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Sample records for network hcn serial

  1. Serial Network Flow Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Julie A.; Tate-Brown, Judy M.

    2009-01-01

    Using a commercial software CD and minimal up-mass, SNFM monitors the Payload local area network (LAN) to analyze and troubleshoot LAN data traffic. Validating LAN traffic models may allow for faster and more reliable computer networks to sustain systems and science on future space missions. Research Summary: This experiment studies the function of the computer network onboard the ISS. On-orbit packet statistics are captured and used to validate ground based medium rate data link models and enhance the way that the local area network (LAN) is monitored. This information will allow monitoring and improvement in the data transfer capabilities of on-orbit computer networks. The Serial Network Flow Monitor (SNFM) experiment attempts to characterize the network equivalent of traffic jams on board ISS. The SNFM team is able to specifically target historical problem areas including the SAMS (Space Acceleration Measurement System) communication issues, data transmissions from the ISS to the ground teams, and multiple users on the network at the same time. By looking at how various users interact with each other on the network, conflicts can be identified and work can begin on solutions. SNFM is comprised of a commercial off the shelf software package that monitors packet traffic through the payload Ethernet LANs (local area networks) on board ISS.

  2. United States Historical Climatology Network (US HCN) monthly temperature and precipitation data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniels, R.C. [ed.] [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Energy, Environment and Resources Center; Boden, T.A. [ed.] [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Easterling, D.R.; Karl, T.R.; Mason, E.H.; Hughes, P.Y.; Bowman, D.P. [National Climatic Data Center, Asheville, NC (United States)

    1996-01-11

    This document describes a database containing monthly temperature and precipitation data for 1221 stations in the contiguous United States. This network of stations, known as the United States Historical Climatology Network (US HCN), and the resulting database were compiled by the National Climatic Data Center, Asheville, North Carolina. These data represent the best available data from the United States for analyzing long-term climate trends on a regional scale. The data for most stations extend through December 31, 1994, and a majority of the station records are serially complete for at least 80 years. Unlike many data sets that have been used in past climate studies, these data have been adjusted to remove biases introduced by station moves, instrument changes, time-of-observation differences, and urbanization effects. These monthly data are available free of charge as a numeric data package (NDP) from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center. The NDP includes this document and 27 machine-readable data files consisting of supporting data files, a descriptive file, and computer access codes. This document describes how the stations in the US HCN were selected and how the data were processed, defines limitations and restrictions of the data, describes the format and contents of the magnetic media, and provides reprints of literature that discuss the editing and adjustment techniques used in the US HCN.

  3. Hierarchical neural networks perform both serial and parallel processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agliari, Elena; Barra, Adriano; Galluzzi, Andrea; Guerra, Francesco; Tantari, Daniele; Tavani, Flavia

    2015-06-01

    In this work we study a Hebbian neural network, where neurons are arranged according to a hierarchical architecture such that their couplings scale with their reciprocal distance. As a full statistical mechanics solution is not yet available, after a streamlined introduction to the state of the art via that route, the problem is consistently approached through signal-to-noise technique and extensive numerical simulations. Focusing on the low-storage regime, where the amount of stored patterns grows at most logarithmical with the system size, we prove that these non-mean-field Hopfield-like networks display a richer phase diagram than their classical counterparts. In particular, these networks are able to perform serial processing (i.e. retrieve one pattern at a time through a complete rearrangement of the whole ensemble of neurons) as well as parallel processing (i.e. retrieve several patterns simultaneously, delegating the management of different patterns to diverse communities that build network). The tune between the two regimes is given by the rate of the coupling decay and by the level of noise affecting the system. The price to pay for those remarkable capabilities lies in a network's capacity smaller than the mean field counterpart, thus yielding a new budget principle: the wider the multitasking capabilities, the lower the network load and vice versa. This may have important implications in our understanding of biological complexity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The interaction between tolls and capacity investment in serial and parallel transport networks

    OpenAIRE

    De Borger, Bruno; Dunkerley, Fay; Proost, Stef

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to compare the interaction between pricing and capacity decisions on simple serial and parallel transport networks. When individual links of the network are operated by different regional or national authorities, toll and capacity competition is likely to result. Moreover, the problem is potentially complicated by the presence of both local and transit demand on each link of the network. We bring together and extend the recent literature on the topic and, using bo...

  5. High speed serial link for UA1 microprocessor network

    CERN Document Server

    Cittolin, S; Zurfluh, E

    1981-01-01

    The UA1 data acquisition system consists of a set of distributed microprocessor units. An interprocessor link, independent of the CAMAC data readout, has been developed in order to have continuous remote control and run-time data handling, e.g. transmission of calibration programs/parameters, equipment test/status and histogram accumulation. The data transmission system is designed to be used in a loop configuration equipped with transceivers for twisted pair cables (RS-422). As an economical system, it is running as an ancillary serial loop-link between microprocessors, like Data Acquisition Crate Controllers and systems with distributed intelligence. The software driver consists of a loop-controller package, which may run in a BAMBI Computer Language environment and a fully interrupt controlled program for all other secondary stations. A special single-character mode provides a handy link for remote debugging in a pseudo-full-duplex mode. The format is based on the HDLC protocol without sequence numbering. ...

  6. High speed serial link for UA1 microprocessor network

    CERN Document Server

    Cittolin, Sergio; Zurfluh, E

    1981-01-01

    The UA1 data acquisition system consists of a set of distributed microprocessor units. An interprocessor link, independent of the CAMAC data readout, has been developed in order to have continuous remote control and run-time data handling, e.g. transmission of calibration programs/parameters, equipment test/status and histogram accumulation. The data transmission system is designed to be used in a loop configuration equipped with transceivers for twisted pair cables (RS-422). As an economical system, it is running as an ancillary serial loop-link between microprocessors, like data acquisition crate controllers and systems with distributed intelligence. The software driver consists of a loop-controller package, which may run in a BAMBI computer language environment and a fully interrupt controlled program for all other secondary stations. A special single-character mode provides a handy link for remote debugging in a pseudo-full-duplex mode. The format is based on the HDLC protocol without sequence numbering. ...

  7. Structural studies on HCN oligomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, J P; Edelson, E H; Auyeung, J M; Joshi, P C

    1981-01-01

    NMR spectral studies on the HCN oligomers suggest the presence of carboxamide and urea groupings. The release of CO2, H2O, HCN, CH3CN, HCONH2 and pyridine on pyrolysis is consistent with the presence of these groupings as well as carboxylic acid groups. No basic primary amine groupings could be detected with fluorescamine. Hydrazinolysis of the HCN oligomers releases 10% of the amino acids normally released by acid hydrolysis. The oligomers give a positive biuret test but this is not due to the presence of peptide bonds. There is no conclusive evidence for the presence of peptide bonds in the HCN oligomers. No diglycine was detected on partial hydrolysis of the HCN oligomers at pH 8.5 suggesting that HCN oligomers were not a source of prebiotic peptides.

  8. Spoken word recognition and serial recall of words from components in the phonological network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siew, Cynthia S Q; Vitevitch, Michael S

    2016-03-01

    Network science uses mathematical techniques to study complex systems such as the phonological lexicon (Vitevitch, 2008). The phonological network consists of a giant component (the largest connected component of the network) and lexical islands (smaller groups of words that are connected to each other, but not to the giant component). To determine if the component that a word resided in influenced lexical processing, language-related tasks (naming, lexical decision, and serial recall) were used to compare the processing of words from the giant component and from lexical islands. Results showed that words from lexical islands were recognized more quickly and recalled more accurately than words from the giant component. These findings can be accounted for via the diffusion of activation across a network. Implications for models of spoken word recognition and network science are also discussed. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Default Mode and Executive Networks Areas: Association with the Serial Order in Divergent Thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinonen, Jarmo; Numminen, Jussi; Hlushchuk, Yevhen; Antell, Henrik; Taatila, Vesa; Suomala, Jyrki

    2016-01-01

    Scientific findings have suggested a two-fold structure of the cognitive process. By using the heuristic thinking mode, people automatically process information that tends to be invariant across days, whereas by using the explicit thinking mode people explicitly process information that tends to be variant compared to typical previously learned information patterns. Previous studies on creativity found an association between creativity and the brain regions in the prefrontal cortex, the anterior cingulate cortex, the default mode network and the executive network. However, which neural networks contribute to the explicit mode of thinking during idea generation remains an open question. We employed an fMRI paradigm to examine which brain regions were activated when participants (n = 16) mentally generated alternative uses for everyday objects. Most previous creativity studies required participants to verbalize responses during idea generation, whereas in this study participants produced mental alternatives without verbalizing. This study found activation in the left anterior insula when contrasting idea generation and object identification. This finding suggests that the insula (part of the brain's salience network) plays a role in facilitating both the central executive and default mode networks to activate idea generation. We also investigated closely the effect of the serial order of idea being generated on brain responses: The amplitude of fMRI responses correlated positively with the serial order of idea being generated in the anterior cingulate cortex, which is part of the central executive network. Positive correlation with the serial order was also observed in the regions typically assigned to the default mode network: the precuneus/cuneus, inferior parietal lobule and posterior cingulate cortex. These networks support the explicit mode of thinking and help the individual to convert conventional mental models to new ones. The serial order correlated

  10. Updated population metadata for United States historical climatology network stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, T.W.; Gallo, K.P.

    2000-01-01

    The United States Historical Climatology Network (HCN) serial temperature dataset is comprised of 1221 high-quality, long-term climate observing stations. The HCN dataset is available in several versions, one of which includes population-based temperature modifications to adjust urban temperatures for the "heat-island" effect. Unfortunately, the decennial population metadata file is not complete as missing values are present for 17.6% of the 12 210 population values associated with the 1221 individual stations during the 1900-90 interval. Retrospective grid-based populations. Within a fixed distance of an HCN station, were estimated through the use of a gridded population density dataset and historically available U.S. Census county data. The grid-based populations for the HCN stations provide values derived from a consistent methodology compared to the current HCN populations that can vary as definitions of the area associated with a city change over time. The use of grid-based populations may minimally be appropriate to augment populations for HCN climate stations that lack any population data, and are recommended when consistent and complete population data are required. The recommended urban temperature adjustments based on the HCN and grid-based methods of estimating station population can be significantly different for individual stations within the HCN dataset.

  11. De novo mutations in HCN1 cause early infantile epileptic encephalopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nava, Caroline; Dalle, Carine; Rastetter, Agnès

    2014-01-01

    Hyperpolarization-activated, cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels contribute to cationic Ih current in neurons and regulate the excitability of neuronal networks. Studies in rat models have shown that the Hcn1 gene has a key role in epilepsy, but clinical evidence implicating HCN1 mutations...... acid substitutions. Patch-clamp recordings of Ih currents in cells expressing wild-type or mutant human HCN1 channels showed that the mutations had striking but divergent effects on homomeric channels. Individuals with mutations had clinical features resembling those of Dravet syndrome with progression...

  12. Digital 3D reconstructions using histological serial sections of lung tissue including the alveolar capillary network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grothausmann, Roman; Knudsen, Lars; Ochs, Matthias; Mühlfeld, Christian

    2017-02-01

    Grothausmann R, Knudsen L, Ochs M, Mühlfeld C. Digital 3D reconstructions using histological serial sections of lung tissue including the alveolar capillary network. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 312: L243-L257, 2017. First published December 2, 2016; doi:10.1152/ajplung.00326.2016-The alveolar capillary network (ACN) provides an enormously large surface area that is necessary for pulmonary gas exchange. Changes of the ACN during normal or pathological development or in pulmonary diseases are of great functional impact and warrant further analysis. Due to the complexity of the three-dimensional (3D) architecture of the ACN, 2D approaches are limited in providing a comprehensive impression of the characteristics of the normal ACN or the nature of its alterations. Stereological methods offer a quantitative way to assess the ACN in 3D in terms of capillary volume, surface area, or number but lack a 3D visualization to interpret the data. Hence, the necessity to visualize the ACN in 3D and to correlate this with data from the same set of data arises. Such an approach requires a large sample volume combined with a high resolution. Here, we present a technically simple and cost-efficient approach to create 3D representations of lung tissue ranging from bronchioles over alveolar ducts and alveoli up to the ACN from more than 1 mm sample extent to a resolution of less than 1 μm. The method is based on automated image acquisition of serially sectioned epoxy resin-embedded lung tissue fixed by vascular perfusion and subsequent automated digital reconstruction and analysis of the 3D data. This efficient method may help to better understand mechanisms of vascular development and pathology of the lung. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  13. Convolutional Neural Network for Multi-Category Rapid Serial Visual Presentation BCI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manor, Ran; Geva, Amir B

    2015-01-01

    Brain computer interfaces rely on machine learning (ML) algorithms to decode the brain's electrical activity into decisions. For example, in rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) tasks, the subject is presented with a continuous stream of images containing rare target images among standard images, while the algorithm has to detect brain activity associated with target images. Here, we continue our previous work, presenting a deep neural network model for the use of single trial EEG classification in RSVP tasks. Deep neural networks have shown state of the art performance in computer vision and speech recognition and thus have great promise for other learning tasks, like classification of EEG samples. In our model, we introduce a novel spatio-temporal regularization for EEG data to reduce overfitting. We show improved classification performance compared to our earlier work on a five categories RSVP experiment. In addition, we compare performance on data from different sessions and validate the model on a public benchmark data set of a P300 speller task. Finally, we discuss the advantages of using neural network models compared to manually designing feature extraction algorithms.

  14. Convolutional Neural Network for Multi-Category Rapid Serial Visual Presentation BCI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ran eManor

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Brain computer interfaces rely on machine learning algorithms to decode the brain's electrical activity into decisions. For example, in rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP tasks, the subject is presented with a continuous stream of images containing rare target images among standard images, while the algorithm has to detect brain activity associated with target images. Here, we continue our previous work, presenting a deep neural network model for the use of single trial EEG classification in RSVP tasks. Deep neural networks have shown state of the art performance in computer vision and speech recognition and thus have great promise for other learning tasks, like classification of EEG samples. In our model, we introduce a novel spatio-temporal regularization for EEG data to reduce overfitting. We show improved classification performance compared to our earlier work on a five categories RSVP experiment. In addition, we compare performance on data from different sessions and validate the model on a public benchmark data set of a P300 speller task. Finally, we discuss the advantages of using neural network models compared to manually designing feature extraction algorithms.

  15. Parallel versus Serial Processing Dependencies in the Perisylvian Speech Network: A Granger Analysis of Intracranial EEG Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gow, David W., Jr.; Keller, Corey J.; Eskandar, Emad; Meng, Nate; Cash, Sydney S.

    2009-01-01

    In this work, we apply Granger causality analysis to high spatiotemporal resolution intracranial EEG (iEEG) data to examine how different components of the left perisylvian language network interact during spoken language perception. The specific focus is on the characterization of serial versus parallel processing dependencies in the dominant…

  16. On the Packet Delay Characteristics for Serially-Connected Links using Random Linear Network Coding with and without Recoding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tömösközi, Máté; Fitzek, Frank; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani

    2015-01-01

    decoding of the packets on the receiver side while playing out the video recording contained in the payload. Our solutions are implemented and evaluated on serially connected Raspberry Pi devices and a network (de)coding enabled software running on a regular PC. We find that the recoding relays work...

  17. Detection of neuron membranes in electron microscopy images using a serial neural network architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurrus, Elizabeth; Paiva, Antonio R C; Watanabe, Shigeki; Anderson, James R; Jones, Bryan W; Whitaker, Ross T; Jorgensen, Erik M; Marc, Robert E; Tasdizen, Tolga

    2010-12-01

    Study of nervous systems via the connectome, the map of connectivities of all neurons in that system, is a challenging problem in neuroscience. Towards this goal, neurobiologists are acquiring large electron microscopy datasets. However, the shear volume of these datasets renders manual analysis infeasible. Hence, automated image analysis methods are required for reconstructing the connectome from these very large image collections. Segmentation of neurons in these images, an essential step of the reconstruction pipeline, is challenging because of noise, anisotropic shapes and brightness, and the presence of confounding structures. The method described in this paper uses a series of artificial neural networks (ANNs) in a framework combined with a feature vector that is composed of image intensities sampled over a stencil neighborhood. Several ANNs are applied in series allowing each ANN to use the classification context provided by the previous network to improve detection accuracy. We develop the method of serial ANNs and show that the learned context does improve detection over traditional ANNs. We also demonstrate advantages over previous membrane detection methods. The results are a significant step towards an automated system for the reconstruction of the connectome. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Design of deep convolutional networks for prediction of image rapid serial visual presentation events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zijing Mao; Wan Xiang Yao; Yufe Huang

    2017-07-01

    We report in this paper an investigation of convolutional neural network (CNN) models for target prediction in time-locked image rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) experiment. We investigated CNN models with 11 different designs of convolution filters in capturing spatial and temporal correlations in EEG data. We showed that for both within-subject and cross-subject predictions, the CNN models outperform the state-of-the-art algorithms: Bayesian linear discriminant analysis (BLDA) and xDAWN spatial filtering and achieved >6% improvement. Among the 11 different CNN models, the global spatial filter and our proposed region of interest (ROI) achieved best performance. We also implemented the deconvolution network to show how we can visualize from activated hidden units for target/nontarget events learned by the ROI-CNN. Our study suggests that deep learning is a powerful tool for RSVP target prediction and the proposed model is applicable for general EEG-based classifications in brain computer interaction research. The code of this project is available at https://github.com/ZijingMao/ROICNN.

  19. Dysfunctional HCN ion channels in neurological diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacopo C. DiFrancesco

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN channels are expressed as four different isoforms (HCN1-4 in the heart and in the central and peripheral nervous systems. HCN channels are activated by membrane hyperpolarization at voltages close to resting membrane potentials and carry the hyperpolarization-activated current, dubbed If (funny current in heart and Ih in neurons. HCN channels contribute in several ways to neuronal activity and are responsible for many important cellular functions, including cellular excitability, generation and modulation of rhythmic activity, dendritic integration, transmission of synaptic potentials and plasticity phenomena. Because of their role, defective HCN channels are natural candidates in the search for potential causes of neurological disorders in humans. Several data, including growing evidence that some forms of epilepsy are associated with HCN mutations, support the notion of an involvement of dysfunctional HCN channels in different experimental models of the disease. Additionally, some anti-epileptic drugs are known to modify the activity of the Ih current. HCN channels are widely expressed in the peripheral nervous system and recent evidence has highlighted the importance of the HCN2 isoform in the transmission of pain. HCN channels are also present in the midbrain system, where they finely regulate the activity of dopaminergic neurons, and a potential role of these channels in the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease has recently emerged. The function of HCN channels is regulated by specific accessory proteins, which control the correct expression and modulation of the neuronal Ih current. Alteration of these proteins can severely interfere with the physiological channel function, potentially predisposing to pathological conditions. In this review we address the present knowledge of the association between HCN dysfunctions and neurological diseases, including clinical, genetic and

  20. Prefrontal cortex HCN1 channels enable intrinsic persistent neural firing and executive memory function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuault, Sébastien J; Malleret, Gaël; Constantinople, Christine M; Nicholls, Russell; Chen, Irene; Zhu, Judy; Panteleyev, Andrey; Vronskaya, Svetlana; Nolan, Matthew F; Bruno, Randy; Siegelbaum, Steven A; Kandel, Eric R

    2013-08-21

    In many cortical neurons, HCN1 channels are the major contributors to Ih, the hyperpolarization-activated current, which regulates the intrinsic properties of neurons and shapes their integration of synaptic inputs, paces rhythmic activity, and regulates synaptic plasticity. Here, we examine the physiological role of Ih in deep layer pyramidal neurons in mouse prefrontal cortex (PFC), focusing on persistent activity, a form of sustained firing thought to be important for the behavioral function of the PFC during working memory tasks. We find that HCN1 contributes to the intrinsic persistent firing that is induced by a brief depolarizing current stimulus in the presence of muscarinic agonists. Deletion of HCN1 or acute pharmacological blockade of Ih decreases the fraction of neurons capable of generating persistent firing. The reduction in persistent firing is caused by the membrane hyperpolarization that results from the deletion of HCN1 or Ih blockade, rather than a specific role of the hyperpolarization-activated current in generating persistent activity. In vivo recordings show that deletion of HCN1 has no effect on up states, periods of enhanced synaptic network activity. Parallel behavioral studies demonstrate that HCN1 contributes to the PFC-dependent resolution of proactive interference during working memory. These results thus provide genetic evidence demonstrating the importance of HCN1 to intrinsic persistent firing and the behavioral output of the PFC. The causal role of intrinsic persistent firing in PFC-mediated behavior remains an open question.

  1. Short-Term Memory for Serial Order: A Recurrent Neural Network Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botvinick, Matthew M.; Plaut, David C.

    2006-01-01

    Despite a century of research, the mechanisms underlying short-term or working memory for serial order remain uncertain. Recent theoretical models have converged on a particular account, based on transient associations between independent item and context representations. In the present article, the authors present an alternative model, according…

  2. Smoothed perturbation analysis algorithms for estimating the derivatives of occupancy-related functions in serial queueing networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardi, Y.; Gong, W.-B.; Cassandras, C. G.; Kallmes, M. H.

    1991-01-01

    The authors present smoothed perturbation analysis (SPA) estimators for the derivative of a number of occupancy-related functions in serial queuing networks with finite buffer spaces. The functions are the average number of customers at a network as seen by an arrival, the probability that a customer is blocked at a particular queue, and the probability that a customer leaves a queue empty. In all three cases, the variable is a parameter of the distribution of service times at one of the queues. The derivative estimators considered are very simple and flexible, and they easily lend themselves to analysis of unbiasedness. Unlike most of the established SPA estimators, the present ones are not based on the computation of hazard rates.

  3. Health Code Number (HCN) Development Procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrocchi, Rocky; Craig, Douglas K.; Bond, Jayne-Anne; Trott, Donna M.; Yu, Xiao-Ying

    2013-09-01

    This report provides the detailed description of health code numbers (HCNs) and the procedure of how each HCN is assigned. It contains many guidelines and rationales of HCNs. HCNs are used in the chemical mixture methodology (CMM), a method recommended by the department of energy (DOE) for assessing health effects as a result of exposures to airborne aerosols in an emergency. The procedure is a useful tool for proficient HCN code developers. Intense training and quality assurance with qualified HCN developers are required before an individual comprehends the procedure to develop HCNs for DOE.

  4. Regulated expression of HCN channels and cAMP levels shape the properties of the h current in developing rat hippocampus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surges, Rainer; Brewster, Amy L.; Bender, Roland A.; Beck, Heinz; Feuerstein, Thomas J.; Baram, Tallie Z.

    2010-01-01

    The hyperpolarization-activated current (Ih) contributes to intrinsic properties and network responses of neurons. Its biophysical properties depend on the expression profiles of the underlying hyperpolarization-activated, cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels and the presence of cyclic AMP (cAMP) that potently and differentially modulates Ih conducted by HCN1, HCN2 and/or HCN4. Here, we studied the properties of Ih in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells, the developmental evolution of the HCN-subunit isoforms that contribute to this current, and their interplay with age-dependent free cAMP concentrations, using electrophysiological, molecular and biochemical methods. Ih amplitude increased progressively during the first four postnatal weeks, consistent with the observed overall increased expression of HCN channels. Activation kinetics of the current accelerated during this period, consonant with the quantitative reduction of mRNA and protein expression of the slow-kinetics HCN4 isoform and increased levels of HCN1. The sensitivity of Ih to cAMP, and the contribution of the slow component to the overall Ih, decreased with age. These are likely a result of the developmentally regulated transition of the complement of HCN channel isoforms from cAMP sensitive to relatively cAMP insensitive. Thus, although hippocampal cAMP concentrations increased over twofold during the developmental period studied, the coordinated changes in expression of three HCN channel isoforms resulted in reduced effects of this signalling molecule on neuronal h currents. PMID:16882011

  5. CO and HCN observations of carbon stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baas, F; deJong, T; Loup, C

    We present CO and HCN observations of carbon stars. They consist of partly new detections in the (CO)-C-12 J = (1-0), (2-1) and HCN(1-0) lines obtained with the SEST and the IRAM telescope, and of (CO)-C-12 and (CO)-C-13 J = (1-0), (2-1) and (3-2) observations with IRAM and the JCMT of some of the

  6. Morphology of mouse sinoatrial node and its expression of NF-160 and HCN4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Yu; Li, Bin

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To explore the morphology and cell component of the sinoatrial node in adult mice and to observe the expressions of neurofilament protein (NF-160) and hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide regulation of cation channel 4 (HCN4) in sinus node cells. Methods: The right and left atria were collected from 10 adult mice. After paraffin embedding and serial section, these sections underwent Masson trichrome staining and NF-160 immunohistochemical staining, respectively, followed by observation under a light microscope. The right and left atria from another 5 mice were used for immunofluorescence staining using NF-160 and HCN4 antibodies, respectively, followed by observation under a confocal microscope. Results: The mouse sinoatrial node was close to the superior vena cava and below the epicardium. The shape of the mouse sinoatrial node was ovoid or irregular in the horizontal sections. We clearly saw a sinus node artery passing through the sinoatrial node, so the artery can be used as a location marker of the sinoatrial node. Immunofluorescence displayed the expression of NF-160 and HCN4 in both pacemaker cells and transitional cells of the sinoatrial node. Finally, sinoatrial node migrated along with Purkinje fibers of the right atrium. Conclusion: The position of mouse sinoatrial node is more stable. The distal end of sinoatrial node extends to the right subendocardial layer and migrates with Purkinje fibers. In mouse sinoatrial node, both pacemaker cells and transitional cells are regularly distributed, and all have HCN4 and NF-160 expression. PMID:26550270

  7. OTN Transport of Baseband Radio Serial Protocols in C-RAN Architecture for Mobile Network Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Checko, Aleksandra; Kardaras, Georgios; Lanzani, Christian Fabio Alessandro

    This white paper presents a proof of concept implementation of digital baseband radio data transport over Optical Transport Network (OTN) compliant to 3GPP Long Term Evolution – Advanced (LTE-A) standard enabling Cloud Radio Access Network (C-RAN) architecture. The transport between the baseband...... module and a remote radio module is compliant to Common Public Radio Interface (CPRI) and to the OBSAI reference point 3 - 01 (RP3-01) interface protocols, respectively. The purpose is to demonstrate that data integrity and clocking performance at the radio node still meets the strict standard...

  8. Gabapentin Modulates HCN4 Channel Voltage-Dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han-Shen Tae

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Gabapentin (GBP is widely used to treat epilepsy and neuropathic pain. There is evidence that GBP can act on hyperpolarization-activated cation (HCN channel-mediated Ih in brain slice experiments. However, evidence showing that GBP directly modulates HCN channels is lacking. The effect of GBP was tested using two-electrode voltage clamp recordings from human HCN1, HCN2, and HCN4 channels expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Whole-cell recordings were also made from mouse spinal cord slices targeting either parvalbumin positive (PV+ or calretinin positive (CR+ inhibitory neurons. The effect of GBP on Ih was measured in each inhibitory neuron population. HCN4 expression was assessed in the spinal cord using immunohistochemistry. When applied to HCN4 channels, GBP (100 μM caused a hyperpolarizing shift in the voltage of half activation (V1/2 thereby reducing the currents. Gabapentin had no impact on the V1/2 of HCN1 or HCN2 channels. There was a robust increase in the time to half activation for HCN4 channels with only a small increase noted for HCN1 channels. Gabapentin also caused a hyperpolarizing shift in the V1/2 of Ih measured from HCN4-expressing PV+ inhibitory neurons in the spinal dorsal horn. Gabapentin had minimal effect on Ih recorded from CR+ neurons. Consistent with this, immunohistochemical analysis revealed that the majority of CR+ inhibitory neurons do not express somatic HCN4 channels. In conclusion, GBP reduces HCN4 channel-mediated currents through a hyperpolarized shift in the V1/2. The HCN channel subtype selectivity of GBP provides a unique tool for investigating HCN4 channel function in the central nervous system. The HCN4 channel is a candidate molecular target for the acute analgesic and anticonvulsant actions of GBP.

  9. The brain's router: a cortical network model of serial processing in the primate brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zylberberg, Ariel; Fernández Slezak, Diego; Roelfsema, Pieter R.; Dehaene, Stanislas; Sigman, Mariano

    2010-01-01

    The human brain efficiently solves certain operations such as object recognition and categorization through a massively parallel network of dedicated processors. However, human cognition also relies on the ability to perform an arbitrarily large set of tasks by flexibly recombining different

  10. Serial and Parallel Implementations of Hybrid Fluid Model of Information Flows in Networks with Complex Topology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basavin Dmitry

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is dedicated to the issue of modeling information flows in networks with complex topologies and it describes a comparison of the sequential (written in the MATLAB language and parallel (based on GPGPU technology software implementations of the hybrid fluid model (HFM of Internet traffic. Obtained performance estimates of both software implementations indicate a higher performance of parallel software implementation HFM. The directions of further research, the results of which will be the basis for the later development of parallel software implementation HFM are proposed.

  11. On the HCN – HNC Energy Difference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Thanh L.; Baraban, Joshua H.; Ruscic, Branko; Stanton, John F.

    2015-11-05

    The value for the HCN → HNC 0 K isomerization energy has been investigated by combining state-of-the-art electronic structure methods with the Active Thermochemical Tables (ATcT) approach. The directly computed energy difference between HCN and HNC at the HEAT-456QP level of theory is 5236 ± 50 cm–1. This is substantially lower (by ~470 cm–1 or ~1.3 kcal/mol) than the recently proposed high-level multireference configuration interaction value of 5705 ± 20 cm–1 of Barber et al. (Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc.2014, 437, 1828–1835). The discrepancy was analyzed by the ATcT approach, using several distinct steps, which (a) independently corroborated the current single-reference HEAT-456QP result, (b) independently found that the recent multireference-based value is highly unlikely to be correct within its originally stated uncertainty, and (c) produced a recommended value of 5212 ± 30 cm–1 for the HCN → HNC isomerization energy at 0 K, based on all currently available knowledge. The ATcT standard enthalpies of formation at 0 and 298 K for HCN, HNC, and their cations and anions are also presented.

  12. HNC, HCN and CN in seyfert galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perez-Beaupuits, J. P.; Aalto, S.; Gerebro, H.

    2007-01-01

    Aims. Bright HNC 1-0 emission, rivalling that of HCN 1-0, has been found towards several Seyfert galaxies. This is unexpected since traditionally HNC is a tracer of cold (10 K) gas, and the molecular gas of luminous galaxies like Seyferts is thought to have bulk kinetic temperatures surpassing 50 K.

  13. An N-terminal deletion variant of HCN1 in the epileptic WAG/Rij strain modulates HCN current densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin eWemhöner

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Rats of the Wistar Albino Glaxo/Rij (WAG/Rij strain show symptoms resembling human absence epilepsy. Thalamocortical neurons of WAG/Rij rats are characterized by an increased HCN1 expression, a negative shift in Ih activation curve, and an altered responsiveness of Ih to cAMP. We cloned HCN1 channels from rat thalamic cDNA libraries of the WAG/Rij strain and found an N-terminal deletion of 37 amino acids. In addition, WAG-HCN1 has a stretch of six amino acids, directly following the deletion, where the wild-type sequence (GNSVCF is changed to a polyserine motif. These alterations were found solely in thalamus mRNA but not in genomic DNA. The truncated WAG-HCN1 was detected late postnatal in WAG/Rij rats and was not passed on to rats obtained from pairing WAG/Rij and non-epileptic August Copenhagen Irish (ACI rats. Heterologous expression in Xenopus oocytes revealed 2.2-fold increased current amplitude of WAG-HCN1 compared to rat HCN1. While WAG-HCN1 channels did not have altered current kinetics or changed regulation by protein kinases, fluorescence imaging revealed a faster and more pronounced surface expression of WAG-HCN1. Using co-expression experiments, we found that WAG-HCN1 channels suppress heteromeric HCN2 and HCN4 currents. Moreover, heteromeric channels of WAG HCN1 with HCN2 have a reduced cAMP sensitivity. Functional studies revealed that the gain-of-function of WAG-HCN1 is not caused by the N-terminal deletion alone, thus requiring a change of the N-terminal GNSVCF motif. Our findings may help to explain previous observations in neurons of the WAG/Rij strain and indicate that WAG HCN1 may contribute to the genesis of absence seizures in WAG/Rij rats.

  14. An N-terminal deletion variant of HCN1 in the epileptic WAG/Rij strain modulates HCN current densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wemhöner, Konstantin; Kanyshkova, Tatyana; Silbernagel, Nicole; Fernandez-Orth, Juncal; Bittner, Stefan; Kiper, Aytug K; Rinné, Susanne; Netter, Michael F; Meuth, Sven G; Budde, Thomas; Decher, Niels

    2015-01-01

    Rats of the Wistar Albino Glaxo/Rij (WAG/Rij) strain show symptoms resembling human absence epilepsy. Thalamocortical neurons of WAG/Rij rats are characterized by an increased HCN1 expression, a negative shift in I h activation curve, and an altered responsiveness of I h to cAMP. We cloned HCN1 channels from rat thalamic cDNA libraries of the WAG/Rij strain and found an N-terminal deletion of 37 amino acids. In addition, WAG-HCN1 has a stretch of six amino acids, directly following the deletion, where the wild-type sequence (GNSVCF) is changed to a polyserine motif. These alterations were found solely in thalamus mRNA but not in genomic DNA. The truncated WAG-HCN1 was detected late postnatal in WAG/Rij rats and was not passed on to rats obtained from pairing WAG/Rij and non-epileptic August Copenhagen Irish rats. Heterologous expression in Xenopus oocytes revealed 2.2-fold increased current amplitude of WAG-HCN1 compared to rat HCN1. While WAG-HCN1 channels did not have altered current kinetics or changed regulation by protein kinases, fluorescence imaging revealed a faster and more pronounced surface expression of WAG-HCN1. Using co-expression experiments, we found that WAG-HCN1 channels suppress heteromeric HCN2 and HCN4 currents. Moreover, heteromeric channels of WAG-HCN1 with HCN2 have a reduced cAMP sensitivity. Functional studies revealed that the gain-of-function of WAG-HCN1 is not caused by the N-terminal deletion alone, thus requiring a change of the N-terminal GNSVCF motif. Our findings may help to explain previous observations in neurons of the WAG/Rij strain and indicate that WAG-HCN1 may contribute to the genesis of absence seizures in WAG/Rij rats.

  15. A Submillimeter HCN Laser in IRC +10216.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilke; Mehringer; Menten

    2000-01-01

    We report the detection of a strong submillimeter-wavelength HCN laser line at a frequency near 805 GHz toward the carbon star IRC +10216. This line, the J=9-8 rotational transition within the (0400) vibrationally excited state, is one of a series of HCN laser lines that were first detected in the laboratory in the early days of laser spectroscopy. Since its lower energy level is 4200 K above the ground state, the laser emission must arise from the innermost part of IRC +10216's circumstellar envelope. To better characterize this environment, we observed other, thermally emitting, vibrationally excited HCN lines and found that they, like the laser line, arise in a region of temperature approximately 1000 K that is located within the dust formation radius; this conclusion is supported by the line width of the laser. The (0400), J=9-8 laser might be chemically pumped and may be the only known laser (or maser) that is excited both in the laboratory and in space by a similar mechanism.

  16. THE NITROGEN ISOTOPIC COMPOSITION OF METEORITIC HCN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pizzarello, Sandra, E-mail: pizzar@asu.edu [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85018-1604 (United States)

    2014-12-01

    HCN is ubiquitous in extraterrestrial environments and is central to current theories on the origin of early solar system organic compounds such as amino acids. These compounds, observed in carbonaceous meteorites, were likely important in the origin and/or evolution of early life. As part of our attempts to understand the origin(s) of meteoritic CN{sup –}, we have analyzed the {sup 15}N/{sup 14}N isotopic composition of HCN gas released from water extracts of the Murchison meteorite and found its value to be near those of the terrestrial atmosphere. The findings, when evaluated viz-a-viz molecular abundances and isotopic data of meteoritic organic compounds, suggest that HCN formation could have occurred during the protracted water alteration processes known to have affected the mineralogy of many asteroidal bodies during their solar residence. This was an active synthetic stage, which likely involved simple gasses, organic molecules, their presolar precursors, as well as mineral catalysts and would have lead to the formation of molecules of differing isotopic composition, including some with solar values.

  17. Structural studies on HCN oligomers. [catalysts for prebiotic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, J. P.; Edelson, E. H.; Auyeung, J. M.; Joshi, P. C.

    1981-01-01

    NMR spectral studies on the HCN oligomers suggest the presence of carboxamide and urea groupings. The release of CO2, H2O, HCN, CH3CN, HCONH2 and pyridine on pyrolysis is consistent with the presence of these groupings as well as carboxylic acid groups. No basic primary amine groupings could be detected with fluorescamine. Hydrazinolysis of the HCN oligomers releases 10% of the amino acids normally released by acid hydrolysis. The oligomers give a positive biuret test but this is not due to the presence of peptide bonds. There is no conclusive evidence for the presence of peptide bonds in the HCN oligomers. No diglycine was detected on partial hydrolysis of the HCN oligomers at pH 8.5 suggesting that HCN oligomers were not a source of prebiotic peptides.

  18. Catalytic and Gas-Solid Reactions Involving HCN over Limestone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anker; Johnsson, Jan Erik; Dam-Johansen, Kim

    1997-01-01

    In coal-fired combustion systems solid calcium species may be present as ash components or limestone added to the combustion chamber. In this study heterogeneous reactions involving HCN over seven different limestones were investigated in a laboratory fixed-bed quartz reactor at 873-1,173 K....... Calcined limestone is an effective catalyst for oxidation of HCN. Under conditions with complete conversion of HCN at O-2 concentrations above about 5,000 ppmv the selectivity for formation of NO and N2O is 50-70% and below 5%, respectively. Nitric oxide can be reduced by HCN to N-2 in the absence of O-2...

  19. Electrical Design and Evaluation of Asynchronous Serial Bus Communication Network of 48 Sensor Platform LSIs with Single-Ended I/O for Integrated MEMS-LSI Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenzhong Shao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available For installing many sensors in a limited space with a limited computing resource, the digitization of the sensor output at the site of sensation has advantages such as a small amount of wiring, low signal interference and high scalability. For this purpose, we have developed a dedicated Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (CMOS Large-Scale Integration (LSI (referred to as “sensor platform LSI” for bus-networked Micro-Electro-Mechanical-Systems (MEMS-LSI integrated sensors. In this LSI, collision avoidance, adaptation and event-driven functions are simply implemented to relieve data collision and congestion in asynchronous serial bus communication. In this study, we developed a network system with 48 sensor platform LSIs based on Printed Circuit Board (PCB in a backbone bus topology with the bus length being 2.4 m. We evaluated the serial communication performance when 48 LSIs operated simultaneously with the adaptation function. The number of data packets received from each LSI was almost identical, and the average sampling frequency of 384 capacitance channels (eight for each LSI was 73.66 Hz.

  20. Novel insights into the distribution of cardiac HCN channels: an expression study in the mouse heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Stefan; Layh, Beate; Ludwig, Andreas

    2011-12-01

    HCN pacemaker channels (I(f) channels) are believed to contribute to important functions in the heart; thus these channels became an attractive target for generating transgenic mouse mutants to elucidate their role in physiological and pathophysiological cardiac conditions. A full understanding of cardiac I(f) and the interpretation of studies using HCN mouse mutants require detailed information about the expression profile of the individual HCN subunits. Here we investigate the cardiac expression pattern of the HCN isoforms at the mRNA as well as at the protein level. The specificity of antibodies used was strictly confirmed by the use of HCN1, HCN2 and HCN4 knockout animals. We find a low, but highly differential HCN expression profile outside the cardiac conduction pathway including left and right atria and ventricles. Additionally HCN distribution was investigated in tissue slices of the sinoatrial node, the atrioventricular node, the bundle of His and the bundle branches. The conduction system was marked by acetylcholine esterase staining. HCN4 was confirmed as the predominant isoform of the primary pacemaker followed by a distinct expression of HCN1. In contrast HCN2 shows only a confined expression to individual pacemaker cells. Immunolabeling of the AV-node reveals also a pronounced specificity for HCN1 and HCN4. Compared to the SN and AVN we found a low but selective expression of HCN4 as the only isoform in the atrioventricular bundle. However in the bundle branches HCN1, HCN4 and also HCN2 show a prominent and selective expression pattern. Our results display a characteristic distribution of individual HCN isoforms in several cardiac compartments and reveal that beside HCN4, HCN1 represents the isoform which is selectively expressed in most parts of the conduction system suggesting a substantial contribution of HCN1 to pacemaking. 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Simple Organics and Biomonomers Identified in HCN Polymers: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Osuna-Esteban

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen cyanide (HCN is a ubiquitous molecule in the Universe. It is a compound that is easily produced in significant yields in prebiotic simulation experiments using a reducing atmosphere. HCN can spontaneously polymerise under a wide set of experimental conditions. It has even been proposed that HCN polymers could be present in objects such as asteroids, moons, planets and, in particular, comets. Moreover, it has been suggested that these polymers could play an important role in the origin of life. In this review, the simple organics and biomonomers that have been detected in HCN polymers, the analytical techniques and procedures that have been used to detect and characterise these molecules and an exhaustive classification of the experimental/environmental conditions that favour the formation of HCN polymers are summarised. Nucleobases, amino acids, carboxylic acids, cofactor derivatives and other compounds have been identified in HCN polymers. The great molecular diversity found in HCN polymers encourages their placement at the central core of a plausible protobiological system.

  2. HCN4 ion channel function is required for early events that regulate anatomical left-right patterning in a nodal and lefty asymmetric gene expression-independent manner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaibhav P. Pai

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Laterality is a basic characteristic of all life forms, from single cell organisms to complex plants and animals. For many metazoans, consistent left-right asymmetric patterning is essential for the correct anatomy of internal organs, such as the heart, gut, and brain; disruption of left-right asymmetry patterning leads to an important class of birth defects in human patients. Laterality functions across multiple scales, where early embryonic, subcellular and chiral cytoskeletal events are coupled with asymmetric amplification mechanisms and gene regulatory networks leading to asymmetric physical forces that ultimately result in distinct left and right anatomical organ patterning. Recent studies have suggested the existence of multiple parallel pathways regulating organ asymmetry. Here, we show that an isoform of the hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN family of ion channels (hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated channel 4, HCN4 is important for correct left-right patterning. HCN4 channels are present very early in Xenopus embryos. Blocking HCN channels (Ih currents with pharmacological inhibitors leads to errors in organ situs. This effect is only seen when HCN4 channels are blocked early (pre-stage 10 and not by a later block (post-stage 10. Injections of HCN4-DN (dominant-negative mRNA induce left-right defects only when injected in both blastomeres no later than the 2-cell stage. Analysis of key asymmetric genes' expression showed that the sidedness of Nodal, Lefty, and Pitx2 expression is largely unchanged by HCN4 blockade, despite the randomization of subsequent organ situs, although the area of Pitx2 expression was significantly reduced. Together these data identify a novel, developmental role for HCN4 channels and reveal a new Nodal-Lefty-Pitx2 asymmetric gene expression-independent mechanism upstream of organ positioning during embryonic left-right patterning.

  3. HCN4 ion channel function is required for early events that regulate anatomical left-right patterning in a nodal and lefty asymmetric gene expression-independent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Vaibhav P; Willocq, Valerie; Pitcairn, Emily J; Lemire, Joan M; Paré, Jean-François; Shi, Nian-Qing; McLaughlin, Kelly A; Levin, Michael

    2017-10-15

    Laterality is a basic characteristic of all life forms, from single cell organisms to complex plants and animals. For many metazoans, consistent left-right asymmetric patterning is essential for the correct anatomy of internal organs, such as the heart, gut, and brain; disruption of left-right asymmetry patterning leads to an important class of birth defects in human patients. Laterality functions across multiple scales, where early embryonic, subcellular and chiral cytoskeletal events are coupled with asymmetric amplification mechanisms and gene regulatory networks leading to asymmetric physical forces that ultimately result in distinct left and right anatomical organ patterning. Recent studies have suggested the existence of multiple parallel pathways regulating organ asymmetry. Here, we show that an isoform of the hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) family of ion channels (hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated channel 4, HCN4) is important for correct left-right patterning. HCN4 channels are present very early in Xenopus embryos. Blocking HCN channels (Ih currents) with pharmacological inhibitors leads to errors in organ situs. This effect is only seen when HCN4 channels are blocked early (pre-stage 10) and not by a later block (post-stage 10). Injections of HCN4-DN (dominant-negative) mRNA induce left-right defects only when injected in both blastomeres no later than the 2-cell stage. Analysis of key asymmetric genes' expression showed that the sidedness of Nodal, Lefty, and Pitx2 expression is largely unchanged by HCN4 blockade, despite the randomization of subsequent organ situs, although the area of Pitx2 expression was significantly reduced. Together these data identify a novel, developmental role for HCN4 channels and reveal a new Nodal-Lefty-Pitx2 asymmetric gene expression-independent mechanism upstream of organ positioning during embryonic left-right patterning. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  4. Optical properties of poly-HCN and their astronomical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khare, B N; Sagan, C; Thompson, W R; Arakawa, E T; Meisse, C; Tuminello, P S

    1994-01-01

    Matthews (1992) has proposed that HCN "polymer" is ubiquitous in the solar system. We apply vacuum deposition and spectroscopic techniques previously used on synthetic organic heteropolymers (tholins), kerogens, and meteoritic organic residues to the measurement of the optical constants of poly-HCN in the wavelength range 0.05-40 micrometers. These measurements allow quantitative comparison with spectrophotometry of organic-rich bodies in the outer solar system. In a specific test of Matthews' hypothesis, poly-HCN fails to match the optical constants of the haze of the Saturnian moon, Titan, in the visible and near-infrared derived from astronomical observations and standard models of the Titan atmosphere. In contrast, a tholin produced from a simulated Titan atmosphere matches within the probable errors. Poly-HCN is much more N-rich than Titan tholin.

  5. Vibrationally Hot HCN in the Laboratory and IRC+10216

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, John C.; Yu, Shanshan; Gupta, Harshal; Drouin, Brian J.

    2011-06-01

    HCN has historically been used as a tracer of the dense gas in the in interstellar medium. The envelopes of carbon rich asymptotic giant branch stars are generally rich in HCN; however, the large and generally variable infrared flux emitted by the star enormously complicates the interpretation. HCN in IRC+10216 shows an enormous number of masers and lasers pumped by the central star and often enhanced by line overlaps with other abundant molecules such as acetylene in the infrared. A total of seven laser transitions including two previously unreported transitions associated with the 040-011 interacting bands have been observed. To understand the astronomical observations a study of the radio frequency discharge plasma of CH_4 and N_2 was performed. Rotational transitions of HCN in vibrational states up to 15,000 Cm-1 have been observed including inverted levels and a number of previously undetected states. The spectra from IRC+10216 and the laboratory are presented.

  6. MLS/Aura Level 2 Hydrogen Cyanide (HCN) Mixing Ratio V003 (ML2HCN) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ML2HCN is the EOS Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) standard product for hydrogen cyanide derived from radiances measured primarily by the 190 GHz radiometer. The...

  7. MLS/Aura Level 2 Hydrogen Cyanide (HCN) Mixing Ratio V004 (ML2HCN) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ML2HCN is the EOS Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) standard product for hydrogen cyanide derived from radiances measured primarily by the 190 GHz radiometer. The...

  8. The Photodissociation of HCN and HNC: Effects on the HNC/HCN Abundance Ratio in the Interstellar Medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguado, Alfredo [Departamento de Química Física Aplicada (UAM), Unidad Asociada a IFF-CSIC, Facultad de Ciencias Módulo 14, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, E-28049, Madrid (Spain); Roncero, Octavio; Zanchet, Alexandre [Instituto de Física Fundamental (IFF-CSIC), C.S.I.C., Serrano 123, E-28006 Madrid (Spain); Agúndez, Marcelino; Cernicharo, José, E-mail: octavio.roncero@csic.es [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, CSIC, C/ Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz 3, Cantoblanco E-28049 (Spain)

    2017-03-20

    The impact of the photodissociation of HCN and HNC isomers is analyzed in different astrophysical environments. For this purpose, the individual photodissociation cross sections of HCN and HNC isomers have been calculated in the 7–13.6 eV photon energy range for a temperature of 10 K. These calculations are based on the ab initio calculation of three-dimensional adiabatic potential energy surfaces of the 21 lower electronic states. The cross sections are then obtained using a quantum wave packet calculation of the rotational transitions needed to simulate a rotational temperature of 10 K. The cross section calculated for HCN shows significant differences with respect to the experimental one, and this is attributed to the need to consider non-adiabatic transitions. Ratios between the photodissociation rates of HCN and HNC under different ultraviolet radiation fields have been computed by renormalizing the rates to the experimental value. It is found that HNC is photodissociated faster than HCN by a factor of 2.2 for the local interstellar radiation field and 9.2 for the solar radiation field, at 1 au. We conclude that to properly describe the HNC/HCN abundance ratio in astronomical environments illuminated by an intense ultraviolet radiation field, it is necessary to use different photodissociation rates for each of the two isomers, which are obtained by integrating the product of the photodissociation cross sections and ultraviolet radiation field over the relevant wavelength range.

  9. The Photodissociation of HCN and HNC: Effects on the HNC/HCN Abundance Ratio in the Interstellar Medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguado, Alfredo; Roncero, Octavio; Zanchet, Alexandre; Agúndez, Marcelino; Cernicharo, José

    2017-03-20

    The impact of the photodissociation of HCN and HNC isomers is analyzed in different astrophysical environments. For this purpose, the individual photodissociation cross section of HCN and HNC isomers have been calculated in the 7-13.6 eV photon energy range for a temperature of 10 K. These calculations are based on the ab initio calculation of three-dimensional adiabatic potential energy surfaces of the 21 lower electronic states. The cross sections are then obtained using a quantum wave packet calculation of the rotational transitions needed to simulate a rotational temperature of 10 K. The cross section calculated for HCN shows significant differences with respect to the experimental one, and this is attributed to the need of considering non-adiabatic transitions. Ratios between the photodissociation rates of HCN and HNC under different ultraviolet radiation fields have been computed by renormalizing the rates to the experimental one. It is found that HNC is photodissociated faster than HCN by a factor of 2.2, for the local interstellar radiation field, and 9.2, for the solar radiation field at 1 au. We conclude that to properly describe the HNC/HCN abundance ratio in astronomical environments illuminated by an intense ultraviolet radiation field it is necessary to use different photodissociation rates for each of the two isomers, obtained by integrating the product of the photodissociation cross sections and ultraviolet radiation field over the relevant wavelength range.

  10. HCN1 and HCN2 in Rat DRG neurons: levels in nociceptors and non-nociceptors, NT3-dependence and influence of CFA-induced skin inflammation on HCN2 and NT3 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, Cristian; McMullan, Simon; Djouhri, Laiche; Gao, Linlin; Watkins, Roger; Berry, Carol; Dempsey, Katherine; Lawson, Sally N

    2012-01-01

    I(h), which influences neuronal excitability, has recently been measured in vivo in sensory neuron subtypes in dorsal root ganglia (DRGs). However, expression levels of HCN (hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated) channel proteins that underlie I(h) were unknown. We therefore examined immunostaining of the most abundant isoforms in DRGs, HCN1 and HCN2 in these neuron subtypes. This immunostaining was cytoplasmic and membrane-associated (ring). Ring-staining for both isoforms was in neurofilament-rich A-fiber neurons, but not in small neurofilament-poor C-fiber neurons, although some C-neurons showed cytoplasmic HCN2 staining. We recorded intracellularly from DRG neurons in vivo, determined their sensory properties (nociceptive or low-threshold-mechanoreceptive, LTM) and conduction velocities (CVs). We then injected fluorescent dye enabling subsequent immunostaining. For each dye-injected neuron, ring- and cytoplasmic-immunointensities were determined relative to maximum ring-immunointensity. Both HCN1- and HCN2-ring-immunointensities were positively correlated with CV in both nociceptors and LTMs; they were high in Aβ-nociceptors and Aα/β-LTMs. High HCN1 and HCN2 levels in Aα/β-neurons may, via I(h), influence normal non-painful (e.g. touch and proprioceptive) sensations as well as nociception and pain. HCN2-, not HCN1-, ring-intensities were higher in muscle spindle afferents (MSAs) than in all other neurons. The previously reported very high I(h) in MSAs may relate to their very high HCN2. In normal C-nociceptors, low HCN1 and HCN2 were consistent with their low/undetectable I(h.) In some C-LTMs HCN2-intensities were higher than in C-nociceptors. Together, HCN1 and HCN2 expressions reflect previously reported I(h) magnitudes and properties in neuronal subgroups, suggesting these isoforms underlie I(h) in DRG neurons. Expression of both isoforms was NT3-dependent in cultured DRG neurons. HCN2-immunostaining in small neurons increased 1 day after

  11. HCN channels in the heart: lessons from mouse mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, S; Hofmann, F; Stieber, J; Ludwig, A

    2012-05-01

    Hyperpolarization-activated cation channels generate the I(f) current in the heart. In the sino-atrial node (SAN), I(f) is thought to play an essential role in setting the heart rate and mediating its autonomic control. This review focuses on the role of I(f) in pacemaking and non-pacemaking cardiomyocytes and the resulting therapeutic implications. HCN4 represents the principal isoform underlying sino-atrial I(f) , but other isoforms may also be of importance. To examine the functional role of cardiac channels, several mouse mutants, most of them targeting HCN4, have been generated by different groups. Unexpectedly, these lines display greatly different and as yet unexplained phenotypes. We provide an overview about these HCN mutants and suggest an interpretation of the functional significance of I(f) in the SAN in light of these studies. HCN channels are also present in ventricular myocytes, and an up-regulation of I(f) in the hypertrophic and failing heart may contribute to arrhythmogenesis. Inhibition of I(f) by HCN channel blockers is a novel approach in the treatment of cardiac disorders, and ivabradine is approved for treatment of stable angina pectoris. Remarkably, a recent clinical trial assessing this substance in heart failure showed a significantly improved outcome. The mechanism underlying this beneficial effect is not yet clear and might lie beyond heart rate slowing. Thus, the growing knowledge about cardiac HCN channels will undoubtedly promote the development of the promising class of HCN channel blockers. © 2011 The Authors. British Journal of Pharmacology © 2011 The British Pharmacological Society.

  12. Cardiac Myocyte Diversity and a Fibroblast Network in the Junctional Region of the Zebrafish Heart Revealed by Transmission and Serial Block-Face Scanning Electron Microscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Lafontant, Pascal J.

    2013-08-23

    The zebrafish has emerged as an important model of heart development and regeneration. While the structural characteristics of the developing and adult zebrafish ventricle have been previously studied, little attention has been paid to the nature of the interface between the compact and spongy myocardium. Here we describe how these two distinct layers are structurally and functionally integrated. We demonstrate by transmission electron microscopy that this interface is complex and composed primarily of a junctional region occupied by collagen, as well as a population of fibroblasts that form a highly complex network. We also describe a continuum of uniquely flattened transitional cardiac myocytes that form a circumferential plate upon which the radially-oriented luminal trabeculae are anchored. In addition, we have uncovered within the transitional ring a subpopulation of markedly electron dense cardiac myocytes. At discrete intervals the transitional cardiac myocytes form contact bridges across the junctional space that are stabilized through localized desmosomes and fascia adherentes junctions with adjacent compact cardiac myocytes. Finally using serial block-face scanning electron microscopy, segmentation and volume reconstruction, we confirm the three-dimensional nature of the junctional region as well as the presence of the sheet-like fibroblast network. These ultrastructural studies demonstrate the previously unrecognized complexity with which the compact and spongy layers are structurally integrated, and provide a new basis for understanding development and regeneration in the zebrafish heart. © 2013 Lafontant et al.

  13. HCN channels are not required for mechanotransduction in sensory hair cells of the mouse inner ear.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey C Horwitz

    Full Text Available The molecular composition of the hair cell transduction channel has not been identified. Here we explore the novel hypothesis that hair cell transduction channels include HCN subunits. The HCN family of ion channels includes four members, HCN1-4. They were originally identified as the molecular correlates of the hyperpolarization-activated, cyclic nucleotide gated ion channels that carry currents known as If, IQ or Ih. However, based on recent evidence it has been suggested that HCN subunits may also be components of the elusive hair cell transduction channel. To investigate this hypothesis we examined expression of mRNA that encodes HCN1-4 in sensory epithelia of the mouse inner ear, immunolocalization of HCN subunits 1, 2 and 4, uptake of the transduction channel permeable dye, FM1-43 and electrophysiological measurement of mechanotransduction current. Dye uptake and transduction current were assayed in cochlear and vestibular hair cells of wildtype mice exposed to HCN channel blockers or a dominant-negative form of HCN2 that contained a pore mutation and in mutant mice that lacked HCN1, HCN2 or both. We found robust expression of HCNs 1, 2 and 4 but little evidence that localized HCN subunits in hair bundles, the site of mechanotransduction. Although high concentrations of the HCN antagonist, ZD7288, blocked 50-70% of the transduction current, we found no reduction of transduction current in either cochlear or vestibular hair cells of HCN1- or HCN2- deficient mice relative to wild-type mice. Furthermore, mice that lacked both HCN1 and HCN2 also had normal transduction currents. Lastly, we found that mice exposed to the dominant-negative mutant form of HCN2 had normal transduction currents as well. Taken together, the evidence suggests that HCN subunits are not required for mechanotransduction in hair cells of the mouse inner ear.

  14. ALMA Observations of HCN and Its Isotopologues on Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molter, Edward M.; Nixon, C. A.; Cordiner, M. A.; Serigano, J.; Irwin, P. G. J.; Teanby, N. A.; Charnley, S. B.; Lindberg, J. E.

    2016-08-01

    We present sub-millimeter spectra of HCN isotopologues on Titan, derived from publicly available ALMA flux calibration observations of Titan taken in early 2014. We report the detection of a new HCN isotopologue on Titan, H13C15N, and confirm an earlier report of detection of DCN. We model high signal-to-noise observations of HCN, H13CN, HC15N, DCN, and H13C15N to derive abundances and infer the following isotopic ratios: 12C/13C = 89.8 ± 2.8, 14N/15N = 72.3 ± 2.2, D/H = (2.5 ± 0.2) × 10-4, and HCN/H13C15N = 5800 ± 270 (1σ errors). The carbon and nitrogen ratios are consistent with and improve on the precision of previous results, confirming a factor of ˜2.3 elevation in 14N/15N in HCN compared to N2 and a lack of fractionation in 12C/13C from the protosolar value. This is the first published measurement of D/H in a nitrile species on Titan, and we find evidence for a factor of ˜2 deuterium enrichment in hydrogen cyanide compared to methane. The isotopic ratios we derive may be used as constraints for future models to better understand the fractionation processes occurring in Titan’s atmosphere.

  15. Predissociation of methyl cyanoformate: The HCN and HNC channels

    CERN Document Server

    Wilhelm, Michael J; González-Vázquez, Jesús; Vázquez, Saulo A; Smith, Jonathan M; Dai, Hai-Lung

    2016-01-01

    We present a combined experimental and theoretical investigation of the 193 nm photolysis of the cyano-ester, methyl cyanoformate (MCF). Specifically, nanosecond time-resolved infrared emission spectroscopy was used to monitor the ro-vibrationally excited photoproducts generated in the photolysis reaction. The signal-to-noise of all time-resolved spectra were enhanced using the recently developed algorithm, spectral reconstruction analysis, which allowed observation of previously obscured minor resonances, and revealed new dissociation channels producing HCN and HNC. Spectral fit analysis of the nascent HCN and electronically excited CN($A^2\\Pi_1$) resonances yield a lower bound estimate for the HCN quantum yield of ca. 0.42$\\pm$0.24%. Multi-configuration self-consistent field calculations were used to interrogate the ground and four lowest energy singlet excited states of MCF. At 193 nm, dissociation is predicted to occur predominantly on the repulsive S$_2$ state. Nevertheless, minor pathways leading to the...

  16. Serial tempering without exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nymeyer, Hugh

    2010-09-21

    Serial tempering is a computational method that turns the temperature T (or more generally any independent λ parameter) into a dynamical variable. It is shown that, under conditions for which this variable is fast, serial tempering is equivalent to the umbrella sampling method with a single effective potential. This equivalence is demonstrated using both a small one-dimensional system and a small solvated peptide. The suggestion is then made to replace the serial tempering protocol with the equivalent umbrella sampling calculation. This approach, serial tempering without exchange (STeWiE), has the same performance as serial tempering in the limit that exchanges are frequent, is simpler to implement, and has fewer adjustable parameters than conventional serial tempering. The equivalence of serial tempering and STeWiE also provides a convenient route for estimating and optimizing the performance of serial tempering simulations and other generalized-ensemble methods.

  17. Decreasing serial cost sharing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave

    2009-01-01

    The increasing serial cost sharing rule of Moulin and Shenker (Econometrica 60:1009-1037, 1992) and the decreasing serial rule of de Frutos (J Econ Theory 79:245-275, 1998) are known by their intuitive appeal and striking incentive properties. An axiomatic characterization of the increasing serial...

