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  1. The influence of marital factors on genital human papilloma virus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: To study the association between marital factors and human papilloma virus (HPV) infection of the cervix. Method: The subjects were 450 randomly selected sexually active women attending the antenatal, postnatal, gynaecology and family planning clinics in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of the ...

  2. Marital status is a prognostic factor in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spataro, R; Volanti, P; Lo Coco, D; La Bella, V

    2017-12-01

    Several variables have been linked to a shorter survival in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), for example, female sex, older age, site of disease onset, rapid disease progression, and a relatively short diagnostic delay. With regard to marital status, previous studies suggested that living with a partner might be associated to a longer survival and a higher likelihood to proceed to tracheostomy. Therefore, to further strengthen this hypothesis, we investigated the role of marital status as a prognostic variable in a cohort of ALS patients. We performed a retrospective analysis on 501 consecutive ALS patients for which a complete disease's natural history and clinical/demographic data were available. At diagnosis, 409 patients (81.6%) were married or lived with a stable partner, whereas 92 patients (18.4%) were single/widowed/divorced. In our ALS cohort, being married was associated with a median longer survival (married, 35 months [24-50] vs unmarried, 27 months [18-42]; Pmarried and unmarried patients were significantly different in many clinical and demographic variables, including age at disease onset, gender, body mass index, and number of children. Cox regression analysis showed that age at onset, diagnostic delay, and marital status were independent predictors of survival. In unmarried patients, female sex was also significantly associated with shorter survival. Marital status is a prognostic factor in ALS, and it significantly affects survival. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Factors associated with teenage marital pregnancy among Bangladeshi women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayem, Amir M; Nury, Abu Taher Ms

    2011-05-20

    Teenage pregnancy is a public health concern both in developed and developing world. In Bangladesh, most of the first pregnancies occur immediately after marriage, especially among teenagers. Although women aged 15-29 years are the most fertility contributing women in Bangladesh, studies are not yet conducted on teenage pregnancy within this group of women. In the current study, an attempt had been made to identify the factors affecting teenage marital pregnancy in women aged 15-29 years. A cross sectional survey was carried out in 389 women, selected with a convenience sampling technique. Participants were selected on the basis of two criteria, such as married women and age within 15-29 years. We excluded women aged more than 29 years as we attempted to conduct study within high fertility contributing women and with the assumption that they may provide data subjected to relatively high level of recall bias as marital pregnancy may be a longer past event to them. In the analysis, we applied bi-variate and multi-variate logistic regression technique to find out odds ratio of teenage marital pregnancy. Result revealed that 72.5% of the participants experienced first marital pregnancy during their teenage, with a mean age of 17.88 years (SD = 2.813). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that participants aged 20-24 years had higher likelihood (OR 1.971, 95% CI 1.132 to 3.434), whereas participants aged 25-29 years had lower likelihood (OR 0.054, 95% CI 0.016 to 0.190) of experiencing teenage marital pregnancy compared to participants aged 15-19 years. In addition, participants desired for >2 children had significant higher odds (OR 3.573, 95% CI 1.910 to 6.684) and participants born in urban area had significant lower odds (OR 0.458, 95% CI 0.228 to 0.919) for teenage marital pregnancy. Based on the findings, we conclude that in order to reduce teenage marital pregnancy, consideration should be given on women's desired number of children and birth place

  4. Factors associated with teenage marital pregnancy among Bangladeshi women

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    Nury Abu Taher MS

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Teenage pregnancy is a public health concern both in developed and developing world. In Bangladesh, most of the first pregnancies occur immediately after marriage, especially among teenagers. Although women aged 15-29 years are the most fertility contributing women in Bangladesh, studies are not yet conducted on teenage pregnancy within this group of women. In the current study, an attempt had been made to identify the factors affecting teenage marital pregnancy in women aged 15-29 years. Methods A cross sectional survey was carried out in 389 women, selected with a convenience sampling technique. Participants were selected on the basis of two criteria, such as married women and age within 15-29 years. We excluded women aged more than 29 years as we attempted to conduct study within high fertility contributing women and with the assumption that they may provide data subjected to relatively high level of recall bias as marital pregnancy may be a longer past event to them. In the analysis, we applied bi-variate and multi-variate logistic regression technique to find out odds ratio of teenage marital pregnancy. Results Result revealed that 72.5% of the participants experienced first marital pregnancy during their teenage, with a mean age of 17.88 years (SD = 2.813. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that participants aged 20-24 years had higher likelihood (OR 1.971, 95% CI 1.132 to 3.434, whereas participants aged 25-29 years had lower likelihood (OR 0.054, 95% CI 0.016 to 0.190 of experiencing teenage marital pregnancy compared to participants aged 15-19 years. In addition, participants desired for >2 children had significant higher odds (OR 3.573, 95% CI 1.910 to 6.684 and participants born in urban area had significant lower odds (OR 0.458, 95% CI 0.228 to 0.919 for teenage marital pregnancy. Conclusions Based on the findings, we conclude that in order to reduce teenage marital pregnancy, consideration should

  5. Marital Satisfaction and Its Influencing Factors in Fertile and Infertile Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri, Mohammad; Sadeqi, Zakieh; Hoseinpoor, Mohammad Hassan; Khosravi, Ahmad

    2016-09-01

    Objective: To determine marital satisfaction and its influencing factors among fertile and infertile women in Shahroud. Materials and methods: In this comparative study, 1528 participants (511 infertile and1017 fertile women) were evaluated using Enrich Marital Satisfaction Scale. Data were analyzed using chi-square and t-test. Results: A total of 1402 participants (78.7%) had high marital satisfaction. The results show that no significant differences exist between marital satisfaction, marital communication, conflict resolution and idealistic distortion in fertile and infertile women. However, a significant difference was observed between marital satisfaction, and job, spouse's job and income in fertile and infertile groups, but the place of residence, education, spouse's education and fertility status showed no significant difference. Conclusion: Results showed that infertility does not reduce marital satisfaction. Since marital satisfaction is moderate in both groups, sex education for people bound to marry and sexual counseling for couples can lead to improved sexual satisfaction.

  6. Marital Satisfaction and Its Influencing Factors in Fertile and Infertile Women

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    Mohammad Amiri

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine marital satisfaction and its influencing factors among fertile and infertile women in Shahroud.Materials and methods: In this comparative study, 1528 participants (511 infertile and1017 fertile women were evaluated using Enrich Marital Satisfaction Scale. Data were analyzed using chi-square and t-test.Results: A total of 1402 participants (78.7% had high marital satisfaction. The results show that no significant differences exist between marital satisfaction, marital communication, conflict resolution and idealistic distortion in fertile and infertile women. However, a significant difference was observed between marital satisfaction, and job, spouse’s job and income in fertile and infertile groups, but the place of residence, education, spouse's education and fertility status showed no significant difference.Conclusion: Results showed that infertility does not reduce marital satisfaction. Since marital satisfaction is moderate in both groups, sex education for people bound to marry and sexual counseling for couples can lead to improved sexual satisfaction.

  7. Alcoholism, associated risk factors, and harsh parenting among fathers: Examining the role of marital aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finger, Brent; Kachadourian, Lorig K; Molnar, Danielle S; Eiden, Rina D; Edwards, Ellen P; Leonard, Kenneth E

    2010-06-01

    This study utilized a longitudinal design to examine relations between paternal alcoholism, paternal psychopathology, marital aggression and fathers' harsh parenting behavior in a sample of children with alcoholic (n = 89) and non-alcoholic (n = 94) fathers. Structural Equation Modeling revealed that paternal alcoholism, depression, and antisocial behavior at 12 months of child age each predicted higher levels of marital aggression at 36 months. Moreover, after controlling for prior parenting, marital aggression was predictive of harsher parenting at kindergarten. Alcoholism and psychopathology were not directly predictive of harsh parenting with marital aggression included in the model, thus indicating that marital aggression is mediating the relation between paternal risk factors and parenting outcome. Results of this study suggest that one pathway linking fathers' alcohol diagnosis to harsh parenting is via marital aggression. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Demographic, medical, and psychiatric factors in work and marital status after mild head injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderploeg, Rodney D; Curtiss, Glenn; Duchnick, Jennifer J; Luis, Cheryl A

    2003-01-01

    To explore factors associated with long-term outcomes of work and marital status in individuals who had experienced a mild head injury (MHI), as well as those who had not. Population-based study using logistical regression analyses to investigate the impact of preinjury characteristics on work and marital status. Two groups of Vietnam-era Army veterans: 626 who had experienced a MHI an average of 8 years before examination, and 3,896 who had not. Demographic characteristics, concurrent medical conditions, early life psychiatric problems, loss of consciousness (LOC), and interactions among these variables were used to predict current work and marital status. Multiple variables were associated with work and marital status in the sample with MHI, accounting for approximately 23% and 17% of the variance in these two outcome variables, respectively. In contrast, the same factors accounted for significantly less variance in outcome in the sample without a head injury-13.3% and 9.4% for work and marital status, respectively. These findings suggest a more potent role for and increased vulnerability to the influence of demographic, medical, and psychiatric factors on outcomes after a MHI. That is, MHI itself moderates the influence of preinjury characteristics on work and marital status. In addition, in those who had a MHI, moderator relationships were found between education and LOC for both work and marital status. Similarly, complex moderator relationships among race, region of residence, and LOC were found for both work and marital status outcomes.

  9. Factors Related to Marital Satisfaction in Primiparous Women during Postpartum Period

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    Zahra Zare

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and aim: Postpartum period is often associated with decreased marital satisfaction in couples. The present study aimed to investigate factors contributing to marital satisfaction in primiparous women during postpartum period. Methods: This correlational study was performed on 104 primiparous women who referred to health care centers, Mashhad, Iran in 2013, 8 weeks after delivery, to receive health care services. Convenient sampling was the method of choice, and data collection tools included Nathan H. Azarin marital satisfaction questionnaire, stress, anxiety and depression scales (DASS-21, and demographic and fertility-related questionnaire. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 16, and statistical tests of Kruskal-Wallis and Pearson correlation coefficient. Results: The mean score of women’s marital satisfaction was 65.37±17.4. There was a significant inverse correlation between duration of marriage (r₌-0.246, P=0.01, women’s age (r₌-0.203, P=0.03 and husband’s age (r₌-0.219, P=0.02 with marital satisfaction. Also a significant relationship was seen between the onset of sexual intercourse after childbirth (r₌0.268, P=0.006 and frequency of intercourse per week (P=0.001 with marital satisfaction. Additionally, there was a significant inverse correlation between depression (r₌-0.414, P=0.001, anxiety (r₌-0.27, P=0.004, and stress (r₌-0.203, P=0.03 with marital satisfaction. Conclusion: The age of women and their spouses, the duration of marriage, the onset and frequency of sexual intercourse after delivery, stress, depression, and anxiety are factors contributing to females’ marital satisfaction in postpartum period. As marital satisfaction affects the health of couples and families, it is therefore recommended to increase females’ marital satisfaction during the postpartum period through recognizing the related factors and planning appropriate interventions.

  10. Marital Intimacy and Predictive Factors Among Infertile Women in Northern Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasha, Hajar; Esmailzadeh, Sedigheh; Faramarzi, Mahbobeh; Adibrad, Hajar

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Infertility is a stressful state that may decrease attachment between spouses. Marital intimacy is a real need in infertile women. Aim The aim of this study was to evaluate marital intimacy and predictive factors among infertile women in Northern Iran. Materials and Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted at Fatemeh Zahra Infertility and Reproductive Health Center of Babol Medical Sciences University in 2014. A total of 221 infertile women participated in this study. The instrument used in this research was Marital Intimacy Need Questionnaire (MINQ). Statistical analyses was performed using linear and logistic regression with pintimacy. The mean and standard deviation of the marital intimacy was 349.11±49.26 and in marital intimacy domains including: emotional (42.28±7.23), psychological (41.84±7.59), intellectual (42.56±7.46), sexual (42.90±7.41), physical (43.59±6.96), spiritual (51.61±8.06), aesthetic (42.66±6.75), and social intimacy (42.59±6.89). The highest mean of marital intimacy domains is related to spirituality in infertile women. Physical and sexual domains had the high mean in infertile women. The lowest mean in marital intimacy domains was psychological intimacy. There was a significant correlation between the domains of marital intimacy. The strongest correlation was between the physical and sexual intimacy (r=0.85). There was a significant inverse association in marital intimacy with the age difference of spouses (pintimacy with husband’s occupation, and cause of infertility (p<0.02). Conclusion Early screening and psychosocial intervention strategies suggest in the setting of female infertility to identify and prevent the predictive factors that may cause marital conflict. PMID:28658854

  11. Marital Intimacy and Predictive Factors Among Infertile Women in Northern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasha, Hajar; Basirat, Zahra; Esmailzadeh, Sedigheh; Faramarzi, Mahbobeh; Adibrad, Hajar

    2017-05-01

    Infertility is a stressful state that may decrease attachment between spouses. Marital intimacy is a real need in infertile women. The aim of this study was to evaluate marital intimacy and predictive factors among infertile women in Northern Iran. This cross-sectional study was conducted at Fatemeh Zahra Infertility and Reproductive Health Center of Babol Medical Sciences University in 2014. A total of 221 infertile women participated in this study. The instrument used in this research was Marital Intimacy Need Questionnaire (MINQ). Statistical analyses was performed using linear and logistic regression with pintimacy. The mean and standard deviation of the marital intimacy was 349.11±49.26 and in marital intimacy domains including: emotional (42.28±7.23), psychological (41.84±7.59), intellectual (42.56±7.46), sexual (42.90±7.41), physical (43.59±6.96), spiritual (51.61±8.06), aesthetic (42.66±6.75), and social intimacy (42.59±6.89). The highest mean of marital intimacy domains is related to spirituality in infertile women. Physical and sexual domains had the high mean in infertile women. The lowest mean in marital intimacy domains was psychological intimacy. There was a significant correlation between the domains of marital intimacy. The strongest correlation was between the physical and sexual intimacy (r=0.85). There was a significant inverse association in marital intimacy with the age difference of spouses (pintimacy with husband's occupation, and cause of infertility (p<0.02). Early screening and psychosocial intervention strategies suggest in the setting of female infertility to identify and prevent the predictive factors that may cause marital conflict.

  12. Marital Values and Factors Associated With Marriage Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rambo, Brenda Clanton; And Others

    The breakdown of marriage within American society is a serious problem as evidenced by high divorce rates and numerous separations and family problems. A Marriage Values Questionnaire, developed to determine reasons for marrying and staying married and the impact of religion on marital stability, was completed by 305 subjects, ranging in age from…

  13. Marital Instability and the Changing Kinship Networks of Grandparents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Colleen Leahy; Barer, Barbara M.

    1987-01-01

    Focuses on the effects divorces of children have on the kinship networks of the older generation. Found a common source of expansion among paternal grandmothers who retained relationships with their former daughters-in-law and her relatives at the same time that they added new relatives with sons' remarriages. (Author/ABB)

  14. Offspring ADHD as a risk factor for parental marital problems: controls for genetic and environmental confounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schermerhorn, Alice C; D'Onofrio, Brian M; Slutske, Wendy S; Emery, Robert E; Turkheimer, Eric; Harden, K Paige; Heath, Andrew C; Martin, Nicholas G

    2012-12-01

    Previous studies have found that child attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with more parental marital problems. However, the reasons for this association are unclear. The association might be due to genetic or environmental confounds that contribute to both marital problems and ADHD. Data were drawn from the Australian Twin Registry, including 1,296 individual twins, their spouses, and offspring. We studied adult twins who were discordant for offspring ADHD.Using a discordant twin pairs design, we examined the extent to which genetic and environmental confounds,as well as measured parental and offspring characteristics, explain the ADHD-marital problems association. Offspring ADHD predicted parental divorce and marital conflict. The associations were also robust when comparing differentially exposed identical twins to control for unmeasured genetic and environmental factors, when controlling for measured maternal and paternal psychopathology,when restricting the sample based on timing of parental divorce and ADHD onset, and when controlling for other forms of offspring psychopathology. Each of these controls rules out alternative explanations for the association. The results of the current study converge with those of prior research in suggesting that factors directly associated with offspring ADHD increase parental marital problems.

  15. Prediction of Narcissism, Perception of Social Interactions and Marital Conflicts Based on the Use of Social Networks

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    رویا رضاپور

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of social networks and the excessive use of them by couples have had a significant impact on various aspects of their lives. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of social networks in the formation of narcissism, perception of social interaction and marital conflicts in couples who use these social networks. The study design was correlational and the statistical population included couples of Zanjan city who use social networks. 120 couples which widely used social networks were selected by random sampling. The questionnaires of Internet Addiction (Young, 1998, Narcissistic Personality (Ames and et al, 2006, Perception of Social Interaction (Glass, 1994 and Marital Conflict (Sanaei, 2000 were used. Pearson correlation coefficient and Regression were used for data analysis. This study showed that there is a significant negative relationship between the use of social networks with perception of social interaction, and a significant positive relationship between the use of social networks with narcissism and marital conflicts (P<0/01. Also narcissism has a significant positive relationship with marital conflicts, and a significant negative relationship with perception of social interaction (P<0/01. Social networks have a negative effect on couple's relationship and their feelings towards each other, as well as strengthening narcissism, which can cause communication problems, decreased positive feelings of couples towards each other and marital conflicts.

  16. Some factors affecting marital isonymy in three Outer Hebridean parishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clegg, F J

    2001-01-01

    Log linear analysis was used to investigate the relationships between spouse isonymy and parental isonymy, time, endogamy/exogamy and groom's occupation in a total of 6266 first marriages of parish-born spouses in the civil parishes of Harris, Barra and Stornoway, between 1855 and 1990. Stornoway was divided into rural and urban (Burgh) components. Spouse isonymy comprised between 6% and 12% of all marriages, parental isonymy was generally slightly more frequent, due probably to the occurrence of occasional families in which both sets of parents were isonymous. Between 38% and 51% of marriages were endogamous. In the multi-way contingency tables, good fits between observed and expected cell numbers were obtained by a simple model, comprising the main effect of spouse isonymy and the first-order interactions between spouse isonymy and the independent variables. Inspection of the coefficients showed that in all four populations spouse isonymy was positively related to parental isonymy (doubtfully so in the case of Barra). The other independent variables showed less clear-cut relationships--endogamy/exogamy in Barra, and groom's occupation in Stornoway Rural; time period showed no significant relationships. It is concluded that the occurrence of this 'two-generational marital isonymy' might have an effect on the breeding structure of the population.

  17. Prediction of Narcissism, Perception of Social Interactions and Marital Conflicts Based on the Use of Social Networks

    OpenAIRE

    رویا رضاپور; محمد مهدی ذاکری; لقمان ابراهیمی

    2017-01-01

    The prevalence of social networks and the excessive use of them by couples have had a significant impact on various aspects of their lives. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of social networks in the formation of narcissism, perception of social interaction and marital conflicts in couples who use these social networks. The study design was correlational and the statistical population included couples of Zanjan city who use social networks. 120 couples which widely used social...

  18. Reviewing Sexual Function After Delivery and Its Association with Some of the Demographic Marital Satisfaction Factors

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    Kh. Broumandfar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Desirable sexual function has an important role in strengthening the marital life of the couples. Sexual disorders can cause mental pressure and affect quality of life and marital relationship. Methods: This was a descriptive correlation study in one group and one phase covering multivariables. The study sample included 384 women after delivery period that had the following inclusion criteria: the age of at least 18 years, delivery in 38-42 pregnancy weeks, primiparous and multiparous women, living in the city, single pregnancy, and twelve months elapsed from the delivery. The required data such demographic, marital satisfaction and sexual function index were collected through reporting questionnaire. The data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistical methods using software SPSS. Results: The findings of the study indicated that the most prevalent disorder of the sexual relationship in postpartum was dyspareunia and the least prevalent was the sexual desire. There was no significant association between sexual function and, age, education degree , body mass index ,body size and job, but there was a significant association for other factors such as the economic, residence and marital satisfaction (p<0.01. Conclusion: It is recommended that sexual problems after delivery be placed on the list of health teaching issues to pass easily this period of time. Women should be assured that these problems gradually would be improved and they should learn using proper techniques to decrease dyspareunia which is a sexual disorder in postpartum period.

  19. Risk and Resiliency Factors among Adolescents Who Experience Marital Transitions.

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    Rodgers, Kathleen Boyce; Rose, Hilary A.

    2002-01-01

    Examines familial and extrafamilial factors associated with adolescent well-being in intact, blended, and divorced single-parent families. Findings indicate that divorced and blended families have some of the same forms of resiliency as intact families. For adolescents in a divorced single-parent family, peer support moderated the effect of low…

  20. Marital incompatibility among couples living in rural Gonabad and underlying factors

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    Fateme Pirnahad

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Iranian families face many challenges these days. This study aimed to examine marital incompatibility and underlying factors among couples in rural Gonabad based on sociological views and socio-cultural characteristics of the villagers. The study collected data by using questionnaires. The statistical population included 380 married men and women living in the villages of Gonabad county. The samples were selected through cluster sampling method proportional to size. Preliminary interviews and a researcher-made questionnaire were used in order to collect the data. The validity and reliability of the questionnaire were confirmed through face validity and Cronbach's alpha coefficient, respectively. The mean age of the participants and their mean age at marriage were 39 and 21 years, respectively. An equal percentage of males and females participated in the present study. The results of multivariate regression analysis showed that three out of five hypotheses on the relationship between independent and dependent variables could not be rejected. These three hypotheses suggested a significant direct relationship between conflict of values and marital incompatibility, and a significant inverse relationship of fulfillment of needs and family social capital with marital incompatibility. The two variables of Role Strain and Homogamy were not significantly correlated with the independent variable. In view of the influence of changes in the modern era over the needs and expectations of people, it is necessary to provide rural couples with education appropriate to cultural context of their society.

  1. Marital Alternatives and Marital Disruption.

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    Udry, J. Richard

    1981-01-01

    Explores the usefulness of "marital alternatives" as a dimension in explaining marital stability, using longitudinal data from a panel of married, White, urban couples from 16 urban areas. Results indicated the dimension of marital alternatives appeared to be a better predictor of marital disruption than marital satisfaction. (Author/RC)

  2. Violencia física marital en Barranquilla (Colombia: prevalencia y factores de riesgo Marital violence in Barranquilla (Colombia: prevalence and risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Tuesca

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Determinar la prevalencia de maltrato físico marital en mujeres en edad fértil que viven con su pareja, así como identificar factores personales, socioeconómicos y de función familiar que se relacionen con el maltrato. Métodos: Estudio transversal sobre una muestra aleatoria de 275 mujeres en edad fértil del barrio Carlos Meissel, de la ciudad de Barranquilla, Colombia. La información se obtuvo mediante entrevista personal en el hogar a partir de un cuestionario estructurado y siguiendo las recomendaciones éticas y de seguridad para la investigación sobre violencia doméstica contra mujeres de la Organización Mundial de la Salud. En el cuestionario se recogen datos sobre características personales, consumo habitual de alcohol y drogas, función familiar (según test de Apgar Familiar, características socioeconómicas y antecedentes de maltrato físico durante los 12 meses previos a la entrevista. Resultados: La prevalencia de maltrato marital fue del 22,9%, y el grupo de 25-29 años es el más afectado (33,3%. Se asociaron con el maltrato físico el consumo habitual de alcohol en las mujeres (odds ratio, OR = 6,02; intervalo de confianza del 95%, IC del 95%, 1,7-22,2 y en el cónyuge (OR = 10,11; IC del 95%, 5,1-20,1 y el consumo de sustancias psicoactivas en el cónyuge (OR = 11.01; IC del 95%, 4,2-29,5. Los ingresos mensuales por debajo de 300.000 pesos colombianos (140 euros también se asociaron con maltrato, así como presencia de disfunción familiar moderada o grave (OR = 16,9; IC del 95%, 4,8-59,0; OR = 81,6; IC del 95%, 18,8-35,5, respectivamente. Conclusiones: La naturaleza transversal del estudio limita la interpretación de los resultados. Sin embargo, se ha observado que en las mujeres de la muestra estudiada en este estudio el maltrato físico de la mujer por parte de su pareja se asocia con factores potencialmente modificables.Objective: To determine the prevalence of violence against women of fertile age

  3. Human factors in network security

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Francis B.

    1991-01-01

    Human factors, such as ethics and education, are important factors in network information security. This thesis determines which human factors have significant influence on network security. Those factors are examined in relation to current security devices and procedures. Methods are introduced to evaluate security effectiveness by incorporating the appropriate human factors into network security controls

  4. Pre-marital sexual debut and its associated factors among in-school adolescents in eastern Ethiopia

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    Oljira Lemessa

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background More adolescents in Ethiopia are in school today than ever, but few studies have assessed the sexual behaviour of these learners. Thus, this study tried to assess pre-marital sexual debut and factors associated with it among in-school adolescents in Eastern Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional school-based study was conducted using a facilitator guided selfadministered questionnaire. Respondents were students attending regular school classes in fourteen high schools. The proportion of adolescents involved in pre-marital sexual debut and the mean age at sexual debut was computed. Factors associated with pre-marital sexual debut were assessed using bivariate and multivariable logistic regression. Results About one in four, 686 (24.8% never married in-school adolescent respondents reported pre-marital sexual debut of these 28.8% were males and 14.7% were females (p  Conclusion A significant proportion of in-school adolescents were engaged in sexual relationship. Thus, public health interventions should consider the broader determinants of premarital sexual debut, including the ecological factors in which the behavior occurs.

  5. Violencia física marital en Barranquilla (Colombia: prevalencia y factores de riesgo

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    Tuesca R.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Determinar la prevalencia de maltrato físico marital en mujeres en edad fértil que viven con su pareja, así como identificar factores personales, socioeconómicos y de función familiar que se relacionen con el maltrato. Métodos: Estudio transversal sobre una muestra aleatoria de 275 mujeres en edad fértil del barrio Carlos Meissel, de la ciudad de Barranquilla, Colombia. La información se obtuvo mediante entrevista personal en el hogar a partir de un cuestionario estructurado y siguiendo las recomendaciones éticas y de seguridad para la investigación sobre violencia doméstica contra mujeres de la Organización Mundial de la Salud. En el cuestionario se recogen datos sobre características personales, consumo habitual de alcohol y drogas, función familiar (según test de Apgar Familiar, características socioeconómicas y antecedentes de maltrato físico durante los 12 meses previos a la entrevista. Resultados: La prevalencia de maltrato marital fue del 22,9%, y el grupo de 25-29 años es el más afectado (33,3%. Se asociaron con el maltrato físico el consumo habitual de alcohol en las mujeres (odds ratio, OR = 6,02; intervalo de confianza del 95%, IC del 95%, 1,7-22,2 y en el cónyuge (OR = 10,11; IC del 95%, 5,1-20,1 y el consumo de sustancias psicoactivas en el cónyuge (OR = 11.01; IC del 95%, 4,2-29,5. Los ingresos mensuales por debajo de 300.000 pesos colombianos (140 euros también se asociaron con maltrato, así como presencia de disfunción familiar moderada o grave (OR = 16,9; IC del 95%, 4,8-59,0; OR = 81,6; IC del 95%, 18,8-35,5, respectivamente. Conclusiones: La naturaleza transversal del estudio limita la interpretación de los resultados. Sin embargo, se ha observado que en las mujeres de la muestra estudiada en este estudio el maltrato físico de la mujer por parte de su pareja se asocia con factores potencialmente modificables.

  6. Pre-marital sexual debut and its associated factors among in-school adolescents in Eastern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oljira, Lemessa; Berhane, Yemane; Worku, Alemayehu

    2012-05-24

    More adolescents in Ethiopia are in school today than ever, but few studies have assessed the sexual behaviour of these learners. Thus, this study tried to assess pre-marital sexual debut and factors associated with it among in-school adolescents in Eastern Ethiopia. A cross-sectional school-based study was conducted using a facilitator guided selfadministered questionnaire. Respondents were students attending regular school classes in fourteen high schools. The proportion of adolescents involved in pre-marital sexual debut and the mean age at sexual debut was computed. Factors associated with pre-marital sexual debut were assessed using bivariate and multivariable logistic regression. About one in four, 686 (24.8%) never married in-school adolescent respondents reported pre-marital sexual debut of these 28.8% were males and 14.7% were females (p pocket money per month (Adjusted OR and [95% CI] = 1.56 [1.19-2.04]), who perceived low self-educational rank (Adjusted OR and [95% CI] = 1.89 [1.07-3.34]) and who lived in rented houses (Adjusted OR and [95% CI] = 1.32 [1.03-1.70]). The females and those who were less influenced by external pressure were more protected against pre-marital sexual debut (Adjusted OR and [95% CI] = 0.44 [0.35-0.56; 0.62 [0.52-0.74, respectively]) than their counterparts. A significant proportion of in-school adolescents were engaged in sexual relationship. Thus, public health interventions should consider the broader determinants of premarital sexual debut, including the ecological factors in which the behavior occurs.

  7. Marital status is an independent prognostic factor for tracheal cancer patients: an analysis of the SEER database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mu; Dai, Chen-Yang; Wang, Yu-Ning; Chen, Tao; Wang, Long; Yang, Ping; Xie, Dong; Mao, Rui; Chen, Chang

    2016-11-22

    Although marital status is an independent prognostic factor in many cancers, its prognostic impact on tracheal cancer has not yet been determined. The goal of this study was to examine the relationship between marital status and survival in patients with tracheal cancer. Compared with unmarried patients (42.67%), married patients (57.33%) had better 5-year OS (25.64% vs. 35.89%, p = 0.009) and 5-year TCSS (44.58% vs. 58.75%, p = 0.004). Results of multivariate analysis indicated that marital status is an independent prognostic factor, with married patients showing better OS (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.78, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.64-0.95, p = 0.015) and TCSS (HR = 0.70, 95% CI 0.54-0.91, p = 0.008). In addition, subgroup analysis suggested that marital status plays a more important role in the TCSS of patients with non-low-grade malignant tumors (HR = 0.71, 95% CI 0.53-0.93, p = 0.015). We extracted 600 cases from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database. Variables were compared by Pearson chi-squared test, t-test, log-rank test, and multivariate Cox regression analysis. Overall survival (OS) and tracheal cancer-specific survival (TCSS) were compared between subgroups with different pathologic features and tumor stages. Marital status is an independent prognostic factor for survival in patients with tracheal cancer. For that reason, additional social support may be needed for unmarried patients, especially those with non-low-grade malignant tumors.

  8. Personality and mate preferences: five factors in mate selection and marital satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botwin, M D; Buss, D M; Shackelford, T K

    1997-03-01

    Although personality characteristics figure prominently in what people want in a mate, little is known about precisely which personality characteristics are most important, whether men and women differ in their personality preferences, whether individual women or men differ in what they want, and whether individuals actually get what they want. To explore these issues, two parallel studies were conducted, one using a sample of dating couples (N = 118) and one using a sample of married couples (N = 216). The five-factor model, operationalized in adjectival form, was used to assess personality characteristics via three data sources-self--report, partner report, and independent interviewer reports. Participants evaluated on a parallel 40-item instrument their preferences for the ideal personality characteristics of their mates. Results were consistent across both studies. Women expressed a greater preference than men for a wide array of socially desirable personality traits. Individuals differed in which characteristics they desired, preferring mates who were similar to themselves and actually obtaining mates who embodied what they desired. Finally, the personality characteristics of one's partner significantly predicted marital and sexual dissatisfaction, most notably when the partner was lower on Agreeableness, Emotional Stability, and Intellect-Openness than desired.

  9. Marital Status as a Moderating Factor in the Process of Disablement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kail, Ben Lennox

    2016-02-01

    To test current marital status as a moderator on the influence of depressive symptoms and chronic conditions on subsequent functional limitations. Data come from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS; 1998-2010). Hierarchal linear modeling models tested differences in functional limitations among a sample of 20,215 people. At baseline, married people suffered from fewer subsequent functional limitations than the unmarried. Moreover, limited evidence suggests the influence of depressive symptoms was greater for the married than the unmarried; however, the influence of chronic conditions was consistently attenuated for married people. Accounting for differences in prior health, work, socioeconomic status, and health behaviors did not explain the moderating influence of marital status on the associations between symptoms of depression and chronic conditions with functional limitations. This research highlights the need to identify potential modifiers that may help disrupt the process of disablement among both the married and the unmarried alike. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Marital Relationship and Its Associated Factors in Veterans Exposed to High Dose Chemical Warfare Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shervin Assari

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the associates of marital relationship in mustard exposed veterans.Materials and Methods: Two hundred ninety two married Iranian mustard exposed veterans, who had been exposed to single high dose mustard gas in Iraq-Iran war, were assessed for marital adjustment with Revised Dyadic Adjustment Scale (RDAS. Census sampling was done. The patients' quality of life (SF-36, spirometric measures and war related data were also extracted.Results: A total of 189 subjects (65% completed our study. The mean (±SD of the RDAS Total score, RDAS Dyadic Consensus , RDAS Affectional Expression, RDAS Dyadic Satisfaction , and RDAS Dyadic Cohesion were 50.61 (8.16, 16.67 (2.77, 7.62 (1.84, 14.76 (3.39, and 11.54 (3.79, respectively. RDAS Dyadic satisfaction was correlated with SF-36 and all its sub-scores (p<0.05. RDAS total score showed significant correlation with SF-36 total score and most of its sub-scores (p<0.05. RDAS affective expression was significantly correlated with role limitation, social function, general mental health, vitality, General health perceptions, physical composite score (PCS and mental composite score (MCS (p<0.05. RDAS dyadic consensus was not correlated with any SF-36 sub-scores.Conclusion: Veterans health team including physicians, psychologists and/or psychiatrists should know that poorer marital satisfaction is linked with lower quality of life scores, late after mustard exposure, although marital relationship is independent of spirometric findings, age, duration from exposure and comorbidity score.

  11. Social networks and factor markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abay, Kibrom Araya; Kahsay, Goytom Abraha; Berhane, Guush

    In the absence of well-established factor markets, the role of indigenous institutions and social networks can be substantial for mobilizing factors for agricultural production. We investigate the role of an indigenous social network in Ethiopia, the iddir, in facilitating factor market...... transactions among smallholder farmers. Using detailed longitudinal household survey data and employing a difference-in-differences approach, we find that iddir membership improves households’ access to factor markets. Specifically, we find that joining an iddir network improves households’ access to land...

  12. Marital Processes, Neuroticism, and Stress as Risk Factors for Internalizing Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, Rebecca L; Lawrence, Erika

    2014-03-01

    Marital discord has a robust association with depression, yet it is rarely considered within broader etiological frameworks of psychopathology. Further, little is known about the particular aspects of relationships that have the greatest impact on psychopathology. The purpose of the present study was to test a novel conceptual framework including neuroticism, specific relationship processes (conflict management, partner support, emotional intimacy, and distribution of power and control), and stress as predictors of internalizing symptoms (depression and anxiety). Questionnaire and interview data were collected from 103 husbands and wives 5 times over the first 7 years of marriage. Results suggest that neuroticism (an expression of the underlying vulnerability for internalizing disorders) contributes to symptoms primarily through high levels of non-marital stress, an imbalance of power/control in one's marriage, and poor partner support for husbands, and through greater emotional disengagement for wives. Marital processes, neuroticism, and stress work together to significantly predict internalizing symptoms, demonstrating the need to routinely consider dyadic processes in etiological models of individual psychopathology. Specific recommendations for adapting and implementing couple interventions to prevent and treat individual psychopathology are discussed.

  13. Factors associated with pre-marital sexual debut among unmarried high school female students in bahir Dar town, Ethiopia: cross- sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulugeta, Yeshalem; Berhane, Yemane

    2014-05-31

    Pre-marital sexual debut increase the risk of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including HIV/AIDS and unwanted pregnancy. It may also affect their school performance and completion rate. In spite of this fact, number of unmarried female students who started sexual debut is increasing from time to time. However, information on the extent of pre-marital sexual debut and associated factors were not well studied and documented in the study area where pre-marital sexual debut is largely condemned. Therefore this study was conducted to assess the magnitude and associated factors of pre-marital sexual debut. School based cross-sectional survey was conducted from May 10-13/2012. A total of 1123 unmarried high school female students were selected by multi- stage sampling technique. Data were collected using structured, self administered questionnaire. Descriptive statistics, binary and multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to identify factors associated with pre-marital sexual debut. Among unmarried high school female students 30.8% reported pre-marital sexual debut. The major associated factors were frequent watching of pornographic video [AOR = 10.15, 95% CI: (6.63, 15.53)], peer pressure [AOR = 2.98, 95% CI: (1.57, 5.67)] and chewing khat [AOR = 8.99, 95% CI: (3.84, 21.06)]. Significant proportion of unmarried high school female students have started pre-marital sexual debut. The finding suggests the need for communicating and supporting school students to help them make informed and safer decisions on their sexual behavior. Therefore, Bahir dar city administration health and education bureau should design persistent and effective health education to decrease pre-marital sexual debut in unmarried female students.

  14. Factors associated with pre-marital sexual debut among unmarried high school female students in bahir Dar town, Ethiopia: cross- sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Pre-marital sexual debut increase the risk of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including HIV/AIDS and unwanted pregnancy. It may also affect their school performance and completion rate. In spite of this fact, number of unmarried female students who started sexual debut is increasing from time to time. However, information on the extent of pre-marital sexual debut and associated factors were not well studied and documented in the study area where pre-marital sexual debut is largely condemned. Therefore this study was conducted to assess the magnitude and associated factors of pre-marital sexual debut. Methods School based cross-sectional survey was conducted from May 10-13/2012. A total of 1123 unmarried high school female students were selected by multi- stage sampling technique. Data were collected using structured, self administered questionnaire. Descriptive statistics, binary and multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to identify factors associated with pre-marital sexual debut. Results Among unmarried high school female students 30.8% reported pre-marital sexual debut. The major associated factors were frequent watching of pornographic video [AOR = 10.15, 95% CI: (6.63, 15.53)], peer pressure [AOR = 2.98, 95% CI: (1.57, 5.67)] and chewing khat [AOR = 8.99, 95% CI: (3.84, 21.06)]. Conclusion Significant proportion of unmarried high school female students have started pre-marital sexual debut. The finding suggests the need for communicating and supporting school students to help them make informed and safer decisions on their sexual behavior. Therefore, Bahir dar city administration health and education bureau should design persistent and effective health education to decrease pre-marital sexual debut in unmarried female students. PMID:24885739

  15. Social networks and factor markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abay, Kibrom Araya; Kahsay, Goytom Abraha; Berhane, Guush

    2018-01-01

    We investigate the role of an indigenous social network in Ethiopia, the iddir, in facilitating factor market transactions among smallholder farmers. We use a detailed longitudinal household survey data and employ a fixed effects estimation to identify the effect of iddir membership on factor...... market transactions among farmers. We find that joining an iddir network improves households’ access to land, labour and credit transactions. Our findings also hint that iddir networks may crowd-out borrowing from local moneylenders (locally referred as ‘Arata Abedari’), a relatively expensive credit...

  16. Marital Satisfaction among Older Couples: The Role of Satisfaction with Social Networks and Psychological Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Ruth; Isherwood, Linda; Burton, Cassandra; Kitwe-Magambo, Katie; Luszcz, Mary

    2013-01-01

    Marital satisfaction is important for health and well-being, although determinants of satisfaction among older couples are unclear. Much of the marital literature has focused on the role of the spouse, in isolation from satisfaction with broader social relationships. We conducted separate semi-structured interviews with both members of n = 40…

  17. Angry responses to infant challenges: parent, marital, and child genetic factors associated with harsh parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajal, Nastassia; Neiderhiser, Jenae; Moore, Ginger; Leve, Leslie; Shaw, Daniel; Harold, Gordon; Scaramella, Laura; Ganiban, Jody; Reiss, David

    2015-01-01

    This study examined genetic and environmental influences on harsh parenting of adopted 9-month-olds (N = 503), with an emphasis on positive child-, parent-, and family-level characteristics. Evocative gene-environment correlation (rGE) was examined by testing the effect of both positive and negative indices of birth parent temperament on adoptive parents' harsh parenting. Adoptive fathers' harsh parenting was inversely related to birth mother positive temperament, indicating evocative rGE, as well as to marital quality. Adoptive parents' negative temperamental characteristics were related to hostile parenting for both fathers and mothers. Findings support the importance of enhancing positive family characteristics in addition to mitigating negative characteristics, as well as engaging multiple levels of the family system to prevent harsh parenting. © 2015 The Authors. Child Development © 2015 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  18. Marital status is an independent prognostic factor for pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors patients: An analysis of the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Huaqiang; Zhang, Yuanzhe; Song, Yiyan; Tan, Wulin; Qiu, Zeting; Li, Si; Chen, Qinchang; Gao, Shaowei

    2017-09-01

    Marital status's prognostic impact on pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNET) has not been rigorously studied. We aimed to explore the relationship between marital status and outcomes of PNET. We retrospectively investigated 2060 PNET cases between 2004 and 2010 from Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database. Variables were compared by Chi 2 test, t-test as appropriate. Kaplan-Meier methods and COX proportional hazard models were used to ascertain independent prognostic factors. Married patients had better 5-year overall survival (OS) (53.37% vs. 42.27%, Pvs. 59.82%, P=0.001) comparing with unmarried patients. Multivariate analysis revealed marital status is an independent prognostic factor, with married patients showing better OS (HR=0.74; 95% CI: 0.65-0.84; Punmarried patients may be associated with a delayed diagnosis with advanced tumor stage, psychosocial and socioeconomic factors. Further studies are needed. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  19. Contingent factors affecting network learning

    OpenAIRE

    Peters, Linda D.; Pressey, Andrew D.; Johnston, Wesley J.

    2016-01-01

    To increase understanding of the impact of individuals on organizational learning processes, this paper explores the impact of individual cognition and action on the absorptive capacity process of the wider network. In particular this study shows how contingent factors such as social integration mechanisms and power relationships influence how network members engage in, and benefit from, learning. The use of cognitive consistency and sensemaking theory enables examination of how these conting...

  20. Effect of marital counselling on women's attitude towards marital

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Emeka Egbochuku

    issues, love and trust, socio-cultural factors, anti-social vices and lastly economic factors. ... (Dimkpa, 2007). Attitude developed by married women could be negative .... through the news and print media by encouraging women to seek marital.

  1. Premarital Pregnancy and Marital Instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furstenberg, Frank F., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    The marital histories of 203 young women who became premaritally pregnant in their early teens and 90 of their classmates most of whom married before pregnancy show that disruption in the courtship process and limited economic resources are the most important factors in marital dissolution. (Author/AM)

  2. THE NATURE OF THE MARITAL RELATIONSHIP AS A FACTOR OF UPBRINGING OF CHILDREN IN FAMILY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Anatoljevna Solovjeva

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The research is devoted to identify the relationship between character of the marital relationship and the features of the upbringing of children in the family.The novelty of the research lies in the fact that:- Identified specific errors in the upbringing of children committed by parents, depending on the degree of satisfaction of the marriage;- Empirically justified the relationship between dissatisfaction with marriage and the implementation of "inharmonious" features education.The theoretic-methodological basis of the study were: perceptions of sustainability and stability of marriage (C. Sysenko, C. Boyko, satisfaction with the marriage (А.Schawlow, E. Eidemiller, V. Ustecky and its relation with representations of spouses on the distribution of family roles (I. Obozov, A. Obozova, N. Fedotov and other.Research methods: theoretical analysis, interviews, observation, testing, psychological experiment, correlational analysis.Results. Empirical research has led us to the following main conclusions:The spouses with low level of satisfaction with the marriage have the high level  of indicators of disharmonic upbringing of children.Identified a steady link between the level of satisfaction with the marriage and such indicators upbringing of children  as "excessive requirements-duties", "lack of requirements-bans", "excessive sanctions", "instability of parenting style", "preference children's  qualities", "educational uncertainty parent", "phobia of losing a child", "the projection on the child's own undesirable qualities" and "the imposition of conflict between the spouses in the sphere of upbringing".Practical implications. The results obtained can be used when building the complex work of the psychologist in family counseling.

  3. The intersection of sex, marital status, and cardiovascular risk factors in shaping stroke incidence: results from the health and retirement study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maselko, Joanna; Bates, Lisa M; Avendaño, Mauricio; Glymour, M Maria

    2009-12-01

    To examine the role of sex and marital status in the distribution and consequences of cardiovascular risk factors for stroke. Longitudinal cohort. U.S. national sample, community based. U.S. adults aged 50 and older and their spouses. Health and Retirement Study (HRS) participants born between 1900 and 1947 (N=22,818), aged 50 and older, and stroke-free at baseline were followed an average of 9.4 years for self- or proxy-reported stroke (2,372 events). Financial resources, behavioral risk factors, and cardiovascular conditions were used to predict incident stroke in Cox proportional hazard models stratified according to sex and marital status (married, widowed, divorced or separated, or never married). Women were less likely to be married than men. The distribution of risk factors differed according to sex and marital status. Men had higher incident stroke rates than women, even after full risk factor adjustment (hazard ratio (HR)=1.22, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.11-1.34). For both sexes, being never married or widowed predicted greater risk, associations that were attenuated after adjustment for financial resources. Widowed men had the highest risk (HR=1.40, 95% CI=1.12-1.74 vs married women). Lower income and wealth were associated with similarly high risk across subgroups, although this risk factor especially affected unmarried women, with this group reporting the lowest income and wealth levels. Most other risk factors had similar HRs across subgroups, although moderate alcohol use did not predict lower stroke risk in unmarried women. Stroke incidence and risk factors vary substantially according to sex and marital status. It is likely that gendered social experiences, such as marriage and socioeconomic disadvantage, mediate pathways linking sex and stroke.

  4. Personality traits and sexual satisfaction as determinants of marital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yet what still remains uncertain is which factors account for the differing degrees of marital satisfaction and the fluctuations in the marital quality (e.g. marital conflict) that spouses experience over time. This study therefore sets out to investigate personality traits and sexual satisfaction as determinants of marital satisfaction ...

  5. Marital dissolution: an economic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, K A

    1984-01-01

    A longitudinal analysis of factors affecting marital dissolution in the United States is presented using data from the Coleman-Rossi Retrospective Life History. Factors considered include labor force participation of both spouses, wage growth, size of family unit, age at marriage, and educational status. The study is based on the economic analysis approach developed by Gary S. Becker and others.

  6. Determinants of Marital Quality in an Arranged Marriage Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allendorf, Keera

    2013-01-01

    Drawing on a uniquely large number of items on marital quality, this study explores the determinants of marital quality in Chitwan Valley, Nepal. Marital quality is measured with five dimensions identified through exploratory factor analysis, including satisfaction, communication, togetherness, problems, and disagreements. Gender, education, and spouse choice emerge as the most important determinants of these dimensions of marital quality. Specifically, men, those with more schooling, and those who participated in the choice of their spouse have higher levels of marital quality. By contrast, caste, occupation, age at marriage, marital duration, and number of children have little to no association with marital quality. While gender, education, and spouse choice emerge as key determinants of marital quality in this context, the majority of variation in marital quality remains unexplained. PMID:23146598

  7. Boolean Factor Analysis by Attractor Neural Network

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Frolov, A. A.; Húsek, Dušan; Muraviev, I. P.; Polyakov, P.Y.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 3 (2007), s. 698-707 ISSN 1045-9227 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1ET100300419; GA ČR GA201/05/0079 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : recurrent neural network * Hopfield-like neural network * associative memory * unsupervised learning * neural network architecture * neural network application * statistics * Boolean factor analysis * dimensionality reduction * features clustering * concepts search * information retrieval Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 2.769, year: 2007

  8. Managing common marital stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, A C; Starling, B P

    1989-10-01

    Marital conflict and divorce are problems of great magnitude in our society, and nurse practitioners are frequently asked by patients to address marital problems in clinical practice. "Family life cycle theory" provides a framework for understanding the common stresses of marital life and for developing nursing strategies to improve marital satisfaction. If unaddressed, marital difficulties have serious adverse consequences for a couple's health, leading to greater dysfunction and a decline in overall wellness. This article focuses on identifying couples in crisis, assisting them to achieve pre-crisis equilibrium or an even higher level of functioning, and providing appropriate referral if complex relationship problems exist.

  9. Structural factoring approach for analyzing stochastic networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayhurst, Kelly J.; Shier, Douglas R.

    1991-01-01

    The problem of finding the distribution of the shortest path length through a stochastic network is investigated. A general algorithm for determining the exact distribution of the shortest path length is developed based on the concept of conditional factoring, in which a directed, stochastic network is decomposed into an equivalent set of smaller, generally less complex subnetworks. Several network constructs are identified and exploited to reduce significantly the computational effort required to solve a network problem relative to complete enumeration. This algorithm can be applied to two important classes of stochastic path problems: determining the critical path distribution for acyclic networks and the exact two-terminal reliability for probabilistic networks. Computational experience with the algorithm was encouraging and allowed the exact solution of networks that have been previously analyzed only by approximation techniques.

  10. Efficient networks for quantum factoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckman, D.; Chari, A.N.; Devabhaktuni, S.; Preskill, J.

    1996-01-01

    We consider how to optimize memory use and computation time in operating a quantum computer. In particular, we estimate the number of memory quantum bits (qubits) and the number of operations required to perform factorization, using the algorithm suggested by Shor [in Proceedings of the 35th Annual Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science, edited by S. Goldwasser (IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, CA, 1994), p. 124]. A K-bit number can be factored in time of order K 3 using a machine capable of storing 5K+1 qubits. Evaluation of the modular exponential function (the bottleneck of Shor close-quote s algorithm) could be achieved with about 72K 3 elementary quantum gates; implementation using a linear ion trap would require about 396K 3 laser pulses. A proof-of-principle demonstration of quantum factoring (factorization of 15) could be performed with only 6 trapped ions and 38 laser pulses. Though the ion trap may never be a useful computer, it will be a powerful device for exploring experimentally the properties of entangled quantum states. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  11. Company Networks. Critical Design Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Villegas Arias, Gladis Cecilia

    2008-01-01

    En este trabajo se presentan los resultados de una investigación orientada a reconocer los factores críticos de éxito al diseño de cuatro redes productivas, operantes en el sector agrícola en Colombia: producción y comercialización de café, comercialización de banano, procesamiento de derivados lácteos y cultivo de flores. Las redes incluidas en el estudio se sometieron a observación durante el periodo de julio de 2001 a julio de 2004; los datos recolectados se procesaron usando la metodologí...

  12. Confidence in Attachment Relationships and Marital Status as Protective Factors for Self-Perceived Parental Role and In-Person Visitation with Children Among Incarcerated Fathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laquale, Michele Giovanni; Coppola, Gabrielle; Cassibba, Rosalinda; Pasceri, Maria; Pietralunga, Susanna; Taurino, Alessandro; Semeraro, Cristina; Grattagliano, Ignazio

    2018-04-16

    The study aimed at investigating the role of confidence in attachment relationships and marital status as protective factors for incarcerated fathers' self-perceived parental role and in-person contacts with their children. Participants included 150 inmate fathers and 145 nonincarcerated control fathers who provided background sociodemographic information and completed two self-reports, the Attachment Style Questionnaire and the Self-Perception of Parental Role. A two-phased cluster analytic plan allowed us to highlight two profiles of self-perceived parental roles, with incarceration and low confidence in attachment relationships increasing the risk of the less optimal of the two profiles. Higher confidence in attachment relationships and having a stable romantic relationship increased the likelihood of incarcerated fathers engaging in frequent contacts with their children, while the profile of self-perceived parental role had no effect. Implications for practice are discussed, and suggestions for further research are provided. © 2018 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  13. Factors determining nestedness in complex networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Jonhson

    Full Text Available Understanding the causes and effects of network structural features is a key task in deciphering complex systems. In this context, the property of network nestedness has aroused a fair amount of interest as regards ecological networks. Indeed, Bastolla et al. introduced a simple measure of network nestedness which opened the door to analytical understanding, allowing them to conclude that biodiversity is strongly enhanced in highly nested mutualistic networks. Here, we suggest a slightly refined version of such a measure of nestedness and study how it is influenced by the most basic structural properties of networks, such as degree distribution and degree-degree correlations (i.e. assortativity. We find that most of the empirically found nestedness stems from heterogeneity in the degree distribution. Once such an influence has been discounted - as a second factor - we find that nestedness is strongly correlated with disassortativity and hence - as random networks have been recently found to be naturally disassortative - they also tend to be naturally nested just as the result of chance.

  14. Integrating Data and Networks: Human Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, R. S.

    2012-12-01

    The development of technical linkages and interoperability between scientific networks is a necessary but not sufficient step towards integrated use and application of networked data and information for scientific and societal benefit. A range of "human factors" must also be addressed to ensure the long-term integration, sustainability, and utility of both the interoperable networks themselves and the scientific data and information to which they provide access. These human factors encompass the behavior of both individual humans and human institutions, and include system governance, a common framework for intellectual property rights and data sharing, consensus on terminology, metadata, and quality control processes, agreement on key system metrics and milestones, the compatibility of "business models" in the short and long term, harmonization of incentives for cooperation, and minimization of disincentives. Experience with several national and international initiatives and research programs such as the International Polar Year, the Group on Earth Observations, the NASA Earth Observing Data and Information System, the U.S. National Spatial Data Infrastructure, the Global Earthquake Model, and the United Nations Spatial Data Infrastructure provide a range of lessons regarding these human factors. Ongoing changes in science, technology, institutions, relationships, and even culture are creating both opportunities and challenges for expanded interoperability of scientific networks and significant improvement in data integration to advance science and the use of scientific data and information to achieve benefits for society as a whole.

  15. The climatogenetic factors and the transport network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile MAXIM

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the climatogenic factors and how they influence the transport system (network of the Republic of Moldova. The following climatogenetic factors were analysed: dynamic, physical-geographic, etc. as well as some specific climatic elements as the temperature of the air, cloud amount, humidity, direction and speed of the wind. As a conclusion it can be mentioned that when tracing the terrestrial transport system it is necessary to take into consideration the climatic factors which directly influence this field of human activity.

  16. Sources of Marital Conflict in Five Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa M. Dillon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This analysis of previously collected data examined four fitness-relevant issues for their possible role in marital conflict. These were sex, finances, division of labor, and raising children, selected in light of their pertinence to sex differences in reproductive strategies. Over 2,000 couples in five diverse cultures were studied. Marital conflict was assessed by the Problems with Partner scale, which was previously shown to demonstrate measurement invariance across cultures and genders. All four issues were significantly related to perceived marital problems in almost all cases. Thus, conflict tended to arise around issues relevant to reproductive strategies. A few cultural idiosyncrasies emerged and are discussed. In all cultures, wives reported more problems than husbands. Another important issue was kindness. The results suggest that a key factor in marital success or failure may be kindness necessary to sustain this prolonged and intimate relationship of cooperation for raising one's offspring.

  17. Relationship of Marital Satisfaction, Family Support and Family-Work Conflict Factors Among Malaysian Fathers with Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahayudin, A.A.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The study on contextual factors in Malaysian family is more concentrated among mothers compared to the fathers. Malaysian fathers are often influenced by these factors embedded in the family. This study examines the level of contextual factors among fathers of adolescent children. The survey was conducted using a simple sampling method, on a group of 413 fathers with adolescent children from all districts in the state of Selangor, West Peninsular of Malaysia. A set of questionnaires was used to derive data from the fathers̕ contextual factors which are marriage satisfaction, family support and work-family conflict among fathers of adolescents. Analysis on frequency, percentage, mean, standard deviation, t-test, analysis of Variance (ANOVA and the Pearson correlations were used to investigate the level and correlation of contextual factors among fathers of adolescent children. The Pearson correlation shows that there is a significant correlation between work-family conflict and marriage satisfaction and between family support and marriage satisfaction. However, there is no significant correlation between family support and work-family conflict. The study proficiently contributes towards the exploration of influencing factors for the involvement of fathers in parenting.

