National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data (updated daily) are from the Animal Telemetry Network (ATN) program. Begun as one of the field projects in the international Census of Marine Life, the...
Maimone, Mark W.
Scripts Providing a Cool Kit of Telemetry Enhancing Tools (SPACKLE) is a set of software tools that fill gaps in capabilities of other software used in processing downlinked data in the Mars Exploration Rovers (MER) flight and test-bed operations. SPACKLE tools have helped to accelerate the automatic processing and interpretation of MER mission data, enabling non-experts to understand and/or use MER query and data product command simulation software tools more effectively. SPACKLE has greatly accelerated some operations and provides new capabilities. The tools of SPACKLE are written, variously, in Perl or the C or C++ language. They perform a variety of search and shortcut functions that include the following: Generating text-only, Event Report-annotated, and Web-enhanced views of command sequences; Labeling integer enumerations with their symbolic meanings in text messages and engineering channels; Systematic detecting of corruption within data products; Generating text-only displays of data-product catalogs including downlink status; Validating and labeling of commands related to data products; Performing of convenient searches of detailed engineering data spanning multiple Martian solar days; Generating tables of initial conditions pertaining to engineering, health, and accountability data; Simplified construction and simulation of command sequences; and Fast time format conversions and sorting.
Operating networks depends on collecting and analyzing measurement data. Current technologies do not make it easy to do so, typically because they separate data collection (e.g., packet capture or flow monitoring) from analysis, producing either too much data to answer a general question or too little data to answer a detailed question. In this paper, we present Sonata, a network telemetry system that uses a uniform query interface to drive the joint collection and analysis of network traffic. Sonata takes the advantage of two emerging technologies---streaming analytics platforms and programmable network devices---to facilitate joint collection and analysis. Sonata allows operators to more directly express network traffic analysis tasks in terms of a high-level language. The underlying runtime partitions each query into a portion that runs on the switch and another that runs on the streaming analytics platform iteratively refines the query to efficiently capture only the traffic that pertains to the operator\\'s query, and exploits sketches to reduce state in switches in exchange for more approximate results. Through an evaluation of a prototype implementation, we demonstrate that Sonata can support a wide range of network telemetry tasks with less state in the network, and lower data rates to streaming analytics systems, than current approaches can achieve.
Critical RF radio frequency RFC Request for Comment SNMP Simple Network Management Protocol TA test article TCP Transmission Control Protocol...IRIG 106 Chapter 27: Radio Frequency (RF) Network Access Layer This chapter defines the standard for managing the physical layer of RF links... Network Management This chapter defines the mechanisms and processes for managing RF links within the RF network . 21.2 Telemetry Network Standard
Brown, Kenneth D.
A transceiver for facilitating two-way wireless communication between a baseband application and other nodes in a wireless network, wherein the transceiver provides baseband communication networking and necessary configuration and control functions along with transmitter, receiver, and antenna functions to enable the wireless communication. More specifically, the transceiver provides a long-range wireless duplex communication node or channel between the baseband application, which is associated with a mobile or fixed space, air, water, or ground vehicle or other platform, and other nodes in the wireless network or grid. The transceiver broadly comprises a communication processor; a flexible telemetry transceiver including a receiver and a transmitter; a power conversion and regulation mechanism; a diplexer; and a phased array antenna system, wherein these various components and certain subcomponents thereof may be separately enclosed and distributable relative to the other components and subcomponents.
Waldersen, Matt; Schnarr, Otto, III
The primary topics of this presentation describe the testing of network based telemetry and RF modulation techniques. The overall intend is to aid the aerospace industry in transitioning to a network based telemetry system.
Collection, Storage, and Retrieval 3 3.2 Comparative Analysis 4 3.3 Data Processing 4 4. Architecture 4 4.1 NTW Database 6 4.2 NTW Server 6 4.4...efforts between ARL and the US Naval Research Laboratory (NRL). The primary emulation tools used by ARL are the Extendable Mobile Ad -Hoc Network...procedure call (gRPC) system. The gRPC system uses the Google protocol buffers compiler to generate the code for the server . gRPC handles many of the basic
Block, Barbara A.; Holbrook, Christopher; Simmons, Samantha E; Holland, Kim N; Ault, Jerald S.; Costa, Daniel P.; Mate, Bruce R; Seitz, Andrew C.; Arendt, Michael D.; Payne, John; Mahmoudi, Behzad; Moore, Peter L.; Price, James; J. J. Levenson,; Wilson, Doug; Kochevar, Randall E
Animal telemetry is the science of elucidating the movements and behavior of animals in relation to their environment or habitat. Here, we focus on telemetry of aquatic species (marine mammals, sharks, fish, sea birds and turtles) and so are concerned with animal movements and behavior as they move through and above the world’s oceans, coastal rivers, estuaries and great lakes. Animal telemetry devices (“tags”) yield detailed data regarding animal responses to the coupled ocean–atmosphere and physical environment through which they are moving. Animal telemetry has matured and we describe a developing US Animal Telemetry Network (ATN) observing system that monitors aquatic life on a range of temporal and spatial scales that will yield both short- and long-term benefits, fill oceanographic observing and knowledge gaps and advance many of the U.S. National Ocean Policy Priority Objectives. ATN has the potential to create a huge impact for the ocean observing activities undertaken by the U.S. Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS) and become a model for establishing additional national-level telemetry networks worldwide.
Weise, M. J.; Simmons, S. E.
The U.S. is a global leader in animal telemetry, with tremendous animal telemetry infrastructure and considerable technical expertise in telemetry operations. However, these research assets are often owned and operated independently by multiple agencies and institutions with limited to no connectivity. This prevents the scientific community from efficiently coordinating data and thereby best serving societal needs. In this talk we will describe how the U.S. Animal Telemetry Network (ATN), under the auspices of the U.S. Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS), will provide a mechanism to facilitate and empower an alliance among federal, industry, academic, state, local, tribal, and non-federal organizations. Animal telemetry technology is now considered mature and operational, and these observing data and products are ready to be integrated into the U.S. IOOS. The ATN data management approach involves receiving, handling, and distributing diverse data types from archival, satellite, and acoustic tag platforms that originate from a variety of individual researchers and large programs using consistent metadata standards and best practices. The core of the ATN data management system will be a quasi-centralized national ATN Data Assembly Center that will receive and distribute data and data products to U.S. IOOS RAs and other partner organizations. The integration of biological resources into ocean observation will address U.S. IOOS needs regarding societal benefits by, for example, aiming to improve predictions of climate change, to more effectively protect and restore healthy coastal ecosystems, and to enable the sustained use of ocean and coastal resources. We will describe the plan for how the ATN will maximize the benefit of existing investments by providing a mechanism for sustained operations and consistent delivery of animal telemetry data across the U.S. and in conjunction with international ocean observing systems.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A WiMAX networked UAV Telemetry System (WNUTS) is designed for net-centric remote sensing and launch range surveillance applications. WNUTS integrates a MIMO powered...
Cecil, Andrew J.; Pitts, R. Lee; Welch, Steven J.; Bryan, Jason D.
The International Space Station (ISS) is in an operational configuration. To fully utilize the ISS and take advantage of the modern protocols and updated Ku-band access, the Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) has designed an approach to extend the Kuband forward link access for payload investigators to their on-orbit payloads. This dramatically increases the ground to ISS communications for those users. This access also enables the ISS flight controllers operating in the Payload Operations and Integration Center to have more direct control over the systems they are responsible for managing and operating. To extend the Ku-band forward link to the payload user community the development of a new command server is necessary. The HOSC subsystems were updated to process the Internet Protocol Encapsulated packets, enable users to use the service based on their approved services, and perform network address translation to insure that the packets are forwarded from the user to the correct payload repeating that process in reverse from ISS to the payload user. This paper presents the architecture, implementation, and lessons learned. This will include the integration of COTS hardware and software as well as how the device is incorporated into the operational mission of the ISS. Thus, this paper also discusses how this technology can be applicable to payload users of the ISS.
Mourier, Johann; Bass, Nathan Charles; Guttridge, Tristan L; Day, Joanna; Brown, Culum
Accurately estimating contacts between animals can be critical in ecological studies such as examining social structure, predator-prey interactions or transmission of information and disease. While biotelemetry has been used successfully for such studies in terrestrial systems, it is still under development in the aquatic environment. Acoustic telemetry represents an attractive tool to investigate spatio-temporal behaviour of marine fish and has recently been suggested for monitoring underwater animal interactions. To evaluate the effectiveness of acoustic telemetry in recording interindividual contacts, we compared co-occurrence matrices deduced from three types of acoustic receivers varying in detection range in a benthic shark species. Our results demonstrate that (i) associations produced by acoustic receivers with a large detection range (i.e. Vemco VR2W) were significantly different from those produced by receivers with smaller ranges (i.e. Sonotronics miniSUR receivers and proximity loggers) and (ii) the position of individuals within their network, or centrality, also differed. These findings suggest that acoustic receivers with a large detection range may not be the best option to represent true social networks in the case of a benthic marine animal. While acoustic receivers are increasingly used by marine ecologists, we recommend users first evaluate the influence of detection range to depict accurate individual interactions before using these receivers for social or predator-prey studies. We also advocate for combining multiple receiver types depending on the ecological question being asked and the development of multi-sensor tags or testing of new automated proximity loggers, such as the Encounternet system, to improve the precision and accuracy of social and predator-prey interaction studies.
Hirahara, S.; Uchida, N.; Nakajima, J.
When a large earthquake occurs, it is important to know the detailed distribution of aftershocks immediately after the main shock for the estimation of the fault plane. The large amount of seismic data is also required to determine the three-dimensional seismic velocity structure around the focal area. We have developed an autonomous telemetry system using mobile networks, which is specialized for aftershock observations. Because the newly developed system enables a quick installation and real-time data transmission by using mobile networks, we can construct a dense online seismic network even in mountain areas where conventional wired networks are not available. This system is equipped with solar panels that charge lead-acid battery, and enables a long-term seismic observation without maintenance. Furthermore, this system enables a continuous observation at low costs with flat-rate or prepaid Internet access. We have tried to expand coverage areas of mobile communication and back up Internet access by configuring plural mobile carriers. A micro server embedded with Linux consists of automatic control programs of the Internet connection and data transmission. A status monitoring and remote maintenance are available via the Internet. In case of a communication failure, an internal storage can back up data for two years. The power consumption of communication device ranges from 2.5 to 4.0 W. With a 50 Ah lead-acid battery, this system continues to record data for four days if the battery charging by solar panels is temporarily unavailable.
GIF RPC, PAP, SSL, SQL TCP, UDP, NETBEUI 3. Network 2. Data Link 1. Physical Structuring and managing a multi-node network, including addressing...h0000) for transmission; ignored on reception. 27.5.5 Frame Check Sequence Field A 32-bit FCS shall be computed over the entire MAC frame...rate, LDPC codeblock size, LDPC preamble, ASM sizes, and the goal rate for mission data from the program . The light-pink boxes represent calculated
management processing and supporting network speed . Prior to the addition of the timeout functionality , the RF link management was required to...no transmission slots are allocated to it for the next epoch. The transceiver shall continue to perform its receiver functionality . In the event...resume transmissions if the TxOps have not timed out and the transceiver’s heartbeat timeout is not zero. This can be determined by calculating the
frames shall support 48-bit locally and universally administered addresses in a manner consistent with IEEE 802.3-2012, Section 1, Clause 3, Paragraph ...3.2.3, and Clause 4, Paragraph 4.2. Data link frame structures shall support type-encapsulated and length-encapsulated frames as specified in IEEE...802.3-2012, Section 1, Clause 3, Paragraph 3.2.6. 18.104.22.168 Media Access Control NetworkNodes shall support the MAC protocols specified in IEEE 802.3
Drumheller, Douglas Schaeffer; Kuszmaul, Scott S.
Broadcasting messages through the earth is a daunting task. Indeed, broadcasting a normal telephone conversion through the earth by wireless means is impossible with todays technology. Most of us don't care, but some do. Industries that drill into the earth need wireless communication to broadcast navigation parameters. This allows them to steer their drill bits. They also need information about the natural formation that they are drilling. Measurements of parameters such as pressure, temperature, and gamma radiation levels can tell them if they have found a valuable resource such as a geothermal reservoir or a stratum bearing natural gas. Wireless communication methods are available to the drilling industry. Information is broadcast via either pressure waves in the drilling fluid or electromagnetic waves in the earth and well tubing. Data transmission can only travel one way at rates around a few baud. Given that normal Internet telephone modems operate near 20,000 baud, these data rates are truly very slow. Moreover, communication is often interrupted or permanently blocked by drilling conditions or natural formation properties. Here we describe a tool that communicates with stress waves traveling through the steel drill pipe and production tubing in the well. It's based on an old idea called Acoustic Telemetry. But what we present here is more than an idea. This tool exists, it's drilled several wells, and it works. Currently, it's the first and only acoustic telemetry tool that can withstand the drilling environment. It broadcasts one way over a limited range at much faster rates than existing methods, but we also know how build a system that can communicate both up and down wells of indefinite length.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Intelligent Automation Inc. (IAI) proposes an innovative Security-Enhanced Autonomous Network Management (SEANM) scheme for reliable communication in space...
This report presents the concept and supporting rationale for the telemetry system developed by the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS). The concepts, protocols and data formats developed for the telemetry system are designed for flight and ground data systems supporting conventional, contemporary free-flyer spacecraft. Data formats are designed with efficiency as a primary consideration, i.e., format overhead is minimized. The results reflect the consensus of experts from many space agencies. An overview of the CCSDS telemetry system introduces the notion of architectural layering to achieve transparent and reliable delivery of scientific and engineering sensor data (generated aboard space vehicles) to users located in space or on earth. The system is broken down into two major conceptual categories: a packet telemetry concept and a telemetry channel coding concept. Packet telemetry facilitates data transmission from source to user in a standardized and highly automated manner. It provides a mechanism for implementing common data structures and protocols which can enhance the development and operation of space mission systems. Telemetry channel coding is a method by which data can be sent from a source to a destination by processing it in such a way that distinct messages are created which are easily distinguishable from one another. This allows construction of the data with low error probability, thus improving performance of the channel.
Rodenbeck, Christopher T.; Young, Derek; Chou, Tina; Hsieh, Lung-Hwa; Conover, Kurt; Heintzleman, Richard
A combined radar and telemetry system is described. The combined radar and telemetry system includes a processing unit that executes instructions, where the instructions define a radar waveform and a telemetry waveform. The processor outputs a digital baseband signal based upon the instructions, where the digital baseband signal is based upon the radar waveform and the telemetry waveform. A radar and telemetry circuit transmits, simultaneously, a radar signal and telemetry signal based upon the digital baseband signal.
Schaffer, Ayal; Kreindler, David; Reis, Catherine; Levitt, Anthony J
Standard clinical trial methodology in depression does not allow for careful examination of early changes in symptom intensity. The purpose of this study was to use daily "Mental Health Telemetry" (MHT) to prospectively record change in depressive and anxiety symptoms for depressed patients receiving augmentation treatment, and determine the extent and predictive capacity of early changes. We report results of a 6-week, open-label study of the addition of quetiapine XR (range, 50-300 mg) for adult patients (n = 26) with major depressive disorder who were nonresponsive to antidepressant treatment. In addition to regular study visits, all participants completed daily, wirelessly transmitted self-report ratings of symptoms on a Smartphone. Daily and 3-day moving average mean scores were calculated, and associations between early symptom change and eventual response to treatment were determined. Improvement in depressive and anxiety symptoms was identified as early as day 1 of treatment. Of the total decline in depression severity over 6 weeks, 9% was present at day 1, 28% at day 2, 39% at days 3 and 4, 65% at day 7, and 80% at day 10. Self-report rating of early improvement (≥20%) in depressive symptoms at day 7 significantly predicted responder status at week 6 (P = 0.03). Clinician-rated depressive and anxiety symptoms only became significantly associated with responder status at day 14. In conclusion, very early changes in depressive symptoms were identified using MHT, early changes accounted for most of total change, and MHT-recorded improvement as early as day 7 significantly predicted response to treatment at study end point.
Sie, R. L. L. (2012). COalitions in COOperation Networks (COCOON): Social Network Analysis and Game Theory to Enhance Cooperation Networks (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). September, 28, 2012, Open Universiteit in the Netherlands (CELSTEC), Heerlen, The Netherlands.
Whitelaw, Virginia A.
This paper examines the impact of telemetry handling on the design of the onboard networks that are part of the Space Station Data Management System (DMS). An architectural approach to satisfying the DMS requirement for support of the high throughput needed for telemetry transport and for servicing distributed computer systems is discussed. Several of the functionality vs. performance tradeoffs that must be made in developing an optimized mechanism for handling telemetry data in the DMS are considered.
Ensuring reliable communication in next-generation space networks requires a novel network management system to support greater levels of autonomy and greater awareness of the environment and assets. Intelligent Automation, Inc., has developed a security-enhanced autonomous network management (SEANM) approach for space networks through cross-layer negotiation and network monitoring, analysis, and adaptation. The underlying technology is bundle-based delay/disruption-tolerant networking (DTN). The SEANM scheme allows a system to adaptively reconfigure its network elements based on awareness of network conditions, policies, and mission requirements. Although SEANM is generically applicable to any radio network, for validation purposes it has been prototyped and evaluated on two specific networks: a commercial off-the-shelf hardware test-bed using Institute of Electrical Engineers (IEEE) 802.11 Wi-Fi devices and a military hardware test-bed using AN/PRC-154 Rifleman Radio platforms. Testing has demonstrated that SEANM provides autonomous network management resulting in reliable communications in delay/disruptive-prone environments.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Annual telemetry data are collected as part of specific projects (assessments within watersheds) or as opportunistic efforts to characterize Atlantic salmon smolt...
modulation cps Cycles per second CRC Cyclical redundancy check Telemetry Applications Handbook, RCC 119-06, May 2006 xviii -D- D/A, DAC Digital...code for recording GHz Gigahertz GPS Global Positioning System G/T Gain/noise temperature Telemetry Applications Handbook, RCC 119-06, May 2006 xix...amplitude, and impedance match to subsequent stages in the circuitry of the system. Most signal conditioners consist of resistors, capacitors , and
Lobov, S.; Simonov, A.; Kastalskiy, I.; Kazantsev, V.
Synchronization of neural network response on spatially localized periodic stimulation was studied. The network consisted of synaptically coupled spiking neurons with spike-timing-dependent synaptic plasticity (STDP). Network connectivity was defined by time evolving matrix of synaptic weights. We found that the steady-state spatial pattern of the weights could be rearranged due to locally applied external periodic stimulation. A method for visualization of synaptic weights as vector field was introduced to monitor the evolving connectivity matrix. We demonstrated that changes in the vector field and associated weight rearrangements underlay an enhancement of synchronization range.
Smith, James F.
A network based on quantum information has been developed to improve sensing and communications capabilities. Quantum teleportation offers features for communicating information not found in classical procedures. It is fundamental to the quantum network approach. A version of quantum teleportation based on hyper-entanglement is used to bring about these improvements. Recently invented methods of improving sensing and communication via quantum information based on hyper-entanglement are discussed. These techniques offer huge improvements in the SNR, signal to interference ratio, and time-on-target of various sensors including RADAR and LADAR. Hyper-entanglement refers to quantum entanglement in more than one degree of freedom, e.g. polarization, energy-time, orbital angular momentum (OAM), etc. The quantum network makes use of quantum memory located in each node of the network, thus the network forms a quantum repeater. The quantum repeater facilitates the use of quantum teleportation, and superdense coding. Superdense coding refers to the ability to incorporate more than one classical bit into each transmitted qubit. The network of sensors and/or communication devices has an enhanced resistance to interference sources. The repeater has the potential for greatly reducing loss in communications and sensor systems related to the effect of the atmosphere on fragile quantum states. Measures of effectiveness (MOEs) are discussed that show the utility of the network for improving sensing and communications in the presence of loss and noise. The quantum repeater will reduce overall size, weight, power and cost (SWAPC) of fielded components of systems.
Full Text Available Health-economic background: The conditions for area-wide utilisation of telemedicine on national and European levels have to be developed. Before the nation-wide implementation in Germany can take place, the effectiveness of the structures and services of telemedicine has to be verified under everyday conditions. The utilisation of telemedicine has been assessed in recent HTA-reports that cover the existing scientific knowledge. This article also reports on the future role telemedicine could play in the telemetric monitoring of heart function. General background: With telemonitoring it is possible to keep body function data under continuous surveillance. This is especially useful for high-risk patients. Telemetry is the term used for the transfer of measured values from the sensor to the surveillance control point. Telemetric monitoring is well-suited for measuring cardiac function parameters without investing a lot of time and effort. Results: Telemedicine is well accepted by the patients. It has been indicated that the implementation of telemedicine reduces both the number of hospitalisations and the duration of hospitalisation. Treatment costs are accordingly reduced. With an early diagnosis, the therapy can be optimised precociously. Considering acute medical care, a diagnosis prior to hospitalisation can lead to a reduction in the time interval between admittance and the start of therapy. Considering preventive medical care, the continuous surveillance enables a timely diagnosis. The quality of life of the patient is hereby significantly enhanced. Conclusion: Telemetric monitoring can be applied in many areas of health care and be of positive assistance, within the single therapeutic strategies, to patients with acute and chronic cardiac illnesses. The integration of information- and communication systems available for the health sector can significantly support patient orientated medical care. This has been indicated in numerous studies
Rosatino, S. A.; Westbrook, R. M.
Miniature, individual crystal-controlled RF transmitters located in EMG pressure sensors simplifies multichannel EMG telemetry for electronic gait monitoring. Transmitters which are assigned operating frequencies within 174 - 216 MHz band have linear frequency response from 20 - 2000 Hz and operate over range of 15 m.
Phxtelemproc is a C/C++ based telemetry processing program that processes SFDU telemetry packets from the Telemetry Data System (TDS). It generates Experiment Data Records (EDRs) for several instruments including surface stereo imager (SSI); robotic arm camera (RAC); robotic arm (RA); microscopy, electrochemistry, and conductivity analyzer (MECA); and the optical microscope (OM). It processes both uncompressed and compressed telemetry, and incorporates unique subroutines for the following compression algorithms: JPEG Arithmetic, JPEG Huffman, Rice, LUT3, RA, and SX4. This program was in the critical path for the daily command cycle of the Phoenix mission. The products generated by this program were part of the RA commanding process, as well as the SSI, RAC, OM, and MECA image and science analysis process. Its output products were used to advance science of the near polar regions of Mars, and were used to prove that water is found in abundance there. Phxtelemproc is part of the MIPL (Multi-mission Image Processing Laboratory) system. This software produced Level 1 products used to analyze images returned by in situ spacecraft. It ultimately assisted in operations, planning, commanding, science, and outreach.
specific meaning to anyone else. Telemetry assignments are made for testing3 manned and unmanned aircraft, for missiles, space, land, and sea test...changes shall occur only on minor frame boundaries. Bit synchronization shall be maintained and fill bits used instead of intentional dead periods...is essentially a line graph that plots values vs. time along a scrolling “paper” grid. A stripchart can be vertical or horizontal, and can scroll
A next-generation telemetry workstation has been developed to replace the one currently used to test and control Range Safety systems. Improving upon the performance of the original system, the new telemetry workstation uses dual-channel telemetry boards for better synchronization of the two uplink telemetry streams. The new workstation also includes an Interrange Instrumentation Group/Global Positioning System (IRIG/GPS) time code receiver board for independent, local time stamping of return-link data. The next-generation system will also record and play back return-link data for postlaunch analysis.
Green, Ryan B.
The rise of wireless networks has led to a new market in medicine: remote patient monitoring. Practitioners now desire to monitor the health conditions of their patients after hospital release. With the large number of cardiac related deaths and this new demand in medicine being the motivation, this study developed a BluetoothRTM telemetry system for a wearable Electrocardiogram. This study also developed a compression t-shirt to hold the ECG and telemetry system. This device communicates the ECG signal of a patient to an Android device within the ISM frequency bands (2.4-2.48 GHz) where the data is displayed and stored in real time. This study is a stepping stone toward more portable heart monitoring that can communicate with the doctor in real time from remote locations.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA's Space Communications and Navigation (SCaN) program is integrating its three current agency networks: Space Network (SN), Deep Space Network (DSN), and Near...
Son, L.T.; Schiøler, Henrik; Madsen, Ole Brun
This paper analyzes network traffic control issues in Bluetooth data networks as convex optimization problem. We formulate the problem of maximizing of total network flows and minimizing the costs of flows. An adaptive distributed network traffic control scheme is proposed as an approximated...... solution of the stated optimization problem that satisfies quality of service requirements and topologically induced constraints in Bluetooth networks, such as link capacity and node resource limitations. The proposed scheme is decentralized and complies with frequent changes of topology as well...... as capacity limitations and flow requirements in the network. Simulation shows that the performance of Bluetooth networks could be improved by applying the adaptive distributed network traffic control scheme...
prepared this document to foster the compatibility of telemetry transmitting, receiving, and signal processing equipment at the member ranges under the...Frequency Division Multiplexing Telemetry Standards CHAPTER 4: Pulse Code Modulation Standards CHAPTER 5: Digitized Audio Telemetry Standard CHAPTER 6...Recorder & Reproducer Command and Control CHAPTER 7: Packet Telemetry Downlink CHAPTER 8: Digital Data Bus Acquisition Formatting Standard CHAPTER
Jia, Caiyan; Li, Yafang; Carson, Matthew B; Wang, Xiaoyang; Yu, Jian
Community detection involves grouping the nodes of a network such that nodes in the same community are more densely connected to each other than to the rest of the network. Previous studies have focused mainly on identifying communities in networks using node connectivity. However, each node in a network may be associated with many attributes. Identifying communities in networks combining node attributes has become increasingly popular in recent years. Most existing methods operate on networks with attributes of binary, categorical, or numerical type only. In this study, we introduce kNN-enhance, a simple and flexible community detection approach that uses node attribute enhancement. This approach adds the k Nearest Neighbor (kNN) graph of node attributes to alleviate the sparsity and the noise effect of an original network, thereby strengthening the community structure in the network. We use two testing algorithms, kNN-nearest and kNN-Kmeans, to partition the newly generated, attribute-enhanced graph. Our analyses of synthetic and real world networks have shown that the proposed algorithms achieve better performance compared to existing state-of-the-art algorithms. Further, the algorithms are able to deal with networks containing different combinations of binary, categorical, or numerical attributes and could be easily extended to the analysis of massive networks.
Kurthakoti, Raghu; Boostrom, Robert E., Jr.; Summey, John H.; Campbell, David A.
To determine the usefulness of social networking Web sites such as Ning.com as a communication tool in marketing courses, a study was designed with special concern for social network use in comparison to Blackboard. Students from multiple marketing courses were surveyed. Assessments of Ning.com and Blackboard were performed both to understand how…
Stottler, R.; Mao, J.
In April 2016, General Hyten, commander of Air Force Space Command, announced the Space Enterprise Vision (SEV) (http://www.af.mil/News/Article-Display/Article/719941/hyten-announces-space-enterprise-vision/). The SEV addresses increasing threats to space-related systems. The vision includes an integrated approach across all mission areas (communications, positioning, navigation and timing, missile warning, and weather data) and emphasizes improved access to data across the entire enterprise and the ability to protect space-related assets and capabilities. "The future space enterprise will maintain our nation's ability to deliver critical space effects throughout all phases of conflict," Hyten said. Satellite telemetry is going to become available to a new audience. While that telemetry information should be valuable for achieving Space Situational Awareness (SSA), these new satellite telemetry data consumers will not know how to utilize it. We were tasked with applying AI techniques to build an infrastructure to process satellite telemetry into higher abstraction level symbolic space situational awareness and to initially populate that infrastructure with useful data analysis methods. We are working with two organizations, Montana State University (MSU) and the Air Force Academy, both of whom control satellites and therefore currently analyze satellite telemetry to assess the health and circumstances of their satellites. The design which has resulted from our knowledge elicitation and cognitive task analysis is a hybrid approach which combines symbolic processing techniques of Case-Based Reasoning (CBR) and Behavior Transition Networks (BTNs) with current Machine Learning approaches. BTNs are used to represent the process and associated formulas to check telemetry values against anticipated problems and issues. CBR is used to represent and retrieve BTNs that represent an investigative process that should be applied to the telemetry in certain circumstances
Jover, Roger Piqueras; Lackey, Joshua; Raghavan, Arvind
The long-term evolution (LTE) is the newly adopted technology to offer enhanced capacity and coverage for current mobility networks, which experience a constant traffic increase and skyrocketing bandwidth demands...
Berlanga, Adriana; Bitter-Rijpkema, Marlies; Brouns, Francis; Sloep, Peter; Fetter, Sibren
Berlanga, A. J., Bitter-Rijpkema, M., Brouns, F., Sloep, P. B., & Fetter, S. (2011). Personal Profiles: Enhancing Social Interaction in Learning Networks. International Journal of Web Based Communities, 7(1), 66-82.
Rad, Ali Ajdari; Jalili, Mahdi; Hasler, Martin
In this paper, we present an algorithm for optimizing synchronizability of complex dynamical networks. Starting with an undirected and unweighted network, we end up with an undirected and unweighted network with the same number of nodes and edges having enhanced synchronizability. To this end, based on some network properties, rewirings, i.e., eliminating an edge and creating a new edge elsewhere, are performed iteratively avoiding always self-loops and multiple edges between the same nodes. We show that the method is able to enhance the synchronizability of networks of any size and topological properties in a small number of steps that scales with the network size. For numerical simulations, an optimization algorithm based on simulated annealing is used. Also, the evolution of different topological properties of the network such as distribution of node degree, node and edge betweenness centrality is tracked with the iteration steps. We use networks such as scale-free, Strogatz-Watts and random to start with and we show that regardless of the initial network, the final optimized network becomes homogeneous. In other words, in the network with high synchronizability, parameters, such as, degree, shortest distance, node, and edge betweenness centralities are almost homogeneously distributed. Also, parameters, such as, maximum node and edge betweenness centralities are small for the rewired network. Although we take the eigenratio of the Laplacian as the target function for optimization, we show that it is also possible to choose other appropriate target functions exhibiting almost the same performance. Furthermore, we show that even if the network is optimized taking into account another interpretation of synchronizability, i.e., synchronization cost, the optimal network has the same synchronization properties. Indeed, in networks with optimized synchronizability, different interpretations of synchronizability coincide. The optimized networks are Ramanujan graphs
In this paper we present an automatic enhanced video display and navigation capability for networked streaming video and networked video playlists. Our proposed method uses Synchronized Multimedia Integration Language (SMIL) as presentation language and Real Time Streaming Protocol (RTSP) as network remote control protocol to automatically generate a "enhanced video strip" display for easy navigation. We propose and describe two approaches - a smart client approach and a smart server approach. We also describe a prototype system implementation of our proposed approach.
Chaikoed, Wisithsak; Sirisuthi, Chaiyuth; Numnaphol, Kochaporn
This research aims to study the network and collaborative factors that enhance quality education of primary schools. Different methods were used in this research work: (1) Related approaches, theories, and research literatures and (2) Scholars were interviewed on 871 issues in the form of questionnaire, and the collaborative network factors were…
Full Text Available Protein interaction networks are a promising type of data for studying complex biological systems. However, despite the rich information embedded in these networks, these networks face important data quality challenges of noise and incompleteness that adversely affect the results obtained from their analysis. Here, we apply a robust measure of local network structure called common neighborhood similarity (CNS to address these challenges. Although several CNS measures have been proposed in the literature, an understanding of their relative efficacies for the analysis of interaction networks has been lacking. We follow the framework of graph transformation to convert the given interaction network into a transformed network corresponding to a variety of CNS measures evaluated. The effectiveness of each measure is then estimated by comparing the quality of protein function predictions obtained from its corresponding transformed network with those from the original network. Using a large set of human and fly protein interactions, and a set of over 100 GO terms for both, we find that several of the transformed networks produce more accurate predictions than those obtained from the original network. In particular, the HC.cont measure and other continuous CNS measures perform well this task, especially for large networks. Further investigation reveals that the two major factors contributing to this improvement are the abilities of CNS measures to prune out noisy edges and enhance functional coherence in the transformed networks.
Full Text Available The mobile telemetry system of biological parameters serves for reading and wireless data transfer of measured values of selected biological parameters to an outlying computer. It concerns basically long time monitoring of vital function of car pilot.The goal of this projects is to propose mobile telemetry system for reading, wireless transfer and processing of biological parameters of car pilot during physical and psychical stress. It has to be made with respect to minimal consumption, weight and maximal device mobility. This system has to eliminate signal noise, which is created by biological artifacts and disturbances during the data transfer.
is between UMTS access network and Internet. The split proxy divides the bandwidth delay product into two parts, resulting in two TCP connections with smaller bandwidth delay products. Simulation results show, the split TCP proxy can significantly improve the TCP performance under high bit rate DCH channel......We aim at optimize the TCP performance over UMTS access network challenged by the large delay bandwidth product that is mainly caused by the latency from the link layer ARQ retransmissions and diversity technique at physical layer. We propose to place a split TCP proxy at GGSN nodes which...
