, respectively. The results showed that the artificial neural network is an efficient alternative method to predict the failure load of single lap adhesive joints. Also estimated results are in very good agreement with the experimental data.

  5. Simultaneous multi-patch-clamp and extracellular-array recordings: Single neuron reflects network activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardi, Roni; Goldental, Amir; Sardi, Shira; Sheinin, Anton; Kanter, Ido

    2016-11-01

    The increasing number of recording electrodes enhances the capability of capturing the network’s cooperative activity, however, using too many monitors might alter the properties of the measured neural network and induce noise. Using a technique that merges simultaneous multi-patch-clamp and multi-electrode array recordings of neural networks in-vitro, we show that the membrane potential of a single neuron is a reliable and super-sensitive probe for monitoring such cooperative activities and their detailed rhythms. Specifically, the membrane potential and the spiking activity of a single neuron are either highly correlated or highly anti-correlated with the time-dependent macroscopic activity of the entire network. This surprising observation also sheds light on the cooperative origin of neuronal burst in cultured networks. Our findings present an alternative flexible approach to the technique based on a massive tiling of networks by large-scale arrays of electrodes to monitor their activity.

  6. Restorability on 3-connected WDM Networks Under Single and Dual Physical Link Failures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gutierrez Lopez, Jose Manuel; Jensen, Michael; Riaz, Tahir

    2013-01-01

    This work studies the influence the network interconnection has over restoration techniques. The way physical links are distributed to interconnect network nodes has a great impact on parameters such as path distances when failures occur and restoration is applied. The work focuses on single...... and dual physical link failures restorability on WDM transport networks. This failure scenarios are tested over several 3-connected topologies, and studied in graph theory and network planning terms. In connection with the graphs, the resulting hop path distances and lengths are evaluated. In relation...... to network planning, the trade-off network length vs. performance of the different topological options is studied. The results show how 3-connected graphs could provide a reasonable trade-off between costs, link failure rates, and restored path parameters....

  7. Prefrontal Function Engaging in External-Focused Attention in 5- to 6-Month-Old Infants: A Suggestion for Default Mode Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Mingdi; Hoshino, Eiichi; Yatabe, Kiyomi; Matsuda, Soichiro; Sato, Hiroki; Maki, Atsushi; Yoshimura, Mina; Minagawa, Yasuyo

    2017-01-01

    The present study used functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) to measure 5- to 6-month-old infants’ hemodynamic response in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) to visual stimuli differing in saliency and social value. Nineteen Japanese 5- to 6-month-old infants watched video clips of Peek-a-Boo (social signal) performed by an anime character (AC) or a human, and hand movements without social signal performed by an AC. The PFC activity of infants was measured by 22-channel fNIRS, while behaviors including looking time were recorded simultaneously. NIRS data showed that infants’ hemodynamic responses in the PFC generally decreased due to these stimuli, and the decrease was most prominent in the frontopolar (FP), covering medial PFC (MPFC), when infants were viewing Peek-a-Boo performed by an AC. Moreover, the decrease was more pronounced in the dorsolateral PFC (DLPFC) when infants were viewing Peek-a-Boo performed by an AC than by a human. Accordingly, behavioral data revealed significantly longer looking times when Peek-a-Boo was performed by an AC than by a human. No significant difference between Peek-a-Boo and non-Peek-a-Boo conditions was observed in either measure. These findings indicate that infants at this age may prefer stimuli with more salient features, which may be more effective in attracting their attentions. In conjunction with our previous findings on responses to self-name calling in infants of similar age, we hypothesize that the dynamic function of the MPFC and its vicinity (as part of default mode network (DMN): enhanced by self-focused stimuli, attenuated by externally focused stimuli), which is consistently observed in adults, may have already emerged in 5- to 6-month-old infants. PMID:28119586

  8. The topology of evolving rift fault networks: Single-phase vs multi-phase rifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Oliver B.; Nixon, Casey W.; Bell, Rebecca E.; Jackson, Christopher A.-L.; Gawthorpe, Rob L.; Sanderson, David J.; Whipp, Paul S.

    2017-03-01

    Rift fault networks can be complex, particularly those developed by multiple periods of non-coaxial extension, comprising non-colinear faults with many interactions. Thus, topology, rather than simple geometry, is required to characterise such networks, as it provides a way to describe the arrangement of individual faults in the network. Topology is analysed here in terms of nodes (isolated I nodes or connected Y or X nodes) and branches (I-I, I-C, C-C branches). In map view, the relative proportions of these parameters vary in natural single- and multi-phase rift fault networks and in scaled physical models at different stages of development and strain. Interactions in single-phase rifting are limited to fault splays and along-strike fault linkage (I node and I-I or I-C branch dominated networks), whereas in multi-phase rifting the topology evolves towards Y node and C-C branch dominated networks, with the degree of connectivity increasing with greater strain. The changes in topology and network connectivity have significant implications for fluid flow and reservoir compartmentalisation studies. Furthermore, topology helps to distinguish single and multiple phase extension (i.e. tectonic histories), and thus provide constraints on the geodynamic context of sedimentary basins.

  9. Recurrent Neural Network for Single Machine Power System Stabilizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widi Aribowo

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, recurrent neural network (RNN is used to design power system stabilizer (PSS due to its advantage on the dependence not only on present input but also on past condition. A RNN-PSS is able to capture the dynamic response of a system without any delays caused by external feedback, primarily by the internal feedback loop in recurrent neuron. In this paper, RNNPSS consists of a RNN-identifier and a RNN-controller. The RNN-Identifier functions as the tracker of dynamics characteristics of the plant, while the RNN-controller is used to damp the system’s low frequency oscillations. Simulation results using MATLAB demonstrate that the RNNPSS can successfully damp out oscillation and improve the performance of the system.

  10. Evaluation of recent New Vaccine Surveillance Network data regarding respiratory syncytial virus hospitalization rates in US preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVincenzo, John P; Ambrose, Christopher S; Makari, Doris; Weiner, Leonard B

    2016-04-01

    In July 2014, the Committee on Infectious Diseases (COID) updated their guidance on the use of palivizumab, recommending against use in preterm infants 29 to 35 weeks' gestational age (wGA). A primary data source cited to support this significant change was the low respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) hospitalization rate observed in the subpopulation of preterm (preterm infant data from the NVSN in the context of data regarding the use of palivizumab in this same time period. Data from the NVSN, an analysis of Florida Medicaid data, and a national survey of US in-hospital palivizumab administration demonstrated that during 2001 to 2007, palivizumab was administered to 59% to 83% of preterm infants born at preterm infants (preterm infant subgroups were evaluated as a function of chronologic age, preterm infants preterm infants given the small size of the analyzed subpopulation and the high use of palivizumab during the study period.

  11. CPR - infant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... breathing and chest compressions - infant; Resuscitation - cardiopulmonary - infant; Cardiopulmonary resuscitation - infant ... CPR is best done by someone trained in an accredited CPR course. The newest techniques emphasize compression ...

  12. Single-hidden-layer feed-forward quantum neural network based on Grover learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cheng-Yi; Chen, Chein; Chang, Ching-Ter; Shih, Lun-Min

    2013-09-01

    In this paper, a novel single-hidden-layer feed-forward quantum neural network model is proposed based on some concepts and principles in the quantum theory. By combining the quantum mechanism with the feed-forward neural network, we defined quantum hidden neurons and connected quantum weights, and used them as the fundamental information processing unit in a single-hidden-layer feed-forward neural network. The quantum neurons make a wide range of nonlinear functions serve as the activation functions in the hidden layer of the network, and the Grover searching algorithm outstands the optimal parameter setting iteratively and thus makes very efficient neural network learning possible. The quantum neuron and weights, along with a Grover searching algorithm based learning, result in a novel and efficient neural network characteristic of reduced network, high efficient training and prospect application in future. Some simulations are taken to investigate the performance of the proposed quantum network and the result show that it can achieve accurate learning.

  13. Single and Dual Physical Link Failures Stability Effect on Degree Three WDM Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gutierrez Lopez, Jose Manuel; Georgakilas, Konstantinos; Riaz, M. Tahir

    2010-01-01

    This paper studies the effects of Single and Dual physical link failures to the stability of WDM networks when deployed as regular 3-degree structures. The failure impact on the source-destination pair connections is evaluated for the different topology scenarios. In this way it is possible...... to provide an overview of the failure effects and their relation to network metrics such as availability or cost. The results quantify how much the different network interconnection designs are affected by Single and Dual Physical link failures. The case study treats a realistic scenario, the interconnection...... of the NSFNET topology nodes. The main conclusions show that, when networks are designed under the same conditions, there is a linear relation between average downtime and ratio of connections affected by failures. Moreover, the most expensive optimized topologies to deploy provide higher availability....

  14. Solving Nonlinearly Separable Classifications in a Single-Layer Neural Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conaway, Nolan; Kurtz, Kenneth J

    2017-03-01

    Since the work of Minsky and Papert ( 1969 ), it has been understood that single-layer neural networks cannot solve nonlinearly separable classifications (i.e., XOR). We describe and test a novel divergent autoassociative architecture capable of solving nonlinearly separable classifications with a single layer of weights. The proposed network consists of class-specific linear autoassociators. The power of the model comes from treating classification problems as within-class feature prediction rather than directly optimizing a discriminant function. We show unprecedented learning capabilities for a simple, single-layer network (i.e., solving XOR) and demonstrate that the famous limitation in acquiring nonlinearly separable problems is not just about the need for a hidden layer; it is about the choice between directly predicting classes or learning to classify indirectly by predicting features.

  15. Adaptive control of chaotic systems based on a single layer neural network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen Liqun [Space Control and Inertia Technology Research Center, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)], E-mail: liqunshen@gmail.com; Wang Mao [Space Control and Inertia Technology Research Center, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2007-08-27

    This Letter presents an adaptive neural network control method for the chaos control problem. Based on a single layer neural network, the dynamic about the unstable fixed period point of the chaotic system can be adaptively identified without detailed information about the chaotic system. And the controlled chaotic system can be stabilized on the unstable fixed period orbit. Simulation results of Henon map and Lorenz system verify the effectiveness of the proposed control method.

  16. Evaluation of Railway Networks with Single Track Operation Using the UIC 406 Capacity Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex

    2009-01-01

    lines and single track lines are discussed in this article. The principles of the UIC 406 of double track lines can be applied to single track lines-at least when more than one train follows each other in the same direction. In a presentation of the UIC 406 for single track operations, it is important...... to define where to divide the railway lines into line sections and how the conflicts between trains at crossing stations and junctions have to be analysed. The effects on railway networks with single track lines and their impact on capacity consumption are described to enable a consistent capacity statement....

  17. Stochastic gene expression in single cells: exploring the importance of noise in genetic networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oudenaarden, Alexander

    2003-03-01

    Cells are intrinsically noisy biochemical reactors. This leads to random cell to cell variation (noise) in gene expression levels. First, I will address the source of this noise at the level of transcription and translation of a single gene. Our experimental results demonstrate that the intrinsic noise of a single gene is predominantly controlled at the translational level, and that increased translational efficiency leads to increased noise strength. This observation is consistent with a theoretical model in which proteins are randomly produced in sharp bursts followed by periods of slow decay. Second, I will explore the importance of genetic noise for a naturally occuring network: the lac operon. The classic lactose utilization network of E. coli has been under investigation for several decades and, in its simplest form the network may be modeled as a single positive feedback module. However, this simplicity is deceptive, as even this basic network is capable of complex metabolic behavior, including adaptation, amplification, and graded-to-binary response conversion. I will present single cell measurements on the expression of key genes in lactose uptake network and explore the importance of genetic noise on the regulation of these genes.

  18. Single-Board-Computer-Based Traffic Generator for a Heterogeneous and Hybrid Smart Grid Communication Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Do Nguyet Quang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In smart grid communication implementation, network traffic pattern is one of the main factors that affect the system’s performance. Examining different traffic patterns in smart grid is therefore crucial when analyzing the network performance. Due to the heterogeneous and hybrid nature of smart grid, the type of traffic distribution in the network is still unknown. The traffic that popularly used for simulation and analysis no longer reflects the real traffic in a multi-technology and bi-directional communication system. Hence, in this study, a single-board computer is implemented as a traffic generator which can generate network traffic similar to those generated by various applications in the fully operational smart grid. By placing in a strategic and appropriate position, a collection of traffic generators allow network administrators to investigate and test the effect of heavy traffic on performance of smart grid communication system.

  19. The theory of networks of single server queues and the tandem queue model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Le Gall

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the stochastic behavior of networks of single server queues when successive service times of a given customer are highly correlated. The study is conducted in two particular cases: 1 networks in heavy traffic, and 2 networks in which all successive service times have the same value (for a given customer, in order to avoid the possibility of breaking up the busy periods. We then show how the local queueing delay (for an arbitrary customer can be derived through an equivalent tandem queue on the condition that one other local queueing delay is added: the jitter delay due to the independence of partial traffic streams.

  20. Determination of Chloride in Infant Formula and Adult/Pediatric Nutritional Formula by Automated Potentiometry: Single-Laboratory Validation, First Action 2015.08.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaudzems, Gregory G

    2015-01-01

    A direct potentiometric method involving titration against a standard volumetric silver nitrate solution using a silver electrode to detect the end point was evaluated for the determination of chloride in infant formula and adult/pediatric nutritional formula. It was assessed for compliance against AOAC Standard Method Performance Requirements (SMPR®) established by the AOAC Stakeholder Panel on Infant Formula and Adult Nutritionals (SPIFAN). A single-laboratory validation (SLV) study was conducted as a first step in the process to validate the method. In this SLV, 17 SPIFAN matrixes representing a range of infant formula and adult nutritional products were evaluated for their chloride content. The analytical range was found to be between 1.4 and 1060 mg/100 g reconstituted product or ready-to-feed (RTF) liquid. The LOQ was estimated as 1.4 mg/100 g. Method repeatability was between 0.03 and 1.60% in the range of 20 to 167 mg/100 g RTF, and intermediate precision was between 0.09 and 2.77% in the same range. Recovery values based on spiking experiments at two different levels of chloride ranged from 99.0 to 103% for 15 different SPIFAN products. Evaluation of trueness was performed on National Institute of Standards and Technology Standard Reference Material 1849a (Infant/Adult Nutritional Formula) and showed 97.2% of the theoretical value, with no bias at the 95% confidence level. Based on the results of the SLV, the method met the SMPR and was approved as a First Action method by the AOAC Expert Review Panel on Infant Formula and Adult Nutritionals on March 17, 2015.

  1. Sparse Regression Based Structure Learning of Stochastic Reaction Networks from Single Cell Snapshot Time Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganscha, Stefan; Claassen, Manfred

    2016-01-01

    Stochastic chemical reaction networks constitute a model class to quantitatively describe dynamics and cell-to-cell variability in biological systems. The topology of these networks typically is only partially characterized due to experimental limitations. Current approaches for refining network topology are based on the explicit enumeration of alternative topologies and are therefore restricted to small problem instances with almost complete knowledge. We propose the reactionet lasso, a computational procedure that derives a stepwise sparse regression approach on the basis of the Chemical Master Equation, enabling large-scale structure learning for reaction networks by implicitly accounting for billions of topology variants. We have assessed the structure learning capabilities of the reactionet lasso on synthetic data for the complete TRAIL induced apoptosis signaling cascade comprising 70 reactions. We find that the reactionet lasso is able to efficiently recover the structure of these reaction systems, ab initio, with high sensitivity and specificity. With only lasso is able to recover 45% of all true reactions ab initio among > 6000 possible reactions and over 102000 network topologies. In conjunction with information rich single cell technologies such as single cell RNA sequencing or mass cytometry, the reactionet lasso will enable large-scale structure learning, particularly in areas with partial network structure knowledge, such as cancer biology, and thereby enable the detection of pathological alterations of reaction networks. We provide software to allow for wide applicability of the reactionet lasso. PMID:27923064

  2. Enhancing mother infant interactions through video feedback enabled interventions in women with schizophrenia: A single subject research design study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pashapu Dharma Reddy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: It has been shown that mother infant interactions are often impaired in mothers with schizophrenia. Contributory factors include psychotic symptoms, negative symptoms and surrogate parenting by others. Aim: This study describes the effectiveness of video feedback in enhancing mother-infant interaction in mothers with schizophrenia who have impaired interaction with their infant. Materials and Methods: Two women with schizophrenia who were admitted for persistent psychotic symptoms and poor mothering skills, participated in the intervention. Pre intervention parenting assessment was done using video recording of mother infant interaction. Six sessions of mothering intervention were provided using video feedback and a repeat recording was done. Pre-and post-intervention videos were subsequently rated in a blind fashion by an independent expert in perinatal psychiatry using the pediatric infant parent exam (PIPE scale. Results: Pre and post intervention comparison of PIPE scores indicating significant improvement in several areas of mothering. Conclusions: Video feedback is a simple and inexpensive tool which can be used for improving mothering skills among mothers with postpartum psychosis or schizophrenia even in low resource settings.

  3. Enhanced photoluminescence from single nitrogen-vacancy defects in nanodiamonds coated with metal-phenolic networks

    OpenAIRE

    Bray, Kerem; Previdi, Rodolfo; Gibson, Brant C.; Shimoni, Olga; Aharonovich, Igor

    2015-01-01

    Fluorescent nanodiamonds are attracting major attention in the field of bio-sensing and biolabeling. In this work we demonstrate a robust approach to surface functionalize individual nanodiamonds with metal-phenolic networks that enhance the photoluminescence from single nitrogen vacancy (NV) centers. We show that single NV centres in the coated nanodiamonds also exhibit shorter lifetimes, opening another channel for high resolution sensing. We propose that the nanodiamond encapsulation suppr...

  4. Network Lifetime Global Optimization for Multi-Source and Single-Sink Topology in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hui; WU Di; AGOULMINE Nazim; MA Mao-de

    2009-01-01

    The multi-source and single-sink (MSSS) topology in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) is defined as a network topology, where all of nodes can gather, receive and transmit data to the sink. In energy-constrained WSNs with such a topology, the joint optimal design in the physical, medium access control (MAC) and network layers is considered for network lifetime maximization (NLM). The problem of integrating multi-layer information to compute NLM, which involves routing flow, link schedule and transmission power, is formulated as a non-linear optimization problem. Specially under time division multiple access (TDMA) scheme, this problem can be transformed into a convex optimization problem. To solve it analytically we make use of the property that local optimization is global optimization in convex problem. This allows us to exploit the Karush-Kuhn-Tucker (KKT) optimality conditions to solve it and obtain analytical solution expression, i.e., the globally optimal network lifetime (NL). NL is derived as a function of number of nodes, their initial energy and data rate arrived at them.Based on the analysis of analytical approach, it takes the influence of data rates, link access and routing method over NLM into account. Moreover, the globally optimal transmission schemes are achieved by solution set during analytical approach and applied to algorithms in TDMA-based WSNs aiming at NLM on OMNeT to compare with other suboptimal schemes.

  5. Computing single step operators of logic programming in radial basis function neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamadneh, Nawaf; Sathasivam, Saratha; Choon, Ong Hong [School of Mathematical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 USM, Penang (Malaysia)

    2014-07-10

    Logic programming is the process that leads from an original formulation of a computing problem to executable programs. A normal logic program consists of a finite set of clauses. A valuation I of logic programming is a mapping from ground atoms to false or true. The single step operator of any logic programming is defined as a function (T{sub p}:I→I). Logic programming is well-suited to building the artificial intelligence systems. In this study, we established a new technique to compute the single step operators of logic programming in the radial basis function neural networks. To do that, we proposed a new technique to generate the training data sets of single step operators. The training data sets are used to build the neural networks. We used the recurrent radial basis function neural networks to get to the steady state (the fixed point of the operators). To improve the performance of the neural networks, we used the particle swarm optimization algorithm to train the networks.

  6. Computing single step operators of logic programming in radial basis function neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamadneh, Nawaf; Sathasivam, Saratha; Choon, Ong Hong

    2014-07-01

    Logic programming is the process that leads from an original formulation of a computing problem to executable programs. A normal logic program consists of a finite set of clauses. A valuation I of logic programming is a mapping from ground atoms to false or true. The single step operator of any logic programming is defined as a function (Tp:I→I). Logic programming is well-suited to building the artificial intelligence systems. In this study, we established a new technique to compute the single step operators of logic programming in the radial basis function neural networks. To do that, we proposed a new technique to generate the training data sets of single step operators. The training data sets are used to build the neural networks. We used the recurrent radial basis function neural networks to get to the steady state (the fixed point of the operators). To improve the performance of the neural networks, we used the particle swarm optimization algorithm to train the networks.

  7. Enhancing network performance under single link failure with AS-disjoint BGP extension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manolova, Anna Vasileva; Romeral, S.; Ruepp, Sarah Renée

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we propose an enhancement of the BGP protocol for obtaining AS-disjoint paths in GMPLS multi-domain networks. We evaluate the benefits of having AS-disjoint paths under single inter-domain link failure for two main applications: routing of future connection requests during routing...

  8. Transition from double coherence resonances to single coherence resonance in a neuronal network with phase noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yanbing; Gu, Huaguang

    2015-12-01

    The effect of phase noise on the coherence dynamics of a neuronal network composed of FitzHugh-Nagumo (FHN) neurons is investigated. Phase noise can induce dissimilar coherence resonance (CR) effects for different coupling strength regimes. When the coupling strength is small, phase noise can induce double CRs. One corresponds to the average frequency of phase noise, and the other corresponds to the intrinsic firing frequency of the FHN neuron. When the coupling strength is large enough, phase noise can only induce single CR, and the CR corresponds to the intrinsic firing frequency of the FHN neuron. The results show a transition from double CRs to single CR with the increase in the coupling strength. The transition can be well interpreted based on the dynamics of a single neuron stimulated by both phase noise and the coupling current. When the coupling strength is small, the coupling current is weak, and phase noise mainly determines the dynamics of the neuron. Moreover, the phase-noise-induced double CRs in the neuronal network are similar to the phase-noise-induced double CRs in an isolated FHN neuron. When the coupling strength is large enough, the coupling current is strong and plays a key role in the occurrence of the single CR in the network. The results provide a novel phenomenon and may have important implications in understanding the dynamics of neuronal networks.

  9. Multi-channel distributed coordinated function over single radio in wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Carlene E-A; Loo, Kok-Keong Jonathan; Gemikonakli, Orhan; Khan, Shafiullah; Singh, Dhananjay

    2011-01-01

    Multi-channel assignments are becoming the solution of choice to improve performance in single radio for wireless networks. Multi-channel allows wireless networks to assign different channels to different nodes in real-time transmission. In this paper, we propose a new approach, Multi-channel Distributed Coordinated Function (MC-DCF) which takes advantage of multi-channel assignment. The backoff algorithm of the IEEE 802.11 distributed coordination function (DCF) was modified to invoke channel switching, based on threshold criteria in order to improve the overall throughput for wireless sensor networks (WSNs) over 802.11 networks. We presented simulation experiments in order to investigate the characteristics of multi-channel communication in wireless sensor networks using an NS2 platform. Nodes only use a single radio and perform channel switching only after specified threshold is reached. Single radio can only work on one channel at any given time. All nodes initiate constant bit rate streams towards the receiving nodes. In this work, we studied the impact of non-overlapping channels in the 2.4 frequency band on: constant bit rate (CBR) streams, node density, source nodes sending data directly to sink and signal strength by varying distances between the sensor nodes and operating frequencies of the radios with different data rates. We showed that multi-channel enhancement using our proposed algorithm provides significant improvement in terms of throughput, packet delivery ratio and delay. This technique can be considered for WSNs future use in 802.11 networks especially when the IEEE 802.11n becomes popular thereby may prevent the 802.15.4 network from operating effectively in the 2.4 GHz frequency band.

  10. Femtosecond laser-induced stimulation of a single neuron in a neuronal network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosokawa, Chie; Sakamoto, Yasutaka; Kudoh, Suguru N.; Hosokawa, Yoichiroh; Taguchi, Takahisa

    2013-03-01

    We demonstrated the stimulation of neurons at a single-cell level in cultured neuronal network by a focused femtosecond laser. When the femtosecond laser was focused on a neuron loaded with a fluorescent calcium indicator, the fluorescence intensity immediately increased at the laser spot, suggesting that intracellular Ca2+ increases in the neuronal cell due to the femtosecond laser irradiation. The probability of Ca2+ elevation at the laser spot depended on the average laser power, irradiation time, and position of the focal point along the optical axis, indicating that the femtosecond laser activates neurons because of multiphoton absorption. Moreover, after laser irradiation of a single neuron cultured on multielectrode arrays, the evoked electrical activity of the neurons was demonstrated by electrophysiological systems, which concluded that the focused femtosecond laser could achieve stimulating a single neuron in a neuronal network with high spatial and temporal resolution.

  11. Information Processing in Single Cells and Small Networks: Insights from Compartmental Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirazi, Panayiota

    2009-03-01

    The goal of this paper is to present a set of predictions generated by detailed compartmental models regarding the ways in which information may be processed, encoded and propagated by single cells and neural assemblies. Towards this goal, I will review a number of modelling studies from our lab that investigate how single pyramidal neurons and small neural networks in different brain regions process incoming signals that are associated with learning and memory. I will first discuss the computational capabilities of individual pyramidal neurons in the hippocampus [1-3] and how these properties may allow a single cell to discriminate between different memories [4]. I will then present biophysical models of prefrontal layer V neurons and small networks that exhibit sustained activity under realistic synaptic stimulation and discuss their potential role in working memory [5].

  12. Inference of a Probabilistic Boolean Network from a Single Observed Temporal Sequence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Yu

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The inference of gene regulatory networks is a key issue for genomic signal processing. This paper addresses the inference of probabilistic Boolean networks (PBNs from observed temporal sequences of network states. Since a PBN is composed of a finite number of Boolean networks, a basic observation is that the characteristics of a single Boolean network without perturbation may be determined by its pairwise transitions. Because the network function is fixed and there are no perturbations, a given state will always be followed by a unique state at the succeeding time point. Thus, a transition counting matrix compiled over a data sequence will be sparse and contain only one entry per line. If the network also has perturbations, with small perturbation probability, then the transition counting matrix would have some insignificant nonzero entries replacing some (or all of the zeros. If a data sequence is sufficiently long to adequately populate the matrix, then determination of the functions and inputs underlying the model is straightforward. The difficulty comes when the transition counting matrix consists of data derived from more than one Boolean network. We address the PBN inference procedure in several steps: (1 separate the data sequence into “pure” subsequences corresponding to constituent Boolean networks; (2 given a subsequence, infer a Boolean network; and (3 infer the probabilities of perturbation, the probability of there being a switch between constituent Boolean networks, and the selection probabilities governing which network is to be selected given a switch. Capturing the full dynamic behavior of probabilistic Boolean networks, be they binary or multivalued, will require the use of temporal data, and a great deal of it. This should not be surprising given the complexity of the model and the number of parameters, both transitional and static, that must be estimated. In addition to providing an inference algorithm

  13. Inference of a Probabilistic Boolean Network from a Single Observed Temporal Sequence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Yufei

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The inference of gene regulatory networks is a key issue for genomic signal processing. This paper addresses the inference of probabilistic Boolean networks (PBNs from observed temporal sequences of network states. Since a PBN is composed of a finite number of Boolean networks, a basic observation is that the characteristics of a single Boolean network without perturbation may be determined by its pairwise transitions. Because the network function is fixed and there are no perturbations, a given state will always be followed by a unique state at the succeeding time point. Thus, a transition counting matrix compiled over a data sequence will be sparse and contain only one entry per line. If the network also has perturbations, with small perturbation probability, then the transition counting matrix would have some insignificant nonzero entries replacing some (or all of the zeros. If a data sequence is sufficiently long to adequately populate the matrix, then determination of the functions and inputs underlying the model is straightforward. The difficulty comes when the transition counting matrix consists of data derived from more than one Boolean network. We address the PBN inference procedure in several steps: (1 separate the data sequence into "pure" subsequences corresponding to constituent Boolean networks; (2 given a subsequence, infer a Boolean network; and (3 infer the probabilities of perturbation, the probability of there being a switch between constituent Boolean networks, and the selection probabilities governing which network is to be selected given a switch. Capturing the full dynamic behavior of probabilistic Boolean networks, be they binary or multivalued, will require the use of temporal data, and a great deal of it. This should not be surprising given the complexity of the model and the number of parameters, both transitional and static, that must be estimated. In addition to providing an inference algorithm, this paper

  14. Single or multiple synchronization transitions in scale-free neuronal networks with electrical or chemical coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hao Yinghang [School of Physics, Ludong University, Yantai 264025 (China); Gong, Yubing, E-mail: gongyubing09@hotmail.co [School of Physics, Ludong University, Yantai 264025 (China); Wang Li; Ma Xiaoguang; Yang Chuanlu [School of Physics, Ludong University, Yantai 264025 (China)

    2011-04-15

    Research highlights: Single synchronization transition for gap-junctional coupling. Multiple synchronization transitions for chemical synaptic coupling. Gap junctions and chemical synapses have different impacts on synchronization transition. Chemical synapses may play a dominant role in neurons' information processing. - Abstract: In this paper, we have studied time delay- and coupling strength-induced synchronization transitions in scale-free modified Hodgkin-Huxley (MHH) neuron networks with gap-junctions and chemical synaptic coupling. It is shown that the synchronization transitions are much different for these two coupling types. For gap-junctions, the neurons exhibit a single synchronization transition with time delay and coupling strength, while for chemical synapses, there are multiple synchronization transitions with time delay, and the synchronization transition with coupling strength is dependent on the time delay lengths. For short delays we observe a single synchronization transition, whereas for long delays the neurons exhibit multiple synchronization transitions as the coupling strength is varied. These results show that gap junctions and chemical synapses have different impacts on the pattern formation and synchronization transitions of the scale-free MHH neuronal networks, and chemical synapses, compared to gap junctions, may play a dominant and more active function in the firing activity of the networks. These findings would be helpful for further understanding the roles of gap junctions and chemical synapses in the firing dynamics of neuronal networks.

  15. Finite-horizon control-constrained nonlinear optimal control using single network adaptive critics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydari, Ali; Balakrishnan, Sivasubramanya N

    2013-01-01

    To synthesize fixed-final-time control-constrained optimal controllers for discrete-time nonlinear control-affine systems, a single neural network (NN)-based controller called the Finite-horizon Single Network Adaptive Critic is developed in this paper. Inputs to the NN are the current system states and the time-to-go, and the network outputs are the costates that are used to compute optimal feedback control. Control constraints are handled through a nonquadratic cost function. Convergence proofs of: 1) the reinforcement learning-based training method to the optimal solution; 2) the training error; and 3) the network weights are provided. The resulting controller is shown to solve the associated time-varying Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equation and provide the fixed-final-time optimal solution. Performance of the new synthesis technique is demonstrated through different examples including an attitude control problem wherein a rigid spacecraft performs a finite-time attitude maneuver subject to control bounds. The new formulation has great potential for implementation since it consists of only one NN with single set of weights and it provides comprehensive feedback solutions online, though it is trained offline.

  16. Single-frequency receivers as master permanent stations in GNSS networks: precision and accuracy of the positioning in mixed networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabove, Paolo; Manzino, Ambrogio Maria

    2015-04-01

    The use of GPS/GNSS instruments is a common practice in the world at both a commercial and academic research level. Since last ten years, Continuous Operating Reference Stations (CORSs) networks were born in order to achieve the possibility to extend a precise positioning more than 15 km far from the master station. In this context, the Geomatics Research Group of DIATI at the Politecnico di Torino has carried out several experiments in order to evaluate the achievable precision obtainable with different GNSS receivers (geodetic and mass-market) and antennas if a CORSs network is considered. This work starts from the research above described, in particular focusing the attention on the usefulness of single frequency permanent stations in order to thicken the existing CORSs, especially for monitoring purposes. Two different types of CORSs network are available today in Italy: the first one is the so called "regional network" and the second one is the "national network", where the mean inter-station distances are about 25/30 and 50/70 km respectively. These distances are useful for many applications (e.g. mobile mapping) if geodetic instruments are considered but become less useful if mass-market instruments are used or if the inter-station distance between master and rover increases. In this context, some innovative GNSS networks were developed and tested, analyzing the performance of rover's positioning in terms of quality, accuracy and reliability both in real-time and post-processing approach. The use of single frequency GNSS receivers leads to have some limits, especially due to a limited baseline length, the possibility to obtain a correct fixing of the phase ambiguity for the network and to fix the phase ambiguity correctly also for the rover. These factors play a crucial role in order to reach a positioning with a good level of accuracy (as centimetric o better) in a short time and with an high reliability. The goal of this work is to investigate about the

  17. Estimating Single and Multiple Target Locations Using K-Means Clustering with Radio Tomographic Imaging in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-26

    ESTIMATING SINGLE AND MULTIPLE TARGET LOCATIONS USING K-MEANS CLUSTERING WITH RADIO TOMOGRAPHIC IMAGING IN WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS THESIS Jeffrey K...AND MULTIPLE TARGET LOCATIONS USING K-MEANS CLUSTERING WITH RADIO TOMOGRAPHIC IMAGING IN WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS THESIS Presented to the Faculty...SINGLE AND MULTIPLE TARGET LOCATIONS USING K-MEANS CLUSTERING WITH RADIO TOMOGRAPHIC IMAGING IN WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS Jeffrey K. Nishida, B.S.E.E

  18. A single 24 h recall overestimates exclusive breastfeeding practices among infants aged less than six months in rural Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenta, Esete Habtemariam; Yirgu, Robel; Shikur, Bilal; Gebreyesus, Seifu Hagos

    2017-01-01

    Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) to six months is one of the World Health Organization's (WHOs) infant and young child feeding (IYCF) core indicators. Single 24 h recall method is currently in use to measure exclusive breastfeeding practice among children of age less than six months. This approach overestimates the prevalence of EBF, especially among small population groups. This justifies the need to look for alternative measurement techniques to have a valid estimate regardless of population characteristics. The study involved 422 infants of age less than six months, living in Gurage zone, Southern Ethiopia. The study was conducted from January to February 2016. Child feeding practices were measured for seven consecutive days using 24 h recall method. Recall since birth, was used to measure breastfeeding practices from birth to the day of data collection. Data on EBF obtained by using single 24 h recall were compared with seven days repeated 24 h recall method. McNemar's test was done to assess if a significant difference existed in rates of EBF between measurement methods. The mean age of infants in months was 3 (SD -1.43). Exclusive breastfeeding prevalence was highest (76.7%; 95% CI 72.6, 80.8) when EBF was estimated using single 24 h recall. The prevalence of EBF based on seven repeated 24 h recall was 53.2% (95% CI: 48.3, 58.0). The estimated prevalence of EBF since birth based on retrospective data (recall since birth) was 50.2% (95% CI 45.4, 55.1). Compared to the EBF estimates obtained from seven repeated 24 h recall, single 24 h recall overestimated EBF magnitude by 23 percentage points (95% CI 19.2, 27.8). As the number of days of 24 h recall increased, a significant decrease in overestimation of EBF was observed. A significant overestimation was observed when single 24 h recall was used to estimate prevalence of EBF compared to seven days of 24 h recall. By increasing the observation days we can significantly decrease the degree of

  19. Mechanical ventilation modes for respiratory distress syndrome in infants: a systematic review and network meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Changsong; Guo, Libo; Chi, Chunjie; Wang, Xiaoyang; Guo, Lei; Wang, Weiwei; Zhao, Nana; Wang, Yibo; Zhang, Zhaodi; Li, Enyou

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The effects of different mechanical ventilation (MV) modes on mortality outcome in infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) are not well known. Methods We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in the Cochrane Library, EMBASE, MEDLINE, CINAHL, and Web of Science for studies published through April 2014 that assessed mortality in infants with RDS given different MV modes. We assessed studies for eligibility, extracted data, and subsequently p...

  20. Change in the electrical characteristics of single-walled carbon nanotube networks under photoresist treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Mi-Suk; Kim, Ju-Jin; Choi, Won Jin; Lee, Jeong-O.

    2016-08-01

    The electrical properties of a single-walled carbon nanotube network were investigated after photoresist treatment with the pristine device. Atomic force microscopy found that the diameters of the single-walled carbon nanotubes were increased after photoresist treatment and that the photoresist could not be completely removed from nanotube surfaces by using a simple cleaning process with an organic solvent. Although the presence of a residual photoresist had no noticeable effects on the Raman spectrum of single-walled carbon nanotubes in our devices, the charge carrier mobilities and the on/off ratios of the single-walled carbon nanotube devices were lowered due to the photoresist treatment, and the gate-hysteresis behavior in the devices that had undergone photoresist treatment was found to be different from that of pristine devices.

  1. The network structure of adaptive governance - A single case study of a fish management area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annica Charlotte Sandström

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The challenge of establishing adaptive management systems is a widely discussed topic in the literature on natural resource management. Adaptive management essentially focuses on achieving a governance process that is both sensitive to and has the capacity to continuously react to changes within the ecosystem being managed. The adoption of a network approach that perceives governance structures as social networks, searching for the kind of network features promoting this important feature, has been requested by researchers in the field. In particular, the possibilities associated with the application of a formal network approach, using the tools and concepts of social network analysis (SNA, have been identified as having significant potential for advancing this branch of research. This paper aims to address the relation between network structure and adaptability using an empirical approach. With the point of departure in a previously generated theoretical framework as well as related hypotheses, this paper presents a case study of a governance process within a fish management area in Sweden. The hypotheses state that, although higher levels of network density and centralisation promote the rule-forming process, the level of network heterogeneity is important for the existence and spread of ecological knowledge among the actors involved. According to the empirical results, restricted by the single-case study design, this assumption is still a well-working hypothesis. However, in order to advance our knowledge concerning these issues and test the validity of the hypotheses, more empirical work using a similar approach in multiple case study designs is needed.

  2. Protein signaling networks from single cell fluctuations and information theory profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Young Shik; Remacle, F; Fan, Rong; Hwang, Kiwook; Wei, Wei; Ahmad, Habib; Levine, R D; Heath, James R

    2011-05-18

    Protein signaling networks among cells play critical roles in a host of pathophysiological processes, from inflammation to tumorigenesis. We report on an approach that integrates microfluidic cell handling, in situ protein secretion profiling, and information theory to determine an extracellular protein-signaling network and the role of perturbations. We assayed 12 proteins secreted from human macrophages that were subjected to lipopolysaccharide challenge, which emulates the macrophage-based innate immune responses against Gram-negative bacteria. We characterize the fluctuations in protein secretion of single cells, and of small cell colonies (n = 2, 3,···), as a function of colony size. Measuring the fluctuations permits a validation of the conditions required for the application of a quantitative version of the Le Chatelier's principle, as derived using information theory. This principle provides a quantitative prediction of the role of perturbations and allows a characterization of a protein-protein interaction network.

  3. Three-Level Z-Source Inverters Using a Single LC Impedance Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loh, Poh Chiang; Lim, Sok Wei; Gao, Feng

    2007-01-01

    two LC impedance networks and two isolated dc sources, which can significantly increase the overall system cost and require a more complex modulator for balancing the network inductive voltage boosting. Offering a number of less costly alternatives, this letter presents the design and control of two...... three-level Z-source inverters, whose output voltage can be stepped down or up using only a single LC impedance network connected between the dc input source and either a neutral-point-clamped (NPC) or dc-link cascaded inverter circuitry. Through careful design of their modulation scheme, both inverters...... can function with the minimum of six device commutations per half carrier cycle (similar to that needed by a traditional buck three-level NPC inverter), while producing the correct volt-sec average and inductive voltage boosting at their ac output terminals. Physically, the designed modulation scheme...

  4. Protein Signaling Networks from Single Cell Fluctuations and Information Theory Profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Young Shik; Remacle, F.; Fan, Rong; Hwang, Kiwook; Wei, Wei; Ahmad, Habib; Levine, R.D.; Heath, James R.

    2011-01-01

    Protein signaling networks among cells play critical roles in a host of pathophysiological processes, from inflammation to tumorigenesis. We report on an approach that integrates microfluidic cell handling, in situ protein secretion profiling, and information theory to determine an extracellular protein-signaling network and the role of perturbations. We assayed 12 proteins secreted from human macrophages that were subjected to lipopolysaccharide challenge, which emulates the macrophage-based innate immune responses against Gram-negative bacteria. We characterize the fluctuations in protein secretion of single cells, and of small cell colonies (n = 2, 3,···), as a function of colony size. Measuring the fluctuations permits a validation of the conditions required for the application of a quantitative version of the Le Chatelier's principle, as derived using information theory. This principle provides a quantitative prediction of the role of perturbations and allows a characterization of a protein-protein interaction network. PMID:21575571

  5. Fabrication of Triangular Nanobeam Waveguide Networks in Bulk diamond Using Single-Crystal Silicon Hard Masks

    CERN Document Server

    Bayn, I; Li, L; Goldstein, J A; Schröder, T; Zhang, J; Chen, E H; Gaathon, O; Lu, M; Stein, A; Ruggiero, C A; Salzman, J; Kalish, R; Englund, D

    2014-01-01

    A scalable approach for integrated photonic networks in single-crystal diamond using triangular etching of bulk samples is presented. We describe designs of high quality factor (Q=2.51x10^6) photonic crystal cavities with low mode volume (Vm=1.062x({\\lambda}/n)^3), which are connected via waveguides supported by suspension structures with predicted transmission loss of only 0.05 dB. We demonstrate the fabrication of these structures using transferred single-crystal silicon hard masks and angular dry etching, yielding photonic crystal cavities in the visible spectrum with measured quality factors in excess of Q=3x103.

  6. Enhanced photoluminescence from single nitrogen-vacancy defects in nanodiamonds coated with metal-phenolic networks

    CERN Document Server

    Bray, Kerem; Gibson, Brant C; Shimoni, Olga; Aharonovich, Igor

    2015-01-01

    Fluorescent nanodiamonds are attracting major attention in the field of bio-sensing and biolabeling. In this work we demonstrate a robust approach to surface functionalize individual nanodiamonds with metal-phenolic networks that enhance the photoluminescence from single nitrogen vacancy (NV) centers. We show that single NV centres in the coated nanodiamonds also exhibit shorter lifetimes, opening another channel for high resolution sensing. We propose that the nanodiamond encapsulation suppresses the non-radiative decay pathways of the NV color centers. Our results provide a versatile and assessable way to enhance photoluminescence from nanodiamond defects that can be used in a variety of sensing and imaging applications

  7. A Novel Neural Network Vector Control for Single-Phase Grid-Connected Converters with L, LC and LCL Filters

    OpenAIRE

    Xingang Fu; Shuhui Li

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates a novel recurrent neural network (NN)-based vector control approach for single-phase grid-connected converters (GCCs) with L (inductor), LC (inductor-capacitor) and LCL (inductor-capacitor-inductor) filters and provides their comparison study with the conventional standard vector control method. A single neural network controller replaces two current-loop PI controllers, and the NN training approximates the optimal control for the single-phase GCC system. The Levenberg...

  8. Determination of Carotenoids in Infant, Pediatric, and Adult Nutritionals by HPLC with UV-Visible Detection: Single-Laboratory Validation, First Action 2017.04.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimpf, Karen J; Thompson, Linda D; Pan, Shang-Jing

    2017-09-12

    This reversed-phase HPLC method uses C30 chromatography and UV-Vis spectroscopy to determine cis and trans isomers of lutein, β-carotene, and lycopene in infant, pediatric, and adult nutritionals. Samples are saponified with a mixture of potassium hydroxide, tetrahydrofuran, and methanol, and carotenoids are extracted from saponified samples with 75 + 25 hexane-methyl tertiary butyl ether (MtBE). After extraction, a portion of the organic layer is evaporated to dryness, and the residue is dissolved in 75 + 25 10% butylated hydroxytoluene in methanol-MtBE. Prepared samples are injected into a C30 HPLC column where cis and trans isomers of lutein, β-carotene, and lycopene are separated with a methanol-MtBE gradient and detected with UV-Vis spectroscopy at 445 nm. Total carotenoid concentrations are calculated by comparison of sample peak areas with the areas of trans carotenoid standards of known concentration. During a single-laboratory validation of this method, total lutein repeatability and intermediate precision ranged from 1.89 to 14.9 and 1.93 to 14.0%, respectively, in infant and adult nutritional matrixes with concentrations >1 μg/100 g. Total β-carotene repeatability and intermediate precision ranged from 1.81 to 6.77 and 3.07 to 16.2%, respectively, in infant and adult nutritional matrixes with concentrations >1 μg/100 g, and total lycopene repeatability and intermediate precision ranged from 3.01 to 6.37 and 4.29 to 10.3%, respectively, in infant and adult nutritional matrixes with concentrations >1 μg/100 g. Mean overspike recoveries ranged from 90.3 to 95.3, 89.3 to 108, and 97.3 to 109% for lutein, β-carotene, and lycopene, respectively. The method also demonstrated good linearity. For lutein, r averaged 0.99991 over a standard range of approximately 10-250 µg/L trans-lutein. with average calibration errors of <1%. For β-carotene and lycopene, r averaged 0.99993 and 0.9998 over standard ranges of approximately 25-500 and 5-100 µg/L with

  9. Search for single top quark production at DØ using neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    DØ Collaboration; Abazov, V. M.; Abbott, B.; Abdesselam, A.; Abolins, M.; Abramov, V.; Acharya, B. S.; Adams, D. L.; Adams, M.; Ahmed, S. N.; Alexeev, G. D.; Alves, G. A.; Amos, N.; Anderson, E. W.; Arnoud, Y.; Baarmand, M. M.; Babintsev, V. V.; Babukhadia, L.; Bacon, T. C.; Baden, A.; Baldin, B.; Balm, P. W.; Banerjee, S.; Barberis, E.; Baringer, P.; Barreto, J.; Bartlett, J. F.; Bassler, U.; Bauer, D.; Bean, A.; Begel, M.; Belyaev, A.; Beri, S. B.; Bernardi, G.; Bertram, I.; Besson, A.; Beuselinck, R.; Bezzubov, V. A.; Bhat, P. C.; Bhatnagar, V.; Bhattacharjee, M.; Blazey, G.; Blessing, S.; Boehnlein, A.; Bojko, N. I.; Boos, E. E.; Borcherding, F.; Bos, K.; Brandt, A.; Breedon, R.; Briskin, G.; Brock, R.; Brooijmans, G.; Bross, A.; Buchholz, D.; Buehler, M.; Buescher, V.; Burtovoi, V. S.; Butler, J. M.; Canelli, F.; Carvalho, W.; Casey, D.; Casilum, Z.; Castilla-Valdez, H.; Chakraborty, D.; Chan, K. M.; Chekulaev, S. V.; Cho, D. K.; Choi, S.; Chopra, S.; Christenson, J. H.; Chung, M.; Claes, D.; Clark, A. R.; Cochran, J.; Coney, L.; Connolly, B.; Cooper, W. E.; Coppage, D.; Crépé-Renaudin, S.; Cummings, M. A. C.; Cutts, D.; Davis, G. A.; Davis, K.; De, K.; de Jong, S. J.; Del Signore, K.; Demarteau, M.; Demina, R.; Demine, P.; Denisov, D.; Denisov, S. P.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Diesburg, M.; Di Loreto, G.; Doulas, S.; Draper, P.; Ducros, Y.; Dudko, L. V.; Duensing, S.; Duflot, L.; Dugad, S. R.; Duperrin, A.; Dyshkant, A.; Edmunds, D.; Ellison, J.; Elvira, V. D.; Engelmann, R.; Eno, S.; Eppley, G.; Ermolov, P.; Eroshin, O. V.; Estrada, J.; Evans, H.; Evdokimov, V. N.; Fahland, T.; Feher, S.; Fein, D.; Ferbel, T.; Filthaut, F.; Fisk, H. E.; Fisyak, Y.; Flattum, E.; Fleuret, F.; Fortner, M.; Fox, H.; Frame, K. C.; Fu, S.; Fuess, S.; Gallas, E.; Galyaev, A. N.; Gao, M.; Gavrilov, V.; Genik, R. J., II; Genser, K.; Gerber, C. E.; Gershtein, Y.; Gilmartin, R.; Ginther, G.; Gómez, B.; Gómez, G.; Goncharov, P. I.; González Solís, J. L.; Gordon, H.; Goss, L. T.; Gounder, K.; Goussiou, A.; Graf, N.; Graham, G.; Grannis, P. D.; Green, J. A.; Greenlee, H.; Grinstein, S.; Groer, L.; Grünendahl, S.; Gupta, A.; Gurzhiev, S. N.; Gutierrez, G.; Gutierrez, P.; Hadley, N. J.; Haggerty, H.; Hagopian, S.; Hagopian, V.; Hall, R. E.; Hanlet, P.; Hansen, S.; Hauptman, J. M.; Hays, C.; Hebert, C.; Hedin, D.; Heinmiller, J. M.; Heinson, A. P.; Heintz, U.; Heuring, T.; Hildreth, M. D.; Hirosky, R.; Hobbs, J. D.; Hoeneisen, B.; Huang, Y.; Illingworth, R.; Ito, A. S.; Jaffré, M.; Jain, S.; Jesik, R.; Johns, K.; Johnson, M.; Jonckheere, A.; Jones, M.; Jöstlein, H.; Juste, A.; Kahl, W.; Kahn, S.; Kajfasz, E.; Kalinin, A. M.; Karmanov, D.; Karmgard, D.; Ke, Z.; Kehoe, R.; Khanov, A.; Kharchilava, A.; Kim, S. K.; Klima, B.; Knuteson, B.; Ko, W.; Kohli, J. M.; Kostritskiy, A. V.; Kotcher, J.; Kothari, B.; Kotwal, A. V.; Kozelov, A. V.; Kozlovsky, E. A.; Krane, J.; Krishnaswamy, M. R.; Krivkova, P.; Krzywdzinski, S.; Kubantsev, M.; Kuleshov, S.; Kulik, Y.; Kunori, S.; Kupco, A.; Kuznetsov, V. E.; Landsberg, G.; Lee, W. M.; Leflat, A.; Leggett, C.; Lehner, F.; Li, J.; Li, Q. Z.; Li, X.; Lima, J. G. R.; Lincoln, D.; Linn, S. L.; Linnemann, J.; Lipton, R.; Lucotte, A.; Lueking, L.; Lundstedt, C.; Luo, C.; Maciel, A. K. A.; Madaras, R. J.; Malyshev, V. L.; Manankov, V.; Mao, H. S.; Marshall, T.; Martin, M. I.; Martin, R. D.; Mauritz, K. M.; May, B.; Mayorov, A. A.; McCarthy, R.; McMahon, T.; Melanson, H. L.; Merkin, M.; Merritt, K. W.; Miao, C.; Miettinen, H.; Mihalcea, D.; Mishra, C. S.; Mokhov, N.; Mondal, N. K.; Montgomery, H. E.; Moore, R. W.; Mostafa, M.; da Motta, H.; Nagy, E.; Nang, F.; Narain, M.; Narasimham, V. S.; Neal, H. A.; Negret, J. P.; Negroni, S.; Nunnemann, T.; O'Neil, D.; Oguri, V.; Olivier, B.; Oshima, N.; Padley, P.; Pan, L. J.; Papageorgiou, K.; Para, A.; Parashar, N.; Partridge, R.; Parua, N.; Paterno, M.; Patwa, A.; Pawlik, B.; Perkins, J.; Peters, M.; Peters, O.; Pétroff, P.; Piegaia, R.; Pope, B. G.; Popkov, E.; Prosper, H. B.; Protopopescu, S.; Qian, J.; Raja, R.; Rajagopalan, S.; Ramberg, E.; Rapidis, P. A.; Reay, N. W.; Reucroft, S.; Ridel, M.; Rijssenbeek, M.; Rizatdinova, F.; Rockwell, T.; Roco, M.; Rubinov, P.; Ruchti, R.; Rutherfoord, J.; Sabirov, B. M.; Sajot, G.; Santoro, A.; Sawyer, L.; Schamberger, R. D.; Schellman, H.; Schwartzman, A.; Sen, N.; Shabalina, E.; Shivpuri, R. K.; Shpakov, D.; Shupe, M.; Sidwell, R. A.; Simak, V.; Singh, H.; Singh, J. B.; Sirotenko, V.; Slattery, P.; Smith, E.; Smith, R. P.; Snihur, R.; Snow, G. R.; Snow, J.; Snyder, S.; Solomon, J.; Sorín, V.; Sosebee, M.; Sotnikova, N.; Soustruznik, K.; Souza, M.; Stanton, N. R.; Steinbrück, G.; Stephens, R. W.; Stichelbaut, F.; Stoker, D.; Stolin, V.; Stone, A.; Stoyanova, D. A.; Strauss, M.; Strovink, M.; Stutte, L.; Sznajder, A.; Talby, M.; Taylor, W.; Tentindo-Repond, S.; Tripathi, S. M.; Trippe, T. G.; Turcot, A. S.; Tuts, P. M.; van Gemmeren, P.; Vaniev, V.; Van Kooten, R.; Varelas, N.; Vertogradov, L. S.; Villeneuve-Seguier, F.; Volkov, A. A.; Vorobiev, A. P.; Wahl, H. D.; Wang, H.; Wang, Z.-M.; Warchol, J.; Watts, G.; Wayne, M.; Weerts, H.; White, A.; White, J. T.; Whiteson, D.; Wightman, J. A.; Wijngaarden, D. A.; Willis, S.; Wimpenny, S. J.; Womersley, J.; Wood, D. R.; Yamada, R.; Yamin, P.; Yasuda, T.; Yatsunenko, Y. A.; Yip, K.; Youssef, S.; Yu, J.; Yu, Z.; Zanabria, M.; Zheng, H.; Zhou, Z.; Zielinski, M.; Zieminska, D.; Zieminski, A.; Zutshi, V.; Zverev, E. G.; Zylberstejn, A.

    2001-10-01

    We present a search for electroweak production of single top quarks in ~90 pb-1 of data collected with the DØ detector at the Fermilab Tevatron collider. Using arrays of neural networks to separate signals from backgrounds, we set upper limits on the cross sections of 17 pb for the s-channel process /pp¯-->tb+X, and 22 pb for the t-channel process /pp¯-->tqb+X, both at the /95% confidence level.

