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Sample records for network factors marital

  1. Factors Associated with Marital Aggression in Male Alcoholics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Christopher M.; O'Farrell, Timothy J.

    The stereotype of the "drunken bum" wife abuser has a long history in American culture. U.S. population surveys document a positive correlation between alcohol consumption levels and marital violence. In this study risk factors for marital violence among treatment seeking male alcoholics were examined. Subjects were couples (N=107) who had a newly…

  2. The influence of marital factors on genital human papilloma virus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: To study the association between marital factors and human papilloma virus (HPV) infection of the cervix. Method: The subjects were 450 randomly selected sexually active women attending the antenatal, postnatal, gynaecology and family planning clinics in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of the ...

  3. Factors associated with teenage marital pregnancy among Bangladeshi women

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Teenage pregnancy is a public health concern both in developed and developing world. In Bangladesh, most of the first pregnancies occur immediately after marriage, especially among teenagers. Although women aged 15-29 years are the most fertility contributing women in Bangladesh, studies are not yet conducted on teenage pregnancy within this group of women. In the current study, an attempt had been made to identify the factors affecting teenage marital pregnancy in women aged 15-29 years. Methods A cross sectional survey was carried out in 389 women, selected with a convenience sampling technique. Participants were selected on the basis of two criteria, such as married women and age within 15-29 years. We excluded women aged more than 29 years as we attempted to conduct study within high fertility contributing women and with the assumption that they may provide data subjected to relatively high level of recall bias as marital pregnancy may be a longer past event to them. In the analysis, we applied bi-variate and multi-variate logistic regression technique to find out odds ratio of teenage marital pregnancy. Results Result revealed that 72.5% of the participants experienced first marital pregnancy during their teenage, with a mean age of 17.88 years (SD = 2.813). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that participants aged 20-24 years had higher likelihood (OR 1.971, 95% CI 1.132 to 3.434), whereas participants aged 25-29 years had lower likelihood (OR 0.054, 95% CI 0.016 to 0.190) of experiencing teenage marital pregnancy compared to participants aged 15-19 years. In addition, participants desired for >2 children had significant higher odds (OR 3.573, 95% CI 1.910 to 6.684) and participants born in urban area had significant lower odds (OR 0.458, 95% CI 0.228 to 0.919) for teenage marital pregnancy. Conclusions Based on the findings, we conclude that in order to reduce teenage marital pregnancy, consideration should be given on women

  4. Factors associated with teenage marital pregnancy among Bangladeshi women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayem, Amir M; Nury, Abu Taher Ms

    2011-05-20

    Teenage pregnancy is a public health concern both in developed and developing world. In Bangladesh, most of the first pregnancies occur immediately after marriage, especially among teenagers. Although women aged 15-29 years are the most fertility contributing women in Bangladesh, studies are not yet conducted on teenage pregnancy within this group of women. In the current study, an attempt had been made to identify the factors affecting teenage marital pregnancy in women aged 15-29 years. A cross sectional survey was carried out in 389 women, selected with a convenience sampling technique. Participants were selected on the basis of two criteria, such as married women and age within 15-29 years. We excluded women aged more than 29 years as we attempted to conduct study within high fertility contributing women and with the assumption that they may provide data subjected to relatively high level of recall bias as marital pregnancy may be a longer past event to them. In the analysis, we applied bi-variate and multi-variate logistic regression technique to find out odds ratio of teenage marital pregnancy. Result revealed that 72.5% of the participants experienced first marital pregnancy during their teenage, with a mean age of 17.88 years (SD = 2.813). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that participants aged 20-24 years had higher likelihood (OR 1.971, 95% CI 1.132 to 3.434), whereas participants aged 25-29 years had lower likelihood (OR 0.054, 95% CI 0.016 to 0.190) of experiencing teenage marital pregnancy compared to participants aged 15-19 years. In addition, participants desired for >2 children had significant higher odds (OR 3.573, 95% CI 1.910 to 6.684) and participants born in urban area had significant lower odds (OR 0.458, 95% CI 0.228 to 0.919) for teenage marital pregnancy. Based on the findings, we conclude that in order to reduce teenage marital pregnancy, consideration should be given on women's desired number of children and birth place

  5. Factors associated with teenage marital pregnancy among Bangladeshi women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nury Abu Taher MS

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Teenage pregnancy is a public health concern both in developed and developing world. In Bangladesh, most of the first pregnancies occur immediately after marriage, especially among teenagers. Although women aged 15-29 years are the most fertility contributing women in Bangladesh, studies are not yet conducted on teenage pregnancy within this group of women. In the current study, an attempt had been made to identify the factors affecting teenage marital pregnancy in women aged 15-29 years. Methods A cross sectional survey was carried out in 389 women, selected with a convenience sampling technique. Participants were selected on the basis of two criteria, such as married women and age within 15-29 years. We excluded women aged more than 29 years as we attempted to conduct study within high fertility contributing women and with the assumption that they may provide data subjected to relatively high level of recall bias as marital pregnancy may be a longer past event to them. In the analysis, we applied bi-variate and multi-variate logistic regression technique to find out odds ratio of teenage marital pregnancy. Results Result revealed that 72.5% of the participants experienced first marital pregnancy during their teenage, with a mean age of 17.88 years (SD = 2.813. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that participants aged 20-24 years had higher likelihood (OR 1.971, 95% CI 1.132 to 3.434, whereas participants aged 25-29 years had lower likelihood (OR 0.054, 95% CI 0.016 to 0.190 of experiencing teenage marital pregnancy compared to participants aged 15-19 years. In addition, participants desired for >2 children had significant higher odds (OR 3.573, 95% CI 1.910 to 6.684 and participants born in urban area had significant lower odds (OR 0.458, 95% CI 0.228 to 0.919 for teenage marital pregnancy. Conclusions Based on the findings, we conclude that in order to reduce teenage marital pregnancy, consideration should

  6. Factors That Influence the Association Between Adult Attachment and Marital Satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Hatch, Daniel LeRoy

    2008-01-01

    Adult attachment theory offers a promising conceptual framework for understanding the psychological and contextual factors that contribute to marital satisfaction. A consistent association has been found between adult attachment dimensions and marital satisfaction. The current study examined several mediating mechanisms that may explain the relationship between adult attachment dimensions and marital satisfaction. Specifically, relationship expectations, four types of responses to accommodati...

  7. Alcoholism, associated risk factors, and harsh parenting among fathers: Examining the role of marital aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finger, Brent; Kachadourian, Lorig K; Molnar, Danielle S; Eiden, Rina D; Edwards, Ellen P; Leonard, Kenneth E

    2010-06-01

    This study utilized a longitudinal design to examine relations between paternal alcoholism, paternal psychopathology, marital aggression and fathers' harsh parenting behavior in a sample of children with alcoholic (n = 89) and non-alcoholic (n = 94) fathers. Structural Equation Modeling revealed that paternal alcoholism, depression, and antisocial behavior at 12 months of child age each predicted higher levels of marital aggression at 36 months. Moreover, after controlling for prior parenting, marital aggression was predictive of harsher parenting at kindergarten. Alcoholism and psychopathology were not directly predictive of harsh parenting with marital aggression included in the model, thus indicating that marital aggression is mediating the relation between paternal risk factors and parenting outcome. Results of this study suggest that one pathway linking fathers' alcohol diagnosis to harsh parenting is via marital aggression. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Relationship Education for Modern Orthodox Jewish Adolescents as a Factor of Marital Satisfaction: A Quantitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maybruch, Chana

    2012-01-01

    Research on the influence of relationship education on marital satisfaction over the last decade has demonstrated positive outcomes for both high school and premarital programs within the general American population. Yet few studies have examined relationship education as a factor of marital satisfaction specifically within the North American…

  9. Marital Satisfaction: Factors for Black Jamaicans and African Americans Living in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Nivischi Ngozi

    2009-01-01

    Marital satisfaction is the strongest predictor for happiness in many areas of life (Russel & Wells, 1994). A satisfying marriage is associated with better general adjustment and fewer health problems (Bray & Jouriles, 1995). Factors that contribute to marital satisfaction reported by researchers include religion and spirituality (Anthony,…

  10. Marital Intimacy and Predictive Factors Among Infertile Women in Northern Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasha, Hajar; Esmailzadeh, Sedigheh; Faramarzi, Mahbobeh; Adibrad, Hajar

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Infertility is a stressful state that may decrease attachment between spouses. Marital intimacy is a real need in infertile women. Aim The aim of this study was to evaluate marital intimacy and predictive factors among infertile women in Northern Iran. Materials and Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted at Fatemeh Zahra Infertility and Reproductive Health Center of Babol Medical Sciences University in 2014. A total of 221 infertile women participated in this study. The instrument used in this research was Marital Intimacy Need Questionnaire (MINQ). Statistical analyses was performed using linear and logistic regression with pinfertile women had good marital intimacy. The mean and standard deviation of the marital intimacy was 349.11±49.26 and in marital intimacy domains including: emotional (42.28±7.23), psychological (41.84±7.59), intellectual (42.56±7.46), sexual (42.90±7.41), physical (43.59±6.96), spiritual (51.61±8.06), aesthetic (42.66±6.75), and social intimacy (42.59±6.89). The highest mean of marital intimacy domains is related to spirituality in infertile women. Physical and sexual domains had the high mean in infertile women. The lowest mean in marital intimacy domains was psychological intimacy. There was a significant correlation between the domains of marital intimacy. The strongest correlation was between the physical and sexual intimacy (r=0.85). There was a significant inverse association in marital intimacy with the age difference of spouses (pinfertility (pinfertility to identify and prevent the predictive factors that may cause marital conflict. PMID:28658854

  11. [Impact of psychological factors on marital satisfaction and divorce proneness in clinical couples].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Seong Sook

    2008-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the psychological factors that affect marital satisfaction or divorce likelihood in clinical couples. Clinical couples (n=57) who visited "M" couple clinic participated in the study. Data was collected from September 2005 to June 2006 using a Marital Satisfaction Scale, a Marital Status Inventory, Beck Depression Inventory, Maudsley Obsessional-Compulsive Inventory, and Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory. The couples showed high scores on depression, obsessive-compulsion, personality factors and divorce probability and a low score on marital satisfaction. The wife's obsessive-compulsion was a predictor of her marital satisfaction, and the wife's social introversion and depression, and husband's obsessive-compulsion were predictors of the wife's prospect of divorce. The husband's hypomania and depression were predictors of his marital satisfaction, and there were no predictors of the husband's prospect of divorce. Obsessive-compulsion is a significant factor in a couple's relationship, although previous studies have not been interested in obsessive-compulsion. Divorce likelihood should be evaluated for clinical couples as well as marital satisfaction, because it is more important for divorce prevention. Each spouse who has a psychological problem such as depression, obsessive-compulsion, and deviated personality needs individual therapy as well as couple therapy.

  12. Factors Related to Marital Satisfaction in Women with Major Depressive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahrokh Amiri

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Major depressive disorder (MDD is one of the most common psychiatric disorders which affects married couples frequently.The present study aims to explain the role of family processes, social support and demographic factors in marital satisfaction of women with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD.Method: In this cross-sectional study, 188 women with MDD were randomly selected among the patients who visited Bozorgmehr Clinic of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences. The sample selection was carried out through structured psychiatric interviews based on DSM-TV-TR criteria. Data were collected using Index of Marital Satisfaction (IMS, Family Process Scale (FPS and Norbeck Social Support Questionnaire (NSSQ.The Mann Whitney U, Multivariate and ANOVA tests were used to analyze the data.Results: No relationship was observed between age, educational level, age difference of couples and number of children with family processes and marital satisfaction (p≥0.05. The patients with low educational level reported less social support (p≥0.05.Marital satisfaction and family coherence were lower when the husband had a psychiatric disorder (P≤0.01. The family processes (family coherence, problem-solving skills, communication skills and religious beliefs and social support positively predicted marital satisfaction, while the husband's psychiatric disorders negatively predicted marital satisfaction.Conclusion: The findings highlight the significance of family processes, social support and husband's psychiatric disorders in marital satisfaction of women with MDD.

  13. Marital Instability and the Changing Kinship Networks of Grandparents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Colleen Leahy; Barer, Barbara M.

    1987-01-01

    Focuses on the effects divorces of children have on the kinship networks of the older generation. Found a common source of expansion among paternal grandmothers who retained relationships with their former daughters-in-law and her relatives at the same time that they added new relatives with sons' remarriages. (Author/ABB)

  14. Pre-marital sex and its predicting factors among Malaysian youths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manaf, Mohd Rizal Abdul; Tahir, Mastura Mohd; Sidi, Hatta; Midin, Marhani; Nik Jaafar, Nik Ruzyanei; Das, Srijit; Malek, Abdul Muizz Abd

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the prevalence of pre-marital sex and its predicting factors among youth trainees undergoing a national skill training programme in the state of Malaysia. Participants filled up health screening surveys at the beginning of their training period. A total of 1328 out of 1377 trainees were included in the study. Logistic regression was done to determine the potential predicting factors of pre-marital sex among the trainees. Most trainees were 18 years old (97.1%) and 56% were female and 44% were male. The prevalence of pre-marital sex among trainees of these youths was 4.6%. A total of 6.2% of the female trainees as compared to 2.6% of their male counterpart had had pre-marital sex. Analysis using multiple logistic regression revealed only six significant predictor variables which were religion, race, lover, reading or watching porn, masturbation and bullying. The prevalence of pre-marital sex amongst Malaysian youths is low as compared to those in developed countries. However, as pre-marital sex and pregnancy outside wedlock are largely socially unacceptable in Malaysia and may be kept hidden from others, the complications and social problems that may follow from this behaviour should be taken into consideration. Measures such as sex education and awareness programmes are needed among youth to curb this phenomenon from becoming a social as well as a public health concern. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Effective Factors in Marital Satisfaction in Perspective of Iranian Women and Men: A systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaheri, Farzaneh; Dolatian, Mahrokh; Shariati, Mohammad; Simbar, Masoomeh; Ebadi, Abbas; Azghadi, Seyede Batool Hasanpoor

    2016-01-01

    Introduction One of the most important factors and determinants of mental health, emotional stability of couples and successful marriage is marital satisfaction, a state that in most cases, males and females are satisfied with each other and their marriage. This review was conducted to survey the effective factors on marital satisfaction in view of Iranian men and women. Methods This systematic review surveys published articles from 2005 to 2015. First, scientific databases such as Pubmed/Medline, Scopus, Elsevier, Cochran library, Springer, Scientific Information Database (SID), IranMedex, Magiran and Medlib were searched using relevant key words and phrases. All published peer-reviewed articles studied exploring associations between marital satisfaction and effective factors were considered for inclusion. Results According to results, the spiritual and religious, sexual and interpersonal factors, communication and interaction factors and mental health had positive impact on marital satisfaction in the vast majority of studies. Also in most articles, impact of some socio-demographic factors such as occupation, length of marriage, age, Number of children, economic factor and income had been emphasized. Conclusion In mate selection, it is necessary to note various criteria, including religious matters, moral, mental health, communication skills and sexual factor and action through education, counseling and treatment if there is problem. PMID:28163850

  16. Pain in the Context of Family: A Study on Factors Contributing to Marital Satisfaction among Couples Suffering from Chronic Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari, Fatemeh; Dehghani, Mohsen

    2017-07-01

    Chronic pain is associated with increased stress in families and has its own impact on the relationship between members of the family. Among couples, if one of them suffers from chronic pain, this may influence marital satisfaction in both of them and given the importance of marital satisfaction in the prediction of successful treatment outcome, it is important to investigate pain and personality-related factors contributing to inter-individuals variation in marital satisfaction. Participants in this study were recruited from Atieh Hospital and Rasa Pain Clinic, Tehran, Iran in the year 2013. Chronic pain patients and their spouses were asked to complete a battery of questionnaires including measures on pain cognition and marital satisfaction. Using correlation and regression analysis factors with the highest level of contribution to marital satisfaction were investigated. Spouses' level of rumination about patients' pain has been found to be positively correlated with marital satisfaction in patients. In addition, patients' depression has been found to be the best predictor of level of marital satisfaction in patients. In addition, patients' level of depression, disability and perceived helplessness has been found to be the best predictors of marital satisfaction in their spouses. To improve marital satisfaction among chronic pain patients, their support-seeking needs should be satisfied through involvement of their spouses in the process of treatment. To improve marital satisfaction among patients' spouses, we should help patients regain their ability, improve their mood, and make patients believe that they have access to the support of their caregivers.

  17. Assessing Disharmony and Disaffection in Intimate Relationships: Revision of the Marital Satisfaction Inventory Factor Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrington, Rachael L.; Mitchell, Alexandra E.; Castellani, Angela M.; Joseph, Jana I.; Snyder, Douglas K.; Gleaves, David H.

    2008-01-01

    Previous research has identified 2 broad components of distress in intimate relationships: overt conflict, or "disharmony", and emotional distance, or "disaffection". Using confirmatory factor analysis, the authors derived 2 broadband scales of disharmony and disaffection from the Marital Satisfaction Inventory-Revised (D. K. Snyder, 1997),…

  18. Racial, Income, and Marital Status Disparities in Hospital Readmissions Within a Veterans-Integrated Health Care Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Crystal Dea; Gao, Kelly; Shulan, Mollie

    2015-12-01

    Hospital readmission is an important indicator of health care quality and currently used in determining hospital reimbursement rates by Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. Given the important policy implications, a better understanding of factors that influence readmission rates is needed. Racial disparities in readmission have been extensively studied, but income and marital status (a postdischarge care support indicator) disparities have received limited attention. By employing three Poisson regression models controlling for different confounders on 8,718 patients in a veterans-integrated health care network, this study assessed racial, income, and martial disparities in relation to total number of readmissions. In contrast to other studies, no racial and income disparities were found, but unmarried patients experienced significantly more readmissions: 16%, after controlling for the confounders. These findings render unique insight into health care policies aimed to improve race and income disparities, while challenging policy makers to reduce readmissions for those who lack family support. © The Author(s) 2013.

  19. Reviewing Sexual Function After Delivery and Its Association with Some of the Demographic Marital Satisfaction Factors

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    Kh. Broumandfar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Desirable sexual function has an important role in strengthening the marital life of the couples. Sexual disorders can cause mental pressure and affect quality of life and marital relationship. Methods: This was a descriptive correlation study in one group and one phase covering multivariables. The study sample included 384 women after delivery period that had the following inclusion criteria: the age of at least 18 years, delivery in 38-42 pregnancy weeks, primiparous and multiparous women, living in the city, single pregnancy, and twelve months elapsed from the delivery. The required data such demographic, marital satisfaction and sexual function index were collected through reporting questionnaire. The data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistical methods using software SPSS. Results: The findings of the study indicated that the most prevalent disorder of the sexual relationship in postpartum was dyspareunia and the least prevalent was the sexual desire. There was no significant association between sexual function and, age, education degree , body mass index ,body size and job, but there was a significant association for other factors such as the economic, residence and marital satisfaction (p<0.01. Conclusion: It is recommended that sexual problems after delivery be placed on the list of health teaching issues to pass easily this period of time. Women should be assured that these problems gradually would be improved and they should learn using proper techniques to decrease dyspareunia which is a sexual disorder in postpartum period.

  20. Psychological factors influencing self-disclosure in marital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    esteem, self-monitoring and social–demographic factors of gender, age, education qualification and duration of marriage. An Ex-post facto research design was adopted for the study while a sample of 204 married people completed measures of ...

  1. Factors Related to Marital Satisfaction in Women with Major Depressive Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Amiri, Shahrokh; Khousheh, Mohsen; Ranjbar, Fatemeh; Fakhari, Ali; Mohagheghi, Arash; Farnam, Alireza; Abdi, Salman; Alizadeh, Amineh

    2012-01-01

    Objective Major depressive disorder (MDD) is one of the most common psychiatric disorders which affects married couples frequently.The present study aims to explain the role of family processes, social support and demographic factors in marital satisfaction of women with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). Method In this cross-sectional study, 188 women with MDD were randomly selected among the patients who visited Bozorgmehr Clinic of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences. The sample selection ...

  2. Marital Status, Cardiovascular Diseases, and Cardiovascular Risk Factors: A Review of the Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfredini, Roberto; De Giorgi, Alfredo; Tiseo, Ruana; Boari, Benedetta; Cappadona, Rosaria; Salmi, Raffaella; Gallerani, Massimo; Signani, Fulvia; Manfredini, Fabio; Mikhailidis, Dimitri P; Fabbian, Fabio

    2017-06-01

    There is evidence showing that marital status (MS) and marital disruption (i.e., separation, divorce, and being widowed) are associated with poor physical health outcomes, including for all-cause mortality. We checked for the available evidence on the association between MS and cardiovascular (CV) diseases, outcomes, and CV risk factors. A search across the PubMed database of all articles, including the term "marital status" in their title, was performed. All articles were then manually checked for the presence of the following terms or topic: CV diseases, acute myocardial infarction, acute coronary syndrome, coronary artery disease, cardiac arrest, heart failure, heart diseases, and CV mortality. Moreover, other search terms were: CV risk factors, hypertension, cholesterol, obesity, smoking, alcohol, fitness and/or physical activity, and health. Systematic reviews, meta-analyses, controlled trials, cohort studies, and case-control studies were potentially considered pertinent for inclusion. Case reports, comments, discussion letters, abstracts of scientific conferences, articles in other than English language, and conference abstracts or proceedings were excluded. In total, 817 references containing the title words "marital status" were found. After elimination of articles dealing with other topics, 70 records were considered pertinent. Twenty-two were eliminated for several reasons, such as old articles, no abstract, full text unavailable, other than English language, comments, and letters. Out of the remaining 48 articles, 13 were suitable for the discussion, and 35 (accounting for 1,245,967 subjects) were included in this study. Most studies showed better outcomes for married persons, and men who were single generally had the poorest results. Moreover, being married was associated with lower risk factors and better health status, even in the presence of many confounding effects.

  3. Factors Associated With Marital Satisfaction in Infertile Couple: A Comprehensive Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samadaee-Gelehkolaee, Keshvar; McCarthy, Barry W; Khalilian, Alireza; Hamzehgardeshi, Zeinab; Peyvandi, Sepideh; Elyasi, Forouza; Shahidi, Maryam

    2015-09-02

    Many factors impact on marital satisfaction. Related factors include demographic factors, assisted reproductive techniques, psychological health, quality of life, psychological, socioeconomic and family support, and sexual function. This study is a literature review of research studies conducted on factors associated with marital satisfaction in infertile couples. The current literature review search was undertaken using multiple databases selected from articles pertinent to the study. The selection of subjects was undertaken from1990 through 2015. The methodological quality was analyzed based on a checklist adopted from a systematic review. Quality assessment of full text studies was finally carried out by two reviewers. The initial search yielded a list of 445 papers, and then reviewers studied titles and abstracts. Thereafter, 69 papers were incorporated, and researchers reviewed summaries of all of the searched articles. Finally, the researchers utilized the data gained from 64 full articles so as to compile this review paper. Reviewing the studies conducted on marital satisfaction, they classified related findings into 6 categories: demographic factors, using fertility assisting methods, psychological health, life quality, economic, social, and family support, and sexual function. The results of this review article depicted that various factors play role in creating marriage life satisfaction in an infertile couple, so that paying attention to them can play an important role in continuing their treatment. Thus, to identify such factors is considered essential in their treatment protocol highly based on culture. Of the drawbacks of this research is that it has tried at best to employ the studies belonging to diverse countries with different cultures. Also, the number of the papers was considerably limited.

  4. Gender, marital power, and marital quality in later life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulanda, Jennifer Roebuck

    2011-01-01

    This study uses data from the 1992 Health and Retirement Study to examine gender differences in marital power and marital quality among older adults and to assess whether there are gender differences in the correlates of marital quality and marital power in later life. Results show that women report lower marital happiness, marital interaction, and marital power than do men, on average. These differences persist even after controlling for a number of life-course events and transitions. Further, results show that gender differences are also evident in the relationship of employment, childrearing, caregiving, and health factors with marital quality and power.

  5. Violencia física marital en Barranquilla (Colombia): prevalencia y factores de riesgo

    OpenAIRE

    Tuesca, R.; BORDA, M

    2003-01-01

    Objetivos: Determinar la prevalencia de maltrato físico marital en mujeres en edad fértil que viven con su pareja, así como identificar factores personales, socioeconómicos y de función familiar que se relacionen con el maltrato. Métodos: Estudio transversal sobre una muestra aleatoria de 275 mujeres en edad fértil del barrio Carlos Meissel, de la ciudad de Barranquilla, Colombia. La información se obtuvo mediante entrevista personal en el hogar a partir de un cuestionario estructurado y sigu...

  6. Marital Alternatives and Marital Disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udry, J. Richard

    1981-01-01

    Explores the usefulness of "marital alternatives" as a dimension in explaining marital stability, using longitudinal data from a panel of married, White, urban couples from 16 urban areas. Results indicated the dimension of marital alternatives appeared to be a better predictor of marital disruption than marital satisfaction. (Author/RC)

  7. Violencia física marital en Barranquilla (Colombia: prevalencia y factores de riesgo Marital violence in Barranquilla (Colombia: prevalence and risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Tuesca

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Determinar la prevalencia de maltrato físico marital en mujeres en edad fértil que viven con su pareja, así como identificar factores personales, socioeconómicos y de función familiar que se relacionen con el maltrato. Métodos: Estudio transversal sobre una muestra aleatoria de 275 mujeres en edad fértil del barrio Carlos Meissel, de la ciudad de Barranquilla, Colombia. La información se obtuvo mediante entrevista personal en el hogar a partir de un cuestionario estructurado y siguiendo las recomendaciones éticas y de seguridad para la investigación sobre violencia doméstica contra mujeres de la Organización Mundial de la Salud. En el cuestionario se recogen datos sobre características personales, consumo habitual de alcohol y drogas, función familiar (según test de Apgar Familiar, características socioeconómicas y antecedentes de maltrato físico durante los 12 meses previos a la entrevista. Resultados: La prevalencia de maltrato marital fue del 22,9%, y el grupo de 25-29 años es el más afectado (33,3%. Se asociaron con el maltrato físico el consumo habitual de alcohol en las mujeres (odds ratio, OR = 6,02; intervalo de confianza del 95%, IC del 95%, 1,7-22,2 y en el cónyuge (OR = 10,11; IC del 95%, 5,1-20,1 y el consumo de sustancias psicoactivas en el cónyuge (OR = 11.01; IC del 95%, 4,2-29,5. Los ingresos mensuales por debajo de 300.000 pesos colombianos (140 euros también se asociaron con maltrato, así como presencia de disfunción familiar moderada o grave (OR = 16,9; IC del 95%, 4,8-59,0; OR = 81,6; IC del 95%, 18,8-35,5, respectivamente. Conclusiones: La naturaleza transversal del estudio limita la interpretación de los resultados. Sin embargo, se ha observado que en las mujeres de la muestra estudiada en este estudio el maltrato físico de la mujer por parte de su pareja se asocia con factores potencialmente modificables.Objective: To determine the prevalence of violence against women of fertile age

  8. Human factors in network security

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Francis B.

    1991-01-01

    Human factors, such as ethics and education, are important factors in network information security. This thesis determines which human factors have significant influence on network security. Those factors are examined in relation to current security devices and procedures. Methods are introduced to evaluate security effectiveness by incorporating the appropriate human factors into network security controls

  9. Violencia física marital en Barranquilla (Colombia: prevalencia y factores de riesgo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuesca R.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Determinar la prevalencia de maltrato físico marital en mujeres en edad fértil que viven con su pareja, así como identificar factores personales, socioeconómicos y de función familiar que se relacionen con el maltrato. Métodos: Estudio transversal sobre una muestra aleatoria de 275 mujeres en edad fértil del barrio Carlos Meissel, de la ciudad de Barranquilla, Colombia. La información se obtuvo mediante entrevista personal en el hogar a partir de un cuestionario estructurado y siguiendo las recomendaciones éticas y de seguridad para la investigación sobre violencia doméstica contra mujeres de la Organización Mundial de la Salud. En el cuestionario se recogen datos sobre características personales, consumo habitual de alcohol y drogas, función familiar (según test de Apgar Familiar, características socioeconómicas y antecedentes de maltrato físico durante los 12 meses previos a la entrevista. Resultados: La prevalencia de maltrato marital fue del 22,9%, y el grupo de 25-29 años es el más afectado (33,3%. Se asociaron con el maltrato físico el consumo habitual de alcohol en las mujeres (odds ratio, OR = 6,02; intervalo de confianza del 95%, IC del 95%, 1,7-22,2 y en el cónyuge (OR = 10,11; IC del 95%, 5,1-20,1 y el consumo de sustancias psicoactivas en el cónyuge (OR = 11.01; IC del 95%, 4,2-29,5. Los ingresos mensuales por debajo de 300.000 pesos colombianos (140 euros también se asociaron con maltrato, así como presencia de disfunción familiar moderada o grave (OR = 16,9; IC del 95%, 4,8-59,0; OR = 81,6; IC del 95%, 18,8-35,5, respectivamente. Conclusiones: La naturaleza transversal del estudio limita la interpretación de los resultados. Sin embargo, se ha observado que en las mujeres de la muestra estudiada en este estudio el maltrato físico de la mujer por parte de su pareja se asocia con factores potencialmente modificables.

  10. Social networks and factor markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abay, Kibrom Araya; Kahsay, Goytom Abraha; Berhane, Guush

    In the absence of well-established factor markets, the role of indigenous institutions and social networks can be substantial for mobilizing factors for agricultural production. We investigate the role of an indigenous social network in Ethiopia, the iddir, in facilitating factor market...

  11. Factors Influencing the Effects of Parental Marital Status on Adolescent Sexual Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renninger, Gretchen; Chambliss, Catherine

    Many studies have been done pertaining to the effects of parental divorce on children. Recently, studies have shown that parental marital status has an effect on adolescents' sexual activity. Specifically, children of divorced parents have been found to be younger at first coitus than children of married parents. This study attempted to replicate…

  12. Marital Relationship and Its Associated Factors in Veterans Exposed to High Dose Chemical Warfare Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shervin Assari

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the associates of marital relationship in mustard exposed veterans.Materials and Methods: Two hundred ninety two married Iranian mustard exposed veterans, who had been exposed to single high dose mustard gas in Iraq-Iran war, were assessed for marital adjustment with Revised Dyadic Adjustment Scale (RDAS. Census sampling was done. The patients' quality of life (SF-36, spirometric measures and war related data were also extracted.Results: A total of 189 subjects (65% completed our study. The mean (±SD of the RDAS Total score, RDAS Dyadic Consensus , RDAS Affectional Expression, RDAS Dyadic Satisfaction , and RDAS Dyadic Cohesion were 50.61 (8.16, 16.67 (2.77, 7.62 (1.84, 14.76 (3.39, and 11.54 (3.79, respectively. RDAS Dyadic satisfaction was correlated with SF-36 and all its sub-scores (p<0.05. RDAS total score showed significant correlation with SF-36 total score and most of its sub-scores (p<0.05. RDAS affective expression was significantly correlated with role limitation, social function, general mental health, vitality, General health perceptions, physical composite score (PCS and mental composite score (MCS (p<0.05. RDAS dyadic consensus was not correlated with any SF-36 sub-scores.Conclusion: Veterans health team including physicians, psychologists and/or psychiatrists should know that poorer marital satisfaction is linked with lower quality of life scores, late after mustard exposure, although marital relationship is independent of spirometric findings, age, duration from exposure and comorbidity score.

  13. Marital Satisfaction among Older Couples: The Role of Satisfaction with Social Networks and Psychological Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Ruth; Isherwood, Linda; Burton, Cassandra; Kitwe-Magambo, Katie; Luszcz, Mary

    2013-01-01

    Marital satisfaction is important for health and well-being, although determinants of satisfaction among older couples are unclear. Much of the marital literature has focused on the role of the spouse, in isolation from satisfaction with broader social relationships. We conducted separate semi-structured interviews with both members of n = 40…

  14. Social networks and factor markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abay, Kibrom Araya; Kahsay, Goytom Abraha; Berhane, Guush

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the role of an indigenous social network in Ethiopia, the iddir, in facilitating factor market transactions among smallholder farmers. We use a detailed longitudinal household survey data and employ a fixed effects estimation to identify the effect of iddir membership on factor...... market transactions among farmers. We find that joining an iddir network improves households’ access to land, labour and credit transactions. Our findings also hint that iddir networks may crowd-out borrowing from local moneylenders (locally referred as ‘Arata Abedari’), a relatively expensive credit...

  15. Angry responses to infant challenges: parent, marital, and child genetic factors associated with harsh parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajal, Nastassia; Neiderhiser, Jenae; Moore, Ginger; Leve, Leslie; Shaw, Daniel; Harold, Gordon; Scaramella, Laura; Ganiban, Jody; Reiss, David

    2015-01-01

    This study examined genetic and environmental influences on harsh parenting of adopted 9-month-olds (N = 503), with an emphasis on positive child-, parent-, and family-level characteristics. Evocative gene-environment correlation (rGE) was examined by testing the effect of both positive and negative indices of birth parent temperament on adoptive parents' harsh parenting. Adoptive fathers' harsh parenting was inversely related to birth mother positive temperament, indicating evocative rGE, as well as to marital quality. Adoptive parents' negative temperamental characteristics were related to hostile parenting for both fathers and mothers. Findings support the importance of enhancing positive family characteristics in addition to mitigating negative characteristics, as well as engaging multiple levels of the family system to prevent harsh parenting. © 2015 The Authors. Child Development © 2015 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  16. THE NATURE OF THE MARITAL RELATIONSHIP AS A FACTOR OF UPBRINGING OF CHILDREN IN FAMILY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Anatoljevna Solovjeva

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The research is devoted to identify the relationship between character of the marital relationship and the features of the upbringing of children in the family.The novelty of the research lies in the fact that:- Identified specific errors in the upbringing of children committed by parents, depending on the degree of satisfaction of the marriage;- Empirically justified the relationship between dissatisfaction with marriage and the implementation of "inharmonious" features education.The theoretic-methodological basis of the study were: perceptions of sustainability and stability of marriage (C. Sysenko, C. Boyko, satisfaction with the marriage (А.Schawlow, E. Eidemiller, V. Ustecky and its relation with representations of spouses on the distribution of family roles (I. Obozov, A. Obozova, N. Fedotov and other.Research methods: theoretical analysis, interviews, observation, testing, psychological experiment, correlational analysis.Results. Empirical research has led us to the following main conclusions:The spouses with low level of satisfaction with the marriage have the high level  of indicators of disharmonic upbringing of children.Identified a steady link between the level of satisfaction with the marriage and such indicators upbringing of children  as "excessive requirements-duties", "lack of requirements-bans", "excessive sanctions", "instability of parenting style", "preference children's  qualities", "educational uncertainty parent", "phobia of losing a child", "the projection on the child's own undesirable qualities" and "the imposition of conflict between the spouses in the sphere of upbringing".Practical implications. The results obtained can be used when building the complex work of the psychologist in family counseling.

  17. Variation in trajectories of women's marital quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Spencer L

    2015-01-01

    I examine variation in trajectories of women's marital quality across the life course. The analysis improves upon earlier research in three ways: (1) the analysis uses a sequential cohort design and data from the first 35years of marriage; (2) I analyze rich data from a national sample; (3) I examine multiple dimensions of marital quality. Latent class growth analyses estimated on data from women in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth-1979 (N=2604) suggest multiple trajectories for each of three dimensions of marital quality, including two trajectories of marital happiness, two trajectories of marital communication, and three trajectories of marital conflict. Socioeconomic and demographic covariates are then used to illustrate how factors such as income, cohabitation, and race-ethnicity set individuals at risk of poor marital quality throughout the life course by differentiating between high and low trajectories of marital quality. Women on low marital quality trajectories are, as expected, at much greater risk of divorce. Taken together, these findings show how fundamental socioeconomic and demographic characteristics contribute to subsequent marital outcomes via their influence on trajectories of marital quality as well as providing a better picture of the complexity in contemporary patterns of marital quality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The relationship between family-of-origin and marital satisfaction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this article is to explore the relationship between marital satisfaction and family-oforigin factors amongst couples with children. Locke and Wallace's Marital ... marital satisfaction. T he findings emphasisethe importance of functioning in the family-of-origin as a potential determinant of future marital satisfaction.

  19. In Sickness and in Health? Physical Illness as a Risk Factor for Marital Dissolution in Later Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karraker, Amelia; Latham, Kenzie

    2015-09-01

    The health consequences of marital dissolution are well known, but little work has examined the impact of health on the risk of marital dissolution. We use a sample of 2,701 marriages from the Health and Retirement Study to examine the role of serious physical illness onset in subsequent marital dissolution via either divorce or widowhood. We use a series of discrete time event history models with competing risks to estimate the impact of husband's and wife's physical illness onset on risk of divorce and widowhood. We find that only measures of wife's illness onset are associated with elevated risk of divorce, while measures of either spouse's illness onset is associated with elevated risk of widowhood. Further, in the case of heart problems, we find that this gender difference is statistically significant. These findings suggest health as a determinant of marital dissolution in later life via both biological and gendered social pathways. © American Sociological Association 2015.

  20. Marital satisfaction and depressive symptoms in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Richard B; Mason, Tiffany M; Canlas, Jerevie M; Wang, Dahua; Nelson, David A; Hart, Craig H

    2013-08-01

    Although there is substantial evidence that low marital satisfaction is a significant risk factor for depression, little research has examined this relationship in cultures outside of the U.S. and Europe. The validity of the marital discord model of depression in Chinese culture was tested by studying 391 couples living in Beijing and Hangzhou, China. Results of structural equation modeling using an actor-partner interdependence model strategy indicated that husbands' and wives' marital satisfaction was significantly predictive of their own depressive symptoms. In addition, wives' marital satisfaction significantly predicted husbands' depressive symptoms. These results provide evidence that the marital discord model of depression is useful in understanding the role of marital dissatisfaction as a risk factor for depressive symptoms in collectivistic societies, such as China. © 2013 American Psychological Association

  1. In Sickness and in Health? Physical Illness as a Risk Factor for Marital Dissolution in Later Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karraker, Amelia; Latham, Kenzie

    2016-01-01

    The health consequences of marital dissolution are well-known, but little work has examined the impact of health on the risk of marital dissolution. In this study we use a sample of 2,701 marriages from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS; 1992–2010) to examine the role of serious physical illness onset (i.e., cancer, heart problems, lung disease, and/or stroke) in subsequent marital dissolution due to either divorce or widowhood. We use a series of discrete-time event history models with competing risks to estimate the impact of husband’s and wife’s physical illness onset on risk of divorce and widowhood. We find that only wife’s illness onset is associated with elevated risk of divorce, while either husband’s or wife’s illness onset is associated with elevated risk of widowhood. These findings suggest the importance of health as a determinant of marital dissolution in later life via both biological and gendered social pathways. PMID:26315504

  2. Marital status and cardiovascular risk factors among middle-aged Japanese male workers: the High-risk and Population Strategy for Occupational Health Promotion (HIPOP-OHP) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamon, Yuko; Okamura, Tomonori; Tanaka, Taichiro; Hozawa, Atsushi; Yamagata, Zentaro; Takebayashi, Toru; Kusaka, Yukinori; Urano, Sumio; Nakagawa, Hideaki; Kadowaki, Takashi; Miyoshi, Yuji; Yamato, Hiroshi; Okayama, Akira; Ueshima, Hirotsugu

    2008-01-01

    Marital status is related to cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in Western countries. However, few studies have addressed the relationship between marital status and CVD risk factors in other populations. We investigated lifestyle and CVD risk factors relative to marital status among middle-aged Japanese men. We analyzed baseline data of 40-59-yr-old male workers who participated in the high-risk and population strategy for occupational health promotion (HIPOP-OHP) study. We compared lifestyle and CVD risk factors between men who were married (Group M; n=1,419, mean age 47.9 +/- 5.1 yr) and those who had never married (Group N; n=163, mean age 46.7 +/- 4.3 yr). Men in Group N were more likely to skip breakfast, work more shifts and exercise less. Current smoking rates, as well as average values of diastolic blood pressure (DBP), serum total cholesterol and fasting plasma glucose were also higher in Group N than in Group M. The proportion of participants with three or more CVD risk factors, namely smoking, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and hyperglycemia was higher in Group N, than in Group M (12.9% vs. 5.0%, p<0.01). The difference between Groups M and N was more evident in the subgroup of living with others, than in the subgroup of living alone. Since men who have never married might be at higher risk for CVD, effort should be made to educate this population about decreasing lifestyle-related risk factors.

  3. Problemas conjugais e outros fatores associados a transtornos psiquiátricos do pós-parto Marital problems and other factors associated with postpartum psychiatric disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzi Roseli Kerber

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estudar a associação entre transtornos mentais pós-parto e fatores demográficos e psicossociais, pré e perinatais. MÉTODOS: Todas as familias com crianças de quatro meses da Vila Jardim - Porto Alegre (RS - nascidos entre novembro de 1998 e dezembro de 1999 foram avaliadas. Utilizou-se o Self Report Questionnaire (SRQ-20 e entrevistas clínicas semiestruturadas individuais e do casal para fundamentar uma hipótese diagnóstica segundo os critérios do da quarta edição do Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais (DSM-IV. Realizou-se a avaliação da relação conjugal e do relacionamento da mãe com as famílias de origem e a rede social utilizando-se a Escala de Avaliação Global do Funcionamento Relacional (GARF. RESULTADOS: Foram avaliadas 148 mães e os 116 pais que coabitavam. Segundo o SRQ, 34,4% das mães e 25,4% dos pais apresentaram suspeita de transtorno psiquiátrico. Clinicamente os percentuais foram maiores. Coabitar ou não com companheiro não esteve associado com transtorno mental materno. Na análise da totalidade do grupo de mulheres, estiveram associados: baixa renda familiar (OR=0,8; pPURPOSE: To study the association between postpartum psychiatric disorder and demographic and psychosocial, pre- and perinatal factors. METHODS: All families having 4-month-old infants in Vila Jardim, a district of Porto Alegre, Brazil, born at a public hospital from November 1998 through December 1999 were assessed. The Self-Report Questionnaire (SRQ-20 and semi-structured interviews were used for the psychiatric assessment that included a possible diagnosis using Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV (DSM- IV criteria. Relational functioning between couples, the relationship with mother's family of origin and social network were assessed using the DSM-IV Global Assessment of Relational Functioning Scale (GARF. RESULTS: A total of 148 mothers and 116 cohabiting fathers were assessed

  4. Transcription Factor Networks in Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Y. Rhee

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Specific cellular fates and functions depend on differential gene expression, which occurs primarily at the transcriptional level and is controlled by complex regulatory networks of transcription factors (TFs. TFs act through combinatorial interactions with other TFs, cofactors, and chromatin-remodeling proteins. Here, we define protein-protein interactions using a coaffinity purification/mass spectrometry method and study 459 Drosophila melanogaster transcription-related factors, representing approximately half of the established catalog of TFs. We probe this network in vivo, demonstrating functional interactions for many interacting proteins, and test the predictive value of our data set. Building on these analyses, we combine regulatory network inference models with physical interactions to define an integrated network that connects combinatorial TF protein interactions to the transcriptional regulatory network of the cell. We use this integrated network as a tool to connect the functional network of genetic modifiers related to mastermind, a transcriptional cofactor of the Notch pathway.

  5. Mindfulness and Marital Satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Langer, Ellen; Burpee, Leslie C.

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the relationships among mindfulness, marital satisfaction, and perceived spousal similarity. All 95 subjects responded to a questionnaire measuring each of these variables, and an additional series of demographic variables. A significant positive relationship was found between mindfulness and marital satisfaction, with no statistically significant relationship found between perceived spousal similarity and marital satisfaction. There was a stronger correlation between ...

  6. Structural factoring approach for analyzing stochastic networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayhurst, Kelly J.; Shier, Douglas R.

    1991-01-01

    The problem of finding the distribution of the shortest path length through a stochastic network is investigated. A general algorithm for determining the exact distribution of the shortest path length is developed based on the concept of conditional factoring, in which a directed, stochastic network is decomposed into an equivalent set of smaller, generally less complex subnetworks. Several network constructs are identified and exploited to reduce significantly the computational effort required to solve a network problem relative to complete enumeration. This algorithm can be applied to two important classes of stochastic path problems: determining the critical path distribution for acyclic networks and the exact two-terminal reliability for probabilistic networks. Computational experience with the algorithm was encouraging and allowed the exact solution of networks that have been previously analyzed only by approximation techniques.

  7. Factors affecting farmers networking decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pascucci, S.

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyses farmers' decisions to carry out transactions by using three different types of networks: input supply cooperatives, processing and/or marketing cooperatives, and producers associations. We use arguments from economic sociology and new institutional economics to define the main

  8. Marit Sirgmets noorim lavastaja / Marit Sirgmets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sirgmets, Marit

    2009-01-01

    Üleriigilise kooliteatrite festivali võitis Hugo Treffneri gümnaasiumi trupp HTG 66 lavastusega "Armastus vähendab naiste peenust ja suurendab meeste oma", küsimustele vastab etenduse lavastaja Marit Sirgmets

  9. Profiles Using Indicators of Marital Communication, Communication Styles, and Marital Satisfaction in Mexican Couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Bravo, Claudia; Watty Martínez, Alejandra

    2017-05-19

    Marital problems have multiple causes. One factor leading to marital dissatisfaction is communication, both the inability to communicate in certain areas and the way in which communication is made. One hundred four Mexican couples who attend a reproductive health care institution in Mexico City took part in this study. The relationship between the amount and style of communication was studied in order to develop profiles with explanatory indicators. A study was carried out with two samples (men and women) that were classified in terms of marital satisfaction or dissatisfaction. Indicators related to marital satisfaction are talking about the marital relationship, discussing work (women and men), communicating about sexuality (women). Indicators of marital dissatisfaction are talking about children, having and perceiving a reserved and negative style of communication (men), having and perceiving a negative and violent style of communication (women).

  10. [Family caregivers' burden and marital satisfaction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiyoshi, Kazuko; Becker, Carl; Siwaku, Kuninori; Kinoshita, Ayae

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the correlation between home-based elder care and marital satisfaction. Care managers distributed a questionnaire to home caregivers in order to assess the items such as annual income, marital satisfaction, Zarit caregiver burden, sleeping hours and how often they have to get up in the night to take care of the elder. A total of 149 caregivers completed the questionnaire. Their marital satisfaction was inversely correlated to caregiver burden, but positively correlated with annual income. Subjective psychological perception of caregiver burden was the most important factor influencing a marital satisfaction. It appears that a marital satisfaction depend far more on subjective perception of caregiver burden than on more objective measurements of caregiver burden.

  11. Parental alcoholism as a risk factor for DSM-IV-defined alcohol abuse and dependence in American women: the protective benefits of dyadic cohesion in marital communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennison, K M; Johnson, K A

    2001-05-01

    Important trends in research over the past decade indicate that women are as greatly affected by familial alcoholism as are men. Although it is increasingly recognized that the adverse drinking outcomes predicted for adult children of alcoholics (COAs) are not inevitable, and only a small percentage develop alcohol dependence or grow up to be alcoholic, relatively little knowledge exists regarding moderating factors that reduce their vulnerability. This study identifies a multiple mediator latent structural model of the intergenerational transmission of risk for DSM-IV-assessed alcohol abuse and dependence among women COAs in adulthood. The effects of both parental alcoholism and family environment are estimated at three time points spanning 10 years across 5-year intervals (1984, 1989, and 1994) using data from a subsample of 4,449 women in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY). Dyadic cohesion in marital communication (greater marital cohesion, harmony, and less verbal disagreement, discord, and conflict) is a proposed moderating factor that may operate in adulthood to lower the risk of female COAs developing alcohol abuse and dependence. Maximum likelihood standardized estimates of the effects of alcohol mediators measured over time indicate that direct parental effects for adverse outcomes decline when COAs are in their late 20s and early 30s. Indirect parental effects through environmental influences dramatically increase the risk of abuse and dependence among COAs at this time if they have one or more alcoholic siblings, especially an alcoholic sister. Dyadic cohesion and positive interpersonal communication patterns were found to moderate effectively the relationship that existed among parental alcoholism, environmental influences, and adverse alcohol consequences. COAs with satisfactory marital communication also evidenced higher levels of intimacy with their partners, perceived the division of housework to be fairer, shared more responsibilities

  12. Marital Stability and Marital Satisfaction in Families of Children with Disabilities: Chicken or Egg?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobsey, Dick

    2004-01-01

    Although much has been written suggesting that stress, grief, and other factors associated with parenting a child with disabilities results in high rates of marital discord, marital dissatisfaction, and divorce, this notion is poorly supported by research. Research demonstrates that parents of children with disabilities have marriages that exhibit…

  13. Marital Quality, Gender, and Markers of Inflammation in the MIDUS Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donoho, Carrie J.; Crimmins, Eileen M.; Seeman, Teresa E.

    2013-01-01

    Marital quality is an important factor for understanding the relationship between marriage and health. Low-quality relationships may not have the same health benefits as high-quality relationships. To understand the association between marital quality and health, we examined associations between two indicators of marital quality (marital support…

  14. The relationship between family-of-origin and marital satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Chris A.V. Venter; Van den Berg, Henriette S; Anja Botha

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this article is to explore the relationship between marital satisfaction and family-of-origin factors amongst couples with children. Locke and Wallace's Marital Adjustment Test and the McMaster Family Assessment Device were used to measure marital satisfaction and family-of- origin factors respectively. Family-of-origin factors, such as problem solving, communication, roles, affective involvement and behavioural control were investigated. The sample consisted of 47 married couples....

  15. Integrating Data and Networks: Human Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, R. S.

    2012-12-01

    The development of technical linkages and interoperability between scientific networks is a necessary but not sufficient step towards integrated use and application of networked data and information for scientific and societal benefit. A range of "human factors" must also be addressed to ensure the long-term integration, sustainability, and utility of both the interoperable networks themselves and the scientific data and information to which they provide access. These human factors encompass the behavior of both individual humans and human institutions, and include system governance, a common framework for intellectual property rights and data sharing, consensus on terminology, metadata, and quality control processes, agreement on key system metrics and milestones, the compatibility of "business models" in the short and long term, harmonization of incentives for cooperation, and minimization of disincentives. Experience with several national and international initiatives and research programs such as the International Polar Year, the Group on Earth Observations, the NASA Earth Observing Data and Information System, the U.S. National Spatial Data Infrastructure, the Global Earthquake Model, and the United Nations Spatial Data Infrastructure provide a range of lessons regarding these human factors. Ongoing changes in science, technology, institutions, relationships, and even culture are creating both opportunities and challenges for expanded interoperability of scientific networks and significant improvement in data integration to advance science and the use of scientific data and information to achieve benefits for society as a whole.

  16. The climatogenetic factors and the transport network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile MAXIM

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the climatogenic factors and how they influence the transport system (network of the Republic of Moldova. The following climatogenetic factors were analysed: dynamic, physical-geographic, etc. as well as some specific climatic elements as the temperature of the air, cloud amount, humidity, direction and speed of the wind. As a conclusion it can be mentioned that when tracing the terrestrial transport system it is necessary to take into consideration the climatic factors which directly influence this field of human activity.

  17. Sources of Marital Conflict in Five Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa M. Dillon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This analysis of previously collected data examined four fitness-relevant issues for their possible role in marital conflict. These were sex, finances, division of labor, and raising children, selected in light of their pertinence to sex differences in reproductive strategies. Over 2,000 couples in five diverse cultures were studied. Marital conflict was assessed by the Problems with Partner scale, which was previously shown to demonstrate measurement invariance across cultures and genders. All four issues were significantly related to perceived marital problems in almost all cases. Thus, conflict tended to arise around issues relevant to reproductive strategies. A few cultural idiosyncrasies emerged and are discussed. In all cultures, wives reported more problems than husbands. Another important issue was kindness. The results suggest that a key factor in marital success or failure may be kindness necessary to sustain this prolonged and intimate relationship of cooperation for raising one's offspring.