Sent, D.; van der Gaag, L.C.; Bellazzi, R; Abu-Hanna, A; Hunter, J
Most test-selection algorithms currently in use with probabilistic networks select variables myopically, that is, test variables are selected sequentially, on a one-by-one basis, based upon expected information gain. While myopic test selection is not realistic for many medical applications,
Wittek, Peter; Gogolin, Christian
Markov logic networks (MLNs) reconcile two opposing schools in machine learning and artificial intelligence: causal networks, which account for uncertainty extremely well, and first-order logic, which allows for formal deduction. An MLN is essentially a first-order logic template to generate Markov networks. Inference in MLNs is probabilistic and it is often performed by approximate methods such as Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) Gibbs sampling. An MLN has many regular, symmetric structures that can be exploited at both first-order level and in the generated Markov network. We analyze the graph structures that are produced by various lifting methods and investigate the extent to which quantum protocols can be used to speed up Gibbs sampling with state preparation and measurement schemes. We review different such approaches, discuss their advantages, theoretical limitations, and their appeal to implementations. We find that a straightforward application of a recent result yields exponential speedup compared to classical heuristics in approximate probabilistic inference, thereby demonstrating another example where advanced quantum resources can potentially prove useful in machine learning.
Philip D. Taylor
Full Text Available We describe a new collaborative network, the Motus Wildlife Tracking System (Motus; https://motus.org, which is an international network of researchers using coordinated automated radio-telemetry arrays to study movements of small flying organisms including birds, bats, and insects, at local, regional, and hemispheric scales. Radio-telemetry has been a cornerstone of tracking studies for over 50 years, and because of current limitations of geographic positioning systems (GPS and satellite transmitters, has remained the primary means to track movements of small animals with high temporal and spatial precision. Automated receivers, along with recent miniaturization and digital coding of tags, have further improved the utility of radio-telemetry by allowing many individuals to be tracked continuously and simultaneously across broad landscapes. Motus is novel among automated arrays in that collaborators employ a single radio frequency across receiving stations over a broad geographic scale, allowing individuals to be detected at sites maintained by others. Motus also coordinates, disseminates, and archives detections and associated metadata in a central repository. Combined with the ability to track many individuals simultaneously, Motus has expanded the scope and spatial scale of research questions that can be addressed using radio-telemetry from local to regional and even hemispheric scales. Since its inception in 2012, more than 9000 individuals of over 87 species of birds, bats, and insects have been tracked, resulting in more than 250 million detections. This rich and comprehensive dataset includes detections of individuals during all phases of the annual cycle (breeding, migration, and nonbreeding, and at a variety of spatial scales, resulting in novel insights into the movement behavior of small flying animals. The value of the Motus network will grow as spatial coverage of stations and number of partners and collaborators increases. With
Rice, Kevin; Kizzort, Brad; Simon, Jerry
An XML Telemetry Command Exchange (XTCE) tutoral oriented towards packets or minor frames is shown. The contents include: 1) The Basics; 2) Describing Telemetry; 3) Describing the Telemetry Format; 4) Commanding; 5) Forgotten Elements; 6) Implementing XTCE; and 7) GovSat.
Teyeb, Oumer Mohammed; Van Phan, Vinh; Raaf, Bernhard
Relaying is one of the proposed technologies for future releases of UTRAN Long Term Evolution (LTE) networks. Introducing relaying is expected to increase the coverage and capacity of LTE networks. In order to enable relaying, the architecture, protocol and radio resource management procedures...... of LTE, such as handover, have to be modified. A user can be handed over not only between two base stations, but also between relays and base stations, and between two relays. With the introduction of relaying, there is a need for a new procedure to hand over a relay and all its associated users...... to another base station, allowing a flexible and dynamic relay deployment. In this paper, we extend the LTE release 8 handover mechanisms so that it can accommodate these new handover functionalities in a flexible manner....
Crossin, Glenn T.; Heupel, Michelle R.; Holbrook, Christopher; Hussey, Nigel E.; Lowerre-Barbieri, Susan K; Nguyen, Vivian M.; Raby, Graham D.; Cooke, Steven J.
This paper reviews the use of acoustic telemetry as a tool for addressing issues in fisheries management, and serves as the lead to the special Feature Issue of Ecological Applications titled “Acoustic Telemetry and Fisheries Management”. Specifically, we provide an overview of the ways in which acoustic telemetry can be used to inform issues central to the ecology, conservation, and management of exploited and/or imperiled fish species. Despite great strides in this area in recent years, there are comparatively few examples where data have been applied directly to influence fisheries management and policy. We review the literature on this issue, identify the strengths and weaknesses of work done to date, and highlight knowledge gaps and difficulties in applying empirical fish telemetry studies to fisheries policy and practice. We then highlight the key areas of management and policy addressed, as well as the challenges that needed to be overcome to do this. We conclude with a set of recommendations about how researchers can, in consultation with stock assessment scientists and managers, formulate testable scientific questions to address and design future studies to generate data that can be used in a meaningful way by fisheries management and conservation practitioners. We also urge the involvement of relevant stakeholders (managers, fishers, conservation societies, etc.) early on in the process (i.e. in the co-creation of research projects), so that all priority questions and issues can be addressed effectively.
Bowers, J.L.; Bullard, D.L.; Schelp, T.R.
A flexible test system is studied and proposed to provide an extensive evaluation and testing capability for telemetry products. A distributed computer controlled, modular unit test system using Computer Automated Measurement and Control (CAMAC) standard hardware and compatible software is selected because of its flexibility of application and long term cost effectiveness.
Lohani, Sanjaya; Knutson, Erin; Tkach, Sam; Huver, Sean; Glasser, Ryan; Tulane University Collaboration; Deep Science AI Collaboration
The spatial profile of optical modes may be altered such that they contain nonzero orbital angular momentum (OAM). Laguerre-Gauss (LG) states of light have a helical wavefront and well-defined OAM, and have recently been shown to allow for larger information transfer rates in optical communications as compared to using only Gaussian modes. A primary difficulty, however, is the accurate classification of different OAM optical states, which contain different values of OAM, in the detection stage. The difficulty in this differentiation increases as larger degrees of OAM are used. Here we show the performance of deep neural networks in the simultaneous classification of numerically generated, noisy, Laguerre-Gauss states with OAM value up to 100 can reach near 100% accuracy. This method relies only on the intensity profile of the detected OAM states, avoiding bulky and difficult-to-implement methods that are required to measure the phase profile of the modes in the receiver of the communication platform. This allows for a simplification in the network design and an increase in performance when using states with large degrees of OAM. We anticipate that this approach will allow for significant advances in the development of optical communication technologies. We acknowledge funding from the Louisiana State Board of Regents and Northrop Grumman - NG NEXT.
Peterson, J. L.; Berzak Hopkins, L. F.; Humbird, K. D.; Brandon, S. T.; Field, J. E.; Langer, S. H.; Nora, R. C.; Spears, B. K.
A primary goal of hohlraum design is to efficiently convert available laser power and energy to capsule drive, compression and ultimately fusion neutron yield. However, a major challenge of this multi-dimensional optimization problem is the relative computational expense of hohlraum simulations. In this work, we explore overcoming this obstacle with the use of artificial neural networks built off ensembles of hohlraum simulations. These machine learning systems emulate the behavior of full simulations in a fraction of the time, thereby enabling the rapid exploration of design parameters. We will demonstrate this technology with a search for modifications to existing high-yield designs that can maximize neutron production within NIF's current laser power and energy constraints. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. LLNL-ABS-734401.
Caruso, Filippo; Huelga, Susana F; Plenio, Martin B
The unavoidable presence of noise is thought to be one of the major problems to solve in order to pave the way for implementing quantum information technologies in realistic physical platforms. However, here we show a clear example in which noise, in terms of dephasing, may enhance the capability of transmitting not only classical but also quantum information, encoded in quantum systems, through communication networks. In particular, we find analytically and numerically the quantum and classical capacities for a large family of quantum channels and show that these information transmission rates can be strongly enhanced by introducing dephasing noise in the complex network dynamics.
Abdullah, Radhwan Mohamed; Zukarnain, Zuriati Ahmad
Transferring a huge amount of data between different network locations over the network links depends on the network's traffic capacity and data rate. Traditionally, a mobile device may be moved to achieve the operations of vertical handover, considering only one criterion, that is the Received Signal Strength (RSS). The use of a single criterion may cause service interruption, an unbalanced network load and an inefficient vertical handover. In this paper, we propose an enhanced vertical handover decision algorithm based on multiple criteria in the heterogeneous wireless network. The algorithm consists of three technology interfaces: Long-Term Evolution (LTE), Worldwide interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMAX) and Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN). It also employs three types of vertical handover decision algorithms: equal priority, mobile priority and network priority. The simulation results illustrate that the three types of decision algorithms outperform the traditional network decision algorithm in terms of handover number probability and the handover failure probability. In addition, it is noticed that the network priority handover decision algorithm produces better results compared to the equal priority and the mobile priority handover decision algorithm. Finally, the simulation results are validated by the analytical model.
Yang, Yang; Lu, Yang; Lin, Xiaokang
The private network serves as an information exchange platform to support the integrated services via microwave channels and accordingly selects the open shortest path first (OSPF) as the IP routing protocol. But the existing OSPF can't fit the private network very well for its special characteristics. This paper presents our modifications to the standard protocol in such aspects as the single-area scheme, link state advertisement (LSA) types and formats, OSPF packet formats, important state machines, setting of protocol parameters and link flap damping. Finally simulations are performed in various scenarios and the results indicate that our modifications can enhance the OSPF performance in the private network effectively.
Danny Pimentel Claro
Full Text Available This paper examines how relationships with friends moderate the impact of professional networks on sales performance. Based on a sample of 204 sales managers in a professional service company, this study presents evidence that friendship networks amplify the effect of sales forces’ professional networks on new product sales as well as on prospecting and converting new deals. Our results offer important insights into the socio-cognitive perspective of sales management literature and suggest that firms should encourage managers to improve their friendships in order to access valuable information that will enhance customer knowledge and support their sales efforts.
Qin, Zhihong; Zhang, Juan; Wang, Junfeng
Satellites channels are generally featured by high bit error rate (BER), long propagation delay, large bandwidth-delay product (BDP) and so on. This tends to make the traditional TCP suffer from serious performance degradation in satellite networks. Therefore, a TCP-compatible reliable transmission protocol (i.e., TCP-AX) for spatial information networks is proposed in this paper. And a bandwidth probing mechanism is designed to distinguish network congestion and link error. Simulation results show that TCP-AX has better performance than some popular enhanced TCP protocols.
Gao, Donghui; Zhang, Hanyi; Zhou, Zhiyu
The resource contention problem is critical in Just-Enough-Time (JET) based optical burst switching (OBS) networks. Although deflection routing (DR) reduces the contention probability in some degree, it does not give much improvement under heavy traffic load. This paper analyzed the inducement causing contention in OBS networks, and proposed Resource Information Sharing Enhancement (RISE) scheme. Theoretical analysis shows that this scheme achieves shorter length of the detour path than normal DR. We simulated this scheme on both full mesh network and practical 14-node NSFNET. The simulation results show that it gives at best 2 orders magnitude improvement in reducing the burst contention probability over its previous routing approaches.
Jeffrey M. Gabelmann
This final report discusses the successful development and testing of a deep operational electromagnetic (EM) telemetry system, produced under a cooperative agreement with the United States Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory. This new electromagnetic telemetry system provides a wireless communication link between sensors deployed deep within oil and gas wells and data acquisition equipment located on the earth's surface. EM based wireless telemetry is a highly appropriate technology for oil and gas exploration in that it avoids the need for thousands of feet of wired connections. In order to achieve the project performance objectives, significant improvements over existing EM telemetry systems were made. These improvements included the development of new technologies that have improved the reliability of the communications link while extending operational depth. A key element of the new design is the incorporation of a data-fusion methodology which enhances the communication receiver's ability to extract very weak signals from large amounts of ambient environmental noise. This innovative data-fusion receiver based system adapts advanced technologies, not normally associated with low-frequency communications, and makes them work within the harsh drilling environments associated with the energy exploration market. Every element of a traditional EM telemetry system design, from power efficiency to reliability, has been addressed. The data fusion based EM telemetry system developed during this project is anticipated to provide an EM tool capability that will impact both onshore and offshore oil and gas exploration operations, for conventional and underbalanced drilling applications.
OFarrell, Zachary L.
Aegis Video Player is the name of the video over IP system for the Telemetry and Communications group of the Launch Services Program. Aegis' purpose is to display video streamed over a network connection to be viewed during launches. To accomplish this task, a VLC ActiveX plug-in was used in C# to provide the basic capabilities of video streaming. The program was then customized to be used during launches. The VLC plug-in can be configured programmatically to display a single stream, but for this project multiple streams needed to be accessed. To accomplish this, an easy to use, informative menu system was added to the program to enable users to quickly switch between videos. Other features were added to make the player more useful, such as watching multiple videos and watching a video in full screen.
The Telemetry Agile Manufacturing Effort (TAME) is an agile enterprising demonstration sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE). The project experimented with new approaches to product realization and assessed their impacts on performance, cost, flow time, and agility. The purpose of the project was to design the electrical and mechanical features of an integrated telemetry processor, establish the manufacturing processes, and produce an initial production lot of two to six units. This paper outlines the major methodologies utilized by the TAME, describes the accomplishments that can be attributed to each methodology, and finally, examines the lessons learned and explores the opportunities for improvement associated with the overall effort. The areas for improvement are discussed relative to an ideal vision of the future for agile enterprises. By the end of the experiment, the TAME reduced production flow time by approximately 50% and life cycle cost by more than 30%. Product performance was improved compared with conventional DOE production approaches.
Weil, T P
In almost every American metropolitan area, health executives are busily enhancing the efficacy of their health networks by corporately restructuring so that their organization can become a fiscally and politically powerful oligopoly or a regulated monopoly. When the formation of these alliances are initially announced by the local media, they are reported to be vehicles to enhance access, social equity and quality of care, and to reduce costs. Since an increasing number of these health networks are currently experiencing fiscal, cultural and other difficulties, it is critical to study: (a) what factors should be considered when developing an effective and efficient health network?; (b) what are the practical issues in their strategic formation and management so they eventually achieve their full potential?; and (c) why will some divestitures among these health networks occur and how will these corporate 'spin offs' impact on consumers, providers, insurers and governmental agencies? Within the next decade the United States will face some inevitable economic difficulties. At that time, enhancing access and reducing costs will become more critical issues for health networks. These alliances may then need to become more responsive to consumer pressures as the Americans shift their political proclivities from the current quasi-competitive to a more quasi-regulatory position. In this context, the use of global budgetary targets is discussed as a possible option in the United States to constrain costs, an approach used in almost all other western industrialized nations.
Allen, R.; Bose, M.; Brown, H.; Cua, G.; Given, D.; Hauksson, E.; Heaton, T.; Hellweg, M.; Jordan, T.; Kireev, A.; Maechling, P.; Neuhauser, D.; Oppenheimer, D.; Solanki, K.; Zeleznik, M.
The California Integrated Seismic Network (CISN) is currently testing algorithms for earthquake early warning on the realtime seismic systems in the state. An earthquake warning system rapidly detects the initiation of earthquakes and assesses the associated hazard. The goal is to provide warning of potentially damaging ground motion in a target region prior to the arrival of seismic waves. The network-based approach to early warning requires station data to be gathered at a central site for joint processing. ElarmS, one network-based approach being tested, currently runs 15 sec behind realtime in order to gather ~90% of station data before processing. Even with this delay the recent Mw 5.4 Alum Rock earthquake near San Jose was detected and an accurate hazard assessment was available before ground shaking in San Francisco. The Virtual Seismologist (VS) method, another network-based approach, is a Bayesian method that incorporates information such as network topology, previously observed seismicity, and the Gutenberg-Richter relationship in magnitude and location estimation. The VS method is currently being transitioned from off-line to real-time testing and will soon be running 15 sec behind real-time, as in the case of ElarmS. We are also testing an on-site warning approach, which is based on single-station observations. On-site systems can deliver earthquake information faster than regional systems, and the warning could possibly reach potential users at much closer epicentral distances before the damaging shaking starts. By definition, on-site systems do not require a central processing facility or delivery of data from a distant seismic station, but they are less robust that networked-based systems and need a fast and reliable telemetry to deliver warnings to local users. The range of possible warning times is typically seconds to tens of seconds and every second of data latency translates into an equal reduction in the available warning time. Minimal latency
Labus, A.; Despotovic-Zrakic, M.; Radenkovic, B.; Bogdanovic, Z.; Radenkovic, M.
This paper reports on the investigation of the possibilities of enhancing the formal e-learning process by harnessing the potential of informal game-based learning on social networks. The goal of the research is to improve the outcomes of the formal learning process through the design and implementation of an educational game on a social network…
Teyeb, Oumer Mohammed; Frederiksen, Frank; Redana, Simone
The 3rd Generation Partnership Project has recently started the standardization process for LTE-Advanced, as a major evolution step of UTRAN LTE Release 8. One of the key enhancing technologies being studied that may help to fulfill the challenging performance targets of LTE-Advanced networks is ...
Alfaseno, Ave Gierdo; Suryono, Suryono
Water quality monitoring is very important to know condition of the water in a sector location. The water quality monitoring can anticipate a decrease of water quality by knowing water condition in real-time, in that way can be determined what factors that causes a decrease of water quality. The method used for water quality monitoring system in this paper is telemetry system (remote measurement) with the wifi network. Telemetry system choosed because its more efisien than the other, measurem...
Zahedi, Adel; Østergaard, Jan; Jensen, Søren Holdt
We formulate a new problem which bridges between source coding and enhancement in wireless acoustic sensor networks. We consider a network of wireless microphones, each of which encoding its own measurement under a covariance matrix distortion constraint and sending it to a fusion center....... To process the data at the center, we use a recent spatio-temporal prediction filter. We assume that a weighted sum-rate for the network is specified. The problem is to allocate optimal distortion matrices to the nodes in order to achieve a maximum output SNR at the fusion center after processing...... the received data, while the weighted sum-rate for the network is no more than the specified value. We formulate this problem as an optimization problem for which we derive a set of equalities imposed on the solution by studying the KKT conditions. In particular, for the special case of scalar sources with two...
diversity) and LDPC is being used to correct errors caused by the transmission channel. Each receive site coupled the telemetry receiver, CH1 and CH2...A SYSTEMATIC APPROACH TO ERROR FREE TELEMETRY 412TW-TIM-17-03 DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release. Distribution is...Systematic Approach to Error -Free Telemetry) was submitted by the Commander, 412th Test Wing, Edwards AFB, California 93524. Prepared by
Ikeda, Yumiko; Funayama, Takuya; Tateno, Amane; Fukayama, Haruhisa; Okubo, Yoshiro; Suzuki, Hidenori
Modafinil is a wake-promoting agent and has been reported to be effective in improving attention in patients with attentional disturbance. However, neural substrates underlying the modafinil effects on attention are not fully understood. We employed a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study with the attention network test (ANT) task in healthy adults and examined which networks of attention are mainly affected by modafinil and which neural substrates are responsible for the drug effects. We used a randomized placebo-controlled within-subjects cross-over design. Twenty-three healthy adults participated in two series of an fMRI study, taking either a placebo or modafinil. The participants performed the ANT task, which is designed to measure three distinct attentional networks, alerting, orienting, and executive control, during the fMRI scanning. The effects of modafinil on behavioral performance and regional brain activity were analyzed. We found that modafinil enhanced alerting performance and showed greater alerting network activity in the left middle and inferior occipital gyri as compared with the placebo. The brain activations in the occipital regions were positively correlated with alerting performance. Modafinil enhanced alerting performance and increased activation in the occipital lobe in the alerting network possibly relevant to noradrenergic activity during the ANT task. The present study may provide a rationale for the treatment of patients with distinct symptoms of impaired attention.
Protachevicz, P. R.; Borges, F. S.; Iarosz, K. C.; Caldas, I. L.; Baptista, M. S.; Viana, R. L.; Lameu, E. L.; Macau, E. E. N.; Batista, A. M.
In this work, we study the dynamic range in a neural network modelled by cellular automaton. We consider deterministic and non-deterministic rules to simulate electrical and chemical synapses. Chemical synapses have an intrinsic time-delay and are susceptible to parameter variations guided by learning Hebbian rules of behaviour. The learning rules are related to neuroplasticity that describes change to the neural connections in the brain. Our results show that chemical synapses can abruptly enhance sensibility of the neural network, a manifestation that can become even more predominant if learning rules of evolution are applied to the chemical synapses.
Stilwell, Bryan D.; Field, Christopher J.
The Columbia Scientific Balloon Facility provides Telemetry and Command systems necessary for balloon operations and science support. There are various Line-Of-Sight (LOS) and Over-The-Horizon (OTH) systems and interfaces that provide communications to and from a science payload. This presentation will discuss the current data throughput options available and future capabilities that may be incorporated in the LDB Support Instrumentation Package (SIP) such as doubling the TDRSS data rate. We will also explore some new technologies that could potentially expand the data throughput of OTH communications.
Fuller, Mark R.; Fuller, Todd K.; Boitani, Luigi; Powell, Roger A.
Radio-telemetry was not included in the first comprehensive manual of wildlife research techniques (Mosby 1960) because the first published papers were about physiological wildlife telemetry (LeMunyan et al. 1959) and because research using telemetry in field ecology was just being initiated (Marshall et al. 1962; Cochran and Lord 1963). Among the first uses of telemetry to study wildlife, however, was a study of carnivores (Craighead et al. 1963), and telemetry has become a common method for studying numerous topics of carnivore biology. Our goals for this chapter are to provide basic information about radio-telemetry equipment and procedures. Although we provide many references to studies using telemetry equipment and methods, we recommend Kenward's (2001) comprehensive book, A manual of wildlife radio tagging for persons who are unfamiliar with radio-telemetry, Fuller et al. (2005), and Tomkiewicz et al. (2010). Compendia of uses of radio-telemetry in animal research appear regularly as chapters in manuals (Cochran 1980; Samuel and Fuller 1994), in books about equipment, field procedures, study design, and applications (Amlaner and Macdonald 1980; Anderka 1987; Amlaner 1989; White and Garrott 1990; Priede and Swift 1992; Kenward 2001; Millspaugh and Marzluff 2001; Mech and Barber 2002), and in reviews highlighting new developments (Cooke et al. 2004; Rutz and Hays 2009; Cagnacci et al. 2010). Some animal telemetry products and techniques have remained almost unchanged for years, but new technologies and approaches emerge and replace previously available equipment at an increasing pace. Here, we emphasize recent studies for which telemetry was used with carnivores.
Min, Hong; Cho, Yookun; Heo, Junyoung
Underwater environments are quite different from terrestrial environments in terms of the communication media and operating conditions associated with those environments. In underwater sensor networks, the probability of node failure is high because sensor nodes are deployed in harsher environments than ground-based networks. The sensor nodes are surrounded by salt water and moved around by waves and currents. Many studies have focused on underwater communication environments in an effort to improve the data transmission throughput. In this paper, we present a checkpointing scheme for the head nodes to quickly recover from a head node failure. Experimental results show that the proposed scheme enhances the reliability of the networks and makes them more efficient in terms of energy consumption and the recovery latency compared to the previous scheme without checkpointing.
Telemetry Standards, RCC Standard 106-17 Chapter 1, July 2017 1-1 CHAPTER 1 Introduction The Telemetry Standards address the here-to-date...for Federal Radio Frequency Management . Copies of that manual may be obtained from: Executive Secretary, Interdepartmental Radio Advisory Committee
Full Text Available Computational models of metaplasticity have usually focused on the modeling of single synapses (Shouval et al., 2002. In this paper we study the effect of metaplasticity on network behavior. Our guiding assumption is that the primary purpose of metaplasticity is to regulate synaptic plasticity, by increasing it when input is low and decreasing it when input is high. For our experiments we adopt a model of metaplasticity that demonstrably has this effect for a single synapse; our primary interest is in how metaplasticity thus defined affects network-level phenomena. We focus on a network-level phenomenon called polychronicity, that has a potential role in representation and memory. A network with polychronicity has the ability to produce non-synchronous but precisely timed sequences of neural firing events that can arise from strongly connected groups of neurons called polychronous neural groups (Izhikevich et al., 2004; Izhikevich, 2006a. Polychronous groups (PNGs develop readily when spiking networks are exposed to repeated spatio-temporal stimuli under the influence of spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP, but are sensitive to changes in synaptic weight distribution. We use a technique we have recently developed called Response Fingerprinting to show that PNGs formed in the presence of metaplasticity are significantly larger than those with no metaplasticity. A potential mechanism for this enhancement is proposed that links an inherent property of integrator type neurons called spike latency to an increase in the tolerance of PNG neurons to jitter in their inputs.
Guise, Mira; Knott, Alistair; Benuskova, Lubica
Computational models of metaplasticity have usually focused on the modeling of single synapses (Shouval et al., 2002). In this paper we study the effect of metaplasticity on network behavior. Our guiding assumption is that the primary purpose of metaplasticity is to regulate synaptic plasticity, by increasing it when input is low and decreasing it when input is high. For our experiments we adopt a model of metaplasticity that demonstrably has this effect for a single synapse; our primary interest is in how metaplasticity thus defined affects network-level phenomena. We focus on a network-level phenomenon called polychronicity, that has a potential role in representation and memory. A network with polychronicity has the ability to produce non-synchronous but precisely timed sequences of neural firing events that can arise from strongly connected groups of neurons called polychronous neural groups (Izhikevich et al., 2004). Polychronous groups (PNGs) develop readily when spiking networks are exposed to repeated spatio-temporal stimuli under the influence of spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP), but are sensitive to changes in synaptic weight distribution. We use a technique we have recently developed called Response Fingerprinting to show that PNGs formed in the presence of metaplasticity are significantly larger than those with no metaplasticity. A potential mechanism for this enhancement is proposed that links an inherent property of integrator type neurons called spike latency to an increase in the tolerance of PNG neurons to jitter in their inputs.
Betancourt-Zamora, Rafael J.
Most biotelemetry applications deal with the moderated data rates of biological signals. Few people have studied the problem of transcutaneous data transmission at the rates required by NASA's Life Sciences-Advanced BioTelemetry System (LS-ABTS). Implanted telemetry eliminate the problems associated with wire breaking the skin, and permits experiments with awake and unrestrained subjects. Our goal is to build a low-power 174-216MHz Radio Frequency (RF) transmitter suitable for short range biosensor and implantable use. The BioLink Implantable Telemetry System (BITS) is composed of three major units: an Analog Data Module (ADM), a Telemetry Transmitter Module (TTM), and a Command Receiver Module (CRM). BioLink incorporates novel low-power techniques to implement a monolithic digital RF transmitter operating at 100kbps, using quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK) modulation in the 174-216MHz ISM band. As the ADM will be specific for each application, we focused on solving the problems associated with a monolithic implementation of the TTM and CRM, and this is the emphasis of this report. A system architecture based on a Frequency-Locked Loop (FLL) Frequency Synthesizer is presented, and a novel differential frequency that eliminates the need for a frequency divider is also shown. A self sizing phase modulation scheme suitable for low power implementation was also developed. A full system-level simulation of the FLL was performed and loop filter parameters were determined. The implantable antenna has been designed, simulated and constructed. An implant package compatible with the ABTS requirements is also being proposed. Extensive work performed at 200MHz in 0.5um complementary metal oxide semiconductors (CMOS) showed the feasibility of integrating the RF transmitter circuits in a single chip. The Hajimiri phase noise model was used to optimize the Voltage Controlled Oscillator (VCO) for minimum power consumption. Two test chips were fabricated in a 0.5pm, 3V CMOS
Marques Ciarelli, Patrick; Oliveira, Elias
Text classification is still a quite difficult problem to be dealt with both by the academia and by the industrial areas. On the top of that, the importance of aggregating a set of related amount of text documents is steadily growing in importance these days. The presence of multi-labeled texts and great quantity of classes turn this problem even more challenging. In this article we present an enhanced version of Probabilistic Neural Network using centroids to tackle the multi-label classification problem. We carried out some experiments comparing our proposed classifier against the other well known classifiers in the literature which were specially designed to treat this type of problem. By the achieved results, we observed that our novel approach were superior to the other classifiers and faster than the Probabilistic Neural Network without the use of centroids.
Khadivi, Alireza; Ajdari Rad, Ali; Hasler, Martin
In this paper, we show how proper assignment of weights to the edges of a complex network can enhance the detection of communities and how it can circumvent the resolution limit and the extreme degeneracy problems associated with modularity. Our general weighting scheme takes advantage of graph theoretic measures and it introduces two heuristics for tuning its parameters. We use this weighting as a preprocessing step for the greedy modularity optimization algorithm of Newman to improve its performance. The result of the experiments of our approach on computer-generated and real-world data networks confirm that the proposed approach not only mitigates the problems of modularity but also improves the modularity optimization.
Full Text Available A CDMA-based mobile Ad Hoc networks face two main design challenges. One is to periodically update connectivity information, namely, neighboring nodes and the codes used by neighboring nodes. The other is to guarantee that there is no code collision in two hops' distance. This paper proposes an enhanced time-spread broadcasting schedule for connectivity information update. Based on the connectivity information, a code assignment and potential code collision resolution scheme to solve hidden/exposed nodes problem is proposed. Simulation results demonstrate the efficiency and effectiveness of the proposed schemes.
Li, Xiaohua; Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Manolova, Anna Vasileva
We present a routing solution which eliminates the inherent path exploration problem of BGP and thereby enhances survivability in multi-domain networks. The path exploration problem is caused by the dependency among paths learned from neighboring domains. We propose to solve this issue by using two...... the size of routing table is 2*(n-1). To implement our solution, domain level source routing is used and a SDRP header is added to the delivered packet. This avoids re-calculation and path exploration when repairing inter-domain link failures. Inter-domain link failures must be repaired at domain level...
Regis W. Anne
Full Text Available Wireless Sensor Network (WSN is a collection of intelligent sensors that communicate and coordinate in an energy constrained environment. Due to the limited energy supply of the sensors, lifetime problems arise in static WSN. One of the potential solutions to this problem is a mobility-assisted WSN. Mobility can be introduced by adding extra entities like mobile sinks, mobile cluster-head or mobile relays (MRs to the existing static WSN. The entities can significantly improve the functionality and performance of the WSN by making it flexible to failures, ease data collection, increase energy efficiency, enhance connectivity, improve coverage and prolong network lifetime. The need of today’s applications demands mobility-assisted WSN instead of the traditional static WSN. In this paper, we control the movement of MRs to maximize network lifetime. A distributed algorithm for controlling the movement of MRs is given and its performance is validated for the network parameters such as network lifetime and average residual energy. The proposed method shows that lifetime can be improved compared to that of a static network.
Shi, Wenhua; Zhang, Xiongwei; Zou, Xia; Han, Wei
In this paper, a speech enhancement method using noise classification and Deep Neural Network (DNN) was proposed. Gaussian mixture model (GMM) was employed to determine the noise type in speech-absent frames. DNN was used to model the relationship between noisy observation and clean speech. Once the noise type was determined, the corresponding DNN model was applied to enhance the noisy speech. GMM was trained with mel-frequency cepstrum coefficients (MFCC) and the parameters were estimated with an iterative expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm. Noise type was updated by spectrum entropy-based voice activity detection (VAD). Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method could achieve better objective speech quality and smaller distortion under stationary and non-stationary conditions.
Zhao, Yao-Dong; Cai, Shi-Min; Tang, Ming; Shang, Min-Sheng
Traditional collaborative filtering based recommender systems for social network systems bring very high demands on time complexity due to computing similarities of all pairs of users via resource usages and annotation actions, which thus strongly suppresses recommending speed. In this paper, to overcome this drawback, we propose a novel approach, namely coarse cluster that partitions similar users and associated items at a high speed to enhance user-based collaborative filtering, and then develop a fast collaborative user model for the social tagging systems. The experimental results based on Delicious dataset show that the proposed model is able to dramatically reduce the processing time cost greater than 90 % and relatively improve the accuracy in comparison with the ordinary user-based collaborative filtering, and is robust for the initial parameter. Most importantly, the proposed model can be conveniently extended by introducing more users' information (e.g., profiles) and practically applied for the large-scale social network systems to enhance the recommending speed without accuracy loss.