  10. Autapse-induced multiple coherence resonance in single neurons and neuronal networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Ergin; Ozer, Mahmut; Baysal, Veli; Perc, Matjaž

    2016-08-01

    We study the effects of electrical and chemical autapse on the temporal coherence or firing regularity of single stochastic Hodgkin-Huxley neurons and scale-free neuronal networks. Also, we study the effects of chemical autapse on the occurrence of spatial synchronization in scale-free neuronal networks. Irrespective of the type of autapse, we observe autaptic time delay induced multiple coherence resonance for appropriately tuned autaptic conductance levels in single neurons. More precisely, we show that in the presence of an electrical autapse, there is an optimal intensity of channel noise inducing the multiple coherence resonance, whereas in the presence of chemical autapse the occurrence of multiple coherence resonance is less sensitive to the channel noise intensity. At the network level, we find autaptic time delay induced multiple coherence resonance and synchronization transitions, occurring at approximately the same delay lengths. We show that these two phenomena can arise only at a specific range of the coupling strength, and that they can be observed independently of the average degree of the network.

  11. Autapse-induced multiple coherence resonance in single neurons and neuronal networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Ergin; Ozer, Mahmut; Baysal, Veli; Perc, Matjaž

    2016-08-02

    We study the effects of electrical and chemical autapse on the temporal coherence or firing regularity of single stochastic Hodgkin-Huxley neurons and scale-free neuronal networks. Also, we study the effects of chemical autapse on the occurrence of spatial synchronization in scale-free neuronal networks. Irrespective of the type of autapse, we observe autaptic time delay induced multiple coherence resonance for appropriately tuned autaptic conductance levels in single neurons. More precisely, we show that in the presence of an electrical autapse, there is an optimal intensity of channel noise inducing the multiple coherence resonance, whereas in the presence of chemical autapse the occurrence of multiple coherence resonance is less sensitive to the channel noise intensity. At the network level, we find autaptic time delay induced multiple coherence resonance and synchronization transitions, occurring at approximately the same delay lengths. We show that these two phenomena can arise only at a specific range of the coupling strength, and that they can be observed independently of the average degree of the network.

  12. [Variability in enteral feeding practices of preterm infants among hospitals in the SEN1500 Spanish neonatal network].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno Algarra, María Concepción; Fernández Romero, Verónica; Sánchez Tamayo, Tomás; Espinosa Fernández, María Gracia; Salguero García, Enrique

    2016-11-09

    Proper nutrition is one of the primary objectives in the management of preterm infants. However, lack of evidence on the best strategy to achieve this objective has led to a great variability in feeding practices. This variability may be related to the differences in the incidence of complications, such as necrotising enterocolitis (NEC). The aim of this study is to assess the variability in clinical practice regarding enteral feeding in SEN-1500 Spanish network. An observational study was conducted using a questionnaire sent out in 2013 requesting information about feeding very low birth weight (VLBW) neonates (bank milk, start time, trophic feeding, increases, fortifiers and probiotics). Responses were received from 60 of the 98 hospitals. The response rate was higher in centres with more than 50VLBW/year (30/31). Just over two-thirds (67%) have feeding protocols, and 52% refer to variability within their unit. A milk bank is available in 25% of the units. First feeding occurs fairly evenly throughout first 48hours, although it is delayed in lower gestational ages, even when there is no haemodynamic failure. In addition to hemodynamic instability there are other situations when the start is delayed (absence of breast milk, CIR, altered umbilical flow, asphyxia), while it is rarely delayed by absence of meconium or maintain an umbilical catheter.Half of those under 25 weeks begin directly with progressive increases instead of trophic feeding. Increases rarely reach 30ml/kg/day. Almost all use fortification and vitamins. There was a significant use of probiotics at the time of the survey. There is great variability in enteral nutrition policies in VLBW in Spain. Although some differences are justified by the lack of evidence, there are other interventions that have proven to be effective, such as evidence-based protocols or access to donor milk. Implementation in all the units could reduce the incidence of NEC and improve the nutritional status. Copyright © 2016

  13. Epidemic microclusters of blood-culture proven sepsis in very-low-birth weight infants: experience of the German Neonatal Network.

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    Christoph Härtel

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: We evaluated blood culture-proven sepsis episodes occurring in microclusters in very-low-birth-weight infants born in the German Neonatal Network (GNN during 2009-2010. METHODS: Thirty-seven centers participated in GNN; 23 centers enrolled ≥50 VLBW infants in the study period. Data quality was approved by on-site monitoring. Microclusters of sepsis were defined as occurrence of at least two blood-culture proven sepsis events in different patients of one center within 3 months with the same bacterial species. For microcluster analysis, we selected sepsis episodes with typically cross-transmitted bacteria of high clinical significance including gram-negative rods and Enterococcus spp. RESULTS: In our cohort, 12/2110 (0.6% infants were documented with an early-onset sepsis and 235 late-onset sepsis episodes (≥72 h of age occurred in 203/2110 (9.6% VLBW infants. In 182/235 (77.4% late-onset sepsis episodes gram-positive bacteria were documented, while coagulase negative staphylococci were found to be the most predominant pathogens (48.5%, 95%CI: 42.01-55.01. Candida spp. and gram-negative bacilli caused 10/235 (4.3%, 95%CI: 1.68% -6.83% and 43/235 (18.5% late-onset sepsis episodes, respectively. Eleven microclusters of blood-culture proven sepsis were detected in 7 hospitals involving a total 26 infants. 16/26 cluster patients suffered from Klebsiella spp. sepsis. The median time interval between the first patient's Klebsiella spp. sepsis and cluster cases was 14.1 days (interquartile range: 1-27 days. First patients in the cluster, their linked cases and sporadic sepsis events did not show significant differences in short term outcome parameters. DISCUSSION: Microclusters of infection are an important phenomenon for late-onset sepsis. Most gram-negative cluster infections occur within 30 days after the first patient was diagnosed and Klebsiella spp. play a major role. It is essential to monitor epidemic microclusters of sepsis in

  14. Sexual Networking and Partner Characteristics Among Single, African, Caribbean, and Black Youth in Windsor, Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Jelani; Maticka-Tyndale, Eleanor; Bynum, Shalanda; Mihan, Robert

    2017-10-01

    The disproportionate HIV burden shared by African, Caribbean, and Black (ACB) populations in Canada has not been explained by unique sexual behaviors in this population. This study investigates partner selection and sexual networking as potential contributors to HIV vulnerability. The study examines variations in the characteristics of sexual partners and sexual networking across groups based on differences in ethno-religious identity, gender, and length of Canadian residency among single, 16- to 27-year old, heterosexual-identified, ACB individuals living in Windsor, Ontario, Canada. Respondent-driven sampling maximized the representativeness of the sample of 250 (45 % male; 55 % female) youth with penile-vaginal intercourse experience who completed surveys. Logistic regression and analysis of variance compared groups with respect to number of lifetime partners, concurrency of sexual relationships, non-relational and age disparate partnering, and intra-ethnic sexual networking. For vulnerability associated with number of partners, concurrency and non-relational sex, women, newcomers to Canada, and African-Muslim participants were at lower vulnerability for HIV infection than their comparator groups. For vulnerability associated with sexual networking within a group with higher HIV prevalence, women and newcomers to Canada were at higher vulnerability to HIV infection than their comparator groups. There were insufficient data on age disparate partnering to support analysis. These results point to the importance of considering characteristics of partners and sexual networking both in further research and in developing policies and programs to curtail the spread of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections.

  15. Design and Implementation of a Single-Frequency Mesh Network Using OpenAirInterface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaltenberger Florian

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OpenAirInterface is an experimental open-source real-time hardware and software platform for experimentation in wireless communications and signal processing. With the help of OpenAirInterface, researchers can demonstrate novel ideas quickly and verify them in a realistic environment. Its current implementation provides a full open-source software modem comprising physical and link layer functionalities for cellular and mesh network topologies. The physical (PHY layer of the platform targets fourth generation wireless networks and thus uses orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA together with multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO techniques. The current hardware supports 5 MHz bandwidth and two transmit/receive antennas. The media access (MAC layer of the platform supports an abundant two-way signaling for enabling collaboration, scheduling protocols, as well as traffic and channel measurements. In this paper, we focus on the mesh topology and show how to implement a single-frequency mesh network with OpenAirInterface. The key ingredients to enable such a network are a dual-stream MIMO receiver structure and a distributed network synchronization algorithm. We show how to implement these two algorithms in real-time on the OpenAirInterface platform. Further more, we provide results from field trials and compare them to the simulation results.

  16. A Hybrid Constructive Algorithm for Single-Layer Feedforward Networks Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xing; Rózycki, Paweł; Wilamowski, Bogdan M

    2015-08-01

    Single-layer feedforward networks (SLFNs) have been proven to be a universal approximator when all the parameters are allowed to be adjustable. It is widely used in classification and regression problems. The SLFN learning involves two tasks: determining network size and training the parameters. Most current algorithms could not be satisfactory to both sides. Some algorithms focused on construction and only tuned part of the parameters, which may not be able to achieve a compact network. Other gradient-based optimization algorithms focused on parameters tuning while the network size has to be preset by the user. Therefore, trial-and-error approach has to be used to search the optimal network size. Because results of each trial cannot be reused in another trial, it costs much computation. In this paper, a hybrid constructive (HC)algorithm is proposed for SLFN learning, which can train all the parameters and determine the network size simultaneously. At first, by combining Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm and least-square method, a hybrid algorithm is presented for training SLFN with fixed network size. Then,with the hybrid algorithm, an incremental constructive scheme is proposed. A new randomly initialized neuron is added each time when the training entrapped into local minima. Because the training continued on previous results after adding new neurons, the proposed HC algorithm works efficiently. Several practical problems were given for comparison with other popular algorithms. The experimental results demonstrated that the HC algorithm worked more efficiently than those optimization methods with trial and error, and could achieve much more compact SLFN than those construction algorithms.

  17. Pharmacokinetic comparison of acetaminophen elixir versus suppositories in vaccinated infants (aged 3 to 36 months): a single-dose, open-label, randomized, parallel-group design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walson, Philip D; Halvorsen, Mark; Edge, James; Casavant, Marcel J; Kelley, Michael T

    2013-02-01

    Because of practical problems and ethical concerns, few studies of the pharmacokinetics (PK) of acetaminophen (ACET) in infants have been published. The goal of this study was to compare the PK of an ACET rectal suppository with a commercially available ACET elixir to complete a regulatory obligation to market the suppository. This study was not submitted previously because of numerous obstacles related to both the investigators and the commercial entities associated with the tested product. Thirty infants (age 3-36 months) prescribed ACET for either fever, pain, or postimmunization prophylaxis of fever and discomfort were randomized to receive a single 10- to 15-mg/kg ACET dose either as the rectal suppository or oral elixir. Blood was collected at selected times for up to 8 hours after administration. ACET concentrations were measured by using a validated HPLC method, and PK behavior and bioavailability were compared for the 2 preparations. All 30 infants enrolled were prescribed ACET for postimmunization prophylaxis. PK samples were available in 27 of the 30 enrolled infants. Subject enrollment (completed in January 1995) was rapid (8.3 months) and drawn entirely from a vaccinated infant clinic population. There were no statistically significant differences between the subjects (elixir, n = 12; suppository, n = 15) in either mean (SD) age (10.0 [6.3] vs 12.4 [8.1] months), weight (8.6 [2.3] vs 9.4 [2.4] kg), sex (7 of 12 males vs 7 of 15 males), or racial distribution (5 white, 5 black, and 2 biracial vs 4 white and 11 black) between the 2 dosing groups (oral vs rectal, respectively). The oral and rectal preparations produced similar, rapid peak concentrations (T(max), 1.16 vs 1.17 hours; P = 0.98) and elimination t(½) (1.84 vs 2.10 hours; P = 0.14), respectively. No statistically significant differences were found between either C(max) (7.65 vs 5.68 μg/mL) or total drug exposure (AUC(0-∞), 23.36 vs 20.45 μg-h/mL) for the oral versus rectal preparations

  18. Infant Botulism: a network to improve the diagnosis and treatment of a rare and under-diagnosed disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Lonati

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Infant Botulism is a form of human botulism in which ingested spores of Clostridium botulinum germinate, colonize the infant’s colon, in which they produce botulinum neurotoxin. After the toxin is absorbed, binding to peripheral cholinergic synapses occurs, causing flaccid paralysis. The incidence of infant botulism is low, but some underestimation is likely to exist: the disease is difficult to diagnose because its wide spectrum of clinical manifestations which are not pathognomic. Moreover, failure to recognise the disease is probably related to the low index of suspicion: in fact, the experience of clinicians is fundamental in recognising infant botulism. A specific project has been promote to improve knowledge of the disease by training physicians (pediatricians, neurologists, clinical toxicologists to look out for the possible presence of Infant Botulism cases and improving public awareness through a prevention program. Standardization of therapeutic protocol also by treatment with specific therapeutic measures will be disseminated. A staff of physicians specialized in Clinical Toxicology will be available, 24 hours a day and seven days/week in the Pavia Poison Centre – National Toxicology Information Center. According to the project, this Centre acts as Reference Center for the clinical diagnosis and the treatment of infant botulism for the correct recognition of typical syndrome, the early diagnosis and the possible therapy with particular attention to antidotic treatment. The National Reference Centre for Botulism at the Istituto Superiore di Sanità will offer a 24-hours diagnostic laboratory service to support diagnose in suspected cases of botulism.

  19. Determination of Biotin in Infant, Pediatric, and Adult Nutritionals by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography and Fluorescence Detection: Single-Laboratory Validation, First Action 2016.11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qi; Ding, Yi; Poh, Fiona; Zhang, Chunyan; Pan, Shang-Jing; Schimpf, Karen J

    2017-01-01

    A reversed-phase HPLC method with postcolumn protein conjugation and fluorescence detection for the quantitative determination of biotin in infant, pediatric, and adult nutritionals was developed and evaluated in a single-laboratory validation (SLV). Sample of appropriate size is mixed with 2% metaphosphoric acid to precipitate out the protein. The filtrate is injected onto a C18 HPLC column in which biotin and riboflavin are separated with an appropriate mobile phase. The biotin, after eluting from the column, binds with the streptavidin fluorescein to become a fluorescent conjugate. The conjugate is then detected by fluorescence at λex = 495 nm and λem = 518 nm. A column switch is used in the method as an option to shorten the run time from 30 to 15 min, by eluting out riboflavin at a higher flow rate. In this SLV, a total of 19 AOAC Stakeholder Panel on Infant Formula and Adult Nutritionals matrixes representing a range of infant, pediatric, and adult formulas were evaluated for their biotin content. The analytical range was 1.66-142 μg/100 g reconstituted final product. The repeatability and intermediate precision ranged from 0.5 to 3.0% RSDr and from 1.3 to 4.5% RSDiR, respectively. Recovery from spiked matrixes varied from 95 to 111%, and accuracy of quantification using Standard Reference Material 1849a ranged from 99 to 105%. The LOQ in reconstituted product was estimated to be 0.8 μg/100 g. The method was approved by the Expert Review Panel as First Action at the 2016 AOAC INTERNATIONAL Mid-Year Meeting.

  20. Abnormal Ventral and Dorsal Attention Network Activity During Single and Dual Target Detection in Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy M. Jimenez

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Early visual perception and attention are impaired in schizophrenia, and these deficits can be observed on target detection tasks. These tasks activate distinct ventral and dorsal brain networks which support stimulus-driven and goal-directed attention, respectively. We used single and dual target rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP tasks during fMRI with an ROI approach to examine regions within these networks associated with target detection and the attentional blink (AB in 21 schizophrenia outpatients and 25 healthy controls. In both tasks, letters were targets and numbers were distractors. For the dual target task, the second target (T2 was presented at 3 different lags after the first target (T1 (lag1=100ms, lag3=300ms, lag7=700ms. For both single and dual target tasks, patients identified fewer targets than controls. For the dual target task, both groups showed the expected AB effect with poorer performance at lag 3 than at lags 1 or 7, and there was no group by lag interaction. During the single target task, patients showed abnormally increased deactivation of the temporo-parietal junction (TPJ, a key region of the ventral network. When attention demands were increased during the dual target task, patients showed overactivation of the posterior intraparietal cortex, a key dorsal network region, along with failure to deactivate TPJ. Results suggest inefficient and faulty suppression of salience-oriented processing regions, resulting in increased sensitivity to stimuli in general, and difficulty distinguishing targets from non-targets.

  1. Coverage aspects of a single frequency network designed for digital audio broadcasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, C. P.; Williams, W. F.

    Since the early 1960s, the VHF/FM pilot tone system has been used by broadcasters to supply high quality stereophonic programs to listeners equipped with fixed receivers and modest gain directional antennas mounted externally at a height of about ten meters above ground levels. More recently, with the advent of improved radio receivers and digital technology in the reproduction industry, the broadcasters' target audience has changed and listeners now expect high fidelity reception, comparable to CD quality, on their portable and mobile receivers. In many areas, the demand for high quality can be supplied using the existing VHF/FM networks. There are, however, areas where good portable and mobile reception cannot be obtained, due to shadowing and multipath. This report discusses the coded orthogonal frequency division multiplex (COFDM) channel coding and modulation system developed within the Eureka 147 digital audio broadcasting (DAB) project, which is able to overcome the problems of multipath. Indeed, it can make use of multipath signals. This fact leads to the concept of a Single Frequency Network (SFN) where a single DAB COFDM frequency block can be used to supply five or six programs to a whole country. The derivation of minimum required field strength levels for DAB COFDM signals, and the allowances required for high percentage location coverage, necessary for digital systems, are presented together with a spectrum efficiency comparison between SFN and VHF/FM networks. Theoretical lattice planning, using the CCIR Rec. 370 prediction method, is used initially to illustrate the SFN concept and suggest required effective radiated powers. The results of SFN coverage studies for the UK, using existing broadcast transmitter sites and utilizing both the Rec. 370 and the BBC terrain data based prediction methods, are given. In addition, a possible four frequency block SFN plan for Europe is discussed. The Report concludes that, in comparison, networks using the

  2. Ultrasound-guided central line insertion and standard peripherally inserted catheter placement in preterm infants: Comparing results from prospective study in a single-center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dany Antanios Al Hamod

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Among preterm infants, the peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC is the standard line for central venous access; however, its placement exposes them to hypothermia and pain. Ultrasound (US-guided central line insertion may be less morbid than standard PICC line. Aims: To determine the ease, success rate, and morbidity associated with US-guided central line insertion in the internal jugular vein (IJV by comparing it to the standard PICC line placement. Materials and Methods: This is a single-center nonrandomized prospective study evaluating preterm infants between October 2013 and June 2014. Patients were allocated into two groups: The standard group (control group who underwent blind PICC line insertion and the intervention group who underwent a percutaneous US-guided central line insertion in the IJV. The epicutaneo-cava-catheter was used in both groups. Results: Fifty neonates were enrolled on study. A statistically difference in favor of US-IJV insertion was noted concerning the rate of successful first attempt (P < 0.001, insertion (P = 0.001, and procedure duration (P < 0.001 and number of trials (P < 0.001 compared to PICC. No difference in complications (P = 1.000 was noted. Conclusion: US guided catheterization of the IJV technique is faster than PICC line insertion with higher rates of successful first attempt and insertion, less procedure duration and fewer number of trials compared to PICC line insertion. There were no differences in complications.

  3. Single genome amplification of proviral HIV-1 DNA from dried blood spot specimens collected during early infant screening programs in Lusaka, Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seu, Lillian; Mwape, Innocent; Guffey, M Bradford

    2014-07-01

    The ability to evaluate individual HIV-1 virions from the quasispecies of vertically infected infants was evaluated in a field setting at the Centre for Infectious Disease Research in Zambia. Infant heel-prick blood specimens were spotted onto dried blood spot (DBS) filter paper cards at government health clinics. Nucleic acid was extracted and used as a template for HIV-1 proviral DNA detection by a commercial Amplicor HIV-1 PCR test (Roche, version 1.5). On samples that tested positive by commercial diagnostic assay, amplification of DNA was performed using an in-house assay of the 5' and 3' region of the HIV-1 genome. Additionally, fragments covering 1200 nucleotides within pol (full length protease and partial reverse transcriptase) and 1400 nucleotides within env (variable 1-variable 5 region) were further analyzed by single genome amplification (SGA). In summary, we have demonstrated an in-house assay for amplifying the 5' and 3' proviral HIV-1 DNA as well as pol and env proviral DNA fragments from DBS cards collected and analyzed entirely in Zambia. In conclusion, this study shows the feasibility of utilizing DBS cards to amplify the whole proviral HIV-1 genome as well as perform SGA on key HIV-1 genes.

  4. A new topical panthenol-containing emollient: skin-moisturizing effect following single and prolonged usage in healthy adults, and tolerability in healthy infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stettler, Hans; Kurka, Peter; Wagner, Christine; Sznurkowska, Katarzyna; Czernicka, Olga; Böhling, Arne; Bielfeldt, Stephan; Wilhelm, Klaus-Peter; Lenz, Holger

    2017-05-01

    Two studies were conducted with a new topical panthenol-containing emollient (NTP-CE) to investigate the skin-moisturizing effect in healthy adults and tolerability in healthy infants. In Study 1 (N = 44), a single skin application of NTP-CE was performed followed by a 4-week twice-daily application. Skin hydration and stratum corneum (SC) water content change (using Raman spectroscopy) were measured. In the 4-week Study 2 (N = 65, aged 3-25 months), NTP-CE tolerability was assessed using a 5-point scoring system; skin hydration was determined in a subset (N = 21). In Study 1, mean AUC0 - 24 h for skin capacitance change from baseline was 302.03 i.u. with NTP-CE and -15.90 i.u. in control areas (p water content within the upper SC part was reduced (-45.10 vs. -13.39 g/cm(2), p = .013) and the water gradient increased (0.51 vs. 0.11 g/cm(4), p = .036), indicating relocation of water into deeper layers. In Study 2, there was no statistically significant change from baseline in mean cutaneous tolerability scores. At days 7, 14, and 28, skin hydration had increased by 42%, 54%, and 49%, respectively (all p usage is associated with sustained and deep skin moisturization. NTP-CE is well tolerated by healthy infants.

  5. Variable Myocardial Response to Load Stresses in Infants with Single Left Ventricular Anatomy: Influence of Initial Physiology and Surgical Palliative Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horriat, Narges L; Deatsman, Sara L; Stelter, Jessica; Frommelt, Peter C; Hill, Garick D

    2016-12-01

    Initial surgical strategies in neonates with single left ventricular (LV) anatomy vary based on adequacy of pulmonary and systemic blood flow. Differing myocardial responses to these strategies, as reflected in indices of systolic function, ventricular size, and mass have not been well defined. We sought to evaluate single LV myocardial response to varied physiology and initial palliation and determine whether the response is consistent and predictable. Infants with single LV physiology were divided based on neonatal palliation: no palliation/PA band (NO); BT shunt only (BT); or Norwood procedure (NP). Echo measures were obtained at presentation, early post-bidirectional Glenn (BDG), late post-BDG follow-up, and post-Fontan procedure. Measures included ejection fraction, LV mass indexed to height(2.7) and end diastolic volume indexed to body surface area, and mass/volume ratio. The cohort included 38 children (13 NO, 13 BT, 12 NP). Ejection fraction was similar but depressed in all groups at all stages. LV mass was higher in the NP group than the BT group at early post-BDG (p = 0.03) and higher than both BT and NO groups (p single LV physiology, despite variable initial surgical palliative strategies. Importantly, these initial surgical strategies do not result in significant differences after Fontan palliation during early childhood.

  6. Evaluation of packet latency in single and multi-hop WiFi wireless networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anna, Kiran; Bassiouni, Mostafa

    2006-05-01

    In this paper, we evaluate the packet latency performance of a new scheduler-based scheme that we have implemented on top of the p-persistent 802.11 MAC layer. We extended Cali's dynamic p-persistent 802.11 protocol from single class to multiple classes by means of a weighted fair queuing scheduler built on top of the MAC p-persistent layer. We used the NS2 simulator in the implementation and testing of our multiple-class scheduler and incorporated the scheduler-based architecture by modifying the NS2's 802.11 DCF implementation and the protocol stack of the wireless node. Our tests showed that AEDCF cannot maintain the same throughput differentiation ratios among different traffic classes under different loads. In contrast, the p-persistent Scheduler scheme maintains the desired differentiation ratios under different loads, gives higher total network throughput and provides easier tuning. We present detailed performance results of the scheduler-based architecture in terms of QoS differentiation and packet latency. All tests were implemented in NS2. The paper concentrates on single hop wireless networks and compares the scheduler-based scheme with AEDCF. The paper is concluded by a discussion on how to extend the evaluation to multi-hop wireless networks and examine the role of the routing layer and the MAC layer.

  7. Capacitive tunnels in single-walled carbon nanotube networks on flexible substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, M. Z.; Iqbal, M. W.; Eom, Jonghwa; Ahmad, Muneer; Ferrer-Anglada, Núria

    2012-03-01

    We report the analysis of single-walled carbon nanotube networks, which are expected to be suitable as miniaturized flexible radio frequency RC filters and also have important implications for high frequency devices. The surface morphology obtained by atomic force microscopy shows that most of the growth on polypropylene carbonate substrate is homogeneous. The large value of peak intensity ratio of G and D band in Raman spectra indicates the high purity network. Nyquist plots of carbon nanotube networks on a flexible substrate are close to real circles, indicating that the material is conducting, and suggest a simple equivalent circuit having a resistor in parallel with a capacitor. The Bode plots give the dependence of real and imaginary impedances on frequency. While at high frequency, the impedance decreases, due to generation of capacitance between a single-walled carbon nanotube; at low frequency, it shows the normal behavior, having constant value. The tunnels among different carbon nanotubes are capable of storing electric charge. The accumulative capacitances of tunnels for three varied concentrations are calculated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy simulations to fit the observed Nyquist plots.

  8. Predicting Global Solar Radiation Using an Artificial Neural Network Single-Parameter Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karoro Angela

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We used five years of global solar radiation data to estimate the monthly average of daily global solar irradiation on a horizontal surface based on a single parameter, sunshine hours, using the artificial neural network method. The station under the study is located in Kampala, Uganda at a latitude of 0.19°N, a longitude of 32.34°E, and an altitude of 1200 m above sea level. The five-year data was split into two parts in 2003–2006 and 2007-2008; the first part was used for training, and the latter was used for testing the neural network. Amongst the models tested, the feed-forward back-propagation network with one hidden layer (65 neurons and with the tangent sigmoid as the transfer function emerged as the more appropriate model. Results obtained using the proposed model showed good agreement between the estimated and actual values of global solar irradiation. A correlation coefficient of 0.963 was obtained with a mean bias error of 0.055 MJ/m2 and a root mean square error of 0.521 MJ/m2. The single-parameter ANN model shows promise for estimating global solar irradiation at places where monitoring stations are not established and stations where we have one common parameter (sunshine hours.

  9. Construction of single-crystalline supramolecular networks of perchlorinated hexa-peri-hexabenzocoronene on Au(111)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Yanfang; Li, Geng; Lu, Jianchen; Du, Shixuan, E-mail: sxdu@iphy.ac.cn, E-mail: hjgao@iphy.ac.cn; Gao, Hong-Jun, E-mail: sxdu@iphy.ac.cn, E-mail: hjgao@iphy.ac.cn [Institute of Physics and University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Lin, Xiao [University of Chinese Academy of Sciences and Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Tan, Yuanzhi [Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research, Ackermannweg 10, D-55128 Mainz (Germany); Department of Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Feng, Xinliang [Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research, Ackermannweg 10, D-55128 Mainz (Germany); School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Müllen, Klaus [Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research, Ackermannweg 10, D-55128 Mainz (Germany)

    2015-03-14

    The self-assembly of the perchlorinated hexa-peri-hexabenzocoronene (PCHBC) molecules on Au(111) has been studied by a low temperature scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) combining with density functional theory based first principle calculations. Highly ordered supramolecular networks with single domains limited by the terraces are formed on Au(111) substrate. High resolution images of the PCHBC molecules, confirmed by first principle simulations, are obtained. It reveals the close-packed arrangement of the PCHBC molecules on Au(111). The calculated charge distribution of PCHBC molecules shows the existence of attractive halogen–halogen interaction between neighboring molecules. Compared with the disordered adsorption of hexa-peri-hexabenzocoronene on Au(111), we conclude that the formation of attractive ClCl interactions between neighbors is the key factor to form the highly ordered, close-packed networks. Due to the steric hindrance resulted from the peripheral chlorine atoms, the PCHBC molecule is contorted and forms the doubly concave conformation, which is different from the hexa-peri-hexabenzocoronene with a planar structure. By using this supramolecular network as a template, we deposited C{sub 60} molecules on it at room temperature with low coverage. The STM images taken at low temperature show that the C{sub 60} molecules are mono-dispersed on the networks and adsorb on top of the PCHBC molecules, forming a typical concave-convex host-guest system.

  10. Construction of single-crystalline supramolecular networks of perchlorinated hexa-peri-hexabenzocoronene on Au(111).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Yanfang; Li, Geng; Lu, Jianchen; Lin, Xiao; Tan, Yuanzhi; Feng, Xinliang; Du, Shixuan; Müllen, Klaus; Gao, Hong-Jun

    2015-03-14

    The self-assembly of the perchlorinated hexa-peri-hexabenzocoronene (PCHBC) molecules on Au(111) has been studied by a low temperature scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) combining with density functional theory based first principle calculations. Highly ordered supramolecular networks with single domains limited by the terraces are formed on Au(111) substrate. High resolution images of the PCHBC molecules, confirmed by first principle simulations, are obtained. It reveals the close-packed arrangement of the PCHBC molecules on Au(111). The calculated charge distribution of PCHBC molecules shows the existence of attractive halogen-halogen interaction between neighboring molecules. Compared with the disordered adsorption of hexa-peri-hexabenzocoronene on Au(111), we conclude that the formation of attractive Cl∙∙∙Cl interactions between neighbors is the key factor to form the highly ordered, close-packed networks. Due to the steric hindrance resulted from the peripheral chlorine atoms, the PCHBC molecule is contorted and forms the doubly concave conformation, which is different from the hexa-peri-hexabenzocoronene with a planar structure. By using this supramolecular network as a template, we deposited C60 molecules on it at room temperature with low coverage. The STM images taken at low temperature show that the C60 molecules are mono-dispersed on the networks and adsorb on top of the PCHBC molecules, forming a typical concave-convex host-guest system.

  11. Broadcast Secrecy via Key-Chain-Based Encryption in Single-Hop Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ostry Diethelm

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Broadcast is used in wireless sensor networks for operations such as software updates, network queries, and command dissemination. Applications such as battlefield control and natural resource management require not only authentication of broadcast messages, but also secrecy against eavesdroppers. In this paper we design, implement, and evaluate a novel scheme that meets the requirements of secrecy, authenticity, integrity, and freshness of broadcast messages in the context of a single-hop wireless sensor network. Our contributions are three-fold: first, we propose the use of time-varying keys (based on a key-chain for broadcast encryption, emphasising advantages such as non-forgeability, protection against old-key compromise, and allowance for dynamic data. Second, we extend the basic key-chain mechanism to incorporate limited protection against key loss, allowing legitimate receivers to recover even if they have lost a small number of keys. Third, we prototype our scheme by incorporating it into Deluge, the network programming protocol distributed with TinyOS, and quantify its cost in terms of time, space, and power consumption on a TelosB mote platform. Our scheme represents a practical, efficient and scalable means of delivering broadcast data secretly to a large number of low-power sensor nodes.

  12. Single-Cell Network Analysis Identifies DDIT3 as a Nodal Lineage Regulator in Hematopoiesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Pina

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We explore cell heterogeneity during spontaneous and transcription-factor-driven commitment for network inference in hematopoiesis. Since individual genes display discrete OFF states or a distribution of ON levels, we compute and combine pairwise gene associations from binary and continuous components of gene expression in single cells. Ddit3 emerges as a regulatory node with positive linkage to erythroid regulators and negative association with myeloid determinants. Ddit3 loss impairs erythroid colony output from multipotent cells, while forcing Ddit3 in granulo-monocytic progenitors (GMPs enhances self-renewal and impedes differentiation. Network analysis of Ddit3-transduced GMPs reveals uncoupling of myeloid networks and strengthening of erythroid linkages. RNA sequencing suggests that Ddit3 acts through development or stabilization of a precursor upstream of GMPs with inherent Meg-E potential. The enrichment of Gata2 target genes in Ddit3-dependent transcriptional responses suggests that Ddit3 functions in an erythroid transcriptional network nucleated by Gata2.

  13. Geometry in Biomimetic Network: Double Gyroid to Pseudo-Single Gyroid in Nanohybrid Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsueh, Han-Yu; Ho, Rong-Ming; Hung, Yu-Chueh; Ling, Yi-Chun; Hasegawa, Hirokazu

    2013-03-01

    Biological systems have developed delicately arranged micro- and architectures to produce striking optical effects since millions of years ago. Inspired by the textures of butterfly wings with single gyroid (SG) structure, herein, we aim to fabricate biocompatible and robust materials with SG-like structure in nanometer size so as to give new materials with unprecedented optical properties for applications. Biommicking from the biological photonic structures of butterfly wings, a double gyroid (DG) structure in nanometer size is obtained from the self-assembly of polystyrene-b-poly(L-lactide) (PS-PLLA). To acquire robust backbone networks, inorganic networks in polymer matrix are fabricated by using the hydrolyzed PS-PLLA with DG structure as a template for sol-gel reaction. Owing to the soft polymer matrix, two co-continuous inorganic networks embedded in the polymer matrix can be rearranged by thermal annealing at temperature above the glass transition of the polymer. Consequently, the rearrangement of these inorganic networks leads the formation of SG-like structure possessing unique nanohybrids with ordered texture. This unique nanomaterials with SG-like structure is referred as a pseudo-SG (p-SG) nanohybrids.

  14. Electron Microscopy Imaging of Single-Wall Carbon Nanotube Networks in Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesse, Stephen; Guillorn, Michael; Ivanov, Ilia; Puretzky, Alex; Howe, Jane; Britt, Phillip; Geohegan, David

    2004-03-01

    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) imaging techniques have been applied to study the electrical transport properties of conducting networks of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) in insulating polymers. Two SEM techniques were used. One approach uses specimen current (SC) measurements to visualize current flow within the SWNT network. Another and novel approach is highly sensitive to electrical potential within the networks and occurs as a result of the large electric fields generated in the vicinity of the nanotube bundles. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy was used to characterize the SWNT bundles in the PMMA. These techniques permit a direct experimental approach to characterize and understand potential distribution and current flow through percolation networks formed by nanotube bundles in polymers, or more generally, nanorods or nanowires in various matrices. This research was sponsored by NASA-Langley Research Center and the Laboratory-Directed Research and Development Program at ORNL, and the U.S. Department of Energy under contract DE-AC05-00OR22725 with the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, managed by UT-Battelle, LLC.

  15. Multiscale modeling of brain dynamics: from single neurons and networks to mathematical tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siettos, Constantinos; Starke, Jens

    2016-09-01

    The extreme complexity of the brain naturally requires mathematical modeling approaches on a large variety of scales; the spectrum ranges from single neuron dynamics over the behavior of groups of neurons to neuronal network activity. Thus, the connection between the microscopic scale (single neuron activity) to macroscopic behavior (emergent behavior of the collective dynamics) and vice versa is a key to understand the brain in its complexity. In this work, we attempt a review of a wide range of approaches, ranging from the modeling of single neuron dynamics to machine learning. The models include biophysical as well as data-driven phenomenological models. The discussed models include Hodgkin-Huxley, FitzHugh-Nagumo, coupled oscillators (Kuramoto oscillators, Rössler oscillators, and the Hindmarsh-Rose neuron), Integrate and Fire, networks of neurons, and neural field equations. In addition to the mathematical models, important mathematical methods in multiscale modeling and reconstruction of the causal connectivity are sketched. The methods include linear and nonlinear tools from statistics, data analysis, and time series analysis up to differential equations, dynamical systems, and bifurcation theory, including Granger causal connectivity analysis, phase synchronization connectivity analysis, principal component analysis (PCA), independent component analysis (ICA), and manifold learning algorithms such as ISOMAP, and diffusion maps and equation-free techniques. WIREs Syst Biol Med 2016, 8:438-458. doi: 10.1002/wsbm.1348 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  16. Network single-walled carbon nanotube biosensors for fast and highly sensitive detection of proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu Pingan; Zhang Jia; Wen Zhenzhong [Research Centre for Micro/Nanotechnology, Harbin Institute of Technology, No. 2 YiKuang Street, Harbin 150080 (China); Zhang Can, E-mail: hupa@hit.edu.cn [Centre for Advanced Photonics and Electronics, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0FA (United Kingdom)

    2011-08-19

    Detection of proteins is powerfully assayed in the diagnosis of diseases. A strategy for the development of an ultrahigh sensitivity biosensor based on a network single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) field-effect transistor (FET) has been demonstrated. Metallic SWNTs (m-SWNTs) in the network nanotube FET were selectively removed or cut via a carefully controlled procedure of electrical break-down (BD), and left non-conducting m-SWNTs which magnified the Schottky barrier (SB) area. This nanotube FET exhibited ultrahigh sensitivity and fast response to biomolecules. The lowest detection limit of 0.5 pM was achieved by exploiting streptavidin (SA) or a biotin/SA pair as the research model, and BD-treated nanotube biosensors had a 2 x 10{sup 4}-fold lower minimum detectable concentration than the device without BD treatment. The response time is in the range of 0.3-3 min.

  17. Electrical contacts to nanorod networks at different length scales: From macroscale ensembles to single nanorod chains

    KAUST Repository

    Lavieville, Romain

    2013-11-01

    The nature of metal-semiconductor interfaces at the nanoscale is an important issue in micro- and nanoelectronic engineering. The study of charge transport through chains of CdSe semiconductor nanorods linked by Au particles represents an ideal model system for this matter, because the metal semiconductor interface is an intrinsic feature of the nanosystem. Here we show the controlled fabrication of all-inorganic hybrid metal-semiconductor networks with different size, in which the semiconductor nanorods are linked by Au domains at their tips. We demonstrate different approaches to selectively contact the networks and single nanorod chains with planar electrodes, and we investigate their charge transport at room temperature. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Single-Iteration Learning Algorithm for Feed-Forward Neural Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barhen, J.; Cogswell, R.; Protopopescu, V.

    1999-07-31

    A new methodology for neural learning is presented, whereby only a single iteration is required to train a feed-forward network with near-optimal results. To this aim, a virtual input layer is added to the multi-layer architecture. The virtual input layer is connected to the nominal input layer by a specird nonlinear transfer function, and to the fwst hidden layer by regular (linear) synapses. A sequence of alternating direction singular vrdue decompositions is then used to determine precisely the inter-layer synaptic weights. This algorithm exploits the known separability of the linear (inter-layer propagation) and nonlinear (neuron activation) aspects of information &ansfer within a neural network.

  19. Single-walled carbon nanotube networks for flexible and printed electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaumseil, Jana

    2015-07-01

    Networks of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) can be processed from solution and have excellent mechanical properties. They are highly flexible and stretchable. Depending on the type of nanotubes (semiconducting or metallic) they can be used as replacements for metal or transparent conductive oxide electrodes or as semiconducting layers for field-effect transistors (FETs) with high carrier mobilities. They are thus competitive alternatives to other solution-processable materials for flexible and printed electronics. This review introduces the basic properties of SWNTs, current methods for dispersion and separation of metallic and semiconducting SWNTs and techniques to deposit and pattern dense networks from dispersion. Recent examples of applications of carbon nanotubes as conductors and semiconductors in (opto-)electronic devices and integrated circuits will be discussed.

  20. Delay decomposition at a single server queue with constant service time and multiple inputs. [Waiting time on computer network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, C.; Schilling, D. L.

    1977-01-01

    Two networks consisting of single server queues, each with a constant service time, are considered. The external inputs to each network are assumed to follow some general probability distribution. Several interesting equivalencies that exist between the two networks considered are derived. This leads to the introduction of an important concept in delay decomposition. It is shown that the waiting time experienced by a customer can be decomposed into two basic components called self delay and interference delay.

  1. Single neuron network PI control of high reliability linear induction motor for Maglev

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG You-tong; FAN Cheng-zhi

    2007-01-01

    The paper deals with a new model of linear induction motor (LIM) to improve the reliability of the system. Based on the normal equation circuit of LIM considering the dynamic end effect, an equivalent circuit model with compensation of large end effect is constructed when the end effect force at synchronism is of braking character. The equivalent circuit model is used for secondary-flux oriented control of LIM. Single neuron network PI unit for LIM servo-drive is also discussed. The effectiveness of mathematical model for drive control is verified by simulations.

  2. Firing behavior and network activity of single neurons in human epileptic hypothalamic hamartoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter N. Steinmetz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Human hypothalamic hamartomas (HH are intrinsically epileptogenic and are associated with treatment-resistant gelastic seizures. The basic cellular mechanisms responsible for seizure onset within HH are unknown. We used intra-operative microwire recordings of single neuron activity to measure the spontaneous firing rate of neurons and the degree of functional connection between neurons within the tumor.Technique: Fourteen patients underwent transventricular endoscopic resection of HH for treatment-resistant epilepsy. Prior to surgical resection, single neuron recordings from bundled microwires (total of 9 contacts were obtained from HH tissue. Spontaneous activity was recorded for two or three 5-minute epochs under steady-state general anesthesia. Off-line analysis included cluster analysis of single unit activity and probability analysis of firing relationships between pairs of neurons.Results: Altogether, 222 neurons were identified (mean 6 neurons per recording epoch. Cluster analysis of single neuron firing utilizing a mixture of Gaussians model identified two distinct populations on the basis of firing rate (median firing frequency 0.6 versus 15.0 spikes per second; p<10-5. Cluster analysis identified three populations determined by levels of burst-firing (median burst indices of 0.015, 0.18, and 0.39; p<10-15. Unbiased analysis of spontaneous single unit behavior showed that 51% of all possible neuron pairs within each recording epoch had a significant level of firing synchrony (p<10-15. The subgroup of neurons with higher median firing frequencies was more likely to demonstrate synchronous firing (p<10-7. Conclusions: HH tissue in-vivo contains neurons which fire spontaneously. The activity of single neurons is diverse but distributes into at least two electrophysiological phenoytpes. Functional linkage between single neurons suggests that HH neurons exist within local networks that may contribute to ictogenesis.

  3. Appearance of the single gyroid network phase in "nuclear pasta" matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuetrumpf, B.; Klatt, M. A.; Iida, K.; Schröder-Turk, G. E.; Maruhn, J. A.; Mecke, K.; Reinhard, P.-G.

    2015-02-01

    Nuclear matter under the conditions of a supernova explosion unfolds into a rich variety of spatially structured phases, called nuclear pasta. We investigate the role of periodic networklike structures with negatively curved interfaces in nuclear pasta structures, by static and dynamic Hartree-Fock simulations in periodic lattices. As the most prominent result, we identify for the first time the single gyroid network structure of cubic chiral I 4123 symmetry, a well-known configuration in nanostructured soft-matter systems, both as a dynamical state and as a cooled static solution. Single gyroid structures form spontaneously in the course of the dynamical simulations. Most of them are isomeric states. The very small energy differences from the ground state indicate its relevance for structures in nuclear pasta.

  4. One-Step Implementation of Single Spin Measurement in Spin Star Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Hong-Liang; FANG Xi-Ming

    2008-01-01

    We present an efficient one-step scheme for a single spin measurement based on nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)techniques.This scheme considerably reduces the time of operation using a spin star network where a target spin and an ancillary spin are coupled to a ring of N spins.As opposed to the proposal in [Phys.Rev.Lett.97(2006)100501]using a cubic lattice crystal to achieve a cubic speedup,the distinct advantage of this scheme is that under ideal conditions it requires the application of only one step to create a system of N correlated spins.In the process of single spin measurement,the total macroscopic magnetization,the individual magnetization and the transfer fideity are calculated analytically as simple cosine functions of time and the amplitude of irradiation.

  5. Fabrication of triangular nanobeam waveguide networks in bulk diamond using single-crystal silicon hard masks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayn, I.; Mouradian, S.; Li, L.; Goldstein, J. A.; Schröder, T.; Zheng, J.; Chen, E. H.; Gaathon, O.; Englund, Dirk [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science and Research Laboratory of Electronics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave., Building 36, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Lu, M.; Stein, A.; Ruggiero, C. A. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Center for Functional Nanomaterials, Upton, New York 11973 (United States); Salzman, J. [Department of Electrical Engineering and Microelectronics Research Center, Technion, Haifa 32000 (Israel); Kalish, R. [Department of Physics and Solid State Institute, Technion, Haifa 32000 (Israel)

    2014-11-24

    A scalable approach for integrated photonic networks in single-crystal diamond using triangular etching of bulk samples is presented. We describe designs of high quality factor (Q = 2.51 × 10{sup 6}) photonic crystal cavities with low mode volume (V{sub m} = 1.062 × (λ/n){sup 3}), which are connected via waveguides supported by suspension structures with predicted transmission loss of only 0.05 dB. We demonstrate the fabrication of these structures using transferred single-crystal silicon hard masks and angular dry etching, yielding photonic crystal cavities in the visible spectrum with measured quality factors in excess of Q = 3 × 10{sup 3}.

  6. Perimeter Coverage Scheduling in Wireless Sensor Networks Using Sensors with a Single Continuous Cover Range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ka-Shun Hung

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In target monitoring problem, it is generally assumed that the whole target object can be monitored by a single sensor if the target falls within its sensing range. Unfortunately, this assumption becomes invalid when the target object is very large that a sensor can only monitor part of it. In this paper, we study the perimeter coverage problem where the perimeter of a big object needs to be monitored, but each sensor can only cover a single continuous portion of the perimeter. We describe how to schedule the sensors so as to maximize the network lifetime in this problem. We formally prove that the perimeter coverage scheduling problem is NP-hard in general. However, polynomial time solution exists in some special cases. We further identify the sufficient conditions for a scheduling algorithm to be a 2-approximation solution to the general problem, and propose a simple distributed 2-approximation solution with a small message overhead.

  7. Surface height map estimation from a single image using convolutional neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaowei; Zhong, Guoqiang; Qi, Lin; Dong, Junyu; Pham, Tuan D.; Mao, Jianzhou

    2017-02-01

    Surface height map estimation is an important task in high-resolution 3D reconstruction. This task differs from general scene depth estimation in the fact that surface height maps contain more high frequency information or fine details. Existing methods based on radar or other equipments can be used for large-scale scene depth recovery, but might fail in small-scale surface height map estimation. Although some methods are available for surface height reconstruction based on multiple images, e.g. photometric stereo, height map estimation directly from a single image is still a challenging issue. In this paper, we present a novel method based on convolutional neural networks (CNNs) for estimating the height map from a single image, without any equipments or extra prior knowledge of the image contents. Experimental results based on procedural and real texture datasets show the proposed algorithm is effective and reliable.

  8. Three-Level Z-Source Inverters Using a Single LC Impedance Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loh, Poh Chiang; Lim, Sok Wei; Gao, Feng

    2007-01-01

    Three-level Z-source inverters are recent single-stage topological solutions proposed for buck-boost energy conversion with all favorable advantages of three-level switching retained. Despite their effectiveness in achieving voltage buck-boost conversion, existing three-level Z-source inverters use...... three-level Z-source inverters, whose output voltage can be stepped down or up using only a single LC impedance network connected between the dc input source and either a neutral-point-clamped (NPC) or dc-link cascaded inverter circuitry. Through careful design of their modulation scheme, both inverters...... can conveniently be implemented using a generic "alternative phase opposition disposition" carrier-based modulator with the appropriate triplen offset and time advance/delay added. The designed inverters, having a reduced passive component count, are lastly tested in simulation and experimentally...

  9. Azithromycin to prevent bronchopulmonary dysplasia in ureaplasma-infected preterm infants: pharmacokinetics, safety, microbial response, and clinical outcomes with a 20-milligram-per-kilogram single intravenous dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viscardi, Rose M; Othman, Ahmed A; Hassan, Hazem E; Eddington, Natalie D; Abebe, Elias; Terrin, Michael L; Kaufman, David A; Waites, Ken B

    2013-05-01

    Ureaplasma respiratory tract colonization is associated with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in preterm infants. Previously, we demonstrated that a single intravenous (i.v.) dose of azithromycin (10 mg/kg of body weight) is safe but inadequate to eradicate Ureaplasma spp. in preterm infants. We performed a nonrandomized, single-arm open-label study of the pharmacokinetics (PK) and safety of intravenous 20-mg/kg single-dose azithromycin in 13 mechanically ventilated neonates with a gestational age between 24 weeks 0 days and 28 weeks 6 days. Pharmacokinetic data from 25 neonates (12 dosed with 10 mg/kg i.v. and 13 dosed with 20 mg/kg i.v.) were analyzed using a population modeling approach. Using a two-compartment model with allometric scaling of parameters on body weight (WT), the population PK parameter estimates were as follows: clearance, 0.21 liter/h × WT(kg)(0.75) [WT(kg)(0.75) indicates that clearance was allometrically scaled on body weight (in kilograms) with a fixed exponent of 0.75]; intercompartmental clearance, 2.1 liters/h × WT(kg)(0.75); central volume of distribution (V), 1.97 liters × WT (kg); and peripheral V, 17.9 liters × WT (kg). There was no evidence of departure from dose proportionality in azithromycin exposure over the tested dose range. The calculated area under the concentration-time curve over 24 h in the steady state divided by the MIC90 (AUC24/MIC90) for the single dose of azithromycin (20 mg/kg) was 7.5 h. Simulations suggest that 20 mg/kg for 3 days will maintain azithromycin concentrations of >MIC50 of 1 μg/ml for this group of Ureaplasma isolates for ≥ 96 h after the first dose. Azithromycin was well tolerated with no drug-related adverse events. One of seven (14%) Ureaplasma-positive subjects and three of six (50%) Ureaplasma-negative subjects developed physiologic BPD. Ureaplasma was eradicated in all treated Ureaplasma-positive subjects. Simulations suggest that a multiple-dose regimen may be efficacious for microbial

  10. A controllable single photon beam-splitter as a node of a quantum network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Santosh; Gautam, Gaurav; Ghosh, Saikat; Kumar, Deepak; Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur, India Collaboration; Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, India Collaboration

    2016-05-01

    A theoretical model for a controlled single-photon beam-splitter is proposed and analysed. It consists of two crossed optical-cavities with overlapping waists, dynamically coupled to a single flying atom. The system is shown to route a single photon with near-unity efficiency in an effective ``weak-coupling'' regime. Furthermore, two such nodes, forming a segment of a quantum network, are shown to perform several controlled quantum operations. All one-qubit operations involve a transfer of a photon from one cavity to another in a single node, while two-qubit operations involve transfer from one node to a next one, coupled via an optical fiber. Novel timing protocols for classical optical fields are found to simplify possible experimental realizations along with achievable effective parameter regime. This model can be extended to various other physical systems including gated quantum dots, circuit-QED or opto-mechanical elements. This work is supported by DST-SERB, and DAE, Government of India.

  11. A Neural Networks Search For Single Top Quark Production In Cdf Run I Data

    CERN Document Server

    Ciobanu, C I

    2002-01-01

    In the proton-antiproton collisions at the Fermilab Tevatron collider, individual top quarks are expected to be produced by an electroweak mechanism referred to as single top production. We present here a Neural Networks method of searching for single top quarks in the 106 pb−1 of data collected by the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) from 1992–1996. The prospects for observing single top in the current run at the Tevatron are also discussed. In searching for single top, improvement to signal to noise can be obtained by requiring a charged lepton and missing energy from the W decay, as well as a B-ragged jet. We conduct our search in the W + 1, 2, and 3 jets channels, where we impose additional selections to further reduce background contributions from QCD multijet ( W+jets) processes and top pair production tt¯ respectively. Specifically, in the W + 1 jet channel we require exactly one additional jet with ET > 8 GeV and |η| < 2.4, while in the W + 3 jets chann...

  12. Applying Collaborative Learning and Quality Improvement to Public Health: Lessons from the Collaborative Improvement and Innovation Network (CoIIN) to Reduce Infant Mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghandour, Reem M; Flaherty, Katherine; Hirai, Ashley; Lee, Vanessa; Walker, Deborah Klein; Lu, Michael C

    2017-06-01

    Infant mortality remains a significant public health problem in the U.S. The Collaborative Improvement & Innovation Network (CoIIN) model is an innovative approach, using the science of quality improvement and collaborative learning, which was applied across 13 Southern states in Public Health Regions IV and VI to reduce infant mortality and improve birth outcomes. We provide an in-depth discussion of the history, development, implementation, and adaptation of the model based on the experience of the original CoIIN organizers and participants. In addition to the political genesis and functional components of the initiative, 8 key lessons related to staffing, planning, and implementing future CoIINs are described in detail. This paper reports the findings from a process evaluation of the model. Data on the states' progress toward reducing infant mortality and improving birth outcomes were collected through a survey in the final months of a 24-month implementation period, as well as through ongoing team communications. The peer-to-peer exchange and platform for collaborative learning, as well as the sharing of data across the states, were major strengths and form the foundation for future CoIIN efforts. A lasting legacy of the initiative is the unique application and sharing of provisional "real time" data to inform "real time" decision-making. The CoIIN model of collaborative learning, QI, and innovation offers a promising approach to strengthening partnerships within and across states, bolstering data systems to inform and track progress more rapidly, and ultimately accelerating improvement toward healthier communities, States, and the Nation as a whole.

  13. Random networks of single-walled carbon nanotubes promote mesenchymal stem cell's proliferation and differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae-Hyeok; Shim, Wooyoung; Choolakadavil Khalid, Najeeb; Kang, Won-Seok; Lee, Minsu; Kim, Hyo-Sop; Choi, Je; Lee, Gwang; Kim, Jae-Ho

    2015-01-28

    Studies on the interaction of cells with single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) have been receiving increasing attention owing to their potential for various cellular applications. In this report, we investigated the interactions between biological cells and nanostructured SWCNTs films and focused on how morphological structures of SWCNT films affected cellular behavior such as cell proliferation and differentiation. One directionally aligned SWCNT Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) film and random network SWCNT film were fabricated by LB and vacuum filteration methods, respectively. We demonstrate that our SWCNT LB and network film based scaffolds do not show any cytotoxicity, while on the other hand, these scaffolds promote differentiation property of rat mesenchymal stem cells (rMSCs) when compared with that on conventional tissue culture polystyrene substrates. Especially, the SWCNT network film with average thickness and roughness values of 95 ± 5 and 9.81 nm, respectively, demonstrated faster growth rate and higher cell thickness for rMSCs. These results suggest that systematic manipulation of the thickness, roughness, and directional alignment of SWCNT films would provide the convenient strategy for controlling the growth and maintenance of the differentiation property of stem cells. The SWCNT film could be an alternative culture substrate for various stem cells, which often require close control of the growth and differentiation properties.

