Sample records for network forensic analysis

  1. A Graph Oriented Approach for Network Forensic Analysis (United States)

    Wang, Wei


    Network forensic analysis is a process that analyzes intrusion evidence captured from networked environment to identify suspicious entities and stepwise actions in an attack scenario. Unfortunately, the overwhelming amount and low quality of output from security sensors make it difficult for analysts to obtain a succinct high-level view of complex…

  2. Network Intrusion Forensic Analysis Using Intrusion Detection System


    Manish Kumar; Dr. M. Hanumanthappa; Dr. T.V. Suresh Kumar


    The need for computer intrusion forensics arises from the alarming increase in the number of computer crimes that are committed annually. After a computer system has been breached and an intrusion has been detected, there is a need for a computer forensics investigation to follow. Computer forensics is used to bring to justice, those responsible for conducting attacks on computer systems throughout the world. Because of this the law must be follow precisely when conducting a forensics investi...

  3. Cybersecurity and Network Forensics: Analysis of Malicious Traffic towards a Honeynet with Deep Packet Inspection

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    Gabriel Arquelau Pimenta Rodrigues


    Full Text Available Any network connected to the Internet is subject to cyber attacks. Strong security measures, forensic tools, and investigators contribute together to detect and mitigate those attacks, reducing the damages and enabling reestablishing the network to its normal operation, thus increasing the cybersecurity of the networked environment. This paper addresses the use of a forensic approach with Deep Packet Inspection to detect anomalies in the network traffic. As cyber attacks may occur on any layer of the TCP/IP networking model, Deep Packet Inspection is an effective way to reveal suspicious content in the headers or the payloads in any packet processing layer, excepting of course situations where the payload is encrypted. Although being efficient, this technique still faces big challenges. The contributions of this paper rely on the association of Deep Packet Inspection with forensics analysis to evaluate different attacks towards a Honeynet operating in a network laboratory at the University of Brasilia. In this perspective, this work could identify and map the content and behavior of attacks such as the Mirai botnet and brute-force attacks targeting various different network services. Obtained results demonstrate the behavior of automated attacks (such as worms and bots and non-automated attacks (brute-force conducted with different tools. The data collected and analyzed is then used to generate statistics of used usernames and passwords, IP and services distribution, among other elements. This paper also discusses the importance of network forensics and Chain of Custody procedures to conduct investigations and shows the effectiveness of the mentioned techniques in evaluating different attacks in networks.

  4. Value of information analysis for interventional and counterfactual Bayesian networks in forensic medical sciences. (United States)

    Constantinou, Anthony Costa; Yet, Barbaros; Fenton, Norman; Neil, Martin; Marsh, William


    Inspired by real-world examples from the forensic medical sciences domain, we seek to determine whether a decision about an interventional action could be subject to amendments on the basis of some incomplete information within the model, and whether it would be worthwhile for the decision maker to seek further information prior to suggesting a decision. The method is based on the underlying principle of Value of Information to enhance decision analysis in interventional and counterfactual Bayesian networks. The method is applied to two real-world Bayesian network models (previously developed for decision support in forensic medical sciences) to examine the average gain in terms of both Value of Information (average relative gain ranging from 11.45% and 59.91%) and decision making (potential amendments in decision making ranging from 0% to 86.8%). We have shown how the method becomes useful for decision makers, not only when decision making is subject to amendments on the basis of some unknown risk factors, but also when it is not. Knowing that a decision outcome is independent of one or more unknown risk factors saves us from the trouble of seeking information about the particular set of risk factors. Further, we have also extended the assessment of this implication to the counterfactual case and demonstrated how answers about interventional actions are expected to change when some unknown factors become known, and how useful this becomes in forensic medical science. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Dental Forensics: Bitemark Analysis


    Elza Ibrahim Auerkari


    Forensic odontology (dental forensics) can provide useful evidence in both criminal and civil cases, and therefore remains a part of the wider discipline of forensic science. As an example from the toolbox of forensic odontology, the practice and experience on bitemark analysis is reviewed here in brief. The principle of using visible bitemarks in crime victims or in other objects as evidence is fundamentally based on the observation that the detailed pattern of dental imprints tend to be pra...

  6. Bipartisanship Breakdown, Functional Networks, and Forensic Analysis in Spanish 2015 and 2016 National Elections

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    Juan Fernández-Gracia


    Full Text Available We present a social network and forensic analysis of the vote counts of Spanish national elections that took place in December 2015 and their sequel in June 2016. We initially consider the phenomenon of bipartisanship breakdown by analyzing spatial distributions of several bipartisanship indices. We find that such breakdown is more prominently close to cosmopolite and largely populated areas and less important in rural areas where bipartisanship still prevails, and its evolution mildly consolidates in the 2016 round, with some evidence of bipartisanship reinforcement which we hypothesize to be due to psychological mechanisms of risk aversion. Subsequently, a functional network analysis detects an effective partition of municipalities which remarkably coincides with the first-level political and administrative division of autonomous communities. Finally, we explore to which extent vote data are faithful by applying forensic techniques to vote statistics. Results based on deviation from Benford’s law are mixed and vary across different levels of aggregation. As a complementary metric, we further explore the cooccurring statistics of vote share and turnout, finding a mild tendency in the clusters of the conservative party to smear out towards the area of high turnout and vote share, what has been previously interpreted as a possible sign of incremental fraud.

  7. Dental Forensics: Bitemark Analysis

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    Elza Ibrahim Auerkari


    Full Text Available Forensic odontology (dental forensics can provide useful evidence in both criminal and civil cases, and therefore remains a part of the wider discipline of forensic science. As an example from the toolbox of forensic odontology, the practice and experience on bitemark analysis is reviewed here in brief. The principle of using visible bitemarks in crime victims or in other objects as evidence is fundamentally based on the observation that the detailed pattern of dental imprints tend to be practically unique for each individual. Therefore, finding such an imprint as a bitemark can bear a strong testimony that it was produced by the individual that has the matching dental pattern. However, the comparison of the observed bitemark and the suspected set of teeth will necessarily require human interpretation, and this is not infallible. Both technical challenges in the bitemarks and human errors in the interpretation are possible. To minimise such errors and to maximise the value of bitemark analysis, dedicated procedures and protocols have been developed, and the personnel taking care of the analysis need to be properly trained. In principle the action within the discipline should be conducted as in evidence-based dentristy, i.e. accepted procedures should have known error rates. Because of the involvement of human interpretation, even personal performance statistics may be required from legal expert statements. The requirements have been introduced largely due to cases where false convictions based on bitemark analysishave been overturned after DNA analysis.DOI: 10.14693/jdi.v15i2.76

  8. The role of personal social networks in risk assessment and management of forensic psychiatric patients


    Pomp, L.; Spreen, M.; Bogaerts, S.; Völkel, B.


    Social network factors are usually not accounted for in the clinical practice of risk assessment/management.This article introduces a social network analysis as an instrument to systematically chart the relationships and personal networks of forensic psychiatric patients. During the period 2005 to 2007, the so-called Forensic Social Network Analysis (FSNA) was developed in a Dutch forensic psychiatric hospital. A case study describes the FSNA concepts and shows the benefits of using FSNA as a...

  9. Forensic Analysis of Lubricants. (United States)

    Hirz, R


    Lubricants are found everywhere as a matter of course, and thus would also likely be found at the scene of a crime. Many fields of applications for lubricants exist and numerous formulations can be used within a single field. In addition, the composition of a lubricant changes significantly during its use. These facts are an illustration that lubricants, especially those that have been used, will have features that may possess high evidential value. Most studies on lubricants deal with wear monitoring, monitoring of the degradation of lubricants, and chemical analysis of the base oil and additives. The methods used require sample sizes in the range of 0.5 g and can give an indication of the brand and its application. In contrast, the studies dealing with forensic problems utilize spectroscopic methods that require sample sizes in the microgram range, and can only compare samples. Their main drawback is that the sample matrix may have an adverse effect on the analysis. Analyses using a combination of chromatographic and spectroscopic methods for the detection of special compound classes require more sample but are not as affected by the matrix. Using the methods reviewed here, the forensic scientist may be able to identify the brand and application if the sample size exceeds 0.5 g or may compare samples if the size is very low. Copyright © 1991 Central Police University.

  10. Forensic Analysis of the Windows 7 Registry

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    Khawla Abdulla Alghafli


    Full Text Available The recovery of digital evidence of crimes from storage media is an increasingly time consuming process as the capacity of the storage media is in a state of constant growth. It is also a difficult and complex task for the forensic investigator to analyse all of the locations in the storage media. These two factors, when combined, may result in a delay in bringing a case to court. The concept of this paper is to start the initial forensic analysis of the storage media in locations that are most likely to contain digital evidence, the Windows Registry. Consequently, the forensic analysis process and the recovery of digital evidence may take less time than would otherwise be required. In this paper, the Registry structure of Windows 7 is discussed together with several elements of information within the Registry of Windows 7 that may be valuable to a forensic investigator. These elements were categorized into five groups which are system, application, networks, attached devices and the history lists. We have discussed the values of identified elements to a forensic investigator. Also, a tool was implemented to perform the function of extracting these elements and presents them in usable form to a forensics investigator.


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    Nichols, T.


    The Nuclear Forensics Analysis Center (NFAC) is part of Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and is one of only two USG National Laboratories accredited to perform nuclear forensic analyses to the requirements of ISO 17025. SRNL NFAC is capable of analyzing nuclear and radiological samples from bulk material to ultra-trace samples. NFAC provides analytical support to the FBI's Radiological Evidence Examination Facility (REEF), which is located within SRNL. REEF gives the FBI the capability to perform traditional forensics on material that is radiological and/or is contaminated. SRNL is engaged in research and development efforts to improve the USG technical nuclear forensics capabilities. Research includes improving predictive signatures and developing a database containing comparative samples.

  12. Terminology and forensic gait analysis. (United States)

    Birch, Ivan; Vernon, Wesley; Walker, Jeremy; Young, Maria


    The use of appropriate terminology is a fundamental aspect of forensic gait analysis. The language used in forensic gait analysis is an amalgam of that used in clinical practice, podiatric biomechanics and the wider field of biomechanics. The result can often be a lack of consistency in the language used, the definitions used and the clarity of the message given. Examples include the use of 'gait' and 'walking' as synonymous terms, confusion between 'step' and 'stride', the mixing of anatomical, positional and pathological descriptors, and inability to describe appropriately movements of major body segments such as the torso. The purpose of this paper is to share the well-established definitions of the fundamental parameters of gait, common to all professions, and advocate their use in forensic gait analysis to establish commonality. The paper provides guidance on the selection and use of appropriate terminology in the description of gait in the forensic context. This paper considers the established definitions of the terms commonly used, identifies those terms which have the potential to confuse readers, and suggests a framework of terminology which should be utilised in forensic gait analysis. Copyright © 2015 Forensic Science Society. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Forensic Analysis using Geological and Geochemical Techniques (United States)

    Hoogewerff, J.


    Due to the globalisation of legal (and illegal) trade there is an increasing demand for techniques which can verify the geographical origin and transfer routes of many legal and illegal commodities and products. Although geological techniques have been used in forensic investigations since the emergence of forensics as a science in the late eighteen hundreds, the last decade has seen a marked increase in geo-scientists initiating concept studies using the latest analytical techniques, including studying natural abundance isotope variations, micro analysis with laser ablation ICPMS and geochemical mapping. Most of the concept studies have shown a good potential but uptake by the law enforcement and legal community has been limited due to concerns about the admissibility of the new methods. As an introduction to the UGU2009 session "Forensic Provenancing using Geological and Geochemical Techniques" I will give an overview of the state of the art of forensic geology and the issues that concern the admissibility of geological forensic evidence. I will use examples from the NITECRIME and FIRMS networks, the EU TRACE project and other projects and literature to illustrate the important issues at hand.

  14. [Forensic evidence-based medicine in computer communication networks]. (United States)

    Qiu, Yun-Liang; Peng, Ming-Qi


    As an important component of judicial expertise, forensic science is broad and highly specialized. With development of network technology, increasement of information resources, and improvement of people's legal consciousness, forensic scientists encounter many new problems, and have been required to meet higher evidentiary standards in litigation. In view of this, evidence-based concept should be established in forensic medicine. We should find the most suitable method in forensic science field and other related area to solve specific problems in the evidence-based mode. Evidence-based practice can solve the problems in legal medical field, and it will play a great role in promoting the progress and development of forensic science. This article reviews the basic theory of evidence-based medicine and its effect, way, method, and evaluation in the forensic medicine in order to discuss the application value of forensic evidence-based medicine in computer communication networks.

  15. Introduction to security and network forensics

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    Buchanan, William J


    Introduction to Security ObjectivesThe Industrial and the Information AgeCIA and AAAProtecting against IntrudersUsers, Systems, and DataServices, Role-Based Security, and Cloud ComputingSecurity and Forensic ComputingISO 27002RisksRisk Management/AvoidanceSecurity PoliciesDefi ning the PolicyExample RisksDefense-in-DepthGateways and DMZ (Demilitarized Zones)Layered Model and SecurityEncryption and a Layered Approach to DefenseSoftware Tutorial-Data Packet CaptureOnline ExercisesNetworkSims ExercisesChapter LectureReferencesIntrusion Detection Systems ObjectivesIntroductionTypes of IntrusionAtt

  16. Forensic Analysis of Compromised Computers (United States)

    Wolfe, Thomas


    Directory Tree Analysis File Generator is a Practical Extraction and Reporting Language (PERL) script that simplifies and automates the collection of information for forensic analysis of compromised computer systems. During such an analysis, it is sometimes necessary to collect and analyze information about files on a specific directory tree. Directory Tree Analysis File Generator collects information of this type (except information about directories) and writes it to a text file. In particular, the script asks the user for the root of the directory tree to be processed, the name of the output file, and the number of subtree levels to process. The script then processes the directory tree and puts out the aforementioned text file. The format of the text file is designed to enable the submission of the file as input to a spreadsheet program, wherein the forensic analysis is performed. The analysis usually consists of sorting files and examination of such characteristics of files as ownership, time of creation, and time of most recent access, all of which characteristics are among the data included in the text file.

  17. The role of personal social networks in risk assessment and management of forensic psychiatric patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pomp, L.; Spreen, M.; Boegarts, S.; Völker, B.G.M.


    Social network factors are usually not accounted for in the clinical practice of risk assessment/management.This article introduces a social network analysis as an instrument to systematically chart the relationships and personal networks of forensic psychiatric patients. During the period 2005 to

  18. Bovine and equine forensic DNA analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Goor, L.H.P.


    Animal forensic DNA analysis is being used for human criminal investigations (e.g traces from cats and dogs), wildlife management, breeding and food safety. The most common DNA markers used for such forensic casework are short tandem repeats (STR). Rules and guidelines concerning quality assurance

  19. Detangling complex relationships in forensic data: principles and use of causal networks and their application to clinical forensic science. (United States)

    Lefèvre, Thomas; Lepresle, Aude; Chariot, Patrick


    The search for complex, nonlinear relationships and causality in data is hindered by the availability of techniques in many domains, including forensic science. Linear multivariable techniques are useful but present some shortcomings. In the past decade, Bayesian approaches have been introduced in forensic science. To date, authors have mainly focused on providing an alternative to classical techniques for quantifying effects and dealing with uncertainty. Causal networks, including Bayesian networks, can help detangle complex relationships in data. A Bayesian network estimates the joint probability distribution of data and graphically displays dependencies between variables and the circulation of information between these variables. In this study, we illustrate the interest in utilizing Bayesian networks for dealing with complex data through an application in clinical forensic science. Evaluating the functional impairment of assault survivors is a complex task for which few determinants are known. As routinely estimated in France, the duration of this impairment can be quantified by days of 'Total Incapacity to Work' ('Incapacité totale de travail,' ITT). In this study, we used a Bayesian network approach to identify the injury type, victim category and time to evaluation as the main determinants of the 'Total Incapacity to Work' (TIW). We computed the conditional probabilities associated with the TIW node and its parents. We compared this approach with a multivariable analysis, and the results of both techniques were converging. Thus, Bayesian networks should be considered a reliable means to detangle complex relationships in data.

  20. Bayesian networks for evaluation of evidence from forensic entomology. (United States)

    Andersson, M Gunnar; Sundström, Anders; Lindström, Anders


    In the aftermath of a CBRN incident, there is an urgent need to reconstruct events in order to bring the perpetrators to court and to take preventive actions for the future. The challenge is to discriminate, based on available information, between alternative scenarios. Forensic interpretation is used to evaluate to what extent results from the forensic investigation favor the prosecutors' or the defendants' arguments, using the framework of Bayesian hypothesis testing. Recently, several new scientific disciplines have been used in a forensic context. In the AniBioThreat project, the framework was applied to veterinary forensic pathology, tracing of pathogenic microorganisms, and forensic entomology. Forensic entomology is an important tool for estimating the postmortem interval in, for example, homicide investigations as a complement to more traditional methods. In this article we demonstrate the applicability of the Bayesian framework for evaluating entomological evidence in a forensic investigation through the analysis of a hypothetical scenario involving suspect movement of carcasses from a clandestine laboratory. Probabilities of different findings under the alternative hypotheses were estimated using a combination of statistical analysis of data, expert knowledge, and simulation, and entomological findings are used to update the beliefs about the prosecutors' and defendants' hypotheses and to calculate the value of evidence. The Bayesian framework proved useful for evaluating complex hypotheses using findings from several insect species, accounting for uncertainty about development rate, temperature, and precolonization. The applicability of the forensic statistic approach to evaluating forensic results from a CBRN incident is discussed.

  1. Molecular DNA Analysis in Forensic Identification. (United States)

    Dumache, Raluca; Ciocan, Veronica; Muresan, Camelia; Enache, Alexandra


    Serological and biochemical identification methods used in forensics have several major disadvantages, such as: long time in processing biological sample and lack of sensitivity and specificity. In the last 30 years, DNA molecular analysis has become an important tool in forensic investigations. DNA profiling is based on the short tandem repeats (STR) and aids in human identification from biological samples. Forensic genetics, can provide information on the events which occurred at the crime scene or to supplement other methods of forensic identification. Currently, the methods used in identification are based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analyses. This method analyses the autosomal STRs, the Y-chromosome, and the mitochondrial DNA. Correlation of biological samples present at the crime scene with identification, selection, and the probative value factor is therefore the first aspect to be taken into consideration in the forensic genetic analysis. In the last decade, because of the advances in the field of molecular biology, new biomarkers such as: microRNAs (miR), messenger RNA (mRNA), and DNA methylation have been studied and proposed to be used in the forensic identifications of body fluids.

  2. Network Forensics Method Based on Evidence Graph and Vulnerability Reasoning

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    Jingsha He


    Full Text Available As the Internet becomes larger in scale, more complex in structure and more diversified in traffic, the number of crimes that utilize computer technologies is also increasing at a phenomenal rate. To react to the increasing number of computer crimes, the field of computer and network forensics has emerged. The general purpose of network forensics is to find malicious users or activities by gathering and dissecting firm evidences about computer crimes, e.g., hacking. However, due to the large volume of Internet traffic, not all the traffic captured and analyzed is valuable for investigation or confirmation. After analyzing some existing network forensics methods to identify common shortcomings, we propose in this paper a new network forensics method that uses a combination of network vulnerability and network evidence graph. In our proposed method, we use vulnerability evidence and reasoning algorithm to reconstruct attack scenarios and then backtrack the network packets to find the original evidences. Our proposed method can reconstruct attack scenarios effectively and then identify multi-staged attacks through evidential reasoning. Results of experiments show that the evidence graph constructed using our method is more complete and credible while possessing the reasoning capability.

  3. Forensic Analysis of Parachute Deaths. (United States)

    Burke, Michael Philip; Chitty, Johannes


    Deaths associated with parachuting are very uncommon. However, these deaths do tend to be "high profile" in the traditional and social media. When forensic pathologists examine the deceased after a fatal parachuting incident, the anatomical cause of death is usually not in question. For most forensic pathologists, it is usually the case that we will have very limited knowledge of parachuting equipment or the mechanics of a typical successful parachute jump. As such, the investigation of the death should involve a multidisciplinary approach with an appropriate expert providing the formal forensic examination of the parachuting equipment. We have endeavored to describe, in simple terms, the usual components of a typical parachute rig, a précis of the sequence of events in a routine skydive and BASE jump, and the various types of malfunctions that may occur. Last, we present a case report of a BASE jump fatality to illustrate how an expert examination of the BASE jumper's gear aided the medicolegal investigation of the death with some important aspects in the forensic examination of the jumper's equipment.


    The Scientific Working Group on Forensic Analysis of Chemical Terrorism (SWGFACT) has developed the following guidelines for laboratories engaged in the forensic analysis of chemical evidence associated with terrorism. This document provides a baseline framework and guidance for...

  5. Microfluidic chips for clinical and forensic analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verpoorte, Elisabeth


    This review gives an overview of developments in the field of microchip analysis for clinical diagnostic and forensic applications. The approach chosen to review the literature is different from that in most microchip reviews to date, in that the information is presented in terms of analytes tested

  6. The modelling of a digital forensic readiness approach for wireless local area networks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ngobeni, S


    Full Text Available generated by the mobile stations and to conduct a proper digital forensic investigation. This paper attempts to address this issue by proposing a wireless digital forensic readiness model designed to monitor, log and preserve wireless network traffic...

  7. Spectroscopic analysis of bones for forensic studies

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    Tofanelli, Mirko [Applied and Laser Spectroscopy Laboratory, Institute of Chemistry of Organometallic Compounds, Research Area of CNR, Via G. Moruzzi, 1, 56124 Pisa (Italy); Pardini, Lorenzo [Institut für Physik und IRIS Adlershof, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Zum Großen Windkanal 6, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Borrini, Matteo [Research Centre in Evolutionary Anthropology and Palaeoecology, School of Natural Sciences and Psychology, Liverpool John Moores University, Byrom Street, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Bartoli, Fulvio; Bacci, Alessandra [Department of Biology, University of Pisa, Via A. Volta, 4, 56126 Pisa (Italy); D’Ulivo, Alessandro; Pitzalis, Emanuela; Mascherpa, Marco Carlo; Legnaioli, Stefano; Lorenzetti, Giulia; Pagnotta, Stefano [Applied and Laser Spectroscopy Laboratory, Institute of Chemistry of Organometallic Compounds, Research Area of CNR, Via G. Moruzzi, 1, 56124 Pisa (Italy); Holanda Cavalcanti, Gildo de [Instituto de Fìsica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Gal. Milton Tavares de Souza, s/no Campus da Praia Vermelha, CEP 24210-346, Niterói, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Lezzerini, Marco [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Pisa, Via Santa Maria, 53, 56126 Pisa (Italy); Palleschi, Vincenzo, E-mail: [Applied and Laser Spectroscopy Laboratory, Institute of Chemistry of Organometallic Compounds, Research Area of CNR, Via G. Moruzzi, 1, 56124 Pisa (Italy)


    The elemental analysis of human bones can give information about the dietary habits of the deceased, especially in the last years of their lives, which can be useful for forensic studies. The most important requirement that must be satisfied for this kind of analysis is that the concentrations of analyzed elements are the same as ante mortem. In this work, a set of bones was analyzed using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) and validated using Inductively Coupled Plasma–Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES), in order to compare those two techniques and to investigate the effect of possible alterations in the elemental concentrations' proportion resulting from the treatment usually applied for preparing the bones for traditional forensic analysis. The possibility that elemental concentrations' changes would occur after accidental or intentional burning of the bones was also studied. - Highlights: • The LIBS analysis of (animal) bones is presented, to establish its feasibility for forensic studies. • Untreated bones and bones subjected to high temperatures (boiled, burned) were analyzed. • A simple calibration, using a single reference sample, gave reasonable quantitative results. • The comparison of the results demonstrates that LIBS analysis can provide nutritional information. • The nutritional information obtained are the same on untreated, boiled and burned bones.

  8. Careers in Forensics: Analysis, Evidence, and Law (United States)

    Torpey, Elka Maria


    In legal proceedings, a case is only as strong as its evidence. And whether that evidence is strong depends, in large part, on the work of forensic specialists. The field of forensics is broad and involves many kinds of workers. Some of them are involved in crimesolving. Others, such as forensic social workers or forensic economists, help to…

  9. Nuclear Forensics and Radiochemistry: Reaction Networks

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    Rundberg, Robert S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    In the intense neutron flux of a nuclear explosion the production of isotopes may occur through successive neutron induced reactions. The pathway to these isotopes illustrates both the complexity of the problem and the need for high quality nuclear data. The growth and decay of radioactive isotopes can follow a similarly complex network. The Bateman equation will be described and modified to apply to the transmutation of isotopes in a high flux reactor. A alternative model of growth and decay, the GD code, that can be applied to fission products will also be described.

  10. Encoded evidence: DNA in forensic analysis. (United States)

    Jobling, Mark A; Gill, Peter


    Sherlock Holmes said "it has long been an axiom of mine that the little things are infinitely the most important", but never imagined that such a little thing, the DNA molecule, could become perhaps the most powerful single tool in the multifaceted fight against crime. Twenty years after the development of DNA fingerprinting, forensic DNA analysis is key to the conviction or exoneration of suspects and the identification of victims of crimes, accidents and disasters, driving the development of innovative methods in molecular genetics, statistics and the use of massive intelligence databases.

  11. Gait analysis in forensic medicine (United States)

    Larsen, Peter K.; Simonsen, Erik B.; Lynnerup, Niels


    We have combined the basic human ability to recognize other individuals with functional anatomical and biomechanical knowledge, in order to analyze the gait of perpetrators as recorded on surveillance video. The perpetrators are then compared with similar analyses of suspects. At present we give a statement to the police as to whether the perpetrator has a characteristic gait pattern compared to normal gait, and if a suspect has a comparable gait pattern. We have found agreements such as: limping, varus instability in the knee at heel strike, larger lateral flexion of the spinal column to one side than the other, inverted ankle during stance, pronounced sagittal head-movements, and marked head-shoulder posture. Based on these characteristic features, we state whether suspect and perpetrator could have the same identity but it is not possible to positively identify the perpetrator. Nevertheless, we have been involved in several cases where the court has found that this type of gait analysis, especially combined with photogrammetry, was a valuable tool. The primary requisites are surveillance cameras recording with sufficient frequency, ideally about 15 Hz, which are positioned in frontal and preferably also in profile view.

  12. Photogrammetry Tool for Forensic Analysis (United States)

    Lane, John


    A system allows crime scene and accident scene investigators the ability to acquire visual scene data using cameras for processing at a later time. This system uses a COTS digital camera, a photogrammetry calibration cube, and 3D photogrammetry processing software. In a previous instrument developed by NASA, the laser scaling device made use of parallel laser beams to provide a photogrammetry solution in 2D. This device and associated software work well under certain conditions. In order to make use of a full 3D photogrammetry system, a different approach was needed. When using multiple cubes, whose locations relative to each other are unknown, a procedure that would merge the data from each cube would be as follows: 1. One marks a reference point on cube 1, then marks points on cube 2 as unknowns. This locates cube 2 in cube 1 s coordinate system. 2. One marks reference points on cube 2, then marks points on cube 1 as unknowns. This locates cube 1 in cube 2 s coordinate system. 3. This procedure is continued for all combinations of cubes. 4. The coordinate of all of the found coordinate systems is then merged into a single global coordinate system. In order to achieve maximum accuracy, measurements are done in one of two ways, depending on scale: when measuring the size of objects, the coordinate system corresponding to the nearest cube is used, or when measuring the location of objects relative to a global coordinate system, a merged coordinate system is used. Presently, traffic accident analysis is time-consuming and not very accurate. Using cubes with differential GPS would give absolute positions of cubes in the accident area, so that individual cubes would provide local photogrammetry calibration to objects near a cube.

  13. Forensic analysis of rockfall scars (United States)

    de Vilder, Saskia J.; Rosser, Nick J.; Brain, Matthew J.


    We characterise and analyse the detachment (scar) surfaces of rockfalls to understand the mechanisms that underpin their failure. Rockfall scars are variously weathered and comprised of both discontinuity release surfaces and surfaces indicative of fracturing through zones of previously intact rock, known as rock bridges. The presence of rock bridges and pre-existing discontinuities is challenging to quantify due to the difficulty in determining discontinuity persistence below the surface of a rock slope. Rock bridges form an important control in holding blocks onto rockslopes, with their frequency, extent and location commonly modelled from the surface exposure of daylighting discontinuities. We explore an alternative approach to assessing their role, by characterising failure scars. We analyse a database of multiple rockfall scar surfaces detailing the areal extent, shape, and location of broken rock bridges and weathered surfaces. Terrestrial laser scanning and gigapixel imagery were combined to record the detailed texture and surface morphology. From this, scar surfaces were mapped via automated classification based on RGB pixel values. Our analysis of the resulting data from scars on the North Yorkshire coast (UK) indicates a wide variation in both weathering and rock bridge properties, controlled by lithology and associated rock mass structure. Importantly, the proportion of rock bridges in a rockfall failure surface does not increase with failure size. Rather larger failures display fracturing through multiple rock bridges, and in contrast smaller failures fracture occurs only through a single critical rock bridge. This holds implications for how failure mechanisms change with rockfall size and shape. Additionally, the location of rock bridges with respect to the geometry of an incipient rockfall is shown to determine failure mode. Weathering can occur both along discontinuity surfaces and previously broken rock bridges, indicating the sequential stages of

  14. Real-time Forensic Disaster Analysis (United States)

    Wenzel, F.; Daniell, J.; Khazai, B.; Mühr, B.; Kunz-Plapp, T.; Markus, M.; Vervaeck, A.


    The Center for Disaster Management and Risk Reduction Technology (CEDIM, - an interdisciplinary research center founded by the German Research Centre for Geoscience (GFZ) and Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) - has embarked on a new style of disaster research known as Forensic Disaster Analysis. The notion has been coined by the Integrated Research on Disaster Risk initiative (IRDR, launched by ICSU in 2010. It has been defined as an approach to studying natural disasters that aims at uncovering the root causes of disasters through in-depth investigations that go beyond the reconnaissance reports and case studies typically conducted after disasters. In adopting this comprehensive understanding of disasters CEDIM adds a real-time component to the assessment and evaluation process. By comprehensive we mean that most if not all relevant aspects of disasters are considered and jointly analysed. This includes the impact (human, economy, and infrastructure), comparisons with recent historic events, social vulnerability, reconstruction and long-term impacts on livelihood issues. The forensic disaster analysis research mode is thus best characterized as "event-based research" through systematic investigation of critical issues arising after a disaster across various inter-related areas. The forensic approach requires (a) availability of global data bases regarding previous earthquake losses, socio-economic parameters, building stock information, etc.; (b) leveraging platforms such as the EERI clearing house, relief-web, and the many sources of local and international sources where information is organized; and (c) rapid access to critical information (e.g., crowd sourcing techniques) to improve our understanding of the complex dynamics of disasters. The main scientific questions being addressed are: What are critical factors that control loss of life, of infrastructure, and for economy? What are the critical interactions

  15. Statistical Tools for Forensic Analysis of Toolmarks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Baldwin; Max Morris; Stan Bajic; Zhigang Zhou; James Kreiser


    Recovery and comparison of toolmarks, footprint impressions, and fractured surfaces connected to a crime scene are of great importance in forensic science. The purpose of this project is to provide statistical tools for the validation of the proposition that particular manufacturing processes produce marks on the work-product (or tool) that are substantially different from tool to tool. The approach to validation involves the collection of digital images of toolmarks produced by various tool manufacturing methods on produced work-products and the development of statistical methods for data reduction and analysis of the images. The developed statistical methods provide a means to objectively calculate a ''degree of association'' between matches of similarly produced toolmarks. The basis for statistical method development relies on ''discriminating criteria'' that examiners use to identify features and spatial relationships in their analysis of forensic samples. The developed data reduction algorithms utilize the same rules used by examiners for classification and association of toolmarks.

  16. Microfluidic chips for clinical and forensic analysis. (United States)

    Verpoorte, Elisabeth


    This review gives an overview of developments in the field of microchip analysis for clinical diagnostic and forensic applications. The approach chosen to review the literature is different from that in most microchip reviews to date, in that the information is presented in terms of analytes tested rather than microchip method. Analyte categories for which examples are presented include (i) drugs (quality control, seizures) and explosives residues, (ii) drugs and endogenous small molecules and ions in biofluids, (iii) proteins and peptides, and (iv) analysis of nucleic acids and oligonucleotides. Few cases of microchip analysis of physiological samples or other "real-world" matrices were found. However, many of the examples presented have potential application for these samples, especially with ongoing parallel developments involving integration of sample pretreatment onto chips and the use of fluid propulsion mechanisms other than electrokinetic pumping.

  17. Present and foreseeable future of metabolomics in forensic analysis. (United States)

    Castillo-Peinado, L S; Luque de Castro, M D


    The revulsive publications during the last years on the precariousness of forensic sciences worldwide have promoted the move of major steps towards improvement of this science. One of the steps (viz. a higher involvement of metabolomics in the new era of forensic analysis) deserves to be discussed under different angles. Thus, the characteristics of metabolomics that make it a useful tool in forensic analysis, the aspects in which this omics is so far implicit, but not mentioned in forensic analyses, and how typical forensic parameters such as the post-mortem interval or fingerprints take benefits from metabolomics are critically discussed in this review. The way in which the metabolomics-forensic binomial succeeds when either conventional or less frequent samples are used is highlighted here. Finally, the pillars that should support future developments involving metabolomics and forensic analysis, and the research required for a fruitful in-depth involvement of metabolomics in forensic analysis are critically discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Applicability of DNA analysis on adhesive tape in forensic casework. (United States)

    Zech, Wolf-Dieter; Malik, Naseem; Thali, Michael


    Adhesive tape is commonly used in crimes and is often the subject of forensic evaluation. DNA analysis of adhesive tape can provide DNA profiles of suspects. The object of this study was to evaluate the applicability of DNA analysis on adhesive tape samples in forensic casework. We retrospectively reviewed all cases involving adhesive tape or similar items received by our institute for DNA analysis during the past 11 years. From 100 forensic cases reviewed, 150 adhesive tape samples were examined. A total of 98 DNA profiles were obtained from these samples. Sixty-two of the profiles provided feasible case-relevant information. In conclusion, DNA profiling of adhesive tape samples can be useful in a variety of forensic cases. © 2012 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  19. Forensic analysis of video file formats

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gloe, Thomas; Fischer, André; Kirchner, Matthias


    .... In combination, such characteristics can help to authenticate digital video files in forensic settings by distinguishing between original and post-processed videos, verifying the purported source...

  20. Forensic Learning Disability Nursing Role Analysis (United States)

    Mason, Tom; Phipps, Dianne; Melling, Kat


    This article reports on a study carried out on the role constructs of forensic and nonforensic Learning Disability Nursing in relation to six binary themes. The aims were to identify if there were differences in perceptions of forensic learning disability nurses and nonforensic learning disability nurses in relation to the six binary themes of the…

  1. Windows registry forensics advanced digital forensic analysis of the Windows registry

    CERN Document Server

    Carvey, Harlan


    Harlan Carvey brings readers an advanced book on Windows Registry - the most difficult part of Windows to analyze in forensics! Windows Registry Forensics provides the background of the Registry to help develop an understanding of the binary structure of Registry hive files. Approaches to live response and analysis are included, and tools and techniques for postmortem analysis are discussed at length. Tools and techniques will be presented that take the analyst beyond the current use of viewers and into real analysis of data contained in the Registry. This book also has a DVD containing tools, instructions and videos.

  2. Dynamic analysis environment for nuclear forensic analyses (United States)

    Stork, C. L.; Ummel, C. C.; Stuart, D. S.; Bodily, S.; Goldblum, B. L.


    A Dynamic Analysis Environment (DAE) software package is introduced to facilitate group inclusion/exclusion method testing, evaluation and comparison for pre-detonation nuclear forensics applications. Employing DAE, the multivariate signatures of a questioned material can be compared to the signatures for different, known groups, enabling the linking of the questioned material to its potential process, location, or fabrication facility. Advantages of using DAE for group inclusion/exclusion include built-in query tools for retrieving data of interest from a database, the recording and documentation of all analysis steps, a clear visualization of the analysis steps intelligible to a non-expert, and the ability to integrate analysis tools developed in different programming languages. Two group inclusion/exclusion methods are implemented in DAE: principal component analysis, a parametric feature extraction method, and k nearest neighbors, a nonparametric pattern recognition method. Spent Fuel Isotopic Composition (SFCOMPO), an open source international database of isotopic compositions for spent nuclear fuels (SNF) from 14 reactors, is used to construct PCA and KNN models for known reactor groups, and 20 simulated SNF samples are utilized in evaluating the performance of these group inclusion/exclusion models. For all 20 simulated samples, PCA in conjunction with the Q statistic correctly excludes a large percentage of reactor groups and correctly includes the true reactor of origination. Employing KNN, 14 of the 20 simulated samples are classified to their true reactor of origination.

  3. Evaluation of New Technologies for Forensic DNA Analysis


    Divne, Anna-Maria


    DNA samples from crime scenes or mass disasters are often limited and degraded which limits the possibility of successful traditional STR analysis. Moreover, there is a need to decrease the turnaround time in criminal investigations. These circumstances require a wider set of assays and technologies to be investigated for potential use in forensic DNA analysis, which has been explored in this thesis work. DNA analysis can also provide a useful tool in forensic pathology investigations. In a ...

  4. A Comprehensive Review on Adaptability of Network Forensics Frameworks for Mobile Cloud Computing (United States)

    Abdul Wahab, Ainuddin Wahid; Han, Qi; Bin Abdul Rahman, Zulkanain


    Network forensics enables investigation and identification of network attacks through the retrieved digital content. The proliferation of smartphones and the cost-effective universal data access through cloud has made Mobile Cloud Computing (MCC) a congenital target for network attacks. However, confines in carrying out forensics in MCC is interrelated with the autonomous cloud hosting companies and their policies for restricted access to the digital content in the back-end cloud platforms. It implies that existing Network Forensic Frameworks (NFFs) have limited impact in the MCC paradigm. To this end, we qualitatively analyze the adaptability of existing NFFs when applied to the MCC. Explicitly, the fundamental mechanisms of NFFs are highlighted and then analyzed using the most relevant parameters. A classification is proposed to help understand the anatomy of existing NFFs. Subsequently, a comparison is given that explores the functional similarities and deviations among NFFs. The paper concludes by discussing research challenges for progressive network forensics in MCC. PMID:25097880

  5. A comprehensive review on adaptability of network forensics frameworks for mobile cloud computing. (United States)

    Khan, Suleman; Shiraz, Muhammad; Wahab, Ainuddin Wahid Abdul; Gani, Abdullah; Han, Qi; Rahman, Zulkanain Bin Abdul


    Network forensics enables investigation and identification of network attacks through the retrieved digital content. The proliferation of smartphones and the cost-effective universal data access through cloud has made Mobile Cloud Computing (MCC) a congenital target for network attacks. However, confines in carrying out forensics in MCC is interrelated with the autonomous cloud hosting companies and their policies for restricted access to the digital content in the back-end cloud platforms. It implies that existing Network Forensic Frameworks (NFFs) have limited impact in the MCC paradigm. To this end, we qualitatively analyze the adaptability of existing NFFs when applied to the MCC. Explicitly, the fundamental mechanisms of NFFs are highlighted and then analyzed using the most relevant parameters. A classification is proposed to help understand the anatomy of existing NFFs. Subsequently, a comparison is given that explores the functional similarities and deviations among NFFs. The paper concludes by discussing research challenges for progressive network forensics in MCC.

  6. Offline Forensic Analysis Of Microsoft Windows XP Physical Memory

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schultz, John S


    .... Existing forensic tools that analyze non-volatile memory are not capable of analyzing volatile memory and the few tools that are capable of detailed analysis of volatile memory are not openly available to the public...

  7. A cloud-based forensics tracking scheme for online social network clients. (United States)

    Lin, Feng-Yu; Huang, Chien-Cheng; Chang, Pei-Ying


    In recent years, with significant changes in the communication modes, most users are diverted to cloud-based applications, especially online social networks (OSNs), which applications are mostly hosted on the outside and available to criminals, enabling them to impede criminal investigations and intelligence gathering. In the virtual world, how the Law Enforcement Agency (LEA) identifies the "actual" identity of criminal suspects, and their geolocation in social networks, is a major challenge to current digital investigation. In view of this, this paper proposes a scheme, based on the concepts of IP location and network forensics, which aims to develop forensics tracking on OSNs. According to our empirical analysis, the proposed mechanism can instantly trace the "physical location" of a targeted service resource identifier (SRI), when the target client is using online social network applications (Facebook, Twitter, etc.), and can analyze the probable target client "identity" associatively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first individualized location method and architecture developed and evaluated in OSNs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Forensic analysis of online marketing for electronic nicotine delivery systems. (United States)

    Cobb, Nathan K; Brookover, Jody; Cobb, Caroline O


    Electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) are growing in awareness and use in the USA. They are currently unregulated as the Food and Drug Administration has yet to assert jurisdiction under its tobacco authority over these products, and a US Court of Appeals held they cannot be regulated as drugs/delivery devices if they are not marketed for a therapeutic purpose. Observation of the current online marketplace suggests ENDS, like some nutraceutical products, are being promoted using affiliate marketing techniques using claims concerning purported health benefits. This study performed a forensic analysis to characterise the relationships between online ENDS affiliate advertisements and ENDS sellers, and evaluated descriptive content on advertisements and websites to inform future policy and regulatory efforts. A purposive sampling strategy was used to identify three forms of ENDS advertising. Web proxy software recorded identifiable objects and their ties to each other. Network analysis of these ties followed, as well as analysis of descriptive content on advertisements and websites identified. The forensic analysis included four ENDS advertisements, two linked affiliate websites, and two linked seller websites, and demonstrated a multilevel relationship between advertisements and sellers with multiple layers of redirection. Descriptive analysis indicated that advertisements and affiliates, but not linked sellers, included smoking cessation claims. Results suggest that ENDS sellers may be trying to distance marketing efforts containing unsubstantiated claims from sales. A separate descriptive analysis of 20 ENDS seller web pages indicated that the use of affiliate marketing by sellers may be widespread. These findings support increased monitoring and regulation of ENDS marketing to prevent deceptive marketing tactics and ensure consumer safety. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please

  9. Windows forensic analysis toolkit advanced analysis techniques for Windows 7

    CERN Document Server

    Carvey, Harlan


    Now in its third edition, Harlan Carvey has updated "Windows Forensic Analysis Toolkit" to cover Windows 7 systems. The primary focus of this edition is on analyzing Windows 7 systems and on processes using free and open-source tools. The book covers live response, file analysis, malware detection, timeline, and much more. The author presents real-life experiences from the trenches, making the material realistic and showing the why behind the how. New to this edition, the companion and toolkit materials are now hosted online. This material consists of electronic printable checklists, cheat sheets, free custom tools, and walk-through demos. This edition complements "Windows Forensic Analysis Toolkit, 2nd Edition", (ISBN: 9781597494229), which focuses primarily on XP. It includes complete coverage and examples on Windows 7 systems. It contains Lessons from the Field, Case Studies, and War Stories. It features companion online material, including electronic printable checklists, cheat sheets, free custom tools, ...

  10. An overview on forensic analysis devoted to analytical chemists. (United States)

    Castillo-Peinado, L S; Luque de Castro, M D


    The present article has as main aim to show analytical chemists interested in forensic analysis the world they will face if decision in favor of being a forensic analytical chemist is adopted. With this purpose, the most outstanding aspects of forensic analysis in dealing with sampling (involving both bodily and no bodily samples), sample preparation, and analytical equipment used in detection, identification and quantitation of key sample components are critically discussed. The role of the great omics in forensic analysis, and the growing role of the youngest of the great omics -metabolomics- are also discussed. The foreseeable role of integrative omics is also outlined. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. [Forensic analysis of injuries in dentistry]. (United States)

    Heltai, Nóra; Baráth, Zoltán; Kereszty, Éva M


    Documentation and evaluation of dental injuries in forensic medicine are rather problematic. It needs a professional work up why dental injuries are out of focus, and how the diagnosis, pattern and treatment are influenced by novel approaches of dentistry. The aims of the authors were to characterize dental injuries, to compare their own findings to literature data concerning the type and characteristics of injuries, and propose a diagnostic workflow. Expert's reports between 2009 and 2013 at the Department of Forensic Medicine, University of Szeged were reviewed. Review of about 7000 reports revealed only 20 cases with dental injury, which is in contrast with literature data indicating a significantly higher frequency of dental injuries. Although the number of "dental cases" was low, there were several additional cases where the trauma probably affected the teeth but the injury was not documented. In future more attention is needed in forensic evaluation of the mechanism, therapeutic strategy and prognosis of dental injuries.

  12. The future of forensic DNA analysis (United States)

    Butler, John M.


    The author's thoughts and opinions on where the field of forensic DNA testing is headed for the next decade are provided in the context of where the field has come over the past 30 years. Similar to the Olympic motto of ‘faster, higher, stronger’, forensic DNA protocols can be expected to become more rapid and sensitive and provide stronger investigative potential. New short tandem repeat (STR) loci have expanded the core set of genetic markers used for human identification in Europe and the USA. Rapid DNA testing is on the verge of enabling new applications. Next-generation sequencing has the potential to provide greater depth of coverage for information on STR alleles. Familial DNA searching has expanded capabilities of DNA databases in parts of the world where it is allowed. Challenges and opportunities that will impact the future of forensic DNA are explored including the need for education and training to improve interpretation of complex DNA profiles. PMID:26101278

  13. Two small linear marks on a mandible: collaborative networking between forensic experts. (United States)

    Kanetake, Jun; Sakaue, Kazuhiro; Sakai, Jun; Takahashi, Shirushi; Kanawaku, Yoshimasa; Hashiyada, Masaki; Funayama, Masato


    A human male mandible was found under the eaves of a house. There were no associated items that allowed for personal identification. An anthropologist, who voluntarily joined our forensics team to give an expert opinion, found two small linear marks of 0.6 cm on the surface of the right condylar process. He thought these marks had been produced by a sharp object, and at the very least were not the result of bite marks by rodents or other animals. At first, the police did not appreciate the significance of the marks. One month later, however, other remains with similar marks were found near the scene, strongly suggesting that the case was a mutilation murder with a sharp weapon. After a vigorous search, the police obtained information that a young man in his twenties had gone missing in the area one year previously. After checking up on his relationships, a suspect was identified and arrested. The suspect subsequently confessed and was convicted as guilty of the crime. There are only a few forensic anthropologists in Japan. Consequently, almost all cases requiring bone examination have been handled by forensic pathologists, but it is hard for forensic pathologists to cover all fields comprehensively. The present case might have been solved without help from the anthropologist. However, we believe that forensic pathologists, especially less experienced ones, should seek advice from an expert in the field of forensic anthropology in order to carry a multidisciplinary forensic investigation. Given the current situation in, it is difficult in many institutes of forensics to obtain direct help from forensic anthropologists. The authors believe that collaborative networking via the Internet between forensic experts in each field cannot only obtain further information on complicated cases, but would also be helpful in training young forensic pathologists.

  14. Application of growing hierarchical SOM for visualisation of network forensics traffic data. (United States)

    Palomo, E J; North, J; Elizondo, D; Luque, R M; Watson, T


    Digital investigation methods are becoming more and more important due to the proliferation of digital crimes and crimes involving digital evidence. Network forensics is a research area that gathers evidence by collecting and analysing network traffic data logs. This analysis can be a difficult process, especially because of the high variability of these attacks and large amount of data. Therefore, software tools that can help with these digital investigations are in great demand. In this paper, a novel approach to analysing and visualising network traffic data based on growing hierarchical self-organising maps (GHSOM) is presented. The self-organising map (SOM) has been shown to be successful for the analysis of highly-dimensional input data in data mining applications as well as for data visualisation in a more intuitive and understandable manner. However, the SOM has some problems related to its static topology and its inability to represent hierarchical relationships in the input data. The GHSOM tries to overcome these limitations by generating a hierarchical architecture that is automatically determined according to the input data and reflects the inherent hierarchical relationships among them. Moreover, the proposed GHSOM has been modified to correctly treat the qualitative features that are present in the traffic data in addition to the quantitative features. Experimental results show that this approach can be very useful for a better understanding of network traffic data, making it easier to search for evidence of attacks or anomalous behaviour in a network environment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


    The Scientific Working Group on Forensic Analysis of Chemical Terrorism (SWGFACT) has developed the following quality assurance guidelines to provide laboratories engaged in forensic analysis of chemical evidence associated with terrorism a framework to implement a quality assura...

  16. The future of forensic DNA analysis. (United States)

    Butler, John M


    The author's thoughts and opinions on where the field of forensic DNA testing is headed for the next decade are provided in the context of where the field has come over the past 30 years. Similar to the Olympic motto of 'faster, higher, stronger', forensic DNA protocols can be expected to become more rapid and sensitive and provide stronger investigative potential. New short tandem repeat (STR) loci have expanded the core set of genetic markers used for human identification in Europe and the USA. Rapid DNA testing is on the verge of enabling new applications. Next-generation sequencing has the potential to provide greater depth of coverage for information on STR alleles. Familial DNA searching has expanded capabilities of DNA databases in parts of the world where it is allowed. Challenges and opportunities that will impact the future of forensic DNA are explored including the need for education and training to improve interpretation of complex DNA profiles. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  17. Guidelines for procedures of a harmonised digital forensic process in network forensics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sibiya, G


    Full Text Available and essential tools for collecting the evidence are acquired, it may be illegal to access computer data residing beyond the jurisdiction of a forensic investigator. The investigator needs to acquire a search warrant that can be executed in a specific foreign...

  18. Forensic analysis of explosions: Inverse calculation of the charge mass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voort, M.M. van der; Wees, R.M.M. van; Brouwer, S.D.; Jagt-Deutekom, M.J. van der; Verreault, J.


    Forensic analysis of explosions consists of determining the point of origin, the explosive substance involved, and the charge mass. Within the EU fP7 project Hyperion, TNO developed the Inverse Explosion Analysis (TNO-IEA) tool to estïmate the charge mass and point of origin based on observed damage

  19. Microfluidic devices for forensic DNA analysis: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruijns, Brigitte Bibiche; van Asten, A.; Tiggelaar, Roald M.; Gardeniers, Johannes G.E.


    Microfluidic devices may offer various advantages for forensic DNA analysis, such as reduced risk of contamination, shorter analysis time and direct application at the crime scene. Microfluidic chip technology has already proven to be functional and effective within medical applications, such as for

  20. Shrunken head (tsantsa): a complete forensic analysis procedure. (United States)

    Charlier, P; Huynh-Charlier, I; Brun, L; Hervé, C; de la Grandmaison, G Lorin


    Based on the analysis of shrunken heads referred to our forensic laboratory for anthropological expertise, and data from both anthropological and medical literature, we propose a complete forensic procedure for the analysis of such pieces. A list of 14 original morphological criteria has been developed, based on the global aspect, color, physical deformation, anatomical details, and eventual associated material (wood, vegetal fibers, sand, charcoals, etc.). Such criteria have been tested on a control sample of 20 tsantsa (i.e. shrunken heads from the Jivaro or Shuar tribes of South America). Further complementary analyses are described such as CT-scan and microscopic examination. Such expertise is more and more asked to forensic anthropologists and practitioners in a context of global repatriation of human artifacts to native communities. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Forensic Accounting: Bibliometric Analysis in Brazilian Journals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geovanna Lopes Salles


    Full Text Available This paper used a bibliometric research to compare and draw an overview of scientific production on forensic Accounting area, published in Brazilian journals in the period between 2005 and 2014 regarding the number of publications, characteristics of the authors, published topics, methodologies and its subclasses and and journals that publish in the area. It was collected and analyzed 48 articles the information as variation of year publication, subjects treated by, authors and their characteristics, Qualis classification, methodology, methodological nature applied, description of the empirical method and journals that have published articles in the area. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data. As a result it was found that the main subjects considered are related to the "work of the expert accountant", "expert opinion" and expertise within the context of judicial proceedings. Regarding the authors the vast majority produce only one article in the area over the 10 years examined, and these authors, 64,58% were male. The Qualis extract of the articles is located between C and B1, indicating that the publications fail to achieve high standards of academic quality. On the methodology it was found that 91.67% are empirical research, of these 78% ranked in quantitative or qualitative and 83% are publications opting for descriptive techniques. Regarding the journals, it was found that 50% have only one publication on "forensic accounting", indicating that it is not repeated exposure, as the number of publications ranging from two to five in the other 50% of journals. It is concluded that scientific research in forensic accounting area are still relatively embryonic, lacking certain softening related to the subjects, number of publications and quality of intellectual production.

  2. Analysis of Forensic Casework Utilizing Infrared Spectroscopic Imaging. (United States)

    Lanzarotta, Adam


    A search of the current scientific literature yields a limited number of studies that describe the use of Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopic imaging for the analysis of forensic casework, which is likely due to the fact that these instruments are fairly new commodities to the field of analytical chemistry and are therefore not yet commonplace in forensic laboratories. This report describes recent forensic case studies that have used the technique for determining the composition of a wide variety of multi-component sample types, including animal tissue sections for toxic inclusions, drugs/dietary supplements, an antibiotic with an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) present as several different salt forms, an adulterated bulk API, unknown trace powders for illicit drugs and an ophthalmic solution suspected of being adulterated with bleach.

  3. Analysis of errors in forensic science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingxiao Du


    Full Text Available Reliability of expert testimony is one of the foundations of judicial justice. Both expert bias and scientific errors affect the reliability of expert opinion, which in turn affects the trustworthiness of the findings of fact in legal proceedings. Expert bias can be eliminated by replacing experts; however, it may be more difficult to eliminate scientific errors. From the perspective of statistics, errors in operation of forensic science include systematic errors, random errors, and gross errors. In general, process repetition and abiding by the standard ISO/IEC:17025: 2005, general requirements for the competence of testing and calibration laboratories, during operation are common measures used to reduce errors that originate from experts and equipment, respectively. For example, to reduce gross errors, the laboratory can ensure that a test is repeated several times by different experts. In applying for forensic principles and methods, the Federal Rules of Evidence 702 mandate that judges consider factors such as peer review, to ensure the reliability of the expert testimony. As the scientific principles and methods may not undergo professional review by specialists in a certain field, peer review serves as an exclusive standard. This study also examines two types of statistical errors. As false-positive errors involve a higher possibility of an unfair decision-making, they should receive more attention than false-negative errors.

  4. Development of synthetic nuclear melt glass for forensic analysis. (United States)

    Molgaard, Joshua J; Auxier, John D; Giminaro, Andrew V; Oldham, C J; Cook, Matthew T; Young, Stephen A; Hall, Howard L

    A method for producing synthetic debris similar to the melt glass produced by nuclear surface testing is demonstrated. Melt glass from the first nuclear weapon test (commonly referred to as trinitite) is used as the benchmark for this study. These surrogates can be used to simulate a variety of scenarios and will serve as a tool for developing and validating forensic analysis methods.

  5. A forensic readiness model for Wireless Local Area Networks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ngobeni, S


    Full Text Available of cyber crime, where criminals deliberately and actively break into WLANs with the intent to cause harm or access sensitive information. WLAN digital forensics is seen not only as a response to cyber crime in wireless environments, but also as a means...

  6. Conception of a course for professional training and education in the field of computer and mobile forensics, part III: network forensics and penetration testing (United States)

    Kröger, Knut; Creutzburg, Reiner


    IT security and computer forensics are important components in the information technology. From year to year, incidents and crimes increase that target IT systems or were done with their help. More and more companies and authorities have security problems in their own IT infrastructure. To respond to these incidents professionally, it is important to have well trained staff. The fact that many agencies and companies work with very sensitive data make it necessary to further train the own employees in the field of network forensics and penetration testing. Motivated by these facts, this paper - a continuation of a paper of January 2012 [1], which showed the conception of a course for professional training and education in the field of computer and mobile forensics - addresses the practical implementation important relationships of network forensic and penetration testing.

  7. Bite mark analysis in forensic routine case work


    Lessig, R.; Weber, M.; Wenzel, V.


    The individuality of the human dentition frequently allows the Forensic Odonto-Stomatologist (FOS) to reach a strong opinion of association in cases of identification and bite mark analy-sis. Such analysis can often be useful during the investigation of violent crimes, especially those involving sexual assault. Bites from animals are rarely the object of bite mark analysis. The teeth of animals leave patterned injuries that appear quite different from those created by human teeth. This is esp...

  8. Forensic analysis of video steganography tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Sloan


    resource for forensic examiners to determine the existence of any video steganography materials over the course of a computer forensic investigation.

  9. State of the art in bile analysis in forensic toxicology. (United States)

    Bévalot, F; Cartiser, N; Bottinelli, C; Guitton, J; Fanton, L


    In forensic toxicology, alternative matrices to blood are useful in case of limited, unavailable or unusable blood sample, suspected postmortem redistribution or long drug intake-to-sampling interval. The present article provides an update on the state of knowledge for the use of bile in forensic toxicology, through a review of the Medline literature from 1970 to May 2015. Bile physiology and technical aspects of analysis (sampling, storage, sample preparation and analytical methods) are reported, to highlight specificities and consequences from an analytical and interpretative point of view. A table summarizes cause of death and quantification in bile and blood of 133 compounds from more than 200 case reports, providing a useful tool for forensic physicians and toxicologists involved in interpreting bile analysis. Qualitative and quantitative interpretation is discussed. As bile/blood concentration ratios are high for numerous molecules or metabolites, bile is a matrix of choice for screening when blood concentrations are low or non-detectable: e.g., cases of weak exposure or long intake-to-death interval. Quantitative applications have been little investigated, but small molecules with low bile/blood concentration ratios seem to be good candidates for quantitative bile-based interpretation. Further experimental data on the mechanism and properties of biliary extraction of xenobiotics of forensic interest are required to improve quantitative interpretation. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Elliptical Fourier analysis: fundamentals, applications, and value for forensic anthropology. (United States)

    Caple, Jodi; Byrd, John; Stephan, Carl N


    The numerical description of skeletal morphology enables forensic anthropologists to conduct objective, reproducible, and structured tests, with the added capability of verifying morphoscopic-based analyses. One technique that permits comprehensive quantification of outline shape is elliptical Fourier analysis. This curve fitting technique allows a form's outline to be approximated via the sum of multiple sine and cosine waves, permitting the profile perimeter of an object to be described in a dense (continuous) manner at a user-defined level of precision. A large amount of shape information (the entire perimeter) can thereby be collected in contrast to other methods relying on sparsely located landmarks where information falling in between the landmarks fails to be acquired. First published in 1982, elliptical Fourier analysis employment in forensic anthropology from 2000 onwards reflects a slow uptake despite large computing power that makes its calculations easy to conduct. Without hurdles arising from calculation speed or quantity, the slow uptake may partly reside with the underlying mathematics that on first glance is extensive and potentially intimidating. In this paper, we aim to bridge this gap by pictorially illustrating how elliptical Fourier harmonics work in a simple step-by-step visual fashion to facilitate universal understanding and as geared towards increased use in forensic anthropology. We additionally provide a short review of the method's utility for osteology, a summary of past uses in forensic anthropology, and software options for calculations that largely save the user the trouble of coding customized routines.