Full Text Available With rapid development and extensive use of wireless sensor networks (WSNs, it is urgent to enhance the security for WSNs, in which key management is an effective way to protect WSNs from various attacks. However, different types of messages exchanged in WSNs typically have different security requirements which cannot be satisfied by a single keying mechanism. In this study, a basic key management protocol is described for WSNs based on four kinds of keys, which can be derived from an initial master key, and an enhanced protocol is proposed based on Diffie-Hellman algorithm. The proposed scheme restricts the adverse security impact of a captured node to the rest of WSNs and meets the requirement of energy efficiency by supporting in-network processing. The master key protection, key revocation mechanism, and the authentication mechanism based on one-way hash function are, respectively, discussed. Finally, the performance of the proposed scheme is analyzed from the aspects of computational efficiency, storage requirement and communication cost, and its antiattack capability in protecting WSNs is discussed under various attack models. In this paper, promising research directions are also discussed.
Chochliouros Ioannis P.
Full Text Available The 5G ESSENCE project’s context is based on the concept of Edge Cloud Computing and Small Cell-as-a-Service (SCaaS -as both have been previously identified in the SESAME 5G-PPP project of phase 1- and further “promotes” their role and/or influences within the related 5G vertical markets. 5G ESSENCE’s core innovation is focused upon the development/provision of a highly flexible and scalable platform, offering benefits to the involved market actors. The present work identifies a variety of challenges to be fulfilled by the 5G ESSENCE, in the scope of an enhanced architectural framework. The proposed technical approach exploits the profits of the centralization of Small Cell functions as scale grows through an edge cloud environment, based on a two-tier architecture with the first distributed tier being for offering low latency services and the second centralized tier being for the provision of high processing power for computing-intensive network applications. This permits decoupling the control and user planes of the Radio Access Network (RAN and achieving the advantages of Cloud-RAN without the enormous fronthaul latency restrictions. The use of end-to-end network slicing mechanisms allows for sharing the related infrastructure among multiple operators/vertical industries and customizing its capabilities on a per-tenant basis, creating a neutral host market and reducing operational costs.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project investigates foraging behavior of Hawaiian monk seals by conducting telemetry studies. During these studies, live seals are instrumented with dive...
Summers, K.; Biddick, C.; De La Peña, M. D.; Summers, D.
The Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) Telescope Control System (TCS) records about 10GB of telemetry data per night. Additionally, the vibration monitoring system records about 9GB of telemetry data per night. Through 2013, we have amassed over 6TB of Hierarchical Data Format (HDF5) files and almost 9TB in a MySQL database of TCS and vibration data. The LBT telemetry system, in its third major revision since 2004, provides the mechanism to capture and store this data. The telemetry system has evolved from a simple HDF file system with MySQL stream definitions within the TCS, to a separate system using a MySQL database system for the definitions and data, and finally to no database use at all, using HDF5 files.
A triangulated irregular network (TIN) is a viable structure for vector representation of raster image data. To visualize the image characterized by triangulation, it is required to fit a continuous surface of pixel brightness values in the triangulation (i.e. to interpolate data stored in its vertices). From this perspective, this paper presents a multi-frame image fusion and enhancement process that employs TIN structures rather than arrays of pixels as the original working units. The feasibility of this application relates to the fact that a TIN model offers a good quality digital image representation with a reduced density of pixel values as compared to a corresponding raster representation . In the proposed process several low-resolution unregistered and compressed images (such as those extracted from a video footage) of a common scene are: (a) registered to a sub-pixel level (b) transformed to a TIN structure, (c) grouped or mapped globally within a singular framework to create a denser TIN composite, and (d) the TIN representation is used in reverse to reconstruct a higher resolution image in raster format with more details than any of the original input frames. Tests and subsequent results are shown to demonstrate the validity and accuracy of the proposed multi-frame image enhancement process. A comparison of this process of multi-frame image enhancement using various interpolation methods and practices is included.
Lhomme, Edouard; Frattasi, Simone; Figueiras, Joao
Positioning information enables new applications for cellular phones, personal communication systems, and specialized mobile radios. The network heterogeneity emerging in the fourth generation (4G) of mobile networks can be utilized for enhancements of the location estimation accuracy...
Liu, Lianggui; Chen, Li; Jia, Huiling
In large-scale wireless sensor networks (WSNs), in order to enhance network security, it is crucial for a trustor node to perform social milieu oriented routing to a target a trustee node to carry out trust evaluation...
Perry, Russlee; Farley, M.; Hansen, Gabriel
In 1995, the Chief Joseph Kokanee Enhancement Project was established to mitigate the loss of anadromous fish due to the construction of Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee dams. The objectives of the Chief Joseph Enhancement Project are to determine the status of resident kokanee (Oncorhynchus nerka) populations above Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee dams and to enhance kokanee and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) populations. Studies conducted at Grand Coulee Dam documented substantial entrainment of kokanee through turbines at the third powerhouse. In response to finding high entrainment at Grand Coulee Dam, the Independent Scientific Review Panel (ISRP) recommended investigating the use of strobe lights to repel fish from the forebay of the third powerhouse. Therefore, our study focused on the third powerhouse and how strobe lights affected fish behavior in this area. The primary objective of our study was to assess the behavioral response of kokanee and rainbow trout to strobe lights using 3D acoustic telemetry, which yields explicit spatial locations of fish in three dimensions. Our secondary objectives were to (1) use a 3D acoustic system to mobile track tagged fish in the forebay and upriver of Grand Coulee Dam and (2) determine the feasibility of detecting fish using a hydrophone mounted in the tailrace of the third powerhouse. Within the fixed hydrophone array located in the third powerhouse cul-de-sac, we detected 50 kokanee and 30 rainbow trout, accounting for 47% and 45% respectively, of the fish released. Kokanee had a median residence time of 0.20 h and rainbow trout had a median residence time of 1.07 h. We detected more kokanee in the array at night compared to the day, and we detected more rainbow trout during the day compared to the night. In general, kokanee and rainbow trout approached along the eastern shore and the relative frequency of kokanee and rainbow trout detections was highest along the eastern shoreline of the 3D array. However, because we
Zong, Liang; Du, Wencai; Bai, Yong
For maritime communications over satellite network, TCP performance is essential for data transmissions. TCP ADaLR is congestion control algorithm that the sender judgments the relevant window change and measures roundtrip time to control congestion window. It can adapt to the characteristics of the satellite link and improve the performance of TCP than conventional TCP. However, it does not take into account distinction of random packet loss and congestion loss like TCP Veno. In this paper, we propose further enhancement of TCP ADaLR, called TCP ADaLR+, that can distinguish between random packet loss and congestion loss. The improved performance of proposed TCP ADaLR+ is demonstrated by simulations.
Biggerstaff, Devon N.; Heilmann, René; Zecevik, Aidan A.; Gräfe, Markus; Broome, Matthew A.; Fedrizzi, Alessandro; Nolte, Stefan; Szameit, Alexander; White, Andrew G.; Kassal, Ivan
Transport phenomena on a quantum scale appear in a variety of systems, ranging from photosynthetic complexes to engineered quantum devices. It has been predicted that the efficiency of coherent transport can be enhanced through dynamic interaction between the system and a noisy environment. We report an experimental simulation of environment-assisted coherent transport, using an engineered network of laser-written waveguides, with relative energies and inter-waveguide couplings tailored to yield the desired Hamiltonian. Controllable-strength decoherence is simulated by broadening the bandwidth of the input illumination, yielding a significant increase in transport efficiency relative to the narrowband case. We show integrated optics to be suitable for simulating specific target Hamiltonians as well as open quantum systems with controllable loss and decoherence.
Full Text Available Dynamic skyline query is one of the most popular and significant variants of skyline query in the field of multi-criteria decision-making. However, designing a distributed dynamic skyline query possesses greater challenge, especially for the distributed data centric storage within wireless sensor networks (WSNs. In this paper, a novel Enhanced Distributed Dynamic Skyline (EDDS approach is proposed and implemented in Disk Based Data Centric Storage (DBDCS architecture. DBDCS is an adaptation of magnetic disk storage platter consisting tracks and sectors. In DBDCS, the disc track and sector analogy is used to map data locations. A distance based indexing method is used for storing and querying multi-dimensional similar data. EDDS applies a threshold based hierarchical approach, which uses temporal correlation among sectors and sector segments to calculate a dynamic skyline. The efficiency and effectiveness of EDDS has been evaluated in terms of latency, energy consumption and accuracy through a simulation model developed in Castalia.
Kawaguchi, Minato; Mino, Hiroyuki; Durand, Dominique M
Stochastic resonance (SR) is a noise-induced phenomenon whereby signal detection can be improved by the addition of background noise in nonlinear systems. SR can also improve the transmission of information within single neurons. Since information processing in the brain is carried out by neural networks and noise is present throughout the brain, the hypothesis that noise and coupling play an important role in the control of information processing within a population of neurons to control was tested. Using computer simulations, we investigate the effect of noise on the transmission of information in an array of neurons, known as array-enhanced SR (AESR) in an interconnected population of hippocampal neurons. A subthreshold synaptic current (signal) modeled by a filtered homogeneous Poisson process was applied to a distal position in each of the apical dendrites, while background synaptic signals (uncorrelated noise) were presented to the midpoint in the basal dendrite. The transmembrane potentials were recorded in each cell of an array of CA1 neuron models, in order to determine spike firing times and to estimate the total and noise entropies from the spike firing times. The results show that the mutual information is maximized for a specific amplitude of uncorrelated noise, implying the presence of AESR. The results also show that the maximum mutual information increases with increased numbers of neurons and the strength of connections. Moreover, the relative levels of excitation and inhibition modulate the mutual information transfer. It is concluded that uncorrelated noise can enhance information transmission of subthreshold synaptic input currents in a population of hippocampal CA1 neuron models. Therefore, endogenous neural noise could play an important role in neural tissue by modulating the transfer of information across the network. © 2011 IEEE
Full Text Available Microarray technologies have been the basis of numerous important findings regarding gene expression in the few last decades. Studies have generated large amounts of data describing various processes, which, due to the existence of public databases, are widely available for further analysis. Given their lower cost and higher maturity compared to newer sequencing technologies, these data continue to be produced, even though data quality has been the subject of some debate. However, given the large volume of data generated, integration can help overcome some issues related, e.g., to noise or reduced time resolution, while providing additional insight on features not directly addressed by sequencing methods. Here, we present an integration test case based on public Drosophila melanogaster datasets (gene expression, binding site affinities, known interactions. Using an evolutionary computation framework, we show how integration can enhance the ability to recover transcriptional gene regulatory networks from these data, as well as indicating which data types are more important for quantitative and qualitative network inference. Our results show a clear improvement in performance when multiple datasets are integrated, indicating that microarray data will remain a valuable and viable resource for some time to come.
Danielle Taana Smith
Full Text Available This study examines the participation of African Americans on social networking sites (SNS, and evaluates the degree to which African Americans engage in activities in the online environment to mitigate social capital deficits. Prior literature suggests that compared with whites, African Americans have less social capital that can enhance their socio-economic mobility. As such, my research question is: do African Americans enhance their social capital through their participation on SNS? I use nationally representative data collected from the Pew Internet and American Life Project to explore the research question. The results suggest that the online environment is potentially a space in which African Americans can lessen social capital deficits.
Miller, Clayton S; Hebblewhite, Mark; Goodrich, John M; Miquelle, Dale G
Over the past half century, wildlife research has relied on technological advances to gain additional insight into the secretive lives of animals. This revolution started in the 1960s with the development of radio telemetry and continues today with the use of Global Positioning System (GPS)-based research techniques. In the present paper we review the history of radio telemetry from its origins with grizzly bears in Yellowstone to its early applications in tiger research and conservation in Asia. We address the different types of data that are available using radio telemetry as opposed to using other research techniques, such as behavioral observations, camera trapping, DNA analysis and scat analysis. In the late 1990s, the rapid development of GPS collar technology revolutionized wildlife research. This new technology has enabled researchers to dramatically improve their ability to gather data on animal movements and ecology. Despite the ecological and conservation benefits of radio telemetry, there have been few telemetry studies of tigers in the wild, and most have been on the Bengal or Amur subspecies. We close with an assessment of the current tiger conservation efforts using GPS technology and discuss how this new information can help to preserve tigers for future generations. © 2010 ISZS, Blackwell Publishing and IOZ/CAS.
O. G. Monahov
Full Text Available This paper investigates a solution of the optimization problem concerning the construction of diameter-optimal regular networks (graphs. Regular networks are of practical interest as the graph-theoretical models of reliable communication networks of parallel supercomputer systems, as a basis of the structure in a model of small world in optical and neural networks. It presents a new class of parametrically described regular networks - hypercirculant networks (graphs. An approach that uses evolutionary algorithms for the automatic generation of parametric descriptions of optimal hypercirculant networks is developed. Synthesis of optimal hypercirculant networks is based on the optimal circulant networks with smaller degree of nodes. To construct optimal hypercirculant networks is used a template of circulant network from the known optimal families of circulant networks with desired number of nodes and with smaller degree of nodes. Thus, a generating set of the circulant network is used as a generating subset of the hypercirculant network, and the missing generators are synthesized by means of the evolutionary algorithm, which is carrying out minimization of diameter (average diameter of networks. A comparative analysis of the structural characteristics of hypercirculant, toroidal, and circulant networks is conducted. The advantage hypercirculant networks under such structural characteristics, as diameter, average diameter, and the width of bisection, with comparable costs of the number of nodes and the number of connections is demonstrated. It should be noted the advantage of hypercirculant networks of dimension three over four higher-dimensional tori. Thus, the optimization of hypercirculant networks of dimension three is more efficient than the introduction of an additional dimension for the corresponding toroidal structures. The paper also notes the best structural parameters of hypercirculant networks in comparison with iBT-networks previously
Linkimer, L.; Lücke, O. H.
Costa Rica has a very high seismicity rate and geological processes are part of everyday life. Traditionally, information about these processes has been provided by conventional mass media (television and radio). However, due to the new trends in information flow a new approach towards Science Education is necessary for transmitting knowledge from scientific research for the general public in Costa Rica. Since 1973, the National Seismological Network of Costa Rica (RSN: UCR-ICE) studies the seismicity and volcanic activity in the country. In this study, we describe the different channels to report earthquake information that the RSN is currently using: email, social networks, and a website, as well as the development of a smartphone application. Since the RSN started actively participating in Social Networks, an increase in awareness in the general public has been noticed particularly regarding felt earthquakes. Based on this trend, we have focused on enhancing public outreach through Social Media. We analyze the demographics and geographic distribution of the RSN Facebook Page, the growth of followers, and the significance of their feedback for reporting intensity data. We observe that certain regions of the country have more Facebook activity, although those regions are not the most populated nor have a high Internet connectivity index. We interpret this pattern as the result of a higher awareness to geological hazards in those specific areas. We noticed that the growth of RSN users on Facebook has a strong correlation with the seismic events as opposed to Twitter that displays a steady growth with no clear correlations with specific seismic events. We see the Social Networks as opportunities to engage non-science audiences and encourage the population to participate in reporting seismic observations, thus providing intensity data. With the increasing access to Internet from mobile phones in Costa Rica, we see this approach to science education as an opportunity
Hwang, Wu-Yuin; Kongcharoen, Chaknarin; Ghinea, Gheorghita
Recently, various computer networking courses have included additional laboratory classes in order to enhance students' learning achievement. However, these classes need to establish a suitable laboratory where each student can connect network devices to configure and test functions within different network topologies. In this case, the Linux…
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A Web-based Airborne Remote Sensing Telemetry Server (WARSTS) is proposed to integrate UAV telemetry and web-technology into an innovative communication, command,...
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Lunar Prospector merged telemetry data set is a result of comparing the two Lunar Prospector telemetry data streams and selecting one of them. The Lunar...
Full Text Available This paper addresses performance enhancement of distribution network with distributed generator (DG integration using modified particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm. The effort of performance enhancement is done by using optimization of distribution network configuration. The objective of the optimization is minimizing active power loss and improving voltage profile while the distribution network is maintained in the radial structure. In this study, configuration optimization method is based on a modified PSO algorithm. The method has been tested in an IEEE model of 33-bus radial distribution network test system and a reallife radial distribution network of 60-bus Bantul distribution system, Indonesia. The simulation results show the importance of reconfiguring the network for enhancing the distribution network performance in the presence of DG.
Wu, Tao; Chen, Leiting; Zhong, Linfeng; Xian, Xingping
The function of complex networks typically relies on the integrity of underlying structure. Sometimes, practical applications need to attack networks' function, namely inactivate and fragment networks' underlying structure. To effectively dismantle complex networks and regulate the function of them, a centrality measure, named CI (Morone and Makse, 2015), was proposed for node ranking. We observe that the performance of CI centrality in network disruption problem may deteriorate when it is used in networks with different topology properties. Specifically, the structural features of local network topology are overlooked in CI centrality, even though the local network topology of the nodes with a fixed CI value may have very different organization. To improve the ranking accuracy of CI, this paper proposes a variant ECI to CI by considering loop density and degree diversity of local network topology. And the proposed ECI centrality would degenerate into CI centrality with the reduction of the loop density and the degree diversity level. By comparing ECI with CI and classical centrality measures in both synthetic and real networks, the experimental results suggest that ECI can largely improve the performance of CI for network disruption. Based on the results, we analyze the correlation between the improvement and the properties of the networks. We find that the performance of ECI is positively correlated with assortative coefficient and community modularity and negatively correlated with degree inequality of networks, which can be used as guidance for practical applications.
Full Text Available The European project NetGrow stands for Enhancing the innovativeness of food SMEs through the management of strategic network behavior and network learning performance. It is a FP7 Cooperation project in the theme Food, Agriculture and Fisheries, and Biotechnology with an EC contribution of 3M €. The project has a duration of 4 years and will be finished in April 2014. The project coordinator is Prof. dr. Xavier Gellynck from Ghent University, Belgium. The aim of Netgrow is to enhance network learning leading to increased innovation, economic growth andsustainable competitive advantage for food small and medium enterprises (SMEs.
Moon, Jaegeun; Jung, Im Y; Yoo, Jaesoo
Various wireless technologies, such as RF, Bluetooth, and Zigbee, have been applied to sensor communications. However, the applications of Bluetooth-based wireless sensor networks (WSN) have a security issue. In one pairing process during Bluetooth communication, which is known as simple secure pairing (SSP), the devices are required to specify I/O capability or user interference to prevent man-in-the-middle (MITM) attacks. This study proposes an enhanced SSP in which a nonce to be transferred is converted to a corresponding signal interval. The quantization level, which is used to interpret physical signal intervals, is renewed at every connection by the transferred nonce and applied to the next nonce exchange so that the same signal intervals can represent different numbers. Even if attackers eavesdrop on the signals, they cannot understand what is being transferred because they cannot determine the quantization level. Furthermore, the proposed model does not require exchanging passkeys as data, and the devices are secure in the case of using a fixed PIN. Subsequently, the new quantization level is calculated automatically whenever the same devices attempt to connect with each other. Therefore, the pairing process can be protected from MITM attacks and be convenient for users.
Full Text Available Various wireless technologies, such as RF, Bluetooth, and Zigbee, have been applied to sensor communications. However, the applications of Bluetooth-based wireless sensor networks (WSN have a security issue. In one pairing process during Bluetooth communication, which is known as simple secure pairing (SSP, the devices are required to specify I/O capability or user interference to prevent man-in-the-middle (MITM attacks. This study proposes an enhanced SSP in which a nonce to be transferred is converted to a corresponding signal interval. The quantization level, which is used to interpret physical signal intervals, is renewed at every connection by the transferred nonce and applied to the next nonce exchange so that the same signal intervals can represent different numbers. Even if attackers eavesdrop on the signals, they cannot understand what is being transferred because they cannot determine the quantization level. Furthermore, the proposed model does not require exchanging passkeys as data, and the devices are secure in the case of using a fixed PIN. Subsequently, the new quantization level is calculated automatically whenever the same devices attempt to connect with each other. Therefore, the pairing process can be protected from MITM attacks and be convenient for users.
Moon, Jaegeun; Jung, Im Y.; Yoo, Jaesoo
Various wireless technologies, such as RF, Bluetooth, and Zigbee, have been applied to sensor communications. However, the applications of Bluetooth-based wireless sensor networks (WSN) have a security issue. In one pairing process during Bluetooth communication, which is known as simple secure pairing (SSP), the devices are required to specify I/O capability or user interference to prevent man-in-the-middle (MITM) attacks. This study proposes an enhanced SSP in which a nonce to be transferred is converted to a corresponding signal interval. The quantization level, which is used to interpret physical signal intervals, is renewed at every connection by the transferred nonce and applied to the next nonce exchange so that the same signal intervals can represent different numbers. Even if attackers eavesdrop on the signals, they cannot understand what is being transferred because they cannot determine the quantization level. Furthermore, the proposed model does not require exchanging passkeys as data, and the devices are secure in the case of using a fixed PIN. Subsequently, the new quantization level is calculated automatically whenever the same devices attempt to connect with each other. Therefore, the pairing process can be protected from MITM attacks and be convenient for users. PMID:28368341
Full Text Available 3D display of spacecraft motion by using telemetry data received from satellite in real-time is described. Telemetry data are converted to the appropriate form for 3-D display by the real-time preprocessor. Stored playback telemetry data also can be processed for the display. 3D display of spacecraft motion by using real telemetry data provides intuitive comprehension of spacecraft dynamics.
Ciftcioglu, O.; Durmisevic, S.; Sariyildiz, I.S.
Artificial neural networks are powerfultools for analysing information expressed as data sets, which contain complex nonlinear relationships to be identified and classified. In particular radial basis function (RBF) neural networks have outstanding features for this. However, due to far reaching
T. Anji Kumar; Dr MHM Krishna Prasad
Now a days, Internet plays a major role in our day to day activities e.g., for online transactions, online shopping, and other network related applications. Internet suffers from slow convergence of routing protocols after a network failure which becomes a growing problem. Multiple Routing Configurations [MRC] recovers network from single node/link failures, but does not support network from multiple node/link failures. In this paper, we propose Enhanced MRC [EMRC], to support multiple node/l...
Campbell, Richard; Rogers, L. Joseph
After assessing the design implications and the criteria to be used in technology selection, the technical problems that face the telemetry, tracking, and control (TTC) area were defined. For each of the problems identified, recommendations were made for needed technology developments. These recommendations are listed and ranked according to priority.
Kao, Simon A.; Laffey, Thomas J.; Schmidt, James L.; Read, Jackson Y.; Dunham, Larry L.
This paper descibes a knowledge-based system for performing real-time monitoring and analysis of telemetry data from the NASA Hubble Space Telescope (HST). In order to handle asynchronous inputs and perform in real time the system consists of three or more separate processes, which run concurrently and communicate via a message passing scheme. The data management process gathers, compresses, and scales the incoming telemetry data befoe sending it to the other tasks. The inferencing process uses the incoming data to perform a real-time analysis of the state and health of the Space Telescope. The I/O process receives telemetry monitors from the data management process, updates its graphical displays in real time, and acts as the interface to the console operator. The three processes may run on the same or different computers. This system is currently under development and is being used to monitor testcases produced by the Bass Telemetry System in the Hardware/Software Integration Facility at Lockheed Missile and Space Co. in Sunnyvale, California.
Ahmed eEl Hady
Full Text Available Synchronized bursting is found in many brain areas and has also been implicated in the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric disorders such as epilepsy, Parkinson’s disease and schizophrenia. Despite extensive studies of network burst synchronization, it is insufficiently understood how this type of network wide synchronization can be strengthened, reduced or even abolished. We combined electrical recording using multi-electrode array with optical stimulation of cultured channelrhodopsin-2 transducted hippocampal neurons to study and manipulate network burst synchronization. We found low frequency photo-stimulation protocols that are sufficient to induce potentiation of network bursting, modifying bursting dynamics and increasing interneuronal synchronization. Surprisingly, slowly fading-in light stimulation, which substantially delayed and reduced light driven spiking, was at least as effective in reorganizing network dynamics as much stronger pulsed light stimulation. Our study shows that mild stimulation protocols that do not enforce particular activity patterns onto the network can be highly effective inducers of network-level plasticity.
Alan S. Kornspan
Full Text Available The primary purpose of this paper is to present information regarding the development of networking skills to enhance the career development of sport management students. Specifically, literature is reviewed which supports the importance of networking in the attainment of employment and career advancement in the sport industry. This is followed by an overview of emerging networking activities that allow opportunities for sport management students to expand their network. Sport industry career fairs and career conferences that students can attend are discussed. Additionally, sport industry professional associations that students can become involved with are presented. This is then followed with information related to the development of sport management clubs and various events that can be promoted to enhance the networking process. Specifically, activities provided by university faculty to enhance the educational experience of sport management students are detailed. Finally, a sample schedule of semester activities focused on student engagement and networking activities is provided.
Campbell, Hamish A., E-mail: email@example.com [Department of Ecosystem Management, School of Environment and Rural Sciences, University of New England, Armidale, NSW (Australia); Beyer, Hawthorne L. [ARC Centre of Excellence for Environmental Decisions, Centre for Biodiversity & Conservation Science, University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD (Australia); Dennis, Todd E. [School of Biological Sciences, University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland (New Zealand); Dwyer, Ross G. [School of Biological Sciences, University of Queensland, St Lucia, QLD (Australia); Forester, James D. [Dept. Fisheries, Wildlife, and Conservation Biology, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN (United States); Fukuda, Yusuke [Department of Land Resource Management, PO Box 496, Palmerston, NT (Australia); Lynch, Catherine [Arid Recovery, PO Box 147, Roxby Downs, SA (Australia); Hindell, Mark A. [University of Tasmania, Hobart, TAS (Australia); Menke, Norbert [Queensland Department of Science, Information, Technoloty, Innovation and the Arts, Brisbane, QLD (Australia); Morales, Juan M. [Ecotono, INIBIOMA—CONICET, Universidad Nacional del Comahue, Quintral 1250, 8400 Bariloche (Argentina); Richardson, Craig [Ecological Resources Information Network, Department of the Environment, Canberra, ACT (Australia); Rodgers, Essie [School of Biological Sciences, University of Queensland, St Lucia, QLD (Australia); Taylor, Graeme [Department of Conservation, PO Box 10420, Wellington 6143 (New Zealand); Watts, Matt E. [ARC Centre of Excellence for Environmental Decisions, Centre for Biodiversity & Conservation Science, University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD (Australia); Westcott, David A. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, PO Box 780, Atherton, QLD (Australia)
The presence and movements of organisms both reflect and influence the distribution of ecological resources in space and time. The monitoring of animal movement by telemetry devices is being increasingly used to inform management of marine, freshwater and terrestrial ecosystems. Here, we brought together academics, and environmental managers to determine the extent of animal movement research in the Australasian region, and assess the opportunities and challenges in the sharing and reuse of these data. This working group was formed under the Australian Centre for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis (ACEAS), whose overall aim was to facilitate trans-organisational and transdisciplinary synthesis. We discovered that between 2000 and 2012 at least 501 peer-reviewed scientific papers were published that report animal location data collected by telemetry devices from within the Australasian region. Collectively, this involved the capture and electronic tagging of 12 656 animals. The majority of studies were undertaken to address specific management questions; rarely were these data used beyond their original intent. We estimate that approximately half (~ 500) of all animal telemetry projects undertaken remained unpublished, a similar proportion were not discoverable via online resources, and less than 8.8% of all animals tagged and tracked had their data stored in a discoverable and accessible manner. Animal telemetry data contain a wealth of information about how animals and species interact with each other and the landscapes they inhabit. These data are expensive and difficult to collect and can reduce survivorship of the tagged individuals, which implies an ethical obligation to make the data available to the scientific community. This is the first study to quantify the gap between telemetry devices placed on animals and findings/data published, and presents methods for improvement. Instigation of these strategies will enhance the cost-effectiveness of the research and
Feb 5, 2015 ... injection scheme increases the range of noise amplitude for which synchronization occurs in the network. Keywords. Synchronization; oscillatory bath; self-excited cells; noise injection; network. PACS Nos 87.18. ... oscillators circuit consisting of a condenser C, an inductor L and nonlinear resistor NR, all.
Gregory, Peter; Gregory, Karen; Eddy, Erik
Facebook is a website with over one billion users worldwide that is synonymous with social-networking. However, in this study, Facebook is used as an "instructional network". Two sections of an undergraduate calculus course were used to study the effects of participating in a Facebook group devoted solely to instruction. One section was…
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ANSIBLE (A Network of Social Interactions for Bilateral Life Enhancement) can be used pre, during, and post flight to connect the flight crew with their family,...
Full Text Available Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE is the most commonly encountered medically refractory epilepsy. It is also the substrate of refractory epilepsy that gives the most gratifying results in any epilepsy surgery program, with a minimum use of resources. Correlation of clinical behavior and the ictal patterns during ictal behavior is mandatory for success at epilepsy surgery. Video electroencephalogram (EEG telemetry achieves this goal and hence plays a pivotal role in pre-surgical assessment. The role of telemetry is continuously evolving with the advent of digital EEG technology, of high-resolution volumetric magnetic resonance imaging and other functional imaging techniques. Most of surgical selection in patients with TLE can be done with a scalp video EEG monitoring. However, the limitations of the scalp EEG technique demand invasive recordings in a selected group of TLE patients. This subset of the patients can be a challenge to the epileptologist.
Full Text Available In this article, a neural network–based tracking controller is developed for an unmanned helicopter system with guaranteed global stability in the presence of uncertain system dynamics. Due to the coupling and modeling uncertainties of the helicopter systems, neutral networks approximation techniques are employed to compensate the unknown dynamics of each subsystem. In order to extend the semiglobal stability achieved by conventional neural control to global stability, a switching mechanism is also integrated into the control design, such that the resulted neural controller is always valid without any concern on either initial conditions or range of state variables. In addition, deterministic learning is applied to the neutral network learning control, such that the adaptive neutral networks are able to store the learned knowledge that could be reused to construct neutral network controller with improved control performance. Simulation studies are carried out on a helicopter model to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed control design.
.... The minimum cost-maximum flow algorithm is used to identify bottlenecks. A decision analysis approach enables the mapping of performance objectives for a network expansion into measurable attributes within the structure of a value hierarchy...
Son, L.T.; Schiøler, Henrik; Madsen, Ole Brun
With the current development of mobile devices, short range wireless communications have become more and more popular, and research on short range wireless communications, such as Bluetooth, has gained increasing in-terest, in industry as well as in academy. This paper analyzes capacity allocation...... issues in Bluetooth network as convex optimization problem. We formulate the problem of maximizing of total network flows and minimizing the costs of flows. The hybrid distributed capacity allocation scheme HDICA is proposed as an approximated solution of the stated optimization problem that satisfies...... quality of service requirements and topologically induced constraints in the Bluetooth network, such as node and link capacity limitations. The proposed scheme is decentralized and complies with frequent changes of topology as well as capacity limitations and flow requirements in the network. Simulation...
Xia, Youshen; Wang, Jun
This paper proposes a new recurrent neural network-based Kalman filter for speech enhancement, based on a noise-constrained least squares estimate. The parameters of speech signal modeled as autoregressive process are first estimated by using the proposed recurrent neural network and the speech signal is then recovered from Kalman filtering. The proposed recurrent neural network is globally asymptomatically stable to the noise-constrained estimate. Because the noise-constrained estimate has a robust performance against non-Gaussian noise, the proposed recurrent neural network-based speech enhancement algorithm can minimize the estimation error of Kalman filter parameters in non-Gaussian noise. Furthermore, having a low-dimensional model feature, the proposed neural network-based speech enhancement algorithm has a much faster speed than two existing recurrent neural networks-based speech enhancement algorithms. Simulation results show that the proposed recurrent neural network-based speech enhancement algorithm can produce a good performance with fast computation and noise reduction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Coon, G. W.
The design and development of a miniature 0.635 cm (0.25 in.) diameter capacitive accelerometer for use in free flight wind tunnel telemetry are presented. Instruments with full scale ranges from + or - 1 to + or - 200 g were constructed, calibrated, and used in several wind tunnel telemetry projects. Flat, high frequency response from 0 to 1000 Hz or more was obtained by employing the inherent damping and stiffness in the air film surrounding the diaphragm-type spring that supports the inertial mass of the accelerometer. Design features to achieve minimum off-axis sensitivity and temperature stability are discussed, and the design requirements for use of the transducer with telemetry systems are derived. A transducer capacitance change of 0.16 pF full scale gave excellent resolution and provided a frequency deviation of 0.75 MHz for a 100 MHz FM oscillator. Although the present design of the capacitive accelerometer was optimized by using units of 0.635 cm diameter, construction of experimental accelerometers as small as 0.36 cm (0.14 in.) diameter has demonstrated the feasibility of further miniaturization.