  18. The Effects of Marital Support, Social Network Support, and Parenting Stress on Parenting: Self-Efficacy among Mothers of Young Children in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Sawako

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated whether Japanese women's perceived marital and social support affect their parenting self-efficacy directly or indirectly through their levels of parenting stress. Participants were 98 mothers of children in the second grade living in Sapporo or Osaka, Japan. Data collected through surveys were submitted to a structural…

  19. The Rate of Marital Fidelity and Quality of Love in Divorce Applicants with and Without Marital Infidelity Precedent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Modarresi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: The issue of marital infidelity is considered as an increasing concern in our society, which is associated with instability in relationships and high rate of divorce.The purpose of this study was to investigate the level of marital adjustment and the quality of love in the applicants with a history of divorce and marital infidelity. Methods: In this qualification-analytical, cross-sectional study performed in 2012 in the Fars welfare organization, 90 people were selected by available sampling and classified into three groups with a history of marital infidelity and divorce, divorce without a history of marital infidelity and controls. Three individual groups completed the Inventory Adjustment Scale and Sternberg's love triangle. Subjects with a history of marital infidelity completed questionnaires of regarding love triangle scale again regarding upon their marital relationship. Data were analyzed by dependent t-test and ANOVA. Results: Significant differences were observed among divorce group and various aspects of marital love triangle (P<0/001.Results also revealed that there was a significant difference between the groups with and without marital infidelity, from the view point of intimacy, passion and anxiousness, commitment, and decision in relationship (P<0/001. Investigating the quality of love in individuals with marital infidelity showed differences in all aspects of Sternberg`s love triangle in relationship with wife and ultra-marital relationships (P<0/001. Conclusion: Marital incompatibility alone is not a strong reason for marital infidelity in hard conditions of life and according to the research’s results. The most significant factor in attracting for ultra- marital relationship and the quality of the relationship and love between couples were the quality of the relationship and love between couples.

  20. "Let's talk about love": An analysis of the religious and economic factors determining the choice of marital property regime in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Ruiu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: In sociological literature, expectations about marriages' duration are generally considered to be one of the main determinants in the pooling of economic resources between spouses. According to Catholic precepts, religious marriages are indissoluble, and Italy is characterized by a Catholic religious monopoly, with an anomalously high level of religious attendance for a developed country. Objective: It may therefore be surmised that religious marriages should be characterized by a high propensity for opting for a pooled patrimonial system. Is this hypothesis confirmed by data? Methods: We studied comprehensive data on all the marriages solemnized in Italy for the period 2007‒2009. We then use multivariate logistic regressions to assess which factors are associated with a greater propensity for opting for the pooled patrimonial system. Results: We find that religious marriages are not characterized by a higher probability of wealth pooling with respect to civil marriages. Contribution: To our knowledge, this is the first work to analyze the relationship between the choice of a religious marriage and the choice of the marital patrimonial system. We conclude that religious marriages in Italy do not reflect genuine adherence to the Catholic principle of the indissolubility of marriage.

  1. Work Identity and Marital Adjustment in Blue-Collar Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaesser, David L.; Whitbourne, Susan Krauss

    1985-01-01

    Investigated the relationship between work-identity and satisfaction and marital adjustment in 40 married male blue-collar workers, ages 25 to 41 years. Satisfaction with extrinsic work factors related to marital adjustment, while satisfaction with intrinsic work factors negatively related to secondary role salience. Age negatively related to…

  2. Resolving Marital Conflicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islami Hatixhe

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Couple relations are characterized as relations of an intimate nature dominated by constant interaction or strong interdependence and mutual influence of intense feelings between spouses. In marriages where there is conflict, there are typical examples of interaction, which result in high proportion of negative communicative acts that affect the quality of marital relationships such as: loss of confidence, the emergence of frustration, feelings of anxiety, discomfort, leading to escalation of marital conflicts. Communication as a variable has a large impact on the resolution of marital conflicts. The obtained results of our research indicate that the choice of different strategies of behavior in conflict situations among our respondents primarily depend on: the degree of persistence in the pursuit of its own interests and level of cooperation in addressing the interests of others.

  3. Functional asynchronous networks: Factorization of dynamics and function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bick Christian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this note we describe the theory of functional asynchronous networks and one of the main results, the Modularization of Dynamics Theorem, which for a large class of functional asynchronous networks gives a factorization of dynamics in terms of constituent subnetworks. For these networks we can give a complete description of the network function in terms of the function of the events comprising the network and thereby answer a question originally raised by Alon in the context of biological networks.

  4. Maternity leave, women's employment, and marital incompatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, J S; Essex, M J; Clark, R; Klein, M H

    2001-09-01

    This research investigated the relationship between the length of women's maternity leave and marital incompatibility, in the context of other variables including the woman's employment, her dissatisfaction with the division of household labor, and her sense of role overload. Length of leave, work hours, and family salience were associated with several forms of dissatisfaction, which in turn predicted role overload. Role overload predicted increased marital incompatibility for experienced mothers but did not for first-time mothers, for whom discrepancies between preferred and actual child care were more important. Length of maternity leave showed significant interactions with other variables, supporting the hypothesis that a short leave is a risk factor that, when combined with another risk factor, contributes to personal and marital distress.

  5. Relationship between Spiritual Health with Marital Satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Salehi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Spiritual health is the basis of family and community health. In marital relationships, several factors led to the satisfaction of wives from each other. In the meantime, the role of spirituality is crucial from surrounded on all aspects of human life. This study was performed with aim of analyzing the relationship between spiritual health with marital satisfaction and Comparison of them between men and women. METHODS: The sectional study was conducted on 341 married students of Medical Sciences in Azad University, Sari branch.  Criterion variable (spiritual health and predictor variable (marital satisfaction were measured by standard questionnaires including Paloutzian & Ellison (1982 and Enrich(2000  with 5-item Likert scale with a minimum score of 1 (very low to maximum score of 5 (very high and also two groups of men and women were compared. FINDINGS: Spiritual health had direct and meaningful relationship with marital satisfaction (CI-95% R= 0.009.There was no difference of marital satisfaction in men with average of 3.36±0.35 and women with average of 3.44±0.43 (p=0.342 but, the spiritual health in men with average of 2.7±0.25 was more than women with average of 2.6±0.14 (p=0.000. CONCLUSION: According the results, there was no difference of marital satisfaction in man and woman but, the spiritual health in men was more than women. Marital satisfaction had increased by increasing spiritual health in men and women students. 

  6. Sanctification, Stress, and Marital Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, Christopher G.; Henderson, Andrea K.; Glenn, Norval D.; Harkrider, Kristine E.

    2011-01-01

    This article contributes to recent work investigating the role of religious sanctification, that is, the process via which one's spouse or marital relationship is perceived as having divine character or sacred significance. We outline a series of theoretical arguments linking marital sanctification with specific aspects of marital quality. A…

  7. Why Does Military Combat Experience Adversely Affect Marital Relations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimbel, Cynthia; Booth, Alan

    1994-01-01

    Describes investigation of ways in which combat decreases marital quality and stability. Results support three models: (1) factors propelling men into combat also make them poor marriage material; (2) combat causes problems that increase marital adversity; and (3) combat intensifies premilitary stress and antisocial behavior which then negatively…

  8. Increasing Marital Satisfaction as a Resilience Factor among Active Duty Members and Veterans of Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) and Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponder, Warren N.; Aguirre, Regina T. P.; Smith-Osborne, Alexa; Granvold, Donald K.

    2012-01-01

    Supportive relationships are protective against a number of prevalent health risks among military populations, including post-traumatic stress disorder. Increasing marital satisfaction and strengthening that relationship is an important avenue for maintaining health among returning service members and their families. The current study builds upon…

  9. Perceptions of marital interaction among black and white newlyweds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oggins, J; Veroff, J; Leber, D

    1993-09-01

    Perceptions of marital interactions were gathered from a representative sample of urban newlywed couples (199 Black and 174 White). A factor analysis of the reports found 6 factors common to husbands and wives: Disclosing Communication, Affective Affirmation, Negative Sexual Interaction, Traditional Role Regulation, Destructive Conflict, and Constructive Conflict. Avoiding Conflict was specific to men and Positive Coorientation was specific to women. Wives reported fewer constructive and more destructive conflict behaviors. Compared with Whites, Blacks reported more disclosure, more positive sexual interactions, and fewer topics of disagreement. They also more often reported leaving the scene of conflict and talking with others more easily than with the spouse. As hypothesized, perceptions that marital interactions affirm one's sense of identity strongly predicted marital well-being. Although regression analyses predicting marital happiness yielded few interactions with race or gender, those that are significant, coupled with race and gender differences in perceiving interaction, suggest taking a contextual orientation to the meaning of marital interaction.

  10. Marital stability and repartnering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Mariana V; Costa, Patrício; Peterson, Brennan D

    2014-01-01

    a second union have higher initial levels of stress in their original relationship and higher changes in stress levels over the course of treatments. These findings suggest that high infertility-related stress levels before entering fertility treatment can negatively affect the stability of marital......OBJECTIVE: To compare the trajectories of infertility-related stress between patients who remain in the same relationship and patients who repartner. DESIGN: Longitudinal cohort study using latent growth modeling. SETTING: Fertility centers. PATIENT(S): Childless men and women evaluated before...... starting a new cycle of fertility treatment and observed for a 5-year period of unsuccessful treatments. INTERVENTION(S): None. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Marital stability and infertility-related stress. RESULT(S): The majority of patients (86%) remained with their initial partner, but 14% of participants...

  11. Interplay between marital attributions and conflict behavior in predicting depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, Jenna K; Kouros, Chrystyna D; Papp, Lauren M; Cummings, E Mark

    2016-03-01

    Marital attributions-that is, causal inferences and explanations spouses make about their partners' behavior-have been implicated as predictors of relationship functioning. Extending previous work, we examined marital attributions as a moderator of the link between marital conflict and depressive symptoms 1 year later. Participants were 284 couples who reported on marital attributions and depressive symptoms. Couples also engaged in a videotaped marital conflict interaction, which was later coded for specific conflict behaviors. The results showed that husbands' and wives' marital attributions about their partner moderated relations between marital conflict behavior and later depressive symptoms, controlling for global marital sentiments. For husbands, positive behavior and affect during marital conflict predicted a decrease in depressive symptoms, but only for husbands' who made low levels of responsibility and causal attributions about their wives. Wives' causal attributions about their partner also moderated relations between positive behavior and affect during marital conflict and husbands' later depressive symptoms. Reflecting an unexpected finding, negative behavior and affect during marital conflict predicted increases in wives' depressive symptoms, but only for wives who made low levels of responsibility attributions about their partner. The findings suggest that, for husbands, low levels of negative marital attributions for spouses may be protective, strengthening the positive effect of constructive conflict behaviors for their mental health, whereas for wives low levels of responsibility attributions about their spouse may be a risk factor, exacerbating the negative effect of negative marital conflict behaviors on their later depressive symptoms. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Marital quality in wives of persons with alcohol dependence syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debasree Bora

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Marriage is a strong bond between couples with the promise of lifelong dedication and emotional wellbeing. The effects of alcoholism in husbands may lead to disturbances in marital life. Lack of understanding, unpredictable behaviour of the husbands, and their irresponsibility in family matters can often lead to poor quality of a couple’s relationship. Aim of the study: The study is aimed to understand the marital quality of the wives of persons with alcohol dependence syndrome. Material and methods: Thirty wives of persons with alcohol dependence syndrome according to ICD-10 were taken as the sample, using purposive sample collection. Socio-demographic profile was assessed through semi-structured questionnaire while Marital Quality Scale (MQS-1995 was applied to assess the marital quality after taking their informed consent. Higher scores indicate poorer quality of marital life. Data analysis was done using SPSS for descriptive statistics. Results: The domain mean scores of rejection, understanding, and decision-making, and the total score of marital quality were high. Thus, indicating poorer quality of marital life among the wives of persons with alcohol dependence. Conclusion: Alcohol dependence is highly associated with poor marital quality as the person with alcohol dependence tends to adapt faulty communication patterns and behaviour which in turn leads to poor adjustment, unhappiness, and a high degree of dissatisfaction with relationships. Treatment plan for this group should be planned keeping these factors in consideration, as a priority.

  13. Human Fertility Increases with the Marital-radius

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Labouriau, Rodrigo; Amorim, António

    2008-01-01

    We report a positive association between marital radius (distance between mates' birthplaces) and fertility detected in a large population. Spurious association due to socioeconomic factors is discarded by a conditional analysis involving income, education, and urbanicity. Strong evidence...

  14. The Role of Marital Power in Depression and Marital Distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halloran, Elizabeth C.

    1998-01-01

    Drawing on sex-role theory, the learned-helplessness model of depression, and a review of empirical research, this article explores inequity in marital power as a potential third variable that explains how depression and the quality of marriage are related. Aims to generate broad-minded thinking about how marital power, depression, and marital…

  15. Factors affecting the physical and mental health of older adults in China: The importance of marital status, child proximity, and gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindy Williams

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Evidence is accumulating about the association between strong family ties and the emotional and physical welfare of older adults, and researchers have identified negative consequences of being unmarried, being childless, and/or living alone. These associations have been recognized in multiple contexts, including in Asia where living with a spouse and/or grown children has been shown in some studies to improve elderly well-being. Social support, especially family support, is expected to continue to be important where populations are aging and social safety nets are weak. Using longitudinal data from the 2010 and 2012 waves of the China Family Panel Studies, we focus on the effects of marital status at times 1 and 2, changes in marital status between the two surveys, and other family-related indicators of social connectedness on ratings of depression, levels of life satisfaction, and self-reported physical health among those aged 50 and over. Our sample includes 9831 respondents who have valid data on wellbeing indicators for Wave 1 and Wave 2, as well as complete information on the other covariates controlled in our analysis. In analyses of the full sample, those who were married at both points in time reported lower depression scores than those who were never-married, divorced, or widowed at both time points, and those whose unions dissolved in the interval. Those who were married at both times also generally reported greater levels of life satisfaction than those who were never married at both time points and those who became divorced during the interval. Important underlying gender differences are observed both for life satisfaction and depression. In addition, those who were married at both time points reported being in better physical health than those who became widowed during the interval (significant primarily for women, and those who had never been married (significant primarily for men. Our study contributes to the literature on social

  16. Factors affecting the physical and mental health of older adults in China: The importance of marital status, child proximity, and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Lindy; Zhang, Renling; Packard, Kevin C

    2017-12-01

    Evidence is accumulating about the association between strong family ties and the emotional and physical welfare of older adults, and researchers have identified negative consequences of being unmarried, being childless, and/or living alone. These associations have been recognized in multiple contexts, including in Asia where living with a spouse and/or grown children has been shown in some studies to improve elderly well-being. Social support, especially family support, is expected to continue to be important where populations are aging and social safety nets are weak. Using longitudinal data from the 2010 and 2012 waves of the China Family Panel Studies, we focus on the effects of marital status at times 1 and 2, changes in marital status between the two surveys, and other family-related indicators of social connectedness on ratings of depression, levels of life satisfaction, and self-reported physical health among those aged 50 and over. Our sample includes 9831 respondents who have valid data on wellbeing indicators for Wave 1 and Wave 2, as well as complete information on the other covariates controlled in our analysis. In analyses of the full sample, those who were married at both points in time reported lower depression scores than those who were never-married, divorced, or widowed at both time points, and those whose unions dissolved in the interval. Those who were married at both times also generally reported greater levels of life satisfaction than those who were never married at both time points and those who became divorced during the interval. Important underlying gender differences are observed both for life satisfaction and depression. In addition, those who were married at both time points reported being in better physical health than those who became widowed during the interval (significant primarily for women), and those who had never been married (significant primarily for men). Our study contributes to the literature on social ties and the

  17. Importance of Marital Characteristics and Marital Satisfaction: A Comparison of Asian Indians in Arranged Marriages and Americans in Marriages of Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madathil, Jayamala; Benshoff, James M.

    2008-01-01

    To date, little research has been published related to cross-cultural differences in such marital factors as love, intimacy, happiness, and satisfaction. The present study compares factors contributing to marital satisfaction and examines correlations between the importance of these factors and the level of satisfaction for three groups: Asian…

  18. Generic, network schema agnostic sparse tensor factorization for single-pass clustering of heterogeneous information networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jibing; Meng, Qinggang; Deng, Su; Huang, Hongbin; Wu, Yahui; Badii, Atta

    2017-01-01

    Heterogeneous information networks (e.g. bibliographic networks and social media networks) that consist of multiple interconnected objects are ubiquitous. Clustering analysis is an effective method to understand the semantic information and interpretable structure of the heterogeneous information networks, and it has attracted the attention of many researchers in recent years. However, most studies assume that heterogeneous information networks usually follow some simple schemas, such as bi-typed networks or star network schema, and they can only cluster one type of object in the network each time. In this paper, a novel clustering framework is proposed based on sparse tensor factorization for heterogeneous information networks, which can cluster multiple types of objects simultaneously in a single pass without any network schema information. The types of objects and the relations between them in the heterogeneous information networks are modeled as a sparse tensor. The clustering issue is modeled as an optimization problem, which is similar to the well-known Tucker decomposition. Then, an Alternating Least Squares (ALS) algorithm and a feasible initialization method are proposed to solve the optimization problem. Based on the tensor factorization, we simultaneously partition different types of objects into different clusters. The experimental results on both synthetic and real-world datasets have demonstrated that our proposed clustering framework, STFClus, can model heterogeneous information networks efficiently and can outperform state-of-the-art clustering algorithms as a generally applicable single-pass clustering method for heterogeneous network which is network schema agnostic.

  19. An Analysis of Construction Accident Factors Based on Bayesian Network

    OpenAIRE

    Yunsheng Zhao; Jinyong Pei

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we have an analysis of construction accident factors based on bayesian network. Firstly, accidents cases are analyzed to build Fault Tree method, which is available to find all the factors causing the accidents, then qualitatively and quantitatively analyzes the factors with Bayesian network method, finally determines the safety management program to guide the safety operations. The results of this study show that bad condition of geological environment has the largest posterio...

  20. SOCIALLY ACTIVE BEHAVIOR OF YOUNG PEOPLE AS A RISK FACTOR OF FAMILY AND MARITAL RELATIONS IN A PROVINCIAL REGION (THROUGH THE EXAMPLE OF KURSK AND THE KURSK REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana Nikolaevna Kameneva

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Modern society currently undergoes socio-cultural transformation. Taking into account the high degree of dynamism of this kind of society it can be considered as a risk society, where the existence of traditional institutions itself (the family institution, in particular is menaced. This is especially prominent among young people, because most of them are actively involved (engaged? in the processes under consideration.Objective. The objective of this article is to analyze the interrelation between socially active behavior of modern youth and their attitude as to family and marital relationships.Method. Achievement of the aforecited objective was initiated by another sociological survey conducted within the area of Kursk and the Kursk region (using method of questionnaires.Results. As a result of the sociological survey within the area of Kursk and the Kursk region, it was revealed that young people feel the need to participate as in social life, in general, so in social life of their region, in particular. However, many young people actively participating in social life prone to leave over their family plans, or prefer to have only one child, or live with a partner not entering into marriage. Thus, socially active behavior of modern youth cause a risk from the perspective of their family and marital attitudes.Research results application area. The data obtained herein can be used, for example, to provide recommendations for officials developing various directions of youth and population policies, as well as within the frames of courses devoted to sociology of youth and family.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-7-35

  1. Sex Preferences, Marital Dissolution and the Economic Status of Women

    OpenAIRE

    Bedard, Kelly; Deschenes, Olivier

    2003-01-01

    The rise in the divorce rate over the past 40 years is one of the fundamental changes in American society. A seemingly ever-increasing number of women and children spend some fraction of their life in single female-headed households, leading many to be concerned about the economic circumstances of these women their and children. Estimating the cause-to-effect relationship between marital dissolution and female economic status is complicated because the same factors that increase marital insta...

  2. Marital Status, Marital Transitions, and Health: A Gendered Life Course Perspective*

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Kristi; Umberson, Debra

    2004-01-01

    We work from a life course perspective to assess the impact of marital status and marital transitions on subsequent changes in the self-assessed physical health of men and women. Our results suggest three central conclusions regarding the association of marital status and marital transitions with self-assessed health. First, marital status differences in health appear to reflect the strains of marital dissolution more than they reflect any benefits of marriage. Second, the strains of marital ...

  3. Marital conflict in early childhood and adolescent disordered eating: emotional insecurity about the marital relationship as an explanatory mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Melissa W; Fairchild, Amanda J; Mark Cummings, E; Davies, Patrick T

    2014-12-01

    Disordered eating behaviors, including frequent dieting, unhealthy weight control behaviors (e.g., vomiting and skipping meals for weight loss) and binge eating are prevalent among adolescents. While negative, conflict-ridden family environments have long been implicated as problematic and a contributing factor to the development of disordered eating, few studies have examined the influence of marital conflict exposure in childhood to understand the development of these behaviors in adolescence. The current study investigates the impact of marital conflict, children's emotional insecurity about the marital relationship, and disordered eating behaviors in early adolescence in a prospective, longitudinal study of a community sample of 236 families in Midwest and Northeast regions of the U.S. Full structural mediation analyses utilizing robust latent constructs of marital conflict and emotional insecurity about the marital relationship, support children's emotional insecurity as an explanatory mechanism for the influence of marital conflict on adolescent disordered eating behaviors. Findings are discussed with important implications for the long-term impact of marital conflict and the development of disordered eating in adolescence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Social Network Factors and Addictive Behaviors among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinker, Dipali Venkataraman; Krieger, Heather; Neighbors, Clayton

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of the review To provide an overview of studies within the past five years examining the impact of social network factors on addictive behaviors among college students, to discuss gaps, limitations, and controversies in the field, and to summarize with a discussion of future directions and implications for interventions. Recent findings A review of 13 studies indicated that greater network exposure, centrality, reciprocated ties, and more tightly interconnected networks were associated with greater alcohol use and other addictive behaviors among college students. Summary Greater research is needed that expands beyond alcohol use to other addictive behaviors among college students. Additionally, more studies are needed that longitudinally study the impact of changes in social networks on addictive behaviors and vice versa, as well as studies examining sociocentric (whole) networks. Social network approaches offer innovative perspectives in understanding social influences on addictive behaviors and novel intervention strategies for potentially reducing addictive behaviors among college students. PMID:28580226

  5. Factors Influencing the Performance of German Food SME Formal Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jivka Deiters

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The food sector in Europe can be characterized as a complex, global and dynamically changing network of trade streams, food supply network relations and related product flows which offers a big spectrum for economic output and employment. Innovation is important for the competitiveness of the food industry that is to a large extent comprised of small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs. For them, innovation has grown extremely subordinate to interaction in networks. Network initiatives that could provide appropriate support involve social interaction and knowledge exchange, learning and competence development, and coordination (organization and management ofimplementation. This paper is designed to assess the factors that affect the performance of German food SME formal networks. It also addresses the consequences at the network and macro level. The analysis was explored by using the laddering technique based on the means‐end chain theory. The findings will help to build up a “network learning toolbox” that is adapted to the particular requirements of the different target groups such as of SMEs, network managers and policy makers. The “network learning toolbox” should improve network learning, which is adriver for improvements in innovation, economic growth and sustainable competitive advantage for food SMEs.

  6. Infidelity in couples seeking marital therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, David C; Yi, Jean; Baucom, Donald H; Christensen, Andrew

    2005-09-01

    The revelation of an affair is often an emotionally explosive event for a couple, yet little is known about specific individual and relationship factors that accompany infidelity. The present study examined the qualities of individuals and couples that differentiate couples with (n = 19) and without (n = 115) infidelity using couples from a randomized clinical trial of marital therapy. Findings indicated that couples with infidelity showed greater marital instability, dishonesty, arguments about trust, narcissism, and time spent apart. Gender also proved to be a significant moderator of several effects. Men who had participated in affairs showed increased substance use, were older, and were more sexually dissatisfied. Results offer initial clues to concomitants of affairs for couple therapists. (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved

  7. Analyzing the factors affecting network lifetime cluster-based wireless sensor network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, A.S.; Qureshi, A.

    2010-01-01

    Cluster-based wireless sensor networks enable the efficient utilization of the limited energy resources of the deployed sensor nodes and hence prolong the node as well as network lifetime. Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy (Leach) is one of the most promising clustering protocol proposed for wireless sensor networks. This paper provides the energy utilization and lifetime analysis for cluster-based wireless sensor networks based upon LEACH protocol. Simulation results identify some important factors that induce unbalanced energy utilization between the sensor nodes and hence affect the network lifetime in these types of networks. These results highlight the need for a standardized, adaptive and distributed clustering technique that can increase the network lifetime by further balancing the energy utilization among sensor nodes. (author)

  8. Attributional Models of Depression and Marital Distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horneffer, Karen J.; Fincham, Frank D.

    1996-01-01

    Compares attributional models presented in depression and marital literatures by examining simultaneously their prediction of depressive symptoms and marital distress with 150 married couples. Findings show that a model including paths from depressogenic and distress-maintaining marital attributions to both depressive symptoms and marital distress…

  9. Design and optimizing factors of PACS network architecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao Yonghao; Miao Jingtao

    2001-01-01

    Objective: Exploring the design and optimizing factors of picture archiving and communication system (PACS) network architecture. Methods: Based on the PACS of shanghai first hospital to performed the measurements and tests on the requirements of network bandwidth and transmitting rate for different PACS functions and procedures respectively in static and dynamic network traffic situation, utilizing the network monitoring tools which built-in workstations and provided by Windows NT. Results: No obvious difference between switch equipment and HUB when measurements and tests implemented in static situation except route which slow down the rate markedly. In dynamic environment Switch is able to provide higher bandwidth utilizing than HUB and local system scope communication achieved faster transmitting rate than global system. Conclusion: The primary optimizing factors of PACS network architecture design include concise network topology and disassemble tremendous global traffic to multiple distributed local scope network communication to reduce the traffic of network backbone. The most important issue is guarantee essential bandwidth for diagnosis procedure of medical imaging

  10. Suicide Trends According to Age, Gender, and Marital Status in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung Woo; Jung, Hee Young; Won, Do Yeon; Noh, Jae Hyun; Shin, Yong Seok; Kang, Tae In

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine suicide trends in South Korea, which has one of the highest suicide rates in the world. The results show that the male suicide rate outweighs that of females, the likelihood of committing suicide increases with age, and that, in regard to marital status, nonmarried people are the most at risk. In addition, several methods of reducing suicide rates are identified: the wider use of social networks to reduce social burden, the development of a social atmosphere where aging is accepted as a natural process, and the development of protection factors within families.

  11. FACTORS PREDICTING CONSUMERS' ASSESSMENT OF ADVERTISEMENTS ON SOCIAL NETWORKING SITES

    OpenAIRE

    Hossam Deraz; Gabriel Baffour Awuah; Desalegn Abraha Gebrekidan

    2015-01-01

    Marketers act on social networking sites (SNSs) in order to be more efficient in merchandising their products and/or services. Even so, the scope of the published studies regarding the assessment of advertisements on social networking sites (SNAs) is limited. Consequently, the present study aimed to consider credibility and interactivity, in addition to information, entertainment and irritation values, as main factors for consumers’ assessment of SNAs, as perceived by SNSs’ users. An analysis...

  12. Factorized Estimation of Partially Shared Parameters in Diffusion Networks

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dedecius, Kamil; Sečkárová, Vladimíra

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 65, č. 19 (2017), s. 5153-5163 ISSN 1053-587X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP14-06678P; GA ČR GA16-09848S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Diffusion network * Diffusion estimation * Heterogeneous parameters * Multitask networks Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information OBOR OECD: Applied mathematics Impact factor: 4.300, year: 2016 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2017/AS/dedecius-0477044.pdf

  13. Aphasia: its effect on marital relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, S E; Freer, C A

    1986-04-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to determine if a relationship exists between marital satisfaction and knowledge of aphasia of the spouse of a stroke patient. Other factors such as the severity of the aphasia, length of time poststroke, and length of marriage were also examined. The subjects, 16 spouses of aphasic patients, were grouped according to severity of the aphasia (mild, moderate, severe). Spouses completed a Knowledge of Aphasia questionnaire and pre/poststroke forms of a Marital Satisfaction Scale (MSS). The questionnaire measured spouse understanding of aphasia, while the MSS examined changes in spouse attitudes toward their marriages after the patients became aphasic. Neither spouses' knowledge of aphasia nor its severity was related to their marital satisfaction. However, there was a significant negative change between the pre/poststroke MSS scores. Spouses of mildly impaired patients were less knowledgeable about aphasia than were those of severely impaired patients. Results are discussed in terms of the counseling needs of families of aphasic patients.

  14. Factors Enabling Information Propagation in a Social Network Site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnani, Matteo; Montesi, Danilo; Rossi, Luca

    2013-01-01

    A relevant feature of Social Network Sites is their ability to propagate units of information and create large distributed conversations. This phenomenon is particularly relevant because of the speed of information propagation, which is known to be much faster than within traditional media......, and because of the very large amount of people that can potentially be exposed to information items. While many general formal models of network propagation have been developed in different research fields, in this chapter we present the result of an empirical study on a Large Social Database (LSD) aimed...... at measuring specific socio-technical factors enabling information spreading in Social Network Sites....

  15. Genital Herpes in Marital Partners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Jacob

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available During 1983-86, 225 patients were clinically diagnosed to have genital herpes (GH at our clinic. Of these, 90 men and 55 women were currently married. All the spouses were screened clinically and through standardized techniques for isolation and typing of herpes simplex virus, serological testing and Papanicolaou smear. There were 90 couples in whom at least one spouse had GH and in 38 (42% couples both partners had GH. Clinically, 49% of wives and 75% of husbands of GH patients were diagnosed to have the disease. The spouses of recurrent GH patients had a higher frequency of the disease than spouses of primary GH patients. Among spouses who were clinically asymptomatic, 40% had high serological titres suggestive of GH. Wives generally experienced more severe symptoms, especially pain in the lesions. Majority of lesions in both the partners were vesicles and ulcers. Prodromata were more among recurrent GH patients in both the partners. The frequency of recurrences wasalso similar in spouses. Seventy percent of wives and 40% of husbands could not identify any precipitating factor. Intercourse, physical stress and rich food were cited as possible factors in the remaining. All the wives had acquired the diseases through their husbands who were promiscuous. Fifty percent of husbands had been infected before marriage. Given the fact that asymptomatic carriers exist, it is better to consider all marital partners of GH as infected. Repeated and long-term follow, - up examination, particularly of wives of GH patients is therefore essential as an important socio-preventive aspect of this disease.

  16. The Development of Marital Maturity Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammed YILDIZ

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, validity, reliability and item analysis studies of the Marital Maturity Scale prepared to test whether individuals are ready for marriage have been done. Studies of the development of the scale were made on 623 individuals, consisting of single adults. In the validity studies of the scale, explanatory and confirmatory factor analyses and criterion related validity studies were performed. Factor analysis revealed that the scale had four dimensions. The four factors in the measurement account for 60.91% of the total variance. The factor loadings of the items in the scale range from 0.42 to 0.86. Inonu Marriage Attitude Scale was used in the criterion related validity studies. Correlation value of the two scales r=0.72 (p=0.000 was found significant. It was determined that the subscales of the scale had a significant correlation with the total scale. The cronbach alpha value of the first dimension of the scale was 0.85, the cronbach alpha value of the second dimension of the scale was 0.68, the cronbach alpha value of the third dimension of the scale was 0.80, the cronbach alpha value of the fourth dimension of the scale was 0.91 and the cronbach alpha value of the total scale was 0.90. Test retest results r=0.70, (p=0.000 were found significant. In the item analysis studies, it was revealed that in the lower 27% group, the individuals in the upper 27% group were significantly different in all items (p=0.000. The item total correlation value of the items in the scale was between 0.40 and 0.63. As a result of the assessments, it was concluded that the Marital Maturity Scale was a reliable and valid instrument to measure marital maturity of single adults

  17. Factors which motivate the use of social networks by students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Sanmamed, Mercedes; Muñoz Carril, Pablo C; Dans Álvarez de Sotomayor, Isabel

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this research was to identify those factors which motivate the use of social networks by 4th year students in Secondary Education between the ages of 15 and 18. 1,144 students from 29 public and private schools took part. The data were analysed using Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modelling technique. Versatility was confirmed to be the variable which most influences the motivation of students in their use of social networks. The positive relationship between versatility in the use of social networks and educational uses was also significant. The characteristics of social networks are analysed according to their versatility and how this aspect makes them attractive to students. The positive effects of social networks are discussed in terms of educational uses and their contribution to school learning. There is also a warning about the risks associated with misuse of social networks, and finally, the characteristics and conditions for the development of good educational practice through social networks are identified.

  18. Exploring urban male non-marital sexual behaviours in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mir, Ali M; Wajid, Abdul; Pearson, Stephen; Khan, Mumraiz; Masood, Irfan

    2013-04-11

    In Pakistan, sexual practices outside marriage are proscribed by law. We aimed to assess the range and magnitude of non-marital sexual behaviours of urban men, focusing on men having sex with men. In this cross sectional survey undertaken in six cities of Pakistan, we interviewed 2400 men aged 16-45 years selected through a multistage systematic sampling design. Sexual behaviours were assessed through a structured questionnaire. Multivariable analysis was used to identify association between various individual level characteristics and probability of engaging in sexual activities involving men. Nearly one-third (29 percent) reported having had non-marital sex in their lifetime. Of these men 16 percent reported premarital sex, while 11 percent reported engaging in both pre- and extramarital sex. Only two percent reported exclusive extramarital sex. In total 211 respondents, 9 percent reported ever having had sexual relations with men. While 62 respondents, 2.6 percent reported exclusive sex with males. Factors that were significantly associated with MSM behaviours were being less than 27 years (adjusted OR 5.4, 95% CI 3.8-7.7, p pornographic materials (adjusted OR 4.8, 95% CI 3.0-7.7, p pornographic materials (adjusted OR 3.3, 95% CI: 1.5-7.2, p = 0.002). To prevent the spread of STI's in Pakistan, preventive interventions should focus on reaching out to young uneducated men offering them with appropriate counselling and skills to adopt "safe sex practices" through workplace orientation sessions; while for youth in schools, life skills education be included in the curriculum. Through public-private partnership stigmatised groups should be reached through established community networks and provided with information on accessing voluntary counseling and treatment centres.

  19. Intergenerational Transmission of Marital Violence: Results From a Nationally Representative Sample of Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murshid, Nadine Shaanta; Murshid, Navine

    2015-09-16

    The present study assesses the association between childhood exposure to parental violence and perpetration of marital violence as adults among a representative sample of 3,396 men in Bangladesh. We used secondary analysis of survey data from the nationally representative Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey 2007 to examine factors associated with perpetration of martial violence among 3,396 ever-married men between the ages of 16 and 50 years. Outcome measure, marital violence perpetration, was measured using a modified Conflict Tactics Scale, and predictor variables included childhood exposure to parental violence, justification of marital violence, marital duration, religion, and demographic variables. Results indicate that marital violence perpetration is significantly associated with childhood exposure to marital violence, suggesting a cycle of violence that is maintained across generations. Implications for policy and practice are discussed. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. Improving Marital Prediction: A Model and a Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Dwight G.; Lucas, Wayne L.

    A model for the prediction of marital adjustment is proposed which presents selected social background factors (e.g., education) and interactive factors (e.g., Bienvenu's Communication scale, Hurvitz' Role Inventory, Dean's Emotional Maturity and Commitment scales, Rosenberg's Self-Esteem scale) in order to account for as much of the variance in…

  1. Predicting marital satisfaction on the basis of early maladaptive schema in married women, Tehran, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Seyed Esmaili

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Early maladaptive schemes are cognitive, emotional and self-injurious patterns repeated throughout the life. Family is a natural social system in which couples have major role in the all of stages of its development, and many factors play a role in their marital satisfaction. Marital satisfaction is adopting expectations of couples of marital life. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between early maladaptive scheme with marital satisfaction and identification of predicting factors on marital satisfaction. This was a correlational cross-sectional method study. The population includes all married female persons referring to Tehran municipal regions. We used early maladaptive schemas questionnaire and Enrich marital satisfaction questionnaire for evaluation in participants. Descriptive tests, Pearson correlation test, T-Test, One Way ANOVA Test and Multivariate Regression Test were used for description and analysis of data. The mean age of samples in this study was 31.60±5.12 years old. There was significant relationship between age with Dependence/Incompetence (P=0.033, Self-sacrifice (P=0.010, Entitlement/Grandiosity (P=0.042, Impaired autonomy and performance (P=0.019, Abandonment/Instability (P=0.007. Linear regression analysis showed emotional deprivation and unrelenting standards/hypocriticalness subscales can predict marital satisfaction adversely. They can predict significantly 26% of marital satisfaction changes (P<0.001. we concluded that early maladaptive schema can predict the marital satisfaction negatively and of important role in its improvement or regression.

  2. Birth-Order Complementarity and Marital Adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vos, Cornelia J. Vanderkooy; Hayden, Delbert J.

    1985-01-01

    Tested the influence of birth-order complementarity on marital adjustment among 327 married women using the Spanier Dyadic Adjustment Scale (1976). Birth-order complementarity was found to be unassociated with marital adjustment. (Author/BL)

  3. The Comparison of Marital Satisfaction between Fertile and Iinfertile Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Abdolmajid Bahrainian

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This research studied and compared marital satisfaction level of the women who have infertility problem with those who does not have this problem. Methods: Totally 180 persons participated (90 infertile women and 90 fertile women were participated in this study. Participants were comprised of those referring to 3 Tehran city infertility centers. For data gathering in this research, the constructed questionnaire and Enrich Marital Satisfactions questionnaire have been used. Data analysis has been done with use of two independent t-tests and one way variance analysis has been done. Results: Results showed significant difference in satisfaction level of the fertile and infertile women, while, our research hypotheses were not confirmed in this regard by studying factors effective on marital satisfaction of the infertile women. The number of unsuccessful pregnancies whether in fertile women or infertile women didn’t have considerable effect on the marital satisfaction, while, effect of this factor on marital satisfaction level of the infertile women was higher than that on the fertile women. Discussion: Generally, by inclusion of limitations in this plan, it is impossible to generalize the present research results with difficulty, though it is inevitable to emphasize on negative consequences of the spouses' life and it is important to pay attention to its different dimensions.

  4. ISLAMIC PERSPECTIVE ON MARITAL RAPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Endriyo Susila

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Marital rape has become a controversial issue in many countries including Indonesia. For the majority of the Indonesian people, it is impossible for rape to take place inside the marriage institution, however some other peoples believe that it possibly occurs. Since it is considered as a kind of rape anyway, those who agree with that concept, insist on the government of Indonesia to qualify marital rape as an offence. This is sounded usually by the human rights activists, especially the feminists. This research is aimed to elaborate the legal position of what so-call marital rape in Islam. As a country whose population is majority Muslim, it can be understood that the development of the Indonesian law is influenced by the Islamic values. This research provide an important reference to deal with the issue of the criminalization of marital rape in Indonesia.Since the research focuses more on the study of legal materials from various sources, it is qualified as a normative legal research. To support the collection of data, interview upon the competent legal experts has also been exercised. The standard of qualification of the legal experts involving in the interview are those who are interested in Islamic Law, especially Islamic Family law as well as Islamic Criminal Law.    Based on the research finding, it is found that the type of the relationship between husband and wife as suggested in Islamic teaching naturaly prevents the what so-call marital rape to occur. It is difficult to imagine the existence of marital rape inside the Muslim familes, since the husband is bound with the obligation to treat her wife well (mu’asyarah bil ma’ruf. In sexual matter, the doctrine of mu’asyarah bil ma’ruf can be applied by respecting the need and the willingness of the wife in sexual matter. Meaning to say, the husband is obliged to fulfill his wife sexual desire in one side, and in the other side he is not allowed to force her wife for sex when she

  5. Stress, Communication, and Marital Quality in Couples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledermann, Thomas; Bodenmann, Guy; Rudaz, Myriam; Bradbury, Thomas N.

    2010-01-01

    The association between daily stress outside and inside of the relationship and marital functioning in the form of communication in conflict situations and marital quality was examined. We hypothesized that relationship stress mediates the association between external stress and marital functioning at the individual level, and that the association…

  6. A Systematic Approach to Marital Enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinkmeyer, Don; Carlson, Jon

    1986-01-01

    Presents a systematic approach to enriching marital relationships. The history and current status of marital enrichment is reviewed. An Adlerian approach to marital enrichment is described. Applications of the program in enrichment groups, marriage therapy and couple groups are included. (Author)

  7. Classification of Marital Relationships: An Empirical Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Douglas K.; Smith, Gregory T.

    1986-01-01

    Derives an empirically based classification system of marital relationships, employing a multidimensional self-report measure of marital interaction. Spouses' profiles on the Marital Satisfaction Inventory for samples of clinic and nonclinic couples were subjected to cluster analysis, resulting in separate five-group typologies for husbands and…

  8. Marital Conflict, Depressive Symptoms, and Functional Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Heejeong; Marks, Nadine F

    2008-01-01

    Guided by a stress process perspective, we investigated (a) whether marital conflict might directly lead to changes in depression and functional impairment, (b) whether marital conflict might indirectly lead to changes in functional impairment via depression, and (c) whether marital conflict might indirectly lead to changes in depression via…

  9. Estimates of Job Performance for Applicants Differing in Gender, Marital and Parental Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Marilyn A.; Clothier, Tamara A.

    Women and men tend to be defined by their marital and parental status; thus, these factors may be crucial in understanding societal attitudes toward working men and women. The influence of marital and parental status on perceived job performance was investigated with a college undergraduate sample (N=128). From paragraph descriptions that varied…

  10. Marital Quality in Interracial Relationships: The Role of Sex Role Ideology and Perceived Fairness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forry, Nicole D.; Leslie, Leigh A.; Letiecq, Bethany L.

    2007-01-01

    African American/White interracial couples are a rapidly growing segment of the population. However, little is known about factors related to marital quality for these couples. The authors examine the relationships between sex role ideology, perception of relationship unfairness, and marital quality among a sample of 76 married African…

  11. Fathering and Mothering in the Family System: Linking Marital Hostility and Aggression in Adopted Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stover, Carla Smith; Connell, Christian M.; Leve, Leslie D.; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Scaramella, Laura V.; Conger, Rand; Reiss, David

    2012-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have linked marital conflict, parenting, and externalizing problems in early childhood. However, these studies have not examined whether genes account for these links nor have they examined whether contextual factors such as parental personality or financial distress might account for links between marital conflict and…

  12. Infertile individuals' marital relationship status, happiness, and mental health: a causal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi Forooshany, Seyed Habiballah; Yazdkhasti, Fariba; Safari Hajataghaie, Saiede; Nasr Esfahani, Mohammad Hossein

    2014-10-01

    This study examined the causal model of relation between marital relation- ship status, happiness, and mental health in infertile individuals. In this descriptive study, 155 subjects (men: 52 and women: 78), who had been visited in one of the infertility Centers, voluntarily participated in a self-evaluation. Golombok Rust Inventory of Marital Status, Oxford Happiness Ques- tionnaire, and General Health Questionnaire were used as instruments of the study. Data was analyzed by SPSS17 and Amos 5 software using descriptive statistics, independent sample t test, and path analysis. Disregarding the gender factor, marital relationship status was directly related to happiness (phappiness was directly related to mental health, (phappiness and mental health was significant (phappiness had a mediator role in relation between marital relationship status and mental health in infertile individu- als disregarding the gender factor. Also, considering the gender factor, only in infertile women, marital relationship status can directly and indirectly affect happiness and mental health.

  13. Coping Mediates the Association Between Marital Instability and Depression, but Not Marital Satisfaction and Depression

    OpenAIRE

    Fink, Brandi C.; Shapiro, Alyson F.

    2013-01-01

    The association between marital discord and depression is well established. Marital discord is hypothesized to be a stressful life event that would evoke one’s efforts to cope with it. In an effort to further understand the nature of this association, the current study investigated coping as a mediating variable between marital dissatisfaction and depression and between marital instability and depression. Both marital dissatisfaction and instability, reflecting orthogonal dimensions of marita...

  14. Factors Affecting Green Residential Building Development: Social Network Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Yang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Green residential buildings (GRBs are one of the effective practices of energy saving and emission reduction in the construction industry. However, many real estate developers in China are less willing to develop GRBs, because of the factors affecting green residential building development (GRBD. In order to promote the sustainable development of GRBs in China, this paper, based on the perspective of real estate developers, identifies the influential and critical factors affecting GRBD, using the method of social network analysis (SNA. Firstly, 14 factors affecting GRBD are determined from 64 preliminary factors of three main elements, and the framework is established. Secondly, the relationships between the 14 factors are analyzed by SNA. Finally, four critical factors for GRBD, which are on the local economy development level, development strategy and innovation orientation, developer’s acknowledgement and positioning for GRBD, and experience and ability for GRBD, are identified by the social network centrality test. The findings illustrate the key issues that affect the development of GRBs, and provide references for policy making by the government and strategy formulation by real estate developers.

  15. Marital Satisfaction Trends in Hong Kong Between 2002 and 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huiping; Fan, Susan; Yip, Paul

    2016-07-03

    Macrosocial changes may generate influences on marital quality. This study used data from the 2002-2012 Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice surveys conducted by the Family Planning Association of Hong Kong to track the trends of marital satisfaction of both husbands and wives over a 10-year period in Hong Kong, with associated factors. Results indicated that 85% of the husbands and around 80% of the wives reported that they were satisfied with their marital relationships, and no significant changes in general were observed for them between 2002 and 2012 except for some subgroups. Husbands aged 45-49 years, in employment and whose monthly household income between 25,000 HKD and 39,999 HKD, reported marital satisfaction decreased over the past 10 years and wives with primary education or below also reported a decreasing trend during this period. Education and family income had positive influences on the husbands' and wives' marital satisfaction, and husbands were more likely to be sensitive to the unemployment. Less than one-third of couples needed professional counseling on family-related issues, and couple conflicts and work-family conflicts were the urgent needs that should be given priority in delivering services. The implications of this study are discussed in the Chinese context of Hong Kong.

  16. A Theoretical Explanation of Marital Conflicts by Paradigmatic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    اسماعیل جهانی دولت آباد

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to the economic, social and cultural changes in recent decades and consequently alterations in the form and duties of families and expectations of individuals from marriage, the institution of the family and marriage are enormously involved with different challenges and conflicts in comparison to past years. Fragile marital relationships, conflicts and divorce are results of such situations in Iran. Accordingly, the present study, which is designed through meta-analysis and deduction based on the concept analysis and reconceptualization of recent studies, has committed to manifest a proper different paradigm to explain marital conflicts. This paradigm is relying on various theoretical approaches, particularly the theory of symbolic interactionism as the main explanatory mean, and also applying the concept of “Marital Paradigm” as the missing information in previous studies of this field. It explains the marital conflicts between couples as paradigmatic conflicts; and its main idea is that marital conflict is not the result of one or more fixed and specified factors, but it is the production of encountering the opposing (or different paradigms.

  17. Marital status and optimism score among breast cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croft, Lindsay; Sorkin, John; Gallicchio, Lisa

    2014-11-01

    There are an increasing number of breast cancer survivors, but their psychosocial and supportive care needs are not well-understood. Recent work has found marital status, social support, and optimism to be associated with quality of life, but little research has been conducted to understand how these factors relate to one another. Survey data from 722 breast cancer survivors were analyzed to estimate the association between marital status and optimism score, as measured using the Life Orientation Test-Revised. Linear regression was used to estimate the relationship of marital status and optimism, controlling for potential confounding variables and assessing effect modification. The results showed that the association between marital status and optimism was modified by time since breast cancer diagnosis. Specifically, in those most recently diagnosed (within 5 years), married breast cancer survivors had a 1.50 higher mean optimism score than unmarried survivors (95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.37, 2.62; p = 0.009). The difference in optimism score by marital status was not present more than 5 years from breast cancer diagnosis. Findings suggest that among breast cancer survivors within 5 years since diagnosis, those who are married have higher optimism scores than their unmarried counterparts; this association was not observed among longer-term breast cancer survivors. Future research should examine whether the difference in optimism score among this subgroup of breast cancer survivors is clinically relevant.

  18. Marital Dialogue – between Conflict, Agreement and Relationship Breakdown

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kornaszewska-Polak Monika

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Marital dialogue plays an essential role in shaping the relationship between spouses and supports experiencing personal I in the context of the community – We. In these couples, where dialogue is going well, it fulfils the function of a secure base forming a community based on the foundation of unity. However, contemporary culture denies an interpersonal dialogue the authenticity and engagement, emphasizing individualistic attitudes, preoccupation with oneself, leading to relationship and community disintegration and breakdown. This paper is to present the authors twenty year research into bonds, communication styles, marital conflicts and ways of coping with them. The research shows various issues related to developing the interpersonal dialogue and thus creating bonds and unity in the marriage and family. At first, the research devoted to the transmission of generation patterns in the family is presented and it is followed by presentation of selected psychological factors influencing marriage quality and marital satisfaction.

  19. Financial satisfaction and financial stressors in marital satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archuleta, Kristy L; Britt, Sonya L; Tonn, Teresa J; Grable, John E

    2011-04-01

    Using a sample of 310 married respondents from one U.S. Midwestern state, a test was conducted to examine the association of financial satisfaction and financial stressors in a spouse's decision to stay married to the same person or leave the relationship. The role of demographic and socioeconomic variables, religiosity, psychological constructs, financial satisfaction, and financial stressors as factors influencing marital satisfaction was tested. Financial stressors were measured using a list of financial stressors adapted from the literature. Financial satisfaction was measured with a one-item scale. The Kansas Marital Satisfaction Scale was used as a validation tool to assess whether individuals would marry or not marry again. Religiosity and financial satisfaction were positively associated with marital satisfaction. A negative interaction between financial satisfaction and financial stressors was also noted. Findings suggest that respondents who are financially satisfied tend to be more stable in their marriages.

  20. The Network Structure of Human Personality According to the NEO-PI-R: Matching Network Community Structure to Factor Structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goekoop, R.; Goekoop, J.G.; Scholte, H.S.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Human personality is described preferentially in terms of factors (dimensions) found using factor analysis. An alternative and highly related method is network analysis, which may have several advantages over factor analytic methods. Aim: To directly compare the ability of network

  1. Marital status, health and mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robards, James; Evandrou, Maria; Falkingham, Jane; Vlachantoni, Athina

    2012-12-01

    Marital status and living arrangements, along with changes in these in mid-life and older ages, have implications for an individual's health and mortality. Literature on health and mortality by marital status has consistently identified that unmarried individuals generally report poorer health and have a higher mortality risk than their married counterparts, with men being particularly affected in this respect. With evidence of increasing changes in partnership and living arrangements in older ages, with rising divorce amongst younger cohorts offsetting the lower risk of widowhood, it is important to consider the implications of such changes for health in later life. Within research which has examined changes in marital status and living arrangements in later life a key distinction has been between work using cross-sectional data and that which has used longitudinal data. In this context, two key debates have been the focus of research; firstly, research pointing to a possible selection of less healthy individuals into singlehood, separation or divorce, while the second debate relates to the extent to which an individual's transitions earlier in the life course in terms of marital status and living arrangements have a differential impact on their health and mortality compared with transitions over shorter time periods. After reviewing the relevant literature, this paper argues that in order to fully account for changes in living arrangements as a determinant of health and mortality transitions, future research will increasingly need to consider a longer perspective and take into account transitions in living arrangements throughout an individual's life course rather than simply focussing at one stage of the life course. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Young adults' internet addiction: Prediction by the interaction of parental marital conflict and respiratory sinus arrhythmia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Spinrad, Tracy L; Eisenberg, Nancy; Luo, Yun; Wang, Zhenhong

    2017-10-01

    The aim of the current study was to address the potential moderating roles of respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA; baseline and suppression) and participant sex in the relation between parents' marital conflict and young adults' internet addiction. Participants included 105 (65 men) Chinese young adults who reported on their internet addiction and their parents' marital conflict. Marital conflict interacted with RSA suppression to predict internet addiction. Specifically, high RSA suppression was associated with low internet addiction, regardless of parental marital conflict; however, for participants with low RSA suppression, a positive relation between marital conflict and internet addiction was found. Internet addiction also was predicted by a significant three-way interaction among baseline RSA, marital conflict, and participant sex. Specifically, for men, marital conflict positively predicted internet addiction under conditions of low (but not high) baseline RSA. For women, marital conflict positively predicted internet addiction under conditions of high (but not low) baseline RSA. Findings highlight the importance of simultaneous consideration of physiological factors, in conjunction with family factors, in the prediction of young adults' internet addiction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Leisure Activity Patterns and Marital Conflict in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Khodabakhsh; Saadat, Hassan; Noushad, Siena

    2016-01-01

    Background: Over the past few decades, the association between leisure activity patterns and marital conflict or satisfaction has been studied extensively. However, most studies to date have been limited to middle-class families of developed societies, and an investigation of the issue, from a developing country perspective like Iran, is non-existent. Objectives: In an observational, analytical, cross-sectional study we aimed to investigate the relationship between leisure activity patterns and marital conflict in a nationally representative sample of Iranian married males. Patients and Methods: Using the cluster sampling method, a representative sample of 400 Iranian married individuals from seven provinces of Iran was surveyed. Self-administered surveys included a checklist collecting demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of the enrolled participants, leisure time questionnaire, and marital conflict questionnaire. The main patterns of leisure activity were derived from principal component analysis. For each pattern, factor scores were calculated. The relationship between factor scores and marital conflict were assessed using multivariate linear regression models accounting for the potential confounding effects of age, education, socioeconomic status, job status, number of children, duration of marriage, and time spent for leisure. Results: Two hundred and ninety-nine respondents completed the leisure time and marital conflict questionnaires. Five major leisure patterns were identified accounting for 60.3% of the variance in data. The most dominant pattern was family-oriented activities (e.g. spending time with family outdoors and spending time with family indoors) and was negatively linked to marital conflict (standardized beta= −0.154, P = 0.013). Of the four remaining patterns, three only included individual activities and one was a family-individual composite. Individual patterns exhibited discrepant behavior; while the pattern involving activities

  4. Psychodynamic Factors Behind Online Social Networking and its Excessive Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Thomas Cheuk Wing

    2016-03-01

    This article discusses the psychodynamic factors behind the popularity of one form of Internet activity, online social networking (SN). It views online SN as an extension of the social self, organized in a way that is more controllable than real life relating. The SN platforms reward its users with reassuring surfaces and novel self-object experiences while at the same time induces much anxiety. The addictive quality of online SN is understood in the context of collapse of dialectical space and the defensive use of this technology.

  5. Daily Marital Interaction Quality and Carotid Artery Intima Medial Thickness in Healthy Middle Aged Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Nataria T.; Kamarck, Thomas W.; Muldoon, Matthew F.; Manuck, Stephen B.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the association between marital interaction quality during daily life and subclinical cardiovascular disease (CVD). Studies have shown that marital status and quality of marriage are associated with cardiovascular health. However, little is known about the role of marital interaction quality during daily life in contributing to these effects. Methods The sample consisted of 281 healthy, employed middle-aged adults who were married or living with a partner in a marital-like relationship (mean age = 42.0 years, 88% white, 52% men). Marital interaction quality was assessed using hourly real-time Ecological Momentary Assessments (EMAs) for 4 days, with participants rating their current or recent partner interactions on positive and negative characteristics (e.g., agreeableness and conflict). Carotid artery intima medial thickness (IMT) was assessed using ultrasound imaging. Results Adjusting for demographics, positive marital interaction was inversely associated with IMT, [b = −.02 F(1, 275) = 9.18, p = .002], and negative marital interaction was positively associated with IMT, [b = .02 F(1, 275) = 10.29, p = .001]. These associations were not accounted for by behavioral and biological cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and were consistent across age, sex, race, and education. The associations were also independent of marital interaction frequency, nonmarital social interaction quality, and personality factors. Global reports of marital quality, in contrast, were not associated with IMT. Conclusions Marital quality as measured during real-time interactions between partners was associated with subclinical cardiovascular disease in healthy middle-aged adults. This study supports the utility of real-time social interaction assessment for characterizing links between social relationships and cardiovascular health. PMID:24915293

  6. Marital Conflict, Depressive Symptoms, and Functional Impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Heejeong; Marks, Nadine F.

    2008-01-01

    Guided by a stress process perspective, we investigated (a) whether marital conflict might directly lead to changes in depression and functional impairment, (b) whether marital conflict might indirectly lead to changes in functional impairment via depression, and (c) whether marital conflict might indirectly lead to changes in depression via functional impairment. We estimated a latent variable causal model using 3 waves of data from the National Survey of Families and Households (N = 1,832)....