  11. My-Forensic-Loci-queries (MyFLq) framework for analysis of forensic STR data generated by massive parallel sequencing. (United States)

    Van Neste, Christophe; Vandewoestyne, Mado; Van Criekinge, Wim; Deforce, Dieter; Van Nieuwerburgh, Filip


    Forensic scientists are currently investigating how to transition from capillary electrophoresis (CE) to massive parallel sequencing (MPS) for analysis of forensic DNA profiles. MPS offers several advantages over CE such as virtually unlimited multiplexy of loci, combining both short tandem repeat (STR) and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) loci, small amplicons without constraints of size separation, more discrimination power, deep mixture resolution and sample multiplexing. We present our bioinformatic framework My-Forensic-Loci-queries (MyFLq) for analysis of MPS forensic data. For allele calling, the framework uses a MySQL reference allele database with automatically determined regions of interest (ROIs) by a generic maximal flanking algorithm which makes it possible to use any STR or SNP forensic locus. Python scripts were designed to automatically make allele calls starting from raw MPS data. We also present a method to assess the usefulness and overall performance of a forensic locus with respect to MPS, as well as methods to estimate whether an unknown allele, which sequence is not present in the MySQL database, is in fact a new allele or a sequencing error. The MyFLq framework was applied to an Illumina MiSeq dataset of a forensic Illumina amplicon library, generated from multilocus STR polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on both single contributor samples and multiple person DNA mixtures. Although the multilocus PCR was not yet optimized for MPS in terms of amplicon length or locus selection, the results show excellent results for most loci. The results show a high signal-to-noise ratio, correct allele calls, and a low limit of detection for minor DNA contributors in mixed DNA samples. Technically, forensic MPS affords great promise for routine implementation in forensic genomics. The method is also applicable to adjacent disciplines such as molecular autopsy in legal medicine and in mitochondrial DNA research. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by

  12. Application of forensic image analysis in accident investigations. (United States)

    Verolme, Ellen; Mieremet, Arjan


    Forensic investigations are primarily meant to obtain objective answers that can be used for criminal prosecution. Accident analyses are usually performed to learn from incidents and to prevent similar events from occurring in the future. Although the primary goal may be different, the steps in which information is gathered, interpreted and weighed are similar in both types of investigations, implying that forensic techniques can be of use in accident investigations as well. The use in accident investigations usually means that more information can be obtained from the available information than when used in criminal investigations, since the latter require a higher evidence level. In this paper, we demonstrate the applicability of forensic techniques for accident investigations by presenting a number of cases from one specific field of expertise: image analysis. With the rapid spread of digital devices and new media, a wealth of image material and other digital information has become available for accident investigators. We show that much information can be distilled from footage by using forensic image analysis techniques. These applications show that image analysis provides information that is crucial for obtaining the sequence of events and the two- and three-dimensional geometry of an accident. Since accident investigation focuses primarily on learning from accidents and prevention of future accidents, and less on the blame that is crucial for criminal investigations, the field of application of these forensic tools may be broader than would be the case in purely legal sense. This is an important notion for future accident investigations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Forensics Investigator (United States)

    ... Other Careers Career Profiles Forensics Investigator Overview Description Forensic science technicians investigate crimes by collecting and analyzing physical evidence. Often, they specialize in areas such as DNA analysis or firearm examination, performing tests on weapons ...

  14. Forensic Analysis of Physical Memory and Page File


    Iqbal, Hameed


    With the passage of time, the field of computer forensics is maturing and the traditional methodology of disk forensics has now become a standard. In the same manner volatile data forensics is also getting serious attention from forensic investigators and researchers. Physical memory is an integral part of volatile data forensics. It can provide a forensic examiner with wealth of information like passwords, encrypted keys, typed commands, web addresses, shared and executable fi...

  15. Quality Assurance of Forensic-Toxicological Analysis: Selected Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej J. Bogusz


    Full Text Available In the present paper, recent trends in the formulation and application of quality assurance (QA parameters in forensic toxicology, as well as the selected validated applications published in the last five years, are reviewed. In the first part, QA aspects of the analysis of toxicologically relevant compounds in various materials are presented. In particular, QA aspects of analysis of various matrices, like seized street drugs, formalin fixed tissues, dried blood spots, oral fluid, hair, and nails are reviewed. The second part is devoted to identification as applied in general, untargeted and targeted screening; regulations and recommendations issued on international and national levels are presented in the third part, whereas existing QA programs applicable for forensic analysis are discussed in the fourth part.

  16. The relationship of forensic odontology with various dental specialties in the articles published in a National and an International Forensic Odontology Journal: A 5-year content analysis


    Thetakala, Ravi Kumar; Chandrashekar, B. R.; Sunitha, Siddanna; Sharma, Priyanka


    Aims: The aim of this study is to assess the quantum of articles published by various dental specialties in a National and an International Forensic Odontology Journal from January 1, 2010, to December 31, 2014. Settings and Design: The present study is a 5-year retrospective content analysis study. Subjects and Methods: Data were collected from two forensic odontology journals (Journal of Forensic Odonto Stomatology [JOFS] and Journal of Forensic Dental Sciences [JFDS]) which are subscribed ...

  17. Microfluidic Devices for Forensic DNA Analysis: A Review (United States)

    Bruijns, Brigitte; van Asten, Arian; Tiggelaar, Roald; Gardeniers, Han


    Microfluidic devices may offer various advantages for forensic DNA analysis, such as reduced risk of contamination, shorter analysis time and direct application at the crime scene. Microfluidic chip technology has already proven to be functional and effective within medical applications, such as for point-of-care use. In the forensic field, one may expect microfluidic technology to become particularly relevant for the analysis of biological traces containing human DNA. This would require a number of consecutive steps, including sample work up, DNA amplification and detection, as well as secure storage of the sample. This article provides an extensive overview of microfluidic devices for cell lysis, DNA extraction and purification, DNA amplification and detection and analysis techniques for DNA. Topics to be discussed are polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on-chip, digital PCR (dPCR), isothermal amplification on-chip, chip materials, integrated devices and commercially available techniques. A critical overview of the opportunities and challenges of the use of chips is discussed, and developments made in forensic DNA analysis over the past 10–20 years with microfluidic systems are described. Areas in which further research is needed are indicated in a future outlook. PMID:27527231

  18. Microfluidic Devices for Forensic DNA Analysis: A Review. (United States)

    Bruijns, Brigitte; van Asten, Arian; Tiggelaar, Roald; Gardeniers, Han


    Microfluidic devices may offer various advantages for forensic DNA analysis, such as reduced risk of contamination, shorter analysis time and direct application at the crime scene. Microfluidic chip technology has already proven to be functional and effective within medical applications, such as for point-of-care use. In the forensic field, one may expect microfluidic technology to become particularly relevant for the analysis of biological traces containing human DNA. This would require a number of consecutive steps, including sample work up, DNA amplification and detection, as well as secure storage of the sample. This article provides an extensive overview of microfluidic devices for cell lysis, DNA extraction and purification, DNA amplification and detection and analysis techniques for DNA. Topics to be discussed are polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on-chip, digital PCR (dPCR), isothermal amplification on-chip, chip materials, integrated devices and commercially available techniques. A critical overview of the opportunities and challenges of the use of chips is discussed, and developments made in forensic DNA analysis over the past 10-20 years with microfluidic systems are described. Areas in which further research is needed are indicated in a future outlook.

  19. Forensic Comparison of Soil Samples Using Nondestructive Elemental Analysis. (United States)

    Uitdehaag, Stefan; Wiarda, Wim; Donders, Timme; Kuiper, Irene


    Soil can play an important role in forensic cases in linking suspects or objects to a crime scene by comparing samples from the crime scene with samples derived from items. This study uses an adapted ED-XRF analysis (sieving instead of grinding to prevent destruction of microfossils) to produce elemental composition data of 20 elements. Different data processing techniques and statistical distances were evaluated using data from 50 samples and the log-LR cost (Cllr ). The best performing combination, Canberra distance, relative data, and square root values, is used to construct a discriminative model. Examples of the spatial resolution of the method in crime scenes are shown for three locations, and sampling strategy is discussed. Twelve test cases were analyzed, and results showed that the method is applicable. The study shows how the combination of an analysis technique, a database, and a discriminative model can be used to compare multiple soil samples quickly. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  20. Analysis and identification of bite marks in forensic casework. (United States)

    Kaur, Sandeep; Krishan, Kewal; Chatterjee, Preetika M; Kanchan, Tanuj


    Analysis of bite marks plays an important role in personal identification in forensic casework. Bite marks can be recorded in violent crimes such as sexual offences, homicides, child abuse cases, and during sports events. The arrangement, size and alignment of human teeth are individualistic to each person. Teeth, acting as tools leave recognizable marks depending on tooth arrangement, malocclusion, habits, occupation, tooth fracture, and missing or extra teeth. Bite mark identification is based on the individuality of a dentition, which is used to match a bite mark to a suspect. Bite marks are often considered as valuable alternative to fingerprinting and DNA identification in forensic examinations. The present review describes the classification, characteristics, mechanism of production, and appearance of bite mark injuries, collection of evidence, comparison techniques, and technical aids in the analysis of the bite marks.

  1. Social Media in Crisis Management and Forensic Disaster Analysis (United States)

    Dittrich, André; Lucas, Christian


    Today, modern sensors or sensor networks provide good quality measurements for the observation of large-scale emergencies as a result of natural disasters. Mostly however, only at certain points in their respective locations and for a very limited number of measurement parameters (e.g. seismograph) and not over the entire course of a disaster event. The proliferation of different social media application (e.g. Twitter, Facebook, Google+, etc.), yields the possibility to use the resulting data as a free and fast supplement or complement to traditional monitoring techniques. In particular, these new channels can serve for rapid detection, for information gathering for emergency protection and for information dissemination. Thus, each user of these networks represents a so-called virtual sensor ('social sensor'), whose eyewitness account can be important for understanding the situation on the ground. The advantages of these social sensors are the high mobility, the versatility of the parameters that can be captured (text, images, videos, etc.) as well as the rapid spread of information. Due to the subjective characteristics however, the data often show different quality and quantity. Against this background, it is essential for an application in crisis management to reasonably (pre-)process the data from social media. Hence, fully-automated processes are used which adequately filter and structure the enormous amount of information and associate it with an event, respectively, a geographic location. This is done through statistical monitoring of the volume of messages (Twitter) in different geographic regions of the world. In combination with a frequency analysis with respect to disaster-relevant terms (in 43 languages), thematic as well as spatio-temporal clustering, an initial assessment regarding the severity and extent of the detected event, its classification and (spatio-temporal) localization can be achieved. This detection in real time (2-5 minutes) thus allows

  2. PIZZARO: Forensic analysis and restoration of image and video data

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kamenický, Jan; Bartoš, Michal; Flusser, Jan; Mahdian, Babak; Kotera, Jan; Novozámský, Adam; Saic, Stanislav; Šroubek, Filip; Šorel, Michal; Zita, Aleš; Zitová, Barbara; Šíma, Z.; Švarc, P.; Hořínek, J.


    Roč. 264, č. 1 (2016), s. 153-166 ISSN 0379-0738 R&D Projects: GA MV VG20102013064; GA ČR GA13-29225S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Image forensic analysis * Image restoration * Image tampering detection * Image source identification Subject RIV: JD - Computer Applications, Robotics Impact factor: 1.989, year: 2016

  3. Forensic analysis of explosions: Inverse calculation of the charge mass. (United States)

    van der Voort, M M; van Wees, R M M; Brouwer, S D; van der Jagt-Deutekom, M J; Verreault, J


    Forensic analysis of explosions consists of determining the point of origin, the explosive substance involved, and the charge mass. Within the EU FP7 project Hyperion, TNO developed the Inverse Explosion Analysis (TNO-IEA) tool to estimate the charge mass and point of origin based on observed damage around an explosion. In this paper, inverse models are presented based on two frequently occurring and reliable sources of information: window breakage and building damage. The models have been verified by applying them to the Enschede firework disaster and the Khobar tower attack. Furthermore, a statistical method has been developed to combine the various types of data, in order to determine an overall charge mass distribution. In relatively open environments, like for the Enschede firework disaster, the models generate realistic charge masses that are consistent with values found in forensic literature. The spread predicted by the IEA tool is however larger than presented in the literature for these specific cases. This is also realistic due to the large inherent uncertainties in a forensic analysis. The IEA-models give a reasonable first order estimate of the charge mass in a densely built urban environment, such as for the Khobar tower attack. Due to blast shielding effects which are not taken into account in the IEA tool, this is usually an under prediction. To obtain more accurate predictions, the application of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations is advised. The TNO IEA tool gives unique possibilities to inversely calculate the TNT equivalent charge mass based on a large variety of explosion effects and observations. The IEA tool enables forensic analysts, also those who are not experts on explosion effects, to perform an analysis with a largely reduced effort. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. [Forensic Analysis of 20 Dead Cases Related to Heroin Abuse]. (United States)

    Huang, W Q; Li, L H; Li, Z; Hong, S J


    To perform retrospective analysis on 20 dead cases related to heroin abuse, and to provide references for the forensic assessment of correlative cases. Among 20 dead cases related to heroin abuse, general situation, using method of drug, cause of death and result of forensic examination were analyzed by statistical analysis for summarizing the cause of death and pathologic changes. The dead were mostly young adults, with more male than female. The results of histopathological examinations showed non-specific pathological changes. There were four leading causes of death, including acute poisoning of heroin abuse or leakage (13 cases, 65%), concurrent diseases caused by heroin abuse (3 cases, 15%), inspiratory asphyxia caused by taking heroin (2 cases, 10%), and heroin withdrawal syndrome (2 cases, 10%). The forensic identification on dead related to heroin abuse must base on the comprehensive autopsy, and combine with the qualitative and quantitative analysis of heroin and its metabolites in death and the case information, as well as the scene investigation.

  5. Analysis of transferred fragrance and its forensic implications. (United States)

    Gherghel, Simona; Morgan, Ruth M; Blackman, Christopher S; Karu, Kersti; Parkin, Ivan P


    Perfumes are widely used by many people in developed countries, and a large number of both men and women wear perfumes on a daily basis. Analysis of perfume trace materials from clothing is not commonly employed within forensic casework, yet as a form of trace evidence it has the potential to provide valuable intelligence. In order to appreciate the value of trace evidence there is a fundamental need for an evidence base that can both offer insight into how a trace material behaves under different scenarios and activities, and from which inferences can be made. With this purpose a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method for trace analysis of perfumes was developed. This paper presents two different series of experiments that investigate the dynamics of perfume transfer as a factor of perfume ageing time, and as a factor of perfume contact time. Empirical data showed that both perfume ageing time, and perfume contact time play a key role in the number of perfume components transferred. These studies have implication for forensic protocols, specifically for perfume trace evidence collection, analysis, interpretation, and presentation, and there is potentially great value in analysing perfumes from clothing exhibits in forensic enquiries that involve close contact between individuals, such as sexual assaults. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Recent trend and perspectives in forensic anthropology: a bibliometric analysis. (United States)

    Gualdi-Russo, Emanuela; Fonti, Giulia


    This paper evaluates research in Forensic Anthropology (FA) in order to report on the state of this field of science. In particular, we carried out a review of all PubMed-listed scientific studies in the past decades using "forensic anthropology" as the keyword. In our "meta-analysis", we observed variation in the number of publications per 2-year interval throughout the study period. In total, 1589 studies were found in the database and 1292 of them were published in the period 2000-2009. There was a significant positive correlation between the number of published articles and time (subdivided into 2-year intervals). The rate of increase was lower in the last decade. Based on the observed trend, we expect that the phenomenon will continue in the near future, reaching a number close to 400 FA publications in PubMed in the biennium 2012-13. We also carried out a specific content analysis of all FA papers published in the journal Forensic Science International in the last decade. During this period, the majority of FA papers concerned skeletal biology, although there was a positive shift toward virtual anthropological studies.

  7. Statistical methods for the forensic analysis of striated tool marks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeksema, Amy Beth [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)


    In forensics, fingerprints can be used to uniquely identify suspects in a crime. Similarly, a tool mark left at a crime scene can be used to identify the tool that was used. However, the current practice of identifying matching tool marks involves visual inspection of marks by forensic experts which can be a very subjective process. As a result, declared matches are often successfully challenged in court, so law enforcement agencies are particularly interested in encouraging research in more objective approaches. Our analysis is based on comparisons of profilometry data, essentially depth contours of a tool mark surface taken along a linear path. In current practice, for stronger support of a match or non-match, multiple marks are made in the lab under the same conditions by the suspect tool. We propose the use of a likelihood ratio test to analyze the difference between a sample of comparisons of lab tool marks to a field tool mark, against a sample of comparisons of two lab tool marks. Chumbley et al. (2010) point out that the angle of incidence between the tool and the marked surface can have a substantial impact on the tool mark and on the effectiveness of both manual and algorithmic matching procedures. To better address this problem, we describe how the analysis can be enhanced to model the effect of tool angle and allow for angle estimation for a tool mark left at a crime scene. With sufficient development, such methods may lead to more defensible forensic analyses.

  8. RF device forensics using passband filter analysis (United States)

    King-Smith, Deen; Mikkilineni, Aravind K.; Gelfand, Saul; Delp, Edward J., III


    Given the wide use of Radio Frequency (RF) devices for applications ranging from data networks to wireless sensors, it is of interest to be able to characterize individual devices to verify compliance with FCC Part 15 rules. In an effort to characterize these types of devices we have developed a system that utilizes specially designed probe signals to elicit a response from the device from which unique characteristics can be extracted. The features that uniquely characterize a device are referred to as device signatures or device fingerprints. We apply this approach to RF devices which employ different bandpass filters, and construct training based classifiers which are highly accurate. We also introduce a model-based framework for optimal detection that can be employed to obtain performance limits, and to study model mismatch and probe optimization.

  9. Characterization of a Continuous Wave Laser for Resonance Ionization Mass Spectroscopy Analysis in Nuclear Forensics (United States)


    OF A CONTINUOUS WAVE LASER FOR RESONANCE IONIZATION MASS SPECTROSCOPY ANALYSIS IN NUCLEAR FORENSICS by Sunny G. Lau June 2015 Thesis...IONIZATION MASS SPECTROSCOPY ANALYSIS IN NUCLEAR FORENSICS 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Sunny G. Lau 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND...200 words) The application of resonance ionization mass spectroscopy (RIMS) to nuclear forensics involves the use of lasers to selectively ionize

  10. State of practice and emerging application of analytical techniques of nuclear forensic analysis: highlights from the 4th Collaborative Materials Exercise of the Nuclear Forensics International Technical Working Group (ITWG)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwantes, Jon M.; Marsden, Oliva; Pellegrini, Kristi L.


    Founded in 1996 upon the initiative of the “Group of 8” governments (G8), the Nuclear Forensics International Technical Working Group (ITWG) is an ad hoc organization of official nuclear forensics practitioners (scientists, law enforcement, and regulators) that can be called upon to provide technical assistance to the global community in the event of a seizure of nuclear or radiological materials. The ITWG is supported by and is affiliated with roughly 40 countries and international partner organizations including the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), EURATOM, INTERPOL, EUROPOL, and the United Nations Interregional Crime and Justice Research Institute (UNICRI). Besides providing a network of nuclear forensics laboratories that are able to assist law enforcement during a nuclear smuggling event, the ITWG is also committed to the advancement of the science of nuclear forensic analysis, largely through participation in periodic table top and Collaborative Materials Exercises (CMXs). Exercise scenarios use “real world” samples with realistic forensics investigation time constraints and reporting requirements. These exercises are designed to promote best practices in the field and test, evaluate, and improve new technical capabilities, methods and techniques in order to advance the science of nuclear forensics. The ITWG recently completed its fourth CMX in the 20 year history of the organization. This was also the largest materials exercise to date, with participating laboratories from 16 countries or organizations. Three samples of low enriched uranium were shipped to these laboratories as part of an illicit trafficking scenario, for which each laboratory was asked to conduct nuclear forensic analyses in support of a fictitious criminal investigation. An objective review of the State Of Practice and Art of international nuclear forensic analysis based upon the outcome of this most recent exercise is provided.

  11. Constructing and Classifying Email Networks from Raw Forensic Images (United States)


    below in section 2.1.1) in which users are able to correspond with other users of their choosing. The brain can be thought of as a network in which...the number of nodes and edges can be in the billions such as a network of the neurons in the brain and their connections. A graph’s density is the...main difference was the computation time. For example, on a 1275-node jazz musician network, the fast algorithm ran to completion in about one

  12. Are these liquids explosive? Forensic analysis of confiscated indoor fireworks. (United States)

    Castro, Kepa; Fdez-Ortiz de Vallejuelo, Silvia; Astondoa, Izaskun; Goñi, Félix M; Madariaga, Juan Manuel


    Complete forensic analysis of several confiscated liquids and gels putatively used as firework components was achieved by combining Raman, FTIR spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy combined with energy-dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS). The chemical composition of the liquids was consistent with their use as indoor fireworks. Alcohols (methanol and isopropyl alcohol) were used to solubilise compounds producing coloured flames. Boric acid, recently introduced in the list of Substances of Very High Concern (SVHC) for the REACH Regulation of the European Union, was found in one of the samples.

  13. Forensic analysis of autosomal STR markers using Pyrosequencing. (United States)

    Divne, Anna-Maria; Edlund, Hanna; Allen, Marie


    Short tandem repeats (STRs) are highly variable, and therefore routinely used in forensic investigations for a DNA-based individual identification. The routine assay is commonly performed by size separation using capillary electrophoresis, but alternative technologies can also be used. In this study, a Pyrosequencing assay was developed for analysis of STR markers useful in forensic DNA analysis. The assay was evaluated for 10 different STR loci (CSF1PO, TH01, TPOX, D3S1358, D5S818, D7S820, D8S1179, D13S317, D16S539 and Penta E) and a total of 114 Swedish individuals were genotyped. This genotyping strategy reveal the actual sequence and variant alleles were seen at several loci, providing additional information compared to fragment size analysis. At the D13S317 locus a T/A SNP located in the last repeat unit was observed in 92% of the genotypes. Moreover, an upstream flanking SNP at locus D7S820, a SNP within the repeats at D3S1358 and D8S1179 and a deletion in the flanking region at locus D5S818 were observed. The Pyrosequencing method was first developed for SNP typing and sequencing of shorter DNA fragments but the method also provides an alternative method for STR analysis of less complex repeats. This assay is suitable for investigation of new markers, a rapid compilation of population data and for confirmation of variant and new alleles.

  14. Forensic Analysis Demonstration via Hawaii Five-O (United States)

    Shmaefsky, Brian R.


    "Forensics," in its most universal sense, is defined as the use of science or technology in the investigation and establishment of facts or evidence for determining identity or relatedness. Most forensic reasoning is used for arguing legal matters. However, forensic studies are also used in agronomy, biology, chemistry, geology, and…

  15. Objective analysis of toolmarks in forensics (United States)

    Grieve, Taylor N.

    Since the 1993 court case of Daubert v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals, Inc. the subjective nature of toolmark comparison has been questioned by attorneys and law enforcement agencies alike. This has led to an increased drive to establish objective comparison techniques with known error rates, much like those that DNA analysis is able to provide. This push has created research in which the 3-D surface profile of two different marks are characterized and the marks' cross-sections are run through a comparative statistical algorithm to acquire a value that is intended to indicate the likelihood of a match between the marks. The aforementioned algorithm has been developed and extensively tested through comparison of evenly striated marks made by screwdrivers. However, this algorithm has yet to be applied to quasi-striated marks such as those made by the shear edge of slip-joint pliers. The results of this algorithm's application to the surface of copper wire will be presented. Objective mark comparison also extends to comparison of toolmarks made by firearms. In an effort to create objective comparisons, microstamping of firing pins and breech faces has been introduced. This process involves placing unique alphanumeric identifiers surrounded by a radial code on the surface of firing pins, which transfer to the cartridge's primer upon firing. Three different guns equipped with microstamped firing pins were used to fire 3000 cartridges. These cartridges are evaluated based on the clarity of their alphanumeric transfers and the clarity of the radial code surrounding the alphanumerics.

  16. Objective analysis of toolmarks in forensics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grieve, Taylor N. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)


    Since the 1993 court case of Daubert v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals, Inc. the subjective nature of toolmark comparison has been questioned by attorneys and law enforcement agencies alike. This has led to an increased drive to establish objective comparison techniques with known error rates, much like those that DNA analysis is able to provide. This push has created research in which the 3-D surface profile of two different marks are characterized and the marks’ cross-sections are run through a comparative statistical algorithm to acquire a value that is intended to indicate the likelihood of a match between the marks. The aforementioned algorithm has been developed and extensively tested through comparison of evenly striated marks made by screwdrivers. However, this algorithm has yet to be applied to quasi-striated marks such as those made by the shear edge of slip-joint pliers. The results of this algorithm’s application to the surface of copper wire will be presented. Objective mark comparison also extends to comparison of toolmarks made by firearms. In an effort to create objective comparisons, microstamping of firing pins and breech faces has been introduced. This process involves placing unique alphanumeric identifiers surrounded by a radial code on the surface of firing pins, which transfer to the cartridge’s primer upon firing. Three different guns equipped with microstamped firing pins were used to fire 3000 cartridges. These cartridges are evaluated based on the clarity of their alphanumeric transfers and the clarity of the radial code surrounding the alphanumerics.

  17. Computer-aided fiber analysis for crime scene forensics (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Mario; Arndt, Christian; Makrushin, Andrey; Dittmann, Jana


    The forensic analysis of fibers is currently completely manual and therefore time consuming. The automation of analysis steps can significantly support forensic experts and reduce the time, required for the investigation. Moreover, a subjective expert belief is extended by objective machine estimation. This work proposes the pattern recognition pipeline containing the digital acquisition of a fiber media, the pre-processing for fiber segmentation, and the extraction of the distinctive characteristics of fibers. Currently, basic geometrical features like width, height, area of optically dominant fibers are investigated. In order to support the automatic classification of fibers, supervised machine learning algorithms are evaluated. The experimental setup includes a car seat and two pieces clothing of a different fabric. As preliminary work, acrylic as synthetic and sheep wool as natural fiber are chosen to be classified. While sitting on the seat, a test person leaves textile fibers. The test aims at automatic distinguishing of clothes through the fiber traces gained from the seat with the help of adhesive tape. The digitalization of fiber samples is provided by a contactless chromatic white light sensor. First test results showed, that two optically very different fibers can be properly assigned to their corresponding fiber type. The best classifier achieves an accuracy of 75 percent correctly classified samples for our suggested features.

  18. Use of Stable Isotopes in Forensic Analysis of Microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreuzer-Martin, Helen W.; Hegg, Eric L.


    The use of isotopic signatures for forensic analysis of biological materials is well-established, and the same general principles that apply to interpretation of stable isotope content of C, N, O, and H apply to the analysis of microorganisms. Heterotrophic microorganisms derive their isotopic content from their growth substrates, which are largely plant and animal products, and the water in their culture medium. Thus the isotope signatures of microbes are tied to their growth environment. The C, N, O, and H isotope ratios of spores have been demonstrated to constitute highly discriminating signatures for sample matching. They can rule out specific samples of media and/or water as possible production media, and can predict isotope ratio ranges of the culture media and water used to produce a given sample. These applications have been developed and tested through analyses of approximately 250 samples of Bacillus subtilis spores and over 500 samples of culture media, providing a strong statistical basis for data interpretation. A Bayesian statistical framework for integrating stable isotope data with other types of signatures derived from microorganisms has been able to characterize the culture medium used to produce spores of various Bacillus species, leveraging isotopic differences in different medium types and demonstrating the power of data integration for forensic investigations.

  19. Legal, technical, and interpretational considerations in the forensic analysis of viruses. (United States)

    Wilson, Mark R; Weaver, Scott C; Winegar, Richard A


    The forensic evaluation of viruses presents new challenges to the forensic science community. Although many criminal cases have been adjudicated involving the deliberate transmission of viruses, especially HIV, this review provides a general approach to viral forensics, especially in light of significant biodefense challenges. Newly emerging techniques of nucleic acid sequencing are discussed in a forensic context. Human mitochondrial DNA analysis, wherein mixed profiles are routinely assessed in a forensic context, provides the groundwork for an interpretational approach to the issue of mixed DNA sequences. The importance of phylogenetic classification is discussed as both providing an integrated graphical depiction of the structure of viral nucleic acid variation as well as offering a tool that can be used to assess the relatedness of complex populations of nucleic acids. © 2013 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  20. Impact of dynamic rate coding aspects of mobile phone networks on forensic voice comparison. (United States)

    Alzqhoul, Esam A S; Nair, Balamurali B T; Guillemin, Bernard J


    Previous studies have shown that landline and mobile phone networks are different in their ways of handling the speech signal, and therefore in their impact on it. But the same is also true of the different networks within the mobile phone arena. There are two major mobile phone technologies currently in use today, namely the global system for mobile communications (GSM) and code division multiple access (CDMA) and these are fundamentally different in their design. For example, the quality of the coded speech in the GSM network is a function of channel quality, whereas in the CDMA network it is determined by channel capacity (i.e., the number of users sharing a cell site). This paper examines the impact on the speech signal of a key feature of these networks, namely dynamic rate coding, and its subsequent impact on the task of likelihood-ratio-based forensic voice comparison (FVC). Surprisingly, both FVC accuracy and precision are found to be better for both GSM- and CDMA-coded speech than for uncoded. Intuitively one expects FVC accuracy to increase with increasing coded speech quality. This trend is shown to occur for the CDMA network, but, surprisingly, not for the GSM network. Further, in respect to comparisons between these two networks, FVC accuracy for CDMA-coded speech is shown to be slightly better than for GSM-coded speech, particularly when the coded-speech quality is high, but in terms of FVC precision the two networks are shown to be very similar. Copyright © 2015 The Chartered Society of Forensic Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Optimization of ultrahigh-speed multiplex PCR for forensic analysis. (United States)

    Gibson-Daw, Georgiana; Crenshaw, Karin; McCord, Bruce


    In this paper, we demonstrate the design and optimization of an ultrafast PCR amplification technique, used with a seven-locus multiplex that is compatible with conventional capillary electrophoresis systems as well as newer microfluidic chip devices. The procedure involves the use of a high-speed polymerase and a rapid cycling protocol to permit multiplex PCR amplification of forensic short tandem repeat loci in 6.5 min. We describe the selection and optimization of master mix reagents such as enzyme, buffer, MgCl 2 , and dNTPs, as well as primer ratios, total volume, and cycle conditions, in order to get the best profile in the shortest time possible. Sensitivity and reproducibility studies are also described. The amplification process utilizes a small high-speed thermocycler and compact laptop, making it portable and potentially useful for rapid, inexpensive on-site genotyping. The seven loci of the multiplex were taken from conventional STR genotyping kits and selected for their size and lack of overlap. Analysis was performed using conventional capillary electrophoresis and microfluidics with fluorescent detection. Overall, this technique provides a more rapid method for rapid sample screening of suspects and victims. Graphical abstract Rapid amplification of forensic DNA using high speed thermal cycling followed by capillary or microfluidic electrophoresis.

  2. Modeling of Plutonium Ionization Probabilities for Use in Nuclear Forensic Analysis by Resonance Ionization Mass Spectrometry (United States)


    DISTRIBUTION CODE A 13. ABSTRACT (maximum 200 words) Recent advancements in nuclear forensics have enabled the use of lasers via resonance ...release. Distribution is unlimited. MODELING OF PLUTONIUM IONIZATION PROBABILITIES FOR USE IN NUCLEAR FORENSIC ANALYSIS BY RESONANCE IONIZATION...bandwidth, irradiance, relative timing and spatial distribution all of which allow for optimization of the RIMS performance [6]. The LION system uses

  3. Digital Stratigraphy: Contextual Analysis of File System Traces in Forensic Science. (United States)

    Casey, Eoghan


    This work introduces novel methods for conducting forensic analysis of file allocation traces, collectively called digital stratigraphy. These in-depth forensic analysis methods can provide insight into the origin, composition, distribution, and time frame of strata within storage media. Using case examples and empirical studies, this paper illuminates the successes, challenges, and limitations of digital stratigraphy. This study also shows how understanding file allocation methods can provide insight into concealment activities and how real-world computer usage can complicate digital stratigraphy. Furthermore, this work explains how forensic analysts have misinterpreted traces of normal file system behavior as indications of concealment activities. This work raises awareness of the value of taking the overall context into account when analyzing file system traces. This work calls for further research in this area and for forensic tools to provide necessary information for such contextual analysis, such as highlighting mass deletion, mass copying, and potential backdating. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  4. Forensic analysis of spanish 2015 and 2016 national elections

    CERN Document Server

    Fernández-Gracia, Juan


    In this paper we present a forensic analysis of the vote counts of spanish national elections that took place in December 2015 and their sequel in June 2016. Vote counts are extracted at the level of municipalities, yielding an unusually high resolution dataset with over 8000 samples. We address the frequencies of the first and second significant digits in vote counts and explore the conformance of these distributions at three different levels of aggregation to Benford's law for each of the main political parties. The results and interpretations are mixed and vary across different levels of aggregation, finding a general good quantitative agreement at the national scale for both municipalities and precincts but finding systematic nonconformance at the level of individual precincts. We further explore the co-occurring statistics of voteshare and turnout, finding a mild tendency in the clusters of the conservative party to smear out towards the area of high turnout and voteshare, what has been previously interp...

  5. Introduction to data analysis with R for forensic scientists

    CERN Document Server

    Curran, James Michael


    Statistical methods provide a logical, coherent framework in which data from experimental science can be analyzed. However, many researchers lack the statistical skills or resources that would allow them to explore their data to its full potential. Introduction to Data Analysis with R for Forensic Sciences minimizes theory and mathematics and focuses on the application and practice of statistics to provide researchers with the dexterity necessary to systematically analyze data discovered from the fruits of their research. Using traditional techniques and employing examples and tutorials with real data collected from experiments, this book presents the following critical information necessary for researchers: A refresher on basic statistics and an introduction to R Considerations and techniques for the visual display of data through graphics An overview of statistical hypothesis tests and the reasoning behind them A comprehensive guide to the use of the linear model, the foundation of most statistics encounter...

  6. Digital Forensic Analysis Of Malware Infected Machine- Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amulya Podile


    Full Text Available Abstract Internet banking has created a convenient way for us to handle our business without leaving our home. Man-in-the-Browser is a special case of Man-in-the-middle attack targeted against customers of Internet banking. One of the capabilities of Man-in-the-Browser Trojan is modification of html referred to as html injection that allows the attacker to alter the html of a page before it is sent to the browser for interpretation. In this paper the authors discussed about forensic analysis of RAM Volatile data system logs and registry collected from bank customer computer infected with Trojan and confirmed the source of attack time-stamps and the behavior of the malware by using open source and commercial tools.

  7. New cyt b gene universal primer set for forensic analysis. (United States)

    Lopez-Oceja, A; Gamarra, D; Borragan, S; Jiménez-Moreno, S; de Pancorbo, M M


    Analysis of mitochondrial DNA, and in particular the cytochrome b gene (cyt b), has become an essential tool for species identification in routine forensic practice. In cases of degraded samples, where the DNA is fractionated, universal primers that are highly efficient for the amplification of the target region are necessary. Therefore, in the present study a new universal cyt b primer set with high species identification capabilities, even in samples with highly degraded DNA, has been developed. In order to achieve this objective, the primers were designed following the alignment of complete sequences of the cyt b from 751 species from the Class of Mammalia listed in GenBank. A highly variable region of 148bp flanked by highly conserved sequences was chosen for placing the primers. The effectiveness of the new pair of primers was examined in 63 animal species belonging to 38 Families from 14 Orders and 5 Classes (Mammalia, Aves, Reptilia, Actinopterygii, and Malacostraca). Species determination was possible in all cases, which shows that the fragment analyzed provided a high capability for species identification. Furthermore, to ensure the efficiency of the 148bp fragment, the intraspecific variability was analyzed by calculating the concordance between individuals with the BLAST tool from the NCBI (National Center for Biotechnological Information). The intraspecific concordance levels were superior to 97% in all species. Likewise, the phylogenetic information from the selected fragment was confirmed by obtaining the phylogenetic tree from the sequences of the species analyzed. Evidence of the high power of phylogenetic discrimination of the analyzed fragment of the cyt b was obtained, as 93.75% of the species were grouped within their corresponding Orders. Finally, the analysis of 40 degraded samples with small-size DNA fragments showed that the new pair of primers permits identifying the species, even when the DNA is highly degraded as it is very common in

  8. Fatal sarin poisoning in Syria 2013: forensic verification within an international laboratory network


    John, Harald; van der Schans, Marcel J.; Koller, Marianne; Spruit, Helma E. T.; Worek, Franz; Thiermann, Horst; Noort, Daan


    During the United Nations fact-finding mission to investigate the alleged use of chemical warfare agents in the Syrian Arab Republic in 2013, numerous tissues from a deceased female victim, who had displayed symptoms of cholinergic crisis, were collected. The Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) authorized two specialized laboratories in the Netherlands and Germany for forensic analysis of these samples. Diverse modern mass spectrometry (MS)-based procedures in combinat...

  9. Forensic Analysis of Mitochondrial and Autosomal Markers Using Pyrosequencing®. (United States)

    Bus, Magdalena M; Edlund, Hanna; Allen, Marie


    Forensic casework analyses often face challenges, such as limited genetic material with or without fragmentation and damage. To compensate for low amounts and degradation, shorter amplicons are often applied in the analysis. Also, a change of markers might be necessary using mitochondrial instead of autosomal markers. In addition, forensic research often involves analysis of large number of samples for marker evaluation and population-database compilation. Therefore, a flexible, robust but also rapid method for the detection of variation is highly useful. Pyrosequencing(®) is a rapid, reliable, easy-to-use method for sequence analysis. The method is well suited for rapid forensic analysis of a few targets or analysis of a single target in many samples. It allows sequencing of very short amplicons, which facilitates analysis of degraded DNA. Here we present the use of Pyrosequencing, a robust method for sensitive forensic analysis of mitochondrial DNA, autosomal STRs, and Y-chromosome STRs and SNPs.

  10. Genetic Approaches to Appearance and Ancestry : Improving Forensic DNA Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.C. Chaitanya (Lakshmi)


    textabstractTraditionally, routine forensic casework is based on comparative grounds. DNA profiles obtained from crime-scenes are compared with those of potential suspects or DNA profiles deposited in forensic DNA databases. The principal limitation of such comparative approach is that trace

  11. Forensic analysis of mitochondrial DNA hypervariable region HVII ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Feb 4, 2015 ... Analyzer. New polymorphic positions 57, 63, 101, 469 and 482 are described that may be very important for forensic identification purpose in the future. This study shows the importance of the adoption of mitochondria in forensic medicine and criminal diagnosis and a private Iraqi society was discovered as.

  12. Genetic variation and DNA markers in forensic analysis | Hameed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The light has been focused and directed in this study to establish the basic forensic genetic information, knowledge, data and statistics which might be so ultimately helpful practically in forensic science and criminology and to let evaluate and present the DNA weight evidences in medico-legal institute and courts of law.

  13. Digital Forensics (United States)

    Harron, Jason; Langdon, John; Gonzalez, Jennifer; Cater, Scott


    The term forensic science may evoke thoughts of blood-spatter analysis, DNA testing, and identifying molds, spores, and larvae. A growing part of this field, however, is that of digital forensics, involving techniques with clear connections to math and physics. This article describes a five-part project involving smartphones and the investigation…

  14. The use of forensic DNA analysis in humanitarian forensic action: The development of a set of international standards. (United States)

    Goodwin, William H


    DNA analysis was first applied to the identification of victims of armed conflicts and other situations of violence (ACOSV) in the mid-1990s, starting in South America and the Balkans. Argentina was the first country to establish a genetic database specifically developed to identify disappeared children. Following on from these programs the early 2000s marked major programs, using a largely DNA-led approach, identifying missing persons in the Balkans and following the attack on the World Trade Center in New York. These two identification programs significantly expanded the magnitude of events to which DNA analysis was used to help provide the identity of missing persons. Guidelines developed by Interpol (2014) [1] related to best practice for identification of human remains following DVI type scenarios have been widely disseminated around the forensic community; in numerous cases these guidelines have been adopted or incorporated into national guidelines/standards/practice. However, given the complexity of many humanitarian contexts in which forensic science is employed there is a lack of internationally accepted guidelines, related to these contexts, for authorities to reference. In response the Argentine government's Human Rights Division in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Worship (MREC) proposed that the United Nations (UN) should promote best practice in the use of forensic genetics in humanitarian forensic action: this was adopted by the UN in Resolutions A/HRC/RES/10/26 and A/HRC/RES/15/5. Following on from the adoption of the resolutions MREC has coordinated, with the support of the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), the drafting of a set of guidelines (MREC, ICRC, 2014) [2], with input from national and international agencies. To date the guidelines have been presented to South America's MERCOSUR and the UN and have been disseminated to interested parties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. [Review of the drug analysis system accompanied by forensic autopsy in Finland]. (United States)

    Kudo, Keiko; Ishida, Tomomi; Inoue, Hiromasa; Kageura, Mitsuyoshi


    In Japan, drug analyses for forensic autopsies have been traditionally carried out at each laboratory of the Department of Forensic Medicine. However, it is difficult to maintain a high quality of drug analysis in each department due to an insufficient number of staff and lack of equipment. Therefore, the establishment of more advanced toxicology centers which can handle all drugs associated with forensic autopsies is essential. In addition, a systematic system for requesting drug analyses from each department and dealing with the results from the center is needed. The number of forensic autopsies carried out in Finland is as high as that in Japan although the population is 1/24th that of Japan, and toxicological analyses for the entire country are centralized in one place, the Laboratory of Toxicology, Department of Forensic Medicine, University of Helsinki. Since the autopsies and drug analyses are carried out at a University as in Japan, the drug analysis system in Finland can be a good model when considering the future system in Japan. Therefore, a review of the drug analysis system accompanied by forensic autopsy in Finland was carried out with the collaboration of the Departments of Forensic Medicine, University of Helsinki and University of Turku. Based on the above studies and the present situation in Japan, we discuss the future drug analysis system needed in Japan.

  16. Digital Forensics


    Garfinkel, Simson L.


    A reprint from American Scientist the magazine of Sigma Xi, The Scientific Research Society Since the 1980s, computers have had increasing roles in all aspects of human life—including an involvement in criminal acts. This development has led to the rise of digital forensics, the uncovering and examination of evidence located on all things electronic with digital storage, including computers, cell phones, and networks. Digital forensics researchers and practitione...

  17. A multiplex panel of short-amplicon insertion-deletion DNA polymorphisms for forensic analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Santos, V R D; Pena, H B; Pena, S D J


    .... To optimize the panel for application with degraded DNA samples, which are commonly encountered in fo-rensic analysis, we have significantly reduced the amplicon size of the INDELs and developed a new multiplex panel...

  18. PIZZARO: Forensic analysis and restoration of image and video data. (United States)

    Kamenicky, Jan; Bartos, Michal; Flusser, Jan; Mahdian, Babak; Kotera, Jan; Novozamsky, Adam; Saic, Stanislav; Sroubek, Filip; Sorel, Michal; Zita, Ales; Zitova, Barbara; Sima, Zdenek; Svarc, Petr; Horinek, Jan


    This paper introduces a set of methods for image and video forensic analysis. They were designed to help to assess image and video credibility and origin and to restore and increase image quality by diminishing unwanted blur, noise, and other possible artifacts. The motivation came from the best practices used in the criminal investigation utilizing images and/or videos. The determination of the image source, the verification of the image content, and image restoration were identified as the most important issues of which automation can facilitate criminalists work. Novel theoretical results complemented with existing approaches (LCD re-capture detection and denoising) were implemented in the PIZZARO software tool, which consists of the image processing functionality as well as of reporting and archiving functions to ensure the repeatability of image analysis procedures and thus fulfills formal aspects of the image/video analysis work. Comparison of new proposed methods with the state of the art approaches is shown. Real use cases are presented, which illustrate the functionality of the developed methods and demonstrate their applicability in different situations. The use cases as well as the method design were solved in tight cooperation of scientists from the Institute of Criminalistics, National Drug Headquarters of the Criminal Police and Investigation Service of the Police of the Czech Republic, and image processing experts from the Czech Academy of Sciences. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. NanoSIMS analysis of Bacillus spores for forensics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, P K; Davisson, M L; Velsko, S P


    The threat associated with the potential use of radiological, nuclear, chemical and biological materials in terrorist acts has resulted in new fields of forensic science requiring the application of state-of-the-science analytical techniques. Since the anthrax letter attacks in the United States in the fall of 2001, there has been increased interest in physical and chemical characterization of bacterial spores. While molecular methods are powerful tools for identifying genetic differences, other methods may be able to differentiate genetically identical samples based on physical and chemical properties, as well as provide complimentary information, such as methods of production and approximate date of production. Microanalysis has the potential to contribute significantly to microbial forensics. Bacillus spores are highly structured, consisting of a core, cortex, coat, and in some species, an exosporium. This structure provides a template for constraining elemental abundance differences at the nanometer scale. The primary controls on the distribution of major elements in spores are likely structural and physiological. For example, P and Ca are known to be abundant in the spore core because that is where P-rich nucleic acids and Cadipicolinic acid are located, respectively. Trace elements are known to bind to the spore coat but the controls on these elements are less well understood. Elemental distributions and abundances may be directly related to spore production, purification and stabilization methodologies, which are of particular interest for forensic investigation. To this end, we are developing a high-resolution secondary ion mass spectrometry method using a Cameca NanoSIMS 50 to study the distribution and abundance of trace elements in bacterial spores. In this presentation we will review and compare methods for preparing and analyzing samples, as well as review results on the distribution and abundance of elements in bacterial spores. We use NanoSIMS to

  20. The relationship of forensic odontology with various dental specialties in the articles published in a National and an International Forensic Odontology Journal: A 5-year content analysis (United States)

    Thetakala, Ravi Kumar; Chandrashekar, B. R.; Sunitha, Siddanna; Sharma, Priyanka


    Aims: The aim of this study is to assess the quantum of articles published by various dental specialties in a National and an International Forensic Odontology Journal from January 1, 2010, to December 31, 2014. Settings and Design: The present study is a 5-year retrospective content analysis study. Subjects and Methods: Data were collected from two forensic odontology journals (Journal of Forensic Odonto Stomatology [JOFS] and Journal of Forensic Dental Sciences [JFDS]) which are subscribed by institutional library. The article contents were scrutinized by one investigator and categorized into nine individual dental specialties based on the new working classification proposed for forensic odontology. Statistical Analysis Used: The quantum of articles published by various dental specialties and the various focus areas in each specialty were assessed using Chi-square test. Results: Among all the published articles, a maximum number of articles were related to the Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology (32.6%) in JFDS with Cheiloscopy (46.7%) being more focused area and to the Department of Prosthodontics (25.7%) in JFOS with Bite mark analysis (66.7%) being more focused area. Conclusions: There was a scarcity of information about the relationship of forensic odontology with various dental specialties in the articles published in JFDS and JFOS. The editorial board of journals should expand and elaborate their scope of journals to various focus areas of forensic odontology. This will encourage the researchers to explore in the different focus areas which are most neglected as of now. PMID:29263610

  1. Forensic Odontology: The New Dimension in Dental Analysis. (United States)

    Divakar, K P


    Forensic Odontology a branch of Forensic sciences uses the skill of the dentist in personal identification during mass calamities, sexual assault and child abuse to name a few. This branch not stranger to many has been growing tenfold in its potential and its ability to bring the forlorn to justice where a dental remains is the only available evidence. It's role and importance in the judiciary is fast growing and hence in depth knowledge in this field seems more than justified.

  2. Development of forensic thanatology through the prism of analysis of postmortem protocols collected at the Department of Forensic Medicine, Jagiellonian University

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Konopka, Tomasz


    When assessed based on the analysis of postmortem protocols, the successes of forensic thanatology appear to differ from those that might be assumed using as the foundation a review of publications and textbook...

  3. Automatic forensic analysis of automotive paints using optical microscopy. (United States)

    Thoonen, Guy; Nys, Bart; Vander Haeghen, Yves; De Roy, Gilbert; Scheunders, Paul


    The timely identification of vehicles involved in an accident, such as a hit-and-run situation, bears great importance in forensics. To this end, procedures have been defined for analyzing car paint samples that combine techniques such as visual analysis and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. This work proposes a new methodology in order to automate the visual analysis using image retrieval. Specifically, color and texture information is extracted from a microscopic image of a recovered paint sample, and this information is then compared with the same features for a database of paint types, resulting in a shortlist of candidate paints. In order to demonstrate the operation of the methodology, a test database has been set up and two retrieval experiments have been performed. The first experiment quantifies the performance of the procedure for retrieving exact matches, while the second experiment emulates the real-life situation of paint samples that experience changes in color and texture over time. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Radiocarbon analysis of human remains: a review of forensic applications. (United States)

    Ubelaker, Douglas H


    Radiocarbon analysis of organic materials, with the comparison of values with those of the post-1950 modern bomb curve, has proven useful in forensic science to help evaluate the antiquity of evidence. Applications are particularly helpful in the study of human remains, especially with those displaying advanced decomposition of soft tissues. Radiocarbon analysis can reveal if the remains relate to the modern, post-1950 era and if so, also provide information needed to evaluate the death and birth date. Sample selection and interpretation of results must be guided by knowledge of the formation and remodeling of different human tissues, as well as contextual information and the approximate age at death of the individual represented. Dental enamel does not remodel and thus captures dietary radiocarbon values at the time of juvenile formation. Most other human tissues do remodel but at differing rates and therefore collectively offer key information relative to the estimation of the death date. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  5. The relationship of forensic odontology with various dental specialties in the articles published in a National and an International Forensic Odontology Journal: A 5-year content analysis. (United States)

    Thetakala, Ravi Kumar; Chandrashekar, B R; Sunitha, Siddanna; Sharma, Priyanka


    The aim of this study is to assess the quantum of articles published by various dental specialties in a National and an International Forensic Odontology Journal from January 1, 2010, to December 31, 2014. The present study is a 5-year retrospective content analysis study. Data were collected from two forensic odontology journals (Journal of Forensic Odonto Stomatology [JOFS] and Journal of Forensic Dental Sciences [JFDS]) which are subscribed by institutional library. The article contents were scrutinized by one investigator and categorized into nine individual dental specialties based on the new working classification proposed for forensic odontology. The quantum of articles published by various dental specialties and the various focus areas in each specialty were assessed using Chi-square test. Among all the published articles, a maximum number of articles were related to the Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology (32.6%) in JFDS with Cheiloscopy (46.7%) being more focused area and to the Department of Prosthodontics (25.7%) in JFOS with Bite mark analysis (66.7%) being more focused area. There was a scarcity of information about the relationship of forensic odontology with various dental specialties in the articles published in JFDS and JFOS. The editorial board of journals should expand and elaborate their scope of journals to various focus areas of forensic odontology. This will encourage the researchers to explore in the different focus areas which are most neglected as of now.

  6. Virtopsy - the concept of a centralized database in forensic medicine for analysis and comparison of radiological and autopsy data. (United States)

    Aghayev, Emin; Staub, Lukas; Dirnhofer, Richard; Ambrose, Tony; Jackowski, Christian; Yen, Kathrin; Bolliger, Stephan; Christe, Andreas; Roeder, Christoph; Aebi, Max; Thali, Michael J


    Recent developments in clinical radiology have resulted in additional developments in the field of forensic radiology. After implementation of cross-sectional radiology and optical surface documentation in forensic medicine, difficulties in the validation and analysis of the acquired data was experienced. To address this problem and for the comparison of autopsy and radiological data a centralized database with internet technology for forensic cases was created. The main goals of the database are (1) creation of a digital and standardized documentation tool for forensic-radiological and pathological findings; (2) establishing a basis for validation of forensic cross-sectional radiology as a non-invasive examination method in forensic medicine that means comparing and evaluating the radiological and autopsy data and analyzing the accuracy of such data; and (3) providing a conduit for continuing research and education in forensic medicine. Considering the infrequent availability of CT or MRI for forensic institutions and the heterogeneous nature of case material in forensic medicine an evaluation of benefits and limitations of cross-sectional imaging concerning certain forensic features by a single institution may be of limited value. A centralized database permitting international forensic and cross disciplinary collaborations may provide important support for forensic-radiological casework and research.

  7. Forensic palynological analysis of intestinal contents of a Korean mummy. (United States)

    Arguelles, Paulette; Reinhard, Karl; Shin, Dong Hoon


    Experimental studies show that pollen resides in the intestinal tract for a minimum of seven days to at least 21 days. Because of this long residence time, pollen analysis is an important avenue of forensic research. Pollen provides evidence of the environment of the decedent as well as foods and medicine. We analyzed a coprolite recovered from a Korean mummy. The decedent was a high-ranking general who lived during the 16th or 17th centuries. Twenty pollen types were recovered. These ranged from 100 s to 10,000 s of pollen grains per gram of coprolite. Importantly, comparison of the coprolite pollen spectrum to modern aeropalynology studies of Korea suggests that the general died in winter between middle November to late February. Economic pollen types were most abundant. Economic refers to dietary, medicinal, spice, and beverage types. Dietary pollen types include pollen from Oryza (rice), Eriogonum (buckwheat), Brassicaceae (mustard family), and Solanaceae (tomato-chile pepper family). Pollen consistent with dandelion is present and may represent its use as food. Tens of thousands of grains from water plants, bur-reed or cattail, dominate the pollen spectrum. We believe that this was introduced with water. The large numbers of water-related pollen suggest that the general consumed broth, tea, or soup for a considerable time before death. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Forensic odontology identification using smile photograph analysis--case reports. (United States)

    Silva, R F; Pereira, S D; Prado, F B; Daruge, E; Daruge, E


    The identification of unknown human by smile photographs that show specific characteristics of each individual has found wide acceptance all over the world. Therefore this paper shows this situation reporting different cases which smile photograph analysis were crucial to determine the positive identification of unidentified human bodies. All the cases were subjected to personal identification by photographs of smile including one adult male found in an advanced stage of decomposition, one adult female disappeared during an ecotourism trip, and one carbonized body of a male individual found in a forest region. During the autopsy the photographs of the smile were used by comparison of the ante and postmortem images gave accurate and useful information not only about dental state but also the anatomical features surrounding the upper and lower anterior dental arches. This method is not time-consuming and also has the advantage of allowing extraoral dental examination. It is also recommended when there is a need to provide quantitative data for a forensic identification based on these structures.

  9. Development of a novel forensic STR multiplex for ancestry analysis and extended identity testing. (United States)

    Phillips, Chris; Fernandez-Formoso, Luis; Gelabert-Besada, Miguel; Garcia-Magariños, Manuel; Santos, Carla; Fondevila, Manuel; Carracedo, Angel; Lareu, Maria Victoria


    There is growing interest in developing additional DNA typing techniques to provide better investigative leads in forensic analysis. These include inference of genetic ancestry and prediction of common physical characteristics of DNA donors. To date, forensic ancestry analysis has centered on population-divergent SNPs but these binary loci cannot reliably detect DNA mixtures, common in forensic samples. Furthermore, STR genotypes, forming the principal DNA profiling system, are not routinely combined with forensic SNPs to strengthen frequency data available for ancestry inference. We report development of a 12-STR multiplex composed of ancestry informative marker STRs (AIM-STRs) selected from 434 tetranucleotide repeat loci. We adapted our online Bayesian classifier for AIM-SNPs: Snipper, to handle multiallele STR data using frequency-based training sets. We assessed the ability of the 12-plex AIM-STRs to differentiate CEPH Human Genome Diversity Panel populations, plus their informativeness combined with established forensic STRs and AIM-SNPs. We found combining STRs and SNPs improves the success rate of ancestry assignments while providing a reliable mixture detection system lacking from SNP analysis alone. As the 12 STRs generally show a broad range of alleles in all populations, they provide highly informative supplementary STRs for extended relationship testing and identification of missing persons with incomplete reference pedigrees. Lastly, mixed marker approaches (combining STRs with binary loci) for simple ancestry inference tests beyond forensic analysis bring advantages and we discuss the genotyping options available. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. "New turns from old STaRs": enhancing the capabilities of forensic short tandem repeat analysis. (United States)

    Phillips, Christopher; Gelabert-Besada, Miguel; Fernandez-Formoso, Luis; García-Magariños, Manuel; Santos, Carla; Fondevila, Manuel; Ballard, David; Syndercombe Court, Denise; Carracedo, Angel; Lareu, Maria Victoria


    The field of research and development of forensic STR genotyping remains active, innovative, and focused on continuous improvements. A series of recent developments including the introduction of a sixth dye have brought expanded STR multiplex sizes while maintaining sensitivity to typical forensic DNA. New supplementary kits complimenting the core STRs have also helped improve analysis of challenging identification cases such as distant pairwise relationships in deficient pedigrees. This article gives an overview of several recent key developments in forensic STR analysis: availability of expanded core STR kits and supplementary STRs, short-amplicon mini-STRs offering practical options for highly degraded DNA, Y-STR enhancements made from the identification of rapidly mutating loci, and enhanced analysis of genetic ancestry by analyzing 32-STR profiles with a Bayesian forensic classifier originally developed for SNP population data. As well as providing scope for genotyping larger numbers of STRs optimized for forensic applications, the launch of compact next-generation sequencing systems provides considerable potential for genotyping the sizeable proportion of nucleotide variation existing in forensic STRs, which currently escapes detection with CE. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Forensic Analysis of a Contact Lens in a Murder Case. (United States)

    Zwerling, Charles S


    Contact lenses have had rare relevance in trials and/or investigations. After 5 years of burial, orbital remnants were retrieved from an exhumed body and subsequently identified as a key piece of material evidence in a murder trial. The exhumed case materials were evaluated under laboratory conditions and were determined to be contact lens remnants. Contact lens fracture and burial simulation studies were performed to provide additional corroboration of the physical findings of the exhumed contact lens remnants. This material evidence was instrumental in providing factual proof refuting the defendant's testimony in the murder trial. A brief history of contact lens composition and use is provided for understanding the methods and observational results. This forensic case study represents the first published documentation of a contact lens from an exhumed body being used in a murder investigation and establishes an operational procedure for future forensic contact lens examinations. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  12. A fast analysis system for forensic DNA reference samples. (United States)

    Hedman, Johannes; Albinsson, Linda; Ansell, Carina; Tapper, Helene; Hansson, Oskar; Holgersson, Stig; Ansell, Ricky


    On January 1st, 2006, the Swedish legislation on obtaining DNA reference samples from suspects and the recording of DNA profiles in databases was changed. As a result the number of samples analysed at the Swedish National Laboratory of Forensic Science (SKL) increased from about 4500 in 2005 to more than 25,000 in 2006. To meet this challenge, SKL launched a new analysis system to create an unbroken chain, from sampling to incorporation of a profile in the national DNA database and subsequent automatic generation of digitally signed hit reports. The system integrates logistics, digital data transfer, new functions in LIMS (ForumDNA Version 4, Ida Infront AB) and laboratory automation. Buccal swab samples are secured on a FTA card attached to an identity form, which is barcoded with a unique sample ID. After sampling, the police officer sends a digital request to SKL. The sample is automatically registered in LIMS and processed on delivery. The resulting DNA profiles are automatically classified according to quality using a custom-made expert system. Building the evaluation around mathematical rules makes it reproducible, standardised and minimises manual work and clerk errors. All samples are run in duplicate and the two profiles are compared within LIMS before incorporation in the database. In the first year of operation, the median time for completion of an analysis was 3 days, measured from delivery of the sample to incorporation of the profile in the national DNA database. In spite of the dramatic increase in the number of reference samples there was no backlog.