Neural cells are the smallest building blocks of the central and peripheral nervous systems. Information in neural networks and cell-substrate interactions have been heretofore studied separately. Understanding whether surface nano-topography can direct nerve cells assembly into computational efficient networks may provide new tools and criteria for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. In this work, we used information theory approaches and functional multi calcium imaging (fMCI) techniques to examine how information flows in neural networks cultured on surfaces with controlled topography. We found that substrate roughness Sa affects networks topology. In the low nano-meter range, S-a = 0-30 nm, information increases with Sa. Moreover, we found that energy density of a network of cells correlates to the topology of that network. This reinforces the view that information, energy and surface nano-topography are tightly inter-connected and should not be neglected when studying cell-cell interaction in neural tissue repair and regeneration.
T Anji Kumar & Dr MHM Krishna Prasad
Now a days, Internet plays a major role in our day to day activities e.g., for online transactions,online shopping, and other network related applications. Internet suffers from slow convergenceof routing protocols after a network failure which becomes a growing problem. Multiple RoutingConfigurations [MRC] recovers network from single node/link failures, but does not supportnetwork from multiple node/link failures. In this paper, we propose Enhanced MRC [EMRC], tosupport multiple node/link f...
Cetto, Alexandra; Netter, Michael; Pernul, Günther; Richthammer, Christian; Riesner, Moritz; Roth, Christian; Sänger, Johannes
Currently, many users of Social Network Sites are insufficiently aware of who can see their shared personal items. Nonetheless, most approaches focus on enhancing privacy in Social Networks through improved privacy settings, neglecting the fact that privacy awareness is a prerequisite for privacy control. Social Network users first need to know about privacy issues before being able to make adjustments. In this paper, we introduce Friend Inspector, a serious game that allows its users to play...
Cetto, Alexandra; Netter, Michael; Pernul, Günther; Richthammer, Christian; Riesner, Moritz; Roth, Christian; Sänger, Johannes
Currently, many users of Social Network Sites are insufficiently aware of who can see their shared personal items. Nonetheless, most approaches focus on enhancing privacy in Social Networks through improved privacy settings, neglecting the fact that privacy awareness is a prerequisite for privacy control. Social Network users first need to know about privacy issues before being able to make adjustments. In this paper, we introduce Friend Inspector, a serious game that allows its users to play...
Cheak, Alicia; Angehrn, Albert; Sloep, Peter
This paper addresses the challenge of enhancing the social dimension of lifelong Competence Development and Management Systems with social network-based concepts and tools. Our premise is that through a combination of social network visualization tools, simulations, stimulus agents and management
Pahlevani, Peyman; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani; Fitzek, Frank
This paper introduces a design and simulation of a locally optimized network coding protocol, called PlayNCool, for wireless mesh networks. PlayN-Cool is easy to implement and compatible with existing routing protocols and devices. This allows the system to gain from network coding capabilities...
Nguyen Kim Quoc
Full Text Available The bottleneck control by active queue management mechanisms at network nodes is essential. In recent years, some researchers have used fuzzy argument to improve the active queue management mechanisms to enhance the network performance. However, the projects using the fuzzy controller depend heavily on professionals and their parameters cannot be updated according to changes in the network, so the effectiveness of this mechanism is not high. Therefore, we propose a model combining the fuzzy controller with neural network (FNN to overcome the limitations above. Results of the training of the neural networks will find the optimal parameters for the adaptive fuzzy controller well to changes of the network. This improves the operational efficiency of the active queue management mechanisms at network nodes.
Full Text Available In many applications, the quality of data gathered by sensor networks is directly related to the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR of the sensor data being transmitted in the networks. Different from the SNR that is often used in measuring the quality of communication links, the SNR used in this work measures how accurately the data in the network packets represent the physical parameters being sensed. Hence, the signal here refers to the physical parameters that are being monitored by sensor networks; the noise is due to environmental interference and circuit noises at sensor nodes, and packet loss during network transmission. While issues affecting SNR at sensor nodes have been intensively investigated, the impact of network packet loss on data SNR has not attracted significant attention in sensor network design. This paper investigates the impact of packet loss on sensor network data SNR and shows that data SNR is dramatically affected by network packet loss. A data quality metric, based on data SNR, is developed and a cross-layer adaptive scheme is presented to minimize data quality degradation in congested sensor networks. The proposed scheme consists of adaptive downsampling and bit truncation at sensor nodes and intelligent traffic management techniques at the network level. Simulation results are presented to demonstrate the validity and effectiveness of the proposed techniques.
Pedersen, Klaus I.; Alvarez, Beatriz Soret; Barcos, Sonia
ICIC configuration leads to modest gains, whereas the set of proposed fast dynamic eICIC algorithms result in capacity gains on the order of 35-120% depending on the local environment characteristics. These attractive gains together with the simplicity of the proposed solutions underline the practical relevance...... area. Rather than the classical semi-static and network-wise configuration, the importance of having highly dynamic and distributed mechanisms that are able to adapt to local environment conditions is revealed. We propose two promising cell association algorithms: one aiming at pure load balancing...... and an opportunistic approach exploiting the varying cell conditions. Moreover, an autonomous fast distributed muting algorithm is presented, which is simple, robust, and well suited for irregular network deployments. Performance results for realistic network deployments show that the traditional semi-static e...
Hui, Wang; Peiyu, Li; Zhihui, Fan; Zheqing, Li; Xuhui, Wei
Due to a set of constant initial values, the performance of conventional TCP drops significantly encountering heterogeneous network, showing low throughput and unfairness. This paper firstly demonstrates the chaotic character of TCP congestion control in heterogeneous network, especially the sensitivity to initial value. Inspired by merit of nature-inspired algorithm, a novel structure of TCP congestion control (IPPM, Internet Prey-Predator Model) is proposed. Parameters such as available link capacity(C), congestion window (W) and queue length (Q) are collected by IPPM, which calculates the max value of C according to the interacting relationship existing in C, W and Q, and IPPM initiates the TCP ssthresh with the calculated value. Plenty of simulation results show that the modified TCP can effectively avoid network congestion and packet loss. Besides, it holds high resource utilization, convergence speeds, fairness and stability.
Full Text Available Due to a set of constant initial values, the performance of conventional TCP drops significantly encountering heterogeneous network, showing low throughput and unfairness. This paper firstly demonstrates the chaotic character of TCP congestion control in heterogeneous network, especially the sensitivity to initial value. Inspired by merit of nature-inspired algorithm, a novel structure of TCP congestion control (IPPM, Internet Prey-Predator Model is proposed. Parameters such as available link capacity(C, congestion window (W and queue length (Q are collected by IPPM, which calculates the max value of C according to the interacting relationship existing in C, W and Q, and IPPM initiates the TCP ssthresh with the calculated value. Plenty of simulation results show that the modified TCP can effectively avoid network congestion and packet loss. Besides, it holds high resource utilization, convergence speeds, fairness and stability.
Full Text Available The immense growth of client requirements imposed on data centre and cloud providers results in a conflict with traditional networking concepts lacking the required agility. In order to promote flexibility, which data centre providers promise to their clients, this discrepancy needs to be resolved, for instance by employing the novel concept of Software-Defined Networking (SDN. This paper utilises this concept in order to minimise service downtime while performing live virtual machine migration. The work is aimed at small/medium-sized data centres and hence the findings are based on real communication patterns found in such environments. Results show that packet loss is slightly diminished while available throughput is increased thanks to the proactive approach taken during network topology changes when compared to the traditional approach based on L2 forwarding.
Schwaller, Matthew R.; Morris, K. Robert
A Validation Network (VN) prototype is currently underway that compares data from the Precipitation Radar (PR) instrument on NASA's Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite to similar measurements from the U.S. national network of operational weather radars. This prototype is being conducted as part of the ground validation activities of NASA's Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission. GPM will carry a Dual-frequency Precipitation Radar instrument (DPR) with similar characteristics to the TRMM PR. The purpose of the VN is to identify and resolve significant discrepancies between the U.S. national network of ground radar (GR) observations and satellite observations. The ultimate goal of such comparisons is to understand and resolve the first order variability and bias of precipitation retrievals in different meteorological/hydrological regimes at large scales. This paper presents a description of, and results from, an improved algorithm for volume matching and comparison of PR and ground radar observations.
Full Text Available The paper describes the methodology of the automated creation of neural models of microwave structures. During the creation process, artificial neural networks are trained using the combination of the particle swarm optimization and the quasi-Newton method to avoid critical training problems of the conventional neural nets. In the paper, neural networks are used to approximate the behavior of a planar microwave filter (moment method, Zeland IE3D. In order to evaluate the efficiency of neural modeling, global optimizations are performed using numerical models and neural ones. Both approaches are compared from the viewpoint of CPU-time demands and the accuracy. Considering conclusions, methodological recommendations for including neural networks to the microwave design are formulated.
Sie, Rory; Ullmann, Thomas; Rajagopal, Kamakshi; Cela, Karina; Bitter-Rijpkema, Marlies; Sloep, Peter
Sie, R. L. L., Ullmann, T. D., Rajagopal, K., Cela, K., Bitter-Rijpkema, M., & Sloep, P. B. (2012). Social network analysis for technology-enhanced learning: review and future directions. International Journal of Technology Enhanced Learning, 4(3/4), 172-190.
Full Text Available SWEET routing protocol is one of the many pro- tocols developed for cluster formation and routing in wireless sensor networks. The SWEET protocol is a decentralized clus- tering protocol, it uses timers and interim updated cluster head estimation...
Rice, Kevin; Kizzort, Brad
These presentation slides are a tutorial on XML Telemetry and Command Exchange (XTCE). The goal of XTCE is to provide an industry standard mechanism for describing telemetry and command streams (particularly from satellites.) it wiill lower cost and increase validation over traditional formats, and support exchange or native format.XCTE is designed to describe bit streams, that are typical of telemetry and command in the historic space domain.
Vodák, Rostislav; Bíl, Michal
Road networks rank among the foundations of civilization. They enable people, services and goods to be transported to arbitrary places at any time. Its functioning can be impacted by various events, not only by natural hazards and their combinations. This can lead to the concurrent interruption of a number of roads and even cut-off parts of the network from vital services. The impact of these events can be reduced by various measures, but cannot be fully eliminated. We are aware of the fact that extreme events which result in road network break up will occur regardless of the ongoing process of hazard reduction using, for example, the improvement of the structural robustness of roads. The next problem is that many of the events are unpredictable and thus the needed costs of the improvement can easily spiral out of control. We therefore focus on the speed of the recovery process which can be optimized. This means that the time during which the damaged network is reconnected again will be as short as possible. The result of the optimization procedure is a sequence of road links which represent the routes of the repair units. The optimization process is, however, highly nontrivial because of the large number of possible routes for repair units. This prevents anyone from finding an optimal solution. We consequently introduce an approach based on the Ant Colony Optimization algorithm which is able to suggest an almost optimal solution under various constraints which can be established by the administrator of the network. We will also demonstrate its results and variability with several case examples.
Xu, Buwei; Zhang, Chunlei; Zhang, Jingjing; Hu, Weisheng
Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) protocol is used for the routing and topology discovery in the optical networks. In the next generation optical network, enhanced OSPF is extended to support opaque LSA. In optical networks, each OXC disseminates the resource information of the optical links that bundled between the adjacent neighbors. Recently proposed enhanced OSPF protocol is promising to reduce the blocking probability of the data plane at the cost the usage of the control channel bandwidth in the control plane. This article has a full analysis of the bandwidth usage due to the optical LSA updates. We also discuss the blocking probability with the enhanced OSPF, some key results on the performance of the enhance OSPF are also given in this article. Finally, we propose a method to balance the tradeoff of the flooding information and the blocking probability.
Nguyen Xuan Tien
Full Text Available The effective filtering approach (EFA is one of the most effective approaches for improving the network traffic performance of high-availability seamless redundancy (HSR networks. However, because EFA uses port locking (PL for detecting nondestination doubly-attached nodes with HSR protocol (DANH rings in HSR networks, it forwards the first sent frame to all DANH rings in the network. In addition, it uses a control message for discovering passive QuadBox rings in both unidirectional and bidirectional communications. In this study, we propose an enhanced version of EFA called enhanced-EFA (eEFA that does not forward unicast frames to nondestination DANH rings. eEFA does not use any control message to discover passive QuadBox rings in bidirectional communications. eEFA thus reduces the network traffic in HSR networks compared with EFA. Analytical and simulation results for a sample network show that the traffic reduction of eEFA was 4–26% and 2–20% for unidirectional and bidirectional communications, respectively, compared to EFA. eEFA, thus, clearly saves network bandwidth and improves the network performance.
Squartini, Tiziano; Almog, Assaf; Caldarelli, Guido; van Lelyveld, Iman; Garlaschelli, Diego; Cimini, Giulio
Reconstructing patterns of interconnections from partial information is one of the most important issues in the statistical physics of complex networks. A paramount example is provided by financial networks. In fact, the spreading and amplification of financial distress in capital markets are strongly affected by the interconnections among financial institutions. Yet, while the aggregate balance sheets of institutions are publicly disclosed, information on single positions is mostly confidential and, as such, unavailable. Standard approaches to reconstruct the network of financial interconnection produce unrealistically dense topologies, leading to a biased estimation of systemic risk. Moreover, reconstruction techniques are generally designed for monopartite networks of bilateral exposures between financial institutions, thus failing in reproducing bipartite networks of security holdings (e.g., investment portfolios). Here we propose a reconstruction method based on constrained entropy maximization, tailored for bipartite financial networks. Such a procedure enhances the traditional capital-asset pricing model (CAPM) and allows us to reproduce the correct topology of the network. We test this enhanced CAPM (ECAPM) method on a dataset, collected by the European Central Bank, of detailed security holdings of European institutional sectors over a period of six years (2009-2015). Our approach outperforms the traditional CAPM and the recently proposed maximum-entropy CAPM both in reproducing the network topology and in estimating systemic risk due to fire sales spillovers. In general, ECAPM can be applied to the whole class of weighted bipartite networks described by the fitness model.
Ahnaou, A; Huysmans, H; Jacobs, T; Drinkenburg, W H I M
Synchronization of electroencephalographic (EEG) oscillations represents a core mechanism for cortical and subcortical networks, and disturbance in neural synchrony underlies cognitive processing deficits in neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders. Here, we investigated the effects of cognition enhancers (donepezil, rivastigmine, tacrine, galantamine and memantine), which are approved for symptomatic treatment of dementia, on EEG oscillations and network connectivity in conscious rats chronically instrumented with epidural electrodes in different cortical areas. Next, EEG network indices of cognitive impairments with the muscarinic receptor antagonist scopolamine were modeled. Lastly, we examined the efficacy of cognition enhancers to normalize those aberrant oscillations. Cognition enhancers elicited systematic ("fingerprint") enhancement of cortical slow theta (4.5-6 Hz) and gamma (30.5-50 Hz) oscillations correlated with lower activity levels. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed a compact cluster that corresponds to shared underlying mechanisms as compared to different drug classes. Functional network connectivity revealed consistent elevated coherent slow theta activity in parieto-occipital and between interhemispheric cortical areas. In rats instrumented with depth hippocampal CA1-CA3 electrodes, donepezil elicited similar oscillatory and coherent activities in cortico-hippocampal networks. When combined with scopolamine, the cognition enhancers attenuated the leftward shift in coherent slow delta activity. Such a consistent shift in EEG coherence into slow oscillations associated with altered slow theta and gamma oscillations may underlie cognitive deficits in scopolamine-treated animals, whereas enhanced coherent slow theta and gamma activity may be a relevant mechanism by which cognition enhancers exert their beneficial effect on plasticity and cognitive processes. The findings underscore that PCA and network connectivity are valuable tools to
Blobel, B; Pharow, P; Engel, K
Establishing the Shared Care environment, communication and co-operation between healthcare establishments involved must be provided in a trustworthy way. This challenge is even more important for health networks using the Internet. In that context, services assuring both communication security and application security must be provided. Especially in the e-health environment, additionally to identity-related services certifying data or properties of principals, trustworthiness or authorisation for objects, components and functions must be established by Trusted Third Parties (TTP). Within the European Commission's Information Society Technologies (IST) Programme, the HARP project provides the "HARP Cross-Security Platform (HCSP)" needed in the open Web environment of pan-European networks. The solutions are under implementation and evaluation in the German ONCONET enabling a trustworthy framework for both health professionals and patients as well as supporting clinical studies.
The pursuit of highest payoffs in evolutionary social dilemmas is risky and sometimes inferior to conformity. Choosing the most common strategy within the interaction range is safer because it ensures that the payoff of an individual will not be much lower than average. Herding instincts and crowd behavior in humans and social animals also compel to conformity on their own right. Motivated by these facts, we here study the impact of conformity on the evolution of cooperation in social dilemmas. We show that an appropriate fraction of conformists within the population introduces an effective surface tension around cooperative clusters and ensures smooth interfaces between different strategy domains. Payoff-driven players brake the symmetry in favor of cooperation and enable an expansion of clusters past the boundaries imposed by traditional network reciprocity. This mechanism works even under the most testing conditions, and it is robust against variations of the interaction network as long as degree-normalize...
Dafalla, Z. I.; Balaji, R. D.
Computer networking is an important specialization in Information and Communication Technologies. However imparting the right knowledge to students can be a challenging task due to the fact that there is not enough time to deliver lengthy labs during normal lecture hours. Augmenting the use of physical machines with software tools help the students to learn beyond the limited lab sessions within the environment of higher Institutions of learning throughout the world. The Institutions focus mo...
mobile user location for wideband CDMA cellular systems,” IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 439–447, Jul. 2002. [12...errors. 14. SUBJECT TERMS geolocation, algorithms, 4G mobile communication, optimization, WiMAX, Wireless networks 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 251 16. PRICE... mobile subscriber position as the intersection of three range circles. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Figure 3. The case of
Honjo, Tsuyoshi; Yamato, Hiroaki; Mikami, Takehiko; Grimmond, C.S.B.
The urban heat island is a well-known phenomenon that impacts a wide variety of city operations. With greater availability of cheap meteorological sensors, it is possible to measure the spatial patterns of urban atmospheric characteristics with greater resolution. To develop robust and resilient networks, recognizing sensors may malfunction, it is important to know when measurement points are providing additional information and also the minimum number of sensors needed to provide spatial inf...
For all the data gathered by the space shuttle while in orbit, NASA engineers are just as concerned about the information it generates on the ground. From the moment the shuttle s wheels touch the runway to the break of its electrical umbilical cord at 0.4 seconds before its next launch, sensors feed streams of data about the status of the vehicle and its various systems to Kennedy Space Center s shuttle crews. Even while the shuttle orbiter is refitted in Kennedy s orbiter processing facility, engineers constantly monitor everything from power levels to the testing of the mechanical arm in the orbiter s payload bay. On the launch pad and up until liftoff, the Launch Control Center, attached to the large Vehicle Assembly Building, screens all of the shuttle s vital data. (Once the shuttle clears its launch tower, this responsibility shifts to Mission Control at Johnson Space Center, with Kennedy in a backup role.) Ground systems for satellite launches also generate significant amounts of data. At Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, across the Banana River from Kennedy s location on Merritt Island, Florida, NASA rockets carrying precious satellite payloads into space flood the Launch Vehicle Data Center with sensor information on temperature, speed, trajectory, and vibration. The remote measurement and transmission of systems data called telemetry is essential to ensuring the safe and successful launch of the Agency s space missions. When a launch is unsuccessful, as it was for this year s Orbiting Carbon Observatory satellite, telemetry data also provides valuable clues as to what went wrong and how to remedy any problems for future attempts. All of this information is streamed from sensors in the form of binary code: strings of ones and zeros. One small company has partnered with NASA to provide technology that renders raw telemetry data intelligible not only for Agency engineers, but also for those in the private sector.
Bates, Lakesha; Hong, Liang
The Telemetry and Science Data Software System (TSDSS) was designed to validate the operational health of a spacecraft, ease test verification, assist in debugging system anomalies, and provide trending data and advanced science analysis. In doing so, the system parses, processes, and organizes raw data from the Aquarius instrument both on the ground and while in space. In addition, it provides a user-friendly telemetry viewer, and an instant pushbutton test report generator. Existing ground data systems can parse and provide simple data processing, but have limitations in advanced science analysis and instant report generation. The TSDSS functions as an offline data analysis system during I&T (integration and test) and mission operations phases. After raw data are downloaded from an instrument, TSDSS ingests the data files, parses, converts telemetry to engineering units, and applies advanced algorithms to produce science level 0, 1, and 2 data products. Meanwhile, it automatically schedules upload of the raw data to a remote server and archives all intermediate and final values in a MySQL database in time order. All data saved in the system can be straightforwardly retrieved, exported, and migrated. Using TSDSS s interactive data visualization tool, a user can conveniently choose any combination and mathematical computation of interesting telemetry points from a large range of time periods (life cycle of mission ground data and mission operations testing), and display a graphical and statistical view of the data. With this graphical user interface (GUI), the data queried graphs can be exported and saved in multiple formats. This GUI is especially useful in trending data analysis, debugging anomalies, and advanced data analysis. At the request of the user, mission-specific instrument performance assessment reports can be generated with a simple click of a button on the GUI. From instrument level to observatory level, the TSDSS has been operating supporting
Dittmann, S. T.; Austin, K. E.; Berglund, H. T.; Blume, F.; Feaux, K.; Mann, D.; Mattioli, G. S.; Walls, C. P.
The Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) network consists of 1100 continuously operating, permanent GPS stations throughout the United States. The majority of this network was constructed using NSF-MREFC funding as part of the EarthScope Project during FY2003-FY2008. Since FY2009, UNAVCO has operated and maintained PBO through a Cooperative Agreement (CA) with NSF. Construction of new, permanent GPS monuments in the PBO network was the result of two change orders to the original PBO O&M CA. Change Order 33 (CO33) allocated funds to construct additional GPS stations at six locations in the Eastern Region of PBO. Three of these locations were designed to replace poorly performing existing GPS monuments in Georgia, Texas and New York. The remaining three new locations were selected to fill in gaps in network coverage in Pennsylvania, Wisconsin and North Dakota. Construction of all six new sites was completed in September 2013. Important scientific goals for CO33 include improvement of the stable North American reference frame, measurement of the vertical signal associated with the Glacial Isostatic Adjustment, and improved constraints on surface deformation and possible earthquakes, which occur in the low-strain tectonic setting of the eastern North American Plate. Change Order 35 (CO35) allocated funds to construct two additional geodetic monuments at five existing PBO stations in order to test and compare the long-term stability of various monument designs under near-identical geologic conditions. Sites were chosen to yield a variety of geographic, hydrologic and geologic conditions, including both fine-grained alluvium and crystalline bedrock. At each location, three different monuments (deep drill braced, short drill braced/driven-braced, mast/pillar) were built with 10 meter spacing, with shared power systems and data telemetry infrastructure. Construction of these multi-monument test locations began in October 2012 and finished in September 2013. See G010- Berglund
White, Kyle J. S.; Pezaros, Dimitrios P.; Denney, Ewen; Knudson, Matt D.
With the explosive growth in UAV numbers forecast worldwide, a core concern is how to manage the ad-hoc network configuration required for mobility management. As UAVs migrate among ground control stations, associated network services, routing and operational control must also rapidly migrate to ensure a seamless transition. In this paper, we present a novel, lightweight and modular architecture which supports high mobility, resilience and flexibility through the application of SDN and NFV principles on top of the UAV infrastructure. By combining SDN programmability and Network Function Virtualization we can achieve resilient infrastructure migration of network services, such as network monitoring and anomaly detection, coupled with migrating UAVs to enable high mobility management. Our container-based monitoring and anomaly detection Network Functions (NFs) can be tuned to specific UAV models providing operators better insight during live, high-mobility deployments. We evaluate our architecture against telemetry from over 80flights from a scientific research UAV infrastructure.
Prelaunch, launch, mission, and landing distribution of RF and hardline uplink/downlink information between Space Shuttle Orbiter/cargo elements, tracking antennas, and control centers at JSC, KSC, MSFC, GSFC, ESMC/RCC, and Sunnyvale are presented as functional block diagrams. Typical mismatch problems encountered during spacecraft-to-project control center telemetry transmissions are listed along with new items for future support enhancement.
Heinkele, Christian; Pousttchi, Key; Legler, Steffen
The use of telemetry via wireless communication technique is able to support the process of operating vending machines. The advantages on appropriate kinds of vending machines can be achieved by using a demand-driven instead of a trigger-driven provisioning as well as a trouble-shooting in real time. The availability of reliable telemetrically collected real time data enhance the analysis and optimization of the supply in vending machines and the profitability of vending machine places, too. ...
Yu, Haitao; Guo, Xinmeng; Wang, Jiang
The synergistic effect of hybrid electrical-chemical synapses and information transmission delay on the stochastic response behavior in small-world neuronal networks is investigated. Numerical results show that, the stochastic response behavior can be regulated by moderate noise intensity to track the rhythm of subthreshold pacemaker, indicating the occurrence of stochastic resonance (SR) in the considered neural system. Inheriting the characteristics of two types of synapses-electrical and chemical ones, neural networks with hybrid electrical-chemical synapses are of great improvement in neuron communication. Particularly, chemical synapses are conducive to increase the network detectability by lowering the resonance noise intensity, while the information is better transmitted through the networks via electrical coupling. Moreover, time delay is able to enhance or destroy the periodic stochastic response behavior intermittently. In the time-delayed small-world neuronal networks, the introduction of electrical synapses can significantly improve the signal detection capability by widening the range of optimal noise intensity for the subthreshold signal, and the efficiency of SR is largely amplified in the case of pure chemical couplings. In addition, the stochastic response behavior is also profoundly influenced by the network topology. Increasing the rewiring probability in pure chemically coupled networks can always enhance the effect of SR, which is slightly influenced by information transmission delay. On the other hand, the capacity of information communication is robust to the network topology within the time-delayed neuronal systems including electrical couplings.
workstation. The open-source LTE library srsLTE is available on a third PC. A fourth PC can be used to implement interference waveforms, among others. The RF...software-defined LTE systems, Amarisoft’s LTE100, are installed on two PCs and one mobile workstation. The open-source LTE library srsLTE is available on...interface. Figure 7. Omni-directional, ceiling mounted antenna . Figure 8. UEs. Figure 9. Internal network layout. Figure 10: Sample SSH (putty
Kalopesas, Charalampos; Galanis, George; Kalopesa, Eleni; Katsogiannos, Fotis; Kalafatis, Panagiotis; Bilas, George; Patakas, Aggelos; Zalidis, George
Mapping the spatial variation of soil moisture content is a vital parameter for precision agriculture techniques. The aim of this study was to examine the correlation of soil moisture and conductivity (EC) data obtained through scanning techniques with field telemetry data and to spatially separate the field into discrete irrigation management zones. Using the Veris MSP3 model, geo-referenced data for electrical conductivity and organic matter preliminary maps were produced in a pilot kiwifruit field in Chrysoupoli, Kavala. Data from 15 stratified sampling points was used in order to produce the corresponding soil maps. Fusion of the Veris produced maps (OM, pH, ECa) resulted on the delineation of the field into three zones of specific management interest. An appropriate pedotransfer function was used in order to estimate a capacity soil indicator, the saturated volumetric water content (θs) for each zone, while the relationship between ECs and ECa was established for each zone. Validation of the uniformity of the three management zones was achieved by measuring specific electrical conductivity (ECs) along a transect in each zone and corresponding semivariograms for ECs within each zone. Near real-time data produced by a telemetric network consisting of soil moisture and electrical conductivity sensors, were used in order to integrate the temporal component of the specific management zones, enabling the calculation of time specific volumetric water contents on a 10 minute interval, an intensity soil indicator necessary to be incorporated to differentiate spatially the irrigation strategies for each zone. This study emphasizes the benefits yielded by fusing near real time telemetric data with soil scanning data and spatial interpolation techniques, enhancing the precision and validity of the desired results. Furthermore the use of telemetric data in combination with modern database management and geospatial software leads to timely produced operational results
Full Text Available Water distribution network (WDN is critical to the city service, economic rehabilitation, public health, and safety. Reconstructing the WDN to improve its resilience in seismic disaster is an important and ongoing issue. Although a considerable body of research has examined the effects of different reconstruction strategies on seismic resistance, it is still hard for decision-makers to choose optimal resilience enhancing strategy. Taking the pipeline ductile retrofitting and network meshed expansion as demonstration, we proposed a feasible framework to contrast the resilience enhancing effects of two reconstruction strategies—units retrofitting strategy and network optimization strategy—in technical and organizational dimension. We also developed a new performance response function (PRF which is based on network equilibrium theory to conduct the effects comparison in integrated technical and organizational dimension. Through the case study of municipal WDN in Lianyungang, China, the comparison results were thoroughly shown and the holistic decision-making support was provided.
Szolnoki, Attila; Perc, Matjaž
The pursuit of highest payoffs in evolutionary social dilemmas is risky and sometimes inferior to conformity. Choosing the most common strategy within the interaction range is safer because it ensures that the payoff of an individual will not be much lower than average. Herding instincts and crowd behaviour in humans and social animals also compel to conformity in their own right. Motivated by these facts, we here study the impact of conformity on the evolution of cooperation in social dilemmas. We show that an appropriate fraction of conformists within the population introduces an effective surface tension around cooperative clusters and ensures smooth interfaces between different strategy domains. Payoff-driven players brake the symmetry in favour of cooperation and enable an expansion of clusters past the boundaries imposed by traditional network reciprocity. This mechanism works even under the most testing conditions, and it is robust against variations of the interaction network as long as degree-normalized payoffs are applied. Conformity may thus be beneficial for the resolution of social dilemmas. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.
Specht, Ted; Noble, David
Remote Access Multi-mission Processing and Analysis Ground Environment (RAMPAGE) is a Java-language server computer program that enables near-real-time display of spacecraft telemetry data on any authorized client computer that has access to the Internet and is equipped with Web-browser software. In addition to providing a variety of displays of the latest available telemetry data, RAMPAGE can deliver notification of an alarm by electronic mail. Subscribers can then use RAMPAGE displays to determine the state of the spacecraft and formulate a response to the alarm, if necessary. A user can query spacecraft mission data in either binary or comma-separated-value format by use of a Web form or a Practical Extraction and Reporting Language (PERL) script to automate the query process. RAMPAGE runs on Linux and Solaris server computers in the Ground Data System (GDS) of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and includes components designed specifically to make it compatible with legacy GDS software. The client/server architecture of RAMPAGE and the use of the Java programming language make it possible to utilize a variety of competitive server and client computers, thereby also helping to minimize costs.
Mensinger, A F; Deffenbaugh, M
An acoustic neural telemetry tag has been developed for recording from free-swimming aquatic animals. Microwire electrodes were implanted into the VIIIth nerve of the toadfish, Opsanus tau, and interfaced to the subdermally implanted tag. The telemetry tag frequency modulates the neural signal, converting it into a varying frequency, which is amplified and transmitted acoustically (centre frequency of 90 kHz and a 20 kHz bandwidth). This acoustic signal is detected by a receiver hydrophone, and the receiver reconstructs the full neural waveform from the acoustic signal. However, due to the multipath environment in the experimental aquarium, the acoustic signal is quickly degraded as the hydrophone is moved away from the source. In order to receive the signal independent of fish position, an anechoic aquarium was designed. Streams of microbubbles (ca. 70 microm diameter) were generated to produce a curtain of sound-absorptive material along the walls and water surface of the aquarium. Microbubble generation significantly reduced the multipath artefacts, and allowed signal discrimination independent of fish and hydrophone position. The anechoic aquarium will allow the recording of neural activity from free-swimming fishes in quasi-natural habitats, thus allowing better understanding of the neural mechanisms of behaviour.
Full Text Available The application of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs in time-sensitive space applications, such as astronaut health monitoring and environment-risk monitoring, demands exclusive investigation of network design and protocols for optimized operation in geo-station environments. The continuous monitoring of physiological condition of crew members, spaceflight equipments and habitat during long space missions is of paramount importance to NASA for mitigating performance risks. Continual performance tracking and local response advisory capabilities, within space environments, are crucial to ensure overall mission success. This paper will present challenges and opportunities of wireless sensor networks in space applications, and the investigation of system and protocol design for efficient performance monitoring. We describe a flexible WSN architecture and the required system components for reliable communications. We also investigate crucial network algorithms including link quality adaptation, energy efficiency and quality-of-service that are essential for efficient performance monitoring in geo-station environments.
Wang, Yu; Huang, Xin-ming; Fang, Zu-xinag
This thesis is about a new technology of program-controlled telemetry for pacemakers. The system utilizes digital logic circuit design, and the program-controlled part uses single chip to control for display and debug. PWM and reflectance telemetry may improve the preciseness and correctness of signal transmission, and reduce the power consumption of pacemakers and prolong the lifetime.
Hamza, Doha R.
degrading the primary rate. Cognitive relaying is employed as an incentive for the primary network. The scheme is shown to outperform a number of reference schemes such as best relay selection. Finally, we consider a network of multiple primary and secondary users. We propose a three-stage distributed matching algorithm to pair the network users. The algorithm is shown to perform close to an optimal central controller, albeit at a reduced computational complexity.