  18. Anatomical Network Comparison of Human Upper and Lower, Newborn and Adult, and Normal and Abnormal Limbs, with Notes on Development, Pathology and Limb Serial Homology vs. Homoplasy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diogo, Rui; Esteve-Altava, Borja; Smith, Christopher; Boughner, Julia C; Rasskin-Gutman, Diego

    2015-01-01

    How do the various anatomical parts (modules) of the animal body evolve into very different integrated forms (integration) yet still function properly without decreasing the individual's survival? This long-standing question remains unanswered for multiple reasons, including lack of consensus about conceptual definitions and approaches, as well as a reasonable bias toward the study of hard tissues over soft tissues. A major difficulty concerns the non-trivial technical hurdles of addressing this problem, specifically the lack of quantitative tools to quantify and compare variation across multiple disparate anatomical parts and tissue types. In this paper we apply for the first time a powerful new quantitative tool, Anatomical Network Analysis (AnNA), to examine and compare in detail the musculoskeletal modularity and integration of normal and abnormal human upper and lower limbs. In contrast to other morphological methods, the strength of AnNA is that it allows efficient and direct empirical comparisons among body parts with even vastly different architectures (e.g. upper and lower limbs) and diverse or complex tissue composition (e.g. bones, cartilages and muscles), by quantifying the spatial organization of these parts-their topological patterns relative to each other-using tools borrowed from network theory. Our results reveal similarities between the skeletal networks of the normal newborn/adult upper limb vs. lower limb, with exception to the shoulder vs. pelvis. However, when muscles are included, the overall musculoskeletal network organization of the upper limb is strikingly different from that of the lower limb, particularly that of the more proximal structures of each limb. Importantly, the obtained data provide further evidence to be added to the vast amount of paleontological, gross anatomical, developmental, molecular and embryological data recently obtained that contradicts the long-standing dogma that the upper and lower limbs are serial homologues

  19. Anatomical Network Comparison of Human Upper and Lower, Newborn and Adult, and Normal and Abnormal Limbs, with Notes on Development, Pathology and Limb Serial Homology vs. Homoplasy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Diogo

    Full Text Available How do the various anatomical parts (modules of the animal body evolve into very different integrated forms (integration yet still function properly without decreasing the individual's survival? This long-standing question remains unanswered for multiple reasons, including lack of consensus about conceptual definitions and approaches, as well as a reasonable bias toward the study of hard tissues over soft tissues. A major difficulty concerns the non-trivial technical hurdles of addressing this problem, specifically the lack of quantitative tools to quantify and compare variation across multiple disparate anatomical parts and tissue types. In this paper we apply for the first time a powerful new quantitative tool, Anatomical Network Analysis (AnNA, to examine and compare in detail the musculoskeletal modularity and integration of normal and abnormal human upper and lower limbs. In contrast to other morphological methods, the strength of AnNA is that it allows efficient and direct empirical comparisons among body parts with even vastly different architectures (e.g. upper and lower limbs and diverse or complex tissue composition (e.g. bones, cartilages and muscles, by quantifying the spatial organization of these parts-their topological patterns relative to each other-using tools borrowed from network theory. Our results reveal similarities between the skeletal networks of the normal newborn/adult upper limb vs. lower limb, with exception to the shoulder vs. pelvis. However, when muscles are included, the overall musculoskeletal network organization of the upper limb is strikingly different from that of the lower limb, particularly that of the more proximal structures of each limb. Importantly, the obtained data provide further evidence to be added to the vast amount of paleontological, gross anatomical, developmental, molecular and embryological data recently obtained that contradicts the long-standing dogma that the upper and lower limbs are

  20. Investigating cyclic nucleotide and cyclic dinucleotide binding to HCN channels by surface plasmon resonance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastien Hayoz

    Full Text Available Hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-modulated (HCN channels control cardiac and neuronal rhythmicity. HCN channels contain cyclic nucleotide-binding domain (CNBD in their C-terminal region linked to the pore-forming transmembrane segment with a C-linker. The C-linker couples the conformational changes caused by the direct binding of cyclic nucleotides to the HCN pore opening. Recently, cyclic dinucleotides were shown to antagonize the effect of cyclic nucleotides in HCN4 but not in HCN2 channels. Based on the structural analysis and mutational studies it has been proposed that cyclic dinucleotides affect HCN4 channels by binding to the C-linker pocket (CLP. Here, we first show that surface plasmon resonance (SPR can be used to accurately measure cyclic nucleotide binding affinity to the C-linker/CNBD of HCN2 and HCN4 channels. We then used SPR to investigate cyclic dinucleotide binding in HCN channels. To our surprise, we detected no binding of cyclic dinucleotides to the isolated monomeric C-linker/CNBDs of HCN4 channels with SPR. The binding of cyclic dinucleotides was further examined with isothermal calorimetry (ITC, which indicated no binding of cyclic dinucleotides to both monomeric and tetrameric C-linker/CNBDs of HCN4 channels. Taken together, our results suggest that interaction of the C-linker/CNBD with other parts of the channel is necessary for cyclic-dinucleotide binding in HCN4 channels.

  1. HCN and HCO+ images of the Orion Bar photodissociation region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Owl, RCY; Meixner, MM; Wolfire, M; Tielens, AGGM; Tauber, J

    2000-01-01

    The Orion Bar is an ideal astrophysical laboratory for studying photodissociation regions because of its nearly edge-on orientation in the observer's line of sight. High angular resolution (similar to 9") maps of the Orion Bar in the J = 1-0 emission lines of HCO+ and HCN have been made by combining

  2. Photochemistry on Pluto: part II HCN and nitrogen isotope fractionation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandt, Kathleen; Luspay-Kuti, Adrienn; Hamel, Mark; Jessup, Kandis-Lea; Hue, Vincent; Kammer, Josh; Filwett, Rachael

    2017-11-01

    We have converted our Titan one-dimensional photochemical model to simulate the photochemistry of Pluto's atmosphere and include condensation and aerosol trapping in the model. We find that condensation and aerosol trapping are important processes in producing the HCN altitude profile observed by the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA). The nitrogen isotope chemistry in Pluto's atmosphere does not appear to significantly fractionate the isotope ratio between N2 and HCN as occurs at Titan. However, our simulations only cover a brief period of time in a Pluto year, and thus only a brief portion of the solar forcing conditions that Pluto's atmosphere experiences. More work is needed to evaluate photochemical fractionation over a Pluto year. Condensation and aerosol trapping appear to have a major impact on the altitude profile of the isotope ratio in HCN. Since ALMA did not detect HC15N in Pluto's atmosphere, we conclude that condensation and aerosol trapping must be much more efficient for HC15N compared to HC14N. The large uncertainty in photochemical fractionation makes it difficult to use any potential current measurement of 14N/15N in N2 to determine the origin of Pluto's nitrogen. More work is needed to understand photochemical fractionation and to evaluate how condensation, sublimation and aerosol trapping will fractionate N2 and HCN.

  3. CNG and HCN channels: two peas, one pod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craven, Kimberley B; Zagotta, William N

    2006-01-01

    Cyclic nucleotide-activated ion channels play a fundamental role in a variety of physiological processes. By opening in response to intracellular cyclic nucleotides, they translate changes in concentrations of signaling molecules to changes in membrane potential. These channels belong to two families: the cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) channels and the hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-modulated (HCN) channels. The two families exhibit high sequence similarity and belong to the superfamily of voltage-gated potassium channels. Whereas HCN channels are activated by voltage and CNG channels are virtually voltage independent, both channels are activated by cyclic nucleotide binding. Furthermore, the channels are thought to have similar channel structures, leading to similar mechanisms of activation by cyclic nucleotides. However, although these channels are structurally and behaviorally similar, they have evolved to perform distinct physiological functions. This review describes the physiological roles and biophysical behavior of CNG and HCN channels. We focus on how similarities in structure and activation mechanisms result in common biophysical models, allowing CNG and HCN channels to be viewed as a single genre.

  4. Functional Characterization of Cnidarian HCN Channels Points to an Early Evolution of Ih.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma C Baker

    Full Text Available HCN channels play a unique role in bilaterian physiology as the only hyperpolarization-gated cation channels. Their voltage-gating is regulated by cyclic nucleotides and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2. Activation of HCN channels provides the depolarizing current in response to hyperpolarization that is critical for intrinsic rhythmicity in neurons and the sinoatrial node. Additionally, HCN channels regulate dendritic excitability in a wide variety of neurons. Little is known about the early functional evolution of HCN channels, but the presence of HCN sequences in basal metazoan phyla and choanoflagellates, a protozoan sister group to the metazoans, indicate that the gene family predates metazoan emergence. We functionally characterized two HCN channel orthologs from Nematostella vectensis (Cnidaria, Anthozoa to determine which properties of HCN channels were established prior to the emergence of bilaterians. We find Nematostella HCN channels share all the major functional features of bilaterian HCNs, including reversed voltage-dependence, activation by cAMP and PIP2, and block by extracellular Cs+. Thus bilaterian-like HCN channels were already present in the common parahoxozoan ancestor of bilaterians and cnidarians, at a time when the functional diversity of voltage-gated K+ channels was rapidly expanding. NvHCN1 and NvHCN2 are expressed broadly in planulae and in both the endoderm and ectoderm of juvenile polyps.

  5. TRIP8b independent trafficking and plasticity of adult cortical pre-synaptic HCN1 channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhuo; Lujan, Rafael; Martinez-Hernandez, Jose; Lewis, Alan S.; Chetkovich, Dane M.; Shah, Mala M.

    2014-01-01

    Hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels are subthreshold activated voltage-gated ion channels. In the cortex, these channels are predominantly expressed in dendrites where they significantly modify dendritic intrinsic excitability as well synaptic potential shapes and integration. HCN channel trafficking to dendrites is regulated by the protein, TRIP8b. Additionally, altered TRIP8b expression may be one mechanism underlying seizure-induced dendritic HCN channel plasticity. HCN channels, though, are also located in certain mature cortical synaptic terminals, where they play a vital role in modulating synaptic transmission. In this study, using electrophysiological recordings as well as electron microscopy we show that pre-synaptic, but not dendritic, cortical HCN channel expression and function is comparable in adult TRIP8b null mice and wildtype littermates. We further investigated if pre-synaptic HCN channels undergo seizure-dependent plasticity. We found that, like dendritic channels, wildtype pre-synaptic HCN channel function was persistently decreased following induction of kainic acid-induced seizures. Since TRIP8b does not affect pre-synaptic HCN subunit trafficking, seizure dependent plasticity of these cortical HCN channels is not conditional upon TRIP8b. Our results, thus, suggest that the molecular mechanisms underlying HCN subunit targeting, expression and plasticity in adult neurons is compartment selective, providing a means by which pre- and post-synaptic processes that are critically dependent upon HCN channel function may be distinctly influenced. PMID:23077068

  6. Constellation of HCN channels and cAMP regulating proteins in dendritic spines of the primate prefrontal cortex: potential substrate for working memory deficits in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paspalas, Constantinos D; Wang, Min; Arnsten, Amy F T

    2013-07-01

    Schizophrenia associates with impaired prefrontal cortical (PFC) function and alterations in cyclic AMP (cAMP) signaling pathways. These include genetic insults to disrupted-in-schizophrenia (DISC1) and phosphodiesterases (PDE4s) regulating cAMP hydrolysis, and increased dopamine D1 receptor (D1R) expression that elevates cAMP. We used immunoelectron microscopy to localize DISC1, PDE4A, PDE4B, and D1R in monkey PFC and to view spatial interactions with hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels that gate network inputs when opened by cAMP. Physiological interactions between PDE4s and HCN channels were tested in recordings of PFC neurons in monkeys performing a spatial working memory task. The study reveals a constellation of cAMP-related proteins (DISC1, PDE4A, and D1R) and HCN channels next to excitatory synapses and the spine neck in thin spines of superficial PFC, where working memory microcircuits interconnect and spine loss is most evident in schizophrenia. In contrast, channels in dendrites were distant from synapses and cAMP-related proteins, and were associated with endosomal trafficking. The data suggest that a cAMP signalplex is selectively positioned in the spines to gate PFC pyramidal cell microcircuits. Single-unit recordings confirmed physiological interactions between cAMP and HCN channels, consistent with gating actions. These data may explain why PFC networks are especially vulnerable to genetic insults that dysregulate cAMP signaling.

  7. Manually Maintained Serials Records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortopan, LeRoy D.; And Others

    At the American Library Association Annual Conference in Dallas in 1971, the Serials Section of the Resources and Technical Services Division established a committee to produce a state-of-the-art report on the maintenance of serial records by manual methods in all types of libraries. The Ad Hoc Committee to Study Manually Maintained Serials…

  8. Serial action and perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abrahamse, E.L.

    2010-01-01

    The central theme of this dissertation concerns the nature of (implicit) perceptual-motor sequence learning as studied in the serial reaction time (SRT) task. Convincing support exists in the literature for three forms of serial learning: perceptual learning (S-S associations), response-based

  9. Decreasing Serial Cost Sharing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Østerdal, Lars Peter

    The increasing serial cost sharing rule of Moulin and Shenker [Econometrica 60 (1992) 1009] and the decreasing serial rule of de Frutos [Journal of Economic Theory 79 (1998) 245] have attracted attention due to their intuitive appeal and striking incentive properties. An axiomatic characterization...

  10. Response of Si- and Al-doped graphenes toward HCN: A computational study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rastegar, Somayeh F.; Peyghan, Ali Ahmadi [Department of Chemistry, Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box 14115-175, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hadipour, Nasser L., E-mail: hadipour_n@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box 14115-175, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sensitivity of Si- and Al-doped graphene (SiG and AlG) toward HCN is investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The electronic properties of AlG are significantly changed in the presence of HCN. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It is established that AlG can be a good sensor for HCN molecule. - Abstract: Sensitivity of Si- and Al-doped graphenes (SiG and AlG) toward toxic HCN has been investigated using density functional theory (DFT) in terms of energetic, geometric and electronic properties. Optimized configurations corresponding to physisorption and, subsequently, chemisorption of HCN on each surface have been identified. It is found that HCN molecule can be adsorbed on impurity atoms with adsorption energies about -27.20 and -38.75 kcal/mol on the SiG and the AlG, respectively. By comparing to HCN adsorption on SiG, it can be inferred that molecular HCN adsorbed on AlG can induce significant change in AlG conductivity. On the basis of calculated changes in the HOMO/LUMO energy gap it is found that electronic properties of AlG are sensitive toward adsorption of HCN and the reverse is correct for SiG, suggesting that the AlG may be a promising sensor for HCN.

  11. Minimally Actuated Serial Robot

    OpenAIRE

    Mann, Moshe P.; Damti, Lior; Zarrouk, David

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel type of serial robot with minimal actuation. The robot is a serial rigid structure consisting of multiple links connected by passive joints and of movable actuators. The novelty of this robot is that the actuators travel over the links to a given joint and adjust the relative angle between the two adjacent links. The joints passively preserve their angles until one of the actuators moves them again. This actuation can be applied to any serial robot with two o...

  12. Meta-path based heterogeneous combat network link prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jichao; Ge, Bingfeng; Yang, Kewei; Chen, Yingwu; Tan, Yuejin

    2017-09-01

    The combat system-of-systems in high-tech informative warfare, composed of many interconnected combat systems of different types, can be regarded as a type of complex heterogeneous network. Link prediction for heterogeneous combat networks (HCNs) is of significant military value, as it facilitates reconfiguring combat networks to represent the complex real-world network topology as appropriate with observed information. This paper proposes a novel integrated methodology framework called HCNMP (HCN link prediction based on meta-path) to predict multiple types of links simultaneously for an HCN. More specifically, the concept of HCN meta-paths is introduced, through which the HCNMP can accumulate information by extracting different features of HCN links for all the six defined types. Next, an HCN link prediction model, based on meta-path features, is built to predict all types of links of the HCN simultaneously. Then, the solution algorithm for the HCN link prediction model is proposed, in which the prediction results are obtained by iteratively updating with the newly predicted results until the results in the HCN converge or reach a certain maximum iteration number. Finally, numerical experiments on the dataset of a real HCN are conducted to demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed HCNMP, in comparison with 30 baseline methods. The results show that the performance of the HCNMP is superior to those of the baseline methods.

  13. Classifying serial killers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Promish, D I; Lester, D

    1999-11-08

    We attempted to match the appearance and demeanor of 27 serial killers to the postmortem 'signatures' found on their victims' bodies. Our results suggest that a link may exist between postmortem signatures and two complementary appearance-demeanor types.

  14. Playing at Serial Acquisitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.T.J. Smit (Han); T. Moraitis (Thras)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBehavioral biases can result in suboptimal acquisition decisions-with the potential for errors exacerbated in consolidating industries, where consolidators design serial acquisition strategies and fight escalating takeover battles for platform companies that may determine their future

  15. Lidocaine Inhibits HCN Currents in Rat Spinal Substantia Gelatinosa Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Tao; Liu, Nana; Lv, Minhua; Ma, Longxian; Peng, Huizhen; Peng, Sicong

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Lidocaine, which blocks voltage-gated sodium channels, is widely used in surgical anesthesia and pain management. Recently, it has been proposed that the hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide (HCN) channel is one of the other novel targets of lidocaine. Substantia gelatinosa in the spinal dorsal horn, which plays key roles in modulating nociceptive information from primary afferents, comprises heterogeneous interneurons that can be electrophysiologically categorized by firing pattern. Our previous study demonstrated that a substantial proportion of substantia gelatinosa neurons reveal the presence of HCN current (Ih); however, the roles of lidocaine and HCN channel expression in different types of substantia gelatinosa neurons remain unclear. METHODS: By using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique, we investigated the effect of lidocaine on Ih in rat substantia gelatinosa neurons of acute dissociated spinal cord slices. RESULTS: We found that lidocaine rapidly decreased the peak Ih amplitude with an IC50 of 80 μM. The inhibition rate on Ih was not significantly different with a second application of lidocaine in the same neuron. Tetrodotoxin, a sodium channel blocker, did not affect lidocaine’s effect on Ih. In addition, lidocaine shifted the half-activation potential of Ih from −109.7 to −114.9 mV and slowed activation. Moreover, the reversal potential of Ih was shifted by −7.5 mV by lidocaine. In the current clamp, lidocaine decreased the resting membrane potential, increased membrane resistance, delayed rebound depolarization latency, and reduced the rebound spike frequency. We further found that approximately 58% of substantia gelatinosa neurons examined expressed Ih, in which most of them were tonically firing. CONCLUSIONS: Our studies demonstrate that lidocaine strongly inhibits Ih in a reversible and concentration-dependent manner in substantia gelatinosa neurons, independent of tetrodotoxin-sensitive sodium channels. Thus, our

  16. Quantifying the emissions of HCN from on-road vehicles in urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussa, S. G.; Leithead, A.; Wentzell, J. J.; Lu, G.; Li, S.; Brook, J.; Liggio, J.

    2013-12-01

    Hydrogen Cyanide (HCN), has been considered a marker for biomass burning emissions. Despite its adverse health impacts, estimate of its global sources and sinks are highly uncertain due to a limited number of field and laboratory studies. In particular, HCN emissions from automobile exhaust are not well constrained for modern vehicles, and thought to be relatively small compared to emissions from biomass burning. In the current study, HCN emissions from individual diesel and gasoline vehicles were quantified as a function of engine driving mode, and fuel type. Proton transfer Reaction-Time of Flight-Mass spectrometry (PTR-ToF-MS) was used to measure HCN emissions from diesel engines operating on ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) and various bio-diesel blends including Soy, Tallow, and Canola. Significant emissions of HCN were observed from all vehicles, and enhanced with the use of biodiesel. In addition, ambient measurements of HCN in a traffic dominated urban area in Toronto, Canada demonstrated that a correlation between HCN, and traditional vehicle emissions markers such as benzene and xylenes exists and indicating that HCN has the potential to be a marker of fuel combustion. The ambient data and the calculated emission factors further suggest that vehicular emissions are a major source of HCN even in the presence of biomass burning, and that near roadway conditions may represent the dominant exposure pathway to HCN in urban areas. Results of this study have important implications on HCN global budget, health impacts in urban areas and the effect of alternate fuels on the emissions of this toxic species.

  17. A Calcium-Dependent Plasticity Rule for HCN Channels Maintains Activity Homeostasis and Stable Synaptic Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honnuraiah, Suraj; Narayanan, Rishikesh

    2013-01-01

    Theoretical and computational frameworks for synaptic plasticity and learning have a long and cherished history, with few parallels within the well-established literature for plasticity of voltage-gated ion channels. In this study, we derive rules for plasticity in the hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels, and assess the synergy between synaptic and HCN channel plasticity in establishing stability during synaptic learning. To do this, we employ a conductance-based model for the hippocampal pyramidal neuron, and incorporate synaptic plasticity through the well-established Bienenstock-Cooper-Munro (BCM)-like rule for synaptic plasticity, wherein the direction and strength of the plasticity is dependent on the concentration of calcium influx. Under this framework, we derive a rule for HCN channel plasticity to establish homeostasis in synaptically-driven firing rate, and incorporate such plasticity into our model. In demonstrating that this rule for HCN channel plasticity helps maintain firing rate homeostasis after bidirectional synaptic plasticity, we observe a linear relationship between synaptic plasticity and HCN channel plasticity for maintaining firing rate homeostasis. Motivated by this linear relationship, we derive a calcium-dependent rule for HCN-channel plasticity, and demonstrate that firing rate homeostasis is maintained in the face of synaptic plasticity when moderate and high levels of cytosolic calcium influx induced depression and potentiation of the HCN-channel conductance, respectively. Additionally, we show that such synergy between synaptic and HCN-channel plasticity enhances the stability of synaptic learning through metaplasticity in the BCM-like synaptic plasticity profile. Finally, we demonstrate that the synergistic interaction between synaptic and HCN-channel plasticity preserves robustness of information transfer across the neuron under a rate-coding schema. Our results establish specific physiological roles

  18. The Windows serial port programming handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Bai, Ying

    2004-01-01

    The fundamentals of serial port communications. Serial port programming in ANSI C and Assembly languages for MS-DOS. Serial ports interface developed in VC++ 6.0. Serial port programming in Visual Basic. Serial port programming in LabVIEW. Serial port programming in MATLAB. Serial port programming in Smalltalk. Serial port programming in Java.

  19. Disturbed Processing of Contextual Information in HCN3 Channel Deficient Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc S. Stieglitz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated channels (HCNs in the nervous system are implicated in a variety of neuronal functions including learning and memory, regulation of vigilance states and pain. Dysfunctions or genetic loss of these channels have been shown to cause human diseases such as epilepsy, depression, schizophrenia, and Parkinson's disease. The physiological functions of HCN1 and HCN2 channels in the nervous system have been analyzed using genetic knockout mouse models. By contrast, there are no such genetic studies for HCN3 channels so far. Here, we use a HCN3-deficient (HCN3−/− mouse line, which has been previously generated in our group to examine the expression and function of this channel in the CNS. Specifically, we investigate the role of HCN3 channels for the regulation of circadian rhythm and for the determination of behavior. Contrary to previous suggestions we find that HCN3−/− mice show normal visual, photic, and non-photic circadian function. In addition, HCN3−/− mice are impaired in processing contextual information, which is characterized by attenuated long-term extinction of contextual fear and increased fear to a neutral context upon repeated exposure.

  20. Selection and Serial Entrepreneurs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Jing

    2011-01-01

    Although it has been broadly evidenced that entrepreneurial experience plays a substantial role in the emergence of serial entrepreneurship, the debate is still going on about whether this relationship should be attributed to learning by doing or instead be explained by selection on ability. This...

  1. Selection and Serial Entrepreneurs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Jing

    2013-01-01

    There is substantial evidence that serial entrepreneurs outperform de novo entrepreneurs. But is this positive association between prior experience and performance the result of learning by doing or of selection on ability? This paper proposes a strategy that combines the fixed-effects model and IV...... when the analysis focuses on founding new startups in sectors closely related to entrepreneurs' previous ventures....

  2. Suicide in serial killers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, David; White, John

    2010-02-01

    In a sample of 248 killers of two victims in America from 1900 to 2005, obtained from an encyclopedia of serial killers by Newton (2006), those completing suicide did not differ in sex, race, or the motive for the killing from those who were arrested.

  3. The Serial Perplex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwell, Maree Macon; Chopra, Pearl

    The problems associated with the acquisition of periodicals from various sources and different systems used by two University of Alabama libraries for the acquisition, controlling, and recording of serials are described in this report. Sources identified and discussed include local sources and suppliers, direct subscriptions placed with…

  4. Serial practice impairs motor skill consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neville, Kristin-Marie; Trempe, Maxime

    2017-09-01

    Recent reports have revealed that motor skill learning is impaired if two skills are practiced one after the other, that is before the first skill has had the time to become consolidated. This suggests that motor skills should be practiced in isolation from one another to minimize interference. At the moment, little is known about the effect of practice schedules high in contextual interference on motor skill consolidation. In Experiment 1, we investigated whether a serial practice schedule impairs motor skill consolidation. Participants had to learn two distinct sequences of finger movements (A and B) under either a blocked practice schedule or a serial practice schedule before being retested the following day. A control group also practiced Sequence A only. Our results revealed that a blocked practice schedule led to no interference between the sequences, whereas a serial practice schedule impaired the consolidation of Sequence B. In Experiment 2, we investigated the origin of the interference caused by a serial practice schedule by replacing the physical practice of Sequence A with either the observation of a model performing Sequence A or by asking participants to produce random finger movements. Our results revealed that both tasks interfered with the consolidation of Sequence B. Thus, we suggest that a serial practice schedule impairs motor skill consolidation through a conflict in the brain networks involved in the acquisition of the cognitive representation of the sequence and its execution.

  5. An Ab Initio MP2 Study of HCN-HX Hydrogen Bonded Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araújo Regiane C.M.U.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available An ab initio MP2/6-311++G** study has been performed to obtain geometries, binding energies and vibrational properties of HCN-HX H-bonded complexes with X = F, Cl, NC, CN and CCH. These MP2/6-311++G** results have revealed that: (i the calculated H-bond lengths are in very good agreement with the experimental ones; (ii the H-bond strength is associated with the intermolecular charge transfer and follows the order: HCN-HNC ~ HCN-HF > HCN-HCl ~ HCN-HCN > HCN-HCCH; (iii BSSE correction introduces an average reduction of 2.4 kJ/mol on the MP2/6-311++G** binding energies, i.e. 11% of the uncorrected binding energy; (iv the calculated zero-point energies reduce the stability of these complexes and show a good agreement with the available experimental values; (v the H-X stretching frequency is shifted downward upon H-bond formation. This displacement is associated with the H-bond length; (vi The more pronounced effect on the infrared intensities occurs with the H-X stretching intensity. It is much enhanced after complexation due to the charge-flux term; (vii the calculated intermolecular stretching frequencies are in very good agreement with the experimental ones; and, finally, (viii the results obtained for the HCN-HX complexes follow the same profile as those found for the acetylene-HX series but, in the latter case, the effects on the properties of the free molecules due to complexation are less pronounced than those in HCN-HX.

  6. Funny current and cardiac rhythm: insights from HCN knockout mouse models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirko eBaruscotti

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In the adult animal the sinoatrial node (SAN rhythmically generates a depolarizing wave that propagates to the rest of the heart. However, the SAN is more than a simple clock; it is a clock that adjusts its pace according to the metabolic requirements of the organism. The Hyperpolarization-activated Cyclic Nucleotide-gated channels (HCN1-4 are the structural component of the funny (If channels; in the SAN the If current is the main driving electrical force of the diastolic depolarization and the HCN4 is the most abundant isoform. The generation of HCN KO mouse models has advanced the understanding of the role of these channels in cardiac excitability. The HCN4 KO models that were first developed allowed either global or cardiac-specific constitutive ablation of HCN4 channels, and resulted in embryonic lethality. A further progress was made with the development of three separate inducible HCN4 KO models; in one model KO was induced globally in the entire organism, in a second, ablation occurred only in HCN4-expressing cells, and finally in a third model KO was confined to cardiac cells. Unexpectedly, the three models yielded different results; similarities and differences among these models will be presented and discussed. The functional effects of HCN2 and HCN3 knockout models and transgenic HCN4 mouse models will also be discussed.In conclusion, HCN KO/transgenic models have allowed to evaluate the functional role of the If currents in intact animals as well as in single SAN cells isolated from the same animals. This opportunity is therefore unique since it allows to 1 verify the contribution of specific HCN isoforms to cardiac activity in intact animals, and 2 to compare these results to those obtained in single cell experiments. These combined studies were not possible prior to the development of KO models. Finally, these models represent critical tools to improve our understanding of the molecular basis of some inheritable arrhythmic human

  7. Delaware's first serial killer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inguito, G B; Sekula-Perlman, A; Lynch, M J; Callery, R T

    2000-11-01

    The violent murder of Shirley Ellis on November 29, 1987, marked the beginning of the strange and terrible tale of Steven Bryan Pennell's reign as the state of Delaware's first convicted serial killer. Three more bodies followed the first victim, and all had been brutally beaten and sadistically tortured. The body of a fifth woman has never been found. State and county police collaborated with the FBI to identify and hunt down their suspect, forming a task force of over 100 officers and spending about one million dollars. Through their knowledge and experience with other serial killers, the FBI was able to make an amazingly accurate psychological profile of Delaware's serial killer. After months of around-the-clock surveillance, Steven Pennell was arrested on November 29, 1988, one year to the day after the first victim was found. Pennell was found guilty in the deaths of the first two victims on November 29, 1989, and plead no contest to the murder of two others on October 30, 1991. Still maintaining his innocence, he asked for the death penalty so that he could spare his family further agony. Steven Pennell was executed by lethal injection on March 15, 1992.

  8. Hyperswitch Communication Network Computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, John C.; Chow, Edward T.; Priel, Moshe; Upchurch, Edwin T.

    1993-01-01

    Hyperswitch Communications Network (HCN) computer is prototype multiple-processor computer being developed. Incorporates improved version of hyperswitch communication network described in "Hyperswitch Network For Hypercube Computer" (NPO-16905). Designed to support high-level software and expansion of itself. HCN computer is message-passing, multiple-instruction/multiple-data computer offering significant advantages over older single-processor and bus-based multiple-processor computers, with respect to price/performance ratio, reliability, availability, and manufacturing. Design of HCN operating-system software provides flexible computing environment accommodating both parallel and distributed processing. Also achieves balance among following competing factors; performance in processing and communications, ease of use, and tolerance of (and recovery from) faults.

  9. MLS/Aura L2 Hydrogen Cyanide (HCN) Mixing Ratio V003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ML2HCN is the EOS Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) standard product for hydrogen cyanide derived from radiances measured primarily by the 190 GHz radiometer. The...

  10. MLS/Aura L2 Hydrogen Cyanide (HCN) Mixing Ratio V002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ML2HCN is the EOS Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) standard product for hydrogen cyanide derived from radiances measured primarily by the 190 GHz radiometer. The...

  11. A 1D coordination polymer of UF{sub 5} with HCN as a ligand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheibe, Benjamin; Rudel, Stefan S.; Buchner, Magnus R.; Kraus, Florian [Fachbereich Chemie, Philipps-Universitaet Marburg (Germany); Karttunen, Antti J. [Department of Chemistry, Aalto University (Finland)

    2017-01-05

    β-Uranium(V) fluoride was reacted with liquid anhydrous hydrogen cyanide to obtain a 1D coordination polymer with the composition {sup 1}{sub ∞}[UF{sub 5}(HCN){sub 2}], {sup 1}{sub ∞}[UF{sub 4/1}F{sub 2/2}-(HCN){sub 2/1}], revealed by single-crystal X-ray structure determination. The reaction system was furthermore studied by means of vibrational and NMR spectroscopy, as well as by quantum chemical calculations. The compound presents the first described polymeric HCN Lewis adduct and the first HCN adduct of a uranium fluoride. (copyright 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  12. MLS/Aura Level 2 Hydrogen Cyanide (HCN) Mixing Ratio V004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ML2HCN is the EOS Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) standard product for hydrogen cyanide derived from radiances measured primarily by the 190 GHz radiometer. The...

  13. Distribution and function of HCN channels in the apical dendritic tuft of neocortical pyramidal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harnett, Mark T; Magee, Jeffrey C; Williams, Stephen R

    2015-01-21

    The apical tuft is the most remote area of the dendritic tree of neocortical pyramidal neurons. Despite its distal location, the apical dendritic tuft of layer 5 pyramidal neurons receives substantial excitatory synaptic drive and actively processes corticocortical input during behavior. The properties of the voltage-activated ion channels that regulate synaptic integration in tuft dendrites have, however, not been thoroughly investigated. Here, we use electrophysiological and optical approaches to examine the subcellular distribution and function of hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated nonselective cation (HCN) channels in rat layer 5B pyramidal neurons. Outside-out patch recordings demonstrated that the amplitude and properties of ensemble HCN channel activity were uniform in patches excised from distal apical dendritic trunk and tuft sites. Simultaneous apical dendritic tuft and trunk whole-cell current-clamp recordings revealed that the pharmacological blockade of HCN channels decreased voltage compartmentalization and enhanced the generation and spread of apical dendritic tuft and trunk regenerative activity. Furthermore, multisite two-photon glutamate uncaging demonstrated that HCN channels control the amplitude and duration of synaptically evoked regenerative activity in the distal apical dendritic tuft. In contrast, at proximal apical dendritic trunk and somatic recording sites, the blockade of HCN channels decreased excitability. Dynamic-clamp experiments revealed that these compartment-specific actions of HCN channels were heavily influenced by the local and distributed impact of the high density of HCN channels in the distal apical dendritic arbor. The properties and subcellular distribution pattern of HCN channels are therefore tuned to regulate the interaction between integration compartments in layer 5B pyramidal neurons. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/351024-14$15.00/0.

  14. Bima Array Detections of HCN in Comets Linear (C/2002 T7) and Neat (C/2001 Q4)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedel, D. N.; Remijan, A.; Snyder, L. E.; AHearn, M. F.; Blake, Geoffrey A.; dePater, Imke; Dickel, H. R.; Forster, J. R.; Hogerheijde, M. R.

    2004-01-01

    We present interferometric detections of HCN in comets LINEAR (C/2002 T7) and NEAT (C/2001 Q4) with the Berkeley-Illinois-Maryland Association (BIMA) Array in its D-configuration cross-correlation mode. We detected the HCN J = 1 - 0 emission line in both comets. With a 25".4 x 20".3 synthesized beam around Comet LINEAR, we found a total beam averaged HCN column density (assuming a rotation temperature of 146 K) of = 2.1(11)x 10(sup 13) cm(exp -2), and a HCN production rate of Q(HCN)=2.8(15)x 10(sup 27) s(exp -1). With a 21".3 x 17".5 synthesized beam around Comet NEAT, we found a total beam averaged HCN column density (assuming a rotation temperature of 107 K) of = 5.7(30) x 10(sup l2) cm(exp -2), and a HCN production rate of Q(HCN)=8.3(44) x 10(sup 26) s(exp -l) giving a production rate of HCN relative to H2O of approximately 0.09(5)%. The production rates relative to H2O and spatial extent of HCN are similar to previous comet observations.

  15. HCN observations of comets C/2013 R1 (Lovejoy) and C/2014 Q2 (Lovejoy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirström, E. S.; Lerner, M. S.; Källström, P.; Levinsson, A.; Olivefors, A.; Tegehall, E.

    2016-04-01

    HCN J = 1-0 emission from the long-period comet C/2013 R1 (Lovejoy) was observed from the Onsala Space Observatory on multiple occasions during the month before its perihelion passage on December 22, 2013. We report detections for seven different dates, spanning heliocentric distances (Rh) decreasing from 0.94 to 0.82 au. Estimated HCN production rates are generally higher than previously reported for the same time period, but the implied increase in production rate with heliocentric distance, QHCN ∝ Rh-3.2, represent well the overall documented increase since it was first observed at Rh = 1.35. The implied mean HCN abundance relative to water in R1 Lovejoy is 0.2%. We also report on a detection of HCN with the new 3 mm receiver system at Onsala Space Observatory in comet C/2014 Q2 (Lovejoy) on January 14, 2015, when its heliocentric distance was 1.3 au. Relative to comet C/2013 R1 (Lovejoy), the HCN production rate of C/2014 Q2 (Lovejoy) was more than 5 times higher at similar heliocentric distances, and the implied HCN abundance relative to water 0.09%.

  16. Detection of Macromolecular Fractions in HCN Polymers Using Electrophoretic and Ultrafiltration Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín-Yaseli, Margarita R; Cid, Cristina; Yagüe, Ana I; Ruiz-Bermejo, Marta

    2017-02-01

    Elucidating the origin of life involves synthetic as well as analytical challenges. Herein, for the first time, we describe the use of gel electrophoresis and ultrafiltration to fractionate HCN polymers. Since the first prebiotic synthesis of adenine by Oró, HCN polymers have gained much interest in studies on the origins of life due to the identification of biomonomers and related compounds within them. Here, we demonstrate that macromolecular fractions with electrophoretic mobility can also be detected within HCN polymers. The migration of polymers under the influence of an electric field depends not only on their sizes (one-dimensional electrophoresis) but also their different isoelectric points (two-dimensional electrophoresis, 2-DE). The same behaviour was observed for several macromolecular fractions detected in HCN polymers. Macromolecular fractions with apparent molecular weights as high as 250 kDa were detected by tricine-SDS gel electrophoresis. Cationic macromolecular fractions with apparent molecular weights as high as 140 kDa were also detected by 2-DE. The HCN polymers synthesized were fractionated by ultrafiltration. As a result, the molecular weight distributions of the macromolecular fractions detected in the HCN polymers directly depended on the synthetic conditions used to produce these polymers. The implications of these results for prebiotic chemistry will be discussed. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  17. Ectopic automaticity induced in ventricular myocytes by transgenic overexpression of HCN2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshita, Kensuke; Itoh, Masayuki; Hirashima, Shingo; Kuwabara, Yoshihiro; Ishihara, Keiko; Kuwahara, Koichiro; Nakao, Kazuwa; Kimura, Takeshi; Nakamura, Kei-Ichiro; Ushijima, Kazuo; Takano, Makoto

    2015-03-01

    Hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated channels (HCNs) are expressed in the ventricles of fetal hearts but are normally down-regulated as development progresses. In the hypertrophied heart, however, these channels are re-expressed and generate a hyperpolarization-activated, nonselective cation current (Ih), which evidence suggests may increase susceptibility to arrhythmia. To test this hypothesis, we generated and analyzed transgenic mice overexpressing HCN2 specifically in their hearts (HCN2-Tg). Under physiological conditions, HCN2-Tg mice exhibited no discernible abnormalities. After the application of isoproterenol (ISO), however, ECG recordings from HCN2-Tg mice showed intermittent atrioventricular dissociation followed by idioventricular rhythm. Consistent with this observation, 0.3 μmol/L ISO-induced spontaneous action potentials (SAPs) in 76% of HCN2-Tg ventricular myocytes. In the remaining 24%, ISO significantly depolarized the resting membrane potential (RMP), and the late repolarization phase of evoked action potentials (APs) was significantly longer than in WT myocytes. Analysis of membrane currents revealed that these differences are attributable to the Ih tail current. These findings suggest HCN2 channel activity reduces the repolarization reserve of the ventricular action potential and increases ectopic automaticity under pathological conditions such as excessive β-adrenergic stimulation. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Genetic variation in Hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN channels and its relationship with neuroticism, cognition and risk of depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Mark Mcintosh

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN channels are encoded by four genes (HCN1-4 and, through activation by cyclic AMP (cAMP, represent a point of convergence for several psychosis risk genes. On the basis of positive preliminary data, we sought to test whether genetic variation in HCN1-4 conferred risk of depression or cognitive impairment in the Generation Scotland: Scottish Family Health Study. HCN1, HCN2, HCN3 and HCN4 were genotyped for 43 haplotype-tagging SNPs and tested for association with DSM-IV depression, neuroticism and a battery of cognitive tests assessing cognitive ability, memory, verbal fluency and psychomotor performance. No association was found between any HCN channel gene SNP and risk of depression, neuroticism or on any cognitive measure. The current study does not support a genetic role for HCN channels in conferring risk of depression or cognitive impairment in human subjects within the Scottish population.

  19. HCN Channel Modulation of Synaptic Integration in GABAergic Interneurons in Malformed Rat Neocortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John J. Hablitz

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Cortical malformations are often associated with pharmaco-resistant epilepsy. Alterations in hyperpolarization-activated, cyclic nucleotide-gated, non-specific cation (HCN channels have been shown to contribute to malformation associated hyperexcitability. We have recently demonstrated that expression of HCN channels and Ih current amplitudes are reduced in layer (L 5 pyramidal neurons of rats with freeze lesion induced malformations. These changes were associated with an increased EPSP temporal summation. Here, we examine the effects of HCN channel inhibition on synaptic responses in fast spiking, presumptive basket cells and accommodating, presumptive Martinotti, GABAergic interneurons in slices from freeze lesioned animals. In control animals, fast spiking cells showed small sag responses which were reduced by the HCN channel antagonist ZD7288. Fast spiking cells in lesioned animals showed absent or reduced sag responses. The amplitude of single evoked EPSPs in fast spiking cells in the control group was not affected by HCN channel inhibition with ZD7288. EPSP ratios during short stimulus trains at 25 Hz were not significantly different between control and lesion groups. ZD7288 produced an increase in EPSP ratios in the control but not lesion groups. Under voltage clamp conditions, ZD7288 did not affect EPSC ratios. In the control group, accommodating interneurons showed robust sag responses which were significantly reduced by ZD7288. HCN channel inhibition increased EPSP ratios and area in controls but not the lesioned group. The results indicate that HCN channels differentially modulate EPSPs in different classes of GABAergic interneurons and that this control is reduced in malformed rat neocortex.

  20. The Healthy Brain Network Serial Scanning Initiative: a resource for evaluating inter-individual differences and their reliabilities across scan conditions and sessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, David; Potler, Natan Vega; Kovacs, Meagan; Xu, Ting; Ai, Lei; Pellman, John; Vanderwal, Tamara; Parra, Lucas C; Cohen, Samantha; Ghosh, Satrajit; Escalera, Jasmine; Grant-Villegas, Natalie; Osman, Yael; Bui, Anastasia; Craddock, R Cameron; Milham, Michael P

    2017-02-01

    Although typically measured during the resting state, a growing literature is illustrating the ability to map intrinsic connectivity with functional MRI during task and naturalistic viewing conditions. These paradigms are drawing excitement due to their greater tolerability in clinical and developing populations and because they enable a wider range of analyses (e.g., inter-subject correlations). To be clinically useful, the test-retest reliability of connectivity measured during these paradigms needs to be established. This resource provides data for evaluating test-retest reliability for full-brain connectivity patterns detected during each of four scan conditions that differ with respect to level of engagement (rest, abstract animations, movie clips, flanker task). Data are provided for 13 participants, each scanned in 12 sessions with 10 minutes for each scan of the four conditions. Diffusion kurtosis imaging data was also obtained at each session. Technical validation and demonstrative reliability analyses were carried out at the connection-level using the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient and at network-level representations of the data using the Image Intraclass Correlation Coefficient. Variation in intrinsic functional connectivity across sessions was generally found to be greater than that attributable to scan condition. Between-condition reliability was generally high, particularly for the frontoparietal and default networks. Between-session reliabilities obtained separately for the different scan conditions were comparable, though notably lower than between-condition reliabilities. This resource provides a test-bed for quantifying the reliability of connectivity indices across subjects, conditions and time. The resource can be used to compare and optimize different frameworks for measuring connectivity and data collection parameters such as scan length. Additionally, investigators can explore the unique perspectives of the brain's functional

  1. Serial and spatial error correlation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elhorst, J. Paul

    This paper demonstrates that jointly modeling serial and spatial error correlation results in a trade-off between the serial and spatial autocorrelation coefficients. Ignoring this trade-off causes inefficiency and may lead to nonstationarity. (C) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Organics Produced by Irradiation of Frozen and Liquid HCN Solutions: Implications for Chemical Evolution Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colín-García, M.; Negrón-Mendoza, A.; Ramos-Bernal, S.

    2009-04-01

    Hydrogen cyanide (HCN), an important precursor of organic compounds, is widely present in extraterrestrial environments. HCN is also readily synthesized in prebiotic simulation experiments. To gain insight into the radiation chemistry of one of the most important and highly versatile constituents of cometary ices, we examined the behavior of over-irradiated frozen and liquid HCN solutions under ionizing radiation. The samples were exposed to gamma radiation at a dose range from 0 up to 419 kGy. Ultraviolet spectroscopy and gas chromatography were used to follow the process. The analyses confirmed that gamma-ray irradiation of liquid HCN solutions generates several organic products. Many of them are essential to life; we verified the presence of carboxylic acids (some of them members of the Krebs cycle) as well as free amino acids and urea. These are the first studies to reveal the presence of these compounds in experiments performed at low temperatures and bulk irradiation. Organic material was produced even at low temperatures and low radiation doses. This work strongly supports the presumption that, as a parent molecule, HCN played a central essential role in the process of chemical evolution on early Earth, comets, and other extraterrestrial environments.

  3. Stiffness of serial and quasi-serial manipulators: comparison analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klimchik Alexandr

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with comparison analysis of serial and quasi-serial manipulators. It shows a difference between stiffness behaviours of corresponding industrial robots under external loading, which is caused by machining process. The analysis is based on the estimation of compliance errors induced by cutting forces that are applied to the manipulator end-effector. We demonstrate that the quasi-seral manipulators are preferable for large-dimensional tasks while the quasi-serial ones better suit small size tasks.

  4. Experimental conditions affecting the kinetics of aqueous HCN polymerization as revealed by UV-vis spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín-Yaseli, Margarita R; Moreno, Miguel; de la Fuente, José L; Briones, Carlos; Ruiz-Bermejo, Marta

    2017-10-12

    HCN polymerization is one of the most important and fascinating reactions in prebiotic chemistry, and interest in HCN polymers in the field of materials science is growing. However, little is known about the kinetics of the HCN polymerization process. In the present study, a first approach to the kinetics of two sets of aqueous HCN polymerizations, from NH4CN and NaCN, at middle temperatures between 4 and 38°C, has been carried out. For each series, the presence of air and salts in the reaction medium has been systematically explored. A previous kinetic analysis was conducted during the conversion of the insoluble black HCN polymers obtained as gel fractions in these precipitation polymerizations for a reaction of one month, where a limit conversion was achieved at the highest polymerization temperature. The kinetic description of the gravimetric data for this complex system shows a clear change in the linear dependence with the polymerization temperature for the reaction from NH4CN, besides a relevant catalytic effect of ammonium, in comparison with those data obtained from the NaCN series. These results also demonstrated the notable influence of air, oxygen, and the saline medium in HCN polymer formation. Similar conclusions were reached when the sol fractions were monitored by UV-vis spectroscopy, and a Hill type correlation was used to describe the polymerization profiles obtained. This technique was chosen because it provides an easy, prompt and fast method to follow the evolution of the liquid or continuous phase of the process under study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Experimental conditions affecting the kinetics of aqueous HCN polymerization as revealed by UV-vis spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín-Yaseli, Margarita R.; Moreno, Miguel; de la Fuente, José L.; Briones, Carlos; Ruiz-Bermejo, Marta

    2018-02-01

    HCN polymerization is one of the most important and fascinating reactions in prebiotic chemistry, and interest in HCN polymers in the field of materials science is growing. However, little is known about the kinetics of the HCN polymerization process. In the present study, a first approach to the kinetics of two sets of aqueous HCN polymerizations, from NH4CN and NaCN, at middle temperatures between 4 and 38 °C, has been carried out. For each series, the presence of air and salts in the reaction medium has been systematically explored. A previous kinetic analysis was conducted during the conversion of the insoluble black HCN polymers obtained as gel fractions in these precipitation polymerizations for a reaction of one month, where a limit conversion was achieved at the highest polymerization temperature. The kinetic description of the gravimetric data for this complex system shows a clear change in the linear dependence with the polymerization temperature for the reaction from NH4CN, besides a relevant catalytic effect of ammonium, in comparison with those data obtained from the NaCN series. These results also demonstrated the notable influence of air, oxygen, and the saline medium in HCN polymer formation. Similar conclusions were reached when the sol fractions were monitored by UV-vis spectroscopy, and a Hill type correlation was used to describe the polymerization profiles obtained. This technique was chosen because it provides an easy, prompt and fast method to follow the evolution of the liquid or continuous phase of the process under study.

  6. Relevance of HCN2-expressing human mesenchymal stem cells for the generation of biological pacemakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruzauskaite, Ieva; Bironaite, Daiva; Bagdonas, Edvardas; Skeberdis, Vytenis Arvydas; Denkovskij, Jaroslav; Tamulevicius, Tomas; Uvarovas, Valentinas; Bernotiene, Eiva

    2016-04-30

    The transfection of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) with the hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channel 2 (HCN2) gene has been demonstrated to provide biological pacing in dogs with complete heart block. The mechanism appears to be the generation of the ion current (If) by the HCN2-expressing hMSCs. However, it is not clear how the transfection process and/or the HCN2 gene affect the growth functions of the hMSCs. Therefore, we investigated survival, proliferation, cell cycle, and growth on a Kapton® scaffold of HCN2-expressing hMSCs. hMSCs were isolated from the bone marrow of healthy volunteers applying a selective cell adhesion procedure and were identified by their expression of specific surface markers. Cells from passages 2-3 were transfected by electroporation using commercial transfection kits and a pIRES2-EGFP vector carrying the pacemaker gene, mouse HCN2 (mHCN2). Transfection efficiency was confirmed by enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) fluorescence, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). After hMSCs were transfected, their viability, proliferation, If generation, apoptosis, cell cycle, and expression of transcription factors were measured and compared with non-transfected cells and cells transfected with pIRES2-EGFP vector alone. Intracellular mHCN2 expression after transfection increased from 22.14 to 62.66 ng/mg protein (p cells was 82 ± 5 %; they grew stably for more than 3 weeks and induced If current. mHCN2-transfected cells had low mitotic activity (10.4 ± 1.24 % in G2/M and 83.6 ± 2.5 % in G1 phases) as compared with non-transfected cells (52-53 % in G2/M and 31-35 % in G1 phases). Transfected cells showed increased activation of nine cell cycle-regulating transcription factors: the most prominent upregulation was of AMP-dependent transcription factor ATF3 (7.11-fold, p = 0.00056) which regulates the G1 phase. mHCN2-expressing hMSCs were

  7. Serial Input Output

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waite, Anthony; /SLAC

    2011-09-07

    Serial Input/Output (SIO) is designed to be a long term storage format of a sophistication somewhere between simple ASCII files and the techniques provided by inter alia Objectivity and Root. The former tend to be low density, information lossy (floating point numbers lose precision) and inflexible. The latter require abstract descriptions of the data with all that that implies in terms of extra complexity. The basic building blocks of SIO are streams, records and blocks. Streams provide the connections between the program and files. The user can define an arbitrary list of streams as required. A given stream must be opened for either reading or writing. SIO does not support read/write streams. If a stream is closed during the execution of a program, it can be reopened in either read or write mode to the same or a different file. Records represent a coherent grouping of data. Records consist of a collection of blocks (see next paragraph). The user can define a variety of records (headers, events, error logs, etc.) and request that any of them be written to any stream. When SIO reads a file, it first decodes the record name and if that record has been defined and unpacking has been requested for it, SIO proceeds to unpack the blocks. Blocks are user provided objects which do the real work of reading/writing the data. The user is responsible for writing the code for these blocks and for identifying these blocks to SIO at run time. To write a collection of blocks, the user must first connect them to a record. The record can then be written to a stream as described above. Note that the same block can be connected to many different records. When SIO reads a record, it scans through the blocks written and calls the corresponding block object (if it has been defined) to decode it. Undefined blocks are skipped. Each of these categories (streams, records and blocks) have some characteristics in common. Every stream, record and block has a name with the condition that each

  8. High Accuracy ab Initio Calculations of Rotational-Vibrational Levels of the HCN/HNC System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhnev, Vladimir Yu; Kyuberis, Aleksandra A; Zobov, Nikolai F; Lodi, Lorenzo; Tennyson, Jonathan; Polyansky, Oleg L

    2018-02-08

    Highly accurate ab initio calculations of vibrational and rotational-vibrational energy levels of the HCN/HNC (hydrogen cyanide/hydrogen isocyanide) isomerising system are presented for several isotopologues. All-electron multireference configuration interaction (MRCI) electronic structure calculations were performed using basis sets up to aug-cc-pCV6Z on a grid of 1541 geometries. The ab initio energies were used to produce an analytical potential energy surface (PES) describing the two minima simultaneously. An adiabatic Born-Oppenheimer diagonal correction (BODC) correction surface as well as a relativistic correction surface were also calculated. These surfaces were used to compute vibrational and rotational-vibrational energy levels up to 25 000 cm -1 which reproduce the extensive set of experimentally known HCN/HNC levels with a root-mean-square deviation σ = 1.5 cm -1 . We studied the effect of nonadiabatic effects by introducing opportune radial and angular corrections to the nuclear kinetic energy operator. Empirical determination of two nonadiabatic parameters results in observed energies up to 7000 cm -1 for four HCN isotopologues (HCN, DCN, H 13 CN, and HC 15 N) being reproduced with σ = 0.37 cm -1 . The height of the isomerization barrier, the isomerization energy and the dissociation energy were computed using a number of models; our best results are 16 809.4, 5312.8, and 43 729 cm -1 , respectively.

  9. Photodissociation of HCN and HNC isomers in the 7-10 eV energy range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chenel, Aurelie; Roncero, Octavio, E-mail: octavio.roncero@csic.es [Instituto de Física Fundamental (IFF-CSIC), C.S.I.C., Serrano 123, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Aguado, Alfredo [Departamento de Química Física Aplicada (UAM), Unidad Asociada a IFF-CSIC, Facultad de Ciencias Módulo 14, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Agúndez, Marcelino; Cernicharo, José [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, CSIC, C/ Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz 3, 28049 Cantoblanco (Spain)

    2016-04-14

    The ultraviolet photoabsorption spectra of the HCN and HNC isomers have been simulated in the 7-10 eV photon energy range. For this purpose, the three-dimensional adiabatic potential energy surfaces of the 7 lowest electronic states, and the corresponding transition dipole moments, have been calculated, at multireference configuration interaction level. The spectra are calculated with a quantum wave packet method on these adiabatic potential energy surfaces. The spectra for the 3 lower excited states, the dissociative electronic states, correspond essentially to predissociation peaks, most of them through tunneling on the same adiabatic state. The 3 higher electronic states are bound, hereafter electronic bound states, and their spectra consist of delta lines, in the adiabatic approximation. The radiative lifetime towards the ground electronic states of these bound states has been calculated, being longer than 10 ns in all cases, much longer that the characteristic predissociation lifetimes. The spectra of HCN is compared with the available experimental and previous theoretical simulations, while in the case of HNC there are no previous studies to our knowledge. The spectrum for HNC is considerably more intense than that of HCN in the 7-10 eV photon energy range, which points to a higher photodissociation rate for HNC, compared to HCN, in astrophysical environments illuminated by ultraviolet radiation.

  10. Real-time monitoring of hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and ammonia (NH3) emitted by Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neerincx, A.H.; Mandon, J.; Ingen, J. van; Arslanov, D.D.; Mouton, J.W.; Harren, F.J.; Merkus, P.J.F.M.; Cristescu, S.M.

    2015-01-01

    We present the real-time monitoring of hydrogen cyanide (HCN) production from Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) strains in vitro, using laser-based photoacoustic spectroscopy. Simultaneously, the production of ammonia (NH3) was measured, and the influence of different factors (e.g. the medium,

  11. Serial optical communications and ultra-fast optical signal processing of Tbit/s data signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo; Galili, Michael; Hu, Hao

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews our recent advances in ultra-high speed serial optical communications. It describes Tbit/s optical signal processing and various materials allowing for this, as well as network scenarios embracing this technology......This paper reviews our recent advances in ultra-high speed serial optical communications. It describes Tbit/s optical signal processing and various materials allowing for this, as well as network scenarios embracing this technology...

  12. HCN production and hydroxynitrile lyase: a natural activity in plants and a renewed biotechnological interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassim, Muhammad Arshad; Rumbold, Karl

    2014-02-01

    Over 3,000 plant species are cyanogenic. Cyanogenesis is defined as the hydroxynitrile lyase catalysed release of a cyanide group in the form of HCN and the corresponding aldehyde or ketone. When a plant is attacked, HCN released is a self defence mechanism. A special characteristic of enzymatic reactions is that all enzymatic reactions are reversible-hydroxynitrile lyases can also be used for the synthesis of enantiomerically pure cyanohydrins which are of great importance in industry. This article presents a comprehensive review of the role of hydroxynitrile lyases, both in nature and industry, and an insightful. Areas covered include: history, discovery and natural sources of the hydroxynitrile lyase. Molecular cloning for mass production of this enzyme, including detailed information about several successful recombinant hydroxynitrile lyases is also included.

  13. Navigating the Chemical Space of HCN Polymerization and Hydrolysis: Guiding Graph Grammars by Mass Spectrometry Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter F. Stadler

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Polymers of hydrogen cyanide and their hydrolysis products constitute a plausible, but still poorly understood proposal for early prebiotic chemistry on Earth. HCN polymers are generated by the interplay of more than a dozen distinctive reaction mechanisms and form a highly complex mixture. Here we use a computational model based on graph grammars as a means of exploring the chemical spaces of HCN polymerization and hydrolysis. A fundamental issue is to understand the combinatorial explosion inherent in large, complex chemical systems. We demonstrate that experimental data, here obtained by mass spectrometry, and computationally predicted free energies together can be used to guide the exploration of the chemical space and makes it feasible to investigate likely pathways and chemical motifs even in potentially open-ended chemical systems.

  14. Photoacoustic Detection of New Bands of HCN between 11 390 and 13 020 cm(-1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecoutre; Rohart; Huet; Maki

    2000-09-01

    A laser photoacoustic technique has been used to measure the absorption spectrum of HCN in the region from 11 390 to 13 020 cm(-1) with a resolution that is limited by the Doppler- and pressure-broadened linewidth. This is a very sensitive technique that has allowed us to measure very weak bands with a small volume of gas. These measurements provide the rovibrational constants for a number of newly observed vibrational energy levels. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  15. Prefrontal Cortex HCN1 Channels Enable Intrinsic Persistent Neural Firing and Executive Memory Function

    OpenAIRE

    Thuault, Sébastien J.; Malleret, Gaël; Constantinople, Christine M.; Nicholls, Russell; Chen, Irene; Zhu, Judy; Panteleyev, Andrey; Vronskaya, Svetlana; Nolan, Matthew F.; Bruno, Randy; Siegelbaum, Steven A.; Kandel, Eric R.

    2013-01-01

    In many cortical neurons, HCN1 channels are the major contributors to I-h, the hyperpolarization-activated current, which regulates the intrinsic properties of neurons and shapes their integration of synaptic inputs, paces rhythmic activity, and regulates synaptic plasticity. Here, we examine the physiological role of I-h in deep layer pyramidal neurons in mouse prefrontal cortex (PFC), focusing on persistent activity, a form of sustained firing thought to be important for the behavioral func...

  16. Ketamine, propofol and the EEG: a neural field analysis of HCN1-mediated interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingo eBojak

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Ketamine and propofol are two well-known, powerful anesthetic agents, yet at first sight this appears to be their only commonality. Ketamine is a dissociative anesthetic agent, whose main mechanism of action is considered to be N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA antagonism; whereas propofol is a general anesthetic agent, which is assumed to primarily potentiate currents gated by γ-aminobutyric acid type A (GABA A receptors. However, several experimental observations suggest a closer relationship. First, the effect of ketamine on the electroencephalogram (EEG is markedly changed in the presence of propofol: on its own ketamine increases theta (4–8 Hz and decreases alpha (8–13 Hz oscillations, whereas ketamine induces a significant shift to beta band frequencies (13–30 Hz in the presence of propofol. Second, both ketamine and propofol cause inhibition of the inward pacemaker current Ih, by binding to the corresponding hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated potassium channel 1 (HCN1 subunit. The resulting effect is a hyperpolarization of the neuron’s resting membrane potential. Third, the ability of both ketamine and propofol to induce hypnosis is reduced in HCN1-knockout mice. Here we show that one can theoretically understand the observed spectral changes of the EEG based on HCN1-mediated hyperpolarizations alone, without involving the supposed main mechanisms of action of these drugs through NMDA and GABA A, respectively. On the basis of our successful EEG model we conclude that ketamine and propofol should be antagonistic to each other in their interaction at HCN1 subunits. Such a prediction is in accord with the results of clinical experiment in which it is found that ketamine and propofol interact in an infra-additive manner with respect to the endpoints of hypnosis and immobility.

  17. EXTENDED HCN AND HCO{sup +} EMISSION IN THE STARBURST GALAXY M82

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salas, P.; Galaz, G. [Instituto de Astrofísica, Facultad de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Av. Vicua Mackenna 4860, 782-0436 Macul, Santiago (Chile); Salter, D.; Herrera-Camus, R.; Bolatto, A. D. [Department of Astronomy and Laboratory for Millimeter-Wave Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Kepley, A. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903-2475 (United States)

    2014-12-20

    We mapped 3 mm continuum and line emission from the starburst galaxy M82 using the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy. We targeted the HCN, HCO{sup +}, HNC, CS, and HC{sub 3}N lines, but here we focus on the HCN and HCO{sup +} emission. The map covers a field of 1.'2 with an ≈5'' resolution. The HCN and HCO{sup +} observations are short spacings corrected. The molecular gas in M82 had been previously found to be distributed in a molecular disk, coincident with the central starburst, and a galactic scale outflow which originates in the central starburst. With the new short spacings-corrected maps we derive some of the properties of the dense molecular gas in the base of the outflow. From the HCN and HCO{sup +} J = (1-0) line emission, and under the assumptions of the gas being optically thin and in local thermodynamic equilibrium, we place lower limits on the amount of dense molecular gas in the base of the outflow. The lower limits are 7 × 10{sup 6} M {sub ☉} and 21 × 10{sup 6} M {sub ☉}, or ≳ 2% of the total molecular mass in the outflow. The kinematics and spatial distribution of the dense gas outside the central starburst suggests that it is being expelled through chimneys. Assuming a constant outflow velocity, the derived outflow rate of dense molecular gas is ≥0.3 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}, which would lower the starburst lifetime by ≥5%. The energy required to expel this mass of dense gas is (1-10) × 10{sup 52} erg.