  13. Forensic Odontology: The New Dimension in Dental Analysis (United States)

    Divakar, K. P.


    Forensic Odontology a branch of Forensic sciences uses the skill of the dentist in personal identification during mass calamities, sexual assault and child abuse to name a few. This branch not stranger to many has been growing tenfold in its potential and its ability to bring the forlorn to justice where a dental remains is the only available evidence. It’s role and importance in the judiciary is fast growing and hence in depth knowledge in this field seems more than justified. PMID:28533730

  14. Principles, Practice, and Evolution of Capillary Electrophoresis as a Tool for Forensic DNA Analysis. (United States)

    Shewale, J G; Qi, L; Calandro, L M


    Capillary electrophoresis (CE) is a versatile and widely used analysis platform with application in diverse areas such as analytical chemistry, chiral separations, clinical, forensics, molecular biology, natural products, organic chemistry, and the pharmaceutical industry. Forensic applications of CE include fragment analysis, DNA sequencing, SNP typing, and analysis of gunshot residues, explosive residues, and drugs. Fragment analysis is a widely used method for short tandem repeat (STR) profiling for human identification (HID) due to the single-base resolution capability of CE. This approach circumvents the tedious and expensive approach of DNA sequencing for STR typing. The high sizing precision, ability to detect fluorescence emitted from multiple dyes, automated electrophoretic runs, and data collection software are key factors in the worldwide adoption of CE as the preferred platform for forensic DNA analysis. The most common CE systems used in forensic DNA analysis include the ABI PRISM® 310, 3100, 3100 Avant, 3130, 3130xl, 3500, and 3500xL Genetic Analyzers (GAs). The 3500 series GAs are developed with features useful for forensic scientists, including a normalization feature for analysis of the data designed to reduce the variation in peak height from instrument to instrument and injection to injection. Other hardware and software features include improved temperature control, radio frequency identification (RFID) tags for monitoring instrument consumables, HID-focused software features, and security and maintenance. Copyright © 2012 Central Police University.

  15. Forensic isotope analysis to refine a hydrologic conceptual model. (United States)

    Bassett, R L; Steinwand, Aaron; Jorat, Saeed; Petersen, Christian; Jackson, Randy


    Water resources in the arid southwestern United States are frequently the subject of conflict from competing private and public interests. Legal remedies may remove impasses, but the technical analysis of the problem often determines the future success of legal solutions. In Owens Valley, California, the source of water for the Los Angeles Aqueduct (LAA) is flow diverted from the Owens River and its tributaries and ground water from valley aquifers. Future management of ground water delivered to the LAA needs technical support regarding quantity available, interconnection of shallow and confined aquifers, impact on local springs, and rate of recharge. Ground water flow models and ground water composition are tools already in use, but these have large uncertainty for local interpretations. This study conducted targeted sampling of springs and wells to evaluate the hydrologic system to corroborate conceptual and numerical models. The effort included measurement of intrinsic isotopic composition at key locations in the aquifers. The stable isotopic data of boron (delta(11)B), sulfur (delta(34)S), oxygen (delta(18)O), hydrogen (delta D), and tritium ((3)H) supported by basic chemical data provided rules for characterizing the upper and the lower aquifer system, confirmed the interpretation of ground water flow near faults and flow barriers, and detected hydraulic connections between the LAA and the perennial springs at key locations along the unlined reach of the LAA. This study exemplifies the use of forensic isotopic approaches as independent checks on the consistency of interpretations of conceptual models of a ground water system and the numerical hydrologic simulations.

  16. Illustration and analysis of a coordinated approach to an effective forensic trace evidence capability. (United States)

    Stoney, David A; Stoney, Paul L


    An effective trace evidence capability is defined as one that exploits all useful particle types, chooses appropriate technologies to do so, and directly integrates the findings with case-specific problems. Limitations of current approaches inhibit the attainment of an effective capability and it has been strongly argued that a new approach to trace evidence analysis is essential. A hypothetical case example is presented to illustrate and analyze how forensic particle analysis can be used as a powerful practical tool in forensic investigations. The specifics in this example, including the casework investigation, laboratory analyses, and close professional interactions, provide focal points for subsequent analysis of how this outcome can be achieved. This leads to the specification of five key elements that are deemed necessary and sufficient for effective forensic particle analysis: (1) a dynamic forensic analytical approach, (2) concise and efficient protocols addressing particle combinations, (3) multidisciplinary capabilities of analysis and interpretation, (4) readily accessible external specialist resources, and (5) information integration and communication. A coordinating role, absent in current approaches to trace evidence analysis, is essential to achieving these elements. However, the level of expertise required for the coordinating role is readily attainable. Some additional laboratory protocols are also essential. However, none of these has greater staffing requirements than those routinely met by existing forensic trace evidence practitioners. The major challenges that remain are organizational acceptance, planning and implementation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Interviewing a Silent (Radioactive) Witness through Nuclear Forensic Analysis. (United States)

    Mayer, Klaus; Wallenius, Maria; Varga, Zsolt


    Nuclear forensics is a relatively young discipline in science which aims at providing information on nuclear material of unknown origin. The determination of characteristic parameters through tailored analytical techniques enables establishing linkages to the material's processing history and hence provides hints on its place and date of production and on the intended use.

  18. Direct analysis in real time-Mass spectrometry (DART-MS) in forensic and security applications. (United States)

    Pavlovich, Matthew J; Musselman, Brian; Hall, Adam B


    Over the last decade, direct analysis in real time (DART) has emerged as a viable method for fast, easy, and reliable "ambient ionization" for forensic analysis. The ability of DART to generate ions from chemicals that might be present at the scene of a criminal activity, whether they are in the gas, liquid, or solid phase, with limited sample preparation has made the technology a useful analytical tool in numerous forensic applications. This review paper summarizes many of those applications, ranging from the analysis of trace evidence to security applications, with a focus on providing the forensic scientist with a resource for developing their own applications. The most common uses for DART in forensics are in studying seized drugs, drugs of abuse and their metabolites, bulk and detonated explosives, toxic chemicals, chemical warfare agents, inks and dyes, and commercial plant and animal products that have been adulterated for economic gain. This review is meant to complement recent reviews that have described the fundamentals of the ionization mechanism and the general use of DART. We describe a wide range of forensic applications beyond the field of analyzing drugs of abuse, which dominates the literature, including common experimental and data analysis methods. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Mass Spec Rev 37:171-187, 2018. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Advanced Signal Analysis for Forensic Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven Koppenjan; Matthew Streeton; Hua Lee; Michael Lee; Sashi Ono


    Ground penetrating radar (GPR) systems have traditionally been used to image subsurface objects. The main focus of this paper is to evaluate an advanced signal analysis technique. Instead of compiling spatial data for the analysis, this technique conducts object recognition procedures based on spectral statistics. The identification feature of an object type is formed from the training vectors by a singular-value decomposition procedure. To illustrate its capability, this procedure is applied to experimental data and compared to the performance of the neural-network approach.

  20. Tooth labeling in cone-beam CT using deep convolutional neural network for forensic identification (United States)

    Miki, Yuma; Muramatsu, Chisako; Hayashi, Tatsuro; Zhou, Xiangrong; Hara, Takeshi; Katsumata, Akitoshi; Fujita, Hiroshi


    In large disasters, dental record plays an important role in forensic identification. However, filing dental charts for corpses is not an easy task for general dentists. Moreover, it is laborious and time-consuming work in cases of large scale disasters. We have been investigating a tooth labeling method on dental cone-beam CT images for the purpose of automatic filing of dental charts. In our method, individual tooth in CT images are detected and classified into seven tooth types using deep convolutional neural network. We employed the fully convolutional network using AlexNet architecture for detecting each tooth and applied our previous method using regular AlexNet for classifying the detected teeth into 7 tooth types. From 52 CT volumes obtained by two imaging systems, five images each were randomly selected as test data, and the remaining 42 cases were used as training data. The result showed the tooth detection accuracy of 77.4% with the average false detection of 5.8 per image. The result indicates the potential utility of the proposed method for automatic recording of dental information.

  1. Cisco Router and Switch Forensics Investigating and Analyzing Malicious Network Activity

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Dale


    Cisco IOS (the software that runs the vast majority of Cisco routers and all Cisco network switches) is the dominant routing platform on the Internet and corporate networks. This widespread distribution, as well as its architectural deficiencies, makes it a valuable target for hackers looking to attack a corporate or private network infrastructure. Compromised devices can disrupt stability, introduce malicious modification, and endanger all communication on the network. For security of the network and investigation of attacks, in-depth analysis and diagnostics are critical, but no book current

  2. A Simple Cost-Effective Framework for iPhone Forensic Analysis (United States)

    Husain, Mohammad Iftekhar; Baggili, Ibrahim; Sridhar, Ramalingam

    Apple iPhone has made significant impact on the society both as a handheld computing device and as a cellular phone. Due to the unique hardware system as well as storage structure, iPhone has already attracted the forensic community in digital investigation of the device. Currently available commercial products and methodologies for iPhone forensics are somewhat expensive, complex and often require additional hardware for analysis. Some products are not robust and often fail to extract optimal evidence without modifying the iPhone firmware which makes the analysis questionable in legal platforms. In this paper, we present a simple and inexpensive framework (iFF) for iPhone forensic analysis. Through experimental results using real device, we have shown the effectiveness of this framework in extracting digital evidence from an iPhone.

  3. A technique for setting analytical thresholds in massively parallel sequencing-based forensic DNA analysis. (United States)

    Young, Brian; King, Jonathan L; Budowle, Bruce; Armogida, Luigi


    Amplicon (targeted) sequencing by massively parallel sequencing (PCR-MPS) is a potential method for use in forensic DNA analyses. In this application, PCR-MPS may supplement or replace other instrumental analysis methods such as capillary electrophoresis and Sanger sequencing for STR and mitochondrial DNA typing, respectively. PCR-MPS also may enable the expansion of forensic DNA analysis methods to include new marker systems such as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and insertion/deletions (indels) that currently are assayable using various instrumental analysis methods including microarray and quantitative PCR. Acceptance of PCR-MPS as a forensic method will depend in part upon developing protocols and criteria that define the limitations of a method, including a defensible analytical threshold or method detection limit. This paper describes an approach to establish objective analytical thresholds suitable for multiplexed PCR-MPS methods. A definition is proposed for PCR-MPS method background noise, and an analytical threshold based on background noise is described.

  4. Determining the optimal forensic DNA analysis procedure following investigation of sample quality. (United States)

    Hedell, Ronny; Hedman, Johannes; Mostad, Petter


    Crime scene traces of various types are routinely sent to forensic laboratories for analysis, generally with the aim of addressing questions about the source of the trace. The laboratory may choose to analyse the samples in different ways depending on the type and quality of the sample, the importance of the case and the cost and performance of the available analysis methods. Theoretically well-founded guidelines for the choice of analysis method are, however, lacking in most situations. In this paper, it is shown how such guidelines can be created using Bayesian decision theory. The theory is applied to forensic DNA analysis, showing how the information from the initial qPCR analysis can be utilized. It is assumed the alternatives for analysis are using a standard short tandem repeat (STR) DNA analysis assay, using the standard assay and a complementary assay, or the analysis may be cancelled following quantification. The decision is based on information about the DNA amount and level of DNA degradation of the forensic sample, as well as case circumstances and the cost for analysis. Semi-continuous electropherogram models are used for simulation of DNA profiles and for computation of likelihood ratios. It is shown how tables and graphs, prepared beforehand, can be used to quickly find the optimal decision in forensic casework.

  5. Spatial-temporal forensic analysis of mass casualty incidents using video sequences. (United States)

    Hao Dong; Juechen Yin; Schafer, James; Ganz, Aura


    In this paper we introduce DIORAMA based forensic analysis of mass casualty incidents (MCI) using video sequences. The video sequences captured on site are automatically annotated by metadata, which includes the capture time and the camera location and viewing direction. Using a visual interface the MCI investigators can easily understand the availability of video clips in specific areas of interest, and efficiently review them. The video-based forensic analysis system will enable the MCI investigators to better understand the rescue operations and subsequently improve training procedures.

  6. Polymers on the crime scene forensic analysis of polymeric trace evidence

    CERN Document Server

    Causin, Valerio


    This book approaches the analysis of forensic contact traces from a polymer science perspective. The development of characterization methods of new or unusual traces and the improvement of existing protocols is described. The book starts with a general introduction to polymers and the issues related to transfer, persistence and recovery of polymeric traces. The chapters present a distinctive feature of polymers, discussing how it can be measured, what the practical difficulties which can be encountered in the analysis, and how useful that information is for comparison or identification purposes. Practical tips for the realization of the forensic analyses are included.

  7. A structured approach to forensic study of explosions: The TNO Inverse Explosion Analysis tool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voort, M.M. van der; Wees, R.M.M. van; Brouwer, S.D.; Jagt-Deutekom, M.J. van der; Verreault, J.


    Forensic analysis of explosions consists of determining the point of origin, the explosive substance involved, and the charge mass. Within the EU FP7 project Hyperion, TNO developed the Inverse Explosion Analysis (TNO-IEA) tool to estimate the charge mass and point of origin based on observed damage

  8. DNA methylation-based forensic age prediction using artificial neural networks and next generation sequencing. (United States)

    Vidaki, Athina; Ballard, David; Aliferi, Anastasia; Miller, Thomas H; Barron, Leon P; Syndercombe Court, Denise


    The ability to estimate the age of the donor from recovered biological material at a crime scene can be of substantial value in forensic investigations. Aging can be complex and is associated with various molecular modifications in cells that accumulate over a person's lifetime including epigenetic patterns. The aim of this study was to use age-specific DNA methylation patterns to generate an accurate model for the prediction of chronological age using data from whole blood. In total, 45 age-associated CpG sites were selected based on their reported age coefficients in a previous extensive study and investigated using publicly available methylation data obtained from 1156 whole blood samples (aged 2-90 years) analysed with Illumina's genome-wide methylation platforms (27K/450K). Applying stepwise regression for variable selection, 23 of these CpG sites were identified that could significantly contribute to age prediction modelling and multiple regression analysis carried out with these markers provided an accurate prediction of age (R2=0.92, mean absolute error (MAE)=4.6 years). However, applying machine learning, and more specifically a generalised regression neural network model, the age prediction significantly improved (R2=0.96) with a MAE=3.3 years for the training set and 4.4 years for a blind test set of 231 cases. The machine learning approach used 16 CpG sites, located in 16 different genomic regions, with the top 3 predictors of age belonged to the genes NHLRC1, SCGN and CSNK1D. The proposed model was further tested using independent cohorts of 53 monozygotic twins (MAE=7.1 years) and a cohort of 1011 disease state individuals (MAE=7.2 years). Furthermore, we highlighted the age markers' potential applicability in samples other than blood by predicting age with similar accuracy in 265 saliva samples (R2=0.96) with a MAE=3.2 years (training set) and 4.0 years (blind test). In an attempt to create a sensitive and accurate age prediction test, a next

  9. Forensic hash for multimedia information (United States)

    Lu, Wenjun; Varna, Avinash L.; Wu, Min


    Digital multimedia such as images and videos are prevalent on today's internet and cause significant social impact, which can be evidenced by the proliferation of social networking sites with user generated contents. Due to the ease of generating and modifying images and videos, it is critical to establish trustworthiness for online multimedia information. In this paper, we propose novel approaches to perform multimedia forensics using compact side information to reconstruct the processing history of a document. We refer to this as FASHION, standing for Forensic hASH for informatION assurance. Based on the Radon transform and scale space theory, the proposed forensic hash is compact and can effectively estimate the parameters of geometric transforms and detect local tampering that an image may have undergone. Forensic hash is designed to answer a broader range of questions regarding the processing history of multimedia data than the simple binary decision from traditional robust image hashing, and also offers more efficient and accurate forensic analysis than multimedia forensic techniques that do not use any side information.

  10. Identification of organ tissue types and skin from forensic samples by microRNA expression analysis. (United States)

    Sauer, Eva; Extra, Antje; Cachée, Philipp; Courts, Cornelius


    The identification of organ tissues in traces recovered from scenes and objects with regard to violent crimes involving serious injuries can be of considerable relevance in forensic investigations. Molecular genetic approaches are provably superior to histological and immunological assays in characterizing organ tissues, and micro-RNAs (miRNAs), due to their cell type specific expression patterns and stability against degradation, emerged as a promising molecular species for forensic analyses, with a range of tried and tested indicative markers. Thus, herein we present the first miRNA based approach for the forensic identification of organ tissues. Using quantitative PCR employing an empirically derived strategy for data normalization and unbiased statistical decision making, we assessed the differential expression of 15 preselected miRNAs in tissues of brain, kidney, lung, liver, heart muscle, skeletal muscle and skin. We show that not only can miRNA expression profiling be used to reliably differentiate between organ tissues but also that this method, which is compatible with and complementary to forensic DNA analysis, is applicable to realistic forensic samples e.g. mixtures, aged and degraded material as well as traces generated by mock stabbings and experimental shootings at ballistic models. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Analysis of discrepancies between external body examination and forensic autopsy. (United States)

    Lorin de la Grandmaison, Geoffroy; Fermanian, Christophe; Durigon, Michel


    At present in France, most of the medico-legal investigations are restricted to death scene investigation, which means there is only an external body examination without subsequent autopsy. The aim of our study was to show the limits of death scene investigation by establishing the rate of discrepancies between the results of external body examination and forensic autopsy.A retrospective study was carried out on 200 autopsy cases which were all preceded by death scene investigation and performed in 2002. For each case, age, sex, body weight, body state, place, and time of death were reported. The number of recent trauma lesions detectable at external body examination and at autopsy was studied. Conclusions about manner and cause of death between death scene investigation and autopsy were also studied. Discrepancy rate about interpretation of the lesions seen at external body examination and at autopsy was determined. Discrepancy between minor external trauma lesions and severe internal trauma lesions was also studied.The mean age of the studied population was 42.4 years. Sex ratio was 2.2. External body examination was limited by body state in 32% of the cases. The mean number of recent external trauma lesions recorded at autopsy was significantly higher than those recorded during death scene investigation. Manner and causes of death were undetermined after death scene investigation in 54.5% and 49% of the cases, respectively. When the cases were determined by death scene investigation, discrepancy rate, respectively, was 5% and 9% of all cases (n = 200) for manner and causes of death.Death scene investigation even carried out by a well-trained forensic physician is not reliable relative to cause and manner of death. Our study underlines the necessity in the future to perform more forensic autopsies in France, relying on the European harmonization of medico-legal autopsy rules.

  12. Social network analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Nooy, W.; Crothers, C.


    Social network analysis (SNA) focuses on the structure of ties within a set of social actors, e.g., persons, groups, organizations, and nations, or the products of human activity or cognition such as web sites, semantic concepts, and so on. It is linked to structuralism in sociology stressing the

  13. BioFoV - An open platform for forensic video analysis and biometric data extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almeida, Miguel; Correia, Paulo Lobato; Larsen, Peter Kastmand


    to tailor-made software, based on state of art knowledge in fields such as soft biometrics, gait recognition, photogrammetry, etc. This paper proposes an open and extensible platform, BioFoV (Biometric Forensic Video tool), for forensic video analysis and biometric data extraction, aiming to host some...... of the developments that researchers come up with for solving specific problems, but that are often not shared with the community. BioFoV includes a simple to use Graphical User Interface (GUI), is implemented with open software that can run in multiple software platforms, and its implementation is publicly available....

  14. Network performance analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Bonald, Thomas


    The book presents some key mathematical tools for the performance analysis of communication networks and computer systems.Communication networks and computer systems have become extremely complex. The statistical resource sharing induced by the random behavior of users and the underlying protocols and algorithms may affect Quality of Service.This book introduces the main results of queuing theory that are useful for analyzing the performance of these systems. These mathematical tools are key to the development of robust dimensioning rules and engineering methods. A number of examples i

  15. Deaths from abdominal trauma: analysis of 1888 forensic autopsies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to evaluate the epidemiological profile of deaths due to abdominal trauma at the Forensic Medicine Institute of Belo Horizonte, MG - Brazil. Methods: we conducted a retrospective study of the reports of deaths due to abdominal trauma autopsied from 2006 to 2011. Results: we analyzed 1.888 necropsy reports related to abdominal trauma. Penetrating trauma was more common than blunt one and gunshot wounds were more prevalent than stab wounds. Most of the individuals were male, brown-skinned, single and occupationally active. The median age was 34 years. The abdominal organs most injured in the penetrating trauma were the liver and the intestines, and in blunt trauma, the liver and the spleen. Homicide was the most prevalent circumstance of death, followed by traffic accidents, and almost half of the cases were referred to the Forensic Medicine Institute by a health unit. The blood alcohol test was positive in a third of the necropsies where it was performed. Cocaine and marijuana were the most commonly found substances in toxicology studies. Conclusion: in this sample. there was a predominance of penetrating abdominal trauma in young, brown and single men, the liver being the most injured organ.

  16. GC-MS Analysis of [gamma]-Hydroxybutyric Acid Analogs: A Forensic Chemistry Experiment (United States)

    Henck, Colin; Nally, Luke


    An upper-division forensic chemistry experiment is described. It involves using glycolic acid and sodium glycolate as analogs of [gamma]-hydroxybutyric acid and its sodium salt. The experiment shows the use of silylation in GC-MS analysis and gives students the opportunity to work with a commonly used silylating reagent,…


    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franke, K.; Köppen, M.


    We propose an open layered framework, which might be adapted to fulfill sophisticated demands in forensic handwriting analysis. Due to the contradicting requirements of processing a huge amount of different document types as well as providing high quality processed images of singular document

  18. DNS in Computer Forensics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Fowler Wright


    Full Text Available The Domain Name Service (DNS is a critical core component of the global Internet and integral to the majority of corporate intranets. It provides resolution services between the human-readable name-based system addresses and the machine operable Internet Protocol (IP based addresses required for creating network level connections. Whilst structured as a globally dispersed resilient tree data structure, from the Global and Country Code Top Level Domains (gTLD/ccTLD down to the individual site and system leaf nodes, it is highly resilient although vulnerable to various attacks, exploits and systematic failures. This paper examines the history along with the rapid growth of DNS up to its current critical status. It then explores the often overlooked value of DNS query data; from packet traces, DNS cache data, and DNS logs, with its use in System Forensics and more frequently in Network Forensics, extrapolating examples and experiments that enhance knowledge.Continuing on, it details the common attacks that can be used directly against the DNS systems and services, before following on with the malicious uses of DNS in direct system attacks, Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS, traditional Denial of Service (DOS attacks and malware. It explores both cyber-criminal activities and cyber-warfare based attacks, and also extrapolates from a number of more recent attacks the possible methods for data exfiltration. It explores some of the potential analytical methodologies including; common uses in Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS, as well as infection and activity tracking in malware traffic analysis, and covers some of the associated methods around technology designed to defend against, mitigate, and/or manage these and other risks, plus the effect that ISP and nation states can have by direct manipulation of DNS queries and return traffic.This paper also investigates potential behavioural analysis and time-lining, which can then be used for the

  19. Network systems security analysis (United States)

    Yilmaz, Ä.°smail


    Network Systems Security Analysis has utmost importance in today's world. Many companies, like banks which give priority to data management, test their own data security systems with "Penetration Tests" by time to time. In this context, companies must also test their own network/server systems and take precautions, as the data security draws attention. Based on this idea, the study cyber-attacks are researched throughoutly and Penetration Test technics are examined. With these information on, classification is made for the cyber-attacks and later network systems' security is tested systematically. After the testing period, all data is reported and filed for future reference. Consequently, it is found out that human beings are the weakest circle of the chain and simple mistakes may unintentionally cause huge problems. Thus, it is clear that some precautions must be taken to avoid such threats like updating the security software.

  20. Maori heads (mokomokai): the usefulness of a complete forensic analysis procedure. (United States)

    Charlier, Philippe; Huynh-Charlier, Isabelle; Brun, Luc; Champagnat, Julie; Laquay, Laetitia; Hervé, Christian


    Based on an analysis of 19 mummified Maori heads (mokomokai) referred to our forensic laboratory for anthropological analysis prior to their official repatriation from France to New Zealand, and data from the anthropological and medical literature, we propose a complete forensic procedure for the analysis of such pieces. A list of 12 original morphological criteria was developed. Items included the sex, age at death, destruction of the skull base, the presence of argil deposits in the inner part of the skull, nostrils closed with exogenous material, sewing of eyelids and lips, pierced earlobes, ante-mortem and/or post-mortem tattoos, the presence of vegetal fibers within nasal cavities, and other pathological or anthropological anomalies. These criteria were tested for all 19 mokomokai repatriated to New Zealand by the French authorities. Further complementary analyses were limited to fiberscopic examination of the intracranial cavities because of the taboo on any sampling requested by the Maori authorities. In the context of global repatriation of human artifacts to native communities, this type of anthropological expertise is increasingly frequently requested of forensic anthropologists and other practitioners. We discuss the reasons for and against repatriating non-authentic artifacts to such communities and the role played by forensic anthropologists during the authentication process.

  1. Investigation of quartz grain surface textures by atomic force microscopy for forensic analysis. (United States)

    Konopinski, D I; Hudziak, S; Morgan, R M; Bull, P A; Kenyon, A J


    This paper presents a study of quartz sand grain surface textures using atomic force microscopy (AFM) to image the surface. Until now scanning electron microscopy (SEM) has provided the primary technique used in the forensic surface texture analysis of quartz sand grains as a means of establishing the provenance of the grains for forensic reconstructions. The ability to independently corroborate the grain type classifications is desirable and provides additional weight to the findings of SEM analysis of the textures of quartz grains identified in forensic soil/sediment samples. AFM offers a quantitative means of analysis that complements SEM examination, and is a non-destructive technique that requires no sample preparation prior to scanning. It therefore has great potential to be used for forensic analysis where sample preservation is highly valuable. By taking quantitative topography scans, it is possible to produce 3D representations of microscopic surface textures and diagnostic features for examination. Furthermore, various empirical measures can be obtained from analysing the topography scans, including arithmetic average roughness, root-mean-square surface roughness, skewness, kurtosis, and multiple gaussian fits to height distributions. These empirical measures, combined with qualitative examination of the surfaces can help to discriminate between grain types and provide independent analysis that can corroborate the morphological grain typing based on the surface textures assigned using SEM. Furthermore, the findings from this study also demonstrate that quartz sand grain surfaces exhibit a statistically self-similar fractal nature that remains unchanged across scales. This indicates the potential for a further quantitative measure that could be utilised in the discrimination of quartz grains based on their provenance for forensic investigations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Analysis of computer networks

    CERN Document Server

    Gebali, Fayez


    This textbook presents the mathematical theory and techniques necessary for analyzing and modeling high-performance global networks, such as the Internet. The three main building blocks of high-performance networks are links, switching equipment connecting the links together, and software employed at the end nodes and intermediate switches. This book provides the basic techniques for modeling and analyzing these last two components. Topics covered include, but are not limited to: Markov chains and queuing analysis, traffic modeling, interconnection networks and switch architectures and buffering strategies.   ·         Provides techniques for modeling and analysis of network software and switching equipment; ·         Discusses design options used to build efficient switching equipment; ·         Includes many worked examples of the application of discrete-time Markov chains to communication systems; ·         Covers the mathematical theory and techniques necessary for ana...

  3. Cloud Based Drive Forensic and DDoS Analysis on Seafile as Case Study (United States)

    Bahaweres, R. B.; Santo, N. B.; Ningsih, A. S.


    The rapid development of Internet due to increasing data rates through both broadband cable networks and 4G wireless mobile, make everyone easily connected to the internet. Storages as Services (StaaS) is more popular and many users want to store their data in one place so that whenever they need they can easily access anywhere, any place and anytime in the cloud. The use of the service makes it vulnerable to use by someone to commit a crime or can do Denial of Service (DoS) on cloud storage services. The criminals can use the cloud storage services to store, upload and download illegal file or document to the cloud storage. In this study, we try to implement a private cloud storage using Seafile on Raspberry Pi and perform simulations in Local Area Network and Wi-Fi environment to analyze forensically to discover or open a criminal act can be traced and proved forensically. Also, we can identify, collect and analyze the artifact of server and client, such as a registry of the desktop client, the file system, the log of seafile, the cache of the browser, and database forensic.

  4. [The concept of "forensic medicine"]. (United States)

    Popov, V L


    The analysis of the definition of forensic medicine and its evolution during the past 300 years is presented. The special character of forensic medicine, its subject-matter, scope of research, procedures, goals and targeted application of forensic medical knowledge are discussed. The original definition of the notion of "forensic medicine" is proposed.

  5. Multiplex pyrosequencing of InDel markers for forensic DNA analysis. (United States)

    Bus, Magdalena M; Karas, Ognjen; Allen, Marie


    The capillary electrophoresis (CE) technology is commonly used for fragment length separation of markers in forensic DNA analysis. In this study, pyrosequencing technology was used as an alternative and rapid tool for the analysis of biallelic InDel (insertion/deletion) markers for individual identification. The DNA typing is based on a subset of the InDel markers that are included in the Investigator ® DIPplex Kit, which are sequenced in a multiplex pyrosequencing analysis. To facilitate the analysis of degraded DNA, the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) fragments were kept short in the primer design. Samples from individuals of Swedish origin were genotyped using the pyrosequencing strategy and analysis of the Investigator ® DIPplex markers with CE. A comparison between the pyrosequencing and CE data revealed concordant results demonstrating a robust and correct genotyping by pyrosequencing. Using optimal marker combination and a directed dispensation strategy, five markers could be multiplexed and analyzed simultaneously. In this proof-of-principle study, we demonstrate that multiplex InDel pyrosequencing analysis is possible. However, further studies on degraded samples, lower DNA quantities, and mixtures will be required to fully optimize InDel analysis by pyrosequencing for forensic applications. Overall, although CE analysis is implemented in most forensic laboratories, multiplex InDel pyrosequencing offers a cost-effective alternative for some applications. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Forensic pedology, forensic geology, forensic geoscience, geoforensics and soil forensics. (United States)

    Ruffell, Alastair


    We now have a confusing set of five commonly used terms for the application of Earth evidence in forensic science. This confusion is resulting in Earth scientists who use these methods mentioning different terms, sometimes for the same type of study. Likewise, forensic scientists, police/law enforcement officers and those employed by courts of law are becoming confused as to what each term means. A nomenclatural framework (based on the first use of each term) is proposed to encourage consistency in the use of terminology. Generally, the number of Earth science applications has grown through time, from soil and sediment analysis to remote sensing and GIS. The issue of where forensic biology and microbiology sits with these uses of Earth evidence is considered. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Fatal sarin poisoning in Syria 2013: forensic verification within an international laboratory network. (United States)

    John, Harald; van der Schans, Marcel J; Koller, Marianne; Spruit, Helma E T; Worek, Franz; Thiermann, Horst; Noort, Daan


    During the United Nations fact-finding mission to investigate the alleged use of chemical warfare agents in the Syrian Arab Republic in 2013, numerous tissues from a deceased female victim, who had displayed symptoms of cholinergic crisis, were collected. The Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) authorized two specialized laboratories in the Netherlands and Germany for forensic analysis of these samples. Diverse modern mass spectrometry (MS)-based procedures in combination with either liquid chromatography (LC) or gas chromatography (GC) separation were applied. A variety of biotransformation products of the nerve agent sarin was detected, including the hydrolysis product O -isopropyl methylphosphonic acid (IMPA) as well as covalent protein adducts with e.g., albumin and human butyrylcholinesterase (hBChE). IMPA was extracted after sample acidification by solid-phase extraction and directly analyzed by LC-tandem-MS with negative electrospray ionization (ESI). Protein adducts were found, either by fluoride-induced reactivation applying GC-MS techniques or by LC-MS-based detection after positive ESI for proteolyzed proteins yielding phosphonylated tyrosine residues or a specific phosphonylated hBChE-derived nonapeptide. These experimental results provided unambiguous evidence for a systemic intoxication and were the first proving the use of sarin in the ongoing bellicose conflict. This scenario underlines the requirement for qualified and specialized analytical laboratories to face repeated violation of the Chemical Weapons Convention.

  8. [Fatal skiing accidents: a forensic analysis taking the example of Salzburg]. (United States)

    Kunz, Sebastian N; Keller, Thomas; Grove, Christina; Lochner, Stefanie; Monticelli, Fabio


    The rising popularity of Alpine skiing in recent years has led to an increase of skiing accidents, some with fatal outcome. In this paper, all fatal skiing accidents from the autopsy material of the Institute of Forensic Medicine of the Paris Lodron University Salzburg were evaluated and compared with statistical data of the Alpine Police. In the wintertime of 2005/2006 until 2013/2014, 22 deadly skiing accidents were autopsied. The age of the male and female victims ranged between 12 and 71 years. The main cause of death was craniocerebral and chest trauma. A relevant blood alcohol concentration was detected in only one case. Together with trauma-biomechanical and technical experts, forensic medicine serves as a necessary clarification interface between the investigating authorities and the judiciary. Determining the cause and manner of death as well as reconstructing the accident is the main task of the forensic pathologist. The present study shows that in the county of Salzburg, only a small percentage of fatal skiing accidents is evaluated from a forensic and trauma-biomechanical point of view. Thus the possibilities of an interdisciplinary accident analysis are not always fully utilized.

  9. FaSTR DNA: a new expert system for forensic DNA analysis. (United States)

    Power, Timothy; McCabe, Brendan; Harbison, Sally Ann


    The automation of DNA profile analysis of reference and crime samples continues to gain pace driven in part by a realisation by the criminal justice system of the positive impact DNA technology can have in aiding in the solution of crime and the apprehension of suspects. Expert systems to automate the profile analysis component of the process are beginning to be developed. In this paper, we report the validation of a new expert system FaSTR DNA, an expert system suitable for the analysis of DNA profiles from single source reference samples and from crime samples. We compare the performance of FaSTR DNA with that of other equivalent systems, GeneMapper ID v3.2 (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA) and FSS-i(3) v4 (The Forensic Science Service((R)) DNA expert System Suite FSS-i(3), Forensic Science Service, Birmingham, UK) with GeneScan Analysis v3.7/Genotyper v3.7 software (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA, USA) with manual review. We have shown that FaSTR DNA provides an alternative solution to automating DNA profile analysis and is appropriate for implementation into forensic laboratories. The FaSTR DNA system was demonstrated to be comparable in performance to that of GeneMapper ID v3.2 and superior to that of FSS-i(3) v4 for the analysis of DNA profiles from crime samples.

  10. Signature Based Detection of User Events for Post-mortem Forensic Analysis (United States)

    James, Joshua Isaac; Gladyshev, Pavel; Zhu, Yuandong

    This paper introduces a novel approach to user event reconstruction by showing the practicality of generating and implementing signature-based analysis methods to reconstruct high-level user actions from a collection of low-level traces found during a post-mortem forensic analysis of a system. Traditional forensic analysis and the inferences an investigator normally makes when given digital evidence, are examined. It is then demonstrated that this natural process of inferring high-level events from low-level traces may be encoded using signature-matching techniques. Simple signatures using the defined method are created and applied for three popular Windows-based programs as a proof of concept.

  11. New insights in forensic chemistry: NIR/Chemometrics analysis of toners for questioned documents examination. (United States)

    Materazzi, Stefano; Risoluti, Roberta; Pinci, Sara; Saverio Romolo, Francesco


    Near-Infrared spectroscopy (NIRs) coupled to chemometrics was investigated for the first time as a new tool for the analysis of black toners to evaluate its application in forensic cases. Ten black toners from four manufacturers were included in this study and the acquired spectra were compared in order to differentiate toners. Multivariate statistical analysis based on Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was considered to develop a model of comparison of toners in questioned documents. Results demonstrated the capabilities of the approach NIR/Chemometrics to correctly identify toners when printed on different papers and to be not affected by the printing process. This study has shown that NIRs can be considered as a useful, fast, non-destructive tool providing the characterisation of toners in forensic caseworks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Error rates in forensic DNA analysis: definition, numbers, impact and communication. (United States)

    Kloosterman, Ate; Sjerps, Marjan; Quak, Astrid


    . These should be reported, separately from the match probability, when requested by the court or when there are internal or external indications for error. It should also be made clear that there are various other issues to consider, like DNA transfer. Forensic statistical models, in particular Bayesian networks, may be useful to take the various uncertainties into account and demonstrate their effects on the evidential value of the forensic DNA results. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Hair Analysis in Forensic Toxicology: An Updated Review with a Special Focus on Pitfalls. (United States)

    Kintz, Pascal


    The detection of drugs in hair analysis has progressively emerged as a consequence of the enhanced sensitivity of analytical techniques used in forensic toxicology; a greater advantage in using this matrix with respect to classical ones (i.e. urine and blood) is an easier and non-invasive sample collection, even when the careful supervision of law enforcement officers is required to avoid the risk that the sample may be adulterated or replaced. Moreover, according to the length of the hair, the history of drug exposure can be retrospectively monitored from few weeks up to months or years since sample collection. Through a detailed revision of the existent literature, this manuscript provides information on the proper sample collection, preparation and analysis, as well as pitfalls in forensic hair analysis, and summarizes the wide range of application of this technology, including excessive alcohol drinking, doping, child abuse, and offences linked to drug use. Verification of history of psychotropic drugs, alcohol and doping agents use by hair analysis, hair testing for driving license regranting and drug facilitated crimes, and testing for drugs in hair of children have been reviewed together with recent trends in hair contamination and possibility to disclose use of new psychoactive substances by hair analysis. Hair analysis in forensic toxicology has been quickly emerged and improved in recent years; a deeper knowledge of advantages and limitations of this unique matrix is necessary for a better use in forensic caseworks. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at

  14. Secondary ion mass spectrometry of powdered explosive compounds for forensic evidence analysis. (United States)

    Téllez, Helena; Vadillo, José M; Laserna, José J


    Residual quantities of explosives deposited on, or absorbed in, nearby surfaces can be of forensic value in post-blast analysis. As secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) may be a suitable analytical approach for the screening of such residues, its performance was evaluated. The analyses were carried out in a SIMS instrument fitted with a quadrupole analyzer. The sample was sputtered at a 45º incidence angle with a 100 µm primary Ar(+) beam (3 keV, 500 nA). Surface sample compensation was performed with low-energy electrons (500 eV, 0.75 mA). TNT, RDX, PETN and cloratite were deposited in powdered form on double-sided tape and introduced into the mass spectrometer, without further handling, for SIMS analysis. The analysis conditions including compensation were optimized. A mixture of energetic compounds commonly used for explosive preparation was also analyzed, proving the potential of SIMS in forensic analysis. This study demonstrated the possibility of detecting explosives by SIMS making use of a simple sampling procedure consisting of sticking the sample in powdered form (compatible with the collection performed in forensic post-blast analysis) onto double-sided tape without handling or preparation. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Soil characterisation by bacterial community analysis for forensic applications: A quantitative comparison of environmental technologies. (United States)

    Habtom, Habteab; Demanèche, Sandrine; Dawson, Lorna; Azulay, Chen; Matan, Ofra; Robe, Patrick; Gafny, Ron; Simonet, Pascal; Jurkevitch, Edouard; Pasternak, Zohar


    The ubiquity and transferability of soil makes it a resource for the forensic investigator, as it can provide a link between agents and scenes. However, the information contained in soils, such as chemical compounds, physical particles or biological entities, is seldom used in forensic investigations; due mainly to the associated costs, lack of available expertise, and the lack of soil databases. The microbial DNA in soil is relatively easy to access and analyse, having thus the potential to provide a powerful means for discriminating soil samples or linking them to a common origin. We compared the effectiveness and reliability of multiple methods and genes for bacterial characterisation in the differentiation of soil samples: ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (RISA), terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) of the rpoB gene, and five methods using the 16S rRNA gene: phylogenetic microarrays, TRFLP, and high throughput sequencing with Roche 454, Illumina MiSeq and IonTorrent PGM platforms. All these methods were also compared to long-chain hydrocarbons (n-alkanes) and fatty alcohol profiling of the same soil samples. RISA, 16S TRFLP and MiSeq performed best, reliably and significantly discriminating between adjacent, similar soil types. As TRFLP employs the same capillary electrophoresis equipment and procedures used to analyse human DNA, it is readily available for use in most forensic laboratories. TRFLP was optimized for forensic usage in five parameters: choice of primer pair, fluorescent tagging, concentrating DNA after digestion, number of PCR amplifications per sample and number of capillary electrophoresis runs per PCR amplification. This study shows that molecular microbial ecology methodologies are robust in discriminating between soil samples, illustrating their potential usage as an evaluative forensic tool. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Genetic analysis of sudden cardiac death victims: a survey of current forensic autopsy practices. (United States)

    Michaud, Katarzyna; Mangin, Patrice; Elger, Bernice S


    Autopsy-negative sudden cardiac deaths (SCD) seen in forensic practice are most often thought to be the result of sudden arrhythmic death syndrome. Postmortem genetic analysis is recommended in such cases, but is currently performed in only a few academic centers. In order to determine actual current practice, an on-line questionnaire was sent by e-mail to members of various forensic medical associations. The questions addressed routine procedures employed in cases of sudden cardiac death (autopsy ordering, macroscopic and microscopic cardiac examination, conduction tissue examination, immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy, biochemical markers, sampling and storage of material for genetic analyses, toxicological analyses, and molecular autopsy). Some questions concerned the legal and ethical aspects of genetic analyses in postmortem examinations, as well as any existing multidisciplinary collaborations in SCD cases. There were 97 respondents, mostly from European countries. Genetic testing in cases of sudden cardiac death is rarely practiced in routine forensic investigation. Approximately 60% of respondents reported not having the means to perform genetic postmortem testing and 40% do not collect adequate material to perform these investigations at a later date, despite working at university hospitals. The survey demonstrated that many of the problems involved in the adequate investigation of SCD cases are often financial in origin, due to the fact that activities in forensic medicine are often paid by and dependent on the judicial authorities. Problems also exist concerning the contact with family members and/or the family doctor, as well as the often-nonexistent collaboration with others clinicians with special expertise beneficial in the investigation of SCD cases, such as cardiologists and geneticists. This study highlights the importance in establishing guidelines for molecular autopsies in forensic medicine.

  17. Forensic Data Carving (United States)

    Povar, Digambar; Bhadran, V. K.

    File or data carving is a term used in the field of Cyber forensics. Cyber forensics is the process of acquisition, authentication, analysis and documentation of evidence extracted from and/or contained in a computer system, computer network and digital media. Extracting data (file) out of undifferentiated blocks (raw data) is called as carving. Identifying and recovering files based on analysis of file formats is known as file carving. In Cyber Forensics, carving is a helpful technique in finding hidden or deleted files from digital media. A file can be hidden in areas like lost clusters, unallocated clusters and slack space of the disk or digital media. To use this method of extraction, a file should have a standard file signature called a file header (start of the file). A search is performed to locate the file header and continued until the file footer (end of the file) is reached. The data between these two points will be extracted and analyzed to validate the file. The extraction algorithm uses different methods of carving depending on the file formats.

  18. [Forensic anthropology]. (United States)

    Lynnerup, Niels


    Forensic anthropology is the application of biological or physical anthropology in the service of justice. One main area is the analysis of human remains. Such analyses involve person identification by assessment of age and sex of the deceased, and comparison with ante-mortem data. Another major area is the analysis of surveillance pictures and videos. Such analyses may comprise facial and bodily morphological comparisons, multi-angle photogrammetry and gait analysis. We also perform studies of human remains for archaeologists.

  19. Quantifying Morphological Features of α-U3O8 with Image Analysis for Nuclear Forensics. (United States)

    Olsen, Adam M; Richards, Bryony; Schwerdt, Ian; Heffernan, Sean; Lusk, Robert; Smith, Braxton; Jurrus, Elizabeth; Ruggiero, Christy; McDonald, Luther W


    Morphological changes in U3O8 based on calcination temperature have been quantified enabling a morphological feature to serve as a signature of processing history in nuclear forensics. Five separate calcination temperatures were used to synthesize α-U3O8, and each sample was characterized using powder X-ray diffraction (p-XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The p-XRD spectra were used to evaluate the purity of the synthesized U-oxide; the morphological analysis for materials (MAMA) software was utilized to quantitatively characterize the particle shape and size as indicated by the SEM images. Analysis comparing the particle attributes, such as particle area at each of the temperatures, was completed using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov two sample test (K-S test). These results illustrate a distinct statistical difference between each calcination temperature. To provide a framework for forensic analysis of an unknown sample, the sample distributions at each temperature were compared to randomly selected distributions (100, 250, 500, and 750 particles) from each synthesized temperature to determine if they were statistically different. It was found that 750 particles were required to differentiate between all of the synthesized temperatures with a confidence interval of 99.0%. Results from this study provide the first quantitative morphological study of U-oxides, and reveals the potential strength of morphological particle analysis in nuclear forensics by providing a framework for a more rapid characterization of interdicted uranium oxide samples.

  20. Trends in analysis of gunshot residue for forensic purposes. (United States)

    Brożek-Mucha, Zuzanna


    Detection and identification of organic and inorganic components of gunshot residue are well established within forensic chemistry because of highly characteristic and uncommon features of the products of ammunition discharge at the time and place of a shooting incident in comparison to other materials present in daily life of people. Both types of residue play an important role in establishing various circumstances of a shooting crime, though the most vital one concerns the possibility of relating a suspect with the activity of shooting. In this aspect, solid, inorganic particles, nowadays called characteristic, have been utilized. Their specific features result from the primer mixture composition, including compounds of heavy metals, lead, antimony, and barium, and from the extraordinarily dynamic conditions of their formation, taking place at the moment of the primer detonation. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray microanalysis techniques proved to be necessary and sufficient to reveal the content and the spherical morphology of the particles for this purpose. Recently, the recommendation that the potential for lead exposure be minimized was followed in the production of ammunition cal. 9 mm Luger, 0.40 S&W, 0.380 Auto, and 0.38 Special. These modern types of ammunition expel less characteristic particles, the identification of which can be a challenge for the examiners. At least two solutions to strengthen the residue identity are taken into account: additional insights into the internal structure of inorganic particles, e.g., by means of electron backscattered diffraction and focused ion beam, as well as complementary examinations of organic residues with sensitive mass spectrometric techniques.

  1. A Comparative Taphonomic Analysis of 24 Trophy Skulls from Modern Forensic Cases. (United States)

    Yucha, Josephine M; Pokines, James T; Bartelink, Eric J


    Cranial remains retained from fallen enemies are commonly referred to as "trophy skulls," and many such crania were acquired as souvenirs by U.S. servicemembers during WWII and the Vietnam conflict. These remains increasingly have become the subject of forensic anthropological analysis as their possessors, typically veterans or their relatives, try to discard or repatriate them. The present research uses a qualitative analytical approach to review 24 cases of reported trophy skulls (14 previously unpublished cases and 10 from the literature) to determine which perimortem and postmortem characteristics are most useful for generating a taphonomic profile. Overall, the taphonomic signature of trophy remains includes traits relating to acquisition and preparation, ornamental display, and subsequent curation. Contextual evidence and the biological profile also are considered when determining the possible origin of human cranial remains as a trophy skull. Thorough taphonomic analysis will aid in identifying these types of remains as trophy skulls. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  2. The Potential of Cosmetic Applicators as a Source of DNA for Forensic Analysis. (United States)

    Adamowicz, Michael S; Labonte, Renáe D; Schienman, John E


    Personal products, such as toothbrushes, have been used as both known reference and evidentiary samples for forensic DNA analysis. This study examined the viability of a broad selection of cosmetic applicators for use as targets for human DNA extraction and short tandem repeat (STR) analysis using standard polymerase chain reaction (PCR) conditions. Applicator types included eyeliner smudgers, pencils and crayons, eye shadow sponges, mascara wands, concealer wands, face makeup sponges, pads and brushes, lipsticks and balms, and lip gloss wands. The quantity and quality of DNA extracted from each type of applicator were examined by assessing the number of loci successfully amplified and the peak balance of the heterozygous alleles in each full STR profile. While degraded DNA, stochastic amplification, and PCR inhibition were observed for some items, full STR profiles were developed for 14 of 76 applicators. The face makeup sponge applicators yielded the highest proportional number of full STR profiles (4/7). © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  3. Forensic Analysis of Terrorist Counter-Financing to Combat Nuclear Proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drame, B. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Toler, L. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Bachner, Katherine [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)


    sharing, an essential tool for combating money laundering and terrorist financing, verifying sanctions against rogue nations and non-state actors, tracking nuclear proliferation networks, and protecting dual-use materials. These steps can save lives without interfering with state sovereignty or individual rights. The specter of nuclear threat is real and constant. This paper will provide forensic analysis of the most effective financial tools and policies to combat that threat, placing special emphasis on multinational and public-private cooperation.

  4. Forensic Body Fluid Identification by Analysis of Multiple RNA Markers Using NanoString Technology


    Park, Jong-Lyul; Park, Seong-Min; Kim, Jeong-Hwan; Lee, Han-Chul; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Woo, Kwang-Man; Kim, Seon-Young


    RNA analysis has become a reliable method of body fluid identification for forensic use. Previously, we developed a combination of four multiplex quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) probes to discriminate four different body fluids (blood, semen, saliva, and vaginal secretion). While those makers successfully identified most body fluid samples, there were some cases of false positive and negative identification. To improve the accuracy of the identification further, we tried to use multiple markers pe...

  5. Analytical and Radiochemistry for Nuclear Forensics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steiner, Robert Ernest [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dry, Donald E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kinman, William Scott [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Podlesak, David [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Tandon, Lav [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    Information about nonproliferation nuclear forensics, activities in forensics at Los Alamos National Laboratory, radio analytical work at LANL, radiochemical characterization capabilities, bulk chemical and materials analysis capabilities, and future interests in forensics interactions.

  6. Multidimensional Analysis of Linguistic Networks (United States)

    Araújo, Tanya; Banisch, Sven

    Network-based approaches play an increasingly important role in the analysis of data even in systems in which a network representation is not immediately apparent. This is particularly true for linguistic networks, which use to be induced from a linguistic data set for which a network perspective is only one out of several options for representation. Here we introduce a multidimensional framework for network construction and analysis with special focus on linguistic networks. Such a framework is used to show that the higher is the abstraction level of network induction, the harder is the interpretation of the topological indicators used in network analysis. Several examples are provided allowing for the comparison of different linguistic networks as well as to networks in other fields of application of network theory. The computation and the intelligibility of some statistical indicators frequently used in linguistic networks are discussed. It suggests that the field of linguistic networks, by applying statistical tools inspired by network studies in other domains, may, in its current state, have only a limited contribution to the development of linguistic theory.

  7. DNA Commission of the International Society for Forensic Genetics: recommendations on forensic analysis using Y-chromosome STRs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gill, P; Brenner, C; Brinkmann, B


    During the past few years, the DNA Commission of the International Society of Forensic Genetics has published a series of documents providing guidelines and recommendations concerning the application of DNA polymorphisms to the problems of human identification. This latest report addresses...

  8. DNA commission of the International Society for Forensic Genetics: recommendations on forensic analysis using Y-chromosome STRs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gill, P; Brenner, C; Brinkmann, B


    During the past few years the DNA commission of the International Society of Forensic Genetics has published a series of documents providing guidelines and recommendations concerning the application of DNA polymorphisms to the problems of human identification. This latest report addresses...

  9. DNA Commission of the International Society of Forensic Genetics: recommendations on forensic analysis using Y-chromosome short tandem repeats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gill, P.; Brenner, C.; Brinkmann, B.


    During the past few years the DNA commission of the International Society of Forensic Genetics has published a series of documents providing guidelines and recommendations concerning the application of DNA polymorphisms to the problems of human identification. This latest report addresses...

  10. Blood species identification for forensic purposes using Raman spectroscopy combined with advanced statistical analysis. (United States)

    Virkler, Kelly; Lednev, Igor K


    Forensic analysis has become one of the most growing areas of analytical chemistry in recent years. The ability to determine the species of origin of a body fluid sample is a very important and crucial part of a forensic investigation. We introduce here a new technique which utilizes a modern analytical method based on the combination of Raman spectroscopy and advanced statistics to analyze the composition of blood traces from different species. Near-infrared Raman spectroscopy (NIR) was used to analyze multiple dry samples of human, canine, and feline blood for the ultimate application to forensic species identification. All of the spectra were combined into a single data matrix, and the number of principle components that described the system was determined using multiple statistical methods such as significant factor analysis (SFA), principle component analysis (PCA), and several cross-validation methods. Of the six principle components that were determined to be present, the first three, which contributed over 90% to the spectral data of the system, were used to form a three-dimensional scores plot that clearly showed significant separation between the three groups of species. Ellipsoids representing a 99% confidence interval surrounding each species group showed no overlap. This technique using Raman spectroscopy is nondestructive and quick and can potentially be performed at the scene of a crime.

  11. Chemical Differentiation of Osseous, Dental, and Non-skeletal Materials in Forensic Anthropology using Elemental Analysis. (United States)

    Zimmerman, Heather A; Meizel-Lambert, Cayli J; Schultz, John J; Sigman, Michael E


    Forensic anthropologists are generally able to identify skeletal materials (bone and tooth) using gross anatomical features; however, highly fragmented or taphonomically altered materials may be problematic to identify. Several chemical analysis techniques have been shown to be reliable laboratory methods that can be used to determine if questionable fragments are osseous, dental, or non-skeletal in nature. The purpose of this review is to provide a detailed background of chemical analysis techniques focusing on elemental compositions that have been assessed for use in differentiating osseous, dental, and non-skeletal materials. More recently, chemical analysis studies have also focused on using the elemental composition of osseous/dental materials to evaluate species and provide individual discrimination, but have generally been successful only in small, closed groups, limiting their use forensically. Despite significant advances incorporating a variety of instruments, including handheld devices, further research is necessary to address issues in standardization, error rates, and sample size/diversity. Copyright © 2014 Forensic Science Society. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Correcting the planar perspective projection in geometric structures applied to forensic facial analysis. (United States)

    Baldasso, Rosane Pérez; Tinoco, Rachel Lima Ribeiro; Vieira, Cristina Saft Matos; Fernandes, Mário Marques; Oliveira, Rogério Nogueira


    The process of forensic facial analysis may be founded on several scientific techniques and imaging modalities, such as digital signal processing, photogrammetry and craniofacial anthropometry. However, one of the main limitations in this analysis is the comparison of images acquired with different angles of incidence. The present study aimed to explore a potential approach for the correction of the planar perspective projection (PPP) in geometric structures traced from the human face. A technique for the correction of the PPP was calibrated within photographs of two geometric structures obtained with angles of incidence distorted in 80°, 60° and 45°. The technique was performed using ImageJ ® 1.46r (National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland). The corrected images were compared with photographs of the same object obtained in 90° (reference). In a second step, the technique was validated in a digital human face created using MakeHuman ® 1.0.2 (Free Software Foundation, Massachusetts, EUA) and Blender ® 2.75 (Blender ® Foundation, Amsterdam, Nederland) software packages. The images registered with angular distortion presented a gradual decrease in height when compared to the reference. The digital technique for the correction of the PPP is a valuable tool for forensic applications using photographic imaging modalities, such as forensic facial analysis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Forensic DNA databases in Western Balkan region: retrospectives, perspectives, and initiatives (United States)

    Marjanović, Damir; Konjhodžić, Rijad; Butorac, Sara Sanela; Drobnič, Katja; Merkaš, Siniša; Lauc, Gordan; Primorac, Damir; Anđelinović, Šimun; Milosavljević, Mladen; Karan, Željko; Vidović, Stojko; Stojković, Oliver; Panić, Bojana; Vučetić Dragović, Anđelka; Kovačević, Sandra; Jakovski, Zlatko; Asplen, Chris; Primorac, Dragan


    The European Network of Forensic Science Institutes (ENFSI) recommended the establishment of forensic DNA databases and specific implementation and management legislations for all EU/ENFSI members. Therefore, forensic institutions from Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, Montenegro, and Macedonia launched a wide set of activities to support these recommendations. To assess the current state, a regional expert team completed detailed screening and investigation of the existing forensic DNA data repositories and associated legislation in these countries. The scope also included relevant concurrent projects and a wide spectrum of different activities in relation to forensics DNA use. The state of forensic DNA analysis was also determined in the neighboring Slovenia and Croatia, which already have functional national DNA databases. There is a need for a ‘regional supplement’ to the current documentation and standards pertaining to forensic application of DNA databases, which should include regional-specific preliminary aims and recommendations. PMID:21674821

  14. DNA methylation-based forensic age prediction using artificial neural networks and next generation sequencing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Vidaki (Athina); Ballard, D. (David); Aliferi, A. (Anastasia); Miller, T.H. (Thomas H.); Barron, L.P. (Leon P.); D. Syndercombe-Court (Denise)


    textabstractThe ability to estimate the age of the donor from recovered biological material at a crime scene can be of substantial value in forensic investigations. Aging can be complex and is associated with various molecular modifications in cells that accumulate over a person's lifetime including

  15. Forensic soil DNA analysis using high-throughput sequencing: a comparison of four molecular markers. (United States)

    Young, Jennifer M; Weyrich, Laura S; Cooper, Alan


    Soil analysis, such as mineralogy, geophysics, texture and colour, are commonly used in forensic casework to link a suspect to a crime scene. However, DNA analysis can also be applied to characterise the vast diversity of organisms present in soils. DNA metabarcoding and high-throughput sequencing (HTS) now offer a means to improve discrimination between forensic soil samples by identifying individual taxa and exploring non-culturable microbial species. Here, we compare the small-scale reproducibility and resolution of four molecular markers targeting different taxa (bacterial 16S rRNA, eukaryotic18S rRNA, plant trnL intron and fungal internal transcribed spacer I (ITS1) rDNA) to distinguish two sample sites. We also assess the background DNA level associated with each marker and examine the effects of filtering Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) detected in extraction blank controls. From this study, we show that non-bacterial taxa in soil, particularly fungi, can provide the greatest resolution between the sites, whereas plant markers may be problematic for forensic discrimination. ITS and 18S markers exhibit reliable amplification, and both show high discriminatory power with low background DNA levels. The 16S rRNA marker showed comparable discriminatory power post filtering; however, presented the highest level of background DNA. The discriminatory power of all markers was increased by applying OTU filtering steps, with the greatest improvement observed by the removal of any sequences detected in extraction blanks. This study demonstrates the potential use of multiple DNA markers for forensic soil analysis using HTS, and identifies some of the standardisation and evaluation steps necessary before this technique can be applied in casework. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Forensic Science. (United States)

    Brettell, T. A.; Saferstein, R.