Ryberg, Thomas; Christiansen, Ellen
This paper examines the affordance of the Danish social networking site Mingler.dk for peer-to-peer learning and development. With inspiration from different theoretical frameworks, the authors argue how learning and development in such social online systems can be conceptualised and analysed....... Theoretically the paper defines development in accordance with Vygotsky's concept of the zone of proximal development, and learning in accordance with Wenger's concept of communities of practice. The authors suggest analysing the learning and development taking place on Mingler.dk by using these concepts...... supplemented by the notion of horizontal learning adopted from Engestrm and Wenger. Their analysis shows how horizontal learning happens by crossing boundaries between several sites of engagement, and how the actors' multiple membership enables the community members to draw on a vast amount of resources from...
Tavares Bruscato, Leandro; Heimfarth, Tales; Pignaton de Freitas, Edison
With the emerging Internet of Things (IoT) technology becoming reality, a number of applications are being proposed. Several of these applications are highly dependent on wireless sensor networks (WSN) to acquire data from the surrounding environment. In order to be really useful for most of applications, the acquired data must be coherent in terms of the time in which they are acquired, which implies that the entire sensor network presents a certain level of time synchronization. Moreover, to efficiently exchange and forward data, many communication protocols used in WSN rely also on time synchronization among the sensor nodes. Observing the importance in complying with this need for time synchronization, this work focuses on the second synchronization problem, proposing, implementing and testing a time synchronization service for low-power WSN using low frequency real-time clocks in each node. To implement this service, three algorithms based on different strategies are proposed: one based on an auto-correction approach, the second based on a prediction mechanism, while the third uses an analytical correction mechanism. Their goal is the same, i.e., to make the clocks of the sensor nodes converge as quickly as possible and then to keep them most similar as possible. This goal comes along with the requirement to keep low energy consumption. Differently from other works in the literature, the proposal here is independent of any specific protocol, i.e., it may be adapted to be used in different protocols. Moreover, it explores the minimum number of synchronization messages by means of a smart clock update strategy, allowing the trade-off between the desired level of synchronization and the associated energy consumption. Experimental results, which includes data acquired from simulations and testbed deployments, provide evidence of the success in meeting this goal, as well as providing means to compare these three approaches considering the best synchronization
Harkat, Mohamed-Faouzi; Mansouri, Majdi; Nounou, Mohamed; Nounou, Hazem
Quick validation and detection of faults in measured air quality data is a crucial step towards achieving the objectives of air quality networks. Therefore, the objectives of this paper are threefold: (i) to develop a modeling technique that can be used to predict the normal behavior of air quality variables and help provide accurate reference for monitoring purposes; (ii) to develop fault detection method that can effectively and quickly detect any anomalies in measured air quality data. For this purpose, a new fault detection method that is based on the combination of generalized likelihood ratio test (GLRT) and exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA) will be developed. GLRT is a well-known statistical fault detection method that relies on maximizing the detection probability for a given false alarm rate. In this paper, we propose to develop GLRT-based EWMA fault detection method that will be able to detect the changes in the values of certain air quality variables; (iii) to develop fault isolation and identification method that allows defining the fault source(s) in order to properly apply appropriate corrective actions. In this paper, reconstruction approach that is based on Midpoint-Radii Principal Component Analysis (MRPCA) model will be developed to handle the types of data and models associated with air quality monitoring networks. All air quality modeling, fault detection, fault isolation and reconstruction methods developed in this paper will be validated using real air quality data (such as particulate matter, ozone, nitrogen and carbon oxides measurement). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract With the growth up of internet in mobile commerce, researchers have reproduced various mobile applications that vary from entertainment and commercial services to diagnostic and safety tools. Mobility management has widely been recognized as one of the most challenging problems for seamless access to wireless networks. In this paper, a novel link enhancement mechanism is proposed to deal with mobility management problem in vehicular ad hoc networks. Two machine learning techniques, namely, particle swarm optimization and fuzzy logic systems, are incorporated into the proposed schemes to enhance the accuracy of prediction of link break and congestion occurrence. The experimental results verify the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed schemes.
Full Text Available With the growth up of internet in mobile commerce, researchers have reproduced various mobile applications that vary from entertainment and commercial services to diagnostic and safety tools. Mobility management has widely been recognized as one of the most challenging problems for seamless access to wireless networks. In this paper, a novel link enhancement mechanism is proposed to deal with mobility management problem in vehicular ad hoc networks. Two machine learning techniques, namely, particle swarm optimization and fuzzy logic systems, are incorporated into the proposed schemes to enhance the accuracy of prediction of link break and congestion occurrence. The experimental results verify the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed schemes.
Mbanga, Badel L.; Iyer, Balaji V. S.; Yashin, Victor V.; Balazs, Anna C.
The tunable behavior of cross-linked networks of Polymer-Grafted Nanoparticles (PGNs) makes them excellent candidates for designing novel materials with enhanced mechanical properties. The building block of a PGN network is a nanoparticle with grafted polymer chains whose free ends' reactive groups can form bonds with the end chains on the nearby particles. We use computer modeling to study the tensile behavior of 3D samples, in which some fraction of cross-links is formed through the biomimetic ``catch'' bonds. In contrast to conventional ``slip'' bonds, the catch bonds might become stronger under an applied force due to transitions between two conformational states. The mechanical properties of the PGN networks are shown to exhibit a drastic improvement upon introduction of the catch bonds into the network. We discuss how ductility, toughness, and rate of strain recovery of the network depend on the catch bond content.
Nainar, Karthikeyan; Pokhrel, Basanta Raj; Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna
In this paper, the control objectives of future active distribution networks with high penetration of renewables and flexible loads are analyzed and reviewed. From a state of the art review, the important control objectives seen from the perspective of a distribution system operator are identified...... to be hosting capacity improvement, high reliable operation and cost effective network management. Based on this review and a state of the art review concerning future distribution network control methods, a multi-level control architecture is constructed for an active distribution network, which satisfies...... the selected control objectives and provides enhanced flexibility. The control architecture is supported by generation/load forecasting and distribution state estimation techniques to improve the controllability of the network. The multi-level control architecture consists of three levels of hierarchical...
Chiang, Wei-Yin; Lai, Pik-Yin; Chan, Chi-Keung
Coupled excitable elements in the presence of noise can exhibit oscillatory behavior with non-trivial frequency dependence as the coupling strength of the system increases. The phenomenon of frequency enhancement (FE) occurs in some coupling regime, in which the elements can oscillate with a frequency higher than their uncoupled frequencies. In this paper, details of the FE are investigated by simulations of the FitzHugh-Nagumo model with different network topologies. It is found that the characteristics of FE, such as the maximal enhancement coupling, enhancement level etc, are functions of the network topology and spatial dimensions. The effect of excitability and the spatio-temporal patterns during FE are investigated to provide an intuitive picture for the enhancement mechanism. Interestingly, some of these characteristics of FE can be described by scaling laws; suggesting the existence of universality in the FE phenomenon. The relevance of these results to biological rhythms are also discussed.
Fong, Kara D; Wang, Tiesheng; Kim, Hyun-Kyung; Kumar, R Vasant; Smoukov, Stoyan K
Conducting polymers show great promise as supercapacitor materials due to their high theoretical specific capacitance, low cost, toughness, and flexibility. Poor ion mobility, however, can render active material more than a few tens of nanometers from the surface inaccessible for charge storage, limiting performance. Here, we use semi-interpenetrating networks (sIPNs) of a pseudocapacitive polymer in an ionically conductive polymer matrix to decrease ion diffusion length scales and make virtually all of the active material accessible for charge storage. Our freestanding poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/poly(ethylene oxide) (PEDOT/PEO) sIPN films yield simultaneous improvements in three crucial elements of supercapacitor performance: specific capacitance (182 F/g, a 70% increase over that of neat PEDOT), cycling stability (97.5% capacitance retention after 3000 cycles), and flexibility (the electrodes bend to a <200 μm radius of curvature without breaking). Our simple and controllable sIPN fabrication process presents a framework to develop a range of polymer-based interpenetrated materials for high-performance energy storage technologies.
Trust can be an important component of wireless sensor networks for believability of the produced data and historical value is a crucial asset in deciding trust of the data. A node's trust can change over time after its initial deployment due to various reasons such as energy loss, environmental conditions or exhausting sources. Provenance can…
Graf, C.; Stoffel, M.; Grêt-Regamey, A.
Applied debris-flow modeling requires suitably constraint input parameter sets. Depending on the used model, there is a series of parameters to define before running the model. Normally, the data base describing the event, the initiation conditions, the flow behavior, the deposition process and mainly the potential range of possible debris flow events in a certain torrent is limited. There are only some scarce places in the world, where we fortunately can find valuable data sets describing event history of debris flow channels delivering information on spatial and temporal distribution of former flow paths and deposition zones. Tree-ring records in combination with detailed geomorphic mapping for instance provide such data sets over a long time span. Considering the significant loss potential associated with debris-flow disasters, it is crucial that decisions made in regard to hazard mitigation are based on a consistent assessment of the risks. This in turn necessitates a proper assessment of the uncertainties involved in the modeling of the debris-flow frequencies and intensities, the possible run out extent, as well as the estimations of the damage potential. In this study, we link a Bayesian network to a Geographic Information System in order to assess debris-flow risk. We identify the major sources of uncertainty and show the potential of Bayesian inference techniques to improve the debris-flow model. We model the flow paths and deposition zones of a highly active debris-flow channel in the Swiss Alps using the numerical 2-D model RAMMS. Because uncertainties in run-out areas cause large changes in risk estimations, we use the data of flow path and deposition zone information of reconstructed debris-flow events derived from dendrogeomorphological analysis covering more than 400 years to update the input parameters of the RAMMS model. The probabilistic model, which consistently incorporates this available information, can serve as a basis for spatial risk
Attributes Group (R) Parameter Code Name Usage Attributes Definition BOT Black on transparent WOT White on transparent BOW Black on white WOB White on...image sent by the camera. Range: Enumeration Enumeration OFF BLACK WHITE GREYHORIZONTALRAMP GREYVERTICALRAMP GREYHORIZONTALRAMPMOVING Telemetry...has a sub-element axisType that can be one of two values: VALUE or TIME. Other sub-elements allow the setting of min and max values, colors , grid
Bunck, C.M.; Winterstein, S.R.; Pollock, K.H.
Telemetry techniques can be used to study the survival rates of animal populations and are particularly suitable for species or settings for which band recovery models are not. Statistical methods for estimating survival rates and parameters of survival distributions from observations of radio-tagged animals will be described. These methods have been applied to medical and engineering studies and to the study of nest success. Estimates and tests based on discrete models, originally introduced by Mayfield, and on continuous models, both parametric and nonparametric, will be described. Generalizations, including staggered entry of subjects into the study and identification of mortality factors will be considered. Additional discussion topics will include sample size considerations, relocation frequency for subjects, and use of covariates.
Kim, Do-Hyun; Park, Jinha; Kahng, Byungnam
The Hopfield model is a pioneering neural network model with associative memory retrieval. The analytical solution of the model in mean field limit revealed that memories can be retrieved without any error up to a finite storage capacity of O(N), where N is the system size. Beyond the threshold, they are completely lost. Since the introduction of the Hopfield model, the theory of neural networks has been further developed toward realistic neural networks using analog neurons, spiking neurons, etc. Nevertheless, those advances are based on fully connected networks, which are inconsistent with recent experimental discovery that the number of connections of each neuron seems to be heterogeneous, following a heavy-tailed distribution. Motivated by this observation, we consider the Hopfield model on scale-free networks and obtain a different pattern of associative memory retrieval from that obtained on the fully connected network: the storage capacity becomes tremendously enhanced but with some error in the memory retrieval, which appears as the heterogeneity of the connections is increased. Moreover, the error rates are also obtained on several real neural networks and are indeed similar to that on scale-free model networks.
Broyles, Ren H.
This research examines two proposed enhancements to the well-known Transport Control Protocol (TCP) in the presence of noisy communication links. The Multiple Pipes protocol is an application-level adaptation of the standard TCP protocol, where several TCP links cooperate to transfer data. The Space Communication Protocol Standard - Transport Protocol (SCPS-TP) modifies TCP to optimize performance in a satellite environment. While SCPS-TP has inherent advantages that allow it to deliver data more rapidly than Multiple Pipes, the protocol, when optimized for operation in a high-error environment, is not compatible with legacy TCP systems, and requires changes to the TCP specification. This investigation determines the level of improvement offered by SCPS-TP's Corruption Mode, which will help determine if migration to the protocol is appropriate in different environments. As the percentage of corrupted packets approaches 5 %, Multiple Pipes can take over five times longer than SCPS-TP to deliver data. At high error rates, SCPS-TP's advantage is primarily caused by Multiple Pipes' use of congestion control algorithms. The lack of congestion control, however, limits the systems in which SCPS-TP can be effectively used.
Shishir P.S. Chundawat; Giovanni Bellesia; Nirmal Uppugundla; Leonardo da Costa Sousa; Dahai Gao; Albert M. Cheh; Umesh P. Agarwal; Christopher M. Bianchetti; George N. Phillips; Paul Langan; Venkatesh Balan; S. Gnanakaran; Bruce E. Dale
Conversion of lignocellulose to biofuels is partly inefficient due to the deleterious impact of cellulose crystallinity on enzymatic saccharification. We demonstrate how the synergistic activity of cellulases was enhanced by altering the hydrogen bond network within crystalline cellulose fibrils. We provide a molecular-scale explanation of these phenomena through...
The purpose of this paper is to describe and demonstrate how social networks such as "Facebook" and "Goodreads", and information and communication technologies (ICTs) tools like laptops and iPods can support and enhance literature circles. The innovation described is implemented by the library and aims to promote reading for…
The paper first explores the factors that affect the use of social networks to enhance teaching and learning experiences among students and lecturers, using structured questionnaires prepared based on the Push-Pull-Mooring framework. A total of 455 students and lecturers from higher learning institutions in Malaysia participated in this study.…
Buono, Anthony F., Ed.
This book contain papers 13 papers on enhancing inter-firm networks, including by intervening in mergers and acquisitions and developing strategic alliances and partnerships. The following papers are included: "Introduction" (Anthony F. Buono); "Making Mergers and Acquisitions Work: A Guide to Consulting Interventions" (Mitchell Lee Marks);…
Berlanga, A. J., Bitter-Rijpkema, M. E., Brouns F., & Sloep, P. B. (2008). On the Importance of Personal Profiles to Enhance Social Interaction in Learning Networks. Presented at the IADIS International Conference on Web Based Communities 2008. July, 24-26, 2008, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
Berlanga, Adriana; Bitter-Rijpkema, Marlies; Brouns, Francis; Sloep, Peter
Berlanga, A. J., Bitter-Rijpkema, M., Brouns F., & Sloep, P.B. (2008). On the importance of personal profiles to enhance social interaction in Learning Networks. In P. Kommers (Ed.), Proceedings of Web Based Communities Conference (WEBC 2008) (pp. 55-62). July, 24-26, 2008, Amsterdam, The
Taslidere, E.; Cohen, F. S.; Reisman, F. K.
This paper presents the use of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) in educational research as a platform for enhanced pedagogical learning. The aim here with the use of a WSN platform was to go beyond the implementation stage to the real-life application stage, i.e., linking the implementation to real-life applications, where abstract theory and…
Hatzipanagos, Stylianos; John, Bernadette A.
In this paper we report on the evaluation of an institutional social network (KINSHIP) whose aims were to foster an improved sense of community, enhance communication and serve as a space to model digital professionalism for students at King's College London, UK. Our evaluation focused on a pilot where students' needs with regard to the provision…
Nainar, Karthikeyan; Pokhrel, Basanta Raj; Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna
the selected control objectives and provides enhanced flexibility. The control architecture is supported by generation/load forecasting and distribution state estimation techniques to improve the controllability of the network. The multi-level control architecture consists of three levels of hierarchical...
This paper discusses whether social network services, like Facebook and Twitter, may be used by elderly living in their own homes to enhance communication with their relatives and friends. It introduces a prototype solution based on the iRobot Roomba 560, iRobot, USA, robot vacuum cleaner, which...
Xu, Yifei; Ghag, Onkar; Reimann, Morgan; Sitterle, Philip; Chatterjee, Prithwish; Nofen, Elizabeth; Yu, Hongyu; Jiang, Hanqing; Dai, Lenore L
An interpenetrating polymer network (IPN), chlorophyllin-incorporated environmentally responsive hydrogel was synthesized and exhibited the following features: enhanced mechanical properties, upper critical solution temperature (UCST) swelling behavior, and promising visible-light responsiveness. Poor mechanical properties are known challenges for hydrogel-based materials. By forming an interpenetrating network between polyacrylamide (PAAm) and poly(acrylic acid) (PAAc) polymer networks, the mechanical properties of the synthesized IPN hydrogels were significantly improved compared to hydrogels made of a single network of each polymer. The formation of the interpenetrating network was confirmed by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), the analysis of glass transition temperature, and a unique UCST responsive swelling behavior, which is in contrast to the more prevalent lower critical solution temperature (LCST) behaviour of environmentally responsive hydrogels. The visible-light responsiveness of the synthesized hydrogel also demonstrated a positive swelling behavior, and the effect of incorporating chlorophyllin as the chromophore unit was observed to reduce the average pore size and further enhance the mechanical properties of the hydrogel. This interpenetrating network system shows potential to serve as a new route in developing "smart" hydrogels using visible-light as a simple, inexpensive, and remotely controllable stimulus.
Javaid, Nadeem; Shah, Mehreen; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Imran, Muhammad; Khan, Majid Iqbal; Vasilakos, Athanasios V
This paper presents two new energy balanced routing protocols for Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks (UASNs); Efficient and Balanced Energy consumption Technique (EBET) and Enhanced EBET (EEBET). The first proposed protocol avoids direct transmission over long distance to save sufficient amount of energy consumed in the routing process. The second protocol overcomes the deficiencies in both Balanced Transmission Mechanism (BTM) and EBET techniques. EBET selects relay node on the basis of optimal distance threshold which leads to network lifetime prolongation. The initial energy of each sensor node is divided into energy levels for balanced energy consumption. Selection of high energy level node within transmission range avoids long distance direct data transmission. The EEBET incorporates depth threshold to minimize the number of hops between source node and sink while eradicating backward data transmissions. The EBET technique balances energy consumption within successive ring sectors, while, EEBET balances energy consumption of the entire network. In EEBET, optimum number of energy levels are also calculated to further enhance the network lifetime. Effectiveness of the proposed schemes is validated through simulations where these are compared with two existing routing protocols in terms of network lifetime, transmission loss, and throughput. The simulations are conducted under different network radii and varied number of nodes.
Pahlevani, Peyman; Khamfroush, Hana; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani
In our recent study, we introduced the PlayNCool protocol that increases the throughput of the wireless networks by enabling a helper node to strengthen the communication link between two neighboring nodes and using random linear network coding. This paper focuses on design and implementation...... using Aalborg University's Raspberry Pi test-bed. Our results show that selecting the best policy to activate the helper node is a key to guarantee the performance of PlayNCool protocol. We also study the effect of neighbor nodes in the performance of PlayNCool. Using a helper in presence of active...... neighbors is useful even if the channel from helper to destination is not better than the channel between sender and destination. PlayNCool increases the gain of end-to-end communication by two-fold or more while maintaining compatibility to standard wireless ad-hoc routing protocols....
Zhang, Zhong-Yuan; Sun, Kai-Di; Wang, Si-Qi
Community structure detection in complex networks is important since it can help better understand the network topology and how the network works. However, there is still not a clear and widely-accepted definition of community structure, and in practice, different models may give very different results of communities, making it hard to explain the results. In this paper, different from the traditional methodologies, we design an enhanced semi-supervised learning framework for community detection, which can effectively incorporate the available prior information to guide the detection process and can make the results more explainable. By logical inference, the prior information is more fully utilized. The experiments on both the synthetic and the real-world networks confirm the effectiveness of the framework.
Vimalarani, C; Subramanian, R; Sivanandam, S N
Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) is a network which formed with a maximum number of sensor nodes which are positioned in an application environment to monitor the physical entities in a target area, for example, temperature monitoring environment, water level, monitoring pressure, and health care, and various military applications. Mostly sensor nodes are equipped with self-supported battery power through which they can perform adequate operations and communication among neighboring nodes. Maximizing the lifetime of the Wireless Sensor networks, energy conservation measures are essential for improving the performance of WSNs. This paper proposes an Enhanced PSO-Based Clustering Energy Optimization (EPSO-CEO) algorithm for Wireless Sensor Network in which clustering and clustering head selection are done by using Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm with respect to minimizing the power consumption in WSN. The performance metrics are evaluated and results are compared with competitive clustering algorithm to validate the reduction in energy consumption.
Full Text Available Wireless Sensor Network (WSN is a network which formed with a maximum number of sensor nodes which are positioned in an application environment to monitor the physical entities in a target area, for example, temperature monitoring environment, water level, monitoring pressure, and health care, and various military applications. Mostly sensor nodes are equipped with self-supported battery power through which they can perform adequate operations and communication among neighboring nodes. Maximizing the lifetime of the Wireless Sensor networks, energy conservation measures are essential for improving the performance of WSNs. This paper proposes an Enhanced PSO-Based Clustering Energy Optimization (EPSO-CEO algorithm for Wireless Sensor Network in which clustering and clustering head selection are done by using Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO algorithm with respect to minimizing the power consumption in WSN. The performance metrics are evaluated and results are compared with competitive clustering algorithm to validate the reduction in energy consumption.
Full Text Available The self-organizing nature of the Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs provide a communication channel anywhere, anytime without any pre-existing network infrastructure. However, it is exposed to various vulnerabilities that may be exploited by the malicious nodes. One such malicious behavior is introduced by blackhole nodes, which can be easily introduced in the network and, in turn, such nodes try to crumble the working of the network by dropping the maximum data under transmission. In this paper, a new protocol is proposed which is based on the widely used Ad hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (AODV protocol, Enhanced Secure Trusted AODV (ESTA, which makes use of multiple paths along with use of trust and asymmetric cryptography to ensure data security. The results, based on NS-3 simulation, reveal that the proposed protocol is effectively able to counter the blackhole nodes in three different scenarios.
Full Text Available Providing field coverage is a key task in many sensor network applications. In certain scenarios, the sensor field may have coverage holes due to random initial deployment of sensors; thus, the desired level of coverage cannot be achieved. A hybrid wireless sensor network is a cost-effective solution to this problem, which is achieved by repositioning a portion of the mobile sensors in the network to meet the network coverage requirement. This paper investigates how to redeploy mobile sensor nodes to improve network coverage in hybrid wireless sensor networks. We propose a two-phase coverage-enhancing algorithm for hybrid wireless sensor networks. In phase one, we use a differential evolution algorithm to compute the candidate’s target positions in the mobile sensor nodes that could potentially improve coverage. In the second phase, we use an optimization scheme on the candidate’s target positions calculated from phase one to reduce the accumulated potential moving distance of mobile sensors, such that the exact mobile sensor nodes that need to be moved as well as their final target positions can be determined. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm provided significant improvement in terms of area coverage rate, average moving distance, area coverage–distance rate and the number of moved mobile sensors, when compare with other approaches.
Zhang, Qingguo; Fok, Mable P
Providing field coverage is a key task in many sensor network applications. In certain scenarios, the sensor field may have coverage holes due to random initial deployment of sensors; thus, the desired level of coverage cannot be achieved. A hybrid wireless sensor network is a cost-effective solution to this problem, which is achieved by repositioning a portion of the mobile sensors in the network to meet the network coverage requirement. This paper investigates how to redeploy mobile sensor nodes to improve network coverage in hybrid wireless sensor networks. We propose a two-phase coverage-enhancing algorithm for hybrid wireless sensor networks. In phase one, we use a differential evolution algorithm to compute the candidate's target positions in the mobile sensor nodes that could potentially improve coverage. In the second phase, we use an optimization scheme on the candidate's target positions calculated from phase one to reduce the accumulated potential moving distance of mobile sensors, such that the exact mobile sensor nodes that need to be moved as well as their final target positions can be determined. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm provided significant improvement in terms of area coverage rate, average moving distance, area coverage-distance rate and the number of moved mobile sensors, when compare with other approaches.
Wang, Zhuo; Danziger, Samuel A; Heavner, Benjamin D; Ma, Shuyi; Smith, Jennifer J; Li, Song; Herricks, Thurston; Simeonidis, Evangelos; Baliga, Nitin S; Aitchison, John D; Price, Nathan D
Gene regulatory and metabolic network models have been used successfully in many organisms, but inherent differences between them make networks difficult to integrate. Probabilistic Regulation Of Metabolism (PROM) provides a partial solution, but it does not incorporate network inference and underperforms in eukaryotes. We present an Integrated Deduced And Metabolism (IDREAM) method that combines statistically inferred Environment and Gene Regulatory Influence Network (EGRIN) models with the PROM framework to create enhanced metabolic-regulatory network models. We used IDREAM to predict phenotypes and genetic interactions between transcription factors and genes encoding metabolic activities in the eukaryote, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. IDREAM models contain many fewer interactions than PROM and yet produce significantly more accurate growth predictions. IDREAM consistently outperformed PROM using any of three popular yeast metabolic models and across three experimental growth conditions. Importantly, IDREAM's enhanced accuracy makes it possible to identify subtle synthetic growth defects. With experimental validation, these novel genetic interactions involving the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex suggested a new role for fatty acid-responsive factor Oaf1 in regulating acetyl-CoA production in glucose grown cells.
In this book, three different methods are presented to enhance the capacity and coverage area in LTE-A cellular networks. The scope involves the evaluation of the effect of the RN location in terms of capacity and the determination of the optimum location of the relay that provides maximum achievable data rate for users with limited interference at the cell boundaries. This book presents a new model to enhance both capacity and coverage area in LTE-A cellular network by determining the optimum location for the RN with limited interference. The new model is designed to enhance the capacity of the relay link by employing two antennas in RN. This design enables the relay link to absorb more users at cell edge regions. An algorithm called the Balance Power Algorithm (BPA) is developed to reduce MR power consumption. The book pertains to postgraduate students and researchers in wireless & mobile communications. Provides a variety of methods for enhancing capacity and coverage in LTE-A cellular networks Develop...
Militano, Leonardo; Fitzek, Frank; Iera, Antonio
, portions of a file to be successively exchanged among all cluster members over wireless local area network (WLAN) links. Besides showing the beneficial effects of cooperation, this paper also focuses on the performance enhancement that can be achieved when using the network coding paradigm, whose...... are investigated and an ad hoc conceived Genetic Algorithm (GA) designed. Either the service time (the time needed for all nodes to receive the complete file) or the energy consumption for the nodes is used as objective function, showing in both cases the fast convergence for the algorithm that makes it preferable...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Liquid Robotics Wave Glider, Honey Badger (G3), 2015, Telemetry. The MAGI mission is to use the Wave Glider to sample the late summer chlorophyll bloom that develops...
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Cassini Ion and Neutral Mass Spectrometer (INMS) Packet data set contains all telemetry packets as received from the instrument. One standard product data type...
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed S-band telemetry transmitter will operate in the exterior Venusian corrosive, high pressure, 460oC ambient atmosphere without being contained in a...
Summers, Kellee R.; Summers, Douglas M.; Biddick, Christopher; Hooper, Stephen
To achieve highly efficient observatory operations requires continuous evaluation and improvement of facility and instrumentation metrics. High quality metrics requires a foundation of robust and complete observatory telemetry. At the Large Binocular Telescope Observatory (LBTO), a variety of telemetry-capturing mechanisms exist, but few tools have thus far been created to facilitate studies of the data. In an effort to make all observatory telemetry data easy to use and broadly available, we have developed a suite of tools using in-house development and open source applications. This paper will explore our strategies for consolidating, parameterizing, and correlating any LBTO telemetry data to achieve easily available, web-based two- and three-dimensional time series data visualization.
California Department of Resources — Combined telemetry locations for sage grouse in Mono County which were fitted with radio-transmitters for the USGS Greater sage-grouse project. Contains spatial and...
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed S-band telemetry transmitter will operate in the exterior Venusian high pressure, 465?aC ambient atmosphere without being contained in a thermally...
Duncker, David; König, Thorben; Müller-Leisse, Johanna; Michalski, Roman; Oswald, Hanno; Schmitto, Jan D; Bauersachs, Johann; Veltmann, Christian
Electromagnetic interferences between implantable cardioverter/defibrillators (ICD) and left ventricular assist devices (LVAD) impacting telemetry have been described in previous generations of ICD as well as LVAD, but have been predominantly overcome in current ICD generations. After introduction of a new fully magnetically levitated centrifugal continuous-flow circulatory pump, we report a case of tenacious telemetry interference between the HeartMate 3 LVAD and an ICD after battery exchange to an Iforia 5. Initialization of the initial telemetry handshake was only possible using several specific maneuvers simultaneously. In order to exclude device-device interference, we suggest to place the ICD above the LVAD before implantation and to test for possible telemetry interferences.
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and the Alaska Department of Fish and Game have cooperated since 1984 to develop and evaluate satellite telemetry as a means of...
17 Chapter 25, July 2017 iii Acronyms DSCP Differentiated Services Code Point FTP File Transfer Protocol HTML Hypertext Markup Language HTTP...available tools to auto-generate Hypertext Markup Language ( HTML ) Telemetry Standards, RCC Standard 106-17 Chapter 25, July 2017 25-6 documentation of the...document exchange Telemetry Standards, RCC Standard 106-17 Chapter 25, July 2017 25-11 text/ html Serve HTML pages to a web browser text/plain Web
Yuan, Liu; Wu, Yu; Gu, Qi-Sheng; El-Hamshary, Hany; El-Newehy, Mohamed; Mo, Xiumei
Recently, photocrosslinked hydrogels have attracted more and more attention in biomedical applications. In this study, a serials of injectable hydrogels were fabricated from aldehyde methacrylate sodium alginate and amino gelatin (AMSA/AG) using a two-step process. Here, sodium alginate, a kind of natural polysaccharide, was modified by oxidizer to form aldehyde sodium alginate (ASA), and methacrylate groups were further grafted on the main chain of ASA. Gelatin, the denatured form of collagen, was modified with ethylenediamine (ED) to graft more amino groups. When AMSA and AG aqueous solutions were mixed, the Schiff base reaction occurred quickly to form the primary network between aldehyde groups in AMSA and amino groups in AG, and then a 365nm ultraviolet (UV) light was used to initiate the radical reaction of methacrylate groups in AMSA to produce the secondary network. The structures and properties of AMSA/AG hydrogels were evaluated by Fourier Transforms Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and 1HNMR analysis. The swelling ratio confirmed the density of crosslinked networks, and the mechanical performance demonstrated that the UV initiated the double crosslinking network hydrogels have an improved mechanical properties compared to the single Schiff base networks hydrogels. The results showed that the photocrosslinked double network hydrogels have enhanced mechanical properties, good biocompatibility and controllable degradation rate. So, this hydrogels may have great potential utilized in regenerative medicine as therapeutic materials. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Lai, Darong; Lu, Hongtao; Nardini, Christine
The representation of real systems with network models is becoming increasingly common and critical to both capture and simplify systems' complexity, notably, via the partitioning of networks into communities. In this respect, the definition of modularity, a common and broadly used quality measure for networks partitioning, has induced a surge of efficient modularity-based community detection algorithms. However, recently, the optimization of modularity has been found to show a resolution limit, which reduces its effectiveness and range of applications. Therefore, one recent trend in this area of research has been related to the definition of novel quality functions, alternative to modularity. In this paper, however, instead of laying aside the important body of knowledge developed so far for modularity-based algorithms, we propose to use a strategy to preprocess networks before feeding them into modularity-based algorithms. This approach is based on the observation that dynamic processes triggered on vertices in the same community possess similar behavior patterns but dissimilar on vertices in different communities. Validations on real-world and synthetic networks demonstrate that network preprocessing can enhance the modularity-based community detection algorithms to find more natural clusters and effectively alleviates the problem of resolution limit.
Full Text Available The monitoring, control, and security guarantee for the communication in the wireless sensor networks (WSNs are currently treated as three independent issues and addressed separately through specialized tools. However, most cases of WSNs applications requires the network administrator change the network configuration in a very short time to response to the change of observed phenomenon with security guarantee. To meet this requirement, we propose a security enhanced monitoring and control platform named SecMAS for WSNs, which provides the real-time visualization about network states and online reconfiguration of the network properties and behaviours in a resource-efficient way. Besides, basic cryptographic primitives and part of the anomaly detection functionalities are implemented in SecMAS to enabling the secure communication in WSNs. Furthermore, we conduct experiments to evaluate the performance of SecMAS in terms of the latency, throughput, communication overhead, and the security capacity. The experimental results demonstrate that the SecMAS system achieves stable, efficient and secure data collection with lightweight quick-response network control.