  18. Social Network Sites as Educational Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimpour, Alireza; Rajabali, Farnaz; Yazdanfar, Fatemeh; Azarbad, Reza; Nodeh, Majid Rezaei; Siamian, Hasan; Vahedi, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Background: in this present era, the technology development has established certain type of communication. Nowadays education as the fundamental principle in transferring cognition to the learners has found various methods. Recently the concept that social networks could be effective tool in easing the achievement to the educational goals has been under attention. Therefore, this investigation is trying to find out whether, the social networks could play role on the process of education among students? Materials and Methods: This cross sectional descriptive study was performed on 1000 students from 7 medical universities in 2015. The data collection tool was questionnaire that was approved Cronbach’s alpha: was 0.85. Meanwhile its validity was confirmed too. The obtained data were analyzed by the descriptive statistic, ANOVA, Turkey and used X2 SPSS-19. Results: In this investigation, 940 subjects were under study. 85% used daily the social network. The highest usage was attributed to the Telegram. 52% preferred image suitable for transferring of information. Even though, 73% believed that these networks have significant effects on coordinating of students with in university charges. Conclusion: Considering the findings of the present study, it is proposed that the universities integrate the social networks in the education programs and recognize it as the awareness factor, therefore benefit it in the educational affairs. PMID:27147807

  19. Social Network Sites as Educational Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimpour, Alireza; Rajabali, Farnaz; Yazdanfar, Fatemeh; Azarbad, Reza; Nodeh, Majid Rezaei; Siamian, Hasan; Vahedi, Mohammad

    2016-04-01

    in this present era, the technology development has established certain type of communication. Nowadays education as the fundamental principle in transferring cognition to the learners has found various methods. Recently the concept that social networks could be effective tool in easing the achievement to the educational goals has been under attention. Therefore, this investigation is trying to find out whether, the social networks could play role on the process of education among students? This cross sectional descriptive study was performed on 1000 students from 7 medical universities in 2015. The data collection tool was questionnaire that was approved Cronbach's alpha: was 0.85. Meanwhile its validity was confirmed too. The obtained data were analyzed by the descriptive statistic, ANOVA, Turkey and used X(2) SPSS-19. In this investigation, 940 subjects were under study. 85% used daily the social network. The highest usage was attributed to the Telegram. 52% preferred image suitable for transferring of information. Even though, 73% believed that these networks have significant effects on coordinating of students with in university charges. Considering the findings of the present study, it is proposed that the universities integrate the social networks in the education programs and recognize it as the awareness factor, therefore benefit it in the educational affairs.

  20. Tri voprossa / Marit Valge

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Valge, Marit

    2008-01-01

    Euroopa Vabatahtlik Teenistus on võimalus noorele kogeda vabatahtlikuna töötamist mõnes Euroopa riigis. Küsimustele vastab organisatsiooni Euroopa Noored Eesti büroo avalike suhete koordinaator Marit Valge

  1. The Rate of Marital Fidelity and Quality of Love in Divorce Applicants with and Without Marital Infidelity Precedent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Modarresi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: The issue of marital infidelity is considered as an increasing concern in our society, which is associated with instability in relationships and high rate of divorce.The purpose of this study was to investigate the level of marital adjustment and the quality of love in the applicants with a history of divorce and marital infidelity. Methods: In this qualification-analytical, cross-sectional study performed in 2012 in the Fars welfare organization, 90 people were selected by available sampling and classified into three groups with a history of marital infidelity and divorce, divorce without a history of marital infidelity and controls. Three individual groups completed the Inventory Adjustment Scale and Sternberg's love triangle. Subjects with a history of marital infidelity completed questionnaires of regarding love triangle scale again regarding upon their marital relationship. Data were analyzed by dependent t-test and ANOVA. Results: Significant differences were observed among divorce group and various aspects of marital love triangle (P<0/001.Results also revealed that there was a significant difference between the groups with and without marital infidelity, from the view point of intimacy, passion and anxiousness, commitment, and decision in relationship (P<0/001. Investigating the quality of love in individuals with marital infidelity showed differences in all aspects of Sternberg`s love triangle in relationship with wife and ultra-marital relationships (P<0/001. Conclusion: Marital incompatibility alone is not a strong reason for marital infidelity in hard conditions of life and according to the research’s results. The most significant factor in attracting for ultra- marital relationship and the quality of the relationship and love between couples were the quality of the relationship and love between couples.

  2. Relationship of Marital Satisfaction, Family Support and Family-Work Conflict Factors Among Malaysian Fathers with Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahayudin, A.A.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The study on contextual factors in Malaysian family is more concentrated among mothers compared to the fathers. Malaysian fathers are often influenced by these factors embedded in the family. This study examines the level of contextual factors among fathers of adolescent children. The survey was conducted using a simple sampling method, on a group of 413 fathers with adolescent children from all districts in the state of Selangor, West Peninsular of Malaysia. A set of questionnaires was used to derive data from the fathers̕ contextual factors which are marriage satisfaction, family support and work-family conflict among fathers of adolescents. Analysis on frequency, percentage, mean, standard deviation, t-test, analysis of Variance (ANOVA and the Pearson correlations were used to investigate the level and correlation of contextual factors among fathers of adolescent children. The Pearson correlation shows that there is a significant correlation between work-family conflict and marriage satisfaction and between family support and marriage satisfaction. However, there is no significant correlation between family support and work-family conflict. The study proficiently contributes towards the exploration of influencing factors for the involvement of fathers in parenting.

  3. Resolving Marital Conflicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islami Hatixhe

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Couple relations are characterized as relations of an intimate nature dominated by constant interaction or strong interdependence and mutual influence of intense feelings between spouses. In marriages where there is conflict, there are typical examples of interaction, which result in high proportion of negative communicative acts that affect the quality of marital relationships such as: loss of confidence, the emergence of frustration, feelings of anxiety, discomfort, leading to escalation of marital conflicts. Communication as a variable has a large impact on the resolution of marital conflicts. The obtained results of our research indicate that the choice of different strategies of behavior in conflict situations among our respondents primarily depend on: the degree of persistence in the pursuit of its own interests and level of cooperation in addressing the interests of others.

  4. [Factors associated with marital status among spouse after diagnosed in newly reported HIV cases in China, 2014].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J; Xu, J; Tang, H L; Han, J; Mao, Y R

    2017-02-10

    Objective: To analyze the factors associated with divorce or separation when one of the spouse diagnosed and newly reported as HIV positive, in China. Methods: Data from the Chinese HIV/AIDS Comprehensive Response Information Management System, by December 31, 2015 were used for collection on newly reported HIV cases regarding their baseline information in 2014 and follow-up within one year, among couples and above 18 year olds. HIV cases were divided into divorce/separation group and married group according to their marriage dynamics in one year after being diagnosed as HIV positive. Multivariate logistic regressions were used to analyze potential factors associated with divorce or separation after the diagnoses made. Results: A total of 31 708 HIV cases were included in this study. 22.5% (7 134/31 708) of them got divorced or separated in one year after diagnose being made. 81.6% (25 864/31 708) of them had couples tested in one year after diagnose made and 10.0% (2 599/25 864) of them got divorced or separated. Among 18.4% (5 844/31 708) of the HIV cases who did not have their couples tested in one year after the diagnoses, 77.6% (4 535/5 844) got divorced or separated. For those who did not have their couples tested in one year after the diagnose. Data from the multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that factors as those who were older than 45 (46-60 yr.: OR=1.28, 95%CI: 1.03-1.58; ≥61 yr.: OR=1.83, 95%CI: 1.41-2.37), with Han ethnicity (OR=1.56, 95%CI: 1.34-1.83), with high school education or above (OR=1.55, 95%CI: 1.27-1.90), non-farmers or non-rural laborers (OR=1.34, 95%CI: 1.17-1.54), infected through injecting drug use (OR=1.33, 95% CI: 1.03-1.71), men who had sex with men (OR=1.49, 95% CI: 1.20-1.86), or with childless (OR=2.35, 95%CI: 1.78-3.09) etc. were more likely to be divorced or separated after the diagnoses being made, among those who had their couples tested in one year after the diagnoses. Results from the multivariate logistic

  5. Assessing Marital Adjustment and Satisfaction: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Paul

    1987-01-01

    Evaluated five instruments of marital adjustment and satisfaction: Marital Adjustment Test, Dyadic Adjustment Scale, Marital Satisfaction Index, Marital Satisfaction Scale, and the Kansas Marital Satisfaction Scale. Discusses studies evaluating psychometric properties of each instrument. Recommends the Marital Satisfaction Index for assessing…

  6. The Relationship between Marital Characteristics, Marital Interaction Processes, and Marital Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen-Grandon, Jane R.; Myers, Jane E.; Hattie, John A.

    2004-01-01

    Structural Equation Modeling techniques were used to clarify the relationship between marital characteristics, marital processes, and the dependent variable--marital satisfaction--in a sample of 201 participants who were in 1st marriages. The Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS; G. B. Spanier, 1976) and the Enriching and Nurturing Relationship Issues,…

  7. Increasing Marital Satisfaction as a Resilience Factor among Active Duty Members and Veterans of Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) and Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponder, Warren N.; Aguirre, Regina T. P.; Smith-Osborne, Alexa; Granvold, Donald K.

    2012-01-01

    Supportive relationships are protective against a number of prevalent health risks among military populations, including post-traumatic stress disorder. Increasing marital satisfaction and strengthening that relationship is an important avenue for maintaining health among returning service members and their families. The current study builds upon…

  8. A Model of Marital Functioning Based on an Attraction Paradigm and Social-Penetration Dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honeycutt, James

    1986-01-01

    Tested structural equation model of marital functioning based on an attraction paradigm and social-penetration variables. The model posited that the attraction paradigm factors of being satisfied with marital issues and of perceived attitudinal similarity would have an impact upon marital happiness as well as perceived partner understanding, which…

  9. Marital stability and repartnering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Mariana V; Costa, Patrício; Peterson, Brennan D

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the trajectories of infertility-related stress between patients who remain in the same relationship and patients who repartner. DESIGN: Longitudinal cohort study using latent growth modeling. SETTING: Fertility centers. PATIENT(S): Childless men and women evaluated before...... starting a new cycle of fertility treatment and observed for a 5-year period of unsuccessful treatments. INTERVENTION(S): None. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Marital stability and infertility-related stress. RESULT(S): The majority of patients (86%) remained with their initial partner, but 14% of participants...... separated and repartnered while pursuing fertility treatments. Marital stability significantly predicted the initial status of infertility stress and infertility stress growth levels. Specifically, patients who repartnered had higher infertility stress levels at all time points compared with those who...

  10. Contextualizing change in marital satisfaction during middle age: an 18-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorchoff, Sara M; John, Oliver P; Helson, Ravenna

    2008-11-01

    To address the need for longitudinal marital research that takes contextual factors into account, we investigated change in women's marital satisfaction over 18 years of middle age. We examined not only whether marital satisfaction changed, but also why and how it changed. Marital satisfaction increased in middle age, and increased marital, but not life, satisfaction was linked to the transition to an empty nest. More specifically, the transition to an empty nest increased marital satisfaction via an increase in women's enjoyment of time with their partners, but not via an increase in the quantity of that time with partners. Also, increasing marital satisfaction was not attributable to changing partners. Taken together, these findings support the utility of applying a contextualized approach focused on major life transitions to the study of long-term change in marital satisfaction.

  11. Development and Validation of the Marital Metaphor Questionnaire (MMQ-10) for Urban Chinese Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ruth D H; Chiu, Marcus Y L; Chui, Wing-Yip

    2017-01-01

    Metaphors have long been applied to marital counseling and couple therapy. This pioneering study measures marital conceptualization through metaphors. It reports the validation of the Marital Metaphor Questionnaire (MMQ-10), designed to measure the marriage conceptualization of Chinese women through marital metaphors. The MMQ-10 was found to have favorable psychometric properties including reliable internal consistency, a good discriminative prediction of marriage at risk and moderate correlation with a Chinese indigenous multidimensional marital satisfaction inventory. Factor analysis reveals that the MMQ-10 is composed of three dimensions: conjugal relationship, marital anguish, and marital conviction. The MMQ-10 appears to be suitable for the use with Chinese women in premarital or marital counseling sessions. The present researchers hope that this study may support the use of metaphors in future research and clinical practice in other nations and cultures. © 2016 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.

  12. sizzled function and secreted factor network dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianli Shi

    2012-02-01

    Studies on the role of the E-box binding transcription factor Snail2 (Slug in the induction of neural crest by mesoderm (Shi et al., 2011 revealed an unexpected increase in the level of sizzled RNA in the dorsolateral mesodermal zone (DMLZ of morphant Xenopus embryos. sizzled encodes a secreted protein with both Wnt and BMP inhibitor activities. Morpholino-mediated down-regulation of sizzled expression in one cell of two cell embryos or the C2/C3 blastomeres of 32-cell embryos, which give rise to the DLMZ, revealed decreased expression of the mesodermal marker brachyury and subsequent defects in neural crest induction, pronephros formation, and muscle patterning. Loss of sizzled expression led to decreases in RNAs encoding the secreted Wnt inhibitor SFRP2 and the secreted BMP inhibitor Noggin; the sizzled morphant phenotype could be rescued by co-injection of RNAs encoding Noggin and either SFRP2 or Dickkopf (a mechanistically distinct Wnt inhibitor. Together, these observations reveal that sizzled, in addition to its established role in dorsal-ventral patterning, is also part of a dynamic BMP and Wnt signaling network involved in both mesodermal patterning and neural crest induction.

  13. Relationship of Attachment Styles and Emotional Intelligence With Marital Satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamel Abbasi, Amir Reza; Tabatabaei, Seyed Mahmoud; Aghamohammadiyan Sharbaf, Hamidreza; Karshki, Hossein

    2016-09-01

    The early relationships between infant and care takers are significant and the emotional interactions of these relationships play an important role in forming personality and adulthood relationships. The current study aimed to investigate the relationship of attachment styles (AS) and emotional intelligence (EI) with marital satisfaction (MS). In this cross-sectional research, 450 married people (226 male, 224 female) were selected using multistage sampling method in Mashhad, Iran, in 2011. Subjects completed the attachment styles questionnaire (ASQ), Bar-On emotional quotient inventory (EQ-i) and Enrich marital satisfaction questionnaire. The results indicated that secure attachment style has positive significant relationship with marital satisfaction (r = 0.609, P emotional intelligence and its components have positive significant relationship with marital satisfaction; thus, emotional intelligence and intrapersonal, adaptability and general mood components can significantly predict marital satisfaction (P stress management components cannot significantly predict marital satisfaction (P > 0.05). According to the obtained results, attachment styles and emotional intelligence are the key factors in marital satisfaction that decrease marital disagreement and increase the positive interactions of the couples.

  14. Marital quality in wives of persons with alcohol dependence syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debasree Bora

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Marriage is a strong bond between couples with the promise of lifelong dedication and emotional wellbeing. The effects of alcoholism in husbands may lead to disturbances in marital life. Lack of understanding, unpredictable behaviour of the husbands, and their irresponsibility in family matters can often lead to poor quality of a couple’s relationship. Aim of the study: The study is aimed to understand the marital quality of the wives of persons with alcohol dependence syndrome. Material and methods: Thirty wives of persons with alcohol dependence syndrome according to ICD-10 were taken as the sample, using purposive sample collection. Socio-demographic profile was assessed through semi-structured questionnaire while Marital Quality Scale (MQS-1995 was applied to assess the marital quality after taking their informed consent. Higher scores indicate poorer quality of marital life. Data analysis was done using SPSS for descriptive statistics. Results: The domain mean scores of rejection, understanding, and decision-making, and the total score of marital quality were high. Thus, indicating poorer quality of marital life among the wives of persons with alcohol dependence. Conclusion: Alcohol dependence is highly associated with poor marital quality as the person with alcohol dependence tends to adapt faulty communication patterns and behaviour which in turn leads to poor adjustment, unhappiness, and a high degree of dissatisfaction with relationships. Treatment plan for this group should be planned keeping these factors in consideration, as a priority.

  15. Human Fertility Increases with the Marital-radius

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Labouriau, Rodrigo; Amorim, António

    2008-01-01

    We report a positive association between marital radius (distance between mates' birthplaces) and fertility detected in a large population. Spurious association due to socioeconomic factors is discarded by a conditional analysis involving income, education, and urbanicity. Strong evidence...

  16. Effect of marital counselling on women's attitude towards marital

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Emeka Egbochuku

    Abstract. This study investigated the effect of marital counselling on women's attitude towards marital stability. The study adopted a pre-test post-test quasi experimental design. The sample consisted of 52 married women (academic and non-academic) staff of the Faculty of Education, University of Port-Harcourt,.

  17. The Role of Marital Power in Depression and Marital Distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halloran, Elizabeth C.

    1998-01-01

    Drawing on sex-role theory, the learned-helplessness model of depression, and a review of empirical research, this article explores inequity in marital power as a potential third variable that explains how depression and the quality of marriage are related. Aims to generate broad-minded thinking about how marital power, depression, and marital…

  18. Importance of Marital Characteristics and Marital Satisfaction: A Comparison of Asian Indians in Arranged Marriages and Americans in Marriages of Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madathil, Jayamala; Benshoff, James M.

    2008-01-01

    To date, little research has been published related to cross-cultural differences in such marital factors as love, intimacy, happiness, and satisfaction. The present study compares factors contributing to marital satisfaction and examines correlations between the importance of these factors and the level of satisfaction for three groups: Asian…

  19. Buffering children from marital conflict and dissolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, L F; Gottman, J M

    1997-06-01

    Examined several protective mechanisms that may reduce deleterious correlates of marital conflict and marital dissolution in young children. One set of potential buffers focused on parent-child interaction: parental warmth, parental scaffolding/praise, and inhibition of parental rejection. As a second set of potential buffers, each parent was interviewed about their "meta-emotion philosophy"--that is, their feelings about their own emotions, and their attitudes and responses to their children's anger and sadness. The third set of potential buffers concerned intraindividual characteristics of the child, including the child's intelligence and regulatory physiology (basal vagal tone and vagal suppression). Fifty-six families with a preschool child were studied at two time points: when the children were 5 years old (Time 1) and again when the children were 8 years old (Time 2). At Time 1, naturalistic observations of marital and parent-child interaction were conducted and assessment of child regulatory physiology was obtained through measures of basal vagal tone and suppression of vagal tone. Parents were also interviewed individually about their feelings about their own and their children's emotions, and children's intelligence was assessed. At Time 2, assessment of child outcomes were obtained, including observations of peer interaction, mother ratings of behavior problems and mother and teacher ratings of peer aggression, mother ratings of child physical illness, and measures of achievement. Results indicated that all Time 1 buffering factors protected children in face of marital conflict and dissolution.

  20. Factors affecting the physical and mental health of older adults in China: The importance of marital status, child proximity, and gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindy Williams

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Evidence is accumulating about the association between strong family ties and the emotional and physical welfare of older adults, and researchers have identified negative consequences of being unmarried, being childless, and/or living alone. These associations have been recognized in multiple contexts, including in Asia where living with a spouse and/or grown children has been shown in some studies to improve elderly well-being. Social support, especially family support, is expected to continue to be important where populations are aging and social safety nets are weak. Using longitudinal data from the 2010 and 2012 waves of the China Family Panel Studies, we focus on the effects of marital status at times 1 and 2, changes in marital status between the two surveys, and other family-related indicators of social connectedness on ratings of depression, levels of life satisfaction, and self-reported physical health among those aged 50 and over. Our sample includes 9831 respondents who have valid data on wellbeing indicators for Wave 1 and Wave 2, as well as complete information on the other covariates controlled in our analysis. In analyses of the full sample, those who were married at both points in time reported lower depression scores than those who were never-married, divorced, or widowed at both time points, and those whose unions dissolved in the interval. Those who were married at both times also generally reported greater levels of life satisfaction than those who were never married at both time points and those who became divorced during the interval. Important underlying gender differences are observed both for life satisfaction and depression. In addition, those who were married at both time points reported being in better physical health than those who became widowed during the interval (significant primarily for women, and those who had never been married (significant primarily for men. Our study contributes to the literature on social

  1. Communication and Empathy in Marital Adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Marianne Weeks

    1982-01-01

    This study examines relationships between measures of empathy, communication, and marital adjustment and seeks information descriptive of the nature of empathy and of communication of maritally adjusted and maritally maladjusted couples. (CT)

  2. Therapeutic Handling of Marital Infidelity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Bruce B.

    1975-01-01

    Marital infidelity has two primary dimensions--on overt social-cultural facade and a covert, intense, emotional component. A therapy strategy, based on this formulation and on the presumption that both spouses were equally responsible for the marital fracture, is presented. (Author)

  3. Content Themes in Marital Conversations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sillars, Alan L.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Suggests that prominent themes in the conversations of spouses are metacommunication about relationships. Compares content themes of different marital types (traditional, separate, and independent) and more or less satisfied spouses. Finds marital satisfaction tends to be positively associated with communal and impersonal themes and negatively…

  4. Marital satisfaction and depressive symptoms among Chinese older couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qianrong; Wang, Dahua; Li, Chunhua; Miller, Richard B

    2014-01-01

    Depression is one of the most prevalent mental disorders among older people. Consistent with the Marital Discord Model of Depression (MDMD), research in Western cultures has found that marital distress is one of the risk factors for depression among older adults. However, the effect of marital distress on depression among older adults has not been examined in a collectivistic society, such as China. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between marital satisfaction and depressive symptoms in a sample of Chinese older adults. Considering the dyadic nature of the data, the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model was used to test for the actor and partner effects. The study investigated 139 older couples who were recruited from communities in Beijing, the capital of China. The Lock-Wallace Marital Adjustment and the CES-D scales were administered to the participants. The results indicated that neither of the actor effects was significant. One of the partner effects was significant, with the husbands' marital satisfaction predicting their wives' depressive symptoms. The MDMD was only partially supported among older couples in China. An asymmetrical pattern of cross-spouse effects was found, suggesting that the husbands' perception of marital dissatisfaction could significantly predict their wives' depressive symptoms.

  5. The Dutch Marital Satisfaction and Communication Questionnaire: A Validation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Van den Troost

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to validate the Dutch Marital Satisfaction and Communication Questionnaire (DMSCQ, a 16-item measure that disentangles marital satisfaction, negative communication and open communication. In three subsequent studies empirical evidence for the construct and criterion validity is presented using (confirmatory factor analyses, and correlational analyses with criterion variables. Results indicate that the 16 items represent a solid three-factor structure, which was replicated across time and in independent samples. High agreement in factor structure between men and women was demonstrated by high levels of Tucker's coefficient of congruence. The internal consistencies of the marital satisfaction and negative communication scales are good; for the open communication scale it is somewhat lower but still acceptable. Consistent evidence was obtained for a negative relationship between the three marital outcomes and parental depression and conflictual family climate whereas the three former are positively related to life satisfaction and well-being. Spouses who feel restricted by their parental role or experience parenting stress tend to be less satisfied with their partnership and perceive the marital communication as more negative. Our results demonstrate that the DMSCQ provides a brief, valid and reliable measure of marital satisfaction, negative and open communication.

  6. Social Network Factors and Addictive Behaviors among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinker, Dipali Venkataraman; Krieger, Heather; Neighbors, Clayton

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of the review To provide an overview of studies within the past five years examining the impact of social network factors on addictive behaviors among college students, to discuss gaps, limitations, and controversies in the field, and to summarize with a discussion of future directions and implications for interventions. Recent findings A review of 13 studies indicated that greater network exposure, centrality, reciprocated ties, and more tightly interconnected networks were associated with greater alcohol use and other addictive behaviors among college students. Summary Greater research is needed that expands beyond alcohol use to other addictive behaviors among college students. Additionally, more studies are needed that longitudinally study the impact of changes in social networks on addictive behaviors and vice versa, as well as studies examining sociocentric (whole) networks. Social network approaches offer innovative perspectives in understanding social influences on addictive behaviors and novel intervention strategies for potentially reducing addictive behaviors among college students. PMID:28580226

  7. Social Network Factors and Addictive Behaviors among College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinker, Dipali Venkataraman; Krieger, Heather; Neighbors, Clayton

    2016-12-01

    To provide an overview of studies within the past five years examining the impact of social network factors on addictive behaviors among college students, to discuss gaps, limitations, and controversies in the field, and to summarize with a discussion of future directions and implications for interventions. A review of 13 studies indicated that greater network exposure, centrality, reciprocated ties, and more tightly interconnected networks were associated with greater alcohol use and other addictive behaviors among college students. Greater research is needed that expands beyond alcohol use to other addictive behaviors among college students. Additionally, more studies are needed that longitudinally study the impact of changes in social networks on addictive behaviors and vice versa, as well as studies examining sociocentric (whole) networks. Social network approaches offer innovative perspectives in understanding social influences on addictive behaviors and novel intervention strategies for potentially reducing addictive behaviors among college students.

  8. Factors Influencing the Performance of German Food SME Formal Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jivka Deiters

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The food sector in Europe can be characterized as a complex, global and dynamically changing network of trade streams, food supply network relations and related product flows which offers a big spectrum for economic output and employment. Innovation is important for the competitiveness of the food industry that is to a large extent comprised of small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs. For them, innovation has grown extremely subordinate to interaction in networks. Network initiatives that could provide appropriate support involve social interaction and knowledge exchange, learning and competence development, and coordination (organization and management ofimplementation. This paper is designed to assess the factors that affect the performance of German food SME formal networks. It also addresses the consequences at the network and macro level. The analysis was explored by using the laddering technique based on the means‐end chain theory. The findings will help to build up a “network learning toolbox” that is adapted to the particular requirements of the different target groups such as of SMEs, network managers and policy makers. The “network learning toolbox” should improve network learning, which is adriver for improvements in innovation, economic growth and sustainable competitive advantage for food SMEs.

  9. Infidelity in couples seeking marital therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, David C; Yi, Jean; Baucom, Donald H; Christensen, Andrew

    2005-09-01

    The revelation of an affair is often an emotionally explosive event for a couple, yet little is known about specific individual and relationship factors that accompany infidelity. The present study examined the qualities of individuals and couples that differentiate couples with (n = 19) and without (n = 115) infidelity using couples from a randomized clinical trial of marital therapy. Findings indicated that couples with infidelity showed greater marital instability, dishonesty, arguments about trust, narcissism, and time spent apart. Gender also proved to be a significant moderator of several effects. Men who had participated in affairs showed increased substance use, were older, and were more sexually dissatisfied. Results offer initial clues to concomitants of affairs for couple therapists. (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved

  10. Correlates of Marital Happiness among the Remarried.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Stan L.

    1979-01-01

    Data on marital satisfaction among those who remarry were examined. These individuals exhibit a high level of marital satisfaction. Traditional correlates of marital happiness among the first-married are poor predictors of marital happiness among the remarried. The problems are different from those in the marriage terminated by divorce.…

  11. Factorized Estimation of Partially Shared Parameters in Diffusion Networks

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dedecius, Kamil; Sečkárová, Vladimíra

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 65, č. 19 (2017), s. 5153-5163 ISSN 1053-587X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP14-06678P; GA ČR(CZ) GA16-09848S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Diffusion network * Diffusion estimation * Heterogeneous parameters * Multitask networks Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information Impact factor: 4.300, year: 2016 http:// library .utia.cas.cz/separaty/2017/AS/dedecius-0477044.pdf

  12. Factors affecting the cerebral network in brain tumor patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimans, Jan J; Reijneveld, Jaap C

    2012-06-01

    Brain functions, including cognitive functions, are frequently disturbed in brain tumor patients. These disturbances may result from the tumor itself, but also from the treatment directed against the tumor. Surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy all may affect cerebral functioning, both in a positive as well as in a negative way. Apart from the anti-tumor treatment, glioma patients often receive glucocorticoids and anti-epileptic drugs, which both also have influence on brain functioning. The effect of a brain tumor on cerebral functioning is often more global than should be expected on the basis of the local character of the disease, and this is thought to be a consequence of disturbance of the cerebral network as a whole. Any network, whether it be a neural, a social or an electronic network, can be described in parameters assessing the topological characteristics of that particular network. Repeated assessment of neural network characteristics in brain tumor patients during their disease course enables study of the dynamics of neural networks and provides more insight into the plasticity of the diseased brain. Functional MRI, electroencephalography and especially magnetoencephalography are used to measure brain function and the signals that are being registered with these techniques can be analyzed with respect to network characteristics such as "synchronization" and "clustering". Evidence accumulates that loss of optimal neural network architecture negatively impacts complex cerebral functioning and also decreases the threshold to develop epileptic seizures. Future research should be focused on both plasticity of neural networks and the factors that have impact on that plasticity as well as the possible role of assessment of neural network characteristics in the determination of cerebral function during the disease course.

  13. Genital Herpes in Marital Partners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Jacob

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available During 1983-86, 225 patients were clinically diagnosed to have genital herpes (GH at our clinic. Of these, 90 men and 55 women were currently married. All the spouses were screened clinically and through standardized techniques for isolation and typing of herpes simplex virus, serological testing and Papanicolaou smear. There were 90 couples in whom at least one spouse had GH and in 38 (42% couples both partners had GH. Clinically, 49% of wives and 75% of husbands of GH patients were diagnosed to have the disease. The spouses of recurrent GH patients had a higher frequency of the disease than spouses of primary GH patients. Among spouses who were clinically asymptomatic, 40% had high serological titres suggestive of GH. Wives generally experienced more severe symptoms, especially pain in the lesions. Majority of lesions in both the partners were vesicles and ulcers. Prodromata were more among recurrent GH patients in both the partners. The frequency of recurrences wasalso similar in spouses. Seventy percent of wives and 40% of husbands could not identify any precipitating factor. Intercourse, physical stress and rich food were cited as possible factors in the remaining. All the wives had acquired the diseases through their husbands who were promiscuous. Fifty percent of husbands had been infected before marriage. Given the fact that asymptomatic carriers exist, it is better to consider all marital partners of GH as infected. Repeated and long-term follow, - up examination, particularly of wives of GH patients is therefore essential as an important socio-preventive aspect of this disease.

  14. Factors which motivate the use of social networks by students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Sanmamed, Mercedes; Muñoz Carril, Pablo C; Dans Álvarez de Sotomayor, Isabel

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this research was to identify those factors which motivate the use of social networks by 4th year students in Secondary Education between the ages of 15 and 18. 1,144 students from 29 public and private schools took part. The data were analysed using Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modelling technique. Versatility was confirmed to be the variable which most influences the motivation of students in their use of social networks. The positive relationship between versatility in the use of social networks and educational uses was also significant. The characteristics of social networks are analysed according to their versatility and how this aspect makes them attractive to students. The positive effects of social networks are discussed in terms of educational uses and their contribution to school learning. There is also a warning about the risks associated with misuse of social networks, and finally, the characteristics and conditions for the development of good educational practice through social networks are identified.

  15. Posted summaries of marital therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heins, T

    1978-12-01

    Summaries of marital therapy sessions, similar to those used in group psychotherapy by Yalom, were posted to reach couples three or four days after each session. The summaries of 600 to 4,000 words included a narrative account of the session and some editorial comment by the therapist. Couples completed a questionnaire assessing the use of the summaries. Replies to questionnaires and clinical impressions indicate the summaries had good acceptability. Couples felt the summaries increased their focus on marital problems between the sessions and provided helpful clarification.

  16. Predicting marital satisfaction on the basis of early maladaptive schema in married women, Tehran, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Seyed Esmaili

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Early maladaptive schemes are cognitive, emotional and self-injurious patterns repeated throughout the life. Family is a natural social system in which couples have major role in the all of stages of its development, and many factors play a role in their marital satisfaction. Marital satisfaction is adopting expectations of couples of marital life. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between early maladaptive scheme with marital satisfaction and identification of predicting factors on marital satisfaction. This was a correlational cross-sectional method study. The population includes all married female persons referring to Tehran municipal regions. We used early maladaptive schemas questionnaire and Enrich marital satisfaction questionnaire for evaluation in participants. Descriptive tests, Pearson correlation test, T-Test, One Way ANOVA Test and Multivariate Regression Test were used for description and analysis of data. The mean age of samples in this study was 31.60±5.12 years old. There was significant relationship between age with Dependence/Incompetence (P=0.033, Self-sacrifice (P=0.010, Entitlement/Grandiosity (P=0.042, Impaired autonomy and performance (P=0.019, Abandonment/Instability (P=0.007. Linear regression analysis showed emotional deprivation and unrelenting standards/hypocriticalness subscales can predict marital satisfaction adversely. They can predict significantly 26% of marital satisfaction changes (P<0.001. we concluded that early maladaptive schema can predict the marital satisfaction negatively and of important role in its improvement or regression.

  17. Connectivity, formation factor and permeability of 2D fracture network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Y. B.; Li, M.; Li, X. F.

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of fracture connectivity and length distributions on the electrical formation factor, F, of random fracture network using percolation theory. We assumed that the matrix was homogeneous and low-permeable, but the connectivity and length distributions of fracture system were randomly variable. F of fracture network is analyzed via finite element method. The main result is that: different from the classical percolation ;universal; power law for porous-type rocks, F of fracture network obeys a normalized ;universal; scaling relation using the length-scale / L ( is fracture mean length, and L is the domain size). Our proposed formation factor model, derived from the normalized ;universal; scaling relationship, is valid in fracture network with constant fracture length and length distributions, showing that the normalized ;universal; scaling law is independent of fracture patterns. The normalized scaling relation is also successfully used to derive the permeability model of 2D random fracture network using the previously published dataset, which obtained better fitting results than before.

  18. The Comparison of Marital Satisfaction between Fertile and Iinfertile Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Abdolmajid Bahrainian

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This research studied and compared marital satisfaction level of the women who have infertility problem with those who does not have this problem. Methods: Totally 180 persons participated (90 infertile women and 90 fertile women were participated in this study. Participants were comprised of those referring to 3 Tehran city infertility centers. For data gathering in this research, the constructed questionnaire and Enrich Marital Satisfactions questionnaire have been used. Data analysis has been done with use of two independent t-tests and one way variance analysis has been done. Results: Results showed significant difference in satisfaction level of the fertile and infertile women, while, our research hypotheses were not confirmed in this regard by studying factors effective on marital satisfaction of the infertile women. The number of unsuccessful pregnancies whether in fertile women or infertile women didn’t have considerable effect on the marital satisfaction, while, effect of this factor on marital satisfaction level of the infertile women was higher than that on the fertile women. Discussion: Generally, by inclusion of limitations in this plan, it is impossible to generalize the present research results with difficulty, though it is inevitable to emphasize on negative consequences of the spouses' life and it is important to pay attention to its different dimensions.

  19. Research Design in Marital Adjustment Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croake, James W.; Lyon, Rebecca S.

    1978-01-01

    The numerous marital adjustment studies which exist in the literature are confounded by basic design problems. Marital stability should be the baseline for data. It is then possible to discuss "happiness,""success,""adjustment," and "satisfaction." (Author)

  20. Birth-Order Complementarity and Marital Adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vos, Cornelia J. Vanderkooy; Hayden, Delbert J.

    1985-01-01

    Tested the influence of birth-order complementarity on marital adjustment among 327 married women using the Spanier Dyadic Adjustment Scale (1976). Birth-order complementarity was found to be unassociated with marital adjustment. (Author/BL)

  1. Iterative Learning Control with Forgetting Factor for Urban Road Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianyi Lan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the traffic condition, a novel iterative learning control (ILC algorithm with forgetting factor for urban road network is proposed by using the repeat characteristics of traffic flow in this paper. Rigorous analysis shows that the proposed ILC algorithm can guarantee the asymptotic convergence. Through iterative learning control of the traffic signals, the number of vehicles on each road in the network can gradually approach the desired level, thereby preventing oversaturation and traffic congestion. The introduced forgetting factor can effectively adjust the control input according to the states of the system and filter along the direction of the iteration. The results show that the forgetting factor has an important effect on the robustness of the system. The theoretical analysis and experimental simulations are given to verify the validity of the proposed method.

  2. The pluripotency transcription factor network at work in reprogramming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niwa, Hitoshi

    2014-10-01

    Pluripotency-associated transcription factors possess a pivotal role to maintain pluripotency in pluripotent stem cells as well as to induce pluripotency in somatic cells. They direct specific pattern of gene expression from the genome by co-operating with the genetic and epigenetic mechanisms. Recent findings revealed that these mechanisms possess unique features in pluripotent stem cells, which is different from that in somatic cells either qualitatively and quantitatively. To reprogram somatic cells, pluripotency-associated transcription factors should modulate the co-operating machineries to establish the optimal environment for their function to maintain pluripotency-associated transcription factor network. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Does Premarital Cohabitation Predict Subsequent Marital Stability and Marital Quality? A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose, Anita; O'Leary, K. Daniel; Moyer, Anne

    2010-01-01

    Cohabitation with a romantic partner has become common in recent decades. This meta-analysis examined the link between premarital cohabitation and marital stability (k = 16) and marital quality (k = 12). Cohabitation had a significant negative association with both marital stability and marital quality. The negative predictive effect on marital…

  4. The Reciprocal Relationship between Marital Interaction and Marital Happiness: A Three-Wave Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Jiping

    1992-01-01

    Examined reciprocal relationship between marital interaction and marital happiness with three-wave panel study of national sample of married persons. Overall findings support hypothesis that there exists positive reciprocal relationship between marital interaction and marital happiness, particularly demonstrating important role of marital…

  5. "When Are You Getting Married?" The Intergenerational Transmission of Attitudes regarding Marital Timing and Marital Importance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willoughby, Brian J.; Carroll, Jason S.; Vitas, Jennifer M.; Hill, Lauren M.

    2012-01-01

    Using a sample of 335 young adults and their parents, this study investigated the intergenerational transmission of marital attitudes from parents to their children and how parental marital quality moderates that relationship. Results suggested that the marital attitudes of both mothers and fathers are related to the marital attitudes of their…

  6. Relationships among Young Adults' Marital Messages Received, Marital Attitudes, and Relationship Self-Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shurts, W. Matthew; Myers, Jane E.

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined relationships among university students' marital messages received (MMR), marital attitudes, and romantic relationship self-efficacy (RSE). Results indicated that students' marital attitudes and romantic relationship status predicted their level of RSE. The authors found differences in MMR, marital attitudes, and RSE on the…

  7. Children and Violence: The Role of Children's Regulation in the Marital Aggression-Child Adjustment Link

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, E. Mark; El-Sheikh, Mona; Kouros, Chrystyna D.; Buckhalt, Joseph A.

    2009-01-01

    Exposure to marital psychological and physical abuse has been established as a risk factor for children's socio-emotional, behavioral, and cognitive problems. Understanding the processes by which children develop symptoms of psychopathology and deficits in cognitive functioning in the context of marital aggression is imperative for developing…

  8. Marital Quality in Interracial Relationships: The Role of Sex Role Ideology and Perceived Fairness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forry, Nicole D.; Leslie, Leigh A.; Letiecq, Bethany L.

    2007-01-01

    African American/White interracial couples are a rapidly growing segment of the population. However, little is known about factors related to marital quality for these couples. The authors examine the relationships between sex role ideology, perception of relationship unfairness, and marital quality among a sample of 76 married African…

  9. Dimensions of Marital Well-Being among White and Black Newlyweds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crohan, Susan E.; Veroff, Joseph

    1989-01-01

    Four dimensions of marital well-being--happiness, equity, competence, and control--emerged in a factor analysis of 12 items asking 199 Black and 174 White newlywed couples to evaluate their overall marital quality. Dimensions were related to respondents' gender, cohabitation history, education, and income, differentially for Blacks and Whites. (TE)

  10. Implementation of Behavioral Marital Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Gregory W.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Implementing behavioral marital therapy is discussed with emphasis on techniques of problem solving, communications training, behavioral contracting, and homework assignments. The therapist's intervention style and the aspects of treatment which aid in generalization and maintenance of therapeutic gains are also described, and a typical treatment…

  11. Stress, Communication, and Marital Quality in Couples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledermann, Thomas; Bodenmann, Guy; Rudaz, Myriam; Bradbury, Thomas N.

    2010-01-01

    The association between daily stress outside and inside of the relationship and marital functioning in the form of communication in conflict situations and marital quality was examined. We hypothesized that relationship stress mediates the association between external stress and marital functioning at the individual level, and that the association…

  12. A transcription factor hierarchy defines an environmental stress response network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Liang; Huang, Shao-Shan Carol; Wise, Aaron; Castanon, Rosa; Nery, Joseph R; Chen, Huaming; Watanabe, Marina; Thomas, Jerushah; Bar-Joseph, Ziv; Ecker, Joseph R

    2016-11-04

    Environmental stresses are universally encountered by microbes, plants, and animals. Yet systematic studies of stress-responsive transcription factor (TF) networks in multicellular organisms have been limited. The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) influences the expression of thousands of genes, allowing us to characterize complex stress-responsive regulatory networks. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing, we identified genome-wide targets of 21 ABA-related TFs to construct a comprehensive regulatory network in Arabidopsis thaliana Determinants of dynamic TF binding and a hierarchy among TFs were defined, illuminating the relationship between differential gene expression patterns and ABA pathway feedback regulation. By extrapolating regulatory characteristics of observed canonical ABA pathway components, we identified a new family of transcriptional regulators modulating ABA and salt responsiveness and demonstrated their utility to modulate plant resilience to osmotic stress. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  13. Transactional Relations Between Marital Functioning and Depressive Symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Kouros, Chrystyna D.; Cummings, E. Mark

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated dynamic, longitudinal associations between depressive symptoms and marital processes. Two hundred ninety-six couples reported on marital satisfaction, marital conflict, and depressive symptoms yearly for three years. Observational measures of marital conflict were also collected. Results suggested that different domains of marital functioning related to husbands’ versus wives’ symptoms. For husbands, transactional relations between marital satisfaction and depre...

  14. The relationship between family-of-origin and marital satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris A.V. Venter

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available

    The aim of this article is to explore the relationship between marital satisfaction and family-of-origin factors amongst couples with children. Locke and Wallace’s Marital Adjustment Test and the McMaster Family Assessment Device were used to measure marital satisfaction and family of-origin factors respectively. Family-of-origin factors, such as problem solving, communication, roles, affective involvement and behavioural control were investigated. The sample consisted of 47 married couples. A significant relationship was found between roles and affective responsive- ness as family-of-origin factors and marital satisfaction, while roles as a family-of-origin factor played an important role in the wife as well as her husbands’ marital satisfaction. The findings emphasise the importance of functioning in the family-of-origin as a potential determinant of future marital satisfaction.

    Opsomming

    Die doel van hierdie artikel is om die verwantskap tussen huweliks-bevrediging en gesin-vanoorsprong- faktore onder pare met kinders te ondersoek. Locke en Wallace se Marital Adjustment Test en die McMaster Family Assessment Device is gebruik om onderskeidelik huweliksbevrediging en gesin-van-oorsprong-faktore te meet. Gesin-van-oorsprong-faktore, soos probleem-oplossing, kommunikasie, rolle, affektiewe betrokkenheid en gedragsbeheer is ondersoek. Die steekproef het uit 47 getroude pare bestaan. 'n Beduidende verwantskap is tussen rolle en affektiewe responsiwiteit as gesin-van-oorsprong-faktore en huweliksbevrediging gevind, terwyl rolle as 'n gesin-van-oorsprong- faktor 'n belangrike rol in die vrou sowel as die man se huweliks-bevrediging gespeel het. Die bevindinge beklemtoon die belangrikheid van funksionering in die gesin van oorsprong as 'n potensiële determinant van toekomstige huweliksbevrediging.

    How to cite this article:

    Botha, A., Van de Berg, H.S. & Venter, C.A.V., 2009, 'The

  15. Marital Satisfaction Trends in Hong Kong Between 2002 and 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huiping; Fan, Susan; Yip, Paul

    2016-07-03

    Macrosocial changes may generate influences on marital quality. This study used data from the 2002-2012 Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice surveys conducted by the Family Planning Association of Hong Kong to track the trends of marital satisfaction of both husbands and wives over a 10-year period in Hong Kong, with associated factors. Results indicated that 85% of the husbands and around 80% of the wives reported that they were satisfied with their marital relationships, and no significant changes in general were observed for them between 2002 and 2012 except for some subgroups. Husbands aged 45-49 years, in employment and whose monthly household income between 25,000 HKD and 39,999 HKD, reported marital satisfaction decreased over the past 10 years and wives with primary education or below also reported a decreasing trend during this period. Education and family income had positive influences on the husbands' and wives' marital satisfaction, and husbands were more likely to be sensitive to the unemployment. Less than one-third of couples needed professional counseling on family-related issues, and couple conflicts and work-family conflicts were the urgent needs that should be given priority in delivering services. The implications of this study are discussed in the Chinese context of Hong Kong.

  16. Marital Flourishing: Kualitas Perkawinan dalam Teori Eudaimonik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Rohmah Nurhayati

    2015-09-01

    flourishing in this article is assessed by two dimensions of marital quality.First the goal di mension that divides instrumental goals and constitutive goals.Second the goal pursuit that distinguish marital flourishing between individual goal pursuit and shared goal pursuit. Marital flourishing as the highest quality of marriage is characterized by the height of communal activity between couple and the height of constitutive goals. Other types of marital quality and the forms of activity that characterize marital flourishing is also described further in this article.

  17. Marital rape: history, research, and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennice, Jennifer A; Resick, Patricia A

    2003-07-01

    Despite the increased recognition that the topic of marital rape has generated in the past 2 decades, the literature in this area remains sparse. This article provides a comprehensive review of the current state of the marital rape literature. First, the lengthy history of legal, cultural, and professional invalidation of marital rape victims, and the resulting negative treatment implications, is discussed. Second, marital rape research is reviewed, including prevalence, descriptive, and comparison studies. This review highlights the seriousness of marital rape, in terms of prevalence and posttrauma distress, as well as the limitations of extant research. Finally, barriers to treatment and recommendations for professionals are discussed.

  18. Marital Dialogue – between Conflict, Agreement and Relationship Breakdown

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kornaszewska-Polak Monika

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Marital dialogue plays an essential role in shaping the relationship between spouses and supports experiencing personal I in the context of the community – We. In these couples, where dialogue is going well, it fulfils the function of a secure base forming a community based on the foundation of unity. However, contemporary culture denies an interpersonal dialogue the authenticity and engagement, emphasizing individualistic attitudes, preoccupation with oneself, leading to relationship and community disintegration and breakdown. This paper is to present the authors twenty year research into bonds, communication styles, marital conflicts and ways of coping with them. The research shows various issues related to developing the interpersonal dialogue and thus creating bonds and unity in the marriage and family. At first, the research devoted to the transmission of generation patterns in the family is presented and it is followed by presentation of selected psychological factors influencing marriage quality and marital satisfaction.

  19. Health problems and marital satisfaction among older couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korporaal, Marga; Broese van Groenou, Marjolein I; van Tilburg, Theo G

    2013-12-01

    Older couples are likely to be confronted with health problems of both spouses and these health problems may negatively influence their marital satisfaction. The present study examined these possible negative effects using a dyadic perspective. Data from 78 independently living older couples were analyzed using the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model (APIM). Health problems were modeled as a latent factor of functional disability, the number of chronic diseases, and self-rated health. The couple's health context, that is, similarity or dissimilarity, was examined with an actor-partner interaction variable. For wives, spousal health problems were negatively associated with their marital satisfaction, but only under the condition that their own health was relatively good. For husbands, neither own nor spousal health problems were associated with their marital satisfaction. Future research focusing on older couples needs to consider the couple's health context next to health at the individual level.

  20. Expressive Writing Can Impede Emotional Recovery Following Marital Separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sbarra, David A; Boals, Adriel; Mason, Ashley E; Larson, Grace M; Mehl, Matthias R

    2013-03-18

    Marital separation and divorce are common life events that increases risk for poor health outcomes, yet few intervention studies explore how to mitigate this increased risk. This study implemented an expressive writing (EW; see Pennebaker, 1997) intervention for adults who experienced a recent marital separation. Ninety participants (32 men) were randomly assigned to and completed one of three experimental writing tasks: traditional EW, a novel (narrative-based) type of EW or control writing. Up to nine months after this writing, participants judged to be actively engaged in a search for meaning concerning their separation reported significantly worse emotional outcomes when assigned to either EW condition relative to control writing. Within the control condition, those participants actively engaged in a search for meaning reported the lowest levels of separation-related disturbance. We discuss these results in terms of the factors that may limit and promote psychological recovery following marital separation.

  1. Marital Breakdown, Shame, and Suicidality in Men: A Direct Link?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolves, Kairi; Ide, Naoko; De Leo, Diego

    2011-01-01

    The influence of feelings of shame originating from marital breakdown on suicidality is examined. The role of mental health problems as probable mediating factors is also considered. Internalized shame, state (related to separation) shame, and mental health problems were significantly correlated with the score for suicidality during separation in…

  2. Influence of Age, Educational Achievement and Marital Status on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence of Age, Educational Achievement and Marital Status on Compliance Behaviour of Bank Drivers. ... drivers in a bank setting has revealed the need to give equal attention to different sociodemographic factors of applicants when compliance with traffic rules and regulations becomes an issue in decision making.

  3. The Network Structure of Human Personality According to the NEO-PI-R: Matching Network Community Structure to Factor Structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goekoop, R.; Goekoop, J.G.; Scholte, H.S.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Human personality is described preferentially in terms of factors (dimensions) found using factor analysis. An alternative and highly related method is network analysis, which may have several advantages over factor analytic methods. Aim: To directly compare the ability of network

  4. Tissue factor activates allosteric networks in factor VIIa through structural and dynamic changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jesper Jonasson; Persson, E.; Olsen, O. H.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Tissue factor (TF) promotes colocalization of enzyme (factorVIIa) and substrate (FX or FIX), and stabilizes the active conformation of FVIIa. Details on how TF induces structural and dynamic changes in the catalytic domain of FVIIa to enhance its efficiency remain elusive. Objective......: To elucidate the activation of allosteric networks in the catalytic domain of the FVIIa protease it is when bound to TF.MethodsLong-timescale molecular dynamics simulations of FVIIa, free and in complex with TF, were executed and analyzed by dynamic network analysis. Results: Allosteric paths of correlated...

  5. The longitudinal association of marital confidence, time spent together, and marital satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Matthew D; Anderson, Jared R

    2013-06-01

    Using three waves of dyadic data collected at 18-month intervals from a community-based sample of 610 newly married heterosexual couples (1 220 individuals), we examined the relationship between marital confidence, time spent together, and marital satisfaction using a modified actor-partner interdependence model. Results indicate that after controlling for marital satisfaction and time spent together at Time 1, marital confidence around the time of marriage was associated with marital satisfaction approximately 3 years later. In addition, marital confidence was associated with how much time husbands and wives spent together at Time 2, which was related to marital satisfaction at Time 3. Tests of the mediating paths from marital confidence to marital satisfaction trended toward significance. The results suggest the importance of assessing for relationship confidence when working with couples in the early stages of their relationship. © FPI, Inc.

  6. Towards resolving the transcription factor network controlling myelin gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, Debra L; Denarier, Eric; Friedman, Hana C; Wasserman, Wyeth W; Peterson, Alan C

    2011-10-01

    In the central nervous system (CNS), myelin is produced from spirally-wrapped oligodendrocyte plasma membrane and, as exemplified by the debilitating effects of inherited or acquired myelin abnormalities in diseases such as multiple sclerosis, it plays a critical role in nervous system function. Myelin sheath production coincides with rapid up-regulation of numerous genes. The complexity of their subsequent expression patterns, along with recently recognized heterogeneity within the oligodendrocyte lineage, suggest that the regulatory networks controlling such genes drive multiple context-specific transcriptional programs. Conferring this nuanced level of control likely involves a large repertoire of interacting transcription factors (TFs). Here, we combined novel strategies of computational sequence analyses with in vivo functional analysis to establish a TF network model of coordinate myelin-associated gene transcription. Notably, the network model captures regulatory DNA elements and TFs known to regulate oligodendrocyte myelin gene transcription and/or oligodendrocyte development, thereby validating our approach. Further, it links to numerous TFs with previously unsuspected roles in CNS myelination and suggests collaborative relationships amongst both known and novel TFs, thus providing deeper insight into the myelin gene transcriptional network.