  7. Uncovering Transcriptional Regulatory Networks by Sparse Bayesian Factor Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Yuan(Alan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The problem of uncovering transcriptional regulation by transcription factors (TFs based on microarray data is considered. A novel Bayesian sparse correlated rectified factor model (BSCRFM is proposed that models the unknown TF protein level activity, the correlated regulations between TFs, and the sparse nature of TF-regulated genes. The model admits prior knowledge from existing database regarding TF-regulated target genes based on a sparse prior and through a developed Gibbs sampling algorithm, a context-specific transcriptional regulatory network specific to the experimental condition of the microarray data can be obtained. The proposed model and the Gibbs sampling algorithm were evaluated on the simulated systems, and results demonstrated the validity and effectiveness of the proposed approach. The proposed model was then applied to the breast cancer microarray data of patients with Estrogen Receptor positive ( status and Estrogen Receptor negative ( status, respectively.

  8. Uniformity factor of temperature difference in heat exchanger networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Shang; Cui, Guo-min

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A uniformity factor of temperature (UFTD) is proposed to heat exchanger network (HEN). • A novel stage-wise superstructure with inner utilities is presented based on UFTD. • New model and DE method is combined as an optimization method. • Optimal HEN structures with inner utilities can be obtained with new method. - Abstract: A uniformity factor of temperature difference (UFTD) is proposed and set up to guide the optimization of Heat exchanger network (HEN). At first, the factor is presented to evaluate the whole enhancement of HEN by handling the logical mean temperature difference as two-dimensional discrete temperature field in system. Then, the factor is applied to different HENs, of which the comparison indicates that a more uniform discrete temperature field leads to a lower UFTD which correlated with a better whole enhancement to improve the optimization level of HEN. A novel stage-wise superstructure model where inner utility can be generated is presented for further analysis of correlation between UFTD and the efficiency of HEN, and more optimal HEN structures can be obtained as inner utility added. Inner utility appears to violate the thermodynamic law, but it makes the discrete temperature field more uniform and improves the heat transfer efficiency of the whole HEN, which brings much more profit than the side effect of inner utility. In sum, the UFTD can not only evaluate the optimization level of the HEN, but also be an optimization object to design new HEN with higher efficiency of energy utilization and lower total annual cost.

  9. Fulfillment of Marital Expectations in Relation to Communication Style and Parents' Marital Interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Edgington, Shawn Corey

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships of communication variables and parent marital variables with the fulfillment of marital expectations among newlyweds. Little research has been done on newlywed expectations and communication. This is an exploratory study conducted to determine how newlyweds' exposure to parents' marital interactions and communication styles correlated with newlyweds' fulfillment of marital expectations. Fifty newlywed couples (married 3-6 months) fill...

  10. Influence of age, marital status and environment on sexism in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    05] and environment of living [t (777) = 3.21, p<.01] are significant factors influencing hostile sex discrimination (sexism) in Nigeria. Results also indicated that benevolent sex discriminations are not significantly influenced by age, marital status ...

  11. Domestic Equality and Marital Stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steingrimsdottir, Herdis; Vardardottir, Arna

    by the father while parents who had a child before were did not get this option. This created large economic incentives for parents to involve fathers in caring for their children during their first months. In this paper we use the precise timing of the introduction of the paternal quota in Iceland to evaluate...... the causal effects of paternity leave on parents’ earnings, the gender wage gap and marital stability. The results are obtained using detailed register based panel data, comparing families who had a child just before or just after the reform. Spouses who are entitled to paternity leave are less likely...

  12. Factors that influence cooperation in networks for innovation and learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sie, Rory; Bitter-Rijpkema, Marlies; Stoyanov, Slavi; Sloep, Peter

    2018-01-01

    Networked cooperation fails if the available partnerships remain opaque. A literature review and Delphi study uncovered the elements of a fruitful partnership. They relate to personality, diversity, cooperation, and management. Innovation networks and learning networks share the same cooperative

  13. Effect of Marital Counselling on Women‟s Attitude Towards Marital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Based on the findings, the implications for counselling include organizing seminars and workshops by counsellors to teach women skills that will enhance positive marital attitudes, adoption of marital counselling programmes by employers of labour to assist women maintain desirable marital attitudes in order to promote ...

  14. The Cross-Cultural Consistency of Marital Communication Associated with Marital Distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halford, W. Kim; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Compared problem-solving behaviors of four samples of couples, sorted by marital happiness/distress and culture (German and Australian). Results showed cultural differences in frequency and functional significance of negative verbal communication, along with cross-culturally consistent marital behaviors associated with marital distress. (Author/TE)

  15. Using network component analysis to dissect regulatory networks mediated by transcription factors in yeast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Ye

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the relationship between genetic variation and gene expression is a central question in genetics. With the availability of data from high-throughput technologies such as ChIP-Chip, expression, and genotyping arrays, we can begin to not only identify associations but to understand how genetic variations perturb the underlying transcription regulatory networks to induce differential gene expression. In this study, we describe a simple model of transcription regulation where the expression of a gene is completely characterized by two properties: the concentrations and promoter affinities of active transcription factors. We devise a method that extends Network Component Analysis (NCA to determine how genetic variations in the form of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs perturb these two properties. Applying our method to a segregating population of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we found statistically significant examples of trans-acting SNPs located in regulatory hotspots that perturb transcription factor concentrations and affinities for target promoters to cause global differential expression and cis-acting genetic variations that perturb the promoter affinities of transcription factors on a single gene to cause local differential expression. Although many genetic variations linked to gene expressions have been identified, it is not clear how they perturb the underlying regulatory networks that govern gene expression. Our work begins to fill this void by showing that many genetic variations affect the concentrations of active transcription factors in a cell and their affinities for target promoters. Understanding the effects of these perturbations can help us to paint a more complete picture of the complex landscape of transcription regulation. The software package implementing the algorithms discussed in this work is available as a MATLAB package upon request.

  16. Construction and Validation of the Marital Justice Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Ghaffari

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study was to construct and validate a scale for measuring marital justice. A sample of three hundred and four voluntary and unpaid married participants (194 females, 110 males, aged between 20 and 35 years old (29.01 ± 4.44 years, were selected randomly through multi-stage sampling in Isfahan, Iran; the participants included in this sample had preschool child/children, were all in the first decade of marriage, and had at least eight grades of education. All participants were asked to complete the Marital Justice Scale (MJS, the Revised Dyadic Adjustment Scale (R-DAS; Busby, Christensen, Crane, & Larson, 1995, and the Marital Conflict Questionnaire (MCQ; Sanai Zaker, 2000. The exploratory factor analysis extracted two factors labelled ‘Procedural/interactional justice’ (twelve items and ‘Distributive justice’ (eight items which accounted for 66.70% of the total variance. The convergent and discriminant validity of the 20-item MJS were supported by an expected pattern of correlations between the scale and the measures of marital quality and marital conflict. All correlation coefficients between the mean scores of the MJS and the scores of the RDAS and the MCQ were statistically significant. The obtained internal consistency was markedly high (Cronbach’s α = .97. The test-retest reliability of the MJS was .87. The results suggest that the MJS is a reliable and valid measure; however, further studies should be carried out in other countries, based on different age groups and socio-economic levels, various developmental stages of family life cycles, diverse cultures and sub-cultures, and according to gender difference so as to validate the MJS.

  17. The network structure of human personality according to the NEO-PI-R: matching network community structure to factor structure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rutger Goekoop

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Human personality is described preferentially in terms of factors (dimensions found using factor analysis. An alternative and highly related method is network analysis, which may have several advantages over factor analytic methods. AIM: To directly compare the ability of network community detection (NCD and principal component factor analysis (PCA to examine modularity in multidimensional datasets such as the neuroticism-extraversion-openness personality inventory revised (NEO-PI-R. METHODS: 434 healthy subjects were tested on the NEO-PI-R. PCA was performed to extract factor structures (FS of the current dataset using both item scores and facet scores. Correlational network graphs were constructed from univariate correlation matrices of interactions between both items and facets. These networks were pruned in a link-by-link fashion while calculating the network community structure (NCS of each resulting network using the Wakita Tsurumi clustering algorithm. NCSs were matched against FS and networks of best matches were kept for further analysis. RESULTS: At facet level, NCS showed a best match (96.2% with a 'confirmatory' 5-FS. At item level, NCS showed a best match (80% with the standard 5-FS and involved a total of 6 network clusters. Lesser matches were found with 'confirmatory' 5-FS and 'exploratory' 6-FS of the current dataset. Network analysis did not identify facets as a separate level of organization in between items and clusters. A small-world network structure was found in both item- and facet level networks. CONCLUSION: We present the first optimized network graph of personality traits according to the NEO-PI-R: a 'Personality Web'. Such a web may represent the possible routes that subjects can take during personality development. NCD outperforms PCA by producing plausible modularity at item level in non-standard datasets, and can identify the key roles of individual items and clusters in the network.

  18. Tissue factor activates allosteric networks in factor VIIa through structural and dynamic changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jesper Jonasson; Persson, E.; Olsen, O. H.

    2015-01-01

    that are not likely to be inferred from mutagenesis studies. Furthermore, paths from Met306 to Ile153 (N-terminus) and Trp364, both representing hallmark residues of allostery, are 7% and 37% longer, respectively, in free FVIIa. Thus, there is significantly weaker coupling between the TF contact point and key......Background: Tissue factor (TF) promotes colocalization of enzyme (factorVIIa) and substrate (FX or FIX), and stabilizes the active conformation of FVIIa. Details on how TF induces structural and dynamic changes in the catalytic domain of FVIIa to enhance its efficiency remain elusive. Objective......: To elucidate the activation of allosteric networks in the catalytic domain of the FVIIa protease it is when bound to TF.MethodsLong-timescale molecular dynamics simulations of FVIIa, free and in complex with TF, were executed and analyzed by dynamic network analysis. Results: Allosteric paths of correlated...

  19. Leisure Activity Patterns and Marital Conflict in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Khodabakhsh; Saadat, Hassan; Noushad, Siena

    2016-01-01

    Over the past few decades, the association between leisure activity patterns and marital conflict or satisfaction has been studied extensively. However, most studies to date have been limited to middle-class families of developed societies, and an investigation of the issue, from a developing country perspective like Iran, is non-existent. In an observational, analytical, cross-sectional study we aimed to investigate the relationship between leisure activity patterns and marital conflict in a nationally representative sample of Iranian married males. Using the cluster sampling method, a representative sample of 400 Iranian married individuals from seven provinces of Iran was surveyed. Self-administered surveys included a checklist collecting demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of the enrolled participants, leisure time questionnaire, and marital conflict questionnaire. The main patterns of leisure activity were derived from principal component analysis. For each pattern, factor scores were calculated. The relationship between factor scores and marital conflict were assessed using multivariate linear regression models accounting for the potential confounding effects of age, education, socioeconomic status, job status, number of children, duration of marriage, and time spent for leisure. Two hundred and ninety-nine respondents completed the leisure time and marital conflict questionnaires. Five major leisure patterns were identified accounting for 60.3% of the variance in data. The most dominant pattern was family-oriented activities (e.g. spending time with family outdoors and spending time with family indoors) and was negatively linked to marital conflict (standardized beta= -0.154, P = 0.013). Of the four remaining patterns, three only included individual activities and one was a family-individual composite. Individual patterns exhibited discrepant behavior; while the pattern involving activities like 'watching TV', 'non-purposive time spending', and

  20. Predictors of maternal depression in the first year postpartum: marital status and mediating role of relationship quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akincigil, Ayse; Munch, Shari; Niemczyk, Kristen C

    2010-01-01

    Existing literature has documented the associations between marital status and maternal depression within the first year postpartum. Using data that is representative of urban non-marital births in the United States with a large over-sample of non-marital births, we investigate the association of maternal depression with not only marital status but also relationship quality with the father of the baby. Quality is independently associated with maternal depression after controlling for marital status and other variables that have been documented as risk factors for maternal depression. In addition, relationship quality explains away the associations between marital status and maternal depression. After controlling for relationship quality, single women were no more likely to be depressed compared to married or cohabiting women.

  1. Why does women's education stabilize marriages? The role of marital attraction and barriers to divorce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diederik Boertien

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite widespread attention paid to the negative correlation between female education and divorce, we lack an explanation for it. In this study we use social exchange theory to assess two broad groups of explanations. According to the 'marital attraction' explanation, educated women's marriages have higher marital quality and marital satisfaction. According to the 'barriers to divorce' explanation, educated women's marriages include factors that raise the cost of divorcing. Many previous studies have referred to variants of the former explanation, whereas the latter has been less prominent. Our objective is to investigate the explanatory power of these two explanations. Methods: We use discrete-time event history models to document the educational gradient of divorce from first marriages using the British Household Panel Survey (N = 1,263 for the years 1996-2009. We subsequently perform a mediation analysis to explain the educational gradient in divorce and a path analysis to distinguish which factors shape marital attraction and barriers to divorce. Results: Female education is positively related to marital stability, but this association is only partly explained by educational differences in marital satisfaction and variables that shape attractions. Variables interpreted as affecting barriers to divorce, such as home ownership and having divorced parents, provide an at least equally important explanation of the educational gradient in divorce. Contribution: This paper shows that the negative female educational gradient of divorce is shaped not only by educational differences in marital attraction, but also by differences in barriers to divorce.

  2. Network-based prediction and analysis of HIV dependency factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T M Murali

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available HIV Dependency Factors (HDFs are a class of human proteins that are essential for HIV replication, but are not lethal to the host cell when silenced. Three previous genome-wide RNAi experiments identified HDF sets with little overlap. We combine data from these three studies with a human protein interaction network to predict new HDFs, using an intuitive algorithm called SinkSource and four other algorithms published in the literature. Our algorithm achieves high precision and recall upon cross validation, as do the other methods. A number of HDFs that we predict are known to interact with HIV proteins. They belong to multiple protein complexes and biological processes that are known to be manipulated by HIV. We also demonstrate that many predicted HDF genes show significantly different programs of expression in early response to SIV infection in two non-human primate species that differ in AIDS progression. Our results suggest that many HDFs are yet to be discovered and that they have potential value as prognostic markers to determine pathological outcome and the likelihood of AIDS development. More generally, if multiple genome-wide gene-level studies have been performed at independent labs to study the same biological system or phenomenon, our methodology is applicable to interpret these studies simultaneously in the context of molecular interaction networks and to ask if they reinforce or contradict each other.

  3. Does Status Inconsistency Matter for Marital Quality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Min

    2007-01-01

    This study tests status inconsistency theory by examining the associations between wives' and husbands' relative statuses--that is, earnings, work-time, occupational, and educational inconsistencies--and marital quality and global happiness. The author asks three questions: (a) Is status inconsistency associated with marital quality and overall…

  4. relationship between parenting styles and marital adjustment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. BARTH EKWEME

    positive and significant joint relationship between the parenting styles and marital adjustment of married ... correlate significantly with marital adjustment of married teachers in secondary ... In other words, it refers to the management of ... dealing with each other so as to reduce ill-feeling. ..... Behavior exchange in happy.

  5. Marital and Life Satisfaction among Gifted Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrone-McGovern, Kristin M.; Boo, Jenelle N.; Vannatter, Aarika

    2012-01-01

    Spousal giftedness, dual-career status, and gender were studied in relation to marital and life satisfaction among gifted adults. The data for the present study were collected twice over a 5-year period in order to examine the stability of the findings over time. Results indicated that marital satisfaction was significantly related to life…

  6. relationship between parenting styles and marital adjustment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. BARTH EKWEME

    The relationship between permissive parenting style and marital adjustment was also very low, positive and insignificant. There was a low, positive and significant joint relationship between the parenting styles and marital adjustment of married teachers in secondary schools in Obio/Akpor Local Government Area of Rivers ...

  7. influence of spousal communication on marital stability

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Engr E. Egbochukwu

    marital stability on the basis of gender and length of years in marriage. Based on the findings of this study, it was recommended, amongst others, that marriage ... now to work on the communication between husband and wife. ..... the critical value of 1.96. .... assume more active role in encouraging marital communication.

  8. Everyday Marital Conflict and Child Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, E. Mark; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.; Papp, Lauren M.

    2004-01-01

    Children's immediate aggressive responding to exposure to marital conflict was examined. Participants were 108 families with 8- to 16-year-old children (53 boys, 55 girls), with diary records of children's reactions to marital conflict in the home completed by 103 mothers (n = 578 records) and 95 fathers (n = 377 records) during a 15-day period.…

  9. Consanguineous Marriage and Marital Adjustment in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisiloglu, Hurol

    2001-01-01

    Investigates the relationship between consanguineous marriage and marital adjustment in Turkey. The results of the study show that the consanguineous marriage group had significantly lower marital adjustment and had more conflict with extended family than the nonconsanguineous marriage group. The finding is discussed in the context of research and…

  10. Testosterone, Marital Quality, and Role Overload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Alan; Johnson, David R.; Granger, Douglas A.

    2005-01-01

    In a sample of established working- and middle-class families with school-aged children (N= 307 wives and 307 husbands), neither husbands nor wives testosterone showed a direct connection with marital quality. In contrast, the association between husbands' testosterone and positive and negative marital quality (as evaluated by both spouses) was…

  11. Assessment on thermoelectric power factor in silicon nanowire networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohn, Andrew J.; Kobayashi, Nobuhiko P. [Baskin School of Engineering, University of California Santa Cruz, CA (United States); Nanostructured Energy Conversion Technology and Research (NECTAR), Advanced Studies Laboratories, University of California Santa Cruz, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA (United States); Coleman, Elane; Tompa, Gary S. [Structured Materials Industries, Inc., Piscataway, NJ (United States)

    2012-01-15

    Thermoelectric devices based on three-dimensional networks of highly interconnected silicon nanowires were fabricated and the parameters that contribute to the power factor, namely the Seebeck coefficient and electrical conductivity were assessed. The large area (2 cm x 2 cm) devices were fabricated at low cost utilizing a highly scalable process involving silicon nanowires grown on steel substrates. Temperature dependence of the Seebeck coefficient was found to be weak over the range of 20-80 C at approximately -400 {mu}V/K for unintentionally doped devices and {+-}50 {mu}V/K for p-type and n-type devices, respectively. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  12. Adolescents' responses to marital conflict: The role of cooperative marital conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Nan; Buehler, Cheryl

    2017-10-01

    Not all youth exposed to hostile marital interactions develop negative responses to marital conflict. Cooperative marital conflict has long been considered as an important way of managing conflict and may serve as an important context in which hostility might convey during marital interactions. In light of little prior attention placed on the positive side of conflict processes, the main and moderating effects of cooperative marital conflict on youth responses to marital conflict were examined in a sample of 416 2-parent families using a multimethod, 2-year prospective design. Cooperative marital conflict was associated with decreases in youth emotional dysregulation, perceived threat, and behavioral dysregulation, and increases in constructive family representations and coping efficacy. As a specific dimension of cooperation, effective conflict resolution was associated uniquely with elevated youth coping efficacy, and decreased emotional and behavioral dysregulation; marital warmth was associated uniquely with increased constructive family representations. Significant interactions between marital hostility and marital cooperation also were found. These findings highlight the importance of examining cooperation above and beyond hostility in studies of marital conflict in order to better understand youth development during early adolescence. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Marital Adjustment and Psychological Distress in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Angela; Robustelli, Briana L.; Whisman, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the association between marital adjustment and psychological distress in a large, probability sample of married adults in Japan (N = 710) from the Midlife Development in Japan (MIDJA) study. Results indicate that positive and negative dimensions of marital adjustment were significantly associated with dimensional and categorical measures of psychological distress. Furthermore, the associations between marital adjustment and psychological distress remained significant when statistically controlling for neuroticism, quality of friend and family relationships, and demographic variables. These results demonstrate that the well-established association between marital adjustment and psychological distress found in European-American countries is also found in Japan. Findings support continued research on marital functioning and psychological distress in East Asian countries. PMID:28082761

  14. Marital Expectations in Strong African American Marriages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaterlaus, J Mitchell; Skogrand, Linda; Chaney, Cassandra; Gahagan, Kassandra

    2017-12-01

    The current exploratory study utilized a family strengths framework to identify marital expectations in 39 strong African American heterosexual marriages. Couples reflected on their marital expectations over their 10 or more years of marriage. Three themes emerged through qualitative analysis and the participants' own words were used in the presentation of the themes. African Americans indicated that there was growth in marital expectations over time, with marital expectations often beginning with unrealistic expectations that grew into more realistic expectations as their marriages progressed. Participants also indicated that core expectations in strong African American marriages included open communication, congruent values, and positive treatment of spouse. Finally, participants explained there is an "I" in marriage as they discussed the importance of autonomy within their marital relationships. Results are discussed in association with existing research and theory. © 2016 Family Process Institute.

  15. Network based transcription factor analysis of regenerating axolotl limbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cameron Jo Ann

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies on amphibian limb regeneration began in the early 1700's but we still do not completely understand the cellular and molecular events of this unique process. Understanding a complex biological process such as limb regeneration is more complicated than the knowledge of the individual genes or proteins involved. Here we followed a systems biology approach in an effort to construct the networks and pathways of protein interactions involved in formation of the accumulation blastema in regenerating axolotl limbs. Results We used the human orthologs of proteins previously identified by our research team as bait to identify the transcription factor (TF pathways and networks that regulate blastema formation in amputated axolotl limbs. The five most connected factors, c-Myc, SP1, HNF4A, ESR1 and p53 regulate ~50% of the proteins in our data. Among these, c-Myc and SP1 regulate 36.2% of the proteins. c-Myc was the most highly connected TF (71 targets. Network analysis showed that TGF-β1 and fibronectin (FN lead to the activation of these TFs. We found that other TFs known to be involved in epigenetic reprogramming, such as Klf4, Oct4, and Lin28 are also connected to c-Myc and SP1. Conclusions Our study provides a systems biology approach to how different molecular entities inter-connect with each other during the formation of an accumulation blastema in regenerating axolotl limbs. This approach provides an in silico methodology to identify proteins that are not detected by experimental methods such as proteomics but are potentially important to blastema formation. We found that the TFs, c-Myc and SP1 and their target genes could potentially play a central role in limb regeneration. Systems biology has the potential to map out numerous other pathways that are crucial to blastema formation in regeneration-competent limbs, to compare these to the pathways that characterize regeneration-deficient limbs and finally, to identify stem

  16. Recurrent Neural Network Based Boolean Factor Analysis and its Application to Word Clustering

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Frolov, A. A.; Húsek, Dušan; Polyakov, P.Y.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 7 (2009), s. 1073-1086 ISSN 1045-9227 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0567 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : recurrent neural network * Hopfield-like neural network * associative memory * unsupervised learning * neural network architecture * neural network application * statistics * Boolean factor analysis * concepts search * information retrieval Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 2.889, year: 2009

  17. Marital and Parental Satisfaction of Married Physicians with Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warde, Carole M; Moonesinghe, Kushan; Allen, Walter; Gelberg, Lillian

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate personal and professional factors associated with marital and parental satisfaction of physicians. STUDY DESIGN Cross-sectional study. PARTICIPANTS A survey was sent to equal numbers of licensed male and female physicians in a Southern California county. Of 964 delivered questionnaires, 656 (68%) were returned completed. Our sample includes 415 currently married physicians with children, 64% male and 36% female. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS Ratings of marital and parental satisfaction were measured on a 5-point Likert scale, 5 being extremely satisfied. Prevalence of work and home life factors was also evaluated. The mean score for marital satisfaction was 3.92 (range 1.75–5.0). Approximately half of the physicians reported high levels of marital satisfaction (63% of male physicians and 45% of female physicians). The gender difference disappeared after adjusting for age differences. Two factors were associated with high marital satisfaction: a supportive spouse (odds ratio [OR] 10.37; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.66, 40.08) and role conflict (OR 0.61; 95% CI 0.42, 0.88). The mean score for parental satisfaction was 3.43 (range 1.0–5.0), and approximately two thirds of both male and female physicians reported at least moderate levels of parental satisfaction. The major factors associated with parental satisfaction were a supportive spouse (OR 2.24; 95% CI 1.32, 3.80), role conflict (OR 0.35; 95% CI 0.23, 0.53), salaried practice setting (OR 2.14; 95% CI 1.21, 3.81), marriage to a spouse working in a profession (OR 2.14; 95% CI 1.21, 3.81), and marriage to a spouse working as a homemaker (OR 2.33; 95% CI 1.20, 4.56). Number of hours worked was not found to be related to either satisfaction score, but rather to an intervening variable, role conflict. CONCLUSIONS For physicians with children, our study indicates that minimizing the level of role conflict and having a supportive spouse are associated with higher levels of marital and

  18. Analysis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma risk factors with Bayesian networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aussem, Alex; de Morais, Sérgio Rodrigues; Corbex, Marilys

    2012-01-01

    We propose a new graphical framework for extracting the relevant dietary, social and environmental risk factors that are associated with an increased risk of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) on a case-control epidemiologic study that consists of 1289 subjects and 150 risk factors. This framework builds on the use of Bayesian networks (BNs) for representing statistical dependencies between the random variables. We discuss a novel constraint-based procedure, called Hybrid Parents and Children (HPC), that builds recursively a local graph that includes all the relevant features statistically associated to the NPC, without having to find the whole BN first. The local graph is afterwards directed by the domain expert according to his knowledge. It provides a statistical profile of the recruited population, and meanwhile helps identify the risk factors associated to NPC. Extensive experiments on synthetic data sampled from known BNs show that the HPC outperforms state-of-the-art algorithms that appeared in the recent literature. From a biological perspective, the present study confirms that chemical products, pesticides and domestic fume intake from incomplete combustion of coal and wood are significantly associated with NPC risk. These results suggest that industrial workers are often exposed to noxious chemicals and poisonous substances that are used in the course of manufacturing. This study also supports previous findings that the consumption of a number of preserved food items, like house made proteins and sheep fat, are a major risk factor for NPC. BNs are valuable data mining tools for the analysis of epidemiologic data. They can explicitly combine both expert knowledge from the field and information inferred from the data. These techniques therefore merit consideration as valuable alternatives to traditional multivariate regression techniques in epidemiologic studies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of Marital Relationship Enrichment Program on Marital Satisfaction, Marital Intimacy, and Sexual Satisfaction of Infertile Couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoumi, Seyedeh Zahra; Khani, Somayeh; Kazemi, Farideh; Kalhori, Fatemeh; Ebrahimi, Reyhaneh; Roshanaei, Ghodratollah

    2017-10-01

    Infertile couples only think of having children during their sexual intercourse, and their constant concern about this issue increases their stress level. Psychosocial and social stress leads to decreased life satisfaction, increased marital problems, and reduced sexual confidence. This study aims to determine the effect of enrichment program on marital and sexual satisfaction as well as marital intimacy among infertile couples. This randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted on 50 infertile couples in 2013 in Hamedan. The marital relationship enrichment program was taught to the experimental group during seven 90 minutes sessions. Enrich marital satisfaction, Linda Berg sexual satisfaction, and marital intimacy questionnaires were completed by both groups in 3 pretest steps immediately after the end of training sessions, and 8 weeks later. The results were analyzed in STATA11 software using t test, Chi-square, ANCOVA, RM-ANOVA, and Bonferroni post-hoc test. To check the data normality, Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used. Pintimacy immediately after the test (P=0.04) and 8 weeks after the test (Pintimacy and also marital and sexual satisfaction in infertile couples (Registration Number: IRCT201604299014N97). Copyright© by Royan Institute. All rights reserved.

  20. Marital status of people with epilepsy in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myeong-Kyu; Kwon, Oh-Young; Cho, Yong-Won; Kim, Yosik; Kim, Sung-Eun; Kim, Hoo-Won; Lee, Sang Kun; Jung, Ki-Young; Lee, Il Keun

    2010-11-01

    A multicentre face-to-face interview was conducted to identify factors contributing to the marital status of people with epilepsy (PWE) in Korea. The marriage rate of PWEs was only 80% and the divorce rate was more than double that in the general population. Among the single subjects, 34% replied that they were unmarried because of epilepsy, and 76% of divorced PWEs replied that epilepsy was the cause of the divorce. The factors affecting the single and divorced status in PWEs included gender, an earlier onset of seizure and seizure onset before marriage. Not informing the spouse of the disease before marriage for fear of discrimination was not related to disadvantage in marriage negotiation or to divorce. Social stigmatization of epilepsy continues and impacts on the marital status of PWEs in Korea. However, there is no correlation between the perceived and the enacted stigmas of epilepsy. Copyright © 2010 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Single Marital Status and Infectious Mortality in Women With Cervical Cancer in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machida, Hiroko; Eckhardt, Sarah E; Castaneda, Antonio V; Blake, Erin A; Pham, Huyen Q; Roman, Lynda D; Matsuo, Koji

    2017-10-01

    Unmarried status including single marital status is associated with increased mortality in women bearing malignancy. Infectious disease weights a significant proportion of mortality in patients with malignancy. Here, we examined an association of single marital status and infectious mortality in cervical cancer. This is a retrospective observational study examining 86,555 women with invasive cervical cancer identified in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program between 1973 and 2013. Characteristics of 18,324 single women were compared with 38,713 married women in multivariable binary logistic regression models. Propensity score matching was performed to examine cumulative risk of all-cause and infectious mortality between the 2 groups. Single marital status was significantly associated with young age, black/Hispanic ethnicity, Western US residents, uninsured status, high-grade tumor, squamous histology, and advanced-stage disease on multivariable analysis (all, P single marital status was significantly associated with increased cumulative risk of all-cause mortality (5-year rate: 32.9% vs 29.7%, P single marital status remained an independent prognostic factor for increased cumulative risk of all-cause mortality (adjusted hazards ratio [HR], 1.15; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.11-1.20; P single marital status remained significantly increased risk of infectious mortality after propensity score matching (adjusted HR, 2.24; 95% CI, 1.34-3.73; P = 0.002). Single marital status was associated with increased infectious mortality in women with invasive cervical cancer.

  2. The Role of Intimacy, Loneliness, and Alexithymia in Marital Satisfaction Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrin Miri

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Identification of psychological factors that are involved in couples’ dissatisfaction, is of great importance. This research was performed to investigate the role of intimacy, feeling of loneliness, and alexithymia in the prediction of marital satisfaction. Methods: This study was performed as a descriptive-correlational study on all students of Science and Research Branch of Qazvin Islamic Azad University, 2013-2014. A total of 375 students (187 males and 188 females, were selected using available sampling method. Research tools included Enrich Marriage Questionnaire, Walker and Thompson Intimacy Questionnaire, Dehshiri et al. Loneliness Questionnaire, and Toronto Alexithymia Questionnaire. Data were analyzed by Pearson correlation coefficient and stepwise regression tests. Results: In this study, there was a significant positive relationship between intimacy and marital satisfaction. There was significant negative relationship between loneliness, loneliness caused by family, and emotional loneliness with marital satisfaction. Also, there was a significant negative relationship between alexithymia and its components and marital satisfaction. Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, intimacy, feeling of loneliness, and alexithymia play a role in marital satisfaction prediction. According to the results of stepwise regression, it was revealed that intimacy, loneliness, and alexithymia, respectively have the most contribution in marital satisfaction in and explain 52% of the variance of marital satisfaction.

  3. Marital satisfaction: the differential impact of social support dependent on situation and gender in medical staff in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostami, Arian; Ghazinour, Mehdi; Richter, Jörg

    2013-05-12

    Stress is unavoidable in everyday life and it can effect on marital relationship. Social support especially from emotionally closed persons as a protective factor can help individuals to deal with stress and buffers the negative effects of life stress on marital satisfaction. In the present cross-sectional study we investigated the relationship between social and spousal support and marital satisfaction in medical staff in Iran. Data collection was performed in 653 medical staff using socio-demographic questions, the ENRICH Marital Satisfaction Inventory, and the Social Support Questionnaire. Women and men did not differ in total social support satisfaction and the total number of supporting people; but, women were more often support providers for their husbands than men were for their wives. Spouse support was a more important indicator of marital satisfaction for women than for men. Also results revealed that spouse support is more important than social support from other resources to explain marital satisfaction. Job satisfaction had an explanatory effect on marital satisfaction especially in men. Furthermore, the findings showed that social support could decrease the explanatory impact of job satisfaction on scales of marital satisfaction. Therefore, focusing on social support, especially spouse support could be an effective approach in family counseling or family education programs to improve marital satisfaction in medical staff.

  4. Marital Satisfaction: The Differential Impact of Social Support Dependent on Situation and Gender in Medical Staff in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostami, Arian; Ghazinour, Mehdi; Richter, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    Stress is unavoidable in everyday life and it can effect on marital relationship. Social support especially from emotionally closed persons as a protective factor can help individuals to deal with stress and buffers the negative effects of life stress on marital satisfaction. In the present cross-sectional study we investigated the relationship between social and spousal support and marital satisfaction in medical staff in Iran. Data collection was performed in 653 medical staff using socio-demographic questions, the ENRICH Marital Satisfaction Inventory, and the Social Support Questionnaire. Women and men did not differ in total social support satisfaction and the total number of supporting people; but, women were more often support providers for their husbands than men were for their wives. Spouse support was a more important indicator of marital satisfaction for women than for men. Also results revealed that spouse support is more important than social support from other resources to explain marital satisfaction. Job satisfaction had an explanatory effect on marital satisfaction especially in men. Furthermore, the findings showed that social support could decrease the explanatory impact of job satisfaction on scales of marital satisfaction. Therefore, focusing on social support, especially spouse support could be an effective approach in family counseling or family education programs to improve marital satisfaction in medical staff. PMID:23777731

  5. The cognition of Parents’ Marital Relationships and Adolescents’ resilience

    OpenAIRE

    Uchida, Sakina; Ishida, Yumi

    2015-01-01

    A study of whether adolescents’ cognition of their parents’ marital relationships had an influence on their resilience and self-esteem was conducted, taking gender differences into account. College students answered questionnaires that measured their cognition of the parents’ marital relationships and the students’ self-esteem and resilience. The results of examining the relationships between these three factors were as follows: 1) Adolescents who were cognizant of their parents’ marriage bei...

  6. Capacity factors of a mixed speed railway network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrod, Steven

    2009-01-01

    Fifty-four combinations of track network and speed differential are evaluated within a linear, discrete time network model that maximizes an objective function of train volume, delays, and idle train time. The results contradict accepted dispatching practice by suggesting that when introducing...... a priority, high-speed train onto a network, maximum network now is attained when the priority train operates at maximum speed. in addition, increasing siding capacity at meeting points may offer a network capacity improvement comparable to partial double track. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  7. Spiritual Intimacy, Marital Intimacy, and Physical/Psychological Well-Being: Spiritual Meaning as a Mediator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Karen J; Lee, Jerry W; Marshak, Helen H; Martin, Leslie R

    2016-08-01

    Intimacy is an essential part of marital relationships, spiritual relationships, and is also a factor in well-being, but there is little research simultaneously examining the links among spiritual intimacy, marital intimacy, and well-being. Structural equation modeling was used to examine associations among the latent variables-spiritual intimacy, marital intimacy, spiritual meaning, and well-being-in a cross-sectional study of 5,720 married adults aged 29-100 years ( M = 58.88, SD = 12.76, 59% female). All participants were from the Adventist Health Study-2, Biopsychosocial Religion and Health Study. In the original structural model, all direct associations between the three latent variables of spiritual intimacy, marital intimacy, and well-being were significantly positive indicating that there was a significant relationship among spiritual intimacy, marital intimacy, and well-being. When spiritual meaning was added as a mediating variable, the direct connections of spiritual intimacy to marital intimacy and to well-being became weakly negative. However, the indirect associations of spiritual intimacy with marital intimacy and with well-being were then strongly positive through spiritual meaning. This indicates that the relationship among spiritual intimacy, marital intimacy, and well-being was primarily a result of the meaning that spiritual intimacy brought to one's marriage and well-being, and that without spiritual meaning greater spirituality could negatively influence one's marriage and well-being. These findings suggest the central place of spiritual meaning in understanding the relationship of spiritual intimacy to marital intimacy and to well-being.

  8. MOTHERS' AND FATHERS' PRENATAL REPRESENTATIONS IN RELATION TO MARITAL DISTRESS AND DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlqvist-Björkroth, Sari; Korja, Riikka; Junttila, Niina; Savonlahti, Elina; Pajulo, Marjukka; Räihä, Hannele; Aromaa, Minna

    2016-07-01

    Marital distress, parental depression, and weak quality of parental representations are all known risk factors for parent-child relationships. However, the relation between marital distress, depressive symptoms, and parents' prenatal representation is uncertain, especially regarding fathers. The present study aimed to explore how mothers' and fathers' prenatal experience of marital distress and depressive symptoms affects the organization of their prenatal representations in late pregnancy. Participants were 153 pregnant couples from a Finnish follow-up study called "Steps to the Healthy Development and Well-being of Children" (H. Lagström et al., ). Marital distress (Revised Dyadic Adjustment Scale; D.M. Busby, C. Christensen, D. Crane, & J. Larson, 1995) and depressive symptoms (Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale) were assessed at 20 gestational weeks, and prenatal representations (Working Model of the Child Interview; D. Benoit, K.C.H. Parker, & C.H. Zeanah, 1997; C.H. Zeanah, D. Benoit, M. Barton, & L. Hirshberg, 1996) were assessed between 29 and 32 gestational weeks. The mothers' risks of distorted representations increased significantly when they had at least minor depressive symptoms. Marital distress was associated with the fathers' prenatal representations, although the association was weak; fathers within the marital distress group had less balanced representations. Coexisting marital distress and depressive symptoms were only associated with the mothers' representations; lack of marital distress and depressive symptoms increased the likelihood for mothers to have balanced representations. The results imply that marital distress and depressive symptoms are differently related to the organizations of mothers' and fathers' prenatal representations. © 2016 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  9. Infertile Individuals’ Marital Relationship Status, Happiness, and Mental Health: A Causal Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Habiballah Ahmadi Forooshany

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study examined the causal model of relation between marital relationship status, happiness, and mental health in infertile individuals. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive study, 155 subjects (men: 52 and women: 78, who had been visited in one of the infertility Centers, voluntarily participated in a self-evaluation. Golombok Rust Inventory of Marital Status, Oxford Happiness Questionnaire, and General Health Questionnaire were used as instruments of the study. Data was analyzed by SPSS17 and Amos 5 software using descriptive statistics, independent sample t test, and path analysis. Results: Disregarding the gender factor, marital relationship status was directly related to happiness (p<0.05 and happiness was directly related to mental health, (p<0.05. Also, indirect relation between marital relationship status and mental health was significant (p<0.05. These results were confirmed in women participants but in men participants only the direct relation between happiness and mental health was significant (p<0.05. Conclusion: Based on goodness of model fit in fitness indexes, happiness had a mediator role in relation between marital relationship status and mental health in infertile individuals disregarding the gender factor. Also, considering the gender factor, only in infertile women, marital relationship status can directly and indirectly affect happiness and mental health.

  10. Association of Educational Level and Marital Status With Obesity: A Study of Chinese Twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Chunxiao; Gao, Wenjing; Cao, Weihua; Lv, Jun; Yu, Canqing; Wang, Shengfeng; Li, Chunxiao; Pang, Zengchang; Cong, Liming; Dong, Zhong; Wu, Fan; Wang, Hua; Wu, Xianping; Jiang, Guohong; Wang, Xiaojie; Wang, Binyou; Li, Liming

    2018-04-01

    The prevalence of overweight and obesity is growing rapidly in many countries. Socioeconomic inequalities might be important for this increase. The aim of this study was to determine associations of body mass index (BMI), overweight and obesity with educational level and marital status in Chinese twins. Participants were adult twins recruited through the Chinese National Twin Registry (CNTR), aged 18 to 79 years, and the sample comprised 10,448 same-sex twin pairs. Current height, weight, educational attainment, and marital status were self-reported. Regression analyses and structural equation models were conducted to evaluate BMI, overweight, and obesity associated with educational level and marital status in both sexes. At an individual level, both educational level and marital status were associated with higher BMI and higher risk of being overweight and obesity in men, while in women the effects of educational level on BMI were in the opposite direction. In within-Monozygotic (MZ) twin-pair analyses, the effects of educational level on BMI disappeared in females. Bivariate structural equation models showed that genetic factors and shared environmental confounded the relationship between education and BMI in females, whereas marital status was associated with BMI on account of significant positive unique environmental correlation apart in both sexes. The present data suggested that marital status and BMI were associated, independent of familiar factors, for both sexes of this study population, while common genetic and shared environmental factors contributed to education-associated disparities in BMI in females.

  11. Marital exogamy in the Aland Islands, Finland, 1750-1949.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Relethford, J H; Mielke, J H

    1994-01-01

    Marriage records from 1750 through 1949 were used to examine effects of population size, geographic distance, and temporal change on rates of marital exogamy in the Aland Islands, Finland. Exogamy rates for individuals (not couples) were computed for 15 Aland parishes in each of four 50-year time periods, giving a total of 60 observations. These rates were analysed with respect to population size using a quadratic regression model. Regression analyses were also used to examine the relationship of marital exogamy with two measures of geographic distance--average distance to all other parishes and nearest-neighbour distance. Analysis of variance was used to examine temporal trends. Multiple regression analyses were used to examine all of these factors simultaneously. Marital exogamy is highest in smaller and larger populations, and less in medium-sized populations. Higher exogamy rates in small populations are related to the lack of available mates in small groups. Higher exogamy rates in larger populations may reflect economic attraction of larger groups. Exogamy rates are lower in the more geographically isolated parishes. From 1750 through 1899 there is little change in exogamy rates, whereas exogamy rates double after 1900. This temporal change reflects changes in transportation technology and other cultural factors promoting increased migration. The multiple regression model shows population size, geographic distance, and temporal change are all significant correlates of exogamy, collectively explaining a large percentage of variation in rates (R2 = 0.79).

  12. Parenting stress and harsh discipline in China: The moderating roles of marital satisfaction and parent gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li; Wang, Meifang

    2015-05-01

    This research examined the relationships between parents' parenting stress and their harsh discipline (psychological aggression and corporal punishment) and the moderating effects of marital satisfaction and parent gender in Chinese societies. Using a sample of 639 Chinese father-mother dyads with preschoolers, findings revealed that both mothers' and fathers' parenting stress were directly associated with their harsh discipline. Mothers' marital satisfaction attenuated the association between their parenting stress and harsh discipline. However, fathers' marital satisfaction did not moderate the association between their parenting stress and harsh discipline. Findings from the current study highlight the importance of considering how the dyadic marital relationship factors may interact with individuals' parenting stress to influence both maternal and paternal disciplinary behaviors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Conflict management style and marital satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greeff, A P; de Bruyne, T

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether there is one conflict management style that correlated more significantly with marital satisfaction than any other. In addition, spousal satisfaction with how marital conflict is managed was also examined, as were gender differences. Fifty-seven couples who had been married for at least 10 years took part in the study. Results showed that the collaborative conflict management style has the highest correlation with both marital satisfaction and spousal satisfaction with conflict management in the marriage. In contrast, where one or both of the spouses used the competitive conflict management style, the lowest marital satisfaction was reported. The results were also interpreted in terms of cultural and gender differences.

  14. Factors affecting the frequency and amount of social networking site use: Motivations, perceptions, and privacy concerns

    OpenAIRE

    Cha, Jiyoung

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the factors that affect the use of social networking Web sites. In doing so, this investigation focuses on two dimensions of social networking site use frequency (i.e., how often people use social networking sites) and amount (i.e., how much time people spend on social networks). Integrating the technology acceptance model with uses and gratification and other consumer characteristics, this study found that interpersonal utility, perceived ease of use, ...

  15. Marital Biography, Social Security Receipt, and Poverty

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, I-Fen; Brown, Susan L.; Hammersmith, Anna M.

    2017-01-01

    Increasingly, older adults are unmarried, which could mean a larger share is at risk of economic disadvantage. Using data from the 2010 Health and Retirement Study, we chart the diverse range of marital biographies, capturing marital sequences and timing, of adults who are age eligible for Social Security and examine three indicators of economic well-being: Social Security receipt, Social Security benefit levels, and poverty status. Partnereds are disproportionately likely to receive Social S...

  16. Relationship between Hardiness and Marital Satisfaction in Women with Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farideh Nabizadeh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: When a couple confronts cancer, there is a major impact on their psychosocial life. Marital life and satisfaction with that are important factors in the quality of life of breast cancer patient. The aim of this research was to predict marital satisfaction based on hardiness in women with breast cancerMethods: A total of 100 women with breast cancer participated in this study and completed the Kobasa Personal View Survey and ENRICH (evaluation and nurturing relationship issues, communication, and happiness Marital Satisfaction Scale. The study was conducted in Rasol Akrm Hospital, Tehran, Iran. Descriptive statistics, correlation, and linear regression were used for data analysis.Results: The results showed a significant relationship between hardiness and marital satisfaction. Moreover, hardiness determined 13% of the variance of marital satisfaction.Conclusions: Hardiness as an efficient coping style in breast cancer is an important factor to increase perceived marital satisfaction in breast cancer. Therefore, healthcare professionals such as psycho-oncologists can promote resiliency in breast cancer patients by improving cognitive hardiness in their patients.

  17. Everyday marital conflict and child aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, E Mark; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C; Papp, Lauren M

    2004-04-01

    Children's immediate aggressive responding to exposure to marital conflict was examined. Participants were 108 families with 8- to 16-year-old children (53 boys, 55 girls), with diary records of children's reactions to marital conflict in the home completed by 103 mothers (n = 578 records) and 95 fathers (n = 377 records) during a 15-day period. Child responses to analog presentations of marital conflict tactics were also obtained. Exposure to destructive conflict tactics and negative parental emotionality increased the likelihood of aggressive behavior in children when they witnessed marital conflict, whereas constructive conflict tactics and positive parental emotionality decreased the probability of aggression. Conflict topics presumed to be threatening to the child (child- or marital-related) also heightened the likelihood of aggression. Aggressive responding to conflict in both home and laboratory predicted externalizing behavior problems. Fathers' and mothers' separate diary reports, and child responses to analog presentation of conflict, provided generally consistent findings. An exposure hypothesis for marital conflict as an influence on child aggression is discussed.

  18. Factorization of Constrained Energy K-Network Reliability with Perfect Nodes

    OpenAIRE

    Burgos, Juan Manuel

    2013-01-01

    This paper proves a new general K-network constrained energy reliability global factorization theorem. As in the unconstrained case, beside its theoretical mathematical importance the theorem shows how to do parallel processing in exact network constrained energy reliability calculations in order to reduce the processing time of this NP-hard problem. Followed by a new simple factorization formula for its calculation, we propose a new definition of constrained energy network reliability motiva...

  19. The Relationship between Marital and Sexual Satisfaction among Married Women Employees at Golestan University of Medical Sciences, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziaee, Tayebe; Jannati, Yadollah; Mobasheri, Elham; Taghavi, Taraneh; Abdollahi, Habib; Modanloo, Mahnaz; Behnampour, Naser

    2014-01-01

    There are various elements affecting the healthy family such as marital satisfaction. Various factors such as sexual satisfaction have an important impact on satisfaction of marital relationship. The present study aimed to determine the association of marital satisfaction with sexual satisfaction among sexually active employee women. This analytical descriptive study was carried on 140 married women employed at educational and medical centers of Golestan University of Medical Sciences. Questionnaires for data collection included Enrich Marital Satisfaction Questionnaire and self-constructed questionnaire (demographic characteristic and sexual satisfaction). Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, χ(2) and Spearman statistical test. Statistical significant level was set as 0.05. The findings showed that in marital satisfaction scale, the majority of the participants (63.6%) were very satisfied and none of them were very unsatisfied. In sexual satisfaction scale, most of the participants (56.4%) expressed extremely satisfaction rate and only 0.7% were not satisfied with their sexual relationship. Marital satisfaction was significantly associated with sexual satisfaction (p ≤ 0.001). So with the increase of sexual satisfaction, there was an increase in marital satisfaction accordingly. The findings indicated that there was a significant association between sexual satisfaction and age (p = 0.086). Level of education was associated significantly with the marital satisfaction (p = 0.038). The effects of sexual satisfaction on marital satisfaction were moderated by number of children and the level of education. The findings have implications for improving of couples' marital satisfaction by highlighting the need for awareness of sexual quality. According to the findings, it seems that development of educational programs and pre-marriage counseling is necessary. Continuous education would be helpful after marriage in addressing couples' unique transitional

  20. The Relationship between Marital and Sexual Satisfaction among Married Women Employees at Golestan University of Medical Sciences, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziaee, Tayebe; Jannati, Yadollah; Mobasheri, Elham; Taghavi, Taraneh; Abdollahi, Habib; Modanloo, Mahnaz; Behnampour, Naser

    2014-01-01

    Objective: There are various elements affecting the healthy family such as marital satisfaction. Various factors such as sexual satisfaction have an important impact on satisfaction of marital relationship. The present study aimed to determine the association of marital satisfaction with sexual satisfaction among sexually active employee women. Methods: This analytical descriptive study was carried on 140 married women employed at educational and medical centers of Golestan University of Medical Sciences. Questionnaires for data collection included Enrich Marital Satisfaction Questionnaire and self-constructed questionnaire (demographic characteristic and sexual satisfaction). Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, χ2 and Spearman statistical test. Statistical significant level was set as 0.05. Results: The findings showed that in marital satisfaction scale, the majority of the participants (63.6%) were very satisfied and none of them were very unsatisfied. In sexual satisfaction scale, most of the participants (56.4%) expressed extremely satisfaction rate and only 0.7% were not satisfied with their sexual relationship. Marital satisfaction was significantly associated with sexual satisfaction (p ≤ 0.001). So with the increase of sexual satisfaction, there was an increase in marital satisfaction accordingly. The findings indicated that there was a significant association between sexual satisfaction and age (p = 0.086). Level of education was associated significantly with the marital satisfaction (p = 0.038). The effects of sexual satisfaction on marital satisfaction were moderated by number of children and the level of education. Conclusion: The findings have implications for improving of couples' marital satisfaction by highlighting the need for awareness of sexual quality. According to the findings, it seems that development of educational programs and pre-marriage counseling is necessary. Continuous education would be helpful after marriage in

  1. Rectified factor networks for biclustering of omics data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clevert, Djork-Arné; Unterthiner, Thomas; Povysil, Gundula; Hochreiter, Sepp

    2017-07-15

    Biclustering has become a major tool for analyzing large datasets given as matrix of samples times features and has been successfully applied in life sciences and e-commerce for drug design and recommender systems, respectively. actor nalysis for cluster cquisition (FABIA), one of the most successful biclustering methods, is a generative model that represents each bicluster by two sparse membership vectors: one for the samples and one for the features. However, FABIA is restricted to about 20 code units because of the high computational complexity of computing the posterior. Furthermore, code units are sometimes insufficiently decorrelated and sample membership is difficult to determine. We propose to use the recently introduced unsupervised Deep Learning approach Rectified Factor Networks (RFNs) to overcome the drawbacks of existing biclustering methods. RFNs efficiently construct very sparse, non-linear, high-dimensional representations of the input via their posterior means. RFN learning is a generalized alternating minimization algorithm based on the posterior regularization method which enforces non-negative and normalized posterior means. Each code unit represents a bicluster, where samples for which the code unit is active belong to the bicluster and features that have activating weights to the code unit belong to the bicluster. On 400 benchmark datasets and on three gene expression datasets with known clusters, RFN outperformed 13 other biclustering methods including FABIA. On data of the 1000 Genomes Project, RFN could identify DNA segments which indicate, that interbreeding with other hominins starting already before ancestors of modern humans left Africa. https://github.com/bioinf-jku/librfn. djork-arne.clevert@bayer.com or hochreit@bioinf.jku.at. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  2. Networking

    OpenAIRE

    Rauno Lindholm, Daniel; Boisen Devantier, Lykke; Nyborg, Karoline Lykke; Høgsbro, Andreas; Fries, de; Skovlund, Louise

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to examine what influencing factor that has had an impact on the presumed increasement of the use of networking among academics on the labour market and how it is expressed. On the basis of the influence from globalization on the labour market it can be concluded that the globalization has transformed the labour market into a market based on the organization of networks. In this new organization there is a greater emphasis on employees having social qualificati...

  3. Marital Status and Survival in Patients with Carcinoid Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, Erin K; Cooper, Amanda B; Hollenbeak, Christopher S

    2016-01-01

    Marital status is a known prognostic factor in overall and disease-specific survival in several types of cancer. The impact of marital status on survival in patients with carcinoid tumors remains unknown. We hypothesized that married patients have higher rates of survival than similar unmarried patients with carcinoid tumors. Using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database, we identified 23,126 people diagnosed with a carcinoid tumor between 2000 and 2011 and stratified them according to marital status. Univariate and multivariable analyses were performed to compare the characteristics and outcomes between patient cohorts. Overall and cancer-related survival were analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method. Multivariable survival analyses were performed using Cox proportional hazards models (hazards ratio [HR]), controlling for demographics and tumor-related and treatment-related variables. Propensity score analysis was performed to determine surgical intervention distributions among married and unmarried (ie, single, separated, divorced, widowed) patients. Marital status was significantly related to both overall and cancer-related survival in patients with carcinoid tumors. Divorced and widowed patients had worse overall survival (HR, 1.33 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.08-1.33] and 1.34 [95% CI, 1.22-1.46], respectively) and cancer-related survival (HR, 1.15 [95% CI, 1.00-1.31] and 1.15 [95% CI, 1.03-1.29], respectively) than married patients over five years. Single and separated patients had worse overall survival (HR, 1.20 [95% CI, 1.08-1.33] and 1.62 [95% CI, 1.25-2.11], respectively) than married patients over five years, but not worse cancer-related survival. Unmarried patients were more likely than matched married patients to undergo definitive surgical intervention (62.67% vs 53.11%, respectively, P married patients have a survival advantage after diagnosis of any carcinoid tumor, potentially reflecting better social support and financial means

  4. Marital well-being and depression in Chinese marriage: Going beyond satisfaction and ruling out critical confounders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Hongjian; Zhou, Nan; Fang, Xiaoyi; Fine, Mark

    2017-09-01

    Based on data obtained from 203 Chinese couples during the early years of marriage and utilizing the actor-partner interdependence model, this study examined the prospective associations between different aspects of marital well-being (i.e., marital satisfaction, instability, commitment, and closeness) and depressive symptoms (assessed 2 years later) while controlling for critical intrapersonal (i.e., neuroticism and self-esteem) and contextual (i.e., stressful life events) confounders. Results indicated that (a) when considering different aspects of marital well-being as predictors of depressive symptoms separately, each aspect was significantly associated with spouses' own subsequent depressive symptoms; (b) when examining various aspects of marital well-being simultaneously, only husbands' commitment, husbands' instability, and wives' instability were significantly associated with their own subsequent depressive symptoms above and beyond the other aspects; and (c) the associations between husbands' commitment, husbands' instability, and wives' instability and their own subsequent depressive symptoms remained significant even after controlling for potential major intrapersonal and contextual confounders. Such findings (a) provide evidence that the marital discord model of depression may apply to Chinese couples, (b) highlight the importance of going beyond marital (dis)satisfaction when examining the association between marital well-being and depression, and (c) demonstrate that marital well-being can account for unique variance in depressive symptoms above and beyond an array of intrapersonal and contextual risk factors. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Depression, Marital Satisfaction, and Marital and Personality Measures of Sex Roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whisman, Mark A.; Jacobson, Neil S.

    1989-01-01

    Examined relationship between depression, marital satisfaction, and marital and personality measures of sex roles in 50 couples in which woman was clinically depressed and 24 nondepressed, nondistressed control couples. Found that, compared to nondepressed couples, couples in which woman was depressed showed greater inequality in decision-making.…

  6. Trajectories of Marital Conflict across the Life Course: Predictors and Interactions with Marital Happiness Trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamp Dush, Claire M.; Taylor, Miles G.

    2012-01-01

    Using typologies outlined by Gottman and Fitzpatrick as well as institutional and companionate models of marriage, the authors conducted a latent class analysis of marital conflict trajectories using 20 years of data from the Marital Instability Over the Life Course study. Respondents were in one of three groups: high, medium (around the mean), or…

  7. Children's Perceived Agency in the Context of Marital Conflict: Relations with Marital Conflict over Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schermerhorn, Alice C.; Cummings, E. Mark; Davies, Patrick T.