    Presents a review of articles appealing to forensic practitioners. Topics include: drugs and poisons, forensic biochemistry, and trace evidence. Lists noteworthy books published on forensic science topics since 1986. (MVL)

  17. Efficacy of forensic statement analysis in distinguishing truthful from deceptive eyewitness accounts of highly stressful events. (United States)

    Morgan, Charles A; Colwell, Kevin; Hazlett, Gary A


    Laboratory-based detecting deception research suggests that truthful statements differ from those of deceptive statements. This nonlaboratory study tested whether forensic statement analysis (FSA) methods would distinguish genuine from false eyewitness accounts about exposure to a highly stressful event. A total of 35 military participants were assigned to truthful or deceptive eyewitness conditions. Genuine eyewitness reported truthfully about exposure to interrogation stress. Deceptive eyewitnesses studied transcripts of genuine eyewitnesses for 24 h and falsely claimed they had been interrogated. Cognitive Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and assessed by FSA raters blind to the status of participants. Genuine accounts contained more unique words, external and contextual referents, and a greater total word count than did deceptive statements. The type-token ratio was lower in genuine statements. The classification accuracy using FSA techniques was 82%. FSA methods may be effective in real-world circumstances and have relevance to professionals in law enforcement, security, and criminal justice. © 2011 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  18. Phylogenic analysis and forensic genetic characterization of Chinese Uyghur group via autosomal multi STR markers (United States)

    Jin, Xiaoye; Wei, Yuanyuan; Chen, Jiangang; Kong, Tingting; Mu, Yuling; Guo, Yuxin; Dong, Qian; Xie, Tong; Meng, Haotian; Zhang, Meng; Li, Jianfei; Li, Xiaopeng; Zhu, Bofeng


    We investigated the allelic frequencies and forensic descriptive parameters of 23 autosomal short tandem repeat loci in a randomly selected sample of 1218 unrelated healthy Uyghur individuals residing in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, northwest China. A total of 281 alleles at these loci were identified and their corresponding allelic frequencies ranged from 0.0004 to 0.5390. The combined match probability and combined probability of exclusion of all loci were 5.192 × 10−29 and 0.9999999996594, respectively. The results of population genetic study manifested that Uyghur had close relationships with those contiguous populations, such as Xibe and Hui groups. In a word, these autosomal short tandem repeat loci were highly informative in Uyghur group and the multiplex PCR system could be used as a valuable tool for forensic caseworks and population genetic analysis. PMID:29088750

  19. An Optimized Centrifugal Method for Separation of Semen from Superabsorbent Polymers for Forensic Analysis. (United States)

    Camarena, Lucy R; Glasscock, Bailey K; Daniels, Demi; Ackley, Nicolle; Sciarretta, Marybeth; Seashols-Williams, Sarah J


    Connection of a perpetrator to a sexual assault is best performed through the confirmed presence of semen, thereby proving sexual contact. Evidentiary items can include sanitary napkins or diapers containing superabsorbent polymers (SAPs), complicating spermatozoa visualization and DNA analysis. In this report, we evaluated the impact of SAPS on the current forensic DNA workflow, developing an efficient centrifugal protocol for separating spermatozoa from SAP material. The optimized filtration method was compared to common practices of excising the top layer only, resulting in significantly higher sperm yields when a core sample of the substrate was taken. Direct isolation of the SAP-containing materials without filtering resulted in 20% sample failure; additionally, SAP material was observed in the final eluted DNA samples, causing physical interference. Thus, use of the described centrifugal-filtering method is a simple preliminary step that improves spermatozoa visualization and enables more consistent DNA yields, while also avoiding SAP interference. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  20. Assessment of high resolution melting analysis as a potential SNP genotyping technique in forensic casework. (United States)

    Venables, Samantha J; Mehta, Bhavik; Daniel, Runa; Walsh, Simon J; van Oorschot, Roland A H; McNevin, Dennis


    High resolution melting (HRM) analysis is a simple, cost effective, closed tube SNP genotyping technique with high throughput potential. The effectiveness of HRM for forensic SNP genotyping was assessed with five commercially available HRM kits evaluated on the ViiA™ 7 Real Time PCR instrument. Four kits performed satisfactorily against forensically relevant criteria. One was further assessed to determine the sensitivity, reproducibility, and accuracy of HRM SNP genotyping. The manufacturer's protocol using 0.5 ng input DNA and 45 PCR cycles produced accurate and reproducible results for 17 of the 19 SNPs examined. Problematic SNPs had GC rich flanking regions which introduced additional melting domains into the melting curve (rs1800407) or included homozygotes that were difficult to distinguish reliably (rs16891982; a G to C SNP). A proof of concept multiplexing experiment revealed that multiplexing a small number of SNPs may be possible after further investigation. HRM enables genotyping of a number of SNPs in a large number of samples without extensive optimization. However, it requires more genomic DNA as template in comparison to SNaPshot®. Furthermore, suitably modifying pre-existing forensic intelligence SNP panels for HRM analysis may pose difficulties due to the properties of some SNPs. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Current genetic methodologies in the identification of disaster victims and in forensic analysis. (United States)

    Ziętkiewicz, Ewa; Witt, Magdalena; Daca, Patrycja; Zebracka-Gala, Jadwiga; Goniewicz, Mariusz; Jarząb, Barbara; Witt, Michał


    This review presents the basic problems and currently available molecular techniques used for genetic profiling in disaster victim identification (DVI). The environmental conditions of a mass disaster often result in severe fragmentation, decomposition and intermixing of the remains of victims. In such cases, traditional identification based on the anthropological and physical characteristics of the victims is frequently inconclusive. This is the reason why DNA profiling became the gold standard for victim identification in mass-casualty incidents (MCIs) or any forensic cases where human remains are highly fragmented and/or degraded beyond recognition. The review provides general information about the sources of genetic material for DNA profiling, the genetic markers routinely used during genetic profiling (STR markers, mtDNA and single-nucleotide polymorphisms [SNP]) and the basic statistical approaches used in DNA-based disaster victim identification. Automated technological platforms that allow the simultaneous analysis of a multitude of genetic markers used in genetic identification (oligonucleotide microarray techniques and next-generation sequencing) are also presented. Forensic and population databases containing information on human variability, routinely used for statistical analyses, are discussed. The final part of this review is focused on recent developments, which offer particularly promising tools for forensic applications (mRNA analysis, transcriptome variation in individuals/populations and genetic profiling of specific cells separated from mixtures).

  2. AQME: A forensic mitochondrial DNA analysis tool for next-generation sequencing data. (United States)

    Sturk-Andreaggi, Kimberly; Peck, Michelle A; Boysen, Cecilie; Dekker, Patrick; McMahon, Timothy P; Marshall, Charla K


    The feasibility of generating mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) data has expanded considerably with the advent of next-generation sequencing (NGS), specifically in the generation of entire mtDNA genome (mitogenome) sequences. However, the analysis of these data has emerged as the greatest challenge to implementation in forensics. To address this need, a custom toolkit for use in the CLC Genomics Workbench (QIAGEN, Hilden, Germany) was developed through a collaborative effort between the Armed Forces Medical Examiner System - Armed Forces DNA Identification Laboratory (AFMES-AFDIL) and QIAGEN Bioinformatics. The AFDIL-QIAGEN mtDNA Expert, or AQME, generates an editable mtDNA profile that employs forensic conventions and includes the interpretation range required for mtDNA data reporting. AQME also integrates an mtDNA haplogroup estimate into the analysis workflow, which provides the analyst with phylogenetic nomenclature guidance and a profile quality check without the use of an external tool. Supplemental AQME outputs such as nucleotide-per-position metrics, configurable export files, and an audit trail are produced to assist the analyst during review. AQME is applied to standard CLC outputs and thus can be incorporated into any mtDNA bioinformatics pipeline within CLC regardless of sample type, library preparation or NGS platform. An evaluation of AQME was performed to demonstrate its functionality and reliability for the analysis of mitogenome NGS data. The study analyzed Illumina mitogenome data from 21 samples (including associated controls) of varying quality and sample preparations with the AQME toolkit. A total of 211 tool edits were automatically applied to 130 of the 698 total variants reported in an effort to adhere to forensic nomenclature. Although additional manual edits were required for three samples, supplemental tools such as mtDNA haplogroup estimation assisted in identifying and guiding these necessary modifications to the AQME-generated profile. Along

  3. Network Analysis, Architecture, and Design

    CERN Document Server

    McCabe, James D


    Traditionally, networking has had little or no basis in analysis or architectural development, with designers relying on technologies they are most familiar with or being influenced by vendors or consultants. However, the landscape of networking has changed so that network services have now become one of the most important factors to the success of many third generation networks. It has become an important feature of the designer's job to define the problems that exist in his network, choose and analyze several optimization parameters during the analysis process, and then prioritize and evalua

  4. Network topology analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalb, Jeffrey L.; Lee, David S.


    Emerging high-bandwidth, low-latency network technology has made network-based architectures both feasible and potentially desirable for use in satellite payload architectures. The selection of network topology is a critical component when developing these multi-node or multi-point architectures. This study examines network topologies and their effect on overall network performance. Numerous topologies were reviewed against a number of performance, reliability, and cost metrics. This document identifies a handful of good network topologies for satellite applications and the metrics used to justify them as such. Since often multiple topologies will meet the requirements of the satellite payload architecture under development, the choice of network topology is not easy, and in the end the choice of topology is influenced by both the design characteristics and requirements of the overall system and the experience of the developer.

  5. Forensic animal DNA analysis using economical two-step direct PCR. (United States)

    Kitpipit, Thitika; Chotigeat, Wilaiwan; Linacre, Adrian; Thanakiatkrai, Phuvadol


    Wildlife forensic DNA analysis by amplification of a mitochondrial locus followed by DNA sequencing is routine, yet suffers from being costly and time-consuming. To address these disadvantages we report on a low-cost two-step direct PCR assay to efficiently analyze 12 forensically relevant mammalian sample types without DNA extraction. A cytochrome oxidase I degenerate-universal primer pair was designed and validated for the developed assay. The 12 sample types, which included bone, horn, feces, and urine, were amplified successfully by the assay using a pre-direct PCR dilution protocol. The average amplification success rate was as high as 92.5 % (n = 350), with an average PCR product concentration of 220.71 ± 180.84 ng/μL. Differences in amplification success rate and PCR product quantity between sample types were observed; however, most samples provided high quality sequences, permitting a 100 % nucleotide similarity to their respective species via BLAST database queries. The combination of PBS and Phire(®) Hot Start II DNA polymerase gave comparable amplification success rate and amplicon quantity with the proprietary commercial kits (P > 0.05, n = 350) but at considerably lower cost. The stability of the assay was tested by successfully amplifying samples that had been stored for up to 12 months. Our data indicate that this low-cost two-step direct amplification assay has the potential to be a valuable tool for the forensic DNA community.

  6. Forensic Chemistry Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuhal GERÇEK


    Full Text Available Increasing the types of terrorism and crime nowadays, the importance of the forensic sciences can be bett er understood. Forensic science is the application of the wide spectrum of science to answer the question of legal system. It contains the application of the principles, techniques and methods of basic sciences and its main aim is the determination of the physical facts which are important in legal situations. Forensic chemistry is the branch of chemistry which performs the chemical analysis of evidences that used in the courts. Forensic chemist is the professional chemist who analyzes the evidences from crime scene and reaches a result by application of tests. Th us, they have to have a special education. In forensic laboratories candidates who have chemistry/biochemistry undergraduate degree and took biology and forensic chemistry lectures are preferred. It is necessary to design graduate and undergraduate education to train a forensic chemist. Science education should be at the core of the undergraduate education. In addition to this strong laboratory education on both science and forensic science should be given. Th e graduate program of forensic science example should contain forensic science subjects, strong academic lectures on special subjects and research and laboratory components.

  7. Computational intelligence in digital forensics forensic investigation and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Choo, Yun-Huoy; Abraham, Ajith; Srihari, Sargur


    Computational Intelligence techniques have been widely explored in various domains including forensics. Analysis in forensic encompasses the study of pattern analysis that answer the question of interest in security, medical, legal, genetic studies and etc. However, forensic analysis is usually performed through experiments in lab which is expensive both in cost and time. Therefore, this book seeks to explore the progress and advancement of computational intelligence technique in different focus areas of forensic studies. This aims to build stronger connection between computer scientists and forensic field experts.   This book, Computational Intelligence in Digital Forensics: Forensic Investigation and Applications, is the first volume in the Intelligent Systems Reference Library series. The book presents original research results and innovative applications of computational intelligence in digital forensics. This edited volume contains seventeen chapters and presents the latest state-of-the-art advancement ...

  8. Forensic Signature Detection of Yersinia Pestis Culturing Practices Across Institutions Using a Bayesian Network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Corley, Courtney D.; McCue, Lee Ann; Clowers, Brian H.; Dowling, Chase P.; Wahl, Karen L.; Wunschel, David S.; Kreuzer, Helen W.


    The field of bioforensics is focused on the analysis of evidence from a biocrime. Existing laboratory analyses can identify the specific strain of an organism in the evidence, as well signatures of the specific culture batch of organisms, such as low-frequency contaminants or indicators of growth and processing methods. To link these disparate types of physical data to potential suspects, investigators may need to identify institutions or individuals whose access to strains and culturing practices match those identified from the evidence. In this work we present a Bayesian statistical network to fuse different types of analytical measurements that predict the production environment of a Yersinia pestis sample under investigation with automated test processing of scientific publications to identify institutions with a history of growing Y. pestis under similar conditions. Furthermore, the textual and experimental signatures were evaluated recursively to determine the overall sensitivity of the network across all levels of false positives. We illustrate that institutions associated with several specific culturing practices can be accurately selected based on the experimental signature from only a few analytical measurements. These findings demonstrate that similar Bayesian networks can be generated generically for many organisms of interest and their deployment is not prohibitive due to either computational or experimental factors.

  9. Enhanced genetic analysis of single human bioparticles recovered by simplified micromanipulation from forensic 'touch DNA' evidence. (United States)

    Farash, Katherine; Hanson, Erin K; Ballantyne, Jack


    DNA profiles can be obtained from 'touch DNA' evidence, which comprises microscopic traces of human biological material. Current methods for the recovery of trace DNA employ cotton swabs or adhesive tape to sample an area of interest. However, such a 'blind-swabbing' approach will co-sample cellular material from the different individuals, even if the individuals' cells are located in geographically distinct locations on the item. Thus, some of the DNA mixtures encountered in touch DNA samples are artificially created by the swabbing itself. In some instances, a victim's DNA may be found in significant excess thus masking any potential perpetrator's DNA. In order to circumvent the challenges with standard recovery and analysis methods, we have developed a lower cost, 'smart analysis' method that results in enhanced genetic analysis of touch DNA evidence. We describe an optimized and efficient micromanipulation recovery strategy for the collection of bio-particles present in touch DNA samples, as well as an enhanced amplification strategy involving a one-step 5 µl microvolume lysis/STR amplification to permit the recovery of STR profiles from the bio-particle donor(s). The use of individual or few (i.e., "clumps") bioparticles results in the ability to obtain single source profiles. These procedures represent alternative enhanced techniques for the isolation and analysis of single bioparticles from forensic touch DNA evidence. While not necessary in every forensic investigation, the method could be highly beneficial for the recovery of a single source perpetrator DNA profile in cases involving physical assault (e.g., strangulation) that may not be possible using standard analysis techniques. Additionally, the strategies developed here offer an opportunity to obtain genetic information at the single cell level from a variety of other non-forensic trace biological material.

  10. Parallel digital forensics infrastructure.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liebrock, Lorie M. (New Mexico Tech, Socorro, NM); Duggan, David Patrick


    This report documents the architecture and implementation of a Parallel Digital Forensics infrastructure. This infrastructure is necessary for supporting the design, implementation, and testing of new classes of parallel digital forensics tools. Digital Forensics has become extremely difficult with data sets of one terabyte and larger. The only way to overcome the processing time of these large sets is to identify and develop new parallel algorithms for performing the analysis. To support algorithm research, a flexible base infrastructure is required. A candidate architecture for this base infrastructure was designed, instantiated, and tested by this project, in collaboration with New Mexico Tech. Previous infrastructures were not designed and built specifically for the development and testing of parallel algorithms. With the size of forensics data sets only expected to increase significantly, this type of infrastructure support is necessary for continued research in parallel digital forensics. This report documents the implementation of the parallel digital forensics (PDF) infrastructure architecture and implementation.

  11. Analysis of plant soil seed banks and seed dispersal vectors: Its potential and limits for forensic investigations. (United States)

    Šumberová, Kateřina; Ducháček, Michal


    Plant seeds exhibit many species-specific traits, thus potentially being especially helpful for forensic investigations. Seeds of a broad range of plant species occur in soil seed banks of various habitats and may become attached in large quantities to moving objects. Although plant seeds are now routinely used as trace evidence in forensic practice, only scant information has been published on this topic in the scientific literature. Thus, the standard methods remain unknown to specialists in such botanical subjects as plant ecology and plant geography. These specialists, if made aware of the forensic uses of seeds, could help in development of new, more sophisticated approaches. We aim to bridge the gap between forensic analysts and botanists. Therefore, we explore the available literature and compare it with our own experiences to reveal both the potential and limits of soil seed bank and seed dispersal analysis in forensic investigations. We demonstrate that habitat-specific and thus relatively rare species are of the greatest forensic value. Overall species composition, in terms of species presence/absence and relative abundance can also provide important information. In particular, the ecological profiles of seeds found on any moving object can help us identify the types of environments through which the object had travelled. We discuss the applicability of this approach to various European environments, with the ability to compare seed samples with georeferenced vegetation databases being particularly promising for forensic investigations. We also explore the forensic limitations of soil seed bank and seed dispersal vector analyses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Mobile Phone Security and Forensics A Practical Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Androulidakis, Iosif I


    Mobile Phone Security and Forensics provides both theoretical and practical background of security and forensics for mobile phones. The author discusses confidentiality, integrity, and availability threats in mobile telephones to provide background for the rest of the book. Security and secrets of mobile phones are discussed including software and hardware interception, fraud and other malicious techniques used “against” users. The purpose of this book is to raise user awareness in regards to security and privacy threats present in the use of mobile phones while readers will also learn where forensics data reside in the mobile phone and the network and how to conduct a relevant analysis.

  13. The development of a tool for assessing the quality of closed circuit camera footage for use in forensic gait analysis. (United States)

    Birch, Ivan; Vernon, Wesley; Walker, Jeremy; Saxelby, Jai


    Gait analysis from closed circuit camera footage is now commonly used as evidence in criminal trials. The biomechanical analysis of human gait is a well established science in both clinical and laboratory settings. However, closed circuit camera footage is rarely of the quality of that taken in the more controlled clinical and laboratory environments. The less than ideal quality of much of this footage for use in gait analysis is associated with a range of issues, the combination of which can often render the footage unsuitable for use in gait analysis. The aim of this piece of work was to develop a tool for assessing the suitability of closed circuit camera footage for the purpose of forensic gait analysis. A Delphi technique was employed with a small sample of expert forensic gait analysis practitioners, to identify key quality elements of CCTV footage used in legal proceedings. Five elements of the footage were identified and then subdivided into 15 contributing sub-elements, each of which was scored using a 5-point Likert scale. A Microsoft Excel worksheet was developed to calculate automatically an overall score from the fifteen sub-element scores. Five expert witnesses experienced in using CCTV footage for gait analysis then trialled the prototype tool on current case footage. A repeatability study was also undertaken using standardized CCTV footage. The results showed the tool to be a simple and repeatable means of assessing the suitability of closed circuit camera footage for use in forensic gait analysis. The inappropriate use of poor quality footage could lead to challenges to the practice of forensic gait analysis. All parties involved in criminal proceedings must therefore understand the fitness for purpose of any footage used. The development of this tool could offer a method of achieving this goal, and help to assure the continued role of forensic gait analysis as an aid to the identification process. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of

  14. Microchip-based cell lysis and DNA extraction from sperm cells for application to forensic analysis. (United States)

    Bienvenue, Joan M; Duncalf, Natalie; Marchiarullo, Daniel; Ferrance, Jerome P; Landers, James P


    The current backlog of casework is among the most significant challenges facing crime laboratories at this time. While the development of next-generation microchip-based technology for expedited forensic casework analysis offers one solution to this problem, this will require the adaptation of manual, large-volume, benchtop chemistry to small volume microfluidic devices. Analysis of evidentiary materials from rape kits where semen or sperm cells are commonly found represents a unique set of challenges for on-chip cell lysis and DNA extraction that must be addressed for successful application. The work presented here details the development of a microdevice capable of DNA extraction directly from sperm cells for application to the analysis of sexual assault evidence. A variety of chemical lysing agents are assessed for inclusion in the extraction protocol and a method for DNA purification from sperm cells is described. Suitability of the extracted DNA for short tandem repeat (STR) analysis is assessed and genetic profiles shown. Finally, on-chip cell lysis methods are evaluated, with results from fluorescence visualization of cell rupture and DNA extraction from an integrated cell lysis and purification with subsequent STR amplification presented. A method for on-chip cell lysis and DNA purification is described, with considerations toward inclusion in an integrated microdevice capable of both differential cell sorting and DNA extraction. The results of this work demonstrate the feasibility of incorporating microchip-based cell lysis and DNA extraction into forensic casework analysis.

  15. Forensic psychotherapy. (United States)

    Riordan, Daniel


    This paper describes the role forensic psychotherapy has in the assessment and treatment of mentally disordered offender patients, and its role in the supervision of individual therapists, staff groups or whole organisations which contain and manage this patient population. Forensic psychotherapy has a valuable role to play in the management of mentally disordered forensic patients. As forensic services continue to develop in Australia and New Zealand and interest in this field continues to grow, then the future of forensic psychotherapy looks bright.

  16. Tourism Destinations Network Analysis, Social Network Analysis Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available The tourism industry is becoming one of the world's largest economical sources, and is expected to become the world's first industry by 2020. Previous studies have focused on several aspects of this industry including sociology, geography, tourism management and development, but have paid less attention to analytical and quantitative approaches. This study introduces some network analysis techniques and measures aiming at studying the structural characteristics of tourism networks. More specifically, it presents a methodology to analyze tourism destinations network. We apply the methodology to analyze mazandaran’s Tourism destination network, one of the most famous tourism areas of Iran.

  17. Introduction to Social Network Analysis (United States)

    Zaphiris, Panayiotis; Ang, Chee Siang

    Social Network analysis focuses on patterns of relations between and among people, organizations, states, etc. It aims to describe networks of relations as fully as possible, identify prominent patterns in such networks, trace the flow of information through them, and discover what effects these relations and networks have on people and organizations. Social network analysis offers a very promising potential for analyzing human-human interactions in online communities (discussion boards, newsgroups, virtual organizations). This Tutorial provides an overview of this analytic technique and demonstrates how it can be used in Human Computer Interaction (HCI) research and practice, focusing especially on Computer Mediated Communication (CMC). This topic acquires particular importance these days, with the increasing popularity of social networking websites (e.g., youtube, myspace, MMORPGs etc.) and the research interest in studying them.

  18. Comparative evaluation of different extraction and quantification methods for forensic RNA analysis. (United States)

    Grabmüller, Melanie; Madea, Burkhard; Courts, Cornelius


    Since about 2005, there is increasing interest in forensic RNA analysis whose versatility may very favorably complement traditional DNA profiling in forensic casework. There is, however, no method available specifically dedicated for extraction of RNA from forensically relevant sample material. In this study we compared five commercially available and commonly used RNA extraction kits and methods (mirVana™ miRNA Isolation Kit Ambion; Trizol® Reagent, Invitrogen; NucleoSpin® miRNA Kit Macherey-Nagel; AllPrep DNA/RNA Mini Kit and RNeasy® Mini Kit both Qiagen) to assess their relative effectiveness of yielding RNA of good quality and their compatibility with co-extraction of DNA amenable to STR profiling. We set up samples of small amounts of dried blood, liquid saliva, semen and buccal mucosa that were aged for different time intervals for co-extraction of RNA and DNA. RNA quality was assessed by determination of 'RNA integrity number' (RIN) and quantitative PCR based expression analysis. DNA quality was assessed via monitoring STR typing success rates. By comparison, the different methods exhibited considerable differences between RNA and DNA yields, RNA quality values and expression levels, and STR profiling success, with the AllPrep DNA/RNA Mini Kit and the NucleoSpin® miRNA Kit excelling at DNA co-extraction and RNA results, respectively. Overall, there was no 'best' method to satisfy all demands of comprehensible co-analysis of RNA and DNA and it appears that each method has specific merits and flaws. We recommend to cautiously choose from available methods and align its characteristics with the needs of the experimental setting at hand. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Passive TCP Reconstruction and Forensic Analysis with tcpflow (United States)


    the MD5 hash value of each object sent by HTTP so that the hashes can be compared with a database of malware or known content. 3.3 Live Analysis We...easy to associate each flow with the specific file used to hold the transcript. The DFXML file can be readily augmented with the MD5 hash value the...using the framework. We also provide a scan_md5 scanner to calculate the MD5 of each stream, and a scan_netviz module (§4.4) to create a visualization

  20. Paper Spray Mass Spectrometry for the Forensic Analysis of Black Ballpoint Pen Inks (United States)

    Amador, Victoria Silva; Pereira, Hebert Vinicius; Sena, Marcelo Martins; Augusti, Rodinei; Piccin, Evandro


    This article describes the use of paper spray mass spectrometry (PS-MS) for the direct analysis of black ink writings made with ballpoint pens. The novel approach was developed in a forensic context by first performing the classification of commercially available ballpoint pens according to their brands. Six of the most commonly worldwide utilized brands (Bic, Paper Mate, Faber Castell, Pentel, Compactor, and Pilot) were differentiated according to their characteristic chemical patterns obtained by PS-MS. MS on the negative ion mode at a mass range of m/ z 100-1000 allowed prompt discrimination just by visual inspection. On the other hand, the concept of relative ion intensity (RII) and the analysis at other mass ranges were necessary for the differentiation using the positive ion mode. PS-MS combined with partial least squares (PLS) was utilized to monitor changes on the ink chemical composition after light exposure (artificial aging studies). The PLS model was optimized by variable selection, which allowed the identification of the most influencing ions on the degradation process. The feasibility of the method on forensic investigations was also demonstrated in three different applications: (1) analysis of overlapped fresh ink lines, (2) analysis of old inks from archived documents, and (3) detection of alterations (simulated forgeries) performed on archived documents. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  1. Near infrared hyperspectral imaging for forensic analysis of document forgery. (United States)

    Silva, Carolina S; Pimentel, Maria Fernanda; Honorato, Ricardo S; Pasquini, Celio; Prats-Montalbán, José M; Ferrer, Alberto


    Hyperspectral images in the near infrared range (HSI-NIR) were evaluated as a nondestructive method to detect fraud in documents. Three different types of typical forgeries were simulated by (a) obliterating text, (b) adding text and (c) approaching the crossing lines problem. The simulated samples were imaged in the range of 928-2524 nm with spectral and spatial resolutions of 6.3 nm and 10 μm, respectively. After data pre-processing, different chemometric techniques were evaluated for each type of forgery. Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed to elucidate the first two types of adulteration, (a) and (b). Moreover, Multivariate Curve Resolution-Alternating Least Squares (MCR-ALS) was used in an attempt to improve the results of the type (a) obliteration and type (b) adding text problems. Finally, MCR-ALS and Partial Least Squares-Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA), employed as a variable selection tool, were used to study the type (c) forgeries, i.e. crossing lines problem. Type (a) forgeries (obliterating text) were successfully identified in 43% of the samples using both the chemometric methods (PCA and MCR-ALS). Type (b) forgeries (adding text) were successfully identified in 82% of the samples using both the methods (PCA and MCR-ALS). Finally, type (c) forgeries (crossing lines) were successfully identified in 85% of the samples. The results demonstrate the potential of HSI-NIR associated with chemometric tools to support document forgery identification.

  2. Forensic archaeology and anthropology : An Australian perspective. (United States)

    Oakley, Kate


    Forensic archaeology is an extremely powerful investigative discipline and, in combination with forensic anthropology, can provide a wealth of evidentiary information to police investigators and the forensic community. The re-emergence of forensic archaeology and anthropology within Australia relies on its diversification and cooperation with established forensic medical organizations, law enforcement forensic service divisions, and national forensic boards. This presents a unique opportunity to develop a new multidisciplinary approach to forensic archaeology/anthropology within Australia as we hold a unique set of environmental, social, and cultural conditions that diverge from overseas models and require different methodological approaches. In the current world political climate, more forensic techniques are being applied at scenes of mass disasters, genocide, and terrorism. This provides Australian forensic archaeology/anthropology with a unique opportunity to develop multidisciplinary models with contributions from psychological profiling, ballistics, sociopolitics, cultural anthropology, mortuary technicians, post-blast analysis, fire analysis, and other disciplines from the world of forensic science.

  3. Comparison of hard tissues that are useful for DNA analysis in forensic autopsy. (United States)

    Kaneko, Yu; Ohira, Hiroshi; Tsuda, Yukio; Yamada, Yoshihiro


    Forensic analysis of DNA from hard tissues can be important when investigating a variety of cases resulting from mass disaster or criminal cases. This study was conducted to evaluate the most suitable tissues, method and sample size for processing of hard tissues prior to DNA isolation. We also evaluated the elapsed time after death in relation to the quantity of DNA extracted. Samples of hard tissues (37 teeth, 42 skull, 42 rib, and 39 nails) from 42 individuals aged between 50 and 83 years were used. The samples were taken from remains following forensic autopsy (from 2 days to 2 years after death). To evaluate the integrity of the nuclear DNA isolated, the percentage of allele calls for short tandem repeat profiles were compared between the hard tissues. DNA typing results indicated that until 1 month after death, any of the four hard tissue samples could be used as an alternative to teeth, allowing analysis of all of the loci. However, in terms of the sampling site, collection method and sample size adjustment, the rib appeared to be the best choice in view of the ease of specimen preparation. Our data suggest that the rib could be an alternative hard tissue sample for DNA analysis of human remains. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Social Network Analysis with sna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carter T. Butts


    Full Text Available Modern social network analysis---the analysis of relational data arising from social systems---is a computationally intensive area of research. Here, we provide an overview of a software package which provides support for a range of network analytic functionality within the R statistical computing environment. General categories of currently supported functionality are described, and brief examples of package syntax and usage are shown.

  5. Computational Social Network Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Hassanien, Aboul-Ella


    Presents insight into the social behaviour of animals (including the study of animal tracks and learning by members of the same species). This book provides web-based evidence of social interaction, perceptual learning, information granulation and the behaviour of humans and affinities between web-based social networks

  6. Network analysis applications in hydrology (United States)

    Price, Katie


    Applied network theory has seen pronounced expansion in recent years, in fields such as epidemiology, computer science, and sociology. Concurrent development of analytical methods and frameworks has increased possibilities and tools available to researchers seeking to apply network theory to a variety of problems. While water and nutrient fluxes through stream systems clearly demonstrate a directional network structure, the hydrological applications of network theory remain under­explored. This presentation covers a review of network applications in hydrology, followed by an overview of promising network analytical tools that potentially offer new insights into conceptual modeling of hydrologic systems, identifying behavioral transition zones in stream networks and thresholds of dynamical system response. Network applications were tested along an urbanization gradient in Atlanta, Georgia, USA. Peachtree Creek and Proctor Creek. Peachtree Creek contains a nest of five long­term USGS streamflow and water quality gages, allowing network application of long­term flow statistics. The watershed spans a range of suburban and heavily urbanized conditions. Summary flow statistics and water quality metrics were analyzed using a suite of network analysis techniques, to test the conceptual modeling and predictive potential of the methodologies. Storm events and low flow dynamics during Summer 2016 were analyzed using multiple network approaches, with an emphasis on tomogravity methods. Results indicate that network theory approaches offer novel perspectives for understanding long­ term and event­based hydrological data. Key future directions for network applications include 1) optimizing data collection, 2) identifying "hotspots" of contaminant and overland flow influx to stream systems, 3) defining process domains, and 4) analyzing dynamic connectivity of various system components, including groundwater­surface water interactions.

  7. Forensic Body Fluid Identification by Analysis of Multiple RNA Markers Using NanoString Technology. (United States)

    Park, Jong-Lyul; Park, Seong-Min; Kim, Jeong-Hwan; Lee, Han-Chul; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Woo, Kwang-Man; Kim, Seon-Young


    RNA analysis has become a reliable method of body fluid identification for forensic use. Previously, we developed a combination of four multiplex quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) probes to discriminate four different body fluids (blood, semen, saliva, and vaginal secretion). While those makers successfully identified most body fluid samples, there were some cases of false positive and negative identification. To improve the accuracy of the identification further, we tried to use multiple markers per body fluid and adopted the NanoString nCounter system instead of a multiplex qRT-PCR system. After measuring tens of RNA markers, we evaluated the accuracy of each marker for body fluid identification. For body fluids, such as blood and semen, each body fluid-specific marker was accurate enough for perfect identification. However, for saliva and vaginal secretion, no single marker was perfect. Thus, we designed a logistic regression model with multiple markers for saliva and vaginal secretion and achieved almost perfect identification. In conclusion, the NanoString nCounter is an efficient platform for measuring multiple RNA markers per body fluid and will be useful for forensic RNA analysis.

  8. Forensic Body Fluid Identification by Analysis of Multiple RNA Markers Using NanoString Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Lyul Park


    Full Text Available RNA analysis has become a reliable method of body fluid identification for forensic use. Previously, we developed a combination of four multiplex quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR probes to discriminate four different body fluids (blood, semen, saliva, and vaginal secretion. While those makers successfully identified most body fluid samples, there were some cases of false positive and negative identification. To improve the accuracy of the identification further, we tried to use multiple markers per body fluid and adopted the NanoString nCounter system instead of a multiplex qRT-PCR system. After measuring tens of RNA markers, we evaluated the accuracy of each marker for body fluid identification. For body fluids, such as blood and semen, each body fluid-specific marker was accurate enough for perfect identification. However, for saliva and vaginal secretion, no single marker was perfect. Thus, we designed a logistic regression model with multiple markers for saliva and vaginal secretion and achieved almost perfect identification. In conclusion, the NanoString nCounter is an efficient platform for measuring multiple RNA markers per body fluid and will be useful for forensic RNA analysis.

  9. DNA degradation and genetic analysis of empty puparia: genetic identification limits in forensic entomology. (United States)

    Mazzanti, Morena; Alessandrini, Federica; Tagliabracci, Adriano; Wells, Jeffrey D; Campobasso, Carlo P


    Puparial cases are common remnants of necrophagous flies in crime investigations. They usually represent the longest developmental time and, therefore, they can be very useful for the estimation of the post-mortem interval (PMI). However, before any PMI estimate, it is crucial to identify the species of fly eclosed from each puparium associated with the corpse. Morphological characteristics of the puparium are often distinctive enough to permit a species identification. But, even an accurate morphological analysis of empty puparia cannot discriminate among different species of closely related flies. Furthermore, morphological identification may be impossible if the fly puparia are poorly preserved or in fragments. This study explores the applicability of biomolecular techniques on empty puparia and their fragments for identification purposes. A total of 63 empty puparia of necrophagous Diptera resulting from forensic casework were examined. Samples were divided into three groups according to size, type and time of eclosion in order to verify whether the physical characteristics and puparia weathering can influence the amount of DNA extraction. The results suggest that a reliable genetic identification of forensically important flies may also be performed from empty puparia and/or their fragments. However, DNA degradation can deeply compromise the genetic analysis since the older the fly puparia, the smaller are the amplified fragments. 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Forensic ancestry analysis with two capillary electrophoresis ancestry informative marker (AIM) panels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santos, C; Fondevila, M; Ballard, D


    There is increasing interest in forensic ancestry tests, which are part of a growing number of DNA analyses that can enhance routine profiling by obtaining additional genetic information about unidentified DNA donors. Nearly all ancestry tests use single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), but these......There is increasing interest in forensic ancestry tests, which are part of a growing number of DNA analyses that can enhance routine profiling by obtaining additional genetic information about unidentified DNA donors. Nearly all ancestry tests use single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs...... SNaPshot and a 46-plex Indel test using PCR-to-CE. Laboratories were asked to type five samples with different ancestries and detect an additional mixed DNA sample. Statistical inference of ancestry was made by participants using the Snipper online Bayes analysis portal plus an optional PCA module......'s data) that rose to 97.3% excluding one laboratory with a large number of miscalled genotypes. Indel genotyping gave a higher concordance rate of 99.8% and a reduced no-call rate compared to SNP analysis. All participants detected the mixture from their Indel peak height data and successfully assigned...

  11. Morphological, spectral and chromatography analysis and forensic comparison of PET fibers. (United States)

    Farah, Shady; Tsach, Tsadok; Bentolila, Alfonso; Domb, Abraham J


    Poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) fiber analysis and comparison by spectral and polymer molecular weight determination was investigated. Plain fibers of PET, a common textile fiber and plastic material was chosen for this study. The fibers were analyzed for morphological (SEM and AFM), spectral (IR and NMR), thermal (DSC) and molecular weight (MS and GPC) differences. Molecular analysis of PET fibers by Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC) allowed the comparison of fibers that could not be otherwise distinguished with high confidence. Plain PET fibers were dissolved in hexafluoroisopropanol (HFIP) and analyzed by GPC using hexafluoroisopropanol:chloroform 2:98 v/v as eluent. 14 PET fiber samples, collected from various commercial producers, were analyzed for polymer molecular weight by GPC. Distinct differences in the molecular weight of the different fiber samples were found which may have potential use in forensic fiber comparison. PET fibers with average molecular weights between about 20,000 and 70,000 g mol(-1) were determined using fiber concentrations in HFIP as low as 1 μg mL(-1). This GPC analytical method can be applied for exclusively distinguish between PET fibers using 1 μg of fiber. This method can be extended to forensic comparison of other synthetic fibers such as polyamides and acrylics. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. A fully integrated microchip system for automated forensic short tandem repeat analysis. (United States)

    Han, Junping; Gan, Wupeng; Zhuang, Bin; Sun, Jing; Zhao, Lei; Ye, Jian; Liu, Yao; Li, Cai-Xia; Liu, Peng


    We have successfully developed an integrated microsystem that combines two plastic microchips for DNA extraction and PCR amplification with a glass capillary array electrophoresis chip together in a compact control and detection instrument for automated forensic short tandem repeat (STR) analysis. DNA extraction followed by an "in situ PCR" was conducted in a single reaction chamber of the microchip based on a filter paper-based extraction methodology. PCR products were then mixed with sizing standards by an injection electrode and injected into the electrophoresis chip for four-color confocal fluorescence detection. The entire STR analysis can be completed in about two hours without any human intervention. Since the 15-plex STR system has a more stringent requirement for PCR efficiency, we optimized the structure of the plastic DNA extraction and amplification chip, in which the reaction chamber was formed by sandwiching a hollow structure layer with two blank cover layers, to reduce the adsorption of PCR reagents to the surfaces. In addition, PCR additives, bovine serum albumin, poly(ethylene glycol), and more magnesium chloride were included into the on-chip multiplex STR system. The limit-of-detection study demonstrated that our microsystem was able to produce full 15-plex STR profiles from 3.75 ng standard K562 DNA. Buccal swab and whole blood samples were also successfully typed by our system, validating the feasibility of performing rapid DNA typing in a "sample-in-answer-out" manner for on-site forensic human identification.

  13. Differentiation of five body fluids from forensic samples by expression analysis of four microRNAs using quantitative PCR. (United States)

    Sauer, Eva; Reinke, Ann-Kathrin; Courts, Cornelius


    Applying molecular genetic approaches for the identification of forensically relevant body fluids, which often yield crucial information for the reconstruction of a potential crime, is a current topic of forensic research. Due to their body fluid specific expression patterns and stability against degradation, microRNAs (miRNA) emerged as a promising molecular species, with a range of candidate markers published. The analysis of miRNA via quantitative Real-Time PCR, however, should be based on a relevant strategy of normalization of non-biological variances to deliver reliable and biologically meaningful results. The herein presented work is the as yet most comprehensive study of forensic body fluid identification via miRNA expression analysis based on a thoroughly validated qPCR procedure and unbiased statistical decision making to identify single source samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The power of contextual effects in forensic anthropology: a study of biasability in the visual interpretations of trauma analysis on skeletal remains. (United States)

    Nakhaeizadeh, Sherry; Hanson, Ian; Dozzi, Nathalie


    The potential for contextual information to bias assessments in the forensic sciences has been demonstrated, in several forensic disiplines. In this paper, biasability potential within forensic anthropology was examined by analyzing the effects of external manipulations on judgments and decision-making in visual trauma assessment. Three separate websites were created containing fourteen identical images. Participants were randomly assigned to one website. Each website provided different contextual information, to assess variation of interpretation of the same images between contexts. The results indicated a higher scoring of trauma identification responses for the Mass grave context. Furthermore, a significant biasing effect was detected in the interpretation of four images. Less experienced participants were more likely to indicate presence of trauma. This research demonstrates bias impact in forensic anthropological trauma assessments and highlights the importance of recognizing and limiting cognitive vulnerabilities that forensic anthropologists might bring to the analysis. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  15. Forensic DNA Analysis of Wheat Flour as Commonly Used in White Powder Cases. (United States)

    Kikkawa, Hitomi S; Tahara, Makoto; Sugita, Ritsuko


    In the wake of terrorist attacks using anthrax and ricin, white powder is often encountered in cases of malicious mischief and terrorist threats. Wheat flour is a common white powder encountered in such criminal investigations. We used DNA analysis to investigate wheat flour samples for identification and discrimination as trace evidence. Species identification of commercially available wheat flour was carried out by sequencing a partial region of the ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase large subunit gene (rbcL). Samples were discriminated using short tandem repeat (STR) analysis. The rbcL sequences of all wheat flour samples were identical and showed a high level of similarity to known wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) sequences. Furthermore, flours had characteristic patterns in STR analyses, with specific cultivars showing distinctive patterns. These results suggested that the identification of wheat flour species is possible using rbcL sequencing, and that STR analysis is useful for discriminating between samples. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  16. Topological analysis of telecommunications networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milojko V. Jevtović


    Full Text Available A topological analysis of the structure of telecommunications networks is a very interesting topic in the network research, but also a key issue in their design and planning. Satisfying multiple criteria in terms of locations of switching nodes as well as their connectivity with respect to the requests for capacity, transmission speed, reliability, availability and cost are the main research objectives. There are three ways of presenting the topology of telecommunications networks: table, matrix or graph method. The table method is suitable for a network of a relatively small number of nodes in relation to the number of links. The matrix method involves the formation of a connection matrix in which its columns present source traffic nodes and its rows are the switching systems that belong to the destination. The method of the topology graph means that the network nodes are connected via directional or unidirectional links. We can thus easily analyze the structural parameters of telecommunications networks. This paper presents the mathematical analysis of the star-, ring-, fully connected loop- and grid (matrix-shaped topology as well as the topology based on the shortest path tree. For each of these topologies, the expressions for determining the number of branches, the middle level of reliability, the medium length and the average length of the link are given in tables. For the fully connected loop network with five nodes the values of all topological parameters are calculated. Based on the topological parameters, the relationships that represent integral and distributed indicators of reliability are given in this work as well as the values of the particular network. The main objectives of the topology optimization of telecommunications networks are: achieving the minimum complexity, maximum capacity, the shortest path message transfer, the maximum speed of communication and maximum economy. The performance of telecommunications networks is

  17. Fatal poisoning by butane sniffing: A forensic analysis and immunohistochemical detection of myocardial hypoxic damage. (United States)

    Ventura, Francesco; Barranco, Rosario; Landolfa, Maria Celeste; Gallo, Massimo; Castiglione, Andrea Gianelli; Orcioni, Giulio Fraternali; De Stefano, Francesco


    Although less widespread than twenty years ago, inhalant abuse remains an on-going problem, whose incidence among U.S. teenagers and young adults ranges from 10 to 15%. Death due to the inhalation of vapor from halogenated hydrocarbons is a well-known phenomenon, yet few cases of fatal butane-gas poisoning have been described. Many cases of volatile substance abuse in prison populations have been reported: drug-addicted inmates often resort to this alternative practice when unable to get their habitual drugs of abuse. A similar pattern occurs especially among adolescents. The study herein described was conducted including all cases of fatal acute intoxication of butane gas examined from 2007 to 2015 at the Institute of Legal Medicine and Forensic Sciences of the University of Genoa. In the absence of overt and specific macroscopic and histological findings indicating cause and pathological mechanism of death, we aimed to assess whether recent cardiac lesions were detectable by way of immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis. Specifically, fibronectin and troponin C expression in myocardial tissues were investigated in deaths from acute butane-gas poisoning so as to better define the underlying pathological mechanisms. IHC findings were indicative of hypoxic cardiac damage. In all cases, positivity to fibronectin and mildly to moderately reduced troponin C expression in cardiac muscle cells were immunohistochemically ascertained. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  18. Forensic analysis of explosives using isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS)--discrimination of ammonium nitrate sources. (United States)

    Benson, Sarah J; Lennard, Christopher J; Maynard, Philip; Hill, David M; Andrew, Anita S; Roux, Claude


    An evaluation was undertaken to determine if isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) could assist in the investigation of complex forensic cases by providing a level of discrimination not achievable utilising traditional forensic techniques. The focus of the research was on ammonium nitrate (AN), a common oxidiser used in improvised explosive mixtures. The potential value of IRMS to attribute Australian AN samples to the manufacturing source was demonstrated through the development of a preliminary AN classification scheme based on nitrogen isotopes. Although the discrimination utilising nitrogen isotopes alone was limited and only relevant to samples from the three Australian manufacturers during the evaluated time period, the classification scheme has potential as an investigative aid. Combining oxygen and hydrogen stable isotope values permitted the differentiation of AN prills from three different Australian manufacturers. Samples from five different overseas sources could be differentiated utilising a combination of the nitrogen, oxygen and hydrogen isotope values. Limited differentiation between Australian and overseas prills was achieved for the samples analysed. The comparison of nitrogen isotope values from intact AN prill samples with those from post-blast AN prill residues highlighted that the nitrogen isotopic composition of the prills was not maintained post-blast; hence, limiting the technique to analysis of un-reacted explosive material.

  19. [Forensic Analysis of 63 Cases of Non-violent Death Occurred in Custody]. (United States)

    Yang, S M; Cheng, Y B


    To collect cases of non-violent death occurred in custody for analyzing the forensic characteristics and related influencing factors. Sixty-three cases of non-violent death among detainees in custody that handled by a forensic science center from 2000 to 2015 were collected. The type, onset season, medical history, clinical manifestation, treatment and duration of related fatal diseases were analyzed retrospectively. The deaths due to diseases in custody were common in male, and with a high incidence in middle aged adults. The most common cause of death was cardiac death (50.8%). Chronic inflammatory diseases such as gastrointestinal perforation, pulmonary tuberculosis, pneumonia, hepatitis and pancreatitis, were common. There was a peak incidence in summer. The acute symptoms included sudden onset during sleep and sudden apsychia, and emesis, abdominal pain, fatigue, chest tightness, shortness of breath, fever and anorexia were the most common chronic symptoms. The management system, custody condition, medical level and rescue rudiment of custody still need improvements. It should be pay more attention to collecting the information of medical history, autopsy, histological examination and toxicological analysis, etc.

  20. Book Review: Mac OS X, iPod, and iPhone Forensic Analysis DVD Toolkit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Kessler


    Full Text Available Varsalone, J. (Tech. Ed., Kubasiak, R.R., Morrissey, S., et al. (2009. Mac OS X, iPod, and iPhone Forensic Analysis DVD Toolkit. Burlington, MA: Syngress. 551 + xix pages, ISBN: 978-1-59749-297-3, US$59.95.Reviewed by Gary C. Kessler (gary.kessler@champlain.eduAt last! A quality book about computer forensics for Apple products! Alas, I get ahead of myself.Apple's hold on the personal computer marketplace started dwindling on August 12, 1981, the day that the IBM PC was introduced. As an Apple ][+ bigot myself, I refused to touch a PC for some years. But I was also a command line bigot, so when the first Macintosh was introduced in 1983 and hermetically sealed the operating system from users, I did not go out and buy one. In fact, like many of my era, I did eventually end up on the PC side which, ironically, let me do many of the things that my trusty Apple ][+ had in earlier times -- write code, play with the hardware, and, indeed, get to a command line. And, of course, tons of application developers flocked to the PC because of its open architecture.(see PDF for full review

  1. From forensic epigenetics to forensic epigenomics: broadening DNA investigative intelligence. (United States)

    Vidaki, Athina; Kayser, Manfred


    Human genetic variation is a major resource in forensics, but does not allow all forensically relevant questions to be answered. Some questions may instead be addressable via epigenomics, as the epigenome acts as an interphase between the fixed genome and the dynamic environment. We envision future forensic applications of DNA methylation analysis that will broaden DNA-based forensic intelligence. Together with genetic prediction of appearance and biogeographic ancestry, epigenomic lifestyle prediction is expected to increase the ability of police to find unknown perpetrators of crime who are not identifiable using current forensic DNA profiling.

  2. Forensic odontology. (United States)

    Shamim, Thorakkal


    Forensic odontology is a specialized field of dentistry which analyses dental evidence in the interest of justice. Forensic odontology embraces all dental specialities and it is almost impossible to segregate this branch from other dental specialities. This review aims to discuss the utility of various dental specialities with forensic odontology.

  3. Analysis of neural networks

    CERN Document Server

    Heiden, Uwe


    The purpose of this work is a unified and general treatment of activity in neural networks from a mathematical pOint of view. Possible applications of the theory presented are indica­ ted throughout the text. However, they are not explored in de­ tail for two reasons : first, the universal character of n- ral activity in nearly all animals requires some type of a general approach~ secondly, the mathematical perspicuity would suffer if too many experimental details and empirical peculiarities were interspersed among the mathematical investigation. A guide to many applications is supplied by the references concerning a variety of specific issues. Of course the theory does not aim at covering all individual problems. Moreover there are other approaches to neural network theory (see e.g. Poggio-Torre, 1978) based on the different lev­ els at which the nervous system may be viewed. The theory is a deterministic one reflecting the average be­ havior of neurons or neuron pools. In this respect the essay is writt...

  4. Secure and robust cloud computing for high-throughput forensic microsatellite sequence analysis and databasing. (United States)

    Bailey, Sarah F; Scheible, Melissa K; Williams, Christopher; Silva, Deborah S B S; Hoggan, Marina; Eichman, Christopher; Faith, Seth A


    Next-generation Sequencing (NGS) is a rapidly evolving technology with demonstrated benefits for forensic genetic applications, and the strategies to analyze and manage the massive NGS datasets are currently in development. Here, the computing, data storage, connectivity, and security resources of the Cloud were evaluated as a model for forensic laboratory systems that produce NGS data. A complete front-to-end Cloud system was developed to upload, process, and interpret raw NGS data using a web browser dashboard. The system was extensible, demonstrating analysis capabilities of autosomal and Y-STRs from a variety of NGS instrumentation (Illumina MiniSeq and MiSeq, and Oxford Nanopore MinION). NGS data for STRs were concordant with standard reference materials previously characterized with capillary electrophoresis and Sanger sequencing. The computing power of the Cloud was implemented with on-demand auto-scaling to allow multiple file analysis in tandem. The system was designed to store resulting data in a relational database, amenable to downstream sample interpretations and databasing applications following the most recent guidelines in nomenclature for sequenced alleles. Lastly, a multi-layered Cloud security architecture was tested and showed that industry standards for securing data and computing resources were readily applied to the NGS system without disadvantageous effects for bioinformatic analysis, connectivity or data storage/retrieval. The results of this study demonstrate the feasibility of using Cloud-based systems for secured NGS data analysis, storage, databasing, and multi-user distributed connectivity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Insights Gained from Forensic Analysis with MELCOR of the Fukushima-Daiichi Accidents.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrews, Nathan C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gauntt, Randall O. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    Since the accidents at Fukushima-Daiichi, Sandia National Laboratories has been modeling these accident scenarios using the severe accident analysis code, MELCOR. MELCOR is a widely used computer code developed at Sandia National Laboratories since ~1982 for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Insights from the modeling of these accidents is being used to better inform future code development and potentially improved accident management. To date, our necessity to better capture in-vessel thermal-hydraulic and ex-vessel melt coolability and concrete interactions has led to the implementation of new models. The most recent analyses, presented in this paper, have been in support of the of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development Nuclear Energy Agency’s (OECD/NEA) Benchmark Study of the Accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (BSAF) Project. The goal of this project is to accurately capture the source term from all three releases and then model the atmospheric dispersion. In order to do this, a forensic approach is being used in which available plant data and release timings is being used to inform the modeled MELCOR accident scenario. For example, containment failures, core slumping events and lower head failure timings are all enforced parameters in these analyses. This approach is fundamentally different from a blind code assessment analysis often used in standard problem exercises. The timings of these events are informed by representative spikes or decreases in plant data. The combination of improvements to the MELCOR source code resulting from analysis previous accident analysis and this forensic approach has allowed Sandia to generate representative and plausible source terms for all three accidents at Fukushima Daiichi out to three weeks after the accident to capture both early and late releases. In particular, using the source terms developed by MELCOR, the MACCS software code, which models atmospheric dispersion and

  6. Statistical network analysis for analyzing policy networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robins, Garry; Lewis, Jenny; Wang, Peng


    To analyze social network data using standard statistical approaches is to risk incorrect inference. The dependencies among observations implied in a network conceptualization undermine standard assumptions of the usual general linear models. One of the most quickly expanding areas of social...... and policy network methodology is the development of statistical modeling approaches that can accommodate such dependent data. In this article, we review three network statistical methods commonly used in the current literature: quadratic assignment procedures, exponential random graph models (ERGMs...

  7. Forensic discrimination of vaginal epithelia by DNA methylation analysis through pyrosequencing. (United States)

    Antunes, Joana; Silva, Deborah S B S; Balamurugan, Kuppareddi; Duncan, George; Alho, Clarice S; McCord, Bruce


    The accurate identification of body fluids from crime scenes can aid in the discrimination between criminal and innocent intent. This research aimed to determine if the levels of DNA methylation in the locus PFN3A could be used to discriminate vaginal epithelia from other body fluids. In this work we bisulfite-modified and amplified DNA samples from blood, saliva, semen, and vaginal epithelia using primers for PFN3A. Through pyrosequencing we were able to show that vaginal epithelia present distinct methylation levels when compared to other body fluids. Mixtures of different body fluids present methylation values that correlate with single-source body fluid samples and the primers for PFN3A are specific for primates. This report successfully demonstrated that the analysis of methylation in the PFN3A locus can be used for vaginal epithelia discrimination in forensic samples. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Frequency of forensic toxicological analysis in external cause deaths among nursing home residents: an analysis of trends. (United States)

    Aitken, Georgia; Murphy, Briony; Pilgrim, Jennifer; Bugeja, Lyndal; Ranson, David; Ibrahim, Joseph Elias


    There is a paucity of research examining the utility of forensic toxicology in the investigation of premature external cause deaths of residents in nursing homes. The aim of this study is to describe the frequency and characteristics of toxicological analysis conducted in external cause (injury-related) deaths amongst nursing home residents in Victoria, Australia. This study was a retrospective cohort study examining external cause deaths among nursing home residents during the period July 1, 2000 to December 31, 2012 in Victoria, Australia, using the National Coronial Information System (NCIS). The variables examined comprised: sex, age group, year-of-death, cause and manner of death. One-third of deaths among nursing home residents in Victoria resulted from external causes (n = 1296, 33.3%) of which just over one-quarter (361, 27.9%) underwent toxicological analysis as part of the medical death investigation. The use of toxicological analysis varied by cause of death with a relatively low proportion conducted in deaths from unintentional falls (n = 286, 24.9%) and choking (n = 36, 40.4%). The use of toxicological analysis decreased as the decedents age increased. Forensic toxicology has the potential to contribute to improving our understanding of premature deaths in nursing home residents however it remains under used and is possibly undervalued.

  9. Forensic Analysis of Venezuelan Elections during the Chávez Presidency (United States)

    Jiménez, Raúl; Hidalgo, Manuel


    Hugo Chávez dominated the Venezuelan electoral landscape since his first presidential victory in 1998 until his death in 2013. Nobody doubts that he always received considerable voter support in the numerous elections held during his mandate. However, the integrity of the electoral system has come into question since the 2004 Presidential Recall Referendum. From then on, different sectors of society have systematically alleged electoral irregularities or biases in favor of the incumbent party. We have carried out a thorough forensic analysis of the national-level Venezuelan electoral processes held during the 1998–2012 period to assess these complaints. The second-digit Benford's law and two statistical models of vote distributions, recently introduced in the literature, are reviewed and used in our case study. In addition, we discuss a new method to detect irregular variations in the electoral roll. The outputs obtained from these election forensic tools are examined taking into account the substantive context of the elections and referenda under study. Thus, we reach two main conclusions. Firstly, all the tools uncover anomalous statistical patterns, which are consistent with election fraud from 2004 onwards. Although our results are not a concluding proof of fraud, they signal the Recall Referendum as a turning point in the integrity of the Venezuelan elections. Secondly, our analysis calls into question the reliability of the electoral register since 2004. In particular, we found irregular variations in the electoral roll that were decisive in winning the 50% majority in the 2004 Referendum and in the 2012 Presidential Elections. PMID:24971462

  10. Forensic analysis of Venezuelan elections during the Chávez presidency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Jiménez

    Full Text Available Hugo Chávez dominated the Venezuelan electoral landscape since his first presidential victory in 1998 until his death in 2013. Nobody doubts that he always received considerable voter support in the numerous elections held during his mandate. However, the integrity of the electoral system has come into question since the 2004 Presidential Recall Referendum. From then on, different sectors of society have systematically alleged electoral irregularities or biases in favor of the incumbent party. We have carried out a thorough forensic analysis of the national-level Venezuelan electoral processes held during the 1998-2012 period to assess these complaints. The second-digit Benford's law and two statistical models of vote distributions, recently introduced in the literature, are reviewed and used in our case study. In addition, we discuss a new method to detect irregular variations in the electoral roll. The outputs obtained from these election forensic tools are examined taking into account the substantive context of the elections and referenda under study. Thus, we reach two main conclusions. Firstly, all the tools uncover anomalous statistical patterns, which are consistent with election fraud from 2004 onwards. Although our results are not a concluding proof of fraud, they signal the Recall Referendum as a turning point in the integrity of the Venezuelan elections. Secondly, our analysis calls into question the reliability of the electoral register since 2004. In particular, we found irregular variations in the electoral roll that were decisive in winning the 50% majority in the 2004 Referendum and in the 2012 Presidential Elections.