  7. Factors Underlying Farmers’ Decisions to Participate in Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianka Kühne

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available 800x600 The objective of this elicitation study is to provide insights into farmers’ beliefs which influence their participation in knowledge exchange and innovation networks to enable the enhancement of network participation. A set of facilitating and impeding factors was obtained. Participants identified (a 13 categories of behavioural beliefs (e.g. ‘You learn something’ and ‘Low perceived return on investment’, (b 4 groups of normative beliefs (influence of colleagues, spouses, network coordinators and chain partners and (c 11 control beliefs (facilitators or barriers related to, for example, ‘Network skills’, ‘No time’ and ‘Perceived restraint by farmers in communicating openly and honestly’. Normal 0 21 false false false DE X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0pt 5.4pt 0pt 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0pt; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";}

  8. ACMEOLOGY OF THE MARITAL RELATIONSHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raisa A. Zotova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As the basis of theoretical and practical studies leading psychological mechanisms of stability of the relations proposed noospheric vision of marriage. Considered noosferology promise for understanding the system of the marital relationship from the perspective of theory of the brain. Noospheric paradigm of social cognition is defined as an integrative phenomenon, studying holistic development of the individual, society, social groups in the context of macroevolution and psikhopedogogics

  9. Leisure Activity Patterns and Marital Conflict in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Khodabakhsh; Saadat, Hassan; Noushad, Siena

    2016-01-01

    Background: Over the past few decades, the association between leisure activity patterns and marital conflict or satisfaction has been studied extensively. However, most studies to date have been limited to middle-class families of developed societies, and an investigation of the issue, from a developing country perspective like Iran, is non-existent. Objectives: In an observational, analytical, cross-sectional study we aimed to investigate the relationship between leisure activity patterns and marital conflict in a nationally representative sample of Iranian married males. Patients and Methods: Using the cluster sampling method, a representative sample of 400 Iranian married individuals from seven provinces of Iran was surveyed. Self-administered surveys included a checklist collecting demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of the enrolled participants, leisure time questionnaire, and marital conflict questionnaire. The main patterns of leisure activity were derived from principal component analysis. For each pattern, factor scores were calculated. The relationship between factor scores and marital conflict were assessed using multivariate linear regression models accounting for the potential confounding effects of age, education, socioeconomic status, job status, number of children, duration of marriage, and time spent for leisure. Results: Two hundred and ninety-nine respondents completed the leisure time and marital conflict questionnaires. Five major leisure patterns were identified accounting for 60.3% of the variance in data. The most dominant pattern was family-oriented activities (e.g. spending time with family outdoors and spending time with family indoors) and was negatively linked to marital conflict (standardized beta= −0.154, P = 0.013). Of the four remaining patterns, three only included individual activities and one was a family-individual composite. Individual patterns exhibited discrepant behavior; while the pattern involving activities

  10. Marital commitment, communication and marital satisfaction: An analysis based on actor-partner interdependence model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Yubo; Jiang, Feng; Wang, Xinrui

    2018-01-10

    Marital commitment and satisfaction are known to be closely related, but only limited research has examined the asymmetric interaction patterns between spouses. In this paper, the authors study 400 Chinese couples and find that communication mediates the relationship between marital commitment and marital satisfaction. Using the actor-partner interdependence model, they find that wives and husbands show asymmetric associations for marital commitment, communication and satisfaction. Specifically, compared with husbands, wives are more attuned to the path from marital commitment to marital satisfaction via communication. Implications and limitations are discussed. © 2018 International Union of Psychological Science.

  11. Relationship between mental health and marital satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolsattar Shahi

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Marital satisfaction is an important component of the marriage. Mental health as a component of the personal characteristic also related with marital satisfaction. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between mental health and marital satisfaction of couples.Methods: Three hundred couples from high-risk area of Gorgan – North of Iran were selected. Association between men's and women’s mental health level was measured using General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28. Marital satisfaction measured by Enrich Marital Satisfaction Questionnaire among married couples. Data was analyzed using multiple regression and analysis of variance modelling.Results: Results indicated that marital satisfaction was predicted by the person’s mental health level. Findings also showed that depression and anxiety were significantly associated with marital satisfaction. 52.5% of studied individuals had mental disorders at the clinical level (p≤0/05. Marital satisfaction in this population was 51.7%. Conclusions: The study confirmed that mental health is an important predictor of marital satisfaction. Improving mental health may lead to improve marital satisfaction.

  12. [Marital norm, reality and satisfaction in middle-aged couples: why are wives less satisfied than husbands?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashiwagi, Keiko; Hirayama, Junko

    2003-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate recent changes in marital norm and reality in middle-aged couples, and how marital reality, as perceived by oneself, was associated with their demographic variables, as well as their marital satisfaction. A questionnaire was administered, and 277 pairs of middle-aged, nuclear-family couples participated. Main findings were as follows. First, factor analysis of marital reality variables extracted three factors: love each other, respect for the husband's life style, and respect for wife's life style. Second, concerning the wife's education and income, 'respect for the wife's life style' was highest among highly educated double income couples. Third, 'love each other' was the most important predictor of marital satisfaction for both husbands and wives. Finally, 'respect for the husband's the life style' was associated with husband's satisfaction, while that for the wife's was not with wife's marital satisfaction.

  13. Psychodynamic Factors Behind Online Social Networking and its Excessive Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Thomas Cheuk Wing

    2016-03-01

    This article discusses the psychodynamic factors behind the popularity of one form of Internet activity, online social networking (SN). It views online SN as an extension of the social self, organized in a way that is more controllable than real life relating. The SN platforms reward its users with reassuring surfaces and novel self-object experiences while at the same time induces much anxiety. The addictive quality of online SN is understood in the context of collapse of dialectical space and the defensive use of this technology.

  14. Marital history and survival after a heart attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupre, Matthew E; Nelson, Alicia

    2016-12-01

    Heart disease is the leading cause of death in the United States and nearly one million Americans will have a heart attack this year. Although the risks associated with a heart attack are well established, we know surprisingly little about how marital factors contribute to survival in adults afflicted with heart disease. This study uses a life course perspective and longitudinal data from the Health and Retirement Study to examine how various dimensions of marital life influence survival in U.S. older adults who suffered a heart attack (n = 2197). We found that adults who were never married (odds ratio [OR] = 1.73), currently divorced (OR = 1.70), or widowed (OR = 1.34) were at significantly greater risk of dying after a heart attack than adults who were continuously married; and the risks were not uniform over time. We also found that the risk of dying increased by 12% for every additional marital loss and decreased by 7% for every one-tenth increase in the proportion of years married. After accounting for more than a dozen socioeconomic, psychosocial, behavioral, and physiological factors, we found that current marital status remained the most robust indicator of survival following a heart attack. The implications of the findings are discussed in the context of life course inequalities in chronic disease and directions for future research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Marital Satisfaction: The Differential Impact of Social Support Dependent on Situation and Gender in Medical Staff in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Rostami, Arian; Ghazinour, Mehdi; Richter, J?rg

    2013-01-01

    Stress is unavoidable in everyday life and it can effect on marital relationship. Social support especially from emotionally closed persons as a protective factor can help individuals to deal with stress and buffers the negative effects of life stress on marital satisfaction. In the present cross-sectional study we investigated the relationship between social and spousal support and marital satisfaction in medical staff in Iran. Data collection was performed in 653 medical staff using socio-d...

  16. Relationship between mental health and marital satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Abdolsattar Shahi; Ibrahim Ghaffari; Khalil Ghasemi

    2011-01-01

    Background: Marital satisfaction is an important component of the marriage. Mental health as a component of the personal characteristic also related with marital satisfaction. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between mental health and marital satisfaction of couples.Methods: Three hundred couples from high-risk area of Gorgan – North of Iran were selected. Association between men's and women’s mental health level was measured using General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-...

  17. Temperamento y satisfacción marital

    OpenAIRE

    Delgado Rus, Maria de los Ángeles

    1995-01-01

    We have investigated the relacionship between the dimensions of temperament (from Thomas & Chess theoretical model, 1977) and the marital satisfaction and sexual behaviour, in this doctoral thesis. At the same time, we have analysed what is the relationship which the variable of Personality, Neuroticism and Extroversion, holds whith marital satisfaction and sexual behavior. Finally, the relationship between the time of marriage and the age of the couple whith marital satisfaction and sexual b...

  18. Domestic Equality and Marital Stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steingrimsdottir, Herdis; Vardardottir, Arna

    by the father while parents who had a child before were did not get this option. This created large economic incentives for parents to involve fathers in caring for their children during their first months. In this paper we use the precise timing of the introduction of the paternal quota in Iceland to evaluate...... the causal effects of paternity leave on parents’ earnings, the gender wage gap and marital stability. The results are obtained using detailed register based panel data, comparing families who had a child just before or just after the reform. Spouses who are entitled to paternity leave are less likely...

  19. Using network component analysis to dissect regulatory networks mediated by transcription factors in yeast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Ye

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the relationship between genetic variation and gene expression is a central question in genetics. With the availability of data from high-throughput technologies such as ChIP-Chip, expression, and genotyping arrays, we can begin to not only identify associations but to understand how genetic variations perturb the underlying transcription regulatory networks to induce differential gene expression. In this study, we describe a simple model of transcription regulation where the expression of a gene is completely characterized by two properties: the concentrations and promoter affinities of active transcription factors. We devise a method that extends Network Component Analysis (NCA to determine how genetic variations in the form of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs perturb these two properties. Applying our method to a segregating population of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we found statistically significant examples of trans-acting SNPs located in regulatory hotspots that perturb transcription factor concentrations and affinities for target promoters to cause global differential expression and cis-acting genetic variations that perturb the promoter affinities of transcription factors on a single gene to cause local differential expression. Although many genetic variations linked to gene expressions have been identified, it is not clear how they perturb the underlying regulatory networks that govern gene expression. Our work begins to fill this void by showing that many genetic variations affect the concentrations of active transcription factors in a cell and their affinities for target promoters. Understanding the effects of these perturbations can help us to paint a more complete picture of the complex landscape of transcription regulation. The software package implementing the algorithms discussed in this work is available as a MATLAB package upon request.

  20. Using network component analysis to dissect regulatory networks mediated by transcription factors in yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Chun; Galbraith, Simon J; Liao, James C; Eskin, Eleazar

    2009-03-01

    Understanding the relationship between genetic variation and gene expression is a central question in genetics. With the availability of data from high-throughput technologies such as ChIP-Chip, expression, and genotyping arrays, we can begin to not only identify associations but to understand how genetic variations perturb the underlying transcription regulatory networks to induce differential gene expression. In this study, we describe a simple model of transcription regulation where the expression of a gene is completely characterized by two properties: the concentrations and promoter affinities of active transcription factors. We devise a method that extends Network Component Analysis (NCA) to determine how genetic variations in the form of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) perturb these two properties. Applying our method to a segregating population of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we found statistically significant examples of trans-acting SNPs located in regulatory hotspots that perturb transcription factor concentrations and affinities for target promoters to cause global differential expression and cis-acting genetic variations that perturb the promoter affinities of transcription factors on a single gene to cause local differential expression. Although many genetic variations linked to gene expressions have been identified, it is not clear how they perturb the underlying regulatory networks that govern gene expression. Our work begins to fill this void by showing that many genetic variations affect the concentrations of active transcription factors in a cell and their affinities for target promoters. Understanding the effects of these perturbations can help us to paint a more complete picture of the complex landscape of transcription regulation. The software package implementing the algorithms discussed in this work is available as a MATLAB package upon request.

  1. The Marital Happiness/Disruption Relationship by Level of Marital Alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udry, J. Richard

    1983-01-01

    Tested the hypothesis that the inverse relationship between marital happiness and disruption will be strong under conditions of high marital alternatives and weak under conditions of low marital alternatives. Used micro data from a sample of 400 White, urban, American couples. Found no support for the hypothesis. (Author/RC)

  2. The Cross-Cultural Consistency of Marital Communication Associated with Marital Distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halford, W. Kim; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Compared problem-solving behaviors of four samples of couples, sorted by marital happiness/distress and culture (German and Australian). Results showed cultural differences in frequency and functional significance of negative verbal communication, along with cross-culturally consistent marital behaviors associated with marital distress. (Author/TE)

  3. The network structure of human personality according to the NEO-PI-R: matching network community structure to factor structure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rutger Goekoop

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Human personality is described preferentially in terms of factors (dimensions found using factor analysis. An alternative and highly related method is network analysis, which may have several advantages over factor analytic methods. AIM: To directly compare the ability of network community detection (NCD and principal component factor analysis (PCA to examine modularity in multidimensional datasets such as the neuroticism-extraversion-openness personality inventory revised (NEO-PI-R. METHODS: 434 healthy subjects were tested on the NEO-PI-R. PCA was performed to extract factor structures (FS of the current dataset using both item scores and facet scores. Correlational network graphs were constructed from univariate correlation matrices of interactions between both items and facets. These networks were pruned in a link-by-link fashion while calculating the network community structure (NCS of each resulting network using the Wakita Tsurumi clustering algorithm. NCSs were matched against FS and networks of best matches were kept for further analysis. RESULTS: At facet level, NCS showed a best match (96.2% with a 'confirmatory' 5-FS. At item level, NCS showed a best match (80% with the standard 5-FS and involved a total of 6 network clusters. Lesser matches were found with 'confirmatory' 5-FS and 'exploratory' 6-FS of the current dataset. Network analysis did not identify facets as a separate level of organization in between items and clusters. A small-world network structure was found in both item- and facet level networks. CONCLUSION: We present the first optimized network graph of personality traits according to the NEO-PI-R: a 'Personality Web'. Such a web may represent the possible routes that subjects can take during personality development. NCD outperforms PCA by producing plausible modularity at item level in non-standard datasets, and can identify the key roles of individual items and clusters in the network.

  4. The Network Structure of Human Personality According to the NEO-PI-R: Matching Network Community Structure to Factor Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goekoop, Rutger; Goekoop, Jaap G.; Scholte, H. Steven

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Human personality is described preferentially in terms of factors (dimensions) found using factor analysis. An alternative and highly related method is network analysis, which may have several advantages over factor analytic methods. Aim To directly compare the ability of network community detection (NCD) and principal component factor analysis (PCA) to examine modularity in multidimensional datasets such as the neuroticism-extraversion-openness personality inventory revised (NEO-PI-R). Methods 434 healthy subjects were tested on the NEO-PI-R. PCA was performed to extract factor structures (FS) of the current dataset using both item scores and facet scores. Correlational network graphs were constructed from univariate correlation matrices of interactions between both items and facets. These networks were pruned in a link-by-link fashion while calculating the network community structure (NCS) of each resulting network using the Wakita Tsurumi clustering algorithm. NCSs were matched against FS and networks of best matches were kept for further analysis. Results At facet level, NCS showed a best match (96.2%) with a ‘confirmatory’ 5-FS. At item level, NCS showed a best match (80%) with the standard 5-FS and involved a total of 6 network clusters. Lesser matches were found with ‘confirmatory’ 5-FS and ‘exploratory’ 6-FS of the current dataset. Network analysis did not identify facets as a separate level of organization in between items and clusters. A small-world network structure was found in both item- and facet level networks. Conclusion We present the first optimized network graph of personality traits according to the NEO-PI-R: a ‘Personality Web’. Such a web may represent the possible routes that subjects can take during personality development. NCD outperforms PCA by producing plausible modularity at item level in non-standard datasets, and can identify the key roles of individual items and clusters in the network. PMID:23284713

  5. The network structure of human personality according to the NEO-PI-R: matching network community structure to factor structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goekoop, Rutger; Goekoop, Jaap G; Scholte, H Steven

    2012-01-01

    Human personality is described preferentially in terms of factors (dimensions) found using factor analysis. An alternative and highly related method is network analysis, which may have several advantages over factor analytic methods. To directly compare the ability of network community detection (NCD) and principal component factor analysis (PCA) to examine modularity in multidimensional datasets such as the neuroticism-extraversion-openness personality inventory revised (NEO-PI-R). 434 healthy subjects were tested on the NEO-PI-R. PCA was performed to extract factor structures (FS) of the current dataset using both item scores and facet scores. Correlational network graphs were constructed from univariate correlation matrices of interactions between both items and facets. These networks were pruned in a link-by-link fashion while calculating the network community structure (NCS) of each resulting network using the Wakita Tsurumi clustering algorithm. NCSs were matched against FS and networks of best matches were kept for further analysis. At facet level, NCS showed a best match (96.2%) with a 'confirmatory' 5-FS. At item level, NCS showed a best match (80%) with the standard 5-FS and involved a total of 6 network clusters. Lesser matches were found with 'confirmatory' 5-FS and 'exploratory' 6-FS of the current dataset. Network analysis did not identify facets as a separate level of organization in between items and clusters. A small-world network structure was found in both item- and facet level networks. We present the first optimized network graph of personality traits according to the NEO-PI-R: a 'Personality Web'. Such a web may represent the possible routes that subjects can take during personality development. NCD outperforms PCA by producing plausible modularity at item level in non-standard datasets, and can identify the key roles of individual items and clusters in the network.

  6. Marital stability after brain injury: an investigation and analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreutzer, Jeffrey S; Marwitz, Jennifer H; Hsu, Nancy; Williams, Kelli; Riddick, Amy

    2007-01-01

    To examine rates of separation and divorce after traumatic brain injury and identify factors relating to risk of marital breakdown. 120 persons who sustained a mild, moderate, or severe traumatic brain injury and who were married at the time of injury. Survivors were contacted between 30 and 96 months postinjury when demographic and marital status information was solicited. Injury information was obtained from medical records. A majority of patients remained married. The rate of divorce was 17% and 8% was the separation rate. People who were married longer before their injury, victims of non-violent injuries, older persons, and persons with less severe injuries were more likely to remain married. Gender, ethnicity, educational level, time elapsed since injury, and postinjury employment status were unrelated to risk for marital breakdown. Research findings do not support contentions that persons with brain injury are at greater risk for divorce relative to the general population. Nor do findings suggest that males are more likely to leave injured female partners. More research is needed to assess marital quality and the potential benefits of intervention programs designed to develop and maintain mutually supportive relationships.

  7. Men's economic status and marital transitions of fragile families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Sassler

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Men's ability to fill the provider role remains a consistent requirement for marriage across the class spectrum and cross-nationally. Fiscal concerns appear less salient for transitions to parenthood or to informal unions such as cohabitation. Objective: This paper evaluates whether marital expectations and marital transitions of new mothers are associated with the economic characteristics of father. Methods: Analyses are based on observed and imputed data on fathers from the first two waves of the Fragile Families and Child Well-Being Study. Logistic regression models assess factors predicting mothers' initial expectations of marrying their baby's father, and transitions into marital unions by the second interview. Results: Most women expect to marry their baby's father, although estimates are lower when men's data are repaired by imputation. Multivariate analyses find mother's marital expectations are most strongly associated with men's educational attainment, but not with men's earnings at the child's birth. Transitions to marriage are positively associated with men's earnings levels, although estimates are considerably lower than previously reported thresholds. Furthermore, the odds of marrying do not increase monotonically as men's income level rises once missing data are imputed. Conclusions: Theories regarding prerequisites for marriage must better account for growing heterogeneity in the unmarried population. Standard economic predictors of marriage for the overall population are less applicable for this sample of new parents. Ultimately, this study highlights the importance of including information on missing fathers. Excluding them may produce misleading statistical associations between men's economic measures and women's marriage.

  8. Psychological adaptation to spousal bereavement in old age: The role of trait resilience, marital history, and context of death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spahni, Stefanie; Bennett, Kate M; Perrig-Chiello, Pasqualina

    2016-01-01

    This research examined the effect of marital status and gender on various indicators of psychological adaptation, namely depressive symptoms, loneliness, and life satisfaction. It further explores the role of trait resilience, marital history, and context of death for predicting these outcomes in bereaved individuals. Four hundred eighty widowed individuals aged between 60 and 89 were compared with 759 married peers. Main effects were found for marital status and gender for all indicators. The regression analyses illustrate the multifaceted structure of psychological adaptation. Trait resilience is a key factor in adapting to spousal bereavement, whereas marital history and the context are secondary.

  9. Relationship education and marital satisfaction in newlywed couples: A propensity score analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, Rebecca J; Sullivan, Kieran T

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether premarital relationship education and characteristics of relationship education in a community sample of newlywed couples predicted marital trajectories over 27 months. Newlywed couples (N = 191) completed measures of marital satisfaction 9 times over 27 months, and prior to marriage they provided information about relationship education and demographic, personal, and relationship risk factors for marital distress. Propensity scores (i.e., the probability of receiving relationship education) were estimated using the marital distress risk factors, and used to derive a matched sample of 72 couples who participated in relationship education and 86 couples who did not. Multilevel analyses of the propensity score matched sample (n = 158) indicated that wives who participated in relationship education had declines in marital satisfaction while wives who did not receive relationship education maintained satisfaction over time. Furthermore, the more hours of relationship education the couple participated in, the less steeply their marital satisfaction declined. Findings indicate that participation in community-based relationship education may not prevent declines in marital satisfaction for newlywed couples. A possible explanation is that the quality of relationship education available to couples is generally poor and could be greatly improved by inclusion of empirically based relationship information and skills training that are known to lead to stronger marriages. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Correlations between subjective well-being, dyadic adjustment and marital satisfaction in Brazilian married people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scorsolini-Comin, Fabio; dos Santos, Manoel Antônio

    2012-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate the relationships between the constructs subjective well-being (SWB), dyadic adjustment (DA) and marital satisfaction (MS). Participants were 106 married Brazilians, of both sexes, with a mean age of 42 (+/- 11) years. Instruments used for the sociodemographic characterization and socioeconomic classification were the Subjective Wellbeing Scale (SWBS), the Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS) and the Marital Satisfaction Scale (MSS). Through the analysis of correlations and of stepwise multiple regression, it was verified that all the factors of the dyadic adjustment showed correlation with the marital satisfaction. The satisfaction with life (factor of the SWBS) and dyadic satisfaction (factor of the DAS), were positively and significantly correlated (r = .20: p = .04), which reveals that people who say they are satisfied with life in different domains also do so in relation to the marital experience,

  11. Gender and Marital Happiness in Later Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Gayle; Taniguchi, Hiromi

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the authors examine the effect of gender ideology on marital happiness in later life. Studies of marital satisfaction in later life have tended to neglect such attitudes, although they have received increasing attention in the literature on younger marriages. The authors use data from married individuals who range in age from 51 to…

  12. The Marital Happiness of Remarried Divorced Persons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Norval D.; Weaver, Charles N.

    1977-01-01

    A comparison of the reported marital happiness of ever-divorced and never-divorced white respondents to three recent U. S. national surveys reveals significantly greater marital happiness for never-divorced females but not for never-divorced males. Even among females, the difference in the percentage of "very happy" responses was less…

  13. Marital and Life Satisfaction among Gifted Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrone-McGovern, Kristin M.; Boo, Jenelle N.; Vannatter, Aarika

    2012-01-01

    Spousal giftedness, dual-career status, and gender were studied in relation to marital and life satisfaction among gifted adults. The data for the present study were collected twice over a 5-year period in order to examine the stability of the findings over time. Results indicated that marital satisfaction was significantly related to life…

  14. Family background and perceived marital happiness: a comparison of voluntary childless couples and parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramu, G N

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of theis paper is to examine the previously reported relationships between family background, marital happiness, and voluntary childlessness in light of data collected from samples of intentionally childless couples and parents in Winnipeg. The findings show that, contrary to earlier assertions, family background factors such as birth order, size of family of orientation, mother's employment, and perceived parental happiness do not predispose individuals to voluntary childlessness. Further, while the reported level of marital happiness is higher among childless couples, the sources of marital dissatisfaction among parents are not always children.

  15. [On attitudes toward marital and intergenerational relationships].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, T

    1991-10-01

    Structures and determinants of normative attitudes concerning marital and intergenerational relationships were studied. The data are based on the Public Opinion Survey on Population Issues carried out by the Institute of Population Problems in June 1990. 3 principal components were extracted from 11 questions on attitudes toward marriage and conjugal unions. The 1st is interpreted as the conservative attitude toward universal marriage and traditional sex-role differentiation. The 2nd is though to be intolerance for premarital and extramarital sexual intercourse, and the 3rd is the positive attitude toward such current issues as divorce or preservation of wife's surname. Regression analysis shows that such factors as age, education, marital status, and ideal family size have statistically significant effects on the 1st primary component, an index of universal marriage and extramarital sex measured by the 2nd component, the effect of community size is also statistically significant as well as the variables mentioned above. Only a small portion of the 3rd component which indicates attitude toward recent issues on marriage is explained by the regression model. From 8 questions concerning intergenerational relationships, 2 meaningful principal components have emerged. These are interpreted as the norm of supporting aging parents and the avoidance of frequent daily contact between parents and married children. Married people who are highly educated, living in urban areas, not living with their parents, or have a small family tended to have low scores on the 1st principal component and seem to hold the value of intergenerational independence. In addition to education, urban residence, living with parents, and ideal family size, the effect of living with married children is also significant on the 2nd component which indicates partition of daily life. (author's modified)

  16. Assessment on thermoelectric power factor in silicon nanowire networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohn, Andrew J.; Kobayashi, Nobuhiko P. [Baskin School of Engineering, University of California Santa Cruz, CA (United States); Nanostructured Energy Conversion Technology and Research (NECTAR), Advanced Studies Laboratories, University of California Santa Cruz, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA (United States); Coleman, Elane; Tompa, Gary S. [Structured Materials Industries, Inc., Piscataway, NJ (United States)

    2012-01-15

    Thermoelectric devices based on three-dimensional networks of highly interconnected silicon nanowires were fabricated and the parameters that contribute to the power factor, namely the Seebeck coefficient and electrical conductivity were assessed. The large area (2 cm x 2 cm) devices were fabricated at low cost utilizing a highly scalable process involving silicon nanowires grown on steel substrates. Temperature dependence of the Seebeck coefficient was found to be weak over the range of 20-80 C at approximately -400 {mu}V/K for unintentionally doped devices and {+-}50 {mu}V/K for p-type and n-type devices, respectively. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  17. Marital Adjustment and Psychological Distress in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Angela; Robustelli, Briana L.; Whisman, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the association between marital adjustment and psychological distress in a large, probability sample of married adults in Japan (N = 710) from the Midlife Development in Japan (MIDJA) study. Results indicate that positive and negative dimensions of marital adjustment were significantly associated with dimensional and categorical measures of psychological distress. Furthermore, the associations between marital adjustment and psychological distress remained significant when statistically controlling for neuroticism, quality of friend and family relationships, and demographic variables. These results demonstrate that the well-established association between marital adjustment and psychological distress found in European-American countries is also found in Japan. Findings support continued research on marital functioning and psychological distress in East Asian countries. PMID:28082761

  18. Trait Impulsivity and Newlyweds' Marital Trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavner, Justin A; Lamkin, Joanna; Miller, Joshua D

    2017-02-01

    Despite the relationship of impulsivity with interpersonal dysfunction, including romantic relationship dysfunction, surprisingly little research has examined the degree to which impulsivity predicts how marriages unfold over time. The current study used data from 172 newlywed couples to examine spouses' impulsivity in relation to their 4-year trajectories of marital satisfaction, marital problems, relationship commitment, and verbal aggression, as well as their 10-year divorce rates. Hierarchical linear modeling indicated that husbands' and wives' impulsivity predicted their own intercepts of marital satisfaction and marital problems, reflecting lower levels of satisfaction and higher levels of problems. Wives' impulsivity also predicted their relationship commitment and their verbal aggression intercepts. No cross-spouse effects or effects on slopes were found, and impulsivity did not predict 10-year divorce rates. These findings indicate that the relationship distress associated with impulsivity begins early in marriage, and they suggest a need for further research on the processes by which impulsivity undermines marital quality.

  19. Marital and Parental Satisfaction of Married Physicians with Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warde, Carole M; Moonesinghe, Kushan; Allen, Walter; Gelberg, Lillian

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate personal and professional factors associated with marital and parental satisfaction of physicians. STUDY DESIGN Cross-sectional study. PARTICIPANTS A survey was sent to equal numbers of licensed male and female physicians in a Southern California county. Of 964 delivered questionnaires, 656 (68%) were returned completed. Our sample includes 415 currently married physicians with children, 64% male and 36% female. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS Ratings of marital and parental satisfaction were measured on a 5-point Likert scale, 5 being extremely satisfied. Prevalence of work and home life factors was also evaluated. The mean score for marital satisfaction was 3.92 (range 1.75–5.0). Approximately half of the physicians reported high levels of marital satisfaction (63% of male physicians and 45% of female physicians). The gender difference disappeared after adjusting for age differences. Two factors were associated with high marital satisfaction: a supportive spouse (odds ratio [OR] 10.37; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.66, 40.08) and role conflict (OR 0.61; 95% CI 0.42, 0.88). The mean score for parental satisfaction was 3.43 (range 1.0–5.0), and approximately two thirds of both male and female physicians reported at least moderate levels of parental satisfaction. The major factors associated with parental satisfaction were a supportive spouse (OR 2.24; 95% CI 1.32, 3.80), role conflict (OR 0.35; 95% CI 0.23, 0.53), salaried practice setting (OR 2.14; 95% CI 1.21, 3.81), marriage to a spouse working in a profession (OR 2.14; 95% CI 1.21, 3.81), and marriage to a spouse working as a homemaker (OR 2.33; 95% CI 1.20, 4.56). Number of hours worked was not found to be related to either satisfaction score, but rather to an intervening variable, role conflict. CONCLUSIONS For physicians with children, our study indicates that minimizing the level of role conflict and having a supportive spouse are associated with higher levels of marital and

  20. Factorized time-dependent distributions for certain multiclass queueing networks and an application to enzymatic processing networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, W.H.; Hasty, J.; Tsimring, L.S.

    2013-01-01

    Motivated by applications in biological systems, we show for certain multiclass queueing networks that time-dependent distributions for the multiclass queue-lengths can have a factorized form which reduces the problem of computing such distributions to a similar problem for related single-class queueing networks. We give an example of the application of this result to an enzymatic processing network. PMID:24596432

  1. Marital status of people with epilepsy in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myeong-Kyu; Kwon, Oh-Young; Cho, Yong-Won; Kim, Yosik; Kim, Sung-Eun; Kim, Hoo-Won; Lee, Sang Kun; Jung, Ki-Young; Lee, Il Keun

    2010-11-01

    A multicentre face-to-face interview was conducted to identify factors contributing to the marital status of people with epilepsy (PWE) in Korea. The marriage rate of PWEs was only 80% and the divorce rate was more than double that in the general population. Among the single subjects, 34% replied that they were unmarried because of epilepsy, and 76% of divorced PWEs replied that epilepsy was the cause of the divorce. The factors affecting the single and divorced status in PWEs included gender, an earlier onset of seizure and seizure onset before marriage. Not informing the spouse of the disease before marriage for fear of discrimination was not related to disadvantage in marriage negotiation or to divorce. Social stigmatization of epilepsy continues and impacts on the marital status of PWEs in Korea. However, there is no correlation between the perceived and the enacted stigmas of epilepsy. Copyright © 2010 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Husbands' and Wives' Marital Adjustment, Verbal Aggression, and Physical Aggression as Longitudinal Predictors of Physical Aggression in Early Marriage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Julie A.; Leonard, Kenneth E.

    2005-01-01

    Marital adjustment, verbal aggression, and physical aggression have long been associated in the marital literature, but the nature of their associations remains unclear. In this study, the authors examined these 3 constructs as risk factors for physical aggression during the first 2 years of marriage in 634 couples recruited as they applied for…

  3. fficacy of the Education Based on the Integration of Transactional-cognitive Analysis on Marital Satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Khanabadi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Backgrounds and aim: one of the most important aspects of every marital system is the satisfaction experienced by both sides. With respect to the importance of applying integrative approaches in such an issue, this study was conducted in order to investigate the effect of mental-educational method of interactive-cognitive analysis on marital satisfaction. Methods: The present interventional study was conducted based on the method of in access sampling with random replacement (2007-2008 with ten couples in experimental group and 10 couples in control group. Examinees were randomly picked out of couples referred to consulting centers of Yazd Wellbeing Organization. Experimental group underwent education based on the integration of Transactional-cognitive analysis, while control group did not receive any treatment. Marital satisfaction was evaluated by means of Enrich Marital Satisfaction Questionnaire, before and after intervention. Results: Mental-educational method of interactive-cognitive analysis, significantly (P0.05> increased marital satisfaction in terms of sub-scales of personal traits, leisure activities, and roles related to man-woman equality. Conclusion: It can be concluded that Transactional-cognitive analysis with an education on relation setting, as well as verifying malfunctioning cognitions resulted from or escalated due to destructive marital relations, leads to an increase in marital satisfaction, with altering inter and intra-personal factors.

  4. Understanding the role of personality in explaining associations between marital quality and parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganiban, Jody M; Ulbricht, Jennifer A; Spotts, Erica L; Lichtenstein, Paul; Reiss, David; Hansson, Kjell; Neiderhiser, Jenae M

    2009-10-01

    Analyses assessed the degrees to which personality accounts for associations between marital quality and parenting and mediates genetic contributions to these relationships. Participants included 318 male and 544 female same-sex twin pairs from the Twin and Offspring Study in Sweden. All twins completed self-report measures of marital quality and personality (anxiousness, aggression, sociability). Composite measures of parent negativity and warmth were derived from the twins' and their adolescent children's ratings of the twins' disciplinary styles and the emotional tone of the parent-child relationship. Observational ratings of marital quality and parenting were also obtained for a subset of twins. Personality characteristics explained 33% to 42% of the covariance between reported marital quality and parenting and 26% to 28% of the covariance between observed marital quality and parenting. For both sets of analyses, personality accounted for more than half of the genetic contributions to covariance between marital quality and parenting. Results indicate that personality significantly contributes to associations between marital quality and parenting and that personality is an important path through which genetic factors contribute to family relationships.

  5. Marital Satisfaction, Coping, and Social Support in Female Medical Staff Members in Tehran University Hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg Richter

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Stress significantly influences marital satisfaction. Women tend to be more emotionally involved in problems than men. Furthermore, employed women encounter more stressors especially when their job is stressful which it is often the case in medical professionals. In the present cross-sectional study, relationships were analyzed between marital satisfaction (ENRICH Marital Satisfaction Inventory, ways of coping (Ways of Coping questionnaire with marital stress and social support (Social Support Questionnaire in 100 female medical staff members in Tehran university hospitals. The results revealed a significant negative relationship between subscales of marital satisfaction and using “seeking social support”, “confrontive coping”, “escape avoidance”, “distancing”, and “self-controlling” as ways of coping related to marriage related problems. Furthermore, the analyses showed that job satisfaction, social support, and ways of coping explain between 24% and 38% of the variance in subscales of marital satisfaction. Therefore focusing on these factors could be an effective approach to promote marital satisfaction in female medical staff members.

  6. Premarital precursors of marital infidelity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Elizabeth S; Rhoades, Galena Kline; Stanley, Scott M; Markman, Howard J; Williams, Tamara; Melton, Jessica; Clements, Mari L

    2008-06-01

    Premarital precursors of infidelity were evaluated in a sample of 72 couples (N = 144) who were taking part in a longitudinal study of marriage. Premarital self-report and observational data were compared for couples who experienced infidelity and those who did not experience infidelity in the first years of marriage. Couples in which the male engaged in marital infidelity were characterized, premaritally, by significantly lower male sexual satisfaction, lower male positive communication, and higher female invalidation, whereas couples in which the female went on to engage in infidelity were characterized, premaritally, by significantly lower levels of female positive communication, higher levels of male and female negative communication, and higher levels of male and female invalidation. Implications of the findings for future research on the prediction and prevention of infidelity are discussed.

  7. Marital satisfaction: the differential impact of social support dependent on situation and gender in medical staff in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostami, Arian; Ghazinour, Mehdi; Richter, Jörg

    2013-05-12

    Stress is unavoidable in everyday life and it can effect on marital relationship. Social support especially from emotionally closed persons as a protective factor can help individuals to deal with stress and buffers the negative effects of life stress on marital satisfaction. In the present cross-sectional study we investigated the relationship between social and spousal support and marital satisfaction in medical staff in Iran. Data collection was performed in 653 medical staff using socio-demographic questions, the ENRICH Marital Satisfaction Inventory, and the Social Support Questionnaire. Women and men did not differ in total social support satisfaction and the total number of supporting people; but, women were more often support providers for their husbands than men were for their wives. Spouse support was a more important indicator of marital satisfaction for women than for men. Also results revealed that spouse support is more important than social support from other resources to explain marital satisfaction. Job satisfaction had an explanatory effect on marital satisfaction especially in men. Furthermore, the findings showed that social support could decrease the explanatory impact of job satisfaction on scales of marital satisfaction. Therefore, focusing on social support, especially spouse support could be an effective approach in family counseling or family education programs to improve marital satisfaction in medical staff.

  8. Mothers’ Employment, Marital Status and Educational Level on Students’ Academic Achievement in Business Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Subuola Catherine Abosede; Olugbenga Adeyanju Akintola

    2016-01-01

    The mother’s personality is a build-up of demographic factors among which employment, marital status and educational level are prominent in shaping child’s abilities and aspirations. This study therefore, determines the influence of mothers’ employment, marital status and educational level on students’ academic achievement in Business studies. Ex-post facto survey design and stratified random sampling technique were adopted for the study.Structured Questionnaire (MEMSEL Scale, r= ...

  9. Capacity factors of a mixed speed railway network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrod, Steven

    2009-01-01

    a priority, high-speed train onto a network, maximum network now is attained when the priority train operates at maximum speed. in addition, increasing siding capacity at meeting points may offer a network capacity improvement comparable to partial double track. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  10. MOTHERS' AND FATHERS' PRENATAL REPRESENTATIONS IN RELATION TO MARITAL DISTRESS AND DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlqvist-Björkroth, Sari; Korja, Riikka; Junttila, Niina; Savonlahti, Elina; Pajulo, Marjukka; Räihä, Hannele; Aromaa, Minna

    2016-07-01

    Marital distress, parental depression, and weak quality of parental representations are all known risk factors for parent-child relationships. However, the relation between marital distress, depressive symptoms, and parents' prenatal representation is uncertain, especially regarding fathers. The present study aimed to explore how mothers' and fathers' prenatal experience of marital distress and depressive symptoms affects the organization of their prenatal representations in late pregnancy. Participants were 153 pregnant couples from a Finnish follow-up study called "Steps to the Healthy Development and Well-being of Children" (H. Lagström et al., ). Marital distress (Revised Dyadic Adjustment Scale; D.M. Busby, C. Christensen, D. Crane, & J. Larson, 1995) and depressive symptoms (Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale) were assessed at 20 gestational weeks, and prenatal representations (Working Model of the Child Interview; D. Benoit, K.C.H. Parker, & C.H. Zeanah, 1997; C.H. Zeanah, D. Benoit, M. Barton, & L. Hirshberg, 1996) were assessed between 29 and 32 gestational weeks. The mothers' risks of distorted representations increased significantly when they had at least minor depressive symptoms. Marital distress was associated with the fathers' prenatal representations, although the association was weak; fathers within the marital distress group had less balanced representations. Coexisting marital distress and depressive symptoms were only associated with the mothers' representations; lack of marital distress and depressive symptoms increased the likelihood for mothers to have balanced representations. The results imply that marital distress and depressive symptoms are differently related to the organizations of mothers' and fathers' prenatal representations. © 2016 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  11. Dyadic influence of hope and optimism on patient marital satisfaction among couples with advanced breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rock, Emily E; Steiner, Jennifer L; Rand, Kevin L; Bigatti, Silvia M

    2014-09-01

    An estimated 10-40 % of breast cancer (BC) patients report negative changes to their partnered relationships. Literature suggests that for these patients, marital satisfaction is related to depression and other quality of life factors which are associated with survivorship and treatment response. However, existing literature does not provide a clear explanation of the factors that strengthen vs. create strain in couples facing cancer. Given the benefits of a satisfying relationship to patient quality of life, it is important to better understand factors that put patients at greater risk for marital difficulties. This study examined the differential and combined roles of hope and optimism among BC patients and their partners on patient marital satisfaction. Fifty-six breast cancer patient-partner dyads completed study questionnaires as part of a larger study. Regression analyses were used to examine the main and interaction effects of patient and partner hope and optimism on patient marital satisfaction. Higher patient and partner hope predicted greater patient marital satisfaction, whereas optimism did not. These results are divergent from the literature on optimism and well-being, which shows the importance of studying these two traits concurrently. Interaction effects suggest certain combinations of patient and partner hope and optimism are more beneficial than others for patient marital satisfaction and suggest a dyadic approach is important for investigation of well-being in breast cancer.

  12. Infertile Individuals’ Marital Relationship Status, Happiness, and Mental Health: A Causal Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Habiballah Ahmadi Forooshany

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study examined the causal model of relation between marital relationship status, happiness, and mental health in infertile individuals. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive study, 155 subjects (men: 52 and women: 78, who had been visited in one of the infertility Centers, voluntarily participated in a self-evaluation. Golombok Rust Inventory of Marital Status, Oxford Happiness Questionnaire, and General Health Questionnaire were used as instruments of the study. Data was analyzed by SPSS17 and Amos 5 software using descriptive statistics, independent sample t test, and path analysis. Results: Disregarding the gender factor, marital relationship status was directly related to happiness (p<0.05 and happiness was directly related to mental health, (p<0.05. Also, indirect relation between marital relationship status and mental health was significant (p<0.05. These results were confirmed in women participants but in men participants only the direct relation between happiness and mental health was significant (p<0.05. Conclusion: Based on goodness of model fit in fitness indexes, happiness had a mediator role in relation between marital relationship status and mental health in infertile individuals disregarding the gender factor. Also, considering the gender factor, only in infertile women, marital relationship status can directly and indirectly affect happiness and mental health.

  13. Early marriage, marital relations and intimate partner violence in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erulkar, Annabel

    2013-03-01

    A considerable proportion of women worldwide are married during childhood. Although many studies have examined early marriage (before age 18), few have compared outcomes or correlates among girls married during different stages of adolescence or have focused on girls married very early (before age 15). Data from a population-based survey conducted in 2009-2010 in seven Ethiopian regions were used to examine early marriage among 1,671 women aged 20-24. Cross-tabulations and logistic regression were used to compare characteristics and contextual factors among girls married before age 15, at ages 15-17 or at ages 18-19 and to identify factors associated with selected marital outcomes. Seventeen percent of respondents had married before age 15 and 30% had married at ages 15-17. Most of those who married before age 18 had never been to school. Compared with young women who had married at ages 18-19, those married before age 15 were less likely to have known about the marriage beforehand (odds ratio, 0.2) and more likely to have experienced forced first marital sex (3.8). Educational attainment was positively associated with foreknowledge and wantedness of marriage and with high levels of marital discussions about fertility and reproductive health issues. Initiatives addressing the earliest child marriages should focus on girls who have left or never attended school. Given the vulnerability of girls married before age 15, programs should pay special attention to delaying very early marriages.

  14. Parenting stress and harsh discipline in China: The moderating roles of marital satisfaction and parent gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li; Wang, Meifang

    2015-05-01

    This research examined the relationships between parents' parenting stress and their harsh discipline (psychological aggression and corporal punishment) and the moderating effects of marital satisfaction and parent gender in Chinese societies. Using a sample of 639 Chinese father-mother dyads with preschoolers, findings revealed that both mothers' and fathers' parenting stress were directly associated with their harsh discipline. Mothers' marital satisfaction attenuated the association between their parenting stress and harsh discipline. However, fathers' marital satisfaction did not moderate the association between their parenting stress and harsh discipline. Findings from the current study highlight the importance of considering how the dyadic marital relationship factors may interact with individuals' parenting stress to influence both maternal and paternal disciplinary behaviors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Approaches to Marital Therapy | Esere | Nigerian Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In so doing efforts are geared towards highlighting the theory of transactional analysis and marital therapy, the concepts of life positions and marital therapy, the concepts of Rational - Emotive Therapy (RET) and marital conflict. Techniques of cognitive therapies in enhancing marital happiness are also highlighted.

  16. Genome-scale reconstruction of the sigma factor network in Escherichia coli: topology and functional states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cho, Byung-Kwan; Kim, Donghyuk; Knight, Eric M.

    2014-01-01

    and negative regulation by alternative s-factors. Comparison with sigma-factor binding in Klebsiella pneumoniae showed that transcriptional regulation of conserved genes in closely related species is unexpectedly divergent. Conclusions: The reconstructed network reveals the regulatory complexity...

  17. Relationship between Hardiness and Marital Satisfaction in Women with Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farideh Nabizadeh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: When a couple confronts cancer, there is a major impact on their psychosocial life. Marital life and satisfaction with that are important factors in the quality of life of breast cancer patient. The aim of this research was to predict marital satisfaction based on hardiness in women with breast cancerMethods: A total of 100 women with breast cancer participated in this study and completed the Kobasa Personal View Survey and ENRICH (evaluation and nurturing relationship issues, communication, and happiness Marital Satisfaction Scale. The study was conducted in Rasol Akrm Hospital, Tehran, Iran. Descriptive statistics, correlation, and linear regression were used for data analysis.Results: The results showed a significant relationship between hardiness and marital satisfaction. Moreover, hardiness determined 13% of the variance of marital satisfaction.Conclusions: Hardiness as an efficient coping style in breast cancer is an important factor to increase perceived marital satisfaction in breast cancer. Therefore, healthcare professionals such as psycho-oncologists can promote resiliency in breast cancer patients by improving cognitive hardiness in their patients.

  18. Evidence for Two Independent Factors that Modify Brain Networks to Meet Task Goals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caterina Gratton

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Humans easily and flexibly complete a wide variety of tasks. To accomplish this feat, the brain appears to subtly adjust stable brain networks. Here, we investigate what regional factors underlie these modifications, asking whether networks are either altered at (1 regions activated by a given task or (2 hubs that interconnect different networks. We used fMRI “functional connectivity” (FC to compare networks during rest and three distinct tasks requiring semantic judgments, mental rotation, and visual coherence. We found that network modifications during these tasks were independently associated with both regional activation and network hubs. Furthermore, active and hub regions were associated with distinct patterns of network modification (differing in their localization, topography of FC changes, and variability across tasks, with activated hubs exhibiting patterns consistent with task control. These findings indicate that task goals modify brain networks through two separate processes linked to local brain function and network hubs.

  19. Influential Factors of Collaborative Networks in Manufacturing: Validation of a Conceptual Model

    OpenAIRE

    Danny Wee Hock Quik; Nevan Wright; Ammar Rashid; Sivadass Thiruchelvam

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to identify influential factors in the use of collaborative networks within the context of manufacturing. The study aims to investigate factors that influence employees’ learning, and to bridge the gap between theory and praxis in collaborative networks in manufacturing. The study further extends the boundary of a collaborative network beyond enterprises to include suppliers, customers, and external stakeholders. It provides a holistic perspective of collaborative ...

  20. The Relationship between Marital and Sexual Satisfaction among Married Women Employees at Golestan University of Medical Sciences, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziaee, Tayebe; Jannati, Yadollah; Mobasheri, Elham; Taghavi, Taraneh; Abdollahi, Habib; Modanloo, Mahnaz; Behnampour, Naser

    2014-01-01

    Objective: There are various elements affecting the healthy family such as marital satisfaction. Various factors such as sexual satisfaction have an important impact on satisfaction of marital relationship. The present study aimed to determine the association of marital satisfaction with sexual satisfaction among sexually active employee women. Methods: This analytical descriptive study was carried on 140 married women employed at educational and medical centers of Golestan University of Medical Sciences. Questionnaires for data collection included Enrich Marital Satisfaction Questionnaire and self-constructed questionnaire (demographic characteristic and sexual satisfaction). Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, χ2 and Spearman statistical test. Statistical significant level was set as 0.05. Results: The findings showed that in marital satisfaction scale, the majority of the participants (63.6%) were very satisfied and none of them were very unsatisfied. In sexual satisfaction scale, most of the participants (56.4%) expressed extremely satisfaction rate and only 0.7% were not satisfied with their sexual relationship. Marital satisfaction was significantly associated with sexual satisfaction (p ≤ 0.001). So with the increase of sexual satisfaction, there was an increase in marital satisfaction accordingly. The findings indicated that there was a significant association between sexual satisfaction and age (p = 0.086). Level of education was associated significantly with the marital satisfaction (p = 0.038). The effects of sexual satisfaction on marital satisfaction were moderated by number of children and the level of education. Conclusion: The findings have implications for improving of couples' marital satisfaction by highlighting the need for awareness of sexual quality. According to the findings, it seems that development of educational programs and pre-marriage counseling is necessary. Continuous education would be helpful after marriage in

  1. Educational Networking as Key Factor of Specialist Training in Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safargaliev, Ernst Raisovich; Vinogradov, Vladislav Lvovich

    2015-01-01

    The paper considers the problems of science and education space and network formation between business and education. The productive form of integration between the parties is revealed. The authors address employment as an evaluation criterion for networking between university and business. Special emphasis is on active training methods as a way…

  2. Rectified factor networks for biclustering of omics data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clevert, Djork-Arné; Unterthiner, Thomas; Povysil, Gundula; Hochreiter, Sepp

    2017-07-15

    Biclustering has become a major tool for analyzing large datasets given as matrix of samples times features and has been successfully applied in life sciences and e-commerce for drug design and recommender systems, respectively. actor nalysis for cluster cquisition (FABIA), one of the most successful biclustering methods, is a generative model that represents each bicluster by two sparse membership vectors: one for the samples and one for the features. However, FABIA is restricted to about 20 code units because of the high computational complexity of computing the posterior. Furthermore, code units are sometimes insufficiently decorrelated and sample membership is difficult to determine. We propose to use the recently introduced unsupervised Deep Learning approach Rectified Factor Networks (RFNs) to overcome the drawbacks of existing biclustering methods. RFNs efficiently construct very sparse, non-linear, high-dimensional representations of the input via their posterior means. RFN learning is a generalized alternating minimization algorithm based on the posterior regularization method which enforces non-negative and normalized posterior means. Each code unit represents a bicluster, where samples for which the code unit is active belong to the bicluster and features that have activating weights to the code unit belong to the bicluster. On 400 benchmark datasets and on three gene expression datasets with known clusters, RFN outperformed 13 other biclustering methods including FABIA. On data of the 1000 Genomes Project, RFN could identify DNA segments which indicate, that interbreeding with other hominins starting already before ancestors of modern humans left Africa. https://github.com/bioinf-jku/librfn. djork-arne.clevert@bayer.com or hochreit@bioinf.jku.at.

  3. The relationship between sexual dysfunction and quality of marital relationship in genital and breast cancers women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahami, Fariba; Mohamadirizi, Soheila; Savabi, Mitra

    2017-01-01

    The concept of sexual dysfunction is dysfunction in desire and emotional - social that it is Impact on the sexual response cycle and can cause stress and interpersonal difficulties. Quality of marital relationship is one of the important factors predicting sexual function disorders, which varies among different cancers. The purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between sexual dysfunction and quality of marital relationship in genital and breast cancers in women. This correlational study was conducted on 150 breast and genital cancers in women referred to Sayedoshohada and Milad hospitals in Isfahan city through a two-stage sampling method. Participants completed questionnaires about demographic/disease and sexual function questionnaire (44 questions) and quality of marital relationship (11 questions). Collected data were analyzed using SPSS version 14 software, statistical test such as, Pearson correlation coefficient tests independent t- student, one way ANOVA. The results showed that 70.7% of women had breast cancer and 29.3% had gynaecological cancer. 60% of patient had good quality of marital relationship and 19.3% sexual dysfunction. There was a significant correlation between sexual function and quality of marital relationship (P = relationship. The inclusion of patients educational programs and couple therapy in cancer disease rehabilitation program is important in order to improve the quality of marital relationship and subsequent sexual dysfunction in cancer patients.

  4. Characteristics of women physically abused by their spouses and who seek treatment regarding marital conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cascardi, M; O'Leary, K D; Lawrence, E E; Schlee, K A

    1995-08-01

    Physically abused women seeking treatment for marital difficulties (abused women, n = 49) were compared with maritally discordant, nonabused women (discordant only, n = 23) and maritally satisfied nonabused women (community control, n = 25). Abused women reported significantly more fear of their spouses and reported that their spouses were significantly more coercive and psychologically aggressive than women in the 2 matched nonabused groups. Abused women did not report higher rates of abuse as a child, nor did they report higher rates of past psychopathology than women in the nonabused groups. However, abused women and nonabused discordant women reported higher rates of emotional abuse in childhood than maritally satisfied nonabused women. Furthermore, both clinical groups had a tendency to have higher lifetime rates of major depression before their current marriage than the maritally satisfied women. This result suggests that childhood abuse and a history of depression may be risk factors for women in abusive and nonabusive discordant relationships. As expected, abused women reported higher rates of posttraumatic stress disorder than women in the discordant-only and community control groups. Treatment implications for both standard treatments for marital problems and treatments for victims of physical abuse are discussed.

  5. The Relationship between Self-efficacy and Marital Satisfaction among Married Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh Mashal pour fard

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background The present study was designed and conducted to determine the relationship between self-efficacy and marital satisfaction among married and single students. Materials and Methods The sample of this study consisted of 50 married students of Payame Noor University in IZEH city, South West of Iran; then simple random sampling method was used to select samples. To measure self-efficacy questionnaire Scherer and Enrich marital satisfaction questionnaire was used. Data were analyses using SPSS-20. Results The mean age of students were 23 + 0.739 years. In terms of demographic characteristics, 50% of the study population were women and 50% were men. Results showed thatthere was a significant negative correlation between self-efficacy and marital satisfaction of male students (r= - 0.55 and P=0.001, respectively. Also, there was a significant negative correlation between self-efficacy and marital satisfaction in married women students (r= -0.47 and P=0.001, respectively. Conclusion The root of many marital problems, including divorce, the factors they are directly or indirectly marital satisfaction. Therefore, considering these variables can be important to prevent disputes in married life and many negative consequences for physical and mental health will bring the couple and their children that can affect the beneficial aspects of married life.