  14. Synthesis of single-walled carbon nanotube networks using monodisperse metallic nanocatalysts encapsulated in reverse micelles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayduchenko Igor A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We report on a method of synthesis of single-walled carbon nanotubes percolated networks on silicon dioxide substrates using monodisperse Co and Ni catalyst. The catalytic nanoparticles were obtained by modified method of reverse micelles of bis-(2-ethylhexyl sulfosuccinate sodium in isooctane solution that provides the nanoparticle size control in range of 1 to 5 nm. The metallic nanoparticles of Ni and Co were characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM and atomic-force microscopy (AFM. Carbon nanotubes were synthesized by chemical vapor deposition of CH4/H2 composition at temperature 1000 °С on catalysts pre-deposited on silicon dioxide substrate. Before temperature treatment during the carbon nanotube synthesis most of the catalyst material agglomerates due to magnetic forces while during the nanotube growth disintegrates into the separate nanoparticles with narrow diameter distribution. The formed nanotube networks were characterized using AFM, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and Raman spectroscopy. We find that the nanotubes are mainly single-walled carbon nanotubes with high structural perfection up to 200 μm long with diameters from 1.3 to 1.7 nm consistent with catalyst nanoparticles diameter distribution and independent of its material.

  15. Application of Smith Predictor Based on Single Neural Network in Cold Rolling Shape Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yiqun; SUN Fu; LIU Jian; SUN Menghui; XIE Yihan

    2009-01-01

    Flatness is one of the most important criterion factors to evaluate the quality of the steel strip. To improve the strip' s flatness quality, the most frequently used methodology is to employ the closed-loop automatic shape control system. However, in the shape control system, the shape-meter is always installed at the down way of the exit of the cold rolling mill and can not sense the changes of the strip flatness in the rolling gap directly. This kind of installation results in the delay of the feedback in the control system. Therefore, the stability and response performance of the system are strongly affected by the delay. At present, there is still no mature way to design controllers for systems with time delay. Although the conventional PID controller used in most practical applications has the capability to comte the delay, the effect of the compensation is limited, especially for the systems with long time delay. Smith predictor, as a compensator for solving this problem, is now widely used in industry systems. However, the request of highly precise model of the system and the poor adaptive performance to the changes of related parameters limit the application of the Smith predictor in practice. In order to overcome the drawbacks of the Smith predictor, a new Smith predictor based on single neural network PID (SNN-PID) is proposed. Because the single neural network is employed into the Smith predictor to improve the controller's self-adaptability, the adaptive capability to the varying parameters of the system is improved. Meanwhile, for the purpose of solving the problems such as time-consuming and complicated calculation of the neural networks in real time, the learning coefficient of neural network is divided into several stages as usually done in expert control system. Therefore, the control system can obtain fast response due to the improved calculation speed of the neural networks. In order to validate the performance of the proposed controller, the

  16. Free-space optical crossbar network integrated in a single block of LiNbO3 crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zhe; Hou, Peipei; Fu, Lili; Fan, Liuyan; Gao, Yan; Ding, Yi; Wang, Yuxin; Feng, Qiuju

    2012-03-20

    A free-space optical crossbar network integrated in a single block of LiNbO(3) crystal is proposed, which consists of stages of 2×2 switches making use of the electro-optic effect of crystal and in-between routing devices for permutation based on double refraction and internal double reflection on interfaces. Two basic configurations are suggested. A control algorithm for the crossbar network is discussed, which may control a nonblocking interconnection between any input and output. The integrated crossbar network is low energy loss, nonblocking, easy to assemble, and insensitive to environment. A 3×3 crossbar network is designed and the experiment is demonstrated.

  17. [Strategies for integration of health care practices and sanitary surveillance in the context of the implementation of Rede Cegonha - a Brazilian mother and infant health care network].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Roberta Zanelli Sartori; Vilela, Maria Filomena de Gouveia

    2014-11-01

    Mother and infant mortality has been the scope of analysis throughout the history of public health in Brazil and various strategies to tackle the issue have been proposed to date. The Ministry of Health has been working on this and the Rede Cegonha strategy is the most recent policy in this context. Given the principle of comprehensive health care and the structure of the Unified Health System in care networks, it is necessary to ensure the integration of health care practices, among which are the sanitary surveillance actions (SSA). Considering that the integration of health care practices and SSA can contribute to reduce mother and infant mortality rates, this article is a result of qualitative research that analyzed the integration of these actions in four cities in the State of São Paulo/Brazil: Campinas, Indaiatuba, Jaguariúna and Santa Bárbara D'Oeste. The research was conducted through interviews with SSA and maternal health managers, and the data were evaluated using thematic analysis. The results converge with other studies, identifying the isolation of health care practices and SSA. The insertion of SSA in collectively-managed areas appears to be a potential strategy for health planning and implementation of actions in the context under scrutiny.

  18. Improving maternal care with a continuous quality improvement strategy: a report from the Interventions to Minimize Preterm and Low Birth Weight Infants through Continuous Improvement Techniques (IMPLICIT) Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Ian M; Coco, Andrew; Anderson, Janice; Horst, Michael; Gambler, Angela S; Barr, Wendy Brooks; Ratcliffe, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    Maternal medical care (prenatal and postpartum) involves a set of clinical interventions addressing risk factors associated with important maternal and infant outcomes. Programs to increase the rate of delivery of these interventions in clinical practice have not been widely implemented. A practice-based research network focused on developing continuous quality improvement (CQI) processes for maternal care among 10 family medicine residency training sites in the northeastern United States (the IMPLICIT Network) from January 2003 through September 2007. Documented delivery of 5 standard maternal care interventions was assessed before and after initiating a program to increase their frequency. Proportion chart analyses were conducted comparing the period before and after implementation of the CQI interventions. Data were available for 3936 pregnancies during the course of the study period. Results varied across the clinical interventions. Significant improvement in care processes was seen for 3 screening activities: (1) prenatal depression symptomatology (by 15 weeks' gestation); (2) screening for smoking at 30 weeks' gestation; (3) and postpartum contraception planning. Screening for smoking by 15 weeks' gestation and testing for asymptomatic bacteriuria were already conducted >90% of the time during the baseline period and did not increase significantly after initiating the CQI program. Screening for postpartum depression symptomatology was recorded in 50% to 60% of women before the CQI program and did not increase significantly. A practice-based research network of family medicine residency practices focused on CQI outcomes was successful in increasing the delivery of some maternal care interventions.

  19. Self-specific processing in the default network: a single-pulse TMS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Hans C; Luber, Bruce; Stanford, Arielle; Lisanby, Sarah H

    2010-11-01

    In examining neural processing specific to the self, primarily by contrasting self-related stimuli with non-self-related stimuli (i.e., self vs. other), neuroimaging studies have activated a consistent set of regions, including medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), precuneus, and right and left inferior parietal cortex. However, criticism has arisen that this network may not be specific to self-related processing, but instead reflects a more general aspect of cortical processing. For example, it is almost identical to the active network of the resting state, the "default" mode, when the subject is free to think about anything at all. We tested the self-specificity of this network by using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to briefly disrupt local cortical processing while subjects rated adjectives as like or unlike themselves or their best friend. Healthy volunteers show a self-reference effect (SRE) in this task, in which performance with self-related items is superior to that with other-related items. As individual adjectives appeared on a monitor, single-pulse TMS was applied at five different times relative to stimulus onset (SOA: stimulus onset asynchrony) ranging from 0 to 480 ms. In 18 subjects, TMS to left parietal cortex suppressed the SRE from 160 to 480 ms. SRE suppression occurred at later SOA with TMS to the right parietal cortex. In contrast, no effects were seen with TMS to MPFC. Together with our previous work, these results provide evidence for a self-specific processing system in which midline and lateral inferior parietal cortices, as elements of the default network, play a role in ongoing self-awareness.

  20. Self-enhancement processing in the default network: a single-pulse TMS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luber, Bruce; Lou, Hans C; Keenan, Julian P; Lisanby, Sarah H

    2012-11-01

    Much research has been done on positive self-evaluation and its relationship to mental health. However, little is known about its neural underpinnings. Imaging studies have suggested that the brain's default network is involved with self-related processing and that one portion of the default network, medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), is particularly involved with self-evaluation. Here, we used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to causally demonstrate that this network, and particularly MPFC, is involved with self-evaluative processing. In a first experiment, 27 healthy volunteers judged whether adjectives, evenly divided between desirable and undesirable traits, described themselves or their best friends, and a robust self-enhancement bias effect was found. In a second experiment, single-pulse TMS was applied targeting three locations (MPFC and left and right parietal cortex) in a different group of healthy volunteers while they performed the adjective task. In each trial, TMS was applied at one of five different times relative to onset of the adjective ranging from 0 to 480 ms. TMS affected self-enhancement bias in a site- and latency-specific manner: at MPFC, the self-enhancement bias actually reversed at 160 ms, with subjects favoring their best friend over themselves. TMS may thus be of use in investigating areas of mental illness in which self-evaluation is abnormal, potentially as a diagnostic tool. In addition, the present study, combined with our previous reports (Lou et al., Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 101(17):6827-6832, 2004, Exp Brain Res 207:27-38, 2010), causally demonstrates two kinds of self-related processing within the default network, one centered in parietal cortex and concerned with retrieval of self-related associations, and the other MPFC-centered and involved in self-evaluative processing.

  1. Minimally invasive percutaneous nephrolithotomy: an effective treatment for kidney stones in infants under 1 year of age. A single-center experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dağgülli, Mansur; Sancaktutar, Ahmet Ali; Dede, Onur; Utanğaç, Mehmet Mazhar; Bodakçi, Mehmet Nuri; Penbegül, Necmettin; Hatipoğlu, Namık Kemal; Çakmakçı, Süleyman

    2015-11-01

    We aimed to present the outcomes of PNL surgery performed in infantile patients with small renal stones who were younger than 1 year of age. A single-center prospective trial was initiated and during the period between Jan 2013 and Jan 2015, PNL was applied to 20 renal units of 16 infants (6 girls and 10 boys), including 4 patients with bilateral kidney stones. PNL was performed in patients with renal stones larger than 2 cm, as well as stones resistant to SWL or renal stones that were undetectable during SWL. The mean age of the patients was 9.55 (5-12) months. Of the 20 renal units, 1 had complete staghorn stones, 3 had partial staghorn stones, 13 had renal pelvic stones, and 3 had lower pole stones. The mean stone size was 18.5 mm (range 12-36 mm). Mean operative time for PNL was 88 (25-135 min). Mean fluoroscopy time was estimated as 3.4 min. Mean hemoglobin loss was 0.72 g/L (0.2-3). The mean hospital stay was 4.1 days (2-8 days). On postoperative day 1, a complete stone-free state was achieved in 70% of renal units (14 of 20). At the end of the first postoperative week, the remaining two patients had insignificant residual fragments of 3 mm and were followed conservatively without any specific intervention. Thus, the total SFR was 80% (16 of 20) at discharge. In infants aged less than 1 year, minimal access tract dilation during PNL, the use of smaller caliber pediatric instruments, and the realization of this procedure by surgeons with adequate experience in adults carry utmost importance. In addition, special care should be taken to avoid hypothermia and radiation exposure during PNL.

  2. Is a single infant priming dose of meningococcal serogroup C conjugate vaccine in the United Kingdom sufficient?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findlow, Helen; Borrow, Ray

    2015-01-01

    In 1999, the UK introduced meningococcal serogroup C conjugate (MCC) vaccination at 2, 3, 4 months of age with a single dose for children 1-18 y In 2006, the schedule was refined to a 2 dose priming schedule with a booster in the second year of life. In 2013, the number of priming doses was reduced to a single priming dose, the booster maintained at 12 months of age and an adolescent booster dose introduced. The paper presents the evidence supporting the reduction in the number of priming doses. A UK study provided evidence for reducing the priming doses of MCC-TT together with the positive correlation of lower quantity of antigen and serum bactericidal antibody (SBA) levels post-primary but a higher magnitude of the booster response. Another UK study, demonstrated one dose of MCC-TT or MCC-CRM197 at 3 months gave comparable responses to 2 doses (SBA titres ≥8) both post-primary vaccination and post-booster Hib/MCC-TT at 12 months. However, the magnitude of the SBA GMT was higher in the MCC-TT primed post-booster. A single priming dose of MCC-TT (at 4 or 6 months) compared to 2 doses (2 and 4 months) gave higher SBA titres in all groups, post-primary and post-booster at 12-13 months, with the highest SBA responses observed in the 4 month single dose group. A study in Malta, comparing one dose of MCC-TT or MCC-CRM197 at (3 months) versus 2 doses of MCC-CRM197 (3 and 4 months), showed a high proportion (>84.72%) of subjects achieving SBA titres ≥8 following a single dose. These studies show that a single-dose priming MCC vaccination in infancy is sufficient.

  3. [Infant botulism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Absalom; Afriat, Amichay; Hubary, Yechiel; Herzog, Lior; Eisenkraft, Arik

    2014-01-01

    Infant botulism is a paralytic syndrome which manifests as a result of ingesting spores of the toxin secreting bacterium Clostridium botulinum by infants. As opposed to botulism in adults, treating infant botulism with horse antiserum was not approved due to several safety issues. This restriction has led to the development of Human Botulism Immune Globulin Intravenous (BIG-IV; sells under BabyBIG). In this article we review infant botulism and the advantages of treating it with BIG-IV.

  4. Validation of Single-Item Screening Measures for Provider Burnout in a Rural Health Care Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddimba, Anthony C; Scribani, Melissa; Nieves, Melinda A; Krupa, Nicole; May, John J; Jenkins, Paul

    2016-06-01

    We validated three single-item measures for emotional exhaustion (EE) and depersonalization (DP) among rural physician/nonphysician practitioners. We linked cross-sectional survey data (on provider demographics, satisfaction, resilience, and burnout) with administrative information from an integrated health care network (1 academic medical center, 6 community hospitals, 31 clinics, and 19 school-based health centers) in an eight-county underserved area of upstate New York. In total, 308 physicians and advanced-practice clinicians completed a self-administered, multi-instrument questionnaire (65.1% response rate). Significant proportions of respondents reported high EE (36.1%) and DP (9.9%). In multivariable linear mixed models, scores on EE/DP subscales of the Maslach Burnout Inventory were regressed on each single-item measure. The Physician Work-Life Study's single-item measure (classifying 32.8% of respondents as burning out/completely burned out) was correlated with EE and DP (Spearman's ρ = .72 and .41, p burnout.

  5. Single-cell Transcriptional Analysis Reveals Novel Neuronal Phenotypes and Interaction Networks involved In the Central Circadian Clock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Park

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Single-cell heterogeneity confounds efforts to understand how a population of cells organizes into cellular networks that underlie tissue-level function. This complexity is prominent in the mammalian suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN. Here, individual neurons exhibit a remarkable amount of asynchronous behavior and transcriptional heterogeneity. However, SCN neurons are able to generate precisely coordinated synaptic and molecular outputs that synchronize the body to a common circadian cycle by organizing into cellular networks. To understand this emergent cellular network property, it is important to reconcile single-neuron heterogeneity with network organization. In light of recent studies suggesting that transcriptionally heterogeneous cells organize into distinct cellular phenotypes, we characterized the transcriptional, spatial, and functional organization of 352 SCN neurons from mice experiencing phase-shifts in their circadian cycle. Using the community structure detection method and multivariate analytical techniques, we identified previously undescribed neuronal phenotypes that are likely to participate in regulatory networks with known SCN cell types. Based on the newly discovered neuronal phenotypes, we developed a data-driven neuronal network structure in which multiple cell types interact through known synaptic and paracrine signaling mechanisms. These results provide a basis from which to interpret the functional variability of SCN neurons and describe methodologies towards understanding how a population of heterogeneous single cells organizes into cellular networks that underlie tissue-level function.

  6. User experience network. Supply gas failure alarm on Cardinal Health Infant Flow SiPAP units may not activate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    The supply gas failure alarm on Cardinal Health Infant Flow SiPAP units manufactured before April 2009 may not activate in the event of a gas supply loss if the device's silencer accessory is attached. However, the unit's FiO2 (fraction of inspired oxygen) and low-airway-pressure alarms will activate in such cases. If both of these alarms activate simultaneously, users should suspect a failure of the gas supply pressure. Identifying affected units requires testing that can be conducted during the device's next scheduled maintenance.

  7. Predicted coverage of a COFDM single frequency network for UHF digital terrestrial TV broadcasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, M. B. R.

    The Coded Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplex (COFDM) transmission system provides a very high degree of tolerance towards multipath interference. Three factors contribute towards this tolerance: the inclusion of a guard interval, coding to provide error correction and the division of the digital data amongst a very large number of low bit rate carriers. It follows from this that a national network of co-channel transmitters can be developed such that not only do neighboring transmitters not cause mutual interference but can combine in a constructive manner. This is the principle of the Single Frequency Network, or SFN. Experience with Digital Audio Broadcasting (DAB) suggests that an SFN could be utilized for Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB). Such a system would make very efficient use of the available UHF channels. The Report presents the results of coverage predictions performed for a network of 128 transmitters sited at the locations of existing high and medium power UK UHF broadcast transmitters. Predictions were carried out for a range of values of guard interval, and for both directional and omnidirectional receiving antennas. Use of COFDM and the latest data compression techniques allows a High Definition Television (HDTV) program to be transmitted in a standard UHF channel. However it will require a higher-order modulation scheme than is used for DAB. This will reduce the tolerance towards noise and interference. The guard interval may therefore have to be lengthened so that signals from more distant transmitters within the network arrive within the guard interval. The results of the predictions show that the ad hoc transmitter network examined will serve 90 percent or more of the UK population, using the same guard interval as has been chosen for Mode 1 of the Eureka DAB system, provided that a directional antenna is used. The directional antenna provides most of the extra protection required against interfering signals. The same coverage can be

  8. A randomized control trial study, single blinded, the effect of gamelan and oral glucose solution intervention toward infants' pain respond in immunization

    OpenAIRE

    Endang Zulaicha Susilaningsih; Indria Laksmi Gamayanti; Purwanta Purwanta

    2016-01-01

    Background: Immunization injection procedure can cause pain in infants, so that non-pharmacological techniques approach is required to overcome it. Distraction techniques are used to reduce pain in infants including oral glucose administration and the distraction of music. How oral glucose effects in reducing pain in infants when compared with the distraction of music is not known. The research objective is to analyse and compare the effect of oral glucose intervention, gamelan music, and com...

  9. 78 FR 61383 - Certain Thermal Support Devices For Infants, Infant Incubators, Infant Warmers, and Components...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-03

    ... COMMISSION Certain Thermal Support Devices For Infants, Infant Incubators, Infant Warmers, and Components... United States after importation of certain thermal support devices for infants, infant incubators, infant... certain thermal support devices for infants, infant incubators, infant warmers, and components thereof...

  10. Treatment of pneumonia in infants with daily single oral dose of cefixime Tratamiento de la neumonía del lactante con cefixima en dosis única diaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael J. Manotas Cabarcas

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of pneumonia in infants with dail y single oral dose of cefixime Twenty five male and female Infants aged two to twenty-three months suffering from bacterial pneumonia were treated with cefixime in order to evaluate clinical efficiency and tolerance. A daily single oral dose of 8 mg kg was given for fourteen days. Clinical status and radiologic and laboratory findings improved during the course of therapy. A case of gastrointestinal intolerance (4% and twelve (48% of high levels of transaminases were observed. In 6 cases (24% the ethiologic agent was found. No significant differences were detected in clinical or paraclinical behavior between the groups of known and unknown ethiology. Therapy was quite successful in 96% of the C8ses. Hepatic effects of cefixime ought to be further Investigated. Para evaluar la eficacia clínica y la tolerancia a la Cefixima, se trató con ella un grupo de 25 niños y niñas lactantes de 2 a 23 meses de edad, que padecían neumonías bacterianas. Se usó una dosis de 8 mg/kg/día, por vía oral, durante catorce días y en una sola toma. Los signos clínicos evaluados, los hallazgos radiológicos y los de laboratorio mejoraron en el transcurso de la terapia. Se presentaron un caso (4% de intolerancia gastrointestinal y doce (48% con aumento de las transaminasas. En el 24% se encontró el agente causal. No se detectó una diferencia significativa en el comportamiento clínico y paraclínico de los niños con neumonía de etiología conocida en comparación con aquéllos en que no se la definió. Se obtuvo un 96% de resultados muy buenos en la terapia. Se debe investigar más el efecto del medicamento sobre la función hepática.

  11. Implementation of Genetic Algorithm in Network Modelling of Multi-level Reverse Logistics for Single Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siva Prasad Darla

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a multi level reverse logistics network is developed for a single product. Reverse logistics is a logistic activity beginning from intake of products returned by customers to selling of remanufactured or new products in market; so, it is considered that reverse flow of used products is from various sources like customers, dealers, retailers, manufacturers, etc., to remanufacturer and followed by transportation to secondary market. Due to uncertainties, any traditional supply chain approach to identify potential manufacturing facilities in this situation cannot be employed. Hence, Genetic Algorithm (GA is used for optimization and minimization of various costs involved in reverse logistics process. A sample numerical data is considered to test performance of the proposed model.

  12. Prescient Beamforming by Primary Transmitters in Interweave Cognitive Radio Networks with a Single Primary Receiver

    CERN Document Server

    Mukherjee, Amitav

    2011-01-01

    This work investigates a fundamentally novel interweave cognitive radio network where the primary transmitter takes a proactive approach towards improving the accuracy of the spectrum sensing outcomes at the secondary users (SUs). For the single-primary-receiver scenario considered here, the multi-antenna primary user constructs its transmit beamforming vector so as to increase the detection probability at the SUs while meeting a desired Quality-of-Service (QoS) target on its own link, by exploiting either partial or statistical channel state information of the SUs. The objective of such a proactive approach, which we refer to as prescient precoding, is to minimize the probability of interference from SUs at the primary receiver due to imperfect spectrum sensing in fading channels. We also develop information-theoretic bounds on the performance of prescient transmission and study non-linear precoding schemes that approach them. Numerical results are presented to verify the advantages of the proposed prescient...

  13. A voltage resonance-based single-ended online fault location algorithm for DC distribution networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIA Ke; LI Meng; BI TianShu; YANG QiXun

    2016-01-01

    A novel single-ended online fault location algorithm is investigated for DC distribution networks.The proposed algorithm calculates the fault distance based on the characteristics of the voltage resonance.The Prony's method is introduced to extract the characteristics.A novel method is proposed to solve the pseudo dual-root problem in the calculation process.The multiple data windows are adopted to enhance the robustness of the proposed algorithm.An index is proposed to evaluate the accuracy and validity of the results derived from the various data windows.The performances of the proposed algorithm in different fault scenarios were evaluated using the PSCAD/EMTDC simulations.The results show that the algorithm can locate the faults with transient resistance using the 1.6 ms data of the DC-side voltage after a fault inception and offers a good precision.

  14. Integratible Process for Fabrication of Fluidic Microduct Networks on a Single Wafer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matzke, C.M.; Ashby, C.I.; Bridges, M.M.; Griego, L.; Wong, C.C.

    1999-09-07

    We present a microelectronics fabrication compatible process that comprises photolithography and a key room temperature SiON thin film plasma deposition to define and seal a fluidic microduct network. Our single wafer process is independent of thermo-mechanical material properties, particulate cleaning, global flatness, assembly alignment, and glue medium application, which are crucial for wafer fusion bonding or sealing techniques using a glue medium. From our preliminary experiments, we have identified a processing window to fabricate channels on silicon, glass and quartz substrates. Channels with a radius of curvature between 8 and 50 {micro}m, are uniform along channel lengths of several inches and repeatable across the wafer surfaces. To further develop this technology, we have begun characterizing the SiON film properties such as elastic modulus using nanoindentation, and chemical bonding compatibility with other microelectronic materials.

  15. Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Network Field Effect Transistor as a Humidity Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasantha R. Mudimela

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Single-walled carbon nanotube network field effect transistors were fabricated and studied as humidity sensors. Sensing responses were altered by changing the gate voltage. At the open channel state (negative gate voltage, humidity pulse resulted in the decrease of the source-drain current, and, vice versa, the increase in the source-drain current was observed at the positive gate voltage. This effect was explained by the electron-donating nature of water molecules. The operation speed and signal intensity was found to be dependent on the gate voltage polarity. The positive or negative change in current with humidity pulse at zero-gate voltage was found to depend on the previous state of the gate electrode (positive or negative voltage, respectively. Those characteristics were explained by the charge traps in the gate dielectric altering the effective gate voltage, which influenced the operation of field effect transistor.

  16. Pore morphologies of root induced biopores from single pore to network scale investigated by XRCT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peth, Stephan; Wittig, Marlen C.; Uteau Puschmann, Daniel; Pagenkemper, Sebastian; Haas, Christoph; Holthusen, Dörthe; Horn, Rainer

    2015-04-01

    Biopores are assumed to be an important factor for nutrient acquisition by providing biologically highly active soil-root interfaces to re-colonizing roots and controlling oxygen and water flows at the pedon scale and within the rhizosphere through the formation of branching channel networks which potentially enhance microbial turnover processes. Characteristic differences in pore morphologies are to be expected depending on the genesis of biopores which, for example, can be earthworm-induced or root-induced or subsequently modified by one of the two. Our understanding of biophysical interactions between plants and soil can be significantly improved by quantifying 3D biopore architectures across scales ranging from single biopores to pedon scale pore networks and linking pore morphologies to microscale measurements of transport processes (e.g. oxygen diffusion). While a few studies in the past have investigated biopore networks on a larger scale yet little is known on the micro-morphology of root-induces biopores and their associated rhizosphere. Also little data is available on lateral transport of oxygen through the rhizosphere which will strongly influence microbial turnover processes and consequently control the release and uptake of nutrients. This paper highlights results gathered within a research unit on nutrient acquisition from the subsoil. Here we focus on X-ray microtomography (XRCT) studies ranging from large soil columns (70 cm length and 20 cm diameter) to individual biopores and its surrounding rhizosphere. Samples were collected from sites with different preceding crops (fescue, chicory, alfalfa) and various cropping durations (1-3 years). We will present an approach for quantitative image analysis combined with micro-sensor measurements of oxygen diffusion and spatial gradients of O2 partial pressures to relate pore structure with transport functions. Implications of various biopore architectures for the accessibility of nutrient resources in

  17. Resilience by Structural Entrenchment: Dynamics of Single-Layer and Multiplex Networks Following Sudden Changes to Tie Costs

    CERN Document Server

    Smaldino, Paul E; Maoz, Zeev

    2016-01-01

    We examine a model of network formation in single-layer and multiplex networks in which individuals have positive incentives for social ties, closed triangles, and spillover edges. In particular, we investigate the influence of shocks to the network in which the cost of social ties changes after an initial equilibrium. We highlight the emergence of structural entrenchment, a new concept we define as the persistence of structural features, such as closed triangles and spillover edges, which are formed under historically different conditions from those currently incentivizing the creation of new social ties or the destruction of existing ties. This work has broad implications for understanding path dependence in the structure and dynamics of single-layer and multiplex networks.

  18. Optimasi Single Frequency Network pada Layanan TV Digital DVB-T dengan Menggunakan Metode Simulated Annealing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Destya Arisetyanti

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Standar Digital Video Broadcasting Terrestrial (DVB-T diimplementasikan pada konfigurasi Single Frequency Network (SFN dimana seluruh pemancar pada sebuah jaringan beroperasi pada kanal frekuensi yang sama dan ditransmisikan pada waktu yang sama. SFN lebih dipilih daripada sistem pendahulunya yaitu Multi Frequency Network (MFN karena menggunakan frekuensi yang lebih efisien serta jangkauan area cakupan yang lebih luas. Pada sisi penerima memungkinkan adanya skenario multipath dengan menggabungkan sinyal dari pemancar yang berbeda karena konfigurasi SFN ini berbasis Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM. Pada penelitian ini, data ketinggian dan jumlah gedung melalui model prediksi propagasi free space dan knife edge akan diterapkan untuk memperkirakan nilai daya terima dan delay sinyal. Perhitungan nilai carrier (C dan carrier to interference (C/I dilakukan untuk mengetahui kualitas sinyal pada sisi penerima. Selanjutnya, optimasi parameter lokasi pemancar diterapkan oleh algoritma Simulated Annealing dengan menggunakan tiga cooling schedule terbaik. Simulated Annealing merupakan algoritma optimasi berdasarkan sistem termodinamika yang mensimulasikan proses annealing. Simulated Annealing telah berhasil memperluas daerah cakupan SFN. Hal ini dibuktikan dengan berkurangnya sebagian besar titik receiver dengan kualitas sinyal dibawah threshold.

  19. AUTOMATIC SHIP DETECTION IN SINGLE-POL SAR IMAGES USING TEXTURE FEATURES IN ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Khesali

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel method for detecting ships from high-resolution synthetic aperture radar (SAR images. This method categorizes ship targets from single-pol SAR images using texture features in artificial neural networks. As such, the method tries to overcome the lack of an operational solution that is able to reliably detect ships with one SAR channel. The method has the following three main stages: 1 feature extraction; 2 feature selection; and 3 ship detection. The first part extracts different texture features from SAR image. These textures include occurrence and co occurrence measures with different window sizes. Then, best features are selected. Finally, the artificial neural network is used to extract ship pixels from sea ones. In post processing stage some morphological filters are used to improve the result. The effectiveness of the proposed method is verified using Sentinel-1 data in VV polarization. Experimental results indicate that the proposed algorithm can be implemented with time-saving, high precision ship extraction, feature analysis, and detection. The results also show that using texture features the algorithm properly discriminates speckle noise from ships.

  20. Preamble-based channel estimation in single-relay networks using FBMC/OQAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavrokefalidis, Christos; Kofidis, Eleftherios; Rontogiannis, Athanasios A.; Theodoridis, Sergios

    2014-12-01

    Preamble-based channel estimation in filter bank-based multicarrier (FBMC) systems using offset quadrature amplitude modulation (OQAM) has been extensively studied in the last few years, due to the many advantages this modulation scheme can offer over cyclic prefix (CP)-based orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) and in view of the interesting challenges posed on the channel estimator by the interference effect inherent in such an FBMC system. In particular, preambles of short duration and of both the block ( full) and comb ( sparse) types were designed so as to minimize the channel estimation mean squared error (MSE) subject to a given transmit energy. In the light of the important role that relay-based cooperative networks are expected to play in future wireless communication systems, it is of interest to consider FBMC/OQAM, and in particular questions associated to preamble-based channel estimation, in such a context as well. The goal of this paper is to address these problems and come up with optimal solutions that extend existing results in a single relay-based cooperative network. Both low and medium frequency selective channels are considered. In addition to optimal preamble and estimator design, the equalization/detection task is studied, shedding light to a relay-generated interference effect and proposing a simple way to come over it. The reported simulation results corroborate the analysis and reveal interesting behavior with respect to channel frequency selectivity and signal-to-noise ratio.

  1. A Terrestrial Microbial Fuel Cell for Powering a Single-Hop Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daxing Zhang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Microbial fuel cells (MFCs are envisioned as one of the most promising alternative renewable energy sources because they can generate electric current continuously while treating waste. Terrestrial Microbial Fuel Cells (TMFCs can be inoculated and work on the use of soil, which further extends the application areas of MFCs. Energy supply, as a primary influential factor determining the lifetime of Wireless Sensor Network (WSN nodes, remains an open challenge in sensor networks. In theory, sensor nodes powered by MFCs have an eternal life. However, low power density and high internal resistance of MFCs are two pronounced problems in their operation. A single-hop WSN powered by a TMFC experimental setup was designed and experimented with. Power generation performance of the proposed TMFC, the relationships between the performance of the power generation and the environment temperature, the water content of the soil by weight were measured by experiments. Results show that the TMFC can achieve good power generation performance under special environmental conditions. Furthermore, the experiments with sensor data acquisition and wireless transmission of the TMFC powering WSN were carried out. We demonstrate that the obtained experimental results validate the feasibility of TMFCs powering WSNs.

  2. Comparison between open phase fault of arc suppression coil and single phase to earth fault in coal mine distribution network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiao-bo; WANG Chong-lin

    2008-01-01

    When, in a coal mine distribution network whose neutral point is grounded by an arc suppression coil (ASC), a fault occurs in the ASC, compensation cannot be properly realized. Furthermore, it can damage the safe and reliable run of the network.We first introduce a three-phase five-column arc suppression coil (TPFCASC) and discuss its autotracking compensation theory.Then we compare the single phase to ground fault of the coal mine distribution network with an open phase fault at the TPFCASC using the Thévenin theory, the symmetrical-component method and the complex sequence network respectively. The results show that, in both types of faults, zero-sequence voltage of the network will appear and the maximum magnitude of this zero-sequence voltage is different in both faults. Based on this situation, a protection for the open phase fault at the TPFCASC should be estab-lished.

  3. Single-Image Super Resolution for Multispectral Remote Sensing Data Using Convolutional Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebel, L.; Körner, M.

    2016-06-01

    In optical remote sensing, spatial resolution of images is crucial for numerous applications. Space-borne systems are most likely to be affected by a lack of spatial resolution, due to their natural disadvantage of a large distance between the sensor and the sensed object. Thus, methods for single-image super resolution are desirable to exceed the limits of the sensor. Apart from assisting visual inspection of datasets, post-processing operations—e.g., segmentation or feature extraction—can benefit from detailed and distinguishable structures. In this paper, we show that recently introduced state-of-the-art approaches for single-image super resolution of conventional photographs, making use of deep learning techniques, such as convolutional neural networks (CNN), can successfully be applied to remote sensing data. With a huge amount of training data available, end-to-end learning is reasonably easy to apply and can achieve results unattainable using conventional handcrafted algorithms. We trained our CNN on a specifically designed, domain-specific dataset, in order to take into account the special characteristics of multispectral remote sensing data. This dataset consists of publicly available SENTINEL-2 images featuring 13 spectral bands, a ground resolution of up to 10m, and a high radiometric resolution and thus satisfying our requirements in terms of quality and quantity. In experiments, we obtained results superior compared to competing approaches trained on generic image sets, which failed to reasonably scale satellite images with a high radiometric resolution, as well as conventional interpolation methods.

  4. High Rate Single-Symbol Decodable Precoded DSTBCs for Cooperative Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Harshan, J

    2007-01-01

    Distributed Orthogonal Space-Time Block Codes (DOSTBCs) achieving full diversity order and single-symbol ML decodability have been introduced recently for cooperative networks and an upper-bound on the maximal rate of such codes along with code constructions has been presented. In this report, we introduce a new class of Distributed STBCs called Semi-orthogonal Precoded Distributed Single-Symbol Decodable STBCs (S-PDSSDC) wherein, the source performs co-ordinate interleaving of information symbols appropriately before transmitting it to all the relays. It is shown that DOSTBCs are a special case of S-PDSSDCs. A special class of S-PDSSDCs having diagonal covariance matrix at the destination is studied and an upper bound on the maximal rate of such codes is derived. The bounds obtained are approximately twice larger than that of the DOSTBCs. A systematic construction of S-PDSSDCs is presented when the number of relays $K \\geq 4$. The constructed codes are shown to achieve the upper-bound on the rate when $K$ is...

  5. A Novel Neural Network Vector Control for Single-Phase Grid-Connected Converters with L, LC and LCL Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingang Fu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates a novel recurrent neural network (NN-based vector control approach for single-phase grid-connected converters (GCCs with L (inductor, LC (inductor-capacitor and LCL (inductor-capacitor-inductor filters and provides their comparison study with the conventional standard vector control method. A single neural network controller replaces two current-loop PI controllers, and the NN training approximates the optimal control for the single-phase GCC system. The Levenberg–Marquardt (LM algorithm was used to train the NN controller based on the complete system equations without any decoupling policies. The proposed NN approach can solve the decoupling problem associated with the conventional vector control methods for L, LC and LCL-filter-based single-phase GCCs. Both simulation study and hardware experiments demonstrate that the neural network vector controller shows much more improved performance than that of conventional vector controllers, including faster response speed and lower overshoot. Especially, NN vector control could achieve very good performance using low switch frequency. More importantly, the neural network vector controller is a damping free controller, which is generally required by a conventional vector controller for an LCL-filter-based single-phase grid-connected converter and, therefore, can overcome the inefficiency problem caused by damping policies.

  6. Amplification and detection of single-molecule conformational fluctuation through a protein interaction network with bimodal distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhanghan; Elgart, Vlad; Qian, Hong; Xing, Jianhua

    2009-09-10

    A protein undergoes conformational dynamics with multiple time scales, which results in fluctuating enzyme activities. Recent studies in single-molecule enzymology have observe this "age-old" dynamic disorder phenomenon directly. However, the single-molecule technique has its limitation. To be able to observe this molecular effect with real biochemical functions in situ, we propose to couple the fluctuations in enzymatic activity to noise propagations in small protein interaction networks such as a zeroth-order ultrasensitive phosphorylation-dephosphorylation cycle. We show that enzyme fluctuations can indeed be amplified by orders of magnitude into fluctuations in the level of substrate phosphorylation, a quantity of wide interest in cellular biology. Enzyme conformational fluctuations sufficiently slower than the catalytic reaction turnover rate result in a bimodal concentration distribution of the phosphorylated substrate. In return, this network-amplified single-enzyme fluctuation can be used as a novel biochemical "reporter" for measuring single-enzyme conformational fluctuation rates.

  7. Plasticity of neonatal neuronal networks in very premature infants: Source localization of temporal theta activity, the first endogenous neural biomarker, in temporoparietal areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Routier, L; Mahmoudzadeh, M; Panzani, M; Azizollahi, H; Goudjil, S; Kongolo, G; Wallois, F

    2017-01-23

    Temporal theta slow-wave activity (TTA-SW) in premature infants is a specific signature of the early development of temporal networks, as it is observed at the turning point between non-sensory driven spontaneous local processing and cortical network functioning. The role in development and the precise location of TTA-SW remain unknown. Previous studies have demonstrated that preterms from 28 weeks of gestational age (wGA) are able to discriminate phonemes and voice, supporting the idea of a prior genetic structural or activity-dependent fingerprint that would prepare the auditory network to compute auditory information at the onset of thalamocortical connectivity. They recorded TTA-SW in 26-32 wGA preterms. The rate of TTA-SW in response to click stimuli was evaluated using low-density EEG in 30 preterms. The sources of TTA-SW were localized by high-density EEG using different tissues conductivities, head models and mathematical models. They observed that TTA-SW is not sensory driven. Regardless of age, conductivities, head models and mathematical models, sources of TTA-SW were located adjacent to auditory and temporal junction areas. These sources become situated closer to the surface during development. TTA-SW corresponds to spontaneous transient endogenous activities independent of sensory information at this period which might participate in the implementation of auditory, language, memory, attention and or social cognition convergent and does not simply represent a general interaction between the subplate and the cortical plate. Hum Brain Mapp, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Information technology - Telecommunications and information exchange between systems - Private integrated services network - Inter-exchange signalling protocol - Single step call transfer supplementary service

    CERN Document Server

    International Organization for Standardization. Geneva

    2003-01-01

    Information technology - Telecommunications and information exchange between systems - Private integrated services network - Inter-exchange signalling protocol - Single step call transfer supplementary service

  9. Infant botulism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polin, R A; Brown, L W

    1979-05-01

    Infant botulism is a unique neuromuscular disease affecting infants less than six months old. It is the result of intraintestinal toxin production by C. botulinum (toxi-infection). Characteristic symptoms include constipation, lethargy, and decreased feeding. Physical examination often reveals generalized hypotonia with cranial nerve impairment. Recovery is dependent on supportive care in an intensive care setting. The relationship of this disease to the sudden infant death syndrome requires further study.

  10. Orientation selectivity in inhibition-dominated networks of spiking neurons: effect of single neuron properties and network dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeh, Sadra; Rotter, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    The neuronal mechanisms underlying the emergence of orientation selectivity in the primary visual cortex of mammals are still elusive. In rodents, visual neurons show highly selective responses to oriented stimuli, but neighboring neurons do not necessarily have similar preferences. Instead of a smooth map, one observes a salt-and-pepper organization of orientation selectivity. Modeling studies have recently confirmed that balanced random networks are indeed capable of amplifying weakly tuned inputs and generating highly selective output responses, even in absence of feature-selective recurrent connectivity. Here we seek to elucidate the neuronal mechanisms underlying this phenomenon by resorting to networks of integrate-and-fire neurons, which are amenable to analytic treatment. Specifically, in networks of perfect integrate-and-fire neurons, we observe that highly selective and contrast invariant output responses emerge, very similar to networks of leaky integrate-and-fire neurons. We then demonstrate that a theory based on mean firing rates and the detailed network topology predicts the output responses, and explains the mechanisms underlying the suppression of the common-mode, amplification of modulation, and contrast invariance. Increasing inhibition dominance in our networks makes the rectifying nonlinearity more prominent, which in turn adds some distortions to the otherwise essentially linear prediction. An extension of the linear theory can account for all the distortions, enabling us to compute the exact shape of every individual tuning curve in our networks. We show that this simple form of nonlinearity adds two important properties to orientation selectivity in the network, namely sharpening of tuning curves and extra suppression of the modulation. The theory can be further extended to account for the nonlinearity of the leaky model by replacing the rectifier by the appropriate smooth input-output transfer function. These results are robust and do not

  11. Orientation selectivity in inhibition-dominated networks of spiking neurons: effect of single neuron properties and network dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadra Sadeh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The neuronal mechanisms underlying the emergence of orientation selectivity in the primary visual cortex of mammals are still elusive. In rodents, visual neurons show highly selective responses to oriented stimuli, but neighboring neurons do not necessarily have similar preferences. Instead of a smooth map, one observes a salt-and-pepper organization of orientation selectivity. Modeling studies have recently confirmed that balanced random networks are indeed capable of amplifying weakly tuned inputs and generating highly selective output responses, even in absence of feature-selective recurrent connectivity. Here we seek to elucidate the neuronal mechanisms underlying this phenomenon by resorting to networks of integrate-and-fire neurons, which are amenable to analytic treatment. Specifically, in networks of perfect integrate-and-fire neurons, we observe that highly selective and contrast invariant output responses emerge, very similar to networks of leaky integrate-and-fire neurons. We then demonstrate that a theory based on mean firing rates and the detailed network topology predicts the output responses, and explains the mechanisms underlying the suppression of the common-mode, amplification of modulation, and contrast invariance. Increasing inhibition dominance in our networks makes the rectifying nonlinearity more prominent, which in turn adds some distortions to the otherwise essentially linear prediction. An extension of the linear theory can account for all the distortions, enabling us to compute the exact shape of every individual tuning curve in our networks. We show that this simple form of nonlinearity adds two important properties to orientation selectivity in the network, namely sharpening of tuning curves and extra suppression of the modulation. The theory can be further extended to account for the nonlinearity of the leaky model by replacing the rectifier by the appropriate smooth input-output transfer function. These results are

  12. Design and simulation of cellular nonlinear networks using single-electron tunneling transistor technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerousis, Costa P.

    It is currently predicted that semiconductor device scaling will end at the 22-nm device feature size (7 nm physical channel length) according to the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors. The main challenge is then to develop innovative technologies that will extend the scaling beyond roadmap projection. Any new technology must be well matched with complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology and scaleable beyond CMOS scaling projections and must provide low-power high-speed signal processing. Nanotechnology will become an appealing option for developing devices for integrated circuits with dimensions and performances well beyond roadmap predictions. Such devices, based on the controllable transfer of charge between dots or 'islands', can take advantage of the quantum mechanical effects, such as tunneling and energy quantization, which would normally occur at the nanometer scale. An outstanding challenge is in arranging such nanodevices in new architectures that can be integrated on a single chip. In particular, locally interconnected architectures are believed to be necessary to alleviate the problems associated with increasing interconnect length and complexity in ultra-dense circuits. The goal of this work is to investigate the use of nanoelectronic structures in cellular non-linear network (CNN) architectures for potential application in future high-density and low-power CMOS-nanodevice hybrid circuits. The operation of the single-electron tunneling (SET) transistor is first reviewed, followed by a discussion of simple CNN linear architectures using a SET inverter topology as the basis for the non-linear transfer characteristics for individual cells to be used in analog processing arrays for image-processing applications. The basic SET CNN cell acts as a summing node that is capacitively coupled to the inputs and outputs of nearest neighbor cells. Monte Carlo simulation results are used to show CNN-like behavior in attempting to

  13. Evaluating on Performance of Single-source Single-relay Sr-carq protocol in Tdma Networks with Raleigh Fading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongqiang Zhou

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the performance of single-source and single-relay SR-CARQ protocol in TDMA wireless communication system. We establish its M/G/1 queuing model with vacations, and provide the expressions of its system time delay and saturation throughput. Then the analysis of theory and simulation results under the slow Raleigh fading channel show that under what conditions the SR-CARQ protocol is superior to its non-cooperative counterpart.

  14. Non-Markovian properties and multiscale hidden Markovian network buried in single molecule time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultana, Tahmina; Takagi, Hiroaki; Morimatsu, Miki; Teramoto, Hiroshi; Li, Chun-Biu; Sako, Yasushi; Komatsuzaki, Tamiki

    2013-12-01

    We present a novel scheme to extract a multiscale state space network (SSN) from single-molecule time series. The multiscale SSN is a type of hidden Markov model that takes into account both multiple states buried in the measurement and memory effects in the process of the observable whenever they exist. Most biological systems function in a nonstationary manner across multiple timescales. Combined with a recently established nonlinear time series analysis based on information theory, a simple scheme is proposed to deal with the properties of multiscale and nonstationarity for a discrete time series. We derived an explicit analytical expression of the autocorrelation function in terms of the SSN. To demonstrate the potential of our scheme, we investigated single-molecule time series of dissociation and association kinetics between epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) on the plasma membrane and its adaptor protein Ash/Grb2 (Grb2) in an in vitro reconstituted system. We found that our formula successfully reproduces their autocorrelation function for a wide range of timescales (up to 3 s), and the underlying SSNs change their topographical structure as a function of the timescale; while the corresponding SSN is simple at the short timescale (0.033-0.1 s), the SSN at the longer timescales (0.1 s to ˜3 s) becomes rather complex in order to capture multiscale nonstationary kinetics emerging at longer timescales. It is also found that visiting the unbound form of the EGFR-Grb2 system approximately resets all information of history or memory of the process.

  15. High-performance hydrogen production and oxidation electrodes with hydrogenase supported on metallic single-wall carbon nanotube networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svedružić, Draženka; Blackburn, Jeffrey L; Tenent, Robert C; Rocha, John-David R; Vinzant, Todd B; Heben, Michael J; King, Paul W

    2011-03-30

    We studied the electrocatalytic activity of an [FeFe]-hydrogenase from Clostridium acetobutylicum (CaH2ase) immobilized on single-wall carbon nanotube (SWNT) networks. SWNT networks were prepared on carbon cloth by ultrasonic spraying of suspensions with predetermined ratios of metallic and semiconducting nanotubes. Current densities for both proton reduction and hydrogen oxidation electrocatalytic activities were at least 1 order of magnitude higher when hydrogenase was immobilized onto SWNT networks with high metallic tube (m-SWNT) content in comparison to hydrogenase supported on networks with low metallic tube content or when SWNTs were absent. We conclude that the increase in electrocatalytic activities in the presence of SWNTs was mainly due to the m-SWNT fraction and can be attributed to (i) substantial increases in the active electrode surface area, and (ii) improved electronic coupling between CaH2ase redox-active sites and the electrode surface.

  16. Optimal PMU placement for maintaining full network observability during single outage of lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariborz Haghighatdar fesharaki

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the optimal application of phasor measurement units (PMUs in power systems is increasing because of their advantages such as the capability for dynamical state estimation and improvements in the speed of control and protection systems. In this paper, a new method is presented using binary integer linear programming for the optimal placement of PMUs to guarantee full observability of a power system. Moreover, the problem of the optimal placement of these units in the case of a single line outage is investigated. In all of the investigations, the effect of zero-injection buses in the power system was considered. The ability of the proposed method in solving any of these problems was demonstrated by applying to the 14-, 30-, 39-, 57- and 118-bus IEEE standard systems, 42-bus transmission network of Esfahan Regional Electric and also two very large-scale systems with 2383 and 2746 buses. The simulation results verified the effective and appropriate performance of the proposed method in comparison with other methods.

  17. Rural Single Wire Earth Return distribution networks - Associated problems and cost-effective solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosseinzadeh, N. [Swinburne University of Technology, PO Box 218, Hawthorn, Vic 3122 (Australia); Mayer, J.E. [Aurecon Australia Pty Ltd., Brisbane (Australia); Wolfs, P.J. [Curtin University of Technology, Perth (Australia)

    2011-02-15

    Single Wire Earth Return (SWER) systems are used for supplying electricity at low cost, where electricity supply is required for small populations of people dispersed across wide geographical areas. It is principally used for rural electrification, but is also used for other isolated loads and light rail. The existing SWER distribution systems have been stretched with the sharp growth of their loads because of customers' change of lifestyle, which has introduced additional load of air conditioning equipment, motors driven by variable-speed drives and inverters. This paper proposes cost-effective solutions to address the problem of voltage regulation and compensation of the unbalancing effect of SWER lines on the three-phase feeder of these lines, which have been exacerbated by this load growth. To improve the voltage regulation problem, a LV switchable reactor has been designed, a prototype made and tested in the field. Also, an unbalance compensator has been designed to reduce the unbalancing effect of SWER lines. Two case networks have been used to perform simulation studies on the effectiveness of both proposed solutions. At first, a case study is used to demonstrate the impact of a switchable reactor on improving voltage regulation. Then, another case study shows that installation of a switchable reactor and an unbalance compensator simultaneously on a SWER distribution system effectively improves voltage regulation and reduces unbalancing effects. (author)

  18. Prediction of maize phenotype based on whole-genome single nucleotide polymorphisms using deep belief networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachmatia, H.; Kusuma, W. A.; Hasibuan, L. S.

    2017-05-01

    Selection in plant breeding could be more effective and more efficient if it is based on genomic data. Genomic selection (GS) is a new approach for plant-breeding selection that exploits genomic data through a mechanism called genomic prediction (GP). Most of GP models used linear methods that ignore effects of interaction among genes and effects of higher order nonlinearities. Deep belief network (DBN), one of the architectural in deep learning methods, is able to model data in high level of abstraction that involves nonlinearities effects of the data. This study implemented DBN for developing a GP model utilizing whole-genome Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) as data for training and testing. The case study was a set of traits in maize. The maize dataset was acquisitioned from CIMMYT’s (International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center) Global Maize program. Based on Pearson correlation, DBN is outperformed than other methods, kernel Hilbert space (RKHS) regression, Bayesian LASSO (BL), best linear unbiased predictor (BLUP), in case allegedly non-additive traits. DBN achieves correlation of 0.579 within -1 to 1 range.

  19. A single-layer network unsupervised feature learning method for white matter hyperintensity segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijverberg, Koen; Ghafoorian, Mohsen; van Uden, Inge W. M.; de Leeuw, Frank-Erik; Platel, Bram; Heskes, Tom

    2016-03-01

    Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) is a disorder frequently found among the old people and is associated with deterioration in cognitive performance, parkinsonism, motor and mood impairments. White matter hyperintensities (WMH) as well as lacunes, microbleeds and subcortical brain atrophy are part of the spectrum of image findings, related to SVD. Accurate segmentation of WMHs is important for prognosis and diagnosis of multiple neurological disorders such as MS and SVD. Almost all of the published (semi-)automated WMH detection models employ multiple complex hand-crafted features, which require in-depth domain knowledge. In this paper we propose to apply a single-layer network unsupervised feature learning (USFL) method to avoid hand-crafted features, but rather to automatically learn a more efficient set of features. Experimental results show that a computer aided detection system with a USFL system outperforms a hand-crafted approach. Moreover, since the two feature sets have complementary properties, a hybrid system that makes use of both hand-crafted and unsupervised learned features, shows a significant performance boost compared to each system separately, getting close to the performance of an independent human expert.

  20. Switching dynamics of single and coupled VO2-based oscillators as elements of neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velichko, Andrey; Belyaev, Maksim; Putrolaynen, Vadim; Pergament, Alexander; Perminov, Valentin

    2017-01-01

    In the present paper, we report on the switching dynamics of both single and coupled VO2-based oscillators, with resistive and capacitive coupling, and explore the capability of their application in oscillatory neural networks. Based on these results, we further select an adequate SPICE model to describe the modes of operation of coupled oscillator circuits. Physical mechanisms influencing the time of forward and reverse electrical switching, that determine the applicability limits of the proposed model, are identified. For the resistive coupling, it is shown that synchronization takes place at a certain value of the coupling resistance, though it is unstable and a synchronization failure occurs periodically. For the capacitive coupling, two synchronization modes, with weak and strong coupling, are found. The transition between these modes is accompanied by chaotic oscillations. A decrease in the width of the spectrum harmonics in the weak-coupling mode, and its increase in the strong-coupling one, is detected. The dependences of frequencies and phase differences of the coupled oscillatory circuits on the coupling capacitance are found. Examples of operation of coupled VO2 oscillators as a central pattern generator are demonstrated.

  1. A randomized control trial study, single blinded, the effect of gamelan and oral glucose solution intervention toward infants' pain respond in immunization

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Endang Zulaicha Susilaningsih; Indria Laksmi Gamayanti; Purwanta Purwanta

    2016-01-01

    .... The research objective is to analyse and compare the effect of oral glucose intervention, gamelan music, and combined of oral glucose and gamelan music to the infants pain response in immunization. Methods...

  2. Premature infant

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are many support groups for parents of premature babies. Ask the social worker in the neonatal intensive care unit. ... Prematurity used to be a major cause of infant deaths. Improved ... Prematurity can have long-term effects. Many premature infants ...