  18. Descriptor‐Based Analysis Applied to HCN Synthesis from NH3 and CH4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grabow, Lars C.; Studt, Felix; Abild‐Pedersen, Frank

    2011-01-01

    A trendy volcano: By the example of HCN synthesis from NH3 and CH4, it is demonstrated how scaling relations for intermediates and transition states provide a basis for the prediction of trends in heterogeneous catalysis (see logarithmic turnover frequency, TOF). These trends include not only the...... the activity but also selectivity and the dominant reaction mechanism. This general approach can be applied to a large number of catalytic systems....

  19. The Serial Process in Visual Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilden, David L.; Thornton, Thomas L.; Marusich, Laura R.

    2010-01-01

    The conditions for serial search are described. A multiple target search methodology (Thornton & Gilden, 2007) is used to home in on the simplest target/distractor contrast that effectively mandates a serial scheduling of attentional resources. It is found that serial search is required when (a) targets and distractors are mirror twins, and…

  20. Serial killer: il database mondiale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaetano parente

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The complex and multisided study of serial killers is partly made difficult by the current level of progress that has led these deviant people to evolve in relation to the aspects of shrewdness (concerning the staging and mobility. Despite the important work of some scholars who proposed important theories, all this shows that, concerning serial murders, it is still particularly frequent not to pay attention to links among homicides committed by the same person but in different parts of the world. It is therefore crucial to develop a worldwide database that allows all police forces to access information collected on crime scenes of murders which are particularly absurd and committed without any apparent reason. It will then be up to the profiler, through ad hoc and technologically advanced tools, to collect this information on the crime scene that would be made available to all police forces thanks to the worldwide database.

  1. The sexually sadistic serial killer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, J I; Hazelwood, R R; Dietz, P E

    1996-11-01

    This article explores characteristics and crime scene behavior of 20 sexually sadistic serial murderers. The pairing of character pathology with paraphilic arousal to the control and degradation of others is examined as it manifests itself in their murders. Commonalities across murders and across murderers are highlighted, i.e., the execution of murders that are well-planned, the use of preselected locations, captivity, a variety of painful sexual acts, sexual bondage, intentional torture, and death by means of strangulation and stabbing.

  2. IRIG Serial Time Code Formats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    and G. It should be noted that this standard reflects the present state of the art in serial time code formatting and is not intended to constrain...separation for visual resolution. The LSB occurs first except for the fractional seconds subword that follows the day-of-year subword. The BCD TOY code...and P6 to complete the BCD time code word. An index marker occurs between the decimal digits in each subword to provide separation for visual

  3. Serial murder by healthcare professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorker, Beatrice Crofts; Kizer, Kenneth W; Lampe, Paula; Forrest, A R W; Lannan, Jacquetta M; Russell, Donna A

    2008-01-01

    The prosecution of Charles Cullen, a nurse who killed at least 40 patients over a 16-year period, highlights the need to better understand the phenomenon of serial murder by healthcare professionals. The authors conducted a LexisNexis search which yielded 90 criminal prosecutions of healthcare providers that met inclusion criteria for serial murder of patients. In addition we reviewed epidemiologic studies, toxicology evidence, and court transcripts, to provide data on healthcare professionals who have been prosecuted between 1970 and 2006. Fifty-four of the 90 have been convicted; 45 for serial murder, four for attempted murder, and five pled guilty to lesser charges. Twenty-four more have been indicted and are either awaiting trial or the outcome has not been published. The other 12 prosecutions had a variety of legal outcomes. Injection was the main method used by healthcare killers followed by suffocation, poisoning, and tampering with equipment. Prosecutions were reported from 20 countries with 40% taking place in the United States. Nursing personnel comprised 86% of the healthcare providers prosecuted; physicians 12%, and 2% were allied health professionals. The number of patient deaths that resulted in a murder conviction is 317 and the number of suspicious patient deaths attributed to the 54 convicted caregivers is 2113. These numbers are disturbing and demand that systemic changes in tracking adverse patient incidents associated with presence of a specific healthcare provider be implemented. Hiring practices must shift away from preventing wrongful discharge or denial of employment lawsuits to protecting patients from employees who kill.

  4. Notorious Cases of Serial Killers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iosub Elena-Cătălina

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The reconstruction of a death scene provides an overall picture of the crime and will indicate the murder as an event or one of a series of events and also the criminal. But when the criminal is declared a serial killer, many questions are raised up. How could a person kill some else without a reason or why people react in such a disorganized way and become so brutal or what made them act like that and so many questions with also so many answers. This project explains the psychology of a murderer, his own way of thinking and acting by presuming that we may accurately discover what is in their minds when they kill. It is about a very complex issue regarding murder investigations, biological factors and psychological profile of a serial killer. Dealing with this problem we will at last reach to the question that could solve finally the puzzle: ―Are serial murderers distorted reflections of society's own values?

  5. THE VARIABILITY OF HCN IN TITAN’S UPPER ATMOSPHERE AS IMPLIED BY THE CASSINI ION-NEUTRAL MASS SPECTROMETER MEASUREMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, J.; Cao, Y.-T. [National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Lavvas, P. P. [Groupe de Spectroscopie Moleculaire et Atmospherique, Universite de Reims, Champagne-Ardenne, CNRS UMR F-7331 (France); Koskinen, T. T. [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2016-07-20

    HCN is an important constituent in Titan’s upper atmosphere, serving as the main coolant in the local energy budget. In this study, we derive the HCN abundance at the altitude range of 960–1400 km, combining the Ion-Neutral Mass Spectrometer data acquired during a large number of Cassini flybys with Titan. Typically, the HCN abundance declines modestly with increasing altitude and flattens to a near constant level above 1200 km. The data reveal a tendency for dayside depletion of HCN, which is clearly visible below 1000 km but weakens with increasing altitude. Despite the absence of convincing anti-correlation between HCN volume mixing ratio and neutral temperature, we argue that the variability in HCN abundance makes an important contribution to the large temperature variability observed in Titan’s upper atmosphere.

  6. The Productivity Advantage of Serial Entrepreneurs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaw, Kathryn L.; Sørensen, Anders

    Serial entrepreneurs, who open more than one business, are found to have higher sales and higher productivity than novice entrepreneurs, who open one business. Using panel data on entrepreneurs and their firms from Denmark for 2001-2013, the serial entrepreneur has 67% higher sales than the novic...... firm rather than proprietorships. Female serial entrepreneurs do as well as male serial entrepreneurs relative to the performance of novices of their own genders. The second firms of the serial entrepreneurs also stay in business longer than the first (and only) firms of the novices....

  7. The neural signature of emotional memories in serial crimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chassy, Philippe

    2017-10-01

    Neural plasticity is the process whereby semantic information and emotional responses are stored in neural networks. It is hypothesized that the neural networks built over time to encode the sexual fantasies that motivate serial killers to act should display a unique, detectable activation pattern. The pathological neural watermark hypothesis posits that such networks comprise activation of brain sites that reflect four cognitive components: autobiographical memory, sexual arousal, aggression, and control over aggression. The neural sites performing these cognitive functions have been successfully identified by previous research. The key findings are reviewed to hypothesise the typical pattern of activity that serial killers should display. Through the integration of biological findings into one framework, the neural approach proposed in this paper is in stark contrast with the many theories accounting for serial killers that offer non-medical taxonomies. The pathological neural watermark hypothesis offers a new framework to understand and detect deviant individuals. The technical and legal issues are briefly discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Serial position learning in honeybees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randolf Menzel

    Full Text Available Learning of stimulus sequences is considered as a characteristic feature of episodic memory since it contains not only a particular item but also the experience of preceding and following events. In sensorimotor tasks resembling navigational performance, the serial order of objects is intimately connected with spatial order. Mammals and birds develop episodic(-like memory in serial spatio-temporal tasks, and the honeybee learns spatio-temporal order when navigating between the nest and a food source. Here I examine the structure of the bees' memory for a combined spatio-temporal task. I ask whether discrimination and generalization are based solely on simple forms of stimulus-reward learning or whether they require sequential configurations. Animals were trained to fly either left or right in a continuous T-maze. The correct choice was signaled by the sequence of colors (blue, yellow at four positions in the access arm. If only one of the possible 4 signals is shown (either blue or yellow, the rank order of position salience is 1, 2 and 3 (numbered from T-junction. No learning is found if the signal appears at position 4. If two signals are shown, differences at positions 1 and 2 are learned best, those at position 3 at a low level, and those at position 4 not at all. If three or more signals are shown these results are corroborated. This salience rank order again appeared in transfer tests, but additional configural phenomena emerged. Most of the results can be explained with a simple model based on the assumption that the four positions are equipped with different salience scores and that these add up independently. However, deviations from the model are interpreted by assuming stimulus configuration of sequential patterns. It is concluded that, under the conditions chosen, bees rely most strongly on memories developed during simple forms of associative reward learning, but memories of configural serial patterns contribute, too.

  9. Notorious Cases of Serial Killers

    OpenAIRE

    Iosub Elena-Cătălina

    2014-01-01

    The reconstruction of a death scene provides an overall picture of the crime and will indicate the murder as an event or one of a series of events and also the criminal. But when the criminal is declared a serial killer, many questions are raised up. How could a person kill some else without a reason or why people react in such a disorganized way and become so brutal or what made them act like that and so many questions with also so many answers. This project explains the psycholo...

  10. The effect of semantic relatedness on immediate serial recall and serial recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Chi-Shing; Li, Yongna; Altarriba, Jeanette

    2011-12-01

    The present study examined the effects of semantic relatedness on immediate serial recall and serial recognition. Each participant received either blocked or randomly intermixed serial recall or serial recognition trials. Replicating the findings of previous studies (e.g., Saint-Aubin, Ouellette, & Poirier, 2005), semantic relatedness boosted percentage serial recall but also increased order errors, after taking into account the proportion of correctly recalled items, regardless of their orders, in serial recall trials. In serial recognition trials, participants' responses were slower and less accurate for related lists than for unrelated lists. There were intraindividual correlations among order memory measures in serial recall versus serial recognition trials. The implications of these findings for item redintegration theories are discussed.

  11. Multifrequency electron spin resonance detection of solid-state organic free radicals in HCN polymer and a Titan tholin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budil, David E; Roebber, John L; Liebman, Shirley A; Matthews, Clifford N

    2003-01-01

    Macromolecules derived from hydrogen cyanide (HCN) may be major components of the dark matter observed in bodies in the outer Solar System, which include comets and asteroids. HCN oligomers and polymers are readily formed at room temperature and react with water to produce polypeptides and alpha-amino acids or undergo pyrolysis to produce nitrogen heterocycles. Electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy shows that HCN polymer mixtures contain a significant amount of long-lived organic free radicals that are primarily carbon-based. For comparison, we have also examined samples of tholins produced from experimental analogs of Titan aerosols, which has been shown by trace organic analysis to consist partly of HCN polymer. The "Titan tholin" exhibits at least two ESR signals that can be assigned to nitrogen- and carbon-centered radicals, although heating the sample eliminates the nitrogen centers and increases the signal from the carbon centers. This result suggests that the nitrogen-centered radicals may be thermodynamically less stable, but are kinetically trapped during the spark-discharge reactions that produce tholins from mixtures of gases such as methane and nitrogen. The results strongly support previous proposals of free radical mechanisms for HCN polymerization.

  12. Collision-induced dissociation of HS-(HCN): unsymmetrical hydrogen bonding in a proton-bound dimer anion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akin, F Ahu; Ervin, Kent M

    2006-02-02

    The energy-resolved competitive collision-induced dissociation of the proton-bound complex [HS.H.CN](-) is studied in a guided ion beam tandem mass spectrometer. H(2)S and HCN have nearly identical gas-phase acidities, and therefore, the HS(-) + HCN and the CN(-) + H(2)S product channels exhibit nearly the same threshold energies, as expected. However, the HS(-) + HCN channel has a cross section up to a factor of 50 larger than CN(-) + H(2)S at higher energies. The cross sections are modeled using RRKM theory and phase space theory. The complex dissociates to HS(-)+ HCN via a loose transition state, and it dissociates to CN(-) + H(2)S via a tight transition state. Theoretical calculations show that the proton-transfer potential energy surface has a single minimum and that the hydrogen bonding in the complex is strongly unsymmetrical, with an ion-molecule complex of the form HS(-)..HCN rather than CN(-)..H(2)S or an intermediate structure. The requirement for proton transfer before dissociation and curvature along the reaction path impedes the CN(-) + H(2)S product channel.

  13. hERG potassium channel blockade by the HCN channel inhibitor bradycardic agent ivabradine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melgari, Dario; Brack, Kieran E; Zhang, Chuan; Zhang, Yihong; El Harchi, Aziza; Mitcheson, John S; Dempsey, Christopher E; Ng, G André; Hancox, Jules C

    2015-04-24

    Ivabradine is a specific bradycardic agent used in coronary artery disease and heart failure, lowering heart rate through inhibition of sinoatrial nodal HCN-channels. This study investigated the propensity of ivabradine to interact with KCNH2-encoded human Ether-à-go-go-Related Gene (hERG) potassium channels, which strongly influence ventricular repolarization and susceptibility to torsades de pointes arrhythmia. Patch clamp recordings of hERG current (IhERG) were made from hERG expressing cells at 37°C. Ih ERG was inhibited with an IC50 of 2.07 μmol/L for the hERG 1a isoform and 3.31 μmol/L for coexpressed hERG 1a/1b. The voltage and time-dependent characteristics of Ih ERG block were consistent with preferential gated-state-dependent channel block. Inhibition was partially attenuated by the N588K inactivation-mutant and the S624A pore-helix mutant and was strongly reduced by the Y652A and F656A S6 helix mutants. In docking simulations to a MthK-based homology model of hERG, the 2 aromatic rings of the drug could form multiple π-π interactions with the aromatic side chains of both Y652 and F656. In monophasic action potential (MAP) recordings from guinea-pig Langendorff-perfused hearts, ivabradine delayed ventricular repolarization and produced a steepening of the MAPD90 restitution curve. Ivabradine prolongs ventricular repolarization and alters electrical restitution properties at concentrations relevant to the upper therapeutic range. In absolute terms ivabradine does not discriminate between hERG and HCN channels: it inhibits Ih ERG with similar potency to that reported for native If and HCN channels, with S6 binding determinants resembling those observed for HCN4. These findings may have important implications both clinically and for future bradycardic drug design. © 2015 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  14. Genetically engineered cardiac pacemaker: Stem cells transfected with HCN2 gene and myocytes-A model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanani, S. [Institut Genomique Fonctionelle, 141 Rue de la Cardonille, 34396 Montpellier (France); Institut Non Lineaire de Nice, CNRS and Universite de Nice, 1361 route des Lucioles, 06560 Valbonne (France); Pumir, A. [Institut Non Lineaire de Nice, CNRS and Universite de Nice, 1361 route des Lucioles, 06560 Valbonne (France); Laboratoire J.A. Dieudonne, CNRS and Universite de Nice, Parc Valrose, 06108 Nice (France)], E-mail: alain.pumir@unice.fr; Krinsky, V. [Institut Non Lineaire de Nice, CNRS and Universite de Nice, 1361 route des Lucioles, 06560 Valbonne (France)

    2008-01-07

    One of the successfully tested methods to design genetically engineered cardiac pacemaker cells consists in transfecting a human mesenchymal stem cell (hMSC) with a HCN2 gene and connecting it to a myocyte. We develop and study a mathematical model, describing a myocyte connected to a hMSC transfected with a HCN2 gene. The cardiac action potential is described both with the simple Beeler-Reuter model, as well as with the elaborate dynamic Luo-Rudy model. The HCN2 channel is described by fitting electrophysiological records, in the spirit of Hodgkin-Huxley. The model shows that oscillations can occur in a pair myocyte-stem cell, that was not observed in the experiments yet. The model predicted that: (1) HCN pacemaker channels can induce oscillations only if the number of expressed I{sub K1} channels is low enough. At too high an expression level of I{sub K1} channels, oscillations cannot be induced, no matter how many pacemaker channels are expressed. (2) At low expression levels of I{sub K1} channels, a large domain of values in the parameter space (n, N) exists, where oscillations should be observed. We denote N the number of expressed pacemaker channels in the stem cell, and n the number of gap junction channels coupling the stem cell and the myocyte. (3) The expression levels of I{sub K1} channels observed in ventricular myocytes, both in the Beeler-Reuter and in the dynamic Luo-Rudy models are too high to allow to observe oscillations. With expression levels below {approx}1/4 of the original value, oscillations can be observed. The main consequence of this work is that in order to obtain oscillations in an experiment with a myocyte-stem cell pair, increasing the values of n, N is unlikely to be helpful, unless the expression level of I{sub K1} has been reduced enough. The model also allows us to explore levels of gene expression not yet achieved in experiments, and could be useful to plan new experiments, aimed at improving the robustness of the oscillations.

  15. Reconciling rising serials costs, the serials budget, and reference needs in a medical library serials retrenchment program: a methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spang, L

    1995-01-01

    Devising a coherent serials retrenchment plan while maintaining quality reference service is a dilemma faced by increasing numbers of medical librarians. In 1991, the staff of the Shiffman Medical Library, Wayne State University, began to address increasing serials budget reductions that by 1994 amounted to a projected 20% maximum cut. The resulting retrenchment plan combined an ongoing serials use study, faculty and librarian reviews of cancellation lists, and systematic refinements in interlibrary cooperation and document delivery service. The Shiffman plan provides a constructive framework that can be adapted to other medical libraries facing immediate, major serials retrenchment.

  16. Pink-beam serial crystallography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meents, A; Wiedorn, M. O.; Srajer, V.; Henning, R.; Sarrou, I.; Bergtholdt, J.; Barthelmess, M.; Reinke, P.Y.A.; Dirksmeyer, D.; Tolstikova, A.; Schaible, S.; Messerschmidt, M.; Ogata, C. M.; Kissick, D. J.; Taft, M.H.; Manstein, D.J.; Lieske, J.; Oberthuer, D.; Fischetti, R. F.; Chapman, H. N.

    2017-11-03

    Serial X-ray crystallography allows macromolecular structure determination at 31 both X-ray Free Electron Lasers (XFELs) and, more recently, synchrotron 32 sources. The time resolution for serial synchrotron crystallography experiments 33 has been limited to millisecond time scales with monochromatic beams. The 34 polychromatic, “pink”, beam provides a more than two orders of magnitude 35 increased photon flux and hence allows accessing much shorter time scales in 36 diffraction experiments at synchrotron sources. Here we report the structure 37 determination of two different protein samples by merging pink beam diffraction 38 patterns from many crystals, each collected with a single 100 ps X-ray pulse 39 exposure per crystal using a setup optimized for very low scattering background. 40 In contrast to experiments with monochromatic radiation, data from only 50 41 crystals were required to obtain complete data sets. The high quality of the 42 diffraction data highlights the potential of this method for studying irreversible 43 reactions at sub-microsecond timescales using high-brightness X-ray facilities. 44

  17. Serial MRI of limbic encephalitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urbach, Horst [University of Bonn Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Bonn (Germany); Soeder, Bettina M.; Bien, Christian G. [University of Bonn Medical Center, Department of Epileptology, Bonn (Germany); Jeub, Monika; Klockgether, Thomas [University of Bonn Medical Center, Department of Neurology, Bonn (Germany); Meyer, Bernhard [University of Bonn Medical Center, Department of Neurosurgery, Bonn (Germany)

    2006-06-15

    Introduction: The aim of the study was to analyze serial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans in patients with various forms of limbic encephalitis (LE) in order to evaluate whether, and at what time point, MRI findings support the diagnosis of LE. Methods: Serial MRI scans (1 day to 15 years after the onset of symptoms) of 20 patients with LE were retrospectively evaluated. Of these 20 patients, 16 had definite LE (histopathological limbic inflammation, n=6; onconeural antibodies, n=5; voltage-gated potassium channel antibodies, n=3; malignant tumors, n=5), and 4 possible LE because they met the clinical criteria but had no typical antibodies or tumors. Of 13 patients who were studied with MRI within 3 months after the onset of symptoms, 11 had swollen temporomesial structures (unilateral, n=7; bilateral, n=4). After up to 9 months, the swelling had resolved in nine of ten re-evaluated patients. Of seven patients who were initially studied with MRI more than 3 months after disease onset, three had swollen temporomesial structures, one had a hyperintense, normal-sized hippocampus, and three had hyperintense and atrophic temporomesial structures. LE starts as an acute disease with uni- or bilateral swollen temporomesial structures that are hyperintense on fluid attenuation inversion recovery and T2-weighted sequences. Swelling and hyperintensity may persist over months to years, but in most cases progressive temporomesial atrophy develops. (orig.)

  18. The Relationship Context of Premarital Serial Cohabitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Jessica; Manning, Wendy

    2010-09-01

    Even though serial cohabitation is on the rise, it has not been integrated into recent family research. We analyze the National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) cycle 6 to explore the relationship context of serial cohabitation for women throughout emerging adulthood (N=3,397). We provide a relationship context for serial cohabitation by examining the age at first cohabitation, duration of cohabiting unions, marital expectations and transitions, as well as premarital sexual histories. Furthermore, we examine the change in these relationship indicators across women's birth cohorts. We find that serial cohabitors' co-residential unions are about the same duration as single-instance cohabiting unions. Serial cohabitors start cohabiting younger, report lower marital expectations than single-instance cohabitors and a smaller proportion marry before age 30. Women who have more premarital sex partners have significantly greater odds of serial cohabiting. These findings indicate that women face increasingly complex relationship trajectories during emerging adulthood.

  19. Seasonal and interannual variations in HCN amounts in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere observed by MIPAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glatthor, N.; Höpfner, M.; Stiller, G. P.; von Clarmann, T.; Funke, B.; Lossow, S.; Eckert, E.; Grabowski, U.; Kellmann, S.; Linden, A.; Walker, K. A.; Wiegele, A.

    2015-01-01

    We present a HCN climatology of the years 2002-2012, derived from FTIR limb emission spectra measured with the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) on the ENVISAT satellite, with the main focus on biomass burning signatures in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. HCN is an almost unambiguous tracer of biomass burning with a tropospheric lifetime of 5-6 months and a stratospheric lifetime of about 2 years. The MIPAS climatology is in good agreement with the HCN distribution obtained by the spaceborne ACE-FTS experiment and with airborne in situ measurements performed during the INTEX-B campaign. The HCN amounts observed by MIPAS in the southern tropical and subtropical upper troposphere have an annual cycle peaking in October-November, i.e. 1-2 months after the maximum of southern hemispheric fire emissions. The probable reason for the time shift is the delayed onset of deep convection towards austral summer. Because of overlap of varying biomass burning emissions from South America and southern Africa with sporadically strong contributions from Indonesia, the size and strength of the southern hemispheric plume have considerable interannual variations, with monthly mean maxima at, for example, 14 km between 400 and more than 700 pptv. Within 1-2 months after appearance of the plume, a considerable portion of the enhanced HCN is transported southward to as far as Antarctic latitudes. The fundamental period of HCN variability in the northern upper troposphere is also an annual cycle with varying amplitude, which in the tropics peaks in May after and during the biomass burning seasons in northern tropical Africa and southern Asia, and in the subtropics peaks in July due to trapping of pollutants in the Asian monsoon anticyclone (AMA). However, caused by extensive biomass burning in Indonesia and by northward transport of part of the southern hemispheric plume, northern HCN maxima also occur around October/November in several years

  20. A widely tunable, near-infrared laser-based trace gas sensor for hydrogen cyanide (HCN) detection in exhaled breath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azhar, M.; Mandon, J.; Neerincx, A. H.; Liu, Z.; Mink, J.; Merkus, P. J. F. M.; Cristescu, S. M.; Harren, F. J. M.

    2017-11-01

    A compact, cost-effective sensor is developed for detection of hydrogen cyanide (HCN) in exhaled breath within seconds. For this, an off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy setup is combined with a widely tunable compact near-infrared laser (tunability 1527-1564 nm). For HCN a detection sensitivity has been obtained of 8 ppbv in nitrogen (within 1 s), equal to a noise equivalent absorption sensitivity of 1.9 × 10-9 cm-1 Hz-1/2. With this sensor we demonstrated the presence of HCN in exhaled breath; its detection could be a good indicator for bacterial lung infection. Due to its compact, cost-effective and user-friendly design, this laser-based sensor has the potential to be implemented in future clinical applications.

  1. VizieR Online Data Catalog: CO and HCN observations of circumstellar envelopes (Loup+ 1993)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loup, C.; Forveille, T.; Omont, A.; Paul, J. F.

    1997-06-01

    We have searched the literature for all observations of the 12CO(1-0), 12CO(2-1), and HCN(1-0) lines in circumstellar envelopes of late type stars published between January 1985 and September 1992. We report data for 1361 observations (stellar velocity, expansion velocity, peak intensity, integrated area, noise level). This CO-HCN sample now contains 444 sources. 184 are identified as oxygen-rich, 205 as carbon-rich, and there are 9 S stars. About 85% of the sources are AGB stars. There are 32 planetary nebulae and about thirty post-AGB stars candidates. Besides results of millimeter observations, we also list identifications, coordinates, IRAS data, chemical and spectral types for every source. For AGB stars, we have estimated (or compiled) bolometric fluxes and distances for 349 sources, and mass loss rates deduced from CO results for 324 sources, taking into account the influence of the CO photodissociation radius. We also list mass loss rates derived from detailed models of CO emission which we could find in the literature. (7 data files).

  2. The effects of the hydrogen addition on the HCN profiles in fuel-rich-premixed, burner-stabilized C1-C3 alkane flames

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sepman, A. V.; Mokhov, A. V.; Levinsky, H. B.

    2011-01-01

    The effects of hydrogen addition on HCN formation and consumption in fuel-rich, burnerstabilized methane, ethane and propane flames are reported. The HCN mole fraction was measured using quartz-microprobe sampling followed by direct absorption spectroscopy. Experiments were performed at equivalence

  3. Serial Order: A Parallel Distributed Processing Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Michael I.

    Human behavior shows a variety of serially ordered action sequences. This paper presents a theory of serial order which describes how sequences of actions might be learned and performed. In this theory, parallel interactions across time (coarticulation) and parallel interactions across space (dual-task interference) are viewed as two aspects of a…

  4. Serial Position Functions in General Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Matthew R.; Neath, Ian; Surprenant, Aimée M.

    2015-01-01

    Serial position functions with marked primacy and recency effects are ubiquitous in episodic memory tasks. The demonstrations reported here explored whether bow-shaped serial position functions would be observed when people ordered exemplars from various categories along a specified dimension. The categories and dimensions were: actors and age;…

  5. Female serial killing: review and case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frei, Andreas; Völlm, Birgit; Graf, Marc; Dittmann, Volker

    2006-01-01

    Single homicide committed by women is rare. Serial killing is very infrequent, and the perpetrators are usually white, intelligent males with sadistic tendencies. Serial killing by women has, however, also been described. To conduct a review of published literature on female serial killers and consider its usefulness in assessing a presenting case. A literature review was conducted, after searching EMBASE, MEDLINE and PsycINFO. The presenting clinical case is described in detail in the context of the literature findings. Results The literature search revealed few relevant publications. Attempts to categorize the phenomenon of female serial killing according to patterns of and motives for the homicides have been made by some authors. The most common motive identified was material gain or similar extrinsic gratification while the 'hedonistic' sadistic or sexual serial killer seems to be extremely rare in women. There is no consistent theory of serial killing by women, but psychopathic personality traits and abusive childhood experiences have consistently been observed. The authors' case did not fit the description of a 'typical' female serial killer. In such unusual circumstances as serial killing by a woman, detailed individual case formulation is required to make sense of the psychopathology in each case. Publication of cases in scientific journals should be encouraged to advance our understanding of this phenomenon. Copyright (c) 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. The Serial Murderer's Motivations: An Interdisciplinary Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeHart, Dana D.; Mahoney, John M.

    1994-01-01

    Defines serial killer as individual who murders two or more victims over an extended period of time, ranging from days to years, with the crimes often being sexually motivated. Reviews existing motivational theories of serial murder and proposes additional explications from range of disciplines. Presents suggestions for future research and…

  7. Modus operandi of female serial killers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, W; Hilton, T

    1998-04-01

    The modus operandi of female serial killers was examined from a chronology of 58 cases in America and 47 cases in 17 other countries, compiled over 25-year intervals. Female serial killers in other countries accounted for a disproportionately greater number of victims, but those in America managed a longer killing career when associated with a low profile modus operandi.

  8. Reframing Serial Murder Within Empirical Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurian, Elizabeth A

    2017-04-01

    Empirical research on serial murder is limited due to the lack of consensus on a definition, the continued use of primarily descriptive statistics, and linkage to popular culture depictions. These limitations also inhibit our understanding of these offenders and affect credibility in the field of research. Therefore, this comprehensive overview of a sample of 508 cases (738 total offenders, including partnered groups of two or more offenders) provides analyses of solo male, solo female, and partnered serial killers to elucidate statistical differences and similarities in offending and adjudication patterns among the three groups. This analysis of serial homicide offenders not only supports previous research on offending patterns present in the serial homicide literature but also reveals that empirically based analyses can enhance our understanding beyond traditional case studies and descriptive statistics. Further research based on these empirical analyses can aid in the development of more accurate classifications and definitions of serial murderers.

  9. Serial killers with military experience: applying learning theory to serial murder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castle, Tammy; Hensley, Christopher

    2002-08-01

    Scholars have endeavored to study the motivation and causality behind serial murder by researching biological, psychological, and sociological variables. Some of these studies have provided support for the relationship between these variables and serial murder. However, the study of serial murder continues to be an exploratory rather than explanatory research topic. This article examines the possible link between serial killers and military service. Citing previous research using social learning theory for the study of murder, this article explores how potential serial killers learn to reinforce violence, aggression, and murder in military boot camps. As with other variables considered in serial killer research, military experience alone cannot account for all cases of serial murder. Future research should continue to examine this possible link.

  10. Ab initio treatment of the chemical reaction precursor complex Br(2P)-HCN. 1. Adiabatic and diabatic potential surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fishchuk, A.V.; Merritt, J.M.; Avoird, A. van der

    2007-01-01

    The three adiabatic potential surfaces of the Br(P-2)-HCN complex that correlate to the P-2 ground state of the Br atom were calculated ab initio. With the aid of a geometry-dependent diabatic mixing angle, also calculated ab initio, these adiabatic potential surfaces were transformed into a set of

  11. Highly abundant HCN in the inner hot envelope of GL 2591 : probing the birth of a hot core?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonman, A. M. S.; Stark, R.; Tak, F. F. S. van der; Dishoeck, E. F.; Schafer, F.; Lange, G de; Laauwen, W. M.; van der Wal, P.B.

    2004-01-01

    Published in: Astrophys. J. 553 (2001) L63-L68 citations recorded in [Science Citation Index] Abstract: We present observations of the v2=0 and vibrationally excited v2=1 J=9-8 rotational lines of HCN at 797 GHz toward the deeply embedded massive young stellar object GL 2591, which provide the

  12. Testosterone enhances cardiomyogenesis in stem cells and recruits the androgen receptor to the MEF2C and HCN4 genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Madhoun, Ashraf Said; Voronova, Anastassia; Ryan, Tammy; Zakariyah, Abeer; McIntire, Christian; Gibson, Laura; Shelton, Michael; Ruel, Marc; Skerjanc, Ilona S

    2013-07-01

    Since a previous study (Goldman-Johnson et al., 2008 [4]) has shown that androgens can stimulate increased differentiation of mouse embryonic stem (mES) cells into cardiomyocytes using a genomic pathway, the aim of our study is to elucidate the molecular mechanisms regulating testosterone-enhanced cardiomyogenesis. Testosterone upregulated cardiomyogenic transcription factors, including GATA4, MEF2C, and Nkx2.5, muscle structural proteins, and the pacemaker ion channel HCN4 in a dose-dependent manner, in mES cells and P19 embryonal carcinoma cells. Knock-down of the androgen receptor (AR) or treatment with anti-androgenic compounds inhibited cardiomyogenesis, supporting the requirement of the genomic pathway. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) studies showed that testosterone enhanced recruitment of AR to the regulatory regions of MEF2C and HCN4 genes, which was associated with increased histone acetylation. In summary, testosterone upregulated cardiomyogenic transcription factor and HCN4 expression in stem cells. Further, testosterone induced cardiomyogenesis, at least in part, by recruiting the AR receptor to the regulatory regions of the MEF2C and HCN4 genes. These results provide a detailed molecular analysis of the function of testosterone in stem cells and may offer molecular insight into the role of steroids in the heart. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Diode laser absorption measurement and analysis of HCN in atmospheric-pressure, fuel-rich premixed methane/air flames

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gersen, Sander; Mokhov, A. V.; Levinsky, H. B.

    2008-01-01

    Measurements of HCN in flat, fuel-rich premixed methane/air flames at atmospheric pressure are reported. Quartz-microprobe sampling followed by wavelength modulation absorption spectroscopy with second harmonic detection was used to obtain an overall measurement uncertainty of better than 20% for

  14. Observation of the Formation of 0-π Pulses in Rotation Spectra of HCN and HBr

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesnokov, E. N.; Kubarev, V. V.; Koshlyakov, P. V.

    We present the first experimental study of the formation of 0-π pulses in the far infrared region. Experiments were made in rotation spectra of HCN and HBr molecules using a Novosibirsk terahertz free electron laser (NovoFEL) as a source of optical pulses and ultra-fast Schottky diode as detector. Transformation of the shape of 0-π pulses was explored within a wide range of optical density. Throughout the range of experimental conditions, the observed pulse shape is well described by the analytical formula of Grisp (Phys. Rev. A 1 (1970) 1604). The observed effect can be used for time-domain measurements of the oscillator strength of the absorption line.

  15. PENGARUH LAMA PERENDAMAN KORO BENGU (Mucuna pruriens DALAM AIR KAPUR (Ca(OH2 TERHADAP KADAR ASAM SIANIDA (HCN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Nurmawan Toro

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Latar belakang: Masyarakat Indonesia masih menitikberatkan pada komoditas kacang kedelai sebagai sumber utama protein, sedangkan pemanfaatan komoditas lain seperti koro benguk masih sangat minim. Minimnya pemanfaatan koro benguk ini karena di dalamnya terkandung senyawa alami berupa glokusida sianogenik yang dapat mengalami hidrolisis enzimatis menjadi asam sianida (HCN yang bersifat racun. Karena asam sianida bersifat asam yang sangat mudah larut dalam air, maka dilakukan perendaman menggunakan air kapur (Ca(OH2 bersifat basa yang dirasa cukup efektif menetralkan HCN dalam koro benguk.   Tujuan Penelitian: Mengetahui pengaruh lama perendaman koro benguk dalam air kapur terhadap kadar asam sianida dan mengetahui apakah air kapur lebih efektif dibandingkan air biasa dalam menetralkan HCN koro benguk.   Metode Penelitian: Penelitian dengan desain post test with control group. Obyek penelitian ini adalah koro benguk varietas benguk putih berumur 4-6 bulan yang diperoleh di Dusun Nogosari, Desa Purwosari, Kecamatan Girimulyo, Kabupaten Kulon Progo, DIY yang dilakukan perendaman dalam air sebagai kelompok kontrol dan air kapur 100 mg/L sebagai kelompok perlakuan selama 12, 24 dan 36 jam kemudian dilakukan destilasi. Destilat direaksikan dengan asam pikrat 1% kemudia diukur kadar HCN secara spektrofotometri.   Hasil: Kadar HCN  koro benguk pada perendaman dalam air selama 12 jam adalah 20,736 mg/kg, selama 24 jam adalah 19,348 mg/kg dan selama 36 jam adalah 16,786 mg/kg. Sedangkan kadar HCN pada perendaman air kapur 100 mg/L selama 12 jam adalah 19,020 mg/kg, selama 24 jam adalah 1,635 mg/kg dan selama 36 jam adalah 9,307 mg/kg. Hasil Uji ANOVA satu jalan pada kelompok perlakuan didapatkan nilai signifikansi 0.000 (p< 0.05.   Kesimpulan: Ada pengaruh bermakna lama perendaman koro benguk dalam air kapur terhadap kadar asam sianida. Perendaman dalam air kapur terbukti lebih efektif menetralkan asam sianida koro benguk dibandingkan perendaman dalam

  16. ALMA IMAGING OF HCN, CS, AND DUST IN ARP 220 AND NGC 6240

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scoville, Nick; Manohar, Swarnima; Murchikova, Lena [California Institute of Technology, MC 249-17, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Sheth, Kartik [North American ALMA Science Center, National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22901 (United States); Walter, Fabian; Zschaechner, Laura [Max-Planck-Institut fur Astronomie, Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Yun, Min [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Koda, Jin [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794 (United States); Sanders, David; Barnes, Joshua [Institute for Astronomy, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, Hawaii, HI 96822 (United States); Thompson, Todd [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Robertson, Brant; Tacconi, Linda; Narayanan, Desika [Department of Astronomy and Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson AZ 85721 (United States); Genzel, Reinhard; Davies, Richard [Max-Planck-Institut fur extraterrestrische Physik (MPE), Giessenbachstrasse, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Hernquist, Lars [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Brown, Robert [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22901 (United States); Hayward, Christopher C. [TAPIR 350-17, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Kartaltepe, Jeyhan [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); and others

    2015-02-10

    We report ALMA Band 7 (350 GHz) imaging at 0.''4-0.''6 resolution and Band 9 (696 GHz) at ∼0.''25 resolution of the luminous IR galaxies Arp 220 and NGC 6240. The long wavelength dust continuum is used to estimate interstellar medium masses for Arp 220 east and west and NGC 6240 of 1.9, 4.2, and 1.6 × 10{sup 9} M {sub ☉}within radii of 69, 65, and 190 pc. The HCN emission was modeled to derive the emissivity distribution as a function of radius and the kinematics of each nuclear disk, yielding dynamical masses consistent with the masses and sizes derived from the dust emission. In Arp 220, the major dust and gas concentrations are at radii less than 50 pc in both counter-rotating nuclear disks. The thickness of the disks in Arp 220 estimated from the velocity dispersion and rotation velocities are 10-20 pc and the mean gas densities are n{sub H{sub 2}}∼10{sup 5} cm{sup –3} at R <50 pc. We develop an analytic treatment for the molecular excitation (including photon trapping), yielding volume densities for both the HCN and CS emission with n {sub H2} ∼ 2 × 10{sup 5} cm{sup –3}. The agreement of the mean density from the total mass and size with that required for excitation suggests that the volume is essentially filled with dense gas, i.e., it is not cloudy or like swiss cheese.

  17. Development of an HCN dual laser for the interferometer on EAST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gen; Wei, Xuechao; Liu, Haiqing; Shen, Junjie; Jie, Yinxian; Lian, Hui; Zeng, Long; Zou, Zhiyong; Zhang, Jibo; Wang, Shouxin

    2017-08-01

    A two-color continuous wave (CW) discharge-pumped far-infrared (FIR) hydrogen cyanide (HCN) laser was developed as the source of an interferometer for measuring the line-averaged electron density in the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST). The output power of the dual laser system was about 120 mW from each laser on the 337 μm (0.89 THz) line. The polarization of each output beam was fixed using thin tungsten filaments and oscillated in the EH11 mode. Different megahertz intermediate frequencies (IF) and a slight frequency offset (˜1 MHz) were generated in this system to replace the traditional rotating grating with ˜10 kHz IF, and this can improve the time resolution of the interferometer significantly. The experimental result showed that different IF signals were obtained by successfully adjusting the cavity length. In particular, the beat frequency was captured at ˜1.3 MHz by a Schottky mixer when the length of the resonant cavities was changed by 5 μm by an automatic adjustment system. In order to study the character of IF, a long time record of the IF signal was carried out, and the IF signal could be stabilized for a few minutes in the range of 2 MHz to 3 MHz. A real-time IF stability control system was initially designed for long pulse discharge experiments on the EAST. The ˜MHz frequency response and good phase sensitivity of the dual laser HCN interferometer will allow the system to track fast density profiles and resolve fast MHD events, such as tearing/neoclassical tearing, disruptions, etc. Contributed paper, published as part of the Proceedings of the 3rd Domestic Electromagnetic Plasma Diagnostics Workshop, September 2016, Hefei, China.

  18. Kandungan Protein dan HCN “Wikau Maombo” Hasil Fermentasi Umbi Ubi Kayu Pahit (Manihot aipi Phol Menggunakan Beberapa Isolat Mikroorganisme Lokal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurhayani H. Muhiddin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian bertujuan untuk mengetahui perubahan kandungan protein dan HCN umbi ubi kayu pahit melalui fermentasi beberapa isolat mikroorganisme lokal menjadi “Wikau Maombo” dan mengetahui isolat mikroorganisme yang menghasilkan “Wikau Maombo” terbaik. Penelitian menggunakan metode eksperimental dengan teknik fermentasi substrat padat. Inokulum yang digunakan adalah biakan murni sebanyak 35 isolat mikroorganisme lokal hasil isolasi dari “Wikau Maombo” yang terfermentasi secara tradisional. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa semua perlakuan isolat mikroorganisme memberikan pengaruh yang tidak berbeda nyata terhadap perubahan kadar protein dan berbeda nyata terhadap kadar HCN “Wikau Maombo” dibandingkan kontrol. Kontrol umbi ubi kayu segar (KS mengandung kadar protein sebesar 0,7221% dan HCN sebesar 103,8352 ppm. Produk “Wikau Maombo” berkualitas baik dari hasil fermentasi isolat bakteri M (FM mengandung protein 0,8805% dan HCN 23,0555 ppm. Produk “Wikau Maombo” hasil fermentasi isolat kapang KpC (FKpC mengandung protein 0,6505% dan HCN 25,7719 ppm, sedang hasil fermentasi isolat khamir HC (FHC mengandung protein 0,7608% dan HCN 25,7447 ppm.Kata kunci: Umbi Kayu Pahit, Fermentasi, Mikroorganisme Lokal, Protein, HCN.

  19. The American Serialization of Lord Jim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Donovan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This essay presents the discovery of the American serialization of Joseph Conrad’s Lord Jim in New York’s Evening Telegram in 1903. This ‘lost’ serialization, it argues, invites a new perspective on Conrad’s early career by foregrounding the role of newspaper serialization and syndication in establishing his literary standing. After surveying the principal differences in the respective reading experiences of the periodical versus the book, it concludes by proposing that the prominence of women among Conrad’s first audiences requires us to reassess the basis for his success in North America and elsewhere.

  20. Background instrumental music and serial recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nittono, H

    1997-06-01

    Although speech and vocal music are consistently shown to impair serial recall for visually presented items, instrumental music does not always produce a significant disruption. This study investigated the features of instrumental music that would modulate the disruption in serial recall. 24 students were presented sequences of nine digits and required to recall the digits in order of presentation. Instrumental music as played either forward or backward during the task. Forward music caused significantly more disruption than did silence, whereas the reversed music did not. Some higher-order factor may be at work in the effect of background music on serial recall.

  1. The essential guide to Serial ATA and SATA express

    CERN Document Server

    Deming, David A

    2014-01-01

    Used in laptop and desktop computers, low-end servers, and mobile devices, Serial ATA (Advance Technology Attachment), or SATA, is the pervasive disk storage technology in use today. SATA has also penetrated the enterprise computing environment by adding hardware components for fail-over, extending command processing capabilities, and increasing device performance and link speeds. If you work in a data center or manage your company's storage resources, you will likely encounter storage solutions that require SATA software or hardware.In this book, leading storage networking technologist David

  2. Large-scale upper tropospheric pollution observed by MIPAS HCN and C2H6 global distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Linden

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available We present global upper tropospheric HCN and C2H6 amounts derived from MIPAS/ENVISAT limb emission spectra. HCN and C2H6 are retrieved in the spectral regions 715.5–782.7 cm−1 and 811.5–835.7 cm−1, respectively. The datasets consist of 54 days between September 2003 and March 2004. This period covers the peak and decline of the southern hemispheric biomass burning period and some months thereafter. HCN is a nearly unambiguous tracer of biomass burning with an assumed tropospheric lifetime of several months. Indeed, the most significant feature in the MIPAS HCN dataset is an upper tropospheric plume of enhanced values caused by southern hemispheric biomass burning, which in September and October 2003 extended from tropical South America over Africa, Australia to the Southern Pacific. The spatial extent of this plume agrees well with the MOPITT CO distribution of September 2003. Further there is good agreement with the shapes and mixing ratios of the southern hemispheric HCN and C2H6 fields measured by the ACE experiment between September and November 2005. The MIPAS HCN plume extended from the lowermost observation height of 8 km up to about 16 km altitude, with maximum values of 500–600 pptv in October 2003. It was still clearly visible in December 2003, but had strongly decreased by March 2004, confirming the assumed tropospheric lifetime. The main sources of C2H6 are production and transmission of fossil fuels, followed by biofuel use and biomass burning. The C2H6 distribution also clearly reflected the southern hemispheric biomass burning plume and its seasonal variation, with maximum amounts of 600–700 pptv. Generally there was good spatial overlap between the southern hemispheric distributions of both pollution tracers, except for the region between Peru and the mid-Pacific. Here C2H6was considerably enhanced, whereas the HCN amounts were low. Backward trajectory calculations suggested that industrial pollution was responsible

  3. Large-scale upper tropospheric pollution observed by MIPAS HCN and C2H6 global distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glatthor, N.; von Clarmann, T.; Stiller, G. P.; Funke, B.; Koukouli, M. E.; Fischer, H.; Grabowski, U.; Höpfner, M.; Kellmann, S.; Linden, A.

    2009-12-01

    We present global upper tropospheric HCN and C2H6 amounts derived from MIPAS/ENVISAT limb emission spectra. HCN and C2H6 are retrieved in the spectral regions 715.5-782.7 cm-1 and 811.5-835.7 cm-1, respectively. The datasets consist of 54 days between September 2003 and March 2004. This period covers the peak and decline of the southern hemispheric biomass burning period and some months thereafter. HCN is a nearly unambiguous tracer of biomass burning with an assumed tropospheric lifetime of several months. Indeed, the most significant feature in the MIPAS HCN dataset is an upper tropospheric plume of enhanced values caused by southern hemispheric biomass burning, which in September and October 2003 extended from tropical South America over Africa, Australia to the Southern Pacific. The spatial extent of this plume agrees well with the MOPITT CO distribution of September 2003. Further there is good agreement with the shapes and mixing ratios of the southern hemispheric HCN and C2H6 fields measured by the ACE experiment between September and November 2005. The MIPAS HCN plume extended from the lowermost observation height of 8 km up to about 16 km altitude, with maximum values of 500-600 pptv in October 2003. It was still clearly visible in December 2003, but had strongly decreased by March 2004, confirming the assumed tropospheric lifetime. The main sources of C2H6 are production and transmission of fossil fuels, followed by biofuel use and biomass burning. The C2H6 distribution also clearly reflected the southern hemispheric biomass burning plume and its seasonal variation, with maximum amounts of 600-700 pptv. Generally there was good spatial overlap between the southern hemispheric distributions of both pollution tracers, except for the region between Peru and the mid-Pacific. Here C2H6was considerably enhanced, whereas the HCN amounts were low. Backward trajectory calculations suggested that industrial pollution was responsible for the elevated C2H6

  4. Serial Cognition and Personality in Macaques

    OpenAIRE

    Altschul, Drew M.; Herbert S Terrace; Alexander Weiss

    2016-01-01

    We examined the associations between serial cognition and personality in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). Nine macaques were tested on a simultaneous chaining task to assess their cognitive abilities. They were also rated for personality traits and scored according to a previously extracted six component structure derived from free-ranging rhesus macaques. Friendliness and Openness were positively associated with good performance on three measures of accuracy on the serial learning task: Pro...

  5. Airborne measurements of CO2, CH4 and HCN in boreal biomass burning plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea, Sebastian J.; Bauguitte, Stephane; Muller, Jennifer B. A.; Le Breton, Michael; Archibald, Alex; Gallagher, Martin W.; Allen, Grant; Percival, Carl J.

    2013-04-01

    Biomass burning plays an important role in the budgets of a variety of atmospheric trace gases and particles. For example, fires in boreal Russia have been linked with large growths in the global concentrations of trace gases such as CO2, CH4 and CO (Langenfelds et al., 2002; Simpson et al., 2006). High resolution airborne measurements of CO2, CH4 and HCN were made over Eastern Canada onboard the UK Atmospheric Research Aircraft FAAM BAe-146 from 12 July to 4 August 2011. These observations were made as part of the BORTAS project (Quantifying the impact of BOReal forest fires on Tropospheric oxidants over the Atlantic using Aircraft and Satellites). Flights were aimed at transecting and sampling the outflow from the commonly occurring North American boreal forest fires during the summer months and to investigate and identify the chemical composition and evolution of these plumes. CO2 and CH4 dry air mole fractions were determined using an adapted system based on a Fast Greenhouse Gas Analyser (FGGA, Model RMT-200) from Los Gatos Research Inc, which uses the cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy technique. In-flight calibrations revealed a mean accuracy of 0.57 ppmv and 2.31 ppbv for 1 Hz observations of CO2 and CH4, respectively, during the BORTAS project. During these flights a number of fresh and photochemically-aged plumes were identified using simultaneous HCN measurements. HCN is a distinctive and useful marker for forest fire emissions and it was detected using chemical ionisation mass spectrometry (CIMS). In the freshest plumes, strong relationships were found between CH4, CO2 and other tracers for biomass burning. From this we were able to estimate that 8.5 ± 0.9 g of CH4 and 1512 ± 185 g of CO2 were released into the atmosphere per kg of dry matter burnt. These emission factors are in good agreement with estimates from previous studies and can be used to calculate budgets for the region. However for aged plumes the correlations between CH4 and other

  6. Ultra-high-speed optical signal processing of serial data signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Anders; Mulvad, Hans Christian Hansen; Palushani, Evarist

    2012-01-01

    To ensure that ultra high-speed serial data signals can be utilised in future optical communication networks, it is indispensable to have all-optical signal processing elements at our disposal. In this paper, the most recent advances in our use of non-linear materials incorporated in different...... function blocks for high-speed signal processing are reviewed....

  7. In-Situ Measurements of HCN and CH3CN in the Pacific Troposphere: Sources, Sinks, and Comparisons with Spectroscopic Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Hanwant B.; Salas, L.; Herlth, D.; Czech, E.; Viezee, W.; Li, Q.; Jacob, D. J.; Blake, D.; Sachse, G.; Harward, C. N.; hide

    2002-01-01

    We report the first in-situ measurements of hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and acetonitrile (CH3CN) from the Pacific troposphere (0-12 km) obtained during the NASA/Trace-P mission (Feb.-April, 2001). Mean HCN and CH3CN mixing ratios of 243 (+/-118) ppt and 149 (+/-56) ppt respectively, were measured. The in-situ observations correspond to a total HCN column of 4.4-4.9 x 10(exp 15) molec. cm(exp -2) and a CH3CN column of 2.8-3.0 x 10(exp 15) molec. cm(exp -2). This HCN column is in good agreement with available spectroscopic observations. The atmospheric concentrations of HCN and CH3CN were greatly influenced by outflow of pollution from Asia. There is a linear relationship between the mixing ratios of HCN and CH3CN, and in turn these are well correlated with tracers of biomass combustion (e.g. CH3Cl, CO). Relative enhancements with respect to known tracers of biomass combustion within selected plumes in the free troposphere, and pollution episodes in the boundary layer allow an estimation of a global biomass burning source of 0.8+/-0.4 Tg (N)/y for HCN and 0.4+/-0.1 Tg (N)/y for CH3CN. In comparison, emissions from automobiles and industry are quite small (in the MBL (Marine Boundary Layer). Using, a simple box model, the observed gradients across the top of the MBL are used to derive an oceanic flux of 6.7 x 10(exp -15) g (N) cm(exp -2)/s for HCN and 4.8 x 10(exp -15) g (N) cm(exp -2)/s for CH3CN. An air-sea exchange model is used to conclude that this flux can be maintained if the oceans are under-saturated in HCN and CH3CN by 23% and 17%, respectively. It is inferred that oceanic loss is a dominant sink for these nitrites, and they deposit some 1.3 Tg (N) of nitrogen annually to the oceans. Assuming reaction with OH radicals and loss to the oceans as the major removal processes, a mean atmospheric residence time of 4.7 months for HCN and 5.1 months for CH3CN is calculated. A global budget analysis shows that the sources and sinks of HCN and CH3CN are roughly in balance

  8. First-principle study of structural, electronic, vibrational and magnetic properties of HCN adsorbed graphene doped with Cr, Mn and Fe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Li Bin, E-mail: slb0813@sohu.com; Wang, Yong Ping; Dong, Hai Kuan

    2015-02-28

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Cr, Mn and Fe doped graphene is more active to adsorb HCN molecule than pristine graphene. • The conductivity of Fe and Mn doped graphene hardly changes after adsorption HCN molecule. • The conductivity of Cr doped graphene can be affected significantly due to HCN adsorption. • The Cr, Mn and Fe may destroy the long range order in graphene. • Phonon density of states suggests that Cr doped graphene is stable. - Abstract: The adsorption energy, electronic structure, lattice vibration and magnetic properties of Cr, Mn and Fe doped graphene with and without HCN adsorption are investigated by the first principles based on density functional theory. The physisorption and chemisorption have been identified. In the paper, Cr-NG, Mn-NG and Fe-NG denote HCN adsorption on Cr, Mn and Fe doped graphene with N atom toward the adsorption site. It is found that the adsorption energy is −1.36 eV for Fe-NG, −0.60 eV for Mn-NG and −0.86 eV for Cr-NG. The Cr-NG will convert from half-metallic behavior to semiconductor after adsorbing HCN molecule, which indicates that the conductivity changes significantly. Phonon density of states (PDOS) shows that the long range order in graphene can be destroyed by doping Fe, Mn and Cr. The imaginary frequency mode in PDOS suggests that Fe and Mn doped graphene is unstable, while Cr doped graphene is stable. The electronic properties are sensitive toward adsorbing HCN, indicating that Cr doped graphene is a promising sensor for detecting HCN molecule. This study provides a useful basis for understanding of a wide variety of physical properties on graphene.

  9. The photolysis of NH3 in the presence of substituted acetylenes - A possible source of oligomers and HCN on Jupiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, James P.; Jacobson, Richard R.; Guillemin, Jean C.

    1992-01-01

    An NMR spectral study is presently conducted of NH3 photolysis in the presence of substituted acetylenes with NMR spectra and gas chromatography. Quantum yields and percentage conversions to products are reported. It is shown that acetylenic hydrocarbons generated during methane photolysis in Jupiter's stratosphere can react with radicals formed by NH3 photolysis to yield nonvolatile, yellow-brown polymers, alkylnitriles, and in due course, HCN, as observed on Jupiter.

  10. Broad ion beam serial section tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winiarski, B., E-mail: b.winiarski@manchester.ac.uk [School of Materials, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Materials Division, National Physical Laboratory, Teddington TW11 0LW (United Kingdom); Gholinia, A. [School of Materials, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Mingard, K.; Gee, M. [Materials Division, National Physical Laboratory, Teddington TW11 0LW (United Kingdom); Thompson, G.E.; Withers, P.J. [School of Materials, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

    2017-01-15

    Here we examine the potential of serial Broad Ion Beam (BIB) Ar{sup +} ion polishing as an advanced serial section tomography (SST) technique for destructive 3D material characterisation for collecting data from volumes with lateral dimensions significantly greater than 100 µm and potentially over millimetre sized areas. Further, the associated low level of damage introduced makes BIB milling very well suited to 3D EBSD acquisition with very high indexing rates. Block face serial sectioning data registration schemes usually assume that the data comprises a series of parallel, planar slices. We quantify the variations in slice thickness and parallelity which can arise when using BIB systems comparing Gatan PECS and Ilion BIB systems for large volume serial sectioning and 3D-EBSD data acquisition. As a test case we obtain 3D morphologies and grain orientations for both phases of a WC-11%wt. Co hardmetal. In our case we have carried out the data acquisition through the manual transfer of the sample between SEM and BIB which is a very slow process (1–2 slice per day), however forthcoming automated procedures will markedly speed up the process. We show that irrespective of the sectioning method raw large area 2D-EBSD maps are affected by distortions and artefacts which affect 3D-EBSD such that quantitative analyses and visualisation can give misleading and erroneous results. Addressing and correcting these issues will offer real benefits when large area (millimetre sized) automated serial section BIBS is developed. - Highlights: • In this work we examine how microstructures can be reconstructed in three-dimensions (3D) by serial argon broad ion beam (BIB) milling, enabling much larger volumes (>250×250×100µm{sup 3}) to be acquired than by serial section focused ion beam-scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM). • The associated low level of damage introduced makes BIB milling very well suited to 3D-EBSD acquisition with very high indexing rates. • We explore

  11. In-Situ Measurements of HCN and CH3CN In the Pacific Troposphere: Sources, Sinks, and Comparisons with Satellite Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Hanwant B.; Salas, L.; Herlth, D.; Viezee, W.; Jacob, D.; Blake, D.; Sachse, G.; Hipskind, R. Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A new capillary gas chromatographic method using a Reduction Gas Detector was developed to measure HCN and CH3CN in the remote troposphere. This instrumental configuration was deployed for the very first time in the Trace-P field mission performed during the spring of 2001. The NASA DC-8 aircraft afforded an opportunity to measure HCN and CH3CN in polluted and pristine environments over the Pacific to a maximum altitude of 12 km. These are some of the first in situ measurements of the distribution of HCN and CH3CN over the Pacific. Large background concentrations of both nitriles were found to be present and significant variability was observed. The abundance of HCN and CH3CN was strongly impacted by outflow of pollution from Asia. In general there appeared to be a direct but nonlinear relationship between the mixing ratios of HCN and CH3CN. The vertical structure of these chemicals shows direct evidence of the presence of a significant oceanic sink. These observations will be compared with the column content HCN data from satellites and other available measurements. A large body of data have been collected and are being analyzed, both statistically and with the help of models, to better understand the sources and sinks of these nitriles. These results will be presented.

  12. [The serial murder: a few theoretical perspectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leistedt, S; Linkowski, P

    2011-01-01

    Despite numbers of publications and effort to try to establish the definition, the classification, the epidemiology, the clinical aspects and the psychopathology of serial killers, a universal consensus seems to say the least. Crime, though reduced in some countries, appears to impact more and more consistent worldwide, generating controversial ideas and a multitude of possible explanations. The serial killer usually presents as a caucasian man, aged between 20 and 40 years, often embedded socially and in his family, but with serious psychiatric, personal and especially family history. Usually acting alone, the serial killer plans a crime well in advance, but sometimes within the scope of impulsivity for a minority, the victim not being previously selected. In the latter case, an actual mental illness like psychosis is found. It is clear from numerous psychopathological studies conducted so far that most serial killers are defined as psychopathic sexual sadists, whose childhood was difficult, if not flouted, punctuated by physical and psychological violence situations. In addition, pervasive fantasies combined with thoughts of death, sex and violence are as much in common with the original acts of which they are the instigators. Beyond a relentless media that is constantly watering the public with stories and pictures depicting them as such, serial killers remain an enigma. We can therefore attempt to answer the various questions raised by this phenomenon, the way these people operate and how we can curb the rise, thanks to the neurobiological and neurophysiological approaches that science offers us.

  13. The HCN4 channel mutation D553N associated with bradycardia has a C-linker mediated gating defect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netter, Michael F; Zuzarte, Marylou; Schlichthörl, Günter; Klöcker, Nikolaj; Decher, Niels

    2012-01-01

    The D553N mutation located in the C-linker of the cardiac pacemaker channel HCN4 is thought to cause sino-atrial dysfunction via a pronounced dominant-negative trafficking defect. Since HCN4 mutations usually have a minor defect in channel gating, it was our aim to further characterize the disease causing mechanism of D553N. Fluorescence microscopy, FACS, TEVC and patch-clamp recordings were performed to characterize D553N. Surprisingly, we found that D553N channels reach the plasma membrane and have no apparent trafficking defect. Co-expression of D553N with HCN4 also revealed no dominant-negative effect on wild-type channels. Consistent with the normal cell surface expression of D553N, it was possible to extensively characterize D553N mutants in Xenopus oocytes and mammalian cells. D553N channels generate currents with reduced amplitude, while the kinetics of activation and deactivation are not altered. While the regulation of D553N by tyrosine kinases is normal, we observed a change in the cAMP regulation which however cannot account for the strong loss-of-function of the mutant. The pronounced current reduction and the regular surface expression indicate a major gating defect of the C-linker gate. We hypothesize that the D553N mutation stabilizes a previously reported salt bridge important for the gating of the channel. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. CN radical hydrogenation from solid H2 reactions, an alternative way of HCN formation in the interstellar medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borget, Fabien; Müller, Sandra; Grote, Dirk; Theulé, Patrice; Vinogradoff, Vassilissa; Chiavassa, Thierry; Sander, Wolfram

    2017-02-01

    Context. Molecular hydrogen (H2) is the most abundant molecule of the interstellar medium (ISM) in gas phase and it has been assumed to exist in solid state or as coating on grains. Aims: Our goal is to show that solid H2 can act as a hydrogenation agent, reacting with CN radicals to form HCN. Methods: In a H2 matrix, we studied the hydrogenation of the CN radical generated from the vacuum ultraviolet photolysis (VUV-photolysis) of C2N2 at 3.8 K. We modified the wavelengths and the host gas in order to be sure that CN radicals can abstract H from H2 molecules. Results: HCN monomers, dimers, and oligomers have been characterised by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). H2CN as well as CN radicals have also been clearly observed during the photolysis performed at 3.8 K. Conclusions: H2 is a hydrogenation reagent towards CN radicals producing HCN. This type of reaction should be taken into account for the reactivity at low temperature in contaminated H2 ice macro-particles (CHIMPs), H2 flakes or in the first sublayers of grains where solid H2 has accumulated.