  11. NEAT : an efficient network enrichment analysis test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Signorelli, Mirko; Vinciotti, Veronica; Wit, Ernst C


    BACKGROUND: Network enrichment analysis is a powerful method, which allows to integrate gene enrichment analysis with the information on relationships between genes that is provided by gene networks. Existing tests for network enrichment analysis deal only with undirected networks, they can be

  12. Analysis of fingerprint samples, testing various conditions, for forensic DNA identification. (United States)

    Ostojic, Lana; Wurmbach, Elisa


    Fingerprints can be of tremendous value for forensic biology, since they can be collected from a wide variety of evident types, such as handles of weapons, tools collected in criminal cases, and objects with no apparent staining. DNA obtained from fingerprints varies greatly in quality and quantity, which ultimately affects the quality of the resulting STR profiles. Additional difficulties can arise when fingerprint samples show mixed STR profiles due to the handling of multiple persons. After applying a tested protocol for sample collection (swabbing with 5% Triton X-100), DNA extraction (using an enzyme that works at elevated temperatures), and PCR amplification (AmpFlSTR® Identifiler® using 31cycles) extensive analysis was performed to better understand the challenges inherent to fingerprint samples, with the ultimate goal of developing valuable profiles (≥50% complete). The impact of time on deposited fingerprints was investigated, revealing that while the quality of profiles deteriorated, full STR profiles could still be obtained from samples after 40days of storage at room temperature. By comparing the STR profiles from fingerprints of the dominant versus the non-dominant hand, we found a slightly better quality from the non-dominant hand, which was not always significant. Substrates seem to have greater effects on fingerprints. Tests on glass, plastic, paper and metal (US Quarter dollar, made of Cu and Ni), common substrates in offices and homes, showed best results for glass, followed by plastic and paper, while almost no profiles were obtained from a Quarter dollar. Important for forensic casework, we also assessed three-person mixtures of touched fingerprint samples. Unlike routinely used approaches for sampling evidence, the surface of an object (bottle) was sectioned into six equal parts and separate samples were taken from each section. The samples were processed separately for DNA extraction and STR amplification. The results included a few single

  13. Effects of subpopulation structure on probability calculations of DNA profiles from forensic PCR analysis. (United States)

    Gallo, J C; Thomas, E; Novick, G E; Herrera, R J


    DNA typing for forensic identification is a two-step process. The first step involves determining the profiles of samples collected at the crime scene and comparing them with the profiles obtained from suspects and the victims. In the case of a match that includes the suspect as the potential source of the material collected at the crime scene, the last step in the process is to answer the question, what is the likelihood that someone in addition to the suspect could match the profile of the sample studied? This likelihood is calculated by determining the frequency of the suspect's profile in the relevant population databases. The design of forensic databases and the criteria for comparison has been addressed by the NRC report of 1996 (National Research Council, 1996). However, the fact that geographical proximity, migrational patterns, and even cultural and social practices have effects on subpopulation structure establishes the grounds for further study into its effects on the calculation of probability of occurrence values. The issue becomes more relevant in the case of discrete polymorphic markers that show higher probability of occurrence in the reference populations, where several orders of magnitude difference between the databases may have an impact on the jury. In this study, we calculated G values for all possible pairwise comparisons of allelic frequencies in the different databases from the races or subpopulations examined. In addition, we analyzed a set of 24 unrelated Caucasian, 37 unrelated African-American, and 96 unrelated Sioux/Chippewa individuals for seven polymorphic loci (DQA1, LDLR, GYPA, HBGG, D7S8, GC, and D1S80). All three sets of individuals where sampled from Minnesota. The probability of occurrence for all seven loci were calculated with respect to nine different databases: Caucasian, Arabic, Korean, Sioux/Chippewa, Navajo, Pueblo, African American, Southeastern Hispanic, and Southwestern Hispanic. Analysis of the results demonstrated

  14. Environmental Forensics : Compound Specific Isotope Analysis Of PAHs. Study Of A Former Coal Tar Plant. (United States)

    Assal, A.; Doherty, R.; Dickson, K.; Kalin, R. M.


    Stable carbon isotopic fingerprints of PAHs obtained by GC-IRMS have often been used in source apportionment studies. The use of PAHs in environmental forensics relies on the assumption that carbon isotopic fractionation caused by microbial degradation is less significant for these heavy molecular weight compounds than for lighter molecules such as chlorinated solvents or BTEX. Carbon isotopic fractionation of PAHs during degradation is still not well understood. The aim of this study was to assess the potential of CSIA of PAHs for environmental forensics applications at a complex (hydrogeology affected by tidal fluxes) former coal tar plant. In this work, soil samples from a tar works site were analyzed. The tar works operated on the site over a period of sixty years. A source apportionment study was first carried out based on 90 target PAHs quantified by GC-MS. These results were then compared to carbon isotope fingerprints. The separation of compounds of interest from co-extracted interfering peaks is a crucial prerequisite of CSIA by GC-IRMS. Hence, a sample preparation method which allowed the determination of precise carbon isotope signatures for up to 35 compounds per soil extract was developed, validated and applied to the samples previously analyzed by GC- MS. Although most soil samples were shown to be related to the point source tar contamination, PAHs ratios and principal component analysis of abundances highlighted some samples with unusual patterns, suggesting the input of a second source of contaminants. However, no statistically significant variation of the isotopic fingerprints of heavy molecular weight PAHs of these samples was observed. This was inconsistent with the first diagnosis. Since evidence was provided that most samples were only affected by a single source of contaminants, carbon isotopic fractionation was investigated in-situ. Importantly, naphthalene and 2- and 1- methylnaphthalenes isotopic fractionation was observed in a vertical

  15. Error rates in forensic DNA analysis: Definition, numbers, impact and communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloosterman, A.; Sjerps, M.; Quak, A.


    Forensic DNA casework is currently regarded as one of the most important types of forensic evidence, and important decisions in intelligence and justice are based on it. However, errors occasionally occur and may have very serious consequences. In other domains, error rates have been defined and

  16. Analysis of Layered Social Networks (United States)


    xiii List of Abbreviations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xv I. Introduction ...Islamiya JP Joint Publication JTC Joint Targeting Cycle KPP Key Player Problem MCDM Multi-Criteria Decision Making MP Mathematical Programming MST...ANALYSIS OF LAYERED SOCIAL NETWORKS I. Introduction “To know them means to eliminate them” - Colonel Mathieu in the movie, Battle of Algiers

  17. Vitreous humour - routine or alternative material for analysis in forensic medicine. (United States)

    Markowska, Joanna; Szopa, Monika; Zawadzki, Marcin; Piekoszewski, Wojciech


    Biological materials used in toxicological analyses in forensic medicine traditionally include blood, urine and vitreous humour. Forensic use of the vitreous body is mostly due to the need to assess the endogenous concentration of ethyl alcohol in the process of human body decomposition. The vitreous body is an underestimated biological material, even though its biochemical properties and anatomical location make it suitable for specific forensic toxicology tests as a reliable material for the preparation of forensic expert opinions. Based on the available literature the paper gathers information on the biochemical structure of the vitreous body, ways to secure the material after collection and its use in postmortem diagnostics. Specific applications of the vitreous humour for biochemical and toxicological tests are discussed, with a focus on its advantages and limitations in forensic medical assessment which are attributable to its biochemical properties, anatomical location and limited scientific studies on the distribution of xenobiotics in the vitreous body.

  18. Statistical analysis of network data with R

    CERN Document Server

    Kolaczyk, Eric D


    Networks have permeated everyday life through everyday realities like the Internet, social networks, and viral marketing. As such, network analysis is an important growth area in the quantitative sciences, with roots in social network analysis going back to the 1930s and graph theory going back centuries. Measurement and analysis are integral components of network research. As a result, statistical methods play a critical role in network analysis. This book is the first of its kind in network research. It can be used as a stand-alone resource in which multiple R packages are used to illustrate how to conduct a wide range of network analyses, from basic manipulation and visualization, to summary and characterization, to modeling of network data. The central package is igraph, which provides extensive capabilities for studying network graphs in R. This text builds on Eric D. Kolaczyk’s book Statistical Analysis of Network Data (Springer, 2009).

  19. Forensic analysis methodology for thermal and chemical characterization of homemade explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nazarian, Ashot; Presser, Cary, E-mail:


    Highlights: • Identification of homemade explosives (HME) is critical for determining the origin of explosive precursor materials. • A novel laser-heating technique was used to obtain the thermal/chemical signatures of HME precursor materials. • Liquid-fuel saturation of the pores of a solid porous oxidizer affected the total specific heat release. • Material thermal signatures were dependent on sample mass and heating rate. • This laser-heating technique can be a useful diagnostic tool for characterizing the thermochemical behavior of HMEs. - Abstract: Forensic identification of homemade explosives is critical for determining the origin of the explosive materials and precursors, and formulation procedures. Normally, the forensic examination of the pre- and post-blast physical evidence lacks specificity for homemade-explosive identification. The focus of this investigation was to use a novel measurement technique, referred to as the laser-driven thermal reactor, to obtain the thermal/chemical signatures of homemade-explosive precursor materials. Specifically, nitromethane and ammonium nitrate were studied under a variety of operating conditions and protocols. Results indicated that liquid-fuel saturation of the internal pores of a solid particle oxidizer appear to be a limiting parameter for the total specific heat release during exothermic processes. Results also indicated that the thermal signatures of these materials are dependent on sample mass and heating rate, for which this dependency may not be detectable by other commercially available thermal analysis techniques. This study has demonstrated that the laser-driven thermal reactor can be a useful diagnostic tool for characterizing the thermal and chemical behavior of trace amounts of homemade-explosive materials.

  20. Near real time Forensic Disaster Analysis of the central European flood in June 2013 in Germany: Impact and management (United States)

    Khazai, Bijan; Bessel, Tina; Möhrle, Stella; Dittrich, André; Schröter, Kai; Mühr, Bernhard; Elmer, Florian; Kunz-Plapp, Tina; Trieselmann, Werner; Kunz, Michael


    Within its current research activity on near real time Forensic Disaster Analysis (FDA), researchers from the Center for Disaster Management and Risk Reduction Technology (CEDIM) aim to identify major risk drivers and to understand the root causes of disaster and infer the implications for disaster mitigation. A key component of this activity is the development of rapid assessment tools which allow for a science based estimate of disaster impacts. The central European flood in June 2013 caused in Germany severe damage to buildings, infrastructure and agricultural lands and has had a great impact on people, transportation and the economy. In many areas thousands of people were evacuated. Electrical grid and local water supply utilities failed during the floods. Furthermore, traffic was disrupted in the interregional transportation network including federal highways and long distance railways. CEDIM analysed the impact and management of the flood event within an FDA activity. An analysis on the amount and spatial distribution of flood-related Twitter messages in Germany revealed a high interest in the flood in the social media. Furthermore, an analysis of the resilience of selected affected areas in Germany has been carried out to assess the impact of the flood on the district level. The resilience indicator is based on social, economic and institutional indicators which are supplemented with information on the number of people evacuated and transportation disruptions. Combined with the magnitude of the event, an index is calculated that allows for a rapid initial but preliminary estimate of the flood impact. Results show high resilience of the administrative districts along the Danube while heavy impacts are seen along the Mulde and Elbe.

  1. Testing inter-observer reliability of the Transition Analysis aging method on the William M. Bass forensic skeletal collection. (United States)

    Fojas, Christina L; Kim, Jieun; Minsky-Rowland, Jocelyn D; Algee-Hewitt, Bridget F B


    Skeletal age estimation is an integral part of the biological profile. Recent work shows how multiple-trait approaches better capture senescence as it occurs at different rates among individuals. Furthermore, a Bayesian statistical framework of analysis provides more useful age estimates. The component-scoring method of Transition Analysis (TA) may resolve many of the functional and statistical limitations of traditional phase-aging methods and is applicable to both paleodemography and forensic casework. The present study contributes to TA-research by validating TA for multiple, differently experienced observers using a collection of modern forensic skeletal cases. Five researchers independently applied TA to a random sample of 58 documented individuals from the William M. Bass Forensic Skeletal Collection, for whom knowledge of chronological age was withheld. Resulting scores were input into the ADBOU software and maximum likelihood estimates (MLEs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were produced using the forensic prior. Krippendorff's alpha was used to evaluate interrater reliability and agreement. Inaccuracy and bias were measured to gauge the magnitude and direction of difference between estimated ages and chronological ages among the five observers. The majority of traits had moderate to excellent agreement among observers (≥0.6). The superior surface morphology had the least congruence (0.4), while the ventral symphyseal margin had the most (0.9) among scores. Inaccuracy was the lowest for individuals younger than 30 and the greatest for individuals over 60. Consistent over-estimation of individuals younger than 30 and under-estimation of individuals over 40 years old occurred. Individuals in their 30s showed a mixed pattern of under- and over-estimation among observers. These results support the use of the TA method by researchers of varying experience levels. Further, they validate its use on forensic cases, given the low error overall. © 2017 Wiley

  2. Forensic ballistics


    Hoznour, Ondřej


    - 1 - 9. Abstract Forensic ballistics The goal of this thesis is to initiate readers into the branch of criminalistic or forensic ballistics and to its basic terminology. It is not possible to compile this theme at full length, there is no sufficient space for it, therefore I offer professional minimum of criminalistic ballistics. The fundamental purpose of my thesis is to afford the complex view of problems of modern forensic ballistics. The thesis is composed of introduction, six chapters, ...

  3. Transmission analysis in WDM networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Christian Jørgen


    This thesis describes the development of a computer-based simulator for transmission analysis in optical wavelength division multiplexing networks. A great part of the work concerns fundamental optical network simulator issues. Among these issues are identification of the versatility and user......-friendliness demands which such a simulator must meet, development of the "spectral window representation" for representation of the optical signals and finding an effective way of handling the optical signals in the computer memory. One important issue more is the rules for the determination of the order in which...... the different component models are invoked during the simulation of a system. A simple set of rules which makes it possible to simulate any network architectures is laid down. The modelling of the nonlinear fibre and the optical receiver is also treated. The work on the fibre concerns the numerical solution...

  4. Compound-Specific Isotope Analysis of Diesel Fuels in a Forensic Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syahidah Akmal Muhammad


    Full Text Available Compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA offers great potential as a tool to provide chemical evidence in a forensic investigation. Many attempts to trace environmental oil spills were successful where isotopic values were particularly distinct. However, difficulties arise when a large data set is analyzed and the isotopic differences between samples are subtle. In the present study, discrimination of diesel oils involved in a diesel theft case was carried out to infer the relatedness of the samples to potential source samples. This discriminatory analysis used a suite of hydrocarbon diagnostic indices, alkanes, to generate carbon and hydrogen isotopic data of the compositions of the compounds which were then processed using multivariate statistical analyses to infer the relatedness of the data set. The results from this analysis were put into context by comparing the data with the δ13C and δ2H of alkanes in commercial diesel samples obtained from various locations in the South Island of New Zealand. Based on the isotopic character of the alkanes, it is suggested that diesel fuels involved in the diesel theft case were distinguishable. This manuscript shows that CSIA when used in tandem with multivariate statistical analysis provide a defensible means to differentiate and source-apportion qualitatively similar oils at the molecular level. This approach was able to overcome confounding challenges posed by the near single-point source of origin i.e. the very subtle differences in isotopic values between the samples.

  5. Age estimation in forensic sciences: Application of combined aspartic acid racemization and radiocarbon analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alkass, K; Buchholz, B A; Ohtani, S; Yamamoto, T; Druid, H; Spalding, S L


    Age determination of unknown human bodies is important in the setting of a crime investigation or a mass disaster, since the age at death, birth date and year of death, as well as gender, can guide investigators to the correct identity among a large number of possible matches. Traditional morphological methods used by anthropologists to determine age are often imprecise, whereas chemical analysis of tooth dentin, such as aspartic acid racemization has shown reproducible and more precise results. In this paper we analyze teeth from Swedish individuals using both aspartic acid racemization and radiocarbon methodologies. The rationale behind using radiocarbon analysis is that above-ground testing of nuclear weapons during the cold war (1955-1963) caused an extreme increase in global levels of carbon-14 ({sup 14}C) which have been carefully recorded over time. Forty-four teeth from 41 individuals were analyzed using aspartic acid racemization analysis of tooth crown dentin or radiocarbon analysis of enamel and ten of these were split and subjected to both radiocarbon and racemization analysis. Combined analysis showed that the two methods correlated well (R2=0.66, p < 0.05). Radiocarbon analysis showed an excellent precision with an overall absolute error of 0.6 {+-} 04 years. Aspartic acid racemization also showed a good precision with an overall absolute error of 5.4 {+-} 4.2 years. Whereas radiocarbon analysis gives an estimated year of birth, racemization analysis indicates the chronological age of the individual at the time of death. We show how these methods in combination can also assist in the estimation of date of death of an unidentified victim. This strategy can be of significant assistance in forensic casework involving dead victim identification.

  6. Activation analysis study on Li-ion batteries for nuclear forensic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Erik B., E-mail: [Radiation Monitoring Devices Inc., 44 Hunt Street, Watertown, MA 02472 (United States); Whitney, Chad [Radiation Monitoring Devices Inc., 44 Hunt Street, Watertown, MA 02472 (United States); Holbert, Keith E.; Zhang, Taipeng; Stannard, Tyler; Christie, Anthony; Harper, Peter; Anderson, Blake [Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States); Christian, James F. [Radiation Monitoring Devices Inc., 44 Hunt Street, Watertown, MA 02472 (United States)


    The nuclear materials environment has been increasing significantly in complexity over the past couple of decades. The prevention of attacks from nuclear weapons is becoming more difficult, and nuclear forensics is a deterrent by providing detailed information on any type of nuclear event for proper attribution. One component of the nuclear forensic analysis is a measurement of the neutron spectrum. As an example, the neutron component provides information on the composition of the weapons, whether boosting is involved or the mechanisms used in creating a supercritical state. As {sup 6}Li has a large cross-section for thermal neutrons, the lithium battery is a primary candidate for assessing the neutron spectrum after detonation. The absorption process for {sup 6}Li yields tritium, which can be measured at a later point after the nuclear event, as long as the battery can be processed in a manner to successfully extract the tritium content. In addition, measuring the activated constituents after exposure provides a means to reconstruct the incident neutron spectrum. The battery consists of a spiral or folded layers of material that have unique, energy dependent interactions associated with the incident neutron flux. A detailed analysis on the batteries included a pre-irradiated mass spectrometry analysis to be used as input for neutron spectrum reconstruction. A set of batteries were exposed to a hard neutron spectrum delivered by the University of Massachusetts, Lowell research reactor Fast Neutron Irradiator (FNI). The gamma spectra were measured from the batteries within a few days and within a week after the exposure to obtain sufficient data on the activated materials in the batteries. The activity was calculated for a number of select isotopes, indicating the number of associated neutron interactions. The results from tritium extraction are marginal. A measurable increase in detected particles (gammas and betas) below 50 keV not self-attenuated by the battery

  7. A framework to approach problems of forensic anthropology using complex networks (United States)

    Caridi, Inés; Dorso, Claudio O.; Gallo, Pablo; Somigliana, Carlos


    We have developed a method to analyze and interpret emerging structures in a set of data which lacks some information. It has been conceived to be applied to the problem of getting information about people who disappeared in the Argentine state of Tucumán from 1974 to 1981. Even if the military dictatorship formally started in Argentina had begun in 1976 and lasted until 1983, the disappearance and assassination of people began some months earlier. During this period several circuits of Illegal Detention Centres (IDC) were set up in different locations all over the country. In these secret centres, disappeared people were illegally kept without any sort of constitutional guarantees, and later assassinated. Even today, the final destination of most of the disappeared people’s remains is still unknown. The fundamental hypothesis in this work is that a group of people with the same political affiliation whose disappearances were closely related in time and space shared the same place of captivity (the same IDC or circuit of IDCs). This hypothesis makes sense when applied to the systematic method of repression and disappearances which was actually launched in Tucumán, Argentina (2007) [11]. In this work, the missing individuals are identified as nodes on a network and connections are established among them based on the individuals’ attributes while they were alive, by using rules to link them. In order to determine which rules are the most effective in defining the network, we use other kind of knowledge available in this problem: previous results from the anthropological point of view (based on other sources of information, both oral and written, historical and anthropological data, etc.); and information about the place (one or more IDCs) where some people were kept during their captivity. For these best rules, a prediction about these people’s possible destination is assigned (one or more IDCs where they could have been kept), and the success of the

  8. The transferability of diatoms to clothing and the methods appropriate for their collection and analysis in forensic geoscience. (United States)

    Scott, Kirstie R; Morgan, Ruth M; Jones, Vivienne J; Cameron, Nigel G


    Forensic geoscience is concerned with the analysis of geological materials in order to compare and exclude environmental samples from a common source, or to identify an unknown provenance in a criminal investigation. Diatom analysis is currently an underused technique within the forensic geoscience approach, which has the potential to provide an independent ecological assessment of trace evidence. This study presents empirical data to provide a preliminary evidence base in order to be able to understand the nature of diatom transfers to items of clothing, and the collection of transferred diatom trace evidence from a range of environments under experimental conditions. Three diatom extraction methods were tested on clothing that had been in contact with soil and water sites: rinsing in water (RW), rinsing in ethanol (RE), and submersion in H2O2 solution (H). Scanning electron microscopy (S.E.M.) analysis was undertaken in order to examine the degree of diatom retention on treated clothing samples. The total diatom yield and species richness data was recorded from each experimental sample in order to compare the efficacy of each method in collecting a representative sample for analysis. Similarity was explored using correspondence analysis. The results highlight the efficiency of H2O2 submersion in consistently extracting high diatom counts with representative species from clothing exposed to both aquatic and terrestrial sites. This is corroborated by S.E.M. analysis. This paper provides an important empirical evidence base for both establishing that diatoms do indeed transfer to clothing under forensic conditions in a range of environments, and in identifying that H2O2 extraction is the most efficient technique for the optimal collection of comparative samples. There is therefore potentially great value in collecting and analysing diatom components of geoforensic samples in order to aid in forensic investigation. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier

  9. Fire debris analysis for forensic fire investigation using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) (United States)

    Choi, Soojin; Yoh, Jack J.


    The possibility verification of the first attempt to apply LIBS to arson investigation was performed. LIBS has capabilities for real time in-situ analysis and depth profiling. It can provide valuable information about the fire debris that are complementary to the classification of original sample components and combustion residues. In this study, fire debris was analyzed to determine the ignition source and existence of a fire accelerant using LIBS spectra and depth profiling analysis. Fire debris chemical composition and carbon layer thickness determines the possible ignition source while the carbon layer thickness of combusted samples represents the degree of sample carbonization. When a sample is combusted with fire accelerants, a thicker carbon layer is formed because the burning rate is increased. Therefore, depth profiling can confirm the existence of combustion accelerants, which is evidence of arson. Also investigation of fire debris by depth profiling is still possible when a fire is extinguished with water from fire hose. Such data analysis and in-situ detection of forensic signals via the LIBS may assist fire investigation at crime scenes.

  10. Spectral Analysis of Rich Network Topology in Social Networks (United States)

    Wu, Leting


    Social networks have received much attention these days. Researchers have developed different methods to study the structure and characteristics of the network topology. Our focus is on spectral analysis of the adjacency matrix of the underlying network. Recent work showed good properties in the adjacency spectral space but there are few…

  11. Analysis of Semantic Networks using Complex Networks Concepts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ortiz-Arroyo, Daniel


    In this paper we perform a preliminary analysis of semantic networks to determine the most important terms that could be used to optimize a summarization task. In our experiments, we measure how the properties of a semantic network change, when the terms in the network are removed. Our preliminar...... results indicate that this approach provides good results on the semantic network analyzed in this paper....

  12. Remote Forensics May Bring the Next Sea Change in E-discovery: Are All Networked Computers Now Readily Accessible Under the Revised Federal Rules of Civil Procedure?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AleJoseph J. Schwerha


    on geographically dispersed computers remotely.  That process, in general, is often defined as remote forensics. The question is now whether newly available remote forensic solution indicate that all networked computers are readily accessible under the current state of the law.  This article attempts to define remote forensics, examines a selection of applicable court decisions, and then analyzes the currently available commercial software packages that allow remote forensics.

  13. COalitions in COOperation Networks (COCOON): Social Network Analysis and Game Theory to Enhance Cooperation Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sie, Rory


    Sie, R. L. L. (2012). COalitions in COOperation Networks (COCOON): Social Network Analysis and Game Theory to Enhance Cooperation Networks (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). September, 28, 2012, Open Universiteit in the Netherlands (CELSTEC), Heerlen, The Netherlands.

  14. Parzen neural networks: Fundamentals, properties, and an application to forensic anthropology. (United States)

    Trentin, Edmondo; Lusnig, Luca; Cavalli, Fabio


    A novel, unsupervised nonparametric model of multivariate probability density functions (pdf) is introduced, namely the Parzen neural network (PNN). The PNN is intended to overcome the major limitations of traditional (either statistical or neural) pdf estimation techniques. Besides being profitably simple, the PNN turns out to have nice properties in terms of unbiased modeling capability, asymptotic convergence, and efficiency at test time. Several matters pertaining the practical application of the PNN are faced in the paper, too. Experiments are reported, involving (i) synthetic datasets, and (ii) a challenging sex determination task from 1400 scout-view CT-scan images of human crania. Incidentally, the empirical evidence entails also some conclusions of high anthropological relevance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Whole genome amplification strategy for forensic genetic analysis using single or few cell equivalents of genomic DNA. (United States)

    Hanson, Erin K; Ballantyne, Jack


    Evidentiary items sometimes contain an insufficient quantity of DNA for routine forensic genetic analysis. These so-called low copy number DNA samples (limitations of routine DNA analysis methods. Theoretically, one way of making such intractable samples amenable to analysis would be to increase the number of starting genomes available for subsequent STR (short tandem repeat) analysis by a whole genome amplification strategy (WGA). Although numerous studies employing WGA have focused primarily on clinical applications, few in-depth studies have been conducted to evaluate the potential usefulness of these methods in forensic casework. After an initial evaluation of existing methods, a modified WGA strategy was developed that appears to have utility for low copy number forensic casework specimens. The method employs a slight, but important, modification of the "improved primer extension preamplification PCR" method (I-PEP-PCR), which we term mIPEP (modified-I-PEP-PCR). Complete autosomal STR and Y-STR (Y chromosome short tandem repeat) profiles were routinely obtained with 5 pg of template DNA, which is equivalent to 1-2 diploid cells. Remarkably, partial Y- and autosomal STR profiles were obtained from mIPEP-treated DNA recovered from bloodstains exposed to the outside environment for 1 year whereas non-mIPEP-treated samples did not produce profiles. STR profiles were obtained from contact DNA from single dermal ridge fingerprints when the DNA was subjected to prior mIPEP amplification but not when the mIPEP step was omitted.

  16. Nuclear Forensic Science: Analysis of Nuclear Material Out of Regulatory Control (United States)

    Kristo, Michael J.; Gaffney, Amy M.; Marks, Naomi; Knight, Kim; Cassata, William S.; Hutcheon, Ian D.


    Nuclear forensic science seeks to identify the origin of nuclear materials found outside regulatory control. It is increasingly recognized as an integral part of a robust nuclear security program. This review highlights areas of active, evolving research in nuclear forensics, with a focus on analytical techniques commonly employed in Earth and planetary sciences. Applications of nuclear forensics to uranium ore concentrates (UOCs) are discussed first. UOCs have become an attractive target for nuclear forensic researchers because of the richness in impurities compared to materials produced later in the fuel cycle. The development of chronometric methods for age dating nuclear materials is then discussed, with an emphasis on improvements in accuracy that have been gained from measurements of multiple radioisotopic systems. Finally, papers that report on casework are reviewed, to provide a window into current scientific practice.

  17. [Analysis of 158 forensic identification cases involved with peripheral nerve injury]. (United States)

    Zhang, Xin-yuan; Xu, Xiao-ming; Liu, Ji-hui; Liu, Peng; Zhang, Biao; Liu, Xing-ben; Zheng, Chuan-fei; Zhang, Ying


    To study the characteristics of forensic identification cases involved with peripheral nerve injury, and to discuss how to apply the clinical information, forensic examination and neurophysiological testing. One hundred and fifty-eight cases which were diagnosed peripheral nerve injury in clinic, were collected. Then the individual characteristics, injuries, identification results, exaggeration or camouflage were analysed. The male, the unemployed, and the young and middle-aged were common in our cases. The main reasons of "peripheral nerve injury" were traffic accidents and sharp injuries. Most wounded parts were in limbs. Also the exaggeration and camouflage accounted for a considerable proportion in our cases. The forensic identification of "peripheral nerve injury" cases should be evaluated with clinical information, forensic examination and electrophysiological testing comprehensively.

  18. [Histopathological analysis of organs submitted by legal medicine experts in Baojii City: 358 forensic identification cases]. (United States)

    Dong, Du-xuan; Shi, Ping-xia; Li, Yun-li; Tian, San-hu; Yang, Jia; Gao, Gang; Zheng, Yun; Jia, Le; Ju, Hong-ya; Sun, Lu-ying; Chen, Ni; Wang, Xiao-bao


    To analyze pathological characteristics of organs recovered during forensic autopsy submitted by legal medicine experts. From Baoji city, 358 cases of forensic autopsy specimens from a series of routine exams were collected. And histopathological diagnoses were reviewed. Majority of the 358 cases were young men. The major causes of death were trauma, sudden death and poisoning. The cause of death was determined with histology in 250 cases. No typical histological changes were noted in 101 cases. The tissue autolysis and decomposition were present in 7 cases. The major pathological diagnosis was cardiovascular disease, followed by diseases in respiratory, nervous, and digestive systems. Forensic autopsy with its professional characteristics, is different from regular autopsy. When diagnosing cause of death by histopathological examination, pathologists should collaborate with legal medicine experts to know the details of the cases, circumstances surrounding the death, and specific forensic pathological characteristics.

  19. A Preliminary Approach to the Forensic Analysis of an Ultraportable ASUS Eee PC (United States)

    Shiralkar, Trupti; Lavine, Michael; Turnbull, Benjamin

    Subnotebooks, or ‘netbooks, are a relatively new consumer market but one that continues to grow significantly worldwide. The aim of this paper is to analyse one of the leading subnotebooks, the ‘ASUS Eee PC’ from a forensics perspective. Specifically, the work investigates current image creation methods for making image of Eee PCs Solid State Drive and it analyses forensically important artefacts.

  20. Forensic studies of dog attacks on humans: a focus on bite mark analysis


    Fonseca, Gabriel; Mora,Esther; Lucena,Joaquín; Cantín,Mario


    Gabriel M Fonseca,1 Esther Mora,2 Joaquin Lucena,3 Mario Cantin,4 1Faculty of Dentistry, Laboratory of Forensic Dentistry, University of La Frontera, Temuco, Chile; 2Dental Sinai Hospital & Research Center, 3Forensic Pathology Service, Institute of Legal Medicine, Seville, Spain; 4Faculty of Dentistry, Doctoral Program in Morphological Science, Universidad La Frontera, Temuco, Chile Abstract: The interaction between domestic animals and humans has not been free of conflicts, and dog ...

  1. Microbial Forensics: A Scientific Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keim, Paul


    procedures and training to meet these initial challenges so as minimize disturbance of the evidence. While epidemiology and forensics are similar sciences with similar goals when applied to biocrimes, forensics has additional and more stringent requirements. Maintaining a chain of custody on evidentiary samples is one example of an extra requirement imposed on an investigation of a biocrime. Another issue is the intent in microbial forensics to identify a bioattack organism in greatest detail. If possible, forensic investigations will strive to identify the precise strain and substrain, rather than just to the species level, which might be sufficient in an epidemiological investigation. Although multiple groups have developed lists of bioterrorism target pathogens, these lists are too narrow. An expansion of microorganisms relevant to food and water threats should be considered. Computerized networks should be established to track infectious disease outbreaks in real time. These systems could alert public health and agricultural officials to the existence of a potential bioattack earlier than simply waiting for a report of a suspicious cluster of similar patients. Once a biocrime is suspected, a wide variety of methods are available to identify the microorganism used in the bioattack and to analyze features that might lead to the source of the event. A multi-pronged approach to such an investigation may be preferable, using many available methods-ranging from genomics to sequencing to physiology to analysis of substances in the sample. Microbial forensics will be most effective if there is sufficient basic scientific information concerning microbial genetics, evolution, physiology, and ecology. Strain subtyping analysis will be difficult to interpret if we do not understand some of the basic evolutionary mechanisms and population diversity of pathogens. Phenotypic features associated with evidentiary pathogens also may provide investigative leads, but full exploitation of

  2. Stable isotope analysis of safety matches using isotope ratio mass spectrometry--a forensic case study. (United States)

    Farmer, N L; Meier-Augenstein, W; Kalin, R M


    Isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) was used to assess what contribution the technique could make towards the comparative analysis of matchstick samples within the 'normal' framework of a forensic investigation. A method was developed to allow the comparison of samples submitted as a result of an investigation, with the added advantage of rapid sample turn-around expected within this field. To the best of our knowledge this is the first time that wooden safety matches have been analysed using IRMS. In this particular case, bulk stable isotope analysis carrried out on a 'like-for-like' basis could demonstrate conclusively that matches seized from a suspect were different from those collected at the scene of crime. The maximum delta13C variability observed within one box was 2.5 per thousand, which, in conjunction with the error of measurement, was regarded to yield too wide an error margin as to permit differentiation of matchsticks based on 13C isotopic composition alone given that the 'natural' 13C abundance in wood ranges from -20 to -30 per thousand. However, from the delta2H values obtained for crime scene matches and seized matches of -114.5 per thousand and -65 per thousand, respectively, it was concluded that the matches seized were distinctly different from those collected at the crime scene. Copyright (c) 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. The impact of DNA contamination of bone samples in forensic case analysis and anthropological research. (United States)

    von Wurmb-Schwark, Nicole; Heinrich, Anke; Freudenberg, Mechthild; Gebühr, Michael; Schwark, Thorsten


    Contamination precautions and quality control are great issues when human bones are investigated genetically. This is especially true for historical samples with only minute amounts of usually highly degraded DNA. But also in forensic routine analysis, sometimes DNA has to be isolated from bones in equally bad conditions, e.g. from burned victims. In such cases, there are several eventualities to contaminate the sample with foreign DNA, for example caused by the recovery of the bones, by trace investigation on a crime scene, or - of course - during handling in the lab. We present the investigation of artificially contaminated historical bone samples which contained no original DNA. Three different kind of contamination were studied: (1) touching of the samples, (2) application of saliva, and (3) application of pure DNA. The samples were genetically investigated without and with the employment of a defined cleaning protocol of the bones. The results show that pure DNA can usually not be removed from the bones and that saliva is a similar thread for subsequent DNA analysis. After the cleaning procedure about 70% of saliva contaminated samples still yielded reproducible STR profiles implicating severe problems for the investigation of highly degraded bone fragments. Simple touching of the specimens seems not to be a real problem for genetic investigations since the obtained signals were not reproducible.

  4. Forensic analysis of Salvia divinorum using multivariate statistical procedures. Part I: discrimination from related Salvia species. (United States)

    Willard, Melissa A Bodnar; McGuffin, Victoria L; Smith, Ruth Waddell


    Salvia divinorum is a hallucinogenic herb that is internationally regulated. In this study, salvinorin A, the active compound in S. divinorum, was extracted from S. divinorum plant leaves using a 5-min extraction with dichloromethane. Four additional Salvia species (Salvia officinalis, Salvia guaranitica, Salvia splendens, and Salvia nemorosa) were extracted using this procedure, and all extracts were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Differentiation of S. divinorum from other Salvia species was successful based on visual assessment of the resulting chromatograms. To provide a more objective comparison, the total ion chromatograms (TICs) were subjected to principal components analysis (PCA). Prior to PCA, the TICs were subjected to a series of data pretreatment procedures to minimize non-chemical sources of variance in the data set. Successful discrimination of S. divinorum from the other four Salvia species was possible based on visual assessment of the PCA scores plot. To provide a numerical assessment of the discrimination, a series of statistical procedures such as Euclidean distance measurement, hierarchical cluster analysis, Student's t tests, Wilcoxon rank-sum tests, and Pearson product moment correlation were also applied to the PCA scores. The statistical procedures were then compared to determine the advantages and disadvantages for forensic applications.

  5. Validation of the AmpFlSTR« SEfiler Plus(TM) PCR Amplification kit for forensic STR analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredslund, Stine Frisk; Mogensen, Helle Smidt; Morling, Niels


    Validation of the AmpFlSTR« SEfiler Plus(TM) PCR Amplification kit with 29 and 30 PCR cycles for forensic STR analysis demonstrated that the kit had fewer artefacts than the AmpFlSTR« SGM Plus(TM) kit (28 PCR cycles). The SEfiler Plus kit was more sensitive and devoid of colour artefacts, but sho......, but showed more stutters, drop-ins, drop-outs and allelic imbalances...

  6. FORENSIC SCIENCE: (United States)

    Brkić, Hrvoje


    Data from available literature point to an early beginning of Forensic Dentistry in Croatia relating to a post-mortem examination of a female patient after a dental procedure in the 1930s. Later on, there were several mass casualties due to collisions and airplane crashes and a railway accident at the Zagreb Main Railway Station wherein the identity of the victims was established based on dental features. Foreign experts in forensics helped identify those victims, particularly forensic dentists because this specialty was almost unknown in our region at the time. During the twenty-year period of the development of Forensic Dentistry at the University of Zagreb, the School of Dental Medicine, the city of Zagreb and Croatia have become internationally recognised on the forensic map of the world. PMID:27688352

  7. Forensic nursing and the palliative approach to care: an empirical nursing ethics analysis. (United States)

    Wright, David Kenneth; Vanderspank-Wright, Brandi; Holmes, Dave; Skinner, Elise


    A movement is underway to promote a palliative approach to care in all contexts where people age and live with life-limiting conditions, including psychiatric settings. Forensic psychiatry nursing-a subfield of mental health nursing- focuses on individuals who are in conflict with the criminal justice system. We know little about the values of nurses working in forensic psychiatry, and how these values might influence a palliative approach to care for frail and aging patients. Interviews with four nurses working on one of two forensic units of a university-affiliated mental health hospital in an urban area of eastern Canada. Three specific values were found to guide forensic nurses in their care of aging patients that are commensurate with a palliative approach: hope, inclusivity, and quality of life. When we started this project, we wondered whether the culture of forensic nursing practice was antithetical to the values of a palliative approach. Instead, we found several parallels between forensic nurses' moral identities and palliative philosophy. These findings have implications for how we think about the palliative approach in contexts not typically associated with palliative care, but in which patients will increasingly age and die.

  8. Analysis of dental injuries with clinical implications: A forensic case report. (United States)

    Tan, Si-Lei; Peng, Shu-Ya; Wan, Lei; Chen, Jie-Min; Xia, Wen-Tao


    Dental injuries, especially of the incisors, caused by punches in violent criminal attacks could be seen in daily forensic casework involving the identification of injuries to a living body. Sometimes, when there is neither circumstantial evidence nor information about the surrounding circumstances, it is difficult to discern the cause of these injuries and the manner in which they were inflicted. As an example of clinical forensic medicine, we present the case of a 58-year-old woman whose teeth were injured when fighting with her son-in-law over household affairs with no witnesses present. The two parties had conflicting stories about the cause of the woman's injury. The woman claimed that her teeth were lost while she was being beaten by her son-in-law, and the man argued that the damage to his mother-in-law's teeth was self-inflicted when she bit his fingers. The police attending the crime called for a forensic examination. Forensic practitioners analysed the mechanism of the tooth loss using multi-slice spiral computed tomography (MSCT) and imaging reconstruction technology. Local alveolar bone (medial alveolar) fracture and a small area of alveolar bone loss were found on MSCT. Thus, forensic medical experts speculated that the woman's lower central and lateral incisors were lost as a result of a violent attack and were not self-inflicted. Finally, forensic practitioners helped police in avoiding a miscarriage of justice and wrongful conviction.

  9. Networks and network analysis for defence and security

    CERN Document Server

    Masys, Anthony J


    Networks and Network Analysis for Defence and Security discusses relevant theoretical frameworks and applications of network analysis in support of the defence and security domains. This book details real world applications of network analysis to support defence and security. Shocks to regional, national and global systems stemming from natural hazards, acts of armed violence, terrorism and serious and organized crime have significant defence and security implications. Today, nations face an uncertain and complex security landscape in which threats impact/target the physical, social, economic

  10. Population-Sequencing as a Biomarker of Burkholderia mallei and Burkholderia pseudomallei Evolution through Microbial Forensic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P. Jakupciak


    Full Text Available Large-scale genomics projects are identifying biomarkers to detect human disease. B. pseudomallei and B. mallei are two closely related select agents that cause melioidosis and glanders. Accurate characterization of metagenomic samples is dependent on accurate measurements of genetic variation between isolates with resolution down to strain level. Often single biomarker sensitivity is augmented by use of multiple or panels of biomarkers. In parallel with single biomarker validation, advances in DNA sequencing enable analysis of entire genomes in a single run: population-sequencing. Potentially, direct sequencing could be used to analyze an entire genome to serve as the biomarker for genome identification. However, genome variation and population diversity complicate use of direct sequencing, as well as differences caused by sample preparation protocols including sequencing artifacts and mistakes. As part of a Department of Homeland Security program in bacterial forensics, we examined how to implement whole genome sequencing (WGS analysis as a judicially defensible forensic method for attributing microbial sample relatedness; and also to determine the strengths and limitations of whole genome sequence analysis in a forensics context. Herein, we demonstrate use of sequencing to provide genetic characterization of populations: direct sequencing of populations.

  11. Provider ambivalence about using forensic medical evaluation to respond to child abuse: A content and discourse analysis. (United States)

    Morris, Marian; Rivaux, Stephanie; Faulkner, Monica


    Forensic medical evaluation rates for child abuse victims in Texas are low relative to national rates. In exploring reasons, researchers collected quantitative and qualitative interview and focus group data from multidisciplinary child abuse response team members across the state. This paper presents results of a secondary analysis of (N=19) health care providers' interview and focus group transcripts, looking specifically at experiences with conducting forensic evaluations - thoughts, struggles, and ethical issues. The analysis was conducted from a critical realist perspective using content and discourse analysis. A theme of ambivalence was identified and explored. Three discursive themes were identified: ambivalence about the legal role, the health care role, and about unintended outcomes of evaluations. Extra-discursive elements related to the physical body, resource distribution, and funding policy were examined for their interaction with discursive patterns. Implications of findings include addressing issues in the current approach to responding to child abuse (e.g., uniting around common definitions of abuse; refining parameters for when FME is helpful; shoring up material resources for the abuse response infrastructure) and considering modification of providers' roles and activities relative to forensic work (e.g., deploying providers for prevention activities versus reactive activities). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A single nucleotide polymorphism melt curve assay employing an intercalating dye probe fluorescence resonance energy transfer for forensic analysis. (United States)

    Halpern, Micah D; Ballantyne, Jack


    The characterization and use of DNA sequence polymorphisms are an important aspect of forensic analysis. A number of approaches are being explored for single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping, but current detection methods are subject to limitations that adversely impact their utility for forensic analysis. We have developed a novel method for genotyping both single and multiple SNPs that uses an intercalating dye and a probe labeled with a single fluorophore to affect a fluorescence energy transfer. Melting curve analysis is then used to distinguish true alleles from mismatched alleles. We term the new method dye probe fluorescence resonance energy transfer (dpFRET). In the current work, development proceeded at first with synthetic DNA template testing to establish proof of concept for the chemistry involved, followed by the design of polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based genomic DNA assays to demonstrate potential forensic applications. The loci chosen for testing included both nuclear (MHC DRB) and mitochondrial DNA (cytochrome b) genes. A preliminary assessment of the sensitivity limits of the technology indicated that dpFRET was capable of accurately genotyping DNA from one single diploid cell equivalent. This technology could also potentially impact a wide range of nonforensic disciplines to aid in discovery, screening, and association of DNA sequence polymorphisms.

  13. Molecular Advancements in Forensic Odontology. (United States)

    Babu Rs, A; Rose, D


    Forensic odontology explores the field of human identification through dental tissues in cases where there is the destruction of body tissues in criminal investigations and mass disasters. Forensic odontology involves dentists participating in legal and criminal issues. Parameters such as age and gender identification are important in identifying the person or persons. Over the last two decades, the molecular aspect of forensic sciences has increased, and these molecular techniques now provide a novel approach to forensic odontology. Molecular advancements in science like DNA analysis have extended the range of forensic dentistry, as teeth possess the character of resistance toward physical or chemical aggressions. Teeth provide the abundant space for DNA, and hence teeth represent an excellent source of genomic DNA. The present paper focusses on molecular advancements in the field of forensic odontology.

  14. Forensic massively parallel sequencing data analysis tool: Implementation of MyFLq as a standalone web- and Illumina BaseSpace(®)-application. (United States)

    Van Neste, Christophe; Gansemans, Yannick; De Coninck, Dieter; Van Hoofstat, David; Van Criekinge, Wim; Deforce, Dieter; Van Nieuwerburgh, Filip


    Routine use of massively parallel sequencing (MPS) for forensic genomics is on the horizon. The last few years, several algorithms and workflows have been developed to analyze forensic MPS data. However, none have yet been tailored to the needs of the forensic analyst who does not possess an extensive bioinformatics background. We developed our previously published forensic MPS data analysis framework MyFLq (My-Forensic-Loci-queries) into an open-source, user-friendly, web-based application. It can be installed as a standalone web application, or run directly from the Illumina BaseSpace environment. In the former, laboratories can keep their data on-site, while in the latter, data from forensic samples that are sequenced on an Illumina sequencer can be uploaded to Basespace during acquisition, and can subsequently be analyzed using the published MyFLq BaseSpace application. Additional features were implemented such as an interactive graphical report of the results, an interactive threshold selection bar, and an allele length-based analysis in addition to the sequenced-based analysis. Practical use of the application is demonstrated through the analysis of four 16-plex short tandem repeat (STR) samples, showing the complementarity between the sequence- and length-based analysis of the same MPS data. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Unraveling protein networks with power graph analysis. (United States)

    Royer, Loïc; Reimann, Matthias; Andreopoulos, Bill; Schroeder, Michael


    Networks play a crucial role in computational biology, yet their analysis and representation is still an open problem. Power Graph Analysis is a lossless transformation of biological networks into a compact, less redundant representation, exploiting the abundance of cliques and bicliques as elementary topological motifs. We demonstrate with five examples the advantages of Power Graph Analysis. Investigating protein-protein interaction networks, we show how the catalytic subunits of the casein kinase II complex are distinguishable from the regulatory subunits, how interaction profiles and sequence phylogeny of SH3 domains correlate, and how false positive interactions among high-throughput interactions are spotted. Additionally, we demonstrate the generality of Power Graph Analysis by applying it to two other types of networks. We show how power graphs induce a clustering of both transcription factors and target genes in bipartite transcription networks, and how the erosion of a phosphatase domain in type 22 non-receptor tyrosine phosphatases is detected. We apply Power Graph Analysis to high-throughput protein interaction networks and show that up to 85% (56% on average) of the information is redundant. Experimental networks are more compressible than rewired ones of same degree distribution, indicating that experimental networks are rich in cliques and bicliques. Power Graphs are a novel representation of networks, which reduces network complexity by explicitly representing re-occurring network motifs. Power Graphs compress up to 85% of the edges in protein interaction networks and are applicable to all types of networks such as protein interactions, regulatory networks, or homology networks.

  16. iPhone Forensics Recovering Evidence, Personal Data, and Corporate Assets

    CERN Document Server

    Zdziarski, Jonathan


    With iPhone use increasing in business networks, IT and security professionals face a serious challenge: these devices store an enormous amount of information. If your staff conducts business with iPhones, you need to know how to recover, analyze, and securely destroy sensitive data. iPhone Forensics supplies the knowledge necessary to conduct complete and highly specialized forensic analysis of the iPhone, iPhone 3G, and iPod Touch.

  17. Signed Link Analysis in Social Media Networks


    Beigi, Ghazaleh; Tang, Jiliang; Liu, Huan


    Numerous real-world relations can be represented by signed networks with positive links (e.g., trust) and negative links (e.g., distrust). Link analysis plays a crucial role in understanding the link formation and can advance various tasks in social network analysis such as link prediction. The majority of existing works on link analysis have focused on unsigned social networks. The existence of negative links determines that properties and principles of signed networks are substantially dist...

  18. Social network analysis in medical education


    Isba, Rachel; Woolf, Katherine; Hanneman, Robert


    Content\\ud Humans are fundamentally social beings. The social systems within which we live our lives (families, schools, workplaces, professions, friendship groups) have a significant influence on our health, success and well-being. These groups can be characterised as networks and analysed using social network analysis.\\ud \\ud Social Network Analysis\\ud Social network analysis is a mainly quantitative method for analysing how relationships between individuals form and affect those individual...

  19. Simulation of attenuated total reflection infrared absorbance spectra: applications to automotive clear coat forensic analysis. (United States)

    Lavine, Barry K; Fasasi, Ayuba; Mirjankar, Nikhil; Nishikida, Koichi; Campbell, Jay


    Attenuated total reflection (ATR) is a widely used sampling technique in infrared (IR) spectroscopy because minimal sample preparation is required. Since the penetration depth of the ATR analysis beam is quite shallow, the outer layers of a laminate or multilayered paint sample can be preferentially analyzed with the entire sample intact. For this reason, forensic laboratories are taking advantage of ATR to collect IR spectra of automotive paint systems that may consist of three or more layers. However, the IR spectrum of a paint sample obtained by ATR will exhibit distortions, e.g., band broadening and lower relative intensities at higher wavenumbers, compared with its transmission counterpart. This hinders library searching because most library spectra are measured in transmission mode. Furthermore, the angle of incidence for the internal reflection element, the refractive index of the clear coat, and surface contamination due to inorganic contaminants can profoundly influence the quality of the ATR spectrum obtained for automotive paints. A correction algorithm to allow ATR spectra to be searched using IR transmission spectra of the paint data query (PDQ) automotive database is presented. The proposed correction algorithm to convert transmission spectra from the PDQ library to ATR spectra is able to address distortion issues such as the relative intensities and broadening of the bands, and the introduction of wavelength shifts at lower frequencies, which prevent library searching of ATR spectra using archived IR transmission data.

  20. [Microsatellite DNA analysis as a tool for forensic paternity testing (DNA paternity testing)]. (United States)

    Veselinović, Igor


    MICROSATELLITE ANALYSIS: By using serological or HLA-testing, the alleged father can be excluded as the biological father, but, regardless of the degree of probability, positive paternity results cannot be obtained without DNA testing. According to the results of the National Human Genome Project, human genome consists of approximately 30.000 genes. The vast majority of human DNA is not organized in genes and has no genetic expression or visible function. Non-coding DNA contains genetic markers important for human identification. Short tandem repeats, or STRs, are a class of microsatellites consisting of tandemly repeated sequences of 2 to 6 base pair length monomers. Most of the microsatellites show a high degree of polymorphism, which can be evaluated by PCR technique, and used in criminalistics, forensic identification and parentage testing. A source of DNA in parentage testing are blood samples or buccal swabs which are routinelly used. Amplification of isolated DNA can be performed in 25-30 cycles by PCR, and fragments are separated by capillary electrophoresis. The probability of paternity of 99.99% or higher corresponds to the paternity "practically proven", indicating that the alleged father is the biological father. Such results can be obtained only by DNA testing. DNA-testing laboratories are required to conduct validation of laboratory facilities, equipment and staff and are subject to permanent control by the society.

  1. Genetic analysis of 19 X chromosome STR loci for forensic purposes in four Chinese ethnic groups (United States)

    Yang, Xingyi; Zhang, Xiaofang; Zhu, Junyong; Chen, Linli; Liu, Changhui; Feng, Xingling; Chen, Ling; Wang, Huijun; Liu, Chao


    A new 19 X- short tandem repeat (STR) multiplex PCR system has recently been developed, though its applicability in forensic studies has not been thoroughly assessed. In this study, 932 unrelated individuals from four Chinese ethnic groups (Han, Tibet, Uighur and Hui) were successfully genotyped using this new multiplex PCR system. Our results showed significant linkage disequilibrium between markers DXS10103 and DXS10101 in all four ethnic groups; markers DXS10159 and DXS10162, DXS6809 and DXS6789, and HPRTB and DXS10101 in Tibetan populations; and markers DXS10074 and DXS10075 in Uighur populations. The combined powers of discrimination in males and females were calculated according to haplotype frequencies from allele distributions rather than haplotype counts in the relevant population and were high in four ethnic groups. The cumulative powers of discrimination of the tested X-STR loci were 1.000000000000000 and 0.999999999997940 in females and males, respectively. All 19 X-STR loci are highly polymorphic. The highest Reynolds genetic distances were observed for the Tibet-Uighur pairwise comparisons. This study represents an extensive report on X-STR marker variation in minor Chinese populations and a comprehensive analysis of the diversity of these 19 X STR markers in four Chinese ethnic groups. PMID:28211539

  2. Analysis of degraded papers by infrared and Raman spectroscopy for forensic purposes (United States)

    Zięba-Palus, J.; Wesełucha-Birczyńska, A.; Trzcińska, B.; Kowalski, R.; Moskal, P.


    Paper being the basis of different documents is often the subject of forensic examination. Growing number of bogus or in other manner fraudulently alternated documents causes necessity of identification of individual paper sheets and discrimination between sheets being the parts of analyzed questioned document. Frequently it is necessary to distinguish between paper of the same type but of a different age. Thus, it is essential to know whether the degradation process of paper influences the possibility of differentiation between paper samples. Samples of five types of office paper from different manufacturers were artificially aged in a climatic chamber under 65% relative humidity in air at 90 °C for various periods of time up to 35 days. The conditioned samples were examined by the use of infrared and Raman spectroscopy. Three cards of each paper type were chosen for the experiment. Three different spots on each paper card were measured to assure reproducibility of the experiment in both spectroscopic methods. The possibility of differentiation between aged samples was evaluated. The 2D correlation analysis based on the Noda's method was carried out using ATR FTIR spectra as an input data for generating the correlation maps. It was found that pattern of 2D maps allow to distinguish tested paper samples, identified its components and get insight into paper degradation mechanism.

  3. Analysis of Carbohydrate and Fatty Acid Marker Abundance in Ricin Toxin Preparations for Forensic Information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colburn, Heather A.; Wunschel, David S.; Kreuzer-Martin, Helen W.; Moran, James J.; Antolick, Kathryn C.; Melville, Angela M.


    One challenge in the forensic analysis of ricin samples is determining the method and extent of sample preparation. Ricin purification from the source castor seeds is essentially a protein purification through removal of the non-protein fractions of the seed. Two major, non-protein constituents in the seed are the castor oil and carbohydrates. Ricinoleic acid is a relatively unique fatty acid in nature and is the most abundant component of castor oil, which comprises roughly half the seed weight. The carbohydrate component comprises roughly half of the remaining “mash” left after oil and hull removal. We used derivatization of carbohydrate and fatty acid markers followed by identification and quantification using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) to assess compositional changes in ricin samples purified by different methods. The loss of ricinoleic acid indicated steps for oil removal had occurred. Changes to the carbohydrate content of the sample were also observed following protein precipitation. The differential loss of arabinose relative to mannose indicated removal of the major carbohydrate fraction of the seed and enrichment of the protein content. Taken together, these changes in fatty acid and carbohydrate abundance are indicative of the preparation method used for each sample.

  4. The Development and Use of Internal Amplification Controls (IACs) with DNA Profiling Kits for Forensic DNA Analysis. (United States)

    Zahra, Nathalie; Goodwin, William


    Biological samples recovered for forensic investigations are often degraded and/or have low amounts of DNA; in addition, in some instances the samples may be contaminated with chemicals that can act as PCR inhibitors. As a consequence this can make interpretation of the results challenging with the possibility of having partial profiles and false negative results. Because of the impact of DNA analysis on forensic investigations, it is important to monitor the process of DNA profiling, in particular the amplification reaction. In this chapter we describe a method for the in-house generation and use of internal amplification controls (IACs) with DNA profiling kits to monitor the success of the PCR proces. In the example we show the use of the SGM Plus® kit. These controls can also be used to aid the interpretation of the DNA profile.

  5. Forensic analysis of Salvia divinorum using multivariate statistical procedures. Part II: association of adulterated samples to S. divinorum. (United States)

    Willard, Melissa A Bodnar; McGuffin, Victoria L; Smith, Ruth Waddell


    Salvia divinorum is a plant material that is of forensic interest due to the hallucinogenic nature of the active ingredient, salvinorin A. In this study, S. divinorum was extracted and spiked onto four different plant materials (S. divinorum, Salvia officinalis, Cannabis sativa, and Nicotiana tabacum) to simulate an adulterated sample that might be encountered in a forensic laboratory. The adulterated samples were extracted and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and the resulting total ion chromatograms were subjected to a series of pretreatment procedures that were used to minimize non-chemical sources of variance in the data set. The data were then analyzed using principal components analysis (PCA) to investigate association of the adulterated extracts to unadulterated S. divinorum. While association was possible based on visual assessment of the PCA scores plot, additional procedures including Euclidean distance measurement, hierarchical cluster analysis, Student's t tests, Wilcoxon rank-sum tests, and Pearson product moment correlation were also applied to the PCA scores to provide a statistical evaluation of the association observed. The advantages and limitations of each statistical procedure in a forensic context were compared and are presented herein.

  6. AMULET: A MUlti-cLuE Approach to Image Forensics (United States)


    observables may refer to the audio and video tracks and so on. Even if the original target of our analysis was giving a theoretical background to... steganography and steganalysis, network intrusion detection, traffic monitoring, cognitive radio and many others. In the next subsections, we first give a...scenarios, including multimedia forensics, biometrics, digital watermarking, steganography and steganalysis, network intrusion detection, traffic

  7. Thermal analysis as an aid to forensics: Alkane melting and oxidative stability of wool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alan Riga, D. [Professor of Chemistry, Cleveland State University and TechCon Inc., 6325 Aldenham Dr., Cleveland, OH 44143-3331 (United States)


    Interdisciplinary methods and thermal analytical techniques in particular are effective tools in aiding the identification and characterization of materials in question involved in civil or criminal law. Forensic material science uses systematic knowledge of the physical or material world gained through analysis, observation and experimentation. Thermal analytical data can be used to aid the legal system in interpreting technical variations in quite often a complex system.Calorimetry and thermal microscopic methods helped define a commercial product composed of alkanes that was involved in a major law suit. The solid-state structures of a number of normal alkanes have unique crystal structures. These alkanes melt and freeze below room temperature to more than 60C below zero. Mixtures of specific alkanes have attributes of pure chemicals. The X-ray diffraction structure of a mixture of alkanes is the same as a pure alkane, but the melting and freezing temperature are significantly lower than predicted. The jury ruled that the product containing n-alkanes had the appropriate melting characteristics. The thermal-physical properties made a commercial fluid truly unique and there was no advertising infringement according to the law and the jury trialA combination of thermogravimetry, differential thermal analysis, infrared spectroscopy and macrophotography were used to conduct an extensive modeling and analysis of physical evidence obtained in a mobile home fire and explosion. A person's death was allegedly linked to the misuse of a kerosene space heater. The thermal analytical techniques showed that external heating was the cause of the space heater's deformation, not a firing of the heater with gasoline and kerosene. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  8. Analysis of organophosphorus pesticides in whole blood by GC-MS-μECD with forensic purposes. (United States)

    Valente, Nuno I P; Tarelho, Sónia; Castro, André L; Silvestre, Armando; Teixeira, Helena M


    In the present work, two multi-residue methods for the determination of ten organophosphorus pesticides (OPs), namely chlorfenvinphos, chlorpyrifos, diazinon, dimethoate, fenthion, malathion, parathion, phosalone, pirimiphos-methyl and quinalphos, in post-mortem whole blood samples are presented. The adopted procedure uses GC-MS for screening and quantitation, and GC-μECD (electron capture detector) for compound confirmation. Three different Solid Phase Extraction (SPE) procedures for OPs with Oasis(®) hydrophilic lipophilic balanced (HLB) and Sep-Pak(®) C18 cartridges were tested, and followed by GC-μECD and GC-MS analysis. The Sep-Pak(®) C18 cartridges extraction procedure was selected since it generated analytical signals 5 times higher than those obtained with the two different Oasis(®) HLB cartridges extraction procedures. The method has shown to be selective for the isolation of selected OPs as well as to the chosen internal standard (ethion) in postmortem blood samples. Calibration curves between 50 and 5000 ng/mL were prepared using weighted linear regression models (1/x(2)). It was not possible to establish a working range for fenthion by GC-μECD due to the lower sensitivity of the detector to this compound, whereas for pirimiphos-methyl it was set between 500 and 5000 ng/mL. The limit of quantitation was established at 50 ng/mL for all analytes, except for pirimiphos-methyl by GC-μECD analysis (500 ng/mL). The average extraction efficiency ranged from 72 to 102%. The developed methods were considered robust and fit for the purpose, and had already been adopted in the laboratory routine analysis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  9. Structural Analysis of Complex Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Dehmer, Matthias


    Filling a gap in literature, this self-contained book presents theoretical and application-oriented results that allow for a structural exploration of complex networks. The work focuses not only on classical graph-theoretic methods, but also demonstrates the usefulness of structural graph theory as a tool for solving interdisciplinary problems. Applications to biology, chemistry, linguistics, and data analysis are emphasized. The book is suitable for a broad, interdisciplinary readership of researchers, practitioners, and graduate students in discrete mathematics, statistics, computer science,

  10. New perspectives in forensic anthropology. (United States)

    Dirkmaat, Dennis C; Cabo, Luis L; Ousley, Stephen D; Symes, Steven A


    A critical review of the conceptual and practical evolution of forensic anthropology during the last two decades serves to identify two key external factors and four tightly inter-related internal methodological advances that have significantly affected the discipline. These key developments have not only altered the current practice of forensic anthropology, but also its goals, objectives, scope, and definition. The development of DNA analysis techniques served to undermine the classic role of forensic anthropology as a field almost exclusively focused on victim identification. The introduction of the Daubert criteria in the courtroom presentation of scientific testimony accompanied the development of new human comparative samples and tools for data analysis and sharing, resulting in a vastly enhanced role for quantitative methods in human skeletal analysis. Additionally, new questions asked of forensic anthropologists, beyond identity, required sound scientific bases and expanded the scope of the field. This environment favored the incipient development of the interrelated fields of forensic taphonomy, forensic archaeology, and forensic trauma analysis, fields concerned with the reconstruction of events surrounding death. Far from representing the mere addition of new methodological techniques, these disciplines (especially, forensic taphonomy) provide forensic anthropology with a new conceptual framework, which is broader, deeper, and more solidly entrenched in the natural sciences. It is argued that this new framework represents a true paradigm shift, as it modifies not only the way in which classic forensic anthropological questions are answered, but also the goals and tasks of forensic anthropologists, and their perception of what can be considered a legitimate question or problem to be answered within the field.