  3. Modeling and Control of Heat Networks with Storage : the Single-Producer Multiple-Consumer Case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, Tjeert Wobko; De Persis, Claudio; Tesi, Pietro

    2015-01-01

    In heat networks, energy storage is a viable approach to balance demand and supply. In such a network, a heat carrier is used in the form of water, where heat is injected and extracted through heat exchangers. The network can transport and store heated water in stratification tanks to shift loads in

  4. A comparison of the efficacy and tolerability of oxcarbazepine oral suspension between infants and children with epilepsy: a retrospective chart review at a single medical center in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shu-Hao; Liu, Cheng-Chao; Fan, Pi-Chuan

    2014-02-01

    Few clinical studies have assessed the efficacy and safety of oxcarbazepine (OXC) oral suspension in Asian pediatric patients and particularly in infants. The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the efficacy, tolerability, and side effects of OXC oral suspension in Taiwanese infants and children with various types of epilepsy. A retrospective review of the efficacy, tolerability, and side effects of OXC oral suspension in a tertiary medical center in Taiwan was conducted and included children (1-9 years old) and infants (epilepsy, which was classified into idiopathic partial, symptomatic partial, or multifocal subtypes. The OXC oral suspension (Trileptal(®); Novartis) was given in a gradual dose titration, from an initial 7.5 mg/kg/day to 30 mg/kg/day within 1 month in all cases. A total of 20 infants and 38 children were identified. There were no statistically significant differences between the children and infants in efficacy (75 vs. 82 %, p = 0.734) and adverse effects (30 vs. 21 %, p = 0.525) after OXC oral suspension treatment. The efficacy was significantly correlated with the epilepsy subtype (p epilepsy responded better to OXC oral suspension than those with multifocal epilepsy. OXC oral suspension is effective and well tolerated in both infants and children with partial epilepsy in Taiwan. Treatment efficacy was related to epilepsy subtype and number of combined AEDs before OXC treatment. Monotherapy had an excellent therapeutic response in partial epilepsy but not in multifocal epilepsy.

  5. Health-seeking behavior and social networks of the aged living in single-room occupancy hotels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, C I; Sokolovsky, J

    1979-06-01

    The elderly who reside in single-room occupancy (SRO) hotels often have been depicted as "isolates," lacking the interest or ability to engage primary or secondary support systems. This characterization has not enhanced understanding of how the SRO aged are able to survive in the community. With the use of network analysis techniques, this study demonstrates the inaccuracy of the assertion that these old persons lack significant social support. The data pointed to differences in network size, complexity, intensity, connectedness, and directionality in relation to varying degrees of physical and psychiatric health.

  6. [Infant botulism in France, 1991-2009].

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, L-A; Popoff, M-R; Mazuet, C; Espié, E; Vaillant, V; de Valk, H

    2010-09-01

    Infant botulism is caused by the ingestion of spores of Clostridium botulinum and affects newborns and infants under 12 months of age. Ingested spores multiply and produce botulinum toxin in the digestive tract, which then induces clinical symptoms. A single French case was described in the literature prior to 1991. We describe the cases of infant botulism identified in France between 1991 and 2009. All clinical suspicions of botulism must be declared in France. Biological confirmation of the disease is provided by the National reference laboratory for anaerobic bacteria and botulism at the Pasteur Institute. During this period, 7 cases of infant botulism were identified, 1 per year from 2004 to 2008 and 2 in 2009. The median age of affected infants was 119 days and all were female. All infants presented with constipation and oculomotor symptoms. All were hospitalized and required mechanical ventilation. The infants recovered from their botulism. The diagnosis of infant botulism was biologically confirmed for all patients. One 4-month-old infant was treated with a single dose of the human-derived botulism antitoxin specific for infant botulism types A and B (BabyBIG®). The infants all had different feeding habits ranging from exclusive breast feeding to a mix of formula feeding and solid food consumption. The consumption of honey, the only documented risk food for this disease, was reported for 3 of the infants. The honey had been placed on the pacifier of 2 infants and directly in the mouth of the 3rd by the mother. Infant botulism, a form of botulism that was previously rarely recognized in France, has been reported more frequently during the last 6 years. This disease remains rare but nonetheless severe. In light of recent epidemiological data, efforts to raise awareness among parents of infants and health professionals on the danger of infant botulism and particularly, its association with honey consumption seems necessary.

  7. Cloud Height Estimation with a Single Digital Camera and Artificial Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carretas, Filipe; Janeiro, Fernando M.

    2014-05-01

    Clouds influence the local weather, the global climate and are an important parameter in the weather prediction models. Clouds are also an essential component of airplane safety when visual flight rules (VFR) are enforced, such as in most small aerodromes where it is not economically viable to install instruments for assisted flying. Therefore it is important to develop low cost and robust systems that can be easily deployed in the field, enabling large scale acquisition of cloud parameters. Recently, the authors developed a low-cost system for the measurement of cloud base height using stereo-vision and digital photography. However, due to the stereo nature of the system, some challenges were presented. In particular, the relative camera orientation requires calibration and the two cameras need to be synchronized so that the photos from both cameras are acquired simultaneously. In this work we present a new system that estimates the cloud height between 1000 and 5000 meters. This prototype is composed by one digital camera controlled by a Raspberry Pi and is installed at Centro de Geofísica de Évora (CGE) in Évora, Portugal. The camera is periodically triggered to acquire images of the overhead sky and the photos are downloaded to the Raspberry Pi which forwards them to a central computer that processes the images and estimates the cloud height in real time. To estimate the cloud height using just one image requires a computer model that is able to learn from previous experiences and execute pattern recognition. The model proposed in this work is an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) that was previously trained with cloud features at different heights. The chosen Artificial Neural Network is a three-layer network, with six parameters in the input layer, 12 neurons in the hidden intermediate layer, and an output layer with only one output. The six input parameters are the average intensity values and the intensity standard deviation of each RGB channel. The output

  8. Multilevel non-volatile data storage utilizing common current hysteresis of networked single walled carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Ihn; Wang, Wei; Hwang, Sun Kak; Cho, Sung Hwan; Kim, Kang Lib; Jeong, Beomjin; Huh, June; Park, Cheolmin

    2016-05-01

    The characteristic source-drain current hysteresis frequently observed in field-effect transistors with networked single walled carbon-nanotube (NSWNT) channels is problematic for the reliable switching and sensing performance of devices. But the two distinct current states of the hysteresis curve at a zero gate voltage can be useful for memory applications. In this work, we demonstrate a novel non-volatile transistor memory with solution-processed NSWNTs which are suitable for multilevel data programming and reading. A polymer passivation layer with a small amount of water employed on the top of the NSWNT channel serves as an efficient gate voltage dependent charge trapping and de-trapping site. A systematic investigation evidences that the water mixed in a polymer passivation solution is critical for reliable non-volatile memory operation. The optimized device is air-stable and temperature-resistive up to 80 °C and exhibits excellent non-volatile memory performance with an on/off current ratio greater than 104, a switching time less than 100 ms, data retention longer than 4000 s, and write/read endurance over 100 cycles. Furthermore, the gate voltage dependent charge injection mediated by water in the passivation layer allowed for multilevel operation of our memory in which 4 distinct current states were programmed repetitively and preserved over a long time period.The characteristic source-drain current hysteresis frequently observed in field-effect transistors with networked single walled carbon-nanotube (NSWNT) channels is problematic for the reliable switching and sensing performance of devices. But the two distinct current states of the hysteresis curve at a zero gate voltage can be useful for memory applications. In this work, we demonstrate a novel non-volatile transistor memory with solution-processed NSWNTs which are suitable for multilevel data programming and reading. A polymer passivation layer with a small amount of water employed on the top of the

  9. Clinical Relevance of Pathogens Detected by Multiplex PCR in Blood of Very-Low-Birth Weight Infants with Suspected Sepsis - Multicentre Study of the German Neonatal Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tröger, Birte; Härtel, Christoph; Buer, Jan; Dördelmann, Michael; Felderhoff-Müser, Ursula; Höhn, Thomas; Hepping, Nico; Hillebrand, Georg; Kribs, Angela; Marissen, Janina; Olbertz, Dirk; Rath, Peter-Michael; Schmidtke, Susanne; Siegel, Jens; Herting, Egbert; Göpel, Wolfgang; Steinmann, Joerg; Stein, Anja

    2016-01-01

    In the German Neonatal Network (GNN) 10% of very-low-birth weight infants (VLBWI) suffer from blood-culture confirmed sepsis, while 30% of VLBWI develop clinical sepsis. Diagnosis of sepsis is a difficult task leading to potential over-treatment with antibiotics. This study aims to investigate whether the results of blood multiplex-PCR (SeptiFast®) for common sepsis pathogens are relevant for clinical decision making when sepsis is suspected in VLBWI. We performed a prospective, multi-centre study within the GNN including 133 VLBWI with 214 episodes of suspected late onset sepsis (LOS). In patients with suspected sepsis a multiplex-PCR (LightCycler SeptiFast MGRADE-test®) was performed from 100 μl EDTA blood in addition to center-specific laboratory biomarkers. The attending neonatologist documented whether the PCR-result, which was available after 24 to 48 hrs, had an impact on the choice of antibiotic drugs and duration of therapy. PCR was positive in 110/214 episodes (51%) and blood culture (BC) was positive in 55 episodes (26%). Both methods yielded predominantly coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) followed by Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. In 214 BC-PCR paired samples concordant results were documented in 126 episodes (59%; n = 32 were concordant pathogen positive results, n = 94 were negative in both methods). In 65 episodes (30%) we found positive PCR results but negative BCs, with CoNS being identified in 43 (66%) of these samples. Multiplex-PCR results influenced clinical decision making in 30% of episodes, specifically in 18% for the choice of antimicrobial therapy and in 22% for the duration of antimicrobial therapy. Multiplex-PCR results had a moderate impact on clinical management in about one third of LOS-episodes. The main advantage of multiplex-PCR was the rapid detection of pathogens from micro-volume blood samples. In VLBWI limitations include risk of contamination, lack of resistance testing and high costs. The high rate of

  10. Single-Board-Computer-Based Traffic Generator for a Heterogeneous and Hybrid Smart Grid Communication Network

    OpenAIRE

    Do Nguyet Quang; Ong Hang See; Lai Lee Chee; Che Yung Xuen; Shashiteran A/L. Karuppiah

    2014-01-01

    In smart grid communication implementation, network traffic pattern is one of the main factors that affect the system’s performance. Examining different traffic patterns in smart grid is therefore crucial when analyzing the network performance. Due to the heterogeneous and hybrid nature of smart grid, the type of traffic distribution in the network is still unknown. The traffic that popularly used for simulation and analysis no longer reflects the real traffic in a multi-technology and bi-dir...

  11. Characteristics and outcome of infants with candiduria in neonatal intensive care - a Paediatric Investigators Collaborative Network on Infections in Canada (PICNIC study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Langley Joanne M

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is limited information in the literature on the presentation and prognosis of candidal urinary tract infection (UTI in infants in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU. Methods This was a prospective cohort study performed in 13 Canadian NICUs. Infants with candidal UTI without extra-renal candidal infection at presentation were enrolled. Results Thirty infants fit the study criteria. Median birth weight and gestational age were 2595 grams (range 575-4255 and 35 weeks (range 24-41 with 10 infants being Conclusion Candidal UTI in the NICU population occurs both in term infants with congenital abnormalities and in preterm infants, and is associated with renal parenchymal disease and extra-renal dissemination. A wide variation in clinical approach was documented in this multicenter study. The overall mortality rate in these infants was significant (30%. In one third of the deaths, Candida infection was deemed to be a contributing factor, suggesting the need for antifungal therapy with repeat evaluation for dissemination in infants who are slow to respond to therapy.

  12. Force spectroscopy of hyaluronan by atomic force microscopy: from hydrogen-bonded networks toward single-chain behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannotti, Marina I; Rinaudo, Marguerite; Vancso, G Julius

    2007-09-01

    The conformational behavior of hyaluronan (HA) polysaccharide chains in aqueous NaCl solution was characterized directly at the single-molecule level. This communication reports on one of the first single-chain atomic force microscopy (AFM) experiments performed at variable temperatures, investigating the influence of the temperature on the stability of the HA single-chain conformation. Through AFM single-molecule force spectroscopy, the temperature destabilization of a local structure was proven. This structure involved a hydrogen-bonded network along the polymeric chain, with hydrogen bonds between the polar groups of HA and possibly water, and a change from a nonrandom coil to a random coil behavior was observed when increasing the temperature from 29 +/- 1 to 46 +/- 1 degrees C. As a result of the applied force, this superstructure was found to break progressively at room temperature. The use of a hydrogen-bonding breaker solvent demonstrated the hydrogen-bonded water-bridged nature of the network structure of HA single chains in aqueous NaCl solution.

  13. Structure, function, and self-assembly of single network gyroid (I4132) photonic crystals in butterfly wing scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saranathan, Vinodkumar; Osuji, Chinedum O.; Mochrie, Simon G. J.; Noh, Heeso; Narayanan, Suresh; Sandy, Alec; Dufresne, Eric R.; Prum, Richard O.

    2010-01-01

    Complex three-dimensional biophotonic nanostructures produce the vivid structural colors of many butterfly wing scales, but their exact nanoscale organization is uncertain. We used small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) on single scales to characterize the 3D photonic nanostructures of five butterfly species from two families (Papilionidae, Lycaenidae). We identify these chitin and air nanostructures as single network gyroid (I4132) photonic crystals. We describe their optical function from SAXS data and photonic band-gap modeling. Butterflies apparently grow these gyroid nanostructures by exploiting the self-organizing physical dynamics of biological lipid-bilayer membranes. These butterfly photonic nanostructures initially develop within scale cells as a core-shell double gyroid (Ia3d), as seen in block-copolymer systems, with a pentacontinuous volume comprised of extracellular space, cell plasma membrane, cellular cytoplasm, smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER) membrane, and intra-SER lumen. This double gyroid nanostructure is subsequently transformed into a single gyroid network through the deposition of chitin in the extracellular space and the degeneration of the rest of the cell. The butterflies develop the thermodynamically favored double gyroid precursors as a route to the optically more efficient single gyroid nanostructures. Current approaches to photonic crystal engineering also aim to produce single gyroid motifs. The biologically derived photonic nanostructures characterized here may offer a convenient template for producing optical devices based on biomimicry or direct dielectric infiltration. PMID:20547870

  14. Resistive Switching Memory of TiO2 Nanowire Networks Grown on Ti Foil by a Single Hydrothermal Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Ming; Musselman, Kevin P.; Duley, Walter W.; Zhou, Norman Y.

    2017-04-01

    The resistive switching characteristics of TiO2 nanowire networks directly grown on Ti foil by a single-step hydrothermal technique are discussed in this paper. The Ti foil serves as the supply of Ti atoms for growth of the TiO2 nanowires, making the preparation straightforward. It also acts as a bottom electrode for the device. A top Al electrode was fabricated by e-beam evaporation process. The Al/TiO2 nanowire networks/Ti device fabricated in this way displayed a highly repeatable and electroforming-free bipolar resistive behavior with retention for more than 104 s and an OFF/ON ratio of approximately 70. The switching mechanism of this Al/TiO2 nanowire networks/Ti device is suggested to arise from the migration of oxygen vacancies under applied electric field. This provides a facile way to obtain metal oxide nanowire-based ReRAM device in the future.

  15. Field-effect and frequency dependent transport in semiconductor-enriched single-wall carbon nanotube network device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Manu; Sangeeth, C S Suchand; Wang, Wei; Sun, Ya-Ping; Menon, Reghu

    2009-11-01

    The electrical and optical response of a field-effect device comprising a network of semiconductor-enriched single-wall carbon nanotubes, gated with sodium chloride solution is investigated. Field-effect is demonstrated in a device that uses facile fabrication techniques along with a small-ion as the gate electrolyte-and this is accomplished as a result of the semiconductor enhancement of the tubes. The optical transparency and electrical resistance of the device are modulated with gate voltage. A time-response study of the modulation of optical transparency and electrical resistance upon application of gate voltage suggests the percolative charge transport in the network. Also the ac response in the network is investigated as a function of frequency and temperature down to 5 K. An empirical relation between onset frequency and temperature is determined.

  16. Signal Transduction at the Single-Cell Level: Approaches to Study the Dynamic Nature of Signaling Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handly, L Naomi; Yao, Jason; Wollman, Roy

    2016-09-25

    Signal transduction, or how cells interpret and react to external events, is a fundamental aspect of cellular function. Traditional study of signal transduction pathways involves mapping cellular signaling pathways at the population level. However, population-averaged readouts do not adequately illuminate the complex dynamics and heterogeneous responses found at the single-cell level. Recent technological advances that observe cellular response, computationally model signaling pathways, and experimentally manipulate cells now enable studying signal transduction at the single-cell level. These studies will enable deeper insights into the dynamic nature of signaling networks.

  17. Pros and Cons of Using Arrays of Small Antennas Versus Large Single Dish Antennas for the Deep Space Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagri, Durgadas S.

    2009-01-01

    This paper briefly describes pros and cons of using arrays of small antennas instead of large single dish antennas for spacecraft telemetry, command, and tracking (TT and C) - communications and navigation (C and N) - and science support that the Deep Space Network (DSN) normally provides. It considers functionality and performance aspects, mainly for TT and C, though it also considers science. It only briefly comments on the cost aspects that seem to favor arrays of small antennas over large single antennas, at least for receiving (downlinks).

  18. [Multiscale functional imaging: reconstructing network dynamics from the synaptic echoes recorded in a single visual cortex neuron].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fregnac, Yves; Baudot, Pierre; Chavane, Frédéric; Marre, Olivier; Monier, Cyril; Pananceau, Marc; Sadoc, Gérard

    2009-04-01

    In vivo intracellular electrophysiology offers the unique possibility of listening to the "synaptic rumor " of the cortical network, captured by a recording electrode in a single V1 cell. It allows one to reconstruct the distribution of input sources in space and time, i.e. the effective network dynamics. We have used a reverse engineering method to demonstrate the propagation of visually evoked activity through lateral (and feedback) connectivity in the primary cortex of higher mammals. This approach, based on synaptic echography, is compared here with a real-time brain imaging technique based on voltage-sensitive dye imaging. The former method gives access to the microscopic convergence processes of single neurons, whereas the latter describes the macroscopic divergence process on the neuronal map. A combination of the two techniques can be used to elucidate the cortical origin of low-level (non attentive) binding processes participating in the emergence of Gestalt percepts.

  19. CPR: Infant

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Refresher Center Home FIRST AID, CPR and AED LIFEGUARDING Refresher Putting It All Together: CPR—Infant (1:52) Refresher videos only utilize this player QUICK LINKS Home ...

  20. CPR: Infant

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... AID, CPR and AED LIFEGUARDING Refresher Putting It All Together: CPR—Infant (1:52) Refresher videos only ... Store Contact Us Privacy Policy Terms and Conditions All rights reserved. 2011 American National Red Cross.

  1. Infant Curiosity

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    This publication is one in a series that reviews tips parents can use to improve the relationships with their children and the learning that happens within the family. This publication deals in particular with infant development.

  2. Infant Constipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prenatal Baby Bathing & Skin Care Breastfeeding Crying & Colic Diapers & Clothing Feeding & Nutrition Preemie Sleep Teething & Tooth Care ... Teen Young Adult Healthy Children > Ages & Stages > Baby > Diapers & Clothing > Infant Constipation Ages & Stages Listen Español Text ...

  3. Label Space Reduction in MPLS Networks: How Much Can A Single Stacked Label Do?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solano, Fernando; Stidsen, Thomas K.; Fabregat, Ramon

    2008-01-01

    Most network operators have considered reducing LSR label spaces (number of labels used) as a way of simplifying management of underlaying virtual private networks (VPNs) and therefore reducing operational expenditure (OPEX). The IETF outlined the label merging feature in MPLS-allowing the config...

  4. An Efficient Data Collection Protocol Based on Multihop Routing and Single-Node Cooperation in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoqiang Zheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the constrained resource and energy in wireless sensor networks, an efficient data collection protocol named ESCDD which adopts the multihop routing technology and the single-node selection cooperative communication is proposed to make the communication protocol more simple and easy to realize for the large-scale multihop wireless sensor networks. ESCDD uses the greedy strategy and the control information based on RTS/CTS to select forwarding nodes. Then, the hops in the multihop data transmission are reduced. Based on the power control in physical layer and the control frame called CoTS in MAC layer, ESCDD chooses a single cooperative node to perform cooperative transmission. The receiving node adopts maximal ratio combining (MRC to recover original data. The energy consumption per hop is reduced. Furthermore, the total energy consumption in data collection process is shared by more nodes and the network lifetime is extended. Compared with GeRaF, EERNFS, and REEFG protocol, the simulation results show that ESCDD can effectively reduce the average delay of multihop data transmission, improve the successful delivery rate of data packets, significantly save the energy consumption of network nodes, and make the energy consumption more balanced.

  5. Characterization of transcriptional networks in blood stem and progenitor cells using high-throughput single-cell gene expression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moignard, Victoria; Macaulay, Iain C; Swiers, Gemma; Buettner, Florian; Schütte, Judith; Calero-Nieto, Fernando J; Kinston, Sarah; Joshi, Anagha; Hannah, Rebecca; Theis, Fabian J; Jacobsen, Sten Eirik; de Bruijn, Marella F; Göttgens, Berthold

    2013-04-01

    Cellular decision-making is mediated by a complex interplay of external stimuli with the intracellular environment, in particular transcription factor regulatory networks. Here we have determined the expression of a network of 18 key haematopoietic transcription factors in 597 single primary blood stem and progenitor cells isolated from mouse bone marrow. We demonstrate that different stem/progenitor populations are characterized by distinctive transcription factor expression states, and through comprehensive bioinformatic analysis reveal positively and negatively correlated transcription factor pairings, including previously unrecognized relationships between Gata2, Gfi1 and Gfi1b. Validation using transcriptional and transgenic assays confirmed direct regulatory interactions consistent with a regulatory triad in immature blood stem cells, where Gata2 may function to modulate cross-inhibition between Gfi1 and Gfi1b. Single-cell expression profiling therefore identifies network states and allows reconstruction of network hierarchies involved in controlling stem cell fate choices, and provides a blueprint for studying both normal development and human disease.

  6. A highly crystalline single Au wire network as a high temperature transparent heater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, K D M; Kulkarni, Giridhar U

    2014-06-07

    A transparent conductor which can generate high temperatures finds important applications in optoelectronics. In this article, a wire network made of Au on quartz is shown to serve as an effective high temperature transparent heater. The heater has been fabricated by depositing Au onto a cracked sacrificial template. The highly interconnected Au wire network thus formed exhibited a transmittance of ∼87% in a wide spectral range with a sheet resistance of 5.4 Ω □(-1). By passing current through the network, it could be joule heated to ∼600 °C within a few seconds. The extraordinary thermal performance and stability owe much to the seamless junctions present in the wire network. Furthermore, the wire network gets self-annealed through joule heating as seen from its increased crystallinity. Interestingly, both transmittance and sheet resistance improved following annealing to 92% and 3.2 Ω □(-1), respectively.

  7. Analysis of single-hop traffic grooming in mesh WDM optical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Chunsheng; Qiao, Chunming; Dixit, Sudhir

    2003-10-01

    Traffic grooming is a significant task in internetworking between an optical wavelength-routed core network that supplies "pipes" at the wavelength-granularity, and the attached client (e.g., IP) networks that usually require connections of sub-wavelength granularity. The focus of this study is to develop a theoretical performance analysis model for online traffic grooming in mesh optical networks. This paper first briefly discusses the difficulty in applying the analytic models developed for circuit-switched networks (including wavelength-routed optical networks) to the traffic grooming problem. It then develops a link blocking model based on the continuous time Markov chain and queueing theory, and finally conducts end-to-end performance analysis based on the Erlang fixed-point approximation. The results obtained from the analytic model are shown to match well with numerical results obtained from simulations.

  8. Single-chip MEMS 5 × 5 and 20 × 20 double-pole single-throw switch arrays for automating telecommunication networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, S.; Oberhammer, J.; Stemme, G.

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports on microelectromechanical (MEMS) switch arrays with 5 × 5 and 20 × 20 double-pole single-throw (DPST) switches embedded and packaged on a single chip, which are intended for automating main distribution frames in copper-wire telecommunication networks. Whenever a customer requests a change in his telecommunication services, the copper-wire network has to be reconfigured which is currently done manually by a costly physical re-routing of the connections in the main distribution frames. To reduce the costs, new methods for automating the network reconfiguration are sought after by the network providers. The presented devices comprise 5 × 5 or 20 × 20 double switches, which allow us to interconnect any of the 5 or 20 input lines to any of the 5 or 20 output lines. The switches are based on an electrostatic S-shaped film actuator with the switch contact on a flexible membrane, moving between a top and a bottom electrode. The devices are fabricated in two parts which are designed to be assembled using selective adhesive wafer bonding, resulting in a wafer-scale package of the switch array. The on-chip routing network consists of thick metal lines for low resistance and is embedded in bencocyclobutene (BCB) polymer layers. The packaged 5 × 5 switch arrays have a size of 6.7 × 6.4 mm2 and the 20 × 20 arrays are 14 × 10 mm2 large. The switch actuation voltages for closing/opening the switches averaged over an array were measured to be 21.2 V/15.3 V for the 5 × 5 array and 93.2 V/37.3 V for the 20 × 20 array, respectively. The total signal line resistances vary depending on the switch position within the array between 0.13 Ω and 0.56 Ω for the 5 × 5 array and between 0.08 Ω to 2.33 Ω for the 20 × 20 array, respectively. The average resistance of the switch contacts was determined to be 0.22 Ω with a standard deviation of 0.05 Ω.

  9. Kriging-Based Parameter Estimation Algorithm for Metabolic Networks Combined with Single-Dimensional Optimization and Dynamic Coordinate Perturbation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong; Wang, Xicheng; Li, Zheng; Li, Keqiu

    2016-01-01

    The metabolic network model allows for an in-depth insight into the molecular mechanism of a particular organism. Because most parameters of the metabolic network cannot be directly measured, they must be estimated by using optimization algorithms. However, three characteristics of the metabolic network model, i.e., high nonlinearity, large amount parameters, and huge variation scopes of parameters, restrict the application of many traditional optimization algorithms. As a result, there is a growing demand to develop efficient optimization approaches to address this complex problem. In this paper, a Kriging-based algorithm aiming at parameter estimation is presented for constructing the metabolic networks. In the algorithm, a new infill sampling criterion, named expected improvement and mutual information (EI&MI), is adopted to improve the modeling accuracy by selecting multiple new sample points at each cycle, and the domain decomposition strategy based on the principal component analysis is introduced to save computing time. Meanwhile, the convergence speed is accelerated by combining a single-dimensional optimization method with the dynamic coordinate perturbation strategy when determining the new sample points. Finally, the algorithm is applied to the arachidonic acid metabolic network to estimate its parameters. The obtained results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm in getting precise parameter values under a limited number of iterations.

  10. Electrically robust metal nanowire network formation by in-situ interconnection with single-walled carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Jong Seok; Han, Joong Tark; Jung, Sunshin; Jang, Jeong In; Kim, Ho Young; Jeong, Hee Jin; Jeong, Seung Yol; Baeg, Kang-Jun; Lee, Geon-Woong

    2014-01-01

    Modulation of the junction resistance between metallic nanowires is a crucial factor for high performance of the network-structured conducting film. Here, we show that under current flow, silver nanowire (AgNW) network films can be stabilised by minimizing the Joule heating at the NW-NW junction assisted by in-situ interconnection with a small amount (less than 3 wt%) of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). This was achieved by direct deposition of AgNW suspension containing SWCNTs functionalised with quadruple hydrogen bonding moieties excluding dispersant molecules. The electrical stabilisation mechanism of AgNW networks involves the modulation of the electrical transportation pathway by the SWCNTs through the SWCNT-AgNW junctions, which results in a relatively lower junction resistance than the NW-NW junction in the network film. In addition, we propose that good contact and Fermi level matching between AgNWs and modified SWCNTs lead to the modulation of the current pathway. The SWCNT-induced stabilisation of the AgNW networks was also demonstrated by irradiating the film with microwaves. The development of the high-throughput fabrication technology provides a robust and scalable strategy for realizing high-performance flexible transparent conductor films.

  11. Controlled functionalisation of single-walled carbon nanotube network electrodes for the enhanced voltammetric detection of dopamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    E, Sharel P; Miller, Thomas S; Macpherson, Julie V; Unwin, Patrick R

    2015-10-21

    Voltammetric studies of dopamine (DA) oxidation on pristine and acid-treated single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) network electrodes were undertaken in order to investigate both the effect of network density and acid treatment times on the voltammetric characteristics for DA oxidation and the susceptibility of the electrodes to fouling. Through careful control of catalysed chemical vapour deposition growth parameters, multiply interconnected and randomly oriented SWNT networks of two significantly different densities were grown (high density, HD, coverage ≫10 μm length of SWNT per μm(-2) and low density, LD, coverage = 5 (±1) μmSWNTμm(-2)). Acid treatment was performed to provide materials with different electrochemical properties and SWNT coverage, as determined by field emission-scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and micro-Raman spectroscopy. A high concentration of DA (100 μM) was deliberately employed to accelerate the fouling phenomenon associated with DA oxidation in order to evaluate the lifetime of the electrodes. HD pristine SWNT networks were found to promote more facile electron transfer (ET) and were less susceptible to blocking, compared to LD pristine SWNT networks. Acid treatment resulted in both a further enhancement of the ET rate and a reduction in susceptibility towards electrode fouling. However, lengthy acid treatment detrimentally affected ET, due to a decrease in network density and significant damage to the SWNT network structure. These studies highlight the subtle interplay between SWNT coverage and degree of acid functionalisation when seeking to achieve the optimal SWNT electrode for the voltammetric detection of DA.

  12. Stochastic resonance in an ensemble of single-electron neuromorphic devices and its application to competitive neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oya, Takahide [Graduate School of Information Science and Technology, Hokkaido University, Kita 14, Nishi 9, Sapporo 060-0814 (Japan)]. E-mail: oya@sapiens-ei.eng.hokudai.ac.jp; Asai, Tetsuya [Graduate School of Information Science and Technology, Hokkaido University, Kita 14, Nishi 9, Sapporo 060-0814 (Japan); Amemiya, Yoshihito [Graduate School of Information Science and Technology, Hokkaido University, Kita 14, Nishi 9, Sapporo 060-0814 (Japan)

    2007-04-15

    Neuromorphic computing based on single-electron circuit technology is gaining prominence because of its massively increased computational efficiency and the increasing relevance of computer technology and nanotechnology [Likharev K, Mayr A, Muckra I, Tuerel O. CrossNets: High-performance neuromorphic architectures for CMOL circuits. Molec Electron III: Ann NY Acad Sci 1006;2003:146-63; Oya T, Schmid A, Asai T, Leblebici Y, Amemiya Y. On the fault tolerance of a clustered single-electron neural network for differential enhancement. IEICE Electron Expr 2;2005:76-80]. The maximum impact of these technologies will be strongly felt when single-electron circuits based on fault- and noise-tolerant neural structures can operate at room temperature. In this paper, inspired by stochastic resonance (SR) in an ensemble of spiking neurons [Collins JJ, Chow CC, Imhoff TT. Stochastic resonance without tuning. Nature 1995;376:236-8], we propose our design of a basic single-electron neural component and report how we examined its statistical results on a network.

  13. Copenhagen infant mental health project:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Væver, Mette Skovgaard; Smith-Nielsen, Johanne; Lange, Theis

    2016-01-01

    Background: Infant mental health is a significant public health issue as early adversity and exposure to early childhood stress are significant risk factors that may have detrimental long-term developmental consequences for the affected children. Negative outcomes are seen on a range of areas...... such as physical and mental health, educational and labor market success, social network and establishing of family. Secure attachment is associated with optimal outcomes in all developmental domains in childhood, and both insecure and disorganized attachment are associated with a range of later problems...... in the City of Copenhagen, Denmark. During the project a general population of an estimated 17.600 families with an infant aged 2–12 months are screened for two known infant mental health risks, maternal postnatal depression and infant social withdrawal. Eligible families (N = 314), who agree to participate...

  14. Copenhagen infant mental health project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Væver, Mette Skovgaard; Smith-Nielsen, Johanne; Lange, Theis

    2016-01-01

    such as physical and mental health, educational and labor market success, social network and establishing of family. Secure attachment is associated with optimal outcomes in all developmental domains in childhood, and both insecure and disorganized attachment are associated with a range of later problems......Background: Infant mental health is a significant public health issue as early adversity and exposure to early childhood stress are significant risk factors that may have detrimental long-term developmental consequences for the affected children. Negative outcomes are seen on a range of areas...... in the City of Copenhagen, Denmark. During the project a general population of an estimated 17.600 families with an infant aged 2–12 months are screened for two known infant mental health risks, maternal postnatal depression and infant social withdrawal. Eligible families (N = 314), who agree to participate...

  15. Transcriptional networks in single perivascular cells sorted from human adipose tissue reveal a hierarchy of mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, W Reef; Moldovan, Nicanor I; Moldovan, Leni; Livak, Kenneth J; Datta; Goswami, Chirayu; Corselli, Mirko; Traktuev, Dmitry O; Murray, Iain R; Péault, Bruno; March, Keith

    2017-02-24

    Adipose tissue is a rich source of multipotent mesenchymal stem-like cells, located in the perivascular niche. Based on their surface markers, these have been assigned to two main categories: CD34+CD31-CD45-CD146- cells (adventitial stromal/stem cells, ASCs), and CD146+CD31-CD34-CD45- cells (pericytes, PCs). These populations display heterogeneity of unknown significance. We hypothesized that aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity, a functional marker of primitivity, could help to better define ASC and PC subclasses. To this end, the stromal vascular fraction from a human lipoaspirate was simultaneously stained with fluorescent antibodies to CD31, CD45, CD34, and CD146 antigens and the ALDH substrate Aldefluor®, then sorted by FACS. Individual ASCs (n=67) and PCs (n=73) selected from the extremities of the ALDH-staining spectrum were transcriptionally profiled by Fluidigm single-cell quantitative PCR for a predefined set (n=429) of marker genes. To these single-cell data, we applied differential expression and principal component and clustering analysis, as well as an original gene co-expression network reconstruction algorithm. Despite the stochasticity at the single-cell level, covariation gene expression analysis yielded multiple network connectivity parameters suggesting that these perivascular progenitor cell subclasses possess the following order of maturity: i) ALDH(br) ASC (most primitive); ii) ALDH(dim) ASC; iii) ALDH(br) PC; iv) ALDH(dim) PC (least primitive). This order was independently supported by specific combinations of class-specific expressed genes and further confirmed by the analysis of associated signaling pathways. In conclusion, single-cell transcriptional analysis of four populations isolated from fat by surface markers and enzyme activity suggests a developmental hierarchy among perivascular mesenchymal stem cells supported by markers and co-expression networks. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  16. Selected hematologic and biochemical measurements in African HIV-infected and uninfected pregnant women and their infants: the HIV Prevention Trials Network 024 protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urassa Willy

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reference values for hematological and biochemical assays in pregnant women and in newborn infants are based primarily on Caucasian populations. Normative data are limited for populations in sub-Saharan Africa, especially comparing women with and without HIV infection, and comparing infants with and without HIV infection or HIV exposure. Methods We determined HIV status and selected hematological and biochemical measurements in women at 20–24 weeks and at 36 weeks gestation, and in infants at birth and 4–6 weeks of age. All were recruited within a randomized clinical trial of antibiotics to prevent chorioamnionitis-associated mother-to-child transmission of HIV (HPTN024. We report nearly complete laboratory data on 2,292 HIV-infected and 367 HIV-uninfected pregnant African women who were representative of the public clinics from which the women were recruited. Nearly all the HIV-infected mothers received nevirapine prophylaxis at the time of labor, as did their infants after birth (always within 72 hours of birth, but typically within just a few hours at the four study sites in Malawi (2 sites, Tanzania, and Zambia. Results HIV-infected pregnant women had lower red blood cell counts, hemoglobin, hematocrit, and white blood cell counts than HIV-uninfected women. Platelet and monocyte counts were higher among HIV-infected women at both time points. At the 4–6-week visit, HIV-infected infants had lower hemoglobin, hematocrit and white blood cell counts than uninfected infants. Platelet counts were lower in HIV-infected infants than HIV-uninfected infants, both at birth and at 4–6 weeks of age. At 4–6 weeks, HIV-infected infants had higher alanine aminotransferase measures than uninfected infants. Conclusion Normative data in pregnant African women and their newborn infants are needed to guide the large-scale HIV care and treatment programs being scaled up throughout the continent. These laboratory measures will help

  17. Spontaneous Neuronal Activity in Developing Neocortical Networks: From Single Cells to Large-Scale Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luhmann, Heiko J; Sinning, Anne; Yang, Jenq-Wei; Reyes-Puerta, Vicente; Stüttgen, Maik C; Kirischuk, Sergei; Kilb, Werner

    2016-01-01

    Neuronal activity has been shown to be essential for the proper formation of neuronal circuits, affecting developmental processes like neurogenesis, migration, programmed cell death, cellular differentiation, formation of local and long-range axonal connections, synaptic plasticity or myelination. Accordingly, neocortical areas reveal distinct spontaneous and sensory-driven neuronal activity patterns already at early phases of development. At embryonic stages, when immature neurons start to develop voltage-dependent channels, spontaneous activity is highly synchronized within small neuronal networks and governed by electrical synaptic transmission. Subsequently, spontaneous activity patterns become more complex, involve larger networks and propagate over several neocortical areas. The developmental shift from local to large-scale network activity is accompanied by a gradual shift from electrical to chemical synaptic transmission with an initial excitatory action of chloride-gated channels activated by GABA, glycine and taurine. Transient neuronal populations in the subplate (SP) support temporary circuits that play an important role in tuning early neocortical activity and the formation of mature neuronal networks. Thus, early spontaneous activity patterns control the formation of developing networks in sensory cortices, and disturbances of these activity patterns may lead to long-lasting neuronal deficits.

  18. Identification of driving network of cellular differentiation from single sample time course gene expression data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ye; Wolanyk, Nathaniel; Ilker, Tunc; Gao, Shouguo; Wang, Xujing

    Methods developed based on bifurcation theory have demonstrated their potential in driving network identification for complex human diseases, including the work by Chen, et al. Recently bifurcation theory has been successfully applied to model cellular differentiation. However, there one often faces a technical challenge in driving network prediction: time course cellular differentiation study often only contains one sample at each time point, while driving network prediction typically require multiple samples at each time point to infer the variation and interaction structures of candidate genes for the driving network. In this study, we investigate several methods to identify both the critical time point and the driving network through examination of how each time point affects the autocorrelation and phase locking. We apply these methods to a high-throughput sequencing (RNA-Seq) dataset of 42 subsets of thymocytes and mature peripheral T cells at multiple time points during their differentiation (GSE48138 from GEO). We compare the predicted driving genes with known transcription regulators of cellular differentiation. We will discuss the advantages and limitations of our proposed methods, as well as potential further improvements of our methods.

  19. FUNDAMENTALS OF THE ANALYTIC NETWORK PROCESS - DEPENDENCE AND FEEDBACK IN DECISION-MAKING WITH A SINGLE NETWORK

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Thomas L.SAATY

    2004-01-01

    The Analytic Network Process (ANP) is a multicriteria theory of measurement used to derive relative priority scales of absolute numbers from individual judgments (or from actual measurements normalized to a relative form) that also belong to a fundamental scale of absolute numbers. These judgments represent the relative influence, of one of two elements over the other in a pairwise comparison process on a third element in the system, with respect to an underlying control criterion.Through its supermatrix, whose entries are themselves rratrices of column priorities, the ANP synthesizes the outcome of dependence and feedback within and between clusters of elements. The Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) with its independence assumptions on upper levels from lower levels and the independence of the elements in a level is a special case of the ANP. The ANP is an essential tool for articulating our understanding of a decision problem. One had to overcome the limitation of linear hierarchic structures and their mathematical consequences. This part on the ANP summarizes and illustrates the basic concepts of the ANP and shows how informed intuitive judgments can lead to real life answers that are matched by actual measurements in the real world (for example, relative dollar values) as illustrated in market share examples that rely on judgments and not on numerical data.

  20. Estimation of 3-D pore network coordination number of rocks from watershed segmentation of a single 2-D image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabbani, Arash; Ayatollahi, Shahab; Kharrat, Riyaz; Dashti, Nader

    2016-08-01

    In this study, we have utilized 3-D micro-tomography images of real and synthetic rocks to introduce two mathematical correlations which estimate the distribution parameters of 3-D coordination number using a single 2-D cross-sectional image. By applying a watershed segmentation algorithm, it is found that the distribution of 3-D coordination number is acceptably predictable by statistical analysis of the network extracted from 2-D images. In this study, we have utilized 25 volumetric images of rocks in order to propose two mathematical formulas. These formulas aim to approximate the average and standard deviation of coordination number in 3-D pore networks. Then, the formulas are applied for five independent test samples to evaluate the reliability. Finally, pore network flow modeling is used to find the error of absolute permeability prediction using estimated and measured coordination numbers. Results show that the 2-D images are considerably informative about the 3-D network of the rocks and can be utilized to approximate the 3-D connectivity of the porous spaces with determination coefficient of about 0.85 that seems to be acceptable considering the variety of the studied samples.

  1. Single-phase and two-phase flow properties of mesaverde tight sandstone formation; random-network modeling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashtani, Farzad; Maini, Brij; Kantzas, Apostolos

    2016-08-01

    3D random networks are constructed in order to represent the tight Mesaverde formation which is located in north Wyoming, USA. The porous-space is represented by pore bodies of different shapes and sizes which are connected to each other by pore throats of varying length and diameter. Pore bodies are randomly distributed in space and their connectivity varies based on the connectivity number distribution which is used in order to generate the network. Network representations are then validated using publicly available mercury porosimetry experiments. The network modeling software solves the fundamental equations of two-phase immiscible flow incorporating wettability and contact angle variability. Quasi-static displacement is assumed. Single phase macroscopic properties (porosity, permeability) are calculated and whenever possible are compared to experimental data. Using this information drainage and imbibition capillary pressure, and relative permeability curves are predicted and (whenever possible) compared to experimental data. The calculated information is grouped and compared to available literature information on typical behavior of tight formations. Capillary pressure curve for primary drainage process is predicted and compared to experimental mercury porosimetry in order to validate the virtual porous media by history matching. Relative permeability curves are also calculated and presented.

  2. Analysis of Single-Mode Fiber Link Performance for Attenuation in Long-Haul Optical Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Karamjit; Singh, Hardeep

    2017-03-01

    In the past decades, optical fiber has been widely used in communication system owing to low transmission losses, large information carrying capacity, small size, immunity to electrical interference and increased signal security. Focusing on increasing the network transmission capacity, control on the quality of transmission was the field that withdraws attention of research community. For this reason, fiber losses and their compensation remain the important design issue. In the present work, an effort is put in to design a system capable of doing error analysis of system for power losses taking place in the presence of attenuation effect. Attenuation is one of the important phenomena that determine the maximum possible distance between a transmitter and receiver or quantity and position of amplifiers and repeaters in optical networks. The mathematical model equations are obtained representing variation trends of bit error rate BER and Q-value with varying attenuation, which has been verified by different wavelength sources and network conditions.

  3. Impact of backreflections on single-fiber bidirectional wavelength-division-multiplexing passive optical networks (WDM-PONs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shiyu

    With increased demand for bandwidth-hungry applications such as video-on-demand, wavelength-division-multiplexing passive optical network (WDM-PON) has become a strong contender in overcoming the last mile bottle neck. However, the wide-scale deployment of WDM-PONs has been delayed mainly due to the high cost of wavelength-specific optical components. To realize cost-effective WDM-PONs, various wavelength-independent, so called colorless architectures, have been developed so that all the subscribers can have identical optical network units (ONUs). In such WDM-PONs, however, single-fiber bidirectional transmission results in degradation of system performance caused by interference between the signals and backreflections. This thesis investigates the impact of backreflections on single-fiber bidirectional WDM-PONs. A WDM-PON with various optical line terminals (OLTs) and colorless ONU configurations is presented. The dependence of the power penalty, caused by backreflections, on a variety of parameters is investigated. This includes parameters such as the source linewidths, receiver bandwidth, transmission line loss (TLL), ONU gain, chirp effect at the ONU and optical return loss (ORL), in various WDM-PON configurations. The WDM-PON with continuous wave (CW) seed light and remodulation schemes are both presented and studied experimentally. The impacts of the backreflections on the single-fiber bidirectional WDM-PON with various OLT and ONU configurations are compared and analyzed accordingly.

  4. Recombinant Activated Factor VIIa (rFVIIa) Treatment in Very-Low-Birth-Weight (VLBW) Premature Infants with Acute Pulmonary Hemorrhage: A Single-Center, Retrospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosar, Hese; Isik, Halil; Cakır, Salih Cagrı; Yar, Nese; Goksen, Bulent; Tokbay, Hakan; Kertmen, Hasan; Erdoğan, Nihal; Durak, Ikbal

    2017-02-01

    We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of intravenous administration of recombinant activated factor VIIa (rFVIIa) for acute pulmonary hemorrhage treatment in very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) premature infants. This study was carried out retrospectively in premature infants with pulmonary hemorrhage that were ≤30 weeks gestational age or premature infants with pulmonary hemorrhage who were hospitalized in our neonatal intensive care unit between 01 January 2013 and 31 December 2015 were evaluated. Group 1 (n = 21) received rFVIIa support within the first 30 min of pulmonary hemorrhage plus conventional treatment, while Group 2 (n = 21) received conventional treatment only. The number of patients whose pulmonary hemorrhage was stopped within the first 2 h was significantly higher in Group 1 than Group 2 (n = 14 vs n = 4; p = 0.002). After pulmonary hemorrhage, hemoglobin values of Group 1 were higher than Group 2 (11.12 ± 1.06 vs 10.14 ± 1.59 g/dL; p = 0.024). Erythrocyte suspension (1.43 ± 4.51 vs 5.71 ± 7.46 mL/kg; p = 0.030) and fresh frozen plasma use (5.71 ± 8.10 vs 19.52 ± 12.44 mL/kg; p premature infants.

  5. Channel capacity of TDD-OFDM-MIMO for multiple access points in a wireless single-frequency-network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Takatori, Y.; Fitzek, Frank; Tsunekawa, K.

    2005-01-01

    The multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) technique is the most attractive candidate to improve the spectrum efficiency in the next generation wireless communication systems. However, the efficiency of MIMO techniques reduces in the line of sight (LOS) environments. In this paper, we propose a new...... MIMO data transmission scheme, which combines Single-Frequency-Network (SFN) with TDD-OFDM-MIMO applied for wireless LAN networks. In our proposal, we advocate to use SFN for multiple access points (MAP) MIMO data transmission. The goal of this approach is to achieve very high channel capacity in both...... LOS and non line of sight (NLOS) environments. The channel capacity of the proposed method is derived for the direct path environments and it confirms the effectiveness of the proposed scheme in the LOS scenario. Moreover, solid computer simulation results confirm the effectiveness of the proposed...

  6. Electrical behavior of Langmuir-Blodgett networks of sorted metallic and semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Mark K; Rosamond, Mark C; Pearson, Christopher; Zeze, Dagou A; Petty, Michael C

    2012-10-30

    Langmuir-Blodgett deposition has been used to form thin film networks of both metallic and semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes. These have been investigated to understand their physical, optical, and morphological properties. The electrical conductivities over the temperature range 80-350 K and across electrode gaps of 220 nm and 2 mm have been explored. In the case of semiconducting tubes, the results suggest that Poole-Frenkel conduction is the dominant electrical process at temperatures below 150 K and electric fields of greater than 1 MV m(-1). Metallic nanotube networks exhibit a decrease in resistance with a reduction in temperature. This can be approximated by a linear relationship, giving a temperature coefficient of resistance of 10(-3) K(-1).

  7. Complex-disease networks of trait-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) unveiled by information theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haiquan; Lee, Younghee; Chen, James L; Rebman, Ellen; Li, Jianrong

    2012-01-01

    Objective Thousands of complex-disease single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been discovered in genome-wide association studies (GWAS). However, these intragenic SNPs have not been collectively mined to unveil the genetic architecture between complex clinical traits. The authors hypothesize that biological annotations of host genes of trait-associated SNPs may reveal the biomolecular modularity across complex-disease traits and offer insights for drug repositioning. Methods Trait-to-polymorphism (SNPs) associations confirmed in GWAS were used. A novel method to quantify trait–trait similarity anchored in Gene Ontology annotations of human proteins and information theory was developed. The results were then validated with the shortest paths of physical protein interactions between biologically similar traits. Results A network was constructed consisting of 280 significant intertrait similarities among 177 disease traits, which covered 1438 well-validated disease-associated SNPs. Thirty-nine percent of intertrait connections were confirmed by curators, and the following additional studies demonstrated the validity of a proportion of the remainder. On a phenotypic trait level, higher Gene Ontology similarity between proteins correlated with smaller ‘shortest distance’ in protein interaction networks of complexly inherited diseases (Spearman p<2.2×10−16). Further, ‘cancer traits’ were similar to one another, as were ‘metabolic syndrome traits’ (Fisher's exact test p=0.001 and 3.5×10−7, respectively). Conclusion An imputed disease network by information-anchored functional similarity from GWAS trait-associated SNPs is reported. It is also demonstrated that small shortest paths of protein interactions correlate with complex-disease function. Taken together, these findings provide the framework for investigating drug targets with unbiased functional biomolecular networks rather than worn-out single-gene and subjective canonical pathway approaches

  8. Development and Application of a Wireless Temperature and Humidity Monitoring Network System for Infant Incubators%婴儿培养箱温湿度无线测量网络的开发与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚新琴; 解兵

    2015-01-01

    A wireless temperature and humidity monitoring network system was developed by the hospital based on the RFID (Radio Frequency Identiifcation) technology in the ifeld of IoT (Internet of Things), which was intended for monitoring temperature and humidity of the infant incubator and real-timely transferring the relevant data to the mainframe computer for storage and analysis. Audible and visual warnings would be activated in multiple approaches in case of malfunctioned infant incubators. As a consequence, application of the system has enhanced the security and effciency of medical services for infants and lowered the occurrence of medical adverse events.%基于物联网RFID技术开发婴儿培养箱温湿度集中监测系统,实时将监测到的婴儿培养箱温湿度数据传输到主机,进行存储、分析,对设备发生的异常现象,以多媒体语音等多种形式报警。本系统的应用,提高了婴儿医疗的安全性和工作效率,减少了不良事件的发生。

  9. Precision requirements for single-layer feed-forward neural networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annema, Anne J.; Hoen, K.; Hoen, Klaas; Wallinga, Hans

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents a mathematical analysis of the effect of limited precision analog hardware for weight adaptation to be used in on-chip learning feedforward neural networks. Easy-to-read equations and simple worst-case estimations for the maximum tolerable imprecision are presented. As an

  10. Modeling and Control of Heat Networks with Storage : the Single-Producer Multiple-Consumer Case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, Tjeert; De Persis, Claudio; Tesi, Pietro

    2016-01-01

    In heat networks, energy storage in the form of hot water in a tank is a viable approach to balancing supply and demand. In order to store a desired amount of energy, both the volume and temperature of the water in the tank need to converge to desired setpoints. To this end we provide a provably cor

  11. Modeling and Control of Heat Networks With Storage : The Single-Producer Multiple-Consumer Case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, Tjardo; De Persis, Claudio; Tesi, Pietro

    2016-01-01

    In heat networks, energy storage in the form of hot water in a tank is a viable approach to balancing supply and demand. In order to store a desired amount of energy, both the volume and temperature of the water in the tank need to converge to desired setpoints. To this end, we provide a provably co

  12. CPR: Infant

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Refresher Center Home FIRST AID, CPR and AED LIFEGUARDING Refresher Putting It All Together: CPR—Infant (1:52) Refresher videos only utilize this player QUICK LINKS Home RedCross.org Purchase Course Materials Shop Our Store ...

  13. 78 FR 54911 - Certain Thermal Support Devices for Infants, Infant Incubators, Infant Warmers and Components...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-06

    ... COMMISSION Certain Thermal Support Devices for Infants, Infant Incubators, Infant Warmers and Components.... International Trade Commission has received a complaint entitled Certain Thermal Support Devices for Infants, Infant Incubators, Infant Warmers and Components Thereof, DN 2976; the Commission is soliciting...

  14. Perimeter Coverage Scheduling in Wireless Sensor Networks Using Sensors with a Single Continuous Cover Range

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hung, Ka-Shun; Lui, King-Shan

    2010-01-01

    ... of it. In this paper, we study the perimeter coverage problem where the perimeter of a big object needs to be monitored, but each sensor can only cover a single continuous portion of the perimeter...

  15. Adaptive Neural Network-Based Event-Triggered Control of Single-Input Single-Output Nonlinear Discrete-Time Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Avimanyu; Xu, Hao; Jagannathan, Sarangapani

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a novel adaptive neural network (NN) control of single-input and single-output uncertain nonlinear discrete-time systems under event sampled NN inputs. In this control scheme, the feedback signals are transmitted, and the NN weights are tuned in an aperiodic manner at the event sampled instants. After reviewing the NN approximation property with event sampled inputs, an adaptive state estimator (SE), consisting of linearly parameterized NNs, is utilized to approximate the unknown system dynamics in an event sampled context. The SE is viewed as a model and its approximated dynamics and the state vector, during any two events, are utilized for the event-triggered controller design. An adaptive event-trigger condition is derived by using both the estimated NN weights and a dead-zone operator to determine the event sampling instants. This condition both facilitates the NN approximation and reduces the transmission of feedback signals. The ultimate boundedness of both the NN weight estimation error and the system state vector is demonstrated through the Lyapunov approach. As expected, during an initial online learning phase, events are observed more frequently. Over time with the convergence of the NN weights, the inter-event times increase, thereby lowering the number of triggered events. These claims are illustrated through the simulation results.

  16. The remote implementation of all possible generalized quantum measurements on a single atomic qubit in a quantum network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Han Yang; Wu Chun-Wang; Wu Wei; Chen Ping-Xing; Li Cheng-Zu

    2009-01-01

    To implement generalized quantum measurement (GQM) one has to extend the original Hilbert space.Generally speaking,the additional dimensions of the ancilla space increase as the number of the operators of the CQM n increases.This paper presents a scheme for deterministically implementing all possible n-operator GQMs on a single atomic qubit by using only one 2-dimensional ancillary atomic qubit repeatedly,which remarkably reduces the complexity of the realistic physical system.Here the qubit is encoded in the internal states of an atom trapped in an optical cavity and single-photon pulses are employed to provide the interaction between qublts.It shows that the scheme can be performed remotely,and thus it is suitable for implementing GQM in a quantum network.What is more,the number of the total ancilla dimensions in our scheme achieves the theoretic low bound.

  17. Self-specific processing in the default network: a single-pulse TMS study

    OpenAIRE

    Lou, Hans C; Luber, Bruce; Stanford, Arielle; Lisanby, Sarah H.

    2010-01-01

    In examining neural processing specific to the self, primarily by contrasting self-related stimuli with non-self-related stimuli (i.e., self vs. other), neuroimaging studies have activated a consistent set of regions, including medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), precuneus, and right and left inferior parietal cortex. However, criticism has arisen that this network may not be specific to self-related processing, but instead reflects a more general aspect of cortical processing. For example, it i...