  15. Measurements of hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and acetylene (C2H2) from the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duflot, V.; Hurtmans, D.; Clarisse, L.; R'honi, Y.; Vigouroux, C.; De Mazière, M.; Mahieu, E.; Servais, C.; Clerbaux, C.; Coheur, P.-F.

    2013-04-01

    Hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and acetylene (C2H2) are ubiquitous atmospheric trace gases with medium lifetime, which are frequently used as indicators of combustion sources and as tracers for atmospheric transport and chemistry. Because of their weak infrared absorption, overlapped by the CO2 Q branch near 720 cm-1, nadir sounders have up to now failed to measure these gases routinely. Taking into account CO2 line mixing, we provide for the first time extensive measurements of HCN and C2H2 total columns at Reunion Island (21° S, 55° E) and Jungfraujoch (46° N, 8° E) in 2009-2010 using observations from the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI). A first order comparison with local ground-based Fourier transform infraRed (FTIR) measurements has been carried out allowing tests of seasonal consistency which is reasonably captured, except for HCN at Jungfraujoch. The IASI data shows a greater tendency to high C2H2 values. We also examine a nonspecific biomass burning plume over austral Africa and show that the emission ratios with respect to CO agree with previously reported values.

  16. Measurements of hydrogen cyanide (HCN and acetylene (C2H2 from the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Duflot

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen cyanide (HCN and acetylene (C2H2 are ubiquitous atmospheric trace gases with medium lifetime, which are frequently used as indicators of combustion sources and as tracers for atmospheric transport and chemistry. Because of their weak infrared absorption, overlapped by the CO2 Q branch near 720 cm−1, nadir sounders have up to now failed to measure these gases routinely. Taking into account CO2 line mixing, we provide for the first time extensive measurements of HCN and C2H2 total columns at Reunion Island (21° S, 55° E and Jungfraujoch (46° N, 8° E in 2009–2010 using observations from the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI. A first order comparison with local ground-based Fourier transform infraRed (FTIR measurements has been carried out allowing tests of seasonal consistency which is reasonably captured, except for HCN at Jungfraujoch. The IASI data shows a greater tendency to high C2H2 values. We also examine a nonspecific biomass burning plume over austral Africa and show that the emission ratios with respect to CO agree with previously reported values.

  17. Adapting Parcellation Schemes to Study Fetal Brain Connectivity in Serial Imaging Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Xi; Wilm, Jakob; Seshamani, Sharmishtaa

    2013-01-01

    A crucial step in studying brain connectivity is the definition of the Regions Of Interest (ROI's) which are considered as nodes of a network graph. These ROI's identified in structural imaging reflect consistent functional regions in the anatomies being compared. However in serial studies...... demonstrate that the fetal brain network exhibits small-world characteristics and a pattern of increased cluster coefficients and decreased global efficiency. These findings may provide a route to creating a new biomarker for healthy fetal brain development....

  18. Stochastic modeling of a serial killer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simkin, M V; Roychowdhury, V P

    2014-08-21

    We analyze the time pattern of the activity of a serial killer, who during 12 years had murdered 53 people. The plot of the cumulative number of murders as a function of time is of "Devil's staircase" type. The distribution of the intervals between murders (step length) follows a power law with the exponent of 1.4. We propose a model according to which the serial killer commits murders when neuronal excitation in his brain exceeds certain threshold. We model this neural activity as a branching process, which in turn is approximated by a random walk. As the distribution of the random walk return times is a power law with the exponent 1.5, the distribution of the inter-murder intervals is thus explained. We illustrate analytical results by numerical simulation. Time pattern activity data from two other serial killers further substantiate our analysis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Stochastic modeling of a serial killer

    OpenAIRE

    Simkin, M. V.; Roychowdhury, V. P.

    2014-01-01

    We analyze the time pattern of the activity of a serial killer, who during twelve years had murdered 53 people. The plot of the cumulative number of murders as a function of time is of "Devil's staircase" type. The distribution of the intervals between murders (step length) follows a power law with the exponent of 1.4. We propose a model according to which the serial killer commits murders when neuronal excitation in his brain exceeds certain threshold. We model this neural activity as a bran...

  20. A IMPORTÂNCIA DA IMPLANTAÇÃO DE UMA ADMINISTRAÇÃO VOLTADA PARA AQUISIÇÃO DE PERIÓDICOS EM BIBLIOTECAS EM SISTEMAS DE REDETHE IMPORTANCE OF AN ADMINISTRACION DIRECTED TOWARD SERIALS ACQUISITION IN LIBRARIES' NETWORKED SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaina Leal

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A presente pesquisa visa conceituar sistemas de rede de bibliotecas, bem como, citar alguns exemplos de bibliotecas que trabalham em rede e explicitar a função da aquisição como uma das funções biblioteconômicas. Este estudo propõe-se ainda a explicar a aquisição planificada como uma solução para problemas financeiros, de duplicidade, tempo, recursos humanos, incompatibilidade. Assim como, aborda a importância e os benefícios da implantação de uma administração responsável pela aquisição de bibliotecas que trabalham em sistemas de rede. Este trabalho foca-se na implantação dessa administração na aquisição de material periódico das bibliotecas. Palavras-chave Administração de bibliotecas; Rede de bibliotecas; Bibliotecas - aquisição planificada Abstract The present research aims to give the conceptual meaning of libraries network systems, as well as to cite some examples of libraries that work in net. It also explicit the acquisition as one of the librarianship functions. Besides, this study proposes to explain the planned acquisition as a solution for problems such as: financial, duplication, time, human resources and incompatibility. It also approaches the importance and the benefits of the implantation of a responsible administration for the acquisition of libraries that work in net systems. This work focuses mainly on the implantation of this kind of administration for the acquisition of libraries’ serials materials. Keywords Libraries administration; Libraries network; Libraries - planned acquisition

  1. The eyeball killer: serial killings with postmortem globe enucleation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, Julie; Ross, Karen F; Barnard, Jeffrey J; Peacock, Elizabeth; Linch, Charles A; Prahlow, Joseph A

    2015-05-01

    Although serial killings are relatively rare, they can be the cause of a great deal of anxiety while the killer remains at-large. Despite the fact that the motivations for serial killings are typically quite complex, the psychological analysis of a serial killer can provide valuable insight into how and why certain individuals become serial killers. Such knowledge may be instrumental in preventing future serial killings or in solving ongoing cases. In certain serial killings, the various incidents have a variety of similar features. Identification of similarities between separate homicidal incidents is necessary to recognize that a serial killer may be actively killing. In this report, the authors present a group of serial killings involving three prostitutes who were shot to death over a 3-month period. Scene and autopsy findings, including the unusual finding of postmortem enucleation of the eyes, led investigators to recognize the serial nature of the homicides. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  2. [Serial angiofluorography in the operation theater].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, H J

    1981-03-01

    Using a 33 cm or 36 cm image amplifier in conjunction with a 100 mm camera, fluoroangiography can be employed as a routine method in theatre too. Serial photography can also be taken in conjunction with an electronic programmes selector while saving film and keeping the dosage as low as possible.

  3. A Serials Holdings List Using UNIX Refer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, Judith I.; Boyce, Bert R.

    1987-01-01

    Describes the production of an automated union list of serials holdings at minimal cost by a small consortium of state government libraries in Louisiana. Use of the UNIX Refer system without any modifications for data entry and production is described. (EM)

  4. Serial Position Effects in Nonword Repetition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, P.; Lipinski, J.; Abbs, B.; Lin, P.H.

    2005-01-01

    A growing body of research has emphasized the linkage between performance in immediate serial recall of lists, nonword repetition, and word learning. Recently, it has been reported that primacy and recency effects are obtained in repetition of individual syllables within nonwords (Gupta, in press). Five experiments examined whether such…

  5. Advances in Serials Management. Volume 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepfer, Cindy, Ed.; Gammon, Julia, Ed.; Malinowski, Teresa, Ed.

    In order to further discussion and support constructive change, this volume presents the following eight papers on various dimensions of serials management: (1) "CD-ROMs, Surveys, and Sales: The OSA [Optical Society of America] Experience" (Frank E. Harris and Alan Tourtlotte); (2) "Management and Integration of Electronic Journals into the…

  6. Recalling visual serial order for verbal sequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Logie, R.H.; Saito, S.; Morita, A.; Varma, S.; Norris, D.

    2016-01-01

    We report three experiments in which participants performed written serial recall of visually presented verbal sequences with items varying in visual similarity. In Experiments 1 and 2 native speakers of Japanese recalled visually presented Japanese Kanji characters. In Experiment 3, native speakers

  7. Serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ruissen, Fred; Baas, Frank

    2007-01-01

    In 1995, serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) was developed as a versatile tool for gene expression studies. SAGE technology does not require pre-existing knowledge of the genome that is being examined and therefore SAGE can be applied to many different model systems. In this chapter, the SAGE

  8. Maturation and processing of the amyloid precursor protein is regulated by the potassium/sodium hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channel 2 (HCN2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frykman, Susanne; Inoue, Mitsuhiro; Ikeda, Atsushi; Teranishi, Yasuhiro; Kihara, Takahiro; Lundgren, Jolanta L; Yamamoto, Natsuko G; Bogdanovic, Nenad; Winblad, Bengt; Schedin-Weiss, Sophia; Tjernberg, Lars O

    2017-01-29

    The toxic amyloid β-peptide (Aβ) is a key player in Alzheimer Disease (AD) pathogenesis and selective inhibition of the production of this peptide is sought for. Aβ is produced by the sequential cleavage of the Aβ precursor protein (APP) by β-secretase (to yield APP-C-terminal fragment β (APP-CTFβ) and soluble APPβ (sAPPβ)) and γ-secretase (to yield Aβ). We reasoned that proteins that associate with γ-secretase are likely to regulate Aβ production and to be targets of pharmaceutical interventions and therefore performed a pull-down assay to screen for such proteins in rat brain. Interestingly, one of the purified proteins was potassium/sodium hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channel 2 (HCN2), which has been shown to be involved in epilepsy. We found that silencing of HCN2 resulted in decreased secreted Aβ levels. To further investigate the mechanism behind this reduction, we also determined the levels of full-length APP, sAPP and APP-CTF species after silencing of HCN2. A marked reduction in sAPP and APP-CTF, as well as glycosylated APP levels was detected. Decreased Aβ, sAPP and APP-CTF levels were also detected after treatment with the HCN2 inhibitor ZD7288. These results indicate that the effect on Aβ levels after HCN2 silencing or inhibition is due to altered APP maturation or processing by β-secretase rather than a direct effect on γ-secretase. However, HCN2 and γ-secretase were found to be in close proximity, as evident by proximity ligation assay and immunoprecipitation. In summary, our results indicate that silencing or inhibition of HCN2 affects APP processing and thereby could serve as a potential treatment strategy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Reinterpreting the infrared spectrum of H + HCN: Methylene amidogen radical and its coproducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiens, Avery E; Copan, Andreas V; Rossomme, Elliot C; Aroeira, Gustavo J R; Bernstein, Olivia M; Agarwal, Jay; Schaefer, Henry F

    2018-01-07

    The methylene amidogen radical (H2CN) plays a role in high-energy material combustion and extraterresterial atmospheres. Recent theoretical work has struggled to match experimental assignments for its CN and antisymmetric CH2 stretching frequencies (ν2 and ν5), which were reported to occur at 1725 and 3103 cm-1. Herein, we compute the vibrational energy levels of this molecule by extrapolating quadruples-level coupled-cluster theory to the complete basis limit and adding corrections for vibrational anharmonicity. This level of theory predicts that ν2 and ν5 should occur at 1646 and 2892 cm-1, at odds with the experimental assignments. To investigate the possibility of defects in our theoretical treatment, we analyze the sensitivity of our approach to each of its contributing approximations. Our analysis suggests that the observed deviation from experiment is too large to be explained as an accumulation of errors, leading us to conclude that these transitions were misassigned. To help resolve this discrepancy, we investigate possible byproducts of the H + HCN reaction, which was the source of H2CN in the original experiment. In particular, we predict vibrational spectra for cis-HCNH, trans-HCNH, and H2CNH using high-level coupled-cluster computations. Based on these results, we reassign the transition at 1725 cm-1 to ν3 of trans-HCNH, yielding excellent agreement. Supporting this identification, we assign a known contaminant peak at 886 cm-1 to ν5 of the same conformer. Our computations suggest that the peak observed at 3103 cm-1, however, does not belong to any of the aforementioned species. To facilitate further investigation, we use structure and bonding arguments to narrow the range of possible candidates. These arguments lead us to tentatively put forth formaldazine [(H2CN)2] as a suggestion for further study, which we support with additional computations.

  10. Passivation of Si-based structures in HCN and KCN solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pincik, Emil, E-mail: emil.pincik@savba.sk [Institute of Physics SAS, Dubravska cesta 9, 845 11 Bratislava (Slovakia); Kobayashi, Hikaru [ISIR of Osaka University, and CREST, Japan Science and Technology Organization, 8-1 Mihogaoka, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Rusnak, Jaroslav [Institute of Physics SAS, Dubravska cesta 9, 845 11 Bratislava (Slovakia); Takahashi, Masao [ISIR of Osaka University, and CREST, Japan Science and Technology Organization, 8-1 Mihogaoka, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Mikula, Milan [Faculty of Chemical and Food Technology of SUT, Radlinskeho 9, 812 37 Bratislava (Slovakia); Kim, Woo Byoung [ISIR of Osaka University, and CREST, Japan Science and Technology Organization, 8-1 Mihogaoka, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Kucera, Michal [Institute of Electrical Engineering SAS, Dubravska cesta 9, 841 04 Bratislava (Slovakia); Brunner, Robert [Institute of Physics SAS, Dubravska cesta 9, 845 11 Bratislava (Slovakia); Jurecka, Stanislav [DEF FEE University of Zilina, kpt. Nalepku 1390, 03101 Liptovsky Mikulas (Slovakia)

    2012-08-15

    The contribution deals with passivation of surfaces of c-Si and 6H-SiC by formation of very thin SiO{sub 2} films in boiling HNO{sub 3} solutions and by passivation of a-Si based double and triple layer structures deposited on Corning glass and c-Si by KCN solutions. The structures are investigated by spectroscopic ellipsometry, charge version of DLTS, C-V, FTIR-DRIFT, and by photoluminescence measuremets at 6 K. Newly developed 2nd generation of MOS structures prepared on c-Si with an approx. 3 nm SiO{sub 2} layer gives typical density of interface defect states of 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10} eV{sup -1} cm{sup -2}. Real part of complex refractive index of approx. 3 nm thick SiO{sub 2} layers is about 1.75. Application of HCN solutions to structure approx. 3 nm SiO{sub 2}/Si (applied as the last technological step) leads to remarkable lowering of absorbance in wavelength region 4000 cm{sup -1}-2500 cm{sup -1}. This result indicates a decrease of number of non- radiation transitions in the surface region of oxide/Si structures. Such structures have also the lowest density of interface defect states (observed by Q-DLTS). Application of boiling KCN solutions considerably increases amplitudes of photoluminescence signals coming from different double and triple a-Si based layers deposited on Corning glass. We relate this effect predominantly with reduction of non-radiation transitions in excited region of amorphous structures - with passivation of corresponding defect states in a-Si structures in boiling KCN solutions.

  11. Recalling visual serial order for verbal sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logie, Robert H; Saito, Satoru; Morita, Aiko; Varma, Samarth; Norris, Dennis

    2016-05-01

    We report three experiments in which participants performed written serial recall of visually presented verbal sequences with items varying in visual similarity. In Experiments 1 and 2 native speakers of Japanese recalled visually presented Japanese Kanji characters. In Experiment 3, native speakers of English recalled visually presented words. In all experiments, items varied in visual similarity and were controlled for phonological similarity. For Kanji and for English, performance on lists comprising visually similar items was overall poorer than for lists of visually distinct items across all serial positions. For mixed lists in which visually similar and visually distinct items alternated through the list, a clear "zig-zag" pattern appeared with better recall of the visually distinct items than for visually similar items. This is the first time that this zig-zag pattern has been shown for manipulations of visual similarity in serial-ordered recall. These data provide new evidence that retaining a sequence of visual codes relies on similar principles to those that govern the retention of a sequence of phonological codes. We further illustrate this by demonstrating that the data patterns can be readily simulated by at least one computational model of serial-ordered recall, the Primacy model (Page and Norris, Psychological Review, 105(4), 761-81, 1998). Together with previous evidence from neuropsychological studies and experimental studies with healthy adults, these results are interpreted as consistent with two domain-specific, limited-capacity, temporary memory systems for phonological material and for visual material, respectively, each of which uses similar processes that have evolved to be optimal for retention of serial order.

  12. Serial position markers in space: visuospatial priming of serial order working memory retrieval.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya De Belder

    Full Text Available Most general theories on serial order working memory (WM assume the existence of position markers that are bound to the to-be-remembered items to keep track of the serial order. So far, the exact cognitive/neural characteristics of these markers have remained largely underspecified, while direct empirical evidence for their existence is mostly lacking. In the current study we demonstrate that retrieval from verbal serial order WM can be facilitated or hindered by spatial cuing: begin elements of a verbal WM sequence are retrieved faster after cuing the left side of space, while end elements are retrieved faster after cuing the right side of space. In direct complement to our previous work--where we showed the reversed impact of WM retrieval on spatial processing--we argue that the current findings provide us with a crucial piece of evidence suggesting a direct and functional involvement of space in verbal serial order WM. We outline the idea that serial order in verbal WM is coded within a spatial coordinate system with spatial attention being involved when searching through WM, and we discuss how this account can explain several hallmark observations related to serial order WM.

  13. Magnetic Particle Recovery of Serial Numbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Utrata; M.J. Johnson

    2003-10-01

    One method used by crime labs to recover obliterated serial numbers in steel firearms (ferrous samples) is the magnetic particle technique. The use of this method is predicated on the detection of metal deformation present under stamped serial numbers after the visible stamp has been removed. Equipment specialized for this detection is not used in these attempts; a portable magnetic yoke used typically for flaw detection on large weldments or structures, along with dry visible magnetic powders, have been the tools of criminologists working in this area. Crime labs have reported low success rates using these tools [1, 2]. This is not surprising when one considers that little formal development has apparently evolved for use in such investigations since the publication of seminal work in this area some time ago [3]. The aim of this project is to investigate specific aspects of magnetic particle inspection for serial number recovery. This includes attempts to understand the magnetic characteristics of different steels that affect their performance in the test, such as varying results for carbon steels and alloy steels after different thermal and forming treatments. Also investigated are the effects of the nature of the sample magnetization (AC, rectified DC, and true DC) and the use of various detection media, such as visible powders and fluorescent sprays, on test outcome. Additionally, some aspects of surface preparation of firearm samples prior to number recovery were included in this work. The scope of this report includes a brief overview of the magnetic particle inspection method in general and its applications to forensic serial number recovery. This is followed by a description of how such investigations were simulated on lab samples, including a look at how the microstructure of a given steel will affect its performance in the test. Investigations into the serial number recovery in a series of ferromagnetic firearms (both steel and certain stainless steels

  14. Planning serials cancellations and cooperative collection development in the health sciences: methodology and background information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourne, C P

    1975-10-01

    In an era of steady-state budgets many research and academic libraries must cancel a significant number of current serials to maintain acquisitions of monographs. Thus paper reviews several techniques that have been used or that are of potential use in a rational selection of titles for cancellation. The context of the proposed methodology involves a network of libraries rather than an individual library. The methodology was tested with specific health sciences serial titles held by University of California libraries and resource libraries in NLM Region XI. As a test for the proposed methodology, background data were collected on 600 current foreign language serial titles included in SERLINE and held by at least one of the libraries in the networks of interest. Price, major secondary service coverage with productivity/impact factors, extent of holdings, and average number of recorded circulations per year in several of the libraries were recorded for each title. With the use of several different rules, estimates were made of the subscription savings that might be realized. It seems feasible to extend the same methodology to other groups of serial titles.

  15. A study of serial ranks via random graphs

    OpenAIRE

    Haeusler, Erich; Mason, David M.; Turova, Tatyana S.

    2000-01-01

    Serial ranks have long been used as the basis for nonparametric tests of independence in time series analysis. We shall study the underlying graph structure of serial ranks. This will lead us to a basic martingale which will allow us to construct a weighted approximation to a serial rank process. To show the applicability of this approximation, we will use it to prove two very general central limit theorems for Wald-Wolfowitz-type serial rank statistics.

  16. Output order in immediate serial recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Lydia; Ward, Geoff

    2007-07-01

    In two experiments, we examined the effect of output order in immediate serial recall (ISR). In Experiment 1, three groups of participants saw lists of eight words and wrote down the words in the rows corresponding to their serial positions in an eight-row response grid. One group was precued to respond in forward order, a second group was precued to respond in any order, and a third group was postcued for response order. There were significant effects of output order, but not of cue type. Relative to the forward output order, the free output order led to enhanced recency and diminished primacy, with superior performance for words output early in recall. These results were replicated in Experiment 2 using six-item lists, which further suggests that output order plays an important role in the primacy effect in ISR and that the recency items are most highly accessible at recall.

  17. [Personality disorders, psychopathy and serial killers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morana, Hilda C P; Stone, Michael H; Abdalla-Filho, Elias

    2006-10-01

    To illustrate the basic characteristics of several specific personality disorders, focusing mainly in antisocial personality disorder. The differences between antisocial personality disorder and psychopathy are highlighted. Serial killers and its psychopathic aspects are also discussed. A bibliographic review was completed in order to outline convergences and divergences among different authors about this controversial issue, especially those concerning the possibility of treatment. While anti-social personality disorder is a medical diagnosis, the term "psychopathy" (which belongs to the sphere of forensic psychiatry) may be understood as a "legal diagnosis". It is not still possible to identify an effective treatment for serial killers. Personality disorders, especially of the antisocial type, still represent a formidable challenge to forensic psychiatry today. Questions as yet unanswered include the best and most humane place for patients with this condition and the nature of a standardised treatment recommendation.

  18. A Survey of Electronic Serials Managers Reveals Diversity in Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Costello

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A Review of: Branscome, B. A. (2013. Management of electronic serials in academic libraries: The results of an online survey. Serials Review, 39(4, 216-226. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.serrev.2013.10.004 Abstract Objective – To examine industry standards for the management of electronic serials and measure the adoption of electronic serials over print. Design – Survey questionnaire. Setting – Email lists aimed at academic librarians working in serials management. Subjects – 195 self-selected subscribers to serials email lists. Methods – The author created a 20 question survey that consisted primarily of closed-ended questions pertaining to the collection demographics, staff, budget, and tools of serials management groups in academic libraries. The survey was conducted via Survey Monkey and examined using the analytical features of the tool. Participants remained anonymous and the survey questions did not ask them to reveal identifiable information about their libraries. Main Results – Collection demographics questions revealed that 78% of surveyed librarians estimated that print-only collections represented 40% or fewer of their serials holdings. The author observed diversity in the factors that influence print to digital transitions in academic libraries. However 71.5% of participants indicated that publisher technology support like IP authentication was required before adopting digital subscriptions. A lack of standardization also marked serials workflows, department responsibilities, and department titles. The author did not find a correlation between serials budget and the enrollment size of the institution. Participants reported that they used tools from popular serials management vendors like Serials Solutions, Innovative Interfaces, EBSCO, and Ex Libris, but most indicated that they used more than one tool for serials management. Participants specified 52 unique serials management products used in their libraries. Conclusion

  19. [Development and Application of a Performance Prediction Model for Home Care Nursing Based on a Balanced Scorecard using the Bayesian Belief Network].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Wonjung; Seomun, Gyeongae

    2015-06-01

    This study was conducted to develop key performance indicators (KPIs) for home care nursing (HCN) based on a balanced scorecard, and to construct a performance prediction model of strategic objectives using the Bayesian Belief Network (BBN). This methodological study included four steps: establishment of KPIs, performance prediction modeling, development of a performance prediction model using BBN, and simulation of a suggested nursing management strategy. An HCN expert group and a staff group participated. The content validity index was analyzed using STATA 13.0, and BBN was analyzed using HUGIN 8.0. We generated a list of KPIs composed of 4 perspectives, 10 strategic objectives, and 31 KPIs. In the validity test of the performance prediction model, the factor with the greatest variance for increasing profit was maximum cost reduction of HCN services. The factor with the smallest variance for increasing profit was a minimum image improvement for HCN. During sensitivity analysis, the probability of the expert group did not affect the sensitivity. Furthermore, simulation of a 10% image improvement predicted the most effective way to increase profit. KPIs of HCN can estimate financial and non-financial performance. The performance prediction model for HCN will be useful to improve performance.

  20. Lipidic phase membrane protein serial femtosecond crystallography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Linda C; Arnlund, David; White, Thomas A; Katona, Gergely; Deponte, Daniel P; Weierstall, Uwe; Doak, R Bruce; Shoeman, Robert L; Lomb, Lukas; Malmerberg, Erik; Davidsson, Jan; Nass, Karol; Liang, Mengning; Andreasson, Jakob; Aquila, Andrew; Bajt, Saša; Barthelmess, Miriam; Barty, Anton; Bogan, Michael J; Bostedt, Christoph; Bozek, John D; Caleman, Carl; Coffee, Ryan; Coppola, Nicola; Ekeberg, Tomas; Epp, Sascha W; Erk, Benjamin; Fleckenstein, Holger; Foucar, Lutz; Graafsma, Heinz; Gumprecht, Lars; Hajdu, Janos; Hampton, Christina Y; Hartmann, Robert; Hartmann, Andreas; Hauser, Günter; Hirsemann, Helmut; Holl, Peter; Hunter, Mark S; Kassemeyer, Stephan; Kimmel, Nils; Kirian, Richard A; Maia, Filipe R N C; Marchesini, Stefano; Martin, Andrew V; Reich, Christian; Rolles, Daniel; Rudek, Benedikt; Rudenko, Artem; Schlichting, Ilme; Schulz, Joachim; Seibert, M Marvin; Sierra, Raymond G; Soltau, Heike; Starodub, Dmitri; Stellato, Francesco; Stern, Stephan; Strüder, Lothar; Timneanu, Nicusor; Ullrich, Joachim; Wahlgren, Weixiao Y; Wang, Xiaoyu; Weidenspointner, Georg; Wunderer, Cornelia; Fromme, Petra; Chapman, Henry N; Spence, John C H; Neutze, Richard

    2012-01-29

    X-ray free electron laser (X-FEL)-based serial femtosecond crystallography is an emerging method with potential to rapidly advance the challenging field of membrane protein structural biology. Here we recorded interpretable diffraction data from micrometer-sized lipidic sponge phase crystals of the Blastochloris viridis photosynthetic reaction center delivered into an X-FEL beam using a sponge phase micro-jet.

  1. Infantile Refsum disease: serial evaluation with MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cakirer, Sinan; Savas, Mahmut R. [Sisli Etfal Hospital, Neuroradiology Section, Department of Radiology, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2005-02-01

    Refsum disease is a rare metabolic disorder, which is characterized by the accumulation of phytanic acid in the blood and tissues, including the brain. A variant of this condition that occurs in young children is called infantile Refsum disease. The MRI findings of symmetrical signal change involving the corticospinal tracts, cerebellar dentate nuclei, and corpus callosum are characteristic. We report the serial MRI findings of a child with this rare metabolic disorder. (orig.)

  2. Is Photolytic Production a Viable Source of HCN and HNC in Astrophysical Environments? A Laboratory-based Feasibility Study of Methyl Cyanoformate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Michael J.; Martínez-Núñez, Emilio; González-Vázquez, Jesús; Vázquez, Saulo A.; Smith, Jonathan M.; Dai, Hai-Lung

    2017-11-01

    Motivated by the possibility that cyano-containing hydrocarbons may act as photolytic sources for HCN and HNC in astrophysical environments, we conducted a combined experimental and theoretical investigation of the 193 nm photolysis of the cyano-ester, methyl cyanoformate (MCF). Experimentally, nanosecond time-resolved infrared emission spectroscopy was used to detect the emission from nascent products generated in the photolysis reaction. The time-resolved spectra were analyzed using a recently developed spectral reconstruction analysis, which revealed spectral bands assignable to HCN and HNC. Fitting of the emission band shape and intensity allowed determination of the photolysis quantum yields of HCN, HNC, and {CN}({A}2{{{\\Pi }}}1) and an HNC/HCN ratio of ∼0.076 ± 0.059. Additionally, multiconfiguration self-consistent field calculations were used to characterize photoexcitation-induced reactions in the ground and four lowest singlet excited states of MCF. At 193 nm excitation, dissociation is predicted to occur predominantly on the repulsive S 2 state, with minor pathways via internal conversion from S 2 to highly excited ground state. An automated transition-state search algorithm was employed to identify the corresponding ground-state dissociation channels, and Rice–Ramsperger–Kassel–Marcus and Kinetic Monte Carlo simulations were used to calculate the associated branching ratios. The proposed mechanisms were validated using the experimentally measured and quasi-classical trajectory-deduced nascent internal energy distributions of HCN and HNC. This work, along with previous studies, illustrates the propensity for cyano-containing hydrocarbons to act as photolytic sources for astrophysical HCN and HNC and may help explain the observed overabundance of HNC in astrophysical environments.

  3. From animal cruelty to serial murder: applying the graduation hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Jeremy; Hensley, Christopher

    2003-02-01

    Although serial murder has been recorded for centuries, limited academic attention has been given to this important topic. Scholars have attempted to examine the causality and motivations behind the rare phenomenon of serial murder. However, scant research exists which delves into the childhood characteristics of serial murderers. Using social learning theory, some of these studies present supporting evidence for a link between childhood animal cruelty and adult aggression toward humans. Based on five case studies of serial murderers, we contribute to the existing literature by exploring the possible link between childhood cruelty toward animals and serial murder with the application of the graduation hypothesis.

  4. Reduction of nitrogen compounds in oceanic basement and its implications for HCN formation and abiotic organic synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neubeck Anna

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hydrogen cyanide is an excellent organic reagent and is central to most of the reaction pathways leading to abiotic formation of simple organic compounds containing nitrogen, such as amino acids, purines and pyrimidines. Reduced carbon and nitrogen precursor compounds for the synthesis of HCN may be formed under off-axis hydrothermal conditions in oceanic lithosphere in the presence of native Fe and Ni and are adsorbed on authigenic layer silicates and zeolites. The native metals as well as the molecular hydrogen reducing CO2 to CO/CH4 and NO3-/NO2- to NH3/NH4+ are a result of serpentinization of mafic rocks. Oceanic plates are conveyor belts of reduced carbon and nitrogen compounds from the off-axis hydrothermal environments to the subduction zones, where compaction, dehydration, desiccation and diagenetic reactions affect the organic precursors. CO/CH4 and NH3/NH4+ in fluids distilled out of layer silicates and zeolites in the subducting plate at an early stage of subduction will react upon heating and form HCN, which is then available for further organic reactions to, for instance, carbohydrates, nucleosides or even nucleotides, under alkaline conditions in hydrated mantle rocks of the overriding plate. Convergent margins in the initial phase of subduction must, therefore, be considered the most potent sites for prebiotic reactions on Earth. This means that origin of life processes are, perhaps, only possible on planets where some kind of plate tectonics occur.

  5. Detection of CO and HCN in the coma of Jupiter-family comet 41P/Tuttle-Giacobini-Kresak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierzchos, Kacper; Womack, Maria

    2017-10-01

    Comets are divided into taxonomical groups determined largely by their orbits. Short-period Jupiter Family comets (JFCs) are thought to have formed in a trans-Neptunian disk ˜30 - 100 AU (Kuiper Belt) and then migrated inward (Edgeworth 1949, Kuiper 1951, Duncan et al. 1988). This different classification may be correlated with chemical abundance variations, and super-volatile species like CO can serve as an indicator of the thermal processes to which the precometary ices that led to comets where exposed (DiSainti et al. 2007). The close approach to Earth of comet 41P on the perihelion passage of 2017 was an excellent opportunity to probe the usually well-hidden inner coma of this Jupiter-family comet. We searched for CO (J=2-1) and HCN (J=3-2) emission with the Arizona Radio Observatory (ARO) 10-m Sub-millimeter Telescope (SMT) on 2017 April 1-2, when the comet was 1.1 AU from the Sun and 0.14 AU from Earth. We report the detection of both CO and HCN emission 13 days before perihelion and present column densities and production rates. We also discuss implications for Jupiter-family comets. The SMT is operated by the ARO, the Steward Observatory, and the University of Arizona, with support through the NSF University Radio Observatories program (AST-1140030). M.W. acknowledges support from NSF grant AST-1615917.

  6. Noise-induced plasticity of KCNQ2/3 and HCN channels underlies vulnerability and resilience to tinnitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuang; Kalappa, Bopanna I; Tzounopoulos, Thanos

    2015-01-01

    Vulnerability to noise-induced tinnitus is associated with increased spontaneous firing rate in dorsal cochlear nucleus principal neurons, fusiform cells. This hyperactivity is caused, at least in part, by decreased Kv7.2/3 (KCNQ2/3) potassium currents. However, the biophysical mechanisms underlying resilience to tinnitus, which is observed in noise-exposed mice that do not develop tinnitus (non-tinnitus mice), remain unknown. Our results show that noise exposure induces, on average, a reduction in KCNQ2/3 channel activity in fusiform cells in noise-exposed mice by 4 days after exposure. Tinnitus is developed in mice that do not compensate for this reduction within the next 3 days. Resilience to tinnitus is developed in mice that show a re-emergence of KCNQ2/3 channel activity and a reduction in HCN channel activity. Our results highlight KCNQ2/3 and HCN channels as potential targets for designing novel therapeutics that may promote resilience to tinnitus. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.07242.001 PMID:26312501

  7. Implementation of a Multichannel Serial Data Streaming Algorithm using the Xilinx Serial RapidIO Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doxley, Charles A.

    2016-01-01

    In the current world of applications that use reconfigurable technology implemented on field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs), there is a need for flexible architectures that can grow as the systems evolve. A project has limited resources and a fixed set of requirements that development efforts are tasked to meet. Designers must develop robust solutions that practically meet the current customer demands and also have the ability to grow for future performance. This paper describes the development of a high speed serial data streaming algorithm that allows for transmission of multiple data channels over a single serial link. The technique has the ability to change to meet new applications developed for future design considerations. This approach uses the Xilinx Serial RapidIO LOGICORE Solution to implement a flexible infrastructure to meet the current project requirements with the ability to adapt future system designs.

  8. Serial reconstruction of order and serial recall in verbal short-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinlan, Philip T; Roodenrys, Steven; Miller, Leonie M

    2017-05-31

    We carried out a series of experiments on verbal short-term memory for lists of words. In the first experiment, participants were tested via immediate serial recall, and word frequency and list set size were manipulated. With closed lists, the same set of items was repeatedly sampled, and with open lists, no item was presented more than once. In serial recall, effects of word frequency and set size were found. When a serial reconstruction-of-order task was used, in a second experiment, robust effects of word frequency emerged, but set size failed to show an effect. The effects of word frequency in order reconstruction were further examined in two final experiments. The data from these experiments revealed that the effects of word frequency are robust and apparently are not exclusively indicative of output processes. In light of these findings, we propose a multiple-mechanisms account in which word frequency can influence both retrieval and preretrieval processes.

  9. Challenges on network care considering the perceptions of preceptors of a Pet-Network regarding people with disabilities and at-risk infants: access, comprehensiveness and communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Aoki

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Health Care Networks (HCN are seen as a possibility for articulating and coordinating actions, health services and is a priority in the health system. One strategy to assure their improvement is the Tutorial Education Program (PET-Redes in the health area. Within this context, it is important to understand the challenges and strengths for the effectiveness of HCN to the network care. Objective: To identify and analyze the perceptions of professionals who are preceptors of PET-Networks (Stork/at-risk infants Network and Disabled People Network about the configuration of the network care and the challenges of professional actions related to it. Method: Qualitative study conducted through two focus groups with professionals that are preceptors of the PET-Networks. Thematic analysis was used for data analysis. Results: Both networks presented the following categories related to the network care configuration: access, comprehensive health care and communication. For this care network configuration, some challenges mentioned include geographical and architectural barriers, lack of social support, lack of transportation, failure on care flow and discontinuities in the communicative process. To deal with these challenges, the following strategies were mentioned: implementation of electronic medical records and formulation of specific forums for debate and articulation of actions, among others. It is important to notice that these categories are intertwined and that more challenges than strategies to overcome them were pointed out by the participants. Conclusion: There are several challenges for effective HCN from different levels and the construction of strategies needs to be convened among all persons involved in the HCN

  10. Rapid serial visual presentation design for cognition

    CERN Document Server

    Spence, Robert

    2013-01-01

    A powerful new image presentation technique has evolved over the last twenty years, and its value demonstrated through its support of many and varied common tasks. Conceptually, Rapid Serial Visual Presentation (RSVP) is basically simple, exemplified in the physical world by the rapid riffling of the pages of a book in order to locate a known image. Advances in computation and graphics processing allow RSVP to be applied flexibly and effectively to a huge variety of common tasks such as window shopping, video fast-forward and rewind, TV channel selection and product browsing. At its heart is a

  11. Inverse Kinematics of a Serial Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amici Cinzia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This work describes a technique to treat the inverse kinematics of a serial manipulator. The inverse kinematics is obtained through the numerical inversion of the Jacobian matrix, that represents the equation of motion of the manipulator. The inversion is affected by numerical errors and, in different conditions, due to the numerical nature of the solver, it does not converge to a reasonable solution. Thus a soft computing approach is adopted to mix different traditional methods to obtain an increment of algorithmic convergence.

  12. Serials collection management in recessionary times

    CERN Document Server

    Lawson, Karen G

    2015-01-01

    Strategic planning, collaboration, continual stewardship, best practices, and re-engineering can provide librarians with a toolkit of innovative strategies that meets the worst of economic times with bold, persistent experimentation. This book covers the implications for libraries of a broad range of technological and economic challenges. These challenges include the fallout from the global economic crisis, the positioning of usage statistics, the advent of open access scholarship, database management, responding to budgetary constrictions and general access to serials. Taken as a whole, this

  13. The serial harness interacting with a wall

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrari, P. A.; Fontes, L. R. G.; Niederhauser, B.; Vachkovskaia, M.

    2002-01-01

    The serial harnesses introduced by Hammersley describe the motion of a hypersurface of dimension d embedded in a space of dimension $d+1$. The height assigned to each site i of Z^d is updated by taking a weighted average of the heights of some of the neighbors of i plus a ``noise'' (a centered random variable). The surface interacts by exclusion with a ``wall'' located at level zero: the updated heights are not allowed to go below zero. We show that for any distribution of the noise variables...

  14. Facilitating Stable Representations: Serial Dependence in Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbett, Jennifer E.; Fischer, Jason; Whitney, David

    2011-01-01

    We tested whether the intervening time between multiple glances influences the independence of the resulting visual percepts. Observers estimated how many dots were present in brief displays that repeated one, two, three, four, or a random number of trials later. Estimates made farther apart in time were more independent, and thus carried more information about the stimulus when combined. In addition, estimates from different visual field locations were more independent than estimates from the same location. Our results reveal a retinotopic serial dependence in visual numerosity estimates, which may be a mechanism for maintaining the continuity of visual perception in a noisy environment. PMID:21304953

  15. Facilitating stable representations: serial dependence in vision.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer E Corbett

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We tested whether the intervening time between multiple glances influences the independence of the resulting visual percepts. Observers estimated how many dots were present in brief displays that repeated one, two, three, four, or a random number of trials later. Estimates made farther apart in time were more independent, and thus carried more information about the stimulus when combined. In addition, estimates from different visual field locations were more independent than estimates from the same location. Our results reveal a retinotopic serial dependence in visual numerosity estimates, which may be a mechanism for maintaining the continuity of visual perception in a noisy environment.

  16. EM Immunity Study of Serial Links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, M.; Rigazio, L.; Canavero, F. G.; Perraud, R.

    2012-05-01

    This paper proposes a systematic study of IC immunity for a TX/RX digital system, implemented in a FPGA board. A DPI setup is used to measure the immunity of signal I/O ports to conducted continuous- wave interference. The injection path from RF noise source to input pin is characterized to define the injected power level causing a malfunction on the TX/RX system, up to 250 MHz. The impact of data coding on immunity measurement is analyzed by comparing error rates of Flexray coded data over a standard serial transmission protocol.

  17. CAR-T cells are serial killers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, Alexander J; Jenkins, Misty R; Ritchie, David S; Prince, H Miles; Trapani, Joseph A; Kershaw, Michael H; Darcy, Phillip K; Neeson, Paul J

    2015-12-01

    Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells have enjoyed unprecedented clinical success against haematological malignancies in recent years. However, several aspects of CAR T cell biology remain unknown. We recently compared CAR and T cell receptor (TCR)-based killing in the same effector cell and showed that CAR T cells can not only efficiently kill single tumor targets, they can also kill multiple tumor targets in a sequential manner. Single and serial killing events were not sustained long term due to CAR down-regulation after 20 hours.

  18. Synaptic augmentation in a cortical circuit model reproduces serial dependence in visual working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliss, Daniel P; D'Esposito, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Recent work has established that visual working memory is subject to serial dependence: current information in memory blends with that from the recent past as a function of their similarity. This tuned temporal smoothing likely promotes the stability of memory in the face of noise and occlusion. Serial dependence accumulates over several seconds in memory and deteriorates with increased separation between trials. While this phenomenon has been extensively characterized in behavior, its neural mechanism is unknown. In the present study, we investigate the circuit-level origins of serial dependence in a biophysical model of cortex. We explore two distinct kinds of mechanisms: stable persistent activity during the memory delay period and dynamic "activity-silent" synaptic plasticity. We find that networks endowed with both strong reverberation to support persistent activity and dynamic synapses can closely reproduce behavioral serial dependence. Specifically, elevated activity drives synaptic augmentation, which biases activity on the subsequent trial, giving rise to a spatiotemporally tuned shift in the population response. Our hybrid neural model is a theoretical advance beyond abstract mathematical characterizations, offers testable hypotheses for physiological research, and demonstrates the power of biological insights to provide a quantitative explanation of human behavior.

  19. Nitrogen and hydrogen fractionation in high-mass star-forming cores from observations of HCN and HNC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colzi, L.; Fontani, F.; Caselli, P.; Ceccarelli, C.; Hily-Blant, P.; Bizzocchi, L.

    2018-02-01

    The ratio between the two stable isotopes of nitrogen, 14N and 15N, is well measured in the terrestrial atmosphere ( 272), and for the pre-solar nebula ( 441, deduced from the solar wind). Interestingly, some pristine solar system materials show enrichments in 15N with respect to the pre-solar nebula value. However, it is not yet clear if and how these enrichments are linked to the past chemical history because we have only a limited number of measurements in dense star-forming regions. In this respect, dense cores, which are believed to be the precursors of clusters and also contain intermediate- and high-mass stars, are important targets because the solar system was probably born within a rich stellar cluster, and such clusters are formed in high-mass star-forming regions. The number of observations in such high-mass dense cores has remained limited so far. In this work, we show the results of IRAM-30 m observations of the J = 1-0 rotational transition of the molecules HCN and HNC and their 15N-bearing counterparts towards 27 intermediate- and high-mass dense cores that are divided almost equally into three evolutionary categories: high-mass starless cores, high-mass protostellar objects, and ultra-compact HII regions. We have also observed the DNC(2-1) rotational transition in order to search for a relation between the isotopic ratios D/H and 14N/15N. We derive average 14N/15N ratios of 359 ± 16 in HCN and of 438 ± 21 in HNC, with a dispersion of about 150-200. We find no trend of the 14N/15N ratio with evolutionary stage. This result agrees with what has been found for N2H+ and its isotopologues in the same sources, although the 14N/15N ratios from N2H+ show a higher dispersion than in HCN/HNC, and on average, their uncertainties are larger as well. Moreover, we have found no correlation between D/H and 14N/15N in HNC. These findings indicate that (1) the chemical evolution does not seem to play a role in the fractionation of nitrogen, and that (2) the

  20. Concurrent Cognitive Processes in Rat Serial Pattern Learning: Item Memory, Serial Position, and Pattern Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Melissa D.; Fountain, Stephen B.

    2010-01-01

    Three experiments examined the processes mediating rat serial pattern learning for rule-consistent versus rule-violating pattern elements ("violation elements"). In all three experiments, rats were trained to press retractable levers in a circular array in a specific sequence for brain-stimulation reward (BSR). Experiment 1 examined the role of…

  1. Filamin A promotes dynamin-dependent internalization of hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated type 1 (HCN1) channels and restricts /h in hippocampal neurons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noam, Y.; Ehrengruber, M.U.; Koh, A.; Feyen, P.; Manders, E.M.M.; Abbott, G.W.; Wadman, W.J.; Baram, T.Z.

    2014-01-01

    The actin-binding protein filamin A (FLNa) regulates neuronal migration during development, yet its roles in the mature brain remain largely obscure. Here, we probed the effects of FLNa on the regulation of ion channels that influence neuronal properties. We focused on the HCN1 channels that conduct

  2. Cooperative effects of noncovalent bonds to the Br atom of halogen-bonded H3N...BrZ and HCN...BrZ (Z = F, Br) complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, Sean A C; Joseph, Jerelle A

    2012-08-21

    A series of complexes formed between halogen-bonded H(3)N/HCN...BrZ (Z = Br, F) dimers and H(3)N/HCN...BrZ...XY (XY = HF, ClF, BeH(2), LiF) trimers were investigated at the MP2 and B3LYP levels of theory using a 6-31++G(d,p) basis set. Optimized structures, interaction energies, and other properties of interest were obtained. The addition of XY to the H(3)N/HCN...BrZ dyad leads to enhanced intermolecular binding with respect to the isolated monomers. This enhanced binding receives contributions from the electrostatic and inductive forces between the constituent pairs, with, in some instances, substantial three-body non-additive contributions to the binding energy. It was found that the XY = LiF interaction causes the greatest distortion of the H(3)N/HCN...BrZ halogen bond from the preferred linear orientation and also provides the strongest binding energy via the nonadditive energy.

  3. Theoretical insight into the BH3·HCN adsorption on the Co(100) and Co(110) surfaces as hydrogen storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, He; Ren, Fu-de; Wang, Yan-Hong

    2017-04-01

    Fifteen configurations and adsorption energies of the adsorption sites of BH3∙∙∙HCN on Co(100) and Co(110) surfaces were investigated using the density functional theory. The results show that after BH3∙∙∙HCN is adsorbed, although there is no general behavior for the H∙∙∙H distances, the adsorption energies of BH3∙∙∙HCN are always far stronger than those of H2 on Co surfaces, suggesting that the dihydrogen-bonded complex, one kind of prospective material for reversible hydrogen storage, can be tightly adsorbed on the surfaces of metals. Thus, the attempts to store the significant amounts of H2 can be successful by the way that the dihydrogen-bonded complexes are adsorbed on the surfaces of metals. The stability and binding mechanism was analyzed by the Mulliken charge population and reduced density gradients (RDGs) methods. Graphical Abstract BH3···HCN adsorption on Co surface.

  4. Galileo - The Serial-Production AIT Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragnit, Ulrike; Brunner, Otto

    2008-01-01

    The Galileo Project is one of the most demanding projects of ESA, being Europe's autarkic navigation system and a constellation composed of 30 satellites. This presentation points out the different phases of the project up to the full operational capability and the corresponding launch options with respect to launch vehicles as well as launch configurations. One of the biggest challenges is to set up a small serial 'production line' for the overall integration and test campaign of satellites. This production line demands an optimization of all relevant tasks, taking into account also backup and recovery actions. A comprehensive AIT concept is required, reflecting a tightly merged facility layout and work flow design. In addition a common data management system is needed to handle all spacecraft related documentation and to have a direct input-out flow for all activities, phases and positions at the same time. Process optimization is a well known field of engineering in all small high tech production lines, nevertheless serial production of satellites are still not the daily task in space business and therefore new concepts have to be put in place. Therefore, and in order to meet the satellites overall system optimization, a thorough interface between unit/subsystem manufacturing and satellite AIT must be realized to ensure a smooth flow and to avoid any process interruption, which would directly lead to a schedule impact.

  5. Serial Cognition and Personality in Macaques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drew M. Altschul

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We examined the associations between serial cognition and personality in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta. Nine macaques were tested on a simultaneous chaining task to assess their cognitive abilities. They were also rated for personality traits and scored according to a previously extracted six component structure derived from free-ranging rhesus macaques. Friendliness and Openness were positively associated with good performance on three measures of accuracy on the serial learning task: Progress, Error, and Rewarded (i.e., correctly completed Trials. Faster Reaction Times were associated with lower Friendliness and higher Confidence, as well as higher Openness when only correct responses were analyzed. We also used regularized exploratory factor analysis to extract two, three, four, five, and six factor structures, and found consistent associations between accuracy and single factors within each of these structures. Prior results on intelligence in other nonhuman primate species have focused on basic intelligence tests; this study demonstrates that more complex, abstract cognitive tasks can be used to assess intelligence and personality in nonhuman primates.

  6. Serial Cognition and Personality in Macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altschul, Drew M; Terrace, Herbert S; Weiss, Alexander

    2016-02-01

    We examined the associations between serial cognition and personality in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). Nine macaques were tested on a simultaneous chaining task to assess their cognitive abilities. They were also rated for personality traits and scored according to a previously extracted six component structure derived from free-ranging rhesus macaques. Friendliness and Openness were positively associated with good performance on three measures of accuracy on the serial learning task: Progress, Error, and Rewarded (i.e., correctly completed) Trials. Faster Reaction Times were associated with lower Friendliness and higher Confidence, as well as higher Openness when only correct responses were analyzed. We also used regularized exploratory factor analysis to extract two, three, four, five, and six factor structures, and found consistent associations between accuracy and single factors within each of these structures. Prior results on intelligence in other nonhuman primate species have focused on basic intelligence tests; this study demonstrates that more complex, abstract cognitive tasks can be used to assess intelligence and personality in nonhuman primates.

  7. Malingering, coaching, and the serial position effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhr, Julie A

    2002-01-01

    The normal pattern of performance on list-learning tasks is to recall more words from the beginning (primacy) and end (recency) of the list. This pattern is also seen in patients with closed head injury, but malingerers tend to recall less words from the beginning of word lists, leading to a suppressed primacy effect. The present study examined this pattern on both learning trials and delayed recall of the Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT) in 34 persons performing with normal effort, 38 naive malingerers, 33 warned malingerers, and 29 head-injured patients. Both malingering groups had lower scores on the primacy portion of the list during learning trials, while normals and head-injured patients had normal serial position curves. During delayed recall, normals and head-injured patients did better than the two malingering groups on middle and recency portions of the list. Findings suggest that the serial position effect during learning trials may be a useful pattern of performance to watch for when suspicious of malingering.

  8. Estimation method for serial dilution experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-David, Avishai; Davidson, Charles E

    2014-12-01

    Titration of microorganisms in infectious or environmental samples is a corner stone of quantitative microbiology. A simple method is presented to estimate the microbial counts obtained with the serial dilution technique for microorganisms that can grow on bacteriological media and develop into a colony. The number (concentration) of viable microbial organisms is estimated from a single dilution plate (assay) without a need for replicate plates. Our method selects the best agar plate with which to estimate the microbial counts, and takes into account the colony size and plate area that both contribute to the likelihood of miscounting the number of colonies on a plate. The estimate of the optimal count given by our method can be used to narrow the search for the best (optimal) dilution plate and saves time. The required inputs are the plate size, the microbial colony size, and the serial dilution factors. The proposed approach shows relative accuracy well within ±0.1log10 from data produced by computer simulations. The method maintains this accuracy even in the presence of dilution errors of up to 10% (for both the aliquot and diluent volumes), microbial counts between 10(4) and 10(12) colony-forming units, dilution ratios from 2 to 100, and plate size to colony size ratios between 6.25 to 200. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Zero-Transition Serial Encoding for Image Sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Jahier Pagliari, Daniele; Macii, Enrico; Poncino, Massimo

    2017-01-01

    Off-chip serial buses are the most common interfaces between sensors and processing elements in embedded systems. Due to their length, these connections dissipate a large amount of energy, contributing significantly to the total consumption of the system. The error-tolerant feature of many sensor applications can be leveraged to reduce this energy contribution by means of an approximate serial data encoding. In this paper, we propose one such encoding called Serial T0, particularly, effective...

  10. SERIAL TELEVISI DEXTER SEBAGAI ANAKRONISME DALAM SASTRA POPULER

    OpenAIRE

    Ida Rochani Adi

    2014-01-01

    In the popular literature context, this study aims to investigate: (1) how the formulation of the characterization of Dexter in the television serial Dexter violates the tradition of literary characterization, and (2) how the formula of moral values is dramatized through Dexter, who is a sociopath, psychopath, serial killer, and person without moral. The research object was the television serial Dexter, which ranks five in popularity in the world. The data were collected by documenting 84 epi...

  11. Representation of the serial killer on the Italian Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villano, P; Bastianoni, P; Melotti, G

    2001-10-01

    The representation of serial killers was examined from the analysis of 317 Web pages in the Italian language to study how the psychological profiles of serial killers are described on the Italian Internet. The correspondence analysis of the content of these Web pages shows that in Italy the serial killer is associated with words such as "monster" and "horror," which suggest and imply psychological perversion and aberrant acts. These traits are peculiar for the Italian scenario.

  12. Cooperativity between the dihydrogen bond and the NHC hydrogen bond in LiH-(HCN)n Complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing-Zhong; Hu, Ting; An, Xiu-Lin; Gong, Bao-An; Cheng, Jian-Bo

    2008-09-15

    The cooperativity between the dihydrogen bond and the NHC hydrogen bond in LiH-(HCN)(n) (n=2 and 3) complexes is investigated at the MP2 level of theory. The bond lengths, dipole moments, and energies are analyzed. It is demonstrated that synergetic effects are present in the complexes. The cooperativity contribution of the dihydrogen bond is smaller than that of the NHC hydrogen bond. The three-body energy in systems involving different types of hydrogen bonds is larger than that in the same hydrogen-bonded systems. NBO analyses indicate that orbital interaction, charge transfer, and bond polarization are mainly responsible for the cooperativity between the two types of hydrogen bonds.

  13. Niflumic acid alters gating of HCN2 pacemaker channels by interaction with the outer region of S4 voltage sensing domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Lan; Sanguinetti, Michael C

    2009-05-01

    Niflumic acid, 2-[[3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]amino]pyridine-3-carboxylic acid (NFA), is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug that also blocks or modifies the gating of many ion channels. Here, we investigated the effects of NFA on hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated cation (HCN) pacemaker channels expressed in X. laevis oocytes using site-directed mutagenesis and the two-electrode voltage-clamp technique. Extracellular NFA acted rapidly and caused a slowing of activation and deactivation and a hyperpolarizing shift in the voltage dependence of HCN2 channel activation (-24.5 +/- 1.2 mV at 1 mM). Slowed channel gating and reduction of current magnitude was marked in oocytes treated with NFA, while clamped at 0 mV but minimal in oocytes clamped at -100 mV, indicating the drug preferentially interacts with channels in the closed state. NFA at 0.1 to 3 mM shifted the half-point for channel activation in a concentration-dependent manner, with an EC(50) of 0.54 +/- 0.068 mM and a predicted maximum shift of -38 mV. NFA at 1 mM also reduced maximum HCN2 conductance by approximately 20%, presumably by direct block of the pore. The rapid onset and state-dependence of NFA-induced changes in channel gating suggests an interaction with the extracellular region of the S4 transmembrane helix, the primary voltage-sensing domain of HCN2. Neutralization (by mutation to Gln) of any three of the outer four basic charged residues in S4, but not single mutations, abrogated the NFA-induced shift in channel activation. We conclude that NFA alters HCN2 gating by interacting with the extracellular end of the S4 voltage sensor domains.

  14. Temporal Image Comparison (Serial Imaging) in Assessing Pigmented Lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drugge, Rhett J; Drugge, Elizabeth D

    2017-10-01

    The large-scale deployment of low-cost, noninvasive mechanisms of early detection are needed to reduce the melanoma burden. A serial 2-step system could power mass screening efforts serving the uninsured and underinsured as well as the rural and remote US counties where melanoma mortality is doubled for lack of access to dermatologists. Furthermore, serial melanoma screening strategies, serial total body photography and serial digital dermatoscopy imaging may be performed as a telehealth service, and thus would be available in any location that can support activity compliant with the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act and has appropriate bandwidth. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. IMPLEMENTATION OF SERIAL AND PARALLEL BUBBLE SORT ON FPGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Marhaendro Jati Purnomo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Sorting is common process in computational world. Its utilization are on many fields from research to industry. There are many sorting algorithm in nowadays. One of the simplest yet powerful is bubble sort. In this study, bubble sort is implemented on FPGA. The implementation was taken on serial and parallel approach. Serial and parallel bubble sort then compared by means of its memory, execution time, and utility which comprises slices and LUTs. The experiments show that serial bubble sort required smaller memory as well as utility compared to parallel bubble sort. Meanwhile, parallel bubble sort performed faster than serial bubble sort

  16. Malignant sex and aggression: an overview of serial sexual homicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, W C; Reccoppa, L; Burton, K; McElroy, R

    1993-01-01

    Serial murderers have attracted considerable attention in the popular press and criminal justice field, but scientific literature about these individuals is limited. This article provides an overview, from a psychiatric perspective, of serial sexual homicide, one type of serial killing. Characteristics of this type of murder and of these offenders are discussed. Defining qualities and diagnoses applicable to serial sexual killers are reviewed. Various etiologic theories are discussed, with emphasis on the role of fantasy and psychodynamic explanations. Governmental agencies involved in combating this type of crime, along with the role of mental health professionals in criminal profiling, are presented. Finally, the authors explore the reaction of society to this phenomenon.

  17. Single-chip computer and serial communication of GPRS modem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Baohong

    2013-03-01

    Communication between PC and Modem is common, while communication between single-chip computer and Modem is rare. This article will elaborate serial communication between single-chip computer and GPRS modem. The wide use of serial communication will enable various transmission units to connect as one organically and exchange data and information in safe and reliable manner. However, since signal of each transmission channel is different, the serial port in use should be various. Therefore, in order to realize communication among units, it is necessary to involve serial port conversion among each unit.

  18. A psychological profile of a serial killer: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogra, T D; Leenaars, Antoon A; Chadha, R K; Manju, Mehta; Lalwani, Sanjeev; Sood, Mamta; Lester, David; Raina, Anupuma; Behera, C

    2012-01-01

    Serial killers have always fascinated society. A serial killer is typically defined as a perpetrator who murders three or more people over a period of time. Most reported cases of serial killers come from the United States and Canada. In India, there are few reported cases. We present, to the best of our knowledge, the first Indian case in the literature. The present case is of a 28-year-old man, Surinder Koli. The Department of Forensic Medicine & Toxicology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delphi handled the forensic study. We present a most unique psychological investigation into the mind of a serial killer.

  19. Searching for Faint Traces of CO(2-1) and HCN(4-3) Gas In Debris Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafford Lambros, Zachary; Hughes, A. Meredith

    2018-01-01

    The surprising presence of molecular gas in the debris disks around main sequence stars provides an opportunity to study the dissipation of primordial gas and, potentially, the composition of gas in other solar systems. Molecular gas is not expected to survive beyond the pre-main sequence phase, and it is not yet clear whether the gas is a remnant of the primordial protoplanetary material or whether the gas, like the dust, is second-generation material produced by collisional or photodesorption from planetesimals, exocomets, or the icy mantles of dust grains. Here we present two related efforts to characterize the prevalence and properties of gas in debris disks. First, we place the lowest limits to date on the CO emission from an M star debris disk, using 0.3" resolution observations of CO(2-1) emission from the AU Mic system with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA). We place a 3-sigma upper limit on the integrated flux of 0.39 Jy km/s, corresponding to a maximum CO mass of 5e10-6 (Earth Masses) if the gas is in LTE. We also present the results of an ALMA search for HCN(4-3) emission from the prototypical gas-rich debris disk around 49 Ceti at a spatial resolution of 0.3". Despite hosting one of the brightest CO-rich debris disks yet discovered, our observations of 49 Ceti also yield a low upper limit of 0.057 Jy km/s in the HCN line, leaving CO as the only molecule clearly detected in emission from a debris disk. We employ several methods of detecting faint line emission from debris disks, including a model based on Keplerian kinematics as well as a spectral shifting method previously used to detect faint CO emission from the Fomalhaut debris disk, and compare our results.