  11. Reverse engineering--rapid prototyping of the skull in forensic trauma analysis. (United States)

    Kettner, Mattias; Schmidt, Peter; Potente, Stefan; Ramsthaler, Frank; Schrodt, Michael


    Rapid prototyping (RP) comprises a variety of automated manufacturing techniques such as selective laser sintering (SLS), stereolithography, and three-dimensional printing (3DP), which use virtual 3D data sets to fabricate solid forms in a layer-by-layer technique. Despite a growing demand for (virtual) reconstruction models in daily forensic casework, maceration of the skull is frequently assigned to ensure haptic evidence presentation in the courtroom. Owing to the progress in the field of forensic radiology, 3D data sets of relevant cases are usually available to the forensic expert. Here, we present a first application of RP in forensic medicine using computed tomography scans for the fabrication of an SLS skull model in a case of fatal hammer impacts to the head. The report is intended to show that this method fully respects the dignity of the deceased and is consistent with medical ethics but nevertheless provides an excellent 3D impression of anatomical structures and injuries. © 2011 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  12. [Forensic analysis of death caused by fat embolism: A study of 20 autopsy cases]. (United States)

    Zhou, Lan; Mu, Jiao; Dong, Hong-Mei; Zhang, Ji


    To analyze the general and forensic pathological characteristics of death due to fat embolism syndrome (FES) and to provide reference data for forensic identification. Twenty autopsy cases due to FES were selected from the forensic center of a medical college from 1999 to 2012. The general and forensic pathological characteristics such as the ways and types of injuries, clinical manifestation and the pathological changes were summarized. Fat embolism mainly occurred after long bone fracture or a large area of soft tissue injury with the majority of cases being fat embolism of lung and occasional cases being combined embolisms of lung and brain as well. The onset of symptoms appeared shortly after the injury or surgery. Lipid droplets could be observed within small pulmonary vessels and verified by special staining. There are particular characteristics in death due to FES in concern with types of injuries, onset of symptoms and pathological findings. In order to find out the direct evidence of FES, special staining (oil red O staining) can be used in the forensic identification.

  13. Paternity analysis based on NGM SElect system in the Medical and Forensic Genetics Laboratory, Department of Forensic Medicine, Medical University of Lodz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Markiewicz-Knyziak


    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the usefulness of the NGM SElect multiplex kit for paternity testing in the population of central Poland, and compare it with the IDENTIFILER system. The study material consisted of buccal swabs taken from individuals who reported to the Medical and Forensic Genetics Laboratory in Lodz. Samples from 450 trio cases of disputed paternity carried out in 2010–2014 were investigated. Genomic DNA was extracted from buccal swabs collected from 1,350 individuals using the Swab kit (A&A Biotechnology according to the manufacturer’s protocol. DNA amplification was performed using the AmpFℓSTR ® NGM Select TM PCR Amplification Kit (Life Technologies. PCR products were separated by capillary electrophoresis using HID 3500 Genetic Analyzer. In the analyzed cases with paternity confirmation in the NGM SElect system, the maximum value of PI was 3.9 × 10 12 , which corresponds to the probability of paternity W = 99.9999999999%. It was thus significantly higher than analogical parameters obtained in the IDENTIFILER system (PI = 6.0 × 10 10 , W = 99.99999999%. The NGM SElect kit was unable to resolve just one case out of 450, which represents only 0.2% of all analyzed disputed paternity cases. The study showed the SE33 (ACTBP2 locus to have the highest evidence value in paternity analysis out of all investigated autosomal STRs.

  14. Statistical aspects of forensic genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvedebrink, Torben

    This PhD thesis deals with statistical models intended for forensic genetics, which is the part of forensic medicine concerned with analysis of DNA evidence from criminal cases together with calculation of alleged paternity and affinity in family reunification cases. The main focus of the thesis...

  15. Discourses of aggression in forensic mental health: a critical discourse analysis of mental health nursing staff records. (United States)

    Berring, Lene L; Pedersen, Liselotte; Buus, Niels


    Managing aggression in mental health hospitals is an important and challenging task for clinical nursing staff. A majority of studies focus on the perspective of clinicians, and research mainly depicts aggression by referring to patient-related factors. This qualitative study investigates how aggression is communicated in forensic mental health nursing records. The aim of the study was to gain insight into the discursive practices used by forensic mental health nursing staff when they record observed aggressive incidents. Textual accounts were extracted from the Staff Observation Aggression Scale-Revised (SOAS-R), and Fairclough's critical discourse analysis was used to identify short narrative entries depicting patients and staffs in typical ways. The narratives contained descriptions of complex interactions between patient and staff that were linked to specific circumstances surrounding the patient. These antecedents, combined with the aggression incident itself, created stereotyping representations of forensic psychiatric patients as deviant, unpredictable and dangerous. Patient and staff identities were continually (re)produced by an automatic response from the staff that was solely focused on the patient's behavior. Such response might impede implementation of new strategies for managing aggression. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. A collaborative approach for incorporating forensic case data into crime investigation using criminal intelligence analysis and visualisation. (United States)

    Rossy, Quentin; Ribaux, Olivier


    There is an increasing awareness that the articulation of forensic science and criminal investigation is critical to the resolution of crimes. However, models and methods to support an effective collaboration between the partners are still poorly expressed or even lacking. Three propositions are borrowed from crime intelligence methods in order to bridge this gap: (a) the general intelligence process, (b) the analyses of investigative problems along principal perspectives: entities and their relationships, time and space, quantitative aspects and (c) visualisation methods as a mode of expression of a problem in these dimensions. Indeed, in a collaborative framework, different kinds of visualisations integrating forensic case data can play a central role for supporting decisions. Among them, link-charts are scrutinised for their abilities to structure and ease the analysis of a case by describing how relevant entities are connected. However, designing an informative chart that does not bias the reasoning process is not straightforward. Using visualisation as a catalyser for a collaborative approach integrating forensic data thus calls for better specifications. © 2013.

  17. Topological Analysis of Wireless Networks (TAWN) (United States)


    19b. TELEPHONE NUMBER (Include area code) 31-05-2016 FINAL REPORT 12-02-2015 -- 31-05-2016 Topological Analysis of Wireless Networks (TAWN) Robinson...mathematical literature on sheaves that describes how to draw global ( network -wide) inferences from them. Wireless network , local homology, sheaf...topology U U U UU 32 Michael Robinson 202-885-3681 Final Report: May 2016 Topological Analysis of Wireless Networks Principal Investigator: Prof. Michael

  18. Usefulness and limitations of postmortem computed tomography in forensic analysis of gunshot injuries: Three case reports. (United States)

    Usui, Akihito; Kawasumi, Yusuke; Hosokai, Yoshiyuki; Kozakai, Masataka; Saito, Haruo; Funayama, Masato


    Gunshot injury has always been an important field of investigation in postmortem forensic radiology. The localization and retrieval of the bullet and of potentially important fragments are vital to these cases. Using postmortem multidetector-row computed tomography (MDCT) prior to forensic autopsy, we sought to illustrate the importance of this modality in the noninvasive characterization of gunshot wounds. We obtained and analyzed MDCT images in three cases of gunshot wounds (accidental close-range shotgun shooting, suicidal contact gunshot to the head and accidental long-range buckshot shooting). We discuss the value of postmortem MDCT findings in gunshot wound cases by comparing with forensic autopsy findings in Japan, a developing country with miserably low autopsy rate. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Postmortem bone marrow analysis in forensic science: study of 73 cases and review of the literature. (United States)

    Tattoli, Lucia; Tsokos, Michael; Sautter, Julia; Anagnostopoulos, Joannis; Maselli, Eloisa; Ingravallo, Giuseppe; Delia, Mario; Solarino, Biagio


    In forensic sciences, bone marrow (BM) is an alternative matrix in postmortem toxicology because of its good resistance to autolysis and contaminations. Nevertheless, few studies have been focused on postmortem BM morphological changes after pathological stimuli. We examined 73 BM samples from forensic autopsies; causes of death were both natural and traumatic. BM samples were collected from the sternum by needle aspiration and biopsy; in selected cases, immunohistochemistry was performed. Few autolytic changes were found; BM cellularity decreased with increasing age and postmortem interval. Notable cell changes were detected in 45 cases (61.64%): neoplastic (n=4), and non-neoplastic BM findings (n=41), including multiorgan failure/sepsis (n=26), myelodisplastic-like conditions (n=11), and anaphylactic reactions (n=4). The results showed that BM cellularity supported circumstantial and autopsy findings, suggesting that BM samples could be a useful tool in forensic science applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Analysis of Forensic Autopsy in 120 Cases of Medical Disputes Among Different Levels of Institutional Settings. (United States)

    Yu, Lin-Sheng; Ye, Guang-Hua; Fan, Yan-Yan; Li, Xing-Biao; Feng, Xiang-Ping; Han, Jun-Ge; Lin, Ke-Zhi; Deng, Miao-Wu; Li, Feng


    Despite advances in medical science, the causes of death can sometimes only be determined by pathologists after a complete autopsy. Few studies have investigated the importance of forensic autopsy in medically disputed cases among different levels of institutional settings. Our study aimed to analyze forensic autopsy in 120 cases of medical disputes among five levels of institutional settings between 2001 and 2012 in Wenzhou, China. The results showed an overall concordance rate of 55%. Of the 39% of clinically missed diagnosis, cardiovascular pathology comprises 55.32%, while respiratory pathology accounts for the remaining 44. 68%. Factors that increase the likelihood of missed diagnoses were private clinics, community settings, and county hospitals. These results support that autopsy remains an important tool in establishing causes of death in medically disputed case, which may directly determine or exclude the fault of medical care and therefore in helping in resolving these cases. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  1. Forensic utility of isotope ratio analysis of the explosive urea nitrate and its precursors. (United States)

    Aranda, Roman; Stern, Libby A; Dietz, Marianne E; McCormick, Meghan C; Barrow, Jason A; Mothershead, Robert F


    Urea nitrate (UN) is an improvised explosive made from readily available materials. The carbon and nitrogen isotope composition of UN and its component ions, urea and nitrate, could aid in a forensic investigation. A method was developed to separate UN into its component ions for δ(15)N measurements by dissolving the sample with KOH, drying the sample, followed by removal of the urea by dissolution into 100% methanol. UN was synthesized to assess for preservation of the carbon and nitrogen isotope compositions of reactants (urea and nitric acid) and product UN. Based on nitrogen isotope mass balance, all UN samples contained varying amounts of excess nitric acid, making the ionic separation an essential step in the nitrogen isotope analysis. During UN synthesis experiments, isotopic composition of the reactants is preserved in the product UN, but the urea in the product UN is slightly enriched in (15)N (urea. Published isotopic compositions of UN reactants, urea and nitric acid, have large ranges (urea δ(15)N = -10.8 to +3.3‰; urea δ(13)C = -18.2 to -50.6‰; and nitric acid δ(15)N = -1.8 to +4.0‰). The preservation of isotopic composition of reactants in UN, along with a significant variability in isotopic composition of reactants, indicates that isotope ratio analysis may be used to test if urea or nitric acid collected during an investigation is a possible reactant for a specific UN sample. The carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios differ significantly between two field-collected UN samples, as well as the lab-synthesized UN samples. These observed variations suggest that this approach is useful for discriminating between materials which are otherwise chemically identical. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  2. Review Essay: Does Qualitative Network Analysis Exist?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainer Diaz-Bone


    Full Text Available Social network analysis was formed and established in the 1970s as a way of analyzing systems of social relations. In this review the theoretical-methodological standpoint of social network analysis ("structural analysis" is introduced and the different forms of social network analysis are presented. Structural analysis argues that social actors and social relations are embedded in social networks, meaning that action and perception of actors as well as the performance of social relations are influenced by the network structure. Since the 1990s structural analysis has integrated concepts such as agency, discourse and symbolic orientation and in this way structural analysis has opened itself. Since then there has been increasing use of qualitative methods in network analysis. They are used to include the perspective of the analyzed actors, to explore networks, and to understand network dynamics. In the reviewed book, edited by Betina HOLLSTEIN and Florian STRAUS, the twenty predominantly empirically orientated contributions demonstrate the possibilities of combining quantitative and qualitative methods in network analyses in different research fields. In this review we examine how the contributions succeed in applying and developing the structural analysis perspective, and the self-positioning of "qualitative network analysis" is evaluated. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0701287

  3. Forensic psychologist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tinkara Pavšič Mrevlje


    Full Text Available The paper is a review of different issues that a forensic psychologists encounter at work. Forensic assessment might be needed in civil law cases, administrative procedures and in criminal law cases. The paper focuses on referrals in criminal law cases regarding matters such as assessing competence to stand trial, criminal responsibility and violence risk assessment. Finally, the role of expert testimony on eyewitness memory, which is not used in practice in Slovenia yet, is presented.

  4. Google matrix analysis of directed networks (United States)

    Ermann, Leonardo; Frahm, Klaus M.; Shepelyansky, Dima L.


    In the past decade modern societies have developed enormous communication and social networks. Their classification and information retrieval processing has become a formidable task for the society. Because of the rapid growth of the World Wide Web, and social and communication networks, new mathematical methods have been invented to characterize the properties of these networks in a more detailed and precise way. Various search engines extensively use such methods. It is highly important to develop new tools to classify and rank a massive amount of network information in a way that is adapted to internal network structures and characteristics. This review describes the Google matrix analysis of directed complex networks demonstrating its efficiency using various examples including the World Wide Web, Wikipedia, software architectures, world trade, social and citation networks, brain neural networks, DNA sequences, and Ulam networks. The analytical and numerical matrix methods used in this analysis originate from the fields of Markov chains, quantum chaos, and random matrix theory.

  5. Analytical solutions for the forensic analysis of improvised incendiary devices and consumer fireworks


    Martín Alberca, Carlos


    En esta Tesis Doctoral se buscan soluciones analíticas para el estudio exitoso, desde el punto de vista forense, de dos grupos de dispositivos: artefactos incendiarios improvisados (IIDs) y artículos pirotécnicos. Este objetivo general se ha abordado porque peritos forenses oficiales nos solicitaron más información sobre configuraciones y composiciones químicas de ambos tipos de artefactos, y el desarrollo de procedimientos de análisis adecuados para su estudio. En concreto, pidieron solucion...

  6. An analysis of the value of forensic odontology in ten mass disasters. (United States)

    Clark, D H


    The results of dental identification in ten mass disasters, in which British forensic odontologists undertook the dental identification procedures, are reported. These ten disasters indicate the difficulties associated with this method and draw attention to the need for national dental associations to deal with the problem of inadequate dental records and unmarked dentures. It is suggested that, through the FDI World Dental Federation, each member country should appoint dentists, responsible for providing advice and assistance, to forensic odontologists in other countries, when nationals of the country are victims of an international disaster.

  7. Social network analysis community detection and evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Missaoui, Rokia


    This book is devoted to recent progress in social network analysis with a high focus on community detection and evolution. The eleven chapters cover the identification of cohesive groups, core components and key players either in static or dynamic networks of different kinds and levels of heterogeneity. Other important topics in social network analysis such as influential detection and maximization, information propagation, user behavior analysis, as well as network modeling and visualization are also presented. Many studies are validated through real social networks such as Twitter. This edit

  8. Network analysis literacy a practical approach to the analysis of networks

    CERN Document Server

    Zweig, Katharina A


    Network Analysis Literacy focuses on design principles for network analytics projects. The text enables readers to: pose a defined network analytic question; build a network to answer the question; choose or design the right network analytic methods for a particular purpose, and more.

  9. Social network analysis and dual rover communications (United States)

    Litaker, Harry L.; Howard, Robert L.


    Social network analysis (SNA) refers to the collection of techniques, tools, and methods used in sociometry aiming at the analysis of social networks to investigate decision making, group communication, and the distribution of information. Human factors engineers at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) conducted a social network analysis on communication data collected during a 14-day field study operating a dual rover exploration mission to better understand the relationships between certain network groups such as ground control, flight teams, and planetary science. The analysis identified two communication network structures for the continuous communication and Twice-a-Day Communication scenarios as a split network and negotiated network respectfully. The major nodes or groups for the networks' architecture, transmittal status, and information were identified using graphical network mapping, quantitative analysis of subjective impressions, and quantified statistical analysis using Sociometric Statue and Centrality. Post-questionnaire analysis along with interviews revealed advantages and disadvantages of each network structure with team members identifying the need for a more stable continuous communication network, improved robustness of voice loops, and better systems training/capabilities for scientific imagery data and operational data during Twice-a-Day Communications.

  10. An integrated system of ABO typing and multiplex STR testing for forensic DNA analysis. (United States)

    Jiang, Xianhua; He, Juan; Jia, Fei; Shen, Hongying; Zhao, Jinling; Chen, Chuguang; Bai, Liping; Liu, Feng; Hou, Guangwei; Guo, Faye


    A new amplification system for ABO and STR genotyping in a single reaction has been successfully developed. Two types of information can be obtained from a biological sample at one time. One is the classical information of ABO blood group typing for screening suspects and the other is STR information for individual identification. The system allows for the simultaneous detection of 15 autosomal STR loci (containing all CODIS STR loci as well as Penta D and Penta E), six ABO genotypes (O/O, B/B, A/A, A/O, A/B, and B/O) and the gender-determining locus Amelogenin. Primers are designed so that the amplicons are distributed ranging from 75bp to 500bp within a four-dye fluorescent design, leaving a fourth dye for the internal size standard. With 30 cycles, the results showed that the optimal amount of DNA template for this multiplex ranges from 250pg to 2ng and the lowest detection threshold is 125pg (as low as 63pg for ABO loci). For the DNA template outside the optimal detection range, we could adjust the number of cycles to obtain the robust profiles. Mixture studies showed that over 83% of minor alleles were detected at 1:9 ratios. The full profiles were still observed when 4ng of degraded DNA was digested by DNase I and 1ng undegraded DNA was added to 40μM haematin. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based conditions including the concentrations of primers, magnesium and the Taq polymerase as well as volume, cycle numbers and annealing temperature were examined and optimised. In addition, the system was validated by 364 bloodstain samples and 32 common casework samples. According to the Chinese National Standards and Scientific Working Group on DNA Analysis Methods (SWGDAM) guidelines, our system demonstrates good detection performance and is an ideal tool for forensic DNA typing with potential application. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Column: File Cabinet Forensics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simson Garfinkel


    Full Text Available Researchers can spend their time reverse engineering, performing reverse analysis, or making substantive contributions to digital forensics science. Although work in all of these areas is important, it is the scientific breakthroughs that are the most critical for addressing the challenges that we face.Reverse Engineering is the traditional bread-and-butter of digital forensics research. Companies like Microsoft and Apple deliver computational artifacts (operating systems, applications and phones to the commercial market. These artifacts are bought and used by billions. Some have evil intent, and (if society is lucky, the computers end up in the hands of law enforcement. Unfortunately the original vendors rarely provide digital forensics tools that make their systems amenable to analysis by law enforcement. Hence the need for reverse engineering.(see PDF for full column

  12. Applications of Social Network Analysis (United States)

    Thilagam, P. Santhi

    A social network [2] is a description of the social structure between actors, mostly persons, groups or organizations. It indicates the ways in which they are connected with each other by some relationship such as friendship, kinship, finance exchange etc. In a nutshell, when the person uses already known/unknown people to create new contacts, it forms social networking. The social network is not a new concept rather it can be formed when similar people interact with each other directly or indirectly to perform particular task. Examples of social networks include a friendship networks, collaboration networks, co-authorship networks, and co-employees networks which depict the direct interaction among the people. There are also other forms of social networks, such as entertainment networks, business Networks, citation networks, and hyperlink networks, in which interaction among the people is indirect. Generally, social networks operate on many levels, from families up to the level of nations and assists in improving interactive knowledge sharing, interoperability and collaboration.

  13. Understanding complex interactions using social network analysis. (United States)

    Pow, Janette; Gayen, Kaberi; Elliott, Lawrie; Raeside, Robert


    The aim of this paper is to raise the awareness of social network analysis as a method to facilitate research in nursing research. The application of social network analysis in assessing network properties has allowed greater insight to be gained in many areas including sociology, politics, business organisation and health care. However, the use of social networks in nursing has not received sufficient attention. Review of literature and illustration of the application of the method of social network analysis using research examples. First, the value of social networks will be discussed. Then by using illustrative examples, the value of social network analysis to nursing will be demonstrated. The method of social network analysis is found to give greater insights into social situations involving interactions between individuals and has particular application to the study of interactions between nurses and between nurses and patients and other actors. Social networks are systems in which people interact. Two quantitative techniques help our understanding of these networks. The first is visualisation of the network. The second is centrality. Individuals with high centrality are key communicators in a network. Applying social network analysis to nursing provides a simple method that helps gain an understanding of human interaction and how this might influence various health outcomes. It allows influential individuals (actors) to be identified. Their influence on the formation of social norms and communication can determine the extent to which new interventions or ways of thinking are accepted by a group. Thus, working with key individuals in a network could be critical to the success and sustainability of an intervention. Social network analysis can also help to assess the effectiveness of such interventions for the recipient and the service provider. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Network meta-analysis, electrical networks and graph theory. (United States)

    Rücker, Gerta


    Network meta-analysis is an active field of research in clinical biostatistics. It aims to combine information from all randomized comparisons among a set of treatments for a given medical condition. We show how graph-theoretical methods can be applied to network meta-analysis. A meta-analytic graph consists of vertices (treatments) and edges (randomized comparisons). We illustrate the correspondence between meta-analytic networks and electrical networks, where variance corresponds to resistance, treatment effects to voltage, and weighted treatment effects to current flows. Based thereon, we then show that graph-theoretical methods that have been routinely applied to electrical networks also work well in network meta-analysis. In more detail, the resulting consistent treatment effects induced in the edges can be estimated via the Moore-Penrose pseudoinverse of the Laplacian matrix. Moreover, the variances of the treatment effects are estimated in analogy to electrical effective resistances. It is shown that this method, being computationally simple, leads to the usual fixed effect model estimate when applied to pairwise meta-analysis and is consistent with published results when applied to network meta-analysis examples from the literature. Moreover, problems of heterogeneity and inconsistency, random effects modeling and including multi-armed trials are addressed. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. [Development of forensic thanatology through the prism of analysis of postmortem protocols collected at the Department of Forensic Medicine, Jagiellonian University]. (United States)

    Konopka, Tomasz


    When assessed based on the analysis of postmortem protocols, the successes of forensic thanatology appear to differ from those that might be assumed using as the foundation a review of publications and textbooks. The greatest achievements date back to as early as the 18th and 19th centuries, when the morphological changes observed in the majority of types of deaths resulting from disease-associated and traumatic causes were described. Within the past 130 years, however, or in other words, in the period when autopsy protocols were written that are today collected in the archives of the Krakow Department of Forensic Medicine, the causes and mechanisms of death became understood even when the said factors were associated with discrete postmortem changes only or no no such changes whatsoever were left. At the end of the 19th century and for a long time afterwards, a difficult problem was posed by sudden deaths, where the postmortem examinations demonstrated solely atherosclerosis and the cause of death was described as "heart palsy". As it turned out, a great portion of such deaths represented individuals with myocardial infarction; in spite of its evident macroscopic presentation, the diagnostic management of the disease was progressing very slowly. Myocardial infarction, known at least since 1912, was associated by forensic medicine with the phenomenon of sudden death only in the forties, and the ability to detect myocardial infarction in practice developed only in the fifties of the last century. The achievement of the present dissertation is the formulation of a theory ascribing such a long delay in macroscopic diagnostics of myocardial infarction to forensic medicine specialists being attached to and fond of employing the "in situ" autopsy technique, which was unfavorable from the viewpoint of heart examination, since the organ was not dissected free and removed from the body in the course of a postmortem examination. When autopsies started to concentrate on

  16. A Meta-Analysis of the Impact of Forensics and Communication Education on Critical Thinking. (United States)

    Allen, Mike; Berkowitz, Sandra; Hunt, Steve; Louden, Allan


    Finds that communication-skills instruction generates (using the Binomial Effect Size Display) a 44% increase in critical-thinking ability. Finds that forensic participation demonstrated the largest positive impact on critical-thinking improvement, but that all communication skills experiences demonstrated significant improvement. (SR)

  17. Optimized mtDNA Control Region Primer Extension Capture Analysis for Forensically Relevant Samples and Highly Compromised mtDNA of Different Age and Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayra Eduardoff


    Full Text Available The analysis of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA has proven useful in forensic genetics and ancient DNA (aDNA studies, where specimens are often highly compromised and DNA quality and quantity are low. In forensic genetics, the mtDNA control region (CR is commonly sequenced using established Sanger-type Sequencing (STS protocols involving fragment sizes down to approximately 150 base pairs (bp. Recent developments include Massively Parallel Sequencing (MPS of (multiplex PCR-generated libraries using the same amplicon sizes. Molecular genetic studies on archaeological remains that harbor more degraded aDNA have pioneered alternative approaches to target mtDNA, such as capture hybridization and primer extension capture (PEC methods followed by MPS. These assays target smaller mtDNA fragment sizes (down to 50 bp or less, and have proven to be substantially more successful in obtaining useful mtDNA sequences from these samples compared to electrophoretic methods. Here, we present the modification and optimization of a PEC method, earlier developed for sequencing the Neanderthal mitochondrial genome, with forensic applications in mind. Our approach was designed for a more sensitive enrichment of the mtDNA CR in a single tube assay and short laboratory turnaround times, thus complying with forensic practices. We characterized the method using sheared, high quantity mtDNA (six samples, and tested challenging forensic samples (n = 2 as well as compromised solid tissue samples (n = 15 up to 8 kyrs of age. The PEC MPS method produced reliable and plausible mtDNA haplotypes that were useful in the forensic context. It yielded plausible data in samples that did not provide results with STS and other MPS techniques. We addressed the issue of contamination by including four generations of negative controls, and discuss the results in the forensic context. We finally offer perspectives for future research to enable the validation and accreditation of the PEC MPS

  18. Optimized mtDNA Control Region Primer Extension Capture Analysis for Forensically Relevant Samples and Highly Compromised mtDNA of Different Age and Origin (United States)

    Eduardoff, Mayra; Xavier, Catarina; Strobl, Christina; Casas-Vargas, Andrea; Parson, Walther


    The analysis of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) has proven useful in forensic genetics and ancient DNA (aDNA) studies, where specimens are often highly compromised and DNA quality and quantity are low. In forensic genetics, the mtDNA control region (CR) is commonly sequenced using established Sanger-type Sequencing (STS) protocols involving fragment sizes down to approximately 150 base pairs (bp). Recent developments include Massively Parallel Sequencing (MPS) of (multiplex) PCR-generated libraries using the same amplicon sizes. Molecular genetic studies on archaeological remains that harbor more degraded aDNA have pioneered alternative approaches to target mtDNA, such as capture hybridization and primer extension capture (PEC) methods followed by MPS. These assays target smaller mtDNA fragment sizes (down to 50 bp or less), and have proven to be substantially more successful in obtaining useful mtDNA sequences from these samples compared to electrophoretic methods. Here, we present the modification and optimization of a PEC method, earlier developed for sequencing the Neanderthal mitochondrial genome, with forensic applications in mind. Our approach was designed for a more sensitive enrichment of the mtDNA CR in a single tube assay and short laboratory turnaround times, thus complying with forensic practices. We characterized the method using sheared, high quantity mtDNA (six samples), and tested challenging forensic samples (n = 2) as well as compromised solid tissue samples (n = 15) up to 8 kyrs of age. The PEC MPS method produced reliable and plausible mtDNA haplotypes that were useful in the forensic context. It yielded plausible data in samples that did not provide results with STS and other MPS techniques. We addressed the issue of contamination by including four generations of negative controls, and discuss the results in the forensic context. We finally offer perspectives for future research to enable the validation and accreditation of the PEC MPS method for

  19. Enhanced Genetic Analysis of Single Human Bioparticles Recovered by Simplified Micromanipulation from Forensic ‘Touch DNA’ Evidence (United States)

    Farash, Katherine; Hanson, Erin K.; Ballantyne, Jack


    DNA profiles can be obtained from ‘touch DNA’ evidence, which comprises microscopic traces of human biological material. Current methods for the recovery of trace DNA employ cotton swabs or adhesive tape to sample an area of interest. However, such a ‘blind-swabbing’ approach will co-sample cellular material from the different individuals, even if the individuals’ cells are located in geographically distinct locations on the item. Thus, some of the DNA mixtures encountered in touch DNA samples are artificially created by the swabbing itself. In some instances, a victim’s DNA may be found in significant excess thus masking any potential perpetrator’s DNA. In order to circumvent the challenges with standard recovery and analysis methods, we have developed a lower cost, ‘smart analysis’ method that results in enhanced genetic analysis of touch DNA evidence. We describe an optimized and efficient micromanipulation recovery strategy for the collection of bio-particles present in touch DNA samples, as well as an enhanced amplification strategy involving a one-step 5 µl microvolume lysis/STR amplification to permit the recovery of STR profiles from the bio-particle donor(s). The use of individual or few (i.e., “clumps”) bioparticles results in the ability to obtain single source profiles. These procedures represent alternative enhanced techniques for the isolation and analysis of single bioparticles from forensic touch DNA evidence. While not necessary in every forensic investigation, the method could be highly beneficial for the recovery of a single source perpetrator DNA profile in cases involving physical assault (e.g., strangulation) that may not be possible using standard analysis techniques. Additionally, the strategies developed here offer an opportunity to obtain genetic information at the single cell level from a variety of other non-forensic trace biological material. PMID:25867046

  20. A male and female RNA marker to infer sex in forensic analysis. (United States)

    van den Berge, M; Sijen, T


    In forensics, DNA profiling is used for the identification of the donor of a trace, while messenger RNA (mRNA) profiling can be applied to identify the cellular origin such as body fluids or organ tissues. The presence of male cell material can be readily assessed by the incorporation of Y-chromosomal markers in quantitation or STR profiling systems. However, no forensic marker exists to positively identify female cell material; merely the presence of female DNA is deduced from the absence of a Y peak, or unbalanced X-Y signals at the Amelogenin locus or unbalanced response of the total and Y-specific quantifier. The presence of two X-chromosomes in female cells invokes dosage compensation, which is achieved through inactivation of one of the X-chromosomes in females. Since this process involves specific RNA molecules, identification of female cellular material may be possible through RNA profiling. Additionally, male material may be identified through RNAs expressed from the Y-chromosome. RNAs preferentially expressed in either sex were assessed for their potential to act as sex markers in forensic RNA assays. To confirm sex-specificity, body fluids and organ tissues of multiple donors of either sex were tested. Additionally, sensitivity of the markers and the suitability of positively identifying male-female mixtures were assessed and degraded samples were used to assess performance of the markers in forensic settings. The addition of sex-specific markers is of added informative value in any RNA profiling system and both markers were incorporated into existing RNA assays that either target body fluids or organs. These are the first forensic assays that enable positive identification of female cellular material. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Predicting time to recall in patients conditionally released from a secure forensic hospital: A survival analysis. (United States)

    Jewell, Amelia; Cocks, Christopher; Cullen, Alexis E; Fahy, Tom; Dean, Kimberlie


    The recall of conditionally discharged forensic patients in England is a formal order from the Ministry of Justice under the Mental Health Act (1983) which has the power to revoke conditional release and direct readmission to hospital. Recall has significant implications for the individual and for hospital services, but despite this, little is known about predictors of recall for forensic patients. We examined the rate of recall for 101 patients conditionally discharged from medium secure forensic inpatient services between 2007 and 2013. Demographic, clinical, and forensic factors were examined as possible predictors of time to recall using Cox regression survival techniques. Conditionally discharged patients were followed for an average of 811 days, during which 45 (44.5%) were recalled to hospital. Younger age (HR 1.89; 95% CI 1.02-3.49; p = 0.04), non-white ethnicity (HR 3.44; 95% CI 1.45-8.13), substance abuse history (HR 2.52; 95% CI 1.17-5.43), early violence (HR 1.90; 95% CI 1.03-3.50), early childhood maladjustment (HR 1.92; 95% CI 1.01-3.68), treatment with a depot medication (HR 2.17; 95% CI 1.14-4.11), being known to mental health services (HR 3.44; 95% CI 1.06-11.16), and a psychiatric admission prior to the index admission (HR 2.44; 95% CI 1.08-5.52) were significantly associated with a shorter time to recall. Treatment with clozapine reduced the risk of recall to hospital (HR 0.40; 95% CI 0.20-0.79). Time to recall can be predicted by a range of factors that are readily available to clinical teams. Further research is required to determine if targeted interventions can modify the likelihood or time to recall for conditionally released forensic patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Statistical Analysis of Bus Networks in India

    CERN Document Server

    Chatterjee, Atanu; Ramadurai, Gitakrishnan


    Through the past decade the field of network science has established itself as a common ground for the cross-fertilization of exciting inter-disciplinary studies which has motivated researchers to model almost every physical system as an interacting network consisting of nodes and links. Although public transport networks such as airline and railway networks have been extensively studied, the status of bus networks still remains in obscurity. In developing countries like India, where bus networks play an important role in day-to-day commutation, it is of significant interest to analyze its topological structure and answer some of the basic questions on its evolution, growth, robustness and resiliency. In this paper, we model the bus networks of major Indian cities as graphs in \\textit{L}-space, and evaluate their various statistical properties using concepts from network science. Our analysis reveals a wide spectrum of network topology with the common underlying feature of small-world property. We observe tha...

  3. Forensic age estimation by morphometric analysis of the manubrium from 3D MR images. (United States)

    Martínez Vera, Naira P; Höller, Johannes; Widek, Thomas; Neumayer, Bernhard; Ehammer, Thomas; Urschler, Martin


    Forensic age estimation research based on skeletal structures focuses on patterns of growth and development using different bones. In this work, our aim was to study growth-related evolution of the manubrium in living adolescents and young adults using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which is an image acquisition modality that does not involve ionizing radiation. In a first step, individual manubrium and subject features were correlated with age, which confirmed a statistically significant change of manubrium volume (Mvol:p<0.01, R(2)¯=0.50) and surface area (Msur:p<0.01, R(2)¯=0.53) for the studied age range. Additionally, shapes of the manubria were for the first time investigated using principal component analysis. The decomposition of the data in principal components allowed to analyse the contribution of each component to total shape variation. With 13 principal components, ∼96% of shape variation could be described (Mshp:p<0.01, R(2)¯=0.60). Multiple linear regression analysis modelled the relationship between the statistically best correlated variables and age. Models including manubrium shape, volume or surface area divided by the height of the subject (Y∼MshpMsur/Sh:p<0.01, R(2)¯=0.71; Y∼MshpMvol/Sh:p<0.01, R(2)¯=0.72) presented a standard error of estimate of two years. In order to estimate the accuracy of these two manubrium-based age estimation models, cross validation experiments predicting age on held-out test sets were performed. Median absolute difference of predicted and known chronological age was 1.18 years for the best performing model (Y∼MshpMsur/Sh:p<0.01, Rp(2)=0.67). In conclusion, despite limitations in determining legal majority age, manubrium morphometry analysis presented statistically significant results for skeletal age estimation, which indicates that this bone structure may be considered as a new candidate in multi-factorial MRI-based age estimation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Targeted analysis of 116 drugs in hair by UHPLC-MS/MS and its application to forensic cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xin; Johansen, Sys Stybe; Nielsen, Marie Katrine Klose


    (QC) hair samples. The method was applied to forensic cases and concentrations of rarely reported drugs in hair in 25 postmortem forensic cases were presented. Hair concentrations of amisulpride, gabapentin, mianserin, mepyramine, orphenadrine, and xylometazoline have not been previously reported....

  5. Egocentric social network analysis of pathological gambling. (United States)

    Meisel, Matthew K; Clifton, Allan D; Mackillop, James; Miller, Joshua D; Campbell, W Keith; Goodie, Adam S


    To apply social network analysis (SNA) to investigate whether frequency and severity of gambling problems were associated with different network characteristics among friends, family and co-workers is an innovative way to look at relationships among individuals; the current study was the first, to our knowledge, to apply SNA to gambling behaviors. Egocentric social network analysis was used to characterize formally the relationships between social network characteristics and gambling pathology. Laboratory-based questionnaire and interview administration. Forty frequent gamblers (22 non-pathological gamblers, 18 pathological gamblers) were recruited from the community. The SNA revealed significant social network compositional differences between the two groups: pathological gamblers (PGs) had more gamblers, smokers and drinkers in their social networks than did non-pathological gamblers (NPGs). PGs had more individuals in their network with whom they personally gambled, smoked and drank than those with who were NPG. Network ties were closer to individuals in their networks who gambled, smoked and drank more frequently. Associations between gambling severity and structural network characteristics were not significant. Pathological gambling is associated with compositional but not structural differences in social networks. Pathological gamblers differ from non-pathological gamblers in the number of gamblers, smokers and drinkers in their social networks. Homophily within the networks also indicates that gamblers tend to be closer with other gamblers. This homophily may serve to reinforce addictive behaviors, and may suggest avenues for future study or intervention. © 2012 The Authors, Addiction © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  6. Satellite image analysis using neural networks (United States)

    Sheldon, Roger A.


    The tremendous backlog of unanalyzed satellite data necessitates the development of improved methods for data cataloging and analysis. Ford Aerospace has developed an image analysis system, SIANN (Satellite Image Analysis using Neural Networks) that integrates the technologies necessary to satisfy NASA's science data analysis requirements for the next generation of satellites. SIANN will enable scientists to train a neural network to recognize image data containing scenes of interest and then rapidly search data archives for all such images. The approach combines conventional image processing technology with recent advances in neural networks to provide improved classification capabilities. SIANN allows users to proceed through a four step process of image classification: filtering and enhancement, creation of neural network training data via application of feature extraction algorithms, configuring and training a neural network model, and classification of images by application of the trained neural network. A prototype experimentation testbed was completed and applied to climatological data.

  7. [Analysis of scientific and pedagogical activities of Forensic Medicine Departments (courses) at higher medical schools in Russia]. (United States)

    Pashinian, G A; Romodanovskiĭ, P S


    Pedagogical staff of departments (courses) of forensic medicine at higher medical schools of the Russian Federation, topics of research and pedagogical work at various faculties of higher school are analyzed. Forensic dentistry curriculum is suggested for students of dentistry faculties. New forms of forensic medical training are presented.

  8. Social Network Analysis and informal trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Olivier

    networks can be applied to better understand informal trade in developing countries, with a particular focus on Africa. The paper starts by discussing some of the fundamental concepts developed by social network analysis. Through a number of case studies, we show how social network analysis can...... illuminate the relevant causes of social patterns, the impact of social ties on economic performance, the diffusion of resources and information, and the exercise of power. The paper then examines some of the methodological challenges of social network analysis and how it can be combined with other...

  9. Social network analysis and supply chain management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Rodríguez Rodríguez


    Full Text Available This paper deals with social network analysis and how it could be integrated within supply chain management from a decision-making point of view. Even though the benefits of using social analysis have are widely accepted at both academic and industry/services context, there is still a lack of solid frameworks that allow decision-makers to connect the usage and obtained results of social network analysis – mainly both information and knowledge flows and derived results- with supply chain management objectives and goals. This paper gives an overview of social network analysis, the main social network analysis metrics, supply chain performance and, finally, it identifies how future frameworks could close the gap and link the results of social network analysis with the supply chain management decision-making processes.

  10. [Advances of forensic entomology in China]. (United States)

    Lan, Ling-mei; Liao, Zhi-gang; Chen, Yao-qing; Yao, Yue; Li, Jian-bo; Li, Mao-yang; Cai, Ji-feng


    Forensic entomology is a branch of forensic medicine, which applies studies of insects and arthropods to getting evidence for court and has an analogous advantage in the estimation of the postmortem interval (PMI) and other questions of forensic relevance. The paper expounds its definition and contents and reviews some progress of the studies in some aspects in China such as the constitution and succession of insect community on the different cadavers, the applications of morphological features of insects and the technology of analysis of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) in forensic entomology, and forensic entomological toxicology etc.

  11. 4th International Conference in Network Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Koldanov, Petr; Pardalos, Panos


    The contributions in this volume cover a broad range of topics including maximum cliques, graph coloring, data mining, brain networks, Steiner forest, logistic and supply chain networks. Network algorithms and their applications to market graphs, manufacturing problems, internet networks and social networks are highlighted. The "Fourth International Conference in Network Analysis," held at the Higher School of Economics, Nizhny Novgorod in May 2014, initiated joint research between scientists, engineers and researchers from academia, industry and government; the major results of conference participants have been reviewed and collected in this Work. Researchers and students in mathematics, economics, statistics, computer science and engineering will find this collection a valuable resource filled with the latest research in network analysis.



    Jerzy Szkutnik; Mariusz Kawecki


    Power distribution network analysis is taken into account. Based on correlation coefficient authors establish methodology of mathematical analysis useful in finding substations bear responsibility for power stoppage. Also methodology of risk assessment will be carried out.

  13. Near-real-time Forensic Disaster Analysis: experiences from hurricane Sandy (United States)

    Kunz, Michael; Mühr, Bernhard; Schröter, Kai; Kunz-Plapp, Tina; Daniell, James; Khazai, Bijan; Wenzel, Friedemann; Vannieuwenhuyse, Marjorie; Comes, Tina; Münzberg, Thomas; Elmer, Florian; Fohringer, Joachim; Lucas, Christian; Trieselmann, Werner; Zschau, Jochen


    Hurricane Sandy was the last tropical cyclone of the 2012 Northern Atlantic Hurricane season that made landfall. It moved on an unusual track from the Caribbean to the East Coast of the United States from 24 to 30 October as a Category 1 and 2 Hurricane according to the Saffir-Simpson Scale. Along its path, the severe storm event caused widespread damage including almost 200 fatalities. In the early hours of 30 October, Sandy made landfall near Atlantic City, N.J. Sandy was an extraordinary event due to its multihazard nature and several cascading effects in the aftermath. From the hydro-meteorological perspective, most unusual was the very large spatial extent of up to 1,700 km. High wind speeds were associated with record breaking storm surges at the U.S. Mid- Atlantic and New England Coast during high (astronomical) tide, leading to widespread flooding. Though Sandy was not the most severe storm event in terms of wind speed and precipitation, the impact in the U.S. was enormous with total damage estimates of up to 90 billion US (own estimate from Dec. 2012). Although much better data emerge weeks after such an event, the Forensic Disaster Analysis (FDA) Task Force of the Center for Disaster Management and Risk Reduction Technology (CEDIM) made an effort to obtain a comprehensive and holistic overview of the causes, hazardous effects and consequences associated with Sandy immediately after landfall at the U.S. coast on 30 October 2012. This was done in an interdisciplinary way by collecting and compiling scattered and distributed information from available databases and sources via the Internet, by applying own methodologies and models for near-real time analyses developed in recent years, and by expert knowledge. This contribution gives an overview about the CEDIM-FDA analyses' results. It describes the situation that led to the extraordinary event, highlights the interaction of the tropical cyclone with other hydro-meteorological events, and examines the

  14. Facial burns in children: a series analysis with implications for resuscitation and forensic odontology. (United States)

    Acton, C; Nixon, J; Pearn, J; Williams, D; Leditschke, F


    This study comprises a continuous (1981-1995) unselected series of all children who died from thermal injuries in the State of Queensland, Australia. One hundred and six children, so identified, died from incineration (35 per cent), respiratory burns with smoke or carbon monoxide inhalation (33 per cent), body surface area burns comprising greater than 60 per cent (9 per cent) and electrocution (20 per cent). The burn fatality rate was 0.98 per hundred thousand children (0-14 years) per year, with no secular trend and, specifically, no reduction in the annual rate of such fatalities. Eighty-two children (49 males) had concomitant facial injuries, both thermal and nonthermal; of whom 55 per cent were under the age of five years. Sixty (73 per cent) child burn victims died in house fires. Forensic odontology is important in confirming the age of such victims in single incinerations but is of limited value when larger numbers of children are incinerated, because of the relative lack of dental restorations in the infant and pre-school age group. Of the 82 children with facial and airway injuries, 12 per cent had only mild or superficial facial damage and only seven (8 per cent) were alive or resuscitable at the time of rescue from the conflagration or burning injury. child deaths from burns contributed an annual loss rate of 506 years of potential life lost (YPLL) in a population of 3 million of whom 21.5 per cent were children under the age of 15 years. Airway management and resuscitation, in the context of managing surviving burn victims of any age with facial injuries, pose special difficulties. Inhalational burns (smoke and the gases of conflagration) result in a mortality greater than 60 per cent. Although 81 per cent of children showed evidence of airway obstruction, analysis of current data indicates that a maximum of 8 per cent could have survived with airway maintenance and protection. Inhalational burns (to both upper and lower airways) grossly reduce

  15. Effects of printing and ninhydrin treatment on forensic analysis of paper. (United States)

    Itamiya, Hiromi; Sugita, Ritsuko


    Paper is ubiquitous in human activities and can be found as evidence in the commission of many crimes such as threatening letters, deceptive advertisements and counterfeiting banknotes. To link the paper evidence to a source is a comparative process that is hampered when a blank paper is compared to a paper that has been submitted to printing or other treatments such as ninhydrin for the detection of fingermarks. During a forensic investigation, printed paper is analyzed with various instruments after fingerprint examination. In this study, the effects of printing and ninhydrin treatment on forensic paper examination of grammage, thickness, fillers, and pulp composition were studied. Grammage and thickness were increased by full-page double-sided printing, and grammage depended on the type of printer. The effects of printing on the analytical data about fillers and pulp composition were negligible, and ninhydrin treatment affected only paper thickness. These minor effects notwithstanding, the results indicate that conventional analytical methods used in forensic science for examining papers can be applied. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Amelogenin test abnormalities revealed in Belarusian population during forensic DNA analysis. (United States)

    Borovko, Sergey; Shyla, Alena; Korban, Victorya; Borovko, Alexandra


    Study of gender markers is a part of routine forensic genetic examination of crime scene and reference samples, paternity testing and personal identification. Amelogenin locus as a gender marker is included in majority of forensic STR kits of different manufacturers. In current study we report 11 cases of amelogenin abnormalities identified in males of Belarusian origin: 9 cases of AMELY dropout and 2 cases of AMELX dropout. Cases were obtained from forensic casework (n=9) and paternity testing (n=2) groups. In 4 out of 9 AMELY-negative cases deletion of AMELY was associated with the loss of DYS458 marker. In addition, we identified 3 males with SRY-positive XX male syndrome. Deletion of the long arm of the Y-chromosome was detected in two XX males. Loss of the major part of the Y-chromosome was identified in the third XX male. The presence of two X-chromosomes in XX males was confirmed with the use of Mentype(®) Argus X-8 PCR Amplification Kit. AMELY null allele observed in 2 out of 9 cases with AMELY dropout can be caused by mutation in the primer-binding site of AMELY allele. Primer-binding site mutations of AMELX can result in AMELX dropout identified in 2 cases with amplification failure of AMELX. Our study represents the first report and molecular genetic investigation of amelogenin abnormalities in the Belarusian population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The analysis of pupal development period in Lucilia sericata (Diptera: Calliphoridae) forensically important insect. (United States)

    Karabey, Tuçe; Sert, Osman


    Forensic entomology is a study that insect evidence is used for the determination of postmortem interval (PMImin). While determining PMImin, the pupal period is given as the duration between the beginning of the pupal period and the stage of adult emergence. The pupal period constitutes approximately 50 % of the immature development, and with detailed examination it would be possible to present a much more accurate PMImin. In this study, the pupal period of Lucilia sericata (Meigen, 1826), which is one of the species used in PMImin estimation in forensic entomology, was investigated. Studies about the pupal period of development are considerably limited in the forensic entomology world. Stages and duration of the pupal period of Lucilia sericata were studied at temperatures of 20 °C, 25 °C, and 30 °C. For all temperatures, pupae specimens were dissected and photographed hourly. According to findings based on all three temperatures, it was determined that as the temperature increases, the duration of development shortens. Also, in addition to 11 pre-determined development stages, nine new development stages were identified.

  18. [Forensic Analysis of 6 Cases of Sudden Death due to Hyperthyroid Heart Disease]. (United States)

    Zhang, M Z; Li, B X; Zhao, R; Guan, D W; Zhang, G H; Wu, X; Zhu, B L; Li, R B


    To analyse the cases of sudden death due to hyperthyroid heart disease, and explore the general information of deaths and the forensic pathological characteristics to provide reference evidence for forensic identification of such cases. Six cases of sudden death due to hyperthyroid heart disease between 2001 and 2016 were selected from School of Forensic Medicine, China Medical University. The general information (gender and age), clinical manifestations, medical history, anatomical and histopathological findings, biochemical parameters and cause of death were analysed retrospectively. Most of the 6 patients had definite history of hyperthyroidism, and they all showed certain degrees of symptoms of cardiovascular disease; had obvious incentive factors of death; histopathological examination of thyroid conformed to the performances of diffuse toxic goiter; with increase of cardiac weight, dilatation of cardiac chambers, myocardial hypertrophy and focal necrosis; postmortem biochemical analyses of pericardial fluid could be used as an additional method for diagnostic of sudden death due to hyperthyroid heart disease. The identification of death due to hyperthyroid heart disease should be based on the clinical history and the results of autopsy, histopathological examination, postmortem toxicology tests. The postmortem biochemical detection of thyroid and cardiac function should be performed if necessary.

  19. Measuring Road Network Vulnerability with Sensitivity Analysis (United States)

    Jun-qiang, Leng; Long-hai, Yang; Liu, Wei-yi; Zhao, Lin


    This paper focuses on the development of a method for road network vulnerability analysis, from the perspective of capacity degradation, which seeks to identify the critical infrastructures in the road network and the operational performance of the whole traffic system. This research involves defining the traffic utility index and modeling vulnerability of road segment, route, OD (Origin Destination) pair and road network. Meanwhile, sensitivity analysis method is utilized to calculate the change of traffic utility index due to capacity degradation. This method, compared to traditional traffic assignment, can improve calculation efficiency and make the application of vulnerability analysis to large actual road network possible. Finally, all the above models and calculation method is applied to actual road network evaluation to verify its efficiency and utility. This approach can be used as a decision-supporting tool for evaluating the performance of road network and identifying critical infrastructures in transportation planning and management, especially in the resource allocation for mitigation and recovery. PMID:28125706

  20. Isolation and genetic analysis of pure cells from forensic biological mixtures: The precision of a digital approach. (United States)

    Fontana, F; Rapone, C; Bregola, G; Aversa, R; de Meo, A; Signorini, G; Sergio, M; Ferrarini, A; Lanzellotto, R; Medoro, G; Giorgini, G; Manaresi, N; Berti, A


    Latest genotyping technologies allow to achieve a reliable genetic profile for the offender identification even from extremely minute biological evidence. The ultimate challenge occurs when genetic profiles need to be retrieved from a mixture, which is composed of biological material from two or more individuals. In this case, DNA profiling will often result in a complex genetic profile, which is then subject matter for statistical analysis. In principle, when more individuals contribute to a mixture with different biological fluids, their single genetic profiles can be obtained by separating the distinct cell types (e.g. epithelial cells, blood cells, sperm), prior to genotyping. Different approaches have been investigated for this purpose, such as fluorescent-activated cell sorting (FACS) or laser capture microdissection (LCM), but currently none of these methods can guarantee the complete separation of different type of cells present in a mixture. In other fields of application, such as oncology, DEPArray™ technology, an image-based, microfluidic digital sorter, has been widely proven to enable the separation of pure cells, with single-cell precision. This study investigates the applicability of DEPArray™ technology to forensic samples analysis, focusing on the resolution of the forensic mixture problem. For the first time, we report here the development of an application-specific DEPArray™ workflow enabling the detection and recovery of pure homogeneous cell pools from simulated blood/saliva and semen/saliva mixtures, providing full genetic match with genetic profiles of corresponding donors. In addition, we assess the performance of standard forensic methods for DNA quantitation and genotyping on low-count, DEPArray™-isolated cells, showing that pure, almost complete profiles can be obtained from as few as ten haploid cells. Finally, we explore the applicability in real casework samples, demonstrating that the described approach provides complete

  1. Constructing an Intelligent Patent Network Analysis Method


    Chao-Chan Wu; Ching-Bang Yao


    Patent network analysis, an advanced method of patent analysis, is a useful tool for technology management. This method visually displays all the relationships among the patents and enables the analysts to intuitively comprehend the overview of a set of patents in the field of the technology being studied. Although patent network analysis possesses relative advantages different from traditional methods of patent analysis, it is subject to several crucial limitations. To overcome the drawbacks...

  2. Virtual tool mark generation for efficient striation analysis in forensic science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekstrand, Laura [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)


    In 2009, a National Academy of Sciences report called for investigation into the scienti c basis behind tool mark comparisons (National Academy of Sciences, 2009). Answering this call, Chumbley et al. (2010) attempted to prove or disprove the hypothesis that tool marks are unique to a single tool. They developed a statistical algorithm that could, in most cases, discern matching and non-matching tool marks made at di erent angles by sequentially numbered screwdriver tips. Moreover, in the cases where the algorithm misinterpreted a pair of marks, an experienced forensics examiner could discern the correct outcome. While this research served to con rm the basic assumptions behind tool mark analysis, it also suggested that statistical analysis software could help to reduce the examiner's workload. This led to a new tool mark analysis approach, introduced in this thesis, that relies on 3D scans of screwdriver tip and marked plate surfaces at the micrometer scale from an optical microscope. These scans are carefully cleaned to remove noise from the data acquisition process and assigned a coordinate system that mathematically de nes angles and twists in a natural way. The marking process is then simulated by using a 3D graphics software package to impart rotations to the tip and take the projection of the tip's geometry in the direction of tool travel. The edge of this projection, retrieved from the 3D graphics software, becomes a virtual tool mark. Using this method, virtual marks are made at increments of 5 and compared to a scan of the evidence mark. The previously developed statistical package from Chumbley et al. (2010) performs the comparison, comparing the similarity of the geometry of both marks to the similarity that would occur due to random chance. The resulting statistical measure of the likelihood of the match informs the examiner of the angle of the best matching virtual mark, allowing the examiner to focus his/her mark analysis on a smaller range of angles

  3. Forensic culture as epistemic culture: the sociology of forensic science. (United States)

    Cole, Simon A


    This paper explores whether we can interpret the notion of 'forensic culture' as something akin to what Knorr-Cetina called an 'epistemic culture'. Can we speak of a 'forensic culture', and, if so, how is it similar to, or different from, other epistemic cultures that exist in what is conventionally called 'science'? This question has important policy implications given the National Academy Science's (NAS) recent identification of 'culture' as one of the problems at the root of what it identified as 'serious deficiencies' in U.S. forensic science and 'scientific culture' as an antidote to those problems. Finding the NAS's characterisation of 'scientific culture' overly general and naïve, this paper offers a preliminary exploration of what might be called a 'forensic culture'. Specifically, the paper explores the way in which few of the empirical findings accumulated by sociologists of science about research science seem to apply to forensic science. Instead, forensic science seems to have developed a distinct culture for which a sociological analysis will require new explanatory tools. Faithful sociological analysis of 'forensic culture' will be a necessary prerequisite for the kind of culture change prescribed by external reformist bodies like the NAS. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Complex DNA mixture analysis in a forensic context: evaluating the probative value using a likelihood ratio model. (United States)

    Haned, Hinda; Benschop, Corina C G; Gill, Peter D; Sijen, Titia


    The interpretation of mixed DNA profiles obtained from low template DNA samples has proven to be a particularly difficult task in forensic casework. Newly developed likelihood ratio (LR) models that account for PCR-related stochastic effects, such as allelic drop-out, drop-in and stutters, have enabled the analysis of complex cases that would otherwise have been reported as inconclusive. In such samples, there are uncertainties about the number of contributors, and the correct sets of propositions to consider. Using experimental samples, where the genotypes of the donors are known, we evaluated the feasibility and the relevance of the interpretation of high order mixtures, of three, four and five donors. The relative risks of analyzing high order mixtures of three, four, and five donors, were established by comparison of a 'gold standard' LR, to the LR that would be obtained in casework. The 'gold standard' LR is the ideal LR: since the genotypes and number of contributors are known, it follows that the parameters needed to compute the LR can be determined per contributor. The 'casework LR' was calculated as used in standard practice, where unknown donors are assumed; the parameters were estimated from the available data. Both LRs were calculated using the basic standard model, also termed the drop-out/drop-in model, implemented in the LRmix module of the R package Forensim. We show how our results furthered the understanding of the relevance of analyzing high order mixtures in a forensic context. Limitations are highlighted, and it is illustrated how our study serves as a guide to implement likelihood ratio interpretation of complex DNA profiles in forensic casework. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Forensic toxicology analysis of self-poisoning suicidal deaths in Tehran, Iran; trends between 2011-2015. (United States)

    Kordrostami, Roya; Akhgari, Maryam; Ameri, Maryam; Ghadipasha, Masoud; Aghakhani, Kamran


    Suicide ranks among the top ten causes of death in all age groups all over the world. There are many methods for committing suicide including self-poisoning, firearm and hanging. The aim of the present study was to provide an overview of self-poisoning related suicidal deaths with special focus on forensic toxicology analysis results in Tehran, Iran from 2011 to 2015. All suspicious cases with the the history of self-poisoning were investigated to define the cause and manner of death under the supervision of forensic medicine practitioners. Postmortem samples were analysed in forensic toxicology laboratory to confirm the presence of drugs in cadaver of suicidal cases. Drugs and poisons were analysed using thin layer chromatography, high performance liquid chromatography, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, headspace gas chromatography and gas chromatography equipped with nitrogen phosphorus detector. Demographic data were collected from autopsy reports of all cases with confirmed self-poisoning suicidal cause of death. Results showed that 674 cases of self-poisoning deaths were investigated during a five-year study period, of which 68.55% were male. The most often used suicide method was self-poisoning in young population. Phosphine gas liberated from aluminum phosphide tablets was the most toxic substance detected in postmortem samples (619 cases) followed by opioids, methamphetamine, organophosphates, cyanide and strychnine. In conclusion self-poisoning suicidal death was predominant in young male population in Tehran, Iran. It seems that free access to suicide means such as drugs and poisons should be restricted by national and health authorities. Not applicable.