  6. Mother's marital satisfaction associated with the quality of mother-father-child triadic interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korja, Riikka; Piha, Jorma; Otava, Riia; Lavanchy-Scaiola, Chloe; Ahlqvist-Björkroth, Sari; Aromaa, Minna; Räihä, Hannele

    2016-08-01

    Low marital satisfaction has been shown to be a risk factor for early parenthood and parent-child relationship problems (Erel & Burman, ; McHale, ). The aim of this study was to assess how parental reports of marital satisfaction related to family alliance and coordination in the observed triadic interaction. The study group included 120 families. Marital satisfaction was evaluated during pregnancy, at 4 months, and at 18 months using the Revised Dyadic Adjustment Scale (RDAS; Busby, Christensen, Crane & Larsson, ) for both parents. Mother-father-child interaction was analyzed in the Lausanne Triadic Play setting and coded using the Family Alliance Assessment Scale (Favez, Lavanchy Scaiola, Tissot, Darwiche & Frascarolo, ) when the child reached 18 months of age. The mother's higher marital satisfaction at every measuring point was associated with a cooperative family alliance and/or higher family coordination at 18 months. The father's experience of marital satisfaction was not related to family interaction at any assessment point. Our study suggests that a mother's experience of lower marital satisfaction during pregnancy may be an early sign of later problems in family relationships. © 2016 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. SPOUSAL INTRUSION AS A PREDICTOR OF WIVES' MARITAL SATISFACTION IN THEIR SPOUSES' RETIREMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozoglan, Bahadir

    2015-06-01

    Retirement of men changes their roles and participation and affects their spouses' daily routines, roles, and participation. This study assessed the effects of spousal intrusion on marital satisfaction in retirement. Questionnaires assessing demographics, spousal intrusion, shared couple activities, feelings, and marital satisfaction were administered to a group of 151 volunteer women whose husbands were retired in two cities in Turkey. The women were recruited among those who were willing to share their feelings and thoughts about their husbands' retirement process as a result of one-on-one interviews. Hierarchical regression analysis indicated that the perception of spousal intrusion, education status, frequency of shared activities, and dyadic adjustment predicted women's marital satisfaction in retirement. However, spousal intrusion did not significantly predict women's marital satisfaction when dyadic adjustment was entered in the second model. In the third model, final variables together predicted 19% of women's marital satisfaction in their spouse's retirement. These findings are important as they underline the factors affecting women's marital satisfaction in their spouses' retirement period.

  8. Marital abuse and psychological well-being among women in the southern region of Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdan-Mansour, Ayman M; Arabiat, Diana Hashem; Sato, Tokiko; Obaid, Batoul; Imoto, Atsuko

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between marital abuse and psychological well-being among women in the southern region of Jordan. A descriptive correlational design was used to collect data from a randomly selected sample of 915 women in the southern region of Jordan. Data collected were related to forms of marital abuse and six domains of psychological well-being. The analysis showed that women have moderate to high level of psychological well-being. The prevalence of ever being abused during the past 12 months ranged from 3.2% (n = 25) for being threatened with a knife to 45.1% (n = 348) for their husbands being unconcerned about them while they were sick. There were significant differences in marital abuse related to having ever had school education (χ(2) = 8.56, df = 2, p = .014). All forms of marital abuse were highly correlated (p < .01). Self-acceptance and environmental mastery domains of psychological well-being had negative and significant correlation with all forms of marital abuse (p < .01). DISCUSSION OF CONCLUSION: Health professionals in health care centers need to assess for marital abuse and its consequence on women's health. Interventions should emphasize promotion of psychological well-being and the factors that influence women empowerment.

  9. Factors for Successful Use of Social Networking Sites in Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Schlenkrich

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Social networking sites are extremely popular online destinations that offer users easy ways to build and maintain relationships with each other, and to disseminate information in an activity referred to as social networking. Students, lecturers, teachers, parents and businesses, in increasing numbers, use tools available on social networking sites to communicate with each other in a fast and cost-effective manner. The use of social networking sites to support educational initiatives has received much attention. However, the full potential of social network sites has yet to be achieved as users continue to strive for optimal ways of using these sites, as well as battle to overcome the negative characteristics (for example, privacy, security, governance, user behaviour, information quality of these sites. This paper proposes factors for successful use of social networking sites in higher educational institutions. These success factors need to be adopted by users in order to develop the positive aspects of social networking, while at the same time mitigating the negative characteristics. An initial set of factors for successful use of social networking sites, as well as measures to test successful use of social networking sites were derived from the literature. These factors were tested by means of an online survey of students at a university, the results of which informed the final factors for successful use of social networking sites. The factors enable users to overcome the negative characteristics associated with social networking sites. If used successfully, social networking sites can offer lecturers and students a useful tool with which to develop their relationship and contribute to their learning experience.

  10. Dysphoria and Marital Discord: Are Dysphoric Individuals at Risk for Marital Maladjustment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, Steven R. H.; O'Leary, K. Daniel

    1993-01-01

    Examined effects of dysphoria on husbands' and wives' later marital adjustment among 264 couples about to marry. Assessed relationship satisfaction and level of dysphoria in both spouses prior to marriage, 6 months after marriage, and 18 months after marriage. Premarital dysphoria was associated with later marital dissatisfaction. Gender…

  11. Bidirectional Associations Between Newlyweds' Marital Satisfaction and Marital Problems over Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavner, Justin A; Karney, Benjamin R; Williamson, Hannah C; Bradbury, Thomas N

    2016-11-08

    Prevailing views of marital functioning generally adopt the view that marital problems predict decreases in marital satisfaction, but alternative theoretical perspectives raise the possibility that lowered satisfaction can also predict increases in problems. The current study sought to integrate and compare these perspectives by examining the bidirectional cross-lagged associations between newlyweds' reports of their marital satisfaction and marital problems over the first 4 years of marriage. Using annual assessments from 483 heterosexual newlywed couples, we find evidence for problem-to-satisfaction linkages as well as satisfaction-to-problem linkages. Satisfaction was a stronger predictor of marital problems early in marriage but not as time passed; by Year 4 only problem-to-satisfaction linkages remained significant. These findings are consistent with the idea that couples with more problems go on to report lower levels of satisfaction and couples with lower levels of satisfaction go on to report more marital problems. This dynamic interplay between global judgments about relationship satisfaction and ongoing specific relationship difficulties highlights the value of examining bidirectional effects to better understand marital functioning over time. © 2016 Family Process Institute.

  12. Marital Power and Marital Happiness in Relation to Problem-Solving Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Trudy M.; Straus, Murray A.

    1974-01-01

    Data on intrafamily power relations, obtained by observing the interaction of husband-wife-child groups during a laboratory problem-solving session, are related to ratings of marital happiness. Families above the median in husband-to-wife power tend to be high in marital happiness. (Author)

  13. Marital Interaction in Middle and Old Age: A Predictor of Marital Satisfaction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Marina; Kliegel, Matthias; Shapiro, Adam

    2007-01-01

    Many studies point out the importance of marital satisfaction for well-being. However, although being married is still the norm in middle and old age, research on the determinants of marital satisfaction has neglected long-term marriages. While research on short-term marriages mainly focuses on partner fit (e.g., in personality traits and…

  14. Effect of Marital Counselling on Women‟s Attitude Towards Marital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the effect of marital counselling on women's attitude towards marital stability. The study adopted a pre-test post-test quasi experimental design. The sample consisted of 52 married women (academic and non-academic) staff of the Faculty of Education, University of Port-Harcourt, Rivers State of ...

  15. Trajectories of Marital Conflict across the Life Course: Predictors and Interactions with Marital Happiness Trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamp Dush, Claire M.; Taylor, Miles G.

    2012-01-01

    Using typologies outlined by Gottman and Fitzpatrick as well as institutional and companionate models of marriage, the authors conducted a latent class analysis of marital conflict trajectories using 20 years of data from the Marital Instability Over the Life Course study. Respondents were in one of three groups: high, medium (around the mean), or…

  16. Relationships between attachment and marital satisfaction in married couples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Gallerová

    2016-01-01

    four selfrepot questionnaires. The childhood attachment was measured by Attachment History Paragraphs (Granqvist & Kirkpatrick, 2004, adult attachment was measured by The Experiences in Close Relationships Questionnaire (Brennan, Clark, & Shaver, 1998 and satisfaction in marriage was measuredby two measures: Quality Marriage Index (Norton, 1983 and Kansas Marital Satisfaction Scale (Schumm, Bollman, & Jurich, 1997.The research sample consisted of 78 heterosexual married couple, together 156 people. The average length of marriages is 20.76 years. Participants were instructed to complete the questionnaires independently. The relations between variables were examined by correlation analysis and cluster analysis. People with a secure attachment style and their partners were most satisfied with their marriages. Our study showed relation between dismissive attachment style and low level of marital satisfaction for the individual, and for the partner of the examined one. The results of our study did not suggest any relationship between childhood attachment and marital satisfaction. The results indicate that secure attachment style is related to higher level of relationship satisfaction, in spite of stressful situation or demanding changes which are occurring in marriage. People with insecure attachment style devote a lot of effort to reinforce marital and couple relationship stability during difficult situations in relationship. Connection between marital satisfaction and childhood attachment has not been proven. The reason may be that childhood attachment is not always totally stable and it can be changed by life experience or personal characteristics of the individual. Our research confirmed that attachment is related to satisfaction in marriage. Research of relationship between attachment and factors affecting marriage is very beneficial, because new finding in this topic can help in clinical practice.

  17. Marital status and twins' health and behavior: an analysis of middle-aged Danish twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osler, Merete; McGue, Matt; Lund, Rikke

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To disentangle the influences on health of selection processes related to genetic and rearing environmental factors from factors related to marriage benefits. We compared health status among same-sex male and female twin pairs who lived together during childhood and were discordant...... divorce with depression and smoking in Danish twins are due to the stressful effects of marital dissolution, but that marital differences in other health and behavioral outcomes are most consistent with selection effects related to genetic or rearing environmental factors....

  18. A cross-cultural examination of the relation of marital communication behavior to marital satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Uzma S; Holtzworth-Munroe, Amy

    2007-12-01

    Numerous studies have examined the communication behaviors of Western, primarily North American, couples and have demonstrated a robust and reliable association between marital satisfaction and couple communication. However, there has been relatively less attention given to the generalizability of these findings to non-Western couples. To address this issue, the authors conducted an observational study of marital communication among couples from 3 different cultural groups: 50 White American couples, 52 Pakistani couples in Pakistan, and 48 immigrant Pakistani couples in America. The results show that positive and negative communication behaviors were associated with marital satisfaction within each of the 3 cultural groups. However, the American group's marital satisfaction was more strongly related to marital communication behaviors than was that of the Pakistani group and, to a lesser extent, the immigrant group.

  19. Seismic Vulnerability Assessment of Lifeline Networks Using Vulnerability Factor : In Application to Water Distribution Lines

    OpenAIRE

    能島, 暢呂; Nobuoto, NOJIMA; 岐阜大学工学部社会基盤工学科; Department of Civil Engineering, Gifu University

    2008-01-01

    A simple index is proposed for seismic vulnerability assessment of lifeline network facilities. The proposed index, "V-factor," is evaluated using the correction factors representing relative vulnerability corresponding to a variety of pipe diameters, pipe materials, and joint types in statistical models used widely for estimation of number of pipe breaks in the event of earthquakes. Such correction factors are averaged over the entire networks on the basis of extended length of pipelines cla...

  20. The Relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Marital Satisfaction: 10-Year Outcome of Partners from Three Different Economic Levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohre Nasiri Zarch

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Emotional communication and economic factors play an important role in having a satisfying relationship and a more successful marriage. In this regard, we investigated the 10-year outcome of partners from three different economic levels regarding the relationship between emotional intelligence (EI and marital satisfaction.The research was designed as a descriptive-correlative survey and data were analyzed using Pearson correlation test and stepwise regression.Participants were 159 couples (N = 318 who were randomly selected through clustered sampling. The questionnaires included: Bar-on Emotional Intelligence (1997 and Enrich Marital satisfaction (1989.The findings revealed that the average values of emotional intelligence (m = 333.1 and marital satisfaction (m = 300.77 were high in the under-rich region (p<0.05. Moreover, there was no significant relationship between interpersonal and marital satisfaction within the under-rich region. On average, emotional intelligence accounted for 40.8% of marital satisfaction within those three regions (p<0.01.The results of the regression analysis showed that general mood is the most effective factor changing marital satisfaction in the three studied regions (R2= 0.34, rich (R2= 0.42 and semi-rich (R2= 0.52 regions (p<0.01. The most influential factor changing marital satisfaction in the under-rich (R2= 0.28 region was found to be stress management (p<0.01.

  1. Marital Satisfaction Across the Transition to Parenthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Erika; Cobb, Rebecca J.; Rothman, Alexia D.; Rothman, Michael T.; Bradbury, Thomas N.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to discriminate between the 2 dominant perspectives governing research on the nature of marital change over the transition to parenthood. Progress can be made in understanding this transition by recognizing the role of uncontrolled sources of variability in research designs, defining and using control groups, and timing of data collection around the child’s arrival, and the authors conducted a study incorporating these methodological refinements. Growth curve analyses were conducted on marital satisfaction data collected twice before and twice after the birth of the 1st child and at corresponding points for voluntarily childless couples (N = 156 couples). Spouses who were more satisfied prior to pregnancy had children relatively early in marriage, and parents experienced greater declines in marital satisfaction compared to nonparents. Couples with planned pregnancies had higher prepregnancy satisfaction scores, and planning slowed husbands’ (but not wives’) postpartum declines. In sum, parenthood hastens marital decline—even among relatively satisfied couples who select themselves into this transition—but planning status and prepregnancy marital satisfaction generally protect marriages from these declines. PMID:18266531

  2. Inferring the role of transcription factors in regulatory networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Borgne Michel

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Expression profiles obtained from multiple perturbation experiments are increasingly used to reconstruct transcriptional regulatory networks, from well studied, simple organisms up to higher eukaryotes. Admittedly, a key ingredient in developing a reconstruction method is its ability to integrate heterogeneous sources of information, as well as to comply with practical observability issues: measurements can be scarce or noisy. In this work, we show how to combine a network of genetic regulations with a set of expression profiles, in order to infer the functional effect of the regulations, as inducer or repressor. Our approach is based on a consistency rule between a network and the signs of variation given by expression arrays. Results We evaluate our approach in several settings of increasing complexity. First, we generate artificial expression data on a transcriptional network of E. coli extracted from the literature (1529 nodes and 3802 edges, and we estimate that 30% of the regulations can be annotated with about 30 profiles. We additionally prove that at most 40.8% of the network can be inferred using our approach. Second, we use this network in order to validate the predictions obtained with a compendium of real expression profiles. We describe a filtering algorithm that generates particularly reliable predictions. Finally, we apply our inference approach to S. cerevisiae transcriptional network (2419 nodes and 4344 interactions, by combining ChIP-chip data and 15 expression profiles. We are able to detect and isolate inconsistencies between the expression profiles and a significant portion of the model (15% of all the interactions. In addition, we report predictions for 14.5% of all interactions. Conclusion Our approach does not require accurate expression levels nor times series. Nevertheless, we show on both data, real and artificial, that a relatively small number of perturbation experiments are enough to determine

  3. Comparing social factors affecting recommender decisions in online and educational social network

    Science.gov (United States)

    MartÍn, Estefanía; Hernán-Losada, Isidoro; Haya, Pablo A.

    2016-01-01

    In the educational context, there is an increasing interest in learning networks. Recommender systems (RSs) can play an important role in achieving educational objectives. Although we can find many papers focused on recommendation techniques and algorithms, in general, less attention has been dedicated to social factors that influence the recommendation process. This process could be improved if we had a deeper understanding of the social factors that influence the quality or validity of a suggestion made by the RS. This work elucidates and analyses the social factors that influence the design and decision-making process of RSs. We conducted a survey in which 126 undergraduate students were asked to extract which are the main factors for improving suggestions when they are interacting with an Online Social Network (OSN) or in an Educational Social Network (ESN). The results show that different factors have to be considered depending on the type of network.

  4. FACTORS OF REFUSALS IN ELECTRICAL DISTRIBUTION NETWORKS 10 KV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. POPESCU

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available At present, in electrical distribution networks with tension 10 kV take place a significant number of refusals, which affect the reliability of electricity supply to all consumers. The behavior of these interruptions permit the development of the mechanism for ensuring continuity of electricity supply to consumers. Ensurance of continuity of quality power supply of consumer can be achieved only on the bases of profound knowledge of the phenomena that accompany this process, which permits a justified planning from technical and economic point of view, measures and activities of exploitation services of electrical distribution networks with tension 10 kV, in view to ensure the normal indicators of reliability. The paper is devoted to assessing the distributions of refusals in electrical networks with tension 10 kV, for developing the forecasting mechanism and to ensure the reliability of power supply.

  5. Integrative self-knowledge and marital satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbani, Nima; Watson, P J; Fayyaz, Fatemeh; Chen, Zhuo

    2015-01-01

    Married Iranian couples (N = 210) responded to the Integrative Self-Knowledge Scale along with a measure of marital satisfaction, the International Personality Item Pool (IPIP) Big Five, and an index of interpersonal problems. Integrative self-knowledge correlated positively with marital satisfaction, positively with all but the extraversion Big Five traits, and negatively with three indices of interpersonal problems. Integrative self-knowledge also mediated a number of personality relationships with marital satisfaction. Spouse-ratings of personality confirmed the adaptive implications of integrative self-knowledge for marriage. Linkages with questionnaire response styles supported the description of integrative self-knowledge as a measure of both self-insight and self-development. Results confirmed the potential of integrative self-knowledge for studying self-regulatory processes and suggested that the enhancement of self-knowledge may be a useful goal in efforts to strengthen marriages.

  6. Marital Biography, Social Security Receipt, and Poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, I-Fen; Brown, Susan L; Hammersmith, Anna M

    2017-01-01

    Increasingly, older adults are unmarried, which could mean a larger share is at risk of economic disadvantage. Using data from the 2010 Health and Retirement Study, we chart the diverse range of marital biographies, capturing marital sequences and timing, of adults who are age eligible for Social Security and examine three indicators of economic well-being: Social Security receipt, Social Security benefit levels, and poverty status. Partnereds are disproportionately likely to receive Social Security and they enjoy relatively high Social Security benefits and very low poverty levels. Among singles, economic well-being varies by marital biography and gender. Gray divorced and never-married women face considerable economic insecurity. Their Social Security benefits are relatively low, and their poverty rates are quite high (over 25%), indicating Social Security alone is not sufficient to prevent these women from falling into poverty. By comparison, gray widoweds are the most advantaged singles.

  7. Premarital Heterosexual Relationships and its Association with Marital Satisfaction among Married College Students in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    فریده خلج‌آبادی فراهانی

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite increasing trends towards premarital heterosexual relationships among youth and marital dissatisfaction among couples, few studies have examined the association between these two phenomena. This paper aims to assess the relationship between experience or premarital heterosexual relationships (both friendship & sexual with marital satisfaction. This paper is based on the survey data of a mix method study conducted in 2011-2012. In this paper, 299 married college students, both males and females aged 18-40 were recruited using stratified cluster sampling from all educational levels of 7 selected universities, both private and government universities. A valid and reliable self-administered anonymous questionnaire was employed and piloted. Results of path analysis indicated that the greatest coefficient of impact on marital satisfaction is associated with knowing personality of spouse at the stage of marriage (B=0.435, P<0.001, and then the experience of multiple heterosexual relationships before marriage is another factor which had the highest negative effect on marital satisfaction (B=-0.282, p<0.05. Moreover, having multiple heterosexual relationships before marriage have an indirect effect on marital satisfaction via religious inconsistency with spouse (B=-0.269*0.182*0.435= -0.02. Hence, having multiple relat-ionships before marriage which are not intended for marriage, can determine lower marital satisfaction. In contrast, knowledge about characteristics of spouse at marriage is a positive factor in marital satisfaction. Further large scale studies are required to confirm these results. These results can be used in amending misperceptions among youth in this regard.

  8. Factors enabling information propagation in a Social Network Site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnani, Matteo; Montesi, Danilo; Rossi, Luca

    2013-01-01

    , and because of the very large amount of people that can potentially be exposed to information items. While many general formal models of network propagation have been developed in different research fields, in this chapter we present the result of an empirical study on a Large Social Database (LSD) aimed...

  9. Evaluating the spatio-temporal factors that structure network parameters of plant-herbivore interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio López-Carretero

    Full Text Available Despite the dynamic nature of ecological interactions, most studies on species networks offer static representations of their structure, constraining our understanding of the ecological mechanisms involved in their spatio-temporal stability. This is the first study to evaluate plant-herbivore interaction networks on a small spatio-temporal scale. Specifically, we simultaneously assessed the effect of host plant availability, habitat complexity and seasonality on the structure of plant-herbivore networks in a coastal tropical ecosystem. Our results revealed that changes in the host plant community resulting from seasonality and habitat structure are reflected not only in the herbivore community, but also in the emergent properties (network parameters of the plant-herbivore interaction network such as connectance, selectiveness and modularity. Habitat conditions and periods that are most stressful favored the presence of less selective and susceptible herbivore species, resulting in increased connectance within networks. In contrast, the high degree of selectivennes (i.e. interaction specialization and modularity of the networks under less stressful conditions was promoted by the diversification in resource use by herbivores. By analyzing networks at a small spatio-temporal scale we identified the ecological factors structuring this network such as habitat complexity and seasonality. Our research offers new evidence on the role of abiotic and biotic factors in the variation of the properties of species interaction networks.

  10. The Assessment of Marital Instability in a Semi-Rural Setting: Cultural Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meck, Donald S; LeUnes, Arnold

    Semi-rural first-married couples (N=29) seeking marital counseling from a small community mental health center were administered Cattell's Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF) as part of the intake procedure of the agency. Male and female mean scores for each of the 16 personality factors were derived and compared to the Cattell and…

  11. Female Scarcity Reduces Women's Marital Ages and Increases Variance in Men's Marital Ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J. Kruger

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available When women are scarce in a population relative to men, they have greater bargaining power in romantic relationships and thus may be able to secure male commitment at earlier ages. Male motivation for long-term relationship commitment may also be higher, in conjunction with the motivation to secure a prospective partner before another male retains her. However, men may also need to acquire greater social status and resources to be considered marriageable. This could increase the variance in male marital age, as well as the average male marital age. We calculated the Operational Sex Ratio, and means, medians, and standard deviations in marital ages for women and men for the 50 largest Metropolitan Statistical Areas in the United States with 2000 U.S Census data. As predicted, where women are scarce they marry earlier on average. However, there was no significant relationship with mean male marital ages. The variance in male marital age increased with higher female scarcity, contrasting with a non-significant inverse trend for female marital age variation. These findings advance the understanding of the relationship between the OSR and marital patterns. We believe that these results are best accounted for by sex specific attributes of reproductive value and associated mate selection criteria, demonstrating the power of an evolutionary framework for understanding human relationships and demographic patterns.

  12. The Role of Marital Burnout and Early Maladaptive Schemas in Marital Satisfaction between Young Couples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arghavan Kebritchi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Given the fundamental role of the family structure and the importance of proper marriages in modern society as well as the important role of childhood and its effect on marital relations in adulthood, this study aimed to investigate the role of burnout, early maladaptive schemas and style in marital satisfaction among young couples. This study is a correlation (multiple regressions and descriptive research. The sample consisted of 100 couples (100 females and 100 males, couples aged 20 to 35 years with a high school diploma or higher education who were randomly chosen from student couples of Tehran and Karaj Kharazmi university or other couples out of university which filled out four questionnaires. Following questionnaires were used as research tools: Pines’ Couple Burnout Measure (CBM, Enrich’s Marital Satisfaction (Enrich, Yang’s early maladaptive schemas (EMSQ-R.[6][8]. Results showed that there were three interactive relationships among these variables, so that all three variables were investigated and separately explained concerning marital satisfaction. There was a significant negative correlation between marital burnout and all other subscales and marital satisfaction, and a significant positive correlation between marital burnout and all maladaptive schemas except emotional deprivation schema.

  13. Factors Impacting Adult Learner Achievement in a Technology Certificate Program on Computer Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delialioglu, Omer; Cakir, Hasan; Bichelmeyer, Barbara A.; Dennis, Alan R.; Duffy, Thomas M.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the factors impacting the achievement of adult learners in a technology certificate program on computer networks. We studied 2442 participants in 256 institutions. The participants were older than age 18 and were enrolled in the Cisco Certified Network Associate (CCNA) technology training program as "non-degree" or…

  14. Emotion recognition and marital satisfaction in stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blonder, Lee X; Pettigrew, L Creed; Kryscio, Richard J

    2012-01-01

    Deficits in the comprehension of facial and prosodic expressions are commonly associated with right hemisphere stroke. However, little is known regarding the impact of these disorders on social relations. We examined facial and prosodic processing, mood, and marital satisfaction in 12 right hemisphere damaged (RHD) stroke patients and nine controls. Results revealed significant impairments in the comprehension of facial expressions and prosody among RHD stroke patients. Nonparametric correlations in the RHD group showed significant associations between marital satisfaction and facial affect discrimination and matching, and nonaffective prosody discrimination. We conclude that deficits in the recognition of nonverbal expressions are associated with reduced relationship satisfaction.

  15. Rebound from marital conflict and divorce prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottman, J M; Levenson, R W

    1999-01-01

    Marital interaction has primarily been examined in the context of conflict resolution. This study investigated the predictive ability of couples to rebound from marital conflict in a subsequent positive conversation. Results showed that there was a great deal of consistency in affect across both conversations. Also examined was the ability of affective interaction to predict divorce over a 4-year period, separately in each of the two conversations. It was possible to predict divorce using affective variables from each conversation, with 82.6% accuracy from the conflict conversation and with 92.7% accuracy from the positive rebound conversation.

  16. Marital conflict, divorce, and children's adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, J B

    1998-04-01

    This article summarizes current research on children's adjustment after separation and divorce, and then focuses on the contributions of marital conflict, marital violence, and hostile family environments to children's adjustment during marriage and after divorce. Children living in marriages with frequent and intense conflict are significantly more likely to have substantial adjustment problems before parental divorce and compromised parent-child relationships. These findings suggest that the deleterious effects of divorce per se have been overstated, with insufficient attention paid in the clinical and research literature to the damaging effects of highly troubled marriages on children's adjustment.

  17. DMPD: The interferon signaling network and transcription factor C/EBP-beta. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 18163952 The interferon signaling network and transcription factor C/EBP-beta. Li H... The interferon signaling network and transcription factor C/EBP-beta. PubmedID 18163952 Title The interfero...n signaling network and transcription factor C/EBP-beta. Authors Li H, Gade P, Xi

  18. Repartnering after marital dissolution: Does context play a role?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fausta Ongaro

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines in depth the determinants of repartnering in Italy. With data from a national survey conducted in 2003, the effects of socio-economic, demographic and contextual characteristics on second-union formation among separated women are examined. The analysis is of particular interest in a country such as Italy, which is undergoing a transition from traditional to modern family behaviours. In addition, it allows us to verify the hypothesis that the importance of demographic factors in the repartnering process decreases as marital instability becomes more common. Results of event history analysis models confirm the basic hypothesis and show some unexpected effects.

  19. Suicide and marital status in Northern Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, Paul; Nagar, Aaron

    2010-08-01

    Studies show marriage to be protective against suicide though with variation in the extent to which suicide rates are higher among the never married, separated or divorced and widowed. We examined suicide in Northern Ireland by marital status and examined whether the observed variation differed by sex and age. Data relating to all 1,398 suicide deaths (ICD-9 E950-959 and ICD-10 X60-84) registered in 1996-2005 were analysed using Poisson regression. The total, male and female age-standardised suicide rates were 8.4, 13.6 and 3.3 per 100,000, respectively. Never marrying increased male suicide risk and its effect increased with age (incidence rate ratio (IRR) among 20-34 year-olds = 1.47, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.19-1.84; IRR among over 55 year-olds = 2.33, 95% CI = 1.55-3.50). Never marrying was a risk factor for women only if aged 20-34 years (IRR = 3.05, 95% CI = 1.70-5.47). Among over 55 year-olds, widowhood increased risk of male suicide only (IRR = 2.47, 95% CI = 1.64-3.70) whereas divorce was associated with an almost threefold increase in male (IRR = 2.61, 95% CI = 1.39-4.88) and female (IRR = 2.57, 95% CI = 0.89-7.42) suicide relative to married persons. The effect of divorce was far more pronounced in 20-34 year-old men (IRR = 5.59, 95% CI = 3.58-8.67) and women (IRR = 9.46, 95% CI = 3.81-23.37). In Northern Ireland, marriage protects both sexes against suicide though men more so than women. Divorced young men, in particular, are a population at high risk of suicide.

  20. Alcohol and Marital Violence: Bond Style According its Co-Occurrence in Couples at Bogota City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Jimena Perdomo Escobar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to analyze the bond style according to the co-occurrence of alcohol consumption and violence in marital dyads of women who belong to middle and low socioeconomic status. A factorial 2x2 non-experimental cross sectional design was applied to a sample of 101 women who participated voluntarily. The questionnaire of Alcohol and Couple Violence Co-occurrence and the Adults’ Bond Scale were used. Moreover, the c2, the OR and the c2 tests by Mantel & Haenszel were applied. It was found that 79% of women and 89,9% of their husbands were regular consumers. Marital violence towards women occurred in 31,6% of the cases, meanwhile this type of violence was suffered by men in 25% of the cases. Co-occurrence of consumption and maltreatment was found in 22 cases. So, consumption would be a risk factor for marital violence. However, there was not a significant correlation between these aspects and women’s bond style. Mantel y Haenszel’s c2 showed significantly (p=0,036 that this kind of bond was only affected by OH consumptionif it co-occurs with marital violence. But, if the last factor does not occur, bond style behaves orthogonally to the OH consumption. It was concluded that there is an interdependence relationship between bond style according to differential occurrence of alcohol consumption and marital violence.

  1. Relationship between Parenting Styles and Marital Adjustment of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Relationship between Parenting Styles and Marital Adjustment of Married Teachers in Secondary Schools in Obio/Akpor Local Government Area of Rivers State. ... Authoritative, Permissive parenting Styles, Democratic Parenting, Marital Adjustment, Relationship, Marriage, Conflict, Demandingness and Responsiveness ...

  2. Health and Marital Experience in an Urban Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renne, Karen S.

    1971-01-01

    the findings indicated that (1) physical and psychlogical health are associated with marital happiness regardless of marital history, and (2) at the same time, divorce and remarriage tend to "select" the healthier members of the unhappy married population. (Author)

  3. The relationship between religious orientation, and marital satisfaction among couples of Qom City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram Seddighi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Marital satisfaction is a positive relationship with spouse’s family, positive dynamism in the original family, self-esteem and religious homogeneity of couples. Religion is one of the most effective spiritual fulcrums that are able to provide the meaning of life in every moment of life. Religious beliefs and credence are important factors in marital satisfaction. The main purpose of this study was the survey of the relationship between religious orientation, and marital satisfaction among couples of Qom City. Methods: This study was performed by the descriptivecorrelation method. The study population included all the couples referred to counselling centers and psychological clinics of Qom City. Therefore, 150 couples have been selectedwho were volunteer for cooperation in this study. Required information was collected by the Azarbayejani religious orientation (2003 and Walter marital satisfaction (1992 questionnaires. The data were analyzed by SPSS Version-17 statistical software and usingPearson correlation coefficients and regression and descriptive statistics. Findings: The results showed that there was a positive significant relationship between religious orientation and marital satisfaction. (P=0/001 & r= - 0/511 The results of regression analyses indicated that religious orientation is as a predictor of sex (p=0/001, r2=15/438, educational degree (p=0/003, r2=5/409 and marital satisfaction (p=0/004, r2=0/927. Conclusion: According to the importance of religious orientation and credence of family and especially in couples that increases the commitment and marital satisfaction, it has been recommended to strengthen the couple's religious beliefs in preventive and treatment programs.

  4. Cognitive Considerations in Coping with Marital Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Charles H.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the critical importance and impact that specific types of cognitions may have on couples' ability to resolve their conflicts functionally, based on rational-emotive therapy. Reviews perspectives on marital conflict in terms of discovery, modification, and behavioral action and observation. (JAC)

  5. Marital Satisfaction and Cherokee Language Fluency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Rockey; Stoltenberg, Cal; Robbins, Sharla; Ross, J. Mike

    2002-01-01

    The Marital Satisfaction Inventory-Revised (MSI-R; D.K. Snyder, 1997) norms were compared with scores for 162 volunteer Cherokee participants. Differences were found on the Inconsistency, Conventionalization, Global Distress, and Aggression subscales. Participants classified as fluent or nonfluent in the Cherokee language differed on the…

  6. Development and Marital Power in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oropesa, R. S.

    1997-01-01

    Life histories of 794 Mexican women, ages 25-31 and 40-49, revealed that wives faced diverse circumstances with respect to marital power and husband dominance. Results support the modernization perspective on the consequences of economic development, in that educational attainment affected wives' exposure to domestic violence and participation in…

  7. influence of spousal communication on marital stability

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Engr E. Egbochukwu

    Abstract. It is often said that the home is the basic unit of the larger society. Thus when the home is settled, the society is at peace. The main focus of this study was to find out the influence of spousal communication on marital stability: Implications for. Conducive Home Environment. A researcher-designed questionnaire ...

  8. Do Marital Prospects Dissuade Unmarried Fertility?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kennes, John; Knowles, John

    , in conjunction with US survey data, to explore the impact of marital prospects on the fertility decisions of unmarried women. We find that the decline, from the 1970s to 1995, in marriage rates of unmarried women with no children, can account for the dramatic rise in unmarried women’s share of births over...

  9. MARRIAGE, SEXUALITY, AND HOLINESS: ASPECTS OF MARITAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    very frequently uses comparative particles to create oscillation between the two themes. If we employ this background when considering texts on marital relation- ships, we will be forced to oppose even more clearly the uncritical maintenance of a hierarchical ideal of marriage. The author of Ephesians is indeed located.

  10. Emotional intelligence, happiness, hope and marital satisfaction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Emotional intelligence, happiness, hope and marital satisfaction among married people in Makurdi Metropolis, Nigeria. ... Finally, married people should encourage happiness and hope in their marriages so that they will experience the desired satisfaction in the couples' world. Keywords: Emotional intelligence, Happiness, ...

  11. The Psychobiology of Children Exposed to Marital Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltzman, Kasey M.; Holden, George W.; Holahan, Charles J.

    2005-01-01

    We examined the psychological and physiological functioning of a community sample of children exposed to marital violence, comparing them to a clinical comparison group without marital violence exposure. Results replicated past findings of elevated levels of trauma symptomatology in this population. Further, children exposed to marital violence…

  12. Marital Happiness among Mixed and Homogeneous Marriages in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, Leonard; Rofe, Yacov

    1988-01-01

    Wives (N=298) completed two marital happiness questionnaires and other measures. Found no significant differences in marital happiness dimensions between mixed and homogeneous marriages. Women of Asian or African origin reported less marital happiness than did women of Western descent. Differences became nonsignificant when socioeconomic levels…

  13. The Impact of Marital Conflict and Disruption on Children's Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houseknecht, Sharon K.; Hango, Darcy W.

    2006-01-01

    This article investigates the effect of inconsistency between parental marital conflict and disruption on children's health. Inconsistent situations arise when minimal marital conflict precedes disruption or when marital conflict is high but there is no disruption. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, two alternative…

  14. Communication: A Vital Strategy For Managing Marital Problems ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Marital problem is an age long issue that eats into the fabrics of marriages resulting in separation, divorce. It causes lots of harm to the couples, their family and the society at large. This paper investigated the sources of marital problems, and common methods of managing marital problems. It offers to use communication as ...

  15. Dyadic Processes in Early Marriage: Attributions, Behavior, and Marital Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durtschi, Jared A.; Fincham, Frank D.; Cui, Ming; Lorenz, Frederick O.; Conger, Rand D.

    2011-01-01

    Marital processes in early marriage are important for understanding couples' future marital quality. Spouses' attributions about a partner's behavior have been linked to marital quality, yet the mechanisms underlying this association remain largely unknown. When we used couple data from the Family Transitions Project (N = 280 couples) across the…

  16. Parenthood and Marital Satisfaction: A Meta-Analytic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twenge, Jean M.; Campbell, W. Keith; Foster, Craig A.

    2003-01-01

    This meta-analysis finds that parents report lower marital satisfaction compared with nonparents. There is also a significant negative correlation between marital satisfaction and number of children. The data suggest that marital satisfaction decreases after the birth of a child due to role conflicts and restriction of freedom. (Contains 30…

  17. The Impact of Doctoral Study on Marital Satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brannock, Rebecca Groves; Litten, Mary Jo; Smith, Janet

    2000-01-01

    Explores whether marital relationships of doctoral students are affected while they are in graduate school. Results show no significant differences among the marital satisfaction of graduate students at different stages in their program. Differences were found with couples involved in marital therapy. Spouses of graduate students reported less…

  18. Labor supply and the welfare costs of marital conflict.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maassen van den Brink, H.; Groot, W.J.N.

    1994-01-01

    Marital conflicts can have negative welfare consequences. In this paper we use an equivalence scale approach to analyze the household labor supply and welfare effects of marital conflict. It might be assumed that there is a simultaneous relation between labor supply and marital conflict: increased

  19. Analysis of multi-factor coupling effect on hydraulic fracture network in shale reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuzhang Liu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Based on the research results of lab triaxial hydraulic fracturing simulation experiments, field fracturing practice, and theory analysis, the factors affecting the growth of hydraulic fracture network in shale reservoirs, including brittleness, difference of horizontal stress, distribution and mechanical characteristics of natural fractures, fluid viscosity and fracturing parameters, etc are analyzed in this study. The results show that the growth of fracture network in shale reservoirs is affected by geological factors and engineering factors jointly. From the perspective of reservoir geological factors, the higher the rock brittleness, the more developed the natural fractures, and the poorer the natural fracture consolidation, the more likely hydraulic fracture network will be formed. From the perspective of fracturing engineering factors, lower fluid viscosity and larger fracturing scale will be more helpful to the formation of extensive fracture network. On the basis of the analysis of single factors, a multi-factor coupling index has been established to characterize the growth degree of hydraulic fracture network and evaluate the complexity of hydraulic fractures after the fracturing of shale reservoirs.

  20. Marital Status and Survival in Patients with Carcinoid Tumors

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    Erin K. Greenleaf

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Marital status is a known prognostic factor in overall and disease-specific survival in several types of cancer. The impact of marital status on survival in patients with carcinoid tumors remains unknown. We hypothesized that married patients have higher rates of survival than similar unmarried patients with carcinoid tumors. Methods Using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database, we identified 23,126 people diagnosed with a carcinoid tumor between 2000 and 2011 and stratified them according to marital status. Univariate and multivariable analyses were performed to compare the characteristics and outcomes between patient cohorts. Overall and cancer-related survival were analyzed using the Kaplan–Meier method. Multivariable survival analyses were performed using Cox proportional hazards models (hazards ratio [HR], controlling for demographics and tumor-related and treatment-related variables. Propensity score analysis was performed to determine surgical intervention distributions among married and unmarried (ie, single, separated, divorced, widowed patients. Results Marital status was significantly related to both overall and cancer-related survival in patients with carcinoid tumors. Divorced and widowed patients had worse overall survival (HR, 1.33 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.08–1.33] and 1.34 [95% CI, 1.22–1.46], respectively and cancer-related survival (HR, 1.15 [95% CI, 1.00–1.31] and 1.15 [95% CI, 1.03–1.29], respectively than married patients over five years. Single and separated patients had worse overall survival (HR, 1.20 [95% CI, 1.08–1.33] and 1.62 [95% CI, 1.25–2.11], respectively than married patients over five years, but not worse cancer-related survival. Unmarried patients were more likely than matched married patients to undergo definitive surgical intervention (62.67% vs 53.11%, respectively, P < 0.0001. Conclusions Even after controlling for other prognostic factors, married patients

  1. A Consensus Network of Gene Regulatory Factors in the Human Frontal Lobe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berto, Stefano; Perdomo-Sabogal, Alvaro; Gerighausen, Daniel; Qin, Jing; Nowick, Katja

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive abilities, such as memory, learning, language, problem solving, and planning, involve the frontal lobe and other brain areas. Not much is known yet about the molecular basis of cognitive abilities, but it seems clear that cognitive abilities are determined by the interplay of many genes. One approach for analyzing the genetic networks involved in cognitive functions is to study the coexpression networks of genes with known importance for proper cognitive functions, such as genes that have been associated with cognitive disorders like intellectual disability (ID) or autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Because many of these genes are gene regulatory factors (GRFs) we aimed to provide insights into the gene regulatory networks active in the human frontal lobe. Using genome wide human frontal lobe expression data from 10 independent data sets, we first derived 10 individual coexpression networks for all GRFs including their potential target genes. We observed a high level of variability among these 10 independently derived networks, pointing out that relying on results from a single study can only provide limited biological insights. To instead focus on the most confident information from these 10 networks we developed a method for integrating such independently derived networks into a consensus network. This consensus network revealed robust GRF interactions that are conserved across the frontal lobes of different healthy human individuals. Within this network, we detected a strong central module that is enriched for 166 GRFs known to be involved in brain development and/or cognitive disorders. Interestingly, several hubs of the consensus network encode for GRFs that have not yet been associated with brain functions. Their central role in the network suggests them as excellent new candidates for playing an essential role in the regulatory network of the human frontal lobe, which should be investigated in future studies. PMID:27014338

  2. A consensus network of gene regulatory factors in the human frontal lobe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano eBerto

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive abilities, such as memory, learning, language, problem solving, and planning, involve the frontal lobe and other brain areas. Not much is known yet about the molecular basis of cognitive abilities, but it seems clear that cognitive abilities are determined by the interplay of many genes. One approach for analyzing the genetic networks involved in cognitive functions is to study the coexpression networks of genes with known importance for proper cognitive functions, such as genes that have been associated with cognitive disorders like intellectual disability (ID or autism spectrum disorders (ASD. Because many of these genes are gene regulatory factors (GRFs we aimed to provide insights into the gene regulatory networks active in the human frontal lobe. Using genome wide human frontal lobe expression data from 10 independent data sets, we first derived 10 individual coexpression networks for all GRFs including their potential target genes. We observed a high level of variability among these 10 independently derived networks, pointing out that relying on results from a single study can only provide limited biological insights. To instead focus on the most confident information from these 10 networks we developed a method for integrating such independently derived networks into a consensus network. This consensus network revealed robust GRF interactions that are conserved across the frontal lobes of different healthy human individuals. Within this network, we detected a strong central module that is enriched for 166 GRFs known to be involved in brain development and/or cognitive disorders. Interestingly, several hubs of the consensus network encode for GRFs that have not yet been associated with brain functions. Their central role in the network suggests them as excellent new candidates for playing an essential role in the regulatory network of the human frontal lobe, which should be investigated in future studies.

  3. "His" and "her" marriage? The role of positive and negative marital characteristics in global marital satisfaction among older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boerner, Kathrin; Jopp, Daniela S; Carr, Deborah; Sosinsky, Laura; Kim, Se-Kang

    2014-07-01

    We explore gender differences in older adults' appraisals of positive and negative aspects of their marriages, examine how these appraisals relate to global marital satisfaction, and identify distinctive marital profiles associated with global satisfaction in men and women. Data are from the Changing Lives of Older Couples Study (n = 1,110). We used a variant of principal components analysis to generate marital quality profiles, based on one's endorsement of positive and negative marital characteristics. OLS regression was used to detect associations between marital profiles and global marital satisfaction. Men offered more positive marital assessments than women, particularly on items reflecting positive treatment by one's wife. Three marital quality profiles emerged: Positive, Positive-Negative, and Negative. Although marital satisfaction was best explained by positive appraisals in both genders, they were less important for men than for women. The negative profile showed a tendency for a stronger prediction in men. Prior studies show small differences in men's and women's global marital satisfaction. Our work provides evidence that the presence and magnitude of such gender differences may vary based on the specific marital component considered. We discuss ways that gender shapes marital interactions, expectations, and perceptions, and the implications of our results for the well-being of married older adults. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. The interplay between cognitive risk and resilience factors in remitted depression: A network analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoorelbeke, Kristof; Marchetti, Igor; De Schryver, Maarten; Koster, Ernst H W

    2016-05-01

    Individuals in remission from depression are at increased risk for developing future depressive episodes. Several cognitive risk- and resilience factors have been suggested to account for this vulnerability. In the current study we explored how risk- and protective factors such as cognitive control, adaptive and maladaptive emotion regulation, residual symptomatology, and resilience relate to one another in a remitted depressed (RMD) sample. We examined the relationships between these constructs in a cross-sectional dataset of 69 RMD patients using network analyses in order to obtain a comprehensive, data-driven view on the interplay between these constructs. We subsequently present an association network, a concentration network, and a relative importance network. In all three networks resilience formed the central hub, connecting perceived cognitive control (i.e., working memory complaints), emotion regulation, and residual symptomatology. The contribution of the behavioral measure for cognitive control in the network was negligible. Moreover, the directed relative importance network indicates bidirectional influences between these constructs, with all indicators of centrality suggesting a key role of resilience in remission from depression. The presented findings are cross-sectional and networks are limited to a fixed set of key constructs in the literature pertaining cognitive vulnerability for depression. These findings indicate the importance of resilience to successfully cope with stressors following remission from depression. Further in-depth studies will be essential to identify the specific underlying resilience mechanisms that may be key to successful remission from depression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Marital stress and children's externalizing behavior as predictors of mothers' and fathers' parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elam, Kit K; Chassin, Laurie; Eisenberg, Nancy; Spinrad, Tracy L

    2017-10-01

    Previous research suggests that mothers' and fathers' parenting may be differentially influenced by marital and child factors within the family. Some research indicates that marital stress is more influential in fathers' than mothers' parenting, whereas other research shows that children's difficult behavior preferentially affects mothers' parenting. The present study examined marital stress and children's externalizing behavior in middle childhood as predictors of mothers' versus fathers' consistency, monitoring, and support and care in early adolescence, and the subsequent associations of these parenting behaviors with externalizing behavior 1.5 years later. Pathways were examined within a longitudinal mediation model testing for moderation by parent gender (N = 276 mothers, N = 229 fathers). Children's externalizing behavior in middle childhood was found to more strongly inversely predict mothers' versus fathers' monitoring in early adolescence. In contrast, marital stress more strongly predicted low monitoring for fathers than for mothers. Regardless of parent gender, marital stress predicted lower levels of parental consistency, and children's externalizing behavior predicted lower levels of parental support. Mothers' monitoring and fathers' support in early adolescence predicted lower levels of externalizing behavior 1.5 years later. The results are discussed with respect to family transactions relative to parent gender and implications for intervention.

  6. Relationship of Lifestyle and Social Support With Marital Satisfaction of Elderly Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soosan Rafiee

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Given the improvement in the personal and social health level of elderly people, the present study aimed to investigate the relationship of factors like lifestyle and social support with marital satisfaction in elderly people in Iran. Methods & Materials: The present study employed a cross-sectional descriptive correlation method. The study population included 381 elderly people aged 60 years and above. They were selected from health care centers using random cluster sampling technique. The subjects were asked to complete the Erich’s marital satisfaction questionnaire, lifestyle questionnaire, and social support questionnaire. The data collected was analyzed through descriptive and inferential statistics (Pearson Correlation Coefficient and Stepwise regression using SPSS 21 software. Results: The outcomes of stepwise regression analysis indicated that lifestyle and social support serve as significant predictors of marital satisfaction among the elderly people in Iran (R2=0.46. However, there was no significant difference (P>0.05 between the contribution of lifestyle and social support towards marital satisfaction. Conclusion: Our findings suggested that social support and lifestyle are the key elements in maintaining the stability of marital satisfaction in the elderly people.

  7. Evaluation of Relationship Between Mental Health and Marital Satisfaction in Male Married Students

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    Forogh Riahi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Marital satisfaction is a multidimensional concept and depends on many factors including general health. As educated males have an effective role in the productive activities, it is essential to present some appropriate perspectives in the field of their mental health and marital satisfaction. Objectives The current study aimed at investigating the association between mental health and marital satisfaction in married male students of Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran. Methods The study sample consisted of 100 married male students of Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences selected through the convenience sampling method. The data were gathered using the ENRICH marital satisfaction inventory and the general health questionnaire, and analyzed through Pearson correlation coefficient by SPSS version 16. Results In 25% of the subjects, scores of physical function was higher than the cutoff point.The anxiety, social function, depression, and general health scores of 30%, 45%, 19%, and 44% of the subjects were higher than the cutoff point, respectively. There was significant association between marital satisfaction of the students and physical symptoms (r = -0.51, anxiety (r = -0.49, social performance (r = -0.34, depression (r = -0.33, and total score of mental health (r = -0.53. Conclusions Prevention and intervention efforts can focus on how mental health problems can trigger interpersonal relationship and vice versa.

  8. Perceived antecedents of marital satisfaction among Turkish, Turkish-Dutch, and Dutch couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celenk, Ozgur; van de Vijver, Fons J R

    2013-01-01

    We studied mainstream couples in The Netherlands and Turkey as well as Turkish-Dutch immigrant couples to address cultural factors associated with marital satisfaction. A total of 13 Turkish (mainstream couples living in Turkey), 19 Turkish-Dutch (Turkish immigrant couples living in The Netherlands), and 17 Dutch (mainstream couples living in The Netherlands) married dyads (total of 98 individuals) were independently interviewed about positive and negative characteristics of marriages, determinants of general marital satisfaction and dissatisfaction, spousal communication, marital conflict, and marital roles. Multivariate tests revealed ethnic group differences on all marriage-related domains except the conflict resolution strategies. However, univariate analyses showed differences in few themes within domains; main differences were assessed between the Turkish/Turkish-Dutch (who put more emphasis on children and economical aspects) and Dutch couples (who put more emphasis on behavior, and personality of the spouse, reciprocity, emotional sharing, and psychological roles). Turkish-Dutch couples were more similar to Turkish than to Dutch couples. Results were discussed in light of the socioeconomic development and cultural value theories, which are believed to provide a useful framework for understanding the role of culture in marital satisfaction.

  9. Mothers’ Employment, Marital Status and Educational Level on Students’ Academic Achievement in Business Studies

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    Subuola Catherine Abosede

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The mother’s personality is a build-up of demographic factors among which employment, marital status and educational level are prominent in shaping child’s abilities and aspirations. This study therefore, determines the influence of mothers’ employment, marital status and educational level on students’ academic achievement in Business studies. Ex-post facto survey design and stratified random sampling technique were adopted for the study.Structured Questionnaire (MEMSEL Scale, r= .76 and Business Studies Achievement Test (r=.80 with a section for demographic data were administered on a sample of Two Hundred and Fifty students from five (5 schools in Ijebu-Ode, Nigeria. Multiple regressionstatisticswas used for data analysisat 0.05 level of significance.The findings revealed thatthere was a significant but negative relationship between mothers' marital status and academic achievement of student's (r=-.195; p .05; academic achievement and educational level (r = .091; p >.05; employment status and marital status (r = -.033; p > .05 and marital status and educational level (r = .079; p > .05. However there was a significant combined contribution on the independent variables on students' academic achievement in Business Studies (Adj. R=.037; F(3,237=4.111;P <.05.Thus, it was recommended that parents should provide positive home environments for their children, while school operators should respond favourably and focus attention on the children’s needs.

  10. Marital violence: comparing women in violent and nonviolent unions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anson, O; Sagy, S

    1995-01-01

    This study examined marital violence among Israeli Jews. Data were obtained from a sample of 161 women who gave birth at Soroka Medical Center in the Negev region of Israel in 1992. The literature reveals that Jewish families tolerate domestic violence if an "evil" woman refuses housework or shows no respect for her husband. It is believed that Jews do not beat their wives. This study explored the degree to which women accept as legitimate the gender division of authority and use of power. It is posited that women in violent marriages (VMs) tend to accept the traditional division of labor and authority and hold more tolerant attitudes toward VMs. It is posited that VMs may be less egalitarian and democratic. VMs may be maintained if women are emotionally dependent on husbands, have a lower self-image, and perceive their husbands more positively. The questionnaire asked about social background and resources, attitudes toward marital power and violence, power relations, self-image, conflict solving, and women's emotional dependency. 18% had 1 domestic violent episode. 8 factors explained 56% of the difference between VMs and non-VMs and 90% of the cases. Husbands tried to avoid conflict. Wives fought for their interests and used external resources when conflict occurred. Husbands were reluctant to share power. There were 2 distinct patterns: the battered women syndrome and the struggle for power. Marital conflict was associated, as in the American literature, with economic hardship, lack of collectiveness in the dyad, and the form of conflict solving tactics used by both spouses. Women in VMs had different attitudes toward husband control and were emotionally dependent on their husbands.