Havelund, Klaus; Joshi, Rajeev
A key challenge in operating remote spacecraft is that ground operators must rely on the limited visibility available through spacecraft telemetry in order to assess spacecraft health and operational status. We describe a tool for processing spacecraft telemetry that allows ground operators to impose structure on received telemetry in order to achieve a better comprehension of system state. A key element of our approach is the design of a domain-specific language that allows operators to express models of expected system behavior using partial specifications. The language allows behavior specifications with data fields, similar to other recent runtime verification systems. What is notable about our approach is the ability to develop hierarchical specifications of behavior. The language is implemented as an internal DSL in the Scala programming language that synthesizes rules from patterns of specification behavior. The rules are automatically applied to received telemetry and the inferred behaviors are available to ground operators using a visualization interface that makes it easier to understand and track spacecraft state. We describe initial results from applying our tool to telemetry received from the Curiosity rover currently roving the surface of Mars, where the visualizations are being used to trend subsystem behaviors, in order to identify potential problems before they happen. However, the technology is completely general and can be applied to any system that generates telemetry such as event logs.
Ruppert, Sabine; Vormberge, Thomas; Igl, Bernd-Wolfgang; Hoffmann, Michael
During preclinical drug development, monitoring of the electrocardiogram (ECG) is an important part of cardiac safety assessment. To detect potential pro-arrhythmic liabilities of a drug candidate and for internal decision-making during early stage drug development an in vivo model in small animals with translatability to human cardiac function is required. Over the last years, modifications/improvements regarding animal housing, ECG electrode placement, and data evaluation have been introduced into an established model for ECG recordings using telemetry in conscious, freely moving guinea pigs. Pharmacological validation using selected reference compounds affecting different mechanisms relevant for cardiac electrophysiology (quinidine, flecainide, atenolol, dl-sotalol, dofetilide, nifedipine, moxifloxacin) was conducted and findings were compared with results obtained in telemetered Beagle dogs. Under standardized conditions, reliable ECG data with low variability allowing largely automated evaluation were obtained from the telemetered guinea pig model. The model is sensitive to compounds blocking cardiac sodium channels, hERG K(+) channels and calcium channels, and appears to be even more sensitive to β-blockers as observed in dogs at rest. QT interval correction according to Bazett and Sarma appears to be appropriate methods in conscious guinea pigs. Overall, the telemetered guinea pig is a suitable model for the conduct of early stage preclinical ECG assessment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ganesan, Harini [Sugar Land, TX; Mayzenberg, Nataliya [Missouri City, TX
A mud-pulse telemetry tool includes a tool housing, a motor disposed in the tool housing, and a magnetic coupling coupled to the motor and having an inner shaft and an outer shaft. The tool may also include a stator coupled to the tool housing, a restrictor disposed proximate the stator and coupled to the magnetic coupling, so that the restrictor and the stator adapted to generate selected pulses in a drilling fluid when the restrictor is selectively rotated. The tool may also include a first anti-jam magnet coupled to the too housing, and an second anti-jam magnet disposed proximate the first anti-jam magnet and coupled to the inner shaft and/or the outer shaft, wherein at least one of the first anti-jam magnet and the second anti-jam magnet is an electromagnet, and wherein the first anti-jam magnet and the second anti-jam magnet are positioned with adjacent like poles.
Albright, J N; Parker, L E; Horton, E H
The feasibility and limitations of surface-to-tunnel seismic telemetry at the Nevada Test Site were explored through field measurements using current technology. Range functions for signaling were determined through analysis of monofrequency seismic signals injected into the earth at various sites as far as 70 km (43 mi) from installations of seismometers in the G-Tunnel complex of Rainier Mesa. Transmitted signal power at 16, 24, and 32 Hz was measured at two locations in G-Tunnel separated by 670 m (2200 ft). Transmissions from 58 surface sites distributed primarily along three azimuths from G-Tunnel were studied. The G-Tunnel noise environment was monitored over the 20-day duration of the field tests. Noise-power probability functions were calculated for 20-s and 280-s seismic-record populations. Signaling rates were calculated for signals transmitted from superior transmitter sites to G-Tunnel. A detection threshold of 13 dB re 1 nm/sup 2/ displacement power at 95% reliability was demanded. Consideration of field results suggests that even for the frequency range used in this study, substantially higher signaling rates are likely to be obtained in future work in view of the present lack of information relevant to hardware-siting criteria and the seismic propagation paths at the Nevada Test Site. 12 references.
Craighead, J. J.; Varney, J. R.; Sumner, J. S.; Craighead, F. C., Jr.
The objectives of this research were to develop and test telemetry equipment suitable for monitoring physiological parameters and activity of a hibernating bear in its den, to monitor this data and other environmental information with the Nimbus 3 IRLS data collection system, and to refine immobilizing, handling, and other techniques required in future work with wild bears under natural conditions. A temperature-telemetering transmitter was implanted in the abdominal cavity of a captive black bear and body temperature data was recorded continuously during a 3 month hibernation period. Body temperatures ranging between 37.5 and 31.8 C were observed. Body temperature and overall activity were influenced by disturbances and ambient den temperature. Nychthemeral temperature changes were not noticable. A load cell weight recording device was tested for determining weight loss during hibernation. Monitoring of data by satellite was not attempted. The implanted transmitter was removed and the bear was released with a radiolocation collar at the conclusion of the experiment.
Full Text Available Nowadays, there is a significant improvement in technology regarding healthcare. Real-time monitoring systems improve the quality of life of patients as well as the performance of hospitals and healthcare centers. In this paper, we present an implementation of a designed framework of a telemetry system using ZigBee technology for automatic and real-time monitoring of Biomedical signals. These signals are collected and processed using 2-tiered subsystems. The first subsystem is the mobile device which is carried on the body and runs a number of biosensors. The second subsystem performs further processing by a local base station using the raw data which is transmitted on-request by the mobile device. The processed data as well as its analysis are then continuously monitored and diagnosed through a human-machine interface. The system should possess low power consumption, low cost and advanced configuration possibilities. This paper accelerates the digital convergence age through continual research and development of technologies related to healthcare.
Manolova, Anna Vasileva; Romeral, S.; Ruepp, Sarah Renée
In this paper we propose an enhancement of the BGP protocol for obtaining AS-disjoint paths in GMPLS multi-domain networks. We evaluate the benefits of having AS-disjoint paths under single inter-domain link failure for two main applications: routing of future connection requests during routing...... protocol re-convergence and applying multi-domain restoration as survivability mechanism in case of a single link failure. The proposed BGP modification is a simple and effective solution for disjoint path selection in connection-oriented multi-domain networks. Our results show that applying the proper...... failure notification method combined with our proposal reduces the blocking of new connection requests under protocol re-convergence. Furthermore. we show that our proposal is a valuable complementary process for increasing the network resilience....
Sanjab, Anibal; Saad, Walid; Başar, Tamer
The use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) as delivery systems of online goods is rapidly becoming a global norm, as corroborated by Amazon's "Prime Air" and Google's "Project Wing" projects. However, the real-world deployment of such drone delivery systems faces many cyber-physical security challenges. In this paper, a novel mathematical framework for analyzing and enhancing the security of drone delivery systems is introduced. In this regard, a zero-sum network interdiction game is formulat...
SVT e e EMANE N e t w I n t e r Q u e u e P H Y Transport o Q u e u e Q u e u e o o o M A C / P NEM NEM Instrumentation R a d i o R a d i o R a...Node CORE a n a g e m e n t Real Node Real Ghost Real Ghost Real Node M a w o r k r f a c e e SVR SVT e e EMANE Position updates N e t w I n t e r Q...to R Packets N e t w o r k I n t e r f a c
deployment metadata ingests for 14 different taxa, 7 tag platforms. We organized TOPP into guilds (e.g. marine mammals, turtles, fish, sharks, seabirds ...in the first steps of this project and on user feed -back when the initial product is deployed. REFERENCES No Citations 10 Appendix...elephant seal 2002-2014 331 331 Southern elephant seal 2007-2009 32 32 Weddell seal 2010 22 22 Seabirds Shaffer black-footed
Restoration 3 Program (DARRPA) phase of the U.S. Government’s response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill in the Gulf of Mexico . The U.S. IOOS...used in Google Earth to activate and deactivate various data layers (Figure 1). For example, a user can view all the blue whale tag datasets by...continuing to upload data sets from the TOPP and TAG programs which are in highest demand ( whales , tunas), and ingesting additional data associated
Kim, Seong Gon; Harwani, Mrudul; Grama, Ananth; Chaterji, Somali
We present EP-DNN, a protocol for predicting enhancers based on chromatin features, in different cell types. Specifically, we use a deep neural network (DNN)-based architecture to extract enhancer signatures in a representative human embryonic stem cell type (H1) and a differentiated lung cell type (IMR90). We train EP-DNN using p300 binding sites, as enhancers, and TSS and random non-DHS sites, as non-enhancers. We perform same-cell and cross-cell predictions to quantify the validation rate and compare against two state-of-the-art methods, DEEP-ENCODE and RFECS. We find that EP-DNN has superior accuracy with a validation rate of 91.6%, relative to 85.3% for DEEP-ENCODE and 85.5% for RFECS, for a given number of enhancer predictions and also scales better for a larger number of enhancer predictions. Moreover, our H1 → IMR90 predictions turn out to be more accurate than IMR90 → IMR90, potentially because H1 exhibits a richer signature set and our EP-DNN model is expressive enough to extract these subtleties. Our work shows how to leverage the full expressivity of deep learning models, using multiple hidden layers, while avoiding overfitting on the training data. We also lay the foundation for exploration of cross-cell enhancer predictions, potentially reducing the need for expensive experimentation.
Adzhar, Noraziah; Salleh, Shaharuddin
Multiprocessor is another great technology that helps in advancing human civilization due to high demands for solving complex problems. A multiprocessing system can have a lot of replicated processor-memory pairs (henceforth regard as net) or also called as processing nodes. Each of these nodes is connected to each other through interconnection networks and passes message using a standard message passing mechanism. In this paper, we present a routing algorithm based on enhanced simulated annealing technique to provide the connection between nodes in a semi-diagonal torus (SD-Torus) network. This network is both symmetric and regular; thus, make it very beneficial in the implementation process. The main objective is to maximize the number of established connection between nodes in this SD-Torus network. In order to achieve this objective, each node must be connected in its shortest way as possible. We start our algorithm by designing shortest path algorithm based on Dijkstra’s method. While this algorithm guarantees to find the shortest path for each single net, if it exists, each routed net will form obstacle for later paths. This increases the complexity to route later nets and makes routing longer than optimal, or sometimes impossible to complete. The solution is further refined by re-routing all nets in different orders using simulated annealing method. Through simulation program, our proposed algorithm succeeded in performing complete routing up to 81 nodes with 40 nets in 9×9 SD-Torus network size.
Li Xiumin; Small, Michael, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org, E-mail: email@example.com [Department of Electronic and Information Engineering, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon (Hong Kong)
Long-term synaptic plasticity induced by neural activity is of great importance in informing the formation of neural connectivity and the development of the nervous system. It is reasonable to consider self-organized neural networks instead of prior imposition of a specific topology. In this paper, we propose a novel network evolved from two stages of the learning process, which are respectively guided by two experimentally observed synaptic plasticity rules, i.e. the spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) mechanism and the burst-timing-dependent plasticity (BTDP) mechanism. Due to the existence of heterogeneity in neurons that exhibit different degrees of excitability, a two-level hierarchical structure is obtained after the synaptic refinement. This self-organized network shows higher sensitivity to afferent current injection compared with alternative archetypal networks with different neural connectivity. Statistical analysis also demonstrates that it has the small-world properties of small shortest path length and high clustering coefficients. Thus the selectively refined connectivity enhances the ability of neuronal communications and improves the efficiency of signal transmission in the network.
Fereidouni, Alireza; Masoum, Mohammad A. S.; Moghbel, Moayed
Among the four basic dynamic voltage restorer (DVR) topologies, the network-side shunt-connected DVR (NSSC-DVR) has a relatively poor performance and is investigated in this paper. A new configuration is proposed and implemented for NSSC-DVR to enhance its performance in compensating (un)symmetrical deep and long voltage sags and mitigate voltage harmonics. The enhanced NSSC-DVR model includes a three-phase half-bridge semi-controlled network-side-shunt-connected rectifier and a three-phase full-bridge series-connected inverter implemented with a back-to-back configuration through a bidirectional buck-boost converter. The network-side-shunt-connected rectifier is employed to inject/draw the required energy by NSSC-DVR to restore the load voltage to its pre-fault value under sag/swell conditions. The buck-boost converter is responsible for maintaining the DC-link voltage of the series-connected inverter at its designated value in order to improve the NSSC-DVR capability in compensating deep and long voltage sags/swells. The full-bridge series-connected inverter permits to compensate unbalance voltage sags containing zero-sequence component. The harmonic compensation of the load voltage is achieved by extracting harmonics from the distorted network voltage using an artificial neural network (ANN) method called adaptive linear neuron (Adaline) strategy. Detailed simulations are performed by SIMULINK/MATLAB software for six case studies to verify the highly robustness of the proposed NSSC-DVR model under various conditions.
Gong, Yubing; Wang, Baoying; Xie, Huijuan
In this paper, we numerically study the effect of spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) on synchronization transitions induced by autaptic activity in adaptive Newman-Watts Hodgkin-Huxley neuron networks. It is found that synchronization transitions induced by autaptic delay vary with the adjusting rate Ap of STDP and become strongest at a certain Ap value, and the Ap value increases when network randomness or network size increases. It is also found that the synchronization transitions induced by autaptic delay become strongest at a certain network randomness and network size, and the values increase and related synchronization transitions are enhanced when Ap increases. These results show that there is optimal STDP that can enhance the synchronization transitions induced by autaptic delay in the adaptive neuronal networks. These findings provide a new insight into the roles of STDP and autapses for the information transmission in neural systems. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Daniel Simon Razik
Full Text Available In the central nervous system, GABA transporters (GATs very efficiently clear synaptically released GABA from the extracellular space, and thus exert a tight control on GABAergic inhibition. In neocortex, GABAergic inhibition is heavily recruited during recurrent phases of spontaneous action potential activity which alternate with neuronally quiet periods. Therefore, such activity should be quite sensitive to minute alterations of GAT function. Here, we explored the effects of a gradual impairment of GAT-1 and GAT-2/3 on spontaneous recurrent network activity – termed network bursts and silent periods – in organotypic slice cultures of rat neocortex. The GAT-1 specific antagonist NO-711 depressed activity already at nanomolar concentrations (IC50 for depression of spontaneous multiunit firing rate of 42 nM, reaching a level of 80% at 500-1000 nM. By contrast, the GAT-2/3 preferring antagonist SNAP-5114 had weaker and less consistent effects. Several lines of evidence pointed towards an enhancement of phasic GABAergic inhibition as the dominant activity-depressing mechanism: network bursts were drastically shortened, phasic GABAergic currents decayed slower, and neuronal excitability during ongoing activity was diminished. In silent periods, NO-711 had little effect on neuronal excitability or membrane resistance, quite in contrast to the effects of muscimol, a GABA mimetic which activates GABAA receptors tonically. Our results suggest that an enhancement of phasic GABAergic inhibition efficiently curtails cortical recurrent activity and may mediate antiepileptic effects of therapeutically relevant concentrations of GAT-1 antagonists.
Cheak, Alicia; Angehrn, Albert; Sloep, Peter
Cheak, A. M., Angehrn, A. A., & Sloep, P. B. (2006). Enhancing the social network dimension of lifelong competence development and management systems: A proposal of methods and tools. In E. J. R. Koper & K. Stefanov (Eds.), Proceedings of International Workshop on Learning Networks for Lifelong
Cheak, Alicia; Angehrn, Albert; Sloep, Peter
Cheak, A. M., Angehrn, A. A., & Sloep, P. (2006). Enhancing the social network dimension of lifelong competence development and management systems: A proposal of methods and tools. In R. Koper & K. Stefanov (Eds.). Proceedings of International Workshop in Learning Networks for Lifelong Competence
Li, Wenjuan; Meng, Weizhi; Kwok, Lam-For
To defend against complex attacks, collaborative intrusion detection networks (CIDNs) have been developed to enhance the detection accuracy, which enable an IDS to collect information and learn experience from others. However, this kind of networks is vulnerable to malicious nodes which are utili...
Lisboa, Kleber Marques; Marschewski, Julian; Ebejer, Neil; Ruch, Patrick; Cotta, Renato Machado; Michel, Bruno; Poulikakos, Dimos
We propose a facile, novel concept of mass transfer enhancement in flow batteries based on electrolyte guidance in rationally designed corrugated channel systems. The proposed fluidic networks employ periodic throttling of the flow to optimally deflect the electrolytes into the porous electrode, targeting enhancement of the electrolyte-electrode interaction. Theoretical analysis is conducted with channels in the form of trapezoidal waves, confirming and detailing the mass transport enhancement mechanism. In dilute concentration experiments with an alkaline quinone redox chemistry, a scaling of the limiting current with Re0.74 is identified, which compares favourably against the Re0.33 scaling typical of diffusion-limited laminar processes. Experimental IR-corrected polarization curves are presented for high concentration conditions, and a significant performance improvement is observed with the narrowing of the nozzles. The adverse effects of periodic throttling on the pumping power are compared with the benefits in terms of power density, and an improvement of up to 102% in net power density is obtained in comparison with the flow-by case employing straight parallel channels. The proposed novel concept of corrugated fluidic networks comes with facile fabrication and contributes to the improvement of the transport characteristics and overall performance of redox flow battery systems.
Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are a class of endogenous non-coding RNAs with regulatory functions. Traditionally, miRNAs are thought to play a negative regulatory role in the cytoplasm by binding to the 3â²UTR of target genes to degrade mRNA or inhibit translation. However, it remains a challenge to interpret the potential function of many miRNAs located in the nucleus. Recently, we reported a new type of miRNAs present in the nucleus, which can activate gene expression by binding to the enhancer, and named them nuclear activating miRNAs (NamiRNAs. The discovery of NamiRNAs showcases a complementary regulatory mechanism of miRNA, demonstrating their differential roles in the nucleus and cytoplasm. Here, we reviewed miRNAs in nucleus to better understand the function of NamiRNAs in their interactions with the enhancers. Accordingly, we propose a NamiRNAâenhancerâtarget gene activation network model to better understand the crosstalk between NamiRNAs and enhancers in regulating gene transcription. Moreover, we hypothesize that NamiRNAs may be involved in cell identity or cell fate determination during development, although further study is needed to elucidate the underlying mechanisms in detail. Keywords: Nuclear activating miRNAs, Tissue-specific enhancers, Transcriptional gene activation, Cell identity, Cell fate
Sun, Haixia; Li, Sikun
Now, this document puts forward a deep neural network (DNN) model with more credible data set and more robust structure. First, we take two regularization skills, dropout and sparsity constraint to strengthen the generalization ability of the model. In this way, not only the model is able to reach the consistency between the pre-training model and the fine-tuning model, but also it reduce resource consumption. Then network compression by weights sharing and quantization is allowed to reduce storage cost. In the end, we evaluate the quality of the reconstructed speech according to different criterion. The result proofs that the improved framework has good performance on speech enhancement and meets the requirement of speech processing.
Full Text Available The Proxy Mobile IPv6 (PMIPv6 is a network-based mobility management protocol that allows a Mobile Node(MN connected to the PMIPv6 domain to move from one network to another without changing the assigned IPv6 address. The user authentication procedure in this protocol is not standardized, but many smartcard based authentication schemes have been proposed. Recently, Alizadeh et al. proposed an authentication scheme for the PMIPv6. However, it could allow an attacker to derive an encryption key that must be securely shared between MN and the Mobile Access Gate(MAG. As a result, outsider adversary can derive MN's identity, password and session key. In this paper, we analyze Alizadeh et al.'s scheme regarding security and propose an enhanced authentication scheme that uses a dynamic identity to satisfy anonymity. Furthermore, we use BAN logic to show that our scheme can successfully generate and communicate with the inter-entity session key.
Kang, Dongwoo; Jung, Jaewook; Lee, Donghoon; Kim, Hyoungshick; Won, Dongho
The Proxy Mobile IPv6 (PMIPv6) is a network-based mobility management protocol that allows a Mobile Node(MN) connected to the PMIPv6 domain to move from one network to another without changing the assigned IPv6 address. The user authentication procedure in this protocol is not standardized, but many smartcard based authentication schemes have been proposed. Recently, Alizadeh et al. proposed an authentication scheme for the PMIPv6. However, it could allow an attacker to derive an encryption key that must be securely shared between MN and the Mobile Access Gate(MAG). As a result, outsider adversary can derive MN's identity, password and session key. In this paper, we analyze Alizadeh et al.'s scheme regarding security and propose an enhanced authentication scheme that uses a dynamic identity to satisfy anonymity. Furthermore, we use BAN logic to show that our scheme can successfully generate and communicate with the inter-entity session key.
Wilhelm, Kevin T.
Unmanned air vehicles (UAV's) provide a low-cost, low-maintenance, and effective platform upon which experimentation can be performed to validate conceptual aerodynamic ideas. However, the UAV flight test data acquisition process is complex and requires a reliable recording system for post-flight data analysis. The thrust of this thesis was the development, construction, and validation of a viable telemetry system for data gathering and processing. Major areas of focus were: integration of the telemetry into a 1/8 scale model, radio controlled F-16A airplane; telemetry circuitry optimization; recording and display of instrumented parameters; and data reduction techniques necessary to obtain useful information. A flight test was flown and data was gathered using a steady-heading side-slip maneuver to demonstrate successful integration of all supporting elements.
Pozzi, W.; Ward, J.; Cox, E. L.; Lawford, R. G.; Matthews, D.; Houser, P.; Doherty, M.
The Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) has created the Asian Water Cycle Initiative regional network for South Asia and NASA has launched two networks to enhance the rapid transitioning of scientific achievements and NASA technology into operational use. All three networks meet a new type of scientific challenge by providing strong linkage among the scientific communities, the space agencies, and decision makers. We focus here on the two NASA-sponsored networks that carry out complementary approaches: WaterNet focused on large-scale national/international collaborations; North Olympic Peninsula Solution Network developed a local proof of concept project first, then began integration and collaboration at progressively larger scales, culminating with a national-level discourse via the National Association of Resource, Conservation and Development councils (NARC&DC). The ultimate goals of both groups were to bring NASA Science and Technology products to organizations/groups to improve decision making and to create collaborations and networks that would extend beyond the parent groups and expand and continue to be sustainable, after the original projects were completed. This paper provides a summary of lessons learned. The primary objective of the NOPSN is to bring NASA science and technology tools to watershed managers to improve the scientific basis of decision making in NASA national application areas of water management, agricultural efficiency, and ecological forecasting. To achieve this objective, the NOPSN team first developed and implemented a local proof-of-concept project for the Dungeness River, Washington, to improve water forecasting. The team then developed local and regional collaborations with water resource managers, stakeholder groups, and local, state, and federal agencies to identify environmental issues, challenges, and needs that could be addressed with NASA technology. Finally,through its partnership with NARC&D, it provided the NOPSN
Li, Yang; Kum, Dong-Won; Kang, Ju-Eun; Cho, You-Ze
This paper analyzes the limitations of the multihoming support in the Proxy Mobile IPv6 protocol, then proposes an enhanced multihoming support scheme based on a per-interface address configuration method. The proposed scheme can provide a more flexible multihoming support and also maintain application session continuity during a handoff between two interfaces by using IPv6 extension headers. Plus, flow distribution with filters is also used to realize the advantages of multihoming. Simulation results with the OPNET validate the proposed multihoming support scheme for convergent networks.
Alzahrani, Ahmed; Qureshi, Muhammad Shuaib; Thayananthan, Vijey
This paper aims to analyze possible next generation of networked radio frequency identification (NGN-RFID) system for customer relationship management (CRM) in healthcare industries. Customer relationship and its management techniques in a specific healthcare industry are considered in this development. The key objective of using NGN-RFID scheme is to enhance the handling of patients' data to improve the CRM efficiency in healthcare industries. The proposed NGN-RFID system is one of the valid points to improve the ability of CRM by analyzing different prior and current traditional approaches. The legacy of customer relationship management will be improved by using this modern NGN-RFID technology without affecting the novelty.
Semiari, Omid; Saad, Walid; Bennis, Mehdi; Maham, Behrouz
One of the most promising approaches to overcome the uncertainty and dynamic channel variations of millimeter wave (mmW) communications is to deploy dual-mode base stations that integrate both mmW and microwave ($\\mu$W) frequencies. If properly designed, such dual-mode base stations can enhance mobility and handover in highly mobile wireless environments. In this paper, a novel approach for analyzing and managing mobility in joint $\\mu$W-mmW networks is proposed. The proposed approach leverag...
Semov, Plamen T.; Mihovska, Albena D.; Prasad, Ramjee
with information but the locations of the mobile users and neighboring cells to solve the problem of dynamic physical resource assignment in uncoordinated scenario while accounting for improved allocation and scheduling. The results are compared to the performance when known scheduling algorithms are employed......This paper proposes a novel algorithm for dynamic physical resource allocation based on the use of positioning information during carrier aggregation (CA) in a semi-and uncoordinated deployment of heterogeneous networks (HetNet). The algorithm uses the known Q-learning method enhanced...... and show increased cell throughput, while maintaining an adequate user throughput when employing Q-learning with positioning information....
Hogie, Keith; Crisuolo, Ed; Parise, Ron
This presentation will describe the design, development, and testing of a system to collect telemetry, format it into UDP/IP packets, and deliver it to a ground test range using standard IP technologies over a TDRSS link. This presentation will discuss the goal of the STARS IP Formatter along with the overall design. It will also present performance results of the current version of the IP formatter. Finally, it will discuss key issues for supporting constant rate telemetry data delivery when using standard components such as PCI/104 processors, the Linux operating system, Internet Protocols, and synchronous serial interfaces.
Nasution, T. H.; Siregar, I.; Yasir, M.
Wireless communication has been widely used in various fields or disciplines such as agriculture, health, engineering, military, and aerospace so as to support the work in that field. The communication technology is typically used for controlling devices and data monitoring. One development of wireless communication is the widely used telemetry system used to reach areas that cannot be reached by humans using UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) or unmanned aircraft. In this paper we discuss the design of telemetry system in UAV using ZigBee protocol. From the test obtained the system can work well with visualization displays without pause is 20 data per second with a maximum data length of 120 characters.
Daniel Kissling, W; Pattemore, David E; Hagen, Melanie
Radio telemetry has been widely used to study the space use and movement behaviour of vertebrates, but transmitter sizes have only recently become small enough to allow tracking of insects under natural field conditions. Here, we review the available literature on insect telemetry using active (battery-powered) radio transmitters and compare this technology to harmonic radar and radio frequency identification (RFID) which use passive tags (i.e. without a battery). The first radio telemetry studies with insects were published in the late 1980s, and subsequent studies have addressed aspects of insect ecology, behaviour and evolution. Most insect telemetry studies have focused on habitat use and movement, including quantification of movement paths, home range sizes, habitat selection, and movement distances. Fewer studies have addressed foraging behaviour, activity patterns, migratory strategies, or evolutionary aspects. The majority of radio telemetry studies have been conducted outside the tropics, usually with beetles (Coleoptera) and crickets (Orthoptera), but bees (Hymenoptera), dobsonflies (Megaloptera), and dragonflies (Odonata) have also been radio-tracked. In contrast to the active transmitters used in radio telemetry, the much lower weight of harmonic radar and RFID tags allows them to be used with a broader range of insect taxa. However, the fixed detection zone of a stationary radar unit (insects with a body mass exceeding 1 g, but smaller species in the range 0.2-0.5 g (e.g. bumblebees and orchid bees) have now also been tracked. Current challenges of radio-tracking insects in the field are related to the constraints of a small transmitter, including short battery life (7-21 days), limited tracking range on the ground (100-500 m), and a transmitter weight that sometimes approaches the weight of a given insect (the ratio of tag mass to body mass varies from 2 to 100%). The attachment of radio transmitters may constrain insect behaviour and incur
Full Text Available Recently, various computer networking courses have included additional laboratory classes in order to enhance students’ learning achievement. However, these classes need to establish a suitable laboratory where each student can connect network devices to configure and test functions within different network topologies. In this case, the Linux operating system can be used to operate network devices and the virtualization technique can include multiple OSs for supporting a significant number of students. In previous research, the virtualization application was successfully applied in a laboratory, but focused only on individual assignments. The present study extends previous research by designing the Networking Virtualization-Based Laboratory (NVBLab, which requires collaborative learning among the experimental students. The students were divided into an experimental group and a control group for the experiment. The experimental group performed their laboratory assignments using NVBLab, whereas the control group completed them on virtual machines (VMs that were installed on their personal computers. Moreover, students using NVBLab were provided with an online synchronous discussion (OSD feature that enabled them to communicate with others. The laboratory assignments were divided into two parts: Basic Labs and Advanced Labs. The results show that the experimental group significantly outperformed the control group in two Advanced Labs and the post-test after Advanced Labs. Furthermore, the experimental group’s activities were better than those of the control group based on the total average of the command count per laboratory. Finally, the findings of the interviews and questionnaires with the experimental group reveal that NVBLab was helpful during and after laboratory class.
Babaei, Arash; Kern, Mark; Antonik, Stephen; Mepani, Rachel; Ward, B. Douglas; Li, Shi-Jiang; Hyde, James
A better understanding of the central control of the physiology of deglutition is necessary for devising interventions aimed at correcting pathophysiological conditions of swallowing. Positive modulation of the cortical swallowing network can have clinical ramifications in dysphagia due to central nervous system deficits. Our aim was to determine the effect of nutritive sensory input on the cortical swallowing network. In 14 healthy right-handed volunteers, we utilized a paradigm-driven protocol to quantify the number of activated voxels and their signal intensity within the left hemispheric cortical swallowing network by high-resolution functional MRI (fMRI) during five different swallowing conditions. Swallowing conditions included a dry swallow (saliva) and natural water-, lemon-, popcorn-, and chocolate-flavored liquid swallows. Each flavored liquid was presented simultaneously by its image, scent, and taste in random order and tested over three runs. fMRIs were analyzed in a blinded fashion. Average fMRI blood oxygenation level-dependent signal intensity and number of activated voxels during swallowing concurrent with nutritive gustatory, olfactory, and visual stimulations were significantly increased compared with dry/natural water swallows throughout the cortical swallowing network (P < 0.001 and P < 0.05, respectively). Subregion analysis showed the increased activity for flavored liquids in prefrontal, cingulate gyrus, and sensory/motor cortex, but not in precuneus and insula. Concurrent gustatory, olfactory, and visual nutritive stimulation enhances the activity of the cortical swallowing network. This finding may have clinical implications in management of swallowing disorders due to cortical lesions. PMID:20508154
Chui, Ray W; Fosdick, Abigail; Conner, Ra'Shun; Jiang, Jian; Bruenner, Bernd A; Vargas, Hugo M
Regulatory guidelines recommend the use of conscious, unrestrained animals for comprehensive cardiovascular safety assessment of a new therapeutic agent. Cardiovascular safety pharmacology studies normally use internal telemetry (surgical implants) in free-moving animals to monitor key ECG endpoints, like the QTc interval, but this technical approach is highly resource intensive. In toxicology studies, ECG recording is also typically performed under chemical or physical restraint, which has a number of disadvantages, e.g., anesthesia confounds, handling stress and limited data collection. External telemetry for ECG recording has the potential to overcome many of these restraint limitations, with the benefit of being a surgically non-invasive method. To evaluate this method, we used two jacket systems: Data Sciences International (DSI) JET and Integrated Telemetry Systems (ITS) PhysioJacket in implanted beagle dogs. Heart rate and cardiac intervals were monitored continuously for 22-24 h following oral administration of vehicle (water) or 1 mg/kg E-4031. Data obtained from each jacket system was compared with implant-derived data in the same animal. Significant increases in QT/QTcV (25-30 ms) were noted following treatment with 1 mg/kg E-4031 in both external jacket systems and with implanted telemetry. Throughout the recording periods, the normal variations in heart rate and ECG intervals observed in conscious dogs as detected with the jacket systems, mirrored the changes observed via implant telemetry. The overall findings from this study support the use of external telemetry technology as a viable alternative to implants. The data demonstrated that jackets were sufficiently sensitive to detect QT/QTcV changes following E-4031 administration, that were comparable to those derived from implants. As such, this method is an invaluable tool for obtaining high quality ECG data from repeat-dose toxicology studies.
Marcinkowski, James; Miller, Roger
.... To assist administrative personnel in maintaining and monitoring a computer network, commercial network management tools are used that collect data regarding network functionality and availability...