    2005-01-01

    Consistent with the bidirectional perspective on parent-child relations, the current study examined children's perceptions of agency in the context of marital conflict. A storytelling task was completed by 11 5 five-year-old children, tapping perceived agency. These children and their mothers and fathers completed measures of marital conflict at…

  8. Bidirectional Associations Between Newlyweds' Marital Satisfaction and Marital Problems over Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavner, Justin A; Karney, Benjamin R; Williamson, Hannah C; Bradbury, Thomas N

    2017-12-01

    Prevailing views of marital functioning generally adopt the view that marital problems predict decreases in marital satisfaction, but alternative theoretical perspectives raise the possibility that lowered satisfaction can also predict increases in problems. The current study sought to integrate and compare these perspectives by examining the bidirectional cross-lagged associations between newlyweds' reports of their marital satisfaction and marital problems over the first 4 years of marriage. Using annual assessments from 483 heterosexual newlywed couples, we find evidence for problem-to-satisfaction linkages as well as satisfaction-to-problem linkages. Satisfaction was a stronger predictor of marital problems early in marriage but not as time passed; by Year 4 only problem-to-satisfaction linkages remained significant. These findings are consistent with the idea that couples with more problems go on to report lower levels of satisfaction and couples with lower levels of satisfaction go on to report more marital problems. This dynamic interplay between global judgments about relationship satisfaction and ongoing specific relationship difficulties highlights the value of examining bidirectional effects to better understand marital functioning over time. © 2016 Family Process Institute.

  9. A review on the relationship between marital adjustment and maternal attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birsen Mutlu

    Full Text Available Summary Objective: To determine the relationship between marital adjustment of mothers who have babies between 1-4 months old and their maternal attachment; as well as the relationship of maternal attachment and marital adjustment with sociodemographic characteristics. Method: The research is descriptive and correlational. Its sample consists of 113 mothers. Maternal Attachment Index (MAI and Marital Adjustment Scale (MAS are used as data collection tools. Results: We found that, for mothers who participated in this research, the average level of maternal attachment is 92.17 ± 8.49, and the average level of marital adjustment is 43.06 ± 7.90. We discovered that the maternal attachment level is higher for mothers who have completed high school and university, those who breastfeed their babies exclusively and whose spouses help care for the baby. We also discovered that the Marital Adjustment Score is higher among mothers who are employed, get married by companionship (not arranged, continue attending pregnancy classes and whose duration of marriage is between 1-5 years and 10-15 years. There is weak positive relationship (r=0.38; p=0.00 between marital adjustment and maternal attachment; and the regression analysis that is run to explain this relationship is statistically significant (F=26.131; p<0.05. Conclusion: In our study, the level of maternal attachment was high, while the level of marital adjustment was liminal. There are many factors affecting sociodemographic characteristics, pregnancy and baby care. The level of marital adjustment for mothers increases the maternal attachment.

  10. Marital disruption is associated with shorter salivary telomere length in a probability sample of older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whisman, Mark A; Robustelli, Briana L; Sbarra, David A

    2016-05-01

    Marital disruption (i.e., marital separation, divorce) is associated with a wide range of poor mental and physical health outcomes, including increased risk for all-cause mortality. One biological intermediary that may help explain the association between marital disruption and poor health is accelerated cellular aging. This study examines the association between marital disruption and salivary telomere length in a United States probability sample of adults ≥50 years of age. Participants were 3526 individuals who participated in the 2008 wave of the Health and Retirement Study. Telomere length assays were performed using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) on DNA extracted from saliva samples. Health and lifestyle factors, traumatic and stressful life events, and neuroticism were assessed via self-report. Linear regression analyses were conducted to examine the associations between predictor variables and salivary telomere length. Based on their marital status data in the 2006 wave, people who were separated or divorced had shorter salivary telomeres than people who were continuously married or had never been married, and the association between marital disruption and salivary telomere length was not moderated by gender or neuroticism. Furthermore, the association between marital disruption and salivary telomere length remained statistically significant after adjusting for demographic and socioeconomic variables, neuroticism, cigarette use, body mass, traumatic life events, and other stressful life events. Additionally, results revealed that currently married adults with a history of divorce evidenced shorter salivary telomeres than people who were continuously married or never married. Accelerated cellular aging, as indexed by telomere shortening, may be one pathway through which marital disruption is associated with morbidity and mortality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Factors for Successful Use of Social Networking Sites in Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Schlenkrich

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Social networking sites are extremely popular online destinations that offer users easy ways to build and maintain relationships with each other, and to disseminate information in an activity referred to as social networking. Students, lecturers, teachers, parents and businesses, in increasing numbers, use tools available on social networking sites to communicate with each other in a fast and cost-effective manner. The use of social networking sites to support educational initiatives has received much attention. However, the full potential of social network sites has yet to be achieved as users continue to strive for optimal ways of using these sites, as well as battle to overcome the negative characteristics (for example, privacy, security, governance, user behaviour, information quality of these sites. This paper proposes factors for successful use of social networking sites in higher educational institutions. These success factors need to be adopted by users in order to develop the positive aspects of social networking, while at the same time mitigating the negative characteristics. An initial set of factors for successful use of social networking sites, as well as measures to test successful use of social networking sites were derived from the literature. These factors were tested by means of an online survey of students at a university, the results of which informed the final factors for successful use of social networking sites. The factors enable users to overcome the negative characteristics associated with social networking sites. If used successfully, social networking sites can offer lecturers and students a useful tool with which to develop their relationship and contribute to their learning experience.

  12. Mother's marital satisfaction associated with the quality of mother-father-child triadic interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korja, Riikka; Piha, Jorma; Otava, Riia; Lavanchy-Scaiola, Chloe; Ahlqvist-Björkroth, Sari; Aromaa, Minna; Räihä, Hannele

    2016-08-01

    Low marital satisfaction has been shown to be a risk factor for early parenthood and parent-child relationship problems (Erel & Burman, ; McHale, ). The aim of this study was to assess how parental reports of marital satisfaction related to family alliance and coordination in the observed triadic interaction. The study group included 120 families. Marital satisfaction was evaluated during pregnancy, at 4 months, and at 18 months using the Revised Dyadic Adjustment Scale (RDAS; Busby, Christensen, Crane & Larsson, ) for both parents. Mother-father-child interaction was analyzed in the Lausanne Triadic Play setting and coded using the Family Alliance Assessment Scale (Favez, Lavanchy Scaiola, Tissot, Darwiche & Frascarolo, ) when the child reached 18 months of age. The mother's higher marital satisfaction at every measuring point was associated with a cooperative family alliance and/or higher family coordination at 18 months. The father's experience of marital satisfaction was not related to family interaction at any assessment point. Our study suggests that a mother's experience of lower marital satisfaction during pregnancy may be an early sign of later problems in family relationships. © 2016 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. The Relationship between Self-efficacy and Marital Satisfaction among Married Students

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    Marzieh Mashal pour fard

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background The present study was designed and conducted to determine the relationship between self-efficacy and marital satisfaction among married and single students. Materials and Methods The sample of this study consisted of 50 married students of Payame Noor University in IZEH city, South West of Iran; then simple random sampling method was used to select samples. To measure self-efficacy questionnaire Scherer and Enrich marital satisfaction questionnaire was used. Data were analyses using SPSS-20. Results The mean age of students were 23 + 0.739 years. In terms of demographic characteristics, 50% of the study population were women and 50% were men. Results showed thatthere was a significant negative correlation between self-efficacy and marital satisfaction of male students (r= - 0.55 and P=0.001, respectively. Also, there was a significant negative correlation between self-efficacy and marital satisfaction in married women students (r= -0.47 and P=0.001, respectively. Conclusion The root of many marital problems, including divorce, the factors they are directly or indirectly marital satisfaction. Therefore, considering these variables can be important to prevent disputes in married life and many negative consequences for physical and mental health will bring the couple and their children that can affect the beneficial aspects of married life.

  14. Marital adjustment between mothers and fathers of patients with eating disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Jáuregui-Lobera

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The association between marital adjustment and psychological disorders has been well described. The aim of this work was to analyse that adjustment between mothers and fathers of patients with Eating Disorders (ED and its relationship with some eatingand aesthetic body shape model-related variables. Method: A total of 104 mothers and fathers of ED patients were included in the study. They fulfilled some marital adjustment-, irrational food beliefs- and aesthetic body shape model (CIMEC-related questionnaires. Results: With respect to marital adjustment and areas of CIMEC, no significant correlations between mothers and fathers were found. A significant and positive correlation was found in the case of the irrational food beliefs subscale. Mothers showed higher scores on this subscale than fathers did. In addition, mothers scored higher on concerns of being thin, influence of friends, interpersonal influences, body anxiety, influence of advertisements and global CIMEC. The degree of marital adjustment was in the range obtained in clinical populations. Conclusions: The marital adjustment among parents of ED patients is moderate, similar to the described in clinical populations, worse than the found in non-clinical populations and no specific. The more presence of irrational food beliefs in the case of mothers along with a greater influence of the current aesthetic body shape model and the distress caused by the marital maladjustment could be a negative factor to bear in mind during the therapeutic process in ED, especially when working with parents as co-therapists.

  15. Daily marital interaction quality and carotid artery intima-medial thickness in healthy middle-aged adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Nataria Tennille; Kamarck, Thomas W; Muldoon, Matthew F; Manuck, Stephen B

    2014-06-01

    To examine the association between marital interaction quality during daily life and subclinical cardiovascular disease (CVD). Studies have shown that marital status and quality of marriage are associated with cardiovascular health. However, little is known about the role of marital interaction quality during daily life in contributing to these effects. The sample consisted of 281 healthy, employed middle-aged adults who were married or living with a partner in a marital-like relationship (mean age = 42.0 years, 88% white, 52% men). Marital interaction quality was assessed using hourly real-time ecological momentary assessments for 4 days, with participants rating their current or recent partner interactions on positive and negative characteristics (e.g., agreeableness and conflict). Carotid artery intima-medial thickness (IMT) was assessed using ultrasound imaging. Adjusting for demographics, positive marital interaction was inversely associated with IMT (b = -0.02, F(1,275) = 9.18, p = .002), and negative marital interaction was positively associated with IMT (b = 0.02 F(1,275) = 10.29, p = .001). These associations were not accounted for by behavioral and biological CVD risk factors and were consistent across age, sex, race, and education. The associations were also independent of marital interaction frequency, nonmarital social interaction quality, and personality factors. Global reports of marital quality, in contrast, were not associated with IMT. Marital quality as measured during real-time interactions between partners was associated with subclinical CVD in healthy middle-aged adults. This study supports the use of real-time social interaction assessment for characterizing links between social relationships and cardiovascular health.

  16. Relationships between attachment and marital satisfaction in married couples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Gallerová

    2016-01-01

    four selfrepot questionnaires. The childhood attachment was measured by Attachment History Paragraphs (Granqvist & Kirkpatrick, 2004, adult attachment was measured by The Experiences in Close Relationships Questionnaire (Brennan, Clark, & Shaver, 1998 and satisfaction in marriage was measuredby two measures: Quality Marriage Index (Norton, 1983 and Kansas Marital Satisfaction Scale (Schumm, Bollman, & Jurich, 1997.The research sample consisted of 78 heterosexual married couple, together 156 people. The average length of marriages is 20.76 years. Participants were instructed to complete the questionnaires independently. The relations between variables were examined by correlation analysis and cluster analysis. People with a secure attachment style and their partners were most satisfied with their marriages. Our study showed relation between dismissive attachment style and low level of marital satisfaction for the individual, and for the partner of the examined one. The results of our study did not suggest any relationship between childhood attachment and marital satisfaction. The results indicate that secure attachment style is related to higher level of relationship satisfaction, in spite of stressful situation or demanding changes which are occurring in marriage. People with insecure attachment style devote a lot of effort to reinforce marital and couple relationship stability during difficult situations in relationship. Connection between marital satisfaction and childhood attachment has not been proven. The reason may be that childhood attachment is not always totally stable and it can be changed by life experience or personal characteristics of the individual. Our research confirmed that attachment is related to satisfaction in marriage. Research of relationship between attachment and factors affecting marriage is very beneficial, because new finding in this topic can help in clinical practice.

  17. Inter-organizational relationships: promoters and restrictive factors in the formation of cooperation network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Antonio Gaspar

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The present paper had as aim to identify factors of inter-organizational relationships which promotes and restricts the formation of companies’ cooperation network, from two levels of analysis (organizational and inter-organizational. To achieve this goal, it was developed a descriptive-qualitative study, with prospecting for primary and secondary data on a cooperation network. The universe was composed by 41 participating companies associated to the analyzed network. The sampling procedure was for researcher’s accessibility and convenience. As a result, it was identified that the network is guided by goals of cooperation among the participating companies, in addition to representing the sector and provide services in the interests of the associates. The main factors influencing the formation of the network were: business center, marketing and training; but only training has been achieved satisfactorily. The business center and marketing factors have not yet been fully developed, being both identified as restrictive factors.

  18. Investigating the relationship between watching satellite channels and intimacy and marital satisfaction of couples in Isfahan, Iran, in 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaie, Zohre; Keshvari, Mahrokh; Zamani, Ahmadreza

    2016-01-01

    In the age of communication and media that families are rapidly driven towards using satellite channels and other media, considering family health in this regard is essential. A determinant of health is marital satisfaction. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between watching satellite channels and intimacy and marital satisfaction in Isfahan, Iran. This cross-sectional and correlational study was conducted on one group of 480 couples ( n = 960) participating from 8 health-treatment centers in Isfahan. Multi-stage cluster sampling was used in this study. Inclusion criteria included at least 2 years of marriage. After completion of Bagarozzi's Marital Intimacy Questionnaire and ENRICH Marital Inventory, the couples were divided into two groups based on watching satellite networks. Data were analyzed using SPSS 18. There was a significant relationship between intimacy and marital satisfaction in both viewers and non-viewers of satellite channels ( P satellite viewing group was 22.4 minutes and in non-viewers group was 47.95 min. In addition, the duration of interaction had a significant relationship with marital satisfaction and intimacy ( P satellite channels reduced the intimacy and marital satisfaction of the couples, and duration of interaction among the couples.

  19. Inferring the role of transcription factors in regulatory networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Borgne Michel

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Expression profiles obtained from multiple perturbation experiments are increasingly used to reconstruct transcriptional regulatory networks, from well studied, simple organisms up to higher eukaryotes. Admittedly, a key ingredient in developing a reconstruction method is its ability to integrate heterogeneous sources of information, as well as to comply with practical observability issues: measurements can be scarce or noisy. In this work, we show how to combine a network of genetic regulations with a set of expression profiles, in order to infer the functional effect of the regulations, as inducer or repressor. Our approach is based on a consistency rule between a network and the signs of variation given by expression arrays. Results We evaluate our approach in several settings of increasing complexity. First, we generate artificial expression data on a transcriptional network of E. coli extracted from the literature (1529 nodes and 3802 edges, and we estimate that 30% of the regulations can be annotated with about 30 profiles. We additionally prove that at most 40.8% of the network can be inferred using our approach. Second, we use this network in order to validate the predictions obtained with a compendium of real expression profiles. We describe a filtering algorithm that generates particularly reliable predictions. Finally, we apply our inference approach to S. cerevisiae transcriptional network (2419 nodes and 4344 interactions, by combining ChIP-chip data and 15 expression profiles. We are able to detect and isolate inconsistencies between the expression profiles and a significant portion of the model (15% of all the interactions. In addition, we report predictions for 14.5% of all interactions. Conclusion Our approach does not require accurate expression levels nor times series. Nevertheless, we show on both data, real and artificial, that a relatively small number of perturbation experiments are enough to determine

  20. The Relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Marital Satisfaction: 10-Year Outcome of Partners from Three Different Economic Levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohre Nasiri Zarch

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Emotional communication and economic factors play an important role in having a satisfying relationship and a more successful marriage. In this regard, we investigated the 10-year outcome of partners from three different economic levels regarding the relationship between emotional intelligence (EI and marital satisfaction.The research was designed as a descriptive-correlative survey and data were analyzed using Pearson correlation test and stepwise regression.Participants were 159 couples (N = 318 who were randomly selected through clustered sampling. The questionnaires included: Bar-on Emotional Intelligence (1997 and Enrich Marital satisfaction (1989.The findings revealed that the average values of emotional intelligence (m = 333.1 and marital satisfaction (m = 300.77 were high in the under-rich region (p<0.05. Moreover, there was no significant relationship between interpersonal and marital satisfaction within the under-rich region. On average, emotional intelligence accounted for 40.8% of marital satisfaction within those three regions (p<0.01.The results of the regression analysis showed that general mood is the most effective factor changing marital satisfaction in the three studied regions (R2= 0.34, rich (R2= 0.42 and semi-rich (R2= 0.52 regions (p<0.01. The most influential factor changing marital satisfaction in the under-rich (R2= 0.28 region was found to be stress management (p<0.01.

  1. Global fluctuations of cerebral blood flow indicate a global brain network independent of systemic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Li; Alsop, David C; Detre, John A; Dai, Weiying

    2017-01-01

    Global synchronization across specialized brain networks is a common feature of network models and in-vivo electrical measurements. Although the imaging of specialized brain networks with blood oxygenation sensitive resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) has enabled detailed study of regional networks, the study of globally correlated fluctuations with rsfMRI is confounded by spurious contributions to the global signal from systemic physiologic factors and other noise sources. Here we use an alternative rsfMRI method, arterial spin labeled perfusion MRI, to characterize global correlations and their relationship to correlations and anti-correlations between regional networks. Global fluctuations that cannot be explained by systemic factors dominate the fluctuations in cerebral blood flow. Power spectra of these fluctuations are band limited to below 0.05 Hz, similar to prior measurements of regional network fluctuations in the brain. Removal of these global fluctuations prior to measurement of regional networks reduces all regional network fluctuation amplitudes to below the global fluctuation amplitude and changes the strength and sign of inter network correlations. Our findings support large amplitude, globally synchronized activity across networks that require a reassessment of regional network amplitude and correlation measures.

  2. Graph regularized nonnegative matrix factorization for temporal link prediction in dynamic networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaoke; Sun, Penggang; Wang, Yu

    2018-04-01

    Many networks derived from society and nature are temporal and incomplete. The temporal link prediction problem in networks is to predict links at time T + 1 based on a given temporal network from time 1 to T, which is essential to important applications. The current algorithms either predict the temporal links by collapsing the dynamic networks or collapsing features derived from each network, which are criticized for ignoring the connection among slices. to overcome the issue, we propose a novel graph regularized nonnegative matrix factorization algorithm (GrNMF) for the temporal link prediction problem without collapsing the dynamic networks. To obtain the feature for each network from 1 to t, GrNMF factorizes the matrix associated with networks by setting the rest networks as regularization, which provides a better way to characterize the topological information of temporal links. Then, the GrNMF algorithm collapses the feature matrices to predict temporal links. Compared with state-of-the-art methods, the proposed algorithm exhibits significantly improved accuracy by avoiding the collapse of temporal networks. Experimental results of a number of artificial and real temporal networks illustrate that the proposed method is not only more accurate but also more robust than state-of-the-art approaches.

  3. Comparing social factors affecting recommender decisions in online and educational social network

    Science.gov (United States)

    MartÍn, Estefanía; Hernán-Losada, Isidoro; Haya, Pablo A.

    2016-01-01

    In the educational context, there is an increasing interest in learning networks. Recommender systems (RSs) can play an important role in achieving educational objectives. Although we can find many papers focused on recommendation techniques and algorithms, in general, less attention has been dedicated to social factors that influence the recommendation process. This process could be improved if we had a deeper understanding of the social factors that influence the quality or validity of a suggestion made by the RS. This work elucidates and analyses the social factors that influence the design and decision-making process of RSs. We conducted a survey in which 126 undergraduate students were asked to extract which are the main factors for improving suggestions when they are interacting with an Online Social Network (OSN) or in an Educational Social Network (ESN). The results show that different factors have to be considered depending on the type of network.

  4. Marital Biography, Social Security Receipt, and Poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, I-Fen; Brown, Susan L; Hammersmith, Anna M

    2017-01-01

    Increasingly, older adults are unmarried, which could mean a larger share is at risk of economic disadvantage. Using data from the 2010 Health and Retirement Study, we chart the diverse range of marital biographies, capturing marital sequences and timing, of adults who are age eligible for Social Security and examine three indicators of economic well-being: Social Security receipt, Social Security benefit levels, and poverty status. Partnereds are disproportionately likely to receive Social Security and they enjoy relatively high Social Security benefits and very low poverty levels. Among singles, economic well-being varies by marital biography and gender. Gray divorced and never-married women face considerable economic insecurity. Their Social Security benefits are relatively low, and their poverty rates are quite high (over 25%), indicating Social Security alone is not sufficient to prevent these women from falling into poverty. By comparison, gray widoweds are the most advantaged singles.

  5. Infertile Individuals’ Marital Relationship Status, Happiness, and Mental Health: A Causal Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi Forooshany, Seyed Habiballah; Yazdkhasti, Fariba; Safari Hajataghaie, Saiede; Nasr Esfahani, Mohammad Hossein

    2014-01-01

    Background This study examined the causal model of relation between marital relation- ship status, happiness, and mental health in infertile individuals. Materials and Methods In this descriptive study, 155 subjects (men: 52 and women: 78), who had been visited in one of the infertility Centers, voluntarily participated in a self-evaluation. Golombok Rust Inventory of Marital Status, Oxford Happiness Ques- tionnaire, and General Health Questionnaire were used as instruments of the study. Data was analyzed by SPSS17 and Amos 5 software using descriptive statistics, independent sample t test, and path analysis. Results Disregarding the gender factor, marital relationship status was directly related to happiness (phappiness was directly related to mental health, (phappiness and mental health was significant (phappiness had a mediator role in relation between marital relationship status and mental health in infertile individu- als disregarding the gender factor. Also, considering the gender factor, only in infertile women, marital relationship status can directly and indirectly affect happiness and mental health. PMID:25379161

  6. Determinant factors in dynamics of global manufacturing virtual networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ramón Vilana

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this work is to demonstrate the existence of a number of structural mechanisms that networks actors use to exert tacit power in the GMVNs. Design/methodology/approach: The analysis of the engine manufacturing aeronautical industry based on a quantitative approach with a binomial logistic model with a logit function. Findings and Originality/value: Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs exert a tacit power by occupying central positions in the network and having many structural holes. Suppliers, nevertheless, establish many strong and direct ties to increase trust with other network actors; while new actors establish, primarily, indirect ties to gain explicit knowledge. Research limitations/implications: Another similar works focused in other industrial segments like electronics, chemical o automotive would strengthen the findings of this work.Practical implications: The results of this work can facilitate, ex ante, the design of new GMVNs and increase drastically their efficiency.Originality/value: It classifies the internal operations of these organizations that, so far, were not analysed under this approach. Its conclusions can be used as a prescriptive model for other manufacturing networks.

  7. The Role of Marital Burnout and Early Maladaptive Schemas in Marital Satisfaction between Young Couples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arghavan Kebritchi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Given the fundamental role of the family structure and the importance of proper marriages in modern society as well as the important role of childhood and its effect on marital relations in adulthood, this study aimed to investigate the role of burnout, early maladaptive schemas and style in marital satisfaction among young couples. This study is a correlation (multiple regressions and descriptive research. The sample consisted of 100 couples (100 females and 100 males, couples aged 20 to 35 years with a high school diploma or higher education who were randomly chosen from student couples of Tehran and Karaj Kharazmi university or other couples out of university which filled out four questionnaires. Following questionnaires were used as research tools: Pines’ Couple Burnout Measure (CBM, Enrich’s Marital Satisfaction (Enrich, Yang’s early maladaptive schemas (EMSQ-R.[6][8]. Results showed that there were three interactive relationships among these variables, so that all three variables were investigated and separately explained concerning marital satisfaction. There was a significant negative correlation between marital burnout and all other subscales and marital satisfaction, and a significant positive correlation between marital burnout and all maladaptive schemas except emotional deprivation schema.

  8. Female scarcity reduces women's marital ages and increases variance in men's marital ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Daniel J; Fitzgerald, Carey J; Peterson, Tom

    2010-08-05

    When women are scarce in a population relative to men, they have greater bargaining power in romantic relationships and thus may be able to secure male commitment at earlier ages. Male motivation for long-term relationship commitment may also be higher, in conjunction with the motivation to secure a prospective partner before another male retains her. However, men may also need to acquire greater social status and resources to be considered marriageable. This could increase the variance in male marital age, as well as the average male marital age. We calculated the Operational Sex Ratio, and means, medians, and standard deviations in marital ages for women and men for the 50 largest Metropolitan Statistical Areas in the United States with 2000 U.S Census data. As predicted, where women are scarce they marry earlier on average. However, there was no significant relationship with mean male marital ages. The variance in male marital age increased with higher female scarcity, contrasting with a non-significant inverse trend for female marital age variation. These findings advance the understanding of the relationship between the OSR and marital patterns. We believe that these results are best accounted for by sex specific attributes of reproductive value and associated mate selection criteria, demonstrating the power of an evolutionary framework for understanding human relationships and demographic patterns.

  9. Female Scarcity Reduces Women's Marital Ages and Increases Variance in Men's Marital Ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J. Kruger

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available When women are scarce in a population relative to men, they have greater bargaining power in romantic relationships and thus may be able to secure male commitment at earlier ages. Male motivation for long-term relationship commitment may also be higher, in conjunction with the motivation to secure a prospective partner before another male retains her. However, men may also need to acquire greater social status and resources to be considered marriageable. This could increase the variance in male marital age, as well as the average male marital age. We calculated the Operational Sex Ratio, and means, medians, and standard deviations in marital ages for women and men for the 50 largest Metropolitan Statistical Areas in the United States with 2000 U.S Census data. As predicted, where women are scarce they marry earlier on average. However, there was no significant relationship with mean male marital ages. The variance in male marital age increased with higher female scarcity, contrasting with a non-significant inverse trend for female marital age variation. These findings advance the understanding of the relationship between the OSR and marital patterns. We believe that these results are best accounted for by sex specific attributes of reproductive value and associated mate selection criteria, demonstrating the power of an evolutionary framework for understanding human relationships and demographic patterns.

  10. Why Do You Adopt Social Networking Sites? Investigating the Driving Factors through Structural Equation Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan, Muhammad Tahir

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate those factors that are associated with the adoption of social networking sites from the perspective of Muslim users residing in Malaysia. Design/methodology/approach: A complete self-administered questionnaire was collected from 223 Muslim users of social networking sites in Malaysia. Both…

  11. The Influential Factors for the Variation of Data Sensitivity in Ubiquitous Social Networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sapuppo, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Ubiquitous social networking services offer new opportunities for developing advantageous relationships by uncovering hidden connections that people share with others nearby. As sharing of personal information is an intrinsic part of ubiquitous social networking, these services are subject......, mood, location familiarity, number of previous encounters and mutual friends, were also discovered to influence participants' data disclosure, but as factors of secondary importance....

  12. A Method for Derivation of Areas for Assessment in Marital Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broderick, Joan E.

    1981-01-01

    Expands upon factor-analytic and rational methods and introduces a third method for determining content areas to be assessed in marital relationships. Definitions of a "good marriage" were content analyzed, and a number of areas were added. Demographic subgroup differences were found not to be influential factors. (Author)

  13. Marital Conflict and Children's Emotional Security in the Context of Parental Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouros, Chrystyna D.; Merrilees, Christine E.; Cummings, E. Mark

    2008-01-01

    Evidence has emerged for emotional security as an explanatory variable linking marital conflict to children's adjustment. Further evidence suggests parental psychopathology is a key factor in child development. To advance understanding of the pathways by which these family risk factors impact children's development, the mediational role of…

  14. The association of marital relationship and perceived social support with mental health of women in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qadir, Farah; Khalid, Amna; Haqqani, Sabahat; Zill-e-Huma; Medhin, Girmay

    2013-12-09

    Marital circumstances have been indicated to be a salient risk factor for disproportionately high prevalence of depression and anxiety among Pakistani women. Although social support is a known buffer of psychological distress, there is no clear evidence as to how different aspects of marital relations interact and associate with depression and anxiety in the lives of Pakistani married women and the role of social supports in the context of their marriage. Two hundred seventy seven married women were recruited from Rawalpindi district of Pakistan using a door knocking approach to psychometrically evaluate five scales for use in the Pakistani context. A confirmatory factor analysis approach was used to investigate the underlying factor structure of Couple satisfaction Index (CSI-4), Locke-Wallace Marital Adjustment Test (LWMAT), Relationship Dynamic Scale (RDS), Multidimensional Scale for Perceived Social Support (MSPSS) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). The interplay of the constructs underlying the three aspects of marital relations, and the role of social support on the mental health of married Pakistani women were examined using the Structural Equation Model. The factor structures of MSPSS, CSI-4, LWMAT, RDS and HADS were similar to the findings reported in the developed and developing countries. Perceived higher social support reduces the likelihood of depression and anxiety by enhancing positive relationship as reflected by a low score on the relationship dynamics scale which decreases CMD symptoms. Moreover, perceived higher social support is positively associated with marital adjustment directly and indirectly through relationship dynamics which is associated with the reduced risk of depression through the increased level of reported marital satisfaction. Nuclear family structure, low level of education and higher socio-economic status were significantly associated with increased risk of mental illness among married women. Findings of this

  15. The association of marital relationship and perceived social support with mental health of women in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Marital circumstances have been indicated to be a salient risk factor for disproportionately high prevalence of depression and anxiety among Pakistani women. Although social support is a known buffer of psychological distress, there is no clear evidence as to how different aspects of marital relations interact and associate with depression and anxiety in the lives of Pakistani married women and the role of social supports in the context of their marriage. Methods Two hundred seventy seven married women were recruited from Rawalpindi district of Pakistan using a door knocking approach to psychometrically evaluate five scales for use in the Pakistani context. A confirmatory factor analysis approach was used to investigate the underlying factor structure of Couple satisfaction Index (CSI-4), Locke-Wallace Marital Adjustment Test (LWMAT), Relationship Dynamic Scale (RDS), Multidimensional Scale for Perceived Social Support (MSPSS) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). The interplay of the constructs underlying the three aspects of marital relations, and the role of social support on the mental health of married Pakistani women were examined using the Structural Equation Model. Results The factor structures of MSPSS, CSI-4, LWMAT, RDS and HADS were similar to the findings reported in the developed and developing countries. Perceived higher social support reduces the likelihood of depression and anxiety by enhancing positive relationship as reflected by a low score on the relationship dynamics scale which decreases CMD symptoms. Moreover, perceived higher social support is positively associated with marital adjustment directly and indirectly through relationship dynamics which is associated with the reduced risk of depression through the increased level of reported marital satisfaction. Nuclear family structure, low level of education and higher socio-economic status were significantly associated with increased risk of mental illness among

  16. Micro Aerial Vehicle (MAV Flapping Motion Control Using an Immune Network with Different Immune Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liguo Weng

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel Neural-Immunology/Memory Network to address the problem of motion control for flapping-wing Micro Aerial Vehicles (MAVs. This network is inspired by the human memory system as well as the immune system, and it is effective in attenuating the system errors and other lumped system uncertainties. In contrast to most existing Neural Networks, the convergence of this proposed Neural-Immunology/Memory Network can be theoretically proven. Both analyses and simulations that are based on different immune factors show that the proposed control method is effective in dealing with external disturbances, system nonlinearities, uncertainties and parameter variations.

  17. Marital quality and diabetes: results from the Health and Retirement Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whisman, Mark A; Li, Angela; Sbarra, David A; Raison, Charles L

    2014-08-01

    Poor marital quality is associated with many different indicators of poor health, including immunologic and metabolic responses that have relevance for distal disease outcomes such as diabetes. We conducted this study to evaluate whether poor marital quality was associated with the prevalence of diabetes in a population-based sample of Americans over the age of 50. Participants were married adults from the 2006 (N = 3,898) and 2008 (N = 3,452) waves of the Health and Retirement Study. Participants completed an interview and a self-report questionnaire, and current use of diabetes medication and glycosylated hemoglobin obtained from blood spot samples were used to index diabetes status. Marital quality was assessed with items regarding perceived frequency of positive and negative exchanges with partner. Decreasing frequency of positive exchanges and increasing frequency of negative exchanges with one's spouse were associated with higher prevalence of diabetes among men, but not women at both waves; gender significantly moderated the associations between partner exchanges and diabetes status for the 2006 data. The association between frequency of partner exchanges and diabetes status generally remained significant in men after accounting for demographic characteristics and other risk factors (obesity, hypertension, low physical activity). Poor marital quality as operationalized by rates of positive and negative partner exchanges was associated with increased prevalence of diabetes in men. These results are consistent with prior work on marriage and health, and suggest that poor marital quality may be a unique risk factor for diabetes.

  18. Analysis of stationary availability factor of two-level backbone computer networks with arbitrary topology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, P. A.

    2018-05-01

    This scientific paper deals with the two-level backbone computer networks with arbitrary topology. A specialized method, offered by the author for calculation of the stationary availability factor of the two-level backbone computer networks, based on the Markov reliability models for the set of the independent repairable elements with the given failure and repair rates and the methods of the discrete mathematics, is also discussed. A specialized algorithm, offered by the author for analysis of the network connectivity, taking into account different kinds of the network equipment failures, is also observed. Finally, this paper presents an example of calculation of the stationary availability factor for the backbone computer network with the given topology.

  19. Communication, collaboration and identity: factor analysis of academics’ perceptions of online networking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katy Jordan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Since the advent of online social networking sites, much has been written about their potential for transforming academia, as communication and collaboration underpin many scholarly activities. However, the extent to which these benefits are being realised in practice is unclear. As the uptake of tools by academics continues to grow, there is a question as to whether differences exist in their use and if any patterns or underlying factors are at play. This article presents the results of an online survey addressing this gap. A disciplinary divide was evident in terms of preferred academic social networking platforms, while perceptions about how academics use online networking for different purposes are linked to job position. Exploratory factor analysis identified four components representing different strategies used by academics in their approaches to online networking, including maintaining a personal learning network, promoting the professional self, seeking and promoting publications, and advancing careers.

  20. On the Effect of Security and Communication Factors in the Reliability of Wireless Sensor Networks

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    Damian Rusinek

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The ensuring reliability of wireless sensor networks (WSN is one of most important problems to be solved. In this article, the influence of the security and communication factors in the reliability of Wireless Sensor Networks was analyzed. Balancing security against performance in WSN is another issue to be solved. These factors should be considered during security analysis of quality of protection of realized protocol. In the article, we analyze wireless sensor network where hierarchical topologies is implemented with high performance routing sensors that forward big amount of data. We present the experiment results which were performed by high-performance Imote2 sensor platform and TinyOS operating system.

  1. Emotional intelligence, happiness, hope and marital satisfaction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Emotional Intelligence Scale, Subjective-happiness Scale, Adult Trait-hope Scale and the Marital Satisfaction Scale were used to collect data from the participants. Statistical analysis involved the use of Simple Linear and Standard Multiple regression. Findings indicated that, emotional intelligence did not have a significant ...

  2. Autonomy as a Predictor of Marital Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Christina A.; And Others

    Recent qualitative investigations of abusive men have indicated that power and control of the wife are central themes in incidents of marital violence. Furthermore, anecdotal and empirical evidence suggest that abusive husbands hold more traditional sex-role stereotypes, are more possessive and jealous, and are more controlling than nonabusive…

  3. Marital Jealousy: A Structural Exchange Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Gerald W.

    Although the experience of jealously is among the most common of experiences in intimate relationships, little theoretical or empirical work has been done from a sociologial perspective to increase our understanding of this aspect of male-female relationships. An investigation of marital jealousy as a sociological rather than a psychological…

  4. Natural and Professional Help during Marital Disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro, Paul A.; Zax, Melvin

    Although few people bring their psychological problems to mental health professionals, research in the area of 'natural' help is rudimentary. To investigate the process and effectiveness of natural professional groups in helping individuals experiencing marital disruption, 42 helpers (14 mental health professionals, 14 divorce lawyers, and 14…

  5. [Problem-solving strategies and marital satisfaction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriegelewicz, Olga

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the relation between problem-solving strategies in the marital conflict and marital satisfaction. Four problem-solving strategies (Dialogue, Loyalty, Escalation of conflict and Withdrawal) were measured by the Problem-Solving Strategies Inventory, in two versions: self-report and report of partners' perceived behaviour. This measure refers to the concept of Rusbult, Johnson and Morrow, and meets high standards of reliability (alpha Cronbach from alpha = 0.78 to alpha = 0.94) and validity. Marital satisfaction was measured by Marriage Success Scale. The sample was composed of 147 marital couples. The study revealed that satisfied couples, in comparison with non-satisfied couples, tend to use constructive problem-solving strategies (Dialogue and Loyalty). They rarely use destructive strategies like Escalation of conflict or Withdrawal. Dialogue is the strategy connected with satisfaction in a most positive manner. These might be very important guidelines to couples' psychotherapy. Loyalty to oneself is a significant positive predictor of male satisfaction is also own Loyalty. The study shows that constructive attitudes are the most significant predictors of marriage satisfaction. It is therefore worth concentrating mostly on them in the psychotherapeutic process instead of eliminating destructive attitudes.

  6. The relationship between religious orientation, and marital satisfaction among couples of Qom City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram Seddighi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Marital satisfaction is a positive relationship with spouse’s family, positive dynamism in the original family, self-esteem and religious homogeneity of couples. Religion is one of the most effective spiritual fulcrums that are able to provide the meaning of life in every moment of life. Religious beliefs and credence are important factors in marital satisfaction. The main purpose of this study was the survey of the relationship between religious orientation, and marital satisfaction among couples of Qom City. Methods: This study was performed by the descriptivecorrelation method. The study population included all the couples referred to counselling centers and psychological clinics of Qom City. Therefore, 150 couples have been selectedwho were volunteer for cooperation in this study. Required information was collected by the Azarbayejani religious orientation (2003 and Walter marital satisfaction (1992 questionnaires. The data were analyzed by SPSS Version-17 statistical software and usingPearson correlation coefficients and regression and descriptive statistics. Findings: The results showed that there was a positive significant relationship between religious orientation and marital satisfaction. (P=0/001 & r= - 0/511 The results of regression analyses indicated that religious orientation is as a predictor of sex (p=0/001, r2=15/438, educational degree (p=0/003, r2=5/409 and marital satisfaction (p=0/004, r2=0/927. Conclusion: According to the importance of religious orientation and credence of family and especially in couples that increases the commitment and marital satisfaction, it has been recommended to strengthen the couple's religious beliefs in preventive and treatment programs.

  7. Fathering and mothering in the family system: linking marital hostility and aggression in adopted toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stover, Carla Smith; Connell, Christian M; Leve, Leslie D; Neiderhiser, Jenae M; Shaw, Daniel S; Scaramella, Laura V; Conger, Rand; Reiss, David

    2012-04-01

      Previous studies have linked marital conflict, parenting, and externalizing problems in early childhood. However, these studies have not examined whether genes account for these links nor have they examined whether contextual factors such as parental personality or financial distress might account for links between marital conflict and parenting. We used an adoption design to allow for a clear examination of environmental impact rather than shared genes of parents and children, and assessments of parental personality and financial strain to assess the effects of context on relationships between marriage and parenting of both mothers and fathers.   Participants were 308 adoption-linked families comprised of an adopted child, her/his biological mother (BM), adoptive mother (AM) and adoptive father (AF). BMs were assessed 3-6 and 18 months postpartum and adoptive families were assessed when the child was 18 and 27 months old. Structural equations models were used to examine associations between marital hostility, fathers' and mothers' parenting hostility, and child aggressive behavior at 27 months of age. In addition, the contribution of financial strain and adoptive parent personality traits was examined to determine the associations with the spillover of marital hostility to hostile parenting.   A hostile marital relationship was significantly associated with hostile parenting in fathers and mothers, which were associated with aggressive behavior in toddlers. Subjective financial strain was uniquely associated with marital hostility and child aggression. Antisocial personality traits were related to a more hostile/conflicted marital relationship and to hostile parenting.   Results clarify mechanisms that may account for the success of early parent-child prevention programs that include a focus on parental economic strain and personality in addition to parent training. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry © 2011 Association for

  8. Pre-marital and Marital Counselling: Implications for the School Guidance Counsellor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlesinger, Benjamin

    1978-01-01

    One of the foremost tasks of young people contemplating marriage is the discovery of their basic selfhood and their continued growth as people; this is the first goal in pre-marital counseliling. (Author)

  9. Marital Contracts of One- Versus Two-Career Couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachowiak, Dale G.; Barret, Robert L.

    One- and two-career married couples, though existing on comparable total family incomes, may be experiencing very different marital situations. The marital agreements of one- and two-career couples were compared to examine the relationship between marital adjustment and the one- versus two-career situation. Married college students and their…

  10. Clinical Use of the Marital Satisfaction Inventory: Two Case Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, Robert M.; Snyder, Douglas K.

    1982-01-01

    Describes the clinical use of the Marital Satisfaction Inventory (MSI), a multidimensional self-report measure of marital interaction. Two case studies of couples in marital therapy are presented. The MSI is presented as a cost-efficient procedure, permitting objective assessment across multiple areas of a couple's relationship. (Author/JAC)

  11. A Multidimensional Comparison of Maritally and Sexually Dysfunctioned Couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Phyllis; Snyder, Douglas K.

    The Marital Satisfaction Inventory (MSI) is a potential instrument for differentiating couples with specific sexual distress from those with more general marital complaints. Couples (N=45) expressing primary complaints of dissatisfaction with their sexual relationship and couples (N=45) expressing primary complaints of generalized marital distress…

  12. Dyadic Processes in Early Marriage: Attributions, Behavior, and Marital Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durtschi, Jared A.; Fincham, Frank D.; Cui, Ming; Lorenz, Frederick O.; Conger, Rand D.

    2011-01-01

    Marital processes in early marriage are important for understanding couples' future marital quality. Spouses' attributions about a partner's behavior have been linked to marital quality, yet the mechanisms underlying this association remain largely unknown. When we used couple data from the Family Transitions Project (N = 280 couples) across the…

  13. [Cellular adhesion signal transduction network of tumor necrosis factor-alpha induced hepatocellular carcinoma cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yongchang; Du, Shunda; Xu, Haifeng; Xu, Yiyao; Zhao, Haitao; Chi, Tianyi; Lu, Xin; Sang, Xinting; Mao, Yilei

    2014-11-18

    To systemically explore the cellular adhesion signal transduction network of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α)-induced hepatocellular carcinoma cells with bioinformatics tools. Published microarray dataset of TNF-α-induced HepG2, human transcription factor database HTRI and human protein-protein interaction database HPRD were used to construct and analyze the signal transduction network. In the signal transduction network, MYC and SP1 were the key nodes of signaling transduction. Several genes from the network were closely related with cellular adhesion.Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a possible key gene of effectively regulating cellular adhesion during the induction of TNF-α. EGFR is a possible key gene for TNF-α-induced metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma.

  14. Effectiveness of “Marital Skills training for mastectomy women” in improving marital satisfaction of husbands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahman Bahmani

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the health issues related to patients suffering from cancer is paying attention to mental health of the patients and their families. This research was carried out to determine the effect of teaching marital life skills for mastectomy women in the increase of marital satisfaction of this group of patients as well as its direct effect on their spouses’ satisfaction. This was a quasi-experimental research designed as pretest/posttest with random assignment and control group. 22 women suffering from breast cancer, undergoing mastectomy, treated by radiotherapy and having marital satisfaction lower than the moderate level based on the short form (40-question of the ENRICH (evaluation and nurturing relationship issues, communication and happiness questionnaire were selected via purposive sampling and divided into experimental and control groups using random assignment. The pretest was carried out on experimental and control groups and the husbands. The intervention was performed during 12 didactic sessions, two a week, for women of the experimental group in the absence of their husbands. Results indicated that the mean score of marital satisfaction in mastectomy women and their husbands in the experimental group was higher than that of the control group, and the difference was statistically significant. In conclusion, the combined intervention method used in this research was effective in increasing marital satisfaction of mastectomy women, and had also a positive effect on their husbands’ marital satisfaction.

  15. Marital Status and Survival in Patients with Carcinoid Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin K. Greenleaf

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Marital status is a known prognostic factor in overall and disease-specific survival in several types of cancer. The impact of marital status on survival in patients with carcinoid tumors remains unknown. We hypothesized that married patients have higher rates of survival than similar unmarried patients with carcinoid tumors. Methods Using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database, we identified 23,126 people diagnosed with a carcinoid tumor between 2000 and 2011 and stratified them according to marital status. Univariate and multivariable analyses were performed to compare the characteristics and outcomes between patient cohorts. Overall and cancer-related survival were analyzed using the Kaplan–Meier method. Multivariable survival analyses were performed using Cox proportional hazards models (hazards ratio [HR], controlling for demographics and tumor-related and treatment-related variables. Propensity score analysis was performed to determine surgical intervention distributions among married and unmarried (ie, single, separated, divorced, widowed patients. Results Marital status was significantly related to both overall and cancer-related survival in patients with carcinoid tumors. Divorced and widowed patients had worse overall survival (HR, 1.33 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.08–1.33] and 1.34 [95% CI, 1.22–1.46], respectively and cancer-related survival (HR, 1.15 [95% CI, 1.00–1.31] and 1.15 [95% CI, 1.03–1.29], respectively than married patients over five years. Single and separated patients had worse overall survival (HR, 1.20 [95% CI, 1.08–1.33] and 1.62 [95% CI, 1.25–2.11], respectively than married patients over five years, but not worse cancer-related survival. Unmarried patients were more likely than matched married patients to undergo definitive surgical intervention (62.67% vs 53.11%, respectively, P < 0.0001. Conclusions Even after controlling for other prognostic factors, married patients

  16. Impact of marital status on survival of gastric adenocarcinoma patients: Results from the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) Database

    OpenAIRE

    Qiu, Miaozhen; Yang, Dajun; Xu, Ruihua

    2016-01-01

    Marital status was found to be an independent prognostic factor for survival in various cancer types. In this study, we used the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results database to analyze the survival difference among different marital status in the United States. Gastric adenocarcinoma patients from 2004?2012 were enrolled for study. The 5-year cause specific survival (CSS) was our primary endpoint. Totally 29,074 eligible patients were identified. We found that more male patients were m...

  17. Marital status independently predicts gastric cancer survival after surgical resection--an analysis of the SEER database

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Rong-liang; Chen, Qian; Yang, Zhen; Pan, Gaofeng; Zhang, Ziping; Wang, WeiHua; Liu, Shaoqun; Zhang, Dongbin; Jiang, Daowen; Liu, Weiyan

    2016-01-01

    Marital status was found to be an independent prognostic factor for survival in various cancer types, but it hasn't been studied in gastric cancer. The Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results database was used to compare survival outcomes with marital status. A total of 16,106 eligible patients were identified. Patients in the widowed group had the highest proportion of women, more common site of stomach, more prevalence of elderly patients, higher percentage of adenocarcinoma, and more tu...

  18. "His" and "her" marriage? The role of positive and negative marital characteristics in global marital satisfaction among older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boerner, Kathrin; Jopp, Daniela S; Carr, Deborah; Sosinsky, Laura; Kim, Se-Kang

    2014-07-01

    We explore gender differences in older adults' appraisals of positive and negative aspects of their marriages, examine how these appraisals relate to global marital satisfaction, and identify distinctive marital profiles associated with global satisfaction in men and women. Data are from the Changing Lives of Older Couples Study (n = 1,110). We used a variant of principal components analysis to generate marital quality profiles, based on one's endorsement of positive and negative marital characteristics. OLS regression was used to detect associations between marital profiles and global marital satisfaction. Men offered more positive marital assessments than women, particularly on items reflecting positive treatment by one's wife. Three marital quality profiles emerged: Positive, Positive-Negative, and Negative. Although marital satisfaction was best explained by positive appraisals in both genders, they were less important for men than for women. The negative profile showed a tendency for a stronger prediction in men. Prior studies show small differences in men's and women's global marital satisfaction. Our work provides evidence that the presence and magnitude of such gender differences may vary based on the specific marital component considered. We discuss ways that gender shapes marital interactions, expectations, and perceptions, and the implications of our results for the well-being of married older adults. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Structure and external factors of chinese city airline network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hong-Kun; Zhang, Xiao-Li; Zhou, Tao

    2010-08-01

    Abstract We investigate the structural properties of Chinese city airline network (CCAN), where nodes and edges denote cities and direct flights. The degree distribution follows a double power law and a clear hierarchical layout is observed. The population exhibits a weakly positive correlation with the number of flights, yet it does not show obvious correlation with the transportation flow. The distance is an important parameter in CCAN, that is, the number of flights decays fast with the increasing of the distance. In comparison, the tertiary industry has the most important influence on the Chinese air passenger transportation. Statistically speaking, when the tertiary industry value increases by 1%, the next period's volume will increase by 0.73%.

  20. Race, Marital History, and Risks for Stroke in US Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupre, Matthew E

    2016-09-01

    Stroke is among the leading causes of disability and death in the United States, and racial differences are greater for stroke than for all other major chronic diseases. Considering the equally sizeable racial disparities in marital life and associated risks across adulthood, the current study hypothesizes that black-white differences in marital history play an important role in the large racial inequalities in the incidence of stroke. The major objective are to (i) demonstrate how marital history is associated with the incidence of stroke, (ii) examine how marital factors mediate and/or moderate racial disparities in stroke, and (iii) examine the factors that may explain the associations. Using retrospective and prospective data from the Health and Retirement Study ( n = 23,289), the results show that non-Hispanic (NH) blacks have significantly higher rates of marital instability, greater numbers of health-risk factors, and substantially higher rates of stroke compared with NH whites. Contrary to the cumulative disadvantage hypothesis, findings from discrete-time-hazard models show that the effects of marital history are more pronounced for NH whites than for NH blacks. Risks for stroke were significantly higher in NH whites who were currently divorced, remarried, and widowed, as well as in those with a history of divorce or widowhood, compared with NH whites who were continuously married. In NH blacks, risks for stroke were elevated only in those who had either never married or had been widowed-with no significant risks attributable to divorce. The potential mechanisms underlying the associations are assessed, and the implications of the findings are discussed.

  1. Link predication based on matrix factorization by fusion of multi class organizations of the network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Pengfei; Cai, Fei; Feng, Yiding; Wang, Wenjun

    2017-08-21

    Link predication aims at forecasting the latent or unobserved edges in the complex networks and has a wide range of applications in reality. Almost existing methods and models only take advantage of one class organization of the networks, which always lose important information hidden in other organizations of the network. In this paper, we propose a link predication framework which makes the best of the structure of networks in different level of organizations based on nonnegative matrix factorization, which is called NMF 3 here. We first map the observed network into another space by kernel functions, which could get the different order organizations. Then we combine the adjacency matrix of the network with one of other organizations, which makes us obtain the objective function of our framework for link predication based on the nonnegative matrix factorization. Third, we derive an iterative algorithm to optimize the objective function, which converges to a local optimum, and we propose a fast optimization strategy for large networks. Lastly, we test the proposed framework based on two kernel functions on a series of real world networks under different sizes of training set, and the experimental results show the feasibility, effectiveness, and competitiveness of the proposed framework.

  2. Power factor improvement in three-phase networks with unbalanced inductive loads using the Roederstein ESTAmat RPR power factor controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniş, C. M.; Cunţan, C. D.; Rob, R. O. S.; Popa, G. N.

    2018-01-01

    The paper presents the analysis of a power factor with capacitors banks, without series coils, used for improving power factor for a three-phase and single-phase inductive loads. In the experimental measurements, to improve the power factor, the Roederstein ESTAmat RPR power factor controller can command up to twelve capacitors banks, while experimenting using only six capacitors banks. Six delta capacitors banks with approximately equal reactive powers were used for experimentation. The experimental measurements were carried out with a three-phase power quality analyser which worked in three cases: a case without a controller with all capacitors banks permanently parallel connected with network, and two other cases with power factor controller (one with setting power factor at 0.92 and the other one at 1). When performing experiments with the power factor controller, a current transformer was used to measure the current on one phase (at a more charged or less loaded phase).

  3. Perceived antecedents of marital satisfaction among Turkish, Turkish-Dutch, and Dutch couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celenk, Ozgur; van de Vijver, Fons J R

    2013-01-01

    We studied mainstream couples in The Netherlands and Turkey as well as Turkish-Dutch immigrant couples to address cultural factors associated with marital satisfaction. A total of 13 Turkish (mainstream couples living in Turkey), 19 Turkish-Dutch (Turkish immigrant couples living in The Netherlands), and 17 Dutch (mainstream couples living in The Netherlands) married dyads (total of 98 individuals) were independently interviewed about positive and negative characteristics of marriages, determinants of general marital satisfaction and dissatisfaction, spousal communication, marital conflict, and marital roles. Multivariate tests revealed ethnic group differences on all marriage-related domains except the conflict resolution strategies. However, univariate analyses showed differences in few themes within domains; main differences were assessed between the Turkish/Turkish-Dutch (who put more emphasis on children and economical aspects) and Dutch couples (who put more emphasis on behavior, and personality of the spouse, reciprocity, emotional sharing, and psychological roles). Turkish-Dutch couples were more similar to Turkish than to Dutch couples. Results were discussed in light of the socioeconomic development and cultural value theories, which are believed to provide a useful framework for understanding the role of culture in marital satisfaction.

  4. Evaluation of Relationship Between Mental Health and Marital Satisfaction in Male Married Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forogh Riahi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Marital satisfaction is a multidimensional concept and depends on many factors including general health. As educated males have an effective role in the productive activities, it is essential to present some appropriate perspectives in the field of their mental health and marital satisfaction. Objectives The current study aimed at investigating the association between mental health and marital satisfaction in married male students of Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran. Methods The study sample consisted of 100 married male students of Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences selected through the convenience sampling method. The data were gathered using the ENRICH marital satisfaction inventory and the general health questionnaire, and analyzed through Pearson correlation coefficient by SPSS version 16. Results In 25% of the subjects, scores of physical function was higher than the cutoff point.The anxiety, social function, depression, and general health scores of 30%, 45%, 19%, and 44% of the subjects were higher than the cutoff point, respectively. There was significant association between marital satisfaction of the students and physical symptoms (r = -0.51, anxiety (r = -0.49, social performance (r = -0.34, depression (r = -0.33, and total score of mental health (r = -0.53. Conclusions Prevention and intervention efforts can focus on how mental health problems can trigger interpersonal relationship and vice versa.

  5. Marital stress and children's externalizing behavior as predictors of mothers' and fathers' parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elam, Kit K; Chassin, Laurie; Eisenberg, Nancy; Spinrad, Tracy L

    2017-10-01

    Previous research suggests that mothers' and fathers' parenting may be differentially influenced by marital and child factors within the family. Some research indicates that marital stress is more influential in fathers' than mothers' parenting, whereas other research shows that children's difficult behavior preferentially affects mothers' parenting. The present study examined marital stress and children's externalizing behavior in middle childhood as predictors of mothers' versus fathers' consistency, monitoring, and support and care in early adolescence, and the subsequent associations of these parenting behaviors with externalizing behavior 1.5 years later. Pathways were examined within a longitudinal mediation model testing for moderation by parent gender (N = 276 mothers, N = 229 fathers). Children's externalizing behavior in middle childhood was found to more strongly inversely predict mothers' versus fathers' monitoring in early adolescence. In contrast, marital stress more strongly predicted low monitoring for fathers than for mothers. Regardless of parent gender, marital stress predicted lower levels of parental consistency, and children's externalizing behavior predicted lower levels of parental support. Mothers' monitoring and fathers' support in early adolescence predicted lower levels of externalizing behavior 1.5 years later. The results are discussed with respect to family transactions relative to parent gender and implications for intervention.

  6. The Relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Marital Satisfaction: 10-Year Outcome of Partners from Three Different Economic Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasiri Zarch, Zohre; Marashi, Sayed Mahdi; Raji, Hojatollah

    2014-10-01

    Emotional communication and economic factors play an important role in having a satisfying relationship and a more successful marriage. In this regard, we investigated the 10-year outcome of partners from three different economic levels regarding the relationship between emotional intelligence (EI) and marital satisfaction. The research was designed as a descriptive-correlative survey and data were analyzed using Pearson correlation test and stepwise regression. Participants were 159 couples (N = 318) who were randomly selected through clustered sampling. The questionnaires included: Bar-on Emotional Intelligence (1997) and Enrich Marital satisfaction (1989). The findings revealed that the average values of emotional intelligence (m = 333.1) and marital satisfaction (m = 300.77) were high in the under-rich region (pintelligence accounted for 40.8% of marital satisfaction within those three regions (p<0.01). The results of the regression analysis showed that general mood is the most effective factor changing marital satisfaction in the three studied regions (R2= 0.34), rich (R2= 0.42) and semi-rich (R2= 0.52) regions (p<0.01). The most influential factor changing marital satisfaction in the under-rich (R2= 0.28) region was found to be stress management (p<0.01).