  6. Forensic analysis of explosives using isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS)--preliminary study on TATP and PETN. (United States)

    Benson, Sarah J; Lennard, Christopher J; Maynard, Philip; Hill, David M; Andrew, Anita S; Roux, Claude


    The application of isotopic techniques to investigations requiring the provision of evidence to a Court is limited. The objective of this research was to investigate the application of light stable isotopes and isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) to solve complex forensic cases by providing a level of discrimination not achievable utilising traditional forensic techniques. Due to the current threat of organic peroxide explosives, such as triacetone triperoxide (TATP), research was undertaken to determine the potential of IRMS to differentiate samples of TATP that had been manufactured utilising different starting materials and/or manufacturing processes. In addition, due to the prevalence of pentaerythritoltetranitrate (PETN) in detonators, detonating cord, and boosters, the potential of the IRMS technique to differentiate PETN samples from different sources was also investigated. Carbon isotope values were measured in fourteen TATP samples, with three definite groups appearing in the initial sample set based on the carbon data alone. Four additional TATP samples (in a second set of samples) were distinguishable utilising the carbon and hydrogen isotopic compositions individually, and also in combination with the oxygen isotope values. The 3D plot of the carbon, oxygen and hydrogen data demonstrated the clear discrimination of the four samples of TATP. The carbon and nitrogen isotope values measured from fifteen PETN samples, allowed samples from different sources to be readily discriminated. This paper demonstrates the successful application of IRMS to the analysis of explosives of forensic interest to assist in discriminating samples from different sources. This research represents a preliminary evaluation of the IRMS technique for the measurement of stable isotope values in TATP and PETN samples, and supports the dedication of resources for a full evaluation of this application in order to achieve Court reportable IRMS results.

  7. Nuclear forensic analysis of an unknown uranium ore concentrate sample seized in a criminal investigation in Australia. (United States)

    Keegan, Elizabeth; Kristo, Michael J; Colella, Michael; Robel, Martin; Williams, Ross; Lindvall, Rachel; Eppich, Gary; Roberts, Sarah; Borg, Lars; Gaffney, Amy; Plaue, Jonathan; Wong, Henri; Davis, Joel; Loi, Elaine; Reinhard, Mark; Hutcheon, Ian


    Early in 2009, a state policing agency raided a clandestine drug laboratory in a suburb of a major city in Australia. During the search of the laboratory, a small glass jar labelled "Gamma Source" and containing a green powder was discovered. The powder was radioactive. This paper documents the detailed nuclear forensic analysis undertaken to characterise and identify the material and determine its provenance. Isotopic and impurity content, phase composition, microstructure and other characteristics were measured on the seized sample, and the results were compared with similar material obtained from the suspected source (ore and ore concentrate material). While an extensive range of parameters were measured, the key 'nuclear forensic signatures' used to identify the material were the U isotopic composition, Pb and Sr isotope ratios, and the rare earth element pattern. These measurements, in combination with statistical analysis of the elemental and isotopic content of the material against a database of uranium ore concentrates sourced from mines located worldwide, led to the conclusion that the seized material (a uranium ore concentrate of natural isotopic abundance) most likely originated from Mary Kathleen, a former Australian uranium mine. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Exposing Vital Forensic Artifacts of USB Devices in the Windows 10 Registry (United States)


    Forensic Wipe Requirements Wiping digital media is a standard forensic practice to ensure that all data that exists on a device is controlled. The...ed.). Indianapolis, IN: John Wiley & Sons. Carvey, H. (2011). Windows registry forensics : Advanced digital forensic analysis of the windows...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited EXPOSING VITAL FORENSIC ARTIFACTS

  9. Geoethics and Forensic Geology (United States)

    Donnelly, Laurance


    The International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS), Initiative on Forensic Geology (IFG) was set up in 2011 to promote and develop the applications of geology to policing and law enforcement throughout the world. This includes the provision of crime scene examinations, searches to locate graves or items of interest that have been buried beneath the ground surface as part of a criminal act and geological trace analysis and evidence. Forensic geologists may assist the police and law enforcement in a range of ways including for example; homicide, sexual assaults, counter terrorism, kidnapping, humanitarian incidents, environmental crimes, precious minerals theft, fakes and fraudulent crimes. The objective of this paper is to consider the geoethical aspects of forensic geology. This includes both delivery to research and teaching, and contribution to the practical applications of forensic geology in case work. The case examples cited are based on the personal experiences of the authors. Often, the technical and scientific aspect of forensic geology investigation may be the most straightforward, after all, this is what the forensic geologist has been trained to do. The associated geoethical issues can be the most challenging and complex to manage. Generally, forensic geologists are driven to carry-out their research or case work with integrity, honesty and in a manner that is law abiding, professional, socially acceptable and highly responsible. This is necessary in advising law enforcement organisations, society and the scientific community that they represent. As the science of forensic geology begins to advance around the world it is desirable to establish a standard set of principles, values and to provide an agreed ethical a framework. But what are these core values? Who is responsible for producing these? How may these become enforced? What happens when geoethical standards are breached? This paper does not attempt to provide all of the answers, as further work

  10. [Forensic entomology]. (United States)

    Açikgöz, Halide Nihal


    Odour of the animal or human corpses immediately after death is very attractive for insects and other invertebrates. Blue and green bottle flies from the Calliphoridae family are the first colonizers of cadaver and immediately later necrophagous Diptera from the Sarcophagidae family settle on the same corpse. It is essential to determine the time past after death for elucidating the event in case of the homicide or suspicious death, and it is directly proportional to the post mortem interval expected time, which is based upon the speed of the larval growth. In this article, we purposed to stress the special interest of forensic entomology for the scientists who will apply this science in their forensic researches and case studies, and also to provide information to our judges, prosecutors and law enforcement agents in order to consider the entomological samples to be reliable and applicable evidences as biological stains and hairs. We are of the opinion that if any forensic entomologist is called to the crime scene or if the evidences are collected and then delivered to an entomologist, the forensic cases will be elucidated faster and more accurately.

  11. The state of nuclear forensics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristo, Michael J. [Chemical Sciences Division, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, L-186, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Tumey, Scott J., E-mail: [Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, L-397, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States)


    Nuclear terrorism has been identified as one of the most serious security threats facing the world today. Many countries, including the United States, have incorporated nuclear forensic analysis as a component of their strategy to prevent nuclear terrorism. Nuclear forensics involves the laboratory analysis of seized illicit nuclear materials or debris from a nuclear detonation to identify the origins of the material or weapon. Over the years, a number of forensic signatures have been developed to improve the confidence with which forensic analysts can draw conclusions. These signatures are validated and new signatures are discovered through research and development programs and in round-robin exercises among nuclear forensic laboratories. The recent Nuclear Smuggling International Technical Working Group Third Round Robin Exercise and an on-going program focused on attribution of uranium ore concentrate provide prime examples of the current state of nuclear forensics. These case studies will be examined and the opportunities for accelerator mass spectrometry to play a role in nuclear forensics will be discussed.

  12. Recommended Practice: Creating Cyber Forensics Plans for Control Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric Cornelius; Mark Fabro


    Cyber forensics has been in the popular mainstream for some time, and has matured into an information-technology capability that is very common among modern information security programs. The goal of cyber forensics is to support the elements of troubleshooting, monitoring, recovery, and the protection of sensitive data. Moreover, in the event of a crime being committed, cyber forensics is also the approach to collecting, analyzing, and archiving data as evidence in a court of law. Although scalable to many information technology domains, especially modern corporate architectures, cyber forensics can be challenging when being applied to non-traditional environments, which are not comprised of current information technologies or are designed with technologies that do not provide adequate data storage or audit capabilities. In addition, further complexity is introduced if the environments are designed using proprietary solutions and protocols, thus limiting the ease of which modern forensic methods can be utilized. The legacy nature and somewhat diverse or disparate component aspects of control systems environments can often prohibit the smooth translation of modern forensics analysis into the control systems domain. Compounded by a wide variety of proprietary technologies and protocols, as well as critical system technologies with no capability to store significant amounts of event information, the task of creating a ubiquitous and unified strategy for technical cyber forensics on a control systems device or computing resource is far from trivial. To date, no direction regarding cyber forensics as it relates to control systems has been produced other than what might be privately available from commercial vendors. Current materials have been designed to support event recreation (event-based), and although important, these requirements do not always satisfy the needs associated with incident response or forensics that are driven by cyber incidents. To address these

  13. Weighted Complex Network Analysis of Pakistan Highways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasir Tariq Mohmand


    Full Text Available The structure and properties of public transportation networks have great implications in urban planning, public policies, and infectious disease control. This study contributes a weighted complex network analysis of travel routes on the national highway network of Pakistan. The network is responsible for handling 75 percent of the road traffic yet is largely inadequate, poor, and unreliable. The highway network displays small world properties and is assortative in nature. Based on the betweenness centrality of the nodes, the most important cities are identified as this could help in identifying the potential congestion points in the network. Keeping in view the strategic location of Pakistan, such a study is of practical importance and could provide opportunities for policy makers to improve the performance of the highway network.

  14. Predictive structural dynamic network analysis. (United States)

    Chen, Rong; Herskovits, Edward H


    Classifying individuals based on magnetic resonance data is an important task in neuroscience. Existing brain network-based methods to classify subjects analyze data from a cross-sectional study and these methods cannot classify subjects based on longitudinal data. We propose a network-based predictive modeling method to classify subjects based on longitudinal magnetic resonance data. Our method generates a dynamic Bayesian network model for each group which represents complex spatiotemporal interactions among brain regions, and then calculates a score representing that subject's deviation from expected network patterns. This network-derived score, along with other candidate predictors, are used to construct predictive models. We validated the proposed method based on simulated data and the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative study. For the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative study, we built a predictive model based on the baseline biomarker characterizing the baseline state and the network-based score which was constructed based on the state transition probability matrix. We found that this combined model achieved 0.86 accuracy, 0.85 sensitivity, and 0.87 specificity. For the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative study, the model based on the baseline biomarkers achieved 0.77 accuracy. The accuracy of our model is significantly better than the model based on the baseline biomarkers (p-value=0.002). We have presented a method to classify subjects based on structural dynamic network model based scores. This method is of great importance to distinguish subjects based on structural network dynamics and the understanding of the network architecture of brain processes and disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Electrochemical Study of Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol by Cyclic Voltammetry Using Screen Printed Electrode, Improvements in Forensic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio BALBINO


    Full Text Available Rapid screening of seized drugs is a continuing problem for governmental laboratories and customs agents. Recently new and cheaper methods based on electrochemical sensing have been developed for the detection of illicit drugs. Screen printed electrodes are particularly useful in this regard and can provide excellent sensitivity. In this study, a carbon screen printed electrode for the voltammetric analysis of D9-THC was developed. The analysis was performed using cyclic voltammetry with 0.15 mol×L-1 potassium nitrate as a supporting electrolyte. In the analysis, a D9-THC standard solution was added to the surface electrode by a drop coating method. A study of scan rate, time of pre-concentration, and concentration influence parameters showed versatility during the investigation. The high sensitivity, quantitative capability and low limit of detection (1.0 µmol×L-1 demonstrate that this electrochemical method should be an attractive alternative in forensic investigations of seized samples.

  16. NEAT: an efficient network enrichment analysis test. (United States)

    Signorelli, Mirko; Vinciotti, Veronica; Wit, Ernst C


    Network enrichment analysis is a powerful method, which allows to integrate gene enrichment analysis with the information on relationships between genes that is provided by gene networks. Existing tests for network enrichment analysis deal only with undirected networks, they can be computationally slow and are based on normality assumptions. We propose NEAT, a test for network enrichment analysis. The test is based on the hypergeometric distribution, which naturally arises as the null distribution in this context. NEAT can be applied not only to undirected, but to directed and partially directed networks as well. Our simulations indicate that NEAT is considerably faster than alternative resampling-based methods, and that its capacity to detect enrichments is at least as good as the one of alternative tests. We discuss applications of NEAT to network analyses in yeast by testing for enrichment of the Environmental Stress Response target gene set with GO Slim and KEGG functional gene sets, and also by inspecting associations between functional sets themselves. NEAT is a flexible and efficient test for network enrichment analysis that aims to overcome some limitations of existing resampling-based tests. The method is implemented in the R package neat, which can be freely downloaded from CRAN ( ).

  17. Reaction network analysis in biochemical signaling pathways


    Martinez-Forero, I. (Iván); Pelaez, A. (Antonio); Villoslada, P. (Pablo)


    The aim of this thesis is to improve the understanding of signaling pathways through a theoretical study of chemical reaction networks. The equilibirum solution to the equations derived from chemical networks will be analytically resolved using tools from algebraic geometry. The chapters are organized as follows: 1. An introduction to chemical dynamics in biological systems with a special emphasis on steady state analysis 2. Complete description of the chemical reaction network theor...

  18. Can clinical CT data improve forensic reconstruction? (United States)

    Schuh, P; Scheurer, E; Fritz, K; Pavlic, M; Hassler, E; Rienmüller, R; Yen, K


    In accidents resulting in severe injuries, a clinical forensic examination is generally abandoned in the initial phase due to high-priority clinical needs. However, in many cases, data from clinical computed tomography (CT) examinations are available. The goals of this prospective study were (a) to evaluate clinical CT data as a basis for forensic reconstruction of the sequence of events, (b) to assess if forensic radiological follow-up reading improves the forensic diagnostic benefit compared to the written clinical radiological reports, and (c) to evaluate if full data storage including additional reconstructed 0.6-mm slices enhances forensic analysis. Clinical CT data of 15 living individuals with imaging of at least the head, thorax, and abdomen following polytrauma were examined regarding the forensic evaluation of the sequence of events. Additionally, 0.6-mm slices and 3D images were reconstructed for forensic purposes and used for the evaluation. At the forensic radiological readings, additional traumatic findings were observed in ten of the 15 patients. The main weakness of the clinical reports was that they were not detailed enough, particularly regarding the localization of injuries and description of wound morphology. In seven cases, however, forensic conclusions were possible on the basis of the written clinical reports, whereas in five cases forensic reconstruction required specific follow-up reading. The additional 0.6-mm slices were easily available and with improved 3D image quality and forensic diagnostics. In conclusion, the use of clinical CT data can considerably support forensic expertise regarding reconstruction issues. Forensic follow-up reading as well as the use of additional thin slices for 3D analysis can further improve its benefit for forensic reconstruction purposes.

  19. Industrial entrepreneurial network: Structural and functional analysis (United States)

    Medvedeva, M. A.; Davletbaev, R. H.; Berg, D. B.; Nazarova, J. J.; Parusheva, S. S.


    Structure and functioning of two model industrial entrepreneurial networks are investigated in the present paper. One of these networks is forming when implementing an integrated project and consists of eight agents, which interact with each other and external environment. The other one is obtained from the municipal economy and is based on the set of the 12 real business entities. Analysis of the networks is carried out on the basis of the matrix of mutual payments aggregated over the certain time period. The matrix is created by the methods of experimental economics. Social Network Analysis (SNA) methods and instruments were used in the present research. The set of basic structural characteristics was investigated: set of quantitative parameters such as density, diameter, clustering coefficient, different kinds of centrality, and etc. They were compared with the random Bernoulli graphs of the corresponding size and density. Discovered variations of random and entrepreneurial networks structure are explained by the peculiarities of agents functioning in production network. Separately, were identified the closed exchange circuits (cyclically closed contours of graph) forming an autopoietic (self-replicating) network pattern. The purpose of the functional analysis was to identify the contribution of the autopoietic network pattern in its gross product. It was found that the magnitude of this contribution is more than 20%. Such value allows using of the complementary currency in order to stimulate economic activity of network agents.

  20. Contamination incidents in the pre-analytical phase of forensic DNA analysis in Austria-Statistics of 17 years. (United States)

    Pickrahn, Ines; Kreindl, Gabriele; Müller, Eva; Dunkelmann, Bettina; Zahrer, Waltraud; Cemper-Kiesslich, Jan; Neuhuber, F


    Forensic DNA analyses have become more and more sensitive in the past years. With the ability to generate DNA profiles even from minute amounts of cellular material also the possibility to detect DNA on trace material that originates from persons not linked to the crime event, such as crime scene investigators, increases. The contamination of crime scene samples can lead to false positive results and misinterpretation that can cause deceptive investigations. In this work we continue a study of 2010 that compared the number of detected contamination incidents that were caused in the pre-analytical phase of forensic DNA analysis with the number of crime scene samples analyzed by our laboratory. Within the past 17 years we were able to detect a total of 347 contamination incidents caused by police officers in approximately 46,000 trace samples to their origin (0.75%). Additionally we demonstrate the usefulness of reference profile databases that contain DNA profiles of police officers to detect contamination incidents of trace material. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Digital Forensics to Intelligent Forensics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alastair Irons


    Full Text Available In this paper we posit that current investigative techniques—particularly as deployed by law enforcement, are becoming unsuitable for most types of crime investigation. The growth in cybercrime and the complexities of the types of the cybercrime coupled with the limitations in time and resources, both computational and human, in addressing cybercrime put an increasing strain on the ability of digital investigators to apply the processes of digital forensics and digital investigations to obtain timely results. In order to combat the problems, there is a need to enhance the use of the resources available and move beyond the capabilities and constraints of the forensic tools that are in current use. We argue that more intelligent techniques are necessary and should be used proactively. The paper makes the case for the need for such tools and techniques, and investigates and discusses the opportunities afforded by applying principles and procedures of artificial intelligence to digital forensics intelligence and to intelligent forensics and suggests that by applying new techniques to digital investigations there is the opportunity to address the challenges of the larger and more complex domains in which cybercrimes are taking place.

  2. 3rd International Conference on Network Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Kalyagin, Valery; Pardalos, Panos


    This volume compiles the major results of conference participants from the "Third International Conference in Network Analysis" held at the Higher School of Economics, Nizhny Novgorod in May 2013, with the aim to initiate further joint research among different groups. The contributions in this book cover a broad range of topics relevant to the theory and practice of network analysis, including the reliability of complex networks, software, theory, methodology, and applications.  Network analysis has become a major research topic over the last several years. The broad range of applications that can be described and analyzed by means of a network has brought together researchers, practitioners from numerous fields such as operations research, computer science, transportation, energy, biomedicine, computational neuroscience and social sciences. In addition, new approaches and computer environments such as parallel computing, grid computing, cloud computing, and quantum computing have helped to solve large scale...

  3. Committed suicide: forensic autopsy analysis at Ramathibodi Hospital during year 2001-2010. (United States)

    Peonim, Vichan; Sujirachato, Kanchana; Srisont, Smith; Udnoon, Jitta; Worasuwannarak, Wisarn


    Suicide is one of the most important causes of death in the world. To study the behaviors and risk factors may be helpful to prevent suicide. To retrospectively study the factors that affected suicide in forensic postmortem cases at Ramathibodi Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand between 2001 and 2010. Two hundred ninety suicidal cases from 7,102 forensic postmortem autopsies in Ramathibodi Hospital between 2001 and 2010 were descriptively retrospective studied. Study topics included sex, age, nationality, year, methods of suicide, and HIV. The suicide-rate in the present study varied between 2.53% and 6.91% (average 4.08%) of the forensic autopsy cases. The peak was found in 2003. Males had higher suicide rate than females [ratio of M:F of 4.3:1 (235 males and 55 females)]. The age varied from seven years to 91 years. Although the average age of suicide was 37.38 years, the peak was found in the young adult (age group of 21 to 30 years). Male, younger age, and foreigner were related to suicide with statistical significance. Hanging was the most frequent method of suicide followed by fall from height (62.1% and 17.2% respectively) and by firearm (in male) and toxic substance ingestion (in females). Of all the suicide, 5.1% were HIV seropositive, which is slightly more than non-HIV cases (4.0%) but this was not statistically significant. The suicidal cases among unusual death were related to varieties of factors. Male, younger age, and foreigner were significant related to suicide. Hanging and falling from height were the most frequent method of suicide.

  4. Social network analysis in medical education. (United States)

    Isba, Rachel; Woolf, Katherine; Hanneman, Robert


    Humans are fundamentally social beings. The social systems within which we live our lives (families, schools, workplaces, professions, friendship groups) have a significant influence on our health, success and well-being. These groups can be characterised as networks and analysed using social network analysis. Social network analysis is a mainly quantitative method for analysing how relationships between individuals form and affect those individuals, but also how individual relationships build up into wider social structures that influence outcomes at a group level. Recent increases in computational power have increased the accessibility of social network analysis methods for application to medical education research. Social network analysis has been used to explore team-working, social influences on attitudes and behaviours, the influence of social position on individual success, and the relationship between social cohesion and power. This makes social network analysis theories and methods relevant to understanding the social processes underlying academic performance, workplace learning and policy-making and implementation in medical education contexts. Social network analysis is underused in medical education, yet it is a method that could yield significant insights that would improve experiences and outcomes for medical trainees and educators, and ultimately for patients. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and The Association for the Study of Medical Education.

  5. Comparative analysis of the variability of facial landmarks for forensics using CCTV images


    Vera-Rodríguez, Rubén; Tomé González, Pedro; Fiérrez, Julián; Ortega-García, Javier,


    The final publication is available at Springer via Proceedings of the 6th Pacific-Rim Symposium, PSIVT 2013, Guanajuato, Mexico, October 28-November 1, 2013. This paper reports a study of the variability of facial landmarks in a forensic scenario using images acquired from CCTV images. This type of images presents a very low quality and a large range of variability factors such as differences in pose, expressions, occlusions, etc. Apart fro...

  6. Analysis of complex networks using aggressive abstraction.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colbaugh, Richard; Glass, Kristin.; Willard, Gerald


    This paper presents a new methodology for analyzing complex networks in which the network of interest is first abstracted to a much simpler (but equivalent) representation, the required analysis is performed using the abstraction, and analytic conclusions are then mapped back to the original network and interpreted there. We begin by identifying a broad and important class of complex networks which admit abstractions that are simultaneously dramatically simplifying and property preserving we call these aggressive abstractions -- and which can therefore be analyzed using the proposed approach. We then introduce and develop two forms of aggressive abstraction: 1.) finite state abstraction, in which dynamical networks with uncountable state spaces are modeled using finite state systems, and 2.) onedimensional abstraction, whereby high dimensional network dynamics are captured in a meaningful way using a single scalar variable. In each case, the property preserving nature of the abstraction process is rigorously established and efficient algorithms are presented for computing the abstraction. The considerable potential of the proposed approach to complex networks analysis is illustrated through case studies involving vulnerability analysis of technological networks and predictive analysis for social processes.

  7. Social Network Analysis and Critical Realism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch-Hansen, Hubert


    Social network analysis ( SNA) is an increasingly popular approach that provides researchers with highly developed tools to map and analyze complexes of social relations. Although a number of network scholars have explicated the assumptions that underpin SNA, the approach has yet to be discussed ...

  8. Client-side Skype forensics: an overview (United States)

    Meißner, Tina; Kröger, Knut; Creutzburg, Reiner


    IT security and computer forensics are important components in the information technology. In the present study, a client-side Skype forensics is performed. It is designed to explain which kind of user data are stored on a computer and which tools allow the extraction of those data for a forensic investigation. There are described both methods - a manual analysis and an analysis with (mainly) open source tools, respectively.

  9. Modelling live forensic acquisition

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grobler, MM


    Full Text Available This paper discusses the development of a South African model for Live Forensic Acquisition - Liforac. The Liforac model is a comprehensive model that presents a range of aspects related to Live Forensic Acquisition. The model provides forensic...

  10. Spectrum-Based and Collaborative Network Topology Analysis and Visualization (United States)

    Hu, Xianlin


    Networks are of significant importance in many application domains, such as World Wide Web and social networks, which often embed rich topological information. Since network topology captures the organization of network nodes and links, studying network topology is very important to network analysis. In this dissertation, we study networks by…

  11. Complex Network Analysis of Guangzhou Metro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasir Tariq Mohmand


    Full Text Available The structure and properties of public transportation networks can provide suggestions for urban planning and public policies. This study contributes a complex network analysis of the Guangzhou metro. The metro network has 236 kilometers of track and is the 6th busiest metro system of the world. In this paper topological properties of the network are explored. We observed that the network displays small world properties and is assortative in nature. The network possesses a high average degree of 17.5 with a small diameter of 5. Furthermore, we also identified the most important metro stations based on betweenness and closeness centralities. These could help in identifying the probable congestion points in the metro system and provide policy makers with an opportunity to improve the performance of the metro system.

  12. Extending Stochastic Network Calculus to Loss Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Luo


    Full Text Available Loss is an important parameter of Quality of Service (QoS. Though stochastic network calculus is a very useful tool for performance evaluation of computer networks, existing studies on stochastic service guarantees mainly focused on the delay and backlog. Some efforts have been made to analyse loss by deterministic network calculus, but there are few results to extend stochastic network calculus for loss analysis. In this paper, we introduce a new parameter named loss factor into stochastic network calculus and then derive the loss bound through the existing arrival curve and service curve via this parameter. We then prove that our result is suitable for the networks with multiple input flows. Simulations show the impact of buffer size, arrival traffic, and service on the loss factor.

  13. Constructing an Intelligent Patent Network Analysis Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Chan Wu


    Full Text Available Patent network analysis, an advanced method of patent analysis, is a useful tool for technology management. This method visually displays all the relationships among the patents and enables the analysts to intuitively comprehend the overview of a set of patents in the field of the technology being studied. Although patent network analysis possesses relative advantages different from traditional methods of patent analysis, it is subject to several crucial limitations. To overcome the drawbacks of the current method, this study proposes a novel patent analysis method, called the intelligent patent network analysis method, to make a visual network with great precision. Based on artificial intelligence techniques, the proposed method provides an automated procedure for searching patent documents, extracting patent keywords, and determining the weight of each patent keyword in order to generate a sophisticated visualization of the patent network. This study proposes a detailed procedure for generating an intelligent patent network that is helpful for improving the efficiency and quality of patent analysis. Furthermore, patents in the field of Carbon Nanotube Backlight Unit (CNT-BLU were analyzed to verify the utility of the proposed method.

  14. Statistical Analysis of Bus Networks in India. (United States)

    Chatterjee, Atanu; Manohar, Manju; Ramadurai, Gitakrishnan


    In this paper, we model the bus networks of six major Indian cities as graphs in L-space, and evaluate their various statistical properties. While airline and railway networks have been extensively studied, a comprehensive study on the structure and growth of bus networks is lacking. In India, where bus transport plays an important role in day-to-day commutation, it is of significant interest to analyze its topological structure and answer basic questions on its evolution, growth, robustness and resiliency. Although the common feature of small-world property is observed, our analysis reveals a wide spectrum of network topologies arising due to significant variation in the degree-distribution patterns in the networks. We also observe that these networks although, robust and resilient to random attacks are particularly degree-sensitive. Unlike real-world networks, such as Internet, WWW and airline, that are virtual, bus networks are physically constrained. Our findings therefore, throw light on the evolution of such geographically and constrained networks that will help us in designing more efficient bus networks in the future.

  15. Transitioning from Forensic Genetics to Forensic Genomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manfred Kayser


    Full Text Available Due to its support of law enforcement, forensics is a conservative field; nevertheless, driven by scientific and technological progress, forensic genetics is slowly transitioning into forensic genomics. With this Special Issue of Genes we acknowledge and appreciate this rather recent development by not only introducing the field of forensics to the wider community of geneticists, but we do so by emphasizing on different topics of forensic relevance where genomic, transcriptomic, and epigenomic principles, methods, and datasets of humans and beyond are beginning to be used to answer forensic questions.

  16. Transitioning from Forensic Genetics to Forensic Genomics. (United States)

    Kayser, Manfred; Parson, Walther


    Due to its support of law enforcement, forensics is a conservative field; nevertheless, driven by scientific and technological progress, forensic genetics is slowly transitioning into forensic genomics. With this Special Issue of Genes we acknowledge and appreciate this rather recent development by not only introducing the field of forensics to the wider community of geneticists, but we do so by emphasizing on different topics of forensic relevance where genomic, transcriptomic, and epigenomic principles, methods, and datasets of humans and beyond are beginning to be used to answer forensic questions.



    Rozas Flores, Alan Errol; Facultad de Ciencias Contables, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos


    The forensic audit is an audit specialist in obtaining evidence to turn them into tests, which are presented in the forum that is in the courts of justice, in order to check crime or settle legal disputes. Currently, major efforts are being carried out by compliance audits and comprehensive audits need to be retrofitted with legal research, to minimize the impunity that comes before economic and financial crimes, such as administrative corruption, corporate fraud and money laundering assets. ...

  18. DNA Commission of the International Society for Forensic Genetics (ISFG): an update of the recommendations on the use of Y-STRs in forensic analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gusmão, L; Butler, J M; Carracedo, A


    The DNA Commission of the International Society of Forensic Genetics (ISFG) regularly publishes guidelines and recommendations concerning the application of DNA polymorphisms to the problems of human identification. A previous recommendation published in 2001 has already addressed Y-chromosome...... polymorphisms, with particular emphasis on short tandem repeats (STRs). Since then, the use of Y-STRs has become very popular, and numerous new loci have been introduced. The current recommendations address important aspects to clarify problems regarding the nomenclature, the definition of loci and alleles...

  19. DNA Commission of the International Society for Forensic Genetics (ISFG): an update of the recommendations on the use of Y-STRs in forensic analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gusmão, L; Butler, John M; Carracedo, Angel


    The DNA Commission of the International Society of Forensic Genetics (ISFG) regularly publishes guidelines and recommendations concerning the application of DNA polymorphisms to the problems of human identification. A previous recommendation published in 2001 has already addressed Y-chromosome...... polymorphisms, with particular emphasis on short tandem repeats (STRs). Since then, the use of Y-STRs has become very popular, and a numerous new loci have been introduced. The current recommendations address important aspects to clarify problems regarding the nomenclature, the definition of loci and alleles...

  20. Social network analysis for program implementation. (United States)

    Valente, Thomas W; Palinkas, Lawrence A; Czaja, Sara; Chu, Kar-Hai; Brown, C Hendricks


    This paper introduces the use of social network analysis theory and tools for implementation research. The social network perspective is useful for understanding, monitoring, influencing, or evaluating the implementation process when programs, policies, practices, or principles are designed and scaled up or adapted to different settings. We briefly describe common barriers to implementation success and relate them to the social networks of implementation stakeholders. We introduce a few simple measures commonly used in social network analysis and discuss how these measures can be used in program implementation. Using the four stage model of program implementation (exploration, adoption, implementation, and sustainment) proposed by Aarons and colleagues [1] and our experience in developing multi-sector partnerships involving community leaders, organizations, practitioners, and researchers, we show how network measures can be used at each stage to monitor, intervene, and improve the implementation process. Examples are provided to illustrate these concepts. We conclude with expected benefits and challenges associated with this approach.

  1. Forensic geomorphology (United States)

    Ruffell, Alastair; McKinley, Jennifer


    Geomorphology plays a critical role in two areas of geoforensics: searching the land for surface or buried objects and sampling scenes of crime and control locations as evidence. Associated geoscience disciplines have substantial bodies of work dedicated to their relevance in forensic investigations, yet geomorphology (specifically landforms, their mapping and evolution, soils and relationship to geology and biogeography) have not had similar public exposure. This is strange considering how fundamental to legal enquiries the location of a crime and its evolution are, as this article will demonstrate. This work aims to redress the balance by showing how geomorphology featured in one of the earliest works on forensic science methods, and has continued to play a role in the sociology, archaeology, criminalistics and geoforensics of crime. Traditional landscape interpretation from aerial photography is used to demonstrate how a geomorphological approach saved police time in the search for a clandestine grave. The application geomorphology has in military/humanitarian geography and environmental/engineering forensics is briefly discussed as these are also regularly reviewed in courts of law.

  2. Multilayer motif analysis of brain networks (United States)

    Battiston, Federico; Nicosia, Vincenzo; Chavez, Mario; Latora, Vito


    In the last decade, network science has shed new light both on the structural (anatomical) and on the functional (correlations in the activity) connectivity among the different areas of the human brain. The analysis of brain networks has made possible to detect the central areas of a neural system and to identify its building blocks by looking at overabundant small subgraphs, known as motifs. However, network analysis of the brain has so far mainly focused on anatomical and functional networks as separate entities. The recently developed mathematical framework of multi-layer networks allows us to perform an analysis of the human brain where the structural and functional layers are considered together. In this work, we describe how to classify the subgraphs of a multiplex network, and we extend the motif analysis to networks with an arbitrary number of layers. We then extract multi-layer motifs in brain networks of healthy subjects by considering networks with two layers, anatomical and functional, respectively, obtained from diffusion and functional magnetic resonance imaging. Results indicate that subgraphs in which the presence of a physical connection between brain areas (links at the structural layer) coexists with a non-trivial positive correlation in their activities are statistically overabundant. Finally, we investigate the existence of a reinforcement mechanism between the two layers by looking at how the probability to find a link in one layer depends on the intensity of the connection in the other one. Showing that functional connectivity is non-trivially constrained by the underlying anatomical network, our work contributes to a better understanding of the interplay between the structure and function in the human brain.

  3. 1st International Conference on Network Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Kalyagin, Valery; Pardalos, Panos


    This volume contains a selection of contributions from the "First International Conference in Network Analysis," held at the University of Florida, Gainesville, on December 14-16, 2011. The remarkable diversity of fields that take advantage of Network Analysis makes the endeavor of gathering up-to-date material in a single compilation a useful, yet very difficult, task. The purpose of this volume is to overcome this difficulty by collecting the major results found by the participants and combining them in one easily accessible compilation. Network analysis has become a major research topic over the last several years. The broad range of applications that can be described and analyzed by means of a network is bringing together researchers, practitioners and other scientific communities from numerous fields such as Operations Research, Computer Science, Transportation, Energy, Social Sciences, and more. The contributions not only come from different fields, but also cover a broad range of topics relevant to the...

  4. Multimedia Forensics Is Not Computer Forensics (United States)

    Böhme, Rainer; Freiling, Felix C.; Gloe, Thomas; Kirchner, Matthias

    The recent popularity of research on topics of multimedia forensics justifies reflections on the definition of the field. This paper devises an ontology that structures forensic disciplines by their primary domain of evidence. In this sense, both multimedia forensics and computer forensics belong to the class of digital forensics, but they differ notably in the underlying observer model that defines the forensic investigator’s view on (parts of) reality, which itself is not fully cognizable. Important consequences on the reliability of probative facts emerge with regard to available counter-forensic techniques: while perfect concealment of traces is possible for computer forensics, this level of certainty cannot be expected for manipulations of sensor data. We cite concrete examples and refer to established techniques to support our arguments.

  5. X-ray computed tomography datasets for forensic analysis of vertebrate fossils. (United States)

    Rowe, Timothy B; Luo, Zhe-Xi; Ketcham, Richard A; Maisano, Jessica A; Colbert, Matthew W


    We describe X-ray computed tomography (CT) datasets from three specimens recovered from Early Cretaceous lakebeds of China that illustrate the forensic interpretation of CT imagery for paleontology. Fossil vertebrates from thinly bedded sediments often shatter upon discovery and are commonly repaired as amalgamated mosaics grouted to a solid backing slab of rock or plaster. Such methods are prone to inadvertent error and willful forgery, and once required potentially destructive methods to identify mistakes in reconstruction. CT is an efficient, nondestructive alternative that can disclose many clues about how a specimen was handled and repaired. These annotated datasets illustrate the power of CT in documenting specimen integrity and are intended as a reference in applying CT more broadly to evaluating the authenticity of comparable fossils.

  6. Forensic Analysis of Digital Dynamic Signatures: New Methods for Data Treatment and Feature Evaluation. (United States)

    Linden, Jacques; Marquis, Raymond; Mazzella, Williams


    This study explored digital dynamic signatures containing quantifiable dynamic data. The change in data content and nature necessitates the development of new data treatment approaches. A SignPad Omega digitizing tablet was used to assess measurement reproducibility, as well as within-writer variation and the occurrence of correctly simulated features. Measurement reproducibility was found to be high except for pressure information. Within-writer variation was found to be higher between days than on a same day. Occurrence of correct simulation was low for features such as signature size, trajectory length, and total signature time. Feature discrimination factors combining within-writer variability and the occurrence of correctly simulated features were computed and show that signature size, trajectory length, and signature time are the features that perform the best for discriminating genuine from simulated signatures. A final experiment indicates that dynamic information can be used to create connections between simulation cases. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  7. Evaluation of ammonium bifluoride fusion for rapid dissolution in post-detonation nuclear forensic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubley, Nicholas T. [Missouri Univ., Columbia, MO (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Brockman, John D. [Missouri Univ., Columbia, MO (United States). Research Reactor Center; Robertson, J. David [Missouri Univ., Columbia, MO (United States). Research Reactor Center; Missouri Univ., Columbia, MO (United States). Dept. of Chemistry


    Dissolution of geological reference materials by fusion with ammonium bifluoride, NH{sub 4}HF{sub 2} or ABF, was evaluated for its potential use in post-detonation nuclear forensics. The fusion procedure was optimized such that the total dissolution time was <3 h without compromising recovery. Geological reference materials containing various levels of silicates were dissolved and measured by ICP-MS to quantify elemental recovery. Dissolutions of NIST 278 obsidian and urban canyon matrix were performed with radiotracer spikes to measure potential loss of volatile elements during the fusion procedure via gamma-ray spectroscopy. Elemental percent recoveries obtained by ICP-MS were found to be 80-120% while recoveries of radiotracers were observed to be 90-100% with the exception of iodine.

  8. Forensic geotechnical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Babu, GL


    In this edited volume on advances in forensic geotechnical engineering, a number of technical contributions by experts and professionals in this area are included. The work is the outcome of deliberations at various conferences in the area conducted by Prof. G.L. Sivakumar Babu and Dr. V.V.S. Rao as secretary and Chairman of Technical Committee on Forensic Geotechnical Engineering of International Society for Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering (ISSMGE). This volume contains papers on topics such as guidelines, evidence/data collection, distress characterization, use of diagnostic tests (laboratory and field tests), back analysis, failure hypothesis formulation, role of instrumentation and sensor-based technologies, risk analysis, technical shortcomings. This volume will prove useful to researchers and practitioners alike.

  9. Network Anomaly Detection Based on Wavelet Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali A. Ghorbani


    Full Text Available Signal processing techniques have been applied recently for analyzing and detecting network anomalies due to their potential to find novel or unknown intrusions. In this paper, we propose a new network signal modelling technique for detecting network anomalies, combining the wavelet approximation and system identification theory. In order to characterize network traffic behaviors, we present fifteen features and use them as the input signals in our system. We then evaluate our approach with the 1999 DARPA intrusion detection dataset and conduct a comprehensive analysis of the intrusions in the dataset. Evaluation results show that the approach achieves high-detection rates in terms of both attack instances and attack types. Furthermore, we conduct a full day's evaluation in a real large-scale WiFi ISP network where five attack types are successfully detected from over 30 millions flows.

  10. Trimming of mammalian transcriptional networks using network component analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liao James C


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Network Component Analysis (NCA has been used to deduce the activities of transcription factors (TFs from gene expression data and the TF-gene binding relationship. However, the TF-gene interaction varies in different environmental conditions and tissues, but such information is rarely available and cannot be predicted simply by motif analysis. Thus, it is beneficial to identify key TF-gene interactions under the experimental condition based on transcriptome data. Such information would be useful in identifying key regulatory pathways and gene markers of TFs in further studies. Results We developed an algorithm to trim network connectivity such that the important regulatory interactions between the TFs and the genes were retained and the regulatory signals were deduced. Theoretical studies demonstrated that the regulatory signals were accurately reconstructed even in the case where only three independent transcriptome datasets were available. At least 80% of the main target genes were correctly predicted in the extreme condition of high noise level and small number of datasets. Our algorithm was tested with transcriptome data taken from mice under rapamycin treatment. The initial network topology from the literature contains 70 TFs, 778 genes, and 1423 edges between the TFs and genes. Our method retained 1074 edges (i.e. 75% of the original edge number and identified 17 TFs as being significantly perturbed under the experimental condition. Twelve of these TFs are involved in MAPK signaling or myeloid leukemia pathways defined in the KEGG database, or are known to physically interact with each other. Additionally, four of these TFs, which are Hif1a, Cebpb, Nfkb1, and Atf1, are known targets of rapamycin. Furthermore, the trimmed network was able to predict Eno1 as an important target of Hif1a; this key interaction could not be detected without trimming the regulatory network. Conclusions The advantage of our new algorithm

  11. About forensic phonetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry Hollien


    Full Text Available This article sets forth the goals and content of Forensic Phonetics and its major elements. Considered are 1 the processing and analysis of spoken utterances, 2 enhancement of speech intelligibility (re: surveillance and other recordings, 3 authentication of recordings, 4 speaker identification, and 5 detection of deception, intoxication, and emotions in speech. Stress in speech, and the psychological stress evaluation systems that some individuals attempt to use as lie detectors also will be considered.

  12. Electronic-nose applications in forensic science and for analysis of volatile biomarkers in the human breath (United States)

    AD Wilson


    The application of electronic-nose (E-nose) technologies in forensic science is a recent new development following a long history of progress in the development of diverse applications in the related biomedical and pharmaceutical fields. Data from forensic analyses must satisfy the needs and requirements of both the scientific and legal communities. The type of data...

  13. Detection Strategies for Malingering with the Miller Forensic Assessment of Symptoms Test: A Confirmatory Factor Analysis of Its Underlying Dimensions (United States)

    Vitacco, Michael J.; Jackson, Rebecca L.; Rogers, Richard; Neumann, Craig S.; Miller, Holly A.; Gabel, Jason


    Two of the most widely used measures for the assessment of malingering in forensic populations are the Miller Forensic Assessment of Symptoms Test (M-FAST) and the Structured Interview of Reported Symptoms (SIRS). The underlying dimensions of the SIRS have been well established in the literature, but the structure of the M-FAST remains relatively…

  14. Forensic entomology: a template for forensic acarology? (United States)

    Turner, Bryan


    Insects are used in a variety of ways in forensic science and the developing area of forensic acarology may have a similar range of potential. This short account summarises the main ways in which entomology currently contributes to forensic science and discusses to what extent acarology might also contribute in these areas.

  15. Transitioning from forensic genetics to forensic genomics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kayser, M. (Manfred); W. Parson (Walther)


    textabstractDue to its support of law enforcement, forensics is a conservative field; nevertheless, driven by scientific and technological progress, forensic genetics is slowly transitioning into forensic genomics. With this Special Issue of Genes we acknowledge and appreciate this rather recent

  16. Social network analysis applied to team sports analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Clemente, Filipe Manuel; Mendes, Rui Sousa


    Explaining how graph theory and social network analysis can be applied to team sports analysis, This book presents useful approaches, models and methods that can be used to characterise the overall properties of team networks and identify the prominence of each team player. Exploring the different possible network metrics that can be utilised in sports analysis, their possible applications and variances from situation to situation, the respective chapters present an array of illustrative case studies. Identifying the general concepts of social network analysis and network centrality metrics, readers are shown how to generate a methodological protocol for data collection. As such, the book provides a valuable resource for students of the sport sciences, sports engineering, applied computation and the social sciences.

  17. Network graph analysis of category fluency testing. (United States)

    Lerner, Alan J; Ogrocki, Paula K; Thomas, Peter J


    Category fluency is impaired early in Alzheimer disease (AD). Graph theory is a technique to analyze complex relationships in networks. Features of interest in network analysis include the number of nodes and edges, and variables related to their interconnectedness. Other properties important in network analysis are "small world properties" and "scale-free" properties. The small world property (popularized as the so-called "6 degrees of separation") arises when the majority of connections are local, but a number of connections are to distant nodes. Scale-free networks are characterized by the presence of a few nodes with many connections, and many more nodes with fewer connections. To determine if category fluency data can be analyzed using graph theory. To compare normal elderly, mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and AD network graphs, and characterize changes seen with increasing cognitive impairment. Category fluency results ("animals" recorded over 60 s) from normals (n=38), MCI (n=33), and AD (n=40) completing uniform data set evaluations were converted to network graphs of all unique cooccurring neighbors, and compared for network variables. For Normal, MCI and AD, mean clustering coefficients were 0.21, 0.22, 0.30; characteristic path lengths were 3.27, 3.17, and 2.65; small world properties decreased with increasing cognitive impairment, and all graphs showed scale-free properties. Rank correlations of the 25 commonest items ranged from 0.75 to 0.83. Filtering of low-degree nodes in normal and MCI graphs resulted in properties similar to the AD network graph. Network graph analysis is a promising technique for analyzing changes in category fluency. Our technique results in nonrandom graphs consistent with well-characterized properties for these types of graphs.

  18. Performance Analysis of 3G Communication Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toni Anwar


    Full Text Available In this project, third generation (3G technologies research had been carried out to design and optimization conditions for 3G network. The 3G wireless mobile communication networks are growing at an ever faster rate, and this is likely to continue in the foreseeable future. Some services such as e-mail, web browsing etc allow the transition of the network from circuit switched to packet switched operation, resulting in increased overall network performance. Higher reliability, better coverage and services, higher capacity, mobility management, and wireless multimedia are all parts of the network performance. Throughput and spectral efficiency are fundamental parameters in capacity planning for 3G cellular network deployments. This project investigates also the downlink (DL and uplink (UL throughput and spectral efficiency performance of the standard Universal Mobile Telecommunications system (UMTS system for different scenarios of user and different technologies. Power consumption comparison for different mobile technology is also discussed. The analysis can significantly help system engineers to obtain crucial performance characteristics of 3G network. At the end of the paper, coverage area of 3G from one of the mobile network in Malaysia is presented.

  19. Medical image analysis with artificial neural networks. (United States)

    Jiang, J; Trundle, P; Ren, J


    Given that neural networks have been widely reported in the research community of medical imaging, we provide a focused literature survey on recent neural network developments in computer-aided diagnosis, medical image segmentation and edge detection towards visual content analysis, and medical image registration for its pre-processing and post-processing, with the aims of increasing awareness of how neural networks can be applied to these areas and to provide a foundation for further research and practical development. Representative techniques and algorithms are explained in detail to provide inspiring examples illustrating: (i) how a known neural network with fixed structure and training procedure could be applied to resolve a medical imaging problem; (ii) how medical images could be analysed, processed, and characterised by neural networks; and (iii) how neural networks could be expanded further to resolve problems relevant to medical imaging. In the concluding section, a highlight of comparisons among many neural network applications is included to provide a global view on computational intelligence with neural networks in medical imaging. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Fast network centrality analysis using GPUs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Zhiao


    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the exploding volume of data generated by continuously evolving high-throughput technologies, biological network analysis problems are growing larger in scale and craving for more computational power. General Purpose computation on Graphics Processing Units (GPGPU provides a cost-effective technology for the study of large-scale biological networks. Designing algorithms that maximize data parallelism is the key in leveraging the power of GPUs. Results We proposed an efficient data parallel formulation of the All-Pairs Shortest Path problem, which is the key component for shortest path-based centrality computation. A betweenness centrality algorithm built upon this formulation was developed and benchmarked against the most recent GPU-based algorithm. Speedup between 11 to 19% was observed in various simulated scale-free networks. We further designed three algorithms based on this core component to compute closeness centrality, eccentricity centrality and stress centrality. To make all these algorithms available to the research community, we developed a software package gpu-fan (GPU-based Fast Analysis of Networks for CUDA enabled GPUs. Speedup of 10-50× compared with CPU implementations was observed for simulated scale-free networks and real world biological networks. Conclusions gpu-fan provides a significant performance improvement for centrality computation in large-scale networks. Source code is available under the GNU Public License (GPL at

  1. Kinetic analysis of complex metabolic networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephanopoulos, G. [MIT, Cambridge, MA (United States)


    A new methodology is presented for the analysis of complex metabolic networks with the goal of metabolite overproduction. The objective is to locate a small number of reaction steps in a network that have maximum impact on network flux amplification and whose rate can also be increased without functional network derangement. This method extends the concepts of Metabolic Control Analysis to groups of reactions and offers the means for calculating group control coefficients as measures of the control exercised by groups of reactions on the overall network fluxes and intracellular metabolite pools. It is further demonstrated that the optimal strategy for the effective increase of network fluxes, while maintaining an uninterrupted supply of intermediate metabolites, is through the coordinated amplification of multiple (as opposed to a single) reaction steps. Satisfying this requirement invokes the concept of the concentration control to coefficient, which emerges as a critical parameter in the identification of feasible enzymatic modifications with maximal impact on the network flux. A case study of aromatic aminoacid production is provided to illustrate these concepts.

  2. Adult carrion arthropod community in a tropical rainforest of Malaysia: analysis on three common forensic entomology animal models. (United States)

    Azwandi, A; Nina Keterina, H; Owen, L C; Nurizzati, M D; Omar, B


    Decomposing carrion provides a temporary microhabitat and food source for a distinct community of organisms. Arthropods constitute a major part of this community and can be utilized to estimate the postmortem interval (PMI) of cadavers during criminal investigations. However, in Malaysia, knowledge of carrion arthropod assemblages and their succession is superficial. Therefore, a study on three types of forensic entomology animal model was conducted from 27 September 2010 to 28 October 2010 in a tropical rainforest at National University of Malaysia, Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia. Over one month collections of arthropods were made on nine animal carcasses: three laboratory rats (Rattus norvegicus, mean weight: 0.508 ± 0.027 kg), three rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus, mean weight: 2.538 ± 0.109 kg) and three long tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis, mean weight: 5.750 ± 0.551 kg). A total of 31,433 arthropods belonging to eight orders and twenty-eight families were collected from all carcasses. Among 2924 of adults flies collected, approximately 19% were calliphorids with Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1794) being the most abundant. Arthropod taxon richness was lower on rat carcasses compared to that of rabbit and monkey carcasses, and this was more apparent during the first week of decomposition. However, there were no significant differences in Shannon-Weiner index (H'), Simpson dominance index (C) and Pielou's Evenness index (J) between different animal model. The arthropod assemblages associated to animal model were different significantly (p<0.05) while decomposition stage was a significant factor influencing insect assemblages (p<0.05). Analysis on the arthropods succession indicated that some taxa have a clear visitation period while the others, particularly Coleoptera, did not show a clear successional pattern thus require futher insect succession study. Although human bodies were not possible for the succession study, most of the arthropods collected are

  3. Systematic forensic toxicological analysis by GC-MS in serum using automated mass spectral deconvolution and identification system. (United States)

    Grapp, Marcel; Maurer, Hans H; Desel, Herbert


    Non-targeted screening of body fluids for psychoactive agents is an essential task for forensic toxicology. The challenge is the identification of xenobiotics of interest from background noise and endogenous matrix components. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the use of an Automated Mass Spectral Deconvolution and Identification System (AMDIS) for gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) based toxicological serum screening. One hundred fifty serum samples submitted to the authors´ laboratory for systematic forensic toxicological analysis underwent GC-MS screening after neutral and basic liquid-liquid extraction. Recorded datasets were routinely evaluated both by experienced personnel and automatically using the AMDIS software combined with the Maurer/Pfleger/Weber GC-MS library MPW_2011. The results from manual and automated data evaluation were then systematically compared. AMDIS parameters for data deconvolution and substance identification had been successfully adapted to the GC-MS screening procedure in serum. The number of false positive hits could substantially be reduced without increasing the risk of overlooking relevant compounds. With AMDIS-based data evaluation, additional drugs were identified in 25 samples (17%) that had not been detected by manual data evaluation. Importantly, among these drugs, there were frequently prescribed and toxicologically relevant antidepressants and antipsychotic drugs such as citalopram, mirtazapine, quetiapine, or venlafaxine. For most of the identified drugs, their serum concentrations were in the therapeutic or subtherapeutic range. Thus, our study indicated that automated data evaluation by AMDIS provided reliable screening results. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Forensic Taxonomy of Android Social Apps. (United States)

    Azfar, Abdullah; Choo, Kim-Kwang Raymond; Liu, Lin


    An Android social app taxonomy incorporating artifacts that are of forensic interest will enable users and forensic investigators to identify the personally identifiable information (PII) stored by the apps. In this study, 30 popular Android social apps were examined. Artifacts of forensic interest (e.g., contacts lists, chronology of messages, and timestamp of an added contact) were recovered. In addition, images were located, and Facebook token strings used to tie account identities and gain access to information entered into Facebook by a user were identified. Based on the findings, a two-dimensional taxonomy of the forensic artifacts of the social apps is proposed. A comparative summary of existing forensic taxonomies of different categories of Android apps, designed to facilitate timely collection and analysis of evidentiary materials from Android devices, is presented. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  5. Exploration Knowledge Sharing Networks Using Social Network Analysis Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Győző Attila Szilágyi


    Full Text Available Knowledge sharing within organization is one of the key factor for success. The organization, where knowledge sharing takes place faster and more efficiently, is able to adapt to changes in the market environment more successfully, and as a result, it may obtain a competitive advantage. Knowledge sharing in an organization is carried out through formal and informal human communication contacts during work. This forms a multi-level complex network whose quantitative and topological characteristics largely determine how quickly and to what extent the knowledge travels within organization. The study presents how different networks of knowledge sharing in the organization can be explored by means of network analysis methods through a case study, and which role play the properties of these networks in fast and sufficient spread of knowledge in organizations. The study also demonstrates the practical applications of our research results. Namely, on the basis of knowledge sharing educational strategies can be developed in an organization, and further, competitiveness of an organization may increase due to those strategies’ application.

  6. Using Granular-Evidence-Based Adaptive Networks for Sensitivity Analysis


    Vališevskis, A.


    This paper considers the possibility of using adaptive networks for sensitivity analysis. Adaptive network that processes fuzzy granules is described. The adaptive network training algorithm can be used for sensitivity analysis of decision making models. Furthermore, a case study concerning sensitivity analysis is described, which shows in what way the adaptive network can be used for sensitivity analysis.

  7. Analysis of microsatellite markers D18S70 and d20S116 in DNA isolated from dentin: Use in forensic medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puzović Dragana


    Full Text Available Introduction. Short tandem repeats and more specifically microsatellites represent a powerful tool in forensic medicine. In the past years, they have been extensively used in human identification and paternity testing. Objective The aim of the present study was to analyze two microsatellite markers in the Serbian population, i.e. to determine the number of alleles and the relevant forensic parameters. Methods. DNA was isolated from teeth samples using standard proteinase K digestion and phenol/chloroform alcohol extraction. PCR products were analyzed on polyacrilamide gels and visualized by AgNO3 staining. Forensic parameters were calculated using the Cervus software. Results. The loci D18S70 and D20S116 were analyzed on a sample of 70 unrelated, healthy adult individuals from Serbia. The number of alleles was determined and Hardy Weinberg equilibrium was confirmed for both loci. D18S70 and D20S116 demonstrated 6 and 8 alleles, respectively. The power of discrimination (PD and the power of exclusion (PE for the tested STR loci, D18S70 and D20S116 were 0.92 (PD, 0.41 (PE and 0.95 (PD, 0.480 (PE, respectively. Conclusion. According to the presented data, D18S70 and D20S116 are most informative markers. Based on allelic frequencies and statistical parameters for forensic testing, it may be suggested that these two microsatellites represent useful markers for individual identification and parentage analysis in the Serbian population.

  8. Veterinary Forensic Toxicology. (United States)

    Gwaltney-Brant, S M


    Veterinary pathologists working in diagnostic laboratories are sometimes presented with cases involving animal poisonings that become the object of criminal or civil litigation. Forensic veterinary toxicology cases can include cases involving animal cruelty (malicious poisoning), regulatory issues (eg, contamination of the food supply), insurance litigation, or poisoning of wildlife. An understanding of the appropriate approach to these types of cases, including proper sample collection, handling, and transport, is essential so that chain of custody rules are followed and proper samples are obtained for toxicological analysis. Consultation with veterinary toxicologists at the diagnostic laboratory that will be processing the samples before, during, and after the forensic necropsy can help to ensure that the analytical tests performed are appropriate for the circumstances and findings surrounding the individual case. © The Author(s) 2016.

  9. The role of forensic anthropology in the recovery and analysis of Branch Davidian Compound victims: recovery procedures and characteristics of the victims. (United States)

    Ubelaker, D H; Owsley, D W; Houck, M M; Craig, E; Grant, W; Woltanski, T; Fram, R; Sandness, K; Peerwani, N


    Anthropological contributions to the investigation of the events at the Branch Davidian Compound near Waco, Texas in early 1993, were of two major types: the recovery of human remains from the site and the analysis of most of those individuals at the Medical Examiner's Office in Fort Worth, Texas. This paper describes the role of forensic anthropology in the recovery and analysis of Branch Davidian Compound victims and the recovery procedures and characteristics of the victims.

  10. Forensic entomology (United States)

    Amendt, Jens; Krettek, Roman; Zehner, Richard

    Necrophagous insects are important in the decomposition of cadavers. The close association between insects and corpses and the use of insects in medicocriminal investigations is the subject of forensic entomology. The present paper reviews the historical background of this discipline, important postmortem processes, and discusses the scientific basis underlying attempts to determine the time interval since death. Using medical techniques, such as the measurement of body temperature or analysing livor and rigor mortis, time since death can only be accurately measured for the first two or three days after death. In contrast, by calculating the age of immature insect stages feeding on a corpse and analysing the necrophagous species present, postmortem intervals from the first day to several weeks can be estimated. These entomological methods may be hampered by difficulties associated with species identification, but modern DNA techniques are contributing to the rapid and authoritative identification of necrophagous insects. Other uses of entomological data include the toxicological examination of necrophagous larvae from a corpse to identify and estimate drugs and toxicants ingested by the person when alive and the proof of possible postmortem manipulations. Forensic entomology may even help in investigations dealing with people who are alive but in need of care, by revealing information about cases of neglect.

  11. Analysis of the Maternal Filicide in Terms of Forensic Medicine in Turkey: A Clinical Research. (United States)

    Eke, Salih Murat; Başoğlu, Saba; Taktak, Şafak; Oral, Gökhan


    In the literature, 15% of the victims of homicide consists of children under 16 years of age; children under the age has been proved that they have the maximum risk. The vast majority of the victims were killed by their mothers. Thus, if mothers are the perpetrators of crime child murders are discussed in different ways, so it is conceptualized under the name of maternal filicide in the literature. This study has been performed for, in Turkey, women who killed their own children between 0-6 years old, victims of crimes, and to determine features of crime regarding on forensic medicine, eventually in order to provide a basis for taking necessary precautions and measures. This research includes 74 reports of maternal filicide cases came to IV. Board of Specialization at the Council of Forensic Medicine in Istanbul, Ministry of Justice of Republic of Turkey between 1996-2006 years. In the light of data came from these reports, the socio-demographic characteristics of mothers who attempted filicide and children who were killed, and crime occurrence methods and mothers' criminal legal responsibility were examined. Mothers, suspected of the filicide crime, are often at a young age, and did not desire pregnancy, 73 of mother's do not have criminal history, and 48 of mothers confessed the crime. Found that 71 of child victims are biological kids, 38 of them were killed around age, and 20 of them were girls, 35 of them were boys. The study group, seven of defendants killed or attempted to kill more than one child at the same time. The majority of mothers committed the crime during the daylight. When filicide methods were examined strangling or throwing up the child from higher were seen the most. The majority of mothers committed crime wiıthout weapon or other objects, just by their hands. Based on decisions of IV. Board of Specialization, no significant difference was observed between the the mothers with criminal liability and mothers with non-criminal liability. In this

  12. The multivariate Dirichlet-multinomial distribution and its application in forensic genetics to adjust for subpopulation effects using the θ-correction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvedebrink, Torben; Eriksen, Poul Svante; Morling, Niels


    In this paper, we discuss the construction of a multivariate generalisation of the Dirichlet-multinomial distribution. An example from forensic genetics in the statistical analysis of DNA mixtures motivates the study of this multivariate extension. In forensic genetics, adjustment of the match....... (2015) showed elegantly how to use Bayesian networks for efficient computations of likelihood ratios in a forensic genetic context. However, their underlying population genetic model assumed independence of alleles, which is not realistic in real populations. We demonstrate how the so-called θ...