  20. Serial binary interval ratios improve rhythm reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang eWu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Musical rhythm perception is a natural human ability that involves complex cognitive processes. Rhythm refers to the organization of events in time, and musical rhythms have an underlying hierarchical metrical structure. The metrical structure induces the feeling of a beat and the extent to which a rhythm induces the feeling of a beat is referred to as its metrical strength. Binary ratios are the most frequent interval ratio in musical rhythms. Rhythms with hierarchical binary ratios are better discriminated and reproduced than rhythms with hierarchical non-binary ratios. However, it remains unclear whether a superiority of serial binary over non-binary ratios in rhythm perception and reproduction exists. In addition, how different types of serial ratios influence the metrical strength of rhythms remains to be elucidated. The present study investigated serial binary vs. non-binary ratios in a reproduction task. Rhythms formed with exclusively binary (1:2:4:8, non-binary integer (1:3:5:6, and non-integer (1:2.3:5.3:6.4 ratios were examined within a constant meter. The results showed that the 1:2:4:8 rhythm type was more accurately reproduced than the 1:3:5:6 and 1:2.3:5.3:6.4 rhythm types, and the 1:2.3:5.3:6.4 rhythm type was more accurately reproduced than the 1:3:5:6 rhythm type. Further analyses showed that reproduction performance was better predicted by the distribution pattern of event occurrences within an inter-beat interval, than by the coincidence of events with beats, or the magnitude and complexity of interval ratios. Whereas rhythm theories and empirical data emphasize the role of the coincidence of events with beats in determining metrical strength and predicting rhythm performance, the present results suggest that rhythm processing may be better understood when the distribution pattern of event occurrences is taken into account. These results provide new insights into the mechanisms underlining musical rhythm perception.

  1. Serial binary interval ratios improve rhythm reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiang; Westanmo, Anders; Zhou, Liang; Pan, Junhao

    2013-01-01

    Musical rhythm perception is a natural human ability that involves complex cognitive processes. Rhythm refers to the organization of events in time, and musical rhythms have an underlying hierarchical metrical structure. The metrical structure induces the feeling of a beat and the extent to which a rhythm induces the feeling of a beat is referred to as its metrical strength. Binary ratios are the most frequent interval ratio in musical rhythms. Rhythms with hierarchical binary ratios are better discriminated and reproduced than rhythms with hierarchical non-binary ratios. However, it remains unclear whether a superiority of serial binary over non-binary ratios in rhythm perception and reproduction exists. In addition, how different types of serial ratios influence the metrical strength of rhythms remains to be elucidated. The present study investigated serial binary vs. non-binary ratios in a reproduction task. Rhythms formed with exclusively binary (1:2:4:8), non-binary integer (1:3:5:6), and non-integer (1:2.3:5.3:6.4) ratios were examined within a constant meter. The results showed that the 1:2:4:8 rhythm type was more accurately reproduced than the 1:3:5:6 and 1:2.3:5.3:6.4 rhythm types, and the 1:2.3:5.3:6.4 rhythm type was more accurately reproduced than the 1:3:5:6 rhythm type. Further analyses showed that reproduction performance was better predicted by the distribution pattern of event occurrences within an inter-beat interval, than by the coincidence of events with beats, or the magnitude and complexity of interval ratios. Whereas rhythm theories and empirical data emphasize the role of the coincidence of events with beats in determining metrical strength and predicting rhythm performance, the present results suggest that rhythm processing may be better understood when the distribution pattern of event occurrences is taken into account. These results provide new insights into the mechanisms underlining musical rhythm perception.

  2. Woody Allen, serial schlemiel ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédérique Brisset

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Woody Allen a développé au fil des années une persona cinématographique de schlemiel new-yorkais aisément reconnaissable par le spectateur. Elle marque nombre de ses films, qu’il y apparaisse en tant qu’acteur ou y dirige des substituts comédiens comme déclinaisons de lui-même. Si cette figure prototypique est le fondement de la sérialité dans sa filmographie, il est des traits stylistiques qui en portent trace tout au long de son œuvre : la récurrence annuelle de ses réalisations, la signature formelle symbolisée par ses génériques à la typographie singulière, le rythme de ses dialogues ponctués d’interjections et l’usage de l’autocitation sont autant de procédés qui marquent son cinéma d’un sceau très personnel. Ils fonctionnent comme des clins d’œil au spectateur qui reçoit dès lors LE Woody Allen millésimé comme une invitation à retrouver son microcosme. Ainsi la sérialité se pose comme à la fois initiale et conséquentielle de son système filmique, processus de création unique dans le cinéma américain.Woody Allen has long constructed a cinematographic persona of schlemiel New- Yorker that the audience can easily identify. It impacts most of his films, whether he stars in them or directs “substitute” actors to impersonate his character. If this prototypical figure is the basis of seriality in his cinematography, serial stylistic features can also be found all along his career: the annual recurrence of his productions, the formal signature symbolised by the typography of his singular credit titles, his rhythmical interjection-punctuated dialogues and the use of self-quotation imprint a very personal seal upon his movies. They all work as a recognition signals for the audience who thus receive THE Woody Allen vintage as an invitation to re-enter his microcosm. Seriality is then both initial and consequential to his cinematographic system, a unique creative process in American film history.

  3. Produksi Serial Animasi 3D Jambul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardiyansah Ardiyansah

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Jambul is a 3D animated series initiated by Animaraya, an animation studio located in South Jakarta. Taking the theme of daily lives of a bunch of kids in Maju Makmur village with all love, sorrow, and their dreams, the series has a typical look with common theme raised by other local animation producers. Nevertheless, the presence of serial Jambul must still be in the positive appreciation by both the animation industry, and in general by the people of Indonesia. In addition, because of this series appeared in all the limitations, Jambul showed up with a new standard for animated series production in Indonesia, especially in terms of production efficiency, time, cost, stories, and visual quality. 

  4. Viscous hydrophilic injection matrices for serial crystallography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovácsová, Gabriela; Grünbein, Marie Luise; Kloos, Marco; Barends, Thomas R M; Schlesinger, Ramona; Heberle, Joachim; Kabsch, Wolfgang; Shoeman, Robert L; Doak, R Bruce; Schlichting, Ilme

    2017-07-01

    Serial (femtosecond) crystallography at synchrotron and X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) sources distributes the absorbed radiation dose over all crystals used for data collection and therefore allows measurement of radiation damage prone systems, including the use of microcrystals for room-temperature measurements. Serial crystallography relies on fast and efficient exchange of crystals upon X-ray exposure, which can be achieved using a variety of methods, including various injection techniques. The latter vary significantly in their flow rates - gas dynamic virtual nozzle based injectors provide very thin fast-flowing jets, whereas high-viscosity extrusion injectors produce much thicker streams with flow rates two to three orders of magnitude lower. High-viscosity extrusion results in much lower sample consumption, as its sample delivery speed is commensurate both with typical XFEL repetition rates and with data acquisition rates at synchrotron sources. An obvious viscous injection medium is lipidic cubic phase (LCP) as it is used for in meso membrane protein crystallization. However, LCP has limited compatibility with many crystallization conditions. While a few other viscous media have been described in the literature, there is an ongoing need to identify additional injection media for crystal embedding. Critical attributes are reliable injection properties and a broad chemical compatibility to accommodate samples as heterogeneous and sensitive as protein crystals. Here, the use of two novel hydro-gels as viscous injection matrices is described, namely sodium carb-oxy-methyl cellulose and the thermo-reversible block polymer Pluronic F-127. Both are compatible with various crystallization conditions and yield acceptable X-ray background. The stability and velocity of the extruded stream were also analysed and the dependence of the stream velocity on the flow rate was measured. In contrast with previously characterized injection media, both new matrices afford

  5. Viscous hydrophilic injection matrices for serial crystallography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Kovácsová

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Serial (femtosecond crystallography at synchrotron and X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL sources distributes the absorbed radiation dose over all crystals used for data collection and therefore allows measurement of radiation damage prone systems, including the use of microcrystals for room-temperature measurements. Serial crystallography relies on fast and efficient exchange of crystals upon X-ray exposure, which can be achieved using a variety of methods, including various injection techniques. The latter vary significantly in their flow rates – gas dynamic virtual nozzle based injectors provide very thin fast-flowing jets, whereas high-viscosity extrusion injectors produce much thicker streams with flow rates two to three orders of magnitude lower. High-viscosity extrusion results in much lower sample consumption, as its sample delivery speed is commensurate both with typical XFEL repetition rates and with data acquisition rates at synchrotron sources. An obvious viscous injection medium is lipidic cubic phase (LCP as it is used for in meso membrane protein crystallization. However, LCP has limited compatibility with many crystallization conditions. While a few other viscous media have been described in the literature, there is an ongoing need to identify additional injection media for crystal embedding. Critical attributes are reliable injection properties and a broad chemical compatibility to accommodate samples as heterogeneous and sensitive as protein crystals. Here, the use of two novel hydrogels as viscous injection matrices is described, namely sodium carboxymethyl cellulose and the thermo-reversible block polymer Pluronic F-127. Both are compatible with various crystallization conditions and yield acceptable X-ray background. The stability and velocity of the extruded stream were also analysed and the dependence of the stream velocity on the flow rate was measured. In contrast with previously characterized injection media, both new

  6. Handbook of serial communications interfaces a comprehensive compendium of serial digital input/output (I/O) standards

    CERN Document Server

    Frenzel, Louis

    2015-01-01

    This book catalogs the most popular and commonly used serial-port interfaces and provides details on the specifications and the latest standards, enabling you to select an interface for a new design or verify that an interface is working correctly. Each chapter is based on a different interface and is written in an easy to follow, standard format. With this book you will learn: The most widely used serial interfacesHow to select the best serial interface for a specific application or designThe trade-offs between data rate and distance (length or range)The operation and benefits of serial

  7. Causative and facilitative serial verbs in Asian Ibero-romance Creoles – a convergence of substrate and superstrate systems?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan N. Baxter

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper surveys the widespread presence of two types of serial verb – the direct causative and the indirect causative – in Portuguese and Spanish lexically-based creole languages of Asia. The discussion addresses the structural nature of these valency increasing constructions, considering the semantic relations involved in their argument sharing, and contemplates the potential roles of substrate and superstrate languages in their development. It is proposed that the geographic distribution of the serial verbs is owed to a convergence of substrate and superstrates. In the case of the Asian Portuguese lexically-based creoles, the convergence would have begun in India. Subsequently, as the Portuguese progressively established their trade network further east, the serial structures received substrate reinforcement in the different settings where creolization and stabilization occurred. Further reinforcement would have occurred by way of population movements between the communities over a longer period.

  8. Serial recall of colors: Two models of memory for serial order applied to continuous visual stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peteranderl, Sonja; Oberauer, Klaus

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of serial position and temporal distinctiveness on serial recall of simple visual stimuli. Participants observed lists of five colors presented at varying, unpredictably ordered interitem intervals, and their task was to reproduce the colors in their order of presentation by selecting colors on a continuous-response scale. To control for the possibility of verbal labeling, articulatory suppression was required in one of two experimental sessions. The predictions were derived through simulation from two computational models of serial recall: SIMPLE represents the class of temporal-distinctiveness models, whereas SOB-CS represents event-based models. According to temporal-distinctiveness models, items that are temporally isolated within a list are recalled more accurately than items that are temporally crowded. In contrast, event-based models assume that the time intervals between items do not affect recall performance per se, although free time following an item can improve memory for that item because of extended time for the encoding. The experimental and the simulated data were fit to an interference measurement model to measure the tendency to confuse items with other items nearby on the list-the locality constraint-in people as well as in the models. The continuous-reproduction performance showed a pronounced primacy effect with no recency, as well as some evidence for transpositions obeying the locality constraint. Though not entirely conclusive, this evidence favors event-based models over a role for temporal distinctiveness. There was also a strong detrimental effect of articulatory suppression, suggesting that verbal codes can be used to support serial-order memory of simple visual stimuli.

  9. Prophetic Visions, Quality Serials: Twin Peaks’ new mode of storytelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail L. Skoptsov

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Following the April 1990 debut of Twin Peaks on ABC, the vision - a sequence of images that relates information of the narrative future or past – has become a staple of numerous network, basic cable and premium cable serials, including Buffy the Vampire Slayer (WB, Battlestar Galactica (SyFy and Game of Thrones (HBO. This paper argues that Peaks in effect had introduced a mode of storytelling called “visio-narrative,” which draws on ancient epic poetry by focusing on main characters that receive knowledge from enigmatic, god-like figures that control his world. Their visions disrupt linear storytelling, allowing a series to embrace the formal aspects of the medium and create the impression that its disparate episodes constitute a singular whole. This helps them qualify as ‘quality TV’, while disguising instances of authorial manipulation evident within the texts as products of divine internal causality.As a result, all narrative events, no matter how coincidental or inconsequential, become part of a grand design. Close examination of Twin Peaks and Carnivàle will demonstrate how the mode operates, why it is popular among modern storytellers and how it can elevate a show’s cultural status.

  10. 2008 Issues on Serials Policy Formulation for Nigerian University ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gbaje E.S

    research. It is from this current collection of serial resources that efficient service provision could be guaranteed for teaching and research purposes. The librarian glossary of terms defines a serial as any publication issued in successive parts appearing at interval, and as a rule intended to be continued indefinitely.

  11. The Effect of Concurrent Semantic Categorization on Delayed Serial Recall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acheson, Daniel J.; MacDonald, Maryellen C.; Postle, Bradley R.

    2011-01-01

    The influence of semantic processing on the serial ordering of items in short-term memory was explored using a novel dual-task paradigm. Participants engaged in 2 picture-judgment tasks while simultaneously performing delayed serial recall. List material varied in the presence of phonological overlap (Experiments 1 and 2) and in semantic content…

  12. Serials Information on CD-ROM: A Reference Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karch, Linda S.

    1990-01-01

    Describes Ulrich's PLUS (a CD-ROM version of Ulrich's serials directories) and EBSCO's CD-ROM version of "The Serials Directory," and compares the two in terms of their use as reference tools. Areas discussed include database content, user aids, system features, search features, and a comparison of search results. Equipment requirements…

  13. Dynamics of serial position change in probe-recognition task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fifić Mario

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Relationship between practice and serial position effects was investigated, in order to obtain more evidence for underlying short-term memory processes. The investigated relationship is termed the dynamics of serial position change. To address this issue, the present study investigated mean latency, errors, and performed Ex-Gaussian convolution analysis. In six-block trials the probe-recognition task was used in the so-called fast experimental procedure. The serial position effect was significant in all six blocks. Both primacy and recency effects were detected, with primacy located in the first two blocks, producing a non-linear serial position effect. Although the serial position function became linear from the third block on, the convolution analysis revealed a non-linear change of the normal distribution parameter, suggesting special status of the last two serial positions. Further, separation of convolution parameters for serial position and practice was observed, suggesting different underlying mechanisms. In order to account for these findings, a strategy shift mechanism is suggested, rather then a mechanism based on changing the manner of memory scanning. Its influence is primarily located at the very beginning of the experimental session. The pattern of results of errors regarding the dynamics of serial position change closely paralleled those on reaction times. Several models of short-term memory were evaluated in order to account for these findings.

  14. Indexing Serialized Fiction: May the Force Be with You.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Melissa M.

    The adult novel offers indexers an unusual opportunity to create a serialized fiction index. This research paper involved designing and creating a Character Index, Thesaurus, Glossary, and Abstract (with descriptors) for 21 novels based on the "Star Wars" movies. The novels are an unusual example of serialized fiction featuring main…

  15. Antisocial personality disorder, sexual sadism, malignant narcissism, and serial murder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geberth, V J; Turco, R N

    1997-01-01

    This paper examines the research on serial murder and its relationship to antisocial personality disorder and sexual sadism. The concept of malignant narcissism is also discussed. Case studies of serial killers are examined regarding the nature of sexual violation and crime scene behavior.

  16. Serials Management In Polytechnic Libraries in Nigeria: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... management of serials has not enjoyed a corresponding attention from library managers as well as writers in the field of librarianship. Investigation was therefore conducted to appraise serials management practices in two polytechnic libraries. Attention was directed at such specific routines as selection and acquisition of ...

  17. Lao Serial Verb Constructions and Their Event Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Douglas James

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation is an investigation of serial verb constructions in Lao (Tai-Kadai, SVO) and the events that they encode. Serial verb constructions (SVCs), structures where multiple verbs appear in a single clause, raise several important questions for syntactic theory. One issue is how the verbs are related; proposals involving coordination…

  18. 27 CFR 24.260 - Serial numbers or filling date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Storage, Treatment and Finishing of Wine Bottling, Packing, and Labeling of Wine § 24.260 Serial numbers or filling date. Each container larger than four liters or each case used for removing wine for consumption or sale will be marked with a serial number or...

  19. Homogeneous formation of NO and N{sub 2}O from the oxidation of HCN and NH{sub 3} at 600--1000 C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wargadalam, V.J.; Loeffler, G.; Winter, F.; Hofbauer, H.

    2000-03-01

    The oxidation of HCN and NH{sub 3} with CO, CH{sub 4}, or H{sub 2} addition has been studied in the temperature range between 600 to 1,000 C. In most of the tests 10% oxygen was used. The experiments were carried out under well-defined conditions in a flow tube reactor made of quartz glass. The effects of NO addition and oxygen level have been tested. To study the importance of O/H radicals in the reaction mechanism and to confirm previous studies, iodine was added in some tests. A detailed chemical kinetic model was used to analyze the experimental data. In general, the model and experimental results are in good agreement. The results show that under the conditions tested CO significantly promotes NO and N{sub 2}O formation during HCN oxidation. During NH{sub 3} oxidation carbon-containing gaseous species such as CO and CH{sub 4} are important to promote homogeneous NO formation. In the system with CH{sub 4} addition, the conversion of HCN to N{sub 2}O is lower compared to the other systems. In the HCN/NO/CO/O{sub 2} system NO reduction starts at 700 C and the maximum reduction of approx. 40% is obtained at 800 C. For the NH{sub 3}/NO/CO/O{sub 2} system the reduction starts at 750 C and the maximum reduction is 50% at 800 C. Iodine addition shifts the oxidation of HCN, NO, and N{sub 2}O formation as well as NO reduction to higher temperatures. Under the conditions tested, it was found that iodine mainly enhances the recombination of the O-radicals. No effect on NO formation was found in the HCN/CH{sub 4}/O{sub 2} system when oxygen was increased from 6% to 10%, but when oxygen was increased from 2% to 6% NO formation decreased. The role of hydrocarbon radicals in the destruction of NO is likely to become important at low oxygen concentrations (2%) and at high temperatures (1,000 C).

  20. Homogeneous formation of NO and N{sub 2}O from the oxidation of HCN and NH{sub 3} at 600-1000{degree}C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wargadalam, V.J.; Loeffler, G.; Winter, F.; Hofbauer, H. [Vienna University of Technology, Vienna (Austria). Inst. of Chemical Engineering, Fuel Technology and Environmental Technology

    2000-03-01

    The oxidation of HCN and NH{sub 3} with CO, CH{sub 4} or H{sub 2} addition was studied at temperatures between 600 to 1000{degree}C. In most of the tests 10% oxygen was used. The experiments were carried out under well-defined conditions in a flow tube reactor made of quartz glass. The effects of NO addition and oxygen level were tested. To study the importance of O/H radicals in the reaction mechanism and to confirm previous studies, iodine was added in some tests. A chemical kinetic model was used to analyze the experimental data. The model and experimental results are in good agreement. The results show that under the conditions tested CO significantly promotes NO and N{sub 2}O formation during HCN oxidation. During NH{sub 3} oxidation carbon-containing gaseous species such as CO and CH{sub 4} are important in promoting homogeneous NO formation. In the system with CH{sub 4} addition, the conversion of HCN to N{sub 2}O is lower compared to the other systems. In the HCN/NO/CO/O{sub 2} system NO reduction starts at 700{degree}C and the maximum reduction of approx. 40% is obtained at 800{degree}C. For the NH{sub 3}/NO/CO/O{sub 2} system the reduction starts at 75{degree}C and the maximum reduction is 50% at 800{degree}C. Iodine addition shifts the oxidation of HCN, NO, and N{sub 2}O formation as well as NO reduction to higher temperatures. Under the conditions tested, it was found that iodine mainly enhances the recombination of the O-radicals. No effect on NO formation was found in the HCN/CH{sub 4}/O{sub 2} system when oxygen was increased from 6% to 10%, but when oxygen was increased from 2% to 6% NO formation decreased. The role of hydrocarbon radicals in the destruction of NO is likely to become important at low oxygen concentrations (2%) and at high temperatures (1000{degree}C). 47 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Fundamentals for ethanol chronopharmacokinetics in nonstarved, serially sampled rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturtevant, R P; Jacobs, D M; Garber, S L

    1981-01-01

    Fed versus starved rats were investigated for an appropriate model for studying the chronopharmacokinetics of ethanol. A serially independent dosage-sampling regimen was compared with a serially dependent one. Before beginning the pharmacokinetic studies, a number of experimental pharmacologic variables was systematically examined and quantified. When 24-hour starved rats (LD = 12:12 h) were injected intraperitoneally with ethanol at varying intervals during a single 24-hour period in a serially dependent manner, no significant differences in blood-ethanol clearance rates were observed. However, when the same dose was administered to ad-libitum-fed rats in a serially independent study, a prominent circadian rhythm in clearance rates was revealed. Interindividual variance was less with fed rats than with starved ones. These studies indicate that further characterization of this rhythm should employ ad-libitum-fed rats colony (serially independently) sampled.

  2. SERIAL TELEVISI DEXTER SEBAGAI ANAKRONISME DALAM SASTRA POPULER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Rochani Adi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the popular literature context, this study aims to investigate: (1 how the formulation of the characterization of Dexter in the television serial Dexter violates the tradition of literary characterization, and (2 how the formula of moral values is dramatized through Dexter, who is a sociopath, psychopath, serial killer, and person without moral. The research object was the television serial Dexter, which ranks five in popularity in the world. The data were collected by documenting 84 episodes of the serial having been broadcast since 2006. They were analyzed by means of content analysis and qualitative descriptive techniques. Based on the findings, the conclusions are as follows. First, there is a violation or anachronism of characterization through the main character in the serial. Second, the dramatized moral values still contain conventional values although they are in different forms.

  3. A novel 'splice site' HCN4 Gene mutation, c.1737+1 G>T, causes familial bradycardia, reduced heart rate response, impaired chronotropic competence and increased short-term heart rate variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hategan, Lidia; Csányi, Beáta; Ördög, Balázs; Kákonyi, Kornél; Tringer, Annamária; Kiss, Orsolya; Orosz, Andrea; Sághy, László; Nagy, István; Hegedűs, Zoltán; Rudas, László; Széll, Márta; Varró, András; Forster, Tamás; Sepp, Róbert

    2017-08-15

    The most important molecular determinant of heart rate regulation in sino-atrial pacemaker cells includes hyperpolarization-activated, cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channels, the major isoform of which is encoded by the HCN4 gene. Mutations affecting the HCN4 gene are associated primarily with sick sinus syndrome. A novel c.1737+1 G>T 'splice-site' HCN4 mutation was identified in a large family with familial bradycardia which co-segregated with the disease providing a two-point LOD score of 4.87. Twelve out of the 22 investigated family members [4 males, 8 females average age 36 (SD 6) years] were considered as clinically affected (heart ratesite' HCN4 gene mutation, c.1737+1 G>T, causes familial bradycardia and leads to reduced heart rate response, impaired chronotropic competence and increased short-term heart rate variability in the mutation carriers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Task based synthesis of serial manipulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarosh Patel

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Computing the optimal geometric structure of manipulators is one of the most intricate problems in contemporary robot kinematics. Robotic manipulators are designed and built to perform certain predetermined tasks. There is a very close relationship between the structure of the manipulator and its kinematic performance. It is therefore important to incorporate such task requirements during the design and synthesis of the robotic manipulators. Such task requirements and performance constraints can be specified in terms of the required end-effector positions, orientations and velocities along the task trajectory. In this work, we present a comprehensive method to develop the optimal geometric structure (DH parameters of a non-redundant six degree of freedom serial manipulator from task descriptions. In this work we define, develop and test a methodology to design optimal manipulator configurations based on task descriptions. This methodology is devised to investigate all possible manipulator configurations that can satisfy the task performance requirements under imposed joint constraints. Out of all the possible structures, the structures that can reach all the task points with the required orientations are selected. Next, these candidate structures are tested to see whether they can attain end-effector velocities in arbitrary directions within the user defined joint constraints, so that they can deliver the best kinematic performance. Additionally least power consuming configurations are also identified.

  5. A theoretical study of hydrogen complexes of the XH-pi type between propyne and HF, HCL or HCN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Alessandra M; da Silva, Washington L V; Lopes, Kelson C; Ventura, Elizete; Araújo, Regiane C M U; do Monte, Silmar A; da Silva, João Bosco P; Ramos, Mozart N

    2006-05-15

    The present manuscript reports a systematic investigation of the basis set dependence of some properties of hydrogen-bonded (pi type) complexes formed by propyne and a HX molecule, where X=F, Cl and CN. The calculations have been performed at Hartree-Fock, MP2 and B3LYP levels. Geometries, H-bond energies and vibrational have been considered. The more pronounced effects on the structural parameters of the isolated molecules, as a result of complexation, are verified on RCtriple bondC and HX bond lengths. As compared to double-zeta (6-31G**), triple-zeta (6-311G**) basis set leads to an increase of RCtriple bondC bond distance, at all three computational levels. In the case where diffuse functions are added to both hydrogen and 'heavy' atoms, the effect is more pronounced. The propyne-HX structural parameters are quite similar to the corresponding parameters of acetylene-HX complexes, at all levels. The largest difference is obtained for hydrogen bond distance, RH, with a smaller value for propyne-HX complex, indicating a stronger bond. Concerning the electronic properties, the results yield the following ordering for H-bond energies, DeltaE: propynecdots, three dots, centeredHF>propynecdots, three dots, centeredHCl>propynecdots, three dots, centeredHCN. It is also important to point out that the inclusion of BSSE and zero-point energies (ZPE) corrections cause significant changes on DeltaE. The smaller effect of ZPE is obtained for propynecdots, three dots, centeredHCN at HF/6-311++G** level, while the greatest difference is obtained at MP2/6-31G** level for propynecdots, three dots, centeredHF system. Concerning the IR vibrational it was obtained that larger shift can be associated with stronger hydrogen bonds. The more pronounced effect on the normal modes of the isolated molecule after the complexation is obtained for HX stretching frequency, which is shifted downward.

  6. Hydrogen constituents of the mesosphere inferred from positive ions - H2O, CH4, H2CO, H2O2, and HCN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, E.

    1990-01-01

    The concentrations in the mesosphere of H2O, CH4, H2CO, H2O2, and HCN were inferred from data on positive ion compositions, obtained from one mid-latitude and four high-latitude rocket flights. The inferred concentrations were found to agree only partially with the ground-based microwave measurements and/or model prediction by Garcia and Solomon (1985). The CH4 concentration was found to vary between 70 and 4 ppb in daytime and 900 and 100 ppbv at night, respectively. Unexpectedly high H2CO concentrations were obtained, with H2CO/H2O ratios between 0.0006 and 0.1, and a mean HCN volume mixing ratio of 6 x 10 to the -10th was inferred.

  7. Trends and variations in CO, C2H6, and HCN in the Southern Hemisphere point to the declining anthropogenic emissions of CO and C2H6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. B. Jones

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available We analyse the carbon monoxide (CO, ethane (C2H6 and hydrogen cyanide (HCN partial columns (from the ground to 12 km derived from measurements by ground-based solar Fourier Transform Spectroscopy at Lauder, New Zealand (45° S, 170° E, and at Arrival Heights, Antarctica (78° S, 167° E, from 1997 to 2009. Significant negative trends are calculated for all species at both locations, based on the daily-mean observed time series, namely CO (−0.94 ± 0.47% yr−1, C2H6 (−2.37 ± 1.18% yr−1 and HCN (−0.93 ± 0.47% yr−1 at Lauder and CO (−0.92 ± 0.46% yr−1, C2H6 (−2.82 ± 1.37% yr−1 and HCN (−1.41 ± 0.71% yr−1 at Arrival Heights. The uncertainties reflect the 95% confidence limits. However, the magnitudes of the trends are influenced by the anomaly associated with the 1997–1998 El Niño Southern Oscillation event at the beginning of the time series reported. We calculate trends for each month from 1997 to 2009 and find negative trends for all months. The largest monthly trends of CO and C2H6 at Lauder, and to a lesser degree at Arrival Heights, occur during austral spring during the Southern Hemisphere tropical and subtropical biomass burning period. For HCN, the largest monthly trends occur in July and August at Lauder and around November at Arrival Heights. The correlations between CO and C2H6 and between CO and HCN at Lauder in September to November, when the biomass burning maximizes, are significantly larger that those in other seasons. A tropospheric chemistry-climate model is used to simulate CO, C2H6, and HCN partial columns for the period of 1997–2009, using interannually varying biomass burning emissions from GFED3 and annually periodic but seasonally varying emissions from both biogenic and anthropogenic sources. The model-simulated partial columns of these species compare well with the measured partial columns and the model accurately reproduces seasonal cycles of all three species at both locations. However

  8. Processing of nested and cross-serial dependencies: an automaton perspective on SRN behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirov, Christo; Frank, Robert

    2012-03-01

    Language processing involves the identification and establishment of both nested (stack-like) and cross-serial (queue-like) dependencies. This paper analyses the behaviour of simple recurrent networks (SRNs) trained to handle these types of dependency individually and simultaneously. We provide new converging evidence that SRNs store sequences in a fractal data structure similar to a binary expansion. We provide evidence that the process of recalling a stored string by an SRN depletes the stored data structure, much like the operations of a symbolic stack or queue. Trained networks do not seem to operate like random access arrays, where a pointer into a data structure can retrieve data without altering the contents of the data structure. In addition, we demonstrate that networks trained to model both types of dependencies do not implement a more complex, but unified, representation, but rather implement two independent data structures, similar to a stack and queue.

  9. cAMP control of HCN2 channel Mg2+ block reveals loose coupling between the cyclic nucleotide-gating ring and the pore.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex K Lyashchenko

    Full Text Available Hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-regulated HCN channels underlie the Na+-K+ permeable IH pacemaker current. As with other voltage-gated members of the 6-transmembrane KV channel superfamily, opening of HCN channels involves dilation of a helical bundle formed by the intracellular ends of S6 albeit this is promoted by inward, not outward, displacement of S4. Direct agonist binding to a ring of cyclic nucleotide-binding sites, one of which lies immediately distal to each S6 helix, imparts cAMP sensitivity to HCN channel opening. At depolarized potentials, HCN channels are further modulated by intracellular Mg2+ which blocks the open channel pore and blunts the inhibitory effect of outward K+ flux. Here, we show that cAMP binding to the gating ring enhances not only channel opening but also the kinetics of Mg2+ block. A combination of experimental and simulation studies demonstrates that agonist acceleration of block is mediated via acceleration of the blocking reaction itself rather than as a secondary consequence of the cAMP enhancement of channel opening. These results suggest that the activation status of the gating ring and the open state of the pore are not coupled in an obligate manner (as required by the often invoked Monod-Wyman-Changeux allosteric model but couple more loosely (as envisioned in a modular model of protein activation. Importantly, the emergence of second messenger sensitivity of open channel rectification suggests that loose coupling may have an unexpected consequence: it may endow these erstwhile "slow" channels with an ability to exert voltage and ligand-modulated control over cellular excitability on the fastest of physiologically relevant time scales.

  10. The Serial Link Processor for the Fast TracKer (FTK) processor at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Biesuz, Nicolo Vladi; The ATLAS collaboration; Luciano, Pierluigi; Magalotti, Daniel; Rossi, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    The Associative Memory (AM) system of the Fast Tracker (FTK) processor has been designed to perform pattern matching using the hit information of the ATLAS experiment silicon tracker. The AM is the heart of FTK and is mainly based on the use of ASICs (AM chips) designed to execute pattern matching with a high degree of parallelism. The AM system finds track candidates at low resolution that are seeds for a full resolution track fitting. To solve the very challenging data traffic problems inside FTK, multiple board and chip designs have been performed. The currently proposed solution is named the “Serial Link Processor” and is based on an extremely powerful network of 828 2 Gbit/s serial links for a total in/out bandwidth of 56 Gb/s. This paper reports on the design of the Serial Link Processor consisting of two types of boards, the Local Associative Memory Board (LAMB), a mezzanine where the AM chips are mounted, and the Associative Memory Board (AMB), a 9U VME board which holds and exercises four LAMBs. ...

  11. The Serial Link Processor for the Fast TracKer (FTK) processor at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Biesuz, Nicolo Vladi; The ATLAS collaboration; Luciano, Pierluigi; Magalotti, Daniel; Rossi, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    The Associative Memory (AM) system of the Fast Tracker (FTK) processor has been designed to perform pattern matching using the hit information of the ATLAS experiment silicon tracker. The AM is the heart of FTK and is mainly based on the use of ASICs (AM chips) designed on purpose to execute pattern matching with a high degree of parallelism. It finds track candidates at low resolution that are seeds for a full resolution track fitting. To solve the very challenging data traffic problems inside FTK, multiple board and chip designs have been performed. The currently proposed solution is named the “Serial Link Processor” and is based on an extremely powerful network of 2 Gb/s serial links. This paper reports on the design of the Serial Link Processor consisting of two types of boards, the Local Associative Memory Board (LAMB), a mezzanine where the AM chips are mounted, and the Associative Memory Board (AMB), a 9U VME board which holds and exercises four LAMBs. We report on the performance of the intermedia...

  12. The Serial Link Processor for the Fast TracKer (FTK) at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Annovi, A; The ATLAS collaboration; Beccherle, R; Beretta, M; Biesuz, N; Billereau, W; Combe, J M; Citterio, M; Citraro, S; Crescioli, F; Dimas, D; Donati, S; Gentsos, C; Giannetti, P; Kordas, K; Lanza, A; Liberali, V; Luciano, P; Magalotti, D; Neroutsos, P; Nikolaidis, S; Piendibene, M; Rossi, E; Sakellariou, A; Shojaii, S; Sotiropoulou, C-L; Stabile, A; Vulliez, P

    2014-01-01

    The Associative Memory (AM) system of the FTK processor has been designed to perform pattern matching using the hit information of the ATLAS silicon tracker. The AM is the heart of the FTK and it finds track candidates at low resolution that are seeds for a full resolution track fitting. To solve the very challenging data traffic problem inside the FTK, multiple designs and tests have been performed. The currently proposed solution is named the “Serial Link Processor” and is based on an extremely powerful network of 2 Gb/s serial links. This paper reports on the design of the Serial Link Processor consisting of the AM chip, an ASIC designed and optimized to perform pattern matching, and two types of boards, the Local Associative Memory Board (LAMB), a mezzanine where the AM chips are mounted, and the Associative Memory Board (AMB), a 9U VME board which holds and exercises four LAMBs. We report also on the performance of a first prototype based on the use of a min@sic AM chip, a small but complete version ...

  13. The Serial Link Processor for the Fast TracKer (FTK) processor at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Andreani, A; The ATLAS collaboration; Beccherle, R; Beretta, M; Cipriani, R; Citraro, S; Citterio, M; Colombo, A; Crescioli, F; Dimas, D; Donati, S; Giannetti, P; Kordas, K; Lanza, A; Liberali, V; Luciano, P; Magalotti, D; Neroutsos, P; Nikolaidis, S; Piendibene, M; Sakellariou, A; Shojaii, S; Sotiropoulou, C-L; Stabile, A

    2014-01-01

    The Associative Memory (AM) system of the FTK processor has been designed to perform pattern matching using the hit information of the ATLAS silicon tracker. The AM is the heart of the FTK and it finds track candidates at low resolution that are seeds for a full resolution track fitting. To solve the very challenging data traffic problems inside the FTK, multiple designs and tests have been performed. The currently proposed solution is named the “Serial Link Processor” and is based on an extremely powerful network of 2 Gb/s serial links. This paper reports on the design of the Serial Link Processor consisting of the AM chip, an ASIC designed and optimized to perform pattern matching, and two types of boards, the Local Associative Memory Board (LAMB), a mezzanine where the AM chips are mounted, and the Associative Memory Board (AMB), a 9U VME board which holds and exercises four LAMBs. Special relevance will be given to the AMchip design that includes two custom cells optimized for low consumption. We repo...

  14. PORNOGRAFI DALAM SERIAL ANIME ANAK (ANALISIS SEMIOTIKA DALAM SERIAL CRAYON SHIN CHAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - Sangidun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Crayon Shin Chan, a Japanese two-dimension animation series broadcast in one of private Indonesian TVs, is categorized into child’s program since it is broadcast at child’s prime time, Sunday 08.30 a.m. In spite of its broadcast time, this series consist of symbols directed not for children, such as some acts that are not appropriate to be done by children, especially in Indonesia. Moreover, adult symbols of sex are also found in the program. For this reason it will be interesting to analyze it using semiotic analysis. Semiotics is the study of symbol and its meaning which its principle concept is that both signifier and signified consist of symbols and are related to denotation and connotation.   Crayon Shin Chan merupakan serial animasi dua dimensi yang tayang di salah satu stasiun televisi swasta di Indonesia. Ini merupakan produk animasi 2 dimensi yang diimpor dari Jepang. Di Indonesia, serial ini masuk dalam kategori acara anak. Hal ini dapat dilihat dari jam penayangannya yang merupakan waktu prime time bagi anak, yakni pada hari minggu pukul 08.30. Akan tetapi, pada serial ini banyak simbol-simbol yang mengarah pada tayangan yang bukan untuk anak-anak, yakni adeganadegan yang tidak pantas dilakukan oleh anak khususnya di Indonesia. Serta adanya pula simbol-simbol yang mengarah pada tayangan berbau dewasa. Tentu akan menarik jika tayangan ini diteliti menggunakan analisis semiotika. Semiotika sendiri merupakan kajian ilmu mengenai tanda dan makna. Yang pada prinsipnya, konsep penting seperti penanda (signifier dan petanda (signified sama-sama terdiri dari tanda dan terkait dengan denotasi dan konotasi.

  15. Transtornos de personalidade, psicopatia e serial killers Personality disorders, psychopathy and serial killers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilda C P Morana

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Apresentar as características básicas dos diversos transtornos específicos de personalidade, mas centrando-se no transtorno de personalidade anti-social, fazendo sua diferenciação com psicopatia. O estudo ainda se propõe a abordar a figura do serial killer, apontando a presença de aspectos psicopáticos no homicídio seriado. MÉTODO: Uma revisão bibliográfica foi feita no sentido de se abordar convergências e divergências entre diversos autores sobre um assunto tão polêmico, sobretudo quanto à viabilidade de tratamento dessa clientela forense. RESULTADOS: Enquanto o transtorno de personalidade anti-social é um diagnóstico médico, pode-se entender o termo "psicopatia", pertencente à esfera psiquiátrico-forense, como um "diagnóstico legal". Não se pode falar ainda de tratamento eficaz para os chamados "serial killers". CONCLUSÃO: Os transtornos de personalidade, especialmente o tipo anti-social, representam ainda hoje um verdadeiro desafio para a psiquiatria forense. O local mais adequado e justo para seus portadores, bem como recomendação homogênea e padronizada de tratamento são questões ainda não respondidas.OBJECTIVE: To illustrate the basic characteristics of several specific personality disorders, focusing mainly in antisocial personality disorder. The differences between antisocial personality disorder and psychopathy are highlighted. Serial killers and its psychopathic aspects are also discussed. METHOD: A bibliographic review was completed in order to outline convergences and divergences among different authors about this controversial issue, especially those concerning the possibility of treatment. RESULTS: While anti-social personality disorder is a medical diagnosis, the term "psychopathy" (which belongs to the sphere of forensic psychiatry may be understood as a "legal diagnosis". It is not still possible to identify an effective treatment for serial killers. CONCLUSION: Personality disorders

  16. Serials cataloging at the turn of the century

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, James W

    2014-01-01

    An overview of the research topics and trends that have appeared over the last five years, Serials Cataloging at the Turn of the Century doesn't just tell you that there has been a lot of change--that the information environment is something of a chameleon, always beguiling and slipping out of grasp. Instead, it gives you the plain facts on the specific challenges serials catalogers have been facing and how they're meeting adversity head-on, ready to gain the advantage in the rumble with proliferating information and formats.Comprehensive, resource-packed, and easy-to-digest, Serials Catalogin

  17. Serial CSTR digester configuration for improving biogas production from manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boe, Kanokwan; Angelidaki, Irini

    2009-01-01

    A new configuration of manure digesters for improving biogas production has been investigated in laboratory scale. A single thermophilic continuous-flow stirred tank reactor (CSTR) operated with a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 15 days was compared to a serial CSTR configuration with volume...... distribution ratio of 80/20 and 90/10, and total HRT of 15 days. The results showed that the serial CSTR could obtain 11% higher biogas yield compared to the single CSTR. The increased biogas yield in the serial CSTR was mainly from the second reactor, which accounted for 16% and 12% of total biogas yield...

  18. The serial message-passing schedule for LDPC decoding algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mingshan; Liu, Shanshan; Zhou, Yuan; Jiang, Xue

    2015-12-01

    The conventional message-passing schedule for LDPC decoding algorithms is the so-called flooding schedule. It has the disadvantage that the updated messages cannot be used until next iteration, thus reducing the convergence speed . In this case, the Layered Decoding algorithm (LBP) based on serial message-passing schedule is proposed. In this paper the decoding principle of LBP algorithm is briefly introduced, and then proposed its two improved algorithms, the grouped serial decoding algorithm (Grouped LBP) and the semi-serial decoding algorithm .They can improve LBP algorithm's decoding speed while maintaining a good decoding performance.

  19. Automatic registration of serial mammary gland sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arganda-Carreras, Ignacio; Fernandez-Gonzalez, Rodrigo; Ortiz-de-Solorzano, Carlos

    2004-04-13

    We present two new methods for automatic registration of microscope images of consecutive tissue sections. They represent two possibilities for the first step in the 3-D reconstruction of histological structures from serially sectioned tissue blocks. The goal is to accurately align the sections in order to place every relevant shape contained in each image in front of its corresponding shape in the following section before detecting the structures of interest and rendering them in 3D. This is accomplished by finding the best rigid body transformation (translation and rotation) of the image being registered by maximizing a matching function based on the image content correlation. The first method makes use of the entire image information, whereas the second one uses only the information located at specific sites, as determined by the segmentation of the most relevant tissue structures. To reduce computing time, we use a multiresolution pyramidal approach that reaches the best registration transformation in increasing resolution steps. In each step, a subsampled version of the images is used. Both methods rely on a binary image which is a thresholded version of the Sobel gradients of the image (first method) or a set of boundaries manually or automatically obtained that define important histological structures of the sections. Then distance-transform of the binary image is computed. A proximity function is then calculated between the distance image of the image being registered and that of the reference image. The transformation providing a maximum of the proximity function is then used as the starting point of the following step. This is iterated until the registration error lies below a minimum value.

  20. Serial-omics characterization of equine urine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Yuan

    Full Text Available Horse urine is easily collected and contains molecules readily measurable using mass spectrometry that can be used as biomarkers representative of health, disease or drug tampering. This study aimed at analyzing microliter levels of horse urine to purify, identify and quantify proteins, polar metabolites and non-polar lipids. Urine from a healthy 12 year old quarter horse mare on a diet of grass hay and vitamin/mineral supplements with limited pasture access was collected for serial-omics characterization. The urine was treated with methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE and methanol to partition into three distinct layers for protein, non-polar lipid and polar metabolite content from a single liquid-liquid extraction and was repeated two times. Each layer was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography-high resolution tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS to obtain protein sequence and relative protein levels as well as identify and quantify small polar metabolites and lipids. The results show 46 urine proteins, many related to normal kidney function, structural and circulatory proteins as well as 474 small polar metabolites but only 10 lipid molecules. Metabolites were mostly related to urea cycle and ammonia recycling as well as amino acid related pathways, plant diet specific molecules, etc. The few lipids represented triglycerides and phospholipids. These data show a complete mass spectrometry based-omics characterization of equine urine from a single 333 μL mid-stream urine aliquot. These omics data help serve as a baseline for healthy mare urine composition and the analyses can be used to monitor disease progression, health status, monitor drug use, etc.

  1. Structural Insights into the Functional Role of the Hcn Sub-domain of the Receptor-Binding Domain of the Botulinum Neurotoxin Mosaic Serotype C/D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yanfeng; Gardberg, Anna; Edwards, Tom E.; Sankaran, Banumathi; Robinson, Howard; Varnum, Susan M.; Buchko, Garry W.

    2013-07-01

    Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT), the causative agent of the deadly neuroparalytic disease botulism, is the most poisonous protein known for humans. Produced by different strains of the anaerobic bacterium Clostridium botulinum, BoNT effects cellular intoxication via a multistep mechanism executed by the three modules of the activated protein. Endocytosis, the first step of cellular intoxication, is triggered by the ~50 kDa, heavy-chain receptor-binding module (HCR) that is specific for a ganglioside and a protein receptor on neuronal cell surfaces. This dual receptor recognition mechanism between BoNT and the host cell’s membrane is well documented and occurs via specific intermolecular interactions with the C-terminal sub-domain, Hcc, of BoNT-HCR. The N-terminal sub-domain of BoNT-HCR, Hcn, comprises ~50% of BoNT-HCR and adopts a B-sheet jelly roll fold. While suspected in assisting cell surface recognition, no unambiguous function for the Hcn sub-domain in BoNT has been indentified. To obtain insights into the potential function of the Hcn sub-domain in BoNT, the first crystal structure of a BoNT with an organic ligand bound to the Hcn sub-domain has been obtained. Here, we describe the crystal structure of BoNT/CD-HCR determined at 1.70 Å resolution with a tetraethylene glycol (PG4) molecule bound in an hydrophobic cleft between B-strands in the B-sheet jelly fold roll of the Hcn sub-domain. The molecule is completely engulfed in the cleft, making numerous hydrophobic (Y932, S959, W966, and D1042) and hydrophilic (S935, W977, L979, N1013, and I1066) contacts with the protein’s side chain and backbone that may mimic in vivo interactions with the phospholipid membranes on neuronal cell surfaces. A sulfate ion was also observed bound to residues T1176, D1177, K1196, and R1243 in the Hcc sub-domain of BoNT/CD-HCR. In the crystal structure of a similar protein, BoNT/D-HCR, a sialic acid

  2. Fast Grasp Contact Computation for a Serial Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jianying (Inventor); Hargrave, Brian (Inventor); Diftler, Myron A. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A system includes a controller and a serial robot having links that are interconnected by a joint, wherein the robot can grasp a three-dimensional (3D) object in response to a commanded grasp pose. The controller receives input information, including the commanded grasp pose, a first set of information describing the kinematics of the robot, and a second set of information describing the position of the object to be grasped. The controller also calculates, in a two-dimensional (2D) plane, a set of contact points between the serial robot and a surface of the 3D object needed for the serial robot to achieve the commanded grasp pose. A required joint angle is then calculated in the 2D plane between the pair of links using the set of contact points. A control action is then executed with respect to the motion of the serial robot using the required joint angle.

  3. Opportunity recognition: delineating the process and motivators for serial entrepreneurs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Urban

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Opportunity recognition is a fundamental research issue in entrepreneurship which this paper empirically investigates for serial entrepreneurs. Initially key definitions and boundary conditions of opportunity recognition are explored to elucidate the relevant motivators driving serial entrepreneurs. After operationalising the various concepts, data is collected by surveying serial entrepreneurs (n= 77 based on pre-determined selection criteria. Since the study’s objective is to build solid theory on these new phenomena, descriptive analysis on the empirical results is provided. To test the hypotheses inferential statistics employing parametric and non-parametric tests are used. The findings reveal that the opportunity recognition behaviours are manifest among serial entrepreneurs, with few significant differences on how many new, major businesses have been pursued, or whether they can be said to be successes.

  4. Glycol methacrylate: the art of embedding and serial sectioning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yeung, Edward C; Chan, Colin K. W

    2015-01-01

    .... The purpose of our work is to detail some important advancements in the GMA embedding method and discuss different approaches to ensure successful processing and serial sectioning of GMA blocks...

  5. Human cache memory enables ultrafast serial access to spatial representations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liverence, Brandon; Franconeri, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Can remembering ever be as fast as seeing? Prior work suggests not, as both serial (Sternberg, 1966) and logarithmic (Wolfe, 2013) temporal access costs have been observed in memory search for identity information...

  6. Identifying the serial work as a bibliographic entity

    OpenAIRE

    Antelman, Kristin

    2004-01-01

    A solid theoretical foundation has been built over the years exploring the bibliographic work and in developing cataloging rules and practices to describe the work in the traditional catalog. With the increasing prevalence of multiple manifestations of serial titles, as well as tools that automate discovery and retrieval, bibliographic control of serials at a higher level of abstraction is more necessary than ever before. At the same time, models such as IFLA’s Functional Requirements for B...

  7. [A serial killer as exemplified by T. R. Bundy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gałeska-Sliwka, Anita

    2008-01-01

    The question of serial homicides and their perpetrators poses a considerable problem of both a definitional and practical nature. T R. Bundy is the first perpetrator who was officially termed a "serial killer". Since that time, this concept has been commonly used and sometimes even overused, e.g. in reference to mass murderers. However, the definitions established for Bundy's case have been preserved and continue to be used in practice.

  8. The effect of concurrent semantic categorization on delayed serial recall

    OpenAIRE

    Acheson, D.; Postle, B.; Macdonald, M

    2011-01-01

    The influence of semantic processing on the serial ordering of items in short-term memory was explored using a novel dual-task paradigm. Subjects engaged in two picture judgment tasks while simultaneously performing delayed serial recall. List material varied in the presence of phonological overlap (Experiments 1 and 2) and in semantic content (concrete words in Experiment 1 and 3; nonwords in Experiments 2 and 3). Picture judgments varied in the extent to which they required accessing visual...

  9. A Developmental Model of Serial Killers: a retrospective analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Berrie, Elizabeth Anne

    2013-01-01

    Although in 2005 Hickey concluded that serial murder likely results from a combination of ‘predisposition’ and ‘facilitating factors’, he did not describe this predisposition nor did he define ‘facilitating factors’. This research aimed to advance Hickey’s conclusion by setting out the features of this predisposition and creating a model for identifying ‘facilitating factors’. A new developmental model of serial killers was constructed by reformatting an existing military model of killing, ...

  10. Chemical content of the circumstellar envelope of the oxygen-rich AGB star R Doradus. Non-LTE abundance analysis of CO, SiO, and HCN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Sande, M.; Decin, L.; Lombaert, R.; Khouri, T.; de Koter, A.; Wyrowski, F.; De Nutte, R.; Homan, W.

    2018-01-01

    Context. The stellar outflows of low- to intermediate-mass stars are characterised by a rich chemistry. Condensation of molecular gas species into dust grains is a key component in a chain of physical processes that leads to the onset of a stellar wind. In order to improve our understanding of the coupling between the micro-scale chemistry and macro-scale dynamics, we need to retrieve the abundance of molecules throughout the outflow. Aims: Our aim is to determine the radial abundance profile of SiO and HCN throughout the stellar outflow of R Dor, an oxygen-rich AGB star with a low mass-loss rate. SiO is thought to play an essential role in the dust-formation process of oxygen-rich AGB stars. The presence of HCN in an oxygen-rich environment is thought to be due to non-equilibrium chemistry in the inner wind. Methods: We analysed molecular transitions of CO, SiO, and HCN measured with the APEX telescope and all three instruments on the Herschel Space Observatory, together with data available in the literature. Photometric data and the infrared spectrum measured by ISO-SWS were used to constrain the dust component of the outflow. Using both continuum and line radiative transfer methods, a physical envelope model of both gas and dust was established. We performed an analysis of the SiO and HCN molecular transitions in order to calculate their abundances. Results: We have obtained an envelope model that describes the dust and the gas in the outflow, and determined the abundance of SiO and HCN throughout the region of the stellar outflow probed by our molecular data. For SiO, we find that the initial abundance lies between 5.5 × 10-5 and 6.0 × 10-5 with respect to H2. The abundance profile is constant up to 60 ± 10 R∗, after which it declines following a Gaussian profile with an e-folding radius of 3.5 ± 0.5 × 1013 cm or 1.4 ± 0.2 R∗. For HCN, we find an initial abundance of 5.0 × 10-7 with respect to H2. The Gaussian profile that describes the decline

  11. How Do We Write about Performance in Serial Television?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elliott Logan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Television studies has produced few sustained analyses of performance in serial television. Yet film studies scholarship has shown how attending to the integration of performances with other aspects of film style is crucial to the interpretation and appreciation of expression and meaning in filmed narrative fictions. However, as a particle form of filmed serial narrative, series television raises a number of questions about performance that will not necessarily be satisfyingly addressed by the direct adoption and application of approaches to writing about performance that have been honed in regard to film. How, then, do we write about performance in television serials in ways that recognise and accommodate the form’s relationship to film, while at the same time appropriately acknowledging and responding to long-form television’s serial status? To examine the difficulties and opportunities of approaching performance in serial television this way, the article conducts close readings of various pieces of television studies writing on performance, by scholars such as Jason Mittell, Sue Turnbull, George Toles, and Steven Peacock. Their work brings into view film and television’s points of common relation, and the distinctive challenges, achievements, and rewards of appreciating the best television serials, and the performances in them.

  12. Three more semantic serial position functions and a SIMPLE explanation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Matthew R; Neath, Ian; Surprenant, Aimée M

    2013-05-01

    There are innumerable demonstrations of serial position functions-with characteristic primacy and recency effects-in episodic tasks, but there are only a handful of such demonstrations in semantic memory tasks, and those demonstrations have used only two types of stimuli. Here, we provide three more examples of serial position functions when recalling from semantic memory. Participants were asked to reconstruct the order of (1) two cartoon theme song lyrics, (2) the seven Harry Potter books, and (3) two sets of movies, and all three demonstrations yielded conventional-looking serial position functions with primacy and recency effects. The data were well-fit by SIMPLE, a local distinctiveness model of memory that was originally designed to account for serial position effects in short- and long-term episodic memory. According to SIMPLE, serial position functions in both episodic and semantic memory tasks arise from the same type of processing: Items that are more separated from their close neighbors in psychological space at the time of recall will be better remembered. We argue that currently available evidence suggests that serial position functions observed when recalling items that are presumably in semantic memory arise because of the same processes as those observed when recalling items that are presumably in episodic memory.

  13. Development of selective catalytic oxidation (SCO) for NH{sub 3} and HCN removal from gasification gas; Selektiivisen katalyyttisen hapetusprosessin (SCO) kehittaeminen kaasutuskaasun NH{sub 3}:n ja HCN:n poistoon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leppaelahti, J.; Koljonen, T.; Heiskanen, K. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1997-10-01

    In gasification, reactive nitrogen compounds (mainly NH{sub 3} and HCN) are formed from fuel nitrogen. If the gas containing NH{sub 3} is burned, a high NO{sub x} emission may be formed. The content of nitrogen compounds of the hot gasification gas could be reduced in Selective Catalytic Oxidation (SCO) process. In this process small amounts of reactive oxidisers are injected into the gas in order to convert NH{sub 3} to N{sub 2}. The utilization of SCO process together with low NO{sub x} burners in advanced gasification power stations might offer an alternative for flue gas treatment technologies like SCR (Selective Catalytic Reduction). In the earlier research, conditions were found, where oxidizers reacted selectively with ammonia in the gasification gas. Highest ammonia reduction took place in the aluminium oxide bed in the presence of NO and O{sub 2}. The aim of this study is to examine the reaction mechanism in order to be able to further evaluate the development possibilities of this kind process. The effect of composition and the amount of added oxidizer, the content of combustible gas components, space velocity, pressure and temperature will be studied. The experiments are carried out with the laboratory scale high pressure flow reactor of VTT Energy. Kinetic modelling of the experimental results is carried out in co-operation with the combustion chemistry group of Aabo Akademi. The aim of the modelling work is to bring insight to the gas-phase reactions that are important for the SCO-process. (orig.)

  14. “It’s Always the Same, and It’s Always Different” Mythologisation and the Serial Killer in Henry: Portrait of a Serial Killer.

    OpenAIRE

    Smyth, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Serial killers are important in American horror because of their ability to exist between ‘myth’ and ‘reality’. The serial killer is one of the most important American myths, but it is one firmly rooted in real life: unlike Paul Bunyan or Superman, serial killers do exist. This essay examines the relationship between the ‘myth’ and the ‘reality’ of serial killers, and the complex relationship between the American public and the serial killer, using Henry: Portrait of a Serial K...

  15. Microfluidic serial digital to analog pressure converter for arbitrary pressure generation and contamination-free flow control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Feiqiao; Horowitz, Mark A; Quake, Stephen R

    2013-05-21

    Multilayer microfluidics based on PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane) soft lithography have offered parallelism and integration for biological and chemical sciences, where reduction in reaction volume and consistency of controlled variables across experiments translate into reduced cost, increased quantity and quality of data. One issue with push up or push down microfluidic control concept is the inability to provide multiple control pressures without adding more complex and expensive external pressure controls. We present here a microfluidic serial DAC (Digital to Analog Converter) that can be integrated with any PDMS device to expand the device's functionality by effectively adding an on-chip pressure regulator. The microfluidic serial DAC can be used with any incompressible fluids and operates in a similar fashion compared to an electronic serial DAC. It can be easily incorporated into any existing multilayer microfluidic devices, and the output pressure that the device generates could be held for extensive times. We explore in this paper various factors that affect resolution, speed, and linearity of the DAC output. As an application, we demonstrate microfluidic DAC's ability for on-chip manipulation of flow resistance when integrated with a simple flow network. In addition, we illustrate an added advantage of using the microfluidic serial DAC in preventing back flow and possible contamination.

  16. Hardware Implementation of Serially Concatenated PPM Decoder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moision, Bruce; Hamkins, Jon; Barsoum, Maged; Cheng, Michael; Nakashima, Michael

    2009-01-01

    A prototype decoder for a serially concatenated pulse position modulation (SCPPM) code has been implemented in a field-programmable gate array (FPGA). At the time of this reporting, this is the first known hardware SCPPM decoder. The SCPPM coding scheme, conceived for free-space optical communications with both deep-space and terrestrial applications in mind, is an improvement of several dB over the conventional Reed-Solomon PPM scheme. The design of the FPGA SCPPM decoder is based on a turbo decoding algorithm that requires relatively low computational complexity while delivering error-rate performance within approximately 1 dB of channel capacity. The SCPPM encoder consists of an outer convolutional encoder, an interleaver, an accumulator, and an inner modulation encoder (more precisely, a mapping of bits to PPM symbols). Each code is describable by a trellis (a finite directed graph). The SCPPM decoder consists of an inner soft-in-soft-out (SISO) module, a de-interleaver, an outer SISO module, and an interleaver connected in a loop (see figure). Each SISO module applies the Bahl-Cocke-Jelinek-Raviv (BCJR) algorithm to compute a-posteriori bit log-likelihood ratios (LLRs) from apriori LLRs by traversing the code trellis in forward and backward directions. The SISO modules iteratively refine the LLRs by passing the estimates between one another much like the working of a turbine engine. Extrinsic information (the difference between the a-posteriori and a-priori LLRs) is exchanged rather than the a-posteriori LLRs to minimize undesired feedback. All computations are performed in the logarithmic domain, wherein multiplications are translated into additions, thereby reducing complexity and sensitivity to fixed-point implementation roundoff errors. To lower the required memory for storing channel likelihood data and the amounts of data transfer between the decoder and the receiver, one can discard the majority of channel likelihoods, using only the remainder in

  17. A Half-duplex Synchronous Serial Fieldbus S2CAN with Multi-host Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu-Fei SUN

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a field bus of which the physical layer using CAN (Controller Area Network transmission line and the data link layer using SPI (Serial Peripheral Interface interface protocol. It uses half-duplex transmission mode, which can be used to build a LAN (Local Area Network control system with multi-host structure. The bus takes advantage of the electrical characteristics of CAN transmission line, inheriting its anti-interference ability and the advantage of long transmission distance. Also, it inherits the merits of SPI bus in fast communication, simple use and low cost. The paper describes the communication protocol and hardware and software implementation of the novel fieldbus and gives the experimental data and test results to verify the feasibility of the novel fieldbus and excellent communication characteristics.

  18. Genetic programming and serial processing for time series classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfaro-Cid, Eva; Sharman, Ken; Esparcia-Alcázar, Anna I

    2014-01-01

    This work describes an approach devised by the authors for time series classification. In our approach genetic programming is used in combination with a serial processing of data, where the last output is the result of the classification. The use of genetic programming for classification, although still a field where more research in needed, is not new. However, the application of genetic programming to classification tasks is normally done by considering the input data as a feature vector. That is, to the best of our knowledge, there are not examples in the genetic programming literature of approaches where the time series data are processed serially and the last output is considered as the classification result. The serial processing approach presented here fills a gap in the existing literature. This approach was tested in three different problems. Two of them are real world problems whose data were gathered for online or conference competitions. As there are published results of these two problems this gives us the chance to compare the performance of our approach against top performing methods. The serial processing of data in combination with genetic programming obtained competitive results in both competitions, showing its potential for solving time series classification problems. The main advantage of our serial processing approach is that it can easily handle very large datasets.

  19. The relationship between serial sexual murder and autoerotic asphyxiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Wade C; Bukhanovskiy, Alexandr; Justen, Elle; Morton, Robert J; Tilley, John; Adams, Kenneth; Vandagriff, Virgil L; Hazelwood, Robert R

    2008-04-07

    This case series documents and examines the association between autoerotic asphyxiation, sadomasochism, and serial sexual murderers. Autoerotic asphyxiation, along with other paraphilias found in this population, is reviewed. Five cases of serial sexual killers who engaged in autoerotic asphyxiation were identified worldwide: four from the United States and one from Russia. Case reports for each are provided. All (100%) were found to have sexual sadism in addition to autoerotic asphyxiation. Furthermore, two (40%) had bondage fetishism, and two (40%) had transvestic fetishism, consistent with these paraphilias co-occurring in those with autoerotic asphyxiation. Overall the group averaged 4.0 lifetime paraphilias. Some possible relationships were observed between the offenders' paraphilic orientation and their modus operandi, e.g., all of these serial killers strangled victims-suggesting an association between their sadistic and asphyxiative paraphilic interests. The overlap of seemingly polar opposite paraphilias in this sample--sexual sadism and autoerotic asphyxiation--is explored from a historical and clinical perspective. Multiple commonalities shared between these five offenders and serial sexual murderers in general are addressed. A primary limitation of this study is its small sample size and empirical basis; the results may not be generalizable beyond the sample. The findings from this study support the supposition that crime scene behaviors often reflect paraphilic disturbances in those who commit serial sexual homicides.