  11. The Relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Marital Satisfaction: 10-Year Outcome of Partners from Three Different Economic Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasiri Zarch, Zohre; Marashi, Sayed Mahdi; Raji, Hojatollah

    2014-10-01

    Emotional communication and economic factors play an important role in having a satisfying relationship and a more successful marriage. In this regard, we investigated the 10-year outcome of partners from three different economic levels regarding the relationship between emotional intelligence (EI) and marital satisfaction. The research was designed as a descriptive-correlative survey and data were analyzed using Pearson correlation test and stepwise regression. Participants were 159 couples (N = 318) who were randomly selected through clustered sampling. The questionnaires included: Bar-on Emotional Intelligence (1997) and Enrich Marital satisfaction (1989). The findings revealed that the average values of emotional intelligence (m = 333.1) and marital satisfaction (m = 300.77) were high in the under-rich region (pintelligence accounted for 40.8% of marital satisfaction within those three regions (p<0.01). The results of the regression analysis showed that general mood is the most effective factor changing marital satisfaction in the three studied regions (R2= 0.34), rich (R2= 0.42) and semi-rich (R2= 0.52) regions (p<0.01). The most influential factor changing marital satisfaction in the under-rich (R2= 0.28) region was found to be stress management (p<0.01).

  12. Power factor improvement in three-phase networks with unbalanced inductive loads using the Roederstein ESTAmat RPR power factor controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniş, C. M.; Cunţan, C. D.; Rob, R. O. S.; Popa, G. N.

    2018-01-01

    The paper presents the analysis of a power factor with capacitors banks, without series coils, used for improving power factor for a three-phase and single-phase inductive loads. In the experimental measurements, to improve the power factor, the Roederstein ESTAmat RPR power factor controller can command up to twelve capacitors banks, while experimenting using only six capacitors banks. Six delta capacitors banks with approximately equal reactive powers were used for experimentation. The experimental measurements were carried out with a three-phase power quality analyser which worked in three cases: a case without a controller with all capacitors banks permanently parallel connected with network, and two other cases with power factor controller (one with setting power factor at 0.92 and the other one at 1). When performing experiments with the power factor controller, a current transformer was used to measure the current on one phase (at a more charged or less loaded phase).

  13. FUNCIONAMIENTO FAMILIAR COMO PREDICTOR DE LA SATISFACCIÓN MARITAL EN HOMBRES Y MUJERES

    OpenAIRE

    María del Pilar Otero Rejón; Mirta Margarita Flores Galaz

    2016-01-01

    El objetivo de la investigación fue conocer las dimensiones del funcionamiento familiar que predicen la satisfacción marital, así como también describir las dimensiones en las que se está más satisfecho y las diferencias en cada uno de los factores de funcionamiento familiar y satisfacción marital por sexo. Para ello, se seleccionó mediante un muestreo no probabilístico accidental a 559 personas: 259 hombres y 300 mujeres, con edades entre los 21 y 57 años, con promedio 37.4 años, con una rel...

  14. Brain Networks for Working Memory and Factors of Intelligence Assessed in Males and Females with fMRI and DTI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, C. Y.; Eaves, E. L.; Ng, J. C.; Carpenter, D. M.; Mai, X.; Schroeder, D. H.; Condon, C. A.; Colom, R.; Haier, R. J.

    2010-01-01

    Neuro-imaging studies of intelligence implicate the importance of a parietal-frontal network. One unresolved issue is whether this network underlies a general factor of intelligence ("g") or other specific cognitive factors. A second unresolved issue is whether males and females use different parts of this network. Here we obtained intelligence…

  15. Limitations of Evolutionary Theory in Explaining Marital Satisfaction and Stability of Couple Relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Cabrera García

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The explanation of marital satisfaction and stability in trajectories of couple relationships has been the central interest in different studies (Karney, Bradbury. & Johnson, 1999; Sabatelli & Ripoll, 2004; Schoebi, Karney & Bradbury, 2012. However, there are still several questions and unknown aspects surrounding the topic. Within this context, the present reflection seeks to analyze whether the principles of Evolutionary Theory suffice to explain three marital trajectories in terms of satisfaction and stability. With this in mind, we have included other explanations proposed by the Psychosocial Theory that Evolutionary Theory does not refer to in order to better understand mating behavior. Moreover, other factors that could account for satisfied and stable relationships were analyzed. Suggestions for future investigations include the analysis of other marital trajectories that may or may not end in separation or divorce but are not included in this article.

  16. The Relationship between Marital Status and Psychological Resilience in Chronic Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, James B; Hart, Robert P; Wade, James H; Bajaj, Jasmohan S; Price, Donald D

    2013-01-01

    We examined the relationship between marital status and a 2-stage model of pain-related effect, consisting of pain unpleasantness and suffering. We studied 1914 chronic pain patients using multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) to clarify whether marital status was a determinant factor in the emotional or ideational suffering associated with chronic pain after controlling for pain sensation intensity, age, and ethnicity. Marital status was unrelated to immediate unpleasantness (P = 0.08). We found a strong association with emotional suffering (P MANCOVA including sex as a covariate revealed that the emotional response to pain was the same for both widow and widower. Only those individuals whose spouse died experienced less emotional turmoil in the face of a condition threatening their lifestyle. These data suggest that after experiencing the death of a spouse, an individual may derive some "emotional inoculation" against future lifestyle threat.

  17. Marital disruption : Determinants and consequences on the lives of women in a rural area of Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bhuiya, A; Mushtaque, A; Chowdhury, R; Momen, M; Khatun, M

    This study, carried out during the second half of 1995, investigated the predisposing factors leading to marital disruption and its consequences on the lives of women in Matlab, a rural area of Bangladesh. Both qualitative and quantitative methods were used. Data were generated from detailed case

  18. Relationship Personality, Conflict Resolution, and Marital Satisfaction in the First 5 Years of Marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneewind, Klaus A.; Gerhard, Anna-Katharina

    2002-01-01

    Explores the relationship between couples' stable personality variables associated with interpersonal competencies and marital satisfaction with conflict resolution style as the mediating factor. Results indicate strong mediational effects across time. The relationship personality variables correspond closely with conflict resolution styles, which…

  19. Marriage in motion : a study on the social context and processes of marital satisfaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Troost, A. van den

    2005-01-01

    What makes a marriage satisfying? Using information about 1292 Dutch first married husbands and wives, this study examines the factors and processes underlying marital satisfaction. The results support the idea that the way partners communicate with each other is essential in understanding their

  20. Attachment, Stress, Dyadic Coping, and Marital Satisfaction of Counseling Graduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuenfhausen, Kerrie K.; Cashwell, Craig S.

    2013-01-01

    A sample of 191 married students from 23 Council for Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs-accredited programs participated in a survey designed to examine factors that affect the marital satisfaction of counseling graduate students. Results indicated that attachment anxiety, attachment avoidance, and dyadic coping accounted…

  1. Perceived antecedents of marital satisfaction among Turkish, Turkish-Dutch, and Dutch couples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Celenk, O.; van de Vijver, F.J.R.

    2013-01-01

    We studied mainstream couples in The Netherlands and Turkey as well as Turkish-Dutch immigrant couples to address cultural factors associated with marital satisfaction. A total of 13 Turkish (mainstream couples living in Turkey), 19 Turkish-Dutch (Turkish immigrant couples living in The

  2. Young Women's Phenomenological Sense of Father and Parental Marital Relationship and Their Relation to Paternal Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darlington, Susan

    The meaning fathers have in the lives of women as they are growing up was investigated. Women's perceptions of their fathers on several factors were measured to determine how these perceptions differed with father loss, cause and time of loss, perception of parental marital relationships, and presence of an older brother. Questionnaires were…

  3. The Causes of Marital Disruption among Young American Women: An Interdisciplinary Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mott, Frank L.; Moore, Sylvia F.

    Using the National Longitudinal Survey of young women aged 14 to 24 in 1968 who were interviewed annually over a five-year period, a study was conducted to examine the relative importance of economic and noneconomic factors in determining the likelihood of marital disruption for young black and white women. A literature review showed that previous…

  4. Relevant Factors for Establishing Inter-firm Cooperation Networks in Rio Grande do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Renato Verschoore

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The cooperation among firms in a network form has been stressed as an alternative organizational configuration in response to recent economic transformation. The increased number of initiatives and the empirical research scarcity on the network formation in Brazil motivated the present study. The main objective of this paper is to comprehend the factors which effect the establishment of network cooperation in the Southern Brazilian context. In order to achieve this objective a quantitative research was carried out with 443 enterprise representatives, associated to 120 cooperation networks. The empirical data were collected by the researchers in 2005 and statistically processed through a conjoint analysis. The results confirmed the theoretical propositions built by the researchers,appointing the relevance of factors, such as learning and innovation, increased scale and market power, and access to solutions.

  5. Investigating marital relationship in infertility: a systematic review of quantitative studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Peng; Coates, Rosemary; Maycock, Bruce

    2012-04-01

    Infertility is a complex issue that affects individuals and groups, and also it has serious implications for the mental and social well-being of those involved. The aim of this review was to assess marital relationship in the context of infertility, using data from infertile individuals or both couples. A literature search was undertaken using multiple databases (Medline, PsycInfo and Scopus) to identify and synthesize all relevant literature published from 1990 to 2011. All studies in the systematic review were confirmed using specific inclusion criteria; the methodological quality of these studies were examined according to a checklist. Of the potential 794 articles, 18 studies were included in the final analysis, of which 6 were graded as high quality and 12 as moderate. The results indicated male factor infertility did not have a negative marital impact. In addition, infertile male participants expressed higher marital satisfaction than their wives. Infertile females had significantly less stable marital relationship compared to fertile females, which was associated with their socio-demographics and treatment experience. For infertile couples, the infertile subjects or their partners' marital relationship was affected by either member's infertility, experience specifically coping strategies. Moreover other factors such as sexual satisfaction, age of the infertile couples, education level, and congruency of couples' perceptions of infertility were associated with the quality of martial relationship. Although the review can provide an outline of marital relationship in infertility, future studies should focus on the perspective from both infertile couple, across a range of different infertility types, including extended sample sizes and longitudinal study designs. In addition, more consideration should be given to qualitative study.

  6. Perfectionism and Marital Satisfaction among Graduate Students: A Multigroup Invariance Analysis by Counseling Help-seeking Attitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foo Fatt Mee

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to measure the latent mean difference in perfectionism and marital satisfaction by counseling help-seeking attitudes. The respondents were 327 married graduate students from a research university in Malaysia. An online self-administered questionnaire was used to collect the data. The respondents completed the Almost Perfect Scale- Revised, Dyadic Almost Perfect Scale, Marital Satisfaction Scale, and Attitudes toward Seeking Professional Psychology Help Scale. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to examined the instruments and the results indicated that construct validity were achieved. The latent mean difference in perfectionism and marital satisfaction by counseling help-seeking attitudes were tested using multigroup invariance analysis. The respondents with negative attitudes toward counseling help-seeking (n = 159 reported a higher latent mean in perfectionism but a lower latent mean in marital satisfaction compared to those with positive attitudes toward counseling help-seeking (n = 168. The implications of these findings for counseling services are discussed.

  7. Factors affecting Malaysian university students’ purchase intention in social networking sites

    OpenAIRE

    Saeideh Sharifi fard; Ezhar Tamam; Md Salleh Hj Hassan; Moniza Waheed; Zeinab Zaremohzzabieh

    2016-01-01

    This study applied the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology 2 to examine acceptance and use of social networking sites in a marketing setting. This study uses 370 regular higher education students in Malaysia as respondents. Quantitative method is used. The findings revealed that performance expectancy (PE) and hedonic motivation were the main factors that influence users’ online purchase intention (PI) through social networking sites (SNSs) in Malaysia. As for moderating influe...

  8. Success factors of a networked government: learning from Thai Health Promotion Foundation

    OpenAIRE

    K. Phusavat; Anussornnitisarn, P.; Rassameethes, B.; Janssens, Gerrit

    2011-01-01

    The paper is based on the study sponsored by the Office of the Public sector Development Commission (OPDC). It aims to identify the critical success factors for an effective networked government. The network concept represents a new way for a public agency to work with its stakeholders. The organisation under study is Thai Health Promotion Foundation (THPF) with the focus on its road accidents prevention campaign during the New Year. This campaign has drastically reduced road accidents. The s...

  9. The Relationship Between Quality of Life With Marital Satisfaction in Nurses in Social Security Hospital in Zahedan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharibi, Maliheh; Sanagouymoharer, Gholamreza; Yaghoubinia, Fariba

    2015-06-25

    Marital satisfaction is one of the most important determinative factors of healthy function in family and can be affected by some factors. This study was conducted aimed to determine the relationship between quality of life and marital satisfaction in nurses in Social Security hospital in Zahedan. In this descriptive and correlational study, the population was the all of the nurses in various wards in Social Security hospital in Zahedan. The sample size was 103 and data collection was done through quality of life questionnaire (War and Sherborn) and Enrich Marital Satisfaction Scale. Data analysis was done through SPSS15 and using pearsons' correlation coefficient and stepwise regression. The aspects of physical functioning, role limitations due to physical health problems, role limitation due to emotional problems had a significant positive correlation and the bodily pain had a significant reverse correlation with aspects of marital satisfaction. The aspects of role limitations due to physical health problems and bodily pain were predictors of marital satisfaction. The results of study demonstrated the importance of pay attention to family issues and marital satisfaction and in this regard, the promotion of all aspects of quality of life is essential.

  10. Marital Status and Happiness, 1972-1996

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, Mary Margaret

    1999-01-01

    Several studies indicate that married persons have higher levels of happiness that persons in other marital categories. In recent years, there has been some debate over whether marriage still involves significant advantages. In 1988, a study by Glenn and Weaver using U.S. national survey data, indicated that there had been a steady decline in the positive relationship between marriage and reported happiness from 1972 through 1986: married females were reporting lower lev...

  11. Impact of marital status on renal cancer patient survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongzhi; Wang, Lu; Kabirov, Ildar; Peng, Li; Chen, Guang; Yang, Yinhui; A, Zamyatnin Andrey; Xu, Wanhai

    2017-09-19

    Marital status is an independent prognostic factor for various cancer types. The present study used the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database of the National Cancer Institute (NCI) to analyze the impact of marital status on renal cancer patient survival outcomes. We identified a total of 62,405 eligible patients (23,800 women and 38,605 men). Overall 5-year renal cancer cause-specific survival (CSS) was 80.3% in the married group, 69.2% in the widowed group, 78.9% in the single group, and 76.5% in the divorced/separated group. The widowed patient group had the highest female/male ratio, more distant metastases, and fewer high-grade (III/IV) tumors. Most widowed patients (90.4%) were elderly (>60 years old). In our study, male renal cancer patients benefited more from marriage than females. We also found that white married patients had better survival outcomes than other white patient groups, but black unmarried and married patients exhibited similar survival outcomes. Our results show that, in general, unmarried patients have higher rates of cancer-specific mortality and highlight the importance of psychological intervention for cancer patients during treatment.

  12. Illicit Drug Use and Marital Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Kenneth E.; Cornelius, Jack R.

    2008-01-01

    With the acquisition of adult social roles such as marriage, more deviant or socially disapproved behaviors such as drug use often decrease. The objective of this work was to examine patterns of illicit drug use in a community sample of adults during the transition and early years of marriage. Additionally, this work examined if couples who were discrepant in their drug use (i.e., one individual reported past year drug use and the partner reported no use) experience sharper declines in marital satisfaction compared to other couples. Multilevel regression models explored these issues over the first four years of marriage (N= 634 couples). Although rates of illicit drug use decline over the first four years of marriage, a significant number of husbands and wives continued to use illicit drugs (21% and 16%, respectively). At the transition to marriage, both husbands and wives who had discrepant drug use behaviors experienced lower levels of marital satisfaction compared to other couples. Over the first four years of marriage, couples in each group experienced significant declines in marital satisfaction. PMID:17945436

  13. An investigation on the effectiveness of group psychodynamic psychotherapy on the personality dimensions in divorced and non-divorce woman with low marital satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Mehryar

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Present study is aimed at investigating the effectiveness of psychodynamic psychotherapy on the personality characteristics of divorced and non-divorced women with low marital satisfaction. Materials and Methods: This clinical research conducted in the clients referred to Khane Roshan-e-Doost Psychological Studies Institute. They are evaluated clinically through interviews and questionnaires. So, 45 patients selected and divided in three equal groups of divorced women, non-divorced women (married with low marital satisfaction, and control group. Then, the groups of divorced and non-divorced women with low marital satisfaction participated in 24 sessions of psychodynamic psychotherapy. To collect data, Cattel’s 16-item questionnaire and Enrich marital satisfaction questionnaire were used. Data analyzed through multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA. Results: The results of this study indicated that training of psychodynamic psychotherapy caused a significant change in personality traits in divorced women and in married women with low marital satisfaction. Only in factor B (intelligent - low intelligence and factor Q1 (conservatism there was no significant difference between experimental and control groups. The results of correlation between personality factors and low marital satisfaction pointed that there is a significant relationship between all factors of personality except the factor of conservatism.  Conclusion: Based on the results, psychodynamic psychotherapy is effective in significant improvement of most of personality traits. Therefore, applying this method can be useful in improving marital personality traits, reducing divorce and maintaining mental health.

  14. Identifying and analyzing the most important factors in universities scientific output using neural network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajjad Mohammadian

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available For achieving to ideal research system is necessary to have policy and plan. The main aims of this research are knowledge extracted from the existing data gathered by the country research system. This Knowledge is prerequisite for science and technology policy. Population of the present descriptive research includes Universities of the Ministry of Science, Research & Technology. Data is extracted from database of monitoring of science and technology system. Classification algorithms Multilayer Preceptor neural network and neural network-based radius are used for data analysis. This research results showed that among the 15 indicators studied in this research, full-time faculty members, the number of theses, research funding and number of scholarships have more importance than other indicators. Among the four factors studied, the human resource factor is in the first place and has most importance in the scholarly productions. The education factor, financial factor and Structural factor is in the second to fourth rate.

  15. Determination of Important Topographic Factors for Landslide Mapping Analysis Using MLP Network

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    Mutasem Sh. Alkhasawneh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Landslide is one of the natural disasters that occur in Malaysia. Topographic factors such as elevation, slope angle, slope aspect, general curvature, plan curvature, and profile curvature are considered as the main causes of landslides. In order to determine the dominant topographic factors in landslide mapping analysis, a study was conducted and presented in this paper. There are three main stages involved in this study. The first stage is the extraction of extra topographic factors. Previous landslide studies had identified mainly six topographic factors. Seven new additional factors have been proposed in this study. They are longitude curvature, tangential curvature, cross section curvature, surface area, diagonal line length, surface roughness, and rugosity. The second stage is the specification of the weight of each factor using two methods. The methods are multilayer perceptron (MLP network classification accuracy and Zhou's algorithm. At the third stage, the factors with higher weights were used to improve the MLP performance. Out of the thirteen factors, eight factors were considered as important factors, which are surface area, longitude curvature, diagonal length, slope angle, elevation, slope aspect, rugosity, and profile curvature. The classification accuracy of multilayer perceptron neural network has increased by 3% after the elimination of five less important factors.

  16. Birds of a feather don't always fly farthest: similarity in Big Five personality predicts more negative marital satisfaction trajectories in long-term marriages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiota, Michelle N; Levenson, Robert W

    2007-12-01

    Decades of research suggest that similarity in demographics, values, activities, and attitudes predicts higher marital satisfaction. The present study examined the relationship between similarity in Big Five personality factors and initial levels and 12-year trajectories of marital satisfaction in long-term couples, who were in their 40s and 60s at the beginning of the study. Across the entire sample, greater overall personality similarity predicted more negative slopes in marital satisfaction trajectories. In addition, spousal similarity on Conscientiousness and Extraversion more strongly predicted negative marital satisfaction outcomes among the midlife sample than among the older sample. Results are discussed in terms of the different life tasks faced by young, midlife, and older adults, and the implications of these tasks for the "ingredients" of marital satisfaction. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved.

  17. Multiview Community Discovery Algorithm via Nonnegative Factorization Matrix in Heterogeneous Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Tao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of the Internet and communication technologies, a large number of multimode or multidimensional networks widely emerge in real-world applications. Traditional community detection methods usually focus on homogeneous networks and simply treat different modes of nodes and connections in the same way, thus ignoring the inherent complexity and diversity of heterogeneous networks. It is challenging to effectively integrate the multiple modes of network information to discover the hidden community structure underlying heterogeneous interactions. In our work, a joint nonnegative matrix factorization (Joint-NMF algorithm is proposed to discover the complex structure in heterogeneous networks. Our method transforms the heterogeneous dataset into a series of bipartite graphs correlated. Taking inspiration from the multiview method, we extend the semisupervised learning from single graph to several bipartite graphs with multiple views. In this way, it provides mutual information between different bipartite graphs to realize the collaborative learning of different classifiers, thus comprehensively considers the internal structure of all bipartite graphs, and makes all the classifiers tend to reach a consensus on the clustering results of the target-mode nodes. The experimental results show that Joint-NMF algorithm is efficient and well-behaved in real-world heterogeneous networks and can better explore the community structure of multimode nodes in heterogeneous networks.

  18. Determining of prognostic factors in gastric cancer patients using artificial neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biglarian, Akbar; Hajizadeh, Ebrahim; Kazemnejad, Anoshirvan; Zayeri, Farid

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine diagnostic factors for Iranian gastric cancer patients and their importance using artificial neural network and Weibull regression models. This study was a historical cohort study with data gathered from 436 registered gastric cancer patients who underwent surgery between 2002 and 2007 at the Taleghani Hospital (a referral center for gastrointestinal cancers), Tehran, Iran. In order to determine risk factors and their importance, neural network and Weibull regression models were used. The Weibull regression analysis showed that lymph node metastasis and histopathology of tumor were selected as important variables. Based on the neural network model, staging, lymph node metastasis, histopathology of tumor, metastasis, and age at diagnosis were selected as important variables. The true prediction of neural network was 82.6%, and for the Weibull regression model, 75.7%. The present study showed that the neural network model is a more powerful tool in determining the important variables for gastric cancer patients compared to Weibull regression model. Therefore, this model is recommended for determining of risk factors of such patients.

  19. Factors Affecting Social Network Use by Students in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budhi Kristianto

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although Indonesia is one of the world’s most populated countries with a high penetration of internet usage there has been little research on SNS usage in Indonesia, especially involving children. Instead, SNS research in Indonesia has focused on university students and political, marketing, and disaster mitigation issues. Aim/Purpose: In order to address this gap a theoretical model is formulated from a review of previous studies incorporating basic constructs found in the Technology Acceptance Model (Perceived Usefulness, Perceived Ease of Use, and Attitude as well as other influences, motivations, and individual characteristics that affect a child’s attitude toward the use of SNS. Methodology\t: The model is evaluated and developed using data collected from 460 children in primary school grades 4, 5, and 6 in five cities in Indonesia. The statistical techniques implemented with SPSS and Amos computer software (t-tests, correlation coefficients, principal component factor analysis, Cronbach alpha coefficients, and structural equation modeling (SEM analysis. Findings: The results confirm many of the effects on a child’s attitude toward SNS reported in previous studies due to: the usefulness and ease of use of SNS; parental influence; feelings of flow experience and risk; and the child’s level of access, technical expertise, and experience with SNS. New findings include significant correlations and causal effects involving: the influences of peers and parents; the child’s level of technical expertise; and feelings of flow experience. Contribution: Despite limitations related to sampling and the administration of a questionnaire among young children, the findings contribute to theory as well as practice and provide guidance on effective ways to improve children’s attitudes towards the use of SNS.

  20. Diabetes Risk and Disease Management in Later Life: A National Longitudinal Study of the Role of Marital Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Waite, Linda; Shen, Shannon

    2016-11-01

    We assess the association between marital quality and both the risk of developing diabetes and the management of diabetes after its onset in later life. We use data from the first two waves of the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project to estimate regression models with lagged dependent variables. The sample includes 1,228 married respondents, among whom 389 were diabetic. Those with either a reported diagnosis or with HbA1c ≥ 6.5% are identified diabetic. We categorize diabetic respondents into three groups: controlled, undiagnosed, and uncontrolled diabetes. We conduct factor analysis to construct positive and negative marital quality scales. For women, an increase in positive marital quality between Waves 1 and 2 is related to a lower risk of being diabetic at Wave 2, net of diabetes status at Wave 1; surprisingly, for men, an increase in negative marital quality between Waves 1 and 2 is related to both a lower risk of being diabetic at Wave 2 and a higher chance of controlling diabetes at Wave 2 after its onset. Our results challenge the traditional assumption that negative marital quality is always detrimental to health and encourage family scholars to distinguish different sources and types of negative marital quality. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Marital status integration and suicide: A meta-analysis and meta-regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyung-Sook, Woo; SangSoo, Shin; Sangjin, Shin; Young-Jeon, Shin

    2017-12-08

    Marital status is an index of the phenomenon of social integration within social structures and has long been identified as an important predictor suicide. However, previous meta-analyses have focused only on a particular marital status, or not sufficiently explored moderators. A meta-analysis of observational studies was conducted to explore the relationships between marital status and suicide and to understand the important moderating factors in this association. Electronic databases were searched to identify studies conducted between January 1, 2000 and June 30, 2016. We performed a meta-analysis, subgroup analysis, and meta-regression of 170 suicide risk estimates from 36 publications. Using random effects model with adjustment for covariates, the study found that the suicide risk for non-married versus married was OR = 1.92 (95% CI: 1.75-2.12). The suicide risk was higher for non-married individuals aged meta-regression showed that gender, age, and sample size affected between-study variation. The results of the study indicated that non-married individuals have an aggregate higher suicide risk than married ones. In addition, gender and age were confirmed as important moderating factors in the relationship between marital status and suicide. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. [Application of the Bayesian network on the mutual relation of influencing factors and AIDS pathogenesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Na; Wang, Guoyong; Zhu, Xiaoyan; Yang, Xingguang; Kang, Dianmin

    2014-04-01

    To explore the influencing factors of AIDS pathogenesis using the Bayesian network. Based on follow-up data of 2 431 cases of HIV/AIDS from 1992-2011 in Shandong province, this study constructed the network structure by NPC algorithm, and used the EM algorithm for parameter learning to construct the Bayesian network of influencing factors and AIDS pathogenesis, then did inference by the Bayesian network. A total of 49.77% (1 210/2 431) were AIDS. Get a Bayesian network with 7 nodes and 11 directed arcs and the related parameters by studying the follow-up data of 2 431 cases. The area under receiver operating curve(ROC) was 0.75. There was a direct causal association among sample resource, transmission route, CD4(+)T lymphocyte count of HIV-antibody confirmed positive, antiviral therapy, opportunistic infection therapy, follow-up intervention and AIDS pathogenesis. The incidence probability was 42.83% for those who received antiviral therapy and follow-up intervention, and it was 68.96% for those who received antiviral therapy without follow-up intervention. The probability to receive follow-up intervention was 68.96% for cases transmitted by homosexual behaviors, and it was 34.00%, 42.24%, 1.06% and 22.70% respectively to be reported by medical institutions, testing and counselling, supervision institutions and special surveys. The Bayesian network revealed the mutual relation and effect intension among multi-factors and multi-stages by network inference. It showed that the rate of AIDS pathogenesis was lower for those who received antiviral therapy and follow-up intervention.

  3. Marriage Matters But How Much? Marital Centrality Among Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willoughby, Brian J; Hall, Scott S; Goff, Saige

    2015-01-01

    Marriage, once a gateway to adulthood, is no longer as widely considered a requirement for achieving adult status. With declining marriage rates and delayed marital transitions, some have wondered whether current young adults have rejected the traditional notion of marriage. Utilizing a sample of 571 young adults, the present study explored how marital centrality (the expected importance to be placed on the marital role relative to other adult roles) functioned as a unique and previously unexplored marital belief among young adults. Results suggested that marriage remains an important role for many young adults. On average, young adults expected that marriage would be more important to their life than parenting, careers, or leisure activities. Marital centrality profiles were found to significantly differ based on both gender and religiosity. Marital centrality was also associated with various outcomes including binge-drinking and sexual activity. Specifically, the more central marriage was expected to be, the less young adults engaged in risk-taking or sexual behaviors.

  4. Hydraulic Fracture Extending into Network in Shale: Reviewing Influence Factors and Their Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Lan; Zhao, Jinzhou; Hu, Yongquan

    2014-01-01

    Hydraulic fracture in shale reservoir presents complex network propagation, which has essential difference with traditional plane biwing fracture at forming mechanism. Based on the research results of experiments, field fracturing practice, theory analysis, and numerical simulation, the influence factors and their mechanism of hydraulic fracture extending into network in shale have been systematically analyzed and discussed. Research results show that the fracture propagation in shale reservoir is influenced by the geological and the engineering factors, which includes rock mineral composition, rock mechanical properties, horizontal stress field, natural fractures, treating net pressure, fracturing fluid viscosity, and fracturing scale. This study has important theoretical value and practical significance to understand fracture network propagation mechanism in shale reservoir and contributes to improving the science and efficiency of shale reservoir fracturing design. PMID:25032240

  5. Social network composition of vascular patients and its associations with health behavior and clinical risk factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi Heijmans

    Full Text Available This study aimed to explore linkages of patients' social network composition with health behaviors and clinical risk factors.This observational study was embedded in a project aimed at improving cardiovascular risk management (CRVM in primary care. 657 vascular patients (227 with cardiovascular disease, 380 at high vascular risk, mean age 72.4 (SD 9.4 years, were recruited as were individuals patients considered important for dealing with their disease, so called alters (n = 487. Network composition was measured with structured patient questionnaires. Both patients and alters completed questionnaires to measure health behavior (habits for physical activity, diet, and smoking. Clinical risk factors (systolic blood pressure, LDL cholesterol level, and body mass index were extracted from patients' medical records. Six logistic regression analyses, using generalized estimating equations, were used to test three hypothesized effects of network composition (having alters with healthful behaviors, without depression, and with specialized knowledge on six outcomes, adjusted for demographic, personal and psychological characteristics.Having alters with overall healthful behavior was related to healthful patient diet (OR 2.14, 95%CI: 1.52-3.02. Having non-smoking alters in networks was related to reduced odds for patient smoking (OR 0.17, 95%CI: 0.05-0.60. No effects of presence of non-depressed alters were found. Presence of alters with specialized knowledge on CVRM was inversely related to healthful diet habits of patients (OR 0.47, 95%CI 0.24-0.89. No significant associations between social network composition and clinical risk factors were found.Diet and smoking, but not physical exercise and clinical risk factors, were associated with social network composition of patients with vascular conditions. In this study of vascular patients, controlling for both personal and psychological factors, fewer network influences were found compared to previous

  6. Social network composition of vascular patients and its associations with health behavior and clinical risk factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heijmans, Naomi; van Lieshout, Jan; Wensing, Michel

    2017-01-01

    Background This study aimed to explore linkages of patients’ social network composition with health behaviors and clinical risk factors. Methods/Design This observational study was embedded in a project aimed at improving cardiovascular risk management (CRVM) in primary care. 657 vascular patients (227 with cardiovascular disease, 380 at high vascular risk), mean age 72.4 (SD 9.4) years, were recruited as were individuals patients considered important for dealing with their disease, so called alters (n = 487). Network composition was measured with structured patient questionnaires. Both patients and alters completed questionnaires to measure health behavior (habits for physical activity, diet, and smoking). Clinical risk factors (systolic blood pressure, LDL cholesterol level, and body mass index) were extracted from patients’ medical records. Six logistic regression analyses, using generalized estimating equations, were used to test three hypothesized effects of network composition (having alters with healthful behaviors, without depression, and with specialized knowledge) on six outcomes, adjusted for demographic, personal and psychological characteristics. Results Having alters with overall healthful behavior was related to healthful patient diet (OR 2.14, 95%CI: 1.52–3.02). Having non-smoking alters in networks was related to reduced odds for patient smoking (OR 0.17, 95%CI: 0.05–0.60). No effects of presence of non-depressed alters were found. Presence of alters with specialized knowledge on CVRM was inversely related to healthful diet habits of patients (OR 0.47, 95%CI 0.24–0.89). No significant associations between social network composition and clinical risk factors were found. Discussion Diet and smoking, but not physical exercise and clinical risk factors, were associated with social network composition of patients with vascular conditions. In this study of vascular patients, controlling for both personal and psychological factors, fewer network

  7. Gender and marital-history differences in emotional and social loneliness among Dutch older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykstra, Pearl A; de Jong Gierveld, Jenny

    2004-01-01

    In this study, Weiss's (1973) theorizing about the sources of emotional and social loneliness is elaborated--with notions about the asymmetric gratifications derived from marriage, about the conflicting loyalties that result from remarriage, and about selection into marriage--in order to reach an understanding of gender differences in loneliness, both in and outside of marriage. First and subsequent marriages are considered, as well as marital disruptions and never marrying. The data (N = 3737) are from the 1992 Dutch survey on older adults' living arrangements and social networks (NESTOR-LSN). Marital-history differences emerge, not only for emotional loneliness, but also (and contrary to Weiss's theoretical conceptualizations) for social loneliness. The marital-history differences in emotional and social loneliness are greater among men than women. For men, the marriage bond appears not only to be more central to emotional well-being than is the case for women but also to play a pivotal role in their involvement with others. Marital history offers the best explanation for differences in emotional loneliness among men, but social embeddedness characteristics also account for differences in emotional loneliness among women. Apparently, whereas men are more likely to find an intimate attachment in marriage, women also find protection from emotional loneliness in other close ties. The marital-history differences in social loneliness are largely mediated by social embeddedness characteristics, partly in different ways for men and women. Involvement in activities outside the home serves as the context for sociability for men, whereas parenthood plays a more important role in women's social engagements.

  8. Defining transcriptional networks through integrative modeling of mRNA expression and transcription factor binding data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bussemaker Harmen J

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Functional genomics studies are yielding information about regulatory processes in the cell at an unprecedented scale. In the yeast S. cerevisiae, DNA microarrays have not only been used to measure the mRNA abundance for all genes under a variety of conditions but also to determine the occupancy of all promoter regions by a large number of transcription factors. The challenge is to extract useful information about the global regulatory network from these data. Results We present MA-Networker, an algorithm that combines microarray data for mRNA expression and transcription factor occupancy to define the regulatory network of the cell. Multivariate regression analysis is used to infer the activity of each transcription factor, and the correlation across different conditions between this activity and the mRNA expression of a gene is interpreted as regulatory coupling strength. Applying our method to S. cerevisiae, we find that, on average, 58% of the genes whose promoter region is bound by a transcription factor are true regulatory targets. These results are validated by an analysis of enrichment for functional annotation, response for transcription factor deletion, and over-representation of cis-regulatory motifs. We are able to assign directionality to transcription factors that control divergently transcribed genes sharing the same promoter region. Finally, we identify an intrinsic limitation of transcription factor deletion experiments related to the combinatorial nature of transcriptional control, to which our approach provides an alternative. Conclusion Our reliable classification of ChIP positives into functional and non-functional TF targets based on their expression pattern across a wide range of conditions provides a starting point for identifying the unknown sequence features in non-coding DNA that directly or indirectly determine the context dependence of transcription factor action. Complete analysis results are

  9. Dialysis Facility and Network Factors Associated With Low Kidney Transplantation Rates Among United States Dialysis Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patzer, R. E.; Plantinga, L.; Krisher, J.; Pastan, S. O.

    2014-01-01

    Variability in transplant rates between different dialysis units has been noted, yet little is known about facility-level factors associated with low standardized transplant ratios (STRs) across the United States End-stage Renal Disease (ESRD) Network regions. We analyzed Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services Dialysis Facility Report data from 2007 to 2010 to examine facility-level factors associated with low STRs using multivariable mixed models. Among 4098 dialysis facilities treating 305 698 patients, there was wide variability in facility-level STRs across the 18 ESRD Networks. Four-year average STRs ranged from 0.69 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.64–0.73) in Network 6 (Southeastern Kidney Council) to 1.61 (95% CI: 1.47–1.76) in Network 1 (New England). Factors significantly associated with a lower STR (p dialysis were associated with higher STRs. The lowest performing dialysis facilities were in the Southeastern United States. Understanding the modifiable facility-level factors associated with low transplant rates may inform interventions to improve access to transplantation. PMID:24891272

  10. Factors That Influence Self-Disclosure for Job Seekers Using Social Networking: A Qualitative Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated factors that influence the extent and type of information job seekers reveal about themselves when using social networking to search for employment opportunities and advance their careers. It examined how user concerns regarding privacy influence the level of content they provide and their interactions with fellow community…

  11. The statistical mechanics of complex signaling networks: nerve growth factor signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, K. S.; Hill, C. C.; Calero, G. A.; Myers, C. R.; Lee, K. H.; Sethna, J. P.; Cerione, R. A.

    2004-10-01

    The inherent complexity of cellular signaling networks and their importance to a wide range of cellular functions necessitates the development of modeling methods that can be applied toward making predictions and highlighting the appropriate experiments to test our understanding of how these systems are designed and function. We use methods of statistical mechanics to extract useful predictions for complex cellular signaling networks. A key difficulty with signaling models is that, while significant effort is being made to experimentally measure the rate constants for individual steps in these networks, many of the parameters required to describe their behavior remain unknown or at best represent estimates. To establish the usefulness of our approach, we have applied our methods toward modeling the nerve growth factor (NGF)-induced differentiation of neuronal cells. In particular, we study the actions of NGF and mitogenic epidermal growth factor (EGF) in rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells. Through a network of intermediate signaling proteins, each of these growth factors stimulates extracellular regulated kinase (Erk) phosphorylation with distinct dynamical profiles. Using our modeling approach, we are able to predict the influence of specific signaling modules in determining the integrated cellular response to the two growth factors. Our methods also raise some interesting insights into the design and possible evolution of cellular systems, highlighting an inherent property of these systems that we call 'sloppiness.'

  12. Friend me: which factors influence top global brands participation in social network sites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Araujo, T.; Neijens, P.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose - This study focuses on how brands participate in social network sites (SNSs) and investigates both the different strategies they adopt and the factors that influence these strategies. Design/methodology/approach - The activities of top brands in SNSs were investigated through a content

  13. Feature extraction of osteoporosis risk factors using artificial neural networks and genetic algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastassopoulos, George; Adamopoulos, Adam; Galiatsatos, Dimitrios; Drosos, Georgios

    2013-01-01

    A hybrid model that consists of an Artificial Neural Network and Genetic Algorithm is used in order to select the most significant osteoporosis risk factors. The results indicated that just 8 to 10 parameters, out of a total 34, are essential in order of high performance to be achieved.

  14. The Effect of Father Involvement on Marital Satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Falslev, Tasha Dawn

    2010-01-01

    The effect of father involvement in childrearing on parental stress and marital satisfaction of wives in newlywed couples was assessed in a sample of couples married five years. Results showed that marital satisfaction is positively correlated with the wife's perception of husband's involvement in activities of childcare and negatively correlated with the wife's stress. The association between husband 's perception of involvement and wife's marital satisfaction was less strong. The implica...

  15. Marital Conflict and Conduct Problems in Children of Twins

    OpenAIRE

    Harden, K. Paige; Turkheimer, Eric; Emery, Robert E.; D’Onofrio, Brian M; Slutske, Wendy S.; Heath, Andrew C.; Martin, Nicholas G.

    2007-01-01

    The Children-of-Twins design was used to test whether associations between marital conflict frequency and conduct problems can be replicated within the children of discordant twin pairs. A sample of 2,051 children (age 14–39 years) of 1,045 twins was used to estimate the genetic and environmental influences on marital conflict and determine whether genetic or environmental selection processes underlie the observed association between marital conflict and conduct problems. Results indicate tha...

  16. Sanctification of marriage and spiritual intimacy predicting observed marital interactions across the transition to parenthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusner, Katherine G; Mahoney, Annette; Pargament, Kenneth I; DeMaris, Alfred

    2014-10-01

    We examined whether 164 heterosexual, married couples' reports of the sanctification of their marriage and their spiritual intimacy predicted their observed behavior across the transition to parenthood, using highly conservative statistical strategies to control for time-invariant factors and time-varying factors (marital love, collaborative communication skills) that could explain away these links. Spouses provided self-reports of marital sanctification and love, and joint reports of spiritual intimacy and collaboration by each partner. Criterion variables were positive and negative behaviors that spouses exhibited during dyadic discussions of marital conflicts, videotaped during pregnancy and when the couple's first infant was 3, 6, and 12 months old. Using bivariate fixed-effects regression models to control unmeasured time-invariant predictors (e.g., stable traits), his and her sanctification of marriage predicted more observed positivity by 1 or both spouses, and his and her spiritual intimacy predicted more positivity and less negativity by both spouses. Using multivariate regression analyses that controlled for demographic factors, the interdependency of spouses' responses, and salient time-varying marital (spouses' love and collaborative skills), her spiritual intimacy predicted more positivity by both spouses and less negativity by him, and his sanctification marginally predicted more positivity and less negativity by him. Findings offer rigorous causal modeling that spousal reports about marital spirituality influence observed spousal behavior by using longitudinal data to rule out unmeasured and measured third-variable confounds, multiple reporters (husbands, wives), multiple methods (self and joint reports, direct observation), and cross-informant data (spousal reports about him predicting her behavior, and vice versa). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Is Separation still an Important Component of Marital Dissolution?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne W. McVey, Jr.

    2008-12-01

    within the husband-wife family category. With the introduction of the 1968 and 1985 Divorce Acts, separation became a major ground for divorce in Canada. Marital breakdown should be measured by the incidence of both divorce and separation. The popularity of cohabitation further clouds the measuring of total partnership breakdown since separation of cohabiting partners is not recorded. This research focuses on the change in marital separation and the increase in cohabitation since 1981. Marital separation has declined in its contribution to total marital dissolution since 1985.

  18. Parental marital disruption, family type, and transfers to disabled elderly parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzin, Liliana E; Pollak, Robert A; Schone, Barbara Steinberg

    2008-11-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of parental marital status, marital history, and family type on intergenerational living arrangements and adult children's time and cash transfers to their unpartnered disabled elderly parents. We used data from the Asset and Health Dynamics Among the Oldest Old survey to estimate the joint probabilities that an adult child provides time and/or cash transfers to a parent and to analyze a five-level categorical variable capturing parent-child living arrangements. The estimates suggest significant detrimental effects of parental divorce and step relationship on time transfers and on the probability of coresidence with the index child. Family type, as captured by the composition of the index child's sibling network according to kin relationship to the parent, also affected transfers and living arrangement choices of adult children. The findings that transfers from adult children to their unpartnered disabled elderly parents depend on parental marital status and kin relationship suggest that changing family patterns are altering the traditional role of the family as a support network. These findings raise concerns about the care likely to be available to future cohorts of elderly persons who will have experienced substantially higher rates of divorce, remarriage, and step parenthood than the cohort considered in this study.

  19. Marital Separation and Lethal Male Partner Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Desmond

    2016-05-10

    Findings reported by many researchers indicate that the association between marital separation and intimate partner femicide has achieved the status of a sociological empirical generalization. The primary objective of this article is to contribute toward the cumulative development of a conflict theoretic explanation of separation- associated femicide by creating and testing a deductive conflict resolution theory that explains the empirical generalization. The causal mechanism identified in the theory is the intensity of conflict that increases with participation in adversarial and separation and divorce proceedings. Interventions logically derived from the theory are presented in the penultimate segment. Limitations are identified in the concluding segment. © The Author(s) 2016.

  20. Unemployment and marital status in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, W

    1992-01-01

    During the past decade, the marriage rate has declined and the divorce rate has increased in Great Britain. Becker (1981) attributes such changes to improvements in the economic status of women, in that high-wage women gain less from marriage relative to other women. However, an empirical analysis of data from the General Household Survey 1985 in Great Britain shows that male unemployment is another important determinant of changes in marital status. High rates of male unemployment reduce the incidence of marriage and increase the likelihood of divorce.

  1. A network and visual quality aware N-screen content recommender system using joint matrix factorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Farman; Sarwar, Ghulam; Lee, Sungchang

    2014-01-01

    We propose a network and visual quality aware N-Screen content recommender system. N-Screen provides more ways than ever before to access multimedia content through multiple devices and heterogeneous access networks. The heterogeneity of devices and access networks present new questions of QoS (quality of service) in the realm of user experience with content. We propose, a recommender system that ensures a better visual quality on user's N-screen devices and the efficient utilization of available access network bandwidth with user preferences. The proposed system estimates the available bandwidth and visual quality on users N-Screen devices and integrates it with users preferences and contents genre information to personalize his N-Screen content. The objective is to recommend content that the user's N-Screen device and access network are capable of displaying and streaming with the user preferences that have not been supported in existing systems. Furthermore, we suggest a joint matrix factorization approach to jointly factorize the users rating matrix with the users N-Screen device similarity and program genres similarity. Finally, the experimental results show that we also enhance the prediction and recommendation accuracy, sparsity, and cold start issues.

  2. A Network and Visual Quality Aware N-Screen Content Recommender System Using Joint Matrix Factorization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farman Ullah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a network and visual quality aware N-Screen content recommender system. N-Screen provides more ways than ever before to access multimedia content through multiple devices and heterogeneous access networks. The heterogeneity of devices and access networks present new questions of QoS (quality of service in the realm of user experience with content. We propose, a recommender system that ensures a better visual quality on user’s N-screen devices and the efficient utilization of available access network bandwidth with user preferences. The proposed system estimates the available bandwidth and visual quality on users N-Screen devices and integrates it with users preferences and contents genre information to personalize his N-Screen content. The objective is to recommend content that the user’s N-Screen device and access network are capable of displaying and streaming with the user preferences that have not been supported in existing systems. Furthermore, we suggest a joint matrix factorization approach to jointly factorize the users rating matrix with the users N-Screen device similarity and program genres similarity. Finally, the experimental results show that we also enhance the prediction and recommendation accuracy, sparsity, and cold start issues.

  3. Unraveling the WRKY transcription factors network in Arabidopsis Thaliana by integrative approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mouna Choura

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The WRKY transcription factors superfamily are involved in diverse biological processes in plants including response to biotic and abiotic stresses and plant immunity. Protein-protein interaction network is a useful approach for understanding these complex processes. The availability of Arabidopsis Thaliana interactome offers a good opportunity to do get a global view of protein network. In this work, we have constructed the WRKY transcription factor network by combining different sources of evidence and we characterized its topological features using computational tools. We found that WRKY network is a hub-based network involving multifunctional proteins denoted as hubs such as WRKY 70, WRKY40, WRKY 53, WRKY 60, WRKY 33 and WRKY 51. Functional annotation showed seven functional modules particularly involved in biotic stress and defense responses. Furthermore, the gene ontology and pathway enrichment analysis revealed that WRKY proteins are mainly involved in plant-pathogen interaction pathways and their functions are directly related to the stress response and immune system process.

  4. Marital satisfaction and break-ups differ across on-line and off-line meeting venues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacioppo, John T; Cacioppo, Stephanie; Gonzaga, Gian C; Ogburn, Elizabeth L; VanderWeele, Tyler J

    2013-06-18

    Marital discord is costly to children, families, and communities. The advent of the Internet, social networking, and on-line dating has affected how people meet future spouses, but little is known about the prevalence or outcomes of these marriages or the demographics of those involved. We addressed these questions in a nationally representative sample of 19,131 respondents who married between 2005 and 2012. Results indicate that more than one-third of marriages in America now begin on-line. In addition, marriages that began on-line, when compared with those that began through traditional off-line venues, were slightly less likely to result in a marital break-up (separation or divorce) and were associated with slightly higher marital satisfaction among those respondents who remained married. Demographic differences were identified between respondents who met their spouse through on-line vs. traditional off-line venues, but the findings for marital break-up and marital satisfaction remained significant after statistically controlling for these differences. These data suggest that the Internet may be altering the dynamics and outcomes of marriage itself.

  5. Exchange rate prediction with multilayer perceptron neural network using gold price as external factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Fathian

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the problem of predicting the exchange rate time series in the foreign exchange rate market is going to be solved using a time-delayed multilayer perceptron neural network with gold price as external factor. The input for the learning phase of the artificial neural network are the exchange rate data of the last five days plus the gold price in two different currencies of the exchange rate as the external factor for helping the artificial neural network improving its forecast accuracy. The five-day delay has been chosen because of the weekly cyclic behavior of the exchange rate time series with the consideration of two holidays in a week. The result of forecasts are then compared with using the multilayer peceptron neural network without gold price external factor by two most important evaluation techniques in the literature of exchange rate prediction. For the experimental analysis phase, the data of three important exchange rates of EUR/USD, GBP/USD, and USD/JPY are used.

  6. A functional network involved in the recycling of nucleocytoplasmic pre-60S factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebreton, Alice; Saveanu, Cosmin; Decourty, Laurence; Rain, Jean-Christophe; Jacquier, Alain; Fromont-Racine, Micheline

    2006-01-01

    Eukaryotic pre-ribosomes go through cytoplasmic maturation steps before entering translation. The nucleocytoplasmic proteins participating in these late stages of maturation are reimported to the nucleus. In this study, we describe a functional network focused on Rei1/Ybr267w, a strictly cytoplasmic pre-60S factor indirectly involved in nuclear 27S pre-ribosomal RNA processing. In the absence of Rei1, the nuclear import of at least three other pre-60S factors is impaired. The accumulation in the cytoplasm of a small complex formed by the association of Arx1 with a novel factor, Alb1/Yjl122w, inhibits the release of the putative antiassociation factor Tif6 from the premature large ribosomal subunits and its recycling to the nucleus. We propose a model in which Rei1 is a key factor for the coordinated dissociation and recycling of the last pre-60S factors before newly synthesized large ribosomal subunits enter translation. PMID:16651379

  7. Momentary work worries, marital disclosure, and salivary cortisol among parents of young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slatcher, Richard B; Robles, Theodore F; Repetti, Rena L; Fellows, Michelle D

    2010-11-01

    To investigate whether worries about work are linked to people's own cortisol levels and their spouses' cortisol levels in everyday life and whether marital factors may moderate these links. Although research has shown that satisfying marriages can buffer the physiological effects of everyday stress, the specific mechanisms through which marriage influences the processing and transmission of stress have not yet been identified. Thirty-seven healthy married couples completed baseline measures and then provided saliva samples and indicated their worries about work for six times a day from a Saturday morning through a Monday evening. Wives' cortisol levels were associated positively with their own work worries (p = .008) and with their husbands' work worries (p = .006). Husbands' cortisol levels were associated positively only with their own work worries (p = .015). Wives low in both marital satisfaction and disclosure showed a stronger association between work worries and cortisol compared with wives reporting either high marital satisfaction and/or high marital disclosure. These results suggest that momentary feelings of stress affect not only one's own cortisol levels but affect close others' cortisol levels as well. Furthermore, they suggest that, for women, the stress-buffering effects of a happy marriage may be partially explained by the extent to which they disclose their thoughts and feelings with their spouses.