  7. Limitations of Evolutionary Theory in Explaining Marital Satisfaction and Stability of Couple Relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Cabrera García

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The explanation of marital satisfaction and stability in trajectories of couple relationships has been the central interest in different studies (Karney, Bradbury. & Johnson, 1999; Sabatelli & Ripoll, 2004; Schoebi, Karney & Bradbury, 2012. However, there are still several questions and unknown aspects surrounding the topic. Within this context, the present reflection seeks to analyze whether the principles of Evolutionary Theory suffice to explain three marital trajectories in terms of satisfaction and stability. With this in mind, we have included other explanations proposed by the Psychosocial Theory that Evolutionary Theory does not refer to in order to better understand mating behavior. Moreover, other factors that could account for satisfied and stable relationships were analyzed. Suggestions for future investigations include the analysis of other marital trajectories that may or may not end in separation or divorce but are not included in this article.

  8. Race-Ethnic Differences in the Non-marital Fertility Rates in 2006-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yujin; Raley, R Kelly

    2015-02-01

    Research in the 1980s pointed to the lower marriage rates of blacks as an important factor contributing to race differences in non-marital fertility. Our analyses update and extend this prior work to investigate whether cohabitation has become an important contributor to this variation. We use data from the 2006-2010 National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) and to identify the relative contribution of population composition (i.e. percent sexually active single and percent cohabiting) versus rates (pregnancy rates, post-conception marriage rates) to race-ethnic variation in non-marital fertility rates (N=7,428). We find that the pregnancy rate among single (not cohabiting) women is the biggest contributor to race-ethnic variation in the non-marital fertility rate and that contraceptive use patterns among racial minorities explains the majority of the race-ethnic differences in pregnancy rates.

  9. Brain Networks for Working Memory and Factors of Intelligence Assessed in Males and Females with fMRI and DTI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, C. Y.; Eaves, E. L.; Ng, J. C.; Carpenter, D. M.; Mai, X.; Schroeder, D. H.; Condon, C. A.; Colom, R.; Haier, R. J.

    2010-01-01

    Neuro-imaging studies of intelligence implicate the importance of a parietal-frontal network. One unresolved issue is whether this network underlies a general factor of intelligence ("g") or other specific cognitive factors. A second unresolved issue is whether males and females use different parts of this network. Here we obtained intelligence…

  10. A model of physical factors in the structural adaptation of microvascular networks in normotension and hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Jens Christian Brings; Gustafsson, Finn; Holstein-Rathlou, N.-H.

    2003-01-01

    Adequate function of the microcirculation is vital to any tissue. To maintain an optimal function, microvascular networks must be able to adapt structurally to changes in the physical environment. Here we present a mathematical network model based on vessel wall mechanics. We assume based...... diameter, until equilibrium is restored. The model explains several of the key features observed experimentally in the microcirculation in normotension and hypertension. Most importantly, it suggests a scenario where overall network structure and network hemodynamics depend on adaptation to local...... hemodynamic stimuli in the individual vessel. Simulated results show emanating microvascular networks with properties similar to those observed in vivo. The model points to an altered endothelial function as a key factor in the development of vascular changes characteristic of hypertension....

  11. Relevant Factors for Establishing Inter-firm Cooperation Networks in Rio Grande do Sul

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    Jorge Renato Verschoore

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The cooperation among firms in a network form has been stressed as an alternative organizational configuration in response to recent economic transformation. The increased number of initiatives and the empirical research scarcity on the network formation in Brazil motivated the present study. The main objective of this paper is to comprehend the factors which effect the establishment of network cooperation in the Southern Brazilian context. In order to achieve this objective a quantitative research was carried out with 443 enterprise representatives, associated to 120 cooperation networks. The empirical data were collected by the researchers in 2005 and statistically processed through a conjoint analysis. The results confirmed the theoretical propositions built by the researchers,appointing the relevance of factors, such as learning and innovation, increased scale and market power, and access to solutions.

  12. Parental Leave and Work Adaptation at the Transition to Parenthood: Individual, Marital, and Social Correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Ruth; Sussman, Amy L.; Zigler, Edward

    2004-01-01

    This study examined individual, marital, and social--contextual factors associated with the length of maternity and paternity leave and the parents' work adaptation at the transition to parenthood. Ninety-eight dual-earner parents of 3- to 5-month-old infants were surveyed following the mother's return to work. A shorter maternity leave (less than…

  13. Perceived antecedents of marital satisfaction among Turkish, Turkish-Dutch, and Dutch couples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Celenk, O.; van de Vijver, F.J.R.

    2013-01-01

    We studied mainstream couples in The Netherlands and Turkey as well as Turkish-Dutch immigrant couples to address cultural factors associated with marital satisfaction. A total of 13 Turkish (mainstream couples living in Turkey), 19 Turkish-Dutch (Turkish immigrant couples living in The

  14. Marital disruption : Determinants and consequences on the lives of women in a rural area of Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bhuiya, A; Mushtaque, A; Chowdhury, R; Momen, M; Khatun, M

    This study, carried out during the second half of 1995, investigated the predisposing factors leading to marital disruption and its consequences on the lives of women in Matlab, a rural area of Bangladesh. Both qualitative and quantitative methods were used. Data were generated from detailed case

  15. Relationship Personality, Conflict Resolution, and Marital Satisfaction in the First 5 Years of Marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneewind, Klaus A.; Gerhard, Anna-Katharina

    2002-01-01

    Explores the relationship between couples' stable personality variables associated with interpersonal competencies and marital satisfaction with conflict resolution style as the mediating factor. Results indicate strong mediational effects across time. The relationship personality variables correspond closely with conflict resolution styles, which…

  16. Young Women's Phenomenological Sense of Father and Parental Marital Relationship and Their Relation to Paternal Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darlington, Susan

    The meaning fathers have in the lives of women as they are growing up was investigated. Women's perceptions of their fathers on several factors were measured to determine how these perceptions differed with father loss, cause and time of loss, perception of parental marital relationships, and presence of an older brother. Questionnaires were…

  17. Marital conflict typology and children's appraisals: the moderating role of family cohesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindahl, Kristin M; Malik, Neena M

    2011-04-01

    Intense and frequent marital conflict is associated with greater appraisals of threat and self-blame in children, but little else is known about contextual factors that might affect appraisals. Systemic family theories propose that to understand child adaptation, it is necessary to understand the interconnected nature of family subsystem relationships. In a sample of 257 families with 8- to 12-year-old children, this study examined whether a four-level typology of marital conflict management was related to children's perceptions of marital conflict and their appraisals of perceived threat and self-blame. In addition, family cohesion was tested as a moderator of the relationship between marital conflict style and children's appraisals. Observational coding was used to group couples into Harmonious, Disengaged, Conflictual-Expressive, and Conflictual-Hostile groups. Children's report of the intensity, frequency, and degree of resolution of interparental discord corresponded well with observers' ratings. The relationship between marital conflict style and appraisals of threat and self-blame was moderated by family cohesiveness. At high levels of family cohesiveness, no group differences were found for either perceived threat or self-blame, whereas when family cohesiveness was low, threat was higher for the Harmonious and Conflictual-Hostile groups, as compared to the Conflictual-Expressive group, and self-blame was higher for both conflict groups (expressive and hostile), as compared to the Disengaged group. The results provide further evidence of interconnected nature of family subsystem relationships and the importance of distinguishing among different approaches to marital conflict management for understanding the complex and perhaps subtle but meaningful effects different family system factors have on child adaptation.

  18. Factors affecting Malaysian university students’ purchase intention in social networking sites

    OpenAIRE

    Saeideh Sharifi fard; Ezhar Tamam; Md Salleh Hj Hassan; Moniza Waheed; Zeinab Zaremohzzabieh

    2016-01-01

    This study applied the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology 2 to examine acceptance and use of social networking sites in a marketing setting. This study uses 370 regular higher education students in Malaysia as respondents. Quantitative method is used. The findings revealed that performance expectancy (PE) and hedonic motivation were the main factors that influence users’ online purchase intention (PI) through social networking sites (SNSs) in Malaysia. As for moderating influe...

  19. Perfectionism and Marital Satisfaction among Graduate Students: A Multigroup Invariance Analysis by Counseling Help-seeking Attitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foo Fatt Mee

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to measure the latent mean difference in perfectionism and marital satisfaction by counseling help-seeking attitudes. The respondents were 327 married graduate students from a research university in Malaysia. An online self-administered questionnaire was used to collect the data. The respondents completed the Almost Perfect Scale- Revised, Dyadic Almost Perfect Scale, Marital Satisfaction Scale, and Attitudes toward Seeking Professional Psychology Help Scale. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to examined the instruments and the results indicated that construct validity were achieved. The latent mean difference in perfectionism and marital satisfaction by counseling help-seeking attitudes were tested using multigroup invariance analysis. The respondents with negative attitudes toward counseling help-seeking (n = 159 reported a higher latent mean in perfectionism but a lower latent mean in marital satisfaction compared to those with positive attitudes toward counseling help-seeking (n = 168. The implications of these findings for counseling services are discussed.

  20. Recurrent-neural-network-based Boolean factor analysis and its application to word clustering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frolov, Alexander A; Husek, Dusan; Polyakov, Pavel Yu

    2009-07-01

    The objective of this paper is to introduce a neural-network-based algorithm for word clustering as an extension of the neural-network-based Boolean factor analysis algorithm (Frolov , 2007). It is shown that this extended algorithm supports even the more complex model of signals that are supposed to be related to textual documents. It is hypothesized that every topic in textual data is characterized by a set of words which coherently appear in documents dedicated to a given topic. The appearance of each word in a document is coded by the activity of a particular neuron. In accordance with the Hebbian learning rule implemented in the network, sets of coherently appearing words (treated as factors) create tightly connected groups of neurons, hence, revealing them as attractors of the network dynamics. The found factors are eliminated from the network memory by the Hebbian unlearning rule facilitating the search of other factors. Topics related to the found sets of words can be identified based on the words' semantics. To make the method complete, a special technique based on a Bayesian procedure has been developed for the following purposes: first, to provide a complete description of factors in terms of component probability, and second, to enhance the accuracy of classification of signals to determine whether it contains the factor. Since it is assumed that every word may possibly contribute to several topics, the proposed method might be related to the method of fuzzy clustering. In this paper, we show that the results of Boolean factor analysis and fuzzy clustering are not contradictory, but complementary. To demonstrate the capabilities of this attempt, the method is applied to two types of textual data on neural networks in two different languages. The obtained topics and corresponding words are at a good level of agreement despite the fact that identical topics in Russian and English conferences contain different sets of keywords.

  1. Uncertainty, Risk Taking and Marital Happiness

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson-Jones, William

    2009-01-01

    Abstract: By analysing the effect of internal and external risks on marital happiness this paper concludes that social welfare is maximised by employment status and limiting the negative effect of children. Muslim, Christian and Sikh marriages were predominantly found to be unhappier as a parent in the household specialised in domestic labour and didn’t enter the workforce. ‘Non-religious’ groups have higher levels of female employment and consequently happier marriages. The discussion sugges...

  2. The Relationship Between Quality of Life With Marital Satisfaction in Nurses in Social Security Hospital in Zahedan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharibi, Maliheh; Sanagouymoharer, Gholamreza; Yaghoubinia, Fariba

    2015-06-25

    Marital satisfaction is one of the most important determinative factors of healthy function in family and can be affected by some factors. This study was conducted aimed to determine the relationship between quality of life and marital satisfaction in nurses in Social Security hospital in Zahedan. In this descriptive and correlational study, the population was the all of the nurses in various wards in Social Security hospital in Zahedan. The sample size was 103 and data collection was done through quality of life questionnaire (War and Sherborn) and Enrich Marital Satisfaction Scale. Data analysis was done through SPSS15 and using pearsons' correlation coefficient and stepwise regression. The aspects of physical functioning, role limitations due to physical health problems, role limitation due to emotional problems had a significant positive correlation and the bodily pain had a significant reverse correlation with aspects of marital satisfaction. The aspects of role limitations due to physical health problems and bodily pain were predictors of marital satisfaction. The results of study demonstrated the importance of pay attention to family issues and marital satisfaction and in this regard, the promotion of all aspects of quality of life is essential.

  3. A study on the critical factors which influence habitual entrepreneurs' success in networking from the perspective of social captial theory

    OpenAIRE

    Li, SiQi

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the research is to provide an insight on the critical factors which influence habitual entrepreneurs’ success in networking through which effective networking strategies may lead to increased business performance. The perspective of explaining the factors adopts social capital theory and social dimensions of entrepreneurs’ network. The key findings suggest that social capital is in a form of non-linear pattern that the interactions are complex. Network configuration influences effe...

  4. An investigation on the effectiveness of group psychodynamic psychotherapy on the personality dimensions in divorced and non-divorce woman with low marital satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Mehryar

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Present study is aimed at investigating the effectiveness of psychodynamic psychotherapy on the personality characteristics of divorced and non-divorced women with low marital satisfaction. Materials and Methods: This clinical research conducted in the clients referred to Khane Roshan-e-Doost Psychological Studies Institute. They are evaluated clinically through interviews and questionnaires. So, 45 patients selected and divided in three equal groups of divorced women, non-divorced women (married with low marital satisfaction, and control group. Then, the groups of divorced and non-divorced women with low marital satisfaction participated in 24 sessions of psychodynamic psychotherapy. To collect data, Cattel’s 16-item questionnaire and Enrich marital satisfaction questionnaire were used. Data analyzed through multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA. Results: The results of this study indicated that training of psychodynamic psychotherapy caused a significant change in personality traits in divorced women and in married women with low marital satisfaction. Only in factor B (intelligent - low intelligence and factor Q1 (conservatism there was no significant difference between experimental and control groups. The results of correlation between personality factors and low marital satisfaction pointed that there is a significant relationship between all factors of personality except the factor of conservatism.  Conclusion: Based on the results, psychodynamic psychotherapy is effective in significant improvement of most of personality traits. Therefore, applying this method can be useful in improving marital personality traits, reducing divorce and maintaining mental health.

  5. Improving marital relationships: strategies for the family physician.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starling, B P; Martin, A C

    1992-01-01

    Marital conflict and divorce are prevalent in our society, and patients frequently ask family physicians to assist them with marital difficulties. These difficulties are often associated with a decline in health, resulting in additional stress to the marital unit. A MEDLINE search was undertaken using the key words "family medicine," "marital therapy," "marital counseling," "brief psychotherapy," and "short-term psychotherapy." The bibliographies of generated articles were searched for additional references. The authors used the resources of their individual behavioral science libraries, as well as their clinical experiences. With adequate training, many family physicians can include marital counseling skills in their clinical repertoires. Family life cycle theory provides a framework for understanding the common stresses of marital life and also guides the family physician in recommending strategies to improve marital satisfaction. The physician's role is twofold: (1) to identify couples in crisis, and (2) to provide preventive strategies geared to assist couples in achieving pre-crisis equilibrium or higher levels of functioning. For physicians whose practices do not include marital counseling, an understanding of the basic techniques can be beneficial in effectively referring appropriate couples for marital therapy.

  6. Effects of marital conflict on children: recent advances and emerging themes in process-oriented research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, E Mark; Davies, Patrick T

    2002-01-01

    The effects of marital conflict on children's adjustment are well documented. For the past decade research has increasingly focused on advancing a process-level understanding of these effects, that is, accounting for the particular responses and patterns embedded within specific contexts, histories, and developmental periods that account for children's outcomes over time. As a vehicle for presenting an update, this review follows the framework for process-oriented research initially proposed by Cummings and Cummings (1988), concentrating on recent research developments, and also considering new and emerging themes in this area of research. In this regard, areas of advancement include (a) greater articulation of the effects of specific context/stimulus characteristics of marital conflict, (b) progress in identifying the psychological response processes in children (e.g., cognitive, emotional, social, physiological) that are affected and their possible role in accounting for relations between marital conflict and child outcomes, (c) greater understanding of the role of child characteristics, family history, and other contextual factors, including effects on children due to interrelations between marital conflict and parenting, and (d) advances in the conceptualization of children's outcomes, including that effects may be more productively viewed as dynamic processes of functioning rather than simply clinical diagnoses. Understanding of the impact of marital conflict on children as a function of time-related processes remains a gap in a process-oriented conceptualization of effects. Based on this review, a revised model for a process-oriented approach on the effects of marital discord on children is proposed and suggestions are made for future research directions.

  7. Marital Status and Frailty in Older People: Gender Differences in the Progetto Veneto Anziani Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevisan, Caterina; Veronese, Nicola; Maggi, Stefania; Baggio, Giovannella; De Rui, Marina; Bolzetta, Francesco; Zambon, Sabina; Sartori, Leonardo; Perissinotto, Egle; Crepaldi, Gaetano; Manzato, Enzo; Sergi, Giuseppe

    2016-06-01

    Marital status has been associated with disability and mortality, but its potential role as a factor influencing frailty has yet to be thoroughly investigated. The analysis of gender-related differences in the relationship between marital status and frailty is another interesting matter that remains to be fully elucidated. The aim of our study was to examine the association between marital status and the incidence of frailty in a cohort of older men and women over a 4.4-year follow-up. A sample of 1887 subjects older than 65 years, enrolled under the Progetto Veneto Anziani (Pro.V.A.) and with no evidence of frailty at baseline, were grouped by marital status. The incidence of frailty after 4.4 years was measured as the presence of at least three of the Fried criteria. After the follow-up period, 414 (21.9%) new cases of frailty were identified. Multivariate logistic regression models demonstrated that male gender carried a higher risk of developing frailty among men who had never married (odds ratio [OR] = 3.84, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 2.76-5.35; p gender, widows had significantly lower odds of becoming frail than married women (OR = 0.77, 95% CI = 0.66-0.91, p = 0.002). The determinants of frailty more influenced by marital status were unintentional weight loss, low daily energy expenditure, and exhaustion. Marital status seems to significantly influence the onset of frailty, with some gender-specific differences. Unmarried men were at higher risk of frailty, while widowed women carried a lower risk of becoming frail than married women.

  8. Determination of Important Topographic Factors for Landslide Mapping Analysis Using MLP Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutasem Sh. Alkhasawneh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Landslide is one of the natural disasters that occur in Malaysia. Topographic factors such as elevation, slope angle, slope aspect, general curvature, plan curvature, and profile curvature are considered as the main causes of landslides. In order to determine the dominant topographic factors in landslide mapping analysis, a study was conducted and presented in this paper. There are three main stages involved in this study. The first stage is the extraction of extra topographic factors. Previous landslide studies had identified mainly six topographic factors. Seven new additional factors have been proposed in this study. They are longitude curvature, tangential curvature, cross section curvature, surface area, diagonal line length, surface roughness, and rugosity. The second stage is the specification of the weight of each factor using two methods. The methods are multilayer perceptron (MLP network classification accuracy and Zhou's algorithm. At the third stage, the factors with higher weights were used to improve the MLP performance. Out of the thirteen factors, eight factors were considered as important factors, which are surface area, longitude curvature, diagonal length, slope angle, elevation, slope aspect, rugosity, and profile curvature. The classification accuracy of multilayer perceptron neural network has increased by 3% after the elimination of five less important factors.

  9. Factors Affecting Social Network Use by Students in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budhi Kristianto

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although Indonesia is one of the world’s most populated countries with a high penetration of internet usage there has been little research on SNS usage in Indonesia, especially involving children. Instead, SNS research in Indonesia has focused on university students and political, marketing, and disaster mitigation issues. Aim/Purpose: In order to address this gap a theoretical model is formulated from a review of previous studies incorporating basic constructs found in the Technology Acceptance Model (Perceived Usefulness, Perceived Ease of Use, and Attitude as well as other influences, motivations, and individual characteristics that affect a child’s attitude toward the use of SNS. Methodology\t: The model is evaluated and developed using data collected from 460 children in primary school grades 4, 5, and 6 in five cities in Indonesia. The statistical techniques implemented with SPSS and Amos computer software (t-tests, correlation coefficients, principal component factor analysis, Cronbach alpha coefficients, and structural equation modeling (SEM analysis. Findings: The results confirm many of the effects on a child’s attitude toward SNS reported in previous studies due to: the usefulness and ease of use of SNS; parental influence; feelings of flow experience and risk; and the child’s level of access, technical expertise, and experience with SNS. New findings include significant correlations and causal effects involving: the influences of peers and parents; the child’s level of technical expertise; and feelings of flow experience. Contribution: Despite limitations related to sampling and the administration of a questionnaire among young children, the findings contribute to theory as well as practice and provide guidance on effective ways to improve children’s attitudes towards the use of SNS.

  10. Robustness of a Neural Network Model for Power Peak Factor Estimation in Protection Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Rose Mary G.P.; Moreira, Joao M.L.

    2006-01-01

    This work presents results of robustness verification of artificial neural network correlations that improve the real time prediction of the power peak factor for reactor protection systems. The input variables considered in the correlation are those available in the reactor protection systems, namely, the axial power differences obtained from measured ex-core detectors, and the position of control rods. The correlations, based on radial basis function (RBF) and multilayer perceptron (MLP) neural networks, estimate the power peak factor, without faulty signals, with average errors between 0.13%, 0.19% and 0.15%, and maximum relative error of 2.35%. The robustness verification was performed for three different neural network correlations. The results show that they are robust against signal degradation, producing results with faulty signals with a maximum error of 6.90%. The average error associated to faulty signals for the MLP network is about half of that of the RBF network, and the maximum error is about 1% smaller. These results demonstrate that MLP neural network correlation is more robust than the RBF neural network correlation. The results also show that the input variables present redundant information. The axial power difference signals compensate the faulty signal for the position of a given control rod, and improves the results by about 10%. The results show that the errors in the power peak factor estimation by these neural network correlations, even in faulty conditions, are smaller than the current PWR schemes which may have uncertainties as high as 8%. Considering the maximum relative error of 2.35%, these neural network correlations would allow decreasing the power peak factor safety margin by about 5%. Such a reduction could be used for operating the reactor with a higher power level or with more flexibility. The neural network correlation has to meet requirements of high integrity software that performs safety grade actions. It is shown that the

  11. Marriage Matters But How Much? Marital Centrality Among Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willoughby, Brian J; Hall, Scott S; Goff, Saige

    2015-01-01

    Marriage, once a gateway to adulthood, is no longer as widely considered a requirement for achieving adult status. With declining marriage rates and delayed marital transitions, some have wondered whether current young adults have rejected the traditional notion of marriage. Utilizing a sample of 571 young adults, the present study explored how marital centrality (the expected importance to be placed on the marital role relative to other adult roles) functioned as a unique and previously unexplored marital belief among young adults. Results suggested that marriage remains an important role for many young adults. On average, young adults expected that marriage would be more important to their life than parenting, careers, or leisure activities. Marital centrality profiles were found to significantly differ based on both gender and religiosity. Marital centrality was also associated with various outcomes including binge-drinking and sexual activity. Specifically, the more central marriage was expected to be, the less young adults engaged in risk-taking or sexual behaviors.

  12. The effectiveness of enriching relations between spouses to reduce marital conflict between employees in different offices in Yasouj

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Aminianfar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective & aim:  Today, divorce and marital turmoil is increasing. Understanding the factors leading to chaos and the disintegration of family relationships is important. This study aimed to explore the effect of enriching relations between spouses, the couple's emotional security and marital conflicts.   Methods: In the present interventional-analytical study, ten different offices were randomly selected.  Of people who scored high on marital conflict and emotional security, and also those who gained low scores under 40 were divided randomly into two groups. Seven relations enriching group training sessions were held for the spouses.  At the end of the training sessions, both groups were evaluated by emotional security questionnaires by Brunner et al. (2008, marital conflict Sanaei and Barati (1996.   Results: Covariance analysis and multivariate analysis of variance, analysis of the results of the marital conflict, mean and standard deviation of pre couples' marital conflict experimental and control groups were (20/15 and 20/145 (64/16 70/143 respectively.  The test score in two groups were (60/12 and 80/64 (17.4 and 70/143 respectively. The results of multivariate analysis of covariance components of marital conflict on test scores of experimental and control groups and the control effect of pre-test showed that Pylayy effect, Wilks Lambda test, Hotelling effect on the root of F=4.47 and degrees of freedom 7 levels significantly in p=0.0001 Effect of married couples was significant in reducing aggression.   Conclusion: Enrichment relations education for spouses may significantly reduce parameters of marital conflicts.

  13. Probabilistic safety assessment model in consideration of human factors based on object-oriented bayesian networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Zhongbao; Zhou Jinglun; Sun Quan

    2007-01-01

    Effect of Human factors on system safety is increasingly serious, which is often ignored in traditional probabilistic safety assessment methods however. A new probabilistic safety assessment model based on object-oriented Bayesian networks is proposed in this paper. Human factors are integrated into the existed event sequence diagrams. Then the classes of the object-oriented Bayesian networks are constructed which are converted to latent Bayesian networks for inference. Finally, the inference results are integrated into event sequence diagrams for probabilistic safety assessment. The new method is applied to the accident of loss of coolant in a nuclear power plant. the results show that the model is not only applicable to real-time situation assessment, but also applicable to situation assessment based certain amount of information. The modeling complexity is kept down and the new method is appropriate to large complex systems due to the thoughts of object-oriented. (authors)

  14. The association between social network factors and mental health at different life stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levula, Andrew; Wilson, Andrew; Harré, Michael

    2016-07-01

    Psychosocial factors are important determinants of an individual's health. This study examines the association between health scores and social network factors on mental health across different life stages. Data were drawn from the Household Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia survey for adolescents (n = 1739), adults (n = 10,309) and seniors (n = 2287). Hierarchical regression modelling was applied to examine effects within and across age groups. All the variables were derived from the self-completion questionnaire. The social network factors were statistically significant predictors of mental health outcomes for all three life stages. For adolescents, the three social network factors were statistically significant with social isolation having the largest impact (β = -.284, p social connection (β = .084, p social trust having a similar effect (β = .073, p social isolation had the highest impact (β = -.203, p social connection (β = .110, p social trust (β = .087, p social isolation (β = -.188, p social connection (β = .147, p social trust (β = .032, p social network factors, the models improved significantly with social isolation playing the most significant role across all life stages, whereas the other social network factors played a differentiated role depending upon the life stage. These findings have practical implications in the design of mental health interventions across different life stages.

  15. Determination of power peak factor using control rods, ex-core detectors and neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Rose Mary Gomes do Prado

    2005-01-01

    This work presents a methodology based on the artificial neural network technique to predict in real time the power peak factor in a form that can be implemented in reactor protection systems. The neural network inputs were those available in the reactor protection systems, namely, the axial and quadrant power differences obtained from measured ex-core detector signals, and the position of control rods. The response of ex core detector signals was measured in experiments especially performed in the IPEN/MB-01 zero-power reactor. Several reactor states with different power density distribution were obtained by positioning the control rods in different configurations. The power distribution and its peak factor were calculated for each of these reactor states using the Citation code. The obtained results show that the power peak factor correlates well with the control rod position and the quadrant power difference, and with a lesser degree with the axial power differences. The data presented an inherent organisation and could be classified into different classes of power peak factor behaviour as a function of position of control rods, axial power difference and quadrant power difference. The RBF networks were able to identify classes and interpolate the power peak factor values. The relative error for the power peak factor estimation ranged from 0.19 % to 0.67 %, less than the one that was obtained performing a power density distribution map with in-core detectors. It was observed that the positions of control rods bear the detailed and localised information about the power density distribution, and that the axial and the quadrant power difference describe its global variations in the axial and radial directions. The results showed that the RBF and MLP networks produced similar results, and that a neural network correlation can be implemented in power reactor protection systems. (author)

  16. Social network composition of vascular patients and its associations with health behavior and clinical risk factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi Heijmans

    Full Text Available This study aimed to explore linkages of patients' social network composition with health behaviors and clinical risk factors.This observational study was embedded in a project aimed at improving cardiovascular risk management (CRVM in primary care. 657 vascular patients (227 with cardiovascular disease, 380 at high vascular risk, mean age 72.4 (SD 9.4 years, were recruited as were individuals patients considered important for dealing with their disease, so called alters (n = 487. Network composition was measured with structured patient questionnaires. Both patients and alters completed questionnaires to measure health behavior (habits for physical activity, diet, and smoking. Clinical risk factors (systolic blood pressure, LDL cholesterol level, and body mass index were extracted from patients' medical records. Six logistic regression analyses, using generalized estimating equations, were used to test three hypothesized effects of network composition (having alters with healthful behaviors, without depression, and with specialized knowledge on six outcomes, adjusted for demographic, personal and psychological characteristics.Having alters with overall healthful behavior was related to healthful patient diet (OR 2.14, 95%CI: 1.52-3.02. Having non-smoking alters in networks was related to reduced odds for patient smoking (OR 0.17, 95%CI: 0.05-0.60. No effects of presence of non-depressed alters were found. Presence of alters with specialized knowledge on CVRM was inversely related to healthful diet habits of patients (OR 0.47, 95%CI 0.24-0.89. No significant associations between social network composition and clinical risk factors were found.Diet and smoking, but not physical exercise and clinical risk factors, were associated with social network composition of patients with vascular conditions. In this study of vascular patients, controlling for both personal and psychological factors, fewer network influences were found compared to previous

  17. The Effect of Welfare Reform on Women's Marital Bargaining Power

    OpenAIRE

    Bird, Mia

    2011-01-01

    Marital bargaining models predict changes in the policy environment that affect the relative well-being of husbands and wives in divorce will indirectly affect the distribution of power within marriage. This study estimates the effect of 1996 welfare reform policies on the marital bargaining power of women with young children. Although the distribution of marital power cannot be directly observed, I utilize Consumer Expenditure data to infer shifts in bargaining power from changes in family d...

  18. Social network composition of vascular patients and its associations with health behavior and clinical risk factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijmans, N.; Lieshout, J. van; Wensing, M.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study aimed to explore linkages of patients' social network composition with health behaviors and clinical risk factors. METHODS/DESIGN: This observational study was embedded in a project aimed at improving cardiovascular risk management (CRVM) in primary care. 657 vascular patients

  19. Friend me: which factors influence top global brands participation in social network sites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Araujo, T.; Neijens, P.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose - This study focuses on how brands participate in social network sites (SNSs) and investigates both the different strategies they adopt and the factors that influence these strategies. Design/methodology/approach - The activities of top brands in SNSs were investigated through a content

  20. Investigating Factors Related to Virtual Private Network Adoption in Small Businesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederer, Karen

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative study was to investigate six factors that may influence adoption of virtual private network (VPN) technologies in small businesses with fewer than 100 employees. Prior research indicated small businesses employing fewer than 100 workers do not adopt VPN technology at the same rate as larger competitors, and the…

  1. Factors That Influence Self-Disclosure for Job Seekers Using Social Networking: A Qualitative Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated factors that influence the extent and type of information job seekers reveal about themselves when using social networking to search for employment opportunities and advance their careers. It examined how user concerns regarding privacy influence the level of content they provide and their interactions with fellow community…

  2. Gender Differences in the Structure of Marital Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beam, Christopher R; Marcus, Katherine; Turkheimer, Eric; Emery, Robert E

    2018-05-01

    Marriages consist of shared experiences and interactions between husbands and wives that may lead to different impressions of the quality of the relationship. Few studies, unfortunately, have tested gender differences in the structure of marital quality, and even fewer studies have evaluated whether genetic and environmental influences on marital quality differ across gender. In this study, we evaluated gender differences in the structure of marital quality using independent samples of married male (n = 2406) and married female (n = 2215) participants from the National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States who provided ratings on twenty-eight marital quality items encompassing six marital quality constructs. We further explored gender differences in genetic and environmental influences on marital quality constructs in a subsample of 491 pairs of twins. Results suggest partial metric invariance across gender but structural variability in marital quality constructs. Notably, correlations between constructs were stronger in women than men. Results also support gender differences in the genetic and environmental influences on different aspects of marital quality. We discuss that men and women may approach and react to marriage differently as the primary reason why we observed differences in the structure of marital quality.

  3. Waiting-List Controlled Trial of Cognitive Marital Therapy in Severe Marital Discord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waring, Edward M.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Evaluated effectiveness of marital therapy designed to enhance intimacy through self-disclosure of personal constructs. Couples in therapy (n=22) and controls (n=19) showed significant reduction in symptoms of nonpsychotic emotional illness. Couples in therapy subjectively reported improvement. Found significant pattern of improvement for wives in…

  4. A network and visual quality aware N-screen content recommender system using joint matrix factorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Farman; Sarwar, Ghulam; Lee, Sungchang

    2014-01-01

    We propose a network and visual quality aware N-Screen content recommender system. N-Screen provides more ways than ever before to access multimedia content through multiple devices and heterogeneous access networks. The heterogeneity of devices and access networks present new questions of QoS (quality of service) in the realm of user experience with content. We propose, a recommender system that ensures a better visual quality on user's N-screen devices and the efficient utilization of available access network bandwidth with user preferences. The proposed system estimates the available bandwidth and visual quality on users N-Screen devices and integrates it with users preferences and contents genre information to personalize his N-Screen content. The objective is to recommend content that the user's N-Screen device and access network are capable of displaying and streaming with the user preferences that have not been supported in existing systems. Furthermore, we suggest a joint matrix factorization approach to jointly factorize the users rating matrix with the users N-Screen device similarity and program genres similarity. Finally, the experimental results show that we also enhance the prediction and recommendation accuracy, sparsity, and cold start issues.

  5. Unraveling the WRKY transcription factors network in Arabidopsis Thaliana by integrative approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mouna Choura

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The WRKY transcription factors superfamily are involved in diverse biological processes in plants including response to biotic and abiotic stresses and plant immunity. Protein-protein interaction network is a useful approach for understanding these complex processes. The availability of Arabidopsis Thaliana interactome offers a good opportunity to do get a global view of protein network. In this work, we have constructed the WRKY transcription factor network by combining different sources of evidence and we characterized its topological features using computational tools. We found that WRKY network is a hub-based network involving multifunctional proteins denoted as hubs such as WRKY 70, WRKY40, WRKY 53, WRKY 60, WRKY 33 and WRKY 51. Functional annotation showed seven functional modules particularly involved in biotic stress and defense responses. Furthermore, the gene ontology and pathway enrichment analysis revealed that WRKY proteins are mainly involved in plant-pathogen interaction pathways and their functions are directly related to the stress response and immune system process.

  6. Organization of Anti-Phase Synchronization Pattern in Neural Networks: What are the Key Factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dong; Zhou, Changsong

    2011-01-01

    Anti-phase oscillation has been widely observed in cortical neural network. Elucidating the mechanism underlying the organization of anti-phase pattern is of significance for better understanding more complicated pattern formations in brain networks. In dynamical systems theory, the organization of anti-phase oscillation pattern has usually been considered to relate to time delay in coupling. This is consistent to conduction delays in real neural networks in the brain due to finite propagation velocity of action potentials. However, other structural factors in cortical neural network, such as modular organization (connection density) and the coupling types (excitatory or inhibitory), could also play an important role. In this work, we investigate the anti-phase oscillation pattern organized on a two-module network of either neuronal cell model or neural mass model, and analyze the impact of the conduction delay times, the connection densities, and coupling types. Our results show that delay times and coupling types can play key roles in this organization. The connection densities may have an influence on the stability if an anti-phase pattern exists due to the other factors. Furthermore, we show that anti-phase synchronization of slow oscillations can be achieved with small delay times if there is interaction between slow and fast oscillations. These results are significant for further understanding more realistic spatiotemporal dynamics of cortico-cortical communications. PMID:22232576

  7. Identification and network-enabled characterization of auxin response factor genes in Medicago truncatula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Burks

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Auxin Response Factor (ARF family of transcription factors is an important regulator of environmental response and symbiotic nodulation in the legume Medicago truncatula. While previous studies have identified members of this family, a recent spurt in gene expression data coupled with genome update and reannotation calls for a reassessment of the prevalence of ARF genes and their interaction networks in M. truncatula. We performed a comprehensive analysis of the M. truncatula genome and transcriptome that entailed search for novel ARF genes and the co-expression networks. Our investigation revealed 8 novel M. truncatula ARF (MtARF genes, of the total 22 identified, and uncovered novel gene co-expression networks as well. Furthermore, the topological clustering and single enrichment analysis of several network models revealed the roles of individual members of the MtARF family in nitrogen regulation, nodule initiation, and post-embryonic development through a specialized protein packaging and secretory pathway. In summary, this study not just shines new light on an important gene family, but also provides a guideline for identification of new members of gene families and their functional characterization through network analyses.

  8. A Network and Visual Quality Aware N-Screen Content Recommender System Using Joint Matrix Factorization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farman Ullah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a network and visual quality aware N-Screen content recommender system. N-Screen provides more ways than ever before to access multimedia content through multiple devices and heterogeneous access networks. The heterogeneity of devices and access networks present new questions of QoS (quality of service in the realm of user experience with content. We propose, a recommender system that ensures a better visual quality on user’s N-screen devices and the efficient utilization of available access network bandwidth with user preferences. The proposed system estimates the available bandwidth and visual quality on users N-Screen devices and integrates it with users preferences and contents genre information to personalize his N-Screen content. The objective is to recommend content that the user’s N-Screen device and access network are capable of displaying and streaming with the user preferences that have not been supported in existing systems. Furthermore, we suggest a joint matrix factorization approach to jointly factorize the users rating matrix with the users N-Screen device similarity and program genres similarity. Finally, the experimental results show that we also enhance the prediction and recommendation accuracy, sparsity, and cold start issues.

  9. Marital Wage Premium or Ability Selection? The Case of Taiwan 1979-2003

    OpenAIRE

    Anthony Stair

    2007-01-01

    The study of factors determining wages has been an important topic in the field of labor and family economics in the past few decades. Among different factors that account for individual wage differentials, marital status has received special attention. There are at least two competing hypotheses that explain the male marriage premium: the specialization hypothesis and the selection hypothesis. Using the Taiwan Quasi Longitudinal Data Archive (1979-2003), my estimation results support the sel...

  10. Exchange rate prediction with multilayer perceptron neural network using gold price as external factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Fathian

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the problem of predicting the exchange rate time series in the foreign exchange rate market is going to be solved using a time-delayed multilayer perceptron neural network with gold price as external factor. The input for the learning phase of the artificial neural network are the exchange rate data of the last five days plus the gold price in two different currencies of the exchange rate as the external factor for helping the artificial neural network improving its forecast accuracy. The five-day delay has been chosen because of the weekly cyclic behavior of the exchange rate time series with the consideration of two holidays in a week. The result of forecasts are then compared with using the multilayer peceptron neural network without gold price external factor by two most important evaluation techniques in the literature of exchange rate prediction. For the experimental analysis phase, the data of three important exchange rates of EUR/USD, GBP/USD, and USD/JPY are used.

  11. Genome-scale reconstruction of the sigma factor network in Escherichia coli: topology and functional states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cho, Byung-Kwan; Kim, Donghyuk; Knight, Eric M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: At the beginning of the transcription process, the RNA polymerase (RNAP) core enzyme requires a sigma-factor to recognize the genomic location at which the process initiates. Although the crucial role of sigma-factors has long been appreciated and characterized for many individual...... to transcription units (TUs), representing an increase of more than 300% over what has been previously reported. The reconstructed network was used to investigate competition between alternative sigma-factors (the sigma(70) and sigma(38) regulons), confirming the competition model of sigma substitution...

  12. Factors Affecting Intention to Use in Social Networking Sites: An Empirical Study on Thai Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jairak, Rath; Sahakhunchai, Napath; Jairak, Kallaya; Praneetpolgrang, Prasong

    This research aims to explore the factors that affect the intention to use in Social Networking Sites (SNS). We apply the theory of Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), intrinsic motivation, and trust properties to develop the theoretical framework for SNS users' intention. The results show that the important factors influencing SNS users' intention for general purpose and collaborative learning are task-oriented, pleasure-oriented, and familiarity-based trust. In marketing usage, dispositional trust and pleasure-oriented are two main factors that reflect intention to use in SNS.

  13. Marital status integration and suicide: A meta-analysis and meta-regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyung-Sook, Woo; SangSoo, Shin; Sangjin, Shin; Young-Jeon, Shin

    2018-01-01

    Marital status is an index of the phenomenon of social integration within social structures and has long been identified as an important predictor suicide. However, previous meta-analyses have focused only on a particular marital status, or not sufficiently explored moderators. A meta-analysis of observational studies was conducted to explore the relationships between marital status and suicide and to understand the important moderating factors in this association. Electronic databases were searched to identify studies conducted between January 1, 2000 and June 30, 2016. We performed a meta-analysis, subgroup analysis, and meta-regression of 170 suicide risk estimates from 36 publications. Using random effects model with adjustment for covariates, the study found that the suicide risk for non-married versus married was OR = 1.92 (95% CI: 1.75-2.12). The suicide risk was higher for non-married individuals aged analysis by gender, non-married men exhibited a greater risk of suicide than their married counterparts in all sub-analyses, but women aged 65 years or older showed no significant association between marital status and suicide. The suicide risk in divorced individuals was higher than for non-married individuals in both men and women. The meta-regression showed that gender, age, and sample size affected between-study variation. The results of the study indicated that non-married individuals have an aggregate higher suicide risk than married ones. In addition, gender and age were confirmed as important moderating factors in the relationship between marital status and suicide. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Marital history, health and mortality among older men and women in England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundy, Emily M D; Tomassini, Cecilia

    2010-09-15

    latter effect was not significant in models including parity. All widows had raised mortality 1991-2001 but associations between widowhood of varying durations and long-term illness in 1991 or 2001 were not significant once socio-economic status was controlled. Some groups of divorced women had higher mortality risks 1991-2001 and raised odds of long-term illness in 1991. Results for never-married women showed a divergence between associations with mortality and with long-term illness. In models controlling for socio-economic status, mortality risk was raised but the association with 1991 long-term illness was not significant and in 2001 never-married women had lower odds of reporting long-term illness than women in long-term first marriages. Formally taking account of selective survival in the 20 years prior to entry to the study population had minor effects on results. Results were consistent with previous studies in showing that the relationship between marital experience and later life health and mortality is considerably modified by socio-economic factors, and additionally showed that taking women's parity into account further moderated associations. Considering marital history rather than simply current marital status provided some insights into differentials between, for example, remarried people according to prior marital status and time remarried, but these groups were relatively small and there were some disadvantages of the approach in terms of loss of statistical power. Consideration of past histories is likely to be more important for later born cohorts whose partnership experiences have been less stable and more heterogeneous.

  15. Marital history, health and mortality among older men and women in England and Wales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomassini Cecilia

    2010-09-01

    long-term illness and raised mortality 1991-2001; this latter effect was not significant in models including parity. All widows had raised mortality 1991-2001 but associations between widowhood of varying durations and long-term illness in 1991 or 2001 were not significant once socio-economic status was controlled. Some groups of divorced women had higher mortality risks 1991-2001 and raised odds of long-term illness in 1991. Results for never-married women showed a divergence between associations with mortality and with long-term illness. In models controlling for socio-economic status, mortality risk was raised but the association with 1991 long-term illness was not significant and in 2001 never-married women had lower odds of reporting long-term illness than women in long-term first marriages. Formally taking account of selective survival in the 20 years prior to entry to the study population had minor effects on results. Conclusions Results were consistent with previous studies in showing that the relationship between marital experience and later life health and mortality is considerably modified by socio-economic factors, and additionally showed that taking women's parity into account further moderated associations. Considering marital history rather than simply current marital status provided some insights into differentials between, for example, remarried people according to prior marital status and time remarried, but these groups were relatively small and there were some disadvantages of the approach in terms of loss of statistical power. Consideration of past histories is likely to be more important for later born cohorts whose partnership experiences have been less stable and more heterogeneous.

  16. The rested relationship: Sleep benefits marital evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maranges, Heather M; McNulty, James K

    2017-02-01

    Remaining satisfied with a relationship often requires thinking in ways that use self-regulatory resources-satisfied couples discount undesirable experiences when forming global evaluations of the relationship. Nevertheless, recent work indicates that the self-regulatory resources required to engage in these processes are limited. Although consuming new energy may be one way to replenish these limited resources, sleep is another. The current study used a daily diary study of 68 newlywed couples to examine the implications of sleep for daily marital evaluations. Every day for up to 7 days, both members of the couples reported their evaluations of their interpersonal specific experiences, global relationship satisfaction, and amount of sleep. Multilevel analysis revealed that spouses were more satisfied on days after which they had slept for a longer period of time. Furthermore, sleep also buffered husbands', but not wives', marital satisfaction against the implications of negative specific evaluations-husbands were better able to remain more globally satisfied despite negative evaluations of specific aspects of the relationship on days following more sleep. These findings suggest that sleep may offer self-regulatory benefits and should thus be incorporated into existing interpersonal models that highlight the importance of self-regulation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Association of marital status and colorectal cancer screening participation in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Haddad, B; Dong, F; Kallail, K J; Hines, R B; Ablah, E

    2015-05-01

    In the USA, for both men and women, colorectal cancer (CRC) ranks third in incidence and second in mortality. Despite evidence that it decreases mortality, CRC screening in the USA remains under-utilized. Some European studies have suggested that marital status affects participation in CRC screening, but the effect of marital status on CRC screening participation in the USA is unknown. In this study, the aim was to compare CRC screening participation rates among married and unmarried couples, separated, widowed, never married and divorced adults living in the USA. This was a retrospective data analysis of the 2010 Behavioural Risk Factor Surveillance System survey. The population studied included 239,300 participants, aged 50-75 years, who completed the 2010 survey. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to assess the association between adherence with CRC screening guidelines and marital status while accounting for survey stratum/weight and covariates. Individuals who were divorced or separated, never married or widowed had decreased odds of adherence with CRC screening guidelines compared with individuals who were married and unmarried couples. In this study, individuals living in the USA who were married and unmarried couples had increased odds of undergoing CRC screening compared to individuals in other marital status groups. Public health interventions are needed to promote CRC screening participation in these other groups. Colorectal Disease © 2015 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  18. Marital Conflicts and Parent-Adolescent Conflicts: The Mediator Role of Adolescents' Appraisals of Interparental Conflicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ایرج مختارنیا

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of mediating role of adolescents' appraisals from interparents conflict on the relationship of marital conflicts and parent-adolescent conflict. The study was descriptive correlational and the population of this study included students of Qods town of Tehran province. Sample size was 700 students that were selected by multistage random sampling. The data were collected by Parent-Adolescent Conflict Questionnaire (PACQ, Marital Conflict Scale (MCS and Children's Appraisals of Interparental Conflict Scale (CPIC. The results of structural equation modeling analysis showed that the theoretical model of the study included in the model was properly fitted with the data. This means that the variable of adolescent's appraisals of interparents’ conflict can be considered as a mediator variable in the relationship of marital conflict and parent-adolescent conflict. Furthermore, in this model all direct and indirect paths to predict parent-adolescent conflict were recognized. Therefore, marital conflict can predict parent-adolescent conflicts through mediating factors. Also, it can be concluded that the model of cognitive-contextual is capable of explaining the parent-adolescent conflicts.

  19. Momentary work worries, marital disclosure, and salivary cortisol among parents of young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slatcher, Richard B; Robles, Theodore F; Repetti, Rena L; Fellows, Michelle D

    2010-11-01

    To investigate whether worries about work are linked to people's own cortisol levels and their spouses' cortisol levels in everyday life and whether marital factors may moderate these links. Although research has shown that satisfying marriages can buffer the physiological effects of everyday stress, the specific mechanisms through which marriage influences the processing and transmission of stress have not yet been identified. Thirty-seven healthy married couples completed baseline measures and then provided saliva samples and indicated their worries about work for six times a day from a Saturday morning through a Monday evening. Wives' cortisol levels were associated positively with their own work worries (p = .008) and with their husbands' work worries (p = .006). Husbands' cortisol levels were associated positively only with their own work worries (p = .015). Wives low in both marital satisfaction and disclosure showed a stronger association between work worries and cortisol compared with wives reporting either high marital satisfaction and/or high marital disclosure. These results suggest that momentary feelings of stress affect not only one's own cortisol levels but affect close others' cortisol levels as well. Furthermore, they suggest that, for women, the stress-buffering effects of a happy marriage may be partially explained by the extent to which they disclose their thoughts and feelings with their spouses.

  20. Effects of marital status on survival of hepatocellular carcinoma by race/ethnicity and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wenrui; Fang, Daiqiong; Shi, Ding; Bian, Xiaoyuan; Li, Lanjuan

    2018-01-01

    It is well demonstrated that being married is associated with a better prognosis in multiple types of cancer. However, whether the protective effect of marital status varied across race/ethnicity and gender in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma remains unclear. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the roles of race/ethnicity and gender in this relationship. We identified eligible patients from Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database during 2004-2012. Overall and cancer-specific survival differences across marital status were compared by Kaplan-Meier curves. We also estimated crude hazard ratios (CHRs) and adjusted hazard ratios (AHRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for marital status associated with survival by race/ethnicity and gender in Cox proportional hazard models. A total of 12,168 eligible patients diagnosed with hepatocellular carcinoma were included. We observed that married status was an independent protective prognostic factor for overall and cancer-specific survival. In stratified analyses by race/ethnicity, the AHR of overall mortality (unmarried vs married) was highest for Hispanic (AHR =1.25, 95% CI, 1.13-1.39; P married patients obtained better survival advantages. Race/ethnicity and gender could influence the magnitude of associations between marital status and risk of mortality.

  1. Marital Status and Outcomes in Patients With Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, William M; Hayek, Salim S; Samman Tahhan, Ayman; Ko, Yi-An; Sandesara, Pratik; Awad, Mosaab; Mohammed, Kareem H; Patel, Keyur; Yuan, Michael; Zheng, Shuai; Topel, Matthew L; Hartsfield, Joy; Bhimani, Ravila; Varghese, Tina; Kim, Jonathan H; Shaw, Leslee; Wilson, Peter; Vaccarino, Viola; Quyyumi, Arshed A

    2017-12-20

    Being unmarried is associated with decreased survival in the general population. Whether married, divorced, separated, widowed, or never-married status affects outcomes in patients with cardiovascular disease has not been well characterized. A prospective cohort (inception period 2003-2015) of 6051 patients (mean age 63 years, 64% male, 23% black) undergoing cardiac catheterization for suspected or confirmed coronary artery disease was followed for a median of 3.7 years (interquartile range: 1.7-6.7 years). Marital status was stratified as married (n=4088) versus unmarried (n=1963), which included those who were never married (n=451), divorced or separated (n=842), or widowed (n=670). The relationship between marital status and primary outcome of cardiovascular death and myocardial infarction was examined using Cox regression models adjusted for clinical characteristics. There were 1085 (18%) deaths from all causes, 688 (11%) cardiovascular-related deaths, and 272 (4.5%) incident myocardial infarction events. Compared with married participants, being unmarried was associated with higher risk of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.24; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06-1.47), cardiovascular death (HR: 1.45; 95% CI, 1.18-1.78), and cardiovascular death or myocardial infarction (HR: 1.52; 95% CI, 1.27-1.83). Compared with married participants, the increase in cardiovascular death or myocardial infarction was similar for the participants who were divorced or separated (HR: 1.41; 95% CI, 1.10-1.81), widowed (HR: 1.71; 95% CI, 1.32-2.20), or never married (HR: 1.40; 95% CI, 0.97-2.03). The findings persisted after adjustment for medications and other socioeconomic factors. Marital status is independently associated with cardiovascular outcomes in patients with or at high risk of cardiovascular disease, with higher mortality in the unmarried population. The mechanisms responsible for this increased risk require further study. © 2017 The Authors. Published on

  2. Transcription Factor Networks Directing the Development, Function, and Evolution of Innate Lymphoid Effectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Joonsoo; Malhotra, Nidhi

    2015-01-01

    Mammalian lymphoid immunity is mediated by fast and slow responders to pathogens. Fast innate lymphocytes are active within hours after infections in mucosal tissues. Slow adaptive lymphocytes are conventional T and B cells with clonal antigen receptors that function days after pathogen exposure. A transcription factor (TF) regulatory network guiding early T cell development is at the core of effector function diversification in all innate lymphocytes, and the kinetics of immune responses is set by developmental programming. Operational units within the innate lymphoid system are not classified by the types of pathogen-sensing machineries but rather by discrete effector functions programmed by regulatory TF networks. Based on the evolutionary history of TFs of the regulatory networks, fast effectors likely arose earlier in the evolution of animals to fortify body barriers, and in mammals they often develop in fetal ontogeny prior to the establishment of fully competent adaptive immunity. PMID:25650177

  3. Factors Contributing to the Hydrologic Effectiveness of a Rain Garden Network (Cincinnati OH USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William D. Shuster

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Infiltrative rain gardens can add retention capacity to sewersheds, yet factors contributing to their capacity for detention and redistribution of stormwater runoff are dynamic and often unverified. Over a four-year period, we tracked whole-system water fluxes in a two-tier rain garden network and assessed near-surface hydrology and soil development across construction and operational phases. The monitoring data provided a quantitative basis for determining effectiveness of this stormwater control measure. Based on 233 monitored warm-season rainfall events, nearly half of total inflow volume was detained, with 90 percent of all events producing no flow to the combined sewer. For the events that did result in flow to the combined sewer system, the rain garden delayed flows for an average of 5.5 h. Multivariate analysis of hydrologic fluxes indicated that total event rainfall depth was a predominant hydrologic driver for network outflow during both phases, with average event intensity and daily evapotranspiration as additional, independent factors in regulating retention in the operational phase. Despite sediment loads that can clog the rooting zone, and overall lower-than-design infiltration rates, tradeoffs among soil profile development and hydrology apparently maintained relatively high overall retention effectiveness. Overall, our study identified factors relevant to regulation of retention capacity of a rain garden network. These factors may be generalizable, and guide improvement of new or existing rain garden designs.

  4. What is Impulse Buying? An analytical network processing framework for prioritizing factors affecting impulse buying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Siahkali Moradi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important issues affecting profitability is to determine the impact of different factors influencing purchasing activities. In this paper, we perform an extensive literature survey to detect different purchasing factors influencing customers' behavior. The factors are categorized in three different groups and they are ranked using analytical network process. The results of our survey indicate that three factors of personal, product and situational play important roles in purchasing impulse. The personal item includes different factors where demographic characteristic factors receive the highest ranking (35% followed by other factors are feelings, excitement and fun, self identify, education and novelty. There are also three sub-factors associated with demographic characteristics including gender, age and race and the weights are 0.46748, 0.42668 and 0.10584, respectively, which means gender is the most important factor followed by age and race. Finally, the other factor is associated with situational factors' group, which includes presence of others, culture, design of store, time available, local market condition, sales staff and self service with the relative importance of 0.04296, 0.08733, 0.12130, 0.22217, 0.05643, 0.15346 and 0.31635, respectively.

  5. 22 CFR 146.445 - Marital or parental status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 146.445 Marital or parental status. (a) Status..., or marital status that treats students differently on the basis of sex. (b) Pregnancy and related...

  6. 45 CFR 86.40 - Marital or parental status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 86.40 Marital or parental status... parental, family, or marital status which treats students differently on the basis of sex. (b) Pregnancy...

  7. 22 CFR 229.445 - Marital or parental status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 229.445 Marital or parental status. (a) Status..., or marital status that treats students differently on the basis of sex. (b) Pregnancy and related...