  20. The influence of zinc hydroxystannate on reducing toxic gases (CO, NO{sub x} and HCN) generation and fire hazards of thermoplastic polyurethane composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Bibo; Sheng, Haibo [State Key Laboratory of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, Anhui 230026 (China); Shi, Yongqian [State Key Laboratory of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, Anhui 230026 (China); Suzhou Key Laboratory of Urban Public Safety, Suzhou Institute for Advanced Study, University of Science and Technology of China, Jiangsu, Suzhou 215123 (China); Song, Lei [State Key Laboratory of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, Anhui 230026 (China); Zhang, Yan [State Key Laboratory of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, Anhui 230026 (China); Suzhou Key Laboratory of Urban Public Safety, Suzhou Institute for Advanced Study, University of Science and Technology of China, Jiangsu, Suzhou 215123 (China); Hu, Yuan, E-mail: yuanhu@ustc.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, Anhui 230026 (China); Suzhou Key Laboratory of Urban Public Safety, Suzhou Institute for Advanced Study, University of Science and Technology of China, Jiangsu, Suzhou 215123 (China); Hu, Weizhao, E-mail: hwz1988@ustc.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, Anhui 230026 (China)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • The ZnHS could significantly enhance the mechanical properties of the TPU composites. • ZnHS has excellent smoke suppression and reduction the HRR for TPU composites. • ZnHS shows significant decrease in CO, HCN, NO{sub x} for TPU composites. • These improvements are due to charring and catalytic degradation the toxic gases. - Abstract: A uniform zinc hydroxystannate (ZnHS) microcube was synthesized to reduce toxicity and fire hazards of thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) composites using ammonium polyphosphate as a flame retardant agent. The structure, morphology and thermal properties of ZnHS were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and thermogravimetric analysis, respectively. Smoke suppression properties and synergistic flame retardant effect of ZnHS on flame retardant TPU composites were intensively investigated by smoke density test, cone calorimeter test, and thermalgravimetric analysis. Thermogravimetric analysis/infrared spectrometry and tube furnace were employed to evaluate the toxic gases (CO, NO{sub x} and HCN) of TPU composites. The incorporation of ZnHS into TPU matrix effectively improved the fire safety and restrained the smoke density, which is attributed to that the char residue catalyzed by ZnHS enhanced barrier effect that reduced peak heat release rate, total heat release, smoke particles and organic volatiles during combustion. Furthermore, the ZnHS synergist demonstrated high efficiency in catalytic degradation of the toxic gases, which obviously decreased total volatiled product and toxic volatiles evolved, such as the CO, HCN and NO{sub x}, indicating suppressed toxicity of the TPU composites.

  1. Molecular Reconnaissance of the β Pictoris Gas Disk with the SMA: A Low HCN/(CO+CO2) Outgassing Ratio and Predictions for Future Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matrà, L.; Wilner, D. J.; Öberg, K. I.; Andrews, S. M.; Loomis, R. A.; Wyatt, M. C.; Dent, W. R. F.

    2018-02-01

    The exocometary origin of CO gas has been confirmed in several extrasolar Kuiper belts, with CO ice abundances consistent with solar system comets. We here present a molecular survey of the β Pictoris belt with the Submillimeter Array (SMA), reporting upper limits for CN, HCN, HCO+, N2H+, and H2CO, as well as for H2S, CH3OH, SiO, and DCN from archival ALMA data. Nondetections can be attributed to rapid molecular photodissociation due to the A-star’s strong UV flux. CN is the longest lasting and most easily detectable molecule after CO in this environment. We update our nonlocal thermodynamic equilibrium excitation model to include UV fluorescence, finding it plays a key role in CO and CN excitation, and we use it to turn the SMA CN/CO flux ratio constraint into an upper limit of value is consistent with, but at the low end of, the broad range observed in solar system comets. If sublimation dominates outgassing, then this low value may be caused by decreased outgassing for the less volatile molecule HCN compared to CO. If instead UV photodesorption or collisional vaporization of unbound grains dominates outgassing, then this low ratio of rates would imply a low ice abundance ratio, which would in turn indicate a variation in cometary cyanide abundances across planetary systems. To conclude, we make predictions for future molecular surveys and show that CN and HCN should be readily detectable with ALMA around β Pictoris for solar-system-like exocometary compositions.

  2. Effects of ZD7288, a hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channel blocker, on term-pregnant rat uterine contractility in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alotaibi, Mohammed; Kahlat, Karima; Nedjadi, Taoufik; Djouhri, Laiche

    2017-03-01

    The uterus is a myogenic organ that is able to produce discrete spontaneous action potentials and contractions without any stimuli. Myometrial excitability is governed by ion channels including Ca+2 and K+ channels, but whether or not other channels such as hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels, which play an important role in regulating cellular excitability, are also involved has not been reported in uterine smooth muscles. The aim of the present study was to examine whether blocking HCN channels with a specific blocker ZD7288 would modulate the uterine contractility in a rat model. Using longitudinal uterine strips from term-pregnant rats, the effects of varying concentrations of ZD7288 (50 μM, 100 μM, and 200 μM) were examined on uterine contractions generated spontaneously or by oxytocin (5 nmol/L) and on uterine strips depolarized by high-KCl (60 mM/L), or activated by L-type Ca2+ channels agonist (Bay K8644; 1 μM). Application of ZD7288 at concentrations of 200 μM and 100 μM, but not 50 μM, significantly decreased the amplitude of spontaneous uterine contractions. In addition, 200 μM of ZD7288 significantly reduced the force of contractions induced by oxytocin with a pronounced reduction while the tissues were depolarized by high-KCl solution, or activated by Bay K8644. The present study provides pharmacological evidence suggesting that pregnant uterine contractility is modulated by HCN channels and that these channels might represent a therapeutic target for controlling premature activation of uterine activity associated with preterm labor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. On extending parallelism to serial simulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicol, David; Heidelberger, Philip

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes an approach to discrete event simulation modeling that appears to be effective for developing portable and efficient parallel execution of models of large distributed systems and communication networks. In this approach, the modeler develops submodels using an existing sequential simulation modeling tool, using the full expressive power of the tool. A set of modeling language extensions permit automatically synchronized communication between submodels; however, the automation requires that any such communication must take a nonzero amount off simulation time. Within this modeling paradigm, a variety of conservative synchronization protocols can transparently support conservative execution of submodels on potentially different processors. A specific implementation of this approach, U.P.S. (Utilitarian Parallel Simulator), is described, along with performance results on the Intel Paragon.

  4. Nitric Oxide Modulates HCN Channels in Magnocellular Neurons of the Supraoptic Nucleus of Rats by an S-Nitrosylation-Dependent Mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires da Silva, Melina; de Almeida Moraes, Davi José; Mecawi, André de Souza; Rodrigues, José Antunes; Varanda, Wamberto Antonio

    2016-11-02

    The control of the excitability in magnocellular neurosecretory cells (MNCs) of the supraoptic nucleus has been attributed mainly to synaptic inputs from circunventricular organs. However, nitric oxide (NO), a gaseous messenger produced in this nucleus during isotonic and short-term hypertonic conditions, is an example of a modulator that can act directly on MNCs to modulate their firing rate. NO inhibits the electrical excitability of MNCs, leading to a decrease in the release of vasopressin and oxytocin. Although the effects of NO on MNCs are well established, the mechanism by which this gas produces its effect is, so far, unknown. Because NO acts independently of synaptic inputs, we hypothesized that ion channels present in MNCs are the targets of NO. To investigate this hypothesis, we used the patch-clamp technique in vitro and in situ to measure currents carried by hyperpolarization-activated and nucleotide-gated cation (HCN) channels and establish their role in determining the electrical excitability of MNCs in rats. Our results show that blockade of HCN channels by ZD7288 decreases MNC firing rate with significant consequences on the release of OT and VP, measured by radioimmunoassay. NO induced a significant reduction in HCN currents by binding to cysteine residues and forming S-nitrosothiol complexes. These findings shed new light on the mechanisms that control the electrical excitability of MNCs via the nitrergic system and strengthen the importance of HCN channels in the control of hydroelectrolyte homeostasis. Cells in our organism live in a liquid environment whose composition and osmolality are maintained within tight limits. Magnocellular neurons (MNCs) of the supra optic nucleus can sense osmolality and control the synthesis and secretion of vasopressin (VP) and oxytocin (OT) by the neurohypophysis. OT and VP act on the kidneys controlling the excretion of water and sodium to maintain homeostasis. Here we combined electrophysiology, molecular

  5. Numerical discrepancy between serial and MPI parallel computations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Bong Lee

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Numerical simulations of 1D Burgers equation and 2D sloshing problem were carried out to study numerical discrepancy between serial and parallel computations. The numerical domain was decomposed into 2 and 4 subdomains for parallel computations with message passing interface. The numerical solution of Burgers equation disclosed that fully explicit boundary conditions used on subdomains of parallel computation was responsible for the numerical discrepancy of transient solution between serial and parallel computations. Two dimensional sloshing problems in a rectangular domain were solved using OpenFOAM. After a lapse of initial transient time sloshing patterns of water were significantly different in serial and parallel computations although the same numerical conditions were given. Based on the histograms of pressure measured at two points near the wall the statistical characteristics of numerical solution was not affected by the number of subdomains as much as the transient solution was dependent on the number of subdomains.

  6. Violent cultural factors and serial homicide by males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFronzo, James; Prochnow, Jane

    2004-02-01

    Explaining the phenomenon of male serial homicide has usually been approached from a psychiatric perspective. However, recent integrative theory suggests that cultural factors may play a role in shaping the psychology of young males with particular psychiatric and possibly neurological vulnerabilities in such ways as to facilitate converting the motivation to kill into actual behavior. Present results indicated that 34-45% of the interstate variation in rates of serial killer activity could be accounted for by three dimensions of local culture. Higher rates of male serial killer activity were associated with a local state culture supportive of game hunting and military training and a local culture supportive of punitive violence. The findings must be viewed with caution since societal variables are complex and the results are based on correlations which cannot be causally interpreted without more direct evidence of validity.

  7. Serial powering for the upgrades of the ATLAS pixel detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbero, Marlon; Gonella, Laura; Huegging, Fabian; Krueger, Hans; Wermes, Norbert [Physikalisches Institut, Univ. Bonn, Nussallee 12, 53115 Bonn (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    A serial powering scheme is proposed for the upgrades of the ATLAS pixel detector at the High Luminosity (HL-)LHC, to provide an efficient and low material power distribution. The main regulation element is the Shunt-LDO regulator, a new regulator concept designed to meet the requirements of serially powered detector systems. The Shunt-LDO working principle was successfully demonstrated with two prototypes, and two Shunt-LDO regulators are integrated in the new ATLAS pixel FE (Front-End) chip, the FE-I4. Results of the characterization of the regulators in FE-I4 are shown, and the chip performance is compared for different powering options, with and without regulators. At the same time a serial powering demonstrator is being developed. This will include a chain of four 2-chips pixel modules, AC-coupled data transmission, dedicated HV distribution scheme, and possibly a stave protection chip. Results on the stave demonstrator are presented as well.

  8. A combination strategy for tracking the serial criminal

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Chuan; Zhang, Yuan-Biao; Wan, Jiadi; Yu, Wenjing

    2010-08-01

    We build a Geographic Profiling Model to generate the criminal's geographical profile, by combining two complementary strategies: the Spatial Distribution Strategy and the Probability Distance Strategy. In the first strategy, we designate the mean of all the known crime sites as the anchor point, and build a Standard Deviational Ellipse Model, considering the effect of landscape. In the second strategy, we take many factors such as the buffer zone and distance decay theory into consideration and calculate the probability of the offender's residence in a certain area by using the Bayesian Theorem and the Rossmo Algorithm. Then, we combine the result of two strategies and get three search areas suit different conditions of the police to track the serial criminal. Apply the model to the English serial killer Peter Sutcliffe's case, the calculation result shows that the model can effectively be used to track serial criminal.

  9. S3-1: The Serial Dependence of Visual Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Whitney

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In our moment-to-moment perceptual experience, visual scenes can change, but objects rarely spontaneously come into or out of existence. The visual system may therefore delicately balance the need to optimize sensitivity to image changes (e.g., by adapting to changes in color, orientation, object identity, etc with the desire to represent the temporal continuity of objects—the likelihood that objects perceived at this moment tend to exist in subsequent moments. One way that the visual system may promote such stability is through the introduction of serial dependence to visual perception: by biasing the current percept toward what was seen at previous moments, the brain could compensate for variability in visual input that might otherwise disrupt perceptual continuity. Here, in two sets of experiments, we tested for serial dependence in visual perception of orientation and facial expression. We found that on a given trial, a subject's perception of the orientation of a grating reflected not only the currently viewed stimulus, but also a systematic attraction toward the orientations of the previously viewed stimuli. We found the same serial dependence in the perception of facial expression. This perceptual attraction extended over several trials and seconds, and displayed clear tuning to the difference (in orientation or facial expression between the sequential stimuli. Furthermore, serial dependence in object perception was spatially specific and selective to the attended object within a scene. Several control experiments showed that the perceptual serial dependence we report cannot be explained by effects of priming, known hysteresis effects, visual short-term memory, or expectation. Our results reveal a systematic influence of recent visual experiences on perception at any given moment: visual percepts, even of unambiguous stimuli, are attracted toward what was previously seen. We propose that such serial dependence helps to maintain

  10. The stand-alone test and decreasing serial cost sharing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Thorlund-Petersen, Lars

    2000-01-01

    The rule of decreasing serial cost sharing defined in de Frutos [1] over the class of concave cost functions may violate the important stand-alone test. Sufficient conditions for the test to be satisfied are given, in terms of individual rationality as well as coalitional stability. These conditi......The rule of decreasing serial cost sharing defined in de Frutos [1] over the class of concave cost functions may violate the important stand-alone test. Sufficient conditions for the test to be satisfied are given, in terms of individual rationality as well as coalitional stability....... These conditions restrict the shape of the cost function and the distribution of demands...

  11. In situ serial Laue diffraction on a microfluidic crystallization device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Sarah L; Guha, Sudipto; Pawate, Ashtamurthy S; Henning, Robert; Kosheleva, Irina; Srajer, Vukica; Kenis, Paul J A; Ren, Zhong

    2014-12-01

    Renewed interest in room-temperature diffraction has been prompted by the desire to observe structural dynamics of proteins as they function. Serial crystallography, an experimental strategy that aggregates small pieces of data from a large uniform pool of crystals, has been demonstrated at synchrotrons and X-ray free-electron lasers. This work utilizes a microfluidic crystallization platform for serial Laue diffraction from macroscopic crystals and proposes that a collection of small slices of Laue data from many individual crystals is a realistic solution to the difficulties in dynamic studies of irreversible biochemical reactions.

  12. Microfluidics: From crystallization to serial time-resolved crystallography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuo Sui

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Capturing protein structural dynamics in real-time has tremendous potential in elucidating biological functions and providing information for structure-based drug design. While time-resolved structure determination has long been considered inaccessible for a vast majority of protein targets, serial methods for crystallography have remarkable potential in facilitating such analyses. Here, we review the impact of microfluidic technologies on protein crystal growth and X-ray diffraction analysis. In particular, we focus on applications of microfluidics for use in serial crystallography experiments for the time-resolved determination of protein structural dynamics.

  13. Freeing the Serial Mechanism Designer from Inverse Kinematic Solvability Constraints

    OpenAIRE

    Friedman, Diana C. W.; Tim Kowalewski; Radivoje Jovanovic; Jacob Rosen; Blake Hannaford

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a fast numerical solution for the inverse kinematics of a serial manipulator. The method is implemented on the C-arm, a manipulator designed for use in robotic surgery. The inverse kinematics solution provides all possible solutions for any six degree-of-freedom serial manipulator, assuming that the forward kinematics are known and that it is possible to solve for the remaining joint angles if one joint angle’s value is known. With a fast numerical method and the current l...

  14. Measures of serial extremal dependence and their estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davis, Richard A.; Mikosch, Thomas Valentin; Zhao, Yuwei

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this paper is two-fold: (1) We review classical and recent measures of serial extremal dependence in a strictly stationary time series as well as their estimation. (2) We discuss recent concepts of heavy-tailed time series, including regular variation and max-stable processes. Serial...... extremal dependence is typically characterized by clusters of exceedances of high thresholds in the series. We start by discussing the notion of extremal index of a univariate sequence, i.e. the reciprocal of the expected cluster size, which has attracted major attention in the extremal value literature...

  15. Webseries, Orginal Series and Digital Series: The Forms of Serial Fiction on the Web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirko Lino

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this essay is to provide through an historical perspective an analysis of the morphologies of seriality in the web, from its origins to the latest linguistic and formal developments. The subject of this essay is the webseries: a webnative serialized fiction which, although it located several formal correspondences with the model of the TV series at the same time it differs significantly from them. Starting from the appropriation of models and forms of television series, nowadays the webseries stand at the center of the communicational and symbolic transformations that cross the way we communicate, relate and watch the stories in the era of convergence (Jenkins, 2007, within a post-media condition (Eugeni, 2015, and in a culture that always looks straight on the production of hybrid forms (Arcagni, 2016. Webseries is not only a simple model for the serial storytelling, but a format that hybridizes entertainment places making the difference between offline and online series increasingly nuanced, for example like in the cases of Amazon and Netflix’ series. Therefore webseries become one of the formats with which to experiment the languages and narrative forms connected with the last generation of immersive media. In the essay I will try to trace the new forms of webseries in relation to communicational development taken from social networks and from the technology of wereable media as the device for Virtual Reality, in order to draw guidelines for understanding the next horizon of digital storytelling. To do this, I’m going to propose terminological and conceptual change: to adopt the term "digital series" in place of the traditional and insufficient terms of webseries or original series.

  16. Serial measurements of serum human placental lactogen (hPL) and serial ultrasound examinations in the evaluation of fetal growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Steen; von Tabouillot, D; Schioler, V

    2000-01-01

    was associated with a trend towards low and decreasing hPL and with an increasing intrauterine growth velocity and birth weight deviation. In conclusion the rate of change of serial hPL measurements correlated well to intrauterine fetal growth velocity in the third trimester as estimated by ultrasound......Serial serum hPL measurements and serial ultrasound fetometry were compared in the evaluation of fetal growth by relating these two parameters to size at birth and to clinical factors known to influence size at birth. The data were from a prospective study of 1000 consecutive pregnant women...... considered to be at risk for fetal growth retardation with retrospective analysis. Serum hPL was measured by radioimmunoassay and fetal weight estimated by ultrasound every 3 weeks during the last trimester. hPL values were expressed as multiples of the median (MoM) and linear regression analysis of the h...

  17. Optimizing stochastic gradient descent algorithms for serially addressed adaptive-optics wavefront modulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpkins, Travis; Hui, Jeremy; Warde, Cardinal

    2007-10-20

    High-resolution adaptive-optical systems with thousands to millions of pixels will most likely have to employ serial- or matrix-addressed spatial light modulators (e.g., microelectromechanical-system-on-VLSI spatial light modulators). We compare parallel gradient descent adaptive-optics algorithms with serial gradient descent algorithms running on serially addressed modulators. While serial algorithms have previously been shown to require more iterations than parallel algorithms, we show that, because of the limitations of the databus, each serial iteration of the algorithm on a serial modulator requires significantly less time to complete than a parallel iteration, thereby favoring the serial algorithm when time to convergence is used as the performance metric. Thus, such high-resolution serially addressed devices are generally better matched to the serial-update wavefront correction algorithm owing to the data load penalty imposed by the bandwidth-limited databus of these modulators.

  18. Serial measurements of serum human placental lactogen (hPL) and serial ultrasound examinations in the evaluation of fetal growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Steen; von Tabouillot, D; Schioler, V

    2000-01-01

    Serial serum hPL measurements and serial ultrasound fetometry were compared in the evaluation of fetal growth by relating these two parameters to size at birth and to clinical factors known to influence size at birth. The data were from a prospective study of 1000 consecutive pregnant women...... weakly to intrauterine growth velocity (r=0.08). hPL-slope and intrauterine growth velocity independently predicted birth weight deviation. Heavy smoking which was stopped before the third trimester was not associated with low intrauterine growth velocity, but with a low hPL-slope. Preeclampsia...

  19. Final girl vs. serial Killer: a psychoanalytical analysis of female victim-heroes in serial killer films

    OpenAIRE

    Özgenalp, Nur

    2006-01-01

    113 pages The aim of this study is to understand the role of female protagonists in serial killer movies.This dissertation analyzes In the Cut (Campion, 2003), Taking Lives (Caruso, 2004) and MaryReilly (Frears, 1996) as an example of films which have a specific common quality. Startingwith The Silence of the Lambs (Demme, 1991), there has been a substantial increase in thenumber of films that tell the story of male serial killers who are investigated by females. Filmswith same identical p...

  20. Fluoxetine ameliorates cognitive impairments induced by chronic cerebral hypoperfusion via down-regulation of HCN2 surface expression in the hippocampal CA1 area in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Pan; Zhang, Xiaoxue; Lu, Yun; Chen, Cheng; Li, Changjun; Zhou, Mei; Lu, Qing; Xu, Xulin; Shen, Guanxin; Guo, Lianjun

    2016-01-01

    Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH) causes cognitive impairments and increases the risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VD) through several biologically plausible pathways, yet the underlying neurobiological mechanisms are still poorly understood. In this study, we investigated whether fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), could play a neuroprotective role against chronic cerebral hypoperfusion injury and to clarify underlying mechanisms of its efficacy. Rats were subjected to permanent bilateral occlusion of the common carotid arteries (two-vessel occlusion, 2VO). Two weeks later, rats were treated with 30 mg/kg fluoxetine (intragastric injection, i.g.) for 6 weeks. Cognitive function was evaluated by Morris water maze (MWM) and novel objects recognition (NOR) test. Long-term potentiation (LTP) was used to address the underlying synaptic mechanisms. Western blotting was used to quantify the protein levels. Our results showed that fluoxetine treatment significantly improved the cognitive impairments caused by 2VO, accompanied with a reversion of 2VO-induced inhibitory of LTP. Furthermore, 2VO caused an up-regulation of hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated channel 2 (HCN2) surface expressions in the hippocampal CA1 area and fluoxetine also effectively recovered the disorder of HCN2 surface expressions, which may be a possible mechanism that fluoxetine treatment ameliorates cognitive impairments in rats with CCH. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A new ab initio potential energy surface for the collisional excitation of HCN by para- and ortho-H{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denis-Alpizar, Otoniel, E-mail: otonieldenisalpizar@gmail.com [Université de Bordeaux, ISM, CNRS UMR 5255, 33405 Talence Cedex (France); Departamento de Física, Universidad de Matanzas, Matanzas 40100 (Cuba); Kalugina, Yulia [LOMC - UMR 6294, CNRS-Université du Havre, 25 rue Philippe Lebon, BP 540, 76058, Le Havre (France); Department of Optics and Spectroscopy, Tomsk State University, 36 Lenin av., Tomsk 634050 (Russian Federation); Stoecklin, Thierry [Université de Bordeaux, ISM, CNRS UMR 5255, 33405 Talence Cedex (France); Vera, Mario Hernández [LOMC - UMR 6294, CNRS-Université du Havre, 25 rue Philippe Lebon, BP 540, 76058, Le Havre (France); Instituto Superior de Tecnologías y Ciencias Aplicadas, Quinta de Los Molinos, Plaza, La Habana 10600 (Cuba); Lique, François, E-mail: francois.lique@univ-lehavre.fr [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Matanzas, Matanzas 40100 (Cuba)

    2013-12-14

    We present a new four-dimensional potential energy surface for the collisional excitation of HCN by H{sub 2}. Ab initio calculations of the HCN–H{sub 2} van der Waals complex, considering both molecules as rigid rotors, were carried out at the explicitly correlated coupled cluster with single, double, and perturbative triple excitations [CCSD(T)-F12a] level of theory using an augmented correlation-consistent triple zeta (aVTZ) basis set. The equilibrium structure is linear HCN–H{sub 2} with the nitrogen pointing towards H{sub 2} at an intermolecular separation of 7.20 a{sub 0}. The corresponding well depth is −195.20 cm{sup −1}. A secondary minimum of −183.59 cm{sup −1} was found for a T-shape configuration with the H of HCN pointing to the center of mass of H{sub 2}. We also determine the rovibrational energy levels of the HCN–para-H{sub 2} and HCN–ortho-H{sub 2} complexes. The calculated dissociation energies for the para and ortho complexes are 37.79 cm{sup −1} and 60.26 cm{sup −1}, respectively. The calculated ro-vibrational transitions in the HCN–H{sub 2} complex are found to agree by more than 0.5% with the available experimental data, confirming the accuracy of the potential energy surface.

  2. Possible selective formation of CNC/sup +/ and CCN/sup +/ in the interstellar reactions of C/sup +/ with HCN and HNC/sup +/

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haese, N.N.; Woods, R.C.

    1981-05-15

    The molecular structures of CNC/sup +/ and CCN/sup +/ have been determined by double zeta self-consistent field (SCF) calculations. Their standard heats of formation are theoretically estimated to be 372 +- 20 and 421 +- 25 kcal mol/sup -1/, respectively, the latter determined by double zeta plus polarization SCF-CI (configuration interaction) calculation of the isomerization energy for CNC/sup +/..-->..CCN/sup +/. Using these results, the available appearance potential data for these ions in the mass spectra of HC/sub 3/N and C/sub 2/N/sub 2/ can be explained by simple reactions, and the numerical agreement between the corresponding experimental and theoretical heats of formation is excellent. With this thermochemical information and mechanistic considerations of C/sup +/ reactions with HCN and HNC, we propose that CNC/sup +/ may be selectively made from HCN, and CCN/sup +/ from HNC, and that this selectivity may play an important role in the chemistry of the interstellar medium. For the polar isomer CCN/sup +/ we report an SCF prediction of its rotational constant (11.93 +- 0.5 GHz) and a higher-level (CI) calculation of its electric dipole moment (2.50 +- 0.2 debye) and nitrogen nuclear quadrupole coupling constant (-4.95 +- 0.5 MHz).

  3. Effects of Serial and Concurrent Training on Acquisition and Generalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wunderlich, Kara L.; Vollmer, Timothy R.; Donaldson, Jeanne M.; Phillips, Cara L.

    2014-01-01

    Despite a large body of research demonstrating that generalization to novel stimuli can be produced by training sufficient exemplars, the methods by which exemplars can be trained remain unclear. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate 2 methods, serial and concurrent presentation of stimuli, to train sufficient exemplars. Five preschool…

  4. On the Asymmetry of Serial Verbs in the Edo Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Osamuyimen Thompson

    The serial verb construction (SVC) in Edo (Bini), a language spoken in Nigeria, is examined, and an analysis that systematically characterizes the notion of functional relationship of verbs within these constructions is proposed. It is argued that the verbs in series are sensitive to different semantic and grammatical phenomena and are therefore…

  5. Asymmetrical learning between a tactile and visual serial RT task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abrahamse, E.L.; van der Lubbe, Robert Henricus Johannes; Verwey, Willem B.

    2007-01-01

    According to many researchers, implicit learning in the serial reaction-time task is predominantly motor based and therefore should be independent of stimulus modality. Previous research on the task, however, has focused almost completely on the visual domain. Here we investigated sequence learning

  6. Problems of the National Library of Medicine Classification for Serials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sophanodorn, Kanchana

    1971-01-01

    A brief history of the development of serial classification patterns from the National Library of Medicine scheme is followed by the enumeration of some of the difficulties encountered by medical libraries attempting to use the scheme. Solutions to the problems utilized by five large medical libraries are described in detail. (6 references)…

  7. Wavelength Preserving Optical Serial-to-Parallel Conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galili, Michael; Palushani, Evarist; Mulvad, Hans Christian Hansen

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate optical wavelength preserving serial-to-parallel conversion. 9-of-16 OTDM channels are simultaneously mapped from a 160 Gbit/s signal to a 100 GHz WDM grid by wavelength preserving FWM idler generation, with BER<1E-9 performance....

  8. The efficacy of serial physical examination in penetrating abdominal trauma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Haarst, E. P.; van Bezooijen, B. P.; Coene, P. P.; Luitse, J. S.

    1999-01-01

    Over a 10-year period we reviewed the records of 370 consecutive patients with potentially penetrating abdominal wounds (48 gunshot and 322 stab wounds). Selective non-operative management for abdominal stab wounds was introduced, guided by serial physical examination. In our study the terms

  9. Factors affecting preservation of serial materials in University ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated factors affecting preservation of serials in university libraries in South - South, Nigeria. Research questions were formulated and analyzed using statistical mean and standard deviation. The descriptive survey design was adopted and questionnaire was used a s instrument for data collection. Findings ...

  10. Mixed-List Phonological Similarity Effects in Delayed Serial Recall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Simon

    2006-01-01

    Recent experiments have shown that placing dissimilar items on lists of phonologically similar items enhances accuracy of ordered recall of the dissimilar items [Farrell, S., & Lewandowsky, S. (2003). Dissimilar items benefit from phonological similarity in serial recall. "Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition," 29,…

  11. Phonological Similarity in Serial Recall: Constraints on Theories of Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowsky, Stephan; Farrell, Simon

    2008-01-01

    In short-term serial recall, similar-sounding items are remembered more poorly than items that do not sound alike. When lists mix similar and dissimilar items, performance on the dissimilar items is of considerable theoretical interest. Farrell and Lewandowsky [Farrell, S., & Lewandowsky, S. (2003). Dissimilar items benefit from phonological…

  12. Kiondo Bag Boutique: A Serial Case for Introductory Financial Accounting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siriwardane, Harshini P.

    2014-01-01

    Kiondo Bag Boutique is a hypothetical serial case involving a start-up retail business. The case evolves from an ambitious business idea to a successful business. Through the evolving business, the importance of accounting information is highlighted. Different iterations are used to illustrate the role of accounting in serving and managing…

  13. Serial Killers: Academic Libraries Respond to Soaring Costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Paul

    1994-01-01

    Discusses ways in which academic libraries are responding to rising costs of serials. Topics addressed include pricing by publishers; the effect of journal cancellations on research activities; interlibrary loans and document delivery services; coordinated cancelling; electronic journals; and experiences at the University of Arizona. (LRW)

  14. Child serial murder-psychodynamics: closely watched shadows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turco, R

    2001-01-01

    There is a malignant transformation in object relations resulting in an identification with an omnipotent and cruel object resulting in an identity transformation. If the tension, desperation, and dissociation increase, serial murder becomes spree murder. The presence of pathological narcissism and psychopathic tendencies are of diagnostic significance in understanding the murderer's personality functioning and motivation to kill. Meloy (1988) considered the degree of sadism and aggression combined with narcissistic qualities to reflect the "malignancy" of the psychopathic disturbance where gratification (of aggression) occurs in the service of narcissistic functioning--that is, cruelty toward others in the form of a triumphant victory over a rejecting object. Meloy also believes that dissociation is ubiquitious in the psychopath. The initial murder of the serial murderer may reflect a "new identity." The pathological object-relations of narcissism and the malignant narcissism are important diagnostic indicators in the personality functioning of serial killers and the occurrence of these phenomena is a significant factor in the formation of the personalities of serial killers, their inner motivations, and their pattern of commission.

  15. Influence of Mac Arthur Journal Donation Project on Serial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The research adopted survey method using questionnaire as instrument for data collection. Data collected were subjected to a descriptive analysis using frequency tables with graphical illustrations. The study discovered that the serial resources in these university libraries were inadequate before the intervention of Mac ...

  16. Forensic sexology: paraphilic serial rape (biastophilia) and lust murder (erotophonophilia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Money, J

    1990-01-01

    Forensic sexology is not synonymous with either forensic psychiatry or forensic psychology. It is a specialty in its own right, and is needed in the courtroom. Paraphilic sex offenders on trial are misrepresented as being, by their own choice, psychopathic or sociopathic deviates. They are unable to explain their paraphilic criminality to either themselves or society. In a case of serial rape and serial lust murder here presented, the contributory causes are examined and differentiated as hereditary predisposition, hormonal functioning; pathological relationships, sexual abuse; and syndrome overlap with bipolar disorder, schizoid disorder, antisocial personality disorder, epilepsy, and multiple personality. The precipitating causes were differentiated as childhood head injuries, and adult head injury at age 20. Left impact trauma and sexological trauma were sequelae of the adult injury. The full range of diagnostic resources was not available for a prisoner on death row. Capital punishment has not prevented the reemergence in each new generation of serial rape and serial lust murder as an epidemiological, public health problem. Punishment is an ineffectual substitute for epidemiological research into cause, effect, and prevention.

  17. Multistate optical memory based on serially interconnected lasers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, S.; Owens, D.; Liu, Y.S.; Hill, M. T.; Lenstra, D.; Tzanakaki, A.; Khoe, G.D.; Dorren, H.J.S.

    2005-01-01

    A multistate optical memory based on serially inter-connected lasers is presented. We show that only one of the lasers can lase at a time, thus, the state of the optical memory is determined by the wavelength of the dominant laser. The light from the dominant laser suppresses its neighboring lasers

  18. Conversion of serial holdings into automated library system in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Records conversion is a must in a newly automated library system. As a result of the recent development in automation at the University of Ilorin library, almost all the monograph collection have been converted to readable format, while the conversion of the serials records remain dormant. The article discusses the attempt ...

  19. Asymmetric binding in serial memory for verbal and spatial information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guerard, Katherine; Morey, Candice C.; Lagace, Sebastien; Tremblay, Sebastien

    As the number of studies showing that items can be retained as bound representations in memory increases, researchers are beginning to investigate how the different features are bound together. In the present study, we examined the relative importances of the verbal and spatial features in serial

  20. IT-based Value Creation in Serial Acquisitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsson, Stefan; Yetton, Philip

    2013-01-01

    The extant research on post-acquisition IT integration analyzes how acquirers realize IT-based value in individual acquisitions. However, serial acquirers make 60% of acquisitions. These acquisitions are not isolated events, but are components in growth-by-acquisition programs. To explain how ser...

  1. 'American Psycho': a double portrait of serial yuppie Patrick Bateman

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooijman, J.; Laine, T.

    2003-01-01

    Kooijman and Laine analyze Mary Harron's "American Psycho," a 2000 film adaptation of the 1980s satirical novel by Bret Easton Ellis in which Patrick Bateman, a narcissistic Wall Street young urban professional ("yuppie"), assumes an alternate identity as a serial killer. The authors examine the

  2. Serial Entrepreneurship, Learning by Doing and Self-selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rocha, Vera; Carneiro, Anabela; Varum, Celeste

    2015-01-01

    It remains a question whether serial entrepreneurs typically perform better than their novice counterparts owing to learning by doing effects or mostly because they are a selected sample of higher-than-average ability entrepreneurs. This paper tries to unravel these two effects by exploring a nov...

  3. Auditory Word Serial Recall Benefits from Orthographic Dissimilarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattamadilok, Chotiga; Lafontaine, Helene; Morais, Jose; Kolinsky, Regine

    2010-01-01

    The influence of orthographic knowledge has been consistently observed in speech recognition and metaphonological tasks. The present study provides data suggesting that such influence also pervades other cognitive domains related to language abilities, such as verbal working memory. Using serial recall of auditory seven-word lists, we observed…

  4. Whole-pattern fitting technique in serial femtosecond nanocrystallography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruben A. Dilanian

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Serial femtosecond X-ray crystallography (SFX has created new opportunities in the field of structural analysis of protein nanocrystals. The intensity and timescale characteristics of the X-ray free-electron laser sources used in SFX experiments necessitate the analysis of a large collection of individual crystals of variable shape and quality to ultimately solve a single, average crystal structure. Ensembles of crystals are commonly encountered in powder diffraction, but serial crystallography is different because each crystal is measured individually and can be oriented via indexing and merged into a three-dimensional data set, as is done for conventional crystallography data. In this way, serial femtosecond crystallography data lie in between conventional crystallography data and powder diffraction data, sharing features of both. The extremely small sizes of nanocrystals, as well as the possible imperfections of their crystallite structure, significantly affect the diffraction pattern and raise the question of how best to extract accurate structure-factor moduli from serial crystallography data. Here it is demonstrated that whole-pattern fitting techniques established for one-dimensional powder diffraction analysis can be feasibly extended to higher dimensions for the analysis of merged SFX diffraction data. It is shown that for very small crystals, whole-pattern fitting methods are more accurate than Monte Carlo integration methods that are currently used.

  5. Serial Interface through Stream Protocol on EPICS Platform for Distributed Control and Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das Gupta, Arnab; Srivastava, Amit K.; Sunil, S.; Khan, Ziauddin

    2017-04-01

    Remote operation of any equipment or device is implemented in distributed systems in order to control and proper monitoring of process values. For such remote operations, Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) is used as one of the important software tool for control and monitoring of a wide range of scientific parameters. A hardware interface is developed for implementation of EPICS software so that different equipment such as data converters, power supplies, pump controllers etc. could be remotely operated through stream protocol. EPICS base was setup on windows as well as Linux operating system for control and monitoring while EPICS modules such as asyn and stream device were used to interface the equipment with standard RS-232/RS-485 protocol. Stream Device protocol communicates with the serial line with an interface to asyn drivers. Graphical user interface and alarm handling were implemented with Motif Editor and Display Manager (MEDM) and Alarm Handler (ALH) command line channel access utility tools. This paper will describe the developed application which was tested with different equipment and devices serially interfaced to the PCs on a distributed network.

  6. Combining confocal laser scanning microscopy with serial section reconstruction in the study of adult neurogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico eLuzzati

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Current advances in imaging techniques have extended the possibility of visualizing small structures within large volumes of both fixed and live specimens without sectioning. These techniques have contributed valuable information to study neuronal plasticity in the adult brain. However, technical limits still hamper the use of these approaches to investigate neurogenic regions located far from the ventricular surface such as parenchymal neurogenic niches, or the scattered neuroblasts induced by brain lesions. Here, we present a method to combine confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM and serial section reconstruction in order to reconstruct large volumes of brain tissue at cellular resolution. In this method a series of thick sections are imaged with CLSM and the resulting stacks of images are registered and 3D reconstructed. This approach is based on existing freeware software and can be performed on ordinary laboratory personal computers (PC. By using this technique we have investigated the morphology and spatial organization of a group of doublecortin (DCX+ neuroblasts located in the lateral striatum of the late post-natal guinea pig. The 3D study unravelled a complex network of long and poorly ramified cell processes, often fascicled and mostly oriented along the internal capsule fibre bundles. These data support CLSM serial section reconstruction as a reliable alternative to the whole mount approaches to analyze cyto-architectural features of adult germinative niches.

  7. Party behaviors and characteristics and serial drunkenness among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durant, Robert H; McCoy, Thomas P; Champion, Heather; Parries, Maria T; Mitra, Ananda; Martin, Barbara A; Newman, Jill; Rhodes, Scott D

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between party behaviors and social contextual factors for the largest party attended by college students and serial drunkenness by students over the 3 traditional weekend party days (Thursday-Saturday). On two separate 3-day party time periods in the spring of 2006, a random sample of 3,600 students from two large public universities completed a Web-based survey. The survey was administered on a Sunday evening and assessed alcohol consumption, party behaviors and observations, and other social contextual factors occurring during the 3 previous days. Serial drunkenness was measured as having gotten drunk on 0-3 days for the specified 3-day period for students who had attended one or more parties. Multivariate analysis indicated that serial drunkenness was associated with being white, being single without a partner, having ridden with a drinking driver over the weekend, drunken behaviors by other students at the largest party attended, the number of drinks the student consumed before attending the party, the number of drinks consumed at the largest party, and the number of friends that attended the party with the student. A lower frequency of serial drunkenness was associated with the perception that alcohol was difficult to obtain. The availability of alcohol before and at the largest party attended over the weekend, attending the party with a larger number of friends, and drunken behaviors by other students at the party, plus riding with a drinking driver after the party, were associated with serial drunkenness over the 3-day period by the students at these two universities.

  8. Smart grid serialization comparison: Comparision of serialization for distributed control in the context of the Internet of Things

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Bo Søborg; Bindner, Henrik W.; You, Shi

    2017-01-01

    within a given timeframe, especially in the context of the Internet of Things, using low-bandwidth data connections and constrained devices. The paper shows that there are better alternatives than XML & JAXB and gives guidance in choosing the most appropriate serialization format and library depending...

  9. An embodied account of serial order: how instabilities drive sequence generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandamirskaya, Yulia; Schöner, Gregor

    2010-12-01

    Learning and generating serially ordered sequences of actions is a core component of cognition both in organisms and in artificial cognitive systems. When these systems are embodied and situated in partially unknown environments, specific constraints arise for any neural mechanism of sequence generation. In particular, sequential action must resist fluctuating sensory information and be capable of generating sequences in which the individual actions may vary unpredictably in duration. We provide a solution to this problem within the framework of Dynamic Field Theory by proposing an architecture in which dynamic neural networks create stable states at each stage of a sequence. These neural attractors are destabilized in a cascade of bifurcations triggered by a neural representation of a condition of satisfaction for each action. We implement the architecture on a robotic vehicle in a color search task, demonstrating both sequence learning and sequence generation on the basis of low-level sensory information. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. SAIISA: a project for semi-automatic assignment of ISSN codes to Italian serials

    OpenAIRE

    Verniti, Vincenzo; Mangiaracina, Silvana; Cancedda, Flavia

    2011-01-01

    SAIISA is a project designed with the aim of assigning ISSN codes to Italian serials included in the Italian Serials Catalogue, ACNP, using semiautomatic procedures developed at the ISSN International Centre (IC). The ACNP Catalogue contains about 34,000 Italian serials lacking ISSN codes (about 65% of all Italian serials). This lack of information causes several problems in the case of automatic uploads of the records from library catalogues and also reduces the international visibility of I...

  11. 12C/13C and 14N/15N isotopic ratios in HCN in the middle atmosphere of Titan from Cassini/CIRS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathé, Christophe; Vinatier, Sandrine; Bézard, Bruno; Nixon, Conor A.

    2017-10-01

    Our study aims at constraining the 12C/13C and 14N/15N isotopic ratios in HCN, the most abundant nitrile in Titan’s atmosphere, which can provide information on physical and chemical process occurring during the formation and/or destruction of this molecule.Over the last decade, several estimations of the 12C/13C and 14N/15N isotopic ratios in HCN were performed from ground-based, Herschel and Cassini observations (Bézard et al,2014). The 14N/15N ratio lies in the range 56-76, which corresponds to half of the 14N/15N ratio in N2 (major N-bearing molecule in Titan’s atmosphere). This nitrogen isotopic fractionation mostly originates from the photodissociation of N2 (Liang et al, 2007). The 12C/13C ratio lies in the range 75-108, in agreement with the 12C/13C ratio in CH4 (major C-bearing molecule). Recent disk-averaged ALMA observations indicate 12C/13C and 14N/15N ratios equal to ˜90 and ˜72, respectively (Molter et al, 2016).Vinatier et al (2007) derived 14N/15N and 12C/13C ratios in two different regions (equator and north pole) from Cassini/CIRS (Composite InfraRed Spectrometer) observations at the beginning of the Cassini mission. 14N/15N was similar for both latitudes while the 12C/13C ratio displayed a possible enhancement at the equator.We present here a new study of the 12C/13C and 14N/15N isotopic ratios in HCN from CIRS. We analyzed limb observations (0.5 cm-1 resolution) from northern winter to early spring at poles, mid-latitudes and equator in order to investigate potential spatial and seasonal changes of these isotopic ratios in Titan’s middle atmosphere. These preliminary results will be presented and compared with previous observations.References:Bézard et al., Cambrigde University Press, 2014Liang et al., The Astrophysical Jounral Letters, 2007Molter et al., The Astronomical Journal, 2016Vinatier et al., Icarus, 2007

  12. Involvement of the S4-S5 linker and the C-linker domain regions to voltage-gating in plant Shaker channels: comparison with animal HCN and Kv channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieves-Cordones, Manuel; Gaillard, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    Among the different transport systems present in plant cells, Shaker channels constitute the major pathway for K(+) in the plasma membrane. Plant Shaker channels are members of the 6 transmembrane-1 pore (6TM-1P) cation channel superfamily as the animal Shaker (Kv) and HCN channels. All these channels are voltage-gated K(+) channels: Kv channels are outward-rectifiers, opened at depolarized voltages and HCN channels are inward-rectifiers, opened by membrane hyperpolarization. Among plant Shaker channels, we can find outward-rectifiers, inward-rectifiers and also weak-rectifiers, with weak voltage dependence. Despite the absence of crystal structures of plant Shaker channels, functional analyses coupled to homology modeling, mostly based on Kv and HCN crystals, have permitted the identification of several regions contributing to plant Shaker channel gating. In the present mini-review, we make an update on the voltage-gating mechanism of plant Shaker channels which seem to be comparable to that proposed for HCN channels.

  13. California State Library: Processing Center Design and Specifications. Volume IV, Serials Control System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fried, Martin D.; Dunham, Ruth

    The CSL Serials Control System is aimed primarily at satisfying control and retrieval requirements of serials data for subscribers to the California State Library Processing Center (CSL-PC). The primary objective of the system is to provide a method of serials control which will be very flexible both in terms of input requirements and output…

  14. Serial-Order Short-Term Memory Predicts Vocabulary Development: Evidence from a Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclercq, Anne-Lise; Majerus, Steve

    2010-01-01

    Serial-order short-term memory (STM), as opposed to item STM, has been shown to be very consistently associated with lexical learning abilities in cross-sectional study designs. This study investigated longitudinal predictions between serial-order STM and vocabulary development. Tasks maximizing the temporary retention of either serial-order or…

  15. Impact of Serials Management, Access and Use on Publication Output of Lecturers in Nigerian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinbode, Rahmon O. Onaolapo; Nwalo, Kenneth Ivo Ngozi

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates serials management in university libraries, determines the extent to which serials are accessed and used and appraises the influence of availability, accessibility and use of serials on publications output of lecturers in federal universities in Nigeria. Questionnaire administration method was adopted to accumulate data for…

  16. Low-Stroke Actuation for a Serial Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Dalong (Inventor); Ihrke, Chris A. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A serial robot includes a base, first and second segments, a proximal joint joining the base to the first segment, and a distal joint. The distal joint that joins the segments is serially arranged and distal with respect to the proximal joint. The robot includes first and second actuators. A first tendon extends from the first actuator to the proximal joint and is selectively moveable via the first actuator. A second tendon extends from the second actuator to the distal joint and is selectively moveable via the second actuator. The robot includes a transmission having at least one gear element which assists rotation of the distal joint when an input force is applied to the proximal and/or distal joints by the first and/or second actuators. A robotic hand having the above robot is also disclosed, as is a robotic system having a torso, arm, and the above-described hand.

  17. Freeing the Serial Mechanism Designer from Inverse Kinematic Solvability Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana C. W. Friedman

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a fast numerical solution for the inverse kinematics of a serial manipulator. The method is implemented on the C-arm, a manipulator designed for use in robotic surgery. The inverse kinematics solution provides all possible solutions for any six degree-of-freedom serial manipulator, assuming that the forward kinematics are known and that it is possible to solve for the remaining joint angles if one joint angle’s value is known. With a fast numerical method and the current levels of computing power, designing a manipulator with closed-form inverse kinematics is no longer necessary. When designing the C-arm, we therefore chose to weigh other factors, such as actuator size and patient safety, more heavily than the ability to find a closed-form inverse kinematics solution.

  18. Jacob--the case of a serial killer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallian, M; Bar-el, Y C; Durst, R; Witztum, E

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes a rare forensic psychiatric syndrome which has been the subject of massive publicity in the last decade. Despite the widespread interest, the psychodynamic process whereby a person becomes a serial murderer remains largely unknown. "Jacob" was convicted of a series of murders that he carried out over a decade. The case material is based on the psychiatric reports that were presented to the court and the many articles published in the local press at the time. Despite the limitations imposed by the material, the available information on "Jacob" bears some similarity to the phenomenological and psychodynamic models described in the literature. An attempt is made to understand the transformation of a person into a serial killer considering the life events, psychopathology and stressors that lead to the emergence from the world of imagination and fantasy of a potential murderer to the deeds that comprise the syndrome.

  19. Recency and suffix effects in serial recall of musical stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, R L; Samuel, A G

    1986-10-01

    Auditory presentation of verbal items leads to larger recency effects in recall than visual presentation. This enhanced recency can be eliminated if a stimulus suffix (an irrelevant sound) follows the last item. Four experiments tested the hypothesis that recency and suffix effects in serial recall result from a speech-specific process. It was demonstrated that serial recall of musical notes played on a piano exhibited substantial recency effects. These recency effects were reduced when the list items were followed by either a piano chord or the word start. However, a white-noise suffix had no effect on recency. This pattern of data is consistent with current work on auditory perception and places constraints on theories of recency and suffix effects.

  20. [Some criminological and psychopathologic reflexions about serial crimes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romi, Juan Carlos

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews the concept of serial crime, including murder as well as any action for the purpose of inflicting bodily harm upon any person. It characterizes three types of multi-murderers: serial killers, mass murderers, and spree killers. These offenders often have a specific (ritual) behavior that is idiosyncratic and repeated on each crime, which allows the psychological profiling of the murderer. Examples, a psychopathological background, and a description of both their criminal behavior and dynamics are provided for each of these criminals. They are further classified according to their different motivations: psychotic, prophetic or enlightened, pleasure, secondary or pecuniary profits, power or control. Finally, the author shares his personal experience over 20 years in the assessment of sexual offenders.

  1. Serial murder in America: case studies of seven offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beasley, James O

    2004-01-01

    This article summarizes and compares information on seven interviewed serial killers in an ongoing project designed to study similarities and differences among these individuals. The aim of this article is to increase our collective knowledge of the dynamics of serial murder by examining the perpetrators' backgrounds, as well as the unique ways in which they view themselves and the world around them. Although qualitative interview research alone is not sufficient to fully understand such behavior, it is useful in many ways. Some of the information discussed based on the seven offenders interviewed is compared with broader epidemiological studies, and the strengths and limitations of each type of research are discussed. Published in 2004 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Serial quantitative EEG among elderly subjects with delirium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, S A; Leuchter, A F; Walter, D O; Weiner, H

    1993-08-01

    Serial quantitative electroencephalographic (QEEG) studies were performed in 33 elderly delirious, demented, and control subjects to determine which QEEG variables were associated with changes in clinical state as measured by the Folstein Mini-mental State Examination (MMSE). Conventional EEGs and brain maps were independently rated by two electroencephalographers without knowledge of clinical diagnoses. Correlational analyses were performed using these ratings, along with numerical data from QEEG. In the delirium group (n = 15), changes in scores for the relative power map and changes in relative power in the alpha band had significant associations with changes in MMSE. In the dementia group (n = 10), changes in score for absolute power maps and changes in absolute power in the delta band had significant associations with changes in MMSE. In the control group, changes in MMSE over time were negligible. These findings have potential clinical utility in diagnosing delirium, and in providing a quantitative measure of its severity, which can be used serially.

  3. Lipidic cubic phase serial millisecond crystallography using synchrotron radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przemyslaw Nogly

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Lipidic cubic phases (LCPs have emerged as successful matrixes for the crystallization of membrane proteins. Moreover, the viscous LCP also provides a highly effective delivery medium for serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX at X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs. Here, the adaptation of this technology to perform serial millisecond crystallography (SMX at more widely available synchrotron microfocus beamlines is described. Compared with conventional microcrystallography, LCP-SMX eliminates the need for difficult handling of individual crystals and allows for data collection at room temperature. The technology is demonstrated by solving a structure of the light-driven proton-pump bacteriorhodopsin (bR at a resolution of 2.4 Å. The room-temperature structure of bR is very similar to previous cryogenic structures but shows small yet distinct differences in the retinal ligand and proton-transfer pathway.

  4. Implementation of Parallel and Serial Concatenated Convolutional Codes

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Yufei

    2000-01-01

    Parallel concatenated convolutional codes (PCCCs), called "turbo codes" by their discoverers, have been shown to perform close to the Shannon bound at bit error rates (BERs) between 1e-4 and 1e-6. Serial concatenated convolutional codes (SCCCs), which perform better than PCCCs at BERs lower than 1e-6, were developed borrowing the same principles as PCCCs, including code concatenation, pseudorandom interleaving and iterative decoding. The first part of this dissertation introduces the fund...

  5. Which serial killers commit suicide? An exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, David; White, John

    2012-11-30

    In a sample of 483 serial killers, 6.2% were documented to have committed suicide. Those who committed suicide were found to come from more dysfunctional homes characterized by more psychiatric disturbance in the parents. The sexual acts involved in the murders by the suicides seemed to be more deviant in some aspects, such as committing more bizarre sexual acts or more often taping the murder. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Serial pixel analog-to-digital converter (ADC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Eric D.

    2010-02-01

    This method reduces the data path from the counter to the pixel register of the analog-to-digital converter (ADC) from as many as 10 bits to a single bit. The reduction in data path width is accomplished by using a coded serial data stream similar to a pseudo random number (PRN) generator. The resulting encoded pixel data is then decoded into a standard hexadecimal format before storage. The high-speed serial pixel ADC concept is based on the single-slope integrating pixel ADC architecture. Previous work has described a massively parallel pixel readout of a similar architecture. The serial ADC connection is similar to the state-of-the art method with the exception that the pixel ADC register is a shift register and the data path is a single bit. A state-of-the-art individual-pixel ADC uses a single-slope charge integration converter architecture with integral registers and "one-hot" counters. This implies that parallel data bits are routed among the counter and the individual on-chip pixel ADC registers. The data path bit-width to the pixel is therefore equivalent to the pixel ADC bit resolution.

  7. Serial extraction: 20 years of follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Rodrigues de Almeida

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a case treated by a serial extraction program at the mixed dentition stage followed by a corrective orthodontic treatment, with a long-term follow-up period. Twenty years after the interceptive treatment, a harmonious face was observed along with treatment stability in the anterior posterior direction, deep overbite (which has been mentioned as a disadvantage of the serial extraction program, and a small relapse of anterior tooth crowding. All these conditions have been regarded as normal occurrences for most orthodontic treatments with a long-term follow-up period. This case report demonstrated that the establishment of a serial extraction protocol determined relevant esthetic changes that afforded an improvement of the patient's self-esteem, with a positive social impact. Furthermore, the low cost of this protocol permits the use of this therapy with underprivileged populations. It is important to emphasize that an early correction of tooth crowding by this protocol does not guarantee stability, but small relapses do not invalidate its accomplishment.

  8. The Effect of Concurrent Semantic Categorization on Delayed Serial Recall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acheson, Daniel J.; MacDonald, Maryellen C.; Postle, Bradley R.

    2010-01-01

    The influence of semantic processing on the serial ordering of items in short-term memory was explored using a novel dual-task paradigm. Subjects engaged in two picture judgment tasks while simultaneously performing delayed serial recall. List material varied in the presence of phonological overlap (Experiments 1 and 2) and in semantic content (concrete words in Experiment 1 and 3; nonwords in Experiments 2 and 3). Picture judgments varied in the extent to which they required accessing visual semantic information (i.e., semantic categorization and line orientation judgments). Results showed that, relative to line orientation judgments, engaging in semantic categorization judgments increased the proportion of item ordering errors for concrete lists but did not affect error proportions for nonword lists. Furthermore, although more ordering errors were observed for phonologically similar relative to dissimilar lists, no interactions were observed between the phonological overlap and picture judgment task manipulations. These results thus demonstrate that lexical-semantic representations can affect the serial ordering of items in short-term memory. Furthermore, the dual-task paradigm provides a new method for examining when and how semantic representations affect memory performance. PMID:21058880

  9. Efficient multitasking: parallel versus serial processing of multiple tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Rico; Plessow, Franziska

    2015-01-01

    In the context of performance optimizations in multitasking, a central debate has unfolded in multitasking research around whether cognitive processes related to different tasks proceed only sequentially (one at a time), or can operate in parallel (simultaneously). This review features a discussion of theoretical considerations and empirical evidence regarding parallel versus serial task processing in multitasking. In addition, we highlight how methodological differences and theoretical conceptions determine the extent to which parallel processing in multitasking can be detected, to guide their employment in future research. Parallel and serial processing of multiple tasks are not mutually exclusive. Therefore, questions focusing exclusively on either task-processing mode are too simplified. We review empirical evidence and demonstrate that shifting between more parallel and more serial task processing critically depends on the conditions under which multiple tasks are performed. We conclude that efficient multitasking is reflected by the ability of individuals to adjust multitasking performance to environmental demands by flexibly shifting between different processing strategies of multiple task-component scheduling. PMID:26441742

  10. Efficient multitasking: parallel versus serial processing of multiple tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Rico; Plessow, Franziska

    2015-01-01

    In the context of performance optimizations in multitasking, a central debate has unfolded in multitasking research around whether cognitive processes related to different tasks proceed only sequentially (one at a time), or can operate in parallel (simultaneously). This review features a discussion of theoretical considerations and empirical evidence regarding parallel versus serial task processing in multitasking. In addition, we highlight how methodological differences and theoretical conceptions determine the extent to which parallel processing in multitasking can be detected, to guide their employment in future research. Parallel and serial processing of multiple tasks are not mutually exclusive. Therefore, questions focusing exclusively on either task-processing mode are too simplified. We review empirical evidence and demonstrate that shifting between more parallel and more serial task processing critically depends on the conditions under which multiple tasks are performed. We conclude that efficient multitasking is reflected by the ability of individuals to adjust multitasking performance to environmental demands by flexibly shifting between different processing strategies of multiple task-component scheduling.

  11. Imaging mouse cerebellum with serial optical coherence scanner (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chao J.; Williams, Kristen; Orr, Harry; Taner, Akkin

    2017-02-01

    We present the serial optical coherence scanner (SOCS), which consists of a polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography and a vibratome with associated controls for serial imaging, to visualize the cerebellum and adjacent brainstem of mouse. The cerebellar cortical layers and white matter are distinguished by using intrinsic optical contrasts. Images from serial scans reveal the large-scale anatomy in detail and map the nerve fiber pathways in the cerebellum and adjacent brainstem. The optical system, which has 5.5 μm axial resolution, utilizes a scan lens or a water-immersion microscope objective resulting in 10 μm or 4 μm lateral resolution, respectively. The large-scale brain imaging at high resolution requires an efficient way to collect large datasets. It is important to improve the SOCS system to deal with large-scale and large number of samples in a reasonable time. The imaging and slicing procedure for a section took about 4 minutes due to a low speed of the vibratome blade to maintain slicing quality. SOCS has potential to investigate pathological changes and monitor the effects of therapeutic drugs in cerebellar diseases such as spinocerebellar ataxia 1 (SCA1). The SCA1 is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by atrophy and eventual loss of Purkinje cells from the cerebellar cortex, and the optical contrasts provided by SOCS is being evaluated for biomarkers of the disease.

  12. Cognitive, emotional and social markers of serial murdering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angrilli, Alessandro; Sartori, Giuseppe; Donzella, Giovanna

    2013-01-01

    Although criminal psychopathy is starting to be relatively well described, our knowledge of the characteristics and scientific markers of serial murdering is still very poor. A serial killer who murdered more than five people, KT, was administered a battery of standardized tests aimed at measuring neuropsychological impairment and social/emotional cognition deficits. KT exhibited a striking dissociation between a high level of emotional detachment and a low score on the antisocial behavior scale on the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R). The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 showed a normal pattern with the psychotic triad at borderline level. KT had a high intelligence score and showed almost no impairment in cognitive tests sensitive to frontal lobe dysfunction (Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Theory of Mind, Tower of London, this latter evidenced a mild impairment in planning performance). In the tests on moral, emotional and social cognition, his patterns of response differed from matched controls and from past reports on criminal psychopaths as, unlike these individuals, KT exhibited normal recognition of fear and a relatively intact knowledge of moral rules but he was impaired in the recognition of anger, embarrassment and conventional social rules. The overall picture of KT suggests that serial killing may be closer to normality than psychopathy defined according to either the DSM IV or the PCL-R, and it would be characterized by a relatively spared moral cognition and selective deficits in social and emotional cognition domains.

  13. Nilai-Nilai Sosial Pada Serial Drama Misaeng (Analisis Isi Muatan Nilai-Nilai Sosial Tayangan Serial Drama Korea “Misaeng”)

    OpenAIRE

    Tumangger, Delilawati

    2016-01-01

    The title of this research is Social Values in Serial Drama Misaeng (A Content Analysis of Social Values in Korean Serial Drama Misaeng). The purposes of this research are to find out the scenes that contain social values and to find out the social values of Korean from the serial drama. Serial Drama Misaeng consists of 20 episodes, but researcher only analyzed 12 scenes taken from 10 episodes. These 12 scenes were selected by researcher because they are able to show the real depiction of soc...

  14. Joint Channel-Network Coding Strategies for Networks with Low Complexity Relays

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Sarah J; Kellett, Christopher M

    2011-01-01

    We investigate joint network and channel coding schemes for networks when relay nodes are not capable of performing channel coding operations. Rather, channel encoding is performed at the source node while channel decoding is done only at the destination nodes. We examine three different decoding strategies: independent network-then-channel decoding, serial network and channel decoding, and joint network and channel decoding. Furthermore, we describe how to implement such joint network and channel decoding using iteratively decodable error correction codes. Using simple networks as a model, we derive achievable rate regions and use simulations to demonstrate the effectiveness of the three decoders.