  8. Association of marital status and colorectal cancer screening participation in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Haddad, B; Dong, F; Kallail, K J; Hines, R B; Ablah, E

    2015-05-01

    In the USA, for both men and women, colorectal cancer (CRC) ranks third in incidence and second in mortality. Despite evidence that it decreases mortality, CRC screening in the USA remains under-utilized. Some European studies have suggested that marital status affects participation in CRC screening, but the effect of marital status on CRC screening participation in the USA is unknown. In this study, the aim was to compare CRC screening participation rates among married and unmarried couples, separated, widowed, never married and divorced adults living in the USA. This was a retrospective data analysis of the 2010 Behavioural Risk Factor Surveillance System survey. The population studied included 239,300 participants, aged 50-75 years, who completed the 2010 survey. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to assess the association between adherence with CRC screening guidelines and marital status while accounting for survey stratum/weight and covariates. Individuals who were divorced or separated, never married or widowed had decreased odds of adherence with CRC screening guidelines compared with individuals who were married and unmarried couples. In this study, individuals living in the USA who were married and unmarried couples had increased odds of undergoing CRC screening compared to individuals in other marital status groups. Public health interventions are needed to promote CRC screening participation in these other groups. Colorectal Disease © 2015 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  9. The rested relationship: Sleep benefits marital evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maranges, Heather M; McNulty, James K

    2017-02-01

    Remaining satisfied with a relationship often requires thinking in ways that use self-regulatory resources-satisfied couples discount undesirable experiences when forming global evaluations of the relationship. Nevertheless, recent work indicates that the self-regulatory resources required to engage in these processes are limited. Although consuming new energy may be one way to replenish these limited resources, sleep is another. The current study used a daily diary study of 68 newlywed couples to examine the implications of sleep for daily marital evaluations. Every day for up to 7 days, both members of the couples reported their evaluations of their interpersonal specific experiences, global relationship satisfaction, and amount of sleep. Multilevel analysis revealed that spouses were more satisfied on days after which they had slept for a longer period of time. Furthermore, sleep also buffered husbands', but not wives', marital satisfaction against the implications of negative specific evaluations-husbands were better able to remain more globally satisfied despite negative evaluations of specific aspects of the relationship on days following more sleep. These findings suggest that sleep may offer self-regulatory benefits and should thus be incorporated into existing interpersonal models that highlight the importance of self-regulation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Transcription Factor Networks Directing the Development, Function, and Evolution of Innate Lymphoid Effectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Joonsoo; Malhotra, Nidhi

    2015-01-01

    Mammalian lymphoid immunity is mediated by fast and slow responders to pathogens. Fast innate lymphocytes are active within hours after infections in mucosal tissues. Slow adaptive lymphocytes are conventional T and B cells with clonal antigen receptors that function days after pathogen exposure. A transcription factor (TF) regulatory network guiding early T cell development is at the core of effector function diversification in all innate lymphocytes, and the kinetics of immune responses is set by developmental programming. Operational units within the innate lymphoid system are not classified by the types of pathogen-sensing machineries but rather by discrete effector functions programmed by regulatory TF networks. Based on the evolutionary history of TFs of the regulatory networks, fast effectors likely arose earlier in the evolution of animals to fortify body barriers, and in mammals they often develop in fetal ontogeny prior to the establishment of fully competent adaptive immunity. PMID:25650177

  11. Factors Contributing to the Hydrologic Effectiveness of a Rain Garden Network (Cincinnati OH USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William D. Shuster

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Infiltrative rain gardens can add retention capacity to sewersheds, yet factors contributing to their capacity for detention and redistribution of stormwater runoff are dynamic and often unverified. Over a four-year period, we tracked whole-system water fluxes in a two-tier rain garden network and assessed near-surface hydrology and soil development across construction and operational phases. The monitoring data provided a quantitative basis for determining effectiveness of this stormwater control measure. Based on 233 monitored warm-season rainfall events, nearly half of total inflow volume was detained, with 90 percent of all events producing no flow to the combined sewer. For the events that did result in flow to the combined sewer system, the rain garden delayed flows for an average of 5.5 h. Multivariate analysis of hydrologic fluxes indicated that total event rainfall depth was a predominant hydrologic driver for network outflow during both phases, with average event intensity and daily evapotranspiration as additional, independent factors in regulating retention in the operational phase. Despite sediment loads that can clog the rooting zone, and overall lower-than-design infiltration rates, tradeoffs among soil profile development and hydrology apparently maintained relatively high overall retention effectiveness. Overall, our study identified factors relevant to regulation of retention capacity of a rain garden network. These factors may be generalizable, and guide improvement of new or existing rain garden designs.

  12. The influence of phylogeny, social style, and sociodemographic factors on macaque social network structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramaniam, Krishna N; Beisner, Brianne A; Berman, Carol M; De Marco, Arianna; Duboscq, Julie; Koirala, Sabina; Majolo, Bonaventura; MacIntosh, Andrew J; McFarland, Richard; Molesti, Sandra; Ogawa, Hideshi; Petit, Odile; Schino, Gabriele; Sosa, Sebastian; Sueur, Cédric; Thierry, Bernard; de Waal, Frans B M; McCowan, Brenda

    2018-01-01

    Among nonhuman primates, the evolutionary underpinnings of variation in social structure remain debated, with both ancestral relationships and adaptation to current conditions hypothesized to play determining roles. Here we assess whether interspecific variation in higher-order aspects of female macaque (genus: Macaca) dominance and grooming social structure show phylogenetic signals, that is, greater similarity among more closely-related species. We use a social network approach to describe higher-order characteristics of social structure, based on both direct interactions and secondary pathways that connect group members. We also ask whether network traits covary with each other, with species-typical social style grades, and/or with sociodemographic characteristics, specifically group size, sex-ratio, and current living condition (captive vs. free-living). We assembled 34-38 datasets of female-female dyadic aggression and allogrooming among captive and free-living macaques representing 10 species. We calculated dominance (transitivity, certainty), and grooming (centrality coefficient, Newman's modularity, clustering coefficient) network traits as aspects of social structure. Computations of K statistics and randomization tests on multiple phylogenies revealed moderate-strong phylogenetic signals in dominance traits, but moderate-weak signals in grooming traits. GLMMs showed that grooming traits did not covary with dominance traits and/or social style grade. Rather, modularity and clustering coefficient, but not centrality coefficient, were strongly predicted by group size and current living condition. Specifically, larger groups showed more modular networks with sparsely-connected clusters than smaller groups. Further, this effect was independent of variation in living condition, and/or sampling effort. In summary, our results reveal that female dominance networks were more phylogenetically conserved across macaque species than grooming networks, which were more

  13. Marriage, sexuality, and holiness: Aspects of marital ethics in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Qumran, Jubilees) texts, this article outlines the marital concepts existing in the NT environment. In this context, the reciprocal community and the duration of the marital relationship are emphasized while sexuality remains wholly limited to reproduction. The core of the article offers a concrete analysis of texts from the Corpus ...

  14. 40 CFR 5.530 - Marital or parental status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 5.530 Marital or...) Concerning the potential marital, parental, or family status of an employee or applicant for employment that...

  15. 13 CFR 113.530 - Marital or parental status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Receiving Federal Financial Assistance Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs Or Activities Prohibited § 113.530 Marital...: (1) Concerning the potential marital, parental, or family status of an employee or applicant for...

  16. 40 CFR 5.445 - Marital or parental status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 5.445 Marital or parental status... parental, family, or marital status that treats students differently on the basis of sex. (b) Pregnancy and...

  17. 15 CFR 8a.530 - Marital or parental status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 8a.530 Marital or...) Concerning the potential marital, parental, or family status of an employee or applicant for employment that...

  18. 15 CFR 8a.445 - Marital or parental status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 8a.445 Marital or parental... potential parental, family, or marital status that treats students differently on the basis of sex. (b...

  19. 45 CFR 86.40 - Marital or parental status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 86.40 Marital or parental status... parental, family, or marital status which treats students differently on the basis of sex. (b) Pregnancy...

  20. 45 CFR 86.57 - Marital or parental status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 86.57 Marital or...) Concerning the potential marital, parental, or family status of an employee or applicant for employment which...

  1. 28 CFR 54.445 - Marital or parental status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 54.445 Marital or parental status. (a... parental, family, or marital status that treats students differently on the basis of sex. (b) Pregnancy and...

  2. 13 CFR 113.445 - Marital or parental status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Receiving Federal Financial Assistance Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs Or Activities Prohibited § 113.445 Marital or parental... potential parental, family, or marital status that treats students differently on the basis of sex. (b...

  3. 28 CFR 54.530 - Marital or parental status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 54.530 Marital or parental... the potential marital, parental, or family status of an employee or applicant for employment that...

  4. 31 CFR 28.445 - Marital or parental status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 28.445 Marital or parental... potential parental, family, or marital status that treats students differently on the basis of sex. (b...

  5. relationship between parenting styles and marital adjustment of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. BARTH EKWEME

    collection were Marital Adjustment Scale and Parenting Styles Questionnaire which were validated by four experts in Psychology, ... positive and significant joint relationship between the parenting styles and marital adjustment of married teachers in secondary .... manner in which parents raise their children. Parenting is a ...

  6. Gender-Wise Comparison on Emotional Intelligence and Marital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The research aims at exploring and comparing the marital satisfaction and emotional intelligence of people between age 25-65. Tools used were namely Marital Satisfaction Scale (MSS) and Exploring Emotional Abilities (EEA). A fairly representative data of 316 respondents was collected from Maharashtra, India.

  7. Divorce over the Life Course: The Role of Marital Happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Lynn K.; Booth, Alan

    1991-01-01

    Explored apparent anomaly that marital happiness and divorce are both lower in longer marriages using a national panel of over 2,000 married individuals interviewed in 1980 and 1988. Results indicated marital happiness had a stronger effect on divorce at longer durations than at shorter durations. (Author/ABL)

  8. Religious Heterogamy, Religiosity, and Marital Happiness: The Case of Catholics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shehan, Constance L.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Assessed relationship between religious heterogamy and marital happiness of Catholics, using data from National Opinion Research Center General Social Surveys. Findings showed that heterogamy was not related to marital happiness for Catholics, either at bivariate level or when religiosity and other variables were controlled. Religiosity had…

  9. Reasons for Alcohol Use in Maritally Violent Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, Ronald W.; And Others

    Alcohol consumption is often associated with aggressive behaviors. This study compared the contexts and reasons for drinking of maritally violent men (N=44) and three maritally nonviolent comparison groups: happily married men (N=54), unhappily married men (N=41), and men who had been convicted of a violent offense, but who did not beat their…

  10. Parental Marital Quality, Parental Divorce, and Relations with Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Alan; Amato, Paul R.

    1994-01-01

    Examined data from 419 parents and their adult children to assess impact of parental marital quality and divorce while child is residing with parents on parent-child relations 12 years later. Low marital quality and divorce appeared to have independent effects on adult child-parent relations. Fathers' relationships suffered more than mothers';…

  11. Marital status behavior of women in the former Soviet Republics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scherbov, S; Darsky, L.

    1995-01-01

    This paper uses the most recent data and life table analysis to describe the marital behaviour of women in the republics of the former USSR. For the first time a multistate life table analysis was used to describe the marital careers of women from all the 15 republics. In the near future, such a

  12. Age at Marriage, Religion and Marital Satisfaction Among Igbo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the contributions of age at marriage and religion couples to marital satisfaction among Igbo people in Imo State. Five hundred and eight subjects were selected from five local government areas in Imo State using a multi-stage random sampling technique. A questionnaire titled \\"Marital Satisfaction ...

  13. Self-actualization and empathy as predictors of marital satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowan, D G; Compton, W C; Rust, J O

    1995-12-01

    The relationships between marital satisfaction, self-actualization, and empathy scores were tested for 30 intact couples. Analyses indicated that both satisfaction and empathy scores were independent predictors of marital satisfaction scores for men, but not for women. Implications were discussed.

  14. Debt Change and Marital Satisfaction Change in Recently Married Couples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dew, Jeffrey

    2008-01-01

    Although recently married couples report debt as one of their top concerns, research has not measured how debt changes relate to changes in their marital satisfaction. Further, the mechanisms that link debt and marital satisfaction are unknown. Findings using the National Survey of Families and Households (N = 1,078 couples) demonstrated that…

  15. The Development of the Marital Satisfaction Scale (MSS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canel, Azize Nilgun

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the process of developing the Marital Satisfaction Scale (MSS) aiming to support studies in the field of marital satisfaction and to obtain information about couples in a short time through psychological counseling is discussed. The scale including 101 yes-no items aiming to reveal couples' opinions about their marriages was…

  16. Trajectories of Conflict over Raising Adolescent Children and Marital Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Ming; Donnellan, M. Brent

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined trajectories of marital satisfaction among couples with adolescent children and evaluated how changes in parents' conflict over raising adolescent children were associated with changes in marital satisfaction over 4 years. Using a prospective, longitudinal research design and controlling for family socioeconomic status,…

  17. Parental Marital Discord and Treatment Response in Depressed Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaya, Meredith M.; Reinecke, Mark A.; Silva, Susan G.; March, John S.

    2011-01-01

    Evidence suggests that parental marital discord contributes to the development of internalizing and externalizing symptoms in children and adolescents. Few studies, however, have examined the association between parental marital discord and youth's response to treatment. The present study examined the impact of interparental discord on treatment…

  18. Marital Status and Occupation versus Serum Total Cholesterol and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The influence of marital status and occupation on serum total cholesterol (TC) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL – CH) concentrations was studied in sixty one (61) adult male and female Hausa subjects aged 20 – 50 years. Irrespective of marital status and occupation, female subjects had higher mean serum ...

  19. marital status and occupation versus serum total cholesterol and hdl

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMIN

    ABSTRACT. The influence of marital status and occupation on serum total cholesterol (TC) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL – CH) concentrations was studied in sixty one (61) adult male and female Hausa subjects aged 20 – 50 years. Irrespective of marital status and occupation, female subjects had higher ...

  20. Exploring the Relationship between Marital Status and Women's Retirement Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Christine A.; Joo, Eunjee

    2005-01-01

    Increased divorce rates, declining marriage rates, and a predisposition to widowhood in later life all contribute to the heterogeneous marital histories of women approaching retirement. Existing research on retirement, however, has not considered the diversity in marital status that exists among retired women. The purpose of the present study was…

  1. The Effects of Welfare on Marital Stability and Remarriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahr, Stephen J.

    1979-01-01

    Estimates the effects of welfare on marital dissolution and remarriage. Data from females indicated that those who received AFDC, food stamps, or other public assistance dissolved their marriages more frequently than those not receiving welfare. The relationship between welfare and marital dissolution decreased somewhat as duration of marriage…

  2. Marital Satisfaction in Remarriage: A Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vemer, Elizabeth; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Conducted meta-analytic review of findings from 34 past studies examining marital satisfaction and analyzed moderating effect of certain study characteristics. Found statistically significant differences for three of five comparisons made but concluded that differences had little practical meaning. Included critique of marital satisfaction…

  3. Marital Happiness and Household Equity in Later Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Russell A.

    1993-01-01

    Used data from National Survey of Families and Households to investigate associations among gender, employment, and marital happiness for 1,353 couples aged 50+. Employment was not directly related to marital happiness. Wives reported greater participation in household tasks and greater inequity in division of household labor. Perceived fairness…

  4. Predicting Marital Happiness and Stability from Newlywed Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottman, John M.; Coan, James; Carrere, Sybil; Swanson, Catherine

    1998-01-01

    Marital interaction processes that are predictive of divorce or marital stability and processes that discriminate between happily and unhappily married stable couples are explored (N=130). Seven types of process models are examined, and results are discussed. Divorce and stability were predicted with 83% accuracy, and satisfaction with 80%…

  5. Marital Distress and Mental Health Care Service Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonbrun, Yael Chatav; Whisman, Mark A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study was designed to evaluate the association between marital distress and mental health service utilization in a population-based sample of men and women (N = 1,601). Method: The association between marital distress and mental health care service utilization was evaluated for overall mental health service utilization and for…

  6. Marital status, marital transitions, well-being, and spinal cord injury: an examination of the effects of sex and time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalpakjian, Claire Z; Houlihan, Bethlyn; Meade, Michelle A; Karana-Zebari, Dunia; Heinemann, Allen W; Dijkers, Marcel P; Wierbicky, Jane; Charlifue, Susan

    2011-03-01

    To examine the applicability of marital resource (marriage has substantial benefits for well-being over not being married) or marital crisis (marital dissolution leads to poorer well-being) models to the spinal cord injury (SCI) population by studying the effects of sex, marital status, and marital transitions on well-being. Prospective cohort study from the SCI Model Systems National Database. Community. Men (n=4864) and women (n=1277) who sustained traumatic SCI and completed a minimum of 1 follow-up interview beginning at 1 year through 15 years postinjury. None. Life satisfaction, depressive symptoms, and self-perceived health status by using linear mixed models for longitudinal data. In general, well-being improved over time since injury. Hypothesis testing supported the marital crisis model, as marital loss through being or becoming separated or divorced and being or becoming widowed, had the most consistent and negative impact across well-being outcomes, whereas being or becoming married had an advantage for only lower depression symptoms over time. However, marital dissolution or loss did not have a uniformly adverse impact on well-being outcomes, and this effect often was moderated by sex, such that widows had higher depressive symptoms and poorer self-perceived health than widowers, but separated or divorced women had higher life satisfaction and self-perceived health than men. Irrespective of sex, being separated or divorced versus being single was associated with higher depressive symptoms over time. Results support the marital crisis model and that women and men can experience marital dissolution differently. All marital loss does not result in compromised well-being and all marriage does not enhance well-being, highlighting complex dynamics worthy of further investigation in this population. Copyright © 2011 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluating factors that predict the structure of a commensalistic epiphyte–phorophyte network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáyago, Roberto; Lopezaraiza-Mikel, Martha; Quesada, Mauricio; Álvarez-Añorve, Mariana Yolotl; Cascante-Marín, Alfredo; Bastida, Jesus Ma.

    2013-01-01

    A central issue in ecology is the understanding of the establishment of biotic interactions. We studied the factors that affect the assembly of the commensalistic interactions between vascular epiphytes and their host plants. We used an analytical approach that considers all individuals and species of epiphytic bromeliads and woody hosts and non-hosts at study plots. We built models of interaction probabilities among species to assess if host traits and abundance and spatial overlap of species predict the quantitative epiphyte–host network. Species abundance, species spatial overlap and host size largely predicted pairwise interactions and several network metrics. Wood density and bark texture of hosts also contributed to explain network structure. Epiphytes were more common on large hosts, on abundant woody species, with denser wood and/or rougher bark. The network had a low level of specialization, although several interactions were more frequent than expected by the models. We did not detect a phylogenetic signal on the network structure. The effect of host size on the establishment of epiphytes indicates that mature forests are necessary to preserve diverse bromeliad communities. PMID:23407832

  8. Prediction of friction factor of pure water flowing inside vertical smooth and microfin tubes by using artificial neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çebi, A.; Akdoğan, E.; Celen, A.; Dalkilic, A. S.

    2017-02-01

    An artificial neural network (ANN) model of friction factor in smooth and microfin tubes under heating, cooling and isothermal conditions was developed in this study. Data used in ANN was taken from a vertically positioned heat exchanger experimental setup. Multi-layered feed-forward neural network with backpropagation algorithm, radial basis function networks and hybrid PSO-neural network algorithm were applied to the database. Inputs were the ratio of cross sectional flow area to hydraulic diameter, experimental condition number depending on isothermal, heating, or cooling conditions and mass flow rate while the friction factor was the output of the constructed system. It was observed that such neural network based system could effectively predict the friction factor values of the flows regardless of their tube types. A dependency analysis to determine the strongest parameter that affected the network and database was also performed and tube geometry was found to be the strongest parameter of all as a result of analysis.

  9. Organization of anti-phase synchronization pattern in neural networks: what are the key factors?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong eLi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Anti-phase oscillation has been widely observed in cortical neuralnetwork. Elucidating the mechanism underlying the organization ofanti-phase pattern is of significance for better understanding morecomplicated pattern formations in brain networks. In dynamicalsystems theory, the organization of anti-phase oscillation patternhas usually been considered to relate to time-delay in coupling.This is consistent to conduction delays in real neural networks inthe brain due to finite propagation velocity of action potentials.However, other structural factors in cortical neural network, suchas modular organization (connection density and the coupling types(excitatory or inhibitory, could also play an important role. Inthis work, we investigate the anti-phase oscillation patternorganized on a two-module network of either neuronal cell model orneural mass model, and analyze the impact of the conduction delaytimes, the connection densities, and coupling types. Our resultsshow that delay times and coupling types can play key roles in thisorganization. The connection densities may have an influence on thestability if an anti-phase pattern exists due to the other factors.Furthermore, we show that anti-phase synchronization of slowoscillations can be achieved with small delay times if there isinteraction between slow and fast oscillations. These results aresignificant for further understanding more realistic spatiotemporaldynamics of cortico-cortical communications.

  10. Assessment of successful smoking cessation by psychological factors using the Bayesian network approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaorong; Li, Suyun; Pan, Lulu; Wang, Qiang; Li, Huijie; Han, Mingkui; Zhang, Nan; Jiang, Fan; Jia, Chongqi

    2016-07-01

    The association between psychological factors and smoking cessation is complicated and inconsistent in published researches, and the joint effect of psychological factors on smoking cessation is unclear. This study explored how psychological factors jointly affect the success of smoking cessation using a Bayesian network approach. A community-based case control study was designed with 642 adult male successful smoking quitters as the cases, and 700 adult male failed smoking quitters as the controls. General self-efficacy (GSE), trait coping style (positive-trait coping style (PTCS) and negative-trait coping style (NTCS)) and self-rating anxiety (SA) were evaluated by GSE Scale, Trait Coping Style Questionnaire and SA Scale, respectively. Bayesian network was applied to evaluate the relationship between psychological factors and successful smoking cessation. The local conditional probability table of smoking cessation indicated that different joint conditions of psychological factors led to different outcomes for smoking cessation. Among smokers with high PTCS, high NTCS and low SA, only 36.40% successfully quitted smoking. However, among smokers with low pack-years of smoking, high GSE, high PTCS and high SA, 63.64% successfully quitted smoking. Our study indicates psychological factors jointly influence smoking cessation outcome. According to different joint situations, different solutions should be developed to control tobacco in practical intervention.

  11. A New Proposal for Measuring Marital Fertility in Historical Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús J. Sánchez-Barricarte

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a critical analysis is made of some of the indices used in numerous historical studies on the decline of fertility. More concretely, it is demonstrated how the Total Marital Fertility Rate (TMFR and the Ig and I’g indices of marital fertility designed by Coale (1986 not only are not good indicators of a population’s level of marital fertility, but also in some cases (for example, when there is an important delay in female mean age at marriage can even indicate an increase in marital fertility when in reality it is decreasing. Likewise, a new index for measuring marital fertility (known as the Navarre Index is presented which takes into account women’s average age at marriage as well as their mortality rate during their reproductive period.

  12. Marital Instability and the Changing Kinship Networks of Grandparents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Colleen Leahy; Barer, Barbara

    Divorce and remarriage may pose special problems for the grandparent-child-grandchild relationship. The kinship relationships after divorce have not been institutionalized; there are not generally accepted forms of behavior. To examine the role of grandmothers in the divorce of their children, 50 parent-grandmother pairs were interviewed. The…

  13. Structural and functional discovery in dynamic networks with non-negative matrix factorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankad, Shawn; Michailidis, George

    2013-10-01

    Time series of graphs are increasingly prevalent in modern data and pose unique challenges to visual exploration and pattern extraction. This paper describes the development and application of matrix factorizations for exploration and time-varying community detection in time-evolving graph sequences. The matrix factorization model allows the user to home in on and display interesting, underlying structure and its evolution over time. The methods are scalable to weighted networks with a large number of time points or nodes and can accommodate sudden changes to graph topology. Our techniques are demonstrated with several dynamic graph series from both synthetic and real-world data, including citation and trade networks. These examples illustrate how users can steer the techniques and combine them with existing methods to discover and display meaningful patterns in sizable graphs over many time points.

  14. The effect of marital status on social and gender inequalities in diabetes mortality in Andalusia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escolar-Pujolar, Antonio; Córdoba Doña, Juan Antonio; Goicolea Julían, Isabel; Rodríguez, Gabriel Jesús; Santos Sánchez, Vanesa; Mayoral Sánchez, Eduardo; Aguilar Diosdado, Manuel

    2018-01-01

    To assess the modifying effect of marital status on social and gender inequalities in mortality from diabetes mellitus (DM) in Andalusia. A cross-sectional study was conducted using the Andalusian Longitudinal Population Database. DM deaths between 2002 and 2013 were analyzed by educational level and marital status. Age-adjusted rates (AARs) and mortality rate ratios (MRRs) were calculated using Poisson regression models, controlling for several social and demographic variables. The modifying effect of marital status on the association between educational level and DM mortality was evaluated by introducing an interaction term into the models. All analyses were performed separately for men and women. There were 18,158 DM deaths (10,635 women and 7,523 men) among the 4,229,791 people included in the study. The risk of death increased as the educational level decreased. Marital status modified social inequality in DM mortality in a different way in each sex. Widowed and separated/divorced women with the lowest educational level had the highest MRRs, 5,1 (95%CI: 3,6-7,3) and 5,6 (95% CI:3,6-8,5) respectively, while single men had the highest MRR, 3,1 (95%CI: 2,7-3,6). Educational level is a key determinant of DM mortality in both sexes, and is more relevant in women, while marital status also plays an outstanding role in men. Our results suggest that in order to address inequalities in DM mortality, the current focus on individual factors and self-care should be extended to interventions on the family, the community, and the social contexts closest to patients. Copyright © 2017 SEEN y SED. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Adjunctive cognitive behavioural treatment for chronic pain couples improves marital satisfaction but not pain management outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramke, S; Sharpe, L; Newton-John, T

    2016-11-01

    Data have consistently shown that patient coping with chronic pain can be affected by various factors associated with the primary relationship, and hence efforts to include the patient's partner in the treatment process have merit. This study evaluated the benefit of adding an adjunctive, couples-based, cognitive behavioural treatment (CBT) for chronic pain to a standard cognitive behavioural pain management programme. Forty-five couples were randomly assigned to either an adjunctive couples intervention (n = 19) or the pain programme only (n = 26). All patient participants completed a 3-week multi-disciplinary pain management programme, to which their partners were invited to attend one full day. In addition, partners in the adjunctive condition received four, one hour treatment sessions focusing on pain education, patient-partner communication, operant behavioural principles and relapse prevention strategies. Partner sessions for the adjunctive intervention were provided over the telephone. By the completion of the pain programme the adjunctive couples intervention demonstrated significant improvements in marital satisfaction for the spouses over and above attendance at the pain management programme alone (p = 0.003). However, spouse involvement did not facilitate any additional response to treatment for pain patients on marital satisfaction, pain, disability or any indices of distress. All treatment gains were maintained at 1 month follow-up. These data demonstrate that a brief CBT intervention can significantly improve marital satisfaction for spouses of chronic pain patients, but the treatment does not translate to improvements in function on any outcomes, including marital satisfaction, for patients of chronic pain. WHAT DOES THIS STUDY ADD?: A brief, telephone-based intervention for couples living with chronic pain is an acceptable format for intervention. This intervention can significantly improve marital satisfaction for partners of chronic pain

  16. "It's about Us": Marital Adjustment and Marital Adaptation in Couples Who Adopt Children from the Child Welfare System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooradian, John K.; Timm, Tina M.; Hock, Robert M.; Jackson, Rosemary

    2011-01-01

    This article examines, using grounded theory methodology, the marital relationships of couples who adopted children from the child welfare system. Twenty-two spouses in four focus groups reported initial marital adjustment that featured husbands' support of their wives' initiation of adoption and management of child needs. About one half of these…

  17. The Mutual Effect of Marital Quality and Parenting Stress on Child and Parent Depressive Symptoms in Families of Children with Oppositional Defiant Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuyun Lin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the current study was to examine the mutual relationships between dyadic level (i.e., marital quality and parenting stress and individual level factors (i.e., children and parental depressive symptoms in families of children with Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD. Specifically, we explored whether marital interaction (marital quality was associated with symptoms of child depression through parent-child interaction (parenting stress and parent depressive symptoms. We also explored whether parent-child interaction was associated with symptoms of parent depression through marital interaction and child depressive symptoms. This study was conducted with 256 parent-child dyads, consisting of children with ODD and one of each child's parents. Participants were recruited from 14 primary schools located in northern, eastern, and southwestern China. Results revealed that marital quality predicted symptoms of child depression through the parenting stress, but not parent depressive symptoms; and parenting stress predicted symptoms of parent depression through marital quality, but not through child depressive symptoms. Also, parenting stress significantly and directly predicted parent depressive symptoms. We concluded in families of children with ODD, the association of marital interaction and parent-child interaction on both symptoms of parent and child depression highlighted the mutual effects of the couple subsystem and the parent-child subsystem. Furthermore, in regard to parental and child depressive symptoms, implications for intervention are provided.

  18. The Mutual Effect of Marital Quality and Parenting Stress on Child and Parent Depressive Symptoms in Families of Children with Oppositional Defiant Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiuyun; Zhang, Yulin; Chi, Peilian; Ding, Wan; Heath, Melissa A; Fang, Xiaoyi; Xu, Shousen

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the mutual relationships between dyadic level (i.e., marital quality and parenting stress) and individual level factors (i.e., children and parental depressive symptoms) in families of children with Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD). Specifically, we explored whether marital interaction (marital quality) was associated with symptoms of child depression through parent-child interaction (parenting stress) and parent depressive symptoms. We also explored whether parent-child interaction was associated with symptoms of parent depression through marital interaction and child depressive symptoms. This study was conducted with 256 parent-child dyads, consisting of children with ODD and one of each child's parents. Participants were recruited from 14 primary schools located in northern, eastern, and southwestern China. Results revealed that marital quality predicted symptoms of child depression through the parenting stress, but not parent depressive symptoms; and parenting stress predicted symptoms of parent depression through marital quality, but not through child depressive symptoms. Also, parenting stress significantly and directly predicted parent depressive symptoms. We concluded in families of children with ODD, the association of marital interaction and parent-child interaction on both symptoms of parent and child depression highlighted the mutual effects of the couple subsystem and the parent-child subsystem. Furthermore, in regard to parental and child depressive symptoms, implications for intervention are provided.

  19. The Comparison of Relationship Beliefs and Couples Burnout in women who apply for Divorce and Women Who Want to Continue their Marital Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nastaran Adibrad

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available "n Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the comparison of relationship beliefs and couples burnout in women who apply for divorce and women who want to continue their marital life. "nMethod: for this study, 50 women who referred to judicial centers and 50 women who claimed they wanted to continue their marital life were randomly selected. Participants were asked to complete the relationship beliefs inventory and marital burnout questionnaires. In this study, descriptive statistical methods such as standard deviation, mean, t- students for independent groups, correlation, multi-variable regression and independent group's correlation difference test were used. "nResults: The comparison between the relationship beliefs of the 2 groups( those wanting to divorce and women wanting to continue their marital life was significantly different(p<0/1. In addition, the comparison of marital burnout was significantly different in the 2 groups (p<0/1.( "n Discussion: Women who were about to divorce were significantly different from those who wanted to continue their marital relationship in the general measure of the relationship beliefs and factors of " believing that disagreement is destructive and their partners can not change their undesirable behaviors". In other words, women who were applying for divorce had more unreasonable thoughts and burnout compared to those  who wanted to continue their marital life.

  20. Gender differences in marital communication patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, B B

    1989-03-01

    This study examined conflict-resolution interactions of couples, and related marital satisfaction to sequential and nonsequential communication patterns. Couples' satisfaction with marriage has been differentiated on the basis of the degree of coercive versus affiliative communication between partners. Results of this study indicate that this pattern differs, however, for individuals within couples on the basis of gender. Females and males were found to demonstrate different styles of response to dissatisfaction in marriage; men assume a coercive stance toward their partners while women take an affiliative position. Drawing on systemic and gender-difference theoretical perspectives, these patterns are interpreted as attempts by individuals with different world views to resolve conflict. A view is discussed whereby systems and gender differences can be integrated into a unified conceptual formulation upon which to base future development in research and therapeutic interventions.

  1. The Effects of Briefly Interrupting Marital Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottman, John M; Tabares, Amber

    2017-06-28

    This study examined couples' (N = 94) behavior resulting from two proximal change interventions. One was a spousal "compliments intervention" to increase positivity, and the other was a "criticize intervention" to increase negativity. Participants were randomly assigned to one of the two intervention conditions or a control group. There was no main effect in affect from the pretest conflict discussion to the posttest conflict discussion between the interventions or control group. However, a manipulation check on how couples acted during either intervention produced a significant interaction effect. Pretest affect during conflict and marital satisfaction significantly predicted couples' construal of the intervention. Professionals may need to monitor how couples use specific interventions and direct the processes how the intervention is construed by the couple. © 2017 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.

  2. Assessment of arsenic concentration in stream water using neuro fuzzy networks with factor analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Fi-John; Chung, Chang-Han; Chen, Pin-An; Liu, Chen-Wuing; Coynel, Alexandra; Vachaud, Georges

    2014-10-01

    We propose a systematical approach to assessing arsenic concentration in a river through: important factor extraction by a nonlinear factor analysis; arsenic concentration estimation by the neuro-fuzzy network; and impact assessment of important factors on arsenic concentration by the membership degrees of the constructed neuro-fuzzy network. The arsenic-contaminated Huang Gang Creek in northern Taiwan is used as a study case. Results indicate that rainfall, nitrite nitrogen and temperature are important factors and the proposed estimation model (ANFIS(GT)) is superior to the two comparative models, in which 50% and 52% improvements in RMSE are made over ANFIS(CC) and ANFIS(all), respectively. Results reveal that arsenic concentration reaches the highest in an environment of lower temperature, higher nitrite nitrogen concentration and larger one-month antecedent rainfall; while it reaches the lowest in an environment of higher temperature, lower nitrite nitrogen concentration and smaller one-month antecedent rainfall. It is noted that these three selected factors are easy-to-collect. We demonstrate that the proposed methodology is a useful and effective methodology, which can be adapted to other similar settings to reliably model water quality based on parameters of interest and/or study areas of interest for universal usage. The proposed methodology gives a quick and reliable way to estimate arsenic concentration, which makes good contribution to water environment management. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. [Well connected - optimally cared for! : Beneficial factors of collaboration in hospice and palliative care networks in Bavaria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, Franziska A; Heckel, Maria; Stiel, Stephanie; Ostgathe, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    The Bavarian State Ministry of Health and Care fosters the establishment of regional hospice and palliative care networks in Bavaria, Germany. Little is known about well-tried structures and beneficial strategies of collaboration within such networks. The present study aims to investigate general conditions under which hospice and palliative care networks in Bavaria perform successfully and to explore modes of working, forms of organisation, and channels of communication. Data were collected between March and June 2015 in semi-structured interviews with ten coordinators and chairpersons of ten Bavarian hospice and palliative care networks. Results of this status quo analysis concerning aspects of network models and beneficial factors of networking were discussed in a subsequent workshop. The workshop took place in November 2015 with eight representatives of five networks. Individual interviews and the discussion of the diagnostic workshop were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. Data were analysed with the aid of the computer-assisted qualitative data analysis software MAXQDA (Software für qualitative Datenanalyse (1989-2015). VERBI Software Consult Sozialforschung GmbH, Berlin, Germany). Hypotheses were formulated adapted from Grounded Theory. Networking factors and characteristics are quite congruent. Beneficial and diverse factors identified by network coordinators and moderators represent three major topics: network organisation and coordination, communication and information channels, and public visibility. Well-tried and established practices of networking are present in the hospice and palliative care networks included in the study. The experiences and visions of the networks will foster the compilation of a best practice recommendation for the establishment of new and the enhancement of existing networks.

  4. Transcription factor network in embryonic stem cells: heterogeneity under the stringency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakai-Futatsugi, Yoko; Niwa, Hitoshi

    2013-01-01

    Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) signaling regulates transcription factors to maintain the self-renewability and pluripotency of embryonic stem (ES) cells. Recently, we have proposed a network model that consists of transcription factors such as, Klf4, Sox2, Tbx3, Nanog, and Oct3/4, which form a parallel pathway downstream from LIF signaling (Nature, 460, 2009, Niwa et al.). In this parallel pathway, the transcription factors maintain the pluripotency of ES cells through mutual balance with some degree of redundancy and compensation. While self-renewability and pluripotency are maintained well under such seemingly stringent regulation, studies of single cells revealed heterogeneity among individual ES cells. This heterogeneity may underlie the mechanism that allows ES cells to exit self-renewal and enter into differentiation to exert pluripotency. Here we focus on recent studies on the heterogeneity of ES cells and discuss their inherent metastability.

  5. A Genetically Informed Study of Marital Instability and Its Association With Offspring Psychopathology

    OpenAIRE

    D’Onofrio, Brian M.; Turkheimer, Eric; Emery, Robert E.; Slutske, Wendy S.; Heath, Andrew C; Madden, Pamela A; Martin, Nicholas G.

    2005-01-01

    Parental divorce is associated with a number of emotional and behavioral problems in young-adult offspring, but theoretical and empirical considerations suggest that the relation may be partially or fully accounted for by passive gene–environment correlation or environmental selection characteristics. The current study used the Children of Twins Design to explore whether shared environmental or genetic factors confound the relationship between parental marital instability and measures of psyc...

  6. Contribution of marital conflict to marital quality in short and long-term marriages: An actor-partner interdependence model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Khodabakhsh; Rezazade, Majid; Saadat, Hassan; Kimiaei, Seyed Ali; Zade, Nima Hoseyn

    2015-01-01

    In the field of family research, previous studies have made great strides toward understanding the relationship between marital conflict and quality. However, they have only studied couples in short-term marriages. Therefore, much remains to be unraveled with regard to long-term marriages. We aimed investigate the comparative contribution of aspects of marital conflict to marital quality in short-and long-term marriages in Iranian families. Using random clustered sampling, 400 dyads in intact first marriages were surveyed across eight provinces of Iran. Complete surveys for both husbands and wives were returned for 162 households (couple's response rate: 40.5%). Survey measures included demographics questionnaire, Barati and Sanai's Marital Conflict Questionnaire and Blum and Mehrabian's Comprehensive Marital Satisfaction Scale. Structural equation modeling was used to test the actor-partner interdependence model of marital conflict-marital quality. Generalized additive models were incorporated to define what constitutes short-and long-term marriages. Based on the models regressed, duration ≤ 10 years was defined as short-term, whereas duration ≥ 25 years was labeled long-term. In short-term marriages (n = 44), decreased sexual relations, increased daily hassles and sidedness in relations with parents were negatively associated with marital quality in both actor and actor-to-partner paths. In long-term married couples (n = 46), only increased daily hassles (P actor paths and only sidedness in relationships with parents showed significant negative association to marital quality in actor-to-partner paths. Different themes of conflict contribute to the diminished level of marital quality in early and late stages of the marriage. Conflicts over sex, relationship with extended family and daily hassles are emphasized in the early years of marriage, while in later years; dispute over money and daily hassles dominate.

  7. Prioritizing of effective factors on development of medicinal plants cultivation using analytic network process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghorbanali Rassam

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available For the overall development of medicinal plants cultivation in Iran, there is a need to identify various effective factors on medicinal plant cultivation. A proper method for identifying the most effective factor on the development of the medicinal plants cultivation is essential. This research conducted in order to prioritizing of the effective criteria for the development of medicinal plant cultivation in North Khorasan province in Iran using Analytical Network Process (ANP method. The multi-criteria decision making (MCDM is suggested to be a viable method for factor selection and the analytic network process (ANP has been used as a tool for MCDM. For this purpose a list of effective factors offered to expert group. Then pair wise comparison questionnaires were distributed between relevant researchers and local producer experts of province to get their opinions about the priority of criteria and sub- criteria. The questionnaires were analyzed using Super Decision software. We illustrated the use of the ANP by ranking main effective factors such as economic, educational-extension services, cultural-social and supportive policies on development of medicinal plants. The main objective of the present study was to develop ANP as a decision making tool for prioritizing factors affecting the development of medicinal plants cultivation. Results showed that the ANP methodology was perfectly suited to tackling the complex interrelations involved in selection factor in this case. Also the results of the process revealed that among the factors, supporting the cultivation of medicinal plants, build the infrastructure for marketing support, having educated farmer and easy access to production input have most impact on the development of medicinal plant cultivation.

  8. Integration and diversity of the regulatory network composed of Maf and CNC families of transcription factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motohashi, Hozumi; O'Connor, Tania; Katsuoka, Fumiki; Engel, James Douglas; Yamamoto, Masayuki

    2002-07-10

    Recent progress in the analysis of transcriptional regulation has revealed the presence of an exquisite functional network comprising the Maf and Cap 'n' collar (CNC) families of regulatory proteins, many of which have been isolated. Among Maf factors, large Maf proteins are important in the regulation of embryonic development and cell differentiation, whereas small Maf proteins serve as obligatory heterodimeric partner molecules for members of the CNC family. Both Maf homodimers and CNC-small Maf heterodimers bind to the Maf recognition element (MARE). Since the MARE contains a consensus TRE sequence recognized by AP-1, Jun and Fos family members may act to compete or interfere with the function of CNC-small Maf heterodimers. Overall then, the quantitative balance of transcription factors interacting with the MARE determines its transcriptional activity. Many putative MARE-dependent target genes such as those induced by antioxidants and oxidative stress are under concerted regulation by the CNC family member Nrf2, as clearly proven by mouse germline mutagenesis. Since these genes represent a vital aspect of the cellular defense mechanism against oxidative stress, Nrf2-null mutant mice are highly sensitive to xenobiotic and oxidative insults. Deciphering the molecular basis of the regulatory network composed of Maf and CNC families of transcription factors will undoubtedly lead to a new paradigm for the cooperative function of transcription factors.

  9. [Using the Tabu-search-algorithm-based Bayesian network to analyze the risk factors of coronary heart diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Z; Zhang, X L; Rao, H X; Wang, H F; Wang, X; Qiu, L X

    2016-06-01

    Under the available data gathered from a coronary study questionnaires with 10 792 cases, this article constructs a Bayesian network model based on the tabu search algorithm and calculates the conditional probability of each node, using the Maximum-likelihood. Pros and cons of the Bayesian network model are evaluated to compare against the logistic regression model in the analysis of coronary factors. Applicability of this network model in clinical study is also investigated. Results show that Bayesian network model can reveal the complex correlations among influencing factors on the coronary and the relationship with coronary heart diseases. Bayesian network model seems promising and more practical than the logistic regression model in analyzing the influencing factors of coronary heart disease.

  10. A network of paralogous stress response transcription factors in the human pathogen Candida glabrata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jawad eMerhej

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The yeast Candida glabrata has become the second cause of systemic candidemia in humans. However, relatively few genome-wide studies have been conducted in this organism and our knowledge of its transcriptional regulatory network is quite limited. In the present work, we combined genome-wide chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP-seq, transcriptome analyses and DNA binding motif predictions to describe the regulatory interactions of the seven Yap (Yeast AP1 transcription factors of C. glabrata. We described a transcriptional network containing 255 regulatory interactions and 309 potential target genes. We predicted with high confidence the preferred DNA binding sites for 5 of the 7 CgYaps and showed a strong conservation of the Yap DNA binding properties between S. cerevisiae and C. glabrata. We provided reliable functional annotation for 3 of the 7 Yaps and identified for Yap1 and Yap5 a core regulon which is conserved in S. cerevisiae, C. glabrata and C. albicans. We uncovered new roles for CgYap7 in the regulation of iron-sulfur cluster biogenesis, for CgYap1 in the regulation of heme biosynthesis and for CgYap5 in the repression of GRX4 in response to iron starvation. These transcription factors define an interconnected transcriptional network at the cross-roads between redox homeostasis, oxygen consumption and iron metabolism.

  11. Validez Convergente de la Version Espanola Preliminar del Child Abuse Potential Inventory: Depresion y Aduste Marital (Convergent Validity of the Preliminary Spanish Version of the Child Abuse Potential Inventory: Depression and Marital Adjustment).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arruabarrena, M. Ignacia; de Paul, Joaquin

    1992-01-01

    "Convergent validity" of preliminary Spanish version of Child Abuse Potential (CAP) Inventory was studied. CAP uses ecological-systemic model of child maltreatment to evaluate individual, family, and social factors facilitating physical child abuse. Depression and marital adjustment were measured in three groups of mothers. Results found…

  12. Maternal depression and parenting in early childhood: Contextual influence of marital quality and social support in two samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taraban, Lindsay; Shaw, Daniel S; Leve, Leslie D; Wilson, Melvin N; Dishion, Thomas J; Natsuaki, Misaki N; Neiderhiser, Jenae M; Reiss, David

    2017-03-01

    Marital quality and social support satisfaction were tested as moderators of the association between maternal depressive symptoms and parenting during early childhood (18-36 months) among 2 large, divergent, longitudinal samples (n = 526; n = 570). Unexpectedly, in both samples the association between maternal depressive symptoms and reduced parenting quality was strongest in the context of high marital quality and high social support, and largely nonsignificant in the context of low marital quality and low social support. Possible explanations for these surprising findings are discussed. Results point to the importance of accounting for factors in the broader family context in predicting the association between depressive symptoms and maternal parenting. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Marital satisfaction and divorce in couples in stepfamilies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLongis, Anita; Zwicker, Amy

    2017-02-01

    We review research and theory examining stress and coping in stepfamilies as predictors of marital quality and divorce. Although the divorce rate in first-marriages has stabilized after years of increase in North America, the divorce rate of remarriages continues to increase. We argue that depression and marital distress are both mechanisms through which stepfamily stress impacts marital stability, with parenting stressors particularly potent determinants of divorce. We draw upon our own research predicting divorce across 20 years in 112 married couples in stepfamilies, as well as from the larger literature on stepfamilies. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Microfinance Participation and Marital Violence in Bangladesh: A Qualitative Inquiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murshid, Nadine Shaanta; Zippay, Allison

    2016-09-15

    This study explores the experiences of marital violence within the context of microfinance participation among a sample of women living in poverty in Bangladesh. Status inconsistency theory suggests that the higher incomes and female independence that may occur with microfinance participation may threaten or destabilize marital norms in Bangladesh, and have implications in terms of increased violence. We use qualitative data from in-depth interviews with 30 women residing in a slum in Dhaka, Bangladesh, to assess the circumstances in which there may be an association between microfinance participation and marital violence and elucidate the context in which this interaction occurs. © The Author(s) 2016.

  15. Social factors shaping the formation of a multi-stakeholder trails network group for the Monongahela National Forest, West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karen Robinson; Steven Selin; Chad Pierskalla

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports the results and management implications of a longitudinal research study examining the social factors affecting the formation of a trails network advisory group for the Monongahela National Forest (MNF) in West Virginia. A collaborative process of creating an MNF trails network with input from local users and stakeholders has been largely...

  16. Factors affecting Malaysian university students’ purchase intention in social networking sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeideh Sharifi fard

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study applied the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology 2 to examine acceptance and use of social networking sites in a marketing setting. This study uses 370 regular higher education students in Malaysia as respondents. Quantitative method is used. The findings revealed that performance expectancy (PE and hedonic motivation were the main factors that influence users’ online purchase intention (PI through social networking sites (SNSs in Malaysia. As for moderating influences of gender and age, the results showed that gender significantly moderated purposed association between these four elements and the online PI, while the moderating effect of age was only recognized in PE. Findings of this research offer practitioners with better insights that would aid them in developing effective online marketing strategies to attract online purchasing users through SNSs.

  17. Fluctuations of suicidality in the aftermath of a marital separation: 6-month follow-up observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kõlves, Kairi; Ide, Naoko; De Leo, Diego

    2012-12-15

    There is a lack of understanding of how the changing nature of the separation process impacts on suicidality. This paper aims to identify factors contributing to fluctuations in suicidality during the process of marital/de facto separation along a 6-month follow-up. Separated persons who had contacted relationship-counselling services, help-line services, and variety of support and self-help groups were asked to participate in the first assessment. A 'Follow-Up Questionnaire' was sent 6 months later. Participants were required to be 18 years or older and separated from their married/de facto partner within the previous 18 months but not yet divorced. Overall, in the first assessment, separated females presented lower levels of suicidality than males. During the follow-up suicidality decreased. There were some gender differences in terms of predictors of changes in suicidality. Separated males who showed an increase or stability in suicidality were more affected by stressful experiences such as legal negotiations on obtaining a divorce, feelings of loss and loneliness, loss of social networks and financial difficulties than males who were not suicidal in either assessment. Separated males and females who remained suicidal were more likely to report different mental and physical illnesses. Relatively low response rates of the follow-up (60%) limited our statistical analyses as some of the groups were too small and did not enable modelling. Suicidality decreased, which seems to indicate that individuals adjusted to their new life circumstances. However, persons whose suicidality remained or increased reported more frequently stressful life events, physical and mental illnesses. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Determination of factors controlling the particle size in nanoemulsions using Artificial Neural Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amani, Amir; York, Peter; Chrystyn, Henry; Clark, Brian J; Do, Duong Q

    2008-09-02

    The purpose of this study was to use Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) in identifying factors, in addition to surfactant and internal phase content, that influence the particle size of nanoemulsions. The phase diagram and rheometric characteristics of a nanoemulsion system containing polysorbate 80, ethanol, medium chain triglycerides and normal saline loaded with budesonide were investigated. The particle size of samples of various compositions prepared using different rates and amounts of applied energy was measured. Data, divided into training, test and validation sets, were modelled by ANNs. The developed model was assessed and found to be of high quality. The model was then used to explore the effect of composition and processing factors on particle size of the nanoemulsion preparation. The study demonstrates the potential of ANNs in identifying critical parameters controlling preparation for this system, with the total amount of applied energy during preparation found to be the dominant factor in controlling the final particle size.

  19. High functioning autism disorder: marital relationships and sexual offending

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    Clayton Peixoto

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To describe the implications of social inability as a factor that can contribute to sexual abuse in the marriage relationship of people with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder (ASD. Case description A 30-year-old male sought medical attention complaining of being “very nervous” and have difficulties in family relationships. He was diagnosed with high-functioning ASD based on the DSM-5. Married for over 4 years with a woman diagnosed with histrionic personality disorder (HPD, he asked for her to accompany him in the sessions and help him describe difficulties they had during sexual intercourse. His wife reported feeling raped in all of her sexual relations with the patient, especially when he could not understand that she did not want sex. Comments The case study leads us to believe that the social and communicative disability is a complicating factor that can contributes to the occurrence of sexual abuse in marital relationships with individuals with ASD. Social skills training, psychotherapy, and traditional medical therapies should be considered to minimize the risk of occurrence of cases of sexual abuse by individuals with high-functioning ASD against the spouses themselves.

  20. A process model of adolescents' triangulation into parents' marital conflict: the role of emotional reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buehler, Cheryl; Welsh, Deborah P

    2009-04-01

    This study examined adolescents' emotional reactivity to parents' marital conflict as a mediator of the association between triangulation and adolescents' internalizing problems in a sample of 2-parent families (N = 416)[corrected]. Four waves of annual, multiple-informant data were analyzed (youth ages 11-15 years). The authors used structural equation modeling and found that triangulation was associated with increases in adolescents' internalizing problems, controlling for marital hostility and adolescent externalizing problems. There also was an indirect pathway from triangulation to internalizing problems across time through youths' emotional reactivity. Moderating analyses indicated that the 2nd half of the pathway, the association between emotional reactivity and increased internalizing problems, characterized youth with lower levels of hopefulness and attachment to parents. The findings help detail why triangulation is a risk factor for adolescents' development and which youth will profit most from interventions focused on emotional regulation.

  1. Estilos De Comunicación Para el Afrontamiento del Conflicto en la Convivencia Marital

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    Adriana Carolina Segura Baracaldo,

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo de investigación presenta un estudio y análisis para determinar los estilos de comunicación en las parejas de los miembros de la institución en las Regionales de Policía Nª 4 y 8, para el afrontamiento del conflictos marital. Se analiza teóricamente la prevalencia del estilo comunicativo desde las dimensiones: Asertiva, Agresiva, Sumisa y Agresivo Pasiva. Igualmente se realiza un análisis comparativo de los estilos comunicativos para el afrontamiento del conflicto marital entre las dos Regionales estableciendo diferencias entre factores sociodemográficos (edad, sexo y su relación con los estilos comunicativos utilizados de acuerdo al tiempo de convivencia de la pareja. Por último se formulan recomendaciones para la prevención de la violencia intrafamiliar mediante el empleo de una comunicación asertiva.

  2. Social differences in the decline of marital reproduction in rural Navarre (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, J J

    1998-09-01

    The continued decline of marital fertility in Navarre, Spain, during the first few decades of the 20th century was associated with an increase in life expectancy and greater survival to adulthood. While the decline affected all social strata and geographical regions, it was not homogeneous, with some sectors of Navarrese society beginning the fertility transition earlier than others. Using data drawn from the nominal lists of the 1940 Spanish Census on married women aged 45-49 years, the author investigated the influence of differences in geographical origin, level of urbanization, father's occupation, level of religious devotion, and political factors upon the observed decline in marital fertility. The data support the originators of demographic transition theory, that the more urban populations, and therefore those with a higher percentage of the active population working in nonprimary sectors, led the fertility decline. The degree of a society's secularization also influenced the beginning of the decline of fertility and the levels reached.

  3. Protective Processes Underlying the Links between Marital Quality and Physical Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slatcher, Richard B; Schoebi, Dominik

    2017-02-01

    Although the links between marital quality and physical health are now well established, the psychological processes through which marriage impacts health remain unclear. Additionally, prior research on the links between marriage and health has focused mainly on how negative aspects of relationships (e.g., conflict, hostility) can be damaging to one's physical health. In this article, we describe the strength and strain model of marital quality and health, which provides a roadmap for studying protective factors underlying marriage-health links. We home in one relationship process-partner responsiveness-and one broad class of psychological mechanisms-affective processes-to illustrate core aspects of the model. Our review suggests that future research will profit from a greater integration of theory from the social psychology of close relationships into studies of relationships and health.