  13. Limitations in forensic odontology


    B Kavitha; A Einstein; B Sivapathasundharam; T R Saraswathi


    The concept of using dental evidence in forensic investigation has kindled so much interest in the recent past that forensic odontology is even suggested as the single positive identification method to solve certain forensic cases. In this process, the shortcomings in forensic odontology though few are overlooked. These discrepancies associated with various methods are to be weighed cautiously to make forensic odontology a more accurate, reliable, and reproducible investigatory science. In th...

  14. MetricForensics: A Multi-Level Approach for Mining Volatile Graphs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, Keith [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Eliassi-Rad, Tina [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Faloutsos, Christos [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Akoglu, Leman [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Li, Lei [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Maruhashi, Koji [Fujitsu Laboratories Ltd., Kanagawa (Japan); Prakash, B. Aditya [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Tong, H [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)


    Advances in data collection and storage capacity have made it increasingly possible to collect highly volatile graph data for analysis. Existing graph analysis techniques are not appropriate for such data, especially in cases where streaming or near-real-time results are required. An example that has drawn significant research interest is the cyber-security domain, where internet communication traces are collected and real-time discovery of events, behaviors, patterns and anomalies is desired. We propose MetricForensics, a scalable framework for analysis of volatile graphs. MetricForensics combines a multi-level “drill down" approach, a collection of user-selected graph metrics and a collection of analysis techniques. At each successive level, more sophisticated metrics are computed and the graph is viewed at a finer temporal resolution. In this way, MetricForensics scales to highly volatile graphs by only allocating resources for computationally expensive analysis when an interesting event is discovered at a coarser resolution first. We test MetricForensics on three real-world graphs: an enterprise IP trace, a trace of legitimate and malicious network traffic from a research institution, and the MIT Reality Mining proximity sensor data. Our largest graph has »3M vertices and »32M edges, spanning 4:5 days. The results demonstrate the scalability and capability of MetricForensics in analyzing volatile graphs; and highlight four novel phenomena in such graphs: elbows, broken correlations, prolonged spikes, and strange stars.

  15. Social network analysis of study environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blaženka Divjak


    Full Text Available Student working environment influences student learning and achievement level. In this respect social aspects of students’ formal and non-formal learning play special role in learning environment. The main research problem of this paper is to find out if students' academic performance influences their position in different students' social networks. Further, there is a need to identify other predictors of this position. In the process of problem solving we use the Social Network Analysis (SNA that is based on the data we collected from the students at the Faculty of Organization and Informatics, University of Zagreb. There are two data samples: in the basic sample N=27 and in the extended sample N=52. We collected data on social-demographic position, academic performance, learning and motivation styles, student status (full-time/part-time, attitudes towards individual and teamwork as well as informal cooperation. Afterwards five different networks (exchange of learning materials, teamwork, informal communication, basic and aggregated social network were constructed. These networks were analyzed with different metrics and the most important were betweenness, closeness and degree centrality. The main result is, firstly, that the position in a social network cannot be forecast only by academic success and, secondly, that part-time students tend to form separate groups that are poorly connected with full-time students. In general, position of a student in social networks in study environment can influence student learning as well as her/his future employability and therefore it is worthwhile to be investigated.

  16. Tensor Fusion Network for Multimodal Sentiment Analysis


    Zadeh, Amir; Chen, Minghai; Poria, Soujanya; Cambria, Erik; Morency, Louis-Philippe


    Multimodal sentiment analysis is an increasingly popular research area, which extends the conventional language-based definition of sentiment analysis to a multimodal setup where other relevant modalities accompany language. In this paper, we pose the problem of multimodal sentiment analysis as modeling intra-modality and inter-modality dynamics. We introduce a novel model, termed Tensor Fusion Network, which learns both such dynamics end-to-end. The proposed approach is tailored for the vola...

  17. Network analysis of eight industrial symbiosis systems (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Zheng, Hongmei; Shi, Han; Yu, Xiangyi; Liu, Gengyuan; Su, Meirong; Li, Yating; Chai, Yingying


    Industrial symbiosis is the quintessential characteristic of an eco-industrial park. To divide parks into different types, previous studies mostly focused on qualitative judgments, and failed to use metrics to conduct quantitative research on the internal structural or functional characteristics of a park. To analyze a park's structural attributes, a range of metrics from network analysis have been applied, but few researchers have compared two or more symbioses using multiple metrics. In this study, we used two metrics (density and network degree centralization) to compare the degrees of completeness and dependence of eight diverse but representative industrial symbiosis networks. Through the combination of the two metrics, we divided the networks into three types: weak completeness, and two forms of strong completeness, namely "anchor tenant" mutualism and "equality-oriented" mutualism. The results showed that the networks with a weak degree of completeness were sparse and had few connections among nodes; for "anchor tenant" mutualism, the degree of completeness was relatively high, but the affiliated members were too dependent on core members; and the members in "equality-oriented" mutualism had equal roles, with diverse and flexible symbiotic paths. These results revealed some of the systems' internal structure and how different structures influenced the exchanges of materials, energy, and knowledge among members of a system, thereby providing insights into threats that may destabilize the network. Based on this analysis, we provide examples of the advantages and effectiveness of recent improvement projects in a typical Chinese eco-industrial park (Shandong Lubei).

  18. Quantitative analysis of sharp-force trauma: an application of scanning electron microscopy in forensic anthropology. (United States)

    Bartelink, E J; Wiersema, J M; Demaree, R S


    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) has occasionally been used by anthropologists and forensic scientists to look at morphological characteristics that certain implements leave on bone. However, few studies have addressed techniques or protocols for assessing quantitative differences between tool marks on bone made by different bladed implements. In this study, the statistical variation in cut mark width was examined between control and test samples on bone using a scalpel blade, paring knife, and kitchen utility knife. Statistically significant differences (p marks made by the same knife under control and test conditions for all three knife types used in the study. When the control sample and test samples were examined individually for differences in mean variation between knife types, significant differences were also found (p mark width were found, caution should be used in trying to classify individual cut marks as being inflicted by a particular implement, due to the overlap in cut mark width that exists between different knife types. When combined, both quantitative and qualitative analyses of cut marks should prove to be more useful in trying to identify a suspect weapon. Furthermore, the application of SEM can be particularly useful for assessing many of these features.

  19. Feline mitochondrial DNA sampling for forensic analysis: when enough is enough! (United States)

    Grahn, Robert A; Alhaddad, Hasan; Alves, Paulo C; Randi, Ettore; Waly, Nashwa E; Lyons, Leslie A


    Pet hair has a demonstrated value in resolving legal issues. Cat hair is chronically shed and it is difficult to leave a home with cats without some level of secondary transfer. The power of cat hair as an evidentiary resource may be underused because representative genetic databases are not available for exclusionary purposes. Mitochondrial control region databases are highly valuable for hair analyses and have been developed for the cat. In a representative worldwide data set, 83% of domestic cat mitotypes belong to one of twelve major types. Of the remaining 17%, 7.5% are unique within the published 1394 sample database. The current research evaluates the sample size necessary to establish a representative population for forensic comparison of the mitochondrial control region for the domestic cat. For most worldwide populations, randomly sampling 50 unrelated local individuals will achieve saturation at 95%. The 99% saturation is achieved by randomly sampling 60-170 cats, depending on the numbers of mitotypes available in the population at large. Likely due to the recent domestication of the cat and minimal localized population substructure, fewer cats are needed to meet mitochondria DNA control region database practical saturation than for humans or dogs. Coupled with the available worldwide feline control region database of nearly 1400 cats, minimal local sampling will be required to establish an appropriate comparative representative database and achieve significant exclusionary power. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Copy-Move Forgery Detection Technique for Forensic Analysis in Digital Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toqeer Mahmood


    Full Text Available Due to the powerful image editing tools images are open to several manipulations; therefore, their authenticity is becoming questionable especially when images have influential power, for example, in a court of law, news reports, and insurance claims. Image forensic techniques determine the integrity of images by applying various high-tech mechanisms developed in the literature. In this paper, the images are analyzed for a particular type of forgery where a region of an image is copied and pasted onto the same image to create a duplication or to conceal some existing objects. To detect the copy-move forgery attack, images are first divided into overlapping square blocks and DCT components are adopted as the block representations. Due to the high dimensional nature of the feature space, Gaussian RBF kernel PCA is applied to achieve the reduced dimensional feature vector representation that also improved the efficiency during the feature matching. Extensive experiments are performed to evaluate the proposed method in comparison to state of the art. The experimental results reveal that the proposed technique precisely determines the copy-move forgery even when the images are contaminated with blurring, noise, and compression and can effectively detect multiple copy-move forgeries. Hence, the proposed technique provides a computationally efficient and reliable way of copy-move forgery detection that increases the credibility of images in evidence centered applications.

  1. Automated Analysis of Security in Networking Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchholtz, Mikael


    It has for a long time been a challenge to built secure networking systems. One way to counter this problem is to provide developers of software applications for networking systems with easy-to-use tools that can check security properties before the applications ever reach the marked. These tools...... will both help raise the general level of awareness of the problems and prevent the most basic flaws from occurring. This thesis contributes to the development of such tools. Networking systems typically try to attain secure communication by applying standard cryptographic techniques. In this thesis...... attacks, and attacks launched by insiders. Finally, the perspectives for the application of the analysis techniques are discussed, thereby, coming a small step closer to providing developers with easy- to-use tools for validating the security of networking applications....

  2. Functional stoichiometric analysis of metabolic networks. (United States)

    Urbanczik, R; Wagner, C


    An important tool in Systems Biology is the stoichiometric modeling of metabolic networks, where the stationary states of the network are described by a high-dimensional polyhedral cone, the so-called flux cone. Exhaustive descriptions of the metabolism can be obtained by computing the elementary vectors of this cone but, owing to a combinatorial explosion of the number of elementary vectors, this approach becomes computationally intractable for genome scale networks. Hence, we propose to instead focus on the conversion cone, a projection of the flux cone, which describes the interaction of the metabolism with its external chemical environment. We present a direct method for calculating the elementary vectors of this cone and, by studying the metabolism of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we demonstrate that such an analysis is computationally feasible even for genome scale networks.

  3. A statistical analysis of UK financial networks (United States)

    Chu, J.; Nadarajah, S.


    In recent years, with a growing interest in big or large datasets, there has been a rise in the application of large graphs and networks to financial big data. Much of this research has focused on the construction and analysis of the network structure of stock markets, based on the relationships between stock prices. Motivated by Boginski et al. (2005), who studied the characteristics of a network structure of the US stock market, we construct network graphs of the UK stock market using same method. We fit four distributions to the degree density of the vertices from these graphs, the Pareto I, Fréchet, lognormal, and generalised Pareto distributions, and assess the goodness of fit. Our results show that the degree density of the complements of the market graphs, constructed using a negative threshold value close to zero, can be fitted well with the Fréchet and lognormal distributions.

  4. Visualization and Analysis of Complex Covert Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Memon, Bisharat

    This report discusses and summarize the results of my work so far in relation to my Ph.D. project entitled "Visualization and Analysis of Complex Covert Networks". The focus of my research is primarily on development of methods and supporting tools for visualization and analysis of networked...... systems that are covert and hence inherently complex. My Ph.D. is positioned within the wider framework of CrimeFighter project. The framework envisions a number of key knowledge management processes that are involved in the workflow, and the toolbox provides supporting tools to assist human end...

  5. In silico Biochemical Reaction Network Analysis (IBRENA): a package for simulation and analysis of reaction networks. (United States)

    Liu, Gang; Neelamegham, Sriram


    We present In silico Biochemical Reaction Network Analysis (IBRENA), a software package which facilitates multiple functions including cellular reaction network simulation and sensitivity analysis (both forward and adjoint methods), coupled with principal component analysis, singular-value decomposition and model reduction. The software features a graphical user interface that aids simulation and plotting of in silico results. While the primary focus is to aid formulation, testing and reduction of theoretical biochemical reaction networks, the program can also be used for analysis of high-throughput genomic and proteomic data. The software package, manual and examples are available at

  6. Organizational network analysis for two networks in the Washington State Department of Transportation. (United States)


    Organizational network analysis (ONA) consists of gathering data on information sharing and : connectivity in a group, calculating network measures, creating network maps, and using this : information to analyze and improve the functionality of the g...

  7. Developing an intelligence analysis process through social network analysis (United States)

    Waskiewicz, Todd; LaMonica, Peter


    Intelligence analysts are tasked with making sense of enormous amounts of data and gaining an awareness of a situation that can be acted upon. This process can be extremely difficult and time consuming. Trying to differentiate between important pieces of information and extraneous data only complicates the problem. When dealing with data containing entities and relationships, social network analysis (SNA) techniques can be employed to make this job easier. Applying network measures to social network graphs can identify the most significant nodes (entities) and edges (relationships) and help the analyst further focus on key areas of concern. Strange developed a model that identifies high value targets such as centers of gravity and critical vulnerabilities. SNA lends itself to the discovery of these high value targets and the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) has investigated several network measures such as centrality, betweenness, and grouping to identify centers of gravity and critical vulnerabilities. Using these network measures, a process for the intelligence analyst has been developed to aid analysts in identifying points of tactical emphasis. Organizational Risk Analyzer (ORA) and Terrorist Modus Operandi Discovery System (TMODS) are the two applications used to compute the network measures and identify the points to be acted upon. Therefore, the result of leveraging social network analysis techniques and applications will provide the analyst and the intelligence community with more focused and concentrated analysis results allowing them to more easily exploit key attributes of a network, thus saving time, money, and manpower.

  8. Forensic Pathology Education in Pathology Residency (United States)

    Ross, Wayne K.; Domen, Ronald E.


    Forensic pathology is a fundamental part of anatomic pathology training during pathology residency. However, the lack of information on forensic teaching suggests the highly variable nature of forensic education. A survey of pathology residency program directors was performed to determine key aspects of their respective forensic rotations and curriculum. A total of 38.3% of programs from across the country responded, and the survey results show 5.6% don’t require a forensic pathology rotation. In those that do, most forensic pathology rotations are 4 weeks long, are done at a medical examiner’s office, and require set prerequisites. A total of 21.1% of responding programs have residents who are not receiving documented evaluations for this rotation. While 39.6% of programs have a defined forensics curriculum, as many as 15% do not. Furthermore, nearly 43% of programs place no limit on counting forensic autopsies when applying for pathology board examinations. Our survey confirmed the inconsistent nature of forensic pathology training in resident education. Additionally, our curriculum was reorganized to create a more robust educational experience. A pre- and post-forensic lecture quiz and Resident In-Service Examination scores were analyzed to determine our curriculum’s impact and effectiveness. Analysis of our pre- and post-lecture quiz showed an improved overall average as well as an increase in Resident In-Service Examination scores, indicating improved general forensic pathology knowledge. Using this knowledge, along with changes in our curriculum, we generated a number of recommendations for improving forensic pathology education in pathology residency. PMID:28913415

  9. Phylodynamic analysis of a viral infection network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teiichiro eShiino


    Full Text Available Viral infections by sexual and droplet transmission routes typically spread through a complex host-to-host contact network. Clarifying the transmission network and epidemiological parameters affecting the variations and dynamics of a specific pathogen is a major issue in the control of infectious diseases. However, conventional methods such as interview and/or classical phylogenetic analysis of viral gene sequences have inherent limitations and often fail to detect infectious clusters and transmission connections. Recent improvements in computational environments now permit the analysis of large datasets. In addition, novel analytical methods have been developed that serve to infer the evolutionary dynamics of virus genetic diversity using sample date information and sequence data. This type of framework, termed phylodynamics, helps connect some of the missing links on viral transmission networks, which are often hard to detect by conventional methods of epidemiology. With sufficient number of sequences available, one can use this new inference method to estimate theoretical epidemiological parameters such as temporal distributions of the primary infection, fluctuation of the pathogen population size, basic reproductive number, and the mean time span of disease infectiousness. Transmission networks estimated by this framework often have the properties of a scale-free network, which are characteristic of infectious and social communication processes. Network analysis based on phylodynamics has alluded to various suggestions concerning the infection dynamics associated with a given community and/or risk behavior. In this review, I will summarize the current methods available for identifying the transmission network using phylogeny, and present an argument on the possibilities of applying the scale-free properties to these existing frameworks.

  10. Nuclear Forensics International Technical Working Group (ITWG): a collaboration of scientists, law enforcement officials, and regulators working to combat nuclear terrorism and proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwantes, Jon M.


    Founded in 1996 upon the initiative of the “Group of 8” governments (G8), the Nuclear Forensics International Technical Working Group (ITWG) is an ad hoc organization of official Nuclear Forensics practitioners (scientists, law enforcement, and regulators) that can be called upon to provide technical assistance to the global community in the event of a seizure of nuclear or radiological materials. The ITWG is supported by and is affiliated with nearly 40 countries and international partner organizations including the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), EURATOM, INTERPOL, EUROPOL, and the United Nations Interregional Crime and Justice Research Institute (UNICRI) (Figure 1). Besides providing a network of nuclear forensics laboratories that are able to assist the global community during a nuclear smuggling event, the ITWG is also committed to the advancement of the science of nuclear forensic analysis, largely through participation in periodic table top and Collaborative Materials Exercises (CMXs). Exercise scenarios use “real world” samples with realistic forensics investigation time constraints and reporting requirements. These exercises are designed to promote best practices in the field and test, evaluate, and improve new technical capabilities, methods and techniques in order to advance the science of nuclear forensics. Past efforts to advance nuclear forensic science have also included scenarios that asked laboratories to adapt conventional forensics methods (e.g. DNA, fingerprints, tool marks, and document comparisons) for collecting and preserving evidence comingled with radioactive materials.

  11. An Android Communication App Forensic Taxonomy. (United States)

    Azfar, Abdullah; Choo, Kim-Kwang Raymond; Liu, Lin


    Due to the popularity of Android devices and applications (apps), Android forensics is one of the most studied topics within mobile forensics. Communication apps, such as instant messaging and Voice over IP (VoIP), are one popular app category used by mobile device users, including criminals. Therefore, a taxonomy outlining artifacts of forensic interest involving the use of Android communication apps will facilitate the timely collection and analysis of evidentiary materials from such apps. In this paper, 30 popular Android communication apps were examined, where a logical extraction of the Android phone images was collected using XRY, a widely used mobile forensic tool. Various information of forensic interest, such as contact lists and chronology of messages, was recovered. Based on the findings, a two-dimensional taxonomy of the forensic artifacts of the communication apps is proposed, with the app categories in one dimension and the classes of artifacts in the other dimension. Finally, the artifacts identified in the study of the 30 communication apps are summarized using the taxonomy. It is expected that the proposed taxonomy and the forensic findings in this paper will assist forensic investigations involving Android communication apps. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  12. Factors Predicting Organizational Identification with Intercollegiate Forensics Teams (United States)

    Croucher, Stephen M.; Long, Bridget L.; Meredith, Michael J.; Oommen, Deepa; Steele, Emily L.


    This study examines the relationship between intercollegiate forensics competitors' organizational identification and organizational culture. Through a survey analysis of 314 intercollegiate forensics students, this study reports three major findings. First, this study found male competitors identify with forensics programs more than female…

  13. Multimedia Analytics for Image Collection Forensics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Worring, M.; Ho, A.T.S.; Li, S.


    This chapter focuses on techniques suited for forensic analysis of large image collections. In digital forensics an investigator is often tasked to analyze a data source containing large numbers of images and their metadata sometimes reaching into the millions. Apart from the content of the images

  14. Multifractal analysis of mobile social networks (United States)

    Zheng, Wei; Zhang, Zifeng; Deng, Yufan


    As Wireless Fidelity (Wi-Fi)-enabled handheld devices have been widely used, the mobile social networks (MSNs) has been attracting extensive attention. Fractal approaches have also been widely applied to characterierize natural networks as useful tools to depict their spatial distribution and scaling properties. Moreover, when the complexity of the spatial distribution of MSNs cannot be properly charaterized by single fractal dimension, multifractal analysis is required. For further research, we introduced a multifractal analysis method based on box-covering algorithm to describe the structure of MSNs. Using this method, we find that the networks are multifractal at different time interval. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed method is efficient for analyzing the multifractal characteristic of MSNs, which provides a distribution of singularities adequately describing both the heterogeneity of fractal patterns and the statistics of measurements across spatial scales in MSNs.

  15. Classification and Analysis of Computer Network Traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bujlow, Tomasz


    for traffic classification, which can be used for nearly real-time processing of big amounts of data using affordable CPU and memory resources. Other questions are related to methods for real-time estimation of the application Quality of Service (QoS) level based on the results obtained by the traffic......Traffic monitoring and analysis can be done for multiple different reasons: to investigate the usage of network resources, assess the performance of network applications, adjust Quality of Service (QoS) policies in the network, log the traffic to comply with the law, or create realistic models...... classifier. This thesis is focused on topics connected with traffic classification and analysis, while the work on methods for QoS assessment is limited to defining the connections with the traffic classification and proposing a general algorithm. We introduced the already known methods for traffic...

  16. Bandwidth Analysis of Smart Meter Network Infrastructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balachandran, Kardi; Olsen, Rasmus Løvenstein; Pedersen, Jens Myrup


    Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) is a net-work infrastructure in Smart Grid, which links the electricity customers to the utility company. This network enables smart services by making it possible for the utility company to get an overview of their customers power consumption and also control...... to utilize smart meters and which existing broadband network technologies can facilitate this smart meter service. Initially, scenarios for smart meter infrastructure are identified. The paper defines abstraction models which cover the AMI scenarios. When the scenario has been identified a general overview...... of the bandwidth requirements are analysed. For this analysis the assumptions and limitations are defined. The results obtained by the analysis show, that the amount of data collected and transferred by a smart meter is very low compared to the available bandwidth of most internet connections. The results show...

  17. Diversity Performance Analysis on Multiple HAP Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feihong Dong


    Full Text Available One of the main design challenges in wireless sensor networks (WSNs is achieving a high-data-rate transmission for individual sensor devices. The high altitude platform (HAP is an important communication relay platform for WSNs and next-generation wireless networks. Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO techniques provide the diversity and multiplexing gain, which can improve the network performance effectively. In this paper, a virtual MIMO (V-MIMO model is proposed by networking multiple HAPs with the concept of multiple assets in view (MAV. In a shadowed Rician fading channel, the diversity performance is investigated. The probability density function (PDF and cumulative distribution function (CDF of the received signal-to-noise ratio (SNR are derived. In addition, the average symbol error rate (ASER with BPSK and QPSK is given for the V-MIMO model. The system capacity is studied for both perfect channel state information (CSI and unknown CSI individually. The ergodic capacity with various SNR and Rician factors for different network configurations is also analyzed. The simulation results validate the effectiveness of the performance analysis. It is shown that the performance of the HAPs network in WSNs can be significantly improved by utilizing the MAV to achieve overlapping coverage, with the help of the V-MIMO techniques.

  18. Mixed Methods Analysis of Enterprise Social Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrendt, Sebastian; Richter, Alexander; Trier, Matthias


    The increasing use of enterprise social networks (ESN) generates vast amounts of data, giving researchers and managerial decision makers unprecedented opportunities for analysis. However, more transparency about the available data dimensions and how these can be combined is needed to yield accurate...

  19. Nonlinear Time Series Analysis via Neural Networks (United States)

    Volná, Eva; Janošek, Michal; Kocian, Václav; Kotyrba, Martin

    This article deals with a time series analysis based on neural networks in order to make an effective forex market [Moore and Roche, J. Int. Econ. 58, 387-411 (2002)] pattern recognition. Our goal is to find and recognize important patterns which repeatedly appear in the market history to adapt our trading system behaviour based on them.

  20. Combining morphological analysis and Bayesian networks for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Morphological analysis (MA) and Bayesian networks (BN) are two closely related modelling methods, each of which has its advantages and disadvantages for strategic decision support modelling. MA is a method for defining, linking and evaluating problem spaces. BNs are graphical models which consist of a qualitative ...

  1. Models of network reliability analysis, combinatorics, and Monte Carlo

    CERN Document Server

    Gertsbakh, Ilya B


    Unique in its approach, Models of Network Reliability: Analysis, Combinatorics, and Monte Carlo provides a brief introduction to Monte Carlo methods along with a concise exposition of reliability theory ideas. From there, the text investigates a collection of principal network reliability models, such as terminal connectivity for networks with unreliable edges and/or nodes, network lifetime distribution in the process of its destruction, network stationary behavior for renewable components, importance measures of network elements, reliability gradient, and network optimal reliability synthesis

  2. Preparation of a Ytterbium-tagged Gunshot Residue Standard for Quality Control in the Forensic Analysis of GSR. (United States)

    Hearns, Nigel G R; Laflèche, Denis N; Sandercock, Mark L


    Preparation of a ytterbium-tagged gunshot residue (GSR) reference standard for scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopic (SEM-EDS) microanalysis is reported. Two different chemical markers, ytterbium and neodymium, were evaluated by spiking the primers of 38 Special ammunition cartridges (no propellant, no projectile) and discharging them onto 12.7 mm diameter aluminum SEM pin stubs. Following SEM-EDS microanalysis, the majority of tri-component particles containing lead, barium, and antimony (PbBaSb) were successfully tagged with the chemical marker. Results demonstrate a primer spiked with 0.75% weight percent of ytterbium nitrate affords PbBaSb particles characteristic of GSR with a ytterbium inclusion efficiency of between 77% and 100%. Reproducibility of the method was verified, and durability of the ytterbium-tagged tri-component particles under repeated SEM-EDS analysis was also tested. The ytterbium-tagged PbBaSb particles impart synthetic traceability to a GSR reference standard and are suitable for analysis alongside case work samples, as a positive control for quality assurance purposes. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  3. Advanced forensic validation for human spermatozoa identification using SPERM HY-LITER™ Express with quantitative image analysis. (United States)

    Takamura, Ayari; Watanabe, Ken; Akutsu, Tomoko


    Identification of human semen is indispensable for the investigation of sexual assaults. Fluorescence staining methods using commercial kits, such as the series of SPERM HY-LITER™ kits, have been useful to detect human sperm via strong fluorescence. These kits have been examined from various forensic aspects. However, because of a lack of evaluation methods, these studies did not provide objective, or quantitative, descriptions of the results nor clear criteria for the decisions reached. In addition, the variety of validations was considerably limited. In this study, we conducted more advanced validations of SPERM HY-LITER™ Express using our established image analysis method. Use of this method enabled objective and specific identification of fluorescent sperm's spots and quantitative comparisons of the sperm detection performance under complex experimental conditions. For body fluid mixtures, we examined interference with the fluorescence staining from other body fluid components. Effects of sample decomposition were simulated in high humidity and high temperature conditions. Semen with quite low sperm concentrations, such as azoospermia and oligospermia samples, represented the most challenging cases in application of the kit. Finally, the tolerance of the kit against various acidic and basic environments was analyzed. The validations herein provide useful information for the practical applications of the SPERM HY-LITER™ Express kit, which were previously unobtainable. Moreover, the versatility of our image analysis method toward various complex cases was demonstrated.

  4. Multivariate methods for the analysis of complex and big data in forensic sciences. Application to age estimation in living persons. (United States)

    Lefèvre, Thomas; Chariot, Patrick; Chauvin, Pierre


    Researchers handle increasingly higher dimensional datasets, with many variables to explore. Such datasets pose several problems, since they are difficult to handle and present unexpected features. As dimensionality increases, classical statistical analysis becomes inoperative. Variables can present redundancy, and the reduction of dataset dimensionality to its lowest possible value is often needed. Principal components analysis (PCA) has proven useful to reduce dimensionality but present several shortcomings. As others, forensic sciences will face the issues specific related to an evergrowing quantity of data to be integrated. Age estimation in living persons, an unsolved problem so far, could benefit from the integration of various sources of data, e.g., clinical, dental and radiological data. We present here novel multivariate techniques (nonlinear dimensionality reduction techniques, NLDR), applied to a theoretical example. Results were compared to those of PCA. NLDR techniques were then applied to clinical, dental and radiological data (13 variables) used for age estimation. The correlation dimension of these data was estimated. NLDR techniques outperformed PCA results. They showed that two living persons sharing similar characteristics may present rather different estimated ages. Moreover, data presented a very high informational redundancy, i.e., a correlation dimension of 2. NLDR techniques should be used with or preferred to PCA techniques to analyze complex and big data. Data routinely used for age estimation may not be considered suitable for this purpose. How integrating other data or approaches could improve age estimation in living persons is still uncertain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Large-Scale Road Network Vulnerability Analysis


    Jenelius, Erik


    Disruptions in the transport system can have severe impacts for affected individuals, businesses and the society as a whole. In this research, vulnerability is seen as the risk of unplanned system disruptions, with a focus on large, rare events. Vulnerability analysis aims to provide decision support regarding preventive and restorative actions, ideally as an integrated part of the planning process.The thesis specifically develops the methodology for vulnerability analysis of road networks an...

  6. Computer methods in electric network analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saver, P.; Hajj, I.; Pai, M.; Trick, T.


    The computational algorithms utilized in power system analysis have more than just a minor overlap with those used in electronic circuit computer aided design. This paper describes the computer methods that are common to both areas and highlights the differences in application through brief examples. Recognizing this commonality has stimulated the exchange of useful techniques in both areas and has the potential of fostering new approaches to electric network analysis through the interchange of ideas.

  7. Time series analysis of temporal networks (United States)

    Sikdar, Sandipan; Ganguly, Niloy; Mukherjee, Animesh


    A common but an important feature of all real-world networks is that they are temporal in nature, i.e., the network structure changes over time. Due to this dynamic nature, it becomes difficult to propose suitable growth models that can explain the various important characteristic properties of these networks. In fact, in many application oriented studies only knowing these properties is sufficient. For instance, if one wishes to launch a targeted attack on a network, this can be done even without the knowledge of the full network structure; rather an estimate of some of the properties is sufficient enough to launch the attack. We, in this paper show that even if the network structure at a future time point is not available one can still manage to estimate its properties. We propose a novel method to map a temporal network to a set of time series instances, analyze them and using a standard forecast model of time series, try to predict the properties of a temporal network at a later time instance. To our aim, we consider eight properties such as number of active nodes, average degree, clustering coefficient etc. and apply our prediction framework on them. We mainly focus on the temporal network of human face-to-face contacts and observe that it represents a stochastic process with memory that can be modeled as Auto-Regressive-Integrated-Moving-Average (ARIMA). We use cross validation techniques to find the percentage accuracy of our predictions. An important observation is that the frequency domain properties of the time series obtained from spectrogram analysis could be used to refine the prediction framework by identifying beforehand the cases where the error in prediction is likely to be high. This leads to an improvement of 7.96% (for error level ≤20%) in prediction accuracy on an average across all datasets. As an application we show how such prediction scheme can be used to launch targeted attacks on temporal networks. Contribution to the Topical Issue

  8. System and Network Security Acronyms and Abbreviations (United States)


    Systems Agency DLL dynamic link library DMA direct memory access DMZ demilitarized zone DN distinguished name DN domain name DNP Distributed...NetBIOS Network Basic Input/Output System NetBT NetBIOS over TCP/IP NFAT network forensic analysis tool NFC near field communication NFS network file...Software Reference Library NSS Network Security Services NSTB National SCADA Test Bed NSTISSC National Security Telecommunications and Information

  9. Expanding forensic science through forensic intelligence. (United States)

    Ribaux, Olivier; Talbot Wright, Benjamin


    Research and Development ('R&D') in forensic science currently focuses on innovative technologies improving the efficiency of existing forensic processes, from the detection of marks and traces at the scene, to their presentation in Court. R&D approached from this perspective provides no response to doubts raised by recent criminological studies, which question the effective contribution of forensic science to crime reduction, and to policing in general. Traces (i.e. forensic case data), as remnants of criminal activity are collected and used in various forms of crime monitoring and investigation. The aforementioned doubts therefore need to be addressed by expressing how information is conveyed by traces in these processes. Modelling from this standpoint expands the scope of forensic science and provides new R&D opportunities. Twelve propositions for R&D are stated in order to pave the way. Copyright © 2014 Forensic Science Society. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Practical mobile forensics

    CERN Document Server

    Bommisetty, Satish; Mahalik, Heather


    The book is an easy-to-follow guide with clear instructions on various mobile forensic techniques. The chapters and the topics within are structured for a smooth learning curve, which will swiftly empower you to master mobile forensics. If you are a budding forensic analyst, consultant, engineer, or a forensic professional wanting to expand your skillset, this is the book for you. The book will also be beneficial to those with an interest in mobile forensics or wanting to find data lost on mobile devices. It will be helpful to be familiar with forensics in general but no prior experience is re

  11. Bridging biometrics and forensics (United States)

    Yan, Yanjun; Osadciw, Lisa Ann


    This paper is a survey on biometrics and forensics, especially on the techniques and applications of face recognition in forensics. This paper describes the differences and connections between biometrics and forensics, and bridges each other by formulating the conditions when biometrics can be applied in forensics. Under these conditions, face recognition, as a non-intrusive and non-contact biometrics, is discussed in detail as an illustration of applying biometrics in forensics. The discussion on face recognition covers different approaches, feature extractions, and decision procedures. The advantages and limitations of biometrics in forensic applications are also addressed.

  12. Social network analysis to cluster sociobibliometric information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Ricardo Vivas

    Full Text Available This paper examines the benefits of using Social Network Analysis in the field of sociobibliometric exploration. There are considered practical and conceptual limits and reaches. The proposal is illustrated through a study about a journals network of behavior modification by Peiró and Carpintero (1981. In this context it is shown the utility of using reticular properties of Density, Centrality, Betweenness, Power and Clusterig as indicators that allow obtaining novel and complementary information to the one extracted by the classic methods of bibliometric exploration.

  13. Capacity analysis of vehicular communication networks

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Ning


    This SpringerBrief focuses on the network capacity analysis of VANETs, a key topic as fundamental guidance on design and deployment of VANETs is very limited. Moreover, unique characteristics of VANETs impose distinguished challenges on such an investigation. This SpringerBrief first introduces capacity scaling laws for wireless networks and briefly reviews the prior arts in deriving the capacity of VANETs. It then studies the unicast capacity considering the socialized mobility model of VANETs. With vehicles communicating based on a two-hop relaying scheme, the unicast capacity bound is deriv

  14. Historical Network Analysis of the Web

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brügger, Niels


    of the online web has for a number of years gained currency within Internet studies. However, the combination of these two phenomena—historical network analysis of material in web archives—can at best be characterized as an emerging new area of study. Most of the methodological challenges within this new area...... at the Danish parliamentary elections in 2011, 2007, and 2001. As the Internet grows older historical studies of networks on the web will probably become more widespread and therefore it may be about time to begin debating the methodological challenges within this emerging field....

  15. Mathematical Analysis of Urban Spatial Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Blanchard, Philippe


    Cities can be considered to be among the largest and most complex artificial networks created by human beings. Due to the numerous and diverse human-driven activities, urban network topology and dynamics can differ quite substantially from that of natural networks and so call for an alternative method of analysis. The intent of the present monograph is to lay down the theoretical foundations for studying the topology of compact urban patterns, using methods from spectral graph theory and statistical physics. These methods are demonstrated as tools to investigate the structure of a number of real cities with widely differing properties: medieval German cities, the webs of city canals in Amsterdam and Venice, and a modern urban structure such as found in Manhattan. Last but not least, the book concludes by providing a brief overview of possible applications that will eventually lead to a useful body of knowledge for architects, urban planners and civil engineers.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Altogether 327 valleys and their 314 cross-sectional profiles were analyzed on Mars, including width, depth, length, eroded volume, drainage and spatial density, as well as the network structure.According to this systematic analysis, five possible drainage network types were identified such as (a small valleys, (b integrated small valleys, (c individual, medium-sized valleys, (d unconfined,anastomosing outflow valleys, and (e confined outflow valleys. Measuring their various morphometric parameters, these five networks differ from each other in terms of parameters of the eroded volume, drainage density and depth values. This classification is more detailed than those described in the literature previously and correlated to several numerical parameters for the first time.These different types were probably formed during different periods of the evolution of Mars, and sprung from differently localized water sources, and they could be correlated to similar fluvialnetwork types from the Earth.

  17. A network analysis of Sibiu County, Romania

    CERN Document Server

    Grama, Cristina-Nicol


    Network science methods have proved to be able to provide useful insights from both a theoretical and a practical point of view in that they can better inform governance policies in complex dynamic environments. The tourism research community has provided an increasing number of works that analyse destinations from a network science perspective. However, most of the studies refer to relatively small samples of actors and linkages. With this note we provide a full network study, although at a preliminary stage, that reports a complete analysis of a Romanian destination (Sibiu). Our intention is to increase the set of similar studies with the aim of supporting the investigations in structural and dynamical characteristics of tourism destinations.

  18. Intentional risk management through complex networks analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Chapela, Victor; Moral, Santiago; Romance, Miguel


    This book combines game theory and complex networks to examine intentional technological risk through modeling. As information security risks are in constant evolution,  the methodologies and tools to manage them must evolve to an ever-changing environment. A formal global methodology is explained  in this book, which is able to analyze risks in cyber security based on complex network models and ideas extracted from the Nash equilibrium. A risk management methodology for IT critical infrastructures is introduced which provides guidance and analysis on decision making models and real situations. This model manages the risk of succumbing to a digital attack and assesses an attack from the following three variables: income obtained, expense needed to carry out an attack, and the potential consequences for an attack. Graduate students and researchers interested in cyber security, complex network applications and intentional risk will find this book useful as it is filled with a number of models, methodologies a...

  19. Micro-macro analysis of complex networks. (United States)

    Marchiori, Massimo; Possamai, Lino


    Complex systems have attracted considerable interest because of their wide range of applications, and are often studied via a "classic" approach: study a specific system, find a complex network behind it, and analyze the corresponding properties. This simple methodology has produced a great deal of interesting results, but relies on an often implicit underlying assumption: the level of detail on which the system is observed. However, in many situations, physical or abstract, the level of detail can be one out of many, and might also depend on intrinsic limitations in viewing the data with a different level of abstraction or precision. So, a fundamental question arises: do properties of a network depend on its level of observability, or are they invariant? If there is a dependence, then an apparently correct network modeling could in fact just be a bad approximation of the true behavior of a complex system. In order to answer this question, we propose a novel micro-macro analysis of complex systems that quantitatively describes how the structure of complex networks varies as a function of the detail level. To this extent, we have developed a new telescopic algorithm that abstracts from the local properties of a system and reconstructs the original structure according to a fuzziness level. This way we can study what happens when passing from a fine level of detail ("micro") to a different scale level ("macro"), and analyze the corresponding behavior in this transition, obtaining a deeper spectrum analysis. The obtained results show that many important properties are not universally invariant with respect to the level of detail, but instead strongly depend on the specific level on which a network is observed. Therefore, caution should be taken in every situation where a complex network is considered, if its context allows for different levels of observability.

  20. Interim Report on SNP analysis and forensic microarray probe design for South American hemorrhagic fever viruses, tick-borne encephalitis virus, henipaviruses, Old World Arenaviruses, filoviruses, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever viruses, Rift Valley fever

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaing, C; Gardner, S


    The goal of this project is to develop forensic genotyping assays for select agent viruses, enhancing the current capabilities for the viral bioforensics and law enforcement community. We used a multipronged approach combining bioinformatics analysis, PCR-enriched samples, microarrays and TaqMan assays to develop high resolution and cost effective genotyping methods for strain level forensic discrimination of viruses. We have leveraged substantial experience and efficiency gained through year 1 on software development, SNP discovery, TaqMan signature design and phylogenetic signature mapping to scale up the development of forensics signatures in year 2. In this report, we have summarized the whole genome wide SNP analysis and microarray probe design for forensics characterization of South American hemorrhagic fever viruses, tick-borne encephalitis viruses and henipaviruses, Old World Arenaviruses, filoviruses, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus, Rift Valley fever virus and Japanese encephalitis virus.

  1. Analysis of cascading failure in gene networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shudong eWang


    Full Text Available It is an important subject to research the functional mechanism of cancer-related genes make in formation and development of cancers. The modern methodology of data analysis plays a very important role for deducing the relationship between cancers and cancer-related genes and analyzing functional mechanism of genome. In this research, we construct mutual information networks using gene expression profiles of glioblast and renal in normal condition and cancer conditions. We investigate the relationship between structure and robustness in gene networks of the two tissues using a cascading failure model based on betweenness centrality. Define some important parameters such as the percentage of failure nodes of the network, the average size-ratio of cascading failure and the cumulative probability of size-ratio of cascading failure to measure the robustness of the networks. By comparing control group and experiment groups, we find that the networks of experiment groups are more robust than that of control group. The gene that can cause large scale failure is called structural key gene (SKG. Some of them have been confirmed to be closely related to the formation and development of glioma and renal cancer respectively. Most of them are predicted to play important roles during the formation of glioma and renal cancer, maybe the oncogenes, suppressor genes, and other cancer candidate genes in the glioma and renal cancer cells. However, these studies provide little information about the detailed roles of identified cancer genes.

  2. [Medico-legal opinions in penal cases provided by clinicians and forensic medicine specialists--comparative analysis]. (United States)

    Chowaniec, Czesław; Chowaniec, Małgorzata; Nowak, Agnieszka


    From the practice of the Forensic Medicine Department, Medical University of Silesia, Katowice it appears that in criminal cases the level of medico-legal opinions provided by experts appointed by the district court or 'ad hoc' is very low. The analysis of the chosen files shoved a divergence of opinions given to the adopted motions as well as numerous offences to regulations in the nature of a consultative error. In the paper the authors have made an attempt to appraise causes of the above mentioned problems such as: 1. the lack of medico-legal knowledge and experience in court experts. 2. excessive ease of registration to the panel of court experts and the lack of processes which verify the qualifications of experts. 3. the lack of judicial control over expert's opinions and common acceptance of their work. 4. ignorance of the obligatory penal law. 5. ignorance of the basic rules for giving medico-legal opinions (legal consequences, casual nexus). 6. excessive but groundless self-confidence in experts. 7. the lack of a correct way of thinking and conclusion making. The aim of the paper was to pay close attention to the absolute need of verification of court experts' qualifications and work.

  3. Validity of Rorschach Inkblot scores for discriminating psychopaths from non-psychopaths in forensic populations: a meta-analysis. (United States)

    Wood, James M; Lilienfeld, Scott O; Nezworski, M Teresa; Garb, Howard N; Allen, Keli Holloway; Wildermuth, Jessica L


    Gacono and Meloy (2009) have concluded that the Rorschach Inkblot Test is a sensitive instrument with which to discriminate psychopaths from nonpsychopaths. We examined the association of psychopathy with 37 Rorschach variables in a meta-analytic review of 173 validity coefficients derived from 22 studies comprising 780 forensic participants. All studies included the Hare Psychopathy Checklist or one of its versions (Hare, 1980, 1991, 2003) and Exner's (2003) Comprehensive System for the Rorschach. Mean validity coefficients of Rorschach variables in the meta-analysis ranged from -.113 to .239, with a median validity of .070 and a mean validity of .062. Psychopathy displayed a significant and medium-sized association with the number of Aggressive Potential responses (weighted mean validity coefficient = .232) and small but significant associations with the Sum of Texture responses, Cooperative Movement = 0, the number of Personal responses, and the Egocentricity Index (weighted mean validity coefficients = .097 to .159). The remaining 32 Rorschach variables were not significantly related to psychopathy. The present findings contradict the view that the Rorschach is a clinically sensitive instrument for discriminating psychopaths from nonpsychopaths.

  4. Isolating Sperm from Cell Mixtures Using Magnetic Beads Coupled with an Anti-PH-20 Antibody for Forensic DNA Analysis. (United States)

    Zhao, Xing-Chun; Wang, Le; Sun, Jing; Jiang, Bo-Wei; Zhang, Er-Li; Ye, Jian


    Vaginal swabs taken in rape cases usually contain epithelial cells from the victim and sperm from the assailant and forensic DNA analysis requires separation of sperm from these cell mixtures. PH-20, which is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored hyaluronidase located on the head of sperm, has important functions in fertilization. Here we describe a newly developed method for sperm isolation using anti-PH-20 antibody-coupled immunomagnetic beads (anti-PH-20 IMBs). Optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy showed the IMBs recognized the head of sperm specifically and exhibited a great capacity to capture sperm cells. However, we found it necessary to incubate the IMB-sperm complex with DNase I before sperm lysis in order to remove any female DNA completely. We compared the sensitivity of anti-PH-20 IMBs in sperm and epithelial cell discrimination to those coated with a different anti-sperm antibody (anti-SP-10, anti-ADAM2 or anti-JLP). Only the anti-PH-20 IMBs succeeded in isolating sperm from cell mixtures at a sperm/epithelial cell ratio of 103:105. Further, our method exhibited greater power and better stability for sperm isolation compared to the traditional differential lysis strategy. Taken together, the anti-PH-20 IMB method described here could be effective for the isolation of sperm needed to obtain a single-sourced DNA profile as an aid to identifying the perpetrator in sexual assault cases.

  5. Spectrophotometric determination of gold(III) in forensic and pharmaceutical samples and results complemented with ICP AES and EDXRF analysis (United States)

    Nagaraja, Vani; Kumar, M. Kiran; Giddappa, Nagendrappa


    Spectrophotometric method with three systems were developed here for the determination of gold(III) using o-dianisidine, aniline sulphate and catechol. Gold(III),in the system 1 it oxidizes o-dianisidine, in the system 2 it oxidizes catechol followed by its coupling with o-dianisidine, in the system 3 it oxidizes catechol followed by its coupling with aniline sulphate forming dye products with respective λmax 446 nm, 540 nm, and 505 nm. All the three systems were optimized and analytical parameters were calculated. The molar absorptivity values were 9.27 × 104, 1.97 × 104 and 1.62 × 104 respectively for the systems 1, 2 and 3 with the corresponding Sandell sensitivity values (μg cm- 2), 0.0021, 0.0096 and 0.011. The optimized systems were used for the determination of gold present in some forensic jewellery and pharmaceutical samples and the results obtained were compared with the results of all samples determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma - Atomic Emission Spectrometric method and a few of them were also complemented by Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescent spectral analysis.

  6. The Digital Forensics and Security Challenge of QR Codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nik Thompson


    Full Text Available The disciplines of digital forensics and IT security must adapt to new technologies and methods of interaction with those technologies.  New technologies present both challenges and opportunities for providing evidence for digital forensics investigations.  These may be in the form of new devices such as smartphones or new methods of sharing information, such as social networks.  One such rapidly emerging interaction technology is the use of Quick Response (QR codes.  These offer a physical mechanism for quick access to web sites for advertising and social interaction.  This paper argues that the common implementation of QR codes potentially presents security issues which must be considered.  It analyzes potential privacy problems with QR codes and studies a range of devices as they may have implications for the process of evidence collection and analysis.

  7. Mobile phone security and forensics a practical approach

    CERN Document Server

    Androulidakis, Iosif I


    This new edition provides both theoretical and practical background of security and forensics for mobile phones. The author discusses confidentiality, integrity, and availability threats in mobile telephones to provide background for the rest of the book. Security and secrets of mobile phones are discussed including software and hardware interception, fraud and other malicious techniques used “against” users. The purpose of this book is to raise user awareness in regards to security and privacy threats present in the use of mobile phones while readers will also learn where forensics data reside in the mobile phone and the network and how to conduct a relevant analysis. The information on denial of service attacks has been thoroughly updated for the new edition. Also, a major addition to this edition is a section discussing software defined radio and open source tools for mobile phones.

  8. DNA Commission of the International Society for Forensic Genetics (ISFG): Guidelines on the use of X-STRs in kinship analysis. (United States)

    Tillmar, Andreas O; Kling, Daniel; Butler, John M; Parson, Walther; Prinz, Mechthild; Schneider, Peter M; Egeland, Thore; Gusmão, Leonor


    Forensic genetic laboratories perform an increasing amount of genetic analyses of the X chromosome, in particular to solve complex cases of kinship analysis. For some biological relationships X-chromosomal markers can be more informative than autosomal markers, and there are a large number of markers, methods and databases that have been described for forensic use. Due to their particular mode of inheritance, and their physical location on a single chromosome, some specific considerations are required when estimating the weight of evidence for X-chromosomal marker DNA data. The DNA Commission of the International Society for Forensic Genetics (ISFG) hereby presents guidelines and recommendations for the use of X-chromosomal markers in kinship analysis with a special focus on the biostatistical evaluation. Linkage and linkage disequilibrium (association of alleles) are of special importance for such evaluations and these concepts and the implications for likelihood calculations are described in more detail. Furthermore it is important to use appropriate computer software that accounts for linkage and linkage disequilibrium among loci, as well as for mutations. Even though some software exist, there is still a need for further improvement of dedicated software. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Forensic speaker recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meuwly, Didier


    The aim of forensic speaker recognition is to establish links between individuals and criminal activities, through audio speech recordings. This field is multidisciplinary, combining predominantly phonetics, linguistics, speech signal processing, and forensic statistics. On these bases, expert-based

  10. Integrating Forensic Science. (United States)

    Funkhouser, John; Deslich, Barbara J.


    Explains the implementation of forensic science in an integrated curriculum and discusses the advantages of this approach. Lists the forensic science course syllabi studied in three high schools. Discusses the unit on polymers in detail. (YDS)

  11. Learning Android forensics

    CERN Document Server

    Tamma, Rohit


    If you are a forensic analyst or an information security professional wanting to develop your knowledge of Android forensics, then this is the book for you. Some basic knowledge of the Android mobile platform is expected.

  12. Social network analysis and network connectedness analysis for industrial symbiotic systems: model development and case study (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Zheng, Hongmei; Chen, Bin; Yang, Naijin


    An important and practical pattern of industrial symbiosis is rapidly developing: eco-industrial parks. In this study, we used social network analysis to study the network connectedness (i.e., the proportion of the theoretical number of connections that had been achieved) and related attributes of these hybrid ecological and industrial symbiotic systems. This approach provided insights into details of the network's interior and analyzed the overall degree of connectedness and the relationships among the nodes within the network. We then characterized the structural attributes of the network and subnetwork nodes at two levels (core and periphery), thereby providing insights into the operational problems within each eco-industrial park. We chose ten typical ecoindustrial parks in China and around the world and compared the degree of network connectedness of these systems that resulted from exchanges of products, byproducts, and wastes. By analyzing the density and nodal degree, we determined the relative power and status of the nodes in these networks, as well as other structural attributes such as the core-periphery structure and the degree of sub-network connectedness. The results reveal the operational problems created by the structure of the industrial networks and provide a basis for improving the degree of completeness, thereby increasing their potential for sustainable development and enriching the methods available for the study of industrial symbiosis.

  13. The Analysis of Turkey’s Publications in Forensic Medicine Indexed in Science Citation Index Between 2000-2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasemin Balcı


    Full Text Available It is important for scientists to share the studies they conduct with other researchers as well as following developments in their area. The best way to share the results of scientific studies which require a long time and a lot of effort with other scientists is to publish them in internationally accepted and distinguished journals. In this study, we aim at assessing international publications compiled through contributions of forensic medicine expert and their assistants in Turkey between 2000 and 2004. This has been carried out according to the criteria of the encouragement program of TUBITAK-International Scientific Publications and by analyzing the contribution of these publications to those in the scope of the Science Citation Index-Journal Citation reports in Turkey. Thus, we used the “Pub Med and Web of Science” data base. Between 01.01.2000 and 31.12.2004, in the journals in the scope of Web of Science data base, a total of 86 publications were produced by forensic medicine experts and their assistants. The ratio of contributions to the Turkey originated publications rose to 0.23% from 0.11% in the last two years. It determinated that 70 of the publications (81.4% were full articles and 15 of them (17.4% were partial articles. According to the criteria of the TUBITAK International Scientific Publications Encouragement Program, 3 of the publications (3.5% took place A Group, 54 of them (62.8% in the B Group and 23 of them (26.7% in the C Group journal lists. The publications with four or more contributors make up of 79.1% of the total publications. With 24 (27.9% of the publications. Forensic Science International had the most publications, with publications shown in journals concerning forensic science (Forensic Science International, American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology, Journal of Forensic Sciences, International Journal of Legal Medicine making up 39.5% of the total publications. The study aimed to contribute to

  14. Introduction to stream network habitat analysis (United States)

    Bartholow, John M.; Waddle, Terry J.


    Increasing demands on stream resources by a variety of users have resulted in an increased emphasis on studies that evaluate the cumulative effects of basinwide water management programs. Network habitat analysis refers to the evaluation of an entire river basin (or network) by predicting its habitat response to alternative management regimes. The analysis principally focuses on the biological and hydrological components of the riv er basin, which include both micro- and macrohabitat. (The terms micro- and macrohabitat are further defined and discussed later in this document.) Both conceptual and analytic models are frequently used for simplifying and integrating the various components of the basin. The model predictions can be used in developing management recommendations to preserve, restore, or enhance instream fish habitat. A network habitat analysis should begin with a clear and concise statement of the study objectives and a thorough understanding of the institutional setting in which the study results will be applied. This includes the legal, social, and political considerations inherent in any water management setting. The institutional environment may dictate the focus and level of detail required of the study to a far greater extent than the technical considerations. After the study objectives, including species on interest, and institutional setting are collectively defined, the technical aspects should be scoped to determine the spatial and temporal requirements of the analysis. A macro level approach should be taken first to identify critical biological elements and requirements. Next, habitat availability is quantified much as in a "standard" river segment analysis, with the likely incorporation of some macrohabitat components, such as stream temperature. Individual river segments may be aggregated to represent the networkwide habitat response of alternative water management schemes. Things learned about problems caused or opportunities generated may

  15. Principal component analysis networks and algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Kong, Xiangyu; Duan, Zhansheng


    This book not only provides a comprehensive introduction to neural-based PCA methods in control science, but also presents many novel PCA algorithms and their extensions and generalizations, e.g., dual purpose, coupled PCA, GED, neural based SVD algorithms, etc. It also discusses in detail various analysis methods for the convergence, stabilizing, self-stabilizing property of algorithms, and introduces the deterministic discrete-time systems method to analyze the convergence of PCA/MCA algorithms. Readers should be familiar with numerical analysis and the fundamentals of statistics, such as the basics of least squares and stochastic algorithms. Although it focuses on neural networks, the book only presents their learning law, which is simply an iterative algorithm. Therefore, no a priori knowledge of neural networks is required. This book will be of interest and serve as a reference source to researchers and students in applied mathematics, statistics, engineering, and other related fields.

  16. Application of statistical shape analysis for the estimation of bone and forensic age using the shapes of the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th cervical vertebrae in a young Japanese population. (United States)

    Rhee, Chang-Hoon; Shin, Sang Min; Choi, Yong-Seok; Yamaguchi, Tetsutaro; Maki, Koutaro; Kim, Yong-Il; Kim, Seong-Sik; Park, Soo-Byung; Son, Woo-Sung


    From computed tomographic images, the dentocentral synchondrosis can be identified in the second cervical vertebra. This can demarcate the border between the odontoid process and the body of the 2nd cervical vertebra and serve as a good model for the prediction of bone and forensic age. Nevertheless, until now, there has been no application of the 2nd cervical vertebra based on the dentocentral synchondrosis. In this study, statistical shape analysis was used to build bone and forensic age estimation regression models. Following the principles of statistical shape analysis and principal components analysis, we used cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) to evaluate a Japanese population (35 males and 45 females, from 5 to 19 years old). The narrowest prediction intervals among the multivariate regression models were 19.63 for bone age and 2.99 for forensic age. There was no significant difference between form space and shape space in the bone and forensic age estimation models. However, for gender comparison, the bone and forensic age estimation models for males had the higher explanatory power. This study derived an improved objective and quantitative method for bone and forensic age estimation based on only the 2nd, 3rd and 4th cervical vertebral shapes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Service network analysis for agricultural mental health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuller Jeffrey D


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Farmers represent a subgroup of rural and remote communities at higher risk of suicide attributed to insecure economic futures, self-reliant cultures and poor access to health services. Early intervention models are required that tap into existing farming networks. This study describes service networks in rural shires that relate to the mental health needs of farming families. This serves as a baseline to inform service network improvements. Methods A network survey of mental health related links between agricultural support, health and other human services in four drought declared shires in comparable districts in rural New South Wales, Australia. Mental health links covered information exchange, referral recommendations and program development. Results 87 agencies from 111 (78% completed a survey. 79% indicated that two thirds of their clients needed assistance for mental health related problems. The highest mean number of interagency links concerned information exchange and the frequency of these links between sectors was monthly to three monthly. The effectiveness of agricultural support and health sector links were rated as less effective by the agricultural support sector than by the health sector (p Conclusion Aligning with agricultural agencies is important to build effective mental health service pathways to address the needs of farming populations. Work is required to ensure that these agricultural support agencies have operational and effective links to primary mental health care services. Network analysis provides a baseline to inform this work. With interventions such as local mental health training and joint service planning to promote network development we would expect to see over time an increase in the mean number of links, the frequency in which these links are used and the rated effectiveness of these links.

  18. Forensic psychiatry determination of mental capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Aleksandar A.


    Full Text Available Forensic psychiatry determination is, ordered by a court, the analysis and interpretation of medical facts with important legal implications. In that sense, psychiatrists (or neuropsychiatrists, apart from their professional expertise, must be familiar with legal, economical and social significance of medical data, so that their forensic reports are clear and useful in the context of legal procedure. This review deals with forensic psychiatry aspects of mental capacity. In the introduction of the article, the explanation of relevant concepts such as mental capacity, contractual and testamentary capacity, informed consent, undue influence and forensic determination in light of Serbian statutory law is presented. Further, the authors present basic principles of making forensic reports on mental capacity as well as contractual and testamentary capacity, and informed consent for eventual medical examination and treatment.

  19. Forensics for Dummies?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stalman, S.; van der Kemp, J.J.


    Forensic disciplines such as DNA-matching, pathology and psychology are often requested to report in criminal cases. Within the Dutch legal system forensic experts are court appointed and little use of second opinion or contra-expertise by the defence is seen. This makes that forensic reports

  20. Network Analysis and Modeling in Systems Biology


    Bosque Chacón, Gabriel


    This thesis is dedicated to the study and comprehension of biological networks at the molecular level. The objectives were to analyse their topology, integrate it in a genotype-phenotype analysis, develop richer mathematical descriptions for them, study their community structure and compare different methodologies for estimating their internal fluxes. The work presented in this document moves around three main axes. The first one is the biological. Which organisms were studied in this ...