  15. Neuronal correlates of serial position performance in amnestic mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasper, Elisabeth; Brueggen, Katharina; Grothe, Michel J; Bruno, Davide; Pomara, Nunzio; Unterauer, Elisabeth; Duering, Marco; Ewers, Michael; Teipel, Stefan; Buerger, Katharina

    2016-11-01

    Delayed recall of the first words of a list-the primacy position-is thought to be particularly dependent on intact memory consolidation. Hippocampal volume has been suggested as the primary neuronal correlate of delayed primacy recall in cognitively normal elderly individuals. Here, we studied the association of hippocampal volume with primacy recall in individuals with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). We investigated serial position performance in 88 subjects with aMCI using a 16-word list (the California Verbal Learning Test [CVLT]). Primacy and recency performance were measured during learning and delayed recall. Hippocampal volumes were automatically determined from structural MRI scans. We conducted regression analyses with bilateral hippocampal volumes as predictors and serial position indices as outcomes. After controlling for age, gender, and total intracranial volume, bilateral hippocampal volume was not associated with primacy recall either during learning or delayed recall. Primacy performance during learning was associated with the right inferior and middle temporal gyrus as well as the right inferior parietal cortex and supramerginal gyrus. During delayed recall, primacy performance was related to the bilateral supramarginal gyri. Our findings suggest a reduced primacy effect in aMCI already during learning, contrasting previous findings in normal cognitive aging. This might indicate impaired encoding and consolidation processes at an early stage of episodic memory acquisition. Furthermore, our data indicate that hippocampal volume may not be a relevant determinant of residual primacy performance in the stage of aMCI, which may rather depend on temporal and parietal neocortical networks. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Can serial PEF measurements separate occupational asthma from allergic alveolitis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burge, P S; Moore, V C; Burge, C B S G; Vellore, A D; Robertson, A S; Robertson, W

    2015-04-01

    Occupational asthma commonly results in work-related changes in serial peak expiratory flow (PEF) measurements. Whether alveolitis can result in similar changes is unknown. To identify differences and similarities of serial PEF between workers with occupational alveolitis and asthma seen during an outbreak investigation in a factory with metal-working fluid exposure. Workers with respiratory symptoms and rest-day improvement were identified by questionnaire. Each was asked to measure PEF 8 times daily for 4 weeks at home and work. Alveolitis was subsequently diagnosed from a validated scoring system including radiological changes, carbon monoxide diffusing capacity, bronchoalveolar lavage and biopsy results. Occupational asthma was confirmed with a positive Oasys score >2.5 and a mean rest-work PEF >16 l/min from serial 2-hourly PEF measurements. The Oasys PEF plotter calculated differences between rest and workdays for mean PEF, diurnal variation and the scores were used to confirm an occupational effect (Oasys, area between curve and time point). Records were compared between the alveolitis group and the group with occupational asthma without alveolitis. Forty workers with occupational asthma and 16 with alveolitis had indistinguishable PEF changes on workdays in terms of magnitude (median reduction 18.5 and 16.1 l/min, respectively) and diurnal variation. Immediate reactions were more common with occupational asthma and late reactions more common with alveolitis. PEF responses to metal-working fluid aerosols do not distinguish occupational asthma from alveolitis except in timing. They can be used to identify the workplace as the cause of asthma and also alveolitis. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Serial rapists and their victims: reenactment and repetition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, A W; Hazelwood, R R; Rokous, F E; Hartman, C R; Burgess, A G

    1988-01-01

    The major finding in this study of 41 serial rapists is the large numbers of reported and unreported victims. For over 1200 attempted and completed rapes, there were 200 convictions. The hidden rapes or earliest nonreported victims of these men as boys and adolescents were identified from their families, their neighborhood, and their schools. Examining the possible link between childhood sexual abuse and criminal behavior in this sample of 41 serial rapists, 56.1% were judged to have at least one forced or exploitive abuse experience in boyhood, as compared to a study of 2,972 college males reporting 7.3% experiencing boyhood sexual abuse. Looking within the abused samples, 56.1% of the rapists reported forced sex, compared to the college sample's 30.4%. Also, the rapist sample revealed higher rates of family member as abuser (48.4%), compared to 22.2% for the college sample. Retrospective reconstruction of the sexual activities and assertive behaviors of these men as boys reveals that 51% of the boys reenact the abuse as a preadolescent with their earliest victims being known to them (48% as neighborhood girls), family (25% as sisters), or girlfriend (25%). The onset of rape fantasies in midadolescence (mean age 16.9) crystalizes the earlier sexually initiated behaviors into juvenile behaviors of spying, fetish burglaries, molestations, and rapes. Repetition of these juvenile behaviors set their criminal patters on strangers--their next group of victims. To reduce victimization, serial rapists need to be identified early and stopped. This means acknowledging and reporting boy sexual abuse. This includes being sensitive to the reenactment behaviors noted in the initiated activities of abused children, which in turn need to be differentiated from peer play. Closer attention needs to be paid to families with incest behavior to insure that younger children are protected. Adolescents showing early repetitive juvenile delinquent behaviors must be assessed for physical

  18. SERIAL SECTIONS THROUGH A CONTINUOUS FIBER-REINFORCED POLYMER COMPOSITE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Bizet

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The microstructure of a unidirectional glass-fiber composite material is described seeking especially for the influence of the stitching perpendicular to the reinforcement. Serial cuts are performed through the composite and the microstructure is quantified using global parameters and linear morphological analysis. A key result is that the stitching induces variations in fibers spacing within the yarns and in the matrix volume between the yarns. This can affect noticeably the flow of the resin during the manufacturing process and also the mechanical properties of the composite.

  19. Key Conditions for Successful Serial Entrepreneurship in Healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piron, Cameron

    2017-01-01

    As a serial entrepreneur in the medical device industry, the author embraces Snowdon's (2017) effort to create and stimulate dialogue among experts in health system innovation in an effort to define and support Canada's innovation agenda. In this paper, he outlines some of the attributes and skills that companies need to launch their products and scale their companies. He also identifies the main conditions of an innovation ecosystem that create the necessary infrastructure to enable and support highly successful companies while allowing them to accelerate their growth.

  20. Lean buffering in serial production lines with Bernoulli machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Hu

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Lean buffering is the smallest buffer capacity necessary to ensure the desired production rate of a manufacturing system. In this paper, analytical methods for selecting lean buffering in serial production lines are developed under the assumption that the machines obey the Bernoulli reliability model. Both closed-form expressions and recursive approaches are investigated. The cases of identical and nonidentical machines are analyzed. Results obtained can be useful for production line designers and production managers to maintain the required production rate with the smallest possible inventories.

  1. POSSIBILITIES OF INCREASING EFFICIENCY WITHIN SERIAL PRODUCTION MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CODRUŢA DURA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Under the impact of transition to the new post-industrial society, massproduction recently faced the most numerous difficulties. They are caused by turbulences in theexternal environment in which companies operate, manifested in particular by enhancing thedynamism of markets and by deep changes in the structure of consumers’ demands. In thiscontext, specialized literature records the concerns for increasing the efficiency and flexibilityof products, elements involving radical changes of management and manufacturingtechnologies methods. Given these issues, the paper approaches two separate ways to improvethe management of serial production: increasing economic efficiency by optimizing the size ofbatches and flexible production systems by implementing techniques to reduce the change-overtime.

  2. Use of fuzzy set theory to extend Dhawan's journal selection model: ranking the biomedical informatics serials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sittig, D F

    1999-01-01

    Experts disagree on the parameters to use to identify the "best" serials within a scientific field. The author set out to develop an extension to Dhawan's journal selection model for ranking serials in any scientific field. Comparison of three different instantiations of Dhawan's model were used to rank thirty-four biomedical informatics serials. The first instantiation of Dhawan's model identified seven serials and divided them into two groups. The second instantiation of Dhawan's model identified twelve serials and separated them into two groups. Using fuzzy set theory the new extended model produced a rank ordered list of the top twelve biomedical informatics serials. Use of fuzzy set theory to assign set membership and combine data in Dhawan's journal selection model allows one to: (1) eliminate the need to determine arbitrary cutoff points for inclusion of serials within each of Dhawan's evaluation criteria categories, (2) combine data from disparate sources, and (3) obtain a rank-ordered list of the biomedical informatics serials rather than simply identifying a set of the "top" serials. Such a ranked list provides librarians and researchers alike with the information necessary to help them make their biomedical informatics serial selection decisions based on objective, quantifiable data.

  3. Researching Television Serial Narratives in Italy: an Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Martina

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In the essay the authors would like to review the main Italian studies that have focused on the television series, including both studies that have dealt with national production, and those which have looked to foreign markets and its serial products. In the multiplicity of disciplinary approaches, the authors will focus on studies related to the language and narrative of serial products. The essay is divided into three large blocks which cover three specific periods (the eighties, the nineties and the block from two thousand to present. Each of the three sections will try to give an account of the extent of Italian studies on Italian products, on foreign products and on more theoretical studies, which focus on innovative formulas of the story. At the end of the survey, it is possible to observe positive and thorough input regarding the status of studies on the subject. From the eighties to present, in fact, the studies have not only increased in number, but they have spread out over different fields and divided themselves between the analysis of the national scene and the analysis of international scene.

  4. Nonlinear Process Fault Diagnosis Based on Serial Principal Component Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xiaogang; Tian, Xuemin; Chen, Sheng; Harris, Chris J

    2016-12-22

    Many industrial processes contain both linear and nonlinear parts, and kernel principal component analysis (KPCA), widely used in nonlinear process monitoring, may not offer the most effective means for dealing with these nonlinear processes. This paper proposes a new hybrid linear-nonlinear statistical modeling approach for nonlinear process monitoring by closely integrating linear principal component analysis (PCA) and nonlinear KPCA using a serial model structure, which we refer to as serial PCA (SPCA). Specifically, PCA is first applied to extract PCs as linear features, and to decompose the data into the PC subspace and residual subspace (RS). Then, KPCA is performed in the RS to extract the nonlinear PCs as nonlinear features. Two monitoring statistics are constructed for fault detection, based on both the linear and nonlinear features extracted by the proposed SPCA. To effectively perform fault identification after a fault is detected, an SPCA similarity factor method is built for fault recognition, which fuses both the linear and nonlinear features. Unlike PCA and KPCA, the proposed method takes into account both linear and nonlinear PCs simultaneously, and therefore, it can better exploit the underlying process's structure to enhance fault diagnosis performance. Two case studies involving a simulated nonlinear process and the benchmark Tennessee Eastman process demonstrate that the proposed SPCA approach is more effective than the existing state-of-the-art approach based on KPCA alone, in terms of nonlinear process fault detection and identification.

  5. Serial Contradictions. The Italian Debate on Tv Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Cardini

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade the academic debate on television seriality has become lively and often quite animated, in the US as well as in Italy. The traditional hierarchic relation between cinema and television is clearly represented by the form of the most recent tv drama, whose boundaries are more and more difficult to locate. The main questions at stake seem to be the so-called “cinematic television” (Mills, 2013; Jaramillo, 2013, the umbrella definition of “quality tv” (McCabe and Akass, 2007 and its relation with the broadest concept of “complex tv” (Mittell, 2009, 2015. The essay will take into consideration these oxymorons, which are deeply rooted in the Italian tv series debate, with the aim of considering both their risks and their opportunities. A great variety of texts are grouped under the “tv series” label, but they are very different as far as content, production values and audience reactions are concerned. The academic discourse, however, only recently has tried to identify the differences between longstanding mainstream shows (such as, for instance, Grey’s Anatomy or CSI and some more recent, and supposedly “cinematic” series like True Detective or Fargo. Together with the analysis of the oxymoric nature of recent television seriality, the essay will explore the need to historicising what is proving to be one of the most dense and fruitful domains of recent television studies.

  6. Stability of high cell density brewery fermentations during serial repitching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbelen, Pieter J; Dekoninck, Tinne M L; Van Mulders, Sebastiaan E; Saerens, Sofie M G; Delvaux, Filip; Delvaux, Freddy R

    2009-11-01

    The volumetric productivity of the beer fermentation process can be increased by using a higher pitching rate (i.e. higher inoculum size). However, the decreased yeast net growth observed in these high cell density brewery fermentations can adversely affect the physiological stability throughout subsequent yeast generations. Therefore, different O(2) conditions (wort aeration and yeast preoxygenation) were applied to high cell density fermentation and eight generations of fermentations were evaluated together with conventional fermentations. Freshly propagated high cell density populations adapted faster to the fermentative conditions than normal cell density populations. Preoxygenating the yeast was essential for the yeast physiological and beer flavor compound stability of high cell density fermentations during serial repitching. In contrast, the use of non-preoxygenated yeast resulted in inadequate growth which caused (1) insufficient yield of biomass to repitch all eight generations, (2) a 10% decrease in viability, (3) a moderate increase of yeast age, (4) and a dramatic increase of the unwanted flavor compounds acetaldehyde and total diacetyl during the sequence of fermentations. Therefore, to achieve sustainable high cell density fermentations throughout the economical valuable process of serial repitching, adequate yeast growth is essential.

  7. Femorotibial contact mechanics and meniscal strain after serial meniscectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozzi, Antonio; Tonks, Catherine A; Ling, Hang-Yin

    2010-06-01

    To evaluate changes in femorotibial contact areas (CA) and pressures and meniscal strain after serial meniscectomies of the caudal pole of the medial meniscus. Ex vivo biomechanical study. Unpaired pelvic limbs from 8 adult dogs weighing 28-35 kg. All specimens underwent sequentially, a 30% radial width partial meniscectomy, a 75% radial width partial meniscectomy, and a segmental caudal pole hemi-meniscectomy. Digital pressure sensors were used to measure lateral and medial peak and mean contact pressures and areas before and after serial meniscectomies. Meniscal strain was measured under load in the intact meniscus and after 30% and 75% radial width meniscectomy. Repeated measures analysis of variance with a post hoc Bonferroni's test (PMedial CA decreased by 34.7% after 75% radial width meniscectomy and 47.2% after hemi-meniscectomy. A 30% radial width meniscectomy resulted in 38.5%, and a 75% radial width meniscectomy a 69.2%, decrease in medial meniscal strain compared with control, but these differences were not statistically significant. In this cadaveric model, smaller (30%) partial meniscectomies had minimal effect on the biomechanics of meniscal function, whereas larger partial (75%) and segmental meniscectomies resulted in significant changes in meniscal and femorotibial contact mechanics. This ex vivo data should be considered in clinical decision making for treatment of meniscal problems in dogs.

  8. Rethinking Conceptual Definitions of the Criminal Career and Serial Criminality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelstein, Arnon

    2016-01-01

    Since Cesare Lombroso's days, criminology seeks to define, explain, and categorize the various types of criminals, their behaviors, and motives. This aim has theoretical as well as policy-related implications. One of the important areas in criminological thinking focuses chiefly on recidivist offenders who perform large numbers of crimes and/or commit the most dangerous crimes in society (rape, murder, arson, and armed robbery). These criminals have been defined as "habitual offenders," "professional criminals," "career criminals," and "serial offenders." The interest in these criminals is a rational one, given the perception that they present a severe threat to society. The main challenge in this area of research is a conceptual problem that has significant effects across the field. To this day, scholars have reused and misused titles to define and explain different concepts. The aim of this article is 3-fold. First, to review the concepts of criminal career, professional crime, habitual offenses, and seriality with a critical attitude on confusing terms. Second, to propose the redefinition of concepts mentioned previously, mainly on the criminal career. Third, to propose a theoretical model to enable a better understanding of, and serve as a basis for, further research in this important area of criminology. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Effect of serial casting in spastic cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Shweta; Mathur, Navnendra; Joshi, Mrinal; Jindal, Rajeshwari; Goenka, Sunil

    2008-10-01

    Cerebral palsy (CP) is a range of non progressive syndromes of posture and motor impairment due to an insult to developing brain. Spasticity and incoordination are major causes of disability in these children which can be managed by different modalities like casting, botulinum toxin, surgery etc. Cast application in spastic equinus is a well established procedure in CP but cast application in patients of CP with bilateral involvement of hip, knee and ankle is not document. A study was conducted on 22 children of spastic CP in age range of 3-8 years with bilateral involvement of hip, knee and ankle in 20 cases, hip and ankle in one case and only ankle in one case. Sixty eight % children were spastic diplegics. Serial weekly cast with (11 cases) or without abductor bar (11 cases) was applied for four weeks. They were followed up variably with an average period of 7 months. Significant improvement was noticed in range of motion around hip, knee and ankle which as maintained over hip and knee after average follow up. Spasticity was also reduced as measured by Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS). This ultimately improved the ambulatory status and functional ability of these children. Thus serial casting is a very simple, safe and cost effective procedure which can be applied even in children with mental sub normality having all three major joints involved bilaterally.

  10. Serial crystallography on in vivo grown microcrystals using synchrotron radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelius Gati

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Crystal structure determinations of biological macromolecules are limited by the availability of sufficiently sized crystals and by the fact that crystal quality deteriorates during data collection owing to radiation damage. Exploiting a micrometre-sized X-ray beam, high-precision diffractometry and shutterless data acquisition with a pixel-array detector, a strategy for collecting data from many micrometre-sized crystals presented to an X-ray beam in a vitrified suspension is demonstrated. By combining diffraction data from 80 Trypanosoma brucei procathepsin B crystals with an average volume of 9 µm3, a complete data set to 3.0 Å resolution has been assembled. The data allowed the refinement of a structural model that is consistent with that previously obtained using free-electron laser radiation, providing mutual validation. Further improvements of the serial synchrotron crystallography technique and its combination with serial femtosecond crystallography are discussed that may allow the determination of high-resolution structures of micrometre-sized crystals.

  11. SERIAL EFFECTS OF EVIDENCE ON LEGAL DECISION-MAKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca Enescu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The order in which evidence is presented to a criminal court might influence the verdict. This study investigated the serial position effect in a judicial context. 1831 Swiss criminal judges received a filmed mock trial with a specific order stemming from the combination of 3 witnesses: a forensic expert, an eyewitness and an alibi witness. The evidence order was completely counterbalanced and each witness represented a different type of testimony chosen in accordance with the legal practice. If judges rendered their verdict on the basis of the first witness, a primacy effect would be observed. Conversely, if the last testimony would be preponderant, a recency effect would influence their judgment. Results showed a recency effect based on a defence eyewitness whose placement in the last position provoked significantly less condemnations. Furthermore, the probative value estimated by the judges for each piece of evidence was not associated with its serial impact. Results are discussed in relation to legal decision-making and the identification of a central witness mediating order effects.

  12. Automated detection of multiple sclerosis lesions in serial brain MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Llado, Xavier; Ganiler, Onur; Oliver, Arnau; Marti, Robert; Freixenet, Jordi [University of Girona, Computer Vision and Robotics Group, Girona (Spain); Valls, Laia [Dr. Josep Trueta University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Girona (Spain); Vilanova, Joan C. [Girona Magnetic Resonance Center, Girona (Spain); Ramio-Torrenta, Lluis [Dr. Josep Trueta University Hospital, Institut d' Investigacio Biomedica de Girona, Multiple Sclerosis and Neuroimmunology Unit, Girona (Spain); Rovira, Alex [Vall d' Hebron University Hospital, Magnetic Resonance Unit, Department of Radiology, Barcelona (Spain)

    2012-08-15

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a serious disease typically occurring in the brain whose diagnosis and efficacy of treatment monitoring are vital. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is frequently used in serial brain imaging due to the rich and detailed information provided. Time-series analysis of images is widely used for MS diagnosis and patient follow-up. However, conventional manual methods are time-consuming, subjective, and error-prone. Thus, the development of automated techniques for the detection and quantification of MS lesions is a major challenge. This paper presents an up-to-date review of the approaches which deal with the time-series analysis of brain MRI for detecting active MS lesions and quantifying lesion load change. We provide a comprehensive reference source for researchers in which several approaches to change detection and quantification of MS lesions are investigated and classified. We also analyze the results provided by the approaches, discuss open problems, and point out possible future trends. Lesion detection approaches are required for the detection of static lesions and for diagnostic purposes, while either quantification of detected lesions or change detection algorithms are needed to follow up MS patients. However, there is not yet a single approach that can emerge as a standard for the clinical practice, automatically providing an accurate MS lesion evolution quantification. Future trends will focus on combining the lesion detection in single studies with the analysis of the change detection in serial MRI. (orig.)

  13. Improved Software to Browse the Serial Medical Images for Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Koojoo; Chung, Min Suk; Park, Jin Seo; Shin, Byeong Seok; Chung, Beom Sun

    2017-07-01

    The thousands of serial images used for medical pedagogy cannot be included in a printed book; they also cannot be efficiently handled by ordinary image viewer software. The purpose of this study was to provide browsing software to grasp serial medical images efficiently. The primary function of the newly programmed software was to select images using 3 types of interfaces: buttons or a horizontal scroll bar, a vertical scroll bar, and a checkbox. The secondary function was to show the names of the structures that had been outlined on the images. To confirm the functions of the software, 3 different types of image data of cadavers (sectioned and outlined images, volume models of the stomach, and photos of the dissected knees) were inputted. The browsing software was downloadable for free from the homepage (anatomy.co.kr) and available off-line. The data sets provided could be replaced by any developers for their educational achievements. We anticipate that the software will contribute to medical education by allowing users to browse a variety of images. © 2017 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.

  14. Exploration into power of homogeneity and serial correlation tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luboš Střelec

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Verification of regression models is primarily based on analysis of error terms and constitutes one of the most important steps in applied regression analysis. In cross-sectional models, the error terms are typically heteroskedastic, while in time series regressions the errors are often affected by serial correlation. Consequently, in this paper, we focus on Monte Carlo simulations applied to explore the power of several tests of homogeneity and tests for presence of autocorrelation. In the past decades, the computational power has increased significantly to allow the benefit of simulation from exact distributions, which are not defined explicitly. We will discuss 1 testing of homogeneity for a given number of components in the exponential mixture approximated by subpopulations and 2 simulation of power in several commonly used tests of autocorrelation. For the first case, we consider exact likelihood ratio test (ELR and exact likelihood ratio test against the alternative with two-component subpopulation (ELR2. In the second case, we consider the Durbin-Watson, Durbin h, Breusch-Godfrey, Box-Pierce and Ljung-Box tests of 1st order serial correlation and the runs test of randomness in two different types of linear regression models.

  15. A serial section Golgi analysis of the primate claustrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, S

    1981-01-01

    The cellular composition of the primate claustrum was analyzed using serially sectioned Golgi impregnated neurons. The tissue used in this study was embedded in a soft resin mixture and cut with 25 mm long glass knives. The resin embedding allowed the sections to be cut serially at a thickness of only 3 micrometers. A camera lucida was employed for drawing the cellular processes from selected impregnated neurons; these drawings were later incorporated into a single composite picture of the neuron. Three types of neurons were observed in the primate claustrum. The largest of these neurons (Type 1) had a cell body and spine-laden dendritic arborization that varied in size and shape according to the neuron's position in the claustrum. The axons of Type I neurons were successfully impregnated in 25-day-old animals and were found to form collaterals within the claustrum. The collaterals from the axons of these cells appeared to leave the claustrum through both the external and extreme capsules. A second neuron found in the claustrum (Type II) had a round cell body with smooth beaded dendrites which radiated in all directions. The axon of the Type II neuron appeared to give off numerous collaterals that were not observed to leave the claustrum. A third type of neuron (Type III) had a small pear shaped cell body and a sparse dendritic tree. The axon and its collaterals appeared to remain within the dendritic circumference of the Type III neuron.

  16. Semantic contribution to verbal short-term memory: are pleasant words easier to remember than neutral words in serial recall and serial recognition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monnier, Catherine; Syssau, Arielle

    2008-01-01

    In the four experiments reported here, we examined the role of word pleasantness on immediate serial recall and immediate serial recognition. In Experiment 1, we compared verbal serial recall of pleasant and neutral words, using a limited set of items. In Experiment 2, we replicated Experiment 1 with an open set of words (i.e., new items were used on every trial). In Experiments 3 and 4, we assessed immediate serial recognition of pleasant and neutral words, using item sets from Experiments 1 and 2. Pleasantness was found to have a facilitation effect on both immediate serial recall and immediate serial recognition. This study supplies some new supporting arguments in favor of a semantic contribution to verbal short-term memory performance. The pleasantness effect observed in immediate serial recognition showed that, contrary to a number of earlier findings, performance on this task can also turn out to be dependent on semantic factors. The results are discussed in relation to nonlinguistic and psycholinguistic models of short-term memory.

  17. Boreal forest fire emissions in fresh Canadian smoke plumes: C1-C10 volatile organic compounds (VOCs, CO2, CO, NO2, NO, HCN and CH3CN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yang

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Boreal regions comprise about 17 % of the global land area, and they both affect and are influenced by climate change. To better understand boreal forest fire emissions and plume evolution, 947 whole air samples were collected aboard the NASA DC-8 research aircraft in summer 2008 as part of the ARCTAS-B field mission, and analyzed for 79 non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs using gas chromatography. Together with simultaneous measurements of CO2, CO, CH4, CH2O, NO2, NO, HCN and CH3CN, these measurements represent the most comprehensive assessment of trace gas emissions from boreal forest fires to date. Based on 105 air samples collected in fresh Canadian smoke plumes, 57 of the 80 measured NMVOCs (including CH2O were emitted from the fires, including 45 species that were quantified from boreal forest fires for the first time. After CO2, CO and CH4, the largest emission factors (EFs for individual species were formaldehyde (2.1 ± 0.2 g kg−1, followed by methanol, NO2, HCN, ethene, α-pinene, β-pinene, ethane, benzene, propene, acetone and CH3CN. Globally, we estimate that boreal forest fires release 2.4 ± 0.6 Tg C yr−1 in the form of NMVOCs, with approximately 41 % of the carbon released as C1-C2 NMVOCs and 21 % as pinenes. These are the first reported field measurements of monoterpene emissions from boreal forest fires, and we speculate that the pinenes, which are relatively heavy molecules, were detected in the fire plumes as the result of distillation of stored terpenes as the vegetation is heated. Their inclusion in smoke chemistry models is expected to improve model predictions of secondary organic aerosol (SOA formation. The fire-averaged EF of dichloromethane or CH2Cl2, (6.9 ± 8.6 × 10−4 g kg−1, was not significantly different from zero and supports recent findings that its global biomass burning source appears to have been overestimated. Similarly, we found no evidence for emissions of chloroform (CHCl3 or methyl

  18. Stepwise association of hydrogen cyanide and acetonitrile with the benzene radical cation: structures and binding energies of (C6H6•+)(HCN)n, n = 1-6, and (C6H6•+)(CH3CN)n, n = 1-4, clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, Ahmed M; Soliman, Abdel-Rahman; El-Shall, M Samy

    2013-02-14

    Equilibrium thermochemical measurements using the ion mobility drift cell technique have been utilized to investigate the binding energies and entropy changes associated with the stepwise association of HCN and CH(3)CN molecules with the benzene radical cation in the C(6)H(6)(•+)(HCN)(n) and C(6)H(6)(•+)(CH(3)CN)(n) clusters with n = 1-6 and 1-4, respectively. The binding energy of CH(3)CN to the benzene cation (14 kcal/mol) is stronger than that of HCN (9 kcal/mol) mostly due to a stronger ion-dipole interaction because of the large dipole moment of acetonitrile (3.9 D). However, HCN can form hydrogen bonds with the hydrogen atoms of the benzene cation (CH(δ+)···NCH) and linear hydrogen bonding chains involving HCN···HCN interaction. HCN molecules tend to form externally solvated structures with the benzene cation where the ion is hydrogen bonded to the exterior of HCN chains. For the C(6)H(6)(•+)(CH(3)CN)(n) clusters, internally solvated structures are formed where the acetonitrile molecules are directly interacting with the benzene cation through ion-dipole and hydrogen bonding interactions. The lack of formation of higher clusters with n > 4, in contrast to HCN, suggests the formation of a solvent shell at n = 4, which is attributed to steric interactions among the acetonitrile molecules attached to the benzene cation and to the presence of the blocking CH(3) groups, both effects make the addition of more than four acetonitrile molecules less favorable.

  19. [Results of serial CT in the evaluation of the sellar region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, U; Mayr, B; Markl, A; Baumer, K; von Werder, K; Lissner, J

    1983-12-01

    The article reports on the methodology and results of serial CT in differential diagnosis of intrasellar and parasellar structures, based on 32 examinations. Whereas the normal pituitary gland displays an approximately equal contrast medium performance as the pituitary adenomas and recurrent tumours, different types of tissue such as those of tumours, vascular structures and postoperative scans can be well differentiated from each other by means of serial CT. Aneurysms can be safely differentiated from intracranial tumours, such as meningiomas, only via serial CT.

  20. A Cooperative Serial Acquisition Program: Thoughts on a Response to Mounting Fiscal Pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, C. Lee

    1974-01-01

    A regionally cooperative method of distributing responsibility for every serial title in a region is outlined. The system assures the equitable distribution of the number of titles for which each library is committed. Later refinements suggest an equalization of cost commitments on the basis of fiscal resources available for serial purchases. It is pointed out that fiscal realities will force some sort of serial acquisition cooperation for all viable medical libraries. PMID:4826481

  1. The Organized/Disorganized Typology of Serial Murder: Myth or Model?

    OpenAIRE

    Canter, David V.; Alison, Laurence J.; Alison, Emily; Wentink, Natalia

    2004-01-01

    Despite weaknesses in the organized/disorganized classification of serial killers, it is drawn on for "offender profiles," theories of offending, and in murder trials. This dichotomy was therefore tested by the multidimensional scaling of the co-occurrence of 39 aspects of serial killings derived 100 murders committed by 100 U.S. serial killers. Results revealed no distinct subsets of offense characteristics reflecting the dichotomy. They showed a subset of organized features typical of most ...

  2. Effects of Age on Serial Recall of Natural and Synthetic Speech

    OpenAIRE

    Humes, Larry E.; Nelson, Kathleen J.; Pisoni, David B.; Lively, Scott E.

    1993-01-01

    The present study addressed the effects of aging on auditory serial-recall performance for natural and synthetic words. Word difficulty, measured in terms of frequency of occurrence and phonological similarity, and rate of presentation were also manipulated in an effort to determine which processes underlying serial-recall performance, if any, were affected by aging. Results indicated that age per se had little effect on short-term (working) memory as measured by the serial recall of monosyll...

  3. Development of A 16:1 serializer for data transmission at 5 Gbps

    CERN Document Server

    Gong, Datao; Liang, Zhihua; Liu, Chonghan; Liu, Tiankuan; Da-Shun Su,; Teng, Ping-Kun; Xiang, Annie C; Ye, Jingbo

    2009-01-01

    Radiation tolerant, high speed and low power serializer ASIC is critical for optical link systems in particle physics experiments. Based on a commercial 0.25 μm silicon-onsapphire CMOS technology, we design a 16:1 serializer with 5 Gbps serial data rate. This ASIC has been submitted for fabrication. The post-layout simulation indicates the deterministic jitter is 54 ps (pk-pk) and random jitter is 3 ps (rms). The power consumption of the serializer is 500 mW. The design details and post layout simulation results are presented in this paper.

  4. A low-power, radiation-hard gigabit serializer for use in the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Denes, P; Bussat, J M; Wixted, R

    2000-01-01

    An integrated fiber-optic bit serializer and VCSEL driver has been constructed in radiation-hard complementary heterostructure GaAs FET (CHFET) technology. The serializer, which converts 20 parallel inputs into a high-speed serial output, consumes 60 mW at nominal supply voltage when operating at the Large Hadron Collider word rate of 40 MHz (0.8-GB/s serial rate). The integrated driver directly drives a VCSEL and provides 10-mA switched current and 5 mA of prebias. The complete digital optical link thus consumes 90 mW. (6 refs).

  5. Characterization of mid-infrared emissions from C2H2, CO, CO2, and HCN-filled hollow fiber lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A. M.; Fourcade-Dutin, C.; Mao, C.; Baumgart, B.; Nampoothiri, A. V. V.; Campbell, N.; Wang, Y.; Benabid, F.; Rudolph, W.; Washburn, B. R.; Corwin, K. L.

    2012-02-01

    We have now demonstrated and characterized gas-filled hollow-core fiber lasers based on population inversion from acetylene (12C2H2) and HCN gas contained within the core of a kagome-structured hollow-core photonic crystal fiber. The gases are optically pumped via first order rotational-vibrational overtones near 1.5 μm using 1-ns pulses from an optical parametric amplifier. Transitions from the pumped overtone modes to fundamental C-H stretching modes in both molecules create narrow-band laser emissions near 3 μm. High gain resulting from tight confinement of the pump and laser light together with the active gas permits us to operate these lasers in a single pass configuration, without the use of any external resonator structure. A delay between the emitted laser pulse and the incident pump pulse has been observed and is shown to vary with pump pulse energy and gas pressure. Furthermore, we have demonstrated lasing beyond 4 μm from CO and CO2 using silver-coated glass capillaries, since fused silica based fibers do not transmit in this spectral region and chalcogenide fibers are not yet readily available. Studies of the laser pulse energy as functions of the pump pulse energy and gas pressure were performed. Efficiencies reaching ~ 20% are observed for both acetylene and CO2.

  6. FORMATION OF N{sub 3}, CH{sub 3}, HCN, AND HNC FROM THE FAR-UV PHOTOLYSIS OF CH{sub 4} IN NITROGEN ICE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lo, Jen-Iu; Chou, Sheng-Lung; Peng, Yu-Chain; Lin, Meng-Yeh; Lu, Hsiao-Chi; Cheng, Bing-Ming, E-mail: bmcheng@nsrrc.org.tw [National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, No. 101, Hsin-Ann Road, Hsinchu Science Park, Hsinchu 30076, Taiwan (China)

    2015-11-15

    The irradiation of pure solid N{sub 2} at 3 K with far-ultraviolet light from a synchrotron produced infrared absorption lines at 1657.7, 1655.6, and 1652.4 cm{sup −1} and an ultraviolet absorption line at 272.0 nm, which are characteristic of the product N{sub 3}. The threshold wavelength at which N{sub 3} was generated was 145.6 ± 2.9 nm, corresponding to an energy of 8.52 ± 0.17 eV. The photolysis of isotopically labeled {sup 15}N{sub 2} at 3 K consistently led to the formation of {sup 15}N{sub 3} with the same threshold wavelength of 145.6 ± 2.9 nm for its formation. The photolysis of CH{sub 4} in nitrogen ice in low concentrations also led to the formation of N{sub 3}, together with CH{sub 3}, HCN, and HNC, with the same threshold wavelength of 145.6 ± 2.9 nm. These results indicate that N{sub 3} radicals may play an important role in the photochemistry of nitrogen ices in astronomical environments.

  7. Qualification of a Multi-Channel Infrared Laser Absorption Spectrometer for Monitoring CO, HCl, HCN, HF, and CO2 Aboard Manned Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Ryan M.; Frez, Clifford; Forouhar, Siamak; May, Randy D.; Meyer, Marit E.; Kulis, Michael J.; Berger, Gordon M.

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring of specific combustion products can provide early-warning detection of accidental fires aboard manned spacecraft and also identify the source and severity of combustion events. Furthermore, quantitative in situ measurements are important for gauging levels of exposure to hazardous gases, particularly on long-duration missions where analysis of returned samples becomes impractical. Absorption spectroscopy using tunable laser sources in the 2 to 5 micrometer wavelength range enables accurate, unambiguous detection of CO, HCl, HCN, HF, and CO2, which are produced in varying amounts through the heating of electrical components and packaging materials commonly used aboard spacecraft. Here, we report on calibration and testing of a five-channel laser absorption spectrometer designed to accurately monitor ambient gas-phase concentrations of these five compounds, with low-level detection limits based on the Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations. The instrument employs a two-pass absorption cell with a total optical pathlength of 50 cm and a dedicated infrared semiconductor laser source for each target gas. We present results from testing the five-channel sensor in the presence of trace concentrations of the target compounds that were introduced using both gas sources and oxidative pyrolysis (non-flaming combustion) of solid material mixtures.

  8. Whole brain imaging with Serial Two-Photon Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen P Amato

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Imaging entire mouse brains at submicron resolution has historically been a challenging undertaking and largely confined to the province of dedicated atlasing initiatives. The has limited systematic investigations into important areas of neuroscience, such as neural circuits, brain mapping and neurodegeneration. In this paper, we describe in detail Serial Two-Photon (STP tomography, a robust, reliable method for imaging entire brains with histological detail. We provide examples of how the basic methodology can be extended to other imaging modalities, such as optical coherence tomography, in order to provide unique contrast mechanisms. Furthermore we provide a survey of the research that STP tomography has enabled in the field of neuroscience, provide examples of how this technology enables quantitative whole brain studies, and discuss the current limitations of STP tomography-based approaches

  9. Unequal Input Voltages Distribution Between the Serial Connected Halfbridges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovan Ovcarcik

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a topology of DC-DC converter consisting in two serial connected half-bridges. Secondary circuit is realized like a conventional full-wave rectifier. The main advantage of this topology is the possibility of dividing the input voltage between the half-bridges. The converter is controlled using the phase-shift modulation, which allows a ZVSoperation mode. The voltage unbalance between the inputs causes an important problem of the presented topology. It is necessary to avoid it by the control algorithm, which is described in the text. The practical results show a zero voltage switching technique and the limits of the chosen topology and of the control.

  10. New method for designing serial resonant power converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinov, Nikolay

    2017-12-01

    In current work is presented one comprehensive method for design of serial resonant energy converters. The method is based on new simplified approach in analysis of such kind power electronic devices. It is grounded on supposing resonant mode of operation when finding relation between input and output voltage regardless of other operational modes (when controlling frequency is below or above resonant frequency). This approach is named `quasiresonant method of analysis', because it is based on assuming that all operational modes are `sort of' resonant modes. An estimation of error was made because of the a.m. hypothesis and is compared to the classic analysis. The `quasiresonant method' of analysis gains two main advantages: speed and easiness in designing of presented power circuits. Hence it is very useful in practice and in teaching Power Electronics. Its applicability is proven with mathematic modelling and computer simulation.

  11. Analysis of XFEL serial diffraction data from individual crystalline fibrils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David H. Wojtas

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Serial diffraction data collected at the Linac Coherent Light Source from crystalline amyloid fibrils delivered in a liquid jet show that the fibrils are well oriented in the jet. At low fibril concentrations, diffraction patterns are recorded from single fibrils; these patterns are weak and contain only a few reflections. Methods are developed for determining the orientation of patterns in reciprocal space and merging them in three dimensions. This allows the individual structure amplitudes to be calculated, thus overcoming the limitations of orientation and cylindrical averaging in conventional fibre diffraction analysis. The advantages of this technique should allow structural studies of fibrous systems in biology that are inaccessible using existing techniques.

  12. Serial femtosecond X-ray diffraction of enveloped virus microcrystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert M. Lawrence

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX using X-ray free-electron lasers has produced high-resolution, room temperature, time-resolved protein structures. We report preliminary SFX of Sindbis virus, an enveloped icosahedral RNA virus with ∼700 Å diameter. Microcrystals delivered in viscous agarose medium diffracted to ∼40 Å resolution. Small-angle diffuse X-ray scattering overlaid Bragg peaks and analysis suggests this results from molecular transforms of individual particles. Viral proteins undergo structural changes during entry and infection, which could, in principle, be studied with SFX. This is an important step toward determining room temperature structures from virus microcrystals that may enable time-resolved studies of enveloped viruses.

  13. Impaired serial visual search in children with developmental dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sireteanu, Ruxandra; Goebel, Claudia; Goertz, Ralf; Werner, Ingeborg; Nalewajko, Magdalena; Thiel, Aylin

    2008-12-01

    In order to test the hypothesis of attentional deficits in dyslexia, we investigated the performance of children with developmental dyslexia on a number of visual search tasks. When tested with conjunction tasks for orientation and form using complex, letter-like material, dyslexic children showed an increased number of errors accompanied by faster reaction times in comparison to control children matched to the dyslexics on age, gender, and intelligence. On conjunction tasks for orientation and color, dyslexic children were also less accurate, but showed slower reaction times than the age-matched control children. These differences between the two groups decreased with increasing age. In contrast to these differences, the performance of dyslexic children in feature search tasks was similar to that of control children. These results suggest that children with developmental dyslexia present selective deficits in complex serial visual search tasks, implying impairment in goal-directed, sustained visual attention.

  14. Continuous Heterogeneous Photocatalysis in Serial Micro-Batch Reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieber, Bartholomaeus; Shalom, Menny; Antonietti, Markus; Seeberger, Peter H; Gilmore, Kerry

    2018-01-29

    Solid reagents, leaching catalysts, and heterogeneous photocatalysts are commonly employed in batch processes but are ill suited for continuous flow chemistry. Heterogeneous catalysts for thermal reactions are typically used in packed bed reactors that cannot be penetrated by light and thus are not suitable for photocatalytic reactions involving solids. We demonstrate that serial micro-batch reactors (SMBRs) allow for the continuous utilization of solid materials together with liquids and gases in flow. This technology was utilized to develop selective and efficient fluorination protocols using a modified graphitic carbon nitride heterogeneous catalyst instead of costly homogeneous metal polypyridyl complexes. The merger of this inexpensive, recyclable catalyst and the SMBR approach gives access to sustainable and scalable photo catalysis. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Serial position functions for recognition of olfactory stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Andrew J; Miles, Christopher

    2007-10-01

    Two experiments examined item recognition memory for sequentially presented odours. Following a sequence of six odours participants were immediately presented with a series of two-alternative forced-choice (2AFC) test odours. The test pairs were presented in either the same order as learning or the reverse order of learning. Method of testing was either blocked (Experiment 1) or mixed (Experiment 2). Both experiments demonstrated extended recency, with an absence of primacy, for the reverse testing procedure. In contrast, the forward testing procedure revealed a null effect of serial position. The finding of extended recency is inconsistent with the single-item recency predicted by the two-component duplex theory (Phillips & Christie, 1977). We offer an alternative account of the data in which recognition accuracy is better accommodated by the cumulative number of items presented between item learning and item test.

  16. SERIAL EFFECTS OF EVIDENCE ON LEGAL DECISION-MAKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca Enescu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The order in which evidence is presentedto a criminal court might influence the verdict.This study investigated the serial position effectin a judicial context. 1831 Swiss criminal judgesreceived a filmed mock trial with a specificorder stemming from the combination of 3witnesses: a forensic expert, an eyewitness andan alibi witness. The evidence order wascompletely counterbalanced and each witnessrepresented a different type of testimony chosenin accordance with the legal practice. If judgesrendered their verdict on the basis of the firstwitness, a primacy effect would be observed.Conversely, if the last testimony would bepreponderant, a recency effect would influencetheir judgment. Results showed a recency effectbased on a defence eyewitness whose placementin the last position provoked significantly lesscondemnations. Furthermore, the probativevalue estimated by the judges for each piece of evidence was not associated with its serialimpact. Results are discussed in relation to legaldecision-making and the identification of acentral witness mediating order effects.

  17. On-Line Serials System at Laval University Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario de Varennes

    1970-06-01

    Full Text Available Description of a system, operational since June 1968, that provides control of all serials holdings in nine campus libraries, permits updating of the complete file every two or three days, and produces various outputs for library users and library staff from data in variable fields on disks (listings, statistics, etc.. The program, presently operating on an IBM 360/50 and utilizing an IBM 2314 disk-storage facility and three IBM 226 CRT terminals, is written in IBM System/360 Operating System Assembler Language and in PL/I; it could encompass a file of no more than 10 million records of variable length limited to 127/255 characters and subdivided in 25 or fewer fields.

  18. Cortical laminar necrosis in brain infarcts: serial MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siskas, N.; Lefkopoulos, A.; Ioannidis, I.; Charitandi, A.; Dimitriadis, A.S. [Radiology Department, AHEPA University Hospital, Aristotele University of Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2003-05-01

    High-signal cortical lesions are observed on T1-weighted images in cases of brain infarct. Histological examination has demonstrated these to be ''cortical laminar necrosis'', without haemorrhage or calcification. We report serial MRI in this condition in 12 patients with brain infarcts. We looked at high-signal lesions on T1-weighted images, chronological changes in signal intensity and contrast enhancement. High-signal cortical lesions began to appear about 2 weeks after the ictus, were prominent at 1 - 2 months, then became less evident, but occasionally remained for up to 1.5 years. They gave high signal or were isointense on T2-weighted images and did not give low signal at any stage. Contrast enhancement of these lesions was prominent at 1 - 2 months, and less apparent from 3 months, but was seen up to 5 months. (orig.)

  19. Serialization and persistent objects turning data structures into efficient databases

    CERN Document Server

    Soukup, Jiri

    2014-01-01

    Recently, the pressure for fast processing and efficient storage of large data with complex?relations increased beyond the capability of traditional databases. Typical examples include iPhone applications, computer aided design - both electrical and mechanical, biochemistry applications, and incremental compilers. Serialization, which is sometimes used in such situations is notoriously tedious and error prone.In this book, Jiri Soukup and Petr Macha?ek show in detail how to write programs which store their internal data automatically and transparently to disk. Together with special data structure libraries which treat relations among objects as first-class entities, and with a UML class-diagram generator, the core application code is much simplified. The benchmark chapter shows a typical example where persistent data is faster by the order of magnitude than with a traditional database, in both traversing and accessing the data.The authors explore and exploit advanced features of object-oriented languages in a...

  20. Cinema 4D Dalam Pipeline Produksi Serial Animasi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardiyansah Ardiyansah

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Cinema 4D is best known as software that is efficient in render time. This is very beneficial especially for those who engaged in animated projects with tight deadlines and require work time efficiency, such as serial project. In addition to time, in the animated series production pipeline also generally require various items of work that involves a lot of resources implemented in parallel. This is to avoid delays to the overall project progress whenever a work item suffers setback due to any reason. Cinema 4D as a tool, allowing a project carried out with the most efficient method in accordance with needs, and flexibility that is the appeal of Cinema 4D as well as strength in the context of the animated series production. 

  1. Serial position effects in recognition memory for odors: a reexamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Christopher; Hodder, Kathryn

    2005-10-01

    Seven experiments examined recognition memory for sequentially presented odors. Following Reed (2000), participants were presented with a sequence of odors and then required to identify an odor from the sequence in a test probe comprising 2 odors. The pattern of results obtained by Reed (2000, although statistically marginal) demonstrated enhanced recognition for odors presented at the start (primacy) and end (recency) of the sequence: a result that we failed to replicate in any of the experiments reported here. Experiments 1 and 3 were designed to replicate Reed (2000), employing five-item and seven-item sequences, respectively, and each demonstrated significant recency, with evidence of primacy in Experiment 3 only. Experiment 2 replicated Experiment 1, with reduced interstimulus intervals, and produced a null effect of serial position. The ease with which the odors could be verbally labeled was manipulated in Experiments 4 and 5. Nameable odors produced a null effect of serial position (Experiment 4), and hard-to-name odors produced a pronounced recency effect (Experiment 5); nevertheless, overall rates of recognition were remarkably similar for the two experiments at around 70%. Articulatory suppression reduced recognition accuracy (Experiment 6), but recency was again present in the absence of primacy. Odor recognition performance was immune to the effects of an interleaved odor (Experiment 7), and, again, both primacy and recency effects were absent. There was no evidence of olfactory fatigue: Recognition accuracy improved across trials (Experiment 1). It is argued that the results of the experiments reported here are generally consistent with that body of work employing hard-to-name visual stimuli, where recency is obtained in the absence of primacy when the retention interval is short.

  2. Assessing sleep consciousness within subjects using a serial awakening paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca eSiclari

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Dreaming - a particular form of consciousness that occurs during sleep - undergoes major changes in the course of the night. We aimed to outline state-dependent features of consciousness using a paradigm with multiple serial awakenings/questionings that allowed for within as well as between subject comparisons. Seven healthy participants who spent 44 experimental study nights in the laboratory were awakened by a computerized sound at 15-30 minute intervals, regardless of sleep stage, and questioned for the presence or absence of sleep consciousness. Recall without content (‘I was experiencing something but do not remember what’ was considered separately. Subjects had to indicate the content of the most recent conscious experience prior to the alarm sound and to estimate its duration and richness. We also assessed the degree of thinking and perceiving, self- and environment-relatedness and reflective consciousness of the experiences. Of the 778 questionings, 5% were performed during wakefulness, 2% in stage N1, 42% in N2, 33% in N3 and 17% in rapid eye movement (REM sleep. Recall with content was reported in 34% of non-REM and in 77% of REM sleep awakenings. Sleep fragmentation inherent to the study design appeared to only minimally affect the recall of conscious experiences. Each stage displayed a unique combination of characteristic features of sleep consciousness. In conclusion, our serial awakening paradigm allowed us to collect a large and representative sample of conscious experiences across states of being. It represents a time-efficient method for the study of sleep consciousness that may prove particularly advantageous when combined with techniques such as functional MRI and high-density EEG.

  3. Examining the relationship between free recall and immediate serial recall: the serial nature of recall and the effect of test expectancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatarah, Parveen; Ward, Geoff; Tan, Lydia

    2008-01-01

    In two experiments, we examined the relationship between free recall and immediate serial recall (ISR), using a within-subjects (Experiment 1) and a between-subjects (Experiment 2) design. In both experiments, participants read aloud lists of eight words and were precued or postcued to respond using free recall or ISR. The serial position curves were U-shaped for free recall and showed extended primacy effects with little or no recency for ISR, and there was little or no difference between recall for the precued and the postcued conditions. Critically, analyses of the output order showed that although the participants started their recall from different list positions in the two tasks, the degree to which subsequent recall was serial in a forward order was strikingly similar. We argue that recalling in a serial forward order is a general characteristic of memory and that performance on ISR and free recall is underpinned by common memory mechanisms.

  4. FTIR time-series of biomass burning products (HCN, C2H6, C2H2, CH3OH, and HCOOH) at Reunion Island (21° S, 55° E) and comparisons with model data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigouroux, C.; Stavrakou, T.; Whaley, C.; Dils, B.; Duflot, V.; Hermans, C.; Kumps, N.; Metzger, J.-M.; Scolas, F.; Vanhaelewyn, G.; Müller, J.-F.; Jones, D. B. A.; Li, Q.; De Mazière, M.

    2012-11-01

    Reunion Island (21° S, 55° E), situated in the Indian Ocean at about 800 km east of Madagascar, is appropriately located to monitor the outflow of biomass burning pollution from Southern Africa and Madagascar, in the case of short-lived compounds, and from other Southern Hemispheric landmasses such as South America, in the case of longer-lived species. Ground-based Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) solar absorption observations are sensitive to a large number of biomass burning products. We present in this work the FTIR retrieval strategies, suitable for very humid sites such as Reunion Island, for hydrogen cyanide (HCN), ethane (C2H6), acetylene (C2H2), methanol (CH3OH), and formic acid (HCOOH). We provide their total columns time-series obtained from the measurements during August-October 2004, May-October 2007, and May 2009-December 2010. We show that biomass burning explains a large part of the observed seasonal and interannual variability of the chemical species. The correlations between the daily mean total columns of each of the species and those of CO, also measured with our FTIR spectrometer at Reunion Island, are very good from August to November (R ≥ 0.86). This allows us to derive, for that period, the following enhancement ratios with respect to CO: 0.0047, 0.0078, 0.0020, 0.012, and 0.0046 for HCN, C2H6, C2H2, CH3OH, and HCOOH, respectively. The HCN ground-based data are compared to the chemical transport model GEOS-Chem, while the data for the other species are compared to the IMAGESv2 model. We show that using the HCN/CO ratio derived from our measurements (0.0047) in GEOS-Chem reduces the underestimation of the modeled HCN columns compared with the FTIR measurements. The comparisons between IMAGESv2 and the long-lived species C2H6 and C2H2 indicate that the biomass burning emissions used in the model (from the GFED3 inventory) are probably underestimated in the late September-October period for all years of measurements, and especially in

  5. Three-dimensional shape of the Golgi apparatus in different cell types: serial section scanning electron microscopy of the osmium-impregnated Golgi apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koga, Daisuke; Kusumi, Satoshi; Ushiki, Tatsuo

    2016-04-01

    Although many studies of the Golgi apparatus structure have been performed by light and electron microscopy, the full shape of the Golgi apparatus remained unclear due to the technical limitations of the previously applied microscopy techniques. In this study, we used serial section scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for the morphological study of the Golgi apparatus. This method is useful for three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of cellular structures without requiring specialized instruments, unlike focused ion beam SEM (FIB-SEM) and serial block face SEM (SBF-SEM). Using the serial section SEM method developed by our laboratory, we investigate the 3D shape of the osmium-impregnated Golgi apparatus in rat epididymal cells, pancreatic acinar cells and gonadotropes. The combination of serial section SEM and a 3D reconstruction technique enabled us to elucidate the entire shape of the Golgi apparatus in these cells. The full shape of the Golgi apparatus in epididymal cells formed a basket-like structure with oval-shaped cisterns, while the Golgi apparatus in an acinar cell from the pancreas was composed of elongated ribbon-like structures that were connected to each other, making a coarse network. The overall image of the Golgi apparatus cisterns from a gonadotrope looked like a spherical cage. This study has clearly shown that entire 3D shape of the Golgi apparatus varies depending on the cell type and that the Golgi cisterns network appears as a single mass located in the large region of the cytoplasm. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japanese Society of Microscopy. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Automated Microfluidic Platform for Serial Polymerase Chain Reaction and High-Resolution Melting Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Weidong; Bean, Brian; Corey, Scott; Coursey, Johnathan S; Hasson, Kenton C; Inoue, Hiroshi; Isano, Taisuke; Kanderian, Sami; Lane, Ben; Liang, Hongye; Murphy, Brian; Owen, Greg; Shinoda, Nobuhiko; Zeng, Shulin; Knight, Ivor T

    2016-06-01

    We report the development of an automated genetic analyzer for human sample testing based on microfluidic rapid polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with high-resolution melting analysis (HRMA). The integrated DNA microfluidic cartridge was used on a platform designed with a robotic pipettor system that works by sequentially picking up different test solutions from a 384-well plate, mixing them in the tips, and delivering mixed fluids to the DNA cartridge. A novel image feedback flow control system based on a Canon 5D Mark II digital camera was developed for controlling fluid movement through a complex microfluidic branching network without the use of valves. The same camera was used for measuring the high-resolution melt curve of DNA amplicons that were generated in the microfluidic chip. Owing to fast heating and cooling as well as sensitive temperature measurement in the microfluidic channels, the time frame for PCR and HRMA was dramatically reduced from hours to minutes. Preliminary testing results demonstrated that rapid serial PCR and HRMA are possible while still achieving high data quality that is suitable for human sample testing. © 2015 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  7. Serial Block-Face Scanning Electron Microscopy to Reconstruct Three-Dimensional Tissue Nanostructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denk Winfried

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional (3D structural information on many length scales is of central importance in biological research. Excellent methods exist to obtain structures of molecules at atomic, organelles at electron microscopic, and tissue at light-microscopic resolution. A gap exists, however, when 3D tissue structure needs to be reconstructed over hundreds of micrometers with a resolution sufficient to follow the thinnest cellular processes and to identify small organelles such as synaptic vesicles. Such 3D data are, however, essential to understand cellular networks that, particularly in the nervous system, need to be completely reconstructed throughout a substantial spatial volume. Here we demonstrate that datasets meeting these requirements can be obtained by automated block-face imaging combined with serial sectioning inside the chamber of a scanning electron microscope. Backscattering contrast is used to visualize the heavy-metal staining of tissue prepared using techniques that are routine for transmission electron microscopy. Low-vacuum (20-60 Pa H2O conditions prevent charging of the uncoated block face. The resolution is sufficient to trace even the thinnest axons and to identify synapses. Stacks of several hundred sections, 50-70 nm thick, have been obtained at a lateral position jitter of typically under 10 nm. This opens the possibility of automatically obtaining the electron-microscope-level 3D datasets needed to completely reconstruct the connectivity of neuronal circuits.

  8. 77 FR 66920 - Registration of Claims to Copyright: Group Registration of Serial Issues Filed Electronically

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-08

    ... Copyright Office 37 CFR Part 202 Registration of Claims to Copyright: Group Registration of Serial Issues Filed Electronically AGENCY: Copyright Office, Library of Congress. ACTION: Interim regulations. SUMMARY: The Copyright Office is adopting interim regulations that allow groups of related serial issues to be...

  9. Juvenility and serial vegetative propagation of Norway spruce clones (Picea abies Karst.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.B. St. Clair; J. Kleinschmit; J. Svolba

    1985-01-01

    Effects associated with progressive maturation of clones are of greatest concern in clonal tree improvement programs. Serial propagation has been in use at the Lower Saxony Forest Research Institute since 1968 to arrest maturation in Norway spruce clones. By 1980 cuttings were established in the nursery that had been serially propagated from one to five cycles. This...

  10. A high speed serializer ASIC for ATLAS Liquid Argon calorimeter upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, T; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The current front-end electronics of the ATLAS Liquid Argon calorimeters need to be upgraded to sustain the higher radiation levels and data rates expected at the upgraded LHC machine (HL-LHC), which will have 5 times more luminosity than the LHC in its ultimate configuration. This upgrade calls for an optical link system of 100 Gbps per front-end board (FEB). A high speed, low power, radiation tolerant serializer is the critical component in this system. In this paper, we present the design and test results of a single channel 16:1 serializer and the design of a double-channel 16:1 serializer. Both designs are based on a commercial 0.25 μm silicon-on-sapphire CMOS technology. The single channel serializer consists of a serializing unit, a PLL clock generator and a line driver implemented in current mode logic (CML). The serializing unit multiplexes 16 bit parallel LVDS data into 1-bit width serial CMOS data. The serializing unit is composed of a cascade of 2:1 multiplexing circuits based on static D-flip-fl...

  11. Save the last dance for me: unwanted serial position effects in jury evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruine de Bruin, Wändi

    2005-03-01

    Whenever competing options are considered in sequence, their evaluations may be affected by order of appearance. Such serial position effects would threaten the fairness of competitions using jury evaluations. Randomization cannot reduce potential order effects, but it does give candidates an equal chance of being assigned to preferred serial positions. Whether, or what, serial position effects emerge may depend on the cognitive demands of the judgment task. In end-of-sequence procedures, final scores are not given until all candidates have performed, possibly burdening judges' memory. If judges' evaluations are based on how well they remember performances, serial position effects may resemble those found with free recall. Candidates may also be evaluated step-by-step, immediately after each performance. This procedure should not burden memory, though it may produce different serial position effects. Yet, this paper reports similar serial position effects with end-of-sequence and step-by-step procedures used for the Eurovision Song Contest: Ratings increased with serial position. The linear order effect was replicated in the step-by-step judgments of World and European Figure Skating Contests. It is proposed that, independent of the evaluation procedure, judges' initial impressions of sequentially appearing candidates may be formed step-by-step, yielding serial position effects.

  12. Visual and Phonological Similarity Effects in Verbal Immediate Serial Recall: A Test with Kanji Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Satoru; Logie, Robert H.; Morita, Aiko; Law, Anna

    2008-01-01

    In a series of three experiments, native speakers of Japanese performed serial ordered written recall of visually presented Japanese kanji characters that varied systematically in visual and phonological similarity. Overall effects of phonological similarity were observed for retention of serial order under silent reading in Experiments 1 and 3…

  13. Serial cranial ultrasonography or early MRI for detecting preterm brain injury?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plaisier, Annemarie; Raets, Marlou M A; Ecury-Goossen, Ginette M; Govaert, Paul; Feijen-Roon, Monique; Reiss, Irwin K M; Smit, Liesbeth S; Lequin, Maarten H; Dudink, Jeroen|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/328865680

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate detection ability and feasibility of serial cranial ultrasonography (CUS) and early MRI in preterm brain injury. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Level III neonatal intensive care unit. PATIENTS: 307 infants, born below 29 weeks of gestation. METHODS: Serial CUS

  14. The nature of verbal short-term impairment in dyslexia: The importance of serial order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Majerus

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Verbal short-term memory (STM impairment is one of the most consistent associated deficits observed in developmental reading disorders such as dyslexia. Few studies have addressed the nature of this STM impairment, especially as regards the ability to temporarily store serial order information. This question is important as studies in typically developing children have shown that serial order STM abilities are predictors of oral and written language development. Associated serial order STM deficits in dyslexia may therefore further increase the learning difficulties in these populations. In this mini review, we show that specific serial order STM impairment is frequently reported in both dyslexic children and adults with a history of dyslexia. Serial order STM impairment appears to occur for the retention of both verbal and visuo-spatial sequence information. Serial order STM impairment is however not a characteristic of every individual dyslexic subject and is not specific to dyslexia. Future studies need to determine whether serial order STM impairment is a risk factor which, in association with phonological processing deficits, can lead to dyslexia or whether serial order STM impairment reflects associated deficits causally unrelated to dyslexia.

  15. Serial MR findings of metaphyseal cyst in Legg-Calve-Perthes disease: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shim, Chang Min; Na, Jae Boem; Moon, Haeng Jin [Gyeongsang National Univ., College of Mdicine, Chinju (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-11-01

    Metaphyseal cysts are common findings in Lee-Calve-Perthes(LCP) disease, though usually disappear within 6-12 months several studies have described the MR imaging findings of these cysts, though serial MRI findings have not been documented. In this report, therefore, we report the serial MRI results of metaphyseal cyst in LCP patients.