  4. Social support, marital adjustment, and psychological distress among women with primary infertility in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qadir, Farah; Khalid, Amna; Medhin, Girmay

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to identify prevalence rates of psychological distress among Pakistani women seeking help for primary infertility. The associations of social support, marital adjustment, and sociodemographic factors with psychological distress were also examined. A total of 177 women with primary infertility were interviewed from one hospital in Islamabad using a Self-Reporting Questionnaire, the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, and the Locke-Wallace Marital Adjustment Test. The data were collected between November 2012 and March 2013. The prevalence of psychological distress was 37.3 percent. The results of the logistic regression suggested that marital adjustment and social support were significantly negatively associated with psychological distress in this sample. These associations were not confounded by any of the demographic variables controlled in the multivariable regression models. The role of perceived social support and adjustment in marriage among women experiencing primary infertility are important factors in understanding their psychological distress. The results of this small-scale effort highlight the need for social and familial awareness to help tackle the psychological distress related to infertility. Future research needs to focus on the way the experience of infertility is conditioned by social structural realities. New ways need to be developed to better take into account the process and nature of the infertility experience.

  5. How Adult Attachment and Personality Traits are Related to Marital Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parisa Nilforooshan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to explore the role of General Factor of Personality (GFP and adult attachment dimensions in marital quality through relationship attributions and emotional reactions. The sample consisted of 261 couples who were married at least more than one year and had no major stressful events in their lives up to the time of the study. In this study, the NEO-Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI, the Experiences in Close Relationships Questionnaire-Revised (ECR-R, the Relationship Attribution Measure (RAM, the Geneva Emotion Wheel (GEW, and the Perceived Relationship Quality Components (PRQC were used for collecting the data. Structural equation modeling (SEM was employed to analyze the data. The results suggest that attachment anxiety and attachment avoidance and GFP directly and indirectly, through relationship attributions and emotional reactions, were related to marital quality. In addition, relationship attributions are antecedent to emotional reactions. Based on the findings, an intrapersonal-situational model of marital quality is suggested.

  6. Predictive Validation of a Telephone Version of the Locke-Wallace Marital Adjustment Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krokoff, Lowell J.

    1989-01-01

    Assessed predictive validity of telephone version of Locke-Wallace Marital Adjustment Test in couples (N=120) who varied in marital happiness, social class, and other demographic characteristics. Found Locke-Wallace scores predictive of husband/wife marital adjustment scores and distressed/nondistressed marital status. (Author/CM)

  7. Research on Factors Influencing Municipal Household Solid Waste Separate Collection: Bayesian Belief Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhujie Chu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Municipal household solid waste (MHSW has become a serious problem in China over the course of the last two decades, resulting in significant side effects to the environment. Therefore, effective management of MHSW has attracted wide attention from both researchers and practitioners. Separate collection, the first and crucial step to solve the MHSW problem, however, has not been thoroughly studied to date. An empirical survey has been conducted among 387 households in Harbin, China in this study. We use Bayesian Belief Networks model to determine the influencing factors on separate collection. Four types of factors are identified, including political, economic, social cultural and technological based on the PEST (political, economic, social and technological analytical method. In addition, we further analyze the influential power of different factors, based on the network structure and probability changes obtained by Netica software. Results indicate that technological dimension has the greatest impact on MHSW separate collection, followed by the political dimension and economic dimension; social cultural dimension impacts MHSW the least.

  8. Mapping transcription factor interactome networks using HaloTag protein arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazaki, Junshi; Galli, Mary; Kim, Alice Y; Nito, Kazumasa; Aleman, Fernando; Chang, Katherine N; Carvunis, Anne-Ruxandra; Quan, Rosa; Nguyen, Hien; Song, Liang; Alvarez, José M; Huang, Shao-Shan Carol; Chen, Huaming; Ramachandran, Niroshan; Altmann, Stefan; Gutiérrez, Rodrigo A; Hill, David E; Schroeder, Julian I; Chory, Joanne; LaBaer, Joshua; Vidal, Marc; Braun, Pascal; Ecker, Joseph R

    2016-07-19

    Protein microarrays enable investigation of diverse biochemical properties for thousands of proteins in a single experiment, an unparalleled capacity. Using a high-density system called HaloTag nucleic acid programmable protein array (HaloTag-NAPPA), we created high-density protein arrays comprising 12,000 Arabidopsis ORFs. We used these arrays to query protein-protein interactions for a set of 38 transcription factors and transcriptional regulators (TFs) that function in diverse plant hormone regulatory pathways. The resulting transcription factor interactome network, TF-NAPPA, contains thousands of novel interactions. Validation in a benchmarked in vitro pull-down assay revealed that a random subset of TF-NAPPA validated at the same rate of 64% as a positive reference set of literature-curated interactions. Moreover, using a bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) assay, we confirmed in planta several interactions of biological interest and determined the interaction localizations for seven pairs. The application of HaloTag-NAPPA technology to plant hormone signaling pathways allowed the identification of many novel transcription factor-protein interactions and led to the development of a proteome-wide plant hormone TF interactome network.

  9. The Effect of Marital Violence on Infertility Distress among A Sample of Turkish Women

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    Aygül Akyüz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between marital violence and distress level among women with a diagnosis of infertility. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study consisted of 139 married women diagnosed as primary infertile who applied to an in vitro fertilization (IVF center in Turkey, between September and December 2009. A descriptive information questionnaire developed by the researcher was used for data collection. In addition, an infertility distress scale (IDS for determining the severity effect of infertility and the scale for marital violence against women (SDVW for determining level of marital violence against the women were used. Results: The total IDS score of the study sample was 37.76 ± 10.53. There was no significant relationship between the age and education level of the women and the total IDS score. The total IDS score was higher in women who did not work and those being treated for infertility for more than three years. The total SDVW score of the study sample was 67.0 ± 8.26. The total SDVW score was higher in women who had been trying to have a child for more than six years and had received infertility treatment for longer than three years. The employment status of the women and physical, emotional, and sexual violence scores had a statistically significant relationship with the IDS scores. The emotional violence score was found to have the highest significance among the variables affecting total IDS score. Conclusion: Marital violence is a factor increasing the distress of infertile women. Healthcare staff serving infertile couples should consider the possibility of domestic violence against women as a factor affecting the psychological infertility distress level.

  10. Kin Group Affiliation and Marital Violence Against Women in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedziafa, Alice Pearl; Tenkorang, Eric Y

    2016-01-01

    The socialization of men and women in Ghana often confers either patrilineal or matrilineal rights, privileges, and responsibilities. Yet, previous studies that explored domestic and marital violence in sub-Saharan Africa, and Ghana, paid less attention to kin group affiliation and how the power dynamics within such groups affect marital violence. Using the 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey and applying ordinary least squares (OLS) techniques, this study examined what influences physical, sexual, and emotional violence among matrilineal and patrilineal kin groups. Results indicate significant differences among matrilineal and patrilineal kin groups regarding marital violence. Socioeconomic variables that capture feminist and power theories were significantly related to sexual and emotional violence in matrilineal societies. Also, variables that tap both cultural and life course epistemologies of domestic violence were strongly related to physical, sexual, and emotional violence among married women in patrilineal kin groups. Policymakers must pay attention to kin group affiliation in designing policies aimed at reducing marital violence among Ghanaian women.

  11. Marital satisfaction and physical health: evidence for an orchid effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    South, Susan C; Krueger, Robert F

    2013-03-01

    Marital distress and conflict are linked to poor physical health. Here, we used behavior genetic modeling to determine the etiology of this association. Biometric moderation models were used to estimate gene-by-environment interaction in the presence of gene-environment correlation between marital satisfaction and self-reported health. Using a sample of 347 married twin pairs from the Midlife in the United States study, we found that genetic influences on the variation in self-reported health were greatest at both high (h (2) = .30) and low (h (2) = .38) levels of marital satisfaction, with the lowest levels of heritability estimated for participants at the average level of marital satisfaction (h (2) = .10). These findings are evidence of the orchid effect: the idea that genetic influences on a phenotype such as physical health are enhanced in nonnormative-both unusually positive and unusually negative-environmental contexts.

  12. Exploring Marital Satisfaction among Graduate Students: Implications for Service Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Joshua M.

    2006-01-01

    This article provides a synopsis of the theoretical and empirical literature describing the effects of graduate study on marital satisfaction. These findings offer implications for psychoeducational and responsive interventions for family counselors working with this population.

  13. Marital Histories and Heavy Alcohol Use among Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reczek, Corinne; Pudrovska, Tetyana; Carr, Deborah; Thomeer, Mieke Beth; Umberson, Debra

    2016-03-01

    We develop a gendered marital biography approach-which emphasizes the accumulating gendered experiences of singlehood, marriage, marital dissolution, and remarriage-to examine the relationship between marital statuses and transitions and heavy alcohol use. We test this approach using individual-level (n = 10,457) and couple-level (n = 2,170) longitudinal data from the Health and Retirement Study, and individual-level (n = 46) and couple-level (n = 42) in-depth interview data. Quantitative results show that marriage, including remarriage, reduces men's but increases women's drinking relative to being never married and previously married, whereas divorce increases men's but decrease women's drinking, with some variation by age. Our qualitative findings reveal that social control and convergence processes underlie quantitative results. We call attention to how men's and women's heavy drinking trajectories stop, start, and change direction as individuals move through their distinctive marital biography. © American Sociological Association 2016.

  14. Impact of Women's Off-Farm Employment on Marital Adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Linda F.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Findings from this study of 527 farm couples suggest that women's off-farm employment might be in competition with traditional farm values and thus might hinder high-quality marital relationships in farm couples. (Author)

  15. Pleasurable Behavior in Marital Interaction: An Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Elizabeth A.; Price, M. Gail

    1980-01-01

    All couples demonstrated parity in pleasurable behavior exchange rates. High-adjustment couples reported increased marital happiness following self-monitoring of pleasurable events. Low-adjustment spouses underestimated pleasurable behavior rates by approximately 50%. (Author)

  16. Effect of socioeconomic conditions on health care utilization in marital violence: a cross-sectional investigation from the Japanese Study on Stratification, Health, Income, and Neighborhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umeda, Maki; Kawakami, Norito; Miller, Elizabeth

    2017-02-28

    The health-care-seeking process while experiencing marital violence can be significantly influenced by one's socioeconomic status, which limits the availability of resources and opportunities for accessing those resources. This study exploratorily examined the effects of socioeconomic factors on the association between marital violence and health care utilization in Japan. Cross-sectional data on 2,984 male and female community residents aged 25 to 50 years was obtained from the first wave of Japanese Study of Stratification, Health, Income, and Neighborhood (J-SHINE) conducted between 2010 and 2011. Multiple logistic regression analysis was conducted to examine the association between marital violence and health care utilization. Interaction terms were used to examine the moderating effect of educational attainment, household income, and employment status on the association. Mediation analysis was conducted to estimate the magnitude of mediating effects of mastery, social support, and health literacy in relation to the moderating effect of socioeconomic factors. Health care utilization in Japan was more prevalent among those who experienced marital violence (69.4 vs. 65.1%). The association between marital violence and health care utilization differed by employment status at a 0.10 level, while educational attainment and household income did not have substantial influence on health care utilization in the presence of marital violence. None of the psychosocial resources (mastery, health literacy, instrumental support, and informational support) explained the differential association by employment status. This study highlights the increased health care needs of those experiencing marital violence in Japan. The health care needs of the unemployed are potentially unmet in the presence of marital violence. Removing barriers to health care experienced by the unemployed may be an effective strategy for connecting survivors to needed supports and care.

  17. Marital violence and coparenting quality after separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardesty, Jennifer L; Crossman, Kimberly A; Khaw, Lyndal; Raffaelli, Marcela

    2016-04-01

    Research has identified multiple predictors of coparenting quality, but few studies have investigated how intimate partner violence (IPV) affects divorcing couples' coparenting relationships. We addressed this question in a sample of 154 mothers with different marital IPV experiences. Mothers were recruited within 4 months of a divorce filing and completed two interviews 3 months apart. At Time 1, mothers reported on violence and coercive control during marriage, and postseparation behavioral (e.g., parental communication), emotional (e.g., anger), and intrusion (e.g., harassment) dynamics; at Time 2, they reported on coparenting quality (i.e., levels of support and conflict). In the overall sample, divorce and violence variables independently predicted coparenting quality. Mothers were then classified into three groups: no violence (NV; n = 74), situational couple violence (SCV; n = 46), or coercive controlling violence (CCV; n = 34). Of the 3, coparenting quality was lowest in the CCV group. While the SCV group was similar to the NV group on most divorce-related variables, the CCV group reported more hostility at separation and placed less importance on father-child relationships. Finally, patterns of association between study variables and coparenting quality showed some parallels between the SCV and NV groups. For CCV, postseparation harassment and fear were negatively associated with coparenting quality. Findings contribute to understanding predictors of coparenting quality and support the need for individualized assessments of divorce cases with attention to IPV dynamics. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. MARITAL LIFE AND ANXIETY : IMPLICATIONS FOR MENTAL HEALTH PROFESSIONALS

    OpenAIRE

    Rao, V N; Channabasavanna, S.M.; Parthasarathy, R.

    1983-01-01

    SUMMARY The marital life situations of the anxiety patients are compared with that of normals based on four important dimensions- partner's behaviour as perceived by the subject during his/her difficulties, difference of opinion in domestic management, criticism regarding their In-laws and threats of divorce. For this purpose, 20 Anxiety patients and 40 Normals based on group matching were studied. The implications for mental health professional's role functioning in dealing with the marital ...

  19. Marital status and abortion among young women in Rupandehi, Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen, Kathryn L.; Khanal, Ram Chandra; Teixeira, Alexandra; Neupane, Shailes; Sharma, Sharad; Acre, Valerie N; Gallo, Maria F.

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite liberalization of the Nepal abortion law, young women continue to experience barriers to safe abortion services. We hypothesize that marital status may differentially impact such barriers, given the societal context of Nepal. Methods We evaluated differences in reproductive knowledge and attitudes by marital status with a probability-based, cross-sectional survey of young women in Rupandehi district, Nepal. Participants (N?=?600) were surveyed in 2012 on demographics, roman...

  20. Drinking and marital aggression in newlyweds: an event-based analysis of drinking and the occurrence of husband marital aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, K E; Quigley, B M

    1999-07-01

    Research suggests that domestically violent men are more likely to be heavy drinkers than nonviolent men. However, very little data has addressed the relationship between the occurrence of a domestic violence episode and the co-occurrence of husband or wife alcohol consumption. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between husband and wife drinking and whether the most serious conflict involved verbal aggression, moderate physical aggression or severe physical aggression. Newlywed couples (n = 366) who were assessed with respect to risk factors for marital violence at the time of marriage were interviewed at the end of their first year of marriage. These in-person interviews focused on characteristics (location, presence of other people, husband drinking, wife drinking) of the most severe verbal conflict, and the first and the most severe episode of physical aggression. After controlling for individual difference risk factors including husband and wife drinking patterns, husband drinking was more likely in episodes of physical vs episodes of verbal aggression. This finding was consistent in both husband and wife, and consistent in both between-groups and within-groups analyses. Wife drinking was largely unrelated to occurrence or severity of violence. These results support the contention that alcohol use may contribute to the occurrence and/or severity of domestic violence, particularly in the early stages of marriage.

  1. Marital Processes, Arranged Marriage, and Contraception to Limit Fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghimire, Dirgha J.; Axinn, William G.

    2013-01-01

    An international transition away from familially-arranged marriages toward participation in spouse choice has endured for decades and continues to spread through rural Asia today. Though we know this transformation has important consequences for childbearing early in marriage, we know much less about longer-term consequences of this marital revolution. This study draws upon theories of family and fertility change and a rural Asian panel study designed to investigate changes in both marital and childbearing behaviors to investigate these long-term consequences. Controlling for social changes that shape both marital practices and childbearing behaviors, and explicitly considering multiple dimensions of marital processes, we find evidence consistent with an independent, long-standing association of participation in spouse choice with higher rates of contraception to terminate childbearing. These results add a new dimension to the evidence linking revolutions in marital behavior to long-term declines in fertility, but also motivate new research to consider a broader range of long-term consequences of changing marital processes. PMID:23709184

  2. A study on relationship between emotional maturity and marital satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Esmael Mosavi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Marriage is one of the most important events of people's lives and when it happens, it could have both positive and negative consequences. In this paper, we present an empirical study to investigate the relationship between emotional maturity and marital satisfaction using a classical questionnaire. The study chooses all people aged 25-35 who live in region 10 of the city of Esfahan, Iran. The proposed study splits the main hypothesis into five detailed questions, which considers the relationship between marital satisfaction with five other components including emotional instability, return emotional, social maladjustment, close character and lack of independence. The results indicate a negative correlation between marital satisfaction and these items and t-student confirmed that there are meaningful relationship between marital satisfaction and emotional instability, return emotional, close character and lack of independence but there is no meaningful relationship between marital satisfaction and social maladjustment. In summary, the survey concluded that there is meaningful relationship between marital satisfaction and emotional maturity.

  3. Improving performance of long-term care networks at their initial stage: an empirical study of factors affecting results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angiola, Nunzio; Bianchi, Piervito

    2017-10-01

    Until now very little research has been carried out on the performance of health and human services networks in evolution. In particular, previous studies mainly referred to "centrally governed services networks" in the US context. According to Provan and Kenis (2008), these networks are "lead organization-governed", and are different from the "participant-governed" model or the "network administrative organization (NAO)" solution. We focused our attention on the Apulia region care services networks (Italy). In the last few years, the governance of these networks has passed from the "participant-governed" model to the NAO approach. We examined how the integration mechanisms work in this type of networks, and if there were challenges to tackle in order to improve their overall performance. These networks were examined at their initial stage, exactly when their governance model moved to a more integrated solution. We collected survey data from 17 health and human services networks out of 45 (38%). The research is carried out by means of statistical methods (OLS). The analysis is cross sectional. The implementation of "rational/technocratic" factors is important but not sufficient to enhance collaboration. The integration at the "professional level" should be kept in mind. In particular, the role of network (case) managers is paramount. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. The Effectiveness of Marital Therapy based on Acceptance and Commitment on Couples’ Marital Satisfaction and Quality of Life

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    Abdollah Omidi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The present study assessed the effectiveness of acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT for couples on couples’ quality of life (QOL, emotional regulation, marital satisfaction, general health, and mindfulness.

  5. Transcription factor FOXA2-centered transcriptional regulation network in non-small cell lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Sang-Min; An, Joo-Hee; Kim, Chul-Hong; Kim, Jung-Woong, E-mail: jungkim@cau.ac.kr; Choi, Kyung-Hee, E-mail: khchoi@cau.ac.kr

    2015-08-07

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-mediated death. Although various therapeutic approaches are used for lung cancer treatment, these mainly target the tumor suppressor p53 transcription factor, which is involved in apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. However, p53-targeted therapies have limited application in lung cancer, since p53 is found to be mutated in more than half of lung cancers. In this study, we propose tumor suppressor FOXA2 as an alternative target protein for therapies against lung cancer and reveal a possible FOXA2-centered transcriptional regulation network by identifying new target genes and binding partners of FOXA2 by using various screening techniques. The genes encoding Glu/Asp-rich carboxy-terminal domain 2 (CITED2), nuclear receptor subfamily 0, group B, member 2 (NR0B2), cell adhesion molecule 1 (CADM1) and BCL2-associated X protein (BAX) were identified as putative target genes of FOXA2. Additionally, the proteins including highly similar to heat shock protein HSP 90-beta (HSP90A), heat shock 70 kDa protein 1A variant (HSPA1A), histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) and HDAC3 were identified as novel interacting partners of FOXA2. Moreover, we showed that FOXA2-dependent promoter activation of BAX and p21 genes is significantly reduced via physical interactions between the identified binding partners and FOXA2. These results provide opportunities to understand the FOXA2-centered transcriptional regulation network and novel therapeutic targets to modulate this network in p53-deficient lung cancer. - Highlights: • Identification of new target genes of FOXA2. • Identifications of novel interaction proteins of FOXA2. • Construction of FOXA2-centered transcriptional regulatory network in non-small cell lung cancer.

  6. Comprehensive Transportation Logistics Network Level Layout Based on Principal Component Factor and Cluster Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Jingrong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Comprehensive Transportation Logistics Network (CTLN acts as a crucial prop and fundamental carrier for regional economic and social development. Firstly, an index system for evaluating the development of regional Comprehensive Transportation Logistics (CTL nodes is established; then regional CTLN nodes are ranked according to their importance by the method of Principal Component Analysis(PCA, and main factors affecting the development of regional CTL nodes are analyzed by applying factor analysis, and regional CTL nodes are classified according to their feature similarities by applying cluster analysis; and then level structure of constructing regional CTLN is proposed. Finally, combined with geographic locations of different nodes, level layout model of CTLN of the whole region is obtained. Taking Henan province this region as an instance, level layout model of hub-and-spoke CTLN taking Zhengzhou at its core is proposed after analysis, providing a reference basis for constructing CTLN in whole province scientifically and reasonably.

  7. Using Marital Status and Continuous Marital Satisfaction Ratings to Predict Depressive Symptoms in Married and Unmarried Women With Systemic Sclerosis : A Canadian Scleroderma Research Group Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levis, Brooke; Rice, Danielle B.; Kwakkenbos, Linda; Steele, Russell J.; Hagedoorn, Mariet; Hudson, Marie; Baron, Murray; Thombs, Brett D.

    Objective. Married persons have, on average, better mental health than nonmarried persons. Among married persons, marital satisfaction is associated with better mental health. Studies on mental health in married and nonmarried persons that consider marital satisfaction have categorized patients as

  8. Using marital status and continuous marital satisfaction ratings to predict depressive symptoms in married and unmarried women with systemic sclerosis: A Canadian Scleroderma Research Group Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levis, B.; Rice, D.B.; Kwakkenbos, C.M.C.; Steele, R.J.; Hagedoorn, M.; Hudson, M.; Baron, M.; Thombs, B.D.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Married persons have, on average, better mental health than nonmarried persons. Among married persons, marital satisfaction is associated with better mental health. Studies on mental health in married and nonmarried persons that consider marital satisfaction have categorized patients as

  9. “His” and “Her” Marriage? The Role of Positive and Negative Marital Characteristics in Global Marital Satisfaction Among Older Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Boerner, Kathrin; Jopp, Daniela S.; Carr, Deborah; Sosinsky, Laura; Kim, Se-Kang

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We explore gender differences in older adults’ appraisals of positive and negative aspects of their marriages, examine how these appraisals relate to global marital satisfaction, and identify distinctive marital profiles associated with global satisfaction in men and women.

  10. Effect of Infant Health Problem, Mother's Depression and Marital Relationship on Infant Abuse in Korea: Mediating Pathway of Marital Relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoung-Eun Kim, PhD

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: The findings from this study demonstrate the fundamental importance of infant health as linked to the mother's mental health, and marital relationship and increasing the quality of marital relationship may be the key to infant abuse prevention.

  11. Psychological risk factors of addiction to social networking sites among Chinese smartphone users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Anise M S; Cheung, Vivi I; Ku, Lisbeth; Hung, Eva P W

    2013-09-01

    Smartphones allow users to access social networking sites (SNSs) whenever and wherever they want. Such easy availability and accessibility may increase their vulnerability to addiction. Based on the social cognitive theory (SCT), we examined the impacts of outcome expectancies, self-efficacy, and impulsivity on young Chinese smartphone users' addictive tendencies toward SNSs. Two hundred seventy-seven Macau young smartphone users (116 males and 161 females; mean age = 26.62) filled out an online Chinese questionnaire concerning their usage of social networking sites via smartphones, addiction tendencies toward SNSs, impulsivity trait, outcome expectancies toward the use, and Internet self-efficacy. The findings revealed that those who spent more time on SNSs also reported higher addictive tendencies. Addictive tendencies were positively correlated with both outcome expectancies and impulsivity, but negatively associated with Internet self-efficacy. These three psychological variables explained 23% of the variance in addictive tendencies. The findings of this study suggest that, compared to demographics, psychological factors provide a better account for addictive tendencies towards SNSs among Chinese smartphone users in Macau. The three psychological risk factors were low Internet self-efficacy, favorable outcome expectancies, and high impulsivity trait. Educational campaigns with screening procedures for high-risk groups are recommended for effective prevention and treatment.

  12. Psychological risk factors of addiction to social networking sites among Chinese smartphone users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Anise M. S.; Cheung, Vivi I.; Ku, Lisbeth; Hung, Eva P. W.

    2013-01-01

    Background and aims: Smartphones allow users to access social networking sites (SNSs) whenever and wherever they want. Such easy availability and accessibility may increase their vulnerability to addiction. Based on the social cognitive theory (SCT), we examined the impacts of outcome expectancies, self-efficacy, and impulsivity on young Chinese smartphone users' addictive tendencies toward SNSs. Methods: Two hundred seventy-seven Macau young smartphone users (116 males and 161 females; mean age = 26.62) filled out an online Chinese questionnaire concerning their usage of social networking sites via smartphones, addiction tendencies toward SNSs, impulsivity trait, outcome expectancies toward the use, and Internet self-efficacy. Results: The findings revealed that those who spent more time on SNSs also reported higher addictive tendencies. Addictive tendencies were positively correlated with both outcome expectancies and impulsivity, but negatively associated with Internet self-efficacy. These three psychological variables explained 23% of the variance in addictive tendencies. Conclusions: The findings of this study suggest that, compared to demographics, psychological factors provide a better account for addictive tendencies towards SNSs among Chinese smartphone users in Macau. The three psychological risk factors were low Internet self-efficacy, favorable outcome expectancies, and high impulsivity trait. Educational campaigns with screening procedures for high-risk groups are recommended for effective prevention and treatment. PMID:25215198

  13. Burning the Candle at Both Ends: Extramarital Sex as a Precursor of Marital Disruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMaris, Alfred

    2012-01-01

    This study examines several aspects of the association between engaging in extramarital sex and the disruption of one’s marriage. In particular: is there a differential effect on disruption depending on the gender of the perpetrator? Is the effect of infidelity primarily due to its negative impact on marital quality and one’s resistance to divorce? Are there characteristics of marriages that condition the effect of infidelity? Panel data on 1621 respondents followed from 1980 – 2000 in the Marital Instability Over the Life Course survey were utilized to answer these questions. Interval-censored Cox regression analysis revealed several noteworthy findings. Reports of problems due to extramarital involvement were strongly related to marital disruption, even holding constant the quality of the marriage. Although men were about three times more likely to be the cheating spouse, there was no difference in the effect of an affair on the marriage according to gender of the cheater. Approximately 40% of the effect of extramarital sex on disruption is accounted for by the mediating factors. Two moderators of infidelity’s positive effect on disruption were found: the effect was substantially stronger for very religious couples, but weaker when the wife was in the labor force. PMID:24634559

  14. Marital violence: the beliefs of professionals directly involved in their response and prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Cristina Cabral

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study presents an investigation about the problem of marital violence, whose primary objective was to characterize the beliefs of professionals and future professionals directly involved in their response and prevention. In order to identify the beliefs about the dimension of the phenomenon of conjugal violence and the legal perception regarding it and the beliefs and legitimating attitudes of violence in marital relations, a descriptive quantitative study was developed, applying the Beliefs of Violence Scale Conjugal - ECVC (Machado, Matos & Gonçalves, 2006. The total sum of the scale measures the level of tolerance / adaptation in relation to physical and psychological violence in the context of marital relationships. The sum of each factor allows to understand the specific beliefs / attitudes of this type of violence. In this context, another objective was to evaluate the reliability of the ECVC, using the Kolmogorov-Sminov test, and the results obtained show that the model originally proposed does not have a good fit to the data. We also observe and discuss the gender differential analysisKey Words: Intimate partner violence; beliefs; gender; famile life

  15. Discovery of the content of rumination thoughts among women with marital conflicts: Qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahimeh Namdarpour

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Rumination is the predisposing and continuing factor of depression. Since women are prone to rumination, the purpose of this study was to discover the content of rumination thoughts among women with marital conflicts. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on a qualitative method basis, and target society was composed of women with marital conflicts and rumination. The sample was selected from among those referring to Isfahan counseling centers and was statured with 15 persons through purposeful sampling method. Information was collected through semi-structured interviews and data analysis was performed based on thematic analysis. Results: Five main categories were obtained from data analysis: root cause analysis, feeling incompetence, remembrance of bitter memories, negative emotions, and hesitation in continuation of couple relationship. Conclusion: The findings indicate that when women with marital conflicts become ruminant, the course of rumination is so that it could harm continuation of their couple relationship. Therefore, to reduce this damage, interventions are required to intervene effectively in this process.

  16. Intergenerational transmission of corporal punishment in China: the moderating role of marital satisfaction and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meifang; Xing, Xiaopei; Zhao, Jinxia

    2014-11-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the intergenerational patterns in the transmission of parental corporal punishment in China and the moderating effects of marital satisfaction (of the second generation: G2) and gender (of three generations: G1, G2 and G3) on these patterns. Six hundred thirty-five father-mother dyads with preschool-aged children were recruited to participate in this survey. The results provided evidence of cross-generational continuity in parental corporal punishment in Chinese society and also supported the hypothesis that same-gender continuity in parental corporal punishment is stronger than cross-gender continuity. Moreover, it was found that marital satisfaction moderated the transmission of parental corporal punishment, and there were some interesting gender differences in the moderator effect. Specifically, marital satisfaction buffered the transmission of corporal punishment from grandmothers to mothers of daughters and to fathers of sons but strengthened the transmission from grandfathers to fathers of sons. The findings broaden our understanding of the factors and processes that account for both discontinuity and continuity in parental corporal punishment, particularly within the Chinese cultural context.

  17. Major depressive disorder and marital transition among mothers: results from a national panel study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, T J; Cairney, J

    2000-11-01

    This analysis employs a national panel study to examine the relationship between marital transition and depression among mothers within the framework of selection and causation processes. The data come from the two-wave, longitudinal National Population Health Survey (NPHS) by Statistics Canada collected in 1994 and again in 1996 focusing on women between 20 and 65 years of age with children living at home (N = 2169). Compared with mothers who remain married, mothers making the transition into single-parenthood had a significantly higher rate of major depression at Time 1, which increased, but not significantly, at Time 2. This suggests that a selection effect may explain the elevated levels of depression among mothers experiencing a marital disruption. Rates of depression among single-parent mothers making the transition into a marital relationship did not decrease significantly between waves nor did the rate differ significantly from stable single-parent mothers at Time 1 or Time 2, suggesting that movement into marriage is not a protective factor.

  18. Burning the Candle at Both Ends: Extramarital Sex as a Precursor of Marital Disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demaris, Alfred

    2013-11-01

    This study examines several aspects of the association between engaging in extramarital sex and the disruption of one's marriage. In particular: is there a differential effect on disruption depending on the gender of the perpetrator? Is the effect of infidelity primarily due to its negative impact on marital quality and one's resistance to divorce? Are there characteristics of marriages that condition the effect of infidelity? Panel data on 1621 respondents followed from 1980 - 2000 in the Marital Instability Over the Life Course survey were utilized to answer these questions. Interval-censored Cox regression analysis revealed several noteworthy findings. Reports of problems due to extramarital involvement were strongly related to marital disruption, even holding constant the quality of the marriage. Although men were about three times more likely to be the cheating spouse, there was no difference in the effect of an affair on the marriage according to gender of the cheater. Approximately 40% of the effect of extramarital sex on disruption is accounted for by the mediating factors. Two moderators of infidelity's positive effect on disruption were found: the effect was substantially stronger for very religious couples, but weaker when the wife was in the labor force.

  19. Using an artificial neural network to predict carbon dioxide compressibility factor at high pressure and temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohagheghian, Erfan [Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John' s (Canada); Zafarian-Rigaki, Habiballah; Motamedi-Ghahfarrokhi, Yaser; Hemmati-Sarapardeh, Abdolhossein [Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Carbon dioxide injection, which is widely used as an enhanced oil recovery (EOR) method, has the potential of being coupled with CO{sub 2} sequestration and reducing the emission of greenhouse gas. Hence, knowing the compressibility factor of carbon dioxide is of a vital significance. Compressibility factor (Z-factor) is traditionally measured through time consuming, expensive and cumbersome experiments. Hence, developing a fast, robust and accurate model for its estimation is necessary. In this study, a new reliable model on the basis of feed forward artificial neural networks is presented to predict CO{sub 2} compressibility factor. Reduced temperature and pressure were selected as the input parameters of the proposed model. To evaluate and compare the results of the developed model with pre-existing models, both statistical and graphical error analyses were employed. The results indicated that the proposed model is more reliable and accurate compared to pre-existing models in a wide range of temperature (up to 1,273.15 K) and pressure (up to 140MPa). Furthermore, by employing the relevancy factor, the effect of pressure and temprature on the Z-factor of CO{sub 2} was compared for below and above the critical pressure of CO{sub 2}, and the physcially expected trends were observed. Finally, to identify the probable outliers and applicability domain of the proposed ANN model, both numerical and graphical techniques based on Leverage approach were performed. The results illustrated that only 1.75% of the experimental data points were located out of the applicability domain of the proposed model. As a result, the developed model is reliable for the prediction of CO{sub 2} compressibility factor.

  20. “His” and “Her” Marriage? The Role of Positive and Negative Marital Characteristics in Global Marital Satisfaction Among Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jopp, Daniela S.; Carr, Deborah; Sosinsky, Laura; Kim, Se-Kang

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We explore gender differences in older adults’ appraisals of positive and negative aspects of their marriages, examine how these appraisals relate to global marital satisfaction, and identify distinctive marital profiles associated with global satisfaction in men and women. Method. Data are from the Changing Lives of Older Couples Study (n = 1,110). We used a variant of principal components analysis to generate marital quality profiles, based on one’s endorsement of positive and negative marital characteristics. OLS regression was used to detect associations between marital profiles and global marital satisfaction. Results. Men offered more positive marital assessments than women, particularly on items reflecting positive treatment by one’s wife. Three marital quality profiles emerged: Positive, Positive–Negative, and Negative. Although marital satisfaction was best explained by positive appraisals in both genders, they were less important for men than for women. The negative profile showed a tendency for a stronger prediction in men. Discussion. Prior studies show small differences in men’s and women’s global marital satisfaction. Our work provides evidence that the presence and magnitude of such gender differences may vary based on the specific marital component considered. We discuss ways that gender shapes marital interactions, expectations, and perceptions, and the implications of our results for the well-being of married older adults. PMID:24742399

  1. Genetic identification of a network of factors that functionally interact with the nucleosome remodeling ATPase ISWI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giosalba Burgio

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Nucleosome remodeling and covalent modifications of histones play fundamental roles in chromatin structure and function. However, much remains to be learned about how the action of ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling factors and histone-modifying enzymes is coordinated to modulate chromatin organization and transcription. The evolutionarily conserved ATP-dependent chromatin-remodeling factor ISWI plays essential roles in chromosome organization, DNA replication, and transcription regulation. To gain insight into regulation and mechanism of action of ISWI, we conducted an unbiased genetic screen to identify factors with which it interacts in vivo. We found that ISWI interacts with a network of factors that escaped detection in previous biochemical analyses, including the Sin3A gene. The Sin3A protein and the histone deacetylase Rpd3 are part of a conserved histone deacetylase complex involved in transcriptional repression. ISWI and the Sin3A/Rpd3 complex co-localize at specific chromosome domains. Loss of ISWI activity causes a reduction in the binding of the Sin3A/Rpd3 complex to chromatin. Biochemical analysis showed that the ISWI physically interacts with the histone deacetylase activity of the Sin3A/Rpd3 complex. Consistent with these findings, the acetylation of histone H4 is altered when ISWI activity is perturbed in vivo. These findings suggest that ISWI associates with the Sin3A/Rpd3 complex to support its function in vivo.

  2. The Comparison of Relationship Beliefs and Couples Burnout in women who apply for Divorce and Women Who Want to Continue their Marital Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koolaee, Anahita Khodabakhshi; Adibrad, Nastaran; Sedgh Poor, Bahram Saleh

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the comparison of relationship beliefs and couples burnout in women who apply for divorce and women who want to continue their marital life. for this study, 50 women who referred to judicial centers and 50 women who claimed they wanted to continue their marital life were randomly selected. Participants were asked to complete the relationship beliefs inventory and marital burnout questionnaires. In this study, descriptive statistical methods such as standard deviation, mean, t- students for independent groups, correlation, multi-variable regression and independent group's correlation difference test were used. The comparison between the relationship beliefs of the 2 groups (those wanting to divorce and women wanting to continue their marital life) was significantly different (pdivorce were significantly different from those who wanted to continue their marital relationship in the general measure of the relationship beliefs and factors of "believing that disagreement is destructive and their partners can not change their undesirable behaviors". In other words, women who were applying for divorce had more unreasonable thoughts and burnout compared to those who wanted to continue their marital life.

  3. The 5-HTTLPR polymorphism in the serotonin transporter gene moderates the association between emotional behavior and changes in marital satisfaction over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haase, Claudia M; Saslow, Laura R; Bloch, Lian; Saturn, Sarina R; Casey, James J; Seider, Benjamin H; Lane, Jessica; Coppola, Giovanni; Levenson, Robert W

    2013-12-01

    Why do some individuals become dissatisfied with their marriages when levels of negative emotion are high and levels of positive emotions are low, whereas others remain unaffected? Using data from a 13-year longitudinal study of middle-aged and older adults in long-term marriages, we examined whether the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism in the serotonin transporter gene moderates the association between negative and positive emotional behavior (objectively measured during marital conflict) and changes in marital satisfaction over time. For individuals with two short alleles of 5-HTTLPR, higher negative and lower positive emotional behavior at Time 1 predicted declines in marital satisfaction over time (even after controlling for depression and other covariates). For individuals with one or two long alleles, emotional behavior did not predict changes in marital satisfaction. We also found evidence for a crossover interaction (individuals with two short alleles of 5-HTTLPR and low levels of negative or high levels of positive emotion had the highest levels of marital satisfaction). These findings provide the first evidence of a specific genetic polymorphism that moderates the association between emotional behavior and changes in marital satisfaction over time and are consistent with increasing evidence that the short allele of this polymorphism serves as a susceptibility factor that amplifies sensitivity to both negative and positive emotional influences.

  4. Perceived Partner Responsiveness Mediates the Association Between Sexual and Marital Satisfaction: A Daily Diary Study in Newlywed Couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadassi, Reuma; Bar-Nahum, Lior Eadan; Newhouse, Sarah; Anderson, Ragnar; Heiman, Julia R; Rafaeli, Eshkol; Janssen, Erick

    2016-01-01

    Sexuality is an integral part of intimate relationships, yet surprisingly little is known about how and for whom sexuality matters. The present research investigated the interplay of sexual and non-sexual factors that contribute to relationship satisfaction. Specifically, we tested the hypothesis that the association between sexual satisfaction and marital satisfaction is mediated by a non-sexual factor-namely, perceived partner responsiveness (PPR). Additionally, we tested the role of gender as a possible moderator of this mediated association. Thirty-four newlywed couples completed diaries with each spouse reporting their sexual satisfaction, marital satisfaction, and PPR every day for 30 days. We tested our predictions at both the person level (i.e., the mean level across 30 days) and the daily level. At the person level, we found that sexual satisfaction and PPR separately predicted marital satisfaction. Moreover, the effect of sexual satisfaction on marital satisfaction was partially mediated by PPR. No gender differences emerged at this level. At the daily level, we found similar support for partial mediation. However, at this level, gender did serve as a moderator. The stronger mediation found for women was driven by a stronger association between sexual satisfaction and PPR for women than for men. This study joins a growing literature highlighting the role of PPR in dyadic relationships.

  5. Stress and Marital Adjustment in Families of Children with Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavi, Iris; Fladeboe, Kaitlyn; King, Kevin; Kawamura, Joy; Friedman, Debra; Compas, Bruce; Breiger, David; Gurtovenko, Kyrill; Lengua, Liliana; Katz, Lynn Fainsilber

    2018-02-06

    Pediatric cancer is highly stressful for parents. The current prospective study examines the impact of several stressors (financial strain, life threat, treatment intensity, treatment-related events and negative life events) on the trajectory of marital adjustment across the first year following diagnosis. We examined whether average level of stressors across the year was related to (1) levels of marital adjustment at the end of the first year of treatment and (2) the rate of change in marital adjustment. One hundred and thirty families of children newly diagnosed with cancer (M age=6.33 years, SD = 3.61) participated. Primary caregivers provided 12 monthly reports on marital adjustment and stressors. Multilevel Models indicated that although marital adjustment was stable across the first year on average, random effect estimates suggested that this was the result of differing trajectories between families (e.g., some increasing and others decreasing). Five individual stress constructs and a cumulative stress composite were then used to predict this variability. Higher average economic strain was related to consistently poorer marital adjustment across time. Higher average frequency of treatment-related events and negative life events were associated with decreasing adjustment over time and lower adjustment at the end of the first year of treatment. Perception of life threat and treatment intensity were not associated with final levels or trajectory of adjustment. Finally, higher cumulative stress was associated with consistently poorer marital adjustment across time. Implications for identification of at-risk families are discussed, and importance of delivering tailored interventions for this population. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  6. Marital discord, past depression, and metabolic responses to high-fat meals: Interpersonal pathways to obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiecolt-Glaser, Janice K; Jaremka, Lisa; Andridge, Rebecca; Peng, Juan; Habash, Diane; Fagundes, Christopher P; Glaser, Ronald; Malarkey, William B; Belury, Martha A

    2015-02-01

    Longitudinal studies have implicated both marital distress and depression in the development of the metabolic syndrome, a risk factor for diabetes and cardiovascular disease. This study addressed the impact of hostile marital interactions and a mood disorder history on obesity-related metabolic responses to high-fat meals. This double-blind, randomized crossover study included serial assessments of resting energy expenditure (REE), fat and carbohydrate oxidation, triglycerides, insulin, glucose, interleukin 6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) before and after two high-fat meals. During two separate 9.5h visits, 43 healthy married couples, ages 24-61 (mean=38.22), received either a high saturated fat meal or a high oleic sunflower oil meal, both 930kcal and 60g fat. The Structured Diagnostic Interview for DSM-IV assessed mood disorder history. Couples discussed a marital disagreement during both visits; behavioral coding of these interactions provided data on hostile marital behaviors. Men and women who displayed more hostile behaviors and who also had a mood disorder history had significantly lower post-meal REE, higher insulin, and higher peak triglyceride responses than other participants, with nonsignificant effects for fat and carbohydrate oxidation. Participants with a mood disorder history had a steeper rise in postprandial IL-6 and glucose than those without a past history. Higher levels of hostile behaviors were associated with higher post-meal TNF-α. The two meals did not differ on any outcome assessed. People spend about 18 of every 24h in a postprandial state, and dining with one's partner is a common daily event. Among subjects with a mood disorder history, the cumulative 6.75-h difference between high and low hostile behaviors translates into 128kcal, a difference that could add 7.6pounds/year. Our findings illustrate novel pathways through which chronic marital stress and a mood disorder history synergistically heighten the risk for

  7. Rules of engagement: factors that regulate activity-dependent synaptic plasticity during neural network development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoneham, Emily T; Sanders, Erin M; Sanyal, Mohima; Dumas, Theodore C

    2010-10-01

    Overproduction and pruning during development is a phenomenon that can be observed in the number of organisms in a population, the number of cells in many tissue types, and even the number of synapses on individual neurons. The sculpting of synaptic connections in the brain of a developing organism is guided by its personal experience, which on a neural level translates to specific patterns of activity. Activity-dependent plasticity at glutamatergic synapses is an integral part of neuronal network formation and maturation in developing vertebrate and invertebrate brains. As development of the rodent forebrain transitions away from an over-proliferative state, synaptic plasticity undergoes modification. Late developmental changes in synaptic plasticity signal the establishment of a more stable network and relate to pronounced perceptual and cognitive abilities. In large part, activation of glutamate-sensitive N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors regulates synaptic stabilization during development and is a necessary step in memory formation processes that occur in the forebrain. A developmental change in the subunits that compose NMDA receptors coincides with developmental modifications in synaptic plasticity and cognition, and thus much research in this area focuses on NMDA receptor composition. We propose that there are additional, equally important developmental processes that influence synaptic plasticity, including mechanisms that are upstream (factors that influence NMDA receptors) and downstream (intracellular processes regulated by NMDA receptors) from NMDA receptor activation. The goal of this review is to summarize what is known and what is not well understood about developmental changes in functional plasticity at glutamatergic synapses, and in the end, attempt to relate these changes to maturation of neural networks.

  8. RhizoRegNet--a database of rhizobial transcription factors and regulatory networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krol, Elizaveta; Blom, Jochen; Winnebald, Jörn; Berhörster, Alexander; Barnett, Melanie J; Goesmann, Alexander; Baumbach, Jan; Becker, Anke

    2011-08-20

    Sinorhizobium meliloti is a symbiotic soil bacterium that forms nitrogen-fixing nodules on roots of leguminous plants, including Medicago truncatula (barrel medic), and M. sativa (alfalfa). The Sinorhizobium-Medicago symbiosis is an important symbiosis model system. Knowledge gained from this system can be extended to other agriculturally important "rhizobial" symbioses. Since the publication of the S. meliloti genome in 2001, many new genetic, biochemical and physiological data have been generated. Effective methods to organize, store, and mine this postgenome data are crucial for continued success of the S. meliloti model system. In 2009, we introduced a portal for rhizobial genomes, RhizoGATE (Becker et al., J. Biotechnol. 140, 45-50). The RhizoGATE portal combines continuously updated S. meliloti genome annotation with postgenome data resources. Here we report integration of a new component, RhizoRegNet, to RhizoGATE. RhizoRegNet combines transcriptome data and operon predictions with published data on regulatory interactions. By allowing searching and visualisation of complex transcriptional regulatory networks, RhizoRegNet advances our understanding of transcriptional regulation in S. meliloti. The current version of RhizoRegNet is divided into 13 functional modules containing information for 114 regulators, 475 regulated genes, and 178 transcription factor binding motifs. In this report, we provide an example of how RhizoRegNet facilitates visualisation and analysis of the regulatory network for exopolysaccharide biosynthesis and motility. Presently, RhizoRegNet contains regulatory network information for S. meliloti and the closely related bacterium, S. medicae, but can be expanded to include other rhizobial species. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. A Network of HMG-box Transcription Factors Regulates Sexual Cycle in the Fungus Podospora anserina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ait Benkhali, Jinane; Coppin, Evelyne; Brun, Sylvain; Peraza-Reyes, Leonardo; Martin, Tom; Dixelius, Christina; Lazar, Noureddine; van Tilbeurgh, Herman; Debuchy, Robert

    2013-01-01

    High-mobility group (HMG) B proteins are eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins characterized by the HMG-box functional motif. These transcription factors play a pivotal role in global genomic functions and in the control of genes involved in specific developmental or metabolic pathways. The filamentous ascomycete Podospora anserina contains 12 HMG-box genes. Of these, four have been previously characterized; three are mating-type genes that control fertilization and development of the fruit-body, whereas the last one encodes a factor involved in mitochondrial DNA stability. Systematic deletion analysis of the eight remaining uncharacterized HMG-box genes indicated that none were essential for viability, but that seven were involved in the sexual cycle. Two HMG-box genes display striking features. PaHMG5, an ortholog of SpSte11 from Schizosaccharomyces pombe, is a pivotal activator of mating-type genes in P. anserina, whereas PaHMG9 is a repressor of several phenomena specific to the stationary phase, most notably hyphal anastomoses. Transcriptional analyses of HMG-box genes in HMG-box deletion strains indicated that PaHMG5 is at the hub of a network of several HMG-box factors that regulate mating-type genes and mating-type target genes. Genetic analyses revealed that this network also controls fertility genes that are not regulated by mating-type transcription factors. This study points to the critical role of HMG-box members in sexual reproduction in fungi, as 11 out of 12 members were involved in the sexual cycle in P. anserina. PaHMG5 and SpSte11 are conserved transcriptional regulators of mating-type genes, although P. anserina and S. pombe diverged 550 million years ago. Two HMG-box genes, SOX9 and its upstream regulator SRY, also play an important role in sex determination in mammals. The P. anserina and S. pombe mating-type genes and their upstream regulatory factor form a module of HMG-box genes analogous to the SRY/SOX9 module, revealing a commonality of sex

  10. Expansion of microvascular networks in vivo by phthalimide neovascular factor 1 (PNF1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieghaus, Kristen A; Nickerson, Meghan M; Petrie Aronin, Caren E; Sefcik, Lauren S; Price, Richard J; Paige, Mikell A; Brown, Milton L; Botchwey, Edward A

    2008-12-01

    Phthalimide neovascular factor (PNF1, formerly SC-3-149) is a potent stimulator of proangiogenic signaling pathways in endothelial cells. In this study, we evaluated the in vivo effects of sustained PNF1 release to promote ingrowth and expansion of microvascular networks surrounding biomaterial implants. The dorsal skinfold window chamber was used to evaluate the structural remodeling response of the local microvasculature. PNF1 was released from poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLAGA) films, and a transport model was utilized to predict PNF1 penetration into the surrounding tissue. PNF1 significantly expanded microvascular networks within a 2mm radius from implants after 3 and 7 days by increasing microvessel length density and lumenal diameter of local arterioles and venules. Staining of histological sections with CD11b showed enhanced recruitment of circulating white blood cells, including monocytes, which are critical for the process of vessel enlargement through arteriogenesis. As PNF1 has been shown to modulate MT1-MMP, a facilitator of CCL2 dependent leukocyte transmigration, aspects of window chamber experiments were repeated in CCR2(-/-) (CCL2 receptor) mouse chimeras to more fully explore the critical nature of monocyte recruitment on the therapeutic benefits of PNF1 function in vivo.

  11. Three-Factor User Authentication and Key Agreement Using Elliptic Curve Cryptosystem in Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, YoHan; Park, YoungHo

    2016-12-14

    Secure communication is a significant issue in wireless sensor networks. User authentication and key agreement are essential for providing a secure system, especially in user-oriented mobile services. It is also necessary to protect the identity of each individual in wireless environments to avoid personal privacy concerns. Many authentication and key agreement schemes utilize a smart card in addition to a password to support security functionalities. However, these schemes often fail to provide security along with privacy. In 2015, Chang et al. analyzed the security vulnerabilities of previous schemes and presented the two-factor authentication scheme that provided user privacy by using dynamic identities. However, when we cryptanalyzed Chang et al.'s scheme, we found that it does not provide sufficient security for wireless sensor networks and fails to provide accurate password updates. This paper proposes a security-enhanced authentication and key agreement scheme to overcome these security weaknesses using biometric information and an elliptic curve cryptosystem. We analyze the security of the proposed scheme against various attacks and check its viability in the mobile environment.

  12. Blood pressure levels and longitudinal changes in relation to social network factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Eriksson Sörman

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between social network variables andlevels of and longitudinal changes in blood pressure in a middle-aged/older sample. Theparticipants (50-75 years at baseline; n=1097 responded to questions concerning socialrelationships at baseline and their blood pressure (diastolic, systolic was measured. Bloodpressure levels were reassessed 5, 10, and 15 years later. Latent growth models with responses toquestions concerning social relationships as predictors and basic demographic factors (age, sex ascovariates, unexpectedly indicated that a more limited social network (no close friend, few visits,little contact with friends in other ways, not living with someone, and a composite index based onall questions was associated with significantly lower diastolic blood pressure levels. For systolicblood pressure a similar result was observed for one of the variables (lack of a close friend. Ingeneral, these effects diminished over time, as indexed by the positive relationship between severalof the social variables and slope. The results were little affected by inclusion of additionalcovariates (e.g. measures of psychological distress, smoking/alcohol habits, and BMI suggestingthat the origins of this unexpected pattern of findings must probably be sought for in other subjectrelatedfactors, such as, for example, increased help seeking. Future studies should considerqualitative aspects (e.g. feelings of loneliness, quality of social relationships in addition tostructural aspects to provide a better understanding of these associations.