  18. Optimal power allocation of a single transmitter-multiple receivers channel in a cognitive sensor network

    KAUST Repository

    Ayala Solares, Jose Roberto

    2012-08-01

    The optimal transmit power of a wireless sensor network with one transmitter and multiple receivers in a cognitive radio environment while satisfying independent peak, independent average, sum of peak and sum of average transmission rate constraints is derived. A suboptimal scheme is proposed to overcome the frequency of outages for the independent peak transmission rate constraint. In all cases, numerical results are provided for Rayleigh fading channels. © 2012 IEEE.

  19. Recruitment of an inhibitory hippocampal network after bursting in a single granule cell

    OpenAIRE

    Mori, M; Gähwiler, B; Gerber, U.

    2007-01-01

    The hippocampal CA3 area, an associational network implicated in memory function, receives monosynaptic excitatory as well as disynaptic inhibitory input through the mossy-fiber axons of the dentate granule cells. Synapses made by mossy fibers exhibit low release probability, resulting in high failure rates at resting discharge frequencies of 0.1 Hz. In recordings from functionally connected pairs of neurons, burst firing of a granule cell increased the probability of glutamate release onto b...

  20. Quantum logic networks for controlled teleportation of a single particle via W state

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan Hong-Chun; Qi Kai-Guo

    2005-01-01

    We discuss the scheme for probabilistic and controlled teleportation of an unknown state of one particle using the general three-particle W state as the quantum channel. The feature of this scheme is that teleportation between two sides depends on the agreement of the third side (Charlie), who may participate the process of quantum teleportation as a supervisor. In addition, we also construct efficient quantum logic networks for implementing the new scheme by means of the primitive operations.

  1. Congestion control for ATM multiplexers using neural networks:multiple sources/single buffer scenario

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜树新; 袁石勇

    2004-01-01

    A new neural network based method for solving the problem of congestion control arising at the user network interface (UNI) of ATM networks is proposed in this paper. Unlike the previous methods where the coding rate for all traffic sources as controller output signals is tuned in a body, the proposed method adjusts the coding rate for only a part of the traffic sources while the remainder sources send the cells in the previous coding rate in case of occurrence of congestion. The controller output signals include the source coding rate and the percentage of the sources that send cells at the corresponding coding rate. The control methods not only minimize the cell loss rate but also guarantee the quality of information (such as voice sources) fed into the multiplexer buffer. Simulations with 150 ADPCM voice sources fed into the multiplexer buffer showed that the proposed methods have advantage over the previous methods in the aspect of the performance indices such as cell loss rate (CLR) and voice quality.

  2. Carbon nanotubes: artificial nanomaterials to engineer single neurons and neuronal networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabbro, Alessandra; Bosi, Susanna; Ballerini, Laura; Prato, Maurizio

    2012-08-15

    In the past decade, nanotechnology applications to the nervous system have often involved the study and the use of novel nanomaterials to improve the diagnosis and therapy of neurological diseases. In the field of nanomedicine, carbon nanotubes are evaluated as promising materials for diverse therapeutic and diagnostic applications. Besides, carbon nanotubes are increasingly employed in basic neuroscience approaches, and they have been used in the design of neuronal interfaces or in that of scaffolds promoting neuronal growth in vitro. Ultimately, carbon nanotubes are thought to hold the potential for the development of innovative neurological implants. In this framework, it is particularly relevant to document the impact of interfacing such materials with nerve cells. Carbon nanotubes were shown, when modified with biologically active compounds or functionalized in order to alter their charge, to affect neurite outgrowth and branching. Notably, purified carbon nanotubes used as scaffolds can promote the formation of nanotube-neuron hybrid networks, able per se to affect neuron integrative abilities, network connectivity, and synaptic plasticity. We focus this review on our work over several years directed to investigate the ability of carbon nanotube platforms in providing a new tool for nongenetic manipulations of neuronal performance and network signaling.

  3. MOSIC: Mobility-Aware Single-Hop Clustering Scheme for Vehicular Ad hoc Networks on Highways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Ziagham Ahwazi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available As a new branch of Mobile ad hoc networks, Vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs have significant attention in academic and industry researches. Because of high dynamic nature of VANET, the topology will be changed frequently and quickly, and this condition is causing some difficulties in maintaining topology of these kinds of networks. Clustering is one of the controlling mechanism that able to grouping vehicles in same categories based upon some predefined metrics such as density, geographical locations, direction and velocity of vehicles. Using of clustering can make network’s global topology less dynamic and improve the scalability of it. Many of the VANET clustering algorithms are taken from MANET that has been shown that these algorithms are not suitable for VANET. Hence, in this paper we proposed a new clustering scheme that use Gauss Markov mobility (GMM model for mobility predication that make vehicle able to prognosticate its mobility relative to its neighbors. The proposed clustering scheme’s goal is forming stable clusters by increasing the cluster head lifetime and less cluster head changes number. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme has better performance than existing clustering approach, in terms of cluster head duration, cluster member duration, cluster head changes rate and control overhead.

  4. Digital audio broadcasting: Measuring techniques and coverage performance for a medium power VHF single frequency network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddocks, M. C. D.; Eng, C.; Pullen, I. R.; Green, J. A.

    1995-02-01

    The advent of digital formats such as CD has created demand for uniformly high audio quality from radio. In order to provide such high-quality stereo reception, a Digital Audio Broadcasting (DAB) system capable of reliable reception in vehicles and on portables has been developed by the European EUREKA 147 Project. As a VHF frequency allocation would appear most suitable for the introduction of terrestrial broadcasting of DAB in the United Kingdom, the BBC is undertaking a major experiment to test the EUREKA DAB system and to generate data to allow efficient planning of its transmitter network. A network of four, 1 kW e.r.p., VHF transmitters has been installed to cover the London area in England. This Report describes the experimental program and the rationale and measurement techniques behind it. The results show a wide-area coverage from the transmitter network which is in reasonable agreement with computer predictions. This indicates that the current transmitting and receiving equipment (built to the EUREKA specification) is operating in the way that would be expected from theoretical studies and simulation. The results also provide quantitative values which can be used for coverage prediction and for international co-ordination of services. Finally, the performance of the system demonstrates a number of the benefits of the EUREKA DAB system for mobile and portable reception.

  5. Clinical experience of single-port laparoscopic operation for indirect inguinal hernia in infants%婴儿腹股沟斜疝单孔腹腔镜手术的临床体会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴宣林; 李鹏; 高亚; 段怡涛; 郭正团; 郭新奎; 龚伟; 王怀杰

    2013-01-01

    目的:总结反复嵌顿的腹股沟斜疝婴儿行单孔腹腔镜疝囊高位结扎术的手术经验与临床体会.方法:回顾分析为55例腹股沟斜疝婴儿行单孔腹腔镜疝囊高位结扎术的临床资料,其中男53例,女2例,2~8个月;单侧41例(74.5%),双侧14例(25.5%).结果:55例手术均顺利完成,无需另做切口.术后婴儿顺利恢复,第2天出院,并正常进食.术后1个月复查,脐部切口愈合良好,腹部无疤痕,治疗效果与美容效果均满意.随访1个月~3年,均无复发.结论:单孔腹腔镜疝囊高位结扎术治疗婴儿腹股沟斜疝快速、安全、疗效明显可靠、创伤小、康复快、美容效果好.因婴儿腹腔容量小,腹壁较薄,穿刺Trocar时应轻柔、稳妥.可在具备相应麻醉及手术条件的医院广泛开展.%Objective: To review the operative and clinical experience of single-port laparoscopic high ligation of hernial sac in infants with repeated incarcerated indirect inguinal hernia. Methods: The clinical data of 55 infants who suffered from indirect inguinal hernia and underwent single-port laparoscopic: high ligation of hernial sac were retrospectively analyzed ( male: 53 , female: 2; age: 2 months old-8 months old). Among them,74. 5% (41/55) had unilateral hernia and 25. 5% ( 14/55 ) had bilateral hernia. 27 infants were admitted to our hospital with the chief complaint of incarcerated oblique inguinal hernia. All the infants had repeated incarcerated oblique inguinal hernia. After preoperative preparation, the infants were administrated with transumbilical laparoscopic high ligation of hernial sac via a single-port. General anesthesia used trachea cannula,endoscope was inserted through navel,and the CO2 pneumoperito-neum pressure was between 8 to 10 mmHg. Then,the state of ipsilateral inguinal hernia as well as the presence or absence of contralat-eral potential processus vaginalis was observed. A trans-inguinal hollow needle was introduced

  6. Single granule cells reliably discharge targets in the hippocampal CA3 network in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henze, Darrell A; Wittner, Lucia; Buzsáki, György

    2002-08-01

    Processing of neuronal information depends on interactions between the anatomical connectivity and cellular properties of single cells. We examined how these computational building blocks work together in the intact rat hippocampus. Single spikes in dentate granule cells, controlled intracellularly, generally failed to discharge either interneurons or CA3 pyramidal cells. In contrast, trains of spikes effectively discharged both CA3 cell types. Increasing the discharge rate of the granule cell increased the discharge probability of its target neuron and decreased the delay between the onset of a granule cell train and evoked firing in postsynaptic targets. Thus, we conclude that the granule cell to CA3 synapses are 'conditional detonators,' dependent on granule cell firing pattern. In addition, we suggest that information in single granule cells is converted into a temporal delay code in target CA3 pyramidal cells and interneurons. These data demonstrate how a neural circuit of the CNS may process information.

  7. High frequency spectral changes induced by single-pulse electric stimulation: Comparison between physiologic and pathologic networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mălîia, Mihai Dragos; Donos, Cristian; Barborica, Andrei; Mindruta, Ioana; Popa, Irina; Ene, Mirela; Beniczky, Sándor

    2017-06-01

    To investigate functional coupling between brain networks using spectral changes induced by single-pulse electric stimulation (SPES). We analyzed 20 patients with focal epilepsy, implanted with depth electrodes. SPES was applied to each pair of adjacent contacts, and responses were recorded from all other contacts. The mean response amplitude value was quantified in three time-periods after stimulation (10-60, 60-255, 255-500ms) for three frequency-ranges (Gamma, Ripples, Fast-Ripples), and compared to baseline. A total of 30,755 responses were analyzed, taking into consideration three dichotomous pairs: stimulating in primary sensory areas (S1-V1) vs. outside them, to test the interaction in physiologic networks; stimulating in seizure onset zone (SOZ) vs. non-SOZ, to test pathologic interactions; recording in default mode network (DMN) vs. non-DMN. Overall, we observed an early excitation (10-60ms) and a delayed inhibition (60-500ms). More specifically, in the delayed period, stimulation in S1-V1 produced a higher gamma-inhibition in the DMN, while stimulation in the SOZ induced a higher inhibition in the epilepsy-related higher frequencies (Ripples and Fast-Ripples). Physiologic and pathologic interactions can be assessed using spectral changes induced by SPES. This is a promising method for connectivity studies in patients with drug-resistant focal epilepsy. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Single-WalledCarbon Nanotube Networked Field-Effect Transistors Functionalized with Thiolated Heme for NO2 Sensing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏昂; 李维维; 汪静霞; 龙庆; 王钊; 熊莉; 董晓臣; 黄维

    2011-01-01

    The gas sensing properties of the single-walled carbon nanotube networked field-effect transistors for NO2 are investigated. After the modification of the gold contact electrodes of the carbon nanotube transistors with the thiolated heme, the NO2 sensing results indicate that the sensing sensitivity of the modified transistors is enhanced greatly and the sensing limit can reach below Woppb. It is also proposed that the mechanism of the sensitivity enhancement for NO2 detection mainly results from the modulation of the Schottky energy barrier at the Au/CNTs junction upon thiolated heme facilitated NO2 adsorption.%The gas sensing properties of the single-walled carbon nanotube networked field-effect transistors for NO2 are investigated.After the modification of the gold contact electrodes of the carbon nanotube transistors with the thiolated heme,the NO2 sensing results indicate that the sensing sensitivity of the modified transistors is enhanced greatly and the sensing limit can reach below 100ppb.It is also proposed that the mechanism of the sensitivity enhancement for NO2 detection mainly results from the modulation of the Schottky energy barrier at the Au/CNTs junction upon thiolated heme facilitated NO2 adsorption.

  9. Using single side-band modulation for colorless OFDM-WDM access network to alleviate Rayleigh backscattering effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Chien-Hung; Chow, Chi-Wai

    2016-05-16

    In this investigation, we demonstrate a new colorless orthogonal-frequency-division-multiplexing (OFDM) wavelength-division-multiplexing passive optical network (WDM-PON) system with Rayleigh backscattering (RB) noise mitigation. Here, only a single laser source at the central office (CO) is needed to produce the downstream signal and distributed continuous-wave (CW) carrier, which will then be modulated at the optical networking unit (ONU) to produce the upstream signal. Single side-band (SSB) modulation is used to wavelength-shift the distributed CW carrier, which will be launched into a reflective semiconductor optical amplifier (RSOA) based ONU for directly modulation of 5.15 Gbps OFDM upstream signal. To avoid the radio-frequency (RF) power fading and chromatic fiber dispersion, the four-band OFDM modulation is proposed to generate a 40 Gbps downstream when a Mach-Zehnder modulator (MZM) with -0.7 chirp parameter is used. Hence, the RB circumvention can be centralized in the CO. Moreover, the signal performances of downstream and upstream are also studied and discussed in this measurement.

  10. Determination of trans vitamin K1 in infant and medical nutritional products using AOAC Method 999.15 with modified preparation and extraction procedures and C30 bonded phase chromatography: single-laboratory validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimpf, Karen J; Thompson, Linda B; Schmitz, Daniel J

    2010-01-01

    Modifications were made to AOAC Official Method 999.15 to extend its applicability to specialty infant formulas containing hydrolyzed proteins and free amino acids, and to medical and adult nutritional products. Minor changes to the sample preparation procedure and chromatographic separation improved vitamin K1 recoveries and reduced chromatographic interferences in these types of matrixes. Currently AOAC Method 999.15 is applicable only to the determination of total vitamin K1 (phylloquione) in infant formula and milk (fluid, ready-to-feed, and powdered) containing > 1 microg vitamin K1/100 g solids. AOAC Method 999.15 recoveries of vitamin K1 were improved by altering sample sizes, extraction solvents and amounts, and the reagent addition order and amount of water or aqueous solutions added. The chromatographic separation of vitamin K1 in medical nutritional products containing canola and marine oils was improved, and trans vitamin K1 was separated from the biologically inactive cis isomer in all products with a C30 3 microm column and a 100% methanol mobile phase. With these modifications to the extraction procedure and chromatographic separation, AOAC Method 999.15 demonstrated acceptable precision and accuracy for the quantitation of trans vitamin K1 in specialty infant formulas containing hydrolyzed proteins and free amino acids, and medical and adult nutritional products. A single-laboratory validation of these minor modifications was completed. Fourteen different product matrixes were analyzed during validation. The intermediate precision averaged 4.15% RSD (range 2.52-5.81% RSD), and recovery data averaged 100.1% (range 92.2-109%).

  11. Infrared analysis of urinary calculi by a single reflection accessory and a neural network interpretation algorithm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volmer, M; de Vries, JCM; Goldschmidt, HMJ

    2001-01-01

    Background: Preparation of KBr tablets, used for Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) analysis of urinary calculus composition, is time-consuming and often hampered by pellet breakage. We developed a new F:T-IR method for urinary calculus analysis. This method makes use of a Golden Gate Single Refecti

  12. Infrared analysis of urinary calculi by a single reflection accessory and a neural network interpretation algorithm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volmer, M; de Vries, JCM; Goldschmidt, HMJ

    Background: Preparation of KBr tablets, used for Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) analysis of urinary calculus composition, is time-consuming and often hampered by pellet breakage. We developed a new F:T-IR method for urinary calculus analysis. This method makes use of a Golden Gate Single

  13. Diffusion of oriented single molecules with switchable mobility in networks of long unidimensional nanochannels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Christophe; Kirstein, Johanna; Platschek, Barbara; Bein, Thomas; Budde, Michael; Frank, Irmgard; Müllen, Klaus; Michaelis, Jens; Bräuchle, Christoph

    2008-02-06

    Single dye molecules incorporated into a mesoporous matrix can act as highly sensitive reporters of their environment. Here, we use single TDI molecules incorporated as guests into hexagonal mesoporous films containing highly structured domains. The dye molecules allow us to map the size of these domains which can extend to over 100 microm. Investigation of the translational and orientational dynamics via single molecule fluorescence techniques gives structural as well as dynamical information about the host material. In an air atmosphere, the guest molecules show no movement but perfect orientation along the pore direction. The diffusion of the TDI molecules can be induced by placing the mesoporous film in a saturated atmosphere of chloroform. In single molecule measurements with very high positioning accuracy (down to 2-3 nm) the movement of molecules could be observed even between neighboring channels. This reveals the presence of defects like dead ends closing the pores or small openings in the silica walls between neighboring channels, where molecules can change from one channel to the next. A statistical analysis demonstrates that the diffusion of TDI in the mesoporous film cannot be described with a 1D-random diffusion but is more complicated due to the presence of adsorption sites in which the TDI molecules can be occasionally trapped.

  14. Challenges of infant nutrition research: a commentary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Alan S; Hay, William W

    2016-04-22

    Considerable advances have been made in the field of infant feeding research. The last few decades have witnessed the expansion in the number of studies on the composition and benefits of human milk. The practice of breastfeeding and use of human milk represent today's reference standards for infant feeding and nutrition. Additional research regarding the benefits of breastfeeding is needed to determine which factors in human milk and in the act of breastfeeding itself, singly or in combination, are most important for producing the beneficial effects on infant growth, body composition, and neurodevelopmental outcome. We examine evidence that breastfeeding confers health benefits and offer suggestions on how best to interpret the data and present it to the public. We also describe some examples of well-designed infant nutrition studies that provide useful and clinically meaningful data regarding infant feeding, growth, and development. Because not all mothers choose to breastfeed or can breastfeed, other appropriate feeding options should be subjected to critical review to help establish how infant formula and bottle feeding can confer benefits similar to those of human milk and the act of breastfeeding. We conclude with the overarching point that the goal of infant feeding research is to promote optimal infant growth and development. Since parents/families may take different paths to feeding their infants, it is fundamental that health professionals understand how best to interpret research studies and their findings to support optimal infant growth and development.

  15. Single-Network Wide-Area Persistent Scatterer Interferometry: Algorithms with Application to Sentinel-1 InSAR Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, K.; Shau, R.; Adam, N.

    2015-12-01

    Advanced InSAR techniques, for example, Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI), allow long term deformation time series analysis with millimeter accuracy. ESA's Sentinel-1 SAR mission employs the TOPS mode as the standard mode for acquiring InSAR data. It provides a continuous and large coverage at conventional resolution. The idea is to have a wide-area PSI for mapping countries and continents. Although PSI has been successfully demonstrated and validated in the past for various applications, there are some limitations for processing a large-scale dataset. First, PSI is most effective in urban areas which have a large number of stable scatterers. For large-scale PSI, even non-urban areas need to be processed; and this requires robust algorithms for scatterer selection, network construction and inversion, and atmospheric phase removal. Second, the computational load can be very high, due to which, the processing is usually divided into overlapping blocks and merged later. This can however lead to spatial error propagation. This paper presents algorithms which have been developed for a robust PSI reference network estimation, while mitigating error propagation. Instead of dividing the scene into overlapping blocks, a single network (i.e. arcs connecting the scatterers) is created for the full scene. The relative deformation and residual DEM are estimated for the arcs using the LAMBDA estimator. The relative measurements of the network are finally integrated via least-squares inversion. Here, the sparsity of the system of linear equations is exploited to deal with big data (e.g. 10,000,000 arcs for 500,000 scatterers is a typical configuration for Sentinel-1). A QR or LU parallelizable solver is used for fast inversion. Also, variances of the estimates are calculated using a selected parallel inversion method based on LDL decomposition. Demonstration of the algorithms for large-scale deformation monitoring is provided using available Sentinel-1 data for Germany.

  16. Determination of Chloride in Infant Formula and Adult/Pediatric Nutritional Formula by Potentiometric Titration: Single-Laboratory Validation, First Action 2015.07.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolong, Wu; Fengxia, Zhang; Xiaoning, Ma; Fengjuan, Zhou; Brunelle, Sharon L

    2016-01-01

    A potentiometric method for determination of chloride was validated against AOAC Standard Method Performance Requirement (SMPR(®)) 2014.015. Ten AOAC Stakeholder Panel on Infant Formula and Adult Nutritionals (SPIFAN) matrixes, including National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Standard Reference Material (SRM) 1849a, were tested in duplicate on 6 independent days. The repeatability (RSDr) ranged from 0.43 to 1.34%, and the intermediate reproducibility (RSDiR) ranged from 0.80 to 3.04%. All results for NIST SRM 1849a were within the range of the certified concentration (701 ± 17 mg/100 g). Recovery was demonstrated with two overspike levels, 50 and 100%, in the 10 SPIFAN matrixes. Samples were tested in duplicate on 3 different days, and all results were within the SMPR requirement of 95 to 105%. The LOQs of the method for powdered products and ready-to-feed or reconstituted products were 20 mg/100 g and 2.2 mg/100 mL, respectively. A wide analytical range from the LOQ to 99.5% chlorine content can be reached with an appropriate dilution factor, but in practice, the upper analytical value observed in routine matrix testing was approximately 1080 mg/100 g in skim milk powder. This is a rapid, simple, and reliable chlorine-testing method applicable to infant formula, adult nutritionals, and ingredients used in these dairy-based products, such as skim milk powder, desalted whey powder, whey protein powder, and whole milk powder.

  17. Dentist material selection for single-unit crowns: Findings from the National Dental Practice-Based Research Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhija, Sonia K; Lawson, Nathaniel C; Gilbert, Gregg H; Litaker, Mark S; McClelland, Jocelyn A; Louis, David R; Gordan, Valeria V; Pihlstrom, Daniel J; Meyerowitz, Cyril; Mungia, Rahma; McCracken, Michael S

    2016-12-01

    Dentists enrolled in the National Dental Practice-Based Research Network completed a study questionnaire about techniques and materials used for single-unit crowns and an enrollment questionnaire about dentist/practice characteristics. The objectives were to quantify dentists' material recommendations and test the hypothesis that dentist's and practice's characteristics are significantly associated with these recommendations. Surveyed dentists responded to a contextual scenario asking what material they would use for a single-unit crown on an anterior and posterior tooth. Material choices included: full metal, porcelain-fused-to-metal (PFM), all-zirconia, layered zirconia, lithium disilicate, leucite-reinforced ceramic, or other. 1777 of 2132 eligible dentists responded (83%). The top 3 choices for anterior crowns were lithium disilicate (54%), layered zirconia (17%), and leucite-reinforced glass ceramic (13%). There were significant differences (p<0.05) by dentist's gender, race, years since graduation, practice type, region, practice busyness, hours worked/week, and location type. The top 3 choices for posterior crowns were all-zirconia (32%), PFM (31%), and lithium disilicate (21%). There were significant differences (p<0.05) by dentist's gender, practice type, region, practice busyness, insurance coverage, hours worked/week, and location type. Network dentists use a broad range of materials for single-unit crowns for anterior and posterior teeth, adopting newer materials into their practices as they become available. Material choices are significantly associated with dentist's and practice's characteristics. Decisions for crown material may be influenced by factors unrelated to tooth and patient variables. Dentists should be cognizant of this when developing an evidence-based approach to selecting crown material. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Chaos and robustness in a single family of genetic oscillatory networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Fu

    Full Text Available Genetic oscillatory networks can be mathematically modeled with delay differential equations (DDEs. Interpreting genetic networks with DDEs gives a more intuitive understanding from a biological standpoint. However, it presents a problem mathematically, for DDEs are by construction infinitely-dimensional and thus cannot be analyzed using methods common for systems of ordinary differential equations (ODEs. In our study, we address this problem by developing a method for reducing infinitely-dimensional DDEs to two- and three-dimensional systems of ODEs. We find that the three-dimensional reductions provide qualitative improvements over the two-dimensional reductions. We find that the reducibility of a DDE corresponds to its robustness. For non-robust DDEs that exhibit high-dimensional dynamics, we calculate analytic dimension lines to predict the dependence of the DDEs' correlation dimension on parameters. From these lines, we deduce that the correlation dimension of non-robust DDEs grows linearly with the delay. On the other hand, for robust DDEs, we find that the period of oscillation grows linearly with delay. We find that DDEs with exclusively negative feedback are robust, whereas DDEs with feedback that changes its sign are not robust. We find that non-saturable degradation damps oscillations and narrows the range of parameter values for which oscillations exist. Finally, we deduce that natural genetic oscillators with highly-regular periods likely have solely negative feedback.

  19. Metro Network Security Assessment: Network—Single Line—Network%地铁网络安全评估:网络—单线—网络

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙章

    2013-01-01

    are divided into 5 grades of the acceptable, what you need to pay attention to, serious, very serious and catastrophic. Explaining that in general, it is acceptable for the operational security of Line 1. The assessment groups put forward the covintermeasures and proposals. The third-party security assessment for rail transit systems is just as carrying out a routine health check for students. The security assessments for entire rail network should focus on controlling the widespread risk of every line and the connector risk of lines, and the safety assessment for the single line is just as carrying out the physical examination for students one by one, focusing on personalities and characteristics, in a sense, the latter is more precise and more stringent. The relations between the two are complementary to each other and push-pull forward. By consolidating them again after conducting a security assessment in every single line, we can promote the security management for the whole rail transit network operations to a new height and accuracy. This process of the negation of negation will run through the entire life-cycle of rail transport operations.

  20. Arduino Based Infant Monitoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhanah Mohamad Ishak, Daing Noor; Jamil, Muhammad Mahadi Abdul; Ambar, Radzi

    2017-08-01

    This paper proposes a system for monitoring infant in an incubator and records the relevant data into a computer. The data recorded by the system can be further referred by the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) personnel for diagnostic or research purposes. The study focuses on designing the monitoring system that consists of an incubator equipped with humidity sensor to measure the humidity level, and a pulse sensor that can be attached on an infant placed inside the incubator to monitor infant’s heart pulse. The measurement results which are the pulse rate and humidity level are sent to the PC via Arduino microcontroller. The advantage of this system will be that in the future, it may also enable doctors to closely monitor the infant condition through local area network and internet. This work is aimed as an example of an application that contributes towards remote tele-health monitoring system.

  1. Changes in brain magnetic resonance imaging patterns for preterm infants after introduction of a magnetic resonance-compatible incubator coil system: 5-year experience at a single institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hyun-Hae; Kim, In-One; Cheon, Jung-Eun; Choi, Young Hun; Lee, So Mi; Kim, Woo Sun

    2016-09-01

    To evaluate the changes in using patterns of brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in preterm infants after introduction of a MR-compatible incubator coil system. Brain MRIs for preterm infants with the MR-compatible incubator coil from March 2010 to July 2014 (n=154, group A) were compared with MRIs prior to the introduction of the incubator coil, from March 2005 to February 2010 (n=65, group B). Clinical data, MRI findings, acquisition time, and incidence of adverse events during the study were retrospectively reviewed. For the qualitative analysis of the examinations, the presence of motion artefact, spatial resolution, and overall image quality were assessed. Signal uniformity of each sequence was evaluated for a quantitative comparison. Comparing with group B, Group A was significantly younger (36+3 vs. 38+3 weeks, p<0.001), had a significantly lower body weight (2006.6 and 2390.3g respectively; p<0.001) at the time of MRI, and had shorter time interval (54.3±2.6 vs. 70.5±4.4days, p=0.002) between birth and examination. Abnormal findings were noted more frequently in group A (n=100, 65%) than in B (n=24, 37%. p=0.001) with a significantly higher incidence of diffusion restriction (n=21, 13.6% vs. n=4, 6.2%, p=0.034). Mean image acquisition time was significantly shorter in group A (21.4±4.5 vs. 25.4±5.5min, p<0.001) with significant lower adverse events during MRI (n=26, 40 vs. n=6, 3.9%, p<0.001). Group A exhibited significantly less motion artefact, better spatial resolution, and better overall image quality with decreased signal variation than group B (all p<0.001). Application of the MR-compatible incubator for preterm brain MRI evaluation is safer and provides more timely evaluation of preterm infants with better image quality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Osteopenia - premature infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neonatal rickets; Brittle bones - premature infants; Weak bones - premature infants; Osteopenia of prematurity ... the baby. This helps the baby grow. A premature infant may not receive the proper amount of ...

  3. Infant Formula and Fluorosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... child. Does using infant formula increase risk for dental fluorosis? Because most infant formulas contain low levels of ... I use affect my child’s chance of getting dental fluorosis? Three types of infant formula are available in ...

  4. Similarity and rules United: similarity- and rule-based processing in a single neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verguts, Tom; Fias, Wim

    2009-03-01

    A central controversy in cognitive science concerns the roles of rules versus similarity. To gain some leverage on this problem, we propose that rule- versus similarity-based processes can be characterized as extremes in a multidimensional space that is composed of at least two dimensions: the number of features (Pothos, 2005) and the physical presence of features. The transition of similarity- to rule-based processing is conceptualized as a transition in this space. To illustrate this, we show how a neural network model uses input features (and in this sense produces similarity-based responses) when it has a low learning rate or in the early phases of training, but it switches to using self-generated, more abstract features (and in this sense produces rule-based responses) when it has a higher learning rate or is in the later phases of training. Relations with categorization and the psychology of learning are pointed out.

  5. Simulation of Networked Control System based on Smith Compensator and Single Neuron Incomplete Differential Forward PID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haitao Zhang

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In the networked control system with random time delay in forward and feedback channels, a kind of controller based on Smith compensator and signal neuron incomplete differential forward PID is presented. First, using root locus method and simulink simulation software, the influences of network’s time delay on the system stability and dynamic performance are analyzed. Then, combined with incomplete differential forward PID control algorithm, Smith compensation model is established. Compared with existing Smith compensator, the proposed control model is easy to be implemented, and can also get better control performance in the case of miss-matching compensator model. Finally, the simulation research on a DC motor is done, and the simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  6. Collecting data from a sensor network in a single-board computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casciati, F.; Casciati, S.; Chen, Z.-C.; Faravelli, L.; Vece, M.

    2015-07-01

    The EU-FP7 project SPARTACUS, currently in progress, sees the international cooperation of several partners toward the design and implementation of a satellite based asset tracking for supporting emergency management in crisis operations. Due to the emergency environment, one has to rely on a low power consumption wireless communication. Therefore, the communication hardware and software must be designed to match requirements which can only be foreseen at the level of more or less likely scenarios. The latter aspect suggests a deep use of a simulator (instead of a real network of sensors) to cover extreme situations. The former power consumption remark suggests the use of a minimal computer (Raspberry Pi) as data collector. In this paper, the results of a broad simulation campaign are reported in order to investigate the accuracy of the received data and the global power consumption for each of the considered scenarios.

  7. Prognos is of living donor liver transplantation performed during different periods in infants with biliary atresia: a single-center experience with 101 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HUA Xiangwei

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo compared the prognosis between infants with biliary atresia (BA who underwent living donor liver transplantation (LDLT during 2006-2009 and 2010-2012 in the Department of Liver Surgery, Renji Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and to evaluate the prognos is of LDLT performed during different periods. MethodsA retrospective analysis was performed on the clinical data of 101 infants with BA who underwent LDLT from October 2006 to December 2012. These patients were divided into 2006-2009 group and 2010-2012 group according to the year the procedure was performed. The two groups were compared in terms of preoperative general data, intraoperative status, and treatment outcome. The Kaplan-Meier method was used for survival analysis; measurement data were analyzed by t test, and enumeration data were analyzed by Fisher exact probability test and chi-square test. ResultsThe preoperative general data showed no significant difference between the two groups. Compared with the 2006-2009 group, the 2010-2012 group had significantly less intraoperative blood loss (t=2.05, P=0.04, a significantly shorter cold ischemia time of donor liver (t=3.25, P<0.01, and significantly lower incidence of postoperative biliary complications (χ2=4.27, P=0.04, pulmonary infection (χ2=4.47, P=0.03, and acute rejection (P=0.03. The 2010-2012 group had significantly improved survival compared with the 2006-2009 group; the 1 and 2 year cumulative survival rates for the 2010-2012 group were 884% and 88.4%, respectively, versus 84.4% and 75% for the 2006-2009 group. ConclusionThe development of surgical techniques, improvement in perioperative management, and standardized follow-up can significantly increase the success rate of surgery and survival rate and reduce postoperative complications in BA patients.

  8. Optical implementation of a single-layer finite impulse response neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Paulo E. X.; Pati, G. S.; Wagner, Kelvin H.

    2000-05-01

    This paper demonstrates a space integrating optical implementation of a single-layer FIRNN. A scrolling spatial light modulator is used for representing the spatio-temporal input plane, while the weights are implemented by the adaptive grating formation in a photorefractive crystal. Differential heterodyning is used for low-noise bipolar output detection and an active stabilization technique using a lock-in amplifier and a piezo-electric actuator is adopted for long term interferometric stability. Simulations and initial experimental results for adaptive sonar broadband beamforming are presented.

  9. Random Networks and Aligned Arrays of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes for Electronic Device Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-08

    roles of hydrogen and oxygen. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 2005, 102, 16141 16145. [15] Cao, Q.; Hur, S. -H.; Zhu, Z. -T.; Sun , Y.; Wang, C...H. S.; Cao, Q.; Meitl, M. A.; Khang , D. Y.; Rogers, J. A. Printed multilayer superstructures of al igned single-walled carbon nanotubes for...E.; Meitl, M. A.; Sun , Y. G.; Park, J. U.; Shir, D. J. L.; Nam, Y. S.; Jeon, S.; Rogers, J. A. Micro- and nanopatterning techniques for organic

  10. Design and implementation of an adaptive single pole autoreclosure technique for transmission lines using artificial neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitton, D.S.; Dunn, R.W.; Aggarwal, R.K.; Johns, A.T. [Univ. of Bath (United Kingdom). School of Electronic and Electrical Engineering; Bennett, A. [Reyrolle Protection, Hebburn (United Kingdom)

    1996-04-01

    Adaptive Single Pole AutoReclosure (SPAR) offers many advantages over conventional techniques. In the case of transient faults, the secondary arc extinction time can be accurately determined and in the case of a permanent fault, breaker reclosure can be avoided. This paper describes, in some detail, the design and implementation of a SPAR technique using Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs). The design described includes special methods for extracting features from post-circuit break opening fault data, which is a prerequisite for setting up training data sets. The technique is then implemented in hardware based on a high performance T800 transputer system and some results obtained from laboratory tests of this equipment are presented.

  11. Mixed-scale channel networks including Kingfisher-beak-shaped 3D microfunnels for efficient single particle entrapment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yunjeong; Lim, Yeongjin; Shin, Heungjoo

    2016-06-01

    Reproducible research results for nanofluidics and their applications require viable fabrication technologies to produce nanochannels integrated with microchannels that can guide fluid flow and analytes into/out of the nanochannels. We present the simple fabrication of mixed-scale polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) channel networks consisting of nanochannels and microchannels via a single molding process using a monolithic mixed-scale carbon mold. The monolithic carbon mold is fabricated by pyrolyzing a polymer mold patterned by photolithography. During pyrolysis, the polymer mold shrinks by ~90%, which enables nanosized carbon molds to be produced without a complex nanofabrication process. Because of the good adhesion between the polymer mold and the Si substrate, non-uniform volume reduction occurs during pyrolysis resulting in the formation of curved carbon mold side walls. These curved side walls and the relatively low surface energy of the mold provide efficient demolding of the PDMS channel networks. In addition, the trigonal prismatic shape of the polymer is converted into to a Kingfisher-beak-shaped carbon structure due to the non-uniform volume reduction. The transformation of this mold architecture produces a PDMS Kingfisher-beak-shaped 3D microfunnel that connects the microchannel and the nanochannel smoothly. The smooth reduction in the cross-sectional area of the 3D microfunnels enables efficient single microparticle trapping at the nanochannel entrance; this is beneficial for studies of cell transfection.Reproducible research results for nanofluidics and their applications require viable fabrication technologies to produce nanochannels integrated with microchannels that can guide fluid flow and analytes into/out of the nanochannels. We present the simple fabrication of mixed-scale polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) channel networks consisting of nanochannels and microchannels via a single molding process using a monolithic mixed-scale carbon mold. The monolithic

  12. Visualization of single-wall carbon nanotube (SWNT) networks in conductive polystyrene nanocomposites by charge contrast imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loos, Joachim [Laboratory of Materials and Interface Chemistry, Eindhoven University of Technology, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands) and Laboratory of Polymer Technology, Eindhoven University of Technology, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands) and Dutch Polymer Institute, Eindhoven University of Technology, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands)]. E-mail: j.loos@tue.nl; Alexeev, Alexander [Laboratory of Materials and Interface Chemistry, Eindhoven University of Technology, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); NT-MDT Ltd., 124460, Moscow (Russian Federation); Grossiord, Nadia [Dutch Polymer Institute, Eindhoven University of Technology, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Laboratory of Polymer Chemistry, Eindhoven University of Technology, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Koning, Cor E. [Dutch Polymer Institute, Eindhoven University of Technology, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Laboratory of Polymer Chemistry, Eindhoven University of Technology, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Regev, Oren [Dutch Polymer Institute, Eindhoven University of Technology, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Laboratory of Polymer Chemistry, Eindhoven University of Technology, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Department of Chemical Engineering and The Ilse Katz Center for Meso and Nanoscale Science and Technology, Ben-Gurion University in the Negev, 84105 Beer-Sheva (Israel)

    2005-09-15

    The morphology of conductive nanocomposites consisting of low concentration of single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNT) and polystyrene (PS) has been studied using atomic force microscopy (AFM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and, in particular, scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Application of charge contrast imaging in SEM allows visualization of the overall SWNT dispersion within the polymer matrix as well as the identification of individual or bundled SWNTs at high resolution. The contrast mechanism involved will be discussed. In conductive nanocomposites the SWNTs are homogeneously dispersed within the polymer matrix and form a network. Beside fairly straight SWNTs, strongly bended SWNTs have been observed. However, for samples with SWNT concentrations below the percolation threshold, the common overall charging behavior of an insulating material is observed preventing the detailed morphological investigation of the sample.

  13. Visualization of single-wall carbon nanotube (SWNT) networks in conductive polystyrene nanocomposites by charge contrast imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loos, Joachim; Alexeev, Alexander; Grossiord, Nadia; Koning, Cor E; Regev, Oren

    2005-09-01

    The morphology of conductive nanocomposites consisting of low concentration of single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNT) and polystyrene (PS) has been studied using atomic force microscopy (AFM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and, in particular, scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Application of charge contrast imaging in SEM allows visualization of the overall SWNT dispersion within the polymer matrix as well as the identification of individual or bundled SWNTs at high resolution. The contrast mechanism involved will be discussed. In conductive nanocomposites the SWNTs are homogeneously dispersed within the polymer matrix and form a network. Beside fairly straight SWNTs, strongly bended SWNTs have been observed. However, for samples with SWNT concentrations below the percolation threshold, the common overall charging behavior of an insulating material is observed preventing the detailed morphological investigation of the sample.

  14. Treatment recommendations for single-unit crowns: Findings from The National Dental Practice-Based Research Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCracken, Michael S; Louis, David R; Litaker, Mark S; Minyé, Helena M; Mungia, Rahma; Gordan, Valeria V; Marshall, Don G; Gilbert, Gregg H

    2016-11-01

    The objectives of this study were to quantify practitioner variation in likelihood to recommend a crown and test whether certain dentist, practice, and clinical factors are associated significantly with this likelihood. Dentists in The National Dental Practice-Based Research Network completed a questionnaire about indications for single-unit crowns. In 4 clinical scenarios, practitioners ranked their likelihood of recommending a single-unit crown. The authors used these responses to calculate a dentist-specific crown factor (range, 0-12). A higher score implied a higher likelihood of recommending a crown. The authors tested certain characteristics for statistically significant associations with the crown factor. A total of 1,777 of 2,132 eligible dentists (83%) responded. Practitioners were most likely to recommend crowns for teeth that were fractured, cracked, or endodontically treated or had a broken restoration. Practitioners overwhelmingly recommended crowns for posterior teeth treated endodontically (94%). Practice owners, practitioners in the Southwest, and practitioners with a balanced workload were more likely to recommend crowns, as were practitioners who used optical scanners for digital impressions. There is substantial variation in the likelihood of recommending a crown. Although consensus exists in some areas (posterior endodontic treatment), variation dominates in others (size of an existing restoration). Recommendations varied according to type of practice, network region, practice busyness, patient insurance status, and use of optical scanners. Recommendations for crowns may be influenced by factors unrelated to tooth and patient variables. A concern for tooth fracture-whether from endodontic treatment, fractured teeth, or large restorations-prompted many clinicians to recommend crowns. Copyright © 2016 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Task-dependent changes in cross-level coupling between single neurons and oscillatory activity in multiscale networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan T Canolty

    Full Text Available Understanding the principles governing the dynamic coordination of functional brain networks remains an important unmet goal within neuroscience. How do distributed ensembles of neurons transiently coordinate their activity across a variety of spatial and temporal scales? While a complete mechanistic account of this process remains elusive, evidence suggests that neuronal oscillations may play a key role in this process, with different rhythms influencing both local computation and long-range communication. To investigate this question, we recorded multiple single unit and local field potential (LFP activity from microelectrode arrays implanted bilaterally in macaque motor areas. Monkeys performed a delayed center-out reach task either manually using their natural arm (Manual Control, MC or under direct neural control through a brain-machine interface (Brain Control, BC. In accord with prior work, we found that the spiking activity of individual neurons is coupled to multiple aspects of the ongoing motor beta rhythm (10-45 Hz during both MC and BC, with neurons exhibiting a diversity of coupling preferences. However, here we show that for identified single neurons, this beta-to-rate mapping can change in a reversible and task-dependent way. For example, as beta power increases, a given neuron may increase spiking during MC but decrease spiking during BC, or exhibit a reversible shift in the preferred phase of firing. The within-task stability of coupling, combined with the reversible cross-task changes in coupling, suggest that task-dependent changes in the beta-to-rate mapping play a role in the transient functional reorganization of neural ensembles. We characterize the range of task-dependent changes in the mapping from beta amplitude, phase, and inter-hemispheric phase differences to the spike rates of an ensemble of simultaneously-recorded neurons, and discuss the potential implications that dynamic remapping from oscillatory activity to

  16. Latent modulation: a basis for non-disruptive promotion of two incompatible behaviors by a single network state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dacks, Andrew M; Weiss, Klaudiusz R

    2013-02-27

    Behavioral states often preferentially enhance specific classes of behavior and suppress incompatible behaviors. In the nervous system, this may involve upregulation of the efficacy of neural modules that mediate responses to one stimulus and suppression of modules that generate antagonistic or incompatible responses to another stimulus. In Aplysia, prestimulation of egestive inputs [esophageal nerve (EN)] facilitates subsequent EN-elicited egestive responses and weakens ingestive responses to ingestive inputs [Cerebral-Buccal Interneuron (CBI-2)]. However, a single state can also promote incompatible behaviors in response to different stimuli. This is the case in Aplysia, where prestimulation of CBI-2 inputs not only enhances subsequent CBI-2-elicited ingestive responses, but also strengthens EN-elicited egestive responses. We used the modularly organized feeding network of Aplysia to characterize the organizational principles that allow a single network state to promote two opposing behaviors, ingestion and egestion, without the two interfering with each other. We found that the CBI-2 prestimulation-induced state upregulates the excitability of neuron B65 which, as a member of the egestive module, increases the strength of egestive responses. Furthermore, we found that this upregulation is likely mediated by the actions of the neuropeptides FCAP (Feeding Circuit Activating Peptide) and CP2 (Cerebral Peptide 2). This increased excitability is mediated by a form of modulation that we refer to as "latent modulation" because it is established during stimulation of CBI-2, which does not activate B65. However, when B65 is recruited into EN-elicited egestive responses, the effects of the latent modulation are expressed as a higher B65 firing rate and a resultant strengthening of the egestive response.

  17. Design and Implementation of an Enhanced 802.11 MAC Architecture for Single-Hop Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph Bernasconi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to its extreme simplicity and flexibility, the IEEE 802.11 standard is the dominant technology to implement both infrastructure-based WLANs and single-hop ad hoc networks. In spite of its popularity, there is a vast literature demonstrating the shortcomings of using the 802.11 technology in such environments, such as dramatic degradation of network capacity as contention increases and vulnerability to external interferences. Therefore, the design of enhancements and optimizations for the original 802.11 MAC protocol has been a very active research area in the last years. However, all these modifications to the 802.11 MAC protocol were validated only through simulations and/or analytical investigations. In this paper, we present a very unique work as we have designed a flexible hardware/software platform, fully compatible with current implementations of the IEEE 802.11 technology, which we have used to concretely implement and test an enhanced 802.11 backoff algorithm. Our experimental results clearly show that the enhanced mechanism outperforms the standard 802.11 MAC protocol in real scenarios.

  18. Inhibition of GSK3 by lithium, from single molecules to signaling networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laure eFreland

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available For more than 60 years, the mood stabilizer lithium has been used alone or in combination for the treatment of bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, depression and other mental illnesses. Despite this long history, the molecular mechanisms trough which lithium regulates behavior are still poorly understood. Among several targets, lithium has been shown to directly inhibit glycogen synthase kinase 3 alpha and beta (GSK3α and GSK3β. However in vivo, lithium also inhibits GSK3 by regulating the activity of other mechanisms like the formation of a signaling complex comprised of beta-arrestin 2 and Akt. Here, we provide an overview of in vivo evidence supporting a role for inhibition of GSK3 in some behavioral effects of lithium. We also explore how regulation of GSK3 by lithium within a signaling network involving several molecular targets and cell surface receptors (e.g. G protein coupled receptors and receptor tyrosine kinases may provide cues to its relative pharmacological selectivity and its effects on disease mechanisms. A better understanding of these intricate actions of lithium at a systems level may allow the rational development of better mood stabilizer drugs with enhanced selectivity, efficacy and lesser side effects.

  19. Three-dimensional Aerographite-GaN hybrid networks: Single step fabrication of porous and mechanically flexible materials for multifunctional applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuchardt, Arnim; Braniste, Tudor; Mishra, Yogendra K.; Deng, Mao; Mecklenburg, Matthias; Stevens-Kalceff, Marion A.; Raevschi, Simion; Schulte, Karl; Kienle, Lorenz; Adelung, Rainer; Tiginyanu, Ion

    2015-03-01

    Three dimensional (3D) elastic hybrid networks built from interconnected nano- and microstructure building units, in the form of semiconducting-carbonaceous materials, are potential candidates for advanced technological applications. However, fabrication of these 3D hybrid networks by simple and versatile methods is a challenging task due to the involvement of complex and multiple synthesis processes. In this paper, we demonstrate the growth of Aerographite-GaN 3D hybrid networks using ultralight and extremely porous carbon based Aerographite material as templates by a single step hydride vapor phase epitaxy process. The GaN nano- and microstructures grow on the surface of Aerographite tubes and follow the network architecture of the Aerographite template without agglomeration. The synthesized 3D networks are integrated with the properties from both, i.e., nanoscale GaN structures and Aerographite in the form of flexible and semiconducting composites which could be exploited as next generation materials for electronic, photonic, and sensors applications.

  20. Impression Techniques Used for Single-Unit Crowns: Findings from the National Dental Practice-Based Research Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCracken, Michael S; Louis, David R; Litaker, Mark S; Minyé, Helena M; Oates, Thomas; Gordan, Valeria V; Marshall, Don G; Meyerowitz, Cyril; Gilbert, Gregg H

    2017-01-11

    To: (1) determine which impression and gingival displacement techniques practitioners use for single-unit crowns on natural teeth; and (2) test whether certain dentist and practice characteristics are significantly associated with the use of these techniques. Dentists participating in the National Dental Practice-Based Research Network were eligible for this survey study. The study used a questionnaire developed by clinicians, statisticians, laboratory technicians, and survey experts. The questionnaire was pretested via cognitive interviewing with a regionally diverse group of practitioners. The survey included questions regarding gingival displacement and impression techniques. Survey responses were compared by dentist and practice characteristics using ANOVA. The response rate was 1777 of 2132 eligible dentists (83%). Regarding gingival displacement, most clinicians reported using either a single cord (35%) or dual cord (35%) technique. About 16% of respondents preferred an injectable retraction technique. For making impressions, the most frequently used techniques and materials are: poly(vinyl siloxane), 77%; polyether, 12%; optical/digital, 9%. A dental auxiliary or assistant made the final impression 2% of the time. Regarding dual-arch impression trays, 23% of practitioners report they typically use a metal frame tray, 60% use a plastic frame, and 16% do not use a dual-arch tray. Clinicians using optical impression techniques were more likely to be private practice owners or associates. This study documents current techniques for gingival displacement and making impressions for crowns. Certain dentist and practice characteristics are significantly associated with these techniques. © 2017 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  1. The Algorithm of Single-epoch Integer Ambiguity Resolution between Middle-range BDS Network RTK Reference Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHU Huizhong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The algorithm of double frequency carrier phase integer ambiguity resolution between middle-range reference stations at single-epoch is proposed. The ambiguity candidates of B1 frequency and B2 frequency carrier phase are selected by linear relationship between carrier phase ambiguities of B1 frequency and B2 frequency carrier phase. The double difference ionosphere delay errors can be calculated by the ambiguity candidates of double frequency carrier phase. Then the linear calculation model of double difference ionosphere delay errors can be established by the double difference ionosphere delay errors according to the spatial relationship between the ionosphere delay errors of each satellites on reference stations. And the ambiguities of B1 frequency and B2 frequency carrier phase are searched and fixed in the establishing of the linear calculation model of double difference ionosphere delay errors. This algorithm is tested by the data of BDS CORS network. The results indicate that the double difference integer ambiguity between reference stations can be fixed at single-epoch, and this algorithm avoids the effect of cycle clips.

  2. Network type sp3 boron-based single-ion conducting polymer electrolytes for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Kuirong; Wang, Shuanjin; Ren, Shan; Han, Dongmei; Xiao, Min; Meng, Yuezhong

    2017-08-01

    Electrolytes play a vital role in modulating lithium ion battery performance. An outstanding electrolyte should possess both high ionic conductivity and unity lithium ion transference number. Here, we present a facile method to fabricate a network type sp3 boron-based single-ion conducting polymer electrolyte (SIPE) with high ionic conductivity and lithium ion transference number approaching unity. The SIPE was synthesized by coupling of lithium bis(allylmalonato)borate (LiBAMB) and pentaerythritol tetrakis(2-mercaptoacetate) (PETMP) via one-step photoinitiated in situ thiol-ene click reaction in plasticizers. Influence of kinds and content of plasticizers was investigated and the optimized electrolytes show both outstanding ionic conductivity (1.47 × 10-3 S cm-1 at 25 °C) and high lithium transference number of 0.89. This ionic conductivity is among the highest ionic conductivity exhibited by SIPEs reported to date. Its electrochemical stability window is up to 5.2 V. More importantly, Li/LiFePO4 cells with the prepared single-ion conducting electrolytes as the electrolyte as well as the separator display highly reversible capacity and excellent rate capacity under room temperature. It also demonstrates excellent long-term stability and reliability as it maintains capacity of 124 mA h g-1 at 1 C rate even after 500 cycles without obvious decay.

  3. Missed connections: A case study of the social networks of physics doctoral students in a single department

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knaub, Alexis Victoria

    Gender disparity is an issue among the many science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields. Although many previous studies examine gender issues in STEM as an aggregate discipline, there are unique issues to each of the fields that are considered STEM fields. Some fields, such as physics, have fewer women graduating with degrees than other fields. This suggests that women's experiences vary by STEM field. The majority of previous research also examines gender and other disparities at either the nationwide or individual level. This project entailed social network analysis through survey and interview data to examine a single physics department's doctoral students in order to provide a comprehensive look at student social experiences. In addition to examining gender, other demographic variables were studied to see if the results are truly associated with gender; these variables include race/ethnicity, year in program, student type, relationship status, research type, undergraduate institute, and subfield. Data were examined to determine if there are relationships to social connections and outcome variables such as persistence in completing the degree and the time to degree. Data collected on faculty were used to rank faculty members; data such as h-indices and number of students graduate over the past 5 years were collected. Fifty-five (55) of 110 possible participants completed the survey; forty-three are male, and twelve are female. Twenty-eight of the fifty-five survey participants were interview; twenty-three are male, and five are female. Findings for peer networks include that peer networks are established during the first year and do not change drastically as one progresses in the program. Geographic location within the campus affects socializing with peers. Connections to fellow students are not necessarily reciprocated; the maximum percentage of reciprocated connections is 60%. The number of connections one has varies by network purpose

  4. Does Sentential Prosody Help Infants Organize and Remember Speech Information?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, Denise R.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Two experiments examined whether infants might use the prosody of sentences to organize and remember spoken information. Results suggest that infants better remember phonetic properties of words prosodically linked together within a single clause rather than a list, and words that are prosodically linked within a single clausal unit as opposed to…

  5. Analysis of Vitamin D2 and Vitamin D3 in Fortified Milk Powders and Infant and Nutritional Formulas by Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry: Single-Laboratory Validation, First Action 2016.05.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Brendon D; Abernethy, Grant A; Green, Rebecca J; Indyk, Harvey E

    2016-09-01

    A method for the determination of vitamin D2 and vitamin D3 in fortified milk powders and infant and adult nutritional formulas is described. Samples are saponified at high temperature and lipid-soluble components are extracted into isooctane. A portion of the isooctane layer is transferred and washed, and an aliquot of 4-phenyl-1,2,4-triazoline-3,5-dione is added to derivatize the vitamin D to form a high-molecular-mass, easily ionizable adduct. The vitamin D adduct is then re-extracted into a small volume of acetonitrile and analyzed by RPLC. Detection is by tandem MS, using multiple reaction monitoring. Stable isotope-labeled vitamin D2 and vitamin D3 internal standards are used for quantitation to correct for losses in extraction and any variation in derivatization and ionization efficiencies. A single-laboratory validation of the method using AOAC Stakeholder Panel on Infant Formula and Adult Nutritionals (SPIFAN) kit samples was performed and compared with parameters defined according to the vitamin D Standard Method Performance Requirements (SMPR(®)). Linearity was demonstrated over the range specified in the SMPR, with the LOD being estimated at below that required. Method spike recovery (vitamin D2, 97.0-99.2%; and vitamin D3, 96.0-101.0%) and RSDr (vitamin D3, 1.5-5.2%) were evaluated and compared favorably with limits in the vitamin D SMPR. Acceptable bias for vitamin D3 was demonstrated against both the certified value for National Institute of Standards and Technology 1849a Standard Reference material (P(α = 0.05) = 0.25) and AOAC INTERNATIONAL reference method 2002.05 (P(α = 0.05) = 0.09). The method was demonstrated to meet the requirements of the vitamin D SMPR as defined by SPIFAN, and was recently approved for Official First Action status by the AOAC Expert Review Panel on SPIFAN Nutrient Methods.