  16. Utility of Serial Urinalyses and Urinary Cytology in the Evaluation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Serial urinalyses have been advocated when haematuria is suspected. OBJECTIVE: To determine the utility of serial urinalyses and urinary cytology in patients presenting for evaluation of microscopic haematuria. METHODS: Eighty-five patients with the diagnosis of microscopic haematuria were evaluated ...

  17. A study of serials use at Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thus, recommendations made, included engaging in new and intensive methods of user education in the use of serials; and an intensive current awareness and the provision of SDI services. Keywords: Serials use, Kwame Nkrumah University of Sceince and Technology Library, university libraries, Ghana Ghana Library ...

  18. Repetition Learning in the Immediate Serial Recall of Visual and Auditory Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Mike P. A.; Cumming, Nick; Norris, Dennis; Hitch, Graham J.; McNeil, Alan M.

    2006-01-01

    In 5 experiments, a Hebb repetition effect, that is, improved immediate serial recall of an (unannounced) repeating list, was demonstrated in the immediate serial recall of visual materials, even when use of phonological short-term memory was blocked by concurrent articulation. The learning of a repeatedly presented letter list in one modality…

  19. Energy market and reserve market modeling in simultaneous and serial implementation methods with the aim of reducing electricity costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramin Ghoraba

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In competitive electricity markets, power needed for the network’s reserve is purchased from the ancillary service market. In this market, producing units and buyers alike announce their offers. As will be seen, energy market and reserve market implementation is possible with simultaneous method and serial method by choosing each of the methods based on the type of market and other conditions. In this paper, the energy market and the active power reserve market are simulated in two formations as serial and simultaneous for a uniform pricing system. In each method, limitations of transferring power over the lines, based on available transfer capacity (ATC, is considered alongside the other constraints in the energy market and the active power reserve market. Then, during network overload, economic dispatch is accomplished between winner units in the reserve market by using a linear optimization problem, and needed power is provided from these units at a minimal cost. Finally, our proposed methods are implemented on an IEEE 39-bus test system and results are analyzed.

  20. Low Demographic Variability in Wild Primate Populations: Fitness Impacts of Variation, Covariation, and Serial Correlation in Vital Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, William F.; Altmann, Jeanne; Brockman, Diane K.; Cords, Marina; Fedigan, Linda M.; Pusey, Anne E.; Stoinski, Tara S.; Bronikowski, Anne M.; Alberts, Susan C.; Strier, Karen B.

    2013-01-01

    In a stochastic environment, long-term fitness can be influenced by variation, covariation, and serial correlation in vital rates (survival and fertility). Yet no study of an animal population has parsed the contributions of these three aspects of variability to long-term fitness. We do so using a unique database that includes complete life-history information for wild-living individuals of seven primate species that have been the subjects of long-term (22–45 years) behavioral studies. Overall, the estimated levels of vital rate variation had only minor effects on long-term fitness, and the effects of vital rate covariation and serial correlation were even weaker. To explore why, we compared estimated variances of adult survival in primates with values for other vertebrates in the literature and found that adult survival is significantly less variable in primates than it is in the other vertebrates. Finally, we tested the prediction that adult survival, because it more strongly influences fitness in a constant environment, will be less variable than newborn survival, and we found only mixed support for the prediction. Our results suggest that wild primates may be buffered against detrimental fitness effects of environmental stochasticity by their highly developed cognitive abilities, social networks, and broad, flexible diets. PMID:21117962

  1. Kinematics and dynamics analysis of a novel serial-parallel dynamic simulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Bo; Zhang, Lian Dong; Yu, Jingjing [Parallel Robot and Mechatronic System Laboratory of Hebei Province, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao, Hebei (China)

    2016-11-15

    A serial-parallel dynamics simulator based on serial-parallel manipulator is proposed. According to the dynamics simulator motion requirement, the proposed serial-parallel dynamics simulator formed by 3-RRS (active revolute joint-revolute joint-spherical joint) and 3-SPR (Spherical joint-active prismatic joint-revolute joint) PMs adopts the outer and inner layout. By integrating the kinematics, constraint and coupling information of the 3-RRS and 3-SPR PMs into the serial-parallel manipulator, the inverse Jacobian matrix, velocity, and acceleration of the serial-parallel dynamics simulator are studied. Based on the principle of virtual work and the kinematics model, the inverse dynamic model is established. Finally, the workspace of the (3-RRS)+(3-SPR) dynamics simulator is constructed.

  2. The case of Jeffrey Dahmer: sexual serial homicide from a neuropsychiatric developmental perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, J Arturo; Ferrari, Michelle M; Leong, Gregory B

    2002-11-01

    Sexual serial homicidal behavior has received considerable attention during the last three decades. Substantial progress has been made in the development of methods aimed at identifying and apprehending individuals who exhibit these behaviors. In spite of these advances, the origins of sexual serial killing behavior remain for the most part unknown. In this article we propose a biopsychosocial psychiatric model for understanding the origins of sexual serial homicidal behavior from both neuropsychiatric and developmental perspectives, using the case of convicted serial killer Jeffrey Dahmer as the focal point. We propose that his homicidal behavior was intrinsically associated with autistic spectrum psychopathology, specifically Asperger's disorder. The relationship of Asperger's disorder to other psychopathology and to his homicidal behavior is explored. We discuss potential implications of the proposed model for the future study of the causes of sexual serial homicidal crime.

  3. Changing Series: Narrative Models and the Role of the Viewer in Contemporary Television Seriality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Innocenti

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In the past few years television serial narratives have gone through some severe changes in the way they are organized from a narrative point of view, as well as in the way they are perceived by the audiences. Our article originates from the necessity of investigating the products of this new wave of serial production, with the purpose of focusing on narrative formulas and on the relationships that serial products establish with their users. Vast serialized narratives are not just texts anymore, they have become complex universes of meaning that last for long time and that have a strong influence on the audiences. The article aims to investigate serial narratives as usable objects, that are not just seen by the public, but that are part of a complex experience.

  4. IEEE 1394/firewire a low cost, high speed, digital serial bus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaunt, R.

    1997-05-01

    Does the world need yet another 1/0 bus standard? If you need fast and cheap serial video communication, then the answer is yes. As technology advances, so too must data transport mechanisms advance. You can`t expect RS-232 to support real-time digital video, and if you can`t afford expensive professional serial video interfaces, (such as Sony`s Serial Digital Interface), Firewire may be a good solution. IEEE 1394, or commonly known as Firewire, is a general purpose serial bus that meets many of the 1/0 needs of today`s video and multimedia developers. For those of you who only read the first paragraph, here`s Firewire in a nutshell: It provides a guaranteed transfer rate of 10OMbps or 20OMbps of digital data (such as video direct from camera to computer), over an inexpensive, non-proprietary serial bus. Here is a list of its features.

  5. Spatial-domain-based multidimensional modulation for multi-Tb/s serial optical transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djordjevic, Ivan B; Arabaci, Murat; Xu, Lei; Wang, Ting

    2011-03-28

    The multidimensional channel capacity studies indicate that the employment of multiple photon degrees of freedom-such as subcarrier, amplitude, phase, polarization, and space-can improve the spectral efficiency by several orders of magnitude higher than that claimed in any fiber-optic experiment reported to date. This dramatic increase in spectral efficiency through multiple photon degrees of freedom can provide revolutionary capabilities for future optical networks. Moreover, photons can carry both spin angular momentum (SAM) associated with polarization, and orbital angular momentum (OAM) associated with the azimuthal phase of the complex electric field. Because OAM eigenstates are orthogonal, an arbitrary number of bits per photon can be transmitted in principle. The ability to generate the OAM modes, such as Bessel modes, in multimode fibers (MMFs) will allow realization of fiber-optic communication networks with ultra-high bits-per-photon efficiencies. To this end, we propose here a spatial-domain-based multidimensional coded-modulation scheme as an enabling technology for multi-Tb/s serial optical transport. To demonstrate the capabilities of the proposed scheme, we show that an eight-dimensional (8D) spatial-domain-based coded modulation scheme outperforms a prior-art 128-point 4D scheme by 3.88 dB at BER of 10(-8) while providing 120 Gb/s higher aggregate information bit rate. The proposed 8D scheme also outperforms its conventional polarization-multiplexed QAM counterpart by even a larger, and indeed striking, margin of 8.39 dB (also at the BER of 10(-8)).

  6. Depression and pain: testing of serial multiple mediators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wongpakaran T

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Tinakon Wongpakaran,1 Nahathai Wongpakaran,1 Sitthinant Tanchakvaranont,2 Putipong Bookkamana,3 Manee Pinyopornpanish,1 Kamonporn Wannarit,4 Sirina Satthapisit,5 Daochompu Nakawiro,6 Thanita Hiranyatheb,6 Kulvadee Thongpibul7 1Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Kingdom of Thailand; 2Department of Psychiatry, Queen Savang Vadhana Memorial Hospital, Chonburi, Kingdom of Thailand; 3Department of Statistics, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Kingdom of Thailand; 4Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Kingdom of Thailand; 5Department of Psychiatry, Khon Kaen Regional Hospital, Khon Kaen, Kingdom of Thailand; 6Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Kingdom of Thailand; 7Department of Psychology, Faculty of Humanities, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Kingdom of Thailand Purpose: Despite the fact that pain is related to depression, few studies have been conducted to investigate the variables that mediate between the two conditions. In this study, the authors explored the following mediators: cognitive function, self-sacrificing interpersonal problems, and perception of stress, and the effects they had on pain symptoms among patients with depressive disorders.Participants and methods: An analysis was performed on the data of 346 participants with unipolar depressive disorders. The 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Mini-Mental State Examination, the pain subscale of the health-related quality of life (SF-36, the self-sacrificing subscale of the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems, and the Perceived Stress Scale were used. Parallel multiple mediator and serial multiple mediator models were used. An alternative model regarding the effect of self-sacrificing on pain was also proposed.Results: Perceived stress, self-sacrificing interpersonal style, and cognitive

  7. Serial splintage: Preoperative treatment of upper limb contracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puri, Vinita; Khare, Nishant; Venkateshwaran, N; Bharadwaj, Sumit; Choudhary, Sushant; Deshpande, Omkarnath; Borkar, Rupali

    2013-09-01

    The present study aimed to study the efficacy of preoperative splints in treatment of upper limb contractures and to evaluate the response of contracture to splints depending on the etiology and the joint involved. Ninety joints of 42 patients were studied. Patients age, gender, etiology, duration of contracture, contracture site and joint and type of contracture was noted. The range of motion of the involved joint was recorded. Serial static splints made of thermoplastic material were applied after customizing them for each patient. The range of motion and percentage movement was recorded at weekly interval and the splints were modified as per need. Time taken to reach a plateau stage was noted. To compare the statistical significance between two groups and more than two groups of continuous variable unpaired t-test and one way ANOVA respectively was applied. We considered differences to be statistically significant when the p value was below 0.05. The strength of relationship between the two continuous variables was analyzed by Pearson correlation analysis. Etiological factors were thermal burns (36.7%), electrical burns (13.3%), post traumatic (35.6%) and post cellulitis (14.4%). Age ranged from 2 to 70 years with a mean of 28.9±13.4 years. Sixty-two patients treated were males (68.9%) and 28 were female (31.1%). The mean range of motion present across all joints before starting the therapy was 54.7±23.6 degrees. The mean improvement in contracture angle obtained by serial splintage was 37.4±28.1 degrees. The mean time taken to achieve plateau was 23.6±3.2 days. Maximum improvement was seen in thermal burn contractures (41.2±30.3 degrees). Least improvement was seen in contractures due to cellulitis (6.5±16.2 degrees). This finding was statistically significant [F(3,86)=4.25, p=0.005]. Significant difference was seen in response to therapy based on the joint involved [F(3,86)=3.36, p=0.02]. Highest improvement in the range of motion was seen in the

  8. Quantitative serial MRI of the treated fibroid uterus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsty I Munro

    Full Text Available There are no long-term medical treatments for uterine fibroids, and non-invasive biomarkers are needed to evaluate novel therapeutic interventions. The aim of this study was to determine whether serial dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI and magnetization transfer MRI (MT-MRI are able to detect changes that accompany volume reduction in patients administered GnRH analogue drugs, a treatment which is known to reduce fibroid volume and perfusion. Our secondary aim was to determine whether rapid suppression of ovarian activity by combining GnRH agonist and antagonist therapies results in faster volume reduction.Forty women were assessed for eligibility at gynaecology clinics in the region, of whom thirty premenopausal women scheduled for hysterectomy due to symptomatic fibroids were randomized to three groups, receiving (1 GnRH agonist (Goserelin, (2 GnRH agonist+GnRH antagonist (Goserelin and Cetrorelix or (3 no treatment. Patients were monitored by serial structural, DCE-MRI and MT-MRI, as well as by ultrasound and serum oestradiol concentration measurements from enrolment to hysterectomy (approximately 3 months.A volumetric treatment effect assessed by structural MRI occurred by day 14 of treatment (9% median reduction versus 9% increase in untreated women; P = 0.022 and persisted throughout. Reduced fibroid perfusion and permeability assessed by DCE-MRI occurred later and was demonstrable by 2-3 months (43% median reduction versus 20% increase respectively; P = 0.0093. There was no apparent treatment effect by MT-MRI. Effective suppression of oestradiol was associated with early volume reduction at days 14 (P = 0.041 and 28 (P = 0.0061.DCE-MRI is sensitive to the vascular changes thought to accompany successful GnRH analogue treatment of uterine fibroids and should be considered for use in future mechanism/efficacy studies of proposed fibroid drug therapies. GnRH antagonist administration does not appear to accelerate volume reduction

  9. Structural Changes and Lack of HCN1 Channels in the Binaural Auditory Brainstem of the Naked Mole-Rat (Heterocephalus glaber).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gessele, Nikodemus; Garcia-Pino, Elisabet; Omerbašić, Damir; Park, Thomas J; Koch, Ursula

    2016-01-01

    Naked mole-rats (Heterocephalus glaber) live in large eu-social, underground colonies in narrow burrows and are exposed to a large repertoire of communication signals but negligible binaural sound localization cues, such as interaural time and intensity differences. We therefore asked whether monaural and binaural auditory brainstem nuclei in the naked mole-rat are differentially adjusted to this acoustic environment. Using antibody stainings against excitatory and inhibitory presynaptic structures, namely the vesicular glutamate transporter VGluT1 and the glycine transporter GlyT2 we identified all major auditory brainstem nuclei except the superior paraolivary nucleus in these animals. Naked mole-rats possess a well structured medial superior olive, with a similar synaptic arrangement to interaural-time-difference encoding animals. The neighboring lateral superior olive, which analyzes interaural intensity differences, is large and elongated, whereas the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body, which provides the contralateral inhibitory input to these binaural nuclei, is reduced in size. In contrast, the cochlear nucleus, the nuclei of the lateral lemniscus and the inferior colliculus are not considerably different when compared to other rodent species. Most interestingly, binaural auditory brainstem nuclei lack the membrane-bound hyperpolarization-activated channel HCN1, a voltage-gated ion channel that greatly contributes to the fast integration times in binaural nuclei of the superior olivary complex in other species. This suggests substantially lengthened membrane time constants and thus prolonged temporal integration of inputs in binaural auditory brainstem neurons and might be linked to the severely degenerated sound localization abilities in these animals.

  10. Structural Changes and Lack of HCN1 Channels in the Binaural Auditory Brainstem of the Naked Mole-Rat (Heterocephalus glaber.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikodemus Gessele

    Full Text Available Naked mole-rats (Heterocephalus glaber live in large eu-social, underground colonies in narrow burrows and are exposed to a large repertoire of communication signals but negligible binaural sound localization cues, such as interaural time and intensity differences. We therefore asked whether monaural and binaural auditory brainstem nuclei in the naked mole-rat are differentially adjusted to this acoustic environment. Using antibody stainings against excitatory and inhibitory presynaptic structures, namely the vesicular glutamate transporter VGluT1 and the glycine transporter GlyT2 we identified all major auditory brainstem nuclei except the superior paraolivary nucleus in these animals. Naked mole-rats possess a well structured medial superior olive, with a similar synaptic arrangement to interaural-time-difference encoding animals. The neighboring lateral superior olive, which analyzes interaural intensity differences, is large and elongated, whereas the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body, which provides the contralateral inhibitory input to these binaural nuclei, is reduced in size. In contrast, the cochlear nucleus, the nuclei of the lateral lemniscus and the inferior colliculus are not considerably different when compared to other rodent species. Most interestingly, binaural auditory brainstem nuclei lack the membrane-bound hyperpolarization-activated channel HCN1, a voltage-gated ion channel that greatly contributes to the fast integration times in binaural nuclei of the superior olivary complex in other species. This suggests substantially lengthened membrane time constants and thus prolonged temporal integration of inputs in binaural auditory brainstem neurons and might be linked to the severely degenerated sound localization abilities in these animals.

  11. Rates and equilibrium constants of the ligand-induced conformational transition of an HCN ion channel protein domain determined by DEER spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collauto, Alberto; DeBerg, Hannah A; Kaufmann, Royi; Zagotta, William N; Stoll, Stefan; Goldfarb, Daniella

    2017-06-14

    Ligand binding can induce significant conformational changes in proteins. The mechanism of this process couples equilibria associated with the ligand binding event and the conformational change. Here we show that by combining the application of W-band double electron-electron resonance (DEER) spectroscopy with microfluidic rapid freeze quench (μRFQ) it is possible to resolve these processes and obtain both equilibrium constants and reaction rates. We studied the conformational transition of the nitroxide labeled, isolated carboxy-terminal cyclic-nucleotide binding domain (CNBD) of the HCN2 ion channel upon binding of the ligand 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). Using model-based global analysis, the time-resolved data of the μRFQ DEER experiments directly provide fractional populations of the open and closed conformations as a function of time. We modeled the ligand-induced conformational change in the protein using a four-state model: apo/open (AO), apo/closed (AC), bound/open (BO), bound/closed (BC). These species interconvert according to AC + L ⇌ AO + L ⇌ BO ⇌ BC. By analyzing the concentration dependence of the relative contributions of the closed and open conformations at equilibrium, we estimated the equilibrium constants for the two conformational equilibria and the open-state ligand dissociation constant. Analysis of the time-resolved μRFQ DEER data gave estimates for the intrinsic rates of ligand binding and unbinding as well as the rates of the conformational change. This demonstrates that DEER can quantitatively resolve both the thermodynamics and the kinetics of ligand binding and the associated conformational change.

  12. Verapamil versus digoxin and acute versus routine serial cardioversion for the improvement of rhythm control for persistent atrial fibrillation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemels, Martin E. W.; Van Noord, Trudeke; Crijns, Harry J. G. M.; Van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.; Veeger, Nic J. G. M.; Bosker, Hans A.; Wiesfeld, Ans C. P.; Van den Berg, Maarten P.; Ranchor, Adelita V.; Van Gelder, Isabelle C.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The VERDICT (Verapamil Versus Digoxin and Acute Versus Routine Serial Cardioversion Trial) is a prospective, randomized study to investigate whether: 1) acutely repeated serial electrical cardioversions (ECVs) after a relapse of atrial fibrillation (AF); and 2) prevention of intracellular

  13. Bottlenecks in serial production lines: A system-theoretic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.-T. Kuo

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a new definition of production systems bottlenecks is formulated and analyzed. Specifically, a machine is defined as the bottleneck if the sensitivity of the system's performance index to this machine's production rate in isolation is the largest. Although appealing from the systems point of view, this definition suffers a deficiency due to the fact that the sensitivities involved cannot be either measured on-line or efficiently calculated off-line. To avoid this, the paper develops a method based on indirect but real-time data. From this point of view, the main result of the work is as follows: The bottleneck machine in a serial production line can be identified by analyzing relationships between the so-called manufacturing blockage and manufacturing starvation of each machine. This leads to a simple rule for bottleneck identification. The rule requires neither the calculation of the production rate sensitivities nor the production rate itself. When the probabilities of manufacturing blockages and starvations are not available from on-line measurements, the paper presents their analytical estimates which, under certain conditions, can be used for bottleneck identification. Finally, a case study at an automotive component plant is described.

  14. Serial foodborne norovirus outbreaks associated with multiple genotypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianwei Huang

    Full Text Available Noroviruses (NoV have been recognized as an important pathogen associated with acute gastroenteritis worldwide during the past three decades. In the spring of 2012, a series of foodborne outbreaks in tourist groups were reported to Xiamen Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Xiamen, Fujian province, China. Among a total of 268 tourists in 7 groups, the prevalence rate of acute gastroenteritis was 16.0% (43/268. Twenty-three feces or anal swabs were collected for laboratory tests of causative agents, no bacterial pathogen was identified, while 22 of them were positive for NoV RNA. In addition, thirteen NoV fragments were recovered from positive specimens and sequenced, belonging to five genotypes such as GI.3, GI.4, GII.4, GII.6, and GII.14, respectively. However, NoV fragments obtained from locally infected patients showed distinct genotypes. Therefore, epidemiological investigation and laboratory analyses demonstrated that the serial foodborne NoV outbreaks in tourists were co-infection of multiple genotypes induced acute gastroenteritis linked to a restaurant.

  15. Serial cranial computed tomography in acute infantile hemiplegia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kataoka, Kenkichi; Nakagawa, Yoshihiro; Hojo, Hiroatsu; Yamasaki, Shun (Shizuoka Prefectural Children' s Hospital (Japan)); Mochizuki, Yasuhiro; Nakano, Shozo

    1982-11-01

    Serial cranial computed tomography (CCT) was studied in 20 children with acute infantile hemiplegia. These children were devided into two groups: hemiplegia following fever, hemiconvulsion and unconsiousness (the convulsive group) and hemiplegia without convulsion (the non-convulsive group). There were 15 cases in the convulsive group and 5 cases in the non-convulsive group. We could investigate the CCT immediately after the onset in 6 convulsive cases and 3 non-convulsive cases, but the immediate CCT revealed no abnormalities in both groups. Within several days after the onset the abnormally low density area appeared on the CCT in both groups. In three cases there were abnormally high density areas complicating these abnormalities. Over more than a month, the hemispheric low density area changed into the hemispheric atrophy and the lobar low density area changed into the focal wedge-shaped atrophy or diminished. The small or lacunar low density area changed into the low density spot and the hemorrhagic infarction into the porencephaly. The occlusion of the internal carotid artery were found in two non-convulsive cases and the stenosis of the internal carotid artery in a convulsive case with purulent meningitis.

  16. A rare case of serial killing by poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuori, Erkki; Pelander, Anna; Rasanen, Ilpo; Juote, Mikko; Ojanperä, Ilkka

    2013-01-01

    A case of serial killing by poisoning by a 59-year-old practical nurse is discussed. Following a report by an emergency-room doctor of an attempted murder, police performed an investigation into all deaths of patients in the nurse's care. Earlier, a medico-legal cause-of-death investigation had been performed on two of these cadavers, but in the other three cases the death certificate had been issued after a medical investigation only. In two of these latter cases, the body had been cremated, but fixed histological samples taken at medical autopsy were available, while in one case the person had died recently and the body was thereafter exhumed and autopsied. All of the suspected victims were older people who required nursing, and the nurse's course of action was consistent in all cases. In the absence of ordinary post-mortem toxicology samples in the medical cases, extraordinary evidence--paraffin-embedded liver tissue samples originally taken for histology at autopsy--was successfully recovered in two cases and analyzed for drugs. In all five cases, drugs not prescribed to the patient were detected, including digoxin, dixyrazine, citalopram, venlafaxine, and benzodiazepines (diazepam, chlordiazepoxide, temazepam, and oxazepam). The nurse was eventually found guilty of five murders by poisoning, five attempted murders, and three aggravated assaults. The nurse was sentenced to life imprisonment. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Shift work effects on serial PEF measurements for occupational asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, V C; Jaakkola, M S; Burge, C B S G; Pantin, C F A; Robertson, A S; Burge, P S

    2012-10-01

    Diurnal variation (DV) affects lung function but the changes are thought to be related to sleep patterns rather than time of day. When diagnosing occupational asthma (OA), serial peak expiratory flow (PEF) measurements are the recommended first line investigation, but could be confounded by shift work. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of shift work on PEF measurements used for diagnosing OA. PEF records containing more than one shift pattern with ≥ 4 days per shift were identified. OA diagnosis was based on an Oasys-2 score ≥ 2.51 and non-OA on having an alternative clinical diagnosis and Oasys-2 score PEF DV and cross-shift PEF changes were calculated for each shift. Records from 123 workers with OA and 69 without OA satisfied inclusion criteria. In the OA group, PEF declined more on afternoon and night shifts than days (P PEF increased more on day shifts (mean + 25 l/min) than afternoon or night shifts (+1 l/min) (P PEF responses between work and rest show small differences according to shift type. The ABC score has a high sensitivity and specificity for all shifts; differences in DV have lower specificity.

  18. Porting of a serial molecular dynamics code on MIMD platforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Celino, M. [ENEA Centro Ricerche Casaccia, S. Maria di Galeria, RM (Italy). HPCN Project

    1999-07-01

    A molecular dynamics (MD) code, utilized for the study of atomistic models of metallic systems has been parallelized for MIMD (multiple instructions multiple data) parallel platforms by means of the parallel virtual machine (PVM) message passing library. Since the parallelization implies modifications of the sequential algorithms, these are described from the point of view of the statistical mechanical theory. Furthermore, techniques and parallelization strategies utilized and the MD parallel code are described in detail. Benchmarks on several MIMD platforms (IBM SP1, SP2, Cray T3D, cluster of workstations) allow performances evaluation of the code versus the different characteristics of the parallel platforms. [Italian] Un codice seriale di dinamica molecolare (MD) utilizzato per lo studio di modelli atomici di materiali metallici e' stato parallelizzato per piattaforme parallele MIMD (multiple instructions multiple data) utilizzando librerie del parallel virtual machine (PVM). Poiche' l'operazione di parallelizzazione ha implicato la modifica degli algoritmi seriali del codice, questi vengono descritti ripercorrendo i concetti fondamentali della meccanica statistica. Inoltre sono presentate le tecniche e le strategie di parallelizzazione utilizzate descrivendo in dettaglio il codice parallelo di MD: Risultati di benchmark su diverse piattaforme MIMD (IBM SP1, SP2, Cray T3D, cluster of workstations) permettono di analizzare le performances del codice in funzione delle differenti caratteristiche delle piattaforme parallele.

  19. Serial Shakespeare – The Case of Star-Crossed (2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinga Földváry

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates the ways Shakespeare’s oeuvre, with its reputation for a universal adaptability that embraces all media and contexts, finds its way into a serial structure that is the dominant form of visual performance today. In order to see whether this seems at all possible, the paper examines the most recent television series, Star-Crossed, in which the original Shakespearean narrative unit (Romeo and Juliet is broken up into several episodes, thus adopting the most popular televisual genre of our time. The paper argues that this fragmentation of the original narrative whole fits into the contemporary cultural tendencies of textual poaching, snatching quotations and (replacing them in seemingly random contexts, often with a complete ignorance of original meanings and contextual frameworks, but applying them to whichever means seems favourable for the adaptors. At the same time, it also appears that the dramatic original does not lend itself easily to serialisation, and notwithstanding the conscious decisions on the part of the creators to embed the series into the topical, stylistic, generic and aesthetic contexts of contemporary television, the failure of the enterprise comes as no surprise.

  20. A novel inert crystal delivery medium for serial femtosecond crystallography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelsie E. Conrad

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX has opened a new era in crystallography by permitting nearly damage-free, room-temperature structure determination of challenging proteins such as membrane proteins. In SFX, femtosecond X-ray free-electron laser pulses produce diffraction snapshots from nanocrystals and microcrystals delivered in a liquid jet, which leads to high protein consumption. A slow-moving stream of agarose has been developed as a new crystal delivery medium for SFX. It has low background scattering, is compatible with both soluble and membrane proteins, and can deliver the protein crystals at a wide range of temperatures down to 4°C. Using this crystal-laden agarose stream, the structure of a multi-subunit complex, phycocyanin, was solved to 2.5 Å resolution using 300 µg of microcrystals embedded into the agarose medium post-crystallization. The agarose delivery method reduces protein consumption by at least 100-fold and has the potential to be used for a diverse population of proteins, including membrane protein complexes.

  1. LabVIEW Serial Driver Software for an Electronic Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scullin, Vincent; Garcia, Christopher

    2003-01-01

    A LabVIEW-language computer program enables monitoring and control of a Transistor Devices, Inc., Dynaload WCL232 (or equivalent) electronic load via an RS-232 serial communication link between the electronic load and a remote personal computer. (The electronic load can operate at constant voltage, current, power consumption, or resistance.) The program generates a graphical user interface (GUI) at the computer that looks and acts like the front panel of the electronic load. Once the electronic load has been placed in remote-control mode, this program first queries the electronic load for the present values of all its operational and limit settings, and then drops into a cycle in which it reports the instantaneous voltage, current, and power values in displays that resemble those on the electronic load while monitoring the GUI images of pushbuttons for control actions by the user. By means of the pushbutton images and associated prompts, the user can perform such operations as changing limit values, the operating mode, or the set point. The benefit of this software is that it relieves the user of the need to learn one method for operating the electronic load locally and another method for operating it remotely via a personal computer.

  2. Serial diffusion-weighted imaging in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanemura, Hideaki; Aihara, Masao

    2008-06-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis may be associated with clinical features of frontal lobe dysfunction. We previously reported that frontal lobe volume falls significantly as clinical stage progresses, using three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging-based brain volumetry. The hypothesis that frontal volume increases correlate with clinical improvement, however, was not tested in our previous study. Therefore, we reevaluated our patient with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis, to determine whether apparent diffusion coefficient maps can characterize the clinical course of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. We studied an 8-year-old boy with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis, using serial diffusion-weighted imaging magnetic resonance imaging, and measured the regional apparent diffusion coefficient. The regional apparent diffusion coefficient of the frontal lobe decreased significantly with clinical progression, whereas it increased to within normal range during clinical improvements. The apparent diffusion coefficient of the other regions did not change. These results suggest that the clinical signs of patients with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis are attributable to frontal lobe dysfunction, and that apparent diffusion coefficient measurements may be useful in predicting the clinical course of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.

  3. Serial CT scans and Menkes' kinky hair disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakada, Eizo; Kameyama, Junji; Yoshimitsu, Hajime; Mori, Mikio; Tanaka, Mutsuo; Yoshimitsu, Kazunori.

    1988-02-01

    Menkes' kinky hair disease is a sex-linked recessive disorder of copper metabolism, characterized by progressive psychomotor deterioration, seizures, and peculiar hair structure. We examined serial CT scans of patients with this disease. A 2,210-g male infant was delivered after an uneventful gestation of 36 weeks. His one-minute Apgar score was 9. His uncle had died at 1 year of age. His first cousin was also diagnosed as having Menkes' kinky hair disease when our patient was 2 years old. Shortly after birth he had mild respiratory distress. At 5 days of age, he developed setting-sun signs. The first CT scan, at 10 days of age, revealed mild posterior fossa hemorrhages. At 3 months of age, myoclonic seizures began, and the CT scan revealed subdural effusion and mild brain atrophy. The seizures were controllable by using phenobarbital, valproic acid, and nitrazepam. He did not follow light or a fixate, but the fundi were normal. He was diffusely hypotonic. At 9 months of age, the seizures became uncontrollable. The CT scans at 15 and 31 months of age showed subdural hemorrhage and/or brain atrophy. At 15 months of age, the serum copper level was 42 ..mu.. g/dl, while the serum ceruloplasmin level was 3.2 mg/dl. He exhibited severe developmental failure. At 4 years of age, he died.

  4. Serial femtosecond crystallography of soluble proteins in lipidic cubic phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fromme, Raimund; Ishchenko, Andrii; Metz, Markus; Chowdhury, Shatabdi Roy; Basu, Shibom; Boutet, Sébastien; Fromme, Petra; White, Thomas A.; Barty, Anton; Spence, John C. H.; Weierstall, Uwe; Liu, Wei; Cherezov, Vadim

    2015-08-04

    Serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) at X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) enables high-resolution protein structure determination using micrometre-sized crystals at room temperature with minimal effects from radiation damage. SFX requires a steady supply of microcrystals intersecting the XFEL beam at random orientations. An LCP–SFX method has recently been introduced in which microcrystals of membrane proteins are grown and delivered for SFX data collection inside a gel-like membrane-mimetic matrix, known as lipidic cubic phase (LCP), using a special LCP microextrusion injector. Here, it is demonstrated that LCP can also be used as a suitable carrier medium for microcrystals of soluble proteins, enabling a dramatic reduction in the amount of crystallized protein required for data collection compared with crystals delivered by liquid injectors. High-quality LCP–SFX data sets were collected for two soluble proteins, lysozyme and phycocyanin, using less than 0.1 mg of each protein.

  5. A novel inert crystal delivery medium for serial femtosecond crystallography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conrad, Chelsie E.; Basu, Shibom; James, Daniel; Wang, Dingjie; Schaffer, Alexander; Roy-Chowdhury, Shatabdi; Zatsepin, Nadia A.; Aquila, Andrew; Coe, Jesse; Gati, Cornelius; Hunter, Mark S.; Koglin, Jason E.; Kupitz, Christopher; Nelson, Garrett; Subramanian, Ganesh; White, Thomas A.; Zhao, Yun; Zook, James; Boutet, Sébastien; Cherezov, Vadim; Spence, John C. H.; Fromme, Raimund; Weierstall, Uwe; Fromme, Petra

    2015-06-30

    Serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) has opened a new era in crystallography by permitting nearly damage-free, room-temperature structure determination of challenging proteins such as membrane proteins. In SFX, femtosecond X-ray free-electron laser pulses produce diffraction snapshots from nanocrystals and microcrystals delivered in a liquid jet, which leads to high protein consumption. A slow-moving stream of agarose has been developed as a new crystal delivery medium for SFX. It has low background scattering, is compatible with both soluble and membrane proteins, and can deliver the protein crystals at a wide range of temperatures down to 4°C. Using this crystal-laden agarose stream, the structure of a multi-subunit complex, phycocyanin, was solved to 2.5Å resolution using 300µg of microcrystals embedded into the agarose medium post-crystallization. The agarose delivery method reduces protein consumption by at least 100-fold and has the potential to be used for a diverse population of proteins, including membrane protein complexes.

  6. Neutral null models for diversity in serial transfer evolution experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harpak, Arbel; Sella, Guy

    2014-09-01

    Evolution experiments with microorganisms coupled with genome-wide sequencing now allow for the systematic study of population genetic processes under a wide range of conditions. In learning about these processes in natural, sexual populations, neutral models that describe the behavior of diversity and divergence summaries have played a pivotal role. It is therefore natural to ask whether neutral models, suitably modified, could be useful in the context of evolution experiments. Here, we introduce coalescent models for polymorphism and divergence under the most common experimental evolution assay, a serial transfer experiment. This relatively simple setting allows us to address several issues that could affect diversity patterns in evolution experiments, whether selection is operating or not: the transient behavior of neutral polymorphism in an experiment beginning from a single clone, the effects of randomness in the timing of cell division and noisiness in population size in the dilution stage. In our analyses and discussion, we emphasize the implications for experiments aimed at measuring diversity patterns and making inferences about population genetic processes based on these measurements. © 2014 The Author(s). Evolution © 2014 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  7. Simulation and Analysis of Uncooled Microbolometer for Serial Readout Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musaed Alhussein

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A detailed thermal behavior and theoretical analysis of uncooled resistive microbolometer is presented along with the proposed thermal imager simulator. An accurate model of a thermal detector is required to design a readout circuit that can compensate for the noise due to process variability and self-heating. This paper presents a realistic simulation model of microbolometer that addresses the fixed pattern noise, Johnson noise, and self-heating. Different simulations were performed to study the impact of infrared power and bias power on the performance of microbolometers. The microbolometers were biased with different bias currents along with different thermal parameters of the reference microbolometer to analyze the impact of self-heating on the thermal image. The proposed thermal imager simulator is used as a tool to visually analyze the impact of noise on the quality of a thermal image. This simulator not only helps in compensating the noise prior to the implementation in Analog Design Environment, but also can be used as a platform to explore different readout architectures. In this work, serial readout architecture was simulated with a row of blind microbolometers that served as a reference. Moreover, the algorithm for the proposed thermal imager simulator is presented.

  8. Redintegration, task difficulty, and immediate serial recall tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, Gabrielle; Tolan, Georgina Anne; Tehan, Gerald

    2015-03-01

    While current theoretical models remain somewhat inconclusive in their explanation of short-term memory (STM), many theories suggest at least a contribution of long-term memory (LTM) to the short-term system. A number of researchers refer to this process as redintegration (e.g., Schweickert, 1993). Under short-term recall conditions, the current study investigated the effects of redintegration and task difficulty in order to extend research conducted by Neale and Tehan (2007). Thirty participants in Experiment 1 and 26 participants in Experiment 2 completed a serial recall task in which retention interval, presentation rate, and articulatory suppression were used to modify task difficulty. Redintegration was examined by manipulating the characteristics of the to-be-remembered items; lexicality in Experiment 1 and wordlikeness in Experiment 2. Responses were scored based on correct-in-position recall, item scoring, and order accuracy scoring. In line with the Neale and Tehan results, as the difficulty of the task increased so did the effects of redintegration. This was evident in that the advantage for words in Experiment 1 and wordlikeness in Experiment 2 decreased as task difficulty increased. This relationship was observed for item but not order memory, and findings were discussed in relation to the theory of redintegration. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. A synchronous serial bus for multidimensional array acoustic logging tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Men, Baiyong; Ju, Xiaodong; Lu, Junqiang; Qiao, Wenxiao

    2016-12-01

    In high-temperature and spatial borehole applications, a distributed structure is employed in a multidimensional array acoustic logging tool (MDALT) based on a phased array technique for electronic systems. However, new challenges, such as synchronous multichannel data acquisition, multinode real-time control and bulk data transmission in a limited interval, have emerged. To address these challenges, we developed a synchronous serial bus (SSB) in this study. SSB works in a half-duplex mode via a master-slave architecture. It also consists of a single master, several slaves, a differential clock line and a differential data line. The clock line is simplex, whereas the data line is half-duplex and synchronous to the clock line. A reliable communication between the master and the slaves with real-time adjustment of synchronisation is achieved by rationally designing the frame format and protocol of communication and by introducing a scramble code and a Hamming error-correcting code. The control logic of the master and the slaves is realized in field programmable gate array (FPGA) or complex programmable logic device (CPLD). The clock speed of SSB is 10 MHz, the effective data rate of the bulk data transmission is over 99%, and the synchronous errors amongst the slaves are less than 10 ns. Room-temperature test, high-temperature test (175 °C) and field test demonstrate that the proposed SSB is qualified for MDALT.

  10. Exploiting Points-to Maps for De-/Serialization Code Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciraci, Selim; Villa, Oreste

    2013-03-18

    Serialization code generators for C++ have restrictions on the implementation of dynamic arrays and void/function pointers. If the target program is not implemented with these restrictions, de- velopers have to manually change the source code to facilitate se- rialization code generation. Unfortunately, such changes hamper the benefits of code generation, and they are not localized. This pa- per presents the de-/serialization code generator Ser++ that does not restrict the implementation of these pointer types and, hence, eliminates the need to adapt the source code for serialization code generation. Ser++ can be considered an aspect weaver that i) traces the pointers, ii) identifies the statements in which properties regard- ing the serialization of pointer attributes can be extracted and, finally, iii) weaves the code to store these properties at runtime. It generates the de-/serialization functions in such a way that they serialize the pointer attributes according to the stored values of the properties. We have successfully used Ser++ to generate de- /serialization methods for a computer architecture and a power- flow simulator, without any modifications to the existing source code.

  11. Natural born killers?: the development of the sexually sadistic serial killer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, B R; Becker, J V

    1997-01-01

    Today's society seems enthralled with serial killers in the news and the media. Forensic psychiatrists often interview serial killers after they have been caught. There are retrospective studies and case reports of individuals who have committed sexually sadistic serial murders. However, there exists a dearth of case reports on adolescents who have expressed serious fantasies about becoming serial killer prior to actualizing their fantasy. This article presents nine clinical cases of 14- to 18-year-olds who have clinically significant fantasies of becoming a serial killer. Similarities exist in these adolescent cases when compared with retrospective studies and case reports of serial killers on the role of sexually sadistic fantasies and actual killings. Since it has been established that sexual paraphilias may develop at a young age, one can surmise that sadistic paraphilias may also develop in some adolescents. The question is posed, can we predict which of these adolescents may go on to actually become serial killers? This article focuses on how the sexually sadistic fantasy can eventually be acted out and possible motives for the act to be repeated multiple times. Finally, recommendations are made about assessing and treating a youngster who expresses violent sexually sadistic killing fantasies so that attempts can be made to interrupt the progression to actual killing.

  12. Evidence for a specific impairment of serial order short-term memory in dyslexic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez Perez, Trecy; Majerus, Steve; Mahot, Aline; Poncelet, Martine

    2012-05-01

    In order to better understand the nature of verbal short-term memory (STM) deficits in dyslexic children, the present study used the distinction between item and serial order retention capacities in STM tasks. According to recent STM models, storage of verbal item information depends very directly upon the richness of underlying phonological and semantic representations. On the other hand, storage of serial order information appears to reflect a language-independent system. Hence, if there is a fundamental STM deficit in dyslexia that is not to be explained only by the poor phonological processing abilities that characterize dyslexia, then difficulties in serial order STM should also be observed in dyslexic children. We administered tasks maximizing either serial order or item retention capacities to dyslexic children and reading age (RA) and chronological age (CA) matched controls. Dyslexic children performed significantly poorer than the CA controls on the item STM measure. Furthermore, the dyslexic group obtained inferior performance than both CA and RA control groups on the serial order STM measure. These findings highlight a severe impairment of STM for serial order information in dyslexia that cannot be reduced to a phonological processing impairment. Implications of serial order retention deficits for reading acquisition and dyslexia are discussed. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. The Functional Determinants of Short-Term Memory: Evidence from Perceptual-Motor Interference in Verbal Serial Recall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Robert W.; Marsh, John E.

    2017-01-01

    A functional, perceptual-motor, account of serial short-term memory (STM) is examined by investigating the way in which an irrelevant spoken sequence interferes with verbal serial recall. Even with visual list-presentation, verbal serial recall is particularly susceptible to disruption by irrelevant spoken stimuli that have the same identity…

  14. Destructive hostility: the Jeffrey Dahmer case. A psychiatric and forensic study of a serial killer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jentzen, J; Palermo, G; Johnson, L T; Ho, K C; Stormo, K A; Teggatz, J

    1994-12-01

    We were involved as forensic experts in the case of the serial killer Jeffrey Dahmer. We discuss the scene and victim autopsy findings, with a brief consideration of the basic emotion of hostility. These findings support the thesis that at the basis of this serial killer's behavior were primary unconscious feelings of hate that he had channeled into a sadistic programmed destruction of 17 young men. The interview of the serial killer, the photographic scene documentation, and the autopsy findings stress the ambivalent homosexuality of the killer, his sexual sadism, his obsessive fetishism, and his possible cannibalism and necrophilia.

  15. A comparative analysis of serial ordering in ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, Dustin; Maclean, Evan L; Jaffe, Sarah; Brannon, Elizabeth M

    2007-11-01

    Research over the last 25 years has demonstrated that animals are able to organize sequences in memory and retrieve ordered sequences without language. Qualitative differences have been found between the serial organization of behavior in pigeons and monkeys. Here the authors test serial ordering abilities in ring-tailed lemurs, a strepsirrhine primate whose ancestral lineage diverged from that of monkeys, apes, and humans approximately 63 million years ago. Lemurs' accuracy and response times were similar to monkeys, thus suggesting that they may share mechanisms for serial organization that dates to a common primate ancestor. Copyright 2007 APA.

  16. A 16:1 Serializer ASIC for Data Transmission at 5 Gbps

    CERN Document Server

    Gong, D; The ATLAS collaboration

    2010-01-01

    A high speed, low power 16:1 serializer has been developed with a commercial 0.25 μm silicon-on-sapphire CMOS technology. The serializer operates from 4.0 to 5.7 Gbps. Total jitter is 62 ps and the eye openning of the bathtub curve is 122 ps at bit rate error of 10-12 at 5 Gbps. Power consumption is 463 mW at 5 Gbps. A proton beam test indicates the serializer is suitable for applications in high energy physics experiments.

  17. Evaluation of Serial Casting for Boys with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Kate; de Valle, Katy; Kornberg, Andrew; Ryan, Monique; Kennedy, Rachel

    2017-03-16

    To report the effects of below-knee serial casting in two boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy who presented with well-preserved strength and calf shortening. Bilateral below-knee serial casts were applied over two weeks with follow-up of daily stretching and wearing of customized night splints. Outcome measures were performed at baseline, 1, 3, 6, and 12 months post-casting. These included measures of calf length, leg strength, motor function, endurance, and spatio-temporal gait parameters. Both boys completed serial casting with gains in muscle length. No adverse effects on strength or motor function were observed over a 12-month follow-up period.

  18. E-serials cataloging access to continuing and integrating resources via the catalog and the web

    CERN Document Server

    Cole, Jim

    2014-01-01

    This comprehensive guide examines the state of electronic serials cataloging with special attention paid to online capacities. E-Serials Cataloging: Access to Continuing and Integrating Resources via the Catalog and the Web presents a review of the e-serials cataloging methods of the 1990s and discusses the international standards (ISSN, ISBD[ER], AACR2) that are applicable. It puts the concept of online accessibility into historical perspective and offers a look at current applications to consider. Practicing librarians, catalogers and administrators of technical services, cataloging and serv

  19. Recurrent laryngeal nerve recovery patterns assessed by serial electromyography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paniello, Randal C; Park, Andrea M; Bhatt, Neel K; Al-Lozi, Muhammad

    2016-03-01

    Following acute injury to the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN), laryngeal electromyography (LEMG) is increasingly being used to determine prognosis for recovery. The LEMG findings change during the recovery process, but the timing of these changes is not well described. In this canine study, LEMGs were obtained serially following model RLN injuries. Animal Study. Thirty-six canine RLNs underwent crush (n = 6), complete transection with reanastomosis (n = 6), half-transection half-crush (n = 5), cautery (n = 5), stretch (n = 5), inferior crush (n = 4), or inferior transection with reanastomosis (n = 5) injuries. Injuries were performed 5 cm from cricoid or were 5 cm further inferior. Under light sedation, LEMG of thyroarytenoid muscles was performed monthly for 6 months following injury. At 6 months, spontaneous and induced vocal fold motion was assessed. Except for the stretch injury, the remaining groups showed very similar recovery patterns. Fibrillation potentials (FPs) and/or positive sharp waves (PSWs; signs of bad prognosis) were seen in all cases at 1 month and lasted on average for 2.26 months (range = 1-4 months). Motor unit potentials of at least 2+ (scale = 0-4+; signs of good prognosis) were seen beginning at 3.61 months (range = 2-6 months). The stretch injury was less severe, with 3 of 5 showing no FPs/PSWs at 1 month; all recovered full mobility. Ten of the 36 thyroarytenoid muscles (27.8%) had 1 electromyograph showing both bad prognosis and good prognosis signs simultaneously at 2 to 4 months postinjury. LEMG can be used to predict RNL recovery, but timing is important and LEMG results earlier than 3 months may overestimate a negative prognosis. NA Laryngoscope, 126:651-656, 2016. © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  20. Room-temperature macromolecular serial crystallography using synchrotron radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Stellato

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A new approach for collecting data from many hundreds of thousands of microcrystals using X-ray pulses from a free-electron laser has recently been developed. Referred to as serial crystallography, diffraction patterns are recorded at a constant rate as a suspension of protein crystals flows across the path of an X-ray beam. Events that by chance contain single-crystal diffraction patterns are retained, then indexed and merged to form a three-dimensional set of reflection intensities for structure determination. This approach relies upon several innovations: an intense X-ray beam; a fast detector system; a means to rapidly flow a suspension of crystals across the X-ray beam; and the computational infrastructure to process the large volume of data. Originally conceived for radiation-damage-free measurements with ultrafast X-ray pulses, the same methods can be employed with synchrotron radiation. As in powder diffraction, the averaging of thousands of observations per Bragg peak may improve the ratio of signal to noise of low-dose exposures. Here, it is shown that this paradigm can be implemented for room-temperature data collection using synchrotron radiation and exposure times of less than 3 ms. Using lysozyme microcrystals as a model system, over 40 000 single-crystal diffraction patterns were obtained and merged to produce a structural model that could be refined to 2.1 Å resolution. The resulting electron density is in excellent agreement with that obtained using standard X-ray data collection techniques. With further improvements the method is well suited for even shorter exposures at future and upgraded synchrotron radiation facilities that may deliver beams with 1000 times higher brightness than they currently produce.

  1. Serial position effects in dementia of the Alzheimer type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkart, M; Heun, R; Benkert, O

    1998-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyse serial position effects for immediate and delayed free recall in patients with dementia of the Alzheimer type and controls. EXPERIMENT 1: 44 patients with dementia of the Alzheimer-type and 24 non-demented controls were asked for immediate and delayed free recall of 12 schematic drawings of common objects presented at the rate of 10 s/picture. Steep primacy effects were obtained at all delays in controls. By contrast, primacy effects were significantly impaired in patients with dementia at all delays of recall. Small immediate and delayed recall recency effects were found in both, patients and controls. EXPERIMENT 2: 19 patients with dementia of the Alzheimer type and 21 controls were asked for immediate and delayed free picture recall with presentation rates of 10, 5 and 1 s/picture. Again, primacy effects were significantly impaired in demented patients versus controls. With shorter presentation times, immediate recall recency effects were more pronounced than with longer presentation times, and no delayed recall recency effects were found. Primacy effect is impaired for immediate and delayed recall in dementia of the Alzheimer type. By contrast, immediate recall recency effect and possibly also long-term recency effect are preserved. The loss of the primacy effect contributes to the impairment of episodic memory in dementia of the Alzheimer type. Therefore further research is warranted into pharmacological and psychological interventions that might re-establish the primacy effect. Possibly, the orientation of demented patients might be improved by psychological techniques that rely on long-term recency effect.

  2. Serial endosymbiosis or singular event at the origin of eukaryotes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Nick

    2017-12-07

    'On the Origin of Mitosing Cells' heralded a new way of seeing cellular evolution, with symbiosis at its heart. Lynn Margulis (then Sagan) marshalled an impressive array of evidence for endosymbiosis, from cell biology to atmospheric chemistry and Earth history. Despite her emphasis on symbiosis, she saw plenty of evidence for gradualism in eukaryotic evolution, with multiple origins of mitosis and sex, repeated acquisitions of plastids, and putative evolutionary intermediates throughout the microbial world. Later on, Margulis maintained her view of multiple endosymbioses giving rise to other organelles such as hydrogenosomes, in keeping with the polyphyletic assumptions of the serial endosymbiosis theory. She stood at the threshold of the phylogenetic era, and anticipated its potential. Yet while predicting that the nucleotide sequences of genes would enable a detailed reconstruction of eukaryotic evolution, Margulis did not, and could not, imagine the radically different story that would eventually emerge from comparative genomics. The last eukaryotic common ancestor now seems to have been essentially a modern eukaryotic cell that had already evolved mitosis, meiotic sex, organelles and endomembrane systems. The long search for missing evolutionary intermediates has failed to turn up a single example, and those discussed by Margulis turn out to have evolved reductively from more complex ancestors. Strikingly, Margulis argued that all eukaryotes had mitochondria in her 1967 paper (a conclusion that she later disavowed). But she developed her ideas in the context of atmospheric oxygen and aerobic respiration, neither of which is consistent with more recent geological and phylogenetic findings. Instead, a modern synthesis of genomics and bioenergetics points to the endosymbiotic restructuring of eukaryotic genomes in relation to bioenergetic membranes as the singular event that permitted the evolution of morphological complexity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All

  3. Spatial attention interacts with serial-order retrieval from verbal working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijck, Jean-Philippe; Abrahamse, Elger L; Majerus, Steve; Fias, Wim

    2013-09-01

    The ability to maintain the serial order of events is recognized as a major function of working memory. Although general models of working memory postulate a close link between working memory and attention, such a link has so far not been proposed specifically for serial-order working memory. The present study provided the first empirical demonstration of a direct link between serial order in verbal working memory and spatial selective attention. We show that the retrieval of later items of a sequence stored in working memory-compared with that of earlier items-produces covert attentional shifts toward the right. This observation suggests the conceptually surprising notion that serial-order working memory, even for nonspatially defined verbal items, draws on spatial attention.

  4. Hearing Surveillance Chart--a tool for tracking serial audiometry results and predicting future hearing impairment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    MacLurg, K; McCaughan, J; McQuillan, P

    2004-01-01

    High frequency hearing loss is related to noise-induced deafness. We decided to develop a method of recording serial audiogram results that would provide an accessible overview of trends for an individual. Health & Safety Executive (HSE...

  5. LHCb: SPECS: a Serial Protocol for the Experiment Control System of LHCb

    CERN Multimedia

    Charlet, D

    2007-01-01

    The SPECS is a single master, multi slave serial bus. It communicates between an unique master and up to 32 slaves (limit fixed by the address range), at a 10 MHz rate, thanks to 4 different unidirectional lines.

  6. Kinematics/statics analysis of a novel serial-parallel robotic arm with hand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Yi; Dai, Zhuohong; Ye, Nijia; Wang, Peng [Yanshan University, Hebei (China)

    2015-10-15

    A robotic arm with fingered hand generally has multi-functions to complete various complicated operations. A novel serial-parallel robotic arm with a hand is proposed and its kinematics and statics are studied systematically. A 3D prototype of the serial-parallel robotic arm with a hand is constructed and analyzed by simulation. The serial-parallel robotic arm with a hand is composed of an upper 3RPS parallel manipulator, a lower 3SPR parallel manipulator and a hand with three finger mechanisms. Its kinematics formulae for solving the displacement, velocity, acceleration of are derived. Its statics formula for solving the active/constrained forces is derived. Its reachable workspace and orientation workspace are constructed and analyzed. Finally, an analytic example is given for solving the kinematics and statics of the serial-parallel robotic arm with a hand and the analytic solutions are verified by a simulation mechanism.

  7. On the Performance of the Python Programming Language for Serial and Parallel Scientific Computations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Cai

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the performance of scientific applications that use the Python programming language. First, we investigate several techniques for improving the computational efficiency of serial Python codes. Then, we discuss the basic programming techniques in Python for parallelizing serial scientific applications. It is shown that an efficient implementation of the array-related operations is essential for achieving good parallel performance, as for the serial case. Once the array-related operations are efficiently implemented, probably using a mixed-language implementation, good serial and parallel performance become achievable. This is confirmed by a set of numerical experiments. Python is also shown to be well suited for writing high-level parallel programs.

  8. Evidence for habituation of the irrelevant-sound effect on serial recall

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Röer, Jan P; Bell, Raoul; Buchner, Axel

    2014-01-01

    Working memory theories make opposing predictions as to whether the disruptive effect of task-irrelevant sound on serial recall should be attenuated after repeated exposure to the auditory distractors...

  9. Serial fetal abdominal circumference measurements in predicting normal birth weight in gestational diabetes mellitus.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Neff, Karl J

    2013-06-24

    To construct a clinical management matrix using serial fetal abdominal circumference measurements (ACMs) that will predict normal birth weight in pregnancies complicated by gestational diabetes (GDM) and reduce unnecessary ultrasound examination in women with GDM.

  10. Using Serial Trichotomization With Common Cognitive Tests to Screen for Fitness to Drive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Carrie; Smith, Nathan; Middleton, Randy; Clack, John; Weaver, Bruce; Dubois, Sacha; Bédard, Michel

    The aim of this study was to illustrate the use of serial trichotomization with five common tests of cognition to achieve greater precision in screening for fitness to drive. We collected data (using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment, Motor-Free Visual Perception Test, Clock-Drawing Test, Trail Making Test Part A and B [Trails B], and an on-road driving test) from 83 people referred for a driving evaluation. We identified cutpoints for 100% sensitivity and specificity for each test; the driving test was the gold standard. Using serial trichotomization, we classified drivers as either "Pass," "Fail," or "Indeterminate." Trails B had the best sensitivity and specificity (66.3% of participants correctly classified). After applying serial trichotomization, we correctly identified the driving test outcome for 78.3% of participants. A screening strategy using serial trichotomization of multiple test results may reduce uncertainty about fitness to drive.

  11. Paths to destruction: the lives and crimes of two serial killers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Barbara C; Lavezzi, Wendy A

    2007-01-01

    Although research into the phenomenon of serial murder has revealed that serial killers frequently do not fit the initially described paradigm in terms of their physical and psychological profiles, backgrounds, and motives to kill, the media continues to sensationalize the figures of such killers and the investigators who attempt to analyze them on the basis of aspects of their crimes. Although the so-called "typical" profile of the serial murderer has proven accurate in some instances, in many other cases the demographics and behaviors of these killers have deviated widely from the generalized assumptions. This report details two unusual cases in which five and eight murders were committed in upstate New York. The lives and crimes of these offenders illustrate the wide spectrum of variations in the backgrounds, demographics, motivations, and actions witnessed among serial murderers, and highlight the limitations and dangers of profiling based on generalities.

  12. Alur Kerja Tahap Produksi Karakter Animasi Serial 3D Menggunakan Perangkat Lunak Maxon Cinema 4D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardiyan Ardiyan

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available 3D Animation serial for television needs have been showed in the national television program, especially fantasy theme and educational program for children. There are so many and sequential needs which tricked by instant and high quality production so the work flow in creating 3D animation serial are facilitating the producers. The article will explain specifically how the software of Maxon Cinema 4D in process production in 3D animation serial. The article will also clarify and focus on how the work flow of Maxon Cinema 4D software in processing production and post-production stages. The writer does research including audio visual tutorial, end-result comparison and rendering time between some software, self-observation of work flow in creating 3D animation serial using Maxon Cinema 4D software and digital literature study (e-book.  

  13. Smart grid communication comparison: Distributed control middleware and serialization comparison for the Internet of Things

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Bo Søborg; Bindner, Henrik W.; Poulsen, Bjarne

    2017-01-01

    To solve the problems caused by intermittent renewable energy production, communication between Distributed Energy Resources (DERs) and system operators is necessary. The communication middleware and serialization used for communication are essential to ensure delivery of the messages within the ...

  14. Structure of public transit costs in the presence of multiple serial correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-12-01

    Most studies indicate that public transit systems operate under increasing returns to capital stock utilization and are significantly overcapitalized. Existing flexible form time series analyses, however, fail to correct for serial correlation. In th...

  15. To analyze the Impact of Serial Prescription Audits with Active Feedback on Quality of Prescription Behaviour

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jyoti, Naresh; Kaur, Sharanjit

    2013-01-01

    A serial prescription audit in four cycles (three months each) was conducted at Jhalawar Medical College and Hospital and at Chintpurni Medical College and Hospital for two years, one year in each hospital...

  16. Transformation Model Choice in Nonlinear Regression Analysis of Fluorescence-based Serial Dilution Assays

    OpenAIRE

    Fong, Youyi; Yu, Xuesong

    2016-01-01

    Many modern serial dilution assays are based on fluorescence intensity (FI) readouts. We study optimal transformation model choice for fitting five parameter logistic curves (5PL) to FI-based serial dilution assay data. We first develop a generalized least squares-pseudolikelihood type algorithm for fitting heteroscedastic logistic models. Next we show that the 5PL and log 5PL functions can approximate each other well. We then compare four 5PL models with different choices of log transformati...

  17. Development of FPGA-based High-Speed serial links for High Energy Physics Experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Perrella, Sabrina

    2016-01-01

    High Energy Physics (HEP) experiments generate high volumes of data which need to be transferred over long distance. Then, for data read out, reliable and high-speed links are necessary. Over the years, due to their extreme high bandwidth, serial links (especially optical) have been preferred over the parallel ones. So that, now, high-speed serial links are commonly used in Trigger and Data Acquisition (TDAQ) systems of HEP experiments, not only for data transfer, but also for the distributio...

  18. Methods for serial analysis of long time series in the study of biological rhythms

    OpenAIRE

    Díez-Noguera, Antoni

    2013-01-01

    When one is faced with the analysis of long time series, one often finds that the characteristics of circadian rhythms vary with time throughout the series. To cope with this situation, the whole series can be fragmented into successive sections which are analyzed one after the other, which constitutes a serial analysis. This article discusses serial analysis techniques, beginning with the characteristics that the sections must have and how they can affect the results. After consideration of ...

  19. Selective Serial Multi-Antibody Biosensing with TOPAS Microstructured Polymer Optical Fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emiliyanov, Grigoriy Andreev; Høiby, Poul E.; Pedersen, Lars H.

    2013-01-01

    We have developed a fluorescence-based fiber-optical biosensor, which can selectively detect different antibodies in serial at preselected positions inside a single piece of fiber. The fiber is a microstructured polymer optical fiber fabricated from TOPAS cyclic olefin copolymer, which allows...... for UV activation of localized sensor layers inside the holes of the fiber. Serial fluorescence-based selective sensing of Cy3-labelled α-streptavidin and Cy5-labelled α-CRP antibodies is demonstrated....

  20. Serial correlation in National Football League play calling and its effects on outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Emara, Noha; Owens, David; Smith, John; Wilmer, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the strategic behavior of highly informed agents playing zero-sum games under highly incentivized conditions. We examine data from 3455 National Football League (NFL) games from the 2000 season through the 2012 season, and categorize each play as "rush" or a "pass." We find that the pass-rush mix exhibits negative serial correlation: play types alternate more frequently than an independent stochastic process. This is an exploitable strategy, and we find that this serial corr...