  8. Narcissism and newlywed marriage: Partner characteristics and marital trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavner, Justin A; Lamkin, Joanna; Miller, Joshua D; Campbell, W Keith; Karney, Benjamin R

    2016-04-01

    Despite narcissism's relation with interpersonal dysfunction, surprisingly little empirical research has been devoted to understanding narcissism's effect on intimate relationships in general or marital relationships in particular. The current study addressed this gap using longitudinal data from a community sample of 146 newlywed couples assessed 6 times over the first 4 years of marriage. First, we examined partner characteristics associated with higher levels of narcissism to determine the degree to which couples were matched on narcissism and related traits. Second, we examined how narcissism predicted the trajectory of marital quality over time, testing narcissism's association with initial levels of relationship functioning (the intercept) and changes in relationship functioning (the slope). Results indicated a small degree of homophily but otherwise no clear pattern of partner characteristics for individuals higher in narcissism. Hierarchical linear modeling indicated that wives' total narcissism and entitlement/exploitativeness scores predicted the slope of marital quality over time, including steeper declines in marital satisfaction and steeper increases in marital problems. Husbands' narcissism scores generally had few effects on their own marital quality or that of their wives. These findings are notable in indicating that the effects of personality characteristics on marital functioning may take some time to manifest themselves, even if they were present from early in the marriage. Future research into the mediating psychological and interpersonal processes that link wives' narcissism with poorer marital functioning over time would be valuable. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Marital History and the Burden of Cardiovascular Disease in Midlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhenmei

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the effects of marital history on the burden of cardiovascular disease in midlife. With use of data from the 1992 Health and Retirement Study, a series of nested logistic regression models was used to estimate the association between marital history and the likelihood of cardiovascular disease. Results suggest that, in midlife,…

  10. Marital Satisfaction and Depression as Predictors of Physical Health Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Robert L.; Aved, Barbara M.

    1978-01-01

    Results indicate correlation between physical health status and depression was greater for wives than husbands. For wives, marital satisfaction and depression were related through uncontrolled variance in physical health status. For husbands, significant relationship between marital satisfaction and depression remained when physical health was…

  11. Non-marital cohabitation in the Republic of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranđelović Dragana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-marital cohabitation, as a community of life of two people connected only by the feeling of love and desire for living together, without form and registration, is an institution as old as marriage. Throughout history, attitude of the legislator has been changing from forbidding to ignoring it. In our society there is a negative attitude towards non-marital cohabitations, which is the result of patriarchal ideas and customs. However, the Constitution of the Republic of Serbia and the Family Law equate marriage and non-marital cohabitation. In this paper, the author will try to determine to what extent in terms of effects the marital and non-marital cohabitation are equal, or to what extent the rights of non-marital partners are recognized. The subject of analysis are primarily the Constitution and Family law, but also many other regulations governing the issues relating to the rights and obligations of non-marital cohabitation partners. In fact, although Family law equalizes marriage and non-marital cohabitation, they are not equal either de facto or de jure. The author will try to point out the deficiencies in the legal regulations, the practical problems and suggest possible and better solutions.

  12. Relationship between Parenting Styles and Marital Adjustment of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The data obtained from these instruments were subjected to multiple regression analysis using SPSS and the results showed that there was a low, positive and significant relationship between authoritative parenting style and marital adjustment. The relationship between authoritarian parenting style and marital adjustment ...

  13. The Impact of Job Insecurity on Marital and Family Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Jeffry H.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examined relationship between perceived stress resulting from job insecurity and marital and family functioning. Data from 111 married couples in which at least 1 spouse was working in insecure job environment showed that job insecurity stress was related in systematic way to marital and family dysfunction and number of family problems reported.…

  14. Marriage, sexuality, and holiness: Aspects of marital ethics in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Qumran, Jubilees) texts, this article outlines the marital concepts existing in the NT environment. In this context, the reciprocal community and the duration of the marital relationship are emphasized while sexuality remains wholly limited to reproduction. The core of the article offers a concrete analysis of texts from the Corpus ...

  15. Marital status behavior of women in the former Soviet Republics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scherbov, S; Darsky, L.

    1995-01-01

    This paper uses the most recent data and life table analysis to describe the marital behaviour of women in the republics of the former USSR. For the first time a multistate life table analysis was used to describe the marital careers of women from all the 15 republics. In the near future, such a

  16. Gender Ideology, Marital Disruption, and the Employment of Married Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenstein, Theodore N.

    1995-01-01

    A study of 3,284 married women hypothesizes that nontraditional working women are more likely to experience marital disruption than traditional working women. Number of hours of paid employment per week was negatively related to marital stability for women holding nontraditional gender ideologies but not for women with traditional views. (JPS)

  17. Gender-Wise Comparison on Emotional Intelligence and Marital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The research aims at exploring and comparing the marital satisfaction and emotional intelligence of people between age 25-65. Tools used were namely Marital Satisfaction Scale (MSS) and Exploring Emotional Abilities (EEA). A fairly representative data of 316 respondents was collected from Maharashtra, India.

  18. marital status and occupation versus serum total cholesterol and hdl

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMIN

    ABSTRACT. The influence of marital status and occupation on serum total cholesterol (TC) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL – CH) concentrations was studied in sixty one (61) adult male and female Hausa subjects aged 20 – 50 years. Irrespective of marital status and occupation, female subjects had higher ...

  19. Evaluating factors that predict the structure of a commensalistic epiphyte–phorophyte network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáyago, Roberto; Lopezaraiza-Mikel, Martha; Quesada, Mauricio; Álvarez-Añorve, Mariana Yolotl; Cascante-Marín, Alfredo; Bastida, Jesus Ma.

    2013-01-01

    A central issue in ecology is the understanding of the establishment of biotic interactions. We studied the factors that affect the assembly of the commensalistic interactions between vascular epiphytes and their host plants. We used an analytical approach that considers all individuals and species of epiphytic bromeliads and woody hosts and non-hosts at study plots. We built models of interaction probabilities among species to assess if host traits and abundance and spatial overlap of species predict the quantitative epiphyte–host network. Species abundance, species spatial overlap and host size largely predicted pairwise interactions and several network metrics. Wood density and bark texture of hosts also contributed to explain network structure. Epiphytes were more common on large hosts, on abundant woody species, with denser wood and/or rougher bark. The network had a low level of specialization, although several interactions were more frequent than expected by the models. We did not detect a phylogenetic signal on the network structure. The effect of host size on the establishment of epiphytes indicates that mature forests are necessary to preserve diverse bromeliad communities. PMID:23407832

  20. Organization of anti-phase synchronization pattern in neural networks: what are the key factors?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong eLi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Anti-phase oscillation has been widely observed in cortical neuralnetwork. Elucidating the mechanism underlying the organization ofanti-phase pattern is of significance for better understanding morecomplicated pattern formations in brain networks. In dynamicalsystems theory, the organization of anti-phase oscillation patternhas usually been considered to relate to time-delay in coupling.This is consistent to conduction delays in real neural networks inthe brain due to finite propagation velocity of action potentials.However, other structural factors in cortical neural network, suchas modular organization (connection density and the coupling types(excitatory or inhibitory, could also play an important role. Inthis work, we investigate the anti-phase oscillation patternorganized on a two-module network of either neuronal cell model orneural mass model, and analyze the impact of the conduction delaytimes, the connection densities, and coupling types. Our resultsshow that delay times and coupling types can play key roles in thisorganization. The connection densities may have an influence on thestability if an anti-phase pattern exists due to the other factors.Furthermore, we show that anti-phase synchronization of slowoscillations can be achieved with small delay times if there isinteraction between slow and fast oscillations. These results aresignificant for further understanding more realistic spatiotemporaldynamics of cortico-cortical communications.

  1. Assessment of successful smoking cessation by psychological factors using the Bayesian network approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaorong; Li, Suyun; Pan, Lulu; Wang, Qiang; Li, Huijie; Han, Mingkui; Zhang, Nan; Jiang, Fan; Jia, Chongqi

    2016-07-01

    The association between psychological factors and smoking cessation is complicated and inconsistent in published researches, and the joint effect of psychological factors on smoking cessation is unclear. This study explored how psychological factors jointly affect the success of smoking cessation using a Bayesian network approach. A community-based case control study was designed with 642 adult male successful smoking quitters as the cases, and 700 adult male failed smoking quitters as the controls. General self-efficacy (GSE), trait coping style (positive-trait coping style (PTCS) and negative-trait coping style (NTCS)) and self-rating anxiety (SA) were evaluated by GSE Scale, Trait Coping Style Questionnaire and SA Scale, respectively. Bayesian network was applied to evaluate the relationship between psychological factors and successful smoking cessation. The local conditional probability table of smoking cessation indicated that different joint conditions of psychological factors led to different outcomes for smoking cessation. Among smokers with high PTCS, high NTCS and low SA, only 36.40% successfully quitted smoking. However, among smokers with low pack-years of smoking, high GSE, high PTCS and high SA, 63.64% successfully quitted smoking. Our study indicates psychological factors jointly influence smoking cessation outcome. According to different joint situations, different solutions should be developed to control tobacco in practical intervention.

  2. Marital Conflict in Older Couples: Positivity, Personality, and Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iveniuk, James; Waite, Linda J.; McClintock, Martha K.; Teidt, Andrew D.

    2016-01-01

    We examine the implications of health and personality characteristics for late-life marital conflict, using data from the 2010–11 wave of the National Social Life Health and Aging Project (NSHAP), a nationally representative study with data on both partners in 955 marital and cohabitational dyads. Using these data, we relate characteristics of husbands to characteristics of their wives, and vice versa. Wives with husbands in fair or poor physical health are more likely to report high levels of marital conflict, but the reverse is not true. Similarly, wives report more conflict when their husbands are high on Neuroticism, high on Extraversion, and low on a new measure we call Positivity. Our findings point to noteworthy gender differences between men and women in the associations between individual characteristics and levels of marital conflict. We point to differences between husbands’ and wives’ marital roles as a contributor to these differences. PMID:27274569

  3. Demand-Withdraw Patterns in Marital Conflict in the Home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papp, Lauren M; Kouros, Chrystyna D; Cummings, E Mark

    2009-06-01

    The present study extended laboratory-based findings of demand-withdraw communication into marital conflict in the home and further explored its linkages with spousal depression. U.S. couples (N = 116) provided diary reports of marital conflict and rated depressive symptoms. Hierarchical linear modeling results indicated that husband demand-wife withdraw and wife demand-husband withdraw occurred in the home at equal frequency, and both were more likely to occur when discussing topics that concerned the marital relationship. For both patterns, conflict initiator was positively linked to the demander role. Accounting for marital satisfaction, both demand-withdraw patterns predicted negative emotions and tactics during marital interactions and lower levels of conflict resolution. Spousal depression was linked to increased likelihood of husband demand-wife withdraw.

  4. Prediction of friction factor of pure water flowing inside vertical smooth and microfin tubes by using artificial neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çebi, A.; Akdoğan, E.; Celen, A.; Dalkilic, A. S.

    2017-02-01

    An artificial neural network (ANN) model of friction factor in smooth and microfin tubes under heating, cooling and isothermal conditions was developed in this study. Data used in ANN was taken from a vertically positioned heat exchanger experimental setup. Multi-layered feed-forward neural network with backpropagation algorithm, radial basis function networks and hybrid PSO-neural network algorithm were applied to the database. Inputs were the ratio of cross sectional flow area to hydraulic diameter, experimental condition number depending on isothermal, heating, or cooling conditions and mass flow rate while the friction factor was the output of the constructed system. It was observed that such neural network based system could effectively predict the friction factor values of the flows regardless of their tube types. A dependency analysis to determine the strongest parameter that affected the network and database was also performed and tube geometry was found to be the strongest parameter of all as a result of analysis.

  5. An exact model for airline flight network optimization based on transport momentum and aircraft load factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Jorge Caetano

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The problem of airline flight network optimization can be split into subproblems such as Schedule Generation (SG and Fleet Assignment (FA, solved in consecutive steps or in an integrated way, usually based on monetary costs and revenue forecasts. A linear pro­gramming model to solve SG and FA in an integrated way is presented, but with an al­ternative approach based on transport momentum and aircraft load factor. This alterna­tive approach relies on demand forecast and allows obtaining solutions considering min­imum average load factors. Results of the proposed model applications to instances of a regional Brazilian airline are presented. The comparison of the schedules generated by the proposed approach against those obtained by applying a model based on mone­tary costs and revenue forecasts demonstrates the validity of this alternative approach for airlines network planning.

  6. Marital context and post-infarction quality of life: is it social support or something more?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waltz, M

    1986-01-01

    The development of a theory of quality of life following serious illness is currently an important field of endeavour in rehabilitation research. The interpersonal relationships of people and elements of the self-concept appear to be salient factors in causal models of subjective well-being. One such model developed to explain characteristic levels of well-being was used in a longitudinal study of adaptation to a first myocardial infarction. Data were collected from a national sample of male cardiac patients and their spouses on the illness and marital situation as predictors of long-term well-being or ill-being. Analyses of data from the first three waves of the study, which is to extend over 5 years after the onset of illness, are to be discussed in the paper. Marital status, the emotional quality of the spouse relationship and long-standing marital stressors were found to have direct and indirect effects on the two dimensions of the Bradburn Affect Balance Scale. The same is true of continuing problems associated with the heart attack relative to perceptions of having coped effectively with the after effects of illness. Differences in self-esteem and personal competence were suggested as mediators of socio-environmental and illness-related influences. The two-factor conception of well-being developed was found to be a useful framework for investigating positive and negative aspects of psychosocial rehabilitation. The same factors that explain differences between happy and unhappy people in social indicators research also appeared to be determinants of different trajectories of adaptation in the wake of a life-threatening illness. Previous research using theoretical models from stress research has overemphasized psychosocial morbidity and stress management and neglected positive processes of adaptation. The identification of love resources related to positive feeling states and life satisfaction has, therefore, not received the attention it deserves. This is

  7. Marital violence and women's reproductive health care in Uttar Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudha, S; Morrison, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    Although the impact of marital violence on women's reproductive health is recognized globally, there is little research on how women's experience of and justification of marital violence in developing country settings is linked to sexually transmitted infection (STI) symptom reporting, and seeking care for the symptoms. This study analyzes data on 9,639 currently married women from India's 2006-2007 National Family Health Survey-3 from the Central/Northern Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. The likelihood of currently married women's reporting STIs or symptoms, and the likelihood of seeking care for these, are analyzed using multivariate logistic regression techniques. Currently married women's experience of physical, sexual, and emotional marital violence in the last 12 months was significantly associated with greater likelihood of reporting a STI or symptom (odds ratio [OR], 1.364 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.171-1.588] for physical violence; OR, 1.649 [95% CI, 1.323-2.054] for sexual violence; OR, 1.273 [95% CI, 1.117-1.450] for emotional violence). Experience of physical violence (OR, 0.728; 95% CI, 0.533-0.994) and acceptance of any justification for physical violence (OR, 0.590; 95% CI, 0.458-0.760) were significantly associated with decreased chance of seeking care, controlling for other factors. This study suggests that experiencing marital violence may have a negative impact on multiple aspects of women's reproductive health, including increased self-report of STI symptoms. Moreover, marital physical violence and accepting justification for such violence are associated with decreased chance of seeking care. Thus, policies and programs to promote reproductive health should incorporate decreasing gender-based violence, and overcoming underlying societal gender inequality. Copyright © 2011 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Influencing Factors of University Students’ Use of Social Network Sites: An Empirical Analysis in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liqiong Liu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the influencing factors of Chinese university students in accepting and using social networking sites (SNS to propose measures and recommendations that can guide and help these students correctly use SNS. In addition, this paper aims to provide theoretical support in increasing user loyalty for the SNS service providers and attract new users. The correlation and multiple regression analyses showed that perceived value, enjoyment, and influence positively influence the intention of individuals to use SNS.

  9. Alternating optimization method based on nonnegative matrix factorizations for deep neural networks

    OpenAIRE

    Sakurai, Tetsuya; Imakura, Akira; Inoue, Yuto; Futamura, Yasunori

    2016-01-01

    The backpropagation algorithm for calculating gradients has been widely used in computation of weights for deep neural networks (DNNs). This method requires derivatives of objective functions and has some difficulties finding appropriate parameters such as learning rate. In this paper, we propose a novel approach for computing weight matrices of fully-connected DNNs by using two types of semi-nonnegative matrix factorizations (semi-NMFs). In this method, optimization processes are performed b...

  10. Marital quality, coping with conflict, marital complaints, and affection in couples with a depressed wife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, James C; Thompson, Richard; Palmer, Steven C

    2002-03-01

    This study compared three groups of women--outpatient depressed, inpatient depressed, and community control--and their husbands on a range of variables including marital functioning and styles of coping with conflict. Outpatient depressed couples reported greater marital distress and more destructive and less constructive tactics for resolving conflict than did community control couples. They also were more likely to have been previously married and to express regrets about having married their current husbands. There were smaller and less consistent differences for couples with inpatient depressed spouses, although inpatient couples with younger wives were similar to outpatient depressed couples. Both groups of depressed women and their husbands reported fewer expressions of affection and more complaints about the marriage than did control couples. Results are discussed in terms of interpersonal perspectives on depression.

  11. The Mutual Effect of Marital Quality and Parenting Stress on Child and Parent Depressive Symptoms in Families of Children with Oppositional Defiant Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiuyun; Zhang, Yulin; Chi, Peilian; Ding, Wan; Heath, Melissa A; Fang, Xiaoyi; Xu, Shousen

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the mutual relationships between dyadic level (i.e., marital quality and parenting stress) and individual level factors (i.e., children and parental depressive symptoms) in families of children with Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD). Specifically, we explored whether marital interaction (marital quality) was associated with symptoms of child depression through parent-child interaction (parenting stress) and parent depressive symptoms. We also explored whether parent-child interaction was associated with symptoms of parent depression through marital interaction and child depressive symptoms. This study was conducted with 256 parent-child dyads, consisting of children with ODD and one of each child's parents. Participants were recruited from 14 primary schools located in northern, eastern, and southwestern China. Results revealed that marital quality predicted symptoms of child depression through the parenting stress, but not parent depressive symptoms; and parenting stress predicted symptoms of parent depression through marital quality, but not through child depressive symptoms. Also, parenting stress significantly and directly predicted parent depressive symptoms. We concluded in families of children with ODD, the association of marital interaction and parent-child interaction on both symptoms of parent and child depression highlighted the mutual effects of the couple subsystem and the parent-child subsystem. Furthermore, in regard to parental and child depressive symptoms, implications for intervention are provided.

  12. The Mutual Effect of Marital Quality and Parenting Stress on Child and Parent Depressive Symptoms in Families of Children with Oppositional Defiant Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiuyun; Zhang, Yulin; Chi, Peilian; Ding, Wan; Heath, Melissa A.; Fang, Xiaoyi; Xu, Shousen

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the mutual relationships between dyadic level (i.e., marital quality and parenting stress) and individual level factors (i.e., children and parental depressive symptoms) in families of children with Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD). Specifically, we explored whether marital interaction (marital quality) was associated with symptoms of child depression through parent-child interaction (parenting stress) and parent depressive symptoms. We also explored whether parent-child interaction was associated with symptoms of parent depression through marital interaction and child depressive symptoms. This study was conducted with 256 parent-child dyads, consisting of children with ODD and one of each child's parents. Participants were recruited from 14 primary schools located in northern, eastern, and southwestern China. Results revealed that marital quality predicted symptoms of child depression through the parenting stress, but not parent depressive symptoms; and parenting stress predicted symptoms of parent depression through marital quality, but not through child depressive symptoms. Also, parenting stress significantly and directly predicted parent depressive symptoms. We concluded in families of children with ODD, the association of marital interaction and parent-child interaction on both symptoms of parent and child depression highlighted the mutual effects of the couple subsystem and the parent-child subsystem. Furthermore, in regard to parental and child depressive symptoms, implications for intervention are provided. PMID:29104548

  13. The Mutual Effect of Marital Quality and Parenting Stress on Child and Parent Depressive Symptoms in Families of Children with Oppositional Defiant Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuyun Lin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the current study was to examine the mutual relationships between dyadic level (i.e., marital quality and parenting stress and individual level factors (i.e., children and parental depressive symptoms in families of children with Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD. Specifically, we explored whether marital interaction (marital quality was associated with symptoms of child depression through parent-child interaction (parenting stress and parent depressive symptoms. We also explored whether parent-child interaction was associated with symptoms of parent depression through marital interaction and child depressive symptoms. This study was conducted with 256 parent-child dyads, consisting of children with ODD and one of each child's parents. Participants were recruited from 14 primary schools located in northern, eastern, and southwestern China. Results revealed that marital quality predicted symptoms of child depression through the parenting stress, but not parent depressive symptoms; and parenting stress predicted symptoms of parent depression through marital quality, but not through child depressive symptoms. Also, parenting stress significantly and directly predicted parent depressive symptoms. We concluded in families of children with ODD, the association of marital interaction and parent-child interaction on both symptoms of parent and child depression highlighted the mutual effects of the couple subsystem and the parent-child subsystem. Furthermore, in regard to parental and child depressive symptoms, implications for intervention are provided.

  14. The Role of Intimacy, Loneliness, and Alexithymia in Marital Satisfaction Prediction

    OpenAIRE

    Nasrin Miri; Mahmoud Najafi

    2017-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Identification of psychological factors that are involved in couples’ dissatisfaction, is of great importance. This research was performed to investigate the role of intimacy, feeling of loneliness, and alexithymia in the prediction of marital satisfaction. Methods: This study was performed as a descriptive-correlational study on all students of Science and Research Branch of Qazvin Islamic Azad University, 2013-2014. A total of 375 students (187 males a...

  15. Financial Management and Financial Problems As They Relate to Marital Satisfaction in Early Marriage

    OpenAIRE

    Kerkmann, Barbara C.

    1998-01-01

    The financial management habits and perceptions of young married couples were examined, as well as their financial problems and perceptions of their problems' magnitude in an attempt to assess the relationship of these financial factors to marital satisfaction. A survey was delivered to 604 residents of family student housing at Utah State University. The spouse who predominantly handled family finances was asked to complete the survey. By using an incentive for completing the survey, a respo...

  16. Prioritizing of effective factors on development of medicinal plants cultivation using analytic network process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghorbanali Rassam

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available For the overall development of medicinal plants cultivation in Iran, there is a need to identify various effective factors on medicinal plant cultivation. A proper method for identifying the most effective factor on the development of the medicinal plants cultivation is essential. This research conducted in order to prioritizing of the effective criteria for the development of medicinal plant cultivation in North Khorasan province in Iran using Analytical Network Process (ANP method. The multi-criteria decision making (MCDM is suggested to be a viable method for factor selection and the analytic network process (ANP has been used as a tool for MCDM. For this purpose a list of effective factors offered to expert group. Then pair wise comparison questionnaires were distributed between relevant researchers and local producer experts of province to get their opinions about the priority of criteria and sub- criteria. The questionnaires were analyzed using Super Decision software. We illustrated the use of the ANP by ranking main effective factors such as economic, educational-extension services, cultural-social and supportive policies on development of medicinal plants. The main objective of the present study was to develop ANP as a decision making tool for prioritizing factors affecting the development of medicinal plants cultivation. Results showed that the ANP methodology was perfectly suited to tackling the complex interrelations involved in selection factor in this case. Also the results of the process revealed that among the factors, supporting the cultivation of medicinal plants, build the infrastructure for marketing support, having educated farmer and easy access to production input have most impact on the development of medicinal plant cultivation.

  17. The influence of marital status on the stage at diagnosis, treatment, and survival of adult patients with gastric cancer: a population-based study

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Jieyun; Gan, Lu; Wu, Zhenhua; Yan, Shican; Liu, Xiyu; Guo, Weijian

    2016-01-01

    Background & Aims Marital status was reported as a prognostic factor in many cancers. However, its role in gastric cancer (GC) hasn't been thoroughly explored. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of marital status on survival, stage, treatment, and survival in subgroups. Methods We used the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database and identified 16910 GC patients. These patients were categorized into married (58.44%) and unmarred (41.56%) groups. Pearson chi-sq...

  18. Uncovering transcription factor and microRNA risk regulatory pathways associated with osteoarthritis by network analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zhenhua; Zhang, Chi; He, Lingxiao; Sui, Yanfang; Lin, Xiafei; Pan, Jingjing

    2018-05-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common form of joint disease. The development of inflammation have been considered to play a key role during the progression of OA. Regulatory pathways are known to play crucial roles in many pathogenic processes. Thus, deciphering these risk regulatory pathways is critical for elucidating the mechanisms underlying OA. We constructed an OA-specific regulatory network by integrating comprehensive curated transcription and post-transcriptional resource involving transcription factor (TF) and microRNA (miRNA). To deepen our understanding of underlying molecular mechanisms of OA, we developed an integrated systems approach to identify OA-specific risk regulatory pathways. In this study, we identified 89 significantly differentially expressed genes between normal and inflamed areas of OA patients. We found the OA-specific regulatory network was a standard scale-free network with small-world properties. It significant enriched many immune response-related functions including leukocyte differentiation, myeloid differentiation and T cell activation. Finally, 141 risk regulatory pathways were identified based on OA-specific regulatory network, which contains some known regulator of OA. The risk regulatory pathways may provide clues for the etiology of OA and be a potential resource for the discovery of novel OA-associated disease genes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Exploring the bZIP transcription factor regulatory network in Neurospora crassa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Chaoguang; Li, Jingyi; Glass, N Louise

    2011-03-01

    Transcription factors (TFs) are key nodes of regulatory networks in eukaryotic organisms, including filamentous fungi such as Neurospora crassa. The 178 predicted DNA-binding TFs in N. crassa are distributed primarily among six gene families, which represent an ancient expansion in filamentous ascomycete genomes; 98 TF genes show detectable expression levels during vegetative growth of N. crassa, including 35 that show a significant difference in expression level between hyphae at the periphery versus hyphae in the interior of a colony. Regulatory networks within a species genome include paralogous TFs and their respective target genes (TF regulon). To investigate TF network evolution in N. crassa, we focused on the basic leucine zipper (bZIP) TF family, which contains nine members. We performed baseline transcriptional profiling during vegetative growth of the wild-type and seven isogenic, viable bZIP deletion mutants. We further characterized the regulatory network of one member of the bZIP family, NCU03905. NCU03905 encodes an Ap1-like protein (NcAp-1), which is involved in resistance to multiple stress responses, including oxidative and heavy metal stress. Relocalization of NcAp-1 from the cytoplasm to the nucleus was associated with exposure to stress. A comparison of the NcAp-1 regulon with Ap1-like regulons in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Candida albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus showed both conservation and divergence. These data indicate how N. crassa responds to stress and provide information on pathway evolution.

  20. Network analysis of epidermal growth factor signaling using integrated genomic, proteomic and phosphorylation data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrina M Waters

    Full Text Available To understand how integration of multiple data types can help decipher cellular responses at the systems level, we analyzed the mitogenic response of human mammary epithelial cells to epidermal growth factor (EGF using whole genome microarrays, mass spectrometry-based proteomics and large-scale western blots with over 1000 antibodies. A time course analysis revealed significant differences in the expression of 3172 genes and 596 proteins, including protein phosphorylation changes measured by western blot. Integration of these disparate data types showed that each contributed qualitatively different components to the observed cell response to EGF and that varying degrees of concordance in gene expression and protein abundance measurements could be linked to specific biological processes. Networks inferred from individual data types were relatively limited, whereas networks derived from the integrated data recapitulated the known major cellular responses to EGF and exhibited more highly connected signaling nodes than networks derived from any individual dataset. While cell cycle regulatory pathways were altered as anticipated, we found the most robust response to mitogenic concentrations of EGF was induction of matrix metalloprotease cascades, highlighting the importance of the EGFR system as a regulator of the extracellular environment. These results demonstrate the value of integrating multiple levels of biological information to more accurately reconstruct networks of cellular response.

  1. Network Analysis of Epidermal Growth Factor Signaling using Integrated Genomic, Proteomic and Phosphorylation Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waters, Katrina M.; Liu, Tao; Quesenberry, Ryan D.; Willse, Alan R.; Bandyopadhyay, Somnath; Kathmann, Loel E.; Weber, Thomas J.; Smith, Richard D.; Wiley, H. S.; Thrall, Brian D.

    2012-03-29

    To understand how integration of multiple data types can help decipher cellular responses at the systems level, we analyzed the mitogenic response of human mammary epithelial cells to epidermal growth factor (EGF) using whole genome microarrays, mass spectrometry-based proteomics and large-scale western blots with over 1000 antibodies. A time course analysis revealed significant differences in the expression of 3172 genes and 596 proteins, including protein phosphorylation changes measured by western blot. Integration of these disparate data types showed that each contributed qualitatively different components to the observed cell response to EGF and that varying degrees of concordance in gene expression and protein abundance measurements could be linked to specific biological processes. Networks inferred from individual data types were relatively limited, whereas networks derived from the integrated data recapitulated the known major cellular responses to EGF and exhibited more highly connected signaling nodes than networks derived from any individual dataset. While cell cycle regulatory pathways were altered as anticipated, we found the most robust response to mitogenic concentrations of EGF was induction of matrix metalloprotease cascades, highlighting the importance of the EGFR system as a regulator of the extracellular environment. These results demonstrate the value of integrating multiple levels of biological information to more accurately reconstruct networks of cellular response.

  2. Daily patterns of stress and conflict in couples: Associations with marital aggression and family-of-origin aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmons, Adela C; Arbel, Reout; Margolin, Gayla

    2017-02-01

    For many married individuals, the ups and downs of daily life are connected such that stressors impacting one person also impact the other person. For example, stress experienced by one individual may "spill over" to negatively impact marital functioning. This study used both partners' daily diary data to examine same-day and cross-day links between stress and marital conflict and tested several factors that make couples vulnerable to spillover. Assessment of 25 wide-ranging sources of daily stress included both paid and unpaid work, health issues, financial concerns, and having to make difficult decisions. Results showed that both husbands' and wives' experiences of total daily stress were associated with greater same-day marital conflict and that conflict was greater on days both spouses experienced high levels of stress. Evidence of cross-day spillover was found only in those couples with high concurrent marital aggression and in couples where wives reported high family-of-origin aggression. These results highlight both the common, anticipated nature of same-day spillover and the potentially problematic aspects of more prolonged patterns representing failure to recover from stressors that occurred the previous day. The discussion focuses on how reactivity in one life domain puts that individual at risk for generating stress in another life domain and how current marital aggression and family-of-origin aggression are associated with difficulty recovering from stressful events. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Work and marital status in relation to depressive symptoms and social support among women with coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blom, May; Georgiades, Anastasia; László, Krisztina D; Alinaghizadeh, Hassan; Janszky, Imre; Ahnve, Staffan

    2007-11-01

    Work and marital status have been shown to be associated with health outcome in women. However, the effect of employment and marriage on psychosocial functioning has been studied predominantly in healthy subjects. We investigated whether work and marital status are associated with depressive symptoms, social support, and daily stress behavior in women with coronary artery disease (CAD). Data of 105 women with CAD and of working age were analyzed. General linear models were used to determine the association between work and marital status and depressive symptoms, social support, and daily stress behavior. Women who were working at the time of measurement had lower levels of depressive symptoms (7.0 +/- 1.2 vs. 12.1 +/- 0.9, p marital status was not related to any of the outcome variables. Results were similar after adjusting for potential confounders, that is, age, education, self-reported health, and risk factors for CAD. There was no significant interaction between marital status and working status on depressive symptoms, social support, or daily stress behavior. In women with CAD, all working had lower levels of depressive symptoms and a better social integration than those not working, regardless of reason for being nonemployed. Daily stress behavior, depression, and social support did not differ between cohabiting and not cohabiting women. Future interventions should take into consideration that women with CAD who are unemployed may have a higher risk for depression and social isolation and, therefore, poor clinical outcomes.

  4. Daily Patterns of Stress and Conflict in Couples: Associations with Marital Aggression and Family-of-Origin Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmons, Adela C.; Arbel, Reout; Margolin, Gayla

    2016-01-01

    For many married individuals, the ups and downs of daily life are connected such that stressors impacting one person also impact the other person. For example, stress experienced by one individual may “spill over” to negatively impact marital functioning. This study used both partners’ daily diary data to examine same-day and cross-day links between stress and marital conflict and tested several factors that make couples vulnerable to spillover. Assessment of 25 wide-ranging sources of daily stress included both paid and unpaid work, health issues, financial concerns, and having to make difficult decisions. Results showed that both husbands and wives’ experience of total daily stress were associated with greater same-day marital conflict and that conflict was greater on days both spouses experienced high levels of stress. Evidence of cross-day spillover was found only in those couples with high concurrent marital aggression and in couples where wives reported high family-of-origin aggression. These results highlight both the common, anticipated nature of same-day spillover and the potentially problematic aspects of more prolonged patterns representing failure to recover from stressors that occurred the previous day. The discussion focuses on how reactivity in one life domain puts that individual at risk for generating stress in another life domain and how current marital aggression and family-of-origin aggression are associated with difficulty recovering from stressful events. PMID:27504754

  5. Integration and diversity of the regulatory network composed of Maf and CNC families of transcription factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motohashi, Hozumi; O'Connor, Tania; Katsuoka, Fumiki; Engel, James Douglas; Yamamoto, Masayuki

    2002-07-10

    Recent progress in the analysis of transcriptional regulation has revealed the presence of an exquisite functional network comprising the Maf and Cap 'n' collar (CNC) families of regulatory proteins, many of which have been isolated. Among Maf factors, large Maf proteins are important in the regulation of embryonic development and cell differentiation, whereas small Maf proteins serve as obligatory heterodimeric partner molecules for members of the CNC family. Both Maf homodimers and CNC-small Maf heterodimers bind to the Maf recognition element (MARE). Since the MARE contains a consensus TRE sequence recognized by AP-1, Jun and Fos family members may act to compete or interfere with the function of CNC-small Maf heterodimers. Overall then, the quantitative balance of transcription factors interacting with the MARE determines its transcriptional activity. Many putative MARE-dependent target genes such as those induced by antioxidants and oxidative stress are under concerted regulation by the CNC family member Nrf2, as clearly proven by mouse germline mutagenesis. Since these genes represent a vital aspect of the cellular defense mechanism against oxidative stress, Nrf2-null mutant mice are highly sensitive to xenobiotic and oxidative insults. Deciphering the molecular basis of the regulatory network composed of Maf and CNC families of transcription factors will undoubtedly lead to a new paradigm for the cooperative function of transcription factors.

  6. A network of paralogous stress response transcription factors in the human pathogen Candida glabrata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jawad eMerhej

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The yeast Candida glabrata has become the second cause of systemic candidemia in humans. However, relatively few genome-wide studies have been conducted in this organism and our knowledge of its transcriptional regulatory network is quite limited. In the present work, we combined genome-wide chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP-seq, transcriptome analyses and DNA binding motif predictions to describe the regulatory interactions of the seven Yap (Yeast AP1 transcription factors of C. glabrata. We described a transcriptional network containing 255 regulatory interactions and 309 potential target genes. We predicted with high confidence the preferred DNA binding sites for 5 of the 7 CgYaps and showed a strong conservation of the Yap DNA binding properties between S. cerevisiae and C. glabrata. We provided reliable functional annotation for 3 of the 7 Yaps and identified for Yap1 and Yap5 a core regulon which is conserved in S. cerevisiae, C. glabrata and C. albicans. We uncovered new roles for CgYap7 in the regulation of iron-sulfur cluster biogenesis, for CgYap1 in the regulation of heme biosynthesis and for CgYap5 in the repression of GRX4 in response to iron starvation. These transcription factors define an interconnected transcriptional network at the cross-roads between redox homeostasis, oxygen consumption and iron metabolism.

  7. Validez Convergente de la Version Espanola Preliminar del Child Abuse Potential Inventory: Depresion y Aduste Marital (Convergent Validity of the Preliminary Spanish Version of the Child Abuse Potential Inventory: Depression and Marital Adjustment).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arruabarrena, M. Ignacia; de Paul, Joaquin

    1992-01-01

    "Convergent validity" of preliminary Spanish version of Child Abuse Potential (CAP) Inventory was studied. CAP uses ecological-systemic model of child maltreatment to evaluate individual, family, and social factors facilitating physical child abuse. Depression and marital adjustment were measured in three groups of mothers. Results found…

  8. Economic and Social Factors in Designing Disease Control Strategies for Epidemics on Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleczkowski, A.; Dybiec, B.; Gilligan, C. A.

    2006-11-01

    Models for control of epidemics on local, global and small-world networks are considered, with only partial information accessible about the status of individuals and their connections. The main goal of an effective control measure is to stop the epidemic at a lowest possible cost, including treatment and cost necessary to track the disease spread. We show that delay in detection of infectious individuals and presence of long-range links are the most important factors determining the cost. However, the details of long-range links are usually the least-known element of the social interactions due to their occasional character and potentially short life-span. We show that under some conditions on the probability of disease spread, it is advisable to attempt to track those links, even if this involves additional costs. Thus, collecting some additional knowledge about the network structure might be beneficial to ensure a successful and cost-effective control.

  9. Factors affecting Malaysian university students’ purchase intention in social networking sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeideh Sharifi fard

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study applied the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology 2 to examine acceptance and use of social networking sites in a marketing setting. This study uses 370 regular higher education students in Malaysia as respondents. Quantitative method is used. The findings revealed that performance expectancy (PE and hedonic motivation were the main factors that influence users’ online purchase intention (PI through social networking sites (SNSs in Malaysia. As for moderating influences of gender and age, the results showed that gender significantly moderated purposed association between these four elements and the online PI, while the moderating effect of age was only recognized in PE. Findings of this research offer practitioners with better insights that would aid them in developing effective online marketing strategies to attract online purchasing users through SNSs.

  10. Who gets evicted? Assessing individual, neighborhood, and network factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmond, Matthew; Gershenson, Carl

    2017-02-01

    The prevalence and consequences of eviction have transformed the lived experience of urban poverty in America, yet little is known about why some families avoid eviction while others do not. Applying discrete hazard models to a unique dataset of renters, this study empirically evaluates individual, neighborhood, and social network characteristics that explain disparities in displacement from housing. Family size, job loss, neighborhood crime and eviction rates, and network disadvantage are identified as significant and robust predictors of eviction, net of missed rental payments and other relevant factors. This study advances urban sociology and inequality research and informs policy interventions designed to prevent eviction and stem its consequences. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Maternal depression and parenting in early childhood: Contextual influence of marital quality and social support in two samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taraban, Lindsay; Shaw, Daniel S; Leve, Leslie D; Wilson, Melvin N; Dishion, Thomas J; Natsuaki, Misaki N; Neiderhiser, Jenae M; Reiss, David

    2017-03-01

    Marital quality and social support satisfaction were tested as moderators of the association between maternal depressive symptoms and parenting during early childhood (18-36 months) among 2 large, divergent, longitudinal samples (n = 526; n = 570). Unexpectedly, in both samples the association between maternal depressive symptoms and reduced parenting quality was strongest in the context of high marital quality and high social support, and largely nonsignificant in the context of low marital quality and low social support. Possible explanations for these surprising findings are discussed. Results point to the importance of accounting for factors in the broader family context in predicting the association between depressive symptoms and maternal parenting. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Variable forgetting factor mechanisms for diffusion recursive least squares algorithm in sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ling; Cai, Yunlong; Li, Chunguang; de Lamare, Rodrigo C.

    2017-12-01

    In this work, we present low-complexity variable forgetting factor (VFF) techniques for diffusion recursive least squares (DRLS) algorithms. Particularly, we propose low-complexity VFF-DRLS algorithms for distributed parameter and spectrum estimation in sensor networks. For the proposed algorithms, they can adjust the forgetting factor automatically according to the posteriori error signal. We develop detailed analyses in terms of mean and mean square performance for the proposed algorithms and derive mathematical expressions for the mean square deviation (MSD) and the excess mean square error (EMSE). The simulation results show that the proposed low-complexity VFF-DRLS algorithms achieve superior performance to the existing DRLS algorithm with fixed forgetting factor when applied to scenarios of distributed parameter and spectrum estimation. Besides, the simulation results also demonstrate a good match for our proposed analytical expressions.

  13. The influence of lifestyle on cardiovascular risk factors. Analysis using a neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gueli, Nicoló; Piccirillo, Gianfanco; Troisi, Giovanni; Cicconetti, Paolo; Meloni, Fortunato; Ettorre, Evaristo; Verico, Paola; D'Arcangelo, Enzo; Cacciafesta, Mauro

    2005-01-01

    The cardiovascular pathologies are the most common causes of death in the elderly patient. To single out the main risk factors in order to effectively prevent the onset of the disease, the authors experimented a special computerized tool, the neural network, that works out a mathematical relation that can obtain certain data (defined as output) as a function of other data (defined as input). Data were processed from a sample of 276 subjects of both sexes aged 26-69 years old. The output data were: high/low cholesterolemia, HDL cholesterol, triglyceridemia with respect to an established cut-off; the input data were: sex, age, build, weight, married/single, number of children, number of cigarettes smoked/day, amount of wine and number of cups of coffee. We conclude that: (i) a relationship exists, deduced from a neural network, between a set of input variables and a dichotomous output variable; (ii) this relationship can be expressed as a mathematical function; (iii) a neural network, having learned the data on a sufficiently large population, can provide valid predictive data for a single individual with a high probability (up to 93.33%) that the response it gives is correct. In this study, such a result is found for two of the three cardiovascular risk indicators considered (cholesterol and triglycerides); (iv) the repetition of the neural network analysis of the cases in question after a "pruning" operation provided a somewhat less good performance; (v) a statistical analysis conducted on those same cases has confirmed the existence of a strong relationship between the input and the output variables. Therefore the neural network is a valid instrument for providing predictive in a single subject on cardiovascular pathology risks.

  14. Social factors shaping the formation of a multi-stakeholder trails network group for the Monongahela National Forest, West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karen Robinson; Steven Selin; Chad Pierskalla

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports the results and management implications of a longitudinal research study examining the social factors affecting the formation of a trails network advisory group for the Monongahela National Forest (MNF) in West Virginia. A collaborative process of creating an MNF trails network with input from local users and stakeholders has been largely...

  15. Contextual factors influencing strategic information systems planning in a network: Evaluation of two inter-municipality projects in Finland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Den Broek, T.; Spil, T.; Kestilä, T.; Ehrenhard, M.; Salmela, H.

    2008-01-01

    Strategic Information Systems Planning (SISP) is mostly studied within organizations. Recently, preliminary attempts are made to study SISP on network level. As network studies up to now focus on the planning process and its outcome, we choose to study contextual factors that give input to the

  16. High functioning autism disorder: marital relationships and sexual offending

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clayton Peixoto

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To describe the implications of social inability as a factor that can contribute to sexual abuse in the marriage relationship of people with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder (ASD. Case description A 30-year-old male sought medical attention complaining of being “very nervous” and have difficulties in family relationships. He was diagnosed with high-functioning ASD based on the DSM-5. Married for over 4 years with a woman diagnosed with histrionic personality disorder (HPD, he asked for her to accompany him in the sessions and help him describe difficulties they had during sexual intercourse. His wife reported feeling raped in all of her sexual relations with the patient, especially when he could not understand that she did not want sex. Comments The case study leads us to believe that the social and communicative disability is a complicating factor that can contributes to the occurrence of sexual abuse in marital relationships with individuals with ASD. Social skills training, psychotherapy, and traditional medical therapies should be considered to minimize the risk of occurrence of cases of sexual abuse by individuals with high-functioning ASD against the spouses themselves.

  17. Psychological and marital adjustment in couples following a traumatic brain injury (TBI): a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blais, Marie Claude; Boisvert, Jean-Marie

    2005-12-20

    The first part of this paper examines current data describing the psychological and marital adjustment of couples following a traumatic brain injury (TBI). Although these findings reveal some discrepancies, they highlight that adjustment following a TBI represents a genuine challenge for those involved in the process. The second part moves toward the examination of factors associated with psychological and marital adjustment in both couple partners. Here again, there exists a large diversity in empirical data and theoretical models informing this emerging area of interest. Nevertheless, cognitive variables such as coping skills are commonly seen as critical variables to explain the adjustment level in people with TBI and their spouse/caregivers. Concurrently with the discussion of the methodological issues and pitfalls encountered in this area of research, the conclusion provides suggestions of further steps to undertake in this endeavour toward a better understanding of the adjustment process following TBI.

  18. Marital status and twins' health and behavior: an analysis of middle-aged Danish twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osler, Merete; McGue, Matt; Lund, Rikke

    2008-01-01

    mass index (BMI), depression symptoms, self-rated health, cognitive function, physical activity, smoking, and alcohol intake. RESULTS: Among all 2350 individual twins, men who were divorced/widowed or never married had higher depression scores, lower cognitive test scores, lower physical activity....../widowed twin had higher average depression scores and was more likely to be a smoker. Never married twins had lower physical activity scores and never married male twins had higher BMI and higher depression scores than their married co-twin. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that the relationships of adult...... divorce with depression and smoking in Danish twins are due to the stressful effects of marital dissolution, but that marital differences in other health and behavioral outcomes are most consistent with selection effects related to genetic or rearing environmental factors....

  19. Estilos De Comunicación Para el Afrontamiento del Conflicto en la Convivencia Marital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Carolina Segura Baracaldo,

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo de investigación presenta un estudio y análisis para determinar los estilos de comunicación en las parejas de los miembros de la institución en las Regionales de Policía Nª 4 y 8, para el afrontamiento del conflictos marital. Se analiza teóricamente la prevalencia del estilo comunicativo desde las dimensiones: Asertiva, Agresiva, Sumisa y Agresivo Pasiva. Igualmente se realiza un análisis comparativo de los estilos comunicativos para el afrontamiento del conflicto marital entre las dos Regionales estableciendo diferencias entre factores sociodemográficos (edad, sexo y su relación con los estilos comunicativos utilizados de acuerdo al tiempo de convivencia de la pareja. Por último se formulan recomendaciones para la prevención de la violencia intrafamiliar mediante el empleo de una comunicación asertiva.

  20. The influence of marital status on stage at diagnosis and survival of patients with colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qingguo; Gan, Lu; Liang, Lei; Li, Xinxiang; Cai, Sanjun

    2015-03-30

    Marital status was found to be an independent prognostic factor for survival in various cancer types, but it hasn't been fully studied in colorectal cancer (CRC). The Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results database was used to compare survival outcomes with marital status in each stage. In total, 112, 776 eligible patients were identified. Patients in the widowed group were more frequently elderly women, more common of colon cancer, and more stage I/II in tumor stage (P married group (94.72% VS 94.10%). Married CRC patients had better 5year cause-specific survival (CSS) than those unmarried (P married patients at stage I (94.8% vs 89.8%, P vs 76.5%, P vs 53.9%, P VS 8.2%, P unmarried patients were at greater risk of cancer specific mortality. Despite favorable clinicpathological characteristics, widowed patients were at highest risk of death compared with other groups.

  1. Research on Factors Influencing Municipal Household Solid Waste Separate Collection: Bayesian Belief Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhujie Chu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Municipal household solid waste (MHSW has become a serious problem in China over the course of the last two decades, resulting in significant side effects to the environment. Therefore, effective management of MHSW has attracted wide attention from both researchers and practitioners. Separate collection, the first and crucial step to solve the MHSW problem, however, has not been thoroughly studied to date. An empirical survey has been conducted among 387 households in Harbin, China in this study. We use Bayesian Belief Networks model to determine the influencing factors on separate collection. Four types of factors are identified, including political, economic, social cultural and technological based on the PEST (political, economic, social and technological analytical method. In addition, we further analyze the influential power of different factors, based on the network structure and probability changes obtained by Netica software. Results indicate that technological dimension has the greatest impact on MHSW separate collection, followed by the political dimension and economic dimension; social cultural dimension impacts MHSW the least.

  2. Enhanced Two-Factor Authentication and Key Agreement Using Dynamic Identities in Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, I-Pin; Lee, Tian-Fu; Lin, Tsung-Hung; Liu, Chuan-Ming

    2015-11-30

    Key agreements that use only password authentication are convenient in communication networks, but these key agreement schemes often fail to resist possible attacks, and therefore provide poor security compared with some other authentication schemes. To increase security, many authentication and key agreement schemes use smartcard authentication in addition to passwords. Thus, two-factor authentication and key agreement schemes using smartcards and passwords are widely adopted in many applications. Vaidya et al. recently presented a two-factor authentication and key agreement scheme for wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Kim et al. observed that the Vaidya et al. scheme fails to resist gateway node bypassing and user impersonation attacks, and then proposed an improved scheme for WSNs. This study analyzes the weaknesses of the two-factor authentication and key agreement scheme of Kim et al., which include vulnerability to impersonation attacks, lost smartcard attacks and man-in-the-middle attacks, violation of session key security, and failure to protect user privacy. An efficient and secure authentication and key agreement scheme for WSNs based on the scheme of Kim et al. is then proposed. The proposed scheme not only solves the weaknesses of previous approaches, but also increases security requirements while maintaining low computational cost.

  3. Artificial neural networks in the estimation of monthly capacity factors of WECS in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tu, Y.-L.; Chang, T.-J.; Hsieh, C.-I; Shih, J.-Y.

    2010-01-01

    Measured wind speed and power output time series with 10-min resolution at Jhongtun wind power station and 30-min resolution at Mailiao station have been used to estimate monthly energy output by artificial neural networks (ANNs) over a period spanned between 2002 and 2006. The widely used back propagation algorithm is used in the network. The available database of these two stations is divided into two parts - data from Year 2002 to Year 2005 is for training and Year 2006 data is used for the validation of training results. For the purpose of investigating the adequate training length of ANN simulations, four training periods (Year 2002-2005, 2003-2005, 2004-2005 and 2005) together with four training intervals (yearly, half-yearly, seasonal, and monthly) are input into the ANN model to estimate monthly capacity factors of the two stations at Year 2006 and compared with the measured data. The results show that ANN is an efficient tool for estimating wind power production. A training length with 12 months can provide satisfactory estimation of monthly capacity factors in both of the stations. Moreover, the half-yearly training interval, which is derived from the real wind characteristics in Taiwan, gives the best estimation of monthly capacity factors compared to other training intervals.

  4. Integrating a Storage Factor into R-NARX Neural Networks for Flood Forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Po-Kai; Chang, Li-Chiu; Chang, Fi-John; Shih, Ban-Jwu

    2017-04-01

    Because mountainous terrains and steep landforms rapidly accelerate the speed of flood flow in Taiwan island, accurate multi-step-ahead inflow forecasts during typhoon events for providing reliable information benefiting the decision-makings of reservoir pre-storm release and flood-control operation are considered crucial and challenging. Various types of artificial neural networks (ANNs) have been successfully applied in hydrological fields. This study proposes a recurrent configuration of the nonlinear autoregressive with exogenous inputs (NARX) network, called R-NARX, with various effective inputs to forecast the inflows of the Feitsui Reservoir, a pivot reservoir for water supply to Taipei metropolitan in Taiwan, during typhoon periods. The proposed R-NARX is constructed based on the recurrent neural network (RNN), which is commonly used for modelling nonlinear dynamical systems. A large number of hourly rainfall and inflow data sets collected from 95 historical typhoon events in the last thirty years are used to train, validate and test the models. The potential input variables, including rainfall in previous time steps (one to six hours), cumulative rainfall, the storage factor and the storage function, are assessed, and various models are constructed with their reliability and accuracy being tested. We find that the previous (t-2) rainfall and cumulative rainfall are crucial inputs and the storage factor and the storage function would also improve the forecast accuracy of the models. We demonstrate that the R-NARX model not only can accurately forecast the inflows but also effectively catch the peak flow without adopting observed inflow data during the entire typhoon period. Besides, the model with the storage factor is superior to the model with the storage function, where its improvement can reach 24%. This approach can well model the rainfall-runoff process for the entire flood forecasting period without the use of observed inflow data and can provide

  5. Effect of Family Structure on Marital Attitudes of Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganong, Lawrence; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Assesses the effect of exposure to different family structures (single parent families, reconstituted families, intact families) on the marital socialization of 127 males and 194 female adolescents. (Author/CM)

  6. Indirect Estimation of Selected Measures of Fertility and Marital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DLHS6

    2018-01-09

    Jan 9, 2018 ... marital status distribution data of India especially of the 2011 census in deriving indirectly the fertility measures .... 2011 Census, Economic and Political weekly, EPW Vol. ... Indirect Estimates of Total Fertility Rate Using Child.

  7. Self-Esteem, Coping Efforts and Marital Adjustment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude Bélanger

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study is to investigate the relationship between self-esteem, specific coping strategies and marital adjustment. The sample consists of 216 subjects from 108 couples who completed the Dyadic Adjustment Scale, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and the Ways of Coping Checklist. The results confirm the presence of a relationship between self-esteem, specific coping strategies and marital adjustment in men and women. High self-esteem and marital adjustment are associated with the use of problem solving strategies and less avoidance as a way of coping. Moreover, cross analyses reveal that one’s feelings of self-worth are associated with his/her spouse's marital adjustment. The theoretical implications of these results are discussed.

  8. Kin Group Affiliation and Marital Violence Against Women in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedziafa, Alice Pearl; Tenkorang, Eric Y

    2016-01-01

    The socialization of men and women in Ghana often confers either patrilineal or matrilineal rights, privileges, and responsibilities. Yet, previous studies that explored domestic and marital violence in sub-Saharan Africa, and Ghana, paid less attention to kin group affiliation and how the power dynamics within such groups affect marital violence. Using the 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey and applying ordinary least squares (OLS) techniques, this study examined what influences physical, sexual, and emotional violence among matrilineal and patrilineal kin groups. Results indicate significant differences among matrilineal and patrilineal kin groups regarding marital violence. Socioeconomic variables that capture feminist and power theories were significantly related to sexual and emotional violence in matrilineal societies. Also, variables that tap both cultural and life course epistemologies of domestic violence were strongly related to physical, sexual, and emotional violence among married women in patrilineal kin groups. Policymakers must pay attention to kin group affiliation in designing policies aimed at reducing marital violence among Ghanaian women.

  9. Binary Factorization in Hopfield-Like Neural Networks: Single-Step Approximation and Computer Simulations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Frolov, A. A.; Sirota, A.M.; Húsek, Dušan; Muraviev, I. P.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 2 (2004), s. 139-152 ISSN 1210-0552 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/01/1192 Grant - others:BARRANDE(EU) 99010-2/99053; Intellectual computer Systems(EU) Grant 2.45 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1030915 Keywords : nonlinear binary factor analysis * feature extraction * recurrent neural network * Single-Step approximation * neurodynamics simulation * attraction basins * Hebbian learning * unsupervised learning * neuroscience * brain function modeling Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  10. The Effect of Marital Violence on Infertility Distress among A Sample of Turkish Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aygül Akyüz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between marital violence and distress level among women with a diagnosis of infertility. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study consisted of 139 married women diagnosed as primary infertile who applied to an in vitro fertilization (IVF center in Turkey, between September and December 2009. A descriptive information questionnaire developed by the researcher was used for data collection. In addition, an infertility distress scale (IDS for determining the severity effect of infertility and the scale for marital violence against women (SDVW for determining level of marital violence against the women were used. Results: The total IDS score of the study sample was 37.76 ± 10.53. There was no significant relationship between the age and education level of the women and the total IDS score. The total IDS score was higher in women who did not work and those being treated for infertility for more than three years. The total SDVW score of the study sample was 67.0 ± 8.26. The total SDVW score was higher in women who had been trying to have a child for more than six years and had received infertility treatment for longer than three years. The employment status of the women and physical, emotional, and sexual violence scores had a statistically significant relationship with the IDS scores. The emotional violence score was found to have the highest significance among the variables affecting total IDS score. Conclusion: Marital violence is a factor increasing the distress of infertile women. Healthcare staff serving infertile couples should consider the possibility of domestic violence against women as a factor affecting the psychological infertility distress level.