  6. Tensions of network security and collaborative work practice: understanding a single sign-on deployment in a regional hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckle, Rosa R; Lutters, Wayne G

    2011-08-01

    Healthcare providers and their IT staff, working in an effort to balance appropriate accessibility with stricter security mandates, are considering the use of a single network sign-on approach for authentication and password management. Single sign-on (SSO) promises to improve usability of authentication for multiple-system users, increase compliance, and help curb system maintenance costs. However, complexities are introduced when SSO is placed within a collaborative environment. These complexities include unanticipated workflow implications that introduce greater security vulnerability for the individual user. OBJECTIVES AND METHODOLOGY: In this work, we examine the challenges of implementing a single sign-on authentication technology in a hospital environment. The aim of the study was to document the factors that affected SSO adoption within the context of use. The ultimate goal is to better inform the design of usable authentication systems within collaborative healthcare work sites. The primary data collection techniques used are ethnographically informed - observation, contextual interviews, and document review. The study included a cross-section of individuals from various departments and varying rolls. These participants were a mix of both clinical and administrative staff, as well as the Information Technology group. The field work revealed fundamental mis-matches between the technology and routine work practices that will significantly impact its effective adoption. While single sign-on was effective in the administrative offices, SSO was not a good fit for collaborative areas. The collaborative needs of the clinical staff unearthed tensions in its implementation. An analysis of the findings revealed that the workflow, activities, and physical environment of the clinical areas create increased security vulnerabilities for the individual user. The clinical users were cognizant of these vulnerabilities and this created resistance to the implementation due

  7. Pt nanoparticle modified single walled carbon nanotube network electrodes for electrocatalysis: control of the specific surface area over three orders of magnitude

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miller, T.S.; Sansuk, S.; Lai, S.C.S.; Macpherson, J.V.; Unwin, P.R.

    2015-01-01

    The electrodeposition of Pt nanoparticles (NPs) on two-dimensional single walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) network electrodes is investigated as a means of tailoring electrode surfaces with a well-defined amount of electrocatalytic material. Both Pt NP deposition and electrocatalytic studies are undert

  8. Near-Optimal Control for Nonzero-Sum Differential Games of Continuous-Time Nonlinear Systems Using Single-Network ADP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huaguang; Cui, Lili; Luo, Yanhong

    2013-02-01

    In this paper, a near-optimal control scheme is proposed to solve the nonzero-sum differential games of continuous-time nonlinear systems. The single-network adaptive dynamic programming (ADP) is utilized to obtain the optimal control policies which make the cost functions reach the Nash equilibrium of nonzero-sum differential games, where only one critic network is used for each player instead of the action-critic dual network used in a typical ADP architecture. Furthermore, the novel weight tuning laws for critic neural networks are proposed, which not only ensure the Nash equilibrium to be reached but also guarantee the system to be stable. No initial stabilizing control policy is required for each player. Moreover, Lyapunov theory is utilized to demonstrate the uniform ultimate boundedness of the closed-loop system. Finally, a simulation example is given to verify the effectiveness of the proposed near-optimal control scheme.

  9. Liver Tumor Segmentation from MR Images Using 3D Fast Marching Algorithm and Single Hidden Layer Feedforward Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trong-Ngoc Le

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Our objective is to develop a computerized scheme for liver tumor segmentation in MR images. Materials and Methods. Our proposed scheme consists of four main stages. Firstly, the region of interest (ROI image which contains the liver tumor region in the T1-weighted MR image series was extracted by using seed points. The noise in this ROI image was reduced and the boundaries were enhanced. A 3D fast marching algorithm was applied to generate the initial labeled regions which are considered as teacher regions. A single hidden layer feedforward neural network (SLFN, which was trained by a noniterative algorithm, was employed to classify the unlabeled voxels. Finally, the postprocessing stage was applied to extract and refine the liver tumor boundaries. The liver tumors determined by our scheme were compared with those manually traced by a radiologist, used as the “ground truth.” Results. The study was evaluated on two datasets of 25 tumors from 16 patients. The proposed scheme obtained the mean volumetric overlap error of 27.43% and the mean percentage volume error of 15.73%. The mean of the average surface distance, the root mean square surface distance, and the maximal surface distance were 0.58 mm, 1.20 mm, and 6.29 mm, respectively.

  10. Analysis of short single rest/activation epoch fMRI by self-organizing map neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erberich, Stephan G.; Dietrich, Thomas; Kemeny, Stefan; Krings, Timo; Willmes, Klaus; Thron, Armin; Oberschelp, Walter

    2000-04-01

    Functional magnet resonance imaging (fMRI) has become a standard non invasive brain imaging technique delivering high spatial resolution. Brain activation is determined by magnetic susceptibility of the blood oxygen level (BOLD effect) during an activation task, e.g. motor, auditory and visual tasks. Usually box-car paradigms have 2 - 4 rest/activation epochs with at least an overall of 50 volumes per scan in the time domain. Statistical test based analysis methods need a large amount of repetitively acquired brain volumes to gain statistical power, like Student's t-test. The introduced technique based on a self-organizing neural network (SOM) makes use of the intrinsic features of the condition change between rest and activation epoch and demonstrated to differentiate between the conditions with less time points having only one rest and one activation epoch. The method reduces scan and analysis time and the probability of possible motion artifacts from the relaxation of the patients head. Functional magnet resonance imaging (fMRI) of patients for pre-surgical evaluation and volunteers were acquired with motor (hand clenching and finger tapping), sensory (ice application), auditory (phonological and semantic word recognition task) and visual paradigms (mental rotation). For imaging we used different BOLD contrast sensitive Gradient Echo Planar Imaging (GE-EPI) single-shot pulse sequences (TR 2000 and 4000, 64 X 64 and 128 X 128, 15 - 40 slices) on a Philips Gyroscan NT 1.5 Tesla MR imager. All paradigms were RARARA (R equals rest, A equals activation) with an epoch width of 11 time points each. We used the self-organizing neural network implementation described by T. Kohonen with a 4 X 2 2D neuron map. The presented time course vectors were clustered by similar features in the 2D neuron map. Three neural networks were trained and used for labeling with the time course vectors of one, two and all three on/off epochs. The results were also compared by using a

  11. Additional double-wall roof in single-wall, closed, convective incubators: Impact on body heat loss from premature infants and optimal adjustment of the incubator air temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delanaud, Stéphane; Decima, Pauline; Pelletier, Amandine; Libert, Jean-Pierre; Stephan-Blanchard, Erwan; Bach, Véronique; Tourneux, Pierre

    2016-09-01

    Radiant heat loss is high in low-birth-weight (LBW) neonates. Double-wall or single-wall incubators with an additional double-wall roof panel that can be removed during phototherapy are used to reduce Radiant heat loss. There are no data on how the incubators should be used when this second roof panel is removed. The aim of the study was to assess the heat exchanges in LBW neonates in a single-wall incubator with and without an additional roof panel. To determine the optimal thermoneutral incubator air temperature. Influence of the additional double-wall roof was assessed by using a thermal mannequin simulating a LBW neonate. Then, we calculated the optimal incubator air temperature from a cohort of human LBW neonate in the absence of the additional roof panel. Twenty-three LBW neonates (birth weight: 750-1800g; gestational age: 28-32 weeks) were included. With the additional roof panel, R was lower but convective and evaporative skin heat losses were greater. This difference can be overcome by increasing the incubator air temperature by 0.15-0.20°C. The benefit of an additional roof panel was cancelled out by greater body heat losses through other routes. Understanding the heat transfers between the neonate and the environment is essential for optimizing incubators.

  12. Investigating the Small-Scale Spatial Variabilty of Precipitable Water Vapor by Adding Single-Frequency Receivers into an Existing Dual-Frequency Receiver Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krietemeyer, Andreas; ten Veldhuis, Marie-claire; van de Giesen, Nick

    2017-04-01

    Exploiting GNSS signal delays is one possibility to obtain Precipitable Water Vapor (PWV) estimates in the atmosphere. The technique is well known since the early 1990s and by now an established method in the meteorological community. The data is crucial for weather forecasting and its assimilation into numerical weather forecasting models is a topic of ongoing research. However, the spatial resolution of ground based GNSS receivers is usually low, in the order of tens of kilometres. Since severe weather events such as convective storms can be concentrated in spatial extent, existing GNSS networks are often not sufficient to retrieve small scale PWV fluctuations and need to be densified. For economic reasons, the use of low-cost single-frequency receivers is a promising solution. In this study, we will deploy a network of single-frequency receivers to densify an existing dual-frequency network in order to investigate the spatial and temporal PWV variations. We demonstrate a test network consisting of four single-frequency receivers in the Rotterdam area (Netherlands). In order to eliminate the delay caused by the ionosphere, the Satellite-specific Epoch-differenced Ionospheric Delay model (SEID) is applied, using a surrounding dual-frequency network distributed over a radius of approximately 25 km. With the synthesized L2 frequency, the tropospheric delays are estimated using the Precise Point Positioning (PPP) strategy and International GNSS Service (IGS) final orbits. The PWV time series are validated by a comparison of a collocated single-frequency and a dual-frequency receiver. The time series themselves form the basis for potential further studies like data assimilation into numerical weather models and GNSS tomography to study the impact of the increased spatial resolution on local heavy rain forecast.

  13. Group structure predicts variation in proximity relationships between male-female and male-infant pairs of mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, S; Maldonado-Chaparro, A A; Stoinski, T S

    2016-01-01

    Relationships between conspecifics are influenced by both ecological factors and the social organization they live in. Systematic variation of both--consistent with predictions derived from socioecology models--is well documented, but there is considerable variation within species and populations that is poorly understood. The mountain gorilla (Gorilla beringei) is unusual because, despite possessing morphology associated with male contest competition (e.g., extreme sexual dimorphism), they are regularly observed in both single-male and multimale groups. Both male-female and male-infant bonds are strong because males provide protection against infanticide and/or predation. Risk of these threats varies with social structure, which may influence the strength of social relationships among group members (including females and offspring, if females with lower infant mortality risk are less protective of infants). Here, we investigate the relationship between group structure and the strength of proximity relationships between males and females, males and infants, and females and offspring. Data come from 10 social groups containing 1-7 adult males, monitored by the Dian Fossey Gorilla Fund's Karisoke Research Center in Volcanoes National Park, Rwanda. After controlling for group size and infant age, association strength was similar for male-female pairs across group types with both dominant and nondominant males, but male-infant relationships were strongest in single-male groups where paternity certainty was high and animals had fewer social partners to choose from. The male:female and male:infant ratios better predicted both male-female and male-infant associations than the absolute number of males, females, or infants did. The fewer the number of males per female or infant, the more both pair types associated. Dominant males in groups containing fewer males had higher eigenvector centrality (a measure of importance in a social network) than dominant males in groups

  14. Single-Stage Repair of an Unusual Association: Congenital Gerbode Defect, Hypoplastic Aortic Arch, and Partially Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Return in an Infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Saul; Kimball, Thomas R; Nelson, David P; Morales, David L S

    2016-07-01

    We present the case of a two-month-old male with congenital Gerbode defect, hypoplastic aortic arch, and left-sided partially anomalous pulmonary venous return. The patient underwent single-stage surgical repair, which consisted of aortic arch advancement with resection of the coarctation segment, pulmonary vein repair, and primary closure of the Gerbode defect. The anomalous pulmonary vein posed a particular challenge due to its size and distance from the left atrium, which we approached with a posterior atrial wall trapdoor baffle technique, without mobilizing the affected vein. Postoperatively and at one year follow-up, there was no evidence of residual lesions and there was unobstructed flow pattern across the aortic arch and the affected pulmonary vein.

  15. Genome-wide association study of sepsis in extremely premature infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Lakshmi; Page, Grier; Kirpalani, Haresh; Murray, Jeffrey C; Das, Abhik; Higgins, Rosemary D; Carlo, Waldemar A; Bell, Edward F; Goldberg, Ronald N; Schibler, Kurt; Sood, Beena G; Stevenson, David K; Stoll, Barbara J; Van Meurs, Krisa P; Johnson, Karen J; Levy, Joshua; McDonald, Scott A; Zaterka-Baxter, Kristin M; Kennedy, Kathleen A; Sánchez, Pablo J; Duara, Shahnaz; Walsh, Michele C; Shankaran, Seetha; Wynn, James L; Cotten, C Michael

    2017-09-01

    To identify genetic variants associated with sepsis (early-onset and late-onset) using a genome-wide association (GWA) analysis in a cohort of extremely premature infants. Previously generated GWA data from the Neonatal Research Network's anonymised genomic database biorepository of extremely premature infants were used for this study. Sepsis was defined as culture-positive early-onset or late-onset sepsis or culture-proven meningitis. Genomic and whole-genome-amplified DNA was genotyped for 1.2 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs); 91% of SNPs were successfully genotyped. We imputed 7.2 million additional SNPs. p Values and false discovery rates (FDRs) were calculated from multivariate logistic regression analysis adjusting for gender, gestational age and ancestry. Target statistical value was p<10(-5). Secondary analyses assessed associations of SNPs with pathogen type. Pathway analyses were also run on primary and secondary end points. Data from 757 extremely premature infants were included: 351 infants with sepsis and 406 infants without sepsis. No SNPs reached genome-wide significance levels (5×10(-8)); two SNPs in proximity to FOXC2 and FOXL1 genes achieved target levels of significance. In secondary analyses, SNPs for ELMO1, IRAK2 (Gram-positive sepsis), RALA, IMMP2L (Gram-negative sepsis) and PIEZO2 (fungal sepsis) met target significance levels. Pathways associated with sepsis and Gram-negative sepsis included gap junctions, fibroblast growth factor receptors, regulators of cell division and interleukin-1-associated receptor kinase 2 (p values<0.001 and FDR<20%). No SNPs met genome-wide significance in this cohort of extremely low birthweight infants; however, areas of potential association and pathways meriting further study were identified. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  16. Infant - newborn development

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... feeding are good. This is due to immature abdominal muscles used for pushing and does not need to ... holding, rocking, or cuddling. The infant's growth or development does not appear normal. Your infant seems to ...

  17. Auditory Responses of Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watrous, Betty Springer; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Forty infants, 3- to 12-months-old, participated in a study designed to differentiate the auditory response characteristics of normally developing infants in the age ranges 3 - 5 months, 6 - 8 months, and 9 - 12 months. (Author)

  18. Infant and Newborn Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... It has all the necessary vitamins and minerals. Infant formulas are available for babies whose mothers are not able or decide not to breastfeed. Infants usually start eating solid foods between 4 and ...

  19. Comparison of Aerosol Single Scattering Albedo Derived from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument with Aerosol Robotic Network Observations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Qi; HONG Yu-Lan

    2012-01-01

    The single-scattering albedo (SSA), which quantifies radiative absorption capability, is an important optical property of aerosols. Ground-based methods have been extensively exploited to determine aerosol SSA but there were no satellite-based SSA measurements available until the advent of advanced remote sensing techniques, such as the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI). Although the overall accuracy of OMI SSA is estimated to approach 0.1, its regional availability is unclear. Four-year SSA daily measurements from three Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) sites in China (Xianghe, Taihu, and Hong Kong) are chosen to determine the accuracy of OMI SSA in specific locations. The results show that on a global scale, the OMI SSA is systematically higher (with a mean relative bias of 3.5% and a RMS difference of ~0.06) and has poor correlation with the AERONET observations. In the Xianghe, Taihu, and Hong Kong sites, the correlation coefficients are 0.16, 0.47, and 0.44, respectively, suggesting that the distinct qualities of OMI SSA depend on geographic locations and/or dominant aerosol environments. The two types of SSA data yield the best agreement in Taihu and the worst in Hong Kong; the differing behavior is likely caused by varying levels of cloud contamination. The good consistency of the aerosol variation between the two SSA datasets on a seasonal scale is promising. These findings suggest that the current-version OMI SSA product can be applied to qualitatively characterize climatological variations of aerosol properties despite its limited accuracy as an instantaneous measurement.

  20. Detecting shifts in gene regulatory networks during time-course experiments at single-time-point temporal resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takenaka, Yoichi; Seno, Shigeto; Matsuda, Hideo

    2015-10-01

    Comprehensively understanding the dynamics of biological systems is one of the greatest challenges in biology. Vastly improved biological technologies have provided vast amounts of information that must be understood by bioinformatics and systems biology researchers. Gene regulations have been frequently modeled by ordinary differential equations or graphical models based on time-course gene expression profiles. The state-of-the-art computational approaches for analyzing gene regulations assume that their models are same throughout time-course experiments. However, these approaches cannot easily analyze transient changes at a time point, such as diauxic shift. We propose a score that analyzes the gene regulations at each time point. The score is based on the information gains of information criterion values. The method detects the shifts in gene regulatory networks (GRNs) during time-course experiments with single-time-point resolution. The effectiveness of the method is evaluated on the diauxic shift from glucose to lactose in Escherichia coli. Gene regulation shifts were detected at two time points: the first corresponding to the time at which the growth of E. coli ceased and the second corresponding to the end of the experiment, when the nutrient sources (glucose and lactose) had become exhausted. According to these results, the proposed score and method can appropriately detect the time of gene regulation shifts. The method based on the proposed score provides a new tool for analyzing dynamic biological systems. Because the score value indicates the strength of gene regulation at each time point in a gene expression profile, it can potentially infer hidden GRNs from time-course experiments.

  1. Prebiotics in infant formula

    OpenAIRE

    Vandenplas,Yvan; DE GREEF, Elisabeth; Veereman, Gigi

    2014-01-01

    The gastrointestinal microbiota of breast-fed babies differ from classic standard formula fed infants. While mother's milk is rich in prebiotic oligosaccharides and contains small amounts of probiotics, standard infant formula doesn’t. Different prebiotic oligosaccharides are added to infant formula: galacto-oligosaccharides, fructo-oligosaccharide, polydextrose, and mixtures of these. There is evidence that addition of prebiotics in infant formula alters the gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota ...

  2. (abstract) Experimental Results From Internetworking Data Applications Over Various Wireless Networks Using a Single Flexible Error Control Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanai, T.; Kramer, M.; McAuley, A. J.; Nowack, S.; Pinck, D. S.; Ramirez, G.; Stewart, I.; Tohme, H.; Tong, L.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes results from several wireless field trials in New Jersey, California, and Colorado, conducted jointly by researchers at Bellcore, JPL, and US West over the course of 1993 and 1994. During these trials, applications communicated over multiple wireless networks including satellite, low power PCS, high power cellular, packet data, and the wireline Public Switched Telecommunications Network (PSTN). Key goals included 1) designing data applications and an API suited to mobile users, 2) investigating internetworking issues, 3) characterizing wireless networks under various field conditions, and 4) comparing the performance of different protocol mechanisms over the diverse networks and applications. We describe experimental results for different protocol mechanisms and parameters, such as acknowledgment schemes and packet sizes. We show the need for powerful error control mechanisms such as selective acknowledgements and combining data from multiple transmissions. We highlight the possibility of a common protocol for all wireless networks, from micro-cellular PCS to satellite networks.

  3. Study of Single Top Quark Production Using Bayesian Neural Networks With D0 Detector at the Tevatron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshi, Jyoti [Panjab Univ., Chandigarh (India)

    2012-01-01

    Top quark, the heaviest and most intriguing among the six known quarks, can be created via two independent production mechanisms in {\\pp} collisions. The primary mode, strong {\\ttbar} pair production from a $gtt$ vertex, was used by the {\\d0} and CDF collaborations to establish the existence of the top quark in March 1995. The second mode is the electroweak production of a single top quark or antiquark, which has been observed recently in March 2009. Since single top quarks are produced at hadron colliders through a $Wtb$ vertex, thereby provide a direct probe of the nature of $Wtb$ coupling and of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix element, $V_{tb}$. So this mechanism provides a sensitive probe for several, standard model and beyond standard model, parameters such as anomalous $Wtb$ couplings. In this thesis, we measure the cross section of the electroweak produced top quark in three different production modes, $s+t$, $s$ and $t$-channels using a technique based on the Bayesian neural networks. This technique is applied for analysis of the 5.4 $fb^{-1}$ of data collected by the {\\d0} detector. From a comparison of the Bayesian neural networks discriminants between data and the signal-background model using Bayesian statistics, the cross sections of the top quark produced through the electroweak mechanism have been measured as: \\[\\sigma(p\\bar{p}→tb+X,tqb+X) = 3.11^{+0.77}_{-0.71}\\;\\rm pb\\] \\[\\sigma(p\\bar{p}→tb+X) = 0.72^{+0.44}_{-0.43}\\;\\rm pb\\] \\[\\sigma(p\\bar{p}→tqb+X) = 2.92^{+0.87}_{-0.73}\\;\\rm pb\\] % The $s+t$-channel has a gaussian significance of $4.7\\sigma$, the $s$-channel $0.9\\sigma$ and the $t$-channel~$4.7\\sigma$. The results are consistent with the standard model predictions within one standard deviation. By combining these results with the results for two other analyses (using different MVA techniques) improved results \\[\\sigma(p\\bar{p}→tb+X,tqb+X) = 3.43^{+0.73}_{-0.74}\\;\\rm pb\\] \\[\\sigma

  4. Interstitial single resistor in a network of resistors application of the lattice Green's function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owaidat, M Q; Khalifeh, J M [Department of Physics, University of Jordan, Amman-11942 (Jordan); Hijjawi, R S, E-mail: jkalifa@ju.edu.j [Department of Physics, Mutah University (Jordan)

    2010-09-17

    The resistance between two arbitrary nodes of a network of resistors is studied when the network is perturbed by connecting an extra resistor between two arbitrary nodes in the perfect lattice. The lattice Green's function and the resistance of the perturbed network are expressed in terms of those of the perfect lattice by solving Dyson's equation. A comparison is carried out between numerical and experimental results for a square lattice.

  5. Infant crying and abuse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijneveld, S.A.; van der Wal, M.F.; Brugman, E.; Hira Sing, R.A.; Verloove-Vanhorick, S.P.

    2004-01-01

    Child abuse and neglect are important causes of child morbidity and death. We assessed potentially detrimental parental actions induced by infant crying in 3259 infants aged 1-6 months, in the Netherlands. In infants aged 6 months, 5.6% (95% CI 4.2-7.0) of parents reported having smothered, slapped,

  6. Hip Problems in Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hip problems later in life? ResourcesScreening for Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip by LM French, M.D., and FR Dietz, ... 2014 Categories: Family Health, Infants and ToddlersTags: dislocation, dysplasia, external, femoral, hip, infants, internal, problems, socket, torsion Family Health, Infants ...

  7. Single Layer Recurrent Neural Network for detection of swarm-like earthquakes in W-Bohemia/Vogtland-the method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doubravová, Jana; Wiszniowski, Jan; Horálek, Josef

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we present a new method of local event detection of swarm-like earthquakes based on neural networks. The proposed algorithm uses unique neural network architecture. It combines features used in other neural network concepts such as the Real Time Recurrent Network and Nonlinear Autoregressive Neural Network to achieve good performance of detection. We use the recurrence combined with various delays applied to recurrent inputs so the network remembers history of many samples. This method has been tested on data from a local seismic network in West Bohemia with promising results. We found that phases not picked in training data diminish the detection capability of the neural network and proper preparation of training data is therefore fundamental. To train the network we define a parameter called the learning importance weight of events and show that it affects the number of acceptable solutions achieved by many trials of the Back Propagation Through Time algorithm. We also compare the individual training of stations with training all of them simultaneously, and we conclude that results of joint training are better for some stations than training only one station.

  8. Adjustable hydrazine modulation of single-wall carbon nanotube network field effect transistors from p-type to n-type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Ruixuan; Xie, Dan; Xu, Jianlong; Sun, Yilin; Sun, MengXing; Zhang, Cheng; Li, Xian

    2016-11-01

    Single-wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) network field effect transistors (FETs), which show decent p-type electronic properties, have been fabricated. The use of hydrazine as an aqueous solution and a strong n-type dopant for the SWCNTs is demonstrated in this paper. The electrical properties are obviously tuned by hydrazine treatment at different concentrations on the surface of the SWCNT network FETs. The transport behavior of SWCNTs can be modulated from p-type to n-type, demonstrating the controllable and adjustable doping effect of hydrazine. With a higher concentration of hydrazine, more electrons can be transferred from the hydrazine molecules to the SWCNT network films, thus resulting in a change of threshold voltage, carrier mobility and on-current. By cleaning the device, the hydrazine doping effects vanish, which indicates that the doping effects of hydrazine are reversible. Through x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) characterization, the doping effects of hydrazine have also been studied.

  9. Challenges to Participation in the Sharing Economy: The Case of Local Online Peer-to-Peer Exchange in a Single Parents’ Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Airi Lampinen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper depicts an initiative to deploy an online peer-to-peer exchange system for a community network of single parents – a group of people in need of goods, services, and social support in their local neighborhoods. We apply participant observation and semi-structured interviews to uncover key issues that can hinder the emergence of sharing practices in local community networks of this type. Our study illustrates how pressures related to single parenthood can impede opportunities to engage in peer-to-peer exchange, even when community members view the social and material benefits of participation as desirable and necessary. This complicates the prevalent narrative that local peer-to-peer exchange systems are an accessible and convenient alternative to traditional markets. Moreover, we discuss our collaboration with the community as well as the developers of the sharing platform, highlighting the challenges of user-centered design in the sharing economy.

  10. Self-Assembly of Single-Layer CoAl-Layered Double Hydroxide Nanosheets on 3D Graphene Network Used as Highly Efficient Electrocatalyst for Oxygen Evolution Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ping, Jianfeng; Wang, Yixian; Lu, Qipeng; Chen, Bo; Chen, Junze; Huang, Ying; Ma, Qinglang; Tan, Chaoliang; Yang, Jian; Cao, Xiehong; Wang, Zhijuan; Wu, Jian; Ying, Yibin; Zhang, Hua

    2016-09-01

    A non-noble metal based 3D porous electrocatalyst is prepared by self-assembly of the liquid-exfoliated single-layer CoAl-layered double hydroxide nanosheets (CoAl-NSs) onto 3D graphene network, which exhibits higher catalytic activity and better stability for electrochemical oxygen evolution reaction compared to the commercial IrO2 nanoparticle-based 3D porous electrocatalyst.

  11. 3D network single-phase Ni0.9Zn0.1O as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Guoyong; Guo, Xueyi; Cao, Xiao

    2016-01-01

    A novel 3D network single-phase Ni0.9Zn0.1O has been designed and synthesized by calcining a special metal-organic precursor (MOP) (MeO2C3H6, Me=Ni and Zn, the molar ratio of Ni: Zn=9:1) as the self-sacrificing template for the first time. Comparing with NiO or the mixture of NiO and ZnO, the new...

  12. A mixed-methods approach for analysing social support and social anchorage of single mothers’ personal networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lumino, Rosaria; Ragozini, Giancarlo; van Duijn, Marijtje; Vitale, Maria Prosperina

    2017-01-01

    The present paper analyses the relationship among social support and personal networks by focusing on social anchorage, which is a specific dimension of social support conveying to what extent people feel integrated into their personal networks. Specifying when, why, and how personal relationships

  13. An interacting systems model of infant habituation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirois, Sylvain; Mareschal, Denis

    2004-10-01

    Habituation and related procedures are the primary behavioral tools used to assess perceptual and cognitive competence in early infancy. This article introduces a neurally constrained computational model of infant habituation. The model combines the two leading process theories of infant habituation into a single functional system that is grounded in functional brain circuitry. The HAB model (for Habituation, Autoassociation, and Brain) proposes that habituation behaviors emerge from the opponent, complementary processes of hippocampal selective inhibition and cortical long-term potentiation. Simulations of a seminal experiment by Fantz [Visual experience in infants: Decreased attention familiar patterns relative to novel ones. Science, 146, 668-670, 1964] are reported. The ability of the model to capture the fine detail of infant data (especially age-related changes in performance) underlines the useful contribution of neurocomputational models to our understanding of behavior in general, and of early cognition in particular.

  14. Sudden infant death syndrome: are we any closer to identifying which infants will be affected?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramirez TL

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Tara L Ramirez, Michael H MalloyDepartment of Pediatrics, The University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX, USAAbstract: Sudden infant death syndrome is a complex and multifactoral process. The classification and definition of the syndrome has changed over time. As knowledge in the genetics of this complex syndrome continues to advance, additional causes of vulnerability have been found, but no single cause has yet been discovered. Over the last 40 years there have also been many advances in the identification of risk factors that make a given infant more vulnerable to succumbing to sudden infant death. There have also been great strides made in decreasing the number of infant deaths from this syndrome by modification of these risk factors, most notably with the initiation of the Back to Sleep campaign. With the initiation of the Safe to Sleep campaign there is hope that sudden infant death syndrome as a component of all sudden unexpected infant deaths can be further reduced.Keywords: sudden infant death syndrome, sudden unexpected death of infancy, risk factors, sleep-related infant death, crib death, cot death

  15. 单中继Wi-Fi网络的MAC协议改进方法研究%MAC protocol research for single relay based on Wi-Fi network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王舒成; 邬春学; 邓明明

    2013-01-01

    Wi-Fi网络由于其诸多优点已受到越来越多人的青睐.为解决无法布线等问题,在原有的网络中引入了中继节点.文中研究了在单中继网络环境中帧的传输过程,用数学形式给出了在此种情况下网络分配矢量的值,并通过与无中继环境帧的比较,得出了二者之间的关系.最后通过实验比较表明,加入中继后的Wi-Fi网络能够切实有效地提高网络边缘用户的通信质量.%Wi-Fi network is more and more popular because of its many advantages. To solve the problem of wiring and other like this, a relay node in the original network is added. This paper researches the transmission frame in the single-relay network environment. And the NAV value is given in mathematical form in this case. After comparing with the frame in non-relay environment, it gets the relationship between them. Finally, the experiments show that, using wireless relay in Wi-Fi networks can be effective to improve the communication quality of the edge of the network users.

  16. Auditory-Visual Perception of Changing Distance by Human Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker-Andrews, Arlene S.; Lennon, Elizabeth M.

    1985-01-01

    Examines, in two experiments, 5-month-old infants' sensitivity to auditory-visual specification of distance and direction of movement. One experiment presented two films with soundtracks in either a match or mismatch condition; the second showed the two films side-by-side with a single soundtrack appropriate to one. Infants demonstrated visual…

  17. Network-Behavior Dynamics in Bullying and Defending : A Multilevel Network Analysis of Single-Grade versus Multi-Grade Classes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rambaran, Johannes; McFarland, Daniel; Veenstra, David

    2017-01-01

    The social networks in which children participate in are strongly associated with their involvement in bullying and defending (Juvonen & Graham, 2014; Salmivalli, 2010). It is likely that peer effects – referring to selection and influence processes – explain this association. Children seek out

  18. Network-Behavior Dynamics in Bullying and Defending : A Multilevel Network Analysis of Single-Grade versus Multi-Grade Classes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rambaran, Johannes; McFarland, Daniel; Veenstra, David

    2017-01-01

    The social networks in which children participate in are strongly associated with their involvement in bullying and defending (Juvonen & Graham, 2014; Salmivalli, 2010). It is likely that peer effects – referring to selection and influence processes – explain this association. Children seek out frie

  19. Reducing mortality in HIV-infected infants and achieving the 90–90–90 target through innovative diagnosis approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaffiq Essajee

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Despite significant gains in access to early infant diagnosis (EID over the past decade, most HIV-exposed infants still do not get tested for HIV in the first two months of life. For those who are tested, the long turnaround time between when the sample is drawn and when the results are returned leads to a high rate of loss to follow-up, which in turn means that few infected infants start antiretroviral treatment. Consequently, there continues to be high mortality from perinatally acquired HIV, and the ambitious goals of 90% of infected children identified, 90% of identified children treated and 90% of treated children with sustained virologic suppression by 2020 seem far beyond our reach. The objective of this commentary is to review recent advances in the field of HIV diagnosis in infants and describe how these advances may overcome long-standing barriers to access to testing and treatment. Discussion: Several innovative approaches to EID have recently been described. These include point-of-care testing, use of SMS printers to connect the central laboratory and the health facility through a mobile phone network, expanding paediatric testing to other entry points where children access the health system and testing HIV-exposed infants at birth as a rapid way to identify in utero infection. Each of these interventions is discussed here, together with the opportunities and challenges associated with scale-up. Point-of-care testing has the potential to provide immediate results but is less cost-effective in settings where test volumes are low. Virological testing at birth has been piloted in some countries to identify those infants who need urgent treatment, but a negative test at birth does not obviate the need for additional testing at six weeks. Routine testing of infants in child health settings is a useful strategy to identify exposed and infected children whose mothers were not enrolled in programmes for the prevention of mother

  20. Crawling is Associated with More Flexible Memory Retrieval by 9-Month-Old Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Jane; Gross, Julien; Hayne, Harlene

    2007-01-01

    In the present experiment, we used a deferred imitation paradigm to explore the effect of crawling on memory retrieval by 9-month-old human infants. Infants observed an experimenter demonstrate a single target action with a novel object and their ability to reproduce that action was assessed after a 24-hr delay. Some infants were tested with the…

  1. Classical Conditioning and Retention of the Infant's Eyelid Response: Effects of Age and Interstimulus Interval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Arlene H.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Reports that lengthy interstimulus interval facilitates classical conditioning in very young infants. Infants trained in a single session at 20 days of age exhibited reliable retention of the conditioned eyelid reflex 10 days later, but infants 10 days of age did not. (Author)

  2. Pre-linguistic communication skill development in an infant with a diagnosis of galactosaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Fiona M; Coman, David J; Kilcoyne, Sarah; Murdoch, Bruce E; Syrmis, Maryanne

    2014-10-01

    Neonatal screening for galactosaemia (GAL) identifies the condition early, but subsequent biomedical and genetic testing fails to identify which subgroup of infants with GAL are at most risk of the language disorders associated with the condition. This study aims to present preliminary data on an infant with GAL based on assessment of pre-linguistic communication behaviours known to underpin language development. This single case-control study profiles the pre-linguistic skills of a 13-month-old infant with GAL. The Index Infant's performance was descriptively compared to that of a typically developing, suitably matched control infant. The Index Infant was identified as presenting with clinically significant delays on 9 of the 11 pre-linguistic skills assessed. The early identification of risk of developmental language difficulties in the Index Infant allows for the implementation of early intervention using the infant's parents as facilitators of language stimulation. Monitoring of the infant's progress is warranted.

  3. Do production patterns influence the processing of speech in prelinguistic infants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePaolis, Rory A; Vihman, Marilyn M; Keren-Portnoy, Tamar

    2011-12-01

    The headturn preference procedure was used to test 18 infants on their response to three different passages chosen to reflect their individual production patterns. The passages contained nonwords with consonants in one of three categories: (a) often produced by that infant ('own'), (b) rarely produced by that infant but common at that age ('other'), and (c) not generally produced by infants. Infants who had a single 'own' consonant showed no significant preference for either 'own' (a) or 'other' (b) passages. In contrast, infants' with two 'own' consonants exhibited greater attention to 'other' passages (b). Both groups attended equally to the passage featuring consonants rarely produced by infants of that age (c). An analysis of a sample of the infant-directed speech ruled out the mothers' speech as a source of the infant preferences. The production-based shift to a focus on the 'other' passage suggests that nascent production abilities combine with emergent perceptual experience to facilitate word learning.

  4. Rede e apoio social e práticas alimentares de crianças no quarto mês de vida Social network, social support and feeding habits of infants in their fourth month of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Maria da Costa Morgado

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar a associação entre rede e apoio social e as práticas alimentares de lactentes no quarto mês de vida. Estudo seccional com 294 crianças selecionadas em 4 Unidades de Saúde do município do Rio de Janeiro/RJ/Brasil. Para avaliar as práticas alimentares foi aplicado um recordatório 24h, para medir rede social foram feitas perguntas relacionadas ao número de amigos e parentes "com quem a mãe pode contar" e participação em atividades sociais. A versão em português da escala empregada no "Medical Outcomes Study" foi utilizada para aferir apoio social. Análises foram realizadas por meio de modelos de regressão logística multinomial. A maioria dos lactentes recebeu leite de peito (84%, mas apenas 16% o receberam exclusivamente. Crianças filhas de mães com menor número de parentes com quem contar e com baixo apoio social apresentaram maior chance de estarem em aleitamento artificial em relação ao aleitamento materno exclusivo (AME. Destaca-se a necessidade de integrar os membros da rede social da mulher à atenção pré-natal, ao parto e puerpério para prover o apoio social que atenda as suas necessidades e, assim, contribuir para manutenção do AME.The scope of this study was to investigate the association between the social network, social support and the feeding habits of infants in their fourth month of life. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 294 children selected at 4 Primary Health Care Units in Rio de Janeiro/ Brazil. A 24-hour dietary recall was applied to the mothers to evaluate the feeding habits. Questions related to the number of people upon whom the woman can rely were asked as well as their participation in social activities to measure the social network. The scale in the Medical Outcomes Study was used to measure social support. The analysis was based on multinomial logistic regression models. Most of the infants (84% received breast milk, but only 16% were

  5. Evolving gene regulatory networks into cellular networks guiding adaptive behavior: an outline how single cells could have evolved into a centralized neurosensory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritzsch, Bernd; Jahan, Israt; Pan, Ning; Elliott, Karen L

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the evolution of the neurosensory system of man, able to reflect on its own origin, is one of the major goals of comparative neurobiology. Details of the origin of neurosensory cells, their aggregation into central nervous systems and associated sensory organs and their localized patterning leading to remarkably different cell types aggregated into variably sized parts of the central nervous system have begun to emerge. Insights at the cellular and molecular level have begun to shed some light on the evolution of neurosensory cells, partially covered in this review. Molecular evidence suggests that high mobility group (HMG) proteins of pre-metazoans evolved into the definitive Sox [SRY (sex determining region Y)-box] genes used for neurosensory precursor specification in metazoans. Likewise, pre-metazoan basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) genes evolved in metazoans into the group A bHLH genes dedicated to neurosensory differentiation in bilaterians. Available evidence suggests that the Sox and bHLH genes evolved a cross-regulatory network able to synchronize expansion of precursor populations and their subsequent differentiation into novel parts of the brain or sensory organs. Molecular evidence suggests metazoans evolved patterning gene networks early, which were not dedicated to neuronal development. Only later in evolution were these patterning gene networks tied into the increasing complexity of diffusible factors, many of which were already present in pre-metazoans, to drive local patterning events. It appears that the evolving molecular basis of neurosensory cell development may have led, in interaction with differentially expressed patterning genes, to local network modifications guiding unique specializations of neurosensory cells into sensory organs and various areas of the central nervous system.

  6. Acquired methemoglobinemia in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Mutlu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to determine the etiologic factors of acquired methemoglobinemia in infants younger than three months in our region. Material and Methods: This study was carried out retrospectively in infants with methemoglobinemia admitted to Karadeniz Technical University, Pediatric Clinic, during the period 2000-2009. Infants with methemoglobinemia were identified according to the medical records or ICD-10 code. Results: Nine infants with acquired methemoglobinemia (8 male, 1 female were included in the study. Seven cases were associated with the use of prilocaine for circumcision, one case with the use of prilocaine-lidocaine for local pain therapy, and one case with neonatal sepsis caused by Staphylococcus aureus.Conclusion: Prilocaine should not be used in infants less than three months of age because of the risk of methemoglobinemia. Ascorbic acid is an effective therapy if methylene blue is not obtained. It should not be forgotten that sepsis caused by S. aureus may cause methemoglobinemia in infants.

  7. A network of networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iedema, Rick; Verma, Raj; Wutzke, Sonia; Lyons, Nigel; McCaughan, Brian

    2017-04-10

    from network members than participation in a single network, as it involves health service professionals and consumers in a multi-network dynamic. This dynamic requires deliberations and collaborations to be flexible, and it increasingly positions members as "strategic hybrids" - people who have moved on from singular taken-as-given stances and identities, towards hybrid positionings and flexible perspectives. Originality/value This paper is novel in that it identifies a critical feature of health service reform and large system transformation: network governance is empowered through the dynamic co-location of and collaboration among healthcare networks, particularly when complemented with "enabler" teams of people specialising in programme implementation and evaluation.

  8. MitoLoc: A method for the simultaneous quantification of mitochondrial network morphology and membrane potential in single cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vowinckel, Jakob; Hartl, Johannes; Butler, Richard; Ralser, Markus

    2015-09-01

    Mitochondria assemble into flexible networks. Here we present a simple method for the simultaneous quantification of mitochondrial membrane potential and network morphology that is based on computational co-localisation analysis of differentially imported fluorescent marker proteins. Established in, but not restricted to, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, MitoLoc reproducibly measures changes in membrane potential induced by the uncoupling agent CCCP, by oxidative stress, in respiratory deficient cells, and in ∆fzo1, ∆ref2, and ∆dnm1 mutants that possess fission and fusion defects. In combination with super-resolution images, MitoLoc uses 3D reconstruction to calculate six geometrical classifiers which differentiate network morphologies in ∆fzo1, ∆ref2, and ∆dnm1 mutants, under oxidative stress and in cells lacking mtDNA, even when the network is fragmented to a similar extent. We find that mitochondrial fission and a decline in membrane potential do regularly, but not necessarily, co-occur. MitoLoc hence simplifies the measurement of mitochondrial membrane potential in parallel to detect morphological changes in mitochondrial networks. Marker plasmid open-source software as well as the mathematical procedures are made openly available.

  9. Study on desirable ionospheric corrections accuracy for network-RTK positioning and its impact on time-to-fix and probability of successful single-epoch ambiguity resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paziewski, Jacek

    2016-02-01

    The mitigation of ionospheric delay is still of crucial interest in GNSS positioning, especially in precise solutions such as instantaneous RTK positioning. Thus, several effective algorithms and functional models were developed, and also numerous investigations of ionospheric correction properties in RTK positioning have been performed so far. One of the most highly effective approaches in precise relative positioning is the application of the ionosphere-weighted model with network-derived corrections. This contribution investigates the impact of the accuracy of the network ionospheric corrections on time-to-fix in RTK-OTF positioning. Also, an attempt has been made to estimate the desirable accuracy of the network ionospheric corrections, allowing for reliable instantaneous ambiguity resolution. The experiment is based on a multi-baseline GPS RTK positioning supported with network-derived ionospheric corrections for medium length baselines. The results show that in such scenario, the double-differenced ionospheric correction residuals should not exceed ∼1/3 of the L1 wavelength for successful single-epoch ambiguity resolution.

  10. Single-cell analyses of regulatory network perturbations using enhancer-targeting TALEs suggest novel roles for PU.1 during haematopoietic specification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Adam C; Kawata, Viviane K S; Schütte, Judith; Gao, Xuefei; Antoniou, Stella; Baumann, Claudia; Woodhouse, Steven; Hannah, Rebecca; Tanaka, Yosuke; Swiers, Gemma; Moignard, Victoria; Fisher, Jasmin; Hidetoshi, Shimauchi; Tijssen, Marloes R; de Bruijn, Marella F T R; Liu, Pentao; Göttgens, Berthold

    2014-10-01

    Transcription factors (TFs) act within wider regulatory networks to control cell identity and fate. Numerous TFs, including Scl (Tal1) and PU.1 (Spi1), are known regulators of developmental and adult haematopoiesis, but how they act within wider TF networks is still poorly understood. Transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) are a novel class of genetic tool based on the modular DNA-binding domains of Xanthomonas TAL proteins, which enable DNA sequence-specific targeting and the manipulation of endogenous gene expression. Here, we report TALEs engineered to target the PU.1-14kb and Scl+40kb transcriptional enhancers as efficient new tools to perturb the expression of these key haematopoietic TFs. We confirmed the efficiency of these TALEs at the single-cell level using high-throughput RT-qPCR, which also allowed us to assess the consequences of both PU.1 activation and repression on wider TF networks during developmental haematopoiesis. Combined with comprehensive cellular assays, these experiments uncovered novel roles for PU.1 during early haematopoietic specification. Finally, transgenic mouse studies confirmed that the PU.1-14kb element is active at sites of definitive haematopoiesis in vivo and PU.1 is detectable in haemogenic endothelium and early committing blood cells. We therefore establish TALEs as powerful new tools to study the functionality of transcriptional networks that control developmental processes such as early haematopoiesis.

  11. Cerebral near infrared spectroscopy oximetry in extremely preterm infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyttel-Sorensen, Simon; Pellicer, Adelina; Alderliesten, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine if it is possible to stabilise the cerebral oxygenation of extremely preterm infants monitored by cerebral near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) oximetry. DESIGN: Phase II randomised, single blinded, parallel clinical trial. SETTING: Eight tertiary neonatal intensive care units...

  12. Infant Development: Milestones from 4 to 6 Months

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... publications/publications.html. Accessed April 9, 2014. Positive parenting tips for healthy child development: Infants (0-1 ... policy Advertising and sponsorship opportunities Reprint Permissions A single copy of these materials may be reprinted for ...

  13. Cerebral near infrared spectroscopy oximetry in extremely preterm infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyttel-Sorensen, Simon; Pellicer, Adelina; Alderliesten, Thomas;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine if it is possible to stabilise the cerebral oxygenation of extremely preterm infants monitored by cerebral near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) oximetry. DESIGN: Phase II randomised, single blinded, parallel clinical trial. SETTING: Eight tertiary neonatal intensive care units...

  14. Prebiotics in infant formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenplas, Yvan; De Greef, Elisabeth; Veereman, Gigi

    2014-01-01

    The gastrointestinal microbiota of breast-fed babies differ from classic standard formula fed infants. While mother's milk is rich in prebiotic oligosaccharides and contains small amounts of probiotics, standard infant formula doesn't. Different prebiotic oligosaccharides are added to infant formula: galacto-oligosaccharides, fructo-oligosaccharide, polydextrose, and mixtures of these. There is evidence that addition of prebiotics in infant formula alters the gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota resembling that of breastfed infants. They are added to infant formula because of their presence in breast milk. Infants on these supplemented formula have a lower stool pH, a better stool consistency and frequency and a higher concentration of bifidobacteria in their intestine compared to infants on a non-supplemented standard formula. Since most studies suggest a trend for beneficial clinical effects, and since these ingredients are very safe, prebiotics bring infant formula one step closer to breastmilk, the golden standard. However, despite the fact that adverse events are rare, the evidence on prebiotics of a significant health benefit throughout the alteration of the gut microbiota is limited.

  15. Prebiotics in infant formula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenplas, Yvan; Greef, Elisabeth De; Veereman, Gigi

    2014-01-01

    The gastrointestinal microbiota of breast-fed babies differ from classic standard formula fed infants. While mother's milk is rich in prebiotic oligosaccharides and contains small amounts of probiotics, standard infant formula doesn’t. Different prebiotic oligosaccharides are added to infant formula: galacto-oligosaccharides, fructo-oligosaccharide, polydextrose, and mixtures of these. There is evidence that addition of prebiotics in infant formula alters the gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota resembling that of breastfed infants. They are added to infant formula because of their presence in breast milk. Infants on these supplemented formula have a lower stool pH, a better stool consistency and frequency and a higher concentration of bifidobacteria in their intestine compared to infants on a non-supplemented standard formula. Since most studies suggest a trend for beneficial clinical effects, and since these ingredients are very safe, prebiotics bring infant formula one step closer to breastmilk, the golden standard. However, despite the fact that adverse events are rare, the evidence on prebiotics of a significant health benefit throughout the alteration of the gut microbiota is limited. PMID:25535999

  16. EU COMPETITION LAW AND THE TELECOMS SINGLE MARKET: NETWORK NEUTRALITY IN THE AFTERMATH OF THE TSM REGULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noemí ANGULO GARZARO

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Since the early 1990s, a sharp increase in the Internet traffic has been experienced. Technology, once again, has proven to be able to develop faster than regulation. In this endlessly evolving scenario, operators in the technology markets, as well as end-users, often find themselves under-protected. Therefore, it comes as a major concern the need to regulate those technological markets and, more specifically, the use –or abuse– of Internet. All Internet traffic should be treated equally and that is, precisely, what network neutrality aims at. Consequently, network operators may not take advantage of their position in the market to affect competition in related markets. All in all, network neutrality is crucial to achieve the highest degree of competition. In the absence of network neutrality, the Internet would find itself unable to qualify as a market merely driven by innovation, and it would unfailingly turn into one ruled by deal making. Competition law claims that the higher the neutrality is – i.e., the more equal the treatment is, the better it is for the consumer. If network operating companies create an exploitative business model, they might be able to block competitors’ websites and services; in other words, it may facilitate adoption of anticompetitive practices – namely, the abuse of their dominant position. Transcending all the arguments raised against network neutrality –such as the prevention of an overuse of bandwidth–, we will demonstrate that it must be deemed essential from a Competition law perspective. In addition, we will argue, the imperative necessity of leaving the market under the tough scrutiny of competition authorities, which are best placed to assess the anticompetitive character of the practices brought about by market operators.

  17. EU COMPETITION LAW AND THE TELECOMS SINGLE MARKET: NETWORK NEUTRALITY IN THE AFTERMATH OF THE TSM REGULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noemí ANGULO GARZARO

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the early 1990s, a sharp increase in the Internet traffic has been experienced. Technology, once again, has proven to be able to develop faster than regulation. In this endlessly evolving scenario, operators in the technology markets, as well as end-users, often find themselves under-protected. Therefore, it comes as a major concern the need to regulate those technological markets and, more specifically, the use –or abuse– of Internet. All Internet traffic should be treated equally and that is, precisely, what network neutrality aims at. Consequently, network operators may not take advantage of their position in the market to affect competition in related markets. All in all, network neutrality is crucial to achieve the highest degree of competition. In the absence of network neutrality, the Internet would find itself unable to qualify as a market merely driven by innovation, and it would unfailingly turn into one ruled by deal making. Competition law claims that the higher the neutrality is – i.e., the more equal the treatment is, the better it is for the consumer. If network operating companies create an exploitative business model, they might be able to block competitors’ websites and services; in other words, it may facilitate adoption of anticompetitive practices – namely, the abuse of their dominant position. Transcending all the arguments raised against network neutrality –such as the prevention of an overuse of bandwidth–, we will demonstrate that it must be deemed essential from a Competition law perspective. In addition, we will argue, the imperative necessity of leaving the market under the tough scrutiny of competition authorities, which are best placed to assess the anticompetitive character of the practices brought about by market operators.

  18. 10 Gbit/s mode-multiplexed QPSK transmission using MDM-to-MFDM based single coherent receiver for intra- and inter data center networking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asif, Rameez; Haithem, Mustafa

    2017-05-01

    Generalized few-mode-fiber (FMF) transmission uses N coherent receivers for mode detection, where N scales with the number of fiber modes. Multiple coherent receivers increase the cost of optical network units (ONUs) in access networks, specifically for intra- and inter data center applications. We have experimentally evaluated a cost effective low-complexity receiver architecture based on mode-division multiplexing (MDM) to mode frequency-division multiplexing (MFDM) conversion for data center connectivity. A single coherent receiver is used to efficiently detect 10 Gbit/s QPSK Nyquist signals over 2.8 km 4-LP mode graded index fiber reducing the ONUs complexity to N / 4 . All the transmitted modes are successfully detected below the forward-error-correction (FEC) limit, i.e. 1×10-3 BER.

  19. Modeling of Entangled Network Chains and Linear Solvent Chains in a Single-Chain-Mean-Field Slip-Link Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    J. L. Influence of Solvent Size on the Mechanical Properties and Rheology of Polydimethylsiloxane-based Polymeric Gels . Polymer 2011, 52, 3422–3430...linked polymer networks swollen with polymeric solvent have shown adaptive mechanical response. This frequency dependent response makes these gels ...10 Figure 6. G′ for a PDMS gel containing 50

  20. Synthesis and Characterization of Network Single Ion Conductors(NSIC) Based On Comb-Branched Polyepoxide Ethers and LithiumBis(allylmalonato)borate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Xiao-Guang; Kerr, John B.

    2004-07-11

    Network single ion conductors (NSICs) based on comb-branch polyepoxide ethers and lithium bis(allylmalonato) borate have been synthesized and thoroughly characterized by means of ionic conductivity measurements, electrochemical impedance and by dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). The materials have been tested as battery electrolytes by cycling in symmetrical Li/Li half cells and in Li/V{sub 6}O{sub 13} full cells in which the NSIC was used as both binder and electrolyte in the cathode electrode and as the electrolyte separator membrane,. The substitution of the trimethylene oxide (TMO) unit into the side chains in place of ethylene oxide (EO) units increased the polymerion mobility (lower glass transition temperature). However, the ionic conductivity was nearly one and half orders of magnitude lower than the corresponding pure EO based single ion conductor at the same salt concentration. This effect may be ascribed to the lower dielectric constant of the TMO side chains that result in a lower concentration of free conducting lithium cations. For a highly cross-linked system (EO/Li=20), only 47 wt% plasticizing solvent (ethylene carbonate (EC)/ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC), 1/1 by wt) could be taken up and the ionic conductivity was only increased by one order of magnitude over the dry polyelectrolyte while for a less densely crosslinked system (EO/Li=80), up to 75 wt% plasticizer could be taken up and the ionic conductivity was increased by nearly two orders of magnitude. A Li/Li symmetric cell that was cycled at 85 C at a current density of 25{micro}Acm{sup -2} showed no concentration polarization or diffusional relaxation, consistent with a lithium ion transference number of one. However, both the bulk and interfacial impedances increased after 20 cycles, apparently due to continued cross-linking reactions within the membrane and on the surface of the lithium electrodes. A Li/V{sub 6}O{sub 13} full cell constructed using a single ion conductor gel (propylene

  1. Experiences of self-esteem among parents to preterm infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Hanne; Madsen, Mette Kold

    2014-01-01

    Background: The knowledge of parents’ of preterm infants' self-esteem is limited. The nursing of the preterm infants is based on the principles of family centered care. The dyad between the mother and the infant was the primary focus in earlier investigations. Current research shows...... aspects influence the parents’ experience of their self-esteem after the premature birth. Individual aspects include fathers' description of feeling as being split between taking care of the mother and taking care of the newborn infant admitted to the newborn intensive care. The mothers' experience...... difficulties remembering what happened during the first day after giving birth. The relational aspects affect the relationship between the mother and father, the relationship towards their infant and the parents’ experience of their self-esteem. Furthermore, the support from the nurses and the parents’ network...