Barnes, Jessica J; Nobre, Anna Christina; Woolrich, Mark W; Baker, Kate; Astle, Duncan E
Working memory is a capacity upon which many everyday tasks depend and which constrains a child's educational progress. We show that a child's working memory can be significantly enhanced by intensive computer-based training, relative to a placebo control intervention, in terms of both standardized assessments of working memory and performance on a working memory task performed in a magnetoencephalography scanner. Neurophysiologically, we identified significantly increased cross-frequency phase amplitude coupling in children who completed training. Following training, the coupling between the upper alpha rhythm (at 16 Hz), recorded in superior frontal and parietal cortex, became significantly coupled with high gamma activity (at ∼90 Hz) in inferior temporal cortex. This altered neural network activity associated with cognitive skill enhancement is consistent with a framework in which slower cortical rhythms enable the dynamic regulation of higher-frequency oscillatory activity related to task-related cognitive processes. Whether we can enhance cognitive abilities through intensive training is one of the most controversial topics of cognitive psychology in recent years. This is particularly controversial in childhood, where aspects of cognition, such as working memory, are closely related to school success and are implicated in numerous developmental disorders. We provide the first neurophysiological account of how working memory training may enhance ability in childhood, using a brain recording technique called magnetoencephalography. We borrowed an analysis approach previously used with intracranial recordings in adults, or more typically in other animal models, called "phase amplitude coupling." Copyright © 2016 Barnes et al.
Edwards, N.; Torrisi, J.; Austin, W.; Smith, K. D.; Biasi, G.; Anooshehpoor, R.; Slater, D.
IP spread spectrum radios have revolutionized the operation of remote seismic networks. In two separate deployments this year, the Nevada Seismological Laboratory implemented 900 MHz point-to-multipoint IP radio systems for portable seismographs in response to two important Nevada earthquake sequences: the Mw 6.0 event that struck Wells on February 21, 2008; and an energetic earthquake swarm in urban Reno that began in mid-February (mainshock Mw 5.0, April 26, 2008, 06:40 UTC). In cooperation with the USGS, ten portable stations were deployed in the Wells area response. Also, 10 IRIS RAMP instruments were included in the urban Reno deployment. These instruments were outfitted with Motorola Canopy radios and integrated with the regional telemetry infrastructure. As configured, these radios will support a large deployment, high sample rate dataloggers, and a flexible network topology with a working range of at least 30 miles. Real time IP telemetry can improve portable network performance in the following areas: 1. Simplified data flow- Real-time data from portable deployments is integrated with the regional and national networks. Portable instrument data does not have to be retrieved from the field, extracted from mass storage, and separately incorporated into data archives. The need to reanalyze events as locally-recorded portable data becomes available is eliminated. 2. Improved real-time products- Real-time data from portable stations can be used to improve the precision and timeliness of data products (e.g., ShakeMap) for the public, the local and national media, and emergency managers. 3. State-of-health monitoring- Systems (power, memory, etc.) can be monitored, allowing for less frequent and better targeted maintenance visits. The monitoring of these parameters can then be assumed by software packages such as Nagios or SeisNetWatch. 4. Remote management- Datalogger parameters can be managed remotely. The radios can also be remotely managed, allowing for
Gaass, Thomas; Schneider, Moritz Jörg; Dietrich, Olaf; Ingrisch, Michael; Dinkel, Julien
Variability across devices, patients, and time still hinders widespread recognition of dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) as quantitative biomarker. The purpose of this work was to introduce and characterize a dedicated microchannel phantom as a model for quantitative DCE-MRI measurements. A perfusable, MR-compatible microchannel network was constructed on the basis of sacrificial melt-spun sugar fibers embedded in a block of epoxy resin. Structural analysis was performed on the basis of light microscopy images before DCE-MRI experiments. During dynamic acquisition the capillary network was perfused with a standard contrast agent injection system. Flow-dependency, as well as inter- and intrascanner reproducibility of the computed DCE parameters were evaluated using a 3.0 T whole-body MRI. Semi-quantitative and quantitative flow-related parameters exhibited the expected proportionality to the set flow rate (mean Pearson correlation coefficient: 0.991, P quantitative parameters. All evaluated parameters were well in the range of known in vivo results for the applied flow rates. The constructed phantom enables reproducible, flow-dependent, contrast-enhanced MR measurements with the potential to facilitate standardization and comparability of DCE-MRI examinations. © 2017 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.
The need for advanced wireless technology has been identified in the National Research Council publication (1) ''Manufacturing Process Controls for the Industries of the Future as a Critical Technology for the Future''. The deployment challenges to be overcome in order for wireless to be a viable option include: (1) eliminating interference (assuring reliable communications); (2) easing the deployment of intelligent, wireless sensors; (3) developing reliable networks (robust architectures); (4) developing remote power (long-lasting and reliable); and (5) developing standardized communication protocols. This project demonstrated the feasibility of robust wireless sensor networks that could meet these requirements for the harsh environments common to the DOE/OIT Industries of the Future. It resulted in a wireless test bed that was demonstrated in a paper mill and a steel plant. The test bed illustrated key protocols and components that would be required in a real-life, wireless network. The technologies for low power connectivity developed and demonstrated at the plant eased fears that the radios would interfere with existing control equipment. The same direct sequence, spread spectrum (DSSS) technology that helped assure the reliability of the connection also demonstrated that wireless communication was feasible in these plants without boosting the transmitted power to dangerous levels. Our experience and research have indicated that two key parameters are of ultimate importance: (1) reliability and (2) inter-system compatibility. Reliability is the key to immediate acceptance among industrial users. The importance cannot be overstated, because users will not tolerate an unreliable information network. A longer term issue that is at least as important as the reliability of a single system is the inter-system compatibility between these wireless sensor networks and other wireless systems that are part of our industries. In the long run, the
Wu, Jingjing; Liu, Yejun; Yu, Cunqian; Wang, Xiaorui; Zhao, Junhong
The increase of multimedia applications results in the growing popularity of multicast demands. At the same time, survivability in an optical network is very important because of its very high transmission rate. Therefore, it is necessary to provide survivability for multicast demands in an optical network. Previous works have proposed multicast protection schemes for single-fiber link failure, in which the preconfigured protection cycle, known as the p-cycle, is an efficient method to overcome the long restoration time and the complicated protection switching procedure in comparison with other schemes. However, most previous schemes are applied only to static multicast protection. Although some schemes are extended to dynamic multicast protection, they do not consider the protection for straddle links. To overcome the shortcoming, this paper improves the existing p-cycle-based dynamic multicast protection and proposes an enhanced intelligent p-cycle (EIpC) scheme, in which all working light-trees of multicast demands can be protected by a p-cycle in the network. For each multicast demand, EIpC can compute a set of high-efficient p-cycles to provide dynamic protection. By combining the existing p-cycles for meeting certain conditions, EIpC can reduce the wavelength usage of p-cycles. Simulation results show that EIpC can obtain performance improvement compared to conventional schemes.
Pimashkin, Alexey; Gladkov, Arseniy; Mukhina, Irina; Kazantsev, Victor
Learning in neuronal networks can be investigated using dissociated cultures on multielectrode arrays supplied with appropriate closed-loop stimulation. It was shown in previous studies that weakly respondent neurons on the electrodes can be trained to increase their evoked spiking rate within a predefined time window after the stimulus. Such neurons can be associated with weak synaptic connections in nearby culture network. The stimulation leads to the increase in the connectivity and in the response. However, it was not possible to perform the learning protocol for the neurons on electrodes with relatively strong synaptic inputs and responding at higher rates. We proposed an adaptive closed-loop stimulation protocol capable to achieve learning even for the highly respondent electrodes. It means that the culture network can reorganize appropriately its synaptic connectivity to generate a desired response. We introduced an adaptive reinforcement condition accounting for the response variability in control stimulation. It significantly enhanced the learning protocol to a large number of responding electrodes independently on its base response level. We also found that learning effect preserved after 4-6 h after training.
for capacity, and changes to modulation, encoding, and compression. Index Terms - Software Defined Radio ( SDR ), Open systems architecture...telemetry receiver architecture, Aeronautical Mobile Telemetry (AMT) 1. INTRODUCTION The basic challenges present for today’s telemetry systems have not...detectors, etc.) are instead implemented by means of software on a personal computer or embedded system . The SDR architecture of the Modernized
Rubtsova, O. O.; Trofimova, E. S.; Ishchenko, A. V.; Cherepanov, A. N.; Danilov, V. Yu.
This article addresses the issue of increasing requirements for the oil industry: the need to develop new wells and control their profitability. The device under consideration (a submersible telemetry system that is capable of measuring well parameters and transferring them via the communication line to the ground based control system) will allow to avoid downtime when it is extracted for indicators check.
Coon, G. W.; Harrison, D. R.
Capacitive accelerometer design enables the construction of highly miniaturized instruments having full-scale ranges from 1 g to several hundred g. This accelerometer is applicable to telemetry and can be tailored to cover any of a large number of acceleration ranges and frequency responses.
Various issues associated with satellite telemetry and command using Big LEO mobile telecommunications systems are presented in viewgraph form. Specific topics include: 1) Commercial Satellite system overviews: Globalstar, ICO, and Iridium; 2) System capabilities and cost reduction; 3) Satellite constellations and contact limitations; 4) Capabilities of Globalstar, ICO and Iridium with emphasis on Globalstar; and 5) Flight transceiver issues and security.
It was demonstrated that the hexagonal configuration of VR2s is optimal during isothermal conditions but inadequate during stratified conditions when acoustic dead zones of 350 m between VR2 receivers can occur. Keywords: acoustic telemetry; isothermal; system saturation; thermocline; transmitter range. African Journal ...
We provide recommendations for implementing telemetry studies on waterfowl on the basis of our experience in a tracking study conducted in three countries of sub-Saharan Africa. The aim of the study was to document movements by duck species identified as priority candidates for the potential spread of avian influenza.
Kirby, Randy L.; Mann, David; Prenger, Stephen G.; Craig, Wayne; Greenwood, Andrew; Morsics, Jonathan; Fricker, Charles H.; Quach, Son; Lechese, Paul
United Space Alliance (USA) developed and used a new software development method to meet technical, schedule, and budget challenges faced during the development and delivery of the new Shuttle Telemetry Ground Station at Kennedy Space Center. This method, called Collaborative Software Development, enabled KSC to effectively leverage industrial software and build additional capabilities to meet shuttle system and operational requirements. Application of this method resulted in reduced time to market, reduced development cost, improved product quality, and improved programmer competence while developing technologies of benefit to a small company in California (AP Labs Inc.). Many modifications were made to the baseline software product (VMEwindow), which improved its quality and functionality. In addition, six new software capabilities were developed, which are the subject of this article and add useful functionality to the VMEwindow environment. These new software programs are written in C or VXWorks and are used in conjunction with other ground station software packages, such as VMEwindow, Matlab, Dataviews, and PVWave. The Space Shuttle Telemetry Ground Station receives frequency-modulation (FM) and pulse-code-modulated (PCM) signals from the shuttle and support equipment. The hardware architecture (see figure) includes Sun workstations connected to multiple PCM- and FM-processing VersaModule Eurocard (VME) chassis. A reflective memory network transports raw data from PCM Processors (PCMPs) to the programmable digital-to-analog (D/A) converters, strip chart recorders, and analysis and controller workstations.
The Reusable Reentry Satellite (RRS) Telemetry, Tracking & Command (TT&C) Coverage Tradeoff Study described herein was performed during Part 1 of the RRS Phase B contract. This report is one of several that describes the results of various trade studies performed to arrive at a recommended design for the RRS satellite system. The overall RRS Phase B Study objective is to design a relatively inexpensive satellite to access space for extended periods of time, with eventual recovery of experiments on Earth. The RRS will be capable of: (1) being launched by a variety of expendable launch vehicles; (2) operating in low earth orbit as a free flying unmanned laboratory; and (3) executing an independent atmospheric reentry and soft landing. The RRS will be designed to be refurbished and reused up to three times a year for a period of 10 years. The expected principal use for such a system is research on the effects of variable gravity (0 to 1.5 g) and radiation on small animals, plants, lower life forms, tissue samples, and materials processes. This Summary Report provides a description of the RRS Telemetry, Tracking & Command Analysis performed to study the ground station coverage available to meet RRS requirements. Concepts were considered that used off-the-shelf technology, had generous margins of capability, and high reliability, were easily maintained, cost effective, and were compatible with existing support networks. From this study, a recommended RRS TT&C configuration will be developed.
Cook, Caitlyn Christian [California State Polytechnic State Univ., San Luis Obispo, CA (United States)
An evaporation barrier is required to enhance the lifetime of electrophoretic deposition (EPD) displays. As EPD functions on the basis of reversible deposition and resuspension of colloids suspended in a solvent, evaporation of the solvent ultimately leads to device failure. Incorporation of a thiol-polybutadiene elastomer into EPD displays enabled display lifetime surpassing six months in counting and catalyzed rigid display transition into a flexible package. Final flexible display transition to mass production compels an electronic-ink approach to encapsulate display suspension within an elastomer shell. Final thiol-polybutadiene photosensitive resin network microstructure was idealized to be dense, homogeneous, and expose an elastic response to deformation. Research at hand details an approach to understanding microstructural change within display elastomers. Polybutadiene-based resin properties are modified via polymer chain structure, with and without added aromatic urethane methacrylate difunctionality, and in measuring network response to variation in thiol and initiator concentration. Dynamic mechanical analysis results signify that cross-linked segments within a difunctionalized polybutadiene network were on average eight times more elastically active than that of linked segments within a non-functionalized polybutadiene network. Difunctionalized polybutadiene samples also showed a 2.5 times greater maximum elastic modulus than non-functionalized samples. Hybrid polymer composed of both polybutadiene chains encompassed TE-2000 stiffness and B-1000 elasticity for use in encapsulating display suspension. Later experiments measured kinetic and rheological response due to alteration in dithiol cross-linker chain length via real time Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and real-time dynamic rheology. Distinct differences were discovered between dithiol resin systems, as maximum thiol conversion achieved in short and long chain length dithiols was 86% and
Webber, Martin; Reidy, Hannah; Ansari, David; Stevens, Martin; Morris, David
People with severe mental health problems such as psychosis have access to less social capital, defined as resources within social networks, than members of the general population. However, a lack of theoretically and empirically informed models hampers the development of social interventions which seek to enhance an individual's social networks. This paper reports the findings of a qualitative study, which used ethnographic field methods in six sites in England to investigate how workers helped people recovering from psychosis to enhance their social networks. This study drew upon practice wisdom and lived experience to provide data for intervention modelling. Data were collected from 73 practitioners and 51 people who used their services in two phases. Data were selected and coded using a grounded theory approach to depict the key themes that appeared to underpin the generation of social capital within networks. Findings are presented in four over-arching themes - worker skills, attitudes and roles; connecting people processes; role of the agency; and barriers to network development. The sub-themes which were identified included worker attitudes; person-centred approach; equality of worker-individual relationship; goal setting; creating new networks and relationships; engagement through activities; practical support; existing relationships; the individual taking responsibility; identifying and overcoming barriers; and moving on. Themes were consistent with recovery models used within mental health services and will provide the basis for the development of an intervention model to enhance individuals' access to social capital within networks. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Warren, Aaron E L; Abbott, David F; Jackson, Graeme D; Archer, John S
To identify abnormal thalamocortical circuits in the severe epilepsy of Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (LGS) that may explain the shared electroclinical phenotype and provide potential treatment targets. Twenty patients with a diagnosis of LGS (mean age = 28.5 years) and 26 healthy controls (mean age = 27.6 years) were compared using task-free functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The thalamus was parcellated according to functional connectivity with 10 cortical networks derived using group-level independent component analysis. For each cortical network, we assessed between-group differences in thalamic functional connectivity strength using nonparametric permutation-based tests. Anatomical locations were identified by quantifying spatial overlap with a histologically informed thalamic MRI atlas. In both groups, posterior thalamic regions showed functional connectivity with visual, auditory, and sensorimotor networks, whereas anterior, medial, and dorsal thalamic regions were connected with networks of distributed association cortex (including the default-mode, anterior-salience, and executive-control networks). Four cortical networks (left and right executive-control network; ventral and dorsal default-mode network) showed significantly enhanced thalamic functional connectivity strength in patients relative to controls. Abnormal connectivity was maximal in mediodorsal and ventrolateral thalamic nuclei. Specific thalamocortical circuits are affected in LGS. Functional connectivity is abnormally enhanced between the mediodorsal and ventrolateral thalamus and the default-mode and executive-control networks, thalamocortical circuits that normally support diverse cognitive processes. In contrast, thalamic regions connecting with primary and sensory cortical networks appear to be less affected. Our previous neuroimaging studies show that epileptic activity in LGS is expressed via the default-mode and executive-control networks. Results of the present study suggest that
Full Text Available In the vicinity of the electric power network and near to the power electrical equipments the electromagnetic environment includes electric and magnetic fields, mainly at the spectral area of Extreme Low Frequencies (ELF. In some cases, very close to the working or areas of habitants, it is important to observe the values of the electric and magnetic fields and to compare those values with the appropriate biological limits and/or to the Electro-Magnetic Compatibility (EMC limits. In these special cases the fields must be measured successfully and carefully. Therefore, the measurement equipment must have high accuracy and be as small as possible, in order to avoid any impact to the measured field values from the physical presence of the unit or of the observer. For application in these cases we develop an optoelectronic telemetry system, for measurements, of the ELF electric and magnetic fields, with small sensors in the measurement point and all the rest equipment in small distance. The system includes two electro-magnetic optoelectronic sensors, an optical transceiver and all the measurement electronic circuits. By that method we applied the two appropriate optoelectronic sensors at the measured point and in some distance (up to 100m an optical (laser transceiver followed by the measurement circuits. If the outcome laser beam from the transceiver strikes the optoelectronic part of these sensors. Then, that part is triggered to modulate the reflected and returned laser beam. The modulation value depends on the field value. At the receiver part of the optical transceiver, a special optical demodulator extracts the modulation signal from the incoming laser beam and the following measurement electronic circuits extracts the information with the measurement values of the electric and magnetic fields. We must point out that the few mW red beam from a diode laser, has very low power to be an injury problem to the observer or to any other person
Campbell, Luke; Kaicer, Arielle; Briggs, Robert; O'Leary, Stephen
To record cochlear responses to acoustic stimulation (electrocochleography) directly from a cochlear implant (CI) in awake recipients with residual hearing, using an adaptation of Neural Response Telemetry (NRT) that achieves a 10-ms recording window. Modern cochlear implants contain circuitry for recording neural responses to electrical stimulation, which is known in Cochlear Ltd systems as NRT. We adapted NRT to achieve an extended recording window long enough to record an acoustic electrocochleogram. This paper reports recordings made with this system in recipients with residual hearing. Subjects were adults with CI422 CIs who retained audiometric thresholds between 75 and 90 dB HL at 500 Hz in their implanted ear. The CI was interfaced to a laptop via a Freedom speech processor connected by USB. Calibrated acoustic stimuli (clicks and tone bursts between 500 and 1,500 Hz) were presented via insert tube phones to the implanted ear. Responses were acquired through the adapted NRT system. Recordings were made from apical, mid-array, and basal electrodes. Electrocochleography responses were compared with audiometric thresholds. Electrocochleography could be recorded from all five subjects. The compound action potential, cochlear microphonic, and summating potentials were identified. Good quality recordings were most reliably attained from apical electrodes using 40 to 100 repetitions. Audiometric thresholds were similar to compound action potential thresholds. Intracochlear responses to acoustic stimulation can be recorded directly from the CI in awake recipients with residual hearing. This may prove useful for monitoring postoperative hearing and for device fitting.
Cao, Qin; Anyansi, Christine; Hu, Xihao; Xu, Liangliang; Xiong, Lei; Tang, Wenshu; Mok, Myth T S; Cheng, Chao; Fan, Xiaodan; Gerstein, Mark; Cheng, Alfred S L; Yip, Kevin Y
We propose a new method for determining the target genes of transcriptional enhancers in specific cells and tissues. It combines global trends across many samples and sample-specific information, and considers the joint effect of multiple enhancers. Our method outperforms existing methods when predicting the target genes of enhancers in unseen samples, as evaluated by independent experimental data. Requiring few types of input data, we are able to apply our method to reconstruct the enhancer-target networks in 935 samples of human primary cells, tissues and cell lines, which constitute by far the largest set of enhancer-target networks. The similarity of these networks from different samples closely follows their cell and tissue lineages. We discover three major co-regulation modes of enhancers and find defense-related genes often simultaneously regulated by multiple enhancers bound by different transcription factors. We also identify differentially methylated enhancers in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and experimentally confirm their altered regulation of HCC-related genes.
Afonso, José A.; Silva, Helder D.; Macedo, Pedro; Rocha, Luis A.
The IEEE 802.15.4 Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol is an enabling standard for wireless sensor networks. In order to support applications requiring dedicated bandwidth or bounded delay, it provides a reservation-based scheme named Guaranteed Time Slot (GTS). However, the GTS scheme presents some drawbacks, such as inefficient bandwidth utilization and support to a maximum of only seven devices. This paper presents eLPRT (enhanced Low Power Real Time), a new reservation-based MAC protocol that introduces several performance enhancing features in comparison to the GTS scheme. This MAC protocol builds on top of LPRT (Low Power Real Time) and includes various mechanisms designed to increase data transmission reliability against channel errors, improve bandwidth utilization and increase the number of supported devices. A motion capture system based on inertial and magnetic sensors has been used to validate the protocol. The effectiveness of the performance enhancements introduced by each of the new features is demonstrated through the provision of both simulation and experimental results. PMID:22163826
Luis A. Rocha
Full Text Available The IEEE 802.15.4 Medium Access Control (MAC protocol is an enabling standard for wireless sensor networks. In order to support applications requiring dedicated bandwidth or bounded delay, it provides a reservation-based scheme named Guaranteed Time Slot (GTS. However, the GTS scheme presents some drawbacks, such as inefficient bandwidth utilization and support to a maximum of only seven devices. This paper presents eLPRT (enhanced Low Power Real Time, a new reservation-based MAC protocol that introduces several performance enhancing features in comparison to the GTS scheme. This MAC protocol builds on top of LPRT (Low Power Real Time and includes various mechanisms designed to increase data transmission reliability against channel errors, improve bandwidth utilization and increase the number of supported devices. A motion capture system based on inertial and magnetic sensors has been used to validate the protocol. The effectiveness of the performance enhancements introduced by each of the new features is demonstrated through the provision of both simulation and experimental results.
Heer, Elsa; Xaver, Angelika; Dorigo, Wouter; Messner, Romina
In-situ soil moisture observations are still trusted to be the most reliable data to validate remotely sensed soil moisture products. Thus, the quality of in-situ soil moisture observations is of high importance. The International Soil Moisture Network (ISMN; http://ismn.geo.tuwien.ac.at/) provides in-situ soil moisture data from all around the world. The data is collected from individual networks and data providers, measured by different sensors in various depths. The data sets which are delivered in different units, time zones and data formats are then transformed into homogeneous data sets. An erroneous behavior of soil moisture data is very difficult to detect, due to annual and daily changes and most significantly the high influence of precipitation and snow melting processes. Only few of the network providers have a quality assessment for their data sets. Therefore, advanced quality control procedures have been developed for the ISMN (Dorigo et al. 2013). Three categories of quality checks were introduced: exceeding boundary values, geophysical consistency checks and a spectrum based approach. The spectrum based quality control algorithms aim to detect erroneous measurements which occur within plausible geophysical ranges, e.g. a sudden drop in soil moisture caused by a sensor malfunction. By defining several conditions which have to be met by the original soil moisture time series and their first and second derivative, such error types can be detected. Since the development of these sophisticated methods many more data providers shared their data with the ISMN and new types of erroneous measurements were identified. Thus, an enhancement of the automated quality control procedures became necessary. In the present work, we introduce enhancements of the existing quality control algorithms. Additionally, six completely new quality checks have been developed, e.g. detection of suspicious values before or after NAN-values, constant values and values that lie in a
Yan, Bing-Nan; Liu, Chong-Xin; Ni, Jun-Kang; Zhao, Liang
In order to grasp the downhole situation immediately, logging while drilling (LWD) technology is adopted. One of the LWD technologies, called acoustic telemetry, can be successfully applied to modern drilling. It is critical for acoustic telemetry technology that the signal is successfully transmitted to the ground. In this paper, binary phase shift keying (BPSK) is used to modulate carrier waves for the transmission and a new BPSK demodulation scheme based on Duffing chaos is investigated. Firstly, a high-order system is given in order to enhance the signal detection capability and it is realized through building a virtual circuit using an electronic workbench (EWB). Secondly, a new BPSK demodulation scheme is proposed based on the intermittent chaos phenomena of the new Duffing system. Finally, a system variable crossing zero-point equidistance method is proposed to obtain the phase difference between the system and the BPSK signal. Then it is determined that the digital signal transmitted from the bottom of the well is ‘0’ or ‘1’. The simulation results show that the demodulation method is feasible. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51177117) and the National Key Science & Technology Special Projects, China (Grant No. 2011ZX05021-005).
Göb, S; Oliveros, E; Bossmann, S H; Braun, A M; Nascimento, C A; Guardani, R
Among advanced oxidation processes (AOPs), the photochemically enhanced Fenton reaction may be considered as one of the most efficient for the degradation of contaminants in industrial wastewater. This process involves a series of complex reactions. Therefore, an empirical model based on artificial neural networks has been developed for fitting the experimental data obtained in a laboratory batch reactor for the degradation of 2,4-dimethyl aniline (2,4-xylidine), chosen as a model pollutant. The model describes the evolution of the pollutant concentration during irradiation time as a function of the process conditions. It has been used for simulating the behavior of the reaction system in sensitivity studies aimed at optimizing the amounts of reactants employed in the process, an iron(III) salt and hydrogen peroxide, as well as the temperature. The results show that the process is most sensitive to the concentration of iron(III) salt and temperature, whereas the concentration of hydrogen peroxide has a minor effect.
Jyoti, Vishav; Kaler, Rajinder Singh
A novel virtual user system is modeled for enhancing the security of an optical code division multiple access (OCDMA) network. Although the OCDMA system implementing code shift keying (CSK) is secure against a conventional power detector, it is susceptible to differential eavesdropping. An analytical framework is developed for the CSK-OCDMA system to show eavesdropper's code interception performance for a single transmitting user in the presence of a virtual user. It is shown that the eavesdropper's probability of correct bit interception decreases from 7.1×10-1 to 1.85×10-5 with the inclusion of the virtual user. Furthermore, the results confirm that the proposed virtual user scheme increases the confidentiality of the CSK-OCDMA system and outperforms the conventional OCDMA scheme in terms of security.
Full Text Available By considering the difference between a car driver’s route choice behavior on the road and a passenger’s route choice behavior in urban rail transit (URT, this paper proposes an enhanced Dynamic User Optimal (DUO passenger flow assignment model for metro networks. To capture realistic URT phenomena, the model has integrated the train operation disturbance constraint. Real passenger and train data are used to verify the proposed model and algorithm. The results indicate that the DUO-based model is more suitable for describing passenger route choice behavior under uncertain conditions compared to a static model. Moreover, this paper found that passengers under oversaturated conditions are more sensitive to train operation disturbances compared to undersaturated passengers.
Full Text Available Poly(2-oxazoline networks with varying swelling degrees and varying hydrophilicity can be synthesized from 2-ethyl-2-oxazoline, 2-nonyl-2-oxazoline, 2-9’-decenyl-2-oxazoline and 2,2’-tetramethylene-bis-2-oxazoline in one-pot/one-step strategies. These gels can be loaded with organic molecules, such as fluorescein isothiocyanate, either during the polymerization (covalent attachment of the dye or according to post-synthetic swelling/deswelling strategies (physical inclusion of the dye. Surface functionalization of ground gels by thiol-ene reactions with cysteine-bearing peptides exhibiting the arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD motif yields microparticles with enhanced recognition of human cancer cells compared to healthy endothelial cells.
Wang, Yuanye; Pedersen, Klaus I.
The performance of enhanced Inter-Cell Interference Coordination (eICIC) for Long Term Evolution (LTE)- Advanced with co-channel deployment of both macro and pico is analyzed. The use of pico-cell Range Extension (RE) and time domain eICIC (TDM muting) is combined. The performance is evaluated...... in the downlink by means of extensive system level simulations that follow the 3GPP guidelines. The overall network performance is analyzed for different number of pico-eNBs, transmit power levels, User Equipment (UE) distributions, and packet schedulers. Recommended settings of the RE offset and TDM muting ratio...... in different scenarios are identified. The presented performance results and findings can serve as input to guidelines for co-channel deployment of macro and pico-eNBs with eICIC....
Zhang, Ya-Hang; Cheng, Bo-Wen; Qing, Si-Han; Zou, Guang-Nan; Wen, Wei-Ping
To solve the conflict between TCP accelerating technology based on PEP middle node and IPSec protocol used in the Satellite Network, NASA and the Hughes Research Laboratory (HRL) each independently proposed a solution named Multilayer IPsec protocol which can integrate IPSec with TCP PEPs. The problem is: Traditional IKE protocol can't work with Multilayer IPSec protocol. In this study, the traditional IKE main mode and quick mode are enhanced for layered IPSec protocol, and an improved layered key distribution protocol: ML-IKE is proposed. This key distribution protocol is used for key exchange between peers and middle node, so that different nodes have different security associations (SA), and different security associations correspond to different IP packet fields, so different SA nodes have different authorization to different IP packet fields. ML-IKE protocol is suitable for layered IPSec, thus layered IPSec can be used for automatic key distribution and update.
Full Text Available A bus network design problem in a suburban area of Hong Kong is studied. The objective is to minimize the weighted sum of the number of transfers and the total travel time of passengers by restructuring bus routes and determining new frequencies. A mixed integer optimization model is developed and was solved by a Hybrid Enhanced Artificial Bee Colony algorithm (HEABC. A case study was conducted to investigate the effects of different design parameters, including the total number of bus routes available, the maximum route duration within the study area and the maximum allowable number of bus routes that originated from each terminal. The model and results are useful for improving bus service policies.
Zhang, Yan; An, Lin; Xu, Jie; Zhang, Bo; Zheng, W Jim; Hu, Ming; Tang, Jijun; Yue, Feng
Although Hi-C technology is one of the most popular tools for studying 3D genome organization, due to sequencing cost, the resolution of most Hi-C datasets are coarse and cannot be used to link distal regulatory elements to their target genes. Here we develop HiCPlus, a computational approach based on deep convolutional neural network, to infer high-resolution Hi-C interaction matrices from low-resolution Hi-C data. We demonstrate that HiCPlus can impute interaction matrices highly similar to the original ones, while only using 1/16 of the original sequencing reads. We show that the models learned from one cell type can be applied to make predictions in other cell or tissue types. Our work not only provides a computational framework to enhance Hi-C data resolution but also reveals features underlying the formation of 3D chromatin interactions.
Full Text Available Nowadays, the real-world systems are usually subject to various complexities such as parameter uncertainties, time-delays, and nonlinear disturbances. For networked systems, especially large-scale systems such as multiagent systems and systems over sensor networks, the complexities are inevitably enhanced in terms of their degrees or intensities because of the usage of the communication networks. Therefore, it would be interesting to (1 examine how this kind of network-enhanced complexities affects the control or filtering performance; and (2 develop some suitable approaches for controller/filter design problems. In this paper, we aim to survey some recent advances on the performance analysis and synthesis with three sorts of fashionable network-enhanced complexities, namely, fading measurements, event-triggered mechanisms, and attack behaviors of adversaries. First, these three kinds of complexities are introduced in detail according to their engineering backgrounds, dynamical characteristic, and modelling techniques. Then, the developments of the performance analysis and synthesis issues for various networked systems are systematically reviewed. Furthermore, some challenges are illustrated by using a thorough literature review and some possible future research directions are highlighted.
Kleb, M. M.; Pippin, M. R.; Parker, P. A.; Rhew, R. D.; Szykman, J. J.; Neil, D. O.
We present an RPC validation study to determine the potential use of OMI tropospheric NO2 column data to enhance spatial surface predictions of NO2 as an augmentation to the continuous NO2 ground network data collected by the State and Local Air Monitoring Stations (SLAMS) and National Air Monitoring Stations (NAMS) for the continental United States. Using one year of OMI and SLAMS/NAMS ground based data from the EPA's Air Quality System (AQS), NO2 values are compared using a variety of statistical techniques including a time series analysis at each EPA ground station in the continental United States, a site-by- site correlation analysis, site-by-site comparison of mean and standard deviation values, and regional (defined by the ten EPA regions) spatial statistics. In addition, a multivariate statistical prediction model with significance testing is developed to determine within a 95% confidence level the impact of concentration, latitude, region, season, environment (urban vs. rural), and pixel size on the correlation of OMI to EPA NO2 data. The robustness of the statistical model is evaluated using statistical methods. Results of this experiment quantify the ability to use OMI-derived NO2 observations to provide predicted surface concentrations to augment the coverage of the existing NO2 ground networks in regions of sparse or non-existent ground monitors. This predictive capability could facilitate a more capable and integrated observing network for NO2 and lead to more informed air quality management decisions at the local, state, and national level.