  11. The Effect of Marital Violence on Infertility Distress among A Sample of Turkish Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyüz, Aygül; Şahiner, Gönül; Seven, Memnun; Bakır, Bilal

    2014-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between marital violence and distress level among women with a diagnosis of infertility. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study consisted of 139 married women diagnosed as primary infertile who applied to an in vitro fertilization (IVF) center in Turkey, between September and December 2009. A descriptive information questionnaire developed by the researcher was used for data collection. In addition, an infertility distress scale (IDS) for determining the severity effect of infertility and the scale for marital violence against women (SDVW) for determining level of marital violence against the women were used. Results: The total IDS score of the study sample was 37.76 ± 10.53. There was no significant relationship between the age and education level of the women and the total IDS score. The total IDS score was higher in women who did not work and those being treated for infertility for more than three years. The total SDVW score of the study sample was 67.0 ± 8.26. The total SDVW score was higher in women who had been trying to have a child for more than six years and had received infertility treatment for longer than three years. The employment status of the women and physical, emotional, and sexual violence scores had a statistically significant relationship with the IDS scores. The emotional violence score was found to have the highest significance among the variables affecting total IDS score. Conclusion: Marital violence is a factor increasing the distress of infertile women. Healthcare staff serving infertile couples should consider the possibility of domestic violence against women as a factor affecting the psychological infertility distress level. PMID:24696770

  12. Marital violence and coparenting quality after separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardesty, Jennifer L; Crossman, Kimberly A; Khaw, Lyndal; Raffaelli, Marcela

    2016-04-01

    Research has identified multiple predictors of coparenting quality, but few studies have investigated how intimate partner violence (IPV) affects divorcing couples' coparenting relationships. We addressed this question in a sample of 154 mothers with different marital IPV experiences. Mothers were recruited within 4 months of a divorce filing and completed two interviews 3 months apart. At Time 1, mothers reported on violence and coercive control during marriage, and postseparation behavioral (e.g., parental communication), emotional (e.g., anger), and intrusion (e.g., harassment) dynamics; at Time 2, they reported on coparenting quality (i.e., levels of support and conflict). In the overall sample, divorce and violence variables independently predicted coparenting quality. Mothers were then classified into three groups: no violence (NV; n = 74), situational couple violence (SCV; n = 46), or coercive controlling violence (CCV; n = 34). Of the 3, coparenting quality was lowest in the CCV group. While the SCV group was similar to the NV group on most divorce-related variables, the CCV group reported more hostility at separation and placed less importance on father-child relationships. Finally, patterns of association between study variables and coparenting quality showed some parallels between the SCV and NV groups. For CCV, postseparation harassment and fear were negatively associated with coparenting quality. Findings contribute to understanding predictors of coparenting quality and support the need for individualized assessments of divorce cases with attention to IPV dynamics. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Influence of hyperprotection (overexactness on marital problems

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    Sergey A. Kapustin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available As it was mentioned in one of the previous papers, basic styles of parenting in families with parent-child problems were hyperprotection and overexactness. Another paper described a new so-called existential criterion of normal and abnormal personality based on the works of Erich Fromm. Applying this criterion to personality evaluation of overprotecting and overexacting parents in families with parent-child problems showed that their personality could be identified as abnormal. Research on the influence of hyperprotection and overexactness at children personality development in these families, where existential criterion was also applied, showed that these parenting styles contribute to promoting child specific abnormal personality types: oriented on external assistance, oriented on compliance with other people’s requirements and oriented on protest against such compliance. In the present study, the direct or indirect hyperprotection or overexactness in 80 per cent of cases was observed. Direct hyperprotection or overexactness means that theyare clearly determined in relationship of the married couple. Indirect hyperprotection or overexactness indicates that the couple has abnormal personality types that date have roots in the childhood under the influence of the hyperprotection and overexactness. Classification of these cases was developed, based on various types of direct or indirect input of hyperprotection and overexactness in emerging marital problems. A variety of problems in couples are shown to be closely connected with abnormality of their own personality or the personality of their immediate environment, primarily wives, husbands and parents.

  14. Demand-Withdraw Patterns in Marital Conflict in the Home

    OpenAIRE

    Papp, Lauren M.; Kouros, Chrystyna D.; Cummings, E. Mark

    2009-01-01

    The present study extended laboratory-based findings of demand-withdraw communication into marital conflict in the home and further explored its linkages with spousal depression. U.S. couples (N = 116) provided diary reports of marital conflict and rated depressive symptoms. Hierarchical linear modeling results indicated that husband demand-wife withdraw and wife demand-husband withdraw occurred in the home at equal frequency, and both were more likely to occur when discussing topics that con...

  15. A study on relationship between emotional maturity and marital satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Esmael Mosavi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Marriage is one of the most important events of people's lives and when it happens, it could have both positive and negative consequences. In this paper, we present an empirical study to investigate the relationship between emotional maturity and marital satisfaction using a classical questionnaire. The study chooses all people aged 25-35 who live in region 10 of the city of Esfahan, Iran. The proposed study splits the main hypothesis into five detailed questions, which considers the relationship between marital satisfaction with five other components including emotional instability, return emotional, social maladjustment, close character and lack of independence. The results indicate a negative correlation between marital satisfaction and these items and t-student confirmed that there are meaningful relationship between marital satisfaction and emotional instability, return emotional, close character and lack of independence but there is no meaningful relationship between marital satisfaction and social maladjustment. In summary, the survey concluded that there is meaningful relationship between marital satisfaction and emotional maturity.

  16. Types of marital intimacy and prevalence of emotional illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waring, E M; Patton, D; Neron, C A; Linker, W

    1986-11-01

    Epidemiological research has demonstrated that married individuals generally experience better emotional health than the single, divorced and widowed. The married populations in these studies were not evaluated on the basis of the quality of their marital relationships. Research on the interpersonal quality of marital relationships in the general married population has rarely been reported in the psychiatric literature. A sample of the general married population (n = 250 couples) completed a self-report questionnaire which measures the quality and the quantity of intimacy in marriage. Four types of marital patterns were operationally defined by total intimacy score, pattern of scale profile, and social desirability scores. The relative frequencies of these types of marriages are reported. The prevalence of symptoms of non-psychotic emotional illness in one or both spouses in the four categories of marriage is reported. Thirty-one percent (31%) of the couples report marriages with absent and/or deficient intimacy. Couples with "absent and/or deficient" marital intimacy had a significantly higher proportion of spouses with symptoms of non-psychotic emotional illness. This study suggests that previous research may have confounded the variables of marital status and marital quality in the study of psychiatric disorder. These studies may have under-estimated the positive effect of an "optimally" intimate relationship.

  17. Labour division, marital quality and the ideology of gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tošić Milica

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Marriage is defined as a social, religious and legal community of a husband and wife, and the quality of this relationship is very important for spouses, children and the society in the widest sense. According to the definition of marriage itself it is clear that a suitable gender ideology and the attitudes towards native roles have the significant role in many aspects of the marital and family dynamics. What is more, it is considered that native roles have the leading role in the determination of the quality of marital relations by determining what people expect from their partners and marriage. The role of women and the attitudes towards their role have undergone many changes in the last few decades under the influence of particular social changes, primarily thanks to the higher employment rate of women, and consequently different gender division of labor between men and women, both at work and in families. This paper analyses how the employment of women and the change in the traditional division of labor influence the quality of marital relationships. First of all, we have indicated the significant positive, as well as negative implications which the change in the marital division of labor has to the quality of marital relations. In the end, we have tried to point out that the adopted gender ideology, traditional or egalitarian/feminist acts as an important and essential mediator in the relation between the division of labor and perceived quality of marital relationship.

  18. Marital Processes, Arranged Marriage, and Contraception to Limit Fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghimire, Dirgha J.; Axinn, William G.

    2013-01-01

    An international transition away from familially-arranged marriages toward participation in spouse choice has endured for decades and continues to spread through rural Asia today. Though we know this transformation has important consequences for childbearing early in marriage, we know much less about longer-term consequences of this marital revolution. This study draws upon theories of family and fertility change and a rural Asian panel study designed to investigate changes in both marital and childbearing behaviors to investigate these long-term consequences. Controlling for social changes that shape both marital practices and childbearing behaviors, and explicitly considering multiple dimensions of marital processes, we find evidence consistent with an independent, long-standing association of participation in spouse choice with higher rates of contraception to terminate childbearing. These results add a new dimension to the evidence linking revolutions in marital behavior to long-term declines in fertility, but also motivate new research to consider a broader range of long-term consequences of changing marital processes. PMID:23709184

  19. Family interaction and a supportive social network as salutogenic factors in childhood atopic illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, Per A; Kjellman, N-I Max; Björkstén, Bengt

    2002-02-01

    The role of psycho-social factors in the development of allergy was studied prospectively in 82 infants with a family history of atopy. The family participated in a standardized family test when the children were 18 months old. The ability to adjust to demands of the situation ('adaptability'), and the balance between emotional closeness and distance ('cohesion'), were assessed from videotapes by independent raters. Families rated as functional in both of these aspects were classified as 'functional', otherwise as 'dysfunctional'. The social network, life events, atopic symptoms (based on postal inquiries regarding symptoms answered by the parents, and on physical examinations), psychiatric symptoms, and socio-economic circumstances of the families were evaluated when the children were 18 months and 3 years of age. The children were classified as atopic (asthmatic symptoms or eczema) or as non-atopic. All but two children with atopic disease at 3 years of age had atopic disease before 18 months of age, while 32 of 60 children with atopic disease at 18 months of age had no problems by 3 years of age. An unbalanced family interplay at 18 months was associated with a relative risk (RR) of 1.99 for continuing atopic illness at 3 years of age (1.18 eczema on three or more localizations (RR reduced by 4.5%), and the amount of cat allergen in household dust (RR reduced by 3%). Recovery from atopic illness between 18 months and 3 years of age was four times as probable in families with functional interaction and a good social supportive network when children were 18 months of age, than in dysfunctional families with a poor social network (74% versus 20% p emotional distress than did healthy children (p = 0.02). Dysfunctional family interaction patterns were more commonly observed in families of children who at 3 years of age still had atopic symptoms, than in children who had recovered. The patterns included expression of emotion and reaction to the needs of others

  20. Transcriptional Regulatory Network Analysis of MYB Transcription Factor Family Genes in Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuchi eSmita

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available MYB transcription factor (TF is one of the largest TF families and regulates defense responses to various stresses, hormone signaling as well as many metabolic and developmental processes in plants. Understanding these regulatory hierarchies of gene expression networks in response to developmental and environmental cues is a major challenge due to the complex interactions between the genetic elements. Correlation analyses are useful to unravel co-regulated gene pairs governing biological process as well as identification of new candidate hub genes in response to these complex processes. High throughput expression profiling data are highly useful for construction of co-expression networks. In the present study, we utilized transcriptome data for comprehensive regulatory network studies of MYB TFs by top down and guide gene approaches. More than 50% of OsMYBs were strongly correlated under fifty experimental conditions with 51 hub genes via top down approach. Further, clusters were identified using Markov Clustering (MCL. To maximize the clustering performance, parameter evaluation of the MCL inflation score (I was performed in terms of enriched GO categories by measuring F-score. Comparison of co-expressed cluster and clads analyzed from phylogenetic analysis signifies their evolutionarily conserved co-regulatory role. We utilized compendium of known interaction and biological role with Gene Ontology enrichment analysis to hypothesize function of coexpressed OsMYBs. In the other part, the transcriptional regulatory network analysis by guide gene approach revealed 40 putative targets of 26 OsMYB TF hubs with high correlation value utilizing 815 microarray data. The putative targets with MYB-binding cis-elements enrichment in their promoter region, functional co-occurrence as well as nuclear localization supports our finding. Specially, enrichment of MYB binding regions involved in drought-inducibility implying their regulatory role in drought

  1. Child Health, Maternal Marital and Socioeconomic Factors, and Maternal Health

    OpenAIRE

    Garbarski, Dana; Witt, Whitney P.

    2012-01-01

    While maternal socioeconomic status and health predict in part children’s future health and socioeconomic prospects, it is possible that the intergenerational association flows in the other direction such that child health affects maternal outcomes. Previous research demonstrates that poor child health increases the risk of adverse maternal physical and mental health outcomes. We hypothesize that poor child health may also increase the risk of poor maternal health outcomes through an interact...

  2. Effect of Infant Health Problem, Mother's Depression and Marital Relationship on Infant Abuse in Korea: Mediating Pathway of Marital Relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoung-Eun Kim, PhD

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: The findings from this study demonstrate the fundamental importance of infant health as linked to the mother's mental health, and marital relationship and increasing the quality of marital relationship may be the key to infant abuse prevention.

  3. Using marital status and continuous marital satisfaction ratings to predict depressive symptoms in married and unmarried women with systemic sclerosis: A Canadian Scleroderma Research Group Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levis, B.; Rice, D.B.; Kwakkenbos, C.M.C.; Steele, R.J.; Hagedoorn, M.; Hudson, M.; Baron, M.; Thombs, B.D.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Married persons have, on average, better mental health than nonmarried persons. Among married persons, marital satisfaction is associated with better mental health. Studies on mental health in married and nonmarried persons that consider marital satisfaction have categorized patients as

  4. Using Marital Status and Continuous Marital Satisfaction Ratings to Predict Depressive Symptoms in Married and Unmarried Women With Systemic Sclerosis : A Canadian Scleroderma Research Group Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levis, Brooke; Rice, Danielle B.; Kwakkenbos, Linda; Steele, Russell J.; Hagedoorn, Mariet; Hudson, Marie; Baron, Murray; Thombs, Brett D.

    Objective. Married persons have, on average, better mental health than nonmarried persons. Among married persons, marital satisfaction is associated with better mental health. Studies on mental health in married and nonmarried persons that consider marital satisfaction have categorized patients as

  5. [Characteristics of non-marital and non-commercial heterosexual transmission of HIV infection in Miao-Dong Autonomous prefecture of Qiandongnan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Q Y; Wang, F L; Xu, P; Wen, H J; Xiong, Y X; Yang, J; Long, Y; He, H J; Shi, J; Lyu, P

    2017-11-06

    Objective: The goal of this research was to understand the demographic distribution and related factors of non-marital and non-commercial heterosexual transmission (non-commercial transmission) for HIV/AIDS (human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome). Methods: Data related to HIV/AIDS infected by non-marital heterosexual transmission and whose present address was in Qian Dongnan, were collected from Information System on the HIV/AIDS Prevention and Control. Information included demographic characteristics, the members of non-marital sex partners, transmission path, detection source, CD4(+)T lymphocyte level, et al. cases belong to homosexual history, injective drug use or non-classified non-marital heterosexuality transmission were excluded, totally collect HIV/AIDS 919 cases. Multivariate logistic regressions were used to analyze potential factors associated with non-marital and non-commercial heterosexual transmission. In addition, in March and June 2017, using a convenience sampling, we conducted one-to-one interviews among 10 HIV/AIDS who were infected by non-marital heterosexuality and had non-marital and non-commercial heterosexual experience in Kaili Center for Disease Control and Prevention. The content of the interview included basic information, sexual orientation, the main place of making friends and sexual behavior, attitude to commercial heterosexuality and non-martial and non-commercial heterosexuality and so on. Results: Out of the 919 cases, 645 (70.2%) were male, the proportion of non-commercial transmission was 55.06% (506). The proportion of female HIV/AIDS with non-commercial transmission was 84.7% (232), which was higher than male (42.5%(274)) (χ(2)=138.35, Pcommercial transmission was 61.5% (275), which was higher than other religion (52.2%(412)) (χ(2)=6.32, P= 0.012). The proportion of HIV/AIDS with non-commercial transmission who had 0-5 non-marital sexual partners was 58.8% (498), which was higher than who had>5 non-marital

  6. The default mode network and recurrent depression: a neurobiological model of cognitive risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchetti, Igor; Koster, Ernst H W; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J; De Raedt, Rudi

    2012-09-01

    A neurobiological account of cognitive vulnerability for recurrent depression is presented based on recent developments of resting state neural networks. We propose that alterations in the interplay between task positive (TP) and task negative (TN) elements of the Default Mode Network (DMN) act as a neurobiological risk factor for recurrent depression mediated by cognitive mechanisms. In the framework, depression is characterized by an imbalance between TN-TP components leading to an overpowering of TP by TN activity. The TN-TP imbalance is associated with a dysfunctional internally-focused cognitive style as well as a failure to attenuate TN activity in the transition from rest to task. Thus we propose the TN-TP imbalance as overarching neural mechanism involved in crucial cognitive risk factors for recurrent depression, namely rumination, impaired attentional control, and cognitive reactivity. During remission the TN-TP imbalance persists predisposing to vulnerability of recurrent depression. Empirical data to support this model is reviewed. Finally, we specify how this framework can guide future research efforts.

  7. Psychological risk factors of addiction to social networking sites among Chinese smartphone users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Anise M S; Cheung, Vivi I; Ku, Lisbeth; Hung, Eva P W

    2013-09-01

    Smartphones allow users to access social networking sites (SNSs) whenever and wherever they want. Such easy availability and accessibility may increase their vulnerability to addiction. Based on the social cognitive theory (SCT), we examined the impacts of outcome expectancies, self-efficacy, and impulsivity on young Chinese smartphone users' addictive tendencies toward SNSs. Two hundred seventy-seven Macau young smartphone users (116 males and 161 females; mean age = 26.62) filled out an online Chinese questionnaire concerning their usage of social networking sites via smartphones, addiction tendencies toward SNSs, impulsivity trait, outcome expectancies toward the use, and Internet self-efficacy. The findings revealed that those who spent more time on SNSs also reported higher addictive tendencies. Addictive tendencies were positively correlated with both outcome expectancies and impulsivity, but negatively associated with Internet self-efficacy. These three psychological variables explained 23% of the variance in addictive tendencies. The findings of this study suggest that, compared to demographics, psychological factors provide a better account for addictive tendencies towards SNSs among Chinese smartphone users in Macau. The three psychological risk factors were low Internet self-efficacy, favorable outcome expectancies, and high impulsivity trait. Educational campaigns with screening procedures for high-risk groups are recommended for effective prevention and treatment.

  8. A mathematical model of sentimental dynamics accounting for marital dissolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, José-Manuel

    2010-03-31

    Marital dissolution is ubiquitous in western societies. It poses major scientific and sociological problems both in theoretical and therapeutic terms. Scholars and therapists agree on the existence of a sort of second law of thermodynamics for sentimental relationships. Effort is required to sustain them. Love is not enough. Building on a simple version of the second law we use optimal control theory as a novel approach to model sentimental dynamics. Our analysis is consistent with sociological data. We show that, when both partners have similar emotional attributes, there is an optimal effort policy yielding a durable happy union. This policy is prey to structural destabilization resulting from a combination of two factors: there is an effort gap because the optimal policy always entails discomfort and there is a tendency to lower effort to non-sustaining levels due to the instability of the dynamics. These mathematical facts implied by the model unveil an underlying mechanism that may explain couple disruption in real scenarios. Within this framework the apparent paradox that a union consistently planned to last forever will probably break up is explained as a mechanistic consequence of the second law.

  9. A mathematical model of sentimental dynamics accounting for marital dissolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José-Manuel Rey

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Marital dissolution is ubiquitous in western societies. It poses major scientific and sociological problems both in theoretical and therapeutic terms. Scholars and therapists agree on the existence of a sort of second law of thermodynamics for sentimental relationships. Effort is required to sustain them. Love is not enough. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Building on a simple version of the second law we use optimal control theory as a novel approach to model sentimental dynamics. Our analysis is consistent with sociological data. We show that, when both partners have similar emotional attributes, there is an optimal effort policy yielding a durable happy union. This policy is prey to structural destabilization resulting from a combination of two factors: there is an effort gap because the optimal policy always entails discomfort and there is a tendency to lower effort to non-sustaining levels due to the instability of the dynamics. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These mathematical facts implied by the model unveil an underlying mechanism that may explain couple disruption in real scenarios. Within this framework the apparent paradox that a union consistently planned to last forever will probably break up is explained as a mechanistic consequence of the second law.

  10. Using an artificial neural network to predict carbon dioxide compressibility factor at high pressure and temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohagheghian, Erfan [Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John' s (Canada); Zafarian-Rigaki, Habiballah; Motamedi-Ghahfarrokhi, Yaser; Hemmati-Sarapardeh, Abdolhossein [Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Carbon dioxide injection, which is widely used as an enhanced oil recovery (EOR) method, has the potential of being coupled with CO{sub 2} sequestration and reducing the emission of greenhouse gas. Hence, knowing the compressibility factor of carbon dioxide is of a vital significance. Compressibility factor (Z-factor) is traditionally measured through time consuming, expensive and cumbersome experiments. Hence, developing a fast, robust and accurate model for its estimation is necessary. In this study, a new reliable model on the basis of feed forward artificial neural networks is presented to predict CO{sub 2} compressibility factor. Reduced temperature and pressure were selected as the input parameters of the proposed model. To evaluate and compare the results of the developed model with pre-existing models, both statistical and graphical error analyses were employed. The results indicated that the proposed model is more reliable and accurate compared to pre-existing models in a wide range of temperature (up to 1,273.15 K) and pressure (up to 140MPa). Furthermore, by employing the relevancy factor, the effect of pressure and temprature on the Z-factor of CO{sub 2} was compared for below and above the critical pressure of CO{sub 2}, and the physcially expected trends were observed. Finally, to identify the probable outliers and applicability domain of the proposed ANN model, both numerical and graphical techniques based on Leverage approach were performed. The results illustrated that only 1.75% of the experimental data points were located out of the applicability domain of the proposed model. As a result, the developed model is reliable for the prediction of CO{sub 2} compressibility factor.

  11. Intergenerational transmission of corporal punishment in China: the moderating role of marital satisfaction and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meifang; Xing, Xiaopei; Zhao, Jinxia

    2014-11-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the intergenerational patterns in the transmission of parental corporal punishment in China and the moderating effects of marital satisfaction (of the second generation: G2) and gender (of three generations: G1, G2 and G3) on these patterns. Six hundred thirty-five father-mother dyads with preschool-aged children were recruited to participate in this survey. The results provided evidence of cross-generational continuity in parental corporal punishment in Chinese society and also supported the hypothesis that same-gender continuity in parental corporal punishment is stronger than cross-gender continuity. Moreover, it was found that marital satisfaction moderated the transmission of parental corporal punishment, and there were some interesting gender differences in the moderator effect. Specifically, marital satisfaction buffered the transmission of corporal punishment from grandmothers to mothers of daughters and to fathers of sons but strengthened the transmission from grandfathers to fathers of sons. The findings broaden our understanding of the factors and processes that account for both discontinuity and continuity in parental corporal punishment, particularly within the Chinese cultural context.

  12. Burning the Candle at Both Ends: Extramarital Sex as a Precursor of Marital Disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demaris, Alfred

    2013-11-01

    This study examines several aspects of the association between engaging in extramarital sex and the disruption of one's marriage. In particular: is there a differential effect on disruption depending on the gender of the perpetrator? Is the effect of infidelity primarily due to its negative impact on marital quality and one's resistance to divorce? Are there characteristics of marriages that condition the effect of infidelity? Panel data on 1621 respondents followed from 1980 - 2000 in the Marital Instability Over the Life Course survey were utilized to answer these questions. Interval-censored Cox regression analysis revealed several noteworthy findings. Reports of problems due to extramarital involvement were strongly related to marital disruption, even holding constant the quality of the marriage. Although men were about three times more likely to be the cheating spouse, there was no difference in the effect of an affair on the marriage according to gender of the cheater. Approximately 40% of the effect of extramarital sex on disruption is accounted for by the mediating factors. Two moderators of infidelity's positive effect on disruption were found: the effect was substantially stronger for very religious couples, but weaker when the wife was in the labor force.

  13. Discovery of the content of rumination thoughts among women with marital conflicts: Qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahimeh Namdarpour

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Rumination is the predisposing and continuing factor of depression. Since women are prone to rumination, the purpose of this study was to discover the content of rumination thoughts among women with marital conflicts. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on a qualitative method basis, and target society was composed of women with marital conflicts and rumination. The sample was selected from among those referring to Isfahan counseling centers and was statured with 15 persons through purposeful sampling method. Information was collected through semi-structured interviews and data analysis was performed based on thematic analysis. Results: Five main categories were obtained from data analysis: root cause analysis, feeling incompetence, remembrance of bitter memories, negative emotions, and hesitation in continuation of couple relationship. Conclusion: The findings indicate that when women with marital conflicts become ruminant, the course of rumination is so that it could harm continuation of their couple relationship. Therefore, to reduce this damage, interventions are required to intervene effectively in this process.

  14. The Relationship between Marital Status and Psychological Resilience in Chronic Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, James B; Hart, Robert P; Wade, James H; Bajaj, Jasmohan S; Price, Donald D

    2013-01-01

    We examined the relationship between marital status and a 2-stage model of pain-related effect, consisting of pain unpleasantness and suffering. We studied 1914 chronic pain patients using multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) to clarify whether marital status was a determinant factor in the emotional or ideational suffering associated with chronic pain after controlling for pain sensation intensity, age, and ethnicity. Marital status was unrelated to immediate unpleasantness (P = 0.08). We found a strong association with emotional suffering (P < 0.0001) but not with negative illness beliefs (P = 0.44). Interestingly, widowed subjects experienced significantly less frustration, fear, and anger than all other groups (married, divorced, separated, or single). A final MANCOVA including sex as a covariate revealed that the emotional response to pain was the same for both widow and widower. Only those individuals whose spouse died experienced less emotional turmoil in the face of a condition threatening their lifestyle. These data suggest that after experiencing the death of a spouse, an individual may derive some "emotional inoculation" against future lifestyle threat.

  15. The Relationship between Marital Status and Psychological Resilience in Chronic Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James B. Wade

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined the relationship between marital status and a 2-stage model of pain-related effect, consisting of pain unpleasantness and suffering. We studied 1914 chronic pain patients using multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA to clarify whether marital status was a determinant factor in the emotional or ideational suffering associated with chronic pain after controlling for pain sensation intensity, age, and ethnicity. Marital status was unrelated to immediate unpleasantness (. We found a strong association with emotional suffering ( but not with negative illness beliefs (. Interestingly, widowed subjects experienced significantly less frustration, fear, and anger than all other groups (married, divorced, separated, or single. A final MANCOVA including sex as a covariate revealed that the emotional response to pain was the same for both widow and widower. Only those individuals whose spouse died experienced less emotional turmoil in the face of a condition threatening their lifestyle. These data suggest that after experiencing the death of a spouse, an individual may derive some “emotional inoculation” against future lifestyle threat.

  16. Marital satisfaction, conflict communication, attachment style and psychological distress in couples with a hospitalized depressed patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemmens, Gilbert M D; Buysse, Ann; Heene, Els; Eisler, Ivan; Demyttenaere, Koen

    2007-04-01

    There has been fairly consistent empirical support for the association between major depressive disorder and marital dissatisfaction. However, this evidence is limited mostly to out-patient and population-based samples. Further, the role of possible mediating factors such as attachment style and conflict communication are less well investigated in major depression. The present study aims to investigate whether couples with a depressed partner and nonclinical couples differ in marital satisfaction, attachment style, psychological distress and conflict communication. Gender differences are also investigated. Seventy-seven couples, who participated in a family intervention trial, were compared with 77 age- and gender-matched nonclinical couples. The depressed patients reported more psychological distress and attachment difficulties and less marital satisfaction than their partners and the nonclinical couples. Partners perceived their relationship as more satisfying than the nonclinical couples. The clinical couples reported less mutual constructive and more mutual avoidant communication in their relationship compared with the nonclinical couples. Finally, female depressed patients reported higher levels of psychological symptoms and were more avoidant attached than male patients. This study shows important differences in several individual and relational characteristics between couples with a depressed partner and nonclinical couples. Further research will be necessary to clarify whether the investigated psychosocial variables play a causal and/or a maintaining role in depression.

  17. Marital role attitudes and expected role behaviors of college youth in mainland China and Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, K H; Burgess, R L

    1994-09-01

    Mainland China and Taiwan have been politically and physically segregated since 1949, and it was not until the late 1980s that limited contacts and cultural exchanges between the two societies began to take place. During their period of segregation, the two societies adopted different approaches toward gender roles. While gender equality was actively promoted in mainland China, the government in Taiwan lacked the theoretical guidance on how to achieve such equality. Gender egalitarianism in Taiwan therefore remains at the abstract or philosophical level with no specification of what gender equality means in concrete terms. Testing the hypothesis that people in mainland China have become more egalitarian than have people in Taiwan with respect to the division of marital roles, the authors investigated the differences in marital role attitudes and expected behavior among selected college students in mainland China and Taiwan. Survey responses were obtained from 185 male and 154 female students from Taiwan and 150 male and 138 female students from mainland China of different years and majors on four dimensions of marital role attitudes and six areas of traditional husband and wife role behaviors. The dimensions were determined through exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. The data indicate that although most of the hypothesized societal differences are supported, some are not. The authors speculate that possible regressive changes in mainland China and progressive changes in Taiwan during the past decade were responsible for the discrepancy between hypotheses and results.

  18. [Factors regarding awareness of preventive care exercises: Distance to exercise facilities and their social networks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soma, Yuki; Tsunoda, Kenji; Kitano, Naruki; Jindo, Takashi; Okura, Tomohiro

    2015-01-01

    The present study examines factors affecting individuals' awareness of certain types of preventive care exercises, particularly the distance from their home to an exercise facility and their social networks. Participants were 3206 men (age, 73.0±6.2 years) and 3395 women (age, 73.2±6.4 years) aged ≥65 years who had not been certified as persons with care needs and who had responded to an inventory survey conducted in Kasama City, Japan, in 2013. We performed multiple logistic regression analysis to assess the characteristics associated with participants' awareness of two types of exercises for preventive care: "silver rehabili taisou" (SRT) and "square-stepping exercise" (SSE). Independent variables were distance from home to the exercise facility, social networks, transportation availability, physical function, cognitive function, and neighborhood population density. Older adults who were aware of the exercises lived significantly closer to an exercise facility (SRT, aware: 1,148.5±961.3 m vs. unaware: 1,284.2±1,027.4 m; SSE, aware: 1,415.9±1104.1 m vs. unaware: 1,615.7±1,172.2 m). Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that participation in community activities (men, SRT-odds ratio [OR]=2.54 and SSE-OR=2.19; women, SRT-OR=4.14 and SSE-OR=3.34] and visiting friends (men, SRT-OR=1.45 and SSE-OR=1.49; women SRT-OR=1.44 and SSE-OR=1.73) were promoting factors for awareness of both types of exercises. In men and women, low physical function (SRT-OR=0.73 and SSE-OR=0.56) and dependence on another person to drive them to the destination (SRT-OR=0.79 and SSE-OR=0.78) were inhibiting factors, respectively. A distance of >500 m between their home and the facility tended to be an inhibiting factor. A shorter distance from home to an exercise facility and better social networks increased awareness of preventive care exercises in both sexes and for both types of exercise. Establishing exercise centers and devising effective methods of imparting information to

  19. Transfer of Patients in a Telestroke Network: What Are the Relevant Factors for Making This Decision?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingner, Carsten M; Brodoehl, Stefan; Funck, Laura; Klingner, Caroline C; Berrouschot, Jörg; Witte, Otto W; Günther, Albrecht

    2018-02-01

    Background/Introduction: Current telestroke network consultations are focused on decision-making in the hyperacute stage of stroke management. The two main questions in telestroke consultations are whether thrombolysis should be initiated and whether the patient should be transferred to a hub hospital. Although guidelines exist for initiating intravenous thrombolytic therapy, the question of whether patients should be transferred is far more elusive. In this study, we investigated the factors involved in the decision to transfer stroke patients to a hub hospital. We were particularly interested in identifying factors that promote or impede the transfer of patients. We enrolled 1,615 cases of telestroke consultation of the University Hospital Jena. The two main factors that independently influenced the probability of transferring a patient were the patient's age and the identification of a proximal vessel occlusion. Interestingly, factors such as the severity of symptoms and the time elapsed from symptom onset were not found to have an independent influence on the decision to transfer a patient. The transfer of most patients was justified by the possibility of performing interventional reperfusion therapy. We discuss the effectiveness of the current decision-making process and possible ways to improve decision-making for a more effective selection of patients who would benefit from transfer. The decision-making process to a transfer patient is not standardized and constitutes a trade-off between the intention to treat all possible patients while avoiding the transfer of patients without treatment options.

  20. MIR@NT@N: a framework integrating transcription factors, microRNAs and their targets to identify sub-network motifs in a meta-regulation network model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wasserman Wyeth W

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To understand biological processes and diseases, it is crucial to unravel the concerted interplay of transcription factors (TFs, microRNAs (miRNAs and their targets within regulatory networks and fundamental sub-networks. An integrative computational resource generating a comprehensive view of these regulatory molecular interactions at a genome-wide scale would be of great interest to biologists, but is not available to date. Results To identify and analyze molecular interaction networks, we developed MIR@NT@N, an integrative approach based on a meta-regulation network model and a large-scale database. MIR@NT@N uses a graph-based approach to predict novel molecular actors across multiple regulatory processes (i.e. TFs acting on protein-coding or miRNA genes, or miRNAs acting on messenger RNAs. Exploiting these predictions, the user can generate networks and further analyze them to identify sub-networks, including motifs such as feedback and feedforward loops (FBL and FFL. In addition, networks can be built from lists of molecular actors with an a priori role in a given biological process to predict novel and unanticipated interactions. Analyses can be contextualized and filtered by integrating additional information such as microarray expression data. All results, including generated graphs, can be visualized, saved and exported into various formats. MIR@NT@N performances have been evaluated using published data and then applied to the regulatory program underlying epithelium to mesenchyme transition (EMT, an evolutionary-conserved process which is implicated in embryonic development and disease. Conclusions MIR@NT@N is an effective computational approach to identify novel molecular regulations and to predict gene regulatory networks and sub-networks including conserved motifs within a given biological context. Taking advantage of the M@IA environment, MIR@NT@N is a user-friendly web resource freely available at http

  1. DIAGNOSIS AND PREDICTION OF CHOLECYSTITIS DEVELOPMENT ON THE BASIS OF NEURAL NETWORK ANALYSIS OF RISK FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Lazarenko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To develop an artificial neural network for diagnosing and predicting the development of cholecystitis based on an analysis of data on risk factors, and to explore the possibilities of its application in real clinical practice.Materials and methods. The collection of materials was held in at the hospitals of the city of Kursk and included a survey of 488 patients with hepatopancreatoduodenal diseases. 203 patients were suffering from cholecystitis, in 285 patients the diagnosis of cholecystitis was excluded. Analysis of risk factors’ data (such as sex, age, bad habits, profession, family relationships, etc. was carried out using an internally developed artificial neural network (multilayer perceptron with hyperbolic tangent as the activation function. The computer program “System of Intellectual Analysis and Diagnosis of Diseases” was registered in accordance with established procedure (Certificate No. 2017613090.Results. The use of neural network analysis of data on risk factors in comparison with the processing of information that forms a clinical picture allows the diagnosis of a potential disease with cholecystitis before the onset of symptoms. The training of the artificial neural network with a quantitative output coding the age of probable hospitalization made it possible to generate an array of values, signifficantly (α ≤ 0.001 not differing from the empirical data. The difference between the mean calculated and mean empirical values was 0.45 for the training set and 1.75 for the clinical approbation group. The mean absolute error was within the range of 1.87–2.07 years.Conclusion. 1. The proposed new approach to the diagnosis and prognosis of cholecystitis has demonstrated its effectiveness, which is confirmed in clinical approbation by the levels of sensitivity (94.44%, m = 2.26 and specificity (80.6%, m = 3.9.2. The error in predicting the age of probable hospitalization of patients with cholecystitis did not

  2. A decaying factor accounts for contained activity in neuronal networks with no need of hierarchical or modular organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amancio, Diego R; Oliveira Jr, Osvaldo N; Costa, Luciano da F

    2012-01-01

    The mechanisms responsible for containing activity in systems represented by networks are crucial in various phenomena, for example, in diseases such as epilepsy that affect the neuronal networks and for information dissemination in social networks. The first models to account for contained activity included triggering and inhibition processes, but they cannot be applied to social networks where inhibition is clearly absent. A recent model showed that contained activity can be achieved with no need of inhibition processes provided that the network is subdivided into modules (communities). In this paper, we introduce a new concept inspired in the Hebbian theory, through which containment of activity is achieved by incorporating a dynamics based on a decaying activity in a random walk mechanism preferential to the node activity. Upon selecting the decay coefficient within a proper range, we observed sustained activity in all the networks tested, namely, random, Barabási–Albert and geographical networks. The generality of this finding was confirmed by showing that modularity is no longer needed if the dynamics based on the integrate-and-fire dynamics incorporated the decay factor. Taken together, these results provide a proof of principle that persistent, restrained network activation might occur in the absence of any particular topological structure. This may be the reason why neuronal activity does not spread out to the entire neuronal network, even when no special topological organization exists. (paper)

  3. Dynamic transcription factor networks in epithelial-mesenchymal transition in breast cancer models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siletz, Anaar; Schnabel, Michael; Kniazeva, Ekaterina; Schumacher, Andrew J; Shin, Seungjin; Jeruss, Jacqueline S; Shea, Lonnie D

    2013-01-01

    The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a complex change in cell differentiation that allows breast carcinoma cells to acquire invasive properties. EMT involves a cascade of regulatory changes that destabilize the epithelial phenotype and allow mesenchymal features to manifest. As transcription factors (TFs) are upstream effectors of the genome-wide expression changes that result in phenotypic change, understanding the sequential changes in TF activity during EMT provides rich information on the mechanism of this process. Because molecular interactions will vary as cells progress from an epithelial to a mesenchymal differentiation program, dynamic networks are needed to capture the changing context of molecular processes. In this study we applied an emerging high-throughput, dynamic TF activity array to define TF activity network changes in three cell-based models of EMT in breast cancer based on HMLE Twist ER and MCF-7 mammary epithelial cells. The TF array distinguished conserved from model-specific TF activity changes in the three models. Time-dependent data was used to identify pairs of TF activities with significant positive or negative correlation, indicative of interdependent TF activity throughout the six-day study period. Dynamic TF activity patterns were clustered into groups of TFs that change along a time course of gene expression changes and acquisition of invasive capacity. Time-dependent TF activity data was combined with prior knowledge of TF interactions to construct dynamic models of TF activity networks as epithelial cells acquire invasive characteristics. These analyses show EMT from a unique and targetable vantage and may ultimately contribute to diagnosis and therapy.

  4. A review of international biobanks and networks: success factors and key benchmarks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaught, Jim; Kelly, Andrea; Hewitt, Robert

    2009-09-01

    Biobanks and biobanking networks are involved in varying degrees in the collection, processing, storage, and dissemination of biological specimens. This review outlines the approaches that 16 of the largest biobanks and biobanking networks in Europe, North America, Australia, and Asia have taken to collecting and distributing human research specimens and managing scientific initiatives while covering operating costs. Many are small operations that exist as either a single or a few freezers in a research laboratory, hospital clinical laboratory, or pathology suite. Larger academic and commercial biobanks operate to support large clinical and epidemiological studies. Operational and business models depend on the medical and research missions of their institutions and home countries. Some national biobanks operate with a centralized physical biobank that accepts samples from multiple locations. Others operate under a "federated" model where each institution maintains its own collections but agrees to list them on a central shared database. Some collections are "project-driven" meaning that specimens are collected and distributed to answer specific research questions. "General" collections are those that exist to establish a reference collection, that is, not to meet particular research goals but to be available to respond to multiple requests for an assortment of research uses. These individual and networked biobanking systems operate under a variety of business models, usually incorporating some form of partial cost recovery, while requiring at least partial public or government funding. Each has a well-defined biospecimen-access policy in place that specifies requirements that must be met-such as ethical clearance and the expertise to perform the proposed experiments-to obtain samples for research. The success of all of these biobanking models depends on a variety of factors including well-defined goals, a solid business plan, and specimen collections that are

  5. Dynamic transcription factor networks in epithelial-mesenchymal transition in breast cancer models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anaar Siletz

    Full Text Available The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT is a complex change in cell differentiation that allows breast carcinoma cells to acquire invasive properties. EMT involves a cascade of regulatory changes that destabilize the epithelial phenotype and allow mesenchymal features to manifest. As transcription factors (TFs are upstream effectors of the genome-wide expression changes that result in phenotypic change, understanding the sequential changes in TF activity during EMT provides rich information on the mechanism of this process. Because molecular interactions will vary as cells progress from an epithelial to a mesenchymal differentiation program, dynamic networks are needed to capture the changing context of molecular processes. In this study we applied an emerging high-throughput, dynamic TF activity array to define TF activity network changes in three cell-based models of EMT in breast cancer based on HMLE Twist ER and MCF-7 mammary epithelial cells. The TF array distinguished conserved from model-specific TF activity changes in the three models. Time-dependent data was used to identify pairs of TF activities with significant positive or negative correlation, indicative of interdependent TF activity throughout the six-day study period. Dynamic TF activity patterns were clustered into groups of TFs that change along a time course of gene expression changes and acquisition of invasive capacity. Time-dependent TF activity data was combined with prior knowledge of TF interactions to construct dynamic models of TF activity networks as epithelial cells acquire invasive characteristics. These analyses show EMT from a unique and targetable vantage and may ultimately contribute to diagnosis and therapy.

  6. Risk factors for Clonorchis sinensis infection transmission in humans in northern Vietnam: A descriptive and social network analysis study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinh, Hoang Quang; Phimpraphai, Waraphon; Tangkawattana, Sirikachorn; Smith, John F; Kaewkes, Sasithorn; Dung, Do Trung; Duong, Tran Thanh; Sripa, Banchob

    2017-04-01

    Clonorchis sinensis is major fish-borne trematode, endemic in North Vietnam. Risk factors described so far include individual eating behaviors and environmental factors. Here, additional to conventional risk factors, we report on socially influenced liver fluke transmission in endemic communities. A cross-sectional study on risk factors and fish sharing networks was conducted in 4 villages of Gia Thinh Commune, Ninh Binh Province. A total of 510 residents in 272 households were recruited for risk factor analysis while 220 households, 28 fishermen and 10 fish-sellers were enrolled for social network study. Fecal examination for C. sinensis eggs was performed. Average C. sinensis infection rate at Gia Thinh commune was 16.5% (range 2% to 34.4%). Higher infection rates were significantly associated with males, lower educational levels, eating raw fish, and location of the villages. Social network analysis (SNA) showed a strong positive correlation between ego network size (number of households in fish sharing network) and quantity of raw fish consumed (r=0.603, Psinensis infection transmission in northern Vietnam. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Medusa structure of the gene regulatory network: dominance of transcription factors in cancer subtype classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yuchun; Feng, Ying; Trivedi, Niraj S; Huang, Sui

    2011-05-01

    Gene expression profiles consisting of ten thousands of transcripts are used for clustering of tissue, such as tumors, into subtypes, often without considering the underlying reason that the distinct patterns of expression arise because of constraints in the realization of gene expression profiles imposed by the gene regulatory network. The topology of this network has been suggested to consist of a regulatory core of genes represented most prominently by transcription factors (TFs) and microRNAs, that influence the expression of other genes, and of a periphery of 'enslaved' effector genes that are regulated but not regulating. This 'medusa' architecture implies that the core genes are much stronger determinants of the realized gene expression profiles. To test this hypothesis, we examined the clustering of gene expression profiles into known tumor types to quantitatively demonstrate that TFs, and even more pronounced, microRNAs, are much stronger discriminators of tumor type specific gene expression patterns than a same number of randomly selected or metabolic genes. These findings lend support to the hypothesis of a medusa architecture and of the canalizing nature of regulation by microRNAs. They also reveal the degree of freedom for the expression of peripheral genes that are less stringently associated with a tissue type specific global gene expression profile.

  8. Three-Factor User Authentication and Key Agreement Using Elliptic Curve Cryptosystem in Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, YoHan; Park, YoungHo

    2016-12-14

    Secure communication is a significant issue in wireless sensor networks. User authentication and key agreement are essential for providing a secure system, especially in user-oriented mobile services. It is also necessary to protect the identity of each individual in wireless environments to avoid personal privacy concerns. Many authentication and key agreement schemes utilize a smart card in addition to a password to support security functionalities. However, these schemes often fail to provide security along with privacy. In 2015, Chang et al. analyzed the security vulnerabilities of previous schemes and presented the two-factor authentication scheme that provided user privacy by using dynamic identities. However, when we cryptanalyzed Chang et al.'s scheme, we found that it does not provide sufficient security for wireless sensor networks and fails to provide accurate password updates. This paper proposes a security-enhanced authentication and key agreement scheme to overcome these security weaknesses using biometric information and an elliptic curve cryptosystem. We analyze the security of the proposed scheme against various attacks and check its viability in the mobile environment.

  9. Expansion of microvascular networks in vivo by phthalimide neovascular factor 1 (PNF1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieghaus, Kristen A; Nickerson, Meghan M; Petrie Aronin, Caren E; Sefcik, Lauren S; Price, Richard J; Paige, Mikell A; Brown, Milton L; Botchwey, Edward A

    2008-12-01

    Phthalimide neovascular factor (PNF1, formerly SC-3-149) is a potent stimulator of proangiogenic signaling pathways in endothelial cells. In this study, we evaluated the in vivo effects of sustained PNF1 release to promote ingrowth and expansion of microvascular networks surrounding biomaterial implants. The dorsal skinfold window chamber was used to evaluate the structural remodeling response of the local microvasculature. PNF1 was released from poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLAGA) films, and a transport model was utilized to predict PNF1 penetration into the surrounding tissue. PNF1 significantly expanded microvascular networks within a 2mm radius from implants after 3 and 7 days by increasing microvessel length density and lumenal diameter of local arterioles and venules. Staining of histological sections with CD11b showed enhanced recruitment of circulating white blood cells, including monocytes, which are critical for the process of vessel enlargement through arteriogenesis. As PNF1 has been shown to modulate MT1-MMP, a facilitator of CCL2 dependent leukocyte transmigration, aspects of window chamber experiments were repeated in CCR2(-/-) (CCL2 receptor) mouse chimeras to more fully explore the critical nature of monocyte recruitment on the therapeutic benefits of PNF1 function in vivo.

  10. Three-Factor User Authentication and Key Agreement Using Elliptic Curve Cryptosystem in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, YoHan; Park, YoungHo

    2016-01-01

    Secure communication is a significant issue in wireless sensor networks. User authentication and key agreement are essential for providing a secure system, especially in user-oriented mobile services. It is also necessary to protect the identity of each individual in wireless environments to avoid personal privacy concerns. Many authentication and key agreement schemes utilize a smart card in addition to a password to support security functionalities. However, these schemes often fail to provide security along with privacy. In 2015, Chang et al. analyzed the security vulnerabilities of previous schemes and presented the two-factor authentication scheme that provided user privacy by using dynamic identities. However, when we cryptanalyzed Chang et al.’s scheme, we found that it does not provide sufficient security for wireless sensor networks and fails to provide accurate password updates. This paper proposes a security-enhanced authentication and key agreement scheme to overcome these security weaknesses using biometric information and an elliptic curve cryptosystem. We analyze the security of the proposed scheme against various attacks and check its viability in the mobile environment. PMID:27983616

  11. Modelling and assessment of dependent performance shaping factors through Analytic Network Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Ambroggi, Massimiliano; Trucco, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    Despite continuous progresses in research and applications, one of the major weaknesses of current HRA methods dwells in their limited capability of modelling the mutual influences between performance shaping factors (PSFs). Indeed at least two types of dependencies between PSFs can be defined: (i) dependency between the states of the PSFs; (ii) dependency between the influences (impacts) of the PSFs on the human performance. This paper introduces a method, based on Analytic Network Process (ANP), for the quantification of the latter, where the overall contribution of each PSF (weight) to the human error probability (HEP) is eventually returned. The core of the method is the modelling process, articulated into two steps: firstly, a qualitative network of dependencies between PSFs is identified, then, the importance of each PSF is quantitatively assessed using ANP. The model allows to distinguish two components of the PSF influence: direct influence that is the influence that the considered PSF is able to express by itself, notwithstanding the presence of other PSFs and indirect influence that is the incremental influence of the considered PSF through its influence on other PSFs. A case study in Air Traffic Control is presented where the proposed approach is integrated into the cognitive simulator PROCOS. The results demonstrated a significant modification of the influence of PSFs over the operator performance when dependencies are taken into account, underlining the importance of considering not only the possible correlation between the states of PSFs but also their mutual dependency in affecting human performance in complex systems.

  12. Regulation of a transcription factor network by Cdk1 coordinates late cell cycle gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Benjamin D; Mapa, Claudine E; Arsenault, Heather E; Poti, Kristin E; Benanti, Jennifer A

    2014-05-02

    To maintain genome stability, regulators of chromosome segregation must be expressed in coordination with mitotic events. Expression of these late cell cycle genes is regulated by cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk1), which phosphorylates a network of conserved transcription factors (TFs). However, the effects of Cdk1 phosphorylation on many key TFs are not known. We find that elimination of Cdk1-mediated phosphorylation of four S-phase TFs decreases expression of many late cell cycle genes, delays mitotic progression, and reduces fitness in budding yeast. Blocking phosphorylation impairs degradation of all four TFs. Consequently, phosphorylation-deficient mutants of the repressors Yox1 and Yhp1 exhibit increased promoter occupancy and decreased expression of their target genes. Interestingly, although phosphorylation of the transcriptional activator Hcm1 on its N-terminus promotes its degradation, phosphorylation on its C-terminus is required for its activity, indicating that Cdk1 both activates and inhibits a single TF. We conclude that Cdk1 promotes gene expression by both activating transcriptional activators and inactivating transcriptional repressors. Furthermore, our data suggest that coordinated regulation of the TF network by Cdk1 is necessary for faithful cell division.

  13. Identifying the Effective Factors in Making Trust in Online Social Networks on the perspective of Iranian experts Using Fuzzy ELECTRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Haghighi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available this paper attempts to rank the effective factors in making trust in social networks to provide the possibility of attracting and increasing users’ trust on these social networks for providers and designers of online social networks. Identifying the effective factors in making trust in social networks is a multi-criteria decision making problem and most of effective factors are ambiguous and uncertain, thereby this article uses Fuzzy ELECTRE to rank them. By implementing Fuzzy ELECTRE on gathered data, respectively «usability factor», «supporting up to date technology factor», «integrity» and «the rate of ethics factor» are on the top of effective factors in making trust in users. In general, «web features» and «technology features» have a higher degree of importance than «security features», «individual-social features» and «cultural features». Ranking of Fuzzy ELECTRE comparison ranking of Fuzzy TOPSIS and Fuzzy ELECTRE method becomes validate because Spearman correlation coefficients is 0/867. Result of sensitivity analysis on changing weight of criteria shows that Fuzzy ELECTRE isn’t affected by ambiguity and uncertainty in inputs.

  14. Emotion regulation predicts marital satisfaction: more than a wives' tale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, Lian; Haase, Claudia M; Levenson, Robert W

    2014-02-01

    Emotion regulation is generally thought to be a critical ingredient for successful interpersonal relationships. Ironically, few studies have investigated the link between how well spouses regulate emotion and how satisfied they are with their marriages. We utilized data from a 13-year, 3-wave longitudinal study of middle-aged (40-50 years old) and older (60-70 years old) long-term married couples, focusing on the associations between downregulation of negative emotion (measured during discussions of an area of marital conflict at Wave 1) and marital satisfaction (measured at all 3 waves). Downregulation of negative emotion was assessed by determining how quickly spouses reduced signs of negative emotion (in emotional experience, emotional behavior, and physiological arousal) after negative emotion events. Data were analyzed using actor-partner interdependence modeling. Findings showed that (a) greater downregulation of wives' negative experience and behavior predicted greater marital satisfaction for wives and husbands concurrently and (b) greater downregulation of wives' negative behavior predicted increases in wives' marital satisfaction longitudinally. Wives' use of constructive communication (measured between Waves 1 and 2) mediated the longitudinal associations. These results show the benefits of wives' downregulation of negative emotion during conflict for marital satisfaction and point to wives' constructive communication as a mediating pathway. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  15. Emotion regulation predicts marital satisfaction: More than a wives’ tale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, Lian; Haase, Claudia M.; Levenson, Robert W.

    2014-01-01

    Emotion regulation is generally thought to be a critical ingredient for successful interpersonal relationships. Ironically, few studies have investigated the link between how well spouses regulate emotion and how satisfied they are with their marriages. We utilized data from a 13-year, 3-wave longitudinal study of middle-aged (40–50 years old) and older (60–70 years old) long-term married couples, focusing on the associations between downregulation of negative emotion (measured during discussions of an area of marital conflict at Wave 1) and marital satisfaction (measured at all three waves). Downregulation of negative emotion was assessed by determining how quickly spouses reduced signs of negative emotion (in emotional experience, emotional behavior, and physiological arousal) after negative emotion events. Data were analyzed using actor-partner interdependence modeling. Findings showed that (a) greater downregulation of wives’ negative experience and behavior predicted greater marital satisfaction for wives and husbands concurrently and (b) greater downregulation of wives’ negative behavior predicted increases in wives’ marital satisfaction longitudinally. Wives’ use of constructive communication (measured between Waves 1 and 2) mediated the longitudinal associations. These results show the benefits of wives’ downregulation of negative emotion during conflict for marital satisfaction and point to wives’ constructive communication as a mediating pathway. PMID:24188061

  16. Types of marital closeness and mortality risk in older couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tower, Roni Beth; Kasl, Stanislav V; Darefsky, Amy S

    2002-01-01

    This study examines the impact of marital closeness on survival over 6 years in a community-dwelling sample of 305 older couples. Closeness is defined as 1) naming one's spouse as a confidant or source of emotional support (vs. not naming) and 2) being named by spouse on at least one of the two dimensions (vs. not being named). The survival effects of both naming and being named are examined in Cox proportional hazard regressions, controlling for sociodemographic, health status, and behavioral variables. Husbands who were named by their wives but did not name them were least likely to have died after 6 years. Compared with them, husbands in marriages with the other three styles of closeness were from 3.30 to 4.68 times more likely to be dead. Wives' results showed the same pattern of effects, with the same marital style being most protective as for husbands, but the effects were weaker. However, wives' results were strongly moderated by parenting status: those who had ever had children who were in the marital closeness pattern of wife naming husband but not being named by him were highly protected. Compared with these wives, others who had had children were from 8.26 to 10.95 times less likely to be alive after 6 years. The same pattern of marital closeness most benefited husbands and those wives who had had children. These findings are not explained adequately by social support or marital role theory although they fit the latter more closely.

  17. Metabolic Vascular Syndrome: New Insights into a Multidimensional Network of Risk Factors and Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Gerhard H; Hanefeld, Markolf

    2016-10-01

    Since 1981, we have used the term metabolic syndrome to describe an association of a dysregulation in lipid metabolism (high triglycerides, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, disturbed glucose homeostasis (enhanced fasting and/or prandial glucose), gout, and hypertension), with android obesity being based on a common soil (overnutrition, reduced physical activity, sociocultural factors, and genetic predisposition). We hypothesized that main traits of the syndrome occur early and are tightly connected with hyperinsulinemia/insulin resistance, procoagulation, and cardiovascular diseases. To establish a close link between the traits of the metabolic vascular syndrome, we focused our literature search on recent original work and comprehensive reviews dealing with the topics metabolic syndrome, visceral obesity, fatty liver, fat tissue inflammation, insulin resistance, atherogenic dyslipidemia, arterial hypertension, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Recent research supports the concept that the metabolic vascular syndrome is a multidimensional and interactive network of risk factors and diseases based on individual genetic susceptibility and epigenetic changes where metabolic dysregulation/metabolic inflexibility in different organs and vascular dysfunction are early interconnected. The metabolic vascular syndrome is not only a risk factor constellation but rather a life-long abnormality of a closely connected interactive cluster of developing diseases which escalate each other and should continuously attract the attention of every clinician.