  2. Neural-network-based prediction techniques for single station modeling and regional mapping of the foF2 and M(3000F2 ionospheric characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. D. Xenos

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, Neural-Network-based single-station hourly daily foF2 and M(3000F2 modelling of 15 European ionospheric stations is investigated. The data used are neural networks and hourly daily values from the period 1964- 1988 for training the neural networks and from the period 1989-1994 for checking the prediction accuracy. Two types of models are presented for the F2-layer critical frequency prediction and two for the propagation factor M(3000F2. The first foF2 model employs the E-layer local noon calculated daily critical frequency (foE12 and the local noon F2- layer critical frequency of the previous day. The second foF2 model, which introduces a new regional mapping technique, employs the Juliusruh neural network model and uses the E-layer local noon calculated daily critical frequency (foE12, and the previous day F2-layer critical frequency measured at Juliusruh at noon. The first M(3000F2 model employs the E-layer local noon calculated daily critical frequency (foE12, its ± 3 h deviations and the local noon cosine of the solar zenith angle (cos c12. The second model, which introduces a new M(3000F2 mapping technique, employs Juliusruh neural network model and uses the E-layer local noon calculated daily critical frequency (foE12, and the previous day F2-layer critical frequency measured at Juliusruh at noon.

  3. A 3 W High-Voltage Single-Chip Green Light-Emitting Diode with Multiple-Cells Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A parallel and series network structure was introduced into the design of the high-voltage single-chip (HV-SC light-emitting diode to inhibit the effect of current crowding and to improve the yield. Using such a design, a 6.6×5 mm2 large area LED chip of 24 parallel stages was demonstrated with 3 W light output power (LOP at the current of 500 mA. The forward voltage was measured to be 83 V with the same current injection, corresponding to 3.5 V for a single stage. The LED chip’s average thermal resistance was identified to be 0.28 K/W by using infrared thermography analysis.

  4. Caudal ropivacaine in infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tom Giedsing; Ilett, K F; Reid, C;

    2001-01-01

    Ropivacaine is a new long-acting amino-amide local anesthetic. However, there are no data on its use in infants. In the current study, the authors investigated the pharmacokinetics of caudal ropivacaine in 30 infants younger than 12 months....

  5. Ultrasound: Infant Hip

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Ultrasound: Infant Hip KidsHealth > For Parents > Ultrasound: Infant Hip A A A What's in this ... en los lactantes What It Is A hip ultrasound is a safe and painless test that uses ...

  6. Sudden Infant Death Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Henry L.; And Others

    There is a growing body of evidence that Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) victims are not completely normal and healthy, as was once believed. A variety of new information from several disciplines strongly suggests that the infant who dies suddenly and unexpectedly may do so because of subtle developmental, neurologic, cardiorespiratory, and…

  7. Caudal ropivacaine in infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tom Giedsing; Ilett, K F; Reid, C

    2001-01-01

    Ropivacaine is a new long-acting amino-amide local anesthetic. However, there are no data on its use in infants. In the current study, the authors investigated the pharmacokinetics of caudal ropivacaine in 30 infants younger than 12 months....

  8. Cerebral Asymmetry in Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargha-Khadem, Faraneh; Corballis, Michael C.

    This paper describes two experiments conducted to replicate the reported findings (Entus, 1975) that infants demonstrate a right ear advantage in the perception of dichotically presented syllables. Using the non-nutritive sucking paradigm, 48 infants 1-3 months of age were presented with verbal stimuli contingent upon criterion level sucking.…

  9. Enhanced music sensitivity in 9-month-old bilingual infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liquan; Kager, René

    2017-02-01

    This study explores the influence of bilingualism on the cognitive processing of language and music. Specifically, we investigate how infants learning a non-tone language perceive linguistic and musical pitch and how bilingualism affects cross-domain pitch perception. Dutch monolingual and bilingual infants of 8-9 months participated in the study. All infants had Dutch as one of the first languages. The other first languages, varying among bilingual families, were not tone or pitch accent languages. In two experiments, infants were tested on the discrimination of a lexical (N = 42) or a violin (N = 48) pitch contrast via a visual habituation paradigm. The two contrasts shared identical pitch contours but differed in timbre. Non-tone language learning infants did not discriminate the lexical contrast regardless of their ambient language environment. When perceiving the violin contrast, bilingual but not monolingual infants demonstrated robust discrimination. We attribute bilingual infants' heightened sensitivity in the musical domain to the enhanced acoustic sensitivity stemming from a bilingual environment. The distinct perceptual patterns between language and music and the influence of acoustic salience on perception suggest processing diversion and association in the first year of life. Results indicate that the perception of music may entail both shared neural network with language processing, and unique neural network that is distinct from other cognitive functions.

  10. Exploring time- and frequency- dependent functional connectivity and brain networks during deception with single-trial event-related potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jun-Feng; Yang, Yong; Huang, Wen-Tao; Lin, Pan; Ge, Sheng; Zheng, Hong-Mei; Gu, Ling-Yun; Zhou, Hui; Li, Chen-Hong; Rao, Ni-Ni

    2016-11-01

    To better characterize the cognitive processes and mechanisms that are associated with deception, wavelet coherence was employed to evaluate functional connectivity between different brain regions. Two groups of subjects were evaluated for this purpose: 32 participants were required to either tell the truth or to lie when facing certain stimuli, and their electroencephalogram signals on 12 electrodes were recorded. The experimental results revealed that deceptive responses elicited greater connectivity strength than truthful responses, particularly in the θ band on specific electrode pairs primarily involving connections between the prefrontal/frontal and central regions and between the prefrontal/frontal and left parietal regions. These results indicate that these brain regions play an important role in executing lying responses. Additionally, three time- and frequency-dependent functional connectivity networks were proposed to thoroughly reflect the functional coupling of brain regions that occurs during lying. Furthermore, the wavelet coherence values for the connections shown in the networks were extracted as features for support vector machine training. High classification accuracy suggested that the proposed network effectively characterized differences in functional connectivity between the two groups of subjects over a specific time-frequency area and hence could be a sensitive measurement for identifying deception.

  11. Highly ordered large-scale neuronal networks of individual cells - toward single cell to 3D nanowire intracellular interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiat, Moria; Elnathan, Roey; Pevzner, Alexander; Peretz, Asher; Barak, Boaz; Peretz, Hagit; Ducobni, Tamir; Stein, Daniel; Mittelman, Leonid; Ashery, Uri; Patolsky, Fernando

    2012-07-25

    The use of artificial, prepatterned neuronal networks in vitro is a promising approach for studying the development and dynamics of small neural systems in order to understand the basic functionality of neurons and later on of the brain. The present work presents a high fidelity and robust procedure for controlling neuronal growth on substrates such as silicon wafers and glass, enabling us to obtain mature and durable neural networks of individual cells at designed geometries. It offers several advantages compared to other related techniques that have been reported in recent years mainly because of its high yield and reproducibility. The procedure is based on surface chemistry that allows the formation of functional, tailormade neural architectures with a micrometer high-resolution partition, that has the ability to promote or repel cells attachment. The main achievements of this work are deemed to be the creation of a large scale neuronal network at low density down to individual cells, that develop intact typical neurites and synapses without any glia-supportive cells straight from the plating stage and with a relatively long term survival rate, up to 4 weeks. An important application of this method is its use on 3D nanopillars and 3D nanowire-device arrays, enabling not only the cell bodies, but also their neurites to be positioned directly on electrical devices and grow with registration to the recording elements underneath.

  12. Detecting the single line to ground short circuit fault in the submarine’s power system using the artificial neural network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behniafar Ali

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The electric marine instruments are newly inserted in the trade and industry, for which the existence of an equipped and reliable power system is necessitated. One of the features of such a power system is that it cannot have an earth system causing the protection relays not to be able to detect the single line to ground short circuit fault. While on the other hand, the occurrence of another similar fault at the same time can lead to the double line fault and thereby the tripping of relays and shortening of vital loads. This in turn endangers the personals' security and causes the loss of military plans. From the above considerations, it is inferred that detecting the single line to ground fault in the marine instruments is of a special importance. In this way, this paper intends to detect the single line to ground fault in the power systems of the marine instruments using the wavelet transform and Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP neural network. In the numerical analysis, several different types of short circuit faults are simulated on several marine power systems and the proposed approach is applied to detect the single line to ground fault. The results are of a high quality and preciseness and perfectly demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  13. Specific prebiotics in a formula for infants with Phenylketonuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Anita; Cochrane, Barbara; Wopereis, Harm; Loveridge, Nik

    2011-01-01

    This exploratory study investigated the influence of adding a patented, specific mixture of prebiotic oligosaccharides (scGOS/lcFOS [9:1 ratio], Danone Research) to a protein substitute suitable for infants with Phenylketonuria (PKU); PKU Anamix Infant (Nutricia). This was an 8-week open-label, single-arm, pilot intervention study in 9 infants (8-week median age) diagnosed with PKU. On study entry, infants were prescribed PKU Anamix Infant to replace an infant phenylalanine-free protein substitute without prebiotics (IPS). Blood phenylalanine concentrations were monitored and stool samples analyzed for pH/bacterial groups. PKU Anamix infant was well tolerated and accepted with no adverse events reported. Overall, plasma phenylalanine and tyrosine concentrations were maintained within target ranges throughout the study (120-360 μmol/l phenylalanine, 30-100 μmol/l tyrosine). All infants exhibited microbiota dominated by bifidobacteria (median 58.97% at Week 8), although no statistically significant change from baseline was observed at study endpoint. No infants showed abnormally high levels of Clostridium histolyticum/lituseburense or potentially pathogenic enterobacteriaceae at any point during the study. A significant reduction in median stool pH versus baseline was observed at Week 4 (pH reduced from 6.79 to 5.83), but this significance was not present at Week 8 (pH = 6.61). PKU Anamix Infant maintains phenylalanine control in line with established IPS without prebiotics and maintains levels of bifidobacteria and lowers stool pH. In exclusively breast-fed infants the latter two factors have been associated with a reduced risk of infection and may be of particular importance in infants with PKU. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Fatores perinatais associados ao óbito precoce em prematuros nascidos nos centros da Rede Brasileira de Pesquisas Neonatais Perinatal factors associated with early deaths of preterm infants born in Brazilian Network on Neonatal Research centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fernanda Branco de Almeida

    2008-08-01

    -1,500 g and 23-33 weeks of gestational age (GA, without malformations, who were born alive at eight public university tertiary hospitals in Brazil between June of 2004 and May of 2005. Infants who died within their first 6 days of life were compared with those who did not regarding maternal and neonatal characteristics and morbidity during the first 72 hours of life. Variables associated with the early deaths were identified by stepwise logistic regression. RESULTS: A total of 579 live births met the inclusion criteria. Early deaths occurred in 92 (16% cases, varying between centers from 5 to 31%, and these differences persisted after controlling for newborn illness severity and mortality risk score (SNAPPE-II. According to the multivariate analysis, the following factors were associated with early intrahospital neonatal deaths: gestational age of 23-27 weeks (odds ratio - OR = 5.0; 95%CI 2.7-9.4, absence of maternal hypertension (OR = 1.9; 95%CI 1.0-3.7, 5th minute Apgar 0-6 (OR = 2.8; 95%CI 1.4-5.4, presence of respiratory distress syndrome (OR = 3.1; 95%CI 1.4-6.6, and network center of birth. CONCLUSION: Important perinatal factors that are associated with early neonatal deaths in very low birth weight preterm infants can be modified by interventions such as improving fetal vitality at birth and reducing the incidence and severity of respiratory distress syndrome. The heterogeneity of early neonatal rates across the different centers studied indicates that best clinical practices should be identified and disseminated throughout the country.

  15. PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF ARQ AND HYBRID ARQ OVER SINGLE-HOP, DUAL-HOP, AND MULTIBRANCH DUAL-HOP NETWORKS

    KAUST Repository

    Hadjtaieb, Amir

    2014-05-01

    During the last decade, relay networks have attracted a lot of interest due to their numerous benefits. The relaying technique allows extending the coverage zone of wireless networks and offers a higher reliability for communication systems. The performance of relay networks can be improved further by the use of automatic repeat request (ARQ) and hybrid automatic repeat request (HARQ) techniques. ARQ and HARQ are retransmission mechanisms that ensure a good quality of service even in absence of channel state information at the transmitter. We, firstly, study the spectral and energy efficiency of ARQ in Nakagami-m block-fading channels. We maximize both spectral efficiency and energy efficiency with respect to the transmitted power. We derive exact expressions as well as compact and tight approximation for the solutions of these problems. Our analysis shows that the two problems of maximizing spectral efficiency and energy efficiency with respect to the transmitted power are completely different and give different solutions. Additionally, operating with a power that maximizes energy efficiency can lead to a significant drop in the spectral efficiency, and vice versa. Next, we consider a three node relay network comprising a source, a relay, and a destination. The source transmits the message to the destination using HARQ with incremental redundancy (IR). The relay overhears the transmitted message, amplifies it using a variable gain amplifier, and then forwards the message to the destination. This latter combines both the source and the relay message and tries to decode the information. In case of decoding failure, the destination sends a negative acknowledgement. A new replica of the message containing new parity bits is then transmitted in the subsequent HARQ round. This process continues until successful decoding occurs at the destination or a maximum number M of rounds is reached. We study the performance of HARQ-IR over the considered relay channel from an

  16. 面向WSN的单一和多编码方案分析%Analysis of Single and Multi-coding Scheme for Wireless Sensor Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戈军; 周莲英

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on how to use a different encoding scheme to improve network throughput. That is, different rates/codes are studied between sensor nodes and the Network Master(NM) and between the NM and the sink. Research results show that throughput increases with the increase of the BCH coding rate. Simulation results also show that the high rate BCH code provides a higher throughput than the low rate BCH code using the single coding scheme. The multi-coding scheme is more efficient and has a very good effect on network throughput over lifetime.%研究不同速率BCH码情况下提高无线传感器网络吞吐量的方法,给出单一编码方案对网络性能的影响及网络主节点(NM)对网络寿命和吞吐量的影响.仿真结果表明,在传感器和网络主节点(NM)之问、NM和sink之间采用不同速率/编码时,网络吞吐量随BCH编码率的增加而增加,多编码方案能更高效地提高网络吞吐量.

  17. When Infants Talk, Infants Listen: Pre-Babbling Infants Prefer Listening to Speech with Infant Vocal Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masapollo, Matthew; Polka, Linda; Ménard, Lucie

    2016-01-01

    To learn to produce speech, infants must effectively monitor and assess their own speech output. Yet very little is known about how infants perceive speech produced by an infant, which has higher voice pitch and formant frequencies compared to adult or child speech. Here, we tested whether pre-babbling infants (at 4-6 months) prefer listening to…

  18. Third-dimension information retrieval from a single convergent-beam transmission electron diffraction pattern using an artificial neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, Robert S.; Van den Broek, Wouter; Koch, Christoph T.

    2014-05-01

    We have reconstructed third-dimension specimen information from convergent-beam electron diffraction (CBED) patterns simulated using the stacked-Bloch-wave method. By reformulating the stacked-Bloch-wave formalism as an artificial neural network and optimizing with resilient back propagation, we demonstrate specimen orientation reconstructions with depth resolutions down to 5 nm. To show our algorithm's ability to analyze realistic data, we also discuss and demonstrate our algorithm reconstructing from noisy data and using a limited number of CBED disks. Applicability of this reconstruction algorithm to other specimen parameters is discussed.

  19. Single-agent maintenance therapy for advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC: a systematic review and Bayesian network meta-analysis of 26 randomized controlled trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinxue Wang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background The benefit of maintenance therapy has been confirmed in patients with non-progressing non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC after first-line therapy by many trials and meta-analyses. However, since few head-to-head trials between different regimens have been reported, clinicians still have little guidance on how to select the most efficacious single-agent regimen. Hence, we present a network meta-analysis to assess the comparative treatment efficacy of several single-agent maintenance therapy regimens for stage III/IV NSCLC. Methods A comprehensive literature search of public databases and conference proceedings was performed. Randomized clinical trials (RCTs meeting the eligible criteria were integrated into a Bayesian network meta-analysis. The primary outcome was overall survival (OS and the secondary outcome was progression free survival (PFS. Results A total of 26 trials covering 7,839 patients were identified, of which 24 trials were included in the OS analysis, while 23 trials were included in the PFS analysis. Switch-racotumomab-alum vaccine and switch-pemetrexed were identified as the most efficacious regimens based on OS (HR, 0.64; 95% CrI, 0.45–0.92 and PFS (HR, 0.54; 95% CrI, 0.26–1.04 separately. According to the rank order based on OS, switch-racotumomab-alum vaccine had the highest probability as the most effective regimen (52%, while switch-pemetrexed ranked first (34% based on PFS. Conclusions Several single-agent maintenance therapy regimens can prolong OS and PFS for stage III/IV NSCLC. Switch-racotumomab-alum vaccine maintenance therapy may be the most optimal regimen, but should be confirmed by additional evidence.

  20. Single-agent maintenance therapy for advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC): a systematic review and Bayesian network meta-analysis of 26 randomized controlled trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiaoning; Ma, Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Background The benefit of maintenance therapy has been confirmed in patients with non-progressing non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) after first-line therapy by many trials and meta-analyses. However, since few head-to-head trials between different regimens have been reported, clinicians still have little guidance on how to select the most efficacious single-agent regimen. Hence, we present a network meta-analysis to assess the comparative treatment efficacy of several single-agent maintenance therapy regimens for stage III/IV NSCLC. Methods A comprehensive literature search of public databases and conference proceedings was performed. Randomized clinical trials (RCTs) meeting the eligible criteria were integrated into a Bayesian network meta-analysis. The primary outcome was overall survival (OS) and the secondary outcome was progression free survival (PFS). Results A total of 26 trials covering 7,839 patients were identified, of which 24 trials were included in the OS analysis, while 23 trials were included in the PFS analysis. Switch-racotumomab-alum vaccine and switch-pemetrexed were identified as the most efficacious regimens based on OS (HR, 0.64; 95% CrI, 0.45–0.92) and PFS (HR, 0.54; 95% CrI, 0.26–1.04) separately. According to the rank order based on OS, switch-racotumomab-alum vaccine had the highest probability as the most effective regimen (52%), while switch-pemetrexed ranked first (34%) based on PFS. Conclusions Several single-agent maintenance therapy regimens can prolong OS and PFS for stage III/IV NSCLC. Switch-racotumomab-alum vaccine maintenance therapy may be the most optimal regimen, but should be confirmed by additional evidence.

  1. Automatic sleep stage classification of single-channel EEG by using complex-valued convolutional neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junming; Wu, Yan

    2017-02-21

    Many systems are developed for automatic sleep stage classification. However, nearly all models are based on handcrafted features. Because of the large feature space, there are so many features that feature selection should be used. Meanwhile, designing handcrafted features is a difficult and time-consuming task because the feature designing needs domain knowledge of experienced experts. Results vary when different sets of features are chosen to identify sleep stages. Additionally, many features that we may be unaware of exist. However, these features may be important for sleep stage classification. Therefore, a new sleep stage classification system, which is based on the complex-valued convolutional neural network (CCNN), is proposed in this study. Unlike the existing sleep stage methods, our method can automatically extract features from raw electroencephalography data and then classify sleep stage based on the learned features. Additionally, we also prove that the decision boundaries for the real and imaginary parts of a complex-valued convolutional neuron intersect orthogonally. The classification performances of handcrafted features are compared with those of learned features via CCNN. Experimental results show that the proposed method is comparable to the existing methods. CCNN obtains a better classification performance and considerably faster convergence speed than convolutional neural network. Experimental results also show that the proposed method is a useful decision-support tool for automatic sleep stage classification.

  2. Stillbirth and Infant Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøhr, Ellen Aagaard

    2012-01-01

    mechanisms behind these associations remain largely unknown. Although maternal obesity is associated with a wide range of complications in the mother and neonate that may impair fetal and infant survival, the increased risk of stillbirth and infant mortality is virtually unchanged when accounting...... indicating that some of the excess risk may have a placental origin. To further understand the associations between maternal obesity and late fetal and infant death, we need better and more detailed clinical data, which is difficult to obtain on a population level given the rarity of the outcomes. The best...

  3. Right Frontoinsular Cortex and Subcortical Activity to Infant Cry Is Associated with Maternal Mental State Talk

    OpenAIRE

    Hipwell, Alison E.; Guo, Chaohui; Mary L. Phillips; Swain, James E.; Moses-Kolko, Eydie L

    2015-01-01

    The study objective was to examine neural correlates of a specific component of human caregiving: maternal mental state talk, reflecting a mother's proclivity to attribute mental states and intentionality to her infant. Using a potent, ecologically relevant stimulus of infant cry during fMRI, we tested hypotheses that postpartum neural response to the cry of “own” versus a standard “other” infant in the right frontoinsular cortex (RFIC) and subcortical limbic network would be associated with ...

  4. Heterogeneous filament network formation by myosin light chain isoforms effects on contractile energy output of single cardiomyocytes derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeomi Mizutani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Cardiomyocytes derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC-CMs are expected to play an important role in heart therapies, in which hiPSC-CMs should generate sufficient contractile force to pump blood. However, recent studies have shown that the contractility of myocardial mimics composed of hiPSC-CMs is lower than that of adult human myocardium. To examine the mechanism by which contractile force output of hiPSC-CMs is weakened, we measured the contractile force of single hiPSC-CMs and observed the fibrous distribution of myosin II regulatory light chain (MRLC of cardiac (contributes to beating and non-cardiac (does not contribute to beating isoforms. Single hiPSC-CMs were cultured on an extracellular matrix gel, and the contractile force and strain energy exerted on the gel were measured. Strain energy was not uniform between cells and ranged from 0.2 to 5.8 pJ. The combination of contractile force measurement and immunofluorescent microscopy for MRLC isoforms showed that cells with higher strain energy expressed the weakened non-cardiac myosin II fibers compared to those of cells with lower strain energy. Observation of cardiac and non-cardiac MRLC showed that the MRLC isoforms formed heterogeneous filament networks. These results suggest that strain energy output from single hiPSC-CMs depends both cardiac and non-cardiac myosin fibers, which prevent deformation of the cell body.

  5. Variabilidade do risco do tempo de permanência ajustado para lactentes de muito baixo peso ao nascer entre centros da Neocosur South American Network Center variability in risk of adjusted length of stay for very low birth weight infants in the Neocosur South American Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Marshall

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Desenvolver um modelo de predição para o tempo de permanência hospitalar (TPH em lactentes de muito baixo peso ao nascer (MBPN e comparar esse resultado entre 20 centros de uma rede neonatal, visto que o TPH é utilizado como uma medida da qualidade da assistência em lactentes de MBPN. MÉTODOS: Utilizamos dados coletados prospectivamente de 7.599 lactentes com peso ao nascer entre 500 e 1.500 g no período entre os anos de 2001 a 2008. O modelo de regressão de Cox foi empregado para desenvolver dois modelos de predição: um modelo prévio com dados do nascimento e outro posterior, que acrescenta morbidades relevantes dos primeiros 30 dias de vida. RESULTADOS: A mediana do TPH estimado e ajustado a partir do nascimento foi de 59 dias; 28 dias depois do tempo de sobrevida de 30 dias. Houve uma alta correlação entre os modelos (r = 0,92. O TPH esperado e o TPH observado variaram bastante entre os centros, mesmo depois de correção para as morbidades relevantes após 30 dias. O TPH mediano (variação: 45-70 dias e a idade concepcional na alta hospitalar (variação: 36,4-39,9 semanas refletem uma variabilidade alta entre centros. CONCLUSÃO: Um modelo simples, com fatores apresentados no nascimento, pode predizer o TPH de um lactente de MBPN em uma rede neonatal. Observou-se uma variabilidade nos TPHs considerável entre unidades de terapia intensiva neonatal. Especulamos que os resultados sejam provenientes das diferenças entre as práticas dos centros.OBJECTIVES: To develop a prediction model for hospital length of stay (LOS in very low birth weight (VLBW infants and to compare this outcome among 20 centers within a neonatal network. METHODS: Data from 7,599 infants with birth weights of 500-1,500 g born between the years 2001-2008 were prospectively collected. The Cox regression model was employed to develop two prediction models: an early model based upon variables present at birth, and a late one that adds relevant

  6. Real-time fMRI brain computer interfaces: self-regulation of single brain regions to networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Sergio; Buyukturkoglu, Korhan; Rana, Mohit; Birbaumer, Niels; Sitaram, Ranganatha

    2014-01-01

    With the advent of brain computer interfaces based on real-time fMRI (rtfMRI-BCI), the possibility of performing neurofeedback based on brain hemodynamics has become a reality. In the early stage of the development of this field, studies have focused on the volitional control of activity in circumscribed brain regions. However, based on the understanding that the brain functions by coordinated activity of spatially distributed regions, there have recently been further developments to incorporate real-time feedback of functional connectivity and spatio-temporal patterns of brain activity. The present article reviews the principles of rtfMRI neurofeedback, its applications, benefits and limitations. A special emphasis is given to the discussion of novel developments that have enabled the use of this methodology to achieve self-regulation of the functional connectivity between different brain areas and of distributed brain networks, anticipating new and exciting applications for cognitive neuroscience and for the potential alleviation of neuropsychiatric disorders.

  7. Infant Botulism (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for it until their first birthdays. Spores of Clostridium botulinum bacteria, found in dirt and dust, can contaminate ... from the illness. Prevention Like many germs, the Clostridium botulinum spores that cause botulism in infants are everywhere ...

  8. Cow's milk - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002448.htm Cow's milk - infants To use the sharing features on this ... old, you should not feed your baby cow's milk, according to the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP). ...

  9. CPR - infant - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100216.htm CPR - infant - series—Check for responsiveness To use the ... yourself to call 911 until you have performed CPR for about 2 minutes. 3. Carefully place the ...

  10. Abbott Infant Formula Recall

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This list includes products subject to recall since September 2010 related to infant formula distributed by Abbott. This list will be updated with publicly...

  11. Infant formulas - overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... based formulas. These formulas are made with cow's milk protein that has been changed to be more like ... be helpful for infants who have allergies to milk protein and for those with skin rashes or wheezing ...

  12. Abbott Infant Formula Recall

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This list includes products subject to recall since September 2010 related to infant formula distributed by Abbott. This list will be updated with publicly available...

  13. Feeding tube - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007235.htm Feeding tube - infants To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A feeding tube is a small, soft, plastic tube placed ...

  14. Reflux in Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to 14 months. What causes reflux and GERD in infants? There is a muscle (the lower esophageal ... contents don't flow back into the esophagus. In babies who have reflux, the lower esophageal sphincter ...

  15. CHEST PHYSIOTHERAPY FOR INFANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti S. Christian (M.P.T Cardiopulmonary Conditions

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In the normal lung, secretions are removed by Mucociliary activity, normal breathing cycles, and cough. In disease, increased secretion viscosity and volume, dyskinesia of the cilia, and ineffective cough combine to reduce the ability to clear secretions, and may increase exacerbations and infections. Many chest physiotherapy techniques like postural drainage, percussion and vibration are used since many years. These techniques are derived from adult studies but these techniques are quite stressful for the infants as the infant respiratory system is different from the adult respiratory system. Advance chest physiotherapy techniques were developed specifically for infants; in accordance with their physiological characteristics. So this review is to introduce some new chest physiotherapy helpful for newborn infants.

  16. Total parenteral nutrition - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007239.htm Total parenteral nutrition - infants To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is a method of feeding that bypasses ...

  17. [Prebiotics in infant health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirdo, Fernando G; Menéndez, Ana M; Pita Martín de Portela, María L; Sosa, Patricia; Toca, María del C; Trifone, Liliana; Vecchiarelli, Carmen

    2011-02-01

    The composition of human milk is the main base for the development of infant formulas concerning its macronutrients and micronutrients contents and bioactive compounds. Technological advances in the composition of human milk have identified a great number of bioactive compounds such as prebiotics which are responsible for immunological protection and the prevention of different pathologies. In order to achieve similar benefits, they are part of the contents of infant formulas.

  18. Insertion of a single-molecule magnet inside a ferromagnetic lattice based on a 3D bimetallic oxalate network: towards molecular analogues of permanent magnets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemente-León, Miguel; Coronado, Eugenio; Gómez-García, Carlos J; López-Jordà, Maurici; Camón, Agustín; Repollés, Ana; Luis, Fernando

    2014-02-03

    The insertion of the single-molecule magnet (SMM) [Mn(III)(salen)(H2O)]2(2+) (salen(2-) = N,N'-ethylenebis-(salicylideneiminate)) into a ferromagnetic bimetallic oxalate network affords the hybrid compound [Mn(III)(salen)(H2O)]2[Mn(II)Cr(III)(ox)3]2⋅(CH3OH)⋅(CH3CN)2 (1). This cationic Mn2 cluster templates the growth of crystals formed by an unusual achiral 3D oxalate network. The magnetic properties of this hybrid magnet are compared with those of the analogous compounds [Mn(III)(salen)(H2O)]2[Zn(II)Cr(III)(ox)3]2⋅(CH3OH)⋅(CH3CN)2 (2) and [In(III)(sal2-trien)][Mn(II)Cr(III)(ox)3]⋅(H2O)0.25⋅(CH3OH)0.25⋅(CH3CN)0.25 (3), which are used as reference compounds. In 2 it has been shown that the magnetic isolation of the Mn2 clusters provided by their insertion into a paramagnetic oxalate network of Cr(III) affords a SMM behavior, albeit with blocking temperatures well below 500 mK even for frequencies as high as 160 kHz. In 3 the onset of ferromagnetism in the bimetallic Mn(II) Cr(III) network is observed at Tc = 5 K. Finally, in the hybrid compound 1 the interaction between the two magnetic networks leads to the antiparallel arrangement of their respective magnetizations, that is, to a ferrimagnetic phase. This coupling induces also important changes on the magnetic properties of 1 with respect to those of the reference compounds 2 and 3. In particular, compound 1 shows a large magnetization hysteresis below 1 K, which is in sharp contrast with the near-reversible magnetizations that the SMMs and the oxalate ferromagnetic lattice show under the same conditions. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Predictive factors for survival for out-born infants born between 23 and 24 weeks of gestation in the post-surfactant era: fourteen years' experience in a single neonatal care unit, 1987-2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosono, Shigeharu; Ohno, Tsutomu; Kimoto, Hirofumi; Shimizu, Masaki; Takahashi, Shigeru; Harada, Kensuke

    2008-10-01

    The purpose of the present paper was to identify the predictive factors for survival for out-born infants born between 23 and 24 weeks of gestation. Ninety-two infants born between 23 and 24 weeks' gestation who were admitted to a level III neonatal intensive care unit from 1987 to 2000, were retrospectively studied. Survival was defined as discharge from the neonatal intensive care unit. Logistic regression was done to determine which clinical factors were most predictive of survival. The independent variables that were entered into the models were determined by preliminary univariate analysis. Ninety-two infants were enrolled in the present study, 49 of whom survived in the surfactant era. The four variables that were found to be most predictive for survival on logistic regression were systolic blood pressure at 6 h (odds ratio [OR], 1.3; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.11-1.44 1 mmHg), ventilatory index born at 23-24 weeks of gestation.

  20. The Use of Language: A Rationale for Respectful and Reciprocal Caregiving with Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovach, Beverly A.; DaRoss, Denise A.

    1995-01-01

    Examines the role of language in providing individual quality care to infants in a group situation. Suggests that by using language, the natural medium of choice, the adult includes the infant in his caregiving, and this inclusion helps to set up the beginning of a network of communication that lays the foundation for mutual understanding between…

  1. The Use of Language: A Rationale for Respectful and Reciprocal Caregiving with Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovach, Beverly A.; DaRoss, Denise A.

    1995-01-01

    Examines the role of language in providing individual quality care to infants in a group situation. Suggests that by using language, the natural medium of choice, the adult includes the infant in his caregiving, and this inclusion helps to set up the beginning of a network of communication that lays the foundation for mutual understanding between…

  2. COMPARISON OF CHARACTERISTICS OF THE CONVERTER-FED MOTOR AT SUPPLY FROM THE SINGLE-PHASE NETWORK AND FROM THE SOURCE OF THE DIRECT CURRENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.B. Finkelshtein

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Now even more often in various cars and mechanisms converter-fed motors are used. Their comparative characteristics with motors which are supplied from a network of a direct current are necessary for definition of the specific moment of motors which are supplied from the single-phase alternating current main. Methodology. For the converter-fed motor with a ratio of teeth of the stator and a rotor 8/6 at supply from a single-phase network via the rectifier two groups of numerical experiments were carried out. Motor capacity with a constant frequency of rotation at various capacity of the capacitor at the exit of the rectifier and motor capacity at the current providing the most admissible excess of temperature of a winding are determined. Dependences of useful power on capacity size at the rectifier exit are received with a constant frequency of rotation, and also at invariable current. Results. On the basis of the made numerical experiment it is possible to conclude that due to fluctuation of tension (from 0 to 100 % at the rectifier exit at power supply of the converter-fed motor from the single-phase alternating current main in comparison with the corresponding sizes at supply from a source of a direct current: • motor capacity at preservation of capacity of the capacitor at the exit of the rectifier and frequency of rotation decreases on 60 – 63 %; • at almost acceptable increase in capacity of the capacitor (approximately twice power should be reduced by 50 %; • power deceleration at preservation of that size of current of the motor what took place at its food from a source of a direct current makes 40 % at preservation of size of capacity of the capacitor at the exit of the rectifier and 32 % at its doubling, the frequency of rotation decreases approximately on 13 – 15 %. Practical value. The specific moment can be determined by power sizes at single-phase supply, frequency of rotation and to the volume of a rotor, with

  3. Principle and Design of a Single-phase Inverter Based Grounding System for Neutral-to-ground Voltage Compensation in Distribution Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Wen; Yan, Lingjie; Zeng, Xiangjun

    2017-01-01

    Neutral-to-ground overvoltage may occur in non-effectively grounded power systems because of the distributed parameters asymmetry and resonance between Petersen coil and distributed capacitances. Thus, the constraint of neutral-to-ground voltage is critical for the safety of distribution networks....... In this paper, an active grounding system based on single-phase inverter and its control parameter design method is proposed to achieve this objective. Relationship between its output current and neutral-to-ground voltage is derived to explain the principle of neutral-to-ground voltage compensation. Then...... margin subjecting to large range of load change. The PI method is taken as the comparative method and the performances of both control methods are presented in detail. Experimental results prove the effectiveness and novelty of the proposed grounding system and control method....

  4. Simultaneous Generations of Independent Millimeter Wave and 10 Gbit/s Wired Signal by Single Electrode Modulator in TDM-PON Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niazi, Shahab Ahmad; Zhang, Xiaoguang; Xi, Lixia; Idress, Muhammad

    2013-03-01

    We propose and present a cost effective and simple technique of simultaneous generation and propagation of millimeter wave with recently standardized 10 giga bit passive optical network (GPON) by mixing of 2.5 Gbit/s, 30 GHz radio wave with 10 Gbit/s based band signal and then modulated by single Mach Zehnder modulator (MZM). In this scheme, we have applied 1490 nm for downstream, 1310 nm for upstream transmission and ON OFF keying (OOK) modulation format to make it fully align with existing standards and infrastructure. Simulation results show error free transmission performance with negligible power penalty over 25 km bidirectional fiber. We also highlight the principles and discuss the main technical challenges for commercial realization of 60 GHz spectrum.

  5. Network single-walled carbon nanotube-field effect transistors (SWNT-FETs) with increased Schottky contact area for highly sensitive biosensor applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byon, Hye Ryung; Choi, Hee Cheul

    2006-02-22

    Highly sensitive single-walled carbon nanotube-field effect transistor (SWNT-FET) devices, which detect protein adsorptions and specific protein-protein interactions at 1 pM concentrations, have been achieved. The detection limit has been improved 104-fold compared to the devices fabricated by photolithography. The substantially increased sensitivity is mainly due to the increased Schottky contact area which accommodates relatively more numbers of proteins even at very low concentration. The augmented number of proteins adsorbed on a device induces instant modulation of the work function of metal contact electrodes, which eventually changes the conductance of the device. Such devices have been attained by addressing metal electrodes on network-type SWNTs using a shadow mask on a tilted angle sample stage. The shadow mask allows metals to penetrate underneath the mask efficiently, therefore forming a thin and wide Schottky contact area on SWNT channels.

  6. Synchronization, non-linear dynamics and low-frequency fluctuations: analogy between spontaneous brain activity and networked single-transistor chaotic oscillators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minati, Ludovico; Chiesa, Pietro; Tabarelli, Davide; D'Incerti, Ludovico; Jovicich, Jorge

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, the topographical relationship between functional connectivity (intended as inter-regional synchronization), spectral and non-linear dynamical properties across cortical areas of the healthy human brain is considered. Based upon functional MRI acquisitions of spontaneous activity during wakeful idleness, node degree maps are determined by thresholding the temporal correlation coefficient among all voxel pairs. In addition, for individual voxel time-series, the relative amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations and the correlation dimension (D2), determined with respect to Fourier amplitude and value distribution matched surrogate data, are measured. Across cortical areas, high node degree is associated with a shift towards lower frequency activity and, compared to surrogate data, clearer saturation to a lower correlation dimension, suggesting presence of non-linear structure. An attempt to recapitulate this relationship in a network of single-transistor oscillators is made, based on a diffusive ring (n = 90) with added long-distance links defining four extended hub regions. Similarly to the brain data, it is found that oscillators in the hub regions generate signals with larger low-frequency cycle amplitude fluctuations and clearer saturation to a lower correlation dimension compared to surrogates. The effect emerges more markedly close to criticality. The homology observed between the two systems despite profound differences in scale, coupling mechanism and dynamics appears noteworthy. These experimental results motivate further investigation into the heterogeneity of cortical non-linear dynamics in relation to connectivity and underline the ability for small networks of single-transistor oscillators to recreate collective phenomena arising in much more complex biological systems, potentially representing a future platform for modelling disease-related changes.

  7. 3-Orders-of-magnitude density control of single-walled carbon nanotube networks by maximizing catalyst activation and dosing carbon supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zhao Jun; Levchenko, Igor; Yick, Samuel; Ostrikov, Kostya Ken

    2011-11-01

    Tailoring the density of random single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) networks is of paramount importance for various applications, yet it remains a major challenge due to the insufficient catalyst activation in most growth processes. Here we report on a simple and effective method to maximise the number of active catalyst nanoparticles using catalytic chemical vapor deposition (CCVD). By modulating short pulses of acetylene into a methane-based CCVD growth process, the density of SWCNTs is dramatically increased by up to three orders of magnitude without increasing the catalyst density and degrading the nanotube quality. In the framework of a vapor-liquid-solid model, we attribute the enhanced growth to the high dissociation rate of acetylene at high temperatures at the nucleation stage, which can be effective in both supersaturating the larger catalyst nanoparticles and overcoming the nanotube nucleation energy barrier of the smaller catalyst nanoparticles. These results are highly relevant to numerous applications of random SWCNT networks in next-generation energy, sensing and biomedical devices.

  8. An improved fault detection classification and location scheme based on wavelet transform and artificial neural network for six phase transmission line using single end data only.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koley, Ebha; Verma, Khushaboo; Ghosh, Subhojit

    2015-01-01

    Restrictions on right of way and increasing power demand has boosted development of six phase transmission. It offers a viable alternative for transmitting more power, without major modification in existing structure of three phase double circuit transmission system. Inspite of the advantages, low acceptance of six phase system is attributed to the unavailability of a proper protection scheme. The complexity arising from large number of possible faults in six phase lines makes the protection quite challenging. The proposed work presents a hybrid wavelet transform and modular artificial neural network based fault detector, classifier and locator for six phase lines using single end data only. The standard deviation of the approximate coefficients of voltage and current signals obtained using discrete wavelet transform are applied as input to the modular artificial neural network for fault classification and location. The proposed scheme has been tested for all 120 types of shunt faults with variation in location, fault resistance, fault inception angles. The variation in power system parameters viz. short circuit capacity of the source and its X/R ratio, voltage, frequency and CT saturation has also been investigated. The result confirms the effectiveness and reliability of the proposed protection scheme which makes it ideal for real time implementation.

  9. Feasibility of repetitive lung function measurements by raised volume rapid thoracoabdominal compression during methacholine challenge in young infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loland, Lotte; Bisgaard, Hans

    2008-01-01

    was successfully measured in 87% by transcutaneous oxygen pressure. No serious adverse events were observed during testing or after discharge from the clinic. The methacholine dose range was appropriate as PD could be determined in the majority of infants. FEV(0.5) values in 21% of infants dropped > 40% during...... function by RVRTC during methacholine challenge in young infants in a single center leads us to conclude that the test is feasible and safe to perform in asymptomatic young infants....

  10. Chaotic Extension Neural Network Theory-Based XXY Stage Collision Fault Detection Using a Single Accelerometer Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Tsung Hsieh

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The collision fault detection of a XXY stage is proposed for the first time in this paper. The stage characteristic signals are extracted and imported into the master and slave chaos error systems by signal filtering from the vibratory magnitude of the stage. The trajectory diagram is made from the chaos synchronization dynamic error signals E1 and E2. The distance between characteristic positive and negative centers of gravity, as well as the maximum and minimum distances of trajectory diagram, are captured as the characteristics of fault recognition by observing the variation in various signal trajectory diagrams. The matter-element model of normal status and collision status is built by an extension neural network. The correlation grade of various fault statuses of the XXY stage was calculated for diagnosis. The dSPACE is used for real-time analysis of stage fault status with an accelerometer sensor. Three stage fault statuses are detected in this study, including normal status, Y collision fault and X collision fault. It is shown that the scheme can have at least 75% diagnosis rate for collision faults of the XXY stage. As a result, the fault diagnosis system can be implemented using just one sensor, and consequently the hardware cost is significantly reduced.

  11. Impression evaluation and laboratory use for single-unit crowns: Findings from The National Dental Practice-Based Research Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCracken, Michael S; Litaker, Mark S; George, Ashley J; Durand, Scott; Malekpour, Sepideh; Marshall, Don G; Meyerowitz, Cyril; Carter, Lauren; Gordan, Valeria V; Gilbert, Gregg H

    2017-08-16

    Objectives were to determine the likelihood that a clinician accepts an impression for a single-unit crown and document crown remake rates. The authors developed a questionnaire that asked dentists about techniques used to fabricate single-unit crowns. The authors showed dentists photographs of 4 impressions and asked them to accept or reject each impression. The authors correlated answers with dentist and practice characteristics. Other questions pertained to laboratory use and crown remake rates. The response rate was 83% (1,777 of 2,132 eligible dentists). Of the 4 impressions evaluated, 3 received consistent responses, with 85% agreement. One impression was more equivocal; 52% accepted the impression. The likelihood of accepting an impression was associated significantly with the clinician's sex, race, ethnicity, and practice busyness. Clinicians produced 18 crowns per month on average, and 9% used in-office milling. Most dentists (59%) reported a remake rate of less than 2%, whereas 17% reported a remake rate greater than 4%. Lower remake rates were associated significantly with more experienced clinicians, optical impressions, and not using dual-arch trays. Although dentists were largely consistent in their evaluation of impressions (> 85%), nonclinical factors were associated with whether an impression was accepted or rejected. Lower crown remake rates were associated with more experienced clinicians, optical impressions, and not using dual-arch trays. These results provide a snapshot of clinical care considerations among a diverse group of dentists. Clinicians can compare their own remake rates and impression evaluation techniques with those in this sample when developing best practice protocols. Copyright © 2017 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Recurrent Wheezing in Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belhassen, Manon; De Blic, Jacques; Laforest, Laurent; Laigle, Valérie; Chanut-Vogel, Céline; Lamezec, Liliane; Brouard, Jacques; Fauroux, Brigitte; de Pouvourville, Gérard; Ginoux, Marine; Van Ganse, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Recurrent wheezing (RW) has a significant impact on infants, caregivers, and society, but morbidity and related medical resource utilization (MRU) have not been thoroughly explored. The burden of RW needs to be documented with population-based data. The objective was to assess the characteristics, medical management, and MRU of RW infants identified from national claims data. Infants aged from 6 to 24 months, receiving ≥2 dispensations of respiratory drugs within 3 months, and presenting a marker of poor control (index date), were selected. During the 6 months after index date, MRU was described in the cohort and among 3 subgroups with more severe RW, defined as ≥4 dispensations of respiratory drugs, ≥3 dispensations of oral corticosteroids (OCS), or ≥1 hospitalization for respiratory symptoms. A total of 115,489 infants had RW, corresponding to 8.2% of subjects in this age group. During follow-up, 68.7% of infants received inhaled corticosteroids, but only 1.8 U (unit) were dispensed over 6 months, suggesting discontinuous use. Control was mostly inadequate: 61.7% of subjects received OCS, 80.2% antibiotics, and 71.2% short-acting beta-agonists, and medical/paramedical visits were numerous, particularly for physiotherapy. Severe RW concerned 39.0% of the cohort; 32.8% and 11.7% of infants had repeated use of respiratory drugs and OCS, respectively, and 5.5% were hospitalized for respiratory symptoms. In this real-life nation-wide study, RW was common and infants had poor control and high MRU. Interventions are needed to support adequate use of controller therapy, and to improve medical care. PMID:27082618

  13. Non-invasive analysis of intestinal development in preterm and term infants using RNA-Sequencing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Knight, Jason M; Davidson, Laurie A; Herman, Damir; Martin, Camilia R; Goldsby, Jennifer S; Ivanov, Ivan V; Donovan, Sharon M; Chapkin, Robert S

    2014-01-01

    .... Bioinformatic analyses demonstrate repeatable detection of human mRNA expression, and network analysis shows immune cell function and inflammation pathways to be up-regulated in preterm infants...

  14. Prediction of fMRI time series of a single voxel using radial basis function neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Sutao; Zhang, Jiacai; Yao, Li

    2011-03-01

    A great deal of current literature regarding functional neuroimaging has elucidated the relationships of neurons distributed all over the brain. Modern neuroimaging techniques, such as the functional MRI (fMRI), provide a convenient tool for people to study the correlation among different voxels as well as the spatio-temporal patterns of brain activity. In this study, we present a computational model using radial basis function neural network (RBF-NN) to predict the fMRI voxel activation with the activation of other voxels acquired at the same time. The fMRI data from a visual images stimuli presentation experiment was separated into two sets; one was used to train the model, and the other to validate the accuracy or generalizability of the model. In the visual stimuli presentation experiment, the subject did simple one-back-repetition tasks when four categories of stimuli (houses, faces, cars, and cats) were presented. Voxel sets A and B were selected from fMRI data by two different voxel selection criterion: (1) Voxel set A are those activated for any kind of object stronger than the other three objects in regions of interest (ROIs) without correction (P=0.001); (2) Voxel set B are those activated for at least one of the categories of stimuli within the ROIs (FWE correction, P=0.05). RBF-NN regression models construct the nonlinear relationship between the activation of voxels in A and B. Our test results showed that RBF-NN can capture the nonlinear relationship existing in neurons and reveal the relationship between voxel's activation from different brain regions.

  15. Colleagues as Change Agents: How Department Networks and Opinion Leaders Influence Teaching at a Single Research University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, T C; Conaway, E P; Zhao, J; Dolan, E L

    2016-01-01

    Relationships with colleagues have the potential to be a source of support for faculty to make meaningful change in how they teach, but the impact of these relationships is poorly understood. We used a mixed-methods approach to investigate the characteristics of faculty who provide colleagues with teaching resources and facilitate change in teaching, how faculty influence one another. Our exploratory investigation was informed by social network theory and research on the impact of opinion leaders within organizations. We used surveys and interviews to examine collegial interactions about undergraduate teaching in life sciences departments at one research university. Each department included discipline-based education researchers (DBERs). Quantitative and qualitative analyses indicate that DBERs promote changes in teaching to a greater degree than other departmental colleagues. The influence of DBERs derives, at least partly, from a perception that they have unique professional expertise in education. DBERs facilitated change through coteaching, offering ready and approachable access to education research, and providing teaching training and mentoring. Faculty who had participated in a team based-teaching professional development program were also credited with providing more support for teaching than nonparticipants. Further research will be necessary to determine whether these results generalize beyond the studied institution. © 2016 T. C. Andrews et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2016 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  16. Interfacial Dislocation Networks and Creep in Directional Coarsened Ru-Containing Nickel-Base Single-Crystal Superalloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, L. J.; Feng, Q.; Pollock, T. M.

    2008-06-01

    Mechanisms of creep deformation in nickel-base superalloy single crystals in the directional coarsening regime have been studied in alloys with large variations in γ- γ' lattice misfit and phase composition, achieved by Ru additions and variable levels of Cr and Co. Interfacial dislocation spacings established by long-term annealing experiments under no externally applied stress indicate that the experimental alloys have high-temperature lattice misfits ranging from near-zero to as large as -0.65 pct. Variation in misfit influences the stress-induced directional coarsening (rafting) behavior during creep deformation at 950 °C and 290 MPa. In postcreep deformed material, the density of excess dislocations (defined as the dislocations beyond those necessary to relieve the lattice misfit) at the γ- γ' interfaces varied with alloy composition, with the most creep-resistant alloy containing the highest excess interfacial dislocation density. In the directional coarsening creep regime, continued deformation requires shearing of the γ' rafts and is strongly influenced by the resistance of the precipitates to shearing as well as the interfacial dislocation structure. A preliminary model for creep in the rafting regime is developed.

  17. CDC WONDER: Mortality - Infant Deaths

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Mortality - Infant Deaths (from Linked Birth / Infant Death Records) online databases on CDC WONDER provide counts and rates for deaths of children under 1 year...

  18. Vulnerability of network of networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havlin, S.; Kenett, D. Y.; Bashan, A.; Gao, J.; Stanley, H. E.

    2014-10-01

    Our dependence on networks - be they infrastructure, economic, social or others - leaves us prone to crises caused by the vulnerabilities of these networks. There is a great need to develop new methods to protect infrastructure networks and prevent cascade of failures (especially in cases of coupled networks). Terrorist attacks on transportation networks have traumatized modern societies. With a single blast, it has become possible to paralyze airline traffic, electric power supply, ground transportation or Internet communication. How, and at which cost can one restructure the network such that it will become more robust against malicious attacks? The gradual increase in attacks on the networks society depends on - Internet, mobile phone, transportation, air travel, banking, etc. - emphasize the need to develop new strategies to protect and defend these crucial networks of communication and infrastructure networks. One example is the threat of liquid explosives a few years ago, which completely shut down air travel for days, and has created extreme changes in regulations. Such threats and dangers warrant the need for new tools and strategies to defend critical infrastructure. In this paper we review recent advances in the theoretical understanding of the vulnerabilities of interdependent networks with and without spatial embedding, attack strategies and their affect on such networks of networks as well as recently developed strategies to optimize and repair failures caused by such attacks.

  19. Spectral-temporal EEG dynamics of speech discrimination processing in infants during sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilley, Phillip M; Uhler, Kristin; Watson, Kaylee; Yoshinaga-Itano, Christine

    2017-03-22

    Oddball paradigms are frequently used to study auditory discrimination by comparing event-related potential (ERP) responses from a standard, high probability sound and to a deviant, low probability sound. Previous research has established that such paradigms, such as the mismatch response or mismatch negativity, are useful for examining auditory processes in young children and infants across various sleep and attention states. The extent to which oddball ERP responses may reflect subtle discrimination effects, such as speech discrimination, is largely unknown, especially in infants that have not yet acquired speech and language. Mismatch responses for three contrasts (non-speech, vowel, and consonant) were computed as a spectral-temporal probability function in 24 infants, and analyzed at the group level by a modified multidimensional scaling. Immediately following an onset gamma response (30-50 Hz), the emergence of a beta oscillation (12-30 Hz) was temporally coupled with a lower frequency theta oscillation (2-8 Hz). The spectral-temporal probability of this coupling effect relative to a subsequent theta modulation corresponds with discrimination difficulty for non-speech, vowel, and consonant contrast features. The theta modulation effect suggests that unexpected sounds are encoded as a probabilistic measure of surprise. These results support the notion that auditory discrimination is driven by the development of brain networks for predictive processing, and can be measured in infants during sleep. The results presented here have implications for the interpretation of discrimination as a probabilistic process, and may provide a basis for the development of single-subject and single-trial classification in a clinically useful context. An infant's brain is processing information about the environment and performing computations, even during sleep. These computations reflect subtle differences in acoustic feature processing that are necessary for language

  20. Infants' Hearing Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homa Zarin koob

    1993-03-01

    Full Text Available This is a study performed following the study between the years 1980 to 1982 to investigate risk factors and diagnostic and rehabilitative patterns in a group of newborns suffered hearing loss in a city centre. The current findings which have been attained from 1983 to 1988 manifested that just one third of the deaf newborns can be tracked by means of common auditory evaluation tests in the Neonatal Intense Care Unit (NICU. Although these newborns have been followed sooner than the infants in the Well Baby Nursery (WBN. The age for enrolling in the Parent-Infant Program for both groups is approximately 20 month. During these 8 years it has been detected that the common age for taking part in the rehabilitative programs for newborns is 1 year or more greater than that recommended by Joint Committee on infant hearing

  1. Infant death scene investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabor, Pamela D; Ragan, Krista

    2015-01-01

    The sudden unexpected death of an infant is a tragedy to the family, a concern to the community, and an indicator of national health. To accurately determine the cause and manner of the infant's death, a thorough and accurate death scene investigation by properly trained personnel is key. Funding and resources are directed based on autopsy reports, which are only as accurate as the scene investigation. The investigation should include a standardized format, body diagrams, and a photographed or videotaped scene recreation utilizing doll reenactment. Forensic nurses, with their basic nursing knowledge and additional forensic skills and abilities, are optimally suited to conduct infant death scene investigations as well as train others to properly conduct death scene investigations. Currently, 49 states have child death review teams, which is an idea avenue for a forensic nurse to become involved in death scene investigations.