  13. Emotion regulation predicts marital satisfaction: more than a wives' tale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, Lian; Haase, Claudia M; Levenson, Robert W

    2014-02-01

    Emotion regulation is generally thought to be a critical ingredient for successful interpersonal relationships. Ironically, few studies have investigated the link between how well spouses regulate emotion and how satisfied they are with their marriages. We utilized data from a 13-year, 3-wave longitudinal study of middle-aged (40-50 years old) and older (60-70 years old) long-term married couples, focusing on the associations between downregulation of negative emotion (measured during discussions of an area of marital conflict at Wave 1) and marital satisfaction (measured at all 3 waves). Downregulation of negative emotion was assessed by determining how quickly spouses reduced signs of negative emotion (in emotional experience, emotional behavior, and physiological arousal) after negative emotion events. Data were analyzed using actor-partner interdependence modeling. Findings showed that (a) greater downregulation of wives' negative experience and behavior predicted greater marital satisfaction for wives and husbands concurrently and (b) greater downregulation of wives' negative behavior predicted increases in wives' marital satisfaction longitudinally. Wives' use of constructive communication (measured between Waves 1 and 2) mediated the longitudinal associations. These results show the benefits of wives' downregulation of negative emotion during conflict for marital satisfaction and point to wives' constructive communication as a mediating pathway. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  14. Emotion regulation predicts marital satisfaction: More than a wives’ tale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, Lian; Haase, Claudia M.; Levenson, Robert W.

    2014-01-01

    Emotion regulation is generally thought to be a critical ingredient for successful interpersonal relationships. Ironically, few studies have investigated the link between how well spouses regulate emotion and how satisfied they are with their marriages. We utilized data from a 13-year, 3-wave longitudinal study of middle-aged (40–50 years old) and older (60–70 years old) long-term married couples, focusing on the associations between downregulation of negative emotion (measured during discussions of an area of marital conflict at Wave 1) and marital satisfaction (measured at all three waves). Downregulation of negative emotion was assessed by determining how quickly spouses reduced signs of negative emotion (in emotional experience, emotional behavior, and physiological arousal) after negative emotion events. Data were analyzed using actor-partner interdependence modeling. Findings showed that (a) greater downregulation of wives’ negative experience and behavior predicted greater marital satisfaction for wives and husbands concurrently and (b) greater downregulation of wives’ negative behavior predicted increases in wives’ marital satisfaction longitudinally. Wives’ use of constructive communication (measured between Waves 1 and 2) mediated the longitudinal associations. These results show the benefits of wives’ downregulation of negative emotion during conflict for marital satisfaction and point to wives’ constructive communication as a mediating pathway. PMID:24188061

  15. Longitudinal relations between marital aggression and alcohol problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Peggy S; El-Sheikh, Mona; Keiley, Margaret; Liao, Pei-Ju

    2009-03-01

    Relations between couples' (N = 158) marital aggression and alcohol problems were examined across a two-year period. Alcohol problems and aggression were assessed via self-report and partner-reports. Results support bidirectional relations between marital aggression and problem drinking. T1 wife problem drinking was associated with decreased T2 verbal aggression; T1 husband problem drinking was associated with increased T2 physical aggression. T1 physical aggression predicted increased T2 wife problem drinking; it predicted increased T2 husband problem drinking only when wife problem drinking was low. T1 verbal marital aggression predicted increased T2 husband problem drinking only when husbands engaged in greater problem drinking at T1. Results suggest that problem drinking may prevent couples from adequately handling marital disagreements, and that marital problems may lead to drinking as a form of coping with stress; couples in which the husband engages in greater problem drinking than the wife may be at increased risk. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Marital Satisfaction and Sexual Satisfaction in Married Men in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed Hadi Sayed Alitabar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Premarital sex in big cities like Tehran, has increased significantly and could also have an impact on future relations people after marriage. The main objective of this study was to compare marital satisfaction and sexual satisfaction in married men with and without a history of premarital sex.Materials and Methods: This research was causal-comparative. The population of this study consists of all married men less than 45 years in Tehran. 144 married men in Tehran were selected by convenience sampling method. To collect the data, Kansas marital satisfaction and Enrich sexual satisfaction subscale were used. Independent sample t test were used for data analysis.  Results: The results showed that marital satisfaction in married men with a history of premarital sex other than with current wife with a mean (SD 15.6 (4.1 is less than men with no history of 17.6 (3.5 (P<0.01. Sexual satisfaction in married men with a history of premarital sex other than with current wife with a mean (SD 31.4 (6.9 is less than men with no history of 33.7 (5.4 (P<0.01. Marital and sexual satisfactions among married men with and without a history of sex with current partner were similar.Conclusion: This research suggests that married men with a premarital sexual history with other partners, have lower marital satisfaction and sexual satisfaction

  17. Types of marital closeness and mortality risk in older couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tower, Roni Beth; Kasl, Stanislav V; Darefsky, Amy S

    2002-01-01

    This study examines the impact of marital closeness on survival over 6 years in a community-dwelling sample of 305 older couples. Closeness is defined as 1) naming one's spouse as a confidant or source of emotional support (vs. not naming) and 2) being named by spouse on at least one of the two dimensions (vs. not being named). The survival effects of both naming and being named are examined in Cox proportional hazard regressions, controlling for sociodemographic, health status, and behavioral variables. Husbands who were named by their wives but did not name them were least likely to have died after 6 years. Compared with them, husbands in marriages with the other three styles of closeness were from 3.30 to 4.68 times more likely to be dead. Wives' results showed the same pattern of effects, with the same marital style being most protective as for husbands, but the effects were weaker. However, wives' results were strongly moderated by parenting status: those who had ever had children who were in the marital closeness pattern of wife naming husband but not being named by him were highly protected. Compared with these wives, others who had had children were from 8.26 to 10.95 times less likely to be alive after 6 years. The same pattern of marital closeness most benefited husbands and those wives who had had children. These findings are not explained adequately by social support or marital role theory although they fit the latter more closely.

  18. Metabolic Vascular Syndrome: New Insights into a Multidimensional Network of Risk Factors and Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Gerhard H; Hanefeld, Markolf

    2016-10-01

    Since 1981, we have used the term metabolic syndrome to describe an association of a dysregulation in lipid metabolism (high triglycerides, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, disturbed glucose homeostasis (enhanced fasting and/or prandial glucose), gout, and hypertension), with android obesity being based on a common soil (overnutrition, reduced physical activity, sociocultural factors, and genetic predisposition). We hypothesized that main traits of the syndrome occur early and are tightly connected with hyperinsulinemia/insulin resistance, procoagulation, and cardiovascular diseases. To establish a close link between the traits of the metabolic vascular syndrome, we focused our literature search on recent original work and comprehensive reviews dealing with the topics metabolic syndrome, visceral obesity, fatty liver, fat tissue inflammation, insulin resistance, atherogenic dyslipidemia, arterial hypertension, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Recent research supports the concept that the metabolic vascular syndrome is a multidimensional and interactive network of risk factors and diseases based on individual genetic susceptibility and epigenetic changes where metabolic dysregulation/metabolic inflexibility in different organs and vascular dysfunction are early interconnected. The metabolic vascular syndrome is not only a risk factor constellation but rather a life-long abnormality of a closely connected interactive cluster of developing diseases which escalate each other and should continuously attract the attention of every clinician.

  19. Metabolic Vascular Syndrome: New Insights into a Multidimensional Network of Risk Factors and Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Gerhard H.; Hanefeld, Markolf

    2016-01-01

    Background Since 1981, we have used the term metabolic syndrome to describe an association of a dysregulation in lipid metabolism (high triglycerides, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, disturbed glucose homeostasis (enhanced fasting and/or prandial glucose), gout, and hypertension), with android obesity being based on a common soil (overnutrition, reduced physical activity, sociocultural factors, and genetic predisposition). We hypothesized that main traits of the syndrome occur early and are tightly connected with hyperinsulinemia/insulin resistance, procoagulation, and cardiovascular diseases. Methods To establish a close link between the traits of the metabolic vascular syndrome, we focused our literature search on recent original work and comprehensive reviews dealing with the topics metabolic syndrome, visceral obesity, fatty liver, fat tissue inflammation, insulin resistance, atherogenic dyslipidemia, arterial hypertension, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Results Recent research supports the concept that the metabolic vascular syndrome is a multidimensional and interactive network of risk factors and diseases based on individual genetic susceptibility and epigenetic changes where metabolic dysregulation/metabolic inflexibility in different organs and vascular dysfunction are early interconnected. Conclusion The metabolic vascular syndrome is not only a risk factor constellation but rather a life-long abnormality of a closely connected interactive cluster of developing diseases which escalate each other and should continuously attract the attention of every clinician. PMID:27921043

  20. Marital and birth expectations of urban adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, E A; Zabin, L S

    1993-09-01

    The formation of attitudes conducive to pregnancy prevention is usually included in the development of adolescent pregnancy prevention programs. This research examines the marital and birth expectations among 3646 adolescents enrolled in grades 7-12 in four inner city schools in 1981-82 in the US. The aim is to assess adolescents' perceptions of life experiences in their social environment, which reveal their beliefs about the social acceptability of birth after marriage. Two of the schools had entirely Black student populations, and two for comparison purposes had a mixed student population comprised of 33% Black students. Results reveal that Blacks reported a higher age for marriage and a lower age of first birth than Whites. Blacks had a lower mean ideal age of first birth than for marriage, while White had a lower mean age of marriage than for first birth. 59.1% of Black teenage females and 55% of Black teenage males reported a first birth ideal less than the marriage age, while 20.4% of White teenage females and 21.1% of White teenage males did so. A comparative graph shows Whites having in-wedlock births around 21 years of age and Blacks having in-wedlock births at 26 years of age. The analysis of the best age of marriage regressed on the best age at first birth indicates that the slopes are parallel, and there is no significant difference between Black and White attitudes. Blacks had an ideal marriage age of about two years later than Whites. In the comparison of survey responses to vital statistics data on legitimacy of first births in Baltimore in 1980, it appears that there is a close correspondence between actual out-of-wedlock status of first births and female adolescent attitudes. This study's findings suggest that both Blacks and Whites expect early births to be premarital and later births to be postmarital. Adolescent experiences affect their perceptions, and teenagers' perceptions are fairly realistic. The interpretation of findings is that Black

  1. Equivalent Neural Network Optimal Coefficients Using Forgetting Factor with Sliding Modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Alicia Aguilar Cruz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Artificial Neural Network (ANN concept is familiar in methods whose task is, for example, the identification or approximation of the outputs of complex systems difficult to model. In general, the objective is to determine online the adequate parameters to reach a better point-to-point convergence rate, so that this paper presents the parameter estimation for an equivalent ANN (EANN, obtaining a recursive identification for a stochastic system, firstly, with constant parameters and, secondly, with nonstationary output system conditions. Therefore, in the last estimation, the parameters also have stochastic properties, making the traditional approximation methods not adequate due to their losing of convergence rate. In order to give a solution to this problematic, we propose a nonconstant exponential forgetting factor (NCEFF with sliding modes, obtaining in almost all points an exponential convergence rate decreasing. Theoretical results of both identification stages are performed using MATLAB® and compared, observing improvement when the new proposal for nonstationary output conditions is applied.

  2. Comparative cell cycle transcriptomics reveals synchronization of developmental transcription factor networks in cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johard, Helena; Mahdessian, Diana; Fedr, Radek; Marks, Carolyn; Medalová, Jiřina; Souček, Karel; Lundberg, Emma; Linnarsson, Sten; Bryja, Vítězslav; Sekyrova, Petra; Altun, Mikael; Andäng, Michael

    2017-01-01

    The cell cycle coordinates core functions such as replication and cell division. However, cell-cycle-regulated transcription in the control of non-core functions, such as cell identity maintenance through specific transcription factors (TFs) and signalling pathways remains unclear. Here, we provide a resource consisting of mapped transcriptomes in unsynchronized HeLa and U2OS cancer cells sorted for cell cycle phase by Fucci reporter expression. We developed a novel algorithm for data analysis that enables efficient visualization and data comparisons and identified cell cycle synchronization of Notch signalling and TFs associated with development. Furthermore, the cell cycle synchronizes with the circadian clock, providing a possible link between developmental transcriptional networks and the cell cycle. In conclusion we find that cell cycle synchronized transcriptional patterns are temporally compartmentalized and more complex than previously anticipated, involving genes, which control cell identity and development. PMID:29228002

  3. Strategic factors in the development of the National Technology Transfer Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root, Jonathan F.; Stone, Barbara A.

    1993-01-01

    Broad consensus among industry and government leaders has developed over the last decade on the importance of applying the U.S. leadership in research and development (R&D) to strengthen competitiveness in the global marketplace, and thus enhance national prosperity. This consensus has emerged against the backdrop of increasing economic competition, and the dramatic reduction of military threats to national security with the end of the Cold War. This paper reviews the key factors and considerations that shaped - and continue to influence - the development of the Regional Technoloty Transfer Centers (RTTC) and the National Technology Transfer Center (NTTC). Also, the future role of the national network in support of emerging technology policy initiatives will be explored.

  4. Novel Strategy for Discrimination of Transcription Factor Binding Motifs Employing Mathematical Neural Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Asuka; Sumi, Takuya; Kang, Jiyoung; Tateno, Masaru

    2017-07-01

    Recognition in biological macromolecular systems, such as DNA-protein recognition, is one of the most crucial problems to solve toward understanding the fundamental mechanisms of various biological processes. Since specific base sequences of genome DNA are discriminated by proteins, such as transcription factors (TFs), finding TF binding motifs (TFBMs) in whole genome DNA sequences is currently a central issue in interdisciplinary biophysical and information sciences. In the present study, a novel strategy to create a discriminant function for discrimination of TFBMs by constituting mathematical neural networks (NNs) is proposed, together with a method to determine the boundary of signals (TFBMs) and noise in the NN-score (output) space. This analysis also leads to the mathematical limitation of discrimination in the recognition of features representing TFBMs, in an information geometrical manifold. Thus, the present strategy enables the identification of the whole space of TFBMs, right up to the noise boundary.

  5. Phenotypic robustness and the assortativity signature of human transcription factor networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dov A Pechenick

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Many developmental, physiological, and behavioral processes depend on the precise expression of genes in space and time. Such spatiotemporal gene expression phenotypes arise from the binding of sequence-specific transcription factors (TFs to DNA, and from the regulation of nearby genes that such binding causes. These nearby genes may themselves encode TFs, giving rise to a transcription factor network (TFN, wherein nodes represent TFs and directed edges denote regulatory interactions between TFs. Computational studies have linked several topological properties of TFNs - such as their degree distribution - with the robustness of a TFN's gene expression phenotype to genetic and environmental perturbation. Another important topological property is assortativity, which measures the tendency of nodes with similar numbers of edges to connect. In directed networks, assortativity comprises four distinct components that collectively form an assortativity signature. We know very little about how a TFN's assortativity signature affects the robustness of its gene expression phenotype to perturbation. While recent theoretical results suggest that increasing one specific component of a TFN's assortativity signature leads to increased phenotypic robustness, the biological context of this finding is currently limited because the assortativity signatures of real-world TFNs have not been characterized. It is therefore unclear whether these earlier theoretical findings are biologically relevant. Moreover, it is not known how the other three components of the assortativity signature contribute to the phenotypic robustness of TFNs. Here, we use publicly available DNaseI-seq data to measure the assortativity signatures of genome-wide TFNs in 41 distinct human cell and tissue types. We find that all TFNs share a common assortativity signature and that this signature confers phenotypic robustness to model TFNs. Lastly, we determine the extent to which each of the four

  6. Marital satisfaction and communication behaviors during sexual and nonsexual conflict discussions in newlywed couples: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Uzma S; Janssen, Erick; Newhouse, Sarah; Heiman, Julia; Holtzworth-Munroe, Amy; Fallis, Erin; Rafaeli, Eshkol

    2011-01-01

    The way couples communicate during conflict discussions has been found to be a reliable predictor of marital satisfaction. However, in previous research, there has been little experimental control over the selection of topics. The present study examined, in a sample of 15 newlywed couples, whether affective displays during the discussion of a sexual and a nonsexual conflict topic differentially predict current marital satisfaction. Communication behaviors were coded using an adaptation of the Specific Affect Coding System, resulting in composite "negative behavior" and "positive behavior" categories. Data were analyzed using multilevel modeling. Negative behaviors displayed during the nonsexual conflict discussions were not significantly related to concurrent self-reported relationship satisfaction. In contrast, for wives, negative behaviors displayed during the discussion of a sexual problem were significantly related to lower levels of relationship satisfaction. For the sexual and nonsexual conflict discussions, positive behaviors were positively associated with relationship satisfaction, although this effect did not reach statistical significance. Overall, the authors' findings emphasize the importance of incorporating sexual variables in the study of marriage. Furthermore, their study represents an important step in recognizing that marital research benefits from an examination of specific topics of conflict as a factor to consider in studies of marital functioning.

  7. The Comparison of Body Image, Quality of Sleep and Marital Satisfaction among Substance Abuser and Non-substance Abuser Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Behzad

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: The previous research has demonstrated that addiction treatment services for women need to be based on knowledge of female psychological needs. Therefore, the aim of current study is to compare body image, quality of sleep and marital satisfaction among substance abuser and non-substance abuser women.Materials and Methods: This study is a descriptive comparative research. 200 women including 100 substance abuser women and 100 non-substance abuser women were chosen through convenience method in Arak in 2015. The measuring instruments were Fisher body image scale (1970, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (1989 and Enrich Marital Satisfaction Scale (1989. Data was analyzed utilizing t independent.Results: The results showed that there is the significant difference between marital satisfaction (P=0.001 and quality of sleep (P=0.001 among substance abuser and non-substance abuser women. Additionally, the significant difference was not observed between body image (P= 0.31 among these two groups.Conclusion: These findings emphasized that substance use decreases the quality of sleep and marital satisfaction in women. Hence, it should be considered these factors in process of therapeutic intervention in substance abuser women.

  8. Controllability analysis of transcriptional regulatory networks reveals circular control patterns among transcription factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Österlund, Tobias; Bordel, Sergio; Nielsen, Jens

    2015-01-01

    we analyze the topology and organization of nine transcriptional regulatory networks for E. coli, yeast, mouse and human, and we evaluate how the structure of these networks influences two of their key properties, namely controllability and stability. We calculate the controllability for each network......% for the human network. The high controllability (low number of drivers needed to control the system) in yeast, mouse and human is due to the presence of internal loops in their regulatory networks where the TFs regulate each other in a circular fashion. We refer to these internal loops as circular control...... motifs (CCM). The E. coli transcriptional regulatory network, which does not have any CCMs, shows a hierarchical structure of the transcriptional regulatory network in contrast to the eukaryal networks. The presence of CCMs also has influence on the stability of these networks, as the presence of cycles...

  9. Naturalization, reciprocity and marks of marital violence: male defendants' perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paixão, Gilvânia Patrícia do Nascimento; Pereira, Alvaro; Gomes, Nadirlene Pereira; Sousa, Anderson Reis de; Estrela, Fernanda Matheus; Silva Filho, Ubirajara Ramos Pereira da; Araújo, Igor Brasil de

    2018-01-01

    to analyze male criminals' perception about marital violence. An exploratory, descriptive, qualitative study undertaken with 23 men who were criminally prosecuted for marital violence. A multimethod data collection was conducted, with individual interview and focal group techniques combined, between May and December 2015. The data collected were initially categorized using the NVIVO® 11 software program, and then organized using the Collective Subject Discourse method. the collective discourses reveal that, in the male's perception, conjugal violence is inherent in a marital relationships: it is a private, reciprocal problem that leaves body marks. gender dissymmetry as a social construct is evidenced, signaling the need to create spaces for reflection and re-signification of men and women, from a gender perspective.

  10. The association between marital adjustment and compliance with antihypertension regimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevino, D B; Young, E H; Groff, J; Jono, R T

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional survey was to determine relations between marital adjustment as measured by the Dyadic Adjustment Scale and antihypertension compliance. From seven dependent measures, we found high marital adjustment scores to be significantly correlated with less obesity, lower frequency of forgetting blood pressure medications, and less cessation of blood pressure medicine. These effects were much larger in a younger subsample of respondents who were 28 to 50 years old. The Dyadic Adjustment Scale measures the respondent's perception of the degree of affection and consensus, cohesion, and satisfaction in marriage. We conclude that the perception of positive marital interaction and communication ultimately contributes to controlled blood pressure by helping the patient to maintain healthy weight and to remember and continue taking blood pressure medication.

  11. Sexual violence, marital guidance, and Victorian bodies: an aesthesiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourke, Joanna

    2008-01-01

    This essay examines some of the emotional rules, encoded in grammars of representation and framed within law and prescriptive marital advice literature, regarding the expression of male sexual aggressivity within the bedroom. Despite the general Victorian idealization of marriage, many wives suffered physical and sexual abuse at the hands of their husbands, marital rape drawing particular attention from early feminists, psychologists, physicians, and evolutionary physiologists. In the 1870s, a belief that unrestrained sexual license was a symptom of degeneration led these commentators to consider marital rape particularly harmful to husbands. By the turn of the century, however, the focus of this harm had nominally shifted to women, who might become frigid if forced to submit to sex--a problem for wives but for husbands as well. As sexology and psychology gained greater influence, couples came to rely on the emotion-talk of commentators to negotiate mutually agreeable bedroom activity.

  12. Naturalization, reciprocity and marks of marital violence: male defendants' perceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilvânia Patrícia do Nascimento Paixão

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to analyze male criminals' perception about marital violence. Method: An exploratory, descriptive, qualitative study undertaken with 23 men who were criminally prosecuted for marital violence. A multimethod data collection was conducted, with individual interview and focal group techniques combined, between May and December 2015. The data collected were initially categorized using the NVIVO® 11 software program, and then organized using the Collective Subject Discourse method. Results: the collective discourses reveal that, in the male's perception, conjugal violence is inherent in a marital relationships: it is a private, reciprocal problem that leaves body marks. Conclusion: gender dissymmetry as a social construct is evidenced, signaling the need to create spaces for reflection and re-signification of men and women, from a gender perspective.

  13. Thrombin-dependent Incorporation of von Willebrand Factor into a Fibrin Network*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miszta, Adam; Pelkmans, Leonie; Lindhout, Theo; Krishnamoorthy, Ganeshram; de Groot, Philip G.; Hemker, Coenraad H.; Heemskerk, Johan W. M.; Kelchtermans, Hilde; de Laat, Bas

    2014-01-01

    Attachment of platelets from the circulation onto a growing thrombus is a process involving multiple platelet receptors, endothelial matrix components, and coagulation factors. It has been indicated previously that during a transglutaminase reaction activated factor XIII (FXIIIa) covalently cross-links von Willebrand factor (VWF) to polymerizing fibrin. Bound VWF further recruits and activates platelets via interactions with the platelet receptor complex glycoprotein Ib (GPIb). In the present study we found proof for binding of VWF to a fibrin monomer layer during the process of fibrinogen-to-fibrin conversion in the presence of thrombin, arvin, or a snake venom from Crotalus atrox. Using a domain deletion mutant we demonstrated the involvement of the C domains of VWF in this binding. Substantial binding of VWF to fibrin monomers persisted in the presence of the FXIIIa inhibitor K9-DON, illustrating that cross-linking via factor XIII is not essential for this phenomenon and suggesting the identification of a second mechanism through which VWF multimers incorporate into a fibrin network. Under high shear conditions, platelets were shown to adhere to fibrin only if VWF had been incorporated. In conclusion, our experiments show that the C domains of VWF and the E domain of fibrin monomers are involved in the incorporation of VWF during the polymerization of fibrin and that this incorporation fosters binding and activation of platelets. Fibrin thus is not an inert end product but partakes in further thrombus growth. Our findings help to elucidate the mechanism of thrombus growth and platelet adhesion under conditions of arterial shear rate. PMID:25381443

  14. OpaR controls a network of downstream transcription factors in Vibrio parahaemolyticus BB22OP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Kernell Burke

    Full Text Available Vibrio parahaemolyticus is an emerging world-wide human pathogen that is associated with food-borne gastroenteritis when raw or undercooked seafood is consumed. Expression of virulence factors in this organism is modulated by the phenomenon known as quorum sensing, which permits differential gene regulation at low versus high cell density. The master regulator of quorum sensing in V. parahaemolyticus is OpaR. OpaR not only controls virulence factor gene expression, but also the colony and cellular morphology associated with growth on a surface and biofilm formation. Whole transcriptome Next Generation sequencing (RNA-Seq was utilized to determine the OpaR regulon by comparing strains BB22OP (opaR+, LM5312 and BB22TR (∆opaR1, LM5674. This work, using the published V. parahaemolyticus BB22OP genome sequence, confirms and expands upon a previous microarray analysis for these two strains that used an Affymetrix GeneChip designed from the closely related V. parahaemolyticus RIMD2210633 genome sequence. Overall there was excellent correlation between the microarray and RNA-Seq data. Eleven transcription factors under OpaR control were identified by both methods and further confirmed by quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR analysis. Nine of these transcription factors were demonstrated to be direct OpaR targets via in vitro electrophoretic mobility shift assays with purified hexahistidine-tagged OpaR. Identification of the direct and indirect targets of OpaR, including small RNAs, will enable the construction of a network map of regulatory interactions important for the switch between the nonpathogenic and pathogenic states.

  15. Marite Kallasma - diktorist eetrinägude direktoriks / Tuuli Koch

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koch, Tuuli

    2008-01-01

    Legendaarne telediktor Marite Kallasma pälvis president Toomas Hendrik Ilveselt Valgetähe V klassi teenetemärgi. Praegu on Marite Kallasma eetrinõustaja ja diktorite õpetaja. Vt. samas: teenetemärgi pälvinud kaitseliitlane Janek Tšeljadinov, USA ajaloolane ja ajakirjanik Anne Applebaum, briti ajaloolane Antony Beevor, Portugali president Anibal Cavaco Silva, briti ajaloolane Norman Davies, Narva sümfooniaorkestri looja Anatoli Štšura, Kallaste vanausuliste koguduse esimees Pavel Varunin, Eesti Entsüklopeediakirjastuse kunstiline toimetaja Maie-Hele Segerkrantz

  16. Is marital status associated with quality of life?

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Kyu-Tae; Park, Eun-Cheol; Kim, Jae-Hyun; Kim, Sun Jung; Park, Sohee

    2014-01-01

    Background The divorce rate has been increasing rapidly in Korea; the single rate and trends in divorce are also changing rapidly. This study aimed to examine the relationship between marital status and quality of life (QOL) in an attempt to understand these changes. We also investigated the relationship between QOL and marital status by age group. Methods We used data from the Community Health Survey (2008: n = 200,800; 2009: n = 227,700; 2010: n = 229,229) administered by the Korean Centers...

  17. Sanctification of sexuality: implications for newlyweds' marital and sexual quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Krystal M; Mahoney, Annette; Pargament, Kenneth I

    2011-10-01

    Research on the intersection of sexuality, religion, and spirituality has primarily examined whether global levels of religiousness (e.g., service attendance) deter premarital and extramarital sexual activity. Virtually no empirical work has addressed whether specific spiritual beliefs about sexuality enhance marital sexuality. Using a community sample of 83 individuals married between 4 and 18 months, we found that greater perceptions of sexuality as sanctified predicted greater marital satisfaction, sexual satisfaction, sexual intimacy, and spiritual intimacy beyond global religiousness and demographics. The findings open a new line of research on religion and family life, and extend theories on the possible benefits of the sanctification of intimate relationships.

  18. Effects of communication styles on marital satisfaction and distress of parents of pediatric cancer patients : a prospective longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnberg - Williams, Barbara; Van de Wiel, Harry B. M.; Kamps, Willem; Hoekstra-Weebers, Josette E. H. M.

    ObjectiveThe aim of this study was to examine the longitudinal effects of communication styles on marital satisfaction and distress of parents of children treated for cancer. MethodsMarital dissatisfaction (Maudsley Marital Questionnaire), intimacy, avoidance, destructive and incongruent

  19. Reconstruction of the metabolic network of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to interrogate virulence factor synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartell, Jennifer A.; Blazier, Anna S.; Yen, Phillip; Thøgersen, Juliane C.; Jelsbak, Lars; Goldberg, Joanna B.; Papin, Jason A.

    2017-03-01

    Virulence-linked pathways in opportunistic pathogens are putative therapeutic targets that may be associated with less potential for resistance than targets in growth-essential pathways. However, efficacy of virulence-linked targets may be affected by the contribution of virulence-related genes to metabolism. We evaluate the complex interrelationships between growth and virulence-linked pathways using a genome-scale metabolic network reconstruction of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PA14 and an updated, expanded reconstruction of P. aeruginosa strain PAO1. The PA14 reconstruction accounts for the activity of 112 virulence-linked genes and virulence factor synthesis pathways that produce 17 unique compounds. We integrate eight published genome-scale mutant screens to validate gene essentiality predictions in rich media, contextualize intra-screen discrepancies and evaluate virulence-linked gene distribution across essentiality datasets. Computational screening further elucidates interconnectivity between inhibition of virulence factor synthesis and growth. Successful validation of selected gene perturbations using PA14 transposon mutants demonstrates the utility of model-driven screening of therapeutic targets.

  20. Risk Factors for Social Networking Site Scam Victimization Among Malaysian Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirwan, Gráinne H; Fullwood, Chris; Rooney, Brendan

    2018-02-01

    Social networking sites (SNSs) can provide cybercriminals with various opportunities, including gathering of user data and login credentials to enable fraud, and directing of users toward online locations that may install malware onto their devices. The techniques employed by such cybercriminals can include clickbait (text or video), advertisement of nonexistent but potentially desirable products, and hoax competitions/giveaways. This study aimed to identify risk factors associated with falling victim to these malicious techniques. An online survey was completed by 295 Malaysian undergraduate students, finding that more than one-third had fallen victim to SNS scams. Logistic regression analysis identified several victimization risk factors including having higher scores in impulsivity (specifically cognitive complexity), using fewer devices for SNSs, and having been on an SNS for a longer duration. No reliable model was found for vulnerability to hoax valuable gift giveaways and "friend view application" advertising specifically, but vulnerability to video clickbait was predicted by lower extraversion scores, higher levels of openness to experience, using fewer devices, and being on an SNS for a longer duration. Other personality traits were not associated with either overall victimization susceptibility or increased risk of falling victim to the specific techniques. However, age approached significance within both the video clickbait and overall victimization models. These findings suggest that routine activity theory may be particularly beneficial in understanding and preventing SNSs scam victimization.

  1. Cryptanalysis and security improvements of 'two-factor user authentication in wireless sensor networks'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Khurram; Alghathbar, Khaled

    2010-01-01

    User authentication in wireless sensor networks (WSN) is a critical security issue due to their unattended and hostile deployment in the field. Since sensor nodes are equipped with limited computing power, storage, and communication modules; authenticating remote users in such resource-constrained environments is a paramount security concern. Recently, M.L. Das proposed a two-factor user authentication scheme in WSNs and claimed that his scheme is secure against different kinds of attack. However, in this paper, we show that the M.L. Das-scheme has some critical security pitfalls and cannot be recommended for real applications. We point out that in his scheme: users cannot change/update their passwords, it does not provide mutual authentication between gateway node and sensor node, and is vulnerable to gateway node bypassing attack and privileged-insider attack. To overcome the inherent security weaknesses of the M.L. Das-scheme, we propose improvements and security patches that attempt to fix the susceptibilities of his scheme. The proposed security improvements can be incorporated in the M.L. Das-scheme for achieving a more secure and robust two-factor user authentication in WSNs.

  2. [Critical factors affecting nurse use of in-hospital employee communication networks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shu-Chin; Hou, Ying-Hui

    2011-10-01

    Level of concealment/suppression of true feelings in the course of carrying out nursing duties relates positively to risk of emotional exhaustion and burnout. Therefore, nurses need channels to release and reduce emotional stressors. We surveyed nurse use of an In-Hospital Employee Communication Network (IECN) to identify its efficacy as well as factors that influence nurse IECN use. This paper also provides research suggestions to help further reduce emotional exhaustion and burnout in nurses. We chose a region hospital as our case hospital and received Institution Review Board (IRB) approval for this study. A stratified sampling approach that reflected the ratio of staff in each department was used to distribute the questionnaires at the case hospital. 80 questionnaires were sent out with a response rate of 80%. All returned questionnaires were qualified as valid responses. IECN users numbered three times more than non-users. Nearly sixty percent of non-users did not use IECN due to, "lack of interest in the IECN." About half of the users have more than four years' experience with IECN. Primary motivations for using the IECN were entertainment, learning, and emotional relaxation, e.g., expressing emotions (43.8%) and emotional support (31.3%). IECN may be improved by enriching content to increase readability. Hospital managers should pay attention to network content and give timely feedback to improve nurse communication and effectively relieve emotional stresses to reduce risks of emotional exhaustion and burnout. Increasing opportunities for nurses to obtain new knowledge through information sharing via IECN can achieve a win-win situation for both the hospital and its employees.

  3. Co-expression network analysis reveals transcription factors associated to cell wall biosynthesis in sugarcane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Savio Siqueira; Hotta, Carlos Takeshi; Poelking, Viviane Guzzo de Carli; Leite, Debora Chaves Coelho; Buckeridge, Marcos Silveira; Loureiro, Marcelo Ehlers; Barbosa, Marcio Henrique Pereira; Carneiro, Monalisa Sampaio; Souza, Glaucia Mendes

    2016-05-01

    Sugarcane is a hybrid of Saccharum officinarum and Saccharum spontaneum, with minor contributions from other species in Saccharum and other genera. Understanding the molecular basis of cell wall metabolism in sugarcane may allow for rational changes in fiber quality and content when designing new energy crops. This work describes a comparative expression profiling of sugarcane ancestral genotypes: S. officinarum, S. spontaneum and S. robustum and a commercial hybrid: RB867515, linking gene expression to phenotypes to identify genes for sugarcane improvement. Oligoarray experiments of leaves, immature and intermediate internodes, detected 12,621 sense and 995 antisense transcripts. Amino acid metabolism was particularly evident among pathways showing natural antisense transcripts expression. For all tissues sampled, expression analysis revealed 831, 674 and 648 differentially expressed genes in S. officinarum, S. robustum and S. spontaneum, respectively, using RB867515 as reference. Expression of sugar transporters might explain sucrose differences among genotypes, but an unexpected differential expression of histones were also identified between high and low Brix° genotypes. Lignin biosynthetic genes and bioenergetics-related genes were up-regulated in the high lignin genotype, suggesting that these genes are important for S. spontaneum to allocate carbon to lignin, while S. officinarum allocates it to sucrose storage. Co-expression network analysis identified 18 transcription factors possibly related to cell wall biosynthesis while in silico analysis detected cis-elements involved in cell wall biosynthesis in their promoters. Our results provide information to elucidate regulatory networks underlying traits of interest that will allow the improvement of sugarcane for biofuel and chemicals production.

  4. 76 FR 16858 - Proposed Information Collection (Statement of Marital Relationship); Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Statement of Marital Relationship); Comment Request AGENCY... techniques or the use of other forms of information technology. Title: Statement of Marital Relationship, VA...

  5. Prediction of Marital Satisfaction Based on Emotional Intelligence in Postmenopausal Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidari, Mohammad; Shahbazi, Sara; Ghafourifard, Mansour; Ali Sheikhi, Rahim

    2017-12-01

    This study was coperinducted with the aim of prediction of marital satisfaction based on emotional intelligence for postmenopausal women. This cross-sectional study was the descriptive-correlation and with a sample size of 134 people to predict marital satisfaction based on emotional intelligence for postmenopausal women was conducted in the Borujen city. The subjects were selected by convenience sampling. Data collection tools included an emotional intelligence questionnaire (Bar-on) and Enrich marital satisfaction questionnaire. The results of this study showed a significant positive relationship between marital satisfaction and emotional intelligence ( P marital satisfaction. Due to the positive relationship between emotional intelligence and marital satisfaction, adequacy of emotional intelligence is improved as important structural in marital satisfaction. So it seems that can with measuring emotional intelligence in reinforced marital satisfaction during menopause, done appropriate action.

  6. Predictors of extra-marital partnerships among women married to fishermen along Lake Victoria in Kisumu County, Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary Kwena

    Full Text Available The vulnerability of women to HIV infection makes establishing predictors of women's involvement in extra-marital partnerships critical. We investigated the predictors of extra-marital partnerships among women married to fishermen.The current analyses are part of a mixed methods cross-sectional survey of 1090 gender-matched interviews with 545 couples and 12 focus group discussions (FGDs with 59 couples. Using a proportional to size simple random sample of fishermen as our index participants, we asked them to enrol in the study with their spouses. The consenting couples were interviewed simultaneously in separate private rooms. In addition to socio-economic and demographic data, we collected information on sexual behaviour including extra-marital sexual partnerships. We analysed these data using descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression. For FGDs, couples willing to participate were invited, consented and separated for simultaneous FGDs by gender-matched moderators. The resultant audiofiles were transcribed verbatim and translated into English for coding and thematic content analysis using NVivo 9.The prevalence of extra-marital partnerships among women was 6.2% within a reference time of six months. Factors that were independently associated with increased likelihood of extra-marital partnerships were domestic violence (aOR, 1.45; 95% CI 1.09-1.92, women reporting being denied a preferred sex position (aOR, 3.34; 95% CI 1.26-8.84 and spouse longer erect penis (aOR, 1.34; 95% CI 1.00-1.78. Conversely, women's age--more than 24 years (aOR, 0.33; 95% CI 0.14-0.78 and women's increased sexual satisfaction (aOR, 0.92; 95% CI 0.87-0.96 were associated with reduced likelihood of extra-marital partnerships.Domestic violence, denial of a preferred sex positions, longer erect penis, younger age and increased sexual satisfaction were the main predictors of women's involvement in extra-marital partnerships. Integration of sex education

  7. Cultural differences in family, marital, and gender-role values among immigrants and majority members in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arends-Tóth, Judit; van de Vijver, Fons J R

    2009-06-01

    This study examined the size of differences in self-reported family, marital, and gender-role values in five cultural groups in the Netherlands (6338 Dutch mainstreamers and 422 Turkish, 369 Moroccan, 429 Surinamese, and 394 Antillean first- and second-generation immigrants). It was found that the three value scales were neither completely independent, nor could they be merged into a single value scale. The factor structures of all scales were identical for the five cultural groups, implying that the concepts can be compared. Age, sex, and notably education accounted for a substantial part of the cultural differences in all values. Cultural differences were larger for marital and family values than for gender-role values. Family and marital values yielded the same rank order of mean scores in the five cultural groups: Turks and Moroccans scored the lowest (having the most traditional values), followed by Surinamers, Antilleans, and Dutch mainstreamers. This rank order corresponds with the ethnic hierarchy of cultural groups that is based on the evaluation of ethnic groups by mainstreamers according to their liking of and likeness to ethnic groups. Generational differences were not found for family and gender-role values but first-generation immigrants in all groups had more traditional marital values than had second-generation immigrants. It was concluded that the theoretical framework based on a combination of three Hofstede dimensions (individualism-collectivism, power-distance, and femininity-masculinity), a model of the hierarchy of the ethnic groups in the Dutch society, and acculturation theory provided an adequate way to address family, marital, and gender-role value differences in the five cultural groups.

  8. Marital status, gender and cardiovascular mortality: behavioural, psychological distress and metabolic explanations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molloy, Gerard John; Stamatakis, Emmanuel; Randall, Gemma; Hamer, Mark

    2009-07-01

    The intermediate processes through which the various unmarried states can increase the risk of subsequent cardiovascular disease mortality are incompletely understood. An understanding of these processes and how they may vary by gender is important for understanding why marital status is strongly and robustly associated with subsequent cardiovascular disease. In a prospective study of 13,889 Scottish men and women (mean age 52.3, Standard Deviation: 11.8 yrs, range 35-95, 56.1% female) without a history of clinically diagnosed cardiovascular disease, we examined the extent to which health behaviours (smoking, alcohol, physical activity), psychological distress (General Health Questionnaire-12 item) and metabolic dysregulation (obesity levels, and the presence of hypertension and diabetes) account for the association between marital status and cardiovascular mortality. There were 258 cardiovascular deaths over an average follow up of 7.1 (Standard Deviation=3.3) years. The risk of cardiovascular mortality was greatest in single, never married men and separated/divorced women compared with those that were married in gender stratified models that were adjusted for age and socio-economic group. In models that were separately adjusted, behavioural factors explained up to 33%, psychological distress explained up to 10% and metabolic dysregulation up to 16% of the relative change in the hazard ratios in the observed significant associations between marital status and cardiovascular mortality. Behavioural factors were particularly important in accounting for the relationship between being separated/divorced and cardiovascular mortality in both men and women (33% and 21% of the relative change in the hazard ratios, respectively). The findings suggest that health behaviour, psychological distress and metabolic dysregulation data have varying explanatory power for understanding the observed relationship between cardiovascular disease mortality and unmarried states.

  9. Association between Sexual Function and Marital Relationship in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shervin Assari

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background:  Patients  with  ischemic  heart  disease  (IHD  may  report  difficulties with  sexual  function  and  marital relationship. However, there is a dearth of studies focusing on the association between these aspects in IHD patients. The present study sought to assess the association between sexual function and marital relationship among IHD patients and also test the effect modification of gender, education level, and marital distress on the above association.Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 551 patients with IHD were enrolled and their sexual function and marital relationship quality were assessed with the Relation and Sexuality Scale (RSS and Revised Dyadic Adjustment Scale (RDAS, respectively. Association between marital relationship quality and sexual function was assessed with respect to gender, education level, and marital distress.Results: Most participants (72% were men at a mean age of 57 ± 11 (range = 36-80 years. Total sexual function was significantly correlated with total marital quality (r = -0.28, marital consensus (r = -0.17, marital coherence (r = -0.19, marital affection expression (r = -0.22, and marital satisfaction (r = -0.25. Total marital quality also showed a significant association with sexual fear (r = -0.11. These associations were moderated by gender, education level, and marital distress level.Conclusion: Among the IHD patients, sexual function and marital relationship quality showed a mild to moderate association. Association between sexual function and marital relationship quality, however, may depend on gender, education level, and marital distress level.

  10. Does infertility cause marital benefit? An epidemiological study of 2250 women and men in fertility treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Lone; Holstein, Bjørn; Christensen, Ulla

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate (i) marital benefit, e.g., that infertility has strengthen the marriage and brought the partners closer together among people beginning fertility treatment and (ii) communication and coping strategies as predictors of marital benefit 12 months later. METHODS: A prospecti....... CONCLUSION: Fertility patients frequently experience marital benefit. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: The study provides information about where to intervene with male fertility patients in order to increase their marital benefit after medically unsuccessful treatment....

  11. The relationship between social network, social support and periodontal disease among older Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbah, Wael; Tsakos, Georgios; Chandola, Tarani; Newton, Tim; Kawachi, Ichiro; Sheiham, Aubrey; Marmot, Michael G; Watt, Richard G

    2011-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine the relationship between social network, social support and periodontal disease among older American adults and to test whether social network and support mediates socioeconomic inequality in periodontal disease. Data pertaining to participants aged 60 years and over from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001-2004 were used. Periodontal disease variables were extent loss of periodontal attachment ≥3 mm and moderate periodontitis. Social support and networks were indicated by the need for emotional support, number of close friends and marital status. Widowed and those with lowest number of friends had higher rates of the extent of loss of periodontal attachment (1.27, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.58) and (1.22, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.45), respectively. Marital status and number of friends were not significantly associated with moderate periodontitis after adjusting for behavioural factors. The need for more emotional support was not related to periodontal disease in this analysis. Social networks and support had no impact on socioeconomic inequality in periodontal disease. Certain aspects of social network, namely being widowed and having fewer friends, were linked to the extent of loss of periodontal attachment but not to the definition of moderate periodontitis, in older adults. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  12. Construction of pancreatic cancer double-factor regulatory network based on chip data on the transcriptional level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Li-Li; Zhang, Tong; Liu, Bing-Rong; Liu, Tie-Fu; Tao, Na; Zhuang, Li-Wei

    2014-05-01

    Transcription factor (TF) and microRNA (miRNA) have been discovered playing crucial roles in cancer development. However, the effect of TFs and miRNAs in pancreatic cancer pathogenesis remains vague. We attempted to reveal the possible mechanism of pancreatic cancer based on transcription level. Using GSE16515 datasets downloaded from gene expression omnibus database, we first identified the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in pancreatic cancer by the limma package in R. Then the DEGs were mapped into DAVID to conduct the kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analysis. TFs and miRNAs that DEGs significantly enriched were identified by Fisher's test, and then the pancreatic cancer double-factor regulatory network was constructed. In our study, total 1117 DEGs were identified and they significantly enriched in 4 KEGG pathways. A double-factor regulatory network was established, including 29 DEGs, 24 TFs, 25 miRNAs. In the network, LAMC2, BRIP1 and miR155 were identified which may be involved in pancreatic cancer development. In conclusion, the double-factor regulatory network was found to play an important role in pancreatic cancer progression and our results shed new light on the molecular mechanism of pancreatic cancer.

  13. Using Social Networking Environments to Support Collaborative Learning in a Chinese University Class: Interaction Pattern and Influencing Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jie; Churchill, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports a study that investigated the social interaction pattern of collaborative learning and the factors affecting the effectiveness of collaborative learning in a social networking environment (SNE). A class of 55 undergraduate students enrolled in an elective course at a Chinese university was recruited for the study. The…

  14. Transient Structured Distance as a Maneuver in Marital Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Bernard L.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    Experience with 73 cases has shown the value of Transient Structured Distance as a maneuver in marriage therapy. While the TSD is a radical form of intervention with risks of anxiety reactions, homosexual panic, or divorce, it has proved effective with difficult forms of acute or chronic marital disharmony. (Author)

  15. How Does Marital Dynamics Influence Psychological well-being in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the influence of marital dynamics on the psychological wellbeing of farm-families in Ogun-state Nigeria. Research participants included spouses in twenty-six families drawn from five farming communities in the state. The uniqueness of the study is its feminist methodological approach, which ...

  16. Marital Adjustment, Parental Functioning, and Emotional Sharing in War Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Zahava; Debby-Aharon, Shimrit; Zerach, Gadi; Horesh, Danny

    2011-01-01

    The current study aimed to examine the implications of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms and emotional sharing in marital adjustment and parental functioning among Israeli veterans of the 1982 Lebanon War. The sample consisted of combat stress reaction (CSR) veterans (n = 264) and non-CSR veterans (n = 209). Results show that traumatized…

  17. 32 CFR 196.445 - Marital or parental status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) MISCELLANEOUS NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 196... a student's actual or potential parental, family, or marital status that treats students differently...

  18. 38 CFR 23.445 - Marital or parental status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 23... a student's actual or potential parental, family, or marital status that treats students differently...

  19. 44 CFR 19.445 - Marital or parental status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or... any rule concerning a student's actual or potential parental, family, or marital status that treats...

  20. 36 CFR 1211.530 - Marital or parental status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION GENERAL RULES NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or... policy or take any employment action: (1) Concerning the potential marital, parental, or family status of...

  1. 38 CFR 23.530 - Marital or parental status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities... any employment action: (1) Concerning the potential marital, parental, or family status of an employee...

  2. 32 CFR 196.530 - Marital or parental status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) MISCELLANEOUS NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities... any employment action: (1) Concerning the potential marital, parental, or family status of an employee...

  3. 7 CFR 15a.40 - Marital or parental status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING OR BENEFITTING FROM FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs and... any rule concerning a student's actual or potential parental, family, or marital status which treats...

  4. 36 CFR 1211.445 - Marital or parental status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION GENERAL RULES NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities... concerning a student's actual or potential parental, family, or marital status that treats students...

  5. Saving Sinking Ships: Implications from a Theory of Marital Dissolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laner, Mary Riege

    1978-01-01

    A recently developed theory of marital dissolution that utilizes a systems perspective is briefly presented. The theory was derived from almost 1,300 propositions in extant literature, and is readily understandable to layman, practitioner, and academician. Implications contained within the theory for those concerned with saving floundering marital…

  6. Effects Of Emotional Intelligence On Marital Adjustment Of Couples ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Couples should be helped to develop emotion management skills. Couples should be taught emotional sensitivity skills. Our educational systems should not only develop learners' Intelligence (IQ) but their Emotional intelligence (EQI) competencies too. Emotional intelligence should form part of the criteria for marital choice ...

  7. The Contribution of Marital Happiness to Global Happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Norval D.; Weaver, Charles N.

    1981-01-01

    Data from six U.S. national surveys compared the estimated contributions to global happiness and marital happiness and satisfaction with each of seven aspects of life, ranging from work to friendships. Findings indicated that Americans depend very heavily on their marriages for their psychological well-being. (Author)

  8. Reciprocity Counseling: A Behavioral Approach to Marital Discord

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naster, Barry J.

    1977-01-01

    Reciprocity counseling is a rapid reinforcement-based procedure developed for teaching marriage partners how to increase their individual happiness within their marital relationship. The major obstacle to implementing reciprocity techniques is convincing the partners to engage in the procedures, even if they feel these procedures appear contrived…

  9. Coping strategies for marital stress as reported by lecturers of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stressful situations which are termed hassles of life can be debilitating and are abound in our daily living especially as married people. Consequently, one needs to employ coping strategies to the situations. The study investigated coping strategies for marital stress as reported by lecturers of a college of education.

  10. Comparing different thinking styles and marital satisfaction among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of the present study was to compare different thinking styles and marital satisfaction among engineers of urban and nonurban areas. The design of this study was casual-comparative. The sample population of this study consisted of the engineers who were members of engineers' society of Sari city among ...

  11. Premarital Cohabitation and Marital Dissolution: An Examination of Recent Marriages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Wendy D.; Cohen, Jessica A.

    2012-01-01

    An ongoing question remains for family researchers: Why does a positive association between cohabitation and marital dissolution exist when one of the primary reasons to cohabit is to test relationship compatibility? Drawing on recently collected data from the 2006-2008 National Survey of Family Growth, the authors examined whether premarital…

  12. 45 CFR 618.445 - Marital or parental status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marital or parental status. 618.445 Section 618.445 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION... same policies as any other temporary disability with respect to any medical or hospital benefit...

  13. Partner Killing by Men in Cohabiting and Marital Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shackelford, Todd K.; Mouzos, Jenny

    2005-01-01

    Using a national-level U.S. database, T. K. Shackelford (2001) calculated rates of uxoricide (the murder of a woman by her romantic partner) by relationship type (cohabiting or marital), by ages of the partners, and by the age difference between partners. Women in cohabiting relationships were 9 times more likely to be killed by their partner than…

  14. Obstetric and marital consequences of female genital mutilation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article examines the relationships between FGM practice and obstetric complications/marital harmony among ever-married women in Lagos metropolis, Nigeria. A cross-sectional survey was carried out, and a quantitative analytical technique was used in analysing the data. Findings of the study reveal that women who ...

  15. Depressive symptoms and marital adjustment among primary care ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between erectile dysfunction (ED), marital adjustment and depression. Methods: The survey was conducted among primary care patients at Federal Medical Centre, Umuahia. Subjects were 678 married, male primary care patients; aged 20–70 years (mean ...

  16. The Impact of Marital Separation/Divorce on Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Doris S.

    1978-01-01

    Reports on a study of the impact of marital separation/divorce on children aged 3-17 during the 12-month period following the parental separation. Results suggests that a child's adjustment is directly related to the amount of interparent hostility to which the child has been exposed. (Author)

  17. Marriage Meets the Joneses: Relative Income, Identity, and Marital Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Tara; McLanahan, Sara

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of relative income on marriage. Accounting flexibly for absolute income, the ratio between a man's income and a local reference group median is a strong predictor of marital status, but only for low-income men. Relative income affects marriage even among those living with a partner. A 10 percent higher reference…

  18. Congruence of Parental Perception, Marital Satisfaction, and Child Adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Lucy Rau; Allen, Deborah R.

    1978-01-01

    Parents completed the Locke-Wallace Scale, the Interpersonal Checklist, and the Children's Behavior Checklist to assess marital satisfaction, congruence of perceptions, and agreement in perceptions of their child and child adjustment. Variables were positively intercorrelated. Similarity in partners' self-concepts and psychological empathy were…

  19. Areas of Marital Dissatisfaction among Long-Term Couples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duba, Jill D.; Hughey, Aaron W.; Lara, Tracy; Burke, Monica G.

    2012-01-01

    To better understand relational dissatisfaction and duration of long-term married couples, this study surveyed 30 couples married at least 40 years with the Marital Satisfaction Inventory. Findings suggest various areas of dissatisfaction (e.g., affective communication, conflict over child rearing) and relationship among and link to other areas of…

  20. Patterns of Change in Marital Satisfaction over the Newlywed Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavner, Justin A.; Bradbury, Thomas N.

    2010-01-01

    Although marital satisfaction starts high and declines for the average newlywed, some spouses may follow qualitatively distinct trajectories. Using 8 self-reports of satisfaction collected over 4 years from 464 newlywed spouses, we identified 5 trajectory groups, including patterns defined by high intercepts and no declines in satisfaction,…