  18. Embryonic maturation of epidermal Merkel cells is controlled by a redundant transcription factor network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdigoto, Carolina N; Bardot, Evan S; Valdes, Victor J; Santoriello, Francis J; Ezhkova, Elena

    2014-12-01

    Merkel cell-neurite complexes are located in touch-sensitive areas of the mammalian skin and are involved in recognition of the texture and shape of objects. Merkel cells are essential for these tactile discriminations, as they generate action potentials in response to touch stimuli and induce the firing of innervating afferent nerves. It has been shown that Merkel cells originate from epidermal stem cells, but the cellular and molecular mechanisms of their development are largely unknown. In this study, we analyzed Merkel cell differentiation during development and found that it is a temporally regulated maturation process characterized by a sequential activation of Merkel cell-specific genes. We uncovered key transcription factors controlling this process and showed that the transcription factor Atoh1 is required for initial Merkel cell specification. The subsequent maturation steps of Merkel cell differentiation are controlled by cooperative function of the transcription factors Sox2 and Isl1, which physically interact and work to sustain Atoh1 expression. These findings reveal the presence of a robust transcriptional network required to produce functional Merkel cells that are required for tactile discrimination. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  19. Is Social Network a Protective Factor for Cognitive Impairment in US Chinese Older Adults? Findings from the PINE Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mengting; Dong, Xinqi

    2018-01-01

    Social network has been identified as a protective factor for cognitive impairment. However, the relationship between social network and global and subdomains of cognitive function remains unclear. This study aims to provide an analytic framework to examine quantity, composition, and quality of social network and investigate the association between social network, global cognition, and cognitive domains among US Chinese older adults. Data were derived from the Population Study of Chinese Elderly (PINE), a community-engaged, population-based epidemiological study of US Chinese older adults aged 60 and above in the greater Chicago area, with a sample size of 3,157. Social network was assessed by network size, volume of contact, proportion kin, proportion female, proportion co-resident, and emotional closeness. Cognitive function was evaluated by global cognition, episodic memory, executive function, working memory, and Chinese Mini-Mental State Examination (C-MMSE). Linear regression and quantile regression were performed. Every 1-point increase in network size (b = 0.048, p cognition. Similar trends were observed in specific cognitive domains, including episodic memory, working memory, executive function, and C-MMSE. However, emotional closeness was only significantly associated with C-MMSE (b = 0.076, p cognitive function. Quantitative and structural aspects of social network were essential to maintain an optimal level of cognitive function. Qualitative aspects of social network were protective factors for C-MMSE. It is necessary for public health practitioners to consider interventions that enhance different aspects of older adults' social network. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Individual and mutual predictors of marital satisfaction among prostate cancer patients and their spouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Ching-Hui; Chuang, Cheng-Keng; Liu, Kuan-Lin; Huang, Xuan-Yi; Pang, See-Tong; Wu, Chun-Te; Chang, Ying-Hsu; Liu, Hsueh-Erh

    2017-12-01

    To determine the individual and mutual predictors of the marital satisfaction of couples in which the husband experienced prostate cancer. Marital satisfaction of patients with prostate cancer has been insufficiently studied in Asian countries as compared with Western countries. This study used a prospective and repeated-measures design. Seventy Taiwanese couples in which the husband had prostate cancer completed measures at 6 and 12 months post-treatment. Assessments of physical symptoms, marital satisfaction, coping behaviour and psychological distress were made. Multiple linear regression was used to analyse the data. The marital satisfaction of patients with prostate cancer and that of their spouses were significantly correlated. At 6 months, spouses' marital satisfaction, patients' appraisal of prostate cancer as a threat and patients' serum prostate-specific antigen levels were found to be the predictors of patients' marital satisfaction. Furthermore, patients' marital satisfaction and their spouses' psychological distress were predictors of spouses' marital satisfaction. At 12 months, spouses' marital satisfaction and patients' appraisal of prostate cancer as harm were predictors of patients' marital satisfaction. Finally, spouses' marital satisfaction (at 6 months) and appraisal of prostate cancer as a threat were predictors of spouses' marital satisfaction. At 6 months post-treatment, patients' and spouses' marital satisfaction will influence each other. However, at 12 months, patients' marital satisfaction exerts an insignificant effect on spouses' marital satisfaction. Moreover, patients' serum prostate-specific antigen level or the negative appraisal of prostate cancer affects their marital satisfaction. Spouses' marital satisfaction is affected by psychological distress and their negative appraisal of prostate cancer. The results can be used to develop interventions for prostate cancer couples. Such an intervention can be used to modify couples

  1. Structure, function and networks of transcription factors involved in abiotic stress responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindemose, Søren; O'Shea, Charlotte; Jensen, Michael Krogh

    2013-01-01

    Transcription factors (TFs) are master regulators of abiotic stress responses in plants. This review focuses on TFs from seven major TF families, known to play functional roles in response to abiotic stresses, including drought, high salinity, high osmolarity, temperature extremes...... and the phytohormone ABA. Although ectopic expression of several TFs has improved abiotic stress tolerance in plants, fine-tuning of TF expression and protein levels remains a challenge to avoid crop yield loss. To further our understanding of TFs in abiotic stress responses, emerging gene regulatory networks based...... on TFs and their direct targets genes are presented. These revealed components shared between ABA-dependent and independent signaling as well as abiotic and biotic stress signaling. Protein structure analysis suggested that TFs hubs of large interactomes have extended regions with protein intrinsic...

  2. Novel Strategy for Discrimination of Transcription Factor Binding Motifs Employing Mathematical Neural Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Asuka; Sumi, Takuya; Kang, Jiyoung; Tateno, Masaru

    2017-07-01

    Recognition in biological macromolecular systems, such as DNA-protein recognition, is one of the most crucial problems to solve toward understanding the fundamental mechanisms of various biological processes. Since specific base sequences of genome DNA are discriminated by proteins, such as transcription factors (TFs), finding TF binding motifs (TFBMs) in whole genome DNA sequences is currently a central issue in interdisciplinary biophysical and information sciences. In the present study, a novel strategy to create a discriminant function for discrimination of TFBMs by constituting mathematical neural networks (NNs) is proposed, together with a method to determine the boundary of signals (TFBMs) and noise in the NN-score (output) space. This analysis also leads to the mathematical limitation of discrimination in the recognition of features representing TFBMs, in an information geometrical manifold. Thus, the present strategy enables the identification of the whole space of TFBMs, right up to the noise boundary.

  3. miR-27 regulates mitochondrial networks by directly targeting the mitochondrial fission factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tak, Hyosun; Kim, Jihye; Jayabalan, Aravinth Kumar; Lee, Heejin; Kang, Hoin; Cho, Dong-Hyung; Ohn, Takbum; Nam, Suk Woo; Kim, Wook; Lee, Eun Kyung

    2014-11-28

    Mitochondrial morphology is dynamically regulated by forming small, fragmented units or interconnected networks, and this is a pivotal process that is used to maintain mitochondrial homeostasis. Although dysregulation of mitochondrial dynamics is related to the pathogenesis of several human diseases, its molecular mechanism is not fully elucidated. In this study, we demonstrate the potential role of miR-27 in the regulation of mitochondrial dynamics. Mitochondrial fission factor (MFF) mRNA is a direct target of miR-27, whose ectopic expression decreases MFF expression through binding to its 3'-untranslated region. Expression of miR-27 results in the elongation of mitochondria as well as an increased mitochondrial membrane potential and mitochondrial ATP level. Our results suggest that miR-27 is a novel regulator affecting morphological mitochondrial changes by targeting MFF.

  4. Detecting the Community Structure and Activity Patterns of Temporal Networks: A Non-Negative Tensor Factorization Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauvin, Laetitia; Panisson, André; Cattuto, Ciro

    2014-01-01

    The increasing availability of temporal network data is calling for more research on extracting and characterizing mesoscopic structures in temporal networks and on relating such structure to specific functions or properties of the system. An outstanding challenge is the extension of the results achieved for static networks to time-varying networks, where the topological structure of the system and the temporal activity patterns of its components are intertwined. Here we investigate the use of a latent factor decomposition technique, non-negative tensor factorization, to extract the community-activity structure of temporal networks. The method is intrinsically temporal and allows to simultaneously identify communities and to track their activity over time. We represent the time-varying adjacency matrix of a temporal network as a three-way tensor and approximate this tensor as a sum of terms that can be interpreted as communities of nodes with an associated activity time series. We summarize known computational techniques for tensor decomposition and discuss some quality metrics that can be used to tune the complexity of the factorized representation. We subsequently apply tensor factorization to a temporal network for which a ground truth is available for both the community structure and the temporal activity patterns. The data we use describe the social interactions of students in a school, the associations between students and school classes, and the spatio-temporal trajectories of students over time. We show that non-negative tensor factorization is capable of recovering the class structure with high accuracy. In particular, the extracted tensor components can be validated either as known school classes, or in terms of correlated activity patterns, i.e., of spatial and temporal coincidences that are determined by the known school activity schedule. PMID:24497935

  5. Social network-related risk factors for bloodborne virus infections among injection drug users receiving syringes through secondary exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De, Prithwish; Cox, Joseph; Boivin, Jean-François; Platt, Robert W; Jolly, Ann M

    2008-01-01

    Secondary syringe exchange (SSE) refers to the exchange of sterile syringes between injection drug users (IDUs). To date there has been limited examination of SSE in relation to the social networks of IDUs. This study aimed to identify characteristics of drug injecting networks associated with the receipt of syringes through SSE. Active IDUs were recruited from syringe exchange and methadone treatment programs in Montreal, Canada, between April 2004 and January 2005. Information on each participant and on their drug-injecting networks was elicited using a structured, interviewer-administered questionnaire. Subjects' network characteristics were examined in relation to SSE using regression models with generalized estimating equations. Of 218 participants, 126 were SSE recipients with 186 IDUs in their injecting networks. The 92 non-recipients reported 188 network IDUs. Networks of SSE recipients and non-recipients were similar with regard to network size and demographics of network members. In multivariate analyses adjusted for age and gender, SSE recipients were more likely than non-recipients to self-report being HIV-positive (OR=3.56 [1.54-8.23]); require or provide help with injecting (OR=3.74 [2.01-6.95]); have a social network member who is a sexual partner (OR=1.90 [1.11-3.24]), who currently attends a syringe exchange or methadone program (OR=2.33 [1.16-4.70]), injects daily (OR=1.77 [1.11-2.84]), and shares syringes with the subject (OR=2.24 [1.13-4.46]). SSE is associated with several injection-related risk factors that could be used to help focus public health interventions for risk reduction. Since SSE offers an opportunity for the dissemination of important prevention messages, SSE-based networks should be used to improve public health interventions. This approach can optimize the benefits of SSE while minimizing the potential risks associated with the practice of secondary exchange.

  6. Marital status, childlessness, and social support among older Canadians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penning, Margaret J; Wu, Zheng

    2014-12-01

    Despite evidence of increasing diversification of family structures, little is known regarding implications of marital and parental status for access to social support in later life. Using data from Statistics Canada's 2007 General Social Survey, this study assessed the impact of marital and parental status intersections on social support among adults aged 60 and older (n = 11,503). Two-stage probit regression models indicated that among those who were currently married or separated/divorced, childless individuals were more likely to report instrumental (domestic, transportation) and emotional support from people outside the household. Conversely, among never-married or widowed older adults, being childless was associated with reduced domestic support but without differences in other support domains. Findings suggest that marital and parental status intersections are not uniformly positive, neutral, or negative regarding implications for extra-household social support. Future work should address complexities of these relationships in order to better understand rapidly changing family structures.

  7. Naturalization, reciprocity and marks of marital violence: male defendants' perceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilvânia Patrícia do Nascimento Paixão

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to analyze male criminals' perception about marital violence. Method: An exploratory, descriptive, qualitative study undertaken with 23 men who were criminally prosecuted for marital violence. A multimethod data collection was conducted, with individual interview and focal group techniques combined, between May and December 2015. The data collected were initially categorized using the NVIVO® 11 software program, and then organized using the Collective Subject Discourse method. Results: the collective discourses reveal that, in the male's perception, conjugal violence is inherent in a marital relationships: it is a private, reciprocal problem that leaves body marks. Conclusion: gender dissymmetry as a social construct is evidenced, signaling the need to create spaces for reflection and re-signification of men and women, from a gender perspective.

  8. The Comparison of Body Image, Quality of Sleep and Marital Satisfaction among Substance Abuser and Non-substance Abuser Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Behzad

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: The previous research has demonstrated that addiction treatment services for women need to be based on knowledge of female psychological needs. Therefore, the aim of current study is to compare body image, quality of sleep and marital satisfaction among substance abuser and non-substance abuser women.Materials and Methods: This study is a descriptive comparative research. 200 women including 100 substance abuser women and 100 non-substance abuser women were chosen through convenience method in Arak in 2015. The measuring instruments were Fisher body image scale (1970, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (1989 and Enrich Marital Satisfaction Scale (1989. Data was analyzed utilizing t independent.Results: The results showed that there is the significant difference between marital satisfaction (P=0.001 and quality of sleep (P=0.001 among substance abuser and non-substance abuser women. Additionally, the significant difference was not observed between body image (P= 0.31 among these two groups.Conclusion: These findings emphasized that substance use decreases the quality of sleep and marital satisfaction in women. Hence, it should be considered these factors in process of therapeutic intervention in substance abuser women.

  9. Marital conflict and early adolescents' self-evaluation: the role of parenting quality and early adolescents' appraisals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siffert, Andrea; Schwarz, Beate; Stutz, Melanie

    2012-06-01

    Cognitive appraisals and family dynamics have been identified as mediators of the relationship between marital conflict and children's adjustment. Surprisingly little research has investigated both meditational processes in the same study. Guided by the cognitive-contextual framework and the spillover hypothesis, the present study integrated factors from both theories early adolescents' appraisals of threat and self-blame, as well as perceived parenting quality as mediators of the link between early adolescents' perception of marital conflict and their self-evaluations (self-esteem and scholastic competence). Analyses were based on the first two waves of an ongoing longitudinal study. Participants were 176 two-parent families, and their early adolescents (50.5% girls) whose mean age was 10.61 years at Time 1 (SD =0.40) and 11.63 years at Time 2 (SD=0.39). Structural equation modeling analyses indicated that parenting quality and early adolescents' perceived threat provided indirect pathways between marital conflict and early adolescents' self-esteem 1 year later when controlling for their initial level of self-esteem. With respect to scholastic competence, only fathers' parenting was an indirect link. Self-blame did not play a role. Implications for understanding the mechanisms by which exposure to marital conflict predicts early adolescents' maladjustment are discussed.

  10. Controllability analysis of transcriptional regulatory networks reveals circular control patterns among transcription factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Österlund, Tobias; Bordel, Sergio; Nielsen, Jens

    2015-01-01

    % for the human network. The high controllability (low number of drivers needed to control the system) in yeast, mouse and human is due to the presence of internal loops in their regulatory networks where the TFs regulate each other in a circular fashion. We refer to these internal loops as circular control...... motifs (CCM). The E. coli transcriptional regulatory network, which does not have any CCMs, shows a hierarchical structure of the transcriptional regulatory network in contrast to the eukaryal networks. The presence of CCMs also has influence on the stability of these networks, as the presence of cycles...

  11. Marite Kallasma - diktorist eetrinägude direktoriks / Tuuli Koch

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koch, Tuuli

    2008-01-01

    Legendaarne telediktor Marite Kallasma pälvis president Toomas Hendrik Ilveselt Valgetähe V klassi teenetemärgi. Praegu on Marite Kallasma eetrinõustaja ja diktorite õpetaja. Vt. samas: teenetemärgi pälvinud kaitseliitlane Janek Tšeljadinov, USA ajaloolane ja ajakirjanik Anne Applebaum, briti ajaloolane Antony Beevor, Portugali president Anibal Cavaco Silva, briti ajaloolane Norman Davies, Narva sümfooniaorkestri looja Anatoli Štšura, Kallaste vanausuliste koguduse esimees Pavel Varunin, Eesti Entsüklopeediakirjastuse kunstiline toimetaja Maie-Hele Segerkrantz

  12. Risk Factors for Social Networking Site Scam Victimization Among Malaysian Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirwan, Gráinne H; Fullwood, Chris; Rooney, Brendan

    2018-02-01

    Social networking sites (SNSs) can provide cybercriminals with various opportunities, including gathering of user data and login credentials to enable fraud, and directing of users toward online locations that may install malware onto their devices. The techniques employed by such cybercriminals can include clickbait (text or video), advertisement of nonexistent but potentially desirable products, and hoax competitions/giveaways. This study aimed to identify risk factors associated with falling victim to these malicious techniques. An online survey was completed by 295 Malaysian undergraduate students, finding that more than one-third had fallen victim to SNS scams. Logistic regression analysis identified several victimization risk factors including having higher scores in impulsivity (specifically cognitive complexity), using fewer devices for SNSs, and having been on an SNS for a longer duration. No reliable model was found for vulnerability to hoax valuable gift giveaways and "friend view application" advertising specifically, but vulnerability to video clickbait was predicted by lower extraversion scores, higher levels of openness to experience, using fewer devices, and being on an SNS for a longer duration. Other personality traits were not associated with either overall victimization susceptibility or increased risk of falling victim to the specific techniques. However, age approached significance within both the video clickbait and overall victimization models. These findings suggest that routine activity theory may be particularly beneficial in understanding and preventing SNSs scam victimization.

  13. Cryptanalysis and security improvements of 'two-factor user authentication in wireless sensor networks'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Khurram; Alghathbar, Khaled

    2010-01-01

    User authentication in wireless sensor networks (WSN) is a critical security issue due to their unattended and hostile deployment in the field. Since sensor nodes are equipped with limited computing power, storage, and communication modules; authenticating remote users in such resource-constrained environments is a paramount security concern. Recently, M.L. Das proposed a two-factor user authentication scheme in WSNs and claimed that his scheme is secure against different kinds of attack. However, in this paper, we show that the M.L. Das-scheme has some critical security pitfalls and cannot be recommended for real applications. We point out that in his scheme: users cannot change/update their passwords, it does not provide mutual authentication between gateway node and sensor node, and is vulnerable to gateway node bypassing attack and privileged-insider attack. To overcome the inherent security weaknesses of the M.L. Das-scheme, we propose improvements and security patches that attempt to fix the susceptibilities of his scheme. The proposed security improvements can be incorporated in the M.L. Das-scheme for achieving a more secure and robust two-factor user authentication in WSNs.

  14. Factors for Successful Use of Social Networking Sites in Higher Education

    OpenAIRE

    L Schlenkrich; Dave Sewry

    2012-01-01

    Social networking sites are extremely popular online destinations that offer users easy ways to build and maintain relationships with each other, and to disseminate information in an activity referred to as social networking. Students, lecturers, teachers, parents and businesses, in increasing numbers, use tools available on social networking sites to communicate with each other in a fast and cost-effective manner. The use of social networking sites to support educational initiatives has rece...

  15. Link predication based on matrix factorization by fusion of multi class organizations of the network

    OpenAIRE

    Jiao, Pengfei; Cai, Fei; Feng, Yiding; Wang, Wenjun

    2017-01-01

    Link predication aims at forecasting the latent or unobserved edges in the complex networks and has a wide range of applications in reality. Almost existing methods and models only take advantage of one class organization of the networks, which always lose important information hidden in other organizations of the network. In this paper, we propose a link predication framework which makes the best of the structure of networks in different level of organizations based on nonnegative matrix fac...

  16. "Poverty and Choice of Marital Status: A Self-Selection Model"

    OpenAIRE

    Joan R. Rodgers

    1990-01-01

    Over the last few decades in the United States, the poverty rate for female-headed families has been about five times the poverty rate for other family types. This paper addresses the question of why, in general, female-headed families are so much poorer than other families. Recognizing that individuals choose their own marital status, a self-selection model is used to identify the factors which determine the poverty rates for married- couple families, families headed by females with no husba...

  17. Applicability of line outage distribution factors to evaluate distribution network expansion options

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grond, M.O.W.; Pouw, J.I.P.; Morren, J.; Slootweg, J.G.

    2014-01-01

    Distribution network operators require more advanced planning tools to deal with the challenges of future network planning. An appropriate planning and optimization tool can identify which option for network extension should be selected from available alternatives. However, the evaluation part in

  18. Risk of Social Isolation among Older Patients: What Factors Affect the Availability of Family, Friends, and Neighbors upon Hospitalization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Jung-Hwa; Hougham, Gavin W; Meltzer, David O

    2018-03-02

    To examine the prevalence of social isolation among older patients admitted to a hospital, and the effects of sociodemographic and health-related factors on the availability of their family, friends, and neighbor networks. Analyses are based on interviews with a sample of 2,449 older patients admitted to an urban academic medical center in the United States. A nine-item version of Lubben's Social Network Scale was developed and used to assess the availability of different social networks. About 47% of the sample was at risk of social isolation. The oldest old and non-White older adults showed greater risk. The availability of family networks was associated with age, sex, marital status, and prior hospitalization; friend networks with age, race, education, prior hospitalization, and functional limitations; neighbor networks with race, education, marital status, and functional limitations. The risk of social isolation and the availability of social support for hospitalized older adults varies by both patient and network characteristics. Health professionals should attend to this risk and the factors associated with such risk. By assessing the availability of various types and frequency of support among older patients, health professionals can better identify those who may need additional support after discharge. Such information should be used in discharge planning to help prevent unnecessary complications and potential readmission.

  19. The Marital/Family Life of the Family Theapist: Stressors and Enhancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetchler, Joseph L.; Piercy, Fred P.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses possible stressors and enhancers of marital and family life for the family therapist. The results are examined in terms of respondents' gender, work setting, theoretical orientation, number of hours worked, income, age, and marital status. (Author/BL)

  20. Longitudinal associations between marital stress and externalizing behavior : Does Parental Sense of Competence Mediate Processes?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eldik, W. M.; Prinzie, Peter; Dekovic, M.; de Haan, A.D.

    2017-01-01

    Ecological theories emphasize associations between children and elements within their family system, such as the marital relationship. Within a developmental perspective, we longitudinally examined (a) dynamic associations between marital stress and children’s externalizing behavior, (b) mediation

  1. Longitudinal associations between marital stress and externalizing behavior: Does parental sense of competence mediate processes?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eldik, W.M. van; Prinzie, P.; Dekoviç, M.; Haan, A.D. de

    2017-01-01

    Ecological theories emphasize associations between children and elements within their family system, such as the marital relationship. Within a developmental perspective, we longitudinally examined (a) dynamic associations between marital stress and children's externalizing behavior, (b) mediation

  2. The effectiveness of group therapy based on quality of life on marital adjustment, marital satisfaction and mood regulation of Bushehr Male abusers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    yoseph Dehghani

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this research was to study the The effectiveness of group therapy based on quality of life on marital adjustment, marital satisfaction and mood regulation of Bushehr Male abusers. Materials and Methods: In this study which was a quasi-experimental pre-test, post-test with control group, the sample group was selected by clustering sampling method from the men who referred to Bushehr addiction treatment clinics that among them a total of 30 patients randomly divided into two experimental and control groups of 15 individuals. The instrument included short version of the Marital Adjustment Questionnaire, Marital Satisfaction Questionnaire and Garnefski Emotional Regulation Scale that was completed by the participants in the pre-test and post-test stages.The experimental group was treated based on group life quality in eight sessions but the control group did not receive any treatment. Multi-variate covariance analysis is used for statistical analysis of data. Results: The results revealed that after intervention there was a significant difference between two groups in terms of marital adjustment, marital satisfaction and emotional regulation variables (P<0/001.The rate of marital adjustment, marital satisfaction and emotional regulation in experimental group compare with control group and it was significantly higher in post-test.  Conclusion: treatment based on quality of life which have formed from combination of positive psychology and cognitive-behavioral approach can increase marital adjustment, marital satisfaction and mood regulation of abusers.

  3. Cultural differences in family, marital, and gender-role values among immigrants and majority members in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arends-Tóth, Judit; van de Vijver, Fons J R

    2009-06-01

    This study examined the size of differences in self-reported family, marital, and gender-role values in five cultural groups in the Netherlands (6338 Dutch mainstreamers and 422 Turkish, 369 Moroccan, 429 Surinamese, and 394 Antillean first- and second-generation immigrants). It was found that the three value scales were neither completely independent, nor could they be merged into a single value scale. The factor structures of all scales were identical for the five cultural groups, implying that the concepts can be compared. Age, sex, and notably education accounted for a substantial part of the cultural differences in all values. Cultural differences were larger for marital and family values than for gender-role values. Family and marital values yielded the same rank order of mean scores in the five cultural groups: Turks and Moroccans scored the lowest (having the most traditional values), followed by Surinamers, Antilleans, and Dutch mainstreamers. This rank order corresponds with the ethnic hierarchy of cultural groups that is based on the evaluation of ethnic groups by mainstreamers according to their liking of and likeness to ethnic groups. Generational differences were not found for family and gender-role values but first-generation immigrants in all groups had more traditional marital values than had second-generation immigrants. It was concluded that the theoretical framework based on a combination of three Hofstede dimensions (individualism-collectivism, power-distance, and femininity-masculinity), a model of the hierarchy of the ethnic groups in the Dutch society, and acculturation theory provided an adequate way to address family, marital, and gender-role value differences in the five cultural groups.

  4. Using Artificial Neural Networks to Determine Significant Factors Affecting the Pricing of WPT Effluent for Industrial Uses in Isfahan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Mirmohamadsaseghi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The evidence indicates increasing trend of use of municipal wastewater treatment effluent as an alternative source of water both in developed and developing countries. Proper pricing of this unconventional water is one of the most effective economic tools to encourage optimum use of fresh water resources. In this study, artificial neural network is employed to identify and assess the factors affecting effluent tariffs supplied to local industries in Isfahan region. Given the wide variety of factors involved in the ultimate value of wastewater traement plant effluent, an assortment of relevant factors  has been considered in this study; the factors include the population served by the treatment plant, volume of effluent produced, maintenance, repair and replacement. costs of operating plants, topography, different water uses in the region, industrial wastewater collection fees, unit cost of pipe and fittings, and the volumes of water supplied from springs and aqueducts  in the region. Neural network modeling is used as a tool to determine the significance of each factor for pricing effluent. Based on the available data and the neural network models, the effects of different model architectures with different intermediate layers and numbers of nodes in each layer on the price of wastewater were investigated to develop aand adopt a final neural network model. Results indicate that the proposed neural network model enjoys a high potential and has been well capable of determining the weights of the parameter affecting in pricing effluent. Based on the the results of this study, the factors with the greatest role in effluent pricing are unit cost of pipe and fittings, industrial use of water, and the costs of plant maintentance, repair and replacement.

  5. AFRICAN AMERICAN STEPFATHER?STEPCHILD RELATIONSHIPS, MARITAL QUALITY, AND MENTAL HEALTH

    OpenAIRE

    Bryant, Chalandra M.; Futris, Ted G.; Hicks, Megan R.; Lee, Tae-Kyoung; Oshri, Assaf

    2016-01-01

    This study examined associations between stepfather-stepchild relationship quality, stepfathers? depressive symptoms, and two aspects of marriage: marital quality and positive marital interactions. Marital quality was assessed in terms of commitment, trust, passionate and friendship-based love, and happiness. Marital interactions were assessed in terms of intimacy, shared activities, and verbal communication. Using data collected from 149 recently married African American stepfathers, structu...

  6. Just the Two of Us? How Parents Influence Adult Children’s Marital Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Reczek, Corinne; Liu, Hui; Umberson, Debra

    2010-01-01

    We work from a life-course perspective to explore how relationships with parents affect adult children’s marital quality. We further ask whether the effects of parents on adult children’s marital quality depend on the adult child’s gender, age, marital duration, and childhood family experiences. Growth-curve analysis of national, longitudinal data (Americans’ Changing Lives) indicated that relationships with fathers (n = 336) and mothers (n = 520) differentially affected the marital quality o...

  7. Daily communication, conflict resolution, and marital quality in Chinese marriage: A three-wave, cross-lagged analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaomin; Cao, Hongjian; Zhou, Nan; Ju, Xiaoyan; Lan, Jing; Zhu, Qinyi; Fang, Xiaoyi

    2018-05-17

    Based on three annual waves of data obtained from 268 Chinese couples in the early years of marriage and using a three-wave, cross-lagged approach, the present study examined the associations among daily marital communication, marital conflict resolution, and marital quality. Results indicated unidirectional associations linking daily marital communication or marital conflict resolution to marital quality (instead of reciprocal associations); and when considered simultaneously in a single model, daily marital communication and marital conflict resolution explained variance in marital quality above and beyond each other. Furthermore, the authors also found a significant longitudinal, indirect association linking husbands' daily marital communication at Wave 1 to husbands' marital quality at Wave 3 via husbands' marital conflict resolution at Wave 2. Taken altogether, the current study adds to an emerging body of research aimed at clarifying: (a) the directionality of the associations between couple interactive processes and marital well-being; (b) the unique roles of daily marital communication and marital conflict resolution in predicting marital outcomes; and (c) how daily marital communication and marital conflict resolution may operate in conjunction with each other to shape the development of couple relationship well-being. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. The Influence on Premarital Heterosexual Relationships on Marital Timing and Marital Desire among College Students in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    فريده خلج‌آبادي‌فراهاني

    2015-04-01

    In the first phase of the survey, 2031 university students aged 18-40 from among 7 universities (both public and private in Tehran were selected using two stage stratified cluster sampling method. Data collection was completed between January 2010 and May 2011 using an anonymous self-administer valid and reliable questionnaire. The mean age of respondents was 22.5, 12% were married with a mean age at marriage of 27(SD=6.32. The influence of premarital heterosexual relationships on marriage age was assessed among married and on desire to marry among single students. The results show that after control of gender, economic and cultural situation of the family, the experience of progressive (sexual relationship between opposite sex is one of the determinant factors of marriage age among university students. Reporting experience of progressive premarital heterosexual relationships and intimacy are associated with about two years delay in marriage (b-coefficient=1.7, P<0/05 Moreover, There is a gender difference in the relations between premarital heterosexual relationships and desire for marriage. So as, both heterosexual friendships and intimacy was significantly linked with greater desire for marriage among females, while among men, only progressive intimacy was inversely linked with desire for marriage. Men with greater experiences showed lower desire for marriage, while premarital heterosexual friendship was not associated with marital desire and propensity.  The changes in trends of premarital heterosexual relationships among young people and recent types of partnerships needs to be considered more than before in evolution of marriage and the family in Iran and also differing implications of such relationships between men and women needs greater consideration.

  9. Origin and Elimination of Two Global Spurious Attractors in Hopfield-Like Neural Network Performing Boolean Factor Analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Frolov, A. A.; Húsek, Dušan; Muraviev, I. P.; Polyakov, P.Y.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 73, č. 7-9 (2010), s. 1394-1404 ISSN 0925-2312 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/09/1079; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0567 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : Boolean factor analysis * Hopfield neural Network * unsupervised learning * dimension reduction * data mining Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science Impact factor: 1.429, year: 2010

  10. Marital Conflict Behaviors and Implications for Divorce over 16 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birditt, Kira S.; Brown, Edna; Orbuch, Terri L.; McIlvane, Jessica M.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined self-reported marital conflict behaviors and their implications for divorce. Husbands and wives (N = 373 couples; 47% White American, 53% Black American) reported conflict behaviors in Years 1, 3, 7, and 16 of their marriages. Individual behaviors (e.g., destructive behaviors) and patterns of behaviors between partners (e.g.,…

  11. 29 CFR 36.530 - Marital or parental status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Office of the Secretary of Labor NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR... Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 36.530 Marital or parental status. (a) General. A recipient... household or principal wage earner in such employee's or applicant's family unit. (b) Pregnancy. A recipient...

  12. 10 CFR 1042.445 - Marital or parental status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION... Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 1042.445 Marital or parental status. (a) Status generally. A... status that treats students differently on the basis of sex. (b) Pregnancy and related conditions. (1) A...

  13. Does Marital Status Influence the Parenting Styles Employed by Parents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashiono, Benard Litali; Mwoma, Teresa B.

    2015-01-01

    The current study sought to establish whether parents' marital status, influence their use of specific parenting styles in Kisauni District, Kenya. A correlational research design was employed to carry out this study. Stratified sampling technique was used to select preschools while purposive sampling technique was used to select preschool…

  14. Influence of Spousal Communication on Marital Stability: Implication ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is often said that the home is the basic unit of the larger society. Thus when the home is settled, the society is at peace. The main focus of this study was to find out the influence of spousal communication on marital stability: Implications for Conducive Home Environment. A researcher-designed questionnaire titled ...

  15. The marital dynamics of conflict over the division of labor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kluwer, E.S.; Heesink, J.A.M.; Van de Vliert, E.

    The division of labor as a source of conflict is a concern for many couples. This study goes beyond the mere prediction of the amount of marital conflict by scrutinizing the relationship between spouses' discontent with the division of labor, their conflict interaction patterns, and subsequent

  16. Grieving Together and Apart: Bereaved Parents' Contradictions of Marital Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toller, Paige W.; Braithwaite, Dawn O.

    2009-01-01

    The researchers adopted relational dialectics theory (Baxter & Montgomery, 1996) to examine the discourse of 37 bereaved parents. Research questions guiding the study were what dialectical contradictions do bereaved parents experience when communicating with their marital partner after their child's death and how do bereaved parents and their…

  17. A Typology of Marital Quality of Enduring Marriages in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Orna; Geron, Yael; Farchi, Alva

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a typology of enduring marriages of Israeli couples married for at least 40 years. Based on the view that marital quality is a multidimensional phenomenon, the typology is derived from a cluster analysis of responses of husbands and wives in 51 couples to the ENRICH scale items. Three types of enduring marriages were found:…

  18. Matrilineal Family Ties and Marital Dissolution in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takyi, Baffour K.; Gyimah, Stephen Obeng

    2007-01-01

    Although previous work has attributed the instability of African marriages to the diffusion of Western norms and values in the region, fewer attempts have been made to empirically assess how Africa's internal institutional structures, such as extended kinship ties, impact marital outcomes. Guided by rational choice and exchange theories, we argue…

  19. Transient Structured Distance as a Maneuver in Marital Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Bernard L.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    Experience with 73 cases has shown the value of Transient Structured Distance as a maneuver in marriage therapy. While the TSD is a radical form of intervention with risks of anxiety reactions, homosexual panic, or divorce, it has proved effective with difficult forms of acute or chronic marital disharmony. (Author)

  20. The Contribution of Marital Happiness to Global Happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Norval D.; Weaver, Charles N.

    1981-01-01

    Data from six U.S. national surveys compared the estimated contributions to global happiness and marital happiness and satisfaction with each of seven aspects of life, ranging from work to friendships. Findings indicated that Americans depend very heavily on their marriages for their psychological well-being. (Author)

  1. Effects Of Emotional Intelligence On Marital Adjustment Of Couples ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Couples should be helped to develop emotion management skills. Couples should be taught emotional sensitivity skills. Our educational systems should not only develop learners' Intelligence (IQ) but their Emotional intelligence (EQI) competencies too. Emotional intelligence should form part of the criteria for marital choice ...

  2. Communication in marital homes and work performance among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the influence of communication in marital homes on secondary school teachers work performance in Akwa Ibom State. One research question and one hypothesis were formulated to guide the study. The ex-post facto research design was used in the study. Using stratified random sampling technique, ...

  3. Racial and Marital Status Differences in Faculty Pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toutkoushian, Robert K.

    1998-01-01

    Study estimated how pay disparity varied by race, marital status, gender, and field. Results show considerable differences overall, with unexplained wage gaps for racial/ethnic group, dramatic variations between men and women, and further by field. Earnings differences among racial/ethnic categories are not uniform. The return on marriage for men…

  4. Comparing different thinking styles and marital satisfaction among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of the present study was to compare different thinking styles and marital satisfaction among engineers of urban and nonurban areas. The design of this study was casual-comparative. The sample population of this study consisted of the engineers who were members of engineers' society of Sari city among ...

  5. The Impact of Marital Separation/Divorce on Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Doris S.

    1978-01-01

    Reports on a study of the impact of marital separation/divorce on children aged 3-17 during the 12-month period following the parental separation. Results suggests that a child's adjustment is directly related to the amount of interparent hostility to which the child has been exposed. (Author)

  6. Marriage, sexuality, and holiness: Aspects of marital ethics in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... an equal and holistic relationship of the marital partners. Simultaneously – and here the Pauline texts extend beyond the borders of their environment – sexual intercourse is valued as an important component of the relationship between husband and wife. Here, the relationship of marriage, including the physical union of ...

  7. The Effects of Occupational Prestige, Marital Status and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the perceptions of mothers as a function of their marital status, prestige and technological level of their jobs. 320 university students and civil servants participated in the study. Each subject rated a briefly described working woman as a stimulus person on a 24 seven-point bipolar scales that describe ...

  8. Self-Concept Disconfirmation, Psychological Distress, and Marital Happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafer, Robert B.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Uses self-verification and self-discrepancy theories to test a model of subjective and objective self-disconfirmation, self-efficacy, depression, and marital happiness. Expands issues of self-validation by evaluating self-efficacy in the relationship between self-disconfirmation and depression, and the effect of self-concept disconfirmation of…

  9. Marital and Family Characteristics of Workers, March 1973.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    This brief report presents and discusses statistics on the marital and family characteristics of workers in 1973 [e.g., nearly 40 million married men and 20 million married women were among the 88 million person labor force, and of the 1.7 million increase in the labor force, three-quarters consisted of married women (34 percent), single men (24…

  10. 15 CFR 8a.530 - Marital or parental status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marital or parental status. 8a.530 Section 8a.530 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE... of seniority and any other benefit or service, and reinstatement, and under any fringe benefit...

  11. 15 CFR 8a.445 - Marital or parental status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marital or parental status. 8a.445 Section 8a.445 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE... same policies as any other temporary disability with respect to any medical or hospital benefit...

  12. Marital Adjustment to Adult Diabetes: Interpersonal Congruence and Spouse Satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyrot, Mark; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Investigated adjustment to insulin-treated diabetes among 20 adult patients and spouses. Found illness-related perceptions of patients and spouses were positively correlated and discrepancies decreased with increasing duration of marriage after diagnosis. Marital satisfaction of spouses was negatively related to knowledge about diabetes,…

  13. Combining Marriage and Career: The Professional Adjustment of Marital Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizvi, Afroz Haider

    2016-01-01

    In the paper, the researcher attempted to assess Professional Adjustment status and level of teachers according to their marital status on a sample of 792 teachers. Teachers have been classified into two categories viz. married and unmarried. To evaluate the status of professional adjustment of teachers, a tool viz. "Manual on Teachers…

  14. Parental marital status and peer influence as corelates of teenage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the effects of parental marital status and peer influence on the occurrence of teenage pregnancy among 324 female teens in south-south, Nigeria. The participants responded to a valid scale. The Pearson correlation and Multiple Regression procedures were used to investigate the predictive capacity of ...

  15. Marital Meaning: Exploring Young Adults' Belief Systems about Marriage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Scott S.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to examine the meaning that the institution of marriage can hold for young, unmarried adults, based on their systems (or collections) of beliefs about marriage. Based on symbolic interactionism, it is argued that marital meaning has implications for how people behave prior to and during marriage that may relate to…

  16. Marital Instability And Depression Among Public Servants In Cross ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to establish the relationship between marital instability as a determinant of depression among public servant in cross river state, Nigeria. The study adopted the ex-post fact design. The sample consisted of 500 (429 males 71 female) public servants who were randomly selected from state ...

  17. Marital Adjustment, Stress and Depression among Working and Non ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study is aimed at exploring the relationship between marital adjustment, stress and depression. Sample of the study consisted of 150 working and non-working married women (working married women = 75, non-working married women = 75). Their age ranged between 18 to 50 years. Their education was at ...

  18. Work Identity and Marital Adjustment in Blue-Collar Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaesser, David L.; Whitbourne, Susan Krauss

    The expansion theory, which maintains that an individual has unlimited energy to expend in work or marital involvement, and the drain theory, which maintains that an individual's energy for work can be depleted by overcommitment to family, compete with each other in explaining the effect of worklife on the adult male's family relationships. To…

  19. Partner Killing by Men in Cohabiting and Marital Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shackelford, Todd K.; Mouzos, Jenny

    2005-01-01

    Using a national-level U.S. database, T. K. Shackelford (2001) calculated rates of uxoricide (the murder of a woman by her romantic partner) by relationship type (cohabiting or marital), by ages of the partners, and by the age difference between partners. Women in cohabiting relationships were 9 times more likely to be killed by their partner than…

  20. Post-partum depression, anxiety and marital satisfaction: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-03-22

    Mar 22, 2018 ... 1Department of Psychology, ... The first weeks and months postpartum may be associated with emotional upheaval.2 The nursing ... partum depressive symptoms,14,15,16,17 and marital problems ... reported a significant positive association ... satisfaction, and the importance of mental health promotion.

  1. Marital Property Reforms: Implications for Older Farm Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholl, Kathleen K.

    Throughout American history, marital property reform has been a concern of farm women. With most of the farm family's business assets in real estate, women without the right of ownership can find that they have limited wealth and no influence in the distribution of the farm's assets. The National Conference of Commissioners on Uniform State Laws…

  2. Marriage Meets the Joneses: Relative Income, Identity, and Marital Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Tara; McLanahan, Sara

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of relative income on marriage. Accounting flexibly for absolute income, the ratio between a man's income and a local reference group median is a strong predictor of marital status, but only for low-income men. Relative income affects marriage even among those living with a partner. A 10 percent higher reference…

  3. Developmental Patterns in Marital Satisfaction: Another Look at Covenant Marriage

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMaris, Alfred; Sanchez, Laura A.; Krivickas, Kristi

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated differences in the trajectory of marital satisfaction in the first 7 years between couples in covenant versus standard marriages. The authors analyzed data on 707 Louisiana marriages from the Marriage Matters Panel Survey of Newlywed Couples, 1998-2004, using multivariate longitudinal growth modeling. When the sample was…

  4. Coping strategies for marital stress as reported by lecturers of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated coping strategies for marital stress as reported by lecturers of a college of education. Lecturers were stratified into different strata of schools in the college i.e School of Education, Science, Arts and Social Sciences, Vocational Technology and Languages, after which a simple random sampling ...

  5. Sources of marital stress experienced by married people as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated sources of marital stress experienced by married people as perceived by lecturers of College of Education. Respondents were stratified into different strata of gender, age group, educational qualification and number of children, after which simple random sampling technique was used for selecting 20 ...

  6. Potential language and attentional networks revealed through factor analysis of rCBF data measured with SPECT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McLaughlin, T; Steinberg, B; Christensen, B

    1992-01-01

    's area (left hemisphere), when subjects listened to narrative speech, compared to white noise (baseline). No significant rCBF differences were detected with this test during dichotic stimulation vs. white noise. A more sophisticated statistical method (factor analysis) disclosed patterns of functionally...... brain networks involved in (I) auditory/linguistic, (II) attentional, and (III) visual imaging activity....

  7. Eating patterns may mediate the association between marital status, body mass index, and blood cholesterol levels in apparently healthy men and women from the ATTICA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yannakoulia, Mary; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes; Pitsavos, Christos; Skoumas, Yannis; Stafanadis, Christodoulos

    2008-06-01

    Marital status has been recognized as a significant health-influencing factor, including cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. The aim of the present paper was to evaluate whether eating habits mediate the relationship between marital status and levels of CVD risk factors among apparently healthy men and women from the ATTICA Study. During 2001-2002, we randomly enrolled 1514 men (18-87 years old) and 1528 women (18-89 years old) from the Attica area, Greece; the sampling was stratified by the age-gender distribution of the region. Participants underwent clinical, anthropometric and psychological assessment. Food consumption was assessed through a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Participants were classified as never married, married, divorced and widowed. Discriminant analysis revealed that vegetable consumption, followed by red meat, potatoes, poultry, and soft drinks were the factors with the higher discriminating ability among the food groups studied. In particular, dietary patterns of never married participants were characterized by the consumption of potatoes and red meat, those of married participants by nuts, legumes and fish, those of divorced participants by fruits, cereals and soft drinks, whereas those of widowed participants by dairy, vegetables, sweets and poultry. In addition, never married and divorced participants reported eating fast-foods more frequently and drink less alcohol compared to married or widowed participants. After controlling for potential confounders (i.e., age, gender, physical activity, anxiety score and smoking habits), the reported marital status of the participants was associated only with body mass index and total serum cholesterol levels. When the analysis was repeated after taking into account the information on dietary habits by creating four "new" dietary-adjusted marital status groups, no significant association was revealed between marital status and body mass index and blood cholesterol levels. This finding

  8. Stress in Childhood and Adulthood: Effects on Marital Quality over Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umberson, Debra; Williams, Kristi; Powers, Daniel A.; Liu, Hui; Needham, Belinda

    2005-01-01

    We work from a stress and life course perspective to consider how stress affects trajectories of change in marital quality over time. Specifically, we ask whether stress is more likely to undermine the quality of marital experiences at different points in the life course. In addition, we ask whether the effects of adult stress on marital quality…

  9. Spillover between Marital Quality and Job Satisfaction: Long-Term Patterns and Gender Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Stacy J.; May Dee C.

    2003-01-01

    Investigated process of spillover between marital quality and job satisfaction among married individuals. Results indicated increases in marital satisfaction were significantly related to increases in job satisfaction, and increases in marital discord were significantly related to declines in job satisfaction. These processes operate similarly for…

  10. 5 CFR 720.901 - Equal opportunity without regard to politics or marital status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Equal opportunity without regard to politics or marital status. 720.901 Section 720.901 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT... Regard to Politics or Marital Status § 720.901 Equal opportunity without regard to politics or marital...

  11. Marital and Family Therapy in the Treatment of Multiple Personality Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachs, Roberta G.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Explores marital and family therapy in treatment of Multiple Personality Disorder (MPD), discussing role of family of origin in MPD development and role of nuclear family in its perpetuation. Suggests family and marital interventions, illustrating them with case examples. Proposes involving MPD client in marital or family therapy, in addition to…

  12. Just the Two of Us? How Parents Influence Adult Children's Marital Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reczek, Corinne; Liu, Hui; Umberson, Debra

    2010-01-01

    We work from a life-course perspective to explore how relationships with parents affect adult children's marital quality. We further ask whether the effects of parents on adult children's marital quality depend on the adult child's gender, age, marital duration, and childhood family experiences. Growth-curve analysis of national, longitudinal data…

  13. Global transcriptional regulatory network for Escherichia coli robustly connects gene expression to transcription factor activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xin; Sastry, Anand; Mih, Nathan; Kim, Donghyuk; Tan, Justin; Lloyd, Colton J.; Gao, Ye; Yang, Laurence; Palsson, Bernhard O.

    2017-01-01

    Transcriptional regulatory networks (TRNs) have been studied intensely for >25 y. Yet, even for the Escherichia coli TRN—probably the best characterized TRN—several questions remain. Here, we address three questions: (i) How complete is our knowledge of the E. coli TRN; (ii) how well can we predict gene expression using this TRN; and (iii) how robust is our understanding of the TRN? First, we reconstructed a high-confidence TRN (hiTRN) consisting of 147 transcription factors (TFs) regulating 1,538 transcription units (TUs) encoding 1,764 genes. The 3,797 high-confidence regulatory interactions were collected from published, validated chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) data and RegulonDB. For 21 different TF knockouts, up to 63% of the differentially expressed genes in the hiTRN were traced to the knocked-out TF through regulatory cascades. Second, we trained supervised machine learning algorithms to predict the expression of 1,364 TUs given TF activities using 441 samples. The algorithms accurately predicted condition-specific expression for 86% (1,174 of 1,364) of the TUs, while 193 TUs (14%) were predicted better than random TRNs. Third, we identified 10 regulatory modules whose definitions were robust against changes to the TRN or expression compendium. Using surrogate variable analysis, we also identified three unmodeled factors that systematically influenced gene expression. Our computational workflow comprehensively characterizes the predictive capabilities and systems-level functions of an organism’s TRN from disparate data types. PMID:28874552

  14. A study on improvement of scaling factor prediction using artificial neural network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Chul; Hwang, Ki Ha; Kang, Sang Hee; Lee, Kun Jai

    2003-01-01

    Final disposal of radioactive waste generated from Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) requires the detailed knowledge of the natures and quantities of radionuclides in waste package. Many of these radionuclides are difficult to measure and expensive to assay. Thus it is suggested to the indirect method by which the concentrations of DTM (Difficult-to Measure) nuclide is decided using the relation of concentrations (Scaling Factor) between Key (Easy-to-Measure) nuclide and DTM nuclide with measured concentrations of Key nuclide. In general, scaling factor is determined by using of log mean average (LMA) and regression. These methods are adequate to apply most corrosion product nuclides. But in case of fission product nuclides and some corrosion product nuclides, the predicted values aren't well matched with the original values. In this study, the models using artificial neural network (ANN) for C-14 and Sr-90 are compared with those using LMA and regression. The assessment of models is executed in the two parts divided by a training part and a validation part. For all of two nuclides in the training part, the predicted values using ANN are well matched with the measured values compared with those using LMA and regression. In the validation part, the accuracy of the predicted values using ANN is better than that using LMA and is similar to or better than that using regression. It is concluded that the predicted values using ANN model are better than those using conventional model in some nuclides and ANN model can be used as the complement of LMA and regression model

  15. Derangement of a factor upstream of RARalpha triggers the repression of a pleiotropic epigenetic network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Corlazzoli

    Full Text Available Chromatin adapts and responds to extrinsic and intrinsic cues. We hypothesize that inheritable aberrant chromatin states in cancer and aging are caused by genetic/environmental factors. In previous studies we demonstrated that either genetic mutations, or loss, of retinoic acid receptor alpha (RARalpha, can impair the integration of the retinoic acid (RA signal at the chromatin of RA-responsive genes downstream of RARalpha, and can lead to aberrant repressive chromatin states marked by epigenetic modifications. In this study we tested whether the mere interference with the availability of RA signal at RARalpha, in cells with an otherwise functional RARalpha, can also induce epigenetic repression at RA-responsive genes downstream of RARalpha.To hamper the availability of RA at RARalpha in untransformed human mammary epithelial cells, we targeted the cellular RA-binding protein 2 (CRABP2, which transports RA from the cytoplasm onto the nuclear RARs. Stable ectopic expression of a CRABP2 mutant unable to enter the nucleus, as well as stable knock down of endogenous CRABP2, led to the coordinated transcriptional repression of a few RA-responsive genes downstream of RARalpha. The chromatin at these genes acquired an exacerbated repressed state, or state "of no return". This aberrant state is unresponsive to RA, and therefore differs from the physiologically repressed, yet "poised" state, which is responsive to RA. Consistent with development of homozygosis for epigenetically repressed loci, a significant proportion of cells with a defective CRABP2-mediated RA transport developed heritable phenotypes indicative of loss of function.Derangement/lack of a critical factor necessary for RARalpha function induces epigenetic repression of a RA-regulated gene network downstream of RARalpha, with major pleiotropic biological outcomes.

  16. Local power peaking factor estimation in nuclear fuel by artificial neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montes, Jose Luis; Francois, Juan Luis; Ortiz, Juan Jose; Martin-del-Campo, Cecilia; Perusquia, Raul

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the training of an artificial neural network (ANN) to accurately predict, in very short time, a physical parameter used in nuclear fuel reactor optimization: the local power peaking factor (LPPF) in a typical boiling water reactor (BWR) fuel lattice. The ANN training patterns are distribution of fissile and burnable poison materials in the fuel lattice and their associated LPPF. These data were obtained by modeling the fuel lattices with a neutronic simulator: the HELIOS transport code. The combination of the pin U 235 enrichment and the Gd 2 O 3 (gadolinia) concentration, inside the 10 x 10 fuel lattice array, was encoded by three different methods. However, the only encoding method that was able to give a good prediction of the LPPF was the method which added the U 235 enrichment and the gadolinia concentration. The results show that the relative error in the estimation of the LPPF, obtained by the trained ANN, ranged from 0.022% to 0.045%, with respect to the HELIOS results

  17. Psychiatric illness, socioeconomic status, and marital status in people committing suicide: a matched case-sibling-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerbo, Esben; Qin, Ping; Mortensen, Preben Bo

    2006-01-01

    of these factors. DESIGN: Nested case-control study. Information on causes of death, psychiatric admission, marital status, children, and socioeconomic factors was obtained from routine registers. SETTING: Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: 985 suicide cases, 1104 sex-age (+/-3 years) matched siblings, and 16 619 controls......STUDY OBJECTIVE: Suicides cluster in both families and persons with psychiatric disorders and socioeconomic disadvantages. This study compares these factors between suicide cases, their siblings, and population based controls in an attempt to evaluate both the familial and the individual element...... and controls in exposure to hospitalised psychiatric disorders and socioeconomic disadvantages, although these factors contribute to the familial aggregation of suicides....

  18. Vascular risk factors, cerebrovascular reactivity, and the default-mode brain network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haight, Thaddeus J; Bryan, R Nick; Erus, Guray; Davatzikos, Christos; Jacobs, David R; D'Esposito, Mark; Lewis, Cora E; Launer, Lenore J

    2015-07-15

    Cumulating evidence from epidemiologic studies implicates cardiovascular health and cerebrovascular function in several brain diseases in late life. We examined vascular risk factors with respect to a cerebrovascular measure of brain functioning in subjects in mid-life, which could represent a marker of brain changes in later life. Breath-hold functional MRI (fMRI) was performed in 541 women and men (mean age 50.4 years) from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Brain MRI sub-study. Cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) was quantified as percentage change in blood-oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal in activated voxels, which was mapped to a common brain template and log-transformed. Mean CVR was calculated for anatomic regions underlying the default-mode network (DMN) - a network implicated in AD and other brain disorders - in addition to areas considered to be relatively spared in the disease (e.g. occipital lobe), which were utilized as reference regions. Mean CVR was significantly reduced in the posterior cingulate/precuneus (β=-0.063, 95% CI: -0.106, -0.020), anterior cingulate (β=-0.055, 95% CI: -0.101, -0.010), and medial frontal lobe (β=-0.050, 95% CI: -0.092, -0.008) relative to mean CVR in the occipital lobe, after adjustment for age, sex, race, education, and smoking status, in subjects with pre-hypertension/hypertension compared to normotensive subjects. By contrast, mean CVR was lower, but not significantly, in the inferior parietal lobe (β=-0.024, 95% CI: -0.062, 0.014) and the hippocampus (β=-0.006, 95% CI: -0.062, 0.050) relative to mean CVR in the occipital lobe. Similar results were observed in subjects with diabetes and dyslipidemia compared to those without these conditions, though the differences were non-significant. Reduced CVR may represent diminished vascular functionality for the DMN for individuals with prehypertension/hypertension in mid-life, and may serve as a preclinical marker for brain dysfunction in later

  19. Critical Factors to Achieve Dockless Bike-Sharing Sustainability in China: A Stakeholder-Oriented Network Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-gang Shi

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available In China, dockless bike-sharing programs (DBSPs play a significant role in promoting the goals of sustainable urban travel and carbon emissions reduction. However, the sustainability of DBSPs is increasingly being challenged as various issues associated with different stakeholders emerge. While numerous studies have focused on the barriers to traditional bike-sharing programs, the sustainability performance of new-generation DBSPs is largely overlooked. It is accordingly imperative to understand the primary challenges that impede the sustainability of DBSPs and to consider what stimulative measures can be taken. In this study, we investigate the factors that are critical to DBSPs’ sustainability from a network perspective. Stakeholder-associated factors and their interrelations were identified via literature analysis and interviews, and the social network analysis (SNA method was employed to recognize the critical factors and links in DBSPs. As a result, 10 critical factors and 10 major interactions were identified and further classified into six challenges. Sharing transport schemes, legislative perfection, public private partnership (PPP, and product lifecycle management (PLM were proposed to govern these challenges. This paper contributes to the existing body of knowledge of bike-sharing programs via a network approach that integrates the key influencing factors with those factors’ associated stakeholders. Furthermore, these findings provide the government and operators with implications for mitigating the tough challenges and facilitating the sustainability of DBSPs.

  20. Social network, social support, and risk of incident stroke: Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagayoshi, Mako; Everson-Rose, Susan A; Iso, Hiroyasu; Mosley, Thomas H; Rose, Kathryn M; Lutsey, Pamela L

    2014-10-01

    Having a small social network and lack of social support have been associated with incident coronary heart disease; however, epidemiological evidence for incident stroke is limited. We assessed the longitudinal association of a small social network and lack of social support with risk of incident stroke and evaluated whether the association was partly mediated by vital exhaustion and inflammation. The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study measured social network and social support in 13 686 men and women (mean, 57 years; 56% women; 24% black; 76% white) without a history of stroke. Social network was assessed by the 10-item Lubben Social Network Scale and social support by a 16-item Interpersonal Support Evaluation List-Short Form. During a median follow-up of 18.6 years, 905 incident strokes occurred. Relative to participants with a large social network, those with a small social network had a higher risk of stroke (hazard ratio [95% confidence interval], 1.44 [1.02-2.04]) after adjustment for demographics, socioeconomic variables, marital status, behavioral risk factors, and major stroke risk factors. Vital exhaustion, but not inflammation, partly mediated the association between a small social network and incident stroke. Social support was unrelated to incident stroke. In this sample of US community-dwelling men and women, having a small social network was associated with excess risk of incident stroke. As with other cardiovascular conditions, having a small social network may be associated with a modestly increased risk of incident stroke. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.