  2. Randomized outcome trial of nutrient-enriched formula and neurodevelopment outcome in preterm infants

    OpenAIRE

    Giannì, Maria Lorella; Roggero, Paola; Amato, Orsola; Picciolini, Odoardo; Piemontese, Pasqua; Liotto, Nadia; Taroni, Francesca; Mosca, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    Background Preterm infants are at risk for adverse neurodevelopment. Furthermore, nutrition may play a key role in supporting neurodevelopment. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether a nutrient-enriched formula fed to preterm infants after hospital discharge could improve their neurodevelopment at 24 months (term-corrected age). Methods We conducted an observer-blinded, single-center, randomized controlled trial in infants admitted to the Fondazione IRCCS Cà Granda Ospedale Maggiore Po...

  3. Three-dimensional culture of single embryonic stem-derived neural/stem progenitor cells in fibrin hydrogels: neuronal network formation and matrix remodelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bento, Ana R; Quelhas, Pedro; Oliveira, Maria J; Pêgo, Ana P; Amaral, Isabel F

    2016-12-29

    In an attempt to improve the efficacy of neural stem/progenitor cell (NSPC) based therapies, fibrin hydrogels are being explored to provide a favourable microenvironment for cell survival and differentiation following transplantation. In the present work, the ability of fibrin to support the survival, proliferation, and neuronal differentiation of NSPCs derived from embryonic stem (ES) cells under monolayer culture was explored. Single mouse ES-NSPCs were cultured within fibrin (fibrinogen concentration: 6 mg/ml) under neuronal differentiation conditions up to 14 days. The ES-NSPCs retained high cell viability and proliferated within small-sized spheroids. Neuronal differentiation was confirmed by an increase in the levels of βIII-tubulin and NF200 over time. At day 14, cell-matrix constructs mainly comprised NSPCs and neurons (46.5% βIII-tubulin(+) cells). Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic and dopaminergic/noradrenergic neurons were also observed, along with a network of synaptic proteins. The ES-NSPCs expressed matriptase and secreted MMP-2/9, with MMP-2 activity increasing along time. Fibronectin, laminin and collagen type IV deposition was also detected. Fibrin gels prepared with higher fibrinogen concentrations (8/10 mg/ml) were less permissive to neurite extension and neuronal differentiation, possibly owing to their smaller pore area and higher rigidity. Overall, it is shown that ES-NSPCs within fibrin are able to establish neuronal networks and to remodel fibrin through MMP secretion and extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition. This three-dimensional (3D) culture system was also shown to support cell viability, neuronal differentiation and ECM deposition of human ES-NSPCs. The settled 3D platform is expected to constitute a valuable tool to develop fibrin-based hydrogels for ES-NSPC delivery into the injured central nervous system. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Lipid profile of different infant formulas for infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonça, Marcio Antonio; Araújo, Wilma Maria Coelho; Borgo, Luiz Antonio; Alencar, Ernandes de Rodrigues

    2017-01-01

    Situations including premature infants, or those in which there is a rejection to breastfeeding, require the use infant formulas for total or partial replacement of human milk. The objective of this study was to determine the lipid content and to identify the lipid profile of infant formulas. Samples were collected from ten different infant formulas, used as a substitute for breast milk at the Maternal and Child Hospital of Brasilia. The human milk sample consisted of a pool of samples from 10 mature milk donors at the milk bank of the University Hospital of Brasilia. The lipid content and lipid profile of the different infant formulas and human milk were analyzed. The experiment was conducted in a randomized block design, with eleven treatments and three replicates, in triplicate. The data obtained in this study indicated significant differences between infant formulas and human milk, and among the infant formulas analyzed in relation to the percentage of total lipids and the fatty acid profile, except for the fractions of linoleic acid and linolenic acid. Regarding the percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids in relation to the total unsaturated fatty acids, only the Soy Protein Isolate-based Infant Formula (SPIIF) and Whey Protein Extensively Hydrolyzed Infant Formula (WPEHIF) resembled human milk. It was concluded that despite the observed differences, the use of infant formulas is a viable strategy for the development of infants subjected or not to specific physiological conditions.

  5. Occult intracranial injury in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenes, D S; Schutzman, S A

    1998-12-01

    The objectives of this study were as follows: (1) to determine whether clinical symptoms and signs of brain injury are sensitive indicators of intracranial injury (ICI) in infants admitted with head trauma, (2) to describe the clinical characteristics of infants who have ICI in the absence of symptoms and signs of brain injury, and (3) to determine the clinical significance of those ICIs diagnosed in asymptomatic infants. We conducted a retrospective analysis of all infants younger than 2 years of age admitted to a tertiary care pediatric hospital with acute ICI during a 6(1/2)-year period. Infants were considered symptomatic if they had loss of consciousness, history of behavior change, seizures, vomiting, bulging fontanel, retinal hemorrhages, abnormal neurologic examination, depressed mental status, or irritability. All others were considered to have occult ICI. Of 101 infants studied, 19 (19%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 12%, 28%) had occult ICI. Fourteen of 52 (27%) infants younger than 6 months of age had occult ICI, compared with 5 of 34 (15%) infants 6 months to 1 year, and none of 15 (0%) infants older than 1 year. Eighteen (95%) infants with occult ICI had scalp contusion or hematoma, and 18 (95%) had skull fracture. Nine (47%) infants with occult ICI received therapy for the ICI. No infants with occult ICI (0%) (95% CI 0, 14%) required surgery or medical management for increased intracranial pressure. Only 1 subject (5%) with occult ICI had any late symptoms or complications: a brief, self-limited convulsion. We found that 19 of 101 ICIs in infants admitted with head trauma were clinically occult. All 19 occult ICIs occurred in infants younger than 12 months of age, and 18 of 19 had skull fractures. None experienced serious neurologic deterioration or required surgical intervention. Physicians cannot depend on the absence of clinical signs of brain injury to exclude ICI in infants younger than 1 year of age.

  6. Colic in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucassen, Peter

    2010-02-05

    Colic in infants causes one in six families (17%) with children to consult a health professional. One systematic review of 15 community-based studies found a wide variation in prevalence, which depended on study design and method of recording. We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of treatments for colic in infants? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to September 2009 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). We found 27 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: advice to increase carrying, advice to reduce stimulation, casein hydrolysate milk, cranial osteopathy, crib vibrator device, focused counselling, gripe water, infant massage, low-lactose milk, simethicone, soya-based infant feeds, spinal manipulation, and whey hydrolysate milk.

  7. Milk Allergy in Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Habits for TV, Video Games, and the Internet Milk Allergy in Infants KidsHealth > For Parents > Milk Allergy ... español Alergia a la leche en bebés About Milk Allergy People of any age can have a ...

  8. Ptosis - infants and children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blepharoptosis-children; Congenital ptosis; Eyelid drooping-children; Eyelid drooping-amblyopia; Eyelid drooping-astigmatism ... Ptosis in infants and children is often due to a problem with the muscle that raises the eyelid. A nerve problem in the eyelid can ...

  9. Chikungunya infection in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Carmo Menezes Bezerra Duarte

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: the infection of chikungunya virus presents clinical manifestations variables, particularly in infants in which may present multiple cutaneous manifestations. Description: a case series study was carried out in an analytical character of 14 infants (>28 days to < 2 years old admitted in a hospital between November 2015 and January 2016 with suspected case of chikungunya, by a specific IgM reactive serology. Patients positive for dengue fever, Zika virus, bacterial infections and other exanthematic diseases were excluded. Fever and cutaneous alterations were the most frequent clinical manifestations in 100% of the cases, followed by irritability (64.3%, vomits and arthralgia/arthritis in 35.7% each. Three children presented alterations in the cerebrospinal fluid compatible to meningitis. Anemia frequency was 85.7%. The median white blood cells count was 7.700/mm3 (2.600 to 20.300/mm3. High levels of aminotransferases were observed in three cases (230 to 450 U/L. Antibiotic therapy was indicated in 64.3% of the cases. Two infants needed opioid derivatives for analgesia while others took acetaminophen and/or dipyrone. Discussion: the study shows evident multi-systemic involvement of chikungunya infection in infants. The treatment is supportive, giving special attention to hydration, analgesia, skin care, and rational use of antibiotic therapy.

  10. Lactose intolerance in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Cathy

    Cathy Taylor describes the pathophysiology and aetiology of lactose intolerance and how to diagnose and treat it. Management of the infant by the primary health care team is discussed, with emphasis on advice and nutritional support that can be recommended to parents.

  11. Bromoderma in an infant*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoefel, Isadora da Rosa; Camozzato, Fernanda Oliveira; Hagemann, Laura Netto; Rhoden, Deise Louise Bohn; Kiszewski, Ana Elisa

    2016-01-01

    Bromoderma is a cutaneous eruption caused by the absorption of bromide. Clinical manifestations include acneiform and vegetative lesions. We report the case of an infant with bromoderma caused by the use of syrup for abdominal colic containing calcium bromide. The lesions regressed after discontinuation of the drug.

  12. Neuroprotection in Preterm Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Berger

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Preterm infants born before the 30th week of pregnancy are especially at risk of perinatal brain damage which is usually a result of cerebral ischemia or an ascending intrauterine infection. Prevention of preterm birth and early intervention given signs of imminent intrauterine infection can reduce the incidence of perinatal cerebral injury. It has been shown that administering magnesium intravenously to women at imminent risk of a preterm birth leads to a significant reduction in the likelihood of the infant developing cerebral palsy and motor skill dysfunction. It has also been demonstrated that delayed clamping of the umbilical cord after birth reduces the rate of brain hemorrhage among preterm infants by up to 50%. In addition, mesenchymal stem cells seem to have significant neuroprotective potential in animal experiments, as they increase the rate of regeneration of the damaged cerebral area. Clinical tests of these types of therapeutic intervention measures appear to be imminent. In the last trimester of pregnancy, the serum concentrations of estradiol and progesterone increase significantly. Preterm infants are removed abruptly from this estradiol and progesterone rich environment. It has been demonstrated in animal experiments that estradiol and progesterone protect the immature brain from hypoxic-ischemic lesions. However, this neuroprotective strategy has unfortunately not yet been subject to sufficient clinical investigation.

  13. Colic in infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lucassen, P.L.

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Colic in infants leads one in six families (17%) with children to consult a health professional. One systematic review of 15 community-based studies found a wide variation in prevalence, which depended on study design and method of recording. METHODS AND OUTCOMES: We conducted a system

  14. Measuring on-line compliance in ventilated infants using hot wire anemometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baboolal, R; Kirpalani, H

    1990-10-01

    We investigated the validity of using tidal volume (VT) as measured by the neonatal volume monitor (NVM) to derive respiratory compliance. The NVM is a noninvasive device that measures VT by hot wire anemometry. The quotient of VT and the inflation pressure amplitude from the mechanical ventilator provided a measure of respiratory compliance. This was validated against the single breath occlusion technique in 15 infants (birth weight 0.9 to 4.4 kg). To ensure fully passive expiration, only paralyzed or sedated patients were studied. Only 12 of the 15 infants were analyzed because of limitations in the single breath technique. In three infants the flow-volume curves obtained were alinear, indicating inhomogeneity. In the 12 infants with acceptable single breath data, agreement between the two methods was excellent. Using the expired volume, r2 was .99. We conclude that the NVM can be used to obtain valid estimates of respiratory compliance on-line in intubated infants.

  15. Maternal and infant sleep postpartum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Elizabeth

    2013-07-01

    New parents should be aware that infants' sleep is unlike that of adults and that meeting their infant's needs is likely to disrupt their own sleep. They will need to adjust their routine to manage their own sleep needs. Parental sleep patterns in the postpartum period are tied to the infant's development of a circadian sleep-wake rhythm, and the infant's feeds. Close contact with the mother and exposure to light/dark cues appear to assist in the development of the infant's circadian rhythm. The composition of breastmilk varies over the course of 24 hours and some components produced at night are likely to contribute to the infant's day/night entrainment. There is no clear evidence that using artificial feeds improves maternal sleep. Most infants need night feeds but requirements for nighttime feeds vary with the individual.

  16. Activity-based sleep-wake identification in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sazonov, Edward; Sazonova, Nadezhda; Schuckers, Stephanie; Neuman, Michael

    2004-10-01

    Actigraphy offers one of the best-known alternatives to polysomnography for sleep-wake identification. The advantages of actigraphy include high accuracy, simplicity of use and low intrusiveness. These features allow the use of actigraphy for determining sleep-wake states in such highly sensitive groups as infants. This study utilizes a motion sensor (accelerometer) for a dual purpose: to determine an infant's position in the crib and to identify sleep-wake states. The accelerometer was positioned over the sacral region on the infant's diaper, unlike commonly used attachment to an ankle. Opposed to broadly used discriminant analysis, this study utilized logistic regression and neural networks as predictors. The accuracy of predicted sleep-wake states was established in comparison to the sleep-wake states recorded by technicians in a polysomnograph study. Both statistical and neural predictors of this study provide an accuracy of approximately 77-92% which is comparable to similar studies achieving prediction rates of 85-95%, thus validating the suggested methodology. The results support the use of body motion as a simple and reliable method for determining sleep-wake states in infants. Nonlinear mapping capabilities of the neural network benefit the accuracy of sleep-wake state identification. Utilization of the accelerometer for the dual purpose allows us to minimize intrusiveness of home infant monitors.

  17. Eosinophilic colitis in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Chebar Lozinsky

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To review the literature for clinical data on infants with allergic or eosinophilic colitis. DATA SOURCE: MEDLINE search of all indexes was performed using the words ''colitis or procto-colitis and eosinophilic'' or ''colitis or proctocolitis and allergic'' between 1966 and February of 2013. All articles that described patients' characteristics were selected. DATA SYNTHESIS: A total of 770 articles were identified, of which 32 met the inclusion criteria. The 32 articles included a total of 314 infants. According to the available information, 61.6% of infants were male and 78.6% were younger than 6 months. Of the 314 patients, 49.0% were fed exclusively breast milk, 44.2% received cow's milk protein, and 6.8% received soy protein. Diarrheal stools were described in 28.3% of patients. Eosinophilia was found in 43.8% (115/263 of infants. Colonic or rectal biopsy showed infiltration by eosinophils (between 5 and 25 perhigh-power field in 89.3% (236/264 of patients. Most patients showed improvement with theremoval of the protein in cow's milk from their diet or the mother's diet. Allergy challenge tests with cow's milk protein were cited by 12 of the 32 articles (66 patients. CONCLUSIONS: Eosinophilic colitis occurs predominantly in the first six months of life and in males. Allergy to cow's milk was considered the main cause of eosinophilic colitis. Exclusion of cow'smilk from the diet of the lactating mother or from the infant's diet is generally an effective therapeutic measure.

  18. Propensity approach to nonequilibrium thermodynamics of a chemical reaction network: Controlling single E-coli β-galactosidase enzyme catalysis through the elementary reaction steps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Biswajit; Gangopadhyay, Gautam, E-mail: gautam@bose.res.in [S. N. Bose National Centre For Basic Sciences, Block-JD, Sector-III, Salt Lake, Kolkata 700 098 (India); Banerjee, Kinshuk [Department of Chemistry, University of Calcutta, 92 A.P.C. Road, Kolkata 700 009 (India)

    2013-12-28

    In this work, we develop an approach to nonequilibrium thermodynamics of an open chemical reaction network in terms of the elementary reaction propensities. The method is akin to the microscopic formulation of the dissipation function in terms of the Kullback-Leibler distance of phase space trajectories in Hamiltonian system. The formalism is applied to a single oligomeric enzyme kinetics at chemiostatic condition that leads the reaction system to a nonequilibrium steady state, characterized by a positive total entropy production rate. Analytical expressions are derived, relating the individual reaction contributions towards the total entropy production rate with experimentally measurable reaction velocity. Taking a real case of Escherichia coli β-galactosidase enzyme obeying Michaelis-Menten kinetics, we thoroughly analyze the temporal as well as the steady state behavior of various thermodynamic quantities for each elementary reaction. This gives a useful insight in the relative magnitudes of various energy terms and the dissipated heat to sustain a steady state of the reaction system operating far-from-equilibrium. It is also observed that, the reaction is entropy-driven at low substrate concentration and becomes energy-driven as the substrate concentration rises.

  19. Neurovascular Network Explorer 1.0: a database of 2-photon single-vessel diameter measurements with MATLAB® graphical user interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishnu B Sridhar

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We present a database client software – Neurovascular Network Explorer 1.0 (NNE 1.0 – that uses MATLAB® based Graphical User Interface (GUI for interaction with a database of 2-photon single-vessel diameter measurements from our previous publication [1]. These data are of particular interest for modeling the hemodynamic response. NNE 1.0 is downloaded by the user and then runs either as a MATLAB script or as a standalone program on a Windows platform. The GUI allows browsing the database according to parameters specified by the user, simple manipulation and visualization of the retrieved records (such as averaging and peak-normalization, and export of the results. Further, we provide NNE 1.0 source code. With this source code, the user can database their own experimental results, given the appropriate data structure and naming conventions, and thus share their data in a user-friendly format with other investigators. NNE 1.0 provides an example of seamless and low-cost solution for sharing of experimental data by a regular size neuroscience laboratory and may serve as a general template, facilitating dissemination of biological results and accelerating data-driven modeling approaches.

  20. Neurovascular Network Explorer 1.0: a database of 2-photon single-vessel diameter measurements with MATLAB(®) graphical user interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, Vishnu B; Tian, Peifang; Dale, Anders M; Devor, Anna; Saisan, Payam A

    2014-01-01

    We present a database client software-Neurovascular Network Explorer 1.0 (NNE 1.0)-that uses MATLAB(®) based Graphical User Interface (GUI) for interaction with a database of 2-photon single-vessel diameter measurements from our previous publication (Tian et al., 2010). These data are of particular interest for modeling the hemodynamic response. NNE 1.0 is downloaded by the user and then runs either as a MATLAB script or as a standalone program on a Windows platform. The GUI allows browsing the database according to parameters specified by the user, simple manipulation and visualization of the retrieved records (such as averaging and peak-normalization), and export of the results. Further, we provide NNE 1.0 source code. With this source code, the user can database their own experimental results, given the appropriate data structure and naming conventions, and thus share their data in a user-friendly format with other investigators. NNE 1.0 provides an example of seamless and low-cost solution for sharing of experimental data by a regular size neuroscience laboratory and may serve as a general template, facilitating dissemination of biological results and accelerating data-driven modeling approaches.

  1. Korean VLBI Network Calibrator Survey (KVNCS). 1. Source Catalog of KVN Single-dish Flux Density Measurement in the K and Q Bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeong Ae; Sohn, Bong Won; Jung, Taehyun; Byun, Do-Young; Lee, Jee Won

    2017-02-01

    We present the catalog of the KVN Calibrator Survey (KVNCS). This first part of the KVNCS is a single-dish radio survey simultaneously conducted at 22 (K band) and 43 GHz (Q band) using the Korean VLBI Network (KVN) from 2009 to 2011. A total of 2045 sources are selected from the VLBA Calibrator Survey with an extrapolated flux density limit of 100 mJy at the K band. The KVNCS contains 1533 sources in the K band with a flux density limit of 70 mJy and 553 sources in the Q band with a flux density limit of 120 mJy; it covers the whole sky down to ‑32.°5 in decl. We detected 513 sources simultaneously in the K and Q bands; ∼76% of them are flat-spectrum sources (‑0.5 ≤ α ≤ 0.5). From the flux–flux relationship, we anticipated that most of the radiation of many of the sources comes from the compact components. The sources listed in the KVNCS therefore are strong candidates for high-frequency VLBI calibrators.

  2. A simplified fracture network model for studying the efficiency of a single well semi open loop heat exchanger in fractured crystalline rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    de La Bernardie, Jérôme; de Dreuzy, Jean-Raynald; Bour, Olivier; Thierion, Charlotte; Ausseur, Jean-Yves; Lesuer, Hervé; Le Borgne, Tanguy

    2016-04-01

    Geothermal energy is a renewable energy source particularly attractive due to associated low greenhouse gas emission rates. Crystalline rocks are in general considered of poor interest for geothermal applications at shallow depths (energy storage at these shallow depths is still remaining very challenging because of the complexity of fractured media. The purpose of this study is to test the possibility of efficient thermal energy storage in shallow fractured rocks with a single well semi open loop heat exchanger (standing column well). For doing so, a simplified numerical model of fractured media is considered with few fractures. Here we present the different steps for building the model and for achieving the sensitivity analysis. First, an analytical and dimensional study on the equations has been achieved to highlight the main parameters that control the optimization of the system. In a second step, multiphysics software COMSOL was used to achieve numerical simulations in a very simplified model of fractured media. The objective was to test the efficiency of such a system to store and recover thermal energy depending on i) the few parameters controlling fracture network geometry (size and number of fractures) and ii) the frequency of cycles used to store and recover thermal energy. The results have then been compared to reference shallow geothermal systems already set up for porous media. Through this study, relationships between structure, heat exchanges and storage may be highlighted.

  3. Real-time electroholography using a multiple-graphics processing unit cluster system with a single spatial light modulator and the InfiniBand network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niwase, Hiroaki; Takada, Naoki; Araki, Hiromitsu; Maeda, Yuki; Fujiwara, Masato; Nakayama, Hirotaka; Kakue, Takashi; Shimobaba, Tomoyoshi; Ito, Tomoyoshi

    2016-09-01

    Parallel calculations of large-pixel-count computer-generated holograms (CGHs) are suitable for multiple-graphics processing unit (multi-GPU) cluster systems. However, it is not easy for a multi-GPU cluster system to accomplish fast CGH calculations when CGH transfers between PCs are required. In these cases, the CGH transfer between the PCs becomes a bottleneck. Usually, this problem occurs only in multi-GPU cluster systems with a single spatial light modulator. To overcome this problem, we propose a simple method using the InfiniBand network. The computational speed of the proposed method using 13 GPUs (NVIDIA GeForce GTX TITAN X) was more than 3000 times faster than that of a CPU (Intel Core i7 4770) when the number of three-dimensional (3-D) object points exceeded 20,480. In practice, we achieved ˜40 tera floating point operations per second (TFLOPS) when the number of 3-D object points exceeded 40,960. Our proposed method was able to reconstruct a real-time movie of a 3-D object comprising 95,949 points.

  4. Propensity approach to nonequilibrium thermodynamics of a chemical reaction network: controlling single E-coli β-galactosidase enzyme catalysis through the elementary reaction steps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Biswajit; Banerjee, Kinshuk; Gangopadhyay, Gautam

    2013-12-28

    In this work, we develop an approach to nonequilibrium thermodynamics of an open chemical reaction network in terms of the elementary reaction propensities. The method is akin to the microscopic formulation of the dissipation function in terms of the Kullback-Leibler distance of phase space trajectories in Hamiltonian system. The formalism is applied to a single oligomeric enzyme kinetics at chemiostatic condition that leads the reaction system to a nonequilibrium steady state, characterized by a positive total entropy production rate. Analytical expressions are derived, relating the individual reaction contributions towards the total entropy production rate with experimentally measurable reaction velocity. Taking a real case of Escherichia coli β-galactosidase enzyme obeying Michaelis-Menten kinetics, we thoroughly analyze the temporal as well as the steady state behavior of various thermodynamic quantities for each elementary reaction. This gives a useful insight in the relative magnitudes of various energy terms and the dissipated heat to sustain a steady state of the reaction system operating far-from-equilibrium. It is also observed that, the reaction is entropy-driven at low substrate concentration and becomes energy-driven as the substrate concentration rises.

  5. NURSING AND CARING OF THE PREMATURE INFANTS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Hanne; Jørgensen, Eva; Hall, Elisabeth

    2006-01-01

    of attention-related behaviours, and the infant’s competences to have self-control, growth, breath function and time for discharge. Variables and the mothers: maternal self-esteem; staffs support to the parents; parents support from different networks and a demographic data. The study includes 60 children...... quantitatively. The data collecting will take place from the 19. Of October 2005 and one year forward. The expectations of the results are to find a significant advantage in the intervention group showing that the infants will be more mature; more stable in their self control; the mothers will be more competent...

  6. The Use of the Denver Developmental Screening Test in Infant Welfare Clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, M.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Results of a single Denver Developmental Screening Test performance on 823 infants attending maternal and child health centers were compared with developmental information recorded by public health nurses during routine well baby care of these same infants. Journal Avaliability: J.B. Lippincott Co; E. Washington Sq., Philadelphia, PA 19105.…

  7. Syllable-Related Breathing in Infants in the Second Year of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parham, Douglas F.; Buder, Eugene H.; Oller, D. Kimbrough; Boliek, Carol A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study explored whether breathing behaviors of infants within the 2nd year of life differ between tidal breathing and breathing supporting single unarticulated syllables and canonical/articulated syllables. Method: Vocalizations and breathing kinematics of 9 infants between 53 and 90 weeks of age were recorded. A strict selection…

  8. INFANTILE CHOREA IN AN INFANT WITH SEVERE BRONCHOPULMONARY DYSPLASIA - AN EMG STUDY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HADDERSALGRA, M; BOS, AF; MARTIJN, A; PRECHTL, HFR

    1994-01-01

    Recently a new movement disorder has been described which develops in some preterm infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia. The present report provides a detailed description (including polyelectromyographical and serial cranial ultrasound findings) of this syndrome in a single infant. The authors s

  9. Wavelet-based automatic cry recognition system for detecting infants with hearing-loss from normal infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Mansouri Jam

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Infant cry is a multimodal and dynamic behaviour that it contains a lot of information. Goal of this investigation is recognition of two groups of infants by new acoustic feature that has not used in infant cry classification. The cry of deaf infants and normal hearing infants is studied. ‘Mel filter-bank discrete wavelet coefficients (MFDWCs’ have been extracted as feature vector. Infant cry classification is a pattern recognition problem such as ‘automatic speech recognition’, which in signal processing stage the authors performed some pre-processing included silence elimination, filtering, pre-emphasising and, segmentation. After applying the discrete wavelet transform on the Mel scaled log filter bank energies of a cry signal frames, MFDWCs feature vector was extracted. The feature vector, MFDWCs, of each cry sample has large length, so they used principle components analysis to reduce in feature space dimension, after training of neural network as classifier, they achieved to 93.2% correction rate in cry recognition of test data set. This result shows better efficiency in comparison with previous familiarised approaches.

  10. Association between feeding difficulties and language delay in preterm infants using Bayley Scales of Infant Development-Third Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams-Chapman, Ira; Bann, Carla M; Vaucher, Yvonne E; Stoll, Barbara J

    2013-09-01

    To evaluate the relationship between abnormal feeding patterns and language performance on the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-Third Edition at 18-22 months adjusted age among a cohort of extremely premature infants. This is a descriptive analysis of 1477 preterm infants born ≤ 26 weeks gestation or enrolled in a clinical trial between January 1, 2006 and March 18, 2008 at a National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network center who completed the 18-month neurodevelopmental follow-up assessment. At 18-22 months adjusted age, a comprehensive neurodevelopmental evaluation was performed by certified examiners including the Receptive and Expressive Language Subscales of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-Third Edition and a standardized adjusted age feeding behaviors and nutritional intake. Data were analyzed using bivariate and multilevel linear and logistic regression modeling. Abnormal feeding behaviors were reported in 193 (13%) of these infants at 18-22 months adjusted age. Abnormal feeding patterns, days of mechanical ventilation, hearing impairment, and Gross Motor Functional Classification System level ≥ 2 each independently predicted lower composite language scores. At 18 months adjusted age, premature infants with a history of feeding difficulties are more likely to have language delay. Neuromotor impairment and days of mechanical ventilation are both important risk factors associated with these outcomes. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Gaze Behaviors of Preterm and Full-Term Infants in Nonsocial and Social Contexts of Increasing Dynamics: Visual Recognition, Attention Regulation, and Gaze Synchrony

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harel, Hagar; Gordon, Ilanit; Geva, Ronny; Feldman, Ruth

    2011-01-01

    Although research has demonstrated poor visual skills in premature infants, few studies assessed infants' gaze behaviors across several domains of functioning in a single study. Thirty premature and 30 full-term 3-month-old infants were tested in three social and nonsocial tasks of increasing complexity and their gaze behavior was micro-coded. In…

  12. Gaze Behaviors of Preterm and Full-Term Infants in Nonsocial and Social Contexts of Increasing Dynamics: Visual Recognition, Attention Regulation, and Gaze Synchrony

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harel, Hagar; Gordon, Ilanit; Geva, Ronny; Feldman, Ruth

    2011-01-01

    Although research has demonstrated poor visual skills in premature infants, few studies assessed infants' gaze behaviors across several domains of functioning in a single study. Thirty premature and 30 full-term 3-month-old infants were tested in three social and nonsocial tasks of increasing complexity and their gaze behavior was micro-coded. In…

  13. Newborn predictors of infant irritability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, M R; Froese-Fretz, A; Kotzer, A M

    1998-01-01

    To identify newborn infant behaviors that may predict infant irritability, commonly referred to as colic. A prospective, correlational design, with data collection occurring the first 4 days of life and again at 1 month of age. This study was conducted in a private hospital in a large metropolitan city in the Midwest. Sixty infants who were at low risk and full term and whose weight was appropriate for gestational age were recruited during their postpartum hospital stay. Infants with congenital anomalies, signs of illness, or high-risk factors were excluded from the study. During infants' 1-4-day hospital stays, their crying was assessed and reported by the nurses, and a Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale was completed on each infant. At 1 month of age, irritability was measured using the Fussiness Rating Scale. Only two components of the Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale were related to development of colic or infant irritability at 1 month of age. These were the cluster of variables representing motor activity and the Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale supplemental item measuring the persistence necessary on the part of the examiner to get the infant to attend to stimuli presented. The infants who were classified by parents as irritable at 1 month of age were more active and more attentive to stimuli in the first few days of life. Of interest was that the newborn nursery nurses cry ratings were not related to the later development of colic in these infants. Active infants who are sensitive to stimuli may be predisposed to infant irritability; however, further work is needed to understand the relationships of these infant characteristics to the human interactions and physical environments they encounter

  14. 'Frame dominance' and the serial organization of babbling, and first words in Korean-Learning infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soyoung; Davis, Barbara L; MacNeilage, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Korean-learning infant patterns in babbling and single words were compared with those of English-learning infants and with Korean adult-directed and infantdirected speech to evaluate the roles of intrinsic production constraints proposed by the frame dominance hypothesis versus early learning mechanisms based on input regularities. Intrasyllabic patterns in babbling of Korean-learning infants were like those of English-learning infants. These patterns were not present in Korean infant-directed speech, providing evidence for the assertion that they are intrinsic to infants, and not triggered by input. Unlike English-learning infants, however, Korean-learning infants did not show the expected intrasyllabic patterns in their first words, suggesting that the intrinsic constraints can be overcome in first words if they conflict with ambient speech patterns as they do in Korean. Intersyllabic patterns of Korean-learning infants were mostly similar to those of English-learning infants, showing preferences for consonant manner and vowel height variegation in babbling though only a vowel variegation preference in words. Some implications of the results for generative phonology are considered.

  15. Epigenetic Regulation of Placental "NR3C1": Mechanism Underlying Prenatal Programming of Infant Neurobehavior by Maternal Smoking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroud, Laura R.; Papandonatos, George D.; Salisbury, Amy L.; Phipps, Maureen G.; Huestis, Marilyn A.; Niaura, Raymond; Padbury, James F.; Marsit, Carmen J.; Lester, Barry M.

    2016-01-01

    Epigenetic regulation of the placental glucocorticoid receptor gene ("NR3C1") was investigated as a mechanism underlying links between maternal smoking during pregnancy (MSDP) and infant neurobehavior in 45 mother-infant pairs (49% MSDP-exposed; 52% minorities; ages 18-35). The Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) Network Neurobehavioral…

  16. Epigenetic Regulation of Placental "NR3C1": Mechanism Underlying Prenatal Programming of Infant Neurobehavior by Maternal Smoking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroud, Laura R.; Papandonatos, George D.; Salisbury, Amy L.; Phipps, Maureen G.; Huestis, Marilyn A.; Niaura, Raymond; Padbury, James F.; Marsit, Carmen J.; Lester, Barry M.

    2016-01-01

    Epigenetic regulation of the placental glucocorticoid receptor gene ("NR3C1") was investigated as a mechanism underlying links between maternal smoking during pregnancy (MSDP) and infant neurobehavior in 45 mother-infant pairs (49% MSDP-exposed; 52% minorities; ages 18-35). The Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) Network Neurobehavioral…

  17. Brain tumors in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Mohammad Ghodsi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Brain tumors in infants have different clinical presentations, anatomical distribution, histopathological diagnosis, and clinical prognosis compared with older children. Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis was done in patients <12 months old who were operated on for primary brain tumor in Children's Hospital Medical Center since 2008 to 2014. Results: Thirty-one infants, 20 males and 11 females, with the mean age of 7.13 months (0.5–12 were enrolled. There were 16 supratentorial and 15 infratentorial tumors. The presenting symptoms included increased head circumference (16; bulge fontanel (15; vomiting (15; developmental regression (11; sunset eye (7; seizure (4; loss of consciousness (4; irritability (3; nystagmus (2; visual loss (2; hemiparesis (2; torticollis (2; VI palsy (3; VII, IX, X nerve palsy (each 2; and ptosis (1. Gross total and subtotal resection were performed in 19 and 11 cases, respectively. Fourteen patients needed external ventricular drainage in the perioperative period, from whom four infants required a ventriculoperitoneal shunt. One patient underwent ventriculoperitoneal shunting without tumor resection. The most common histological diagnoses were primitive neuroectodermal tumor (7, followed by anaplastic ependymoma (6 and grade II ependymoma. The rate of 30-day mortality was 19.3%. Eighteen patients are now well-controlled with or without adjuvant therapy (overall survival; 58%, from whom 13 cases are tumor free (disease free survival; 41.9%, 3 cases have residual masses with fixed or decreased size (progression-free survival; 9.6%, and 2 cases are still on chemotherapy. Conclusion: Brain tumors in infants should be treated with surgical resection, followed by chemotherapy when necessary.

  18. Energy conservation in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blass, Elliott

    2015-08-01

    Energy acquisition through suckling has been widely studied in rat and human infants. Processes mediating energy conservation, however, have not received the attention that they deserve. This essay, in honor of Professor Jerry Hogan, discusses parallel behaviors used by rat and human mothers to minimize energy loss in their offspring. Parallel mechanisms underlying energy preservation have been identified in rats and humans, suggesting phylogenetic conservation and possibly continuity. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: In Honor of Jerry Hogan.

  19. Infant-Directed Speech Drives Social Preferences in 5-Month-Old Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schachner, Adena; Hannon, Erin E.

    2011-01-01

    Adults across cultures speak to infants in a specific infant-directed manner. We asked whether infants use this manner of speech (infant- or adult-directed) to guide their subsequent visual preferences for social partners. We found that 5-month-old infants encode an individuals' use of infant-directed speech and adult-directed speech, and use this…

  20. Cahit Arf: Exploring his scientific influence using social network analysis, author co-citation maps and single publication h index1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasar Tonta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cahit Arf (1910-1997, a famous Turkish scientist whose picture is depicted in one of the Turkish banknotes, is a well-known figure in mathematics with his discoveries named after him (e.g., Arf invariant, Arf rings, the Hasse-Arf theorem. Although Arf may not be considered as a prolific scientist in terms of number of papers (he authored a total of 23 papers, his influence on mathematics and related disciplines was profound. As he was active before, during, and after World War II, Arf′s contributions are not properly listed in citation indexes, and thus did not generate many citations even though several papers with "Arf" in their titles appeared in literature. This paper traces influence of Arf in scientific world using citation analysis techniques first. It reviews scientific impact of Arf by analyzing both; the papers authored by Arf and papers whose titles or keywords containing various combinations of "Arf invariant," "Arf rings," and so on. The paper then goes on to study Arf′s contributions using social network analysis (SNA and author co-citation analysis (ACA techniques. CiteSpace and pennant diagrams are used to explore scientific impact of Arf by mapping his cited references derived from Thomson Reuters′ Web of Science (WoS database. The direct and indirect influences of Arf′s highly cited paper on Arf invariant are assessed through ACA and single publication h index, respectively. The paper ends with a discussion of whether data analysis techniques used in this study can be useful to study scientific impact of researchers retrospectively.

  1. A single session of exercise increases connectivity in sensorimotor-related brain networks: A resting-state fMRI study in young healthy adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Saeed Rajab

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Habitual long term physical activity is known to have beneficial cognitive, structural and neuro-protective brain effects, but to date there is limited knowledge on whether a single session of exercise can alter the brain’s functional connectivity, as assessed by resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI. The primary objective of this study was to characterize potential session effects in resting state networks (RSNs. We examined the acute effects of exercise on the functional connectivity of young healthy adults (N=15 by collecting rs-fMRI before and after 20 minutes of moderate intensity aerobic exercise and compared this with a no-exercise control group (N=15. Data were analysed using independent component analysis, denoising and dual regression procedures. ROI-based group session effect statistics were calculated in RSNs of interest using voxel-wise permutation testing and Cohen’s D effect size. Group analysis in the exercising group data set revealed a session effect in sub-regions of three sensorimotor related areas: the pre and/or postcentral gyri, secondary somatosensory area and thalamus, characterized by increased co-activation after exercise (corrected p<0.05. Cohen’s D analysis also showed a significant effect of session in these three RSNs (p<0.05, corroborating the voxel-wise findings. Analyses of the no-exercise dataset produced no significant results, thereby providing support for the exercise findings and establishing the inherent test-retest reliability of the analysis pipeline on the RSNs of interest. This study establishes the feasibility of rs-fMRI to localize brain regions that are associated with acute exercise, as well as an analysis consideration to improve sensitivity to a session effect.

  2. 基于同频RF直放站的回波测量方法%Technique of measuring the echo for RF repeaters in single frequency networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈哲; 宋葛

    2011-01-01

    直放站的同频转发模式存在收发天线间互耦的问题,接收天线在接收主基站的信号时,同时接收到直放站发射天线发射的信号,以同频RF直放站调试隔离度为技术背景,提出了同频RF直放站的回波测量方法.该方法利用CAZAC码实现的初估计快速地估计出回波信道的特性,自适应LMS算法的使用可以进一步跟踪信道的变化.通过MATLAB仿真后,在数字硬件平台上用FPGA实现该方法,并用数字电视信号CMMB做为信号源对系统进行了测试,结果说明此种测量方法准确、实用.%The signal transition mode of repeater which works on the same frequency has some troubles on signal coupling between receive and transmit aerials,the signal from transmit aerial may leak out into receive aerial. This paper presents a method of measuring the echo under the context of isolation test for RF repeaters in single frequency networks. The experimental apparatus firstly uses CAZAC code as the method of channel initial estimation, secondly uses LMS arithmetic to track the change of the channel. After the MATLAB simulation realization has been achieved by FPGA on real digital hardware board. The result of test which uses DTV signal (CMMB) as the source proves the function of method achieved accurately.

  3. Wearable Sensor Systems for Infants

    OpenAIRE

    Zhihua Zhu; Tao Liu; Guangyi Li; Tong Li; Yoshio Inoue

    2015-01-01

    Continuous health status monitoring of infants is achieved with the development and fusion of wearable sensing technologies, wireless communication techniques and a low energy-consumption microprocessor with high performance data processing algorithms. As a clinical tool applied in the constant monitoring of physiological parameters of infants, wearable sensor systems for infants are able to transmit the information obtained inside an infant’s body to clinicians or parents. Moreover, such sys...

  4. Early feeding and neonatal hypoglycemia in infants of diabetic mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Cordero

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To examine the effects of early formula feeding or breast-feeding on hypoglycemia in infants born to 303 A1-A2 and 88 Class B-RF diabetics. Methods: Infants with hypoglycemia (blood glucose < 40 mg/dL were breast-fed or formula-fed, and those with recurrences were given intravenous dextrose. Results: Of 293 infants admitted to the well-baby nursery, 87 (30% had hypoglycemia, corrected by early feeding in 75 (86%, while 12 (14% required intravenous dextrose. In all, 98 infants were admitted to the newborn intensive care unit for respiratory distress (40%, prematurity (33% or prevention of hypoglycemia (27%. Although all newborn intensive care unit patients received intravenous dextrose, 22 (22% had hypoglycemia. Of 109 hypoglycemia episodes, 89 (82% were single low occurrences. At discharge, 56% of well-baby nursery and 43% of newborn intensive care unit infants initiated breast-feeding. Conclusions: Hypoglycemia among infants of diabetic mothers can be corrected by early breast-feeding or formula feeding.

  5. Estimation of desvenlafaxine transfer into milk and infant exposure during its use in lactating women with postnatal depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampono, Jonathan; Teoh, Stephanie; Hackett, L Peter; Kohan, Rolland; Ilett, Kenneth F

    2011-02-01

    This study characterises the extent of desvenlafaxine transfer into milk and provides data on infant exposure to desvenlafaxine via breast milk in ten women with postnatal depression and their breastfed infants. Desvenlafaxine concentration in milk and plasma was measured chromatographically in milk and in maternal and infant plasma collected at steady state. Theoretic and relative infant doses via milk were estimated and the per cent drug in infant versus mother's plasma was calculated. Theoretic infant dose via milk was 85 (53-117) μg kg(-1) day(-1) (mean and 95% confidence interval) and relative infant dose was 6.8% (5.5-8.1%). The ratio of drug in infant/maternal plasma also gave an infant exposure estimate of 4.8% (3.5-6.2%) for all ten infants and 5.3% (4.2-5.7%) in the eight infants who were exclusively breastfed. No adverse effects were seen in the infants. The relative infant dose was similar to that for previous studies using venlafaxine and was supported by a separate exposure measure using the ratio of drug in the infant's plasma relative to that in the mother's plasma. The theoretic infant dose of desvenlafaxine was 41-45% of that for venlafaxine and its metabolite desvenlafaxine in previous studies, reflecting the lower recommended maternal dose for desvenlafaxine. Although our data for desvenlafaxine use in lactation are encouraging and there are supporting data from venlafaxine studies, more patients and their infants need to be studied before the safety of desvenlafaxine as a single therapeutic agent can be fully assessed.

  6. An experimental study on mother-infant skin-to-skin contact in full-terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beijers, Roseriet; Cillessen, Linda; Zijlmans, Maartje A C

    2016-05-01

    In premature infants, daily skin-to-skin contact (SSC) has various beneficial effects on the health of the infant and the mother. These beneficial effects might extend to full-term infants. This experimental within-subject study examines the immediate effects of SSC on full-terms' cortisol physiology during SSC and subsequent physiological and behavioral reactions to a mild stressor (a bathing session). Additionally, the effects of SSC on the quality of maternal behavior are examined. Between 5 and 7 weeks postpartum, 17 full-term infant-mother dyads were visited at home twice. During one home visit, a bathing session was proceeded by 50min of mother-infant SSC, while during the other visit the bathing session was proceeded by 50min of the infant resting alone. The order of the home visits was counterbalanced. Infant salivary cortisol measures were taken to measure the cortisol response to the experimental condition (SSC versus solitary resting) and the bathing session. Furthermore, infant behavioral distress and the quality of maternal behavior during the bathing session were scored from videotapes. Two-way within-subject repeated measures ANOVA's showed that, when compared to solitary resting, full-terms' cortisol concentrations significantly decreased during SSC, followed by higher cortisol reactivity in response to the subsequent bathing session. No effects of SSC on infant behavioral distress and maternal caregiving behavior were found. Apparently, a single session of mother-infant SSC can affect infant cortisol physiology in full-term infants. Future SSC research is needed to investigate the neurobiological mechanisms and dose-response relations in full-term infants.

  7. Feeding patterns and diet -- babies and infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000712.htm Feeding patterns and diet - babies and infants To use ... prevent childhood obesity Alternative names Babies and infants - feeding; Diet - age appropriate - babies and infants; Breastfeeding - babies ...

  8. Sudden Infant Death Syndrome: Facts for Caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas Child Care, 2000

    2000-01-01

    Presents risk factors and prevention measures related to Sudden Infant Death Syndrome. Offers infant sleep recommendations and five discussion questions to test knowledge of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome. (DLH)

  9. Know Concentration Before Giving Acetaminophen to Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Know Concentration Before Giving Acetaminophen to Infants Share Tweet Linkedin ... infants has only been available in a stronger concentration that doesn’t require giving the infants as ...

  10. Infant Sleep Positioners Pose Suffocation Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Infant Sleep Positioners Pose Suffocation Risk Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ... sharing options Linkedin Pin it Email Print Infant Sleep Positioner Example See more images of Infant Sleep ...

  11. Infant Massage: Understand This Soothing Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Understand when and how to give an infant massage. By Mayo Clinic Staff Infant massage is a way for you to gently nurture ... Find out about the possible benefits of infant massage and know how to get started. Research suggests ...

  12. Infant Development: Birth to 3 Months

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Infant and toddler health Infant development begins at birth. Consider major infant development milestones from birth to 3 months — and know what to do when something's not right. By ...

  13. Infant Auditory Processing and Event-related Brain Oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musacchia, Gabriella; Ortiz-Mantilla, Silvia; Realpe-Bonilla, Teresa; Roesler, Cynthia P.; Benasich, April A.

    2015-01-01

    Rapid auditory processing and acoustic change detection abilities play a critical role in allowing human infants to efficiently process the fine spectral and temporal changes that are characteristic of human language. These abilities lay the foundation for effective language acquisition; allowing infants to hone in on the sounds of their native language. Invasive procedures in animals and scalp-recorded potentials from human adults suggest that simultaneous, rhythmic activity (oscillations) between and within brain regions are fundamental to sensory development; determining the resolution with which incoming stimuli are parsed. At this time, little is known about oscillatory dynamics in human infant development. However, animal neurophysiology and adult EEG data provide the basis for a strong hypothesis that rapid auditory processing in infants is mediated by oscillatory synchrony in discrete frequency bands. In order to investigate this, 128-channel, high-density EEG responses of 4-month old infants to frequency change in tone pairs, presented in two rate conditions (Rapid: 70 msec ISI and Control: 300 msec ISI) were examined. To determine the frequency band and magnitude of activity, auditory evoked response averages were first co-registered with age-appropriate brain templates. Next, the principal components of the response were identified and localized using a two-dipole model of brain activity. Single-trial analysis of oscillatory power showed a robust index of frequency change processing in bursts of Theta band (3 - 8 Hz) activity in both right and left auditory cortices, with left activation more prominent in the Rapid condition. These methods have produced data that are not only some of the first reported evoked oscillations analyses in infants, but are also, importantly, the product of a well-established method of recording and analyzing clean, meticulously collected, infant EEG and ERPs. In this article, we describe our method for infant EEG net

  14. How each prosodic boundary cue matters: evidence from german infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellmann, Caroline; Holzgrefe, Julia; Truckenbrodt, Hubert; Wartenburger, Isabell; Höhle, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have revealed that infants aged 6-10 months are able to use the acoustic correlates of major prosodic boundaries, that is, pitch change, preboundary lengthening, and pause, for the segmentation of the continuous speech signal. Moreover, investigations with American-English- and Dutch-learning infants suggest that processing prosodic boundary markings involves a weighting of these cues. This weighting seems to develop with increasing exposure to the native language and to underlie crosslinguistic variation. In the following, we report the results of four experiments using the headturn preference procedure to explore the perception of prosodic boundary cues in German infants. We presented 8-month-old infants with a sequence of names in two different prosodic groupings, with or without boundary markers. Infants discriminated both sequences when the boundary was marked by all three cues (Experiment 1) and when it was marked by a pitch change and preboundary lengthening in combination (Experiment 2). The presence of a pitch change (Experiment 3) or preboundary lengthening (Experiment 4) as single cues did not lead to a successful discrimination. Our results indicate that pause is not a necessary cue for German infants. Pitch change and preboundary lengthening in combination, but not as single cues, are sufficient. Hence, by 8 months infants only rely on a convergence of boundary markers. Comparisons with adults' performance on the same stimulus materials suggest that the pattern observed with the 8-month-olds is already consistent with that of adults. We discuss our findings with respect to crosslinguistic variation and the development of a language-specific prosodic cue weighting.

  15. How each prosodic boundary cue matters: Evidence from German infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline eWellmann

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have revealed that infants aged six to ten months are able to use the acoustic correlates of major prosodic boundaries, that is, pitch change, preboundary lengthening, and pause, for the segmentation of the continuous speech signal. Moreover, investigations with American-English- and Dutch-learning infants suggest that processing prosodic boundary markings involves a weighting of these cues. This weighting seems to develop with increasing exposure to the native language and to underlie crosslinguistic variation. In the following, we report the results of four experiments using the headturn preference procedure to explore the perception of prosodic boundary cues in German infants. We presented eight-month-old infants with a sequence of names in two different prosodic groupings, with or without boundary markers. Infants discriminated both sequences when the boundary was marked by all three cues (Experiment 1 and when it was marked by a pitch change and preboundary lengthening in combination (Experiment 2. The presence of a pitch change (Experiment 3 or preboundary lengthening (Experiment 4 as single cues did not lead to a successful discrimination. Our results indicate that pause is not a necessary cue for German infants. Pitch and preboundary lengthening in combination, but not as single cues, are sufficient. Hence, by eight months infants only rely on a convergence of boundary markers. Comparisons with adults’ performance on the same stimulus materials suggest that the pattern observed with the eight-month-olds is already consistent with that of adults. We discuss our findings with respect to crosslinguistic variation and the development of a language-specific prosodic cue weighting.

  16. Infant Neurosensory Development: Considerations for Infant Child Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Infant brain development is a dynamic process dependent upon endogenous and exogenous stimulation and a supportive environment. A critical period of brain and neurosensory development occurs during the third trimester and into the "fourth" trimester (first three months of life). Disruption, damage, or deprivation in the infant's social and…

  17. Integration Of Low-Cost Single-Frequency GPS Stations Using 'Spider' Technology Within Existing Dual-Frequency GPS Network at Soufrière Hills Volcano, Montserrat (West Indies): Processing And Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascal, K.; Palamartchouk, K.; Lahusen, R. G.; Young, K.; Voight, B.

    2015-12-01

    Twenty years ago, began the eruption of the explosive Soufrière Hills Volcano, dominating the southern part of the island of Montserrat, West Indies. Five phases of effusive activity have now occurred, characterized by dome building and collapse, causing numerous evacuations and the emigration of half of the population. Over the years, the volcano monitoring network has greatly expanded. The GPS network, started from few geodetic markers, now consists of 14 continuous dual frequency GPS stations, distributed on and around the edifice, where topography and vegetation allow. The continuous GPS time series have given invaluable insight into the volcano behavior, notably revealing deflation/inflation cycles corresponding to phases and pauses of effusive activity, respectively. In 2014, collaboration of the CALIPSO Project (Penn State; NSF) with the Montserrat Volcano Observatory enriched the GPS and seismic monitoring networks with six 'spider' stations. The 'spiders', developed by R. Lahusen at Cascades Volcano Observatory, are designed to be deployed easily in rough areas and combine a low cost seismic station and a L1-only GPS station. To date, three 'spiders' have been deployed on Soufrière Hills Volcano, the closest at ~1 km from the volcanic conduit, adjacent to a lava lobe on the dome. Here we present the details of GPS data processing in a network consisting of both dual and single frequency receivers ('spiders') using GAMIT/GLOBK software. Processing together single and dual frequency data allowed their representation in a common reference frame, and a meaningful geophysical interpretation of all the available data. We also present the 'spiders' time series along with the results from the rest of the network and examine if any significant deformation, correlating with other manifestations of volcanic activity, has been recorded by the 'spiders' since deployment. Our results demonstrate that low cost GNSS equipment can serve as valuable components in volcano

  18. The joy of parenting: infant sleep intervention to improve maternal emotional well-being and infant sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symon, Brian; Crichton, Georgina E

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION This study aimed to examine how improving infant sleep impacted the emotional well-being of mothers. METHODS The participants were 80 mothers of infants aged 6–12 months; they attended a primary care medical clinic in Adelaide, Australia, for assistance with infant sleep problems. Behavioural intervention consisted of a 45-minute consultation, where verbal and written information describing sleep physiology and strategies to improve infant sleep was provided. Mothers were followed up 2–6 weeks later. Mothers rated their confidence (C), pleasure (P) and frustration (F) on a scale from 0 to 10, and completed the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale 21 at each consultation. The number of night-time awakenings and time taken to see an improvement in infant sleep were also reported. RESULTS There was a significant increase in the C and P scores, and a significant decrease in the F scores (all p < 0.001). The mean total CPF score increased significantly from 14 to 25 (maximum score = 30). There was also a significant decrease in depression, anxiety and stress in the mothers (all p < 0.001). The mean number of maximum night awakenings also decreased significantly, from 4.9 to 0.5 (p < 0.001). The mean time taken to see improved infant sleep, as reported by the mothers, was 2.8 nights. CONCLUSION A single consultation using a behavioural strategy to improve infant sleep was effective in improving infant sleep and in increasing maternal emotional well-being. In particular, the scores for ‘pleasure in being a mother’ increased dramatically. PMID:26915392

  19. The joy of parenting: infant sleep intervention to improve maternal emotional well-being and infant sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symon, Brian; Crichton, Georgina E

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to examine how improving infant sleep impacted the emotional well-being of mothers. The participants were 80 mothers of infants aged 6-12 months; they attended a primary care medical clinic in Adelaide, Australia, for assistance with infant sleep problems. Behavioural intervention consisted of a 45-minute consultation, where verbal and written information describing sleep physiology and strategies to improve infant sleep was provided. Mothers were followed up 2-6 weeks later. Mothers rated their confidence (C), pleasure (P) and frustration (F) on a scale from 0 to 10, and completed the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale 21 at each consultation. The number of night-time awakenings and time taken to see an improvement in infant sleep were also reported. There was a significant increase in the C and P scores, and a significant decrease in the F scores (all p < 0.001). The mean total CPF score increased significantly from 14 to 25 (maximum score = 30). There was also a significant decrease in depression, anxiety and stress in the mothers (all p < 0.001). The mean number of maximum night awakenings also decreased significantly, from 4.9 to 0.5 (p < 0.001). The mean time taken to see improved infant sleep, as reported by the mothers, was 2.8 nights. A single consultation using a behavioural strategy to improve infant sleep was effective in improving infant sleep and in increasing maternal emotional well-being. In particular, the scores for 'pleasure in being a mother' increased dramatically.

  20. Multilayer Social Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dickison, Mark; Magnani, Matteo; Rossi, Luca

    social network systems, the evolution of interconnected social networks, and dynamic processes such as information spreading. A single real dataset is used to illustrate the concepts presented throughout the book, demonstrating both the practical utility and the potential shortcomings of the various......Multilayer networks, in particular multilayer social networks, where users belong to and interact on different networks at the same time, are an active research area in social network analysis, computer science, and physics. These networks have traditionally been studied within these separate...