Goehring, Tobias; Bolner, Federico; Monaghan, Jessica J M; van Dijk, Bas; Zarowski, Andrzej; Bleeck, Stefan
Speech understanding in noisy environments is still one of the major challenges for cochlear implant (CI) users in everyday life. We evaluated a speech enhancement algorithm based on neural networks (NNSE) for improving speech intelligibility in noise for CI users. The algorithm decomposes the noisy speech signal into time-frequency units, extracts a set of auditory-inspired features and feeds them to the neural network to produce an estimation of which frequency channels contain more perceptually important information (higher signal-to-noise ratio, SNR). This estimate is used to attenuate noise-dominated and retain speech-dominated CI channels for electrical stimulation, as in traditional n-of-m CI coding strategies. The proposed algorithm was evaluated by measuring the speech-in-noise performance of 14 CI users using three types of background noise. Two NNSE algorithms were compared: a speaker-dependent algorithm, that was trained on the target speaker used for testing, and a speaker-independent algorithm, that was trained on different speakers. Significant improvements in the intelligibility of speech in stationary and fluctuating noises were found relative to the unprocessed condition for the speaker-dependent algorithm in all noise types and for the speaker-independent algorithm in 2 out of 3 noise types. The NNSE algorithms used noise-specific neural networks that generalized to novel segments of the same noise type and worked over a range of SNRs. The proposed algorithm has the potential to improve the intelligibility of speech in noise for CI users while meeting the requirements of low computational complexity and processing delay for application in CI devices. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Liu, Lianggui; Chen, Li; Jia, Huiling
In large-scale wireless sensor networks (WSNs), in order to enhance network security, it is crucial for a trustor node to perform social milieu oriented routing to a target a trustee node to carry out trust evaluation. This challenging social milieu oriented routing with more than one end-to-end Quality of Trust (QoT) constraint has proved to be NP-complete. Heuristic algorithms with polynomial and pseudo-polynomial-time complexities are often used to deal with this challenging problem. However, existing solutions cannot guarantee the efficiency of searching; that is, they can hardly avoid obtaining partial optimal solutions during a searching process. Quantum annealing (QA) uses delocalization and tunneling to avoid falling into local minima without sacrificing execution time. This has been proven a promising way to many optimization problems in recently published literatures. In this paper, for the first time, with the help of a novel approach, that is, configuration path-integral Monte Carlo (CPIMC) simulations, a QA-based optimal social trust path (QA_OSTP) selection algorithm is applied to the extraction of the optimal social trust path in large-scale WSNs. Extensive experiments have been conducted, and the experiment results demonstrate that QA_OSTP outperforms its heuristic opponents.
Hirschauer, Thomas J; Adeli, Hojjat; Buford, John A
Early and accurate diagnosis of Parkinson's disease (PD) remains challenging. Neuropathological studies using brain bank specimens have estimated that a large percentages of clinical diagnoses of PD may be incorrect especially in the early stages. In this paper, a comprehensive computer model is presented for the diagnosis of PD based on motor, non-motor, and neuroimaging features using the recently-developed enhanced probabilistic neural network (EPNN). The model is tested for differentiating PD patients from those with scans without evidence of dopaminergic deficit (SWEDDs) using the Parkinson's Progression Markers Initiative (PPMI) database, an observational, multi-center study designed to identify PD biomarkers for diagnosis and disease progression. The results are compared to four other commonly-used machine learning algorithms: the probabilistic neural network (PNN), support vector machine (SVM), k-nearest neighbors (k-NN) algorithm, and classification tree (CT). The EPNN had the highest classification accuracy at 92.5% followed by the PNN (91.6%), k-NN (90.8%) and CT (90.2%). The EPNN exhibited an accuracy of 98.6% when classifying healthy control (HC) versus PD, higher than any previous studies.
Full Text Available In large-scale wireless sensor networks (WSNs, in order to enhance network security, it is crucial for a trustor node to perform social milieu oriented routing to a target a trustee node to carry out trust evaluation. This challenging social milieu oriented routing with more than one end-to-end Quality of Trust (QoT constraint has proved to be NP-complete. Heuristic algorithms with polynomial and pseudo-polynomial-time complexities are often used to deal with this challenging problem. However, existing solutions cannot guarantee the efficiency of searching; that is, they can hardly avoid obtaining partial optimal solutions during a searching process. Quantum annealing (QA uses delocalization and tunneling to avoid falling into local minima without sacrificing execution time. This has been proven a promising way to many optimization problems in recently published literatures. In this paper, for the first time, with the help of a novel approach, that is, configuration path-integral Monte Carlo (CPIMC simulations, a QA-based optimal social trust path (QA_OSTP selection algorithm is applied to the extraction of the optimal social trust path in large-scale WSNs. Extensive experiments have been conducted, and the experiment results demonstrate that QA_OSTP outperforms its heuristic opponents.
Africa has over 350 higher education institutions with a variety of experiences and priorities. The primary objectives of these institutions are to produce white-collar workers, teachers, and the work force for mining, textiles, and agricultural industries. The state of higher education and scientific research in Africa have been discussed in several conferences. The proposals that are generated by these conferences advocate structural changes in higher education, North-South institutional linkages, mobilization of the African Diaspora and funding. We propose a model African Scientific Network that would facilitate and enhance international scientific partnerships between African scientists and their counterparts elsewhere. A recent article by James Lamout (Financial Times, August 2, 2001) indicates that emigration from South Africa alone costs $8.9 billion in lost human resources. The article also stated that every year 23,000 graduates leave Africa for opportunities overseas, mainly in Europe, leaving only 20,000 scientists and engineers serving over 600 million people. The International Organization for Migration states that the brain drain of highly skilled professionals from Africa is making economic growth and poverty alleviation impossible across the continent. In our model we will focus on a possible networking mechanism where the African Diaspora will play a major role in addressing the financial and human resources needs of higher education in Africa
Oh, Jae Young; Jun, Gwang Hoon; Jin, Sunghwan; Ryu, Ho Jin; Hong, Soon Hyung
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphene are known to be good conductive fillers due to their favorable electrical properties and high aspect ratios and have been investigated for application as stretchable composite conductors. A stretchable conducting nanocomposite should have a small fraction of conductive filler material to maintain stretchability. Here we demonstrate enhanced electrical networks of nanocomposites via the use of a CNT-graphene hybrid system using a small mass fraction of conductive filler. The CNT-graphene hybrid system exhibits synergistic effects that prevent agglomeration of CNTs and graphene restacking and reduce contact resistance by formation of 1D(CNT)-2D(graphene) interconnection. These effects resulted in nanocomposite materials formed of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), thermally reduced graphene (TRG), and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), which had a higher electrical conductivity compared with MWCNT/PDMS or TRG/PDMS nanocomposites until specific fraction that is sufficient to form electrical network among conductive fillers. These nanocomposite materials maintained their electrical conductivity when 60% strained.
Full Text Available As an essential part of Internet of Things (IoT, wireless sensor networks (WSNs have touched every aspect of our lives, such as health monitoring, environmental monitoring and traffic monitoring. However, due to its openness, wireless sensor networks are vulnerable to various security threats. User authentication, as the first fundamental step to protect systems from various attacks, has attracted much attention. Numerous user authentication protocols armed with formal proof are springing up. Recently, two biometric-based schemes were proposed with confidence to be resistant to the known attacks including offline dictionary attack, impersonation attack and so on. However, after a scrutinization of these two schemes, we found them not secure enough as claimed, and then demonstrated that these schemes suffer from various attacks, such as offline dictionary attack, impersonation attack, no user anonymity, no forward secrecy, etc. Furthermore, we proposed an enhanced scheme to overcome the identified weaknesses, and proved its security via Burrows–Abadi–Needham (BAN logic and the heuristic analysis. Finally, we compared our scheme with other related schemes, and the results showed the superiority of our scheme.
Wang, Chenyu; Xu, Guoai; Sun, Jing
As an essential part of Internet of Things (IoT), wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have touched every aspect of our lives, such as health monitoring, environmental monitoring and traffic monitoring. However, due to its openness, wireless sensor networks are vulnerable to various security threats. User authentication, as the first fundamental step to protect systems from various attacks, has attracted much attention. Numerous user authentication protocols armed with formal proof are springing up. Recently, two biometric-based schemes were proposed with confidence to be resistant to the known attacks including offline dictionary attack, impersonation attack and so on. However, after a scrutinization of these two schemes, we found them not secure enough as claimed, and then demonstrated that these schemes suffer from various attacks, such as offline dictionary attack, impersonation attack, no user anonymity, no forward secrecy, etc. Furthermore, we proposed an enhanced scheme to overcome the identified weaknesses, and proved its security via Burrows-Abadi-Needham (BAN) logic and the heuristic analysis. Finally, we compared our scheme with other related schemes, and the results showed the superiority of our scheme.
C. G. Shi
Full Text Available In this paper, the problem of low probability of identification (LPID improvement for radar network systems is investigated. Firstly, the security information is derived to evaluate the LPID performance for radar network. Then, without any prior knowledge of hostile intercept receiver, a novel fuzzy chance-constrained programming (FCCP based security information optimization scheme is presented to achieve enhanced LPID performance in radar network systems, which focuses on minimizing the achievable mutual information (MI at interceptor, while the attainable MI outage probability at radar network is enforced to be greater than a specified confidence level. Regarding to the complexity and uncertainty of electromagnetic environment in the modern battlefield, the trapezoidal fuzzy number is used to describe the threshold of achievable MI at radar network based on the credibility theory. Finally, the FCCP model is transformed to a crisp equivalent form with the property of trapezoidal fuzzy number. Numerical simulation results demonstrating the performance of the proposed strategy are provided.
Li, X.; Liu, S.; Xiao, Q.; Ma, M.; Jin, R.; Che, T.
A major research plan entitled "Integrated research on the eco-hydrological process of the Heihe River Basin" was launched by the National Natural Science Foundation of China in 2010. One of the key aims of this research plan is to establish a research platform that integrates observation, data management, and model simulation to foster 21st-century watershed science in China. Based on the diverse needs of interdisciplinary studies within this research plan, a program called the Heihe Watershed Allied Telemetry Experimental Research (HiWATER) is implemented. The overall objective of HiWATER is to improve the observability of hydrological and ecological processes, to build a world-class watershed observing system and to enhance the application ability of remote sensing in integrated eco-hydrological study and water recourse management at basin scale. We introduce the background, scientific objectives and experimental design of the HiWATER. The highlights are using flux observing matrix and eco-hydrological wireless sensor network to capture multi-scale heterogeneities, in order to challenge the complex issues such as heterogeneity, scaling, uncertainty, and closing water cycle at watershed scale. HiWATER has formally kicked off in May 2012 and will last four years till 2015. HiWATER encompasses fundamental experiments, thematic experiments, application experiments, remote sensing methods development and products generation, and an integrated information system. (1) Fundamental experiments: a) Microwave radiometer, imaging spectrometer, thermal imaging camera, light detection and ranging (LiDAR) and other sensors are used in the airborne missions to observe key eco-hydrological parameters. b) A comprehensive hydrometeorological observation network has been established in the entire Heihe River Basin, in order to provide more representative model parameters and forcing data. c) An eco-hydrological wireless sensor network (WSN) has been installed to capture the spatial
Choi, Younsung; Lee, Donghoon; Kim, Jiye; Jung, Jaewook; Nam, Junghyun; Won, Dongho
Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) consist of sensors, gateways and users. Sensors are widely distributed to monitor various conditions, such as temperature, sound, speed and pressure but they have limited computational ability and energy. To reduce the resource use of sensors and enhance the security of WSNs, various user authentication protocols have been proposed. In 2011, Yeh et al. first proposed a user authentication protocol based on elliptic curve cryptography (ECC) for WSNs. However, it turned out that Yeh et al.'s protocol does not provide mutual authentication, perfect forward secrecy, and key agreement between the user and sensor. Later in 2013, Shi et al. proposed a new user authentication protocol that improves both security and efficiency of Yeh et al.'s protocol. However, Shi et al.'s improvement introduces other security weaknesses. In this paper, we show that Shi et al.'s improved protocol is vulnerable to session key attack, stolen smart card attack, and sensor energy exhausting attack. In addition, we propose a new, security-enhanced user authentication protocol using ECC for WSNs.
Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks (WSNs consist of sensors, gateways and users. Sensors are widely distributed to monitor various conditions, such as temperature, sound, speed and pressure but they have limited computational ability and energy. To reduce the resource use of sensors and enhance the security of WSNs, various user authentication protocols have been proposed. In 2011, Yeh et al. first proposed a user authentication protocol based on elliptic curve cryptography (ECC for WSNs. However, it turned out that Yeh et al.’s protocol does not provide mutual authentication, perfect forward secrecy, and key agreement between the user and sensor. Later in 2013, Shi et al. proposed a new user authentication protocol that improves both security and efficiency of Yeh et al.’s protocol. However, Shi et al.’s improvement introduces other security weaknesses. In this paper, we show that Shi et al.’s improved protocol is vulnerable to session key attack, stolen smart card attack, and sensor energy exhausting attack. In addition, we propose a new, security-enhanced user authentication protocol using ECC for WSNs.
Jung, Jaewook; Moon, Jongho; Lee, Donghoon; Won, Dongho
At present, users can utilize an authenticated key agreement protocol in a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) to securely obtain desired information, and numerous studies have investigated authentication techniques to construct efficient, robust WSNs. Chang et al. recently presented an authenticated key agreement mechanism for WSNs and claimed that their authentication mechanism can both prevent various types of attacks, as well as preserve security properties. However, we have discovered that Chang et al's method possesses some security weaknesses. First, their mechanism cannot guarantee protection against a password guessing attack, user impersonation attack or session key compromise. Second, the mechanism results in a high load on the gateway node because the gateway node should always maintain the verifier tables. Third, there is no session key verification process in the authentication phase. To this end, we describe how the previously-stated weaknesses occur and propose a security-enhanced version for WSNs. We present a detailed analysis of the security and performance of our authenticated key agreement mechanism, which not only enhances security compared to that of related schemes, but also takes efficiency into consideration.
Abdallah Bou Saleh
Full Text Available Decode-and-forward relaying is a promising enhancement to existing radio access networks and is currently being standardized in 3GPP to be part of the LTE-Advanced release 10. Two inband operation modes of relay nodes are to be supported, namely Type 1 and Type 1b. Relay nodes promise to offer considerable gain for system capacity or coverage depending on the deployment prioritization. However, the performance of relays, as any other radio access point, significantly depends on the propagation characteristics of the deployment environment. Hence, in this paper, we investigate the performance of Type 1 and Type 1b inband relaying within the LTE-Advanced framework in different propagation scenarios in terms of both coverage extension capabilities and capacity enhancements. A comparison between Type 1 and Type 1b relay nodes is as well presented to study the effect of the relaying overhead on the system performance in inband relay node deployments. System level simulations show that Type 1 and Type 1b inband relay deployments offer low to very high gains depending on the deployment environment. As well, it is shown that the effect of the relaying overhead is minimal on coverage extension whereas it is more evident on system throughput.
Jung, Jaewook; Moon, Jongho; Lee, Donghoon; Won, Dongho
At present, users can utilize an authenticated key agreement protocol in a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) to securely obtain desired information, and numerous studies have investigated authentication techniques to construct efficient, robust WSNs. Chang et al. recently presented an authenticated key agreement mechanism for WSNs and claimed that their authentication mechanism can both prevent various types of attacks, as well as preserve security properties. However, we have discovered that Chang et al’s method possesses some security weaknesses. First, their mechanism cannot guarantee protection against a password guessing attack, user impersonation attack or session key compromise. Second, the mechanism results in a high load on the gateway node because the gateway node should always maintain the verifier tables. Third, there is no session key verification process in the authentication phase. To this end, we describe how the previously-stated weaknesses occur and propose a security-enhanced version for WSNs. We present a detailed analysis of the security and performance of our authenticated key agreement mechanism, which not only enhances security compared to that of related schemes, but also takes efficiency into consideration. PMID:28335572
Umehara, Kensuke; Ota, Junko; Ishida, Takayuki
In this study, the super-resolution convolutional neural network (SRCNN) scheme, which is the emerging deep-learning-based super-resolution method for enhancing image resolution in chest CT images, was applied and evaluated using the post-processing approach. For evaluation, 89 chest CT cases were sampled from The Cancer Imaging Archive. The 89 CT cases were divided randomly into 45 training cases and 44 external test cases. The SRCNN was trained using the training dataset. With the trained SRCNN, a high-resolution image was reconstructed from a low-resolution image, which was down-sampled from an original test image. For quantitative evaluation, two image quality metrics were measured and compared to those of the conventional linear interpolation methods. The image restoration quality of the SRCNN scheme was significantly higher than that of the linear interpolation methods (p < 0.001 or p < 0.05). The high-resolution image reconstructed by the SRCNN scheme was highly restored and comparable to the original reference image, in particular, for a ×2 magnification. These results indicate that the SRCNN scheme significantly outperforms the linear interpolation methods for enhancing image resolution in chest CT images. The results also suggest that SRCNN may become a potential solution for generating high-resolution CT images from standard CT images.
Portnoy, W. M.; Stotts, L. J.
A physiological date telemetry system, consisting basically of a portable unit and a ground base station was designed, built, and tested. The portable unit to be worn by the subject is composed of a single crystal controlled transmitter with AM transmission of digital data and narrowband FM transmission of voice; a crystal controlled FM receiver; thirteen input channels follwed by a PCM encoder (three of these channels are designed for ECG data); a calibration unit; and a transponder control system. The ground base station consists of a standard telemetry reciever, a decoder, and an FM transmitter for transmission of voice and transponder signals to the portable unit. The ground base station has complete control of power to all subsystems in the portable unit. The phase-locked loop circuit which is used to decode the data, remains in operation even when the signal from the portable unit is interrupted.
Krosman, Kazimierz; Sosnowski, Janusz
This paper presents software methods of improving fault tolerance in embedded systems. These methods have been adapted to a telemetry system dedicated to tracking vehicles for logistics purposes. The developed telemetry system allows us to monitor vehicle position and some technical parameters via GSM communication. It comprises the capability of remote software reconfiguration. To evaluate dependability of the system we use a fault injection technique based on simulating bit-flip errors within memory cells. For this purpose an original testbed has been developed. It provides not only the capability of disturbing internal state of the tested system (via JTAG interface) but also the possibility of controlling system input states and observing its behavior (in particular output signals) according to specified test scenarios. The whole test process is automatized. The paper presents a case study related to a commercial product but the described methodology and techniques can be extended for other embedded systems.
Moraes, Davi J A; Bonagamba, Leni G H; da Silva, Melina P; Mecawi, André S; Antunes-Rodrigues, José; Machado, Benedito H
Chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) produces respiratory-related sympathetic overactivity and hypertension in rats. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the enhanced central respiratory modulation of sympathetic activity after CIH also decreases the sympathoinhibitory component of baroreflex of rats, which may contribute to the development of hypertension. Wistar rats were exposed to CIH or normoxia (control group) for 10 days. Phrenic nerve, thoracic sympathetic nerve, and neurons in the rostral ventrolateral medulla and caudal ventrolateral medulla were recorded in in situ preparations of rats. Baroreflex regulation of thoracic sympathetic nerve, rostral ventrolateral medulla, and caudal ventrolateral medulla neurons activities were evaluated in different phases of respiration in response to either aortic depressor nerve stimulation or pressure stimuli. CIH rats presented higher respiratory-related thoracic sympathetic nerve and rostral ventrolateral medulla presympathetic neurons activities at the end of expiration in relation to control rats, which are indexes of respiratory-related sympathetic overactivity. Baroreflex-evoked thoracic sympathetic nerve inhibition during expiration, but not during inspiration, was enhanced in CIH when compared with control rats. In addition, CIH selectively enhanced the expiratory-related baroreceptor inputs, probably through caudal ventrolateral medulla neurons, to the respiratory-modulated bulbospinal rostral ventrolateral medulla presympathetic neurons. These findings support the concept that the onset of hypertension, mediated by sympathetic overactivity, after 10 days of CIH is not secondary to a reduction in sympathoinhibitory component of baroreflex. Instead, it was observed an increase in the gain of sympathoinhibitory component in in situ preparations of rats, suggesting that changes in the respiratory-related sympathetic network after CIH also play a key role in preventing greater increase in arterial pressure
Jelicic, Vana; Cesarini, Daniel; Bilas, Vedran
Development of radio telemetry enabled long-term monitoring of hard-to-reach and harsh environments. This paper compares two WSN deployment projects for gathering sensor data in glacier monitoring application — GlacsWeb and PermaSense, in terms of system design and wireless communication. We discuss the potential benefits of energy-efficient event detection using wake-up receivers together with duty-cycled communication. We show that adding a WURx would increase the average power consumption of Dozer protocol for 10%, but it would reduce the delay from 2 minutes to several milliseconds. Besides for event detection, WURx could be used for synchronizing the beginning of the TDMA communication, which would eliminate the need for clock drift compensation, making the protocol simpler and lighter.
administration is continuing to evolve an integrated and global ballistic missile defense capability 4 (Hildreth & Woolf , 2010). Although the attention has...P. (2003). Performance evaluation of telemetry stations based on site selection. Defence Science Journal, 53, 233–238. Hildreth, S. A. & Woolf , A. F...51 INITIAL DISTRIBUTION LIST 1. Defense Technical Information Center Ft. Belvoir, Virginia 2. Dudley Knox Library Naval Postgraduate School Monterey, California
Giuseppe Ruvio; Domenico Gaetano; Ammann, Max J.; Patrick McEvoy
An antipodal Vivaldi antenna operates simultaneously for telemetry and sensing when placed conformally onto PVC pipes. Good radiation efficiency is realised and the antenna impedance matching remains stable when the pipe is empty or contains water. The Fidelity Factor performance based on an input Ultra Wideband Gaussian pulse is a suitable figure of merit to detect water presence. Different water levels and pipe conditions correspond to Fidelity Factors between 90% and 96%, which are a suita...
Hussey, Nigel E.; Kessel, Steven T.; Aarestrup, Kim
providing unprecedented ecological insights by connecting animal movements with measures of their physiology and environment. These developments are revolutionizing the scope and scale of questions that can be asked about the causes and consequences of movement and are redefining how we view and manage...... individuals, populations, and entire ecosystems. The next advance in aquatic telemetry will be the development of a global collaborative effort to facilitate infrastructure and data sharing and management over scales not previously possible....
The NASA Engineering (NE) Directorate at Kennedy Space Center provides engineering services to major programs such as: Space Shuttle, Inter national Space Station, and the Launch Services Program (LSP). The Av ionics Division within NE, provides avionics and flight control syste ms engineering support to LSP. The Launch Services Program is respons ible for procuring safe and reliable services for transporting critical, one of a kind, NASA payloads into orbit. As a result, engineers mu st monitor critical flight events during countdown and launch to asse ss anomalous behavior or any unexpected occurrence. The goal of this project is to take a tailored Systems Engineering approach to design, develop, and test Iris telemetry displays. The Flight Avionics Sequen cing Telemetry Delta-IV (FAST-D4) displays will provide NASA with an improved flight event monitoring tool to evaluate launch vehicle heal th and performance during system-level ground testing and flight. Flight events monitored will include data from the Redundant Inertial Fli ght Control Assembly (RIFCA) flight computer and launch vehicle comma nd feedback data. When a flight event occurs, the flight event is ill uminated on the display. This will enable NASA Engineers to monitor c ritical flight events on the day of launch. Completion of this project requires rudimentary knowledge of launch vehicle Guidance, Navigatio n, and Control (GN&C) systems, telemetry, and console operation. Work locations for the project include the engineering office, NASA telem etry laboratory, and Delta launch sites.
de Brock, Bert
From time to time developers of (database) applications will encounter, explicitly or implicitly, structures such as trees, graphs, and networks. Such applications can, for instance, relate to bills of material, organization charts, networks of (rail)roads, networks of conduit pipes (e.g., plumbing, electricity), telecom networks, and data…
Zhang, Y.; Shu, F.
To address system goodput and energy efficiency enhancement, this paper studies packet size optimization for IEEE 802.15.4 networks. Taking into account of the CSMA-CA contention, protocol overhead, and channel condition, new analytical models are proposed to calculate the goodput and the energy
A protocol for use in wireless mesh networks (PlayNCool) uses helper nodes to improve data flow in the network. The protocol is compatible with traditional mesh network routing algorithms. Techniques, systems, devices, and circuits for implementing the protocol are described.......A protocol for use in wireless mesh networks (PlayNCool) uses helper nodes to improve data flow in the network. The protocol is compatible with traditional mesh network routing algorithms. Techniques, systems, devices, and circuits for implementing the protocol are described....
Hanum Shirotu Nida
Telemetri wireless adalah proses pengukuran parameter suatu obyek yang hasil pengukurannya dikirimkan ke tempat lain melalui proses pengiriman data tanpa menggunakan kabel (wireless), sedangkan multi telemetri adalah gabungan dari beberapa telemeteri itu sendiri. Penelitian ini merancang prototype sistem multi-telemetri wireless untuk mengukur suhu udara dan kelembaban udara pada greenhouse dengan menggunakan sensor DHT11 dan data hasil dari pembacaan sensor dikirim dengan menggunakan modul W...
Full Text Available Data aggregation is an important technique for reducing the energy consumption of sensor nodes in wireless sensor networks (WSNs. However, compromised aggregators may forge false values as the aggregated results of their child nodes in order to conduct stealthy attacks or steal other nodes’ privacy. This paper proposes a Secure-Enhanced Data Aggregation based on Elliptic Curve Cryptography (SEDA-ECC. The design of SEDA-ECC is based on the principles of privacy homomorphic encryption (PH and divide-and-conquer. An aggregation tree disjoint method is first adopted to divide the tree into three subtrees of similar sizes, and a PH-based aggregation is performed in each subtree to generate an aggregated subtree result. Then the forged result can be identified by the base station (BS by comparing the aggregated count value. Finally, the aggregated result can be calculated by the BS according to the remaining results that have not been forged. Extensive analysis and simulations show that SEDA-ECC can achieve the highest security level on the aggregated result with appropriate energy consumption compared with other asymmetric schemes.
Ranganathan, Radha; Kannan, Kathiravan
IEEE 802.11 is the de facto standard for medium access over wireless ad hoc network. The collision avoidance mechanism (i.e., random binary exponential backoff—BEB) of IEEE 802.11 DCF (distributed coordination function) is inefficient and unfair especially under heavy load. In the literature, many algorithms have been proposed to tune the contention window (CW) size. However, these algorithms make every node select its backoff interval between [0, CW] in a random and uniform manner. This randomness is incorporated to avoid collisions among the nodes. But this random backoff interval can change the optimal order and frequency of channel access among competing nodes which results in unfairness and increased delay. In this paper, we propose an algorithm that schedules the medium access in a fair and effective manner. This algorithm enhances IEEE 802.11 DCF with additional level of contention resolution that prioritizes the contending nodes according to its queue length and waiting time. Each node computes its unique backoff interval using fuzzy logic based on the input parameters collected from contending nodes through overhearing. We evaluate our algorithm against IEEE 802.11, GDCF (gentle distributed coordination function) protocols using ns-2.35 simulator and show that our algorithm achieves good performance. PMID:25879066
Full Text Available Polymer flooding is now considered a technically- and commercially-proven method for enhanced oil recovery (EOR. The viscosity of the injected polymer solution is the key property for successful polymer flooding. Given that the viscosity of a polymer solution has a non-linear relationship with various influential parameters (molecular weight, degree of hydrolysis, polymer concentration, cation concentration of polymer solution, shear rate, temperature and that measurement of viscosity based on these parameters is a time-consuming process, the range of solution samples and the measurement conditions need to be limited and precise. Viscosity estimation of the polymer solution is effective for these purposes. An artificial neural network (ANN was applied to the viscosity estimation of FlopaamTM 3330S, FlopaamTM 3630S and AN-125 solutions, three commonly-used EOR polymers. The viscosities measured and estimated by ANN and the Carreau model using Lee’s correlation, the only method for estimating the viscosity of an EOR polymer solution in unmeasured conditions, were compared. Estimation accuracy was evaluated by the average absolute relative deviation, which has been widely used for accuracy evaluation of the results of ANN models. In all conditions, the accuracy of the ANN model is higher than that of the Carreau model using Lee’s correlation.
Full Text Available We review harvested energy prediction schemes to be used in wireless sensor networks and explore the relative merits of landmark solutions. We propose enhancements to the well-known Profile-Energy (Pro-Energy model, the so-called Improved Profile-Energy (IPro-Energy, and compare its performance with Accurate Solar Irradiance Prediction Model (ASIM, Pro-Energy, and Weather Conditioned Moving Average (WCMA. The performance metrics considered are the prediction accuracy and the execution time which measure the implementation complexity. In addition, the effectiveness of the considered models, when integrated in an energy management scheme, is also investigated in terms of the achieved throughput and the energy consumption. Both solar irradiance and wind power datasets are used for the evaluation study. Our results indicate that the proposed IPro-Energy scheme outperforms the other candidate models in terms of the prediction accuracy achieved by up to 78% for short term predictions and 50% for medium term prediction horizons. For long term predictions, its prediction accuracy is comparable to the Pro-Energy model but outperforms the other models by up to 64%. In addition, the IPro scheme is able to achieve the highest throughput when integrated in the developed energy management scheme. Finally, the ASIM scheme reports the smallest implementation complexity.
Full Text Available Each down stroke of an insect’s wings accelerates axial airflow over the antennae. Modeling studies suggest that this can greatly enhance penetration of air and air-born odorants through the antennal sensilla thereby periodically increasing odorant-receptor interactions. Do these periodic changes result in entrainment of neural responses in the antenna and antennal lobe (AL? Does this entrainment affect olfactory acuity? To address these questions, we monitored antennal and AL responses in the moth Manduca sexta while odorants were pulsed at frequencies from 10-72 Hz, encompassing the natural wingbeat frequency. Power spectral density (PSD analysis was used to identify entrainment of neural activity. Statistical analysis of PSDs indicates that the antennal nerve tracked pulsed odor up to 30 Hz. Furthermore, at least 50% of AL local field potentials (LFPs and between 7-25% of unitary spiking responses also tracked pulsed odor up to 30 Hz in a frequency-locked manner. Application of bicuculline (200µM abolished pulse tracking in both LFP and unitary responses suggesting that GABAA receptor activation is necessary for pulse tracking within the AL. Finally, psychophysical measures of odor detection establish that detection thresholds are lowered when odor is pulsed at 20 Hz. These results suggest that AL networks can respond to the oscillatory dynamics of stimuli such as those imposed by the wing beat in a manner analogous to mammalian sniffing.
Zubair, Suleiman; Syed Yusoff, Sharifah Kamilah; Fisal, Norsheila
The emergence of the Internet of Things and the proliferation of mobile wireless devices has brought the area of mobile cognitive radio sensor networks (MCRSN) to the research spot light. Notwithstanding the potentials of CRSNs in terms of opportunistic channel usage for bursty traffic, the effect of the mobility of resource-constrained nodes to route stability, mobility-induced spatio-temporal spectral opportunities and primary user (PU) protection still remain open issues that need to be jointly addressed. To this effect, this paper proposes a mobile reliable geographical forwarding routing (MROR) protocol. MROR provides a robust mobile framework for geographical forwarding that is based on a mobility-induced channel availability model. It presents a comprehensive routing strategy that considers PU activity (to take care of routes that have to be built through PU coverage), PU signal protection (by the introduction of a mobility-induced guard (mguard) distance) and the random mobility-induced spatio-temporal spectrum opportunities (for enhancement of throughput). It also addresses the issue of frequent route maintenance that arises when speeds of the mobile nodes are considered as a routing metric. As a result, simulation has shown the ability of MROR to reduce the route failure rate by about 65% as against other schemes. In addition, further results show that MROR can improve both the throughput and goodput at the sink in an energy-efficient manner that is required in CRSNs as against compared works.
Nielsen, Thomas Toftegaard; Wagard, Jeroen; Skjærris, Søren
Baseband frequency hopping in the combination with downlink power control and discontinuous transmission has been investigated as a quality improving feature in a live GSM network. Using the dropped call rate and the frame erasure rate to measure the network quality, the use of frequency hopping...... to the statistical inaccuracy with discontinuous transmission in GSM and maybe due to poor performance of the mobile stations, was encountered. The current status is therefore to reject the use of downlink discontinuous transmission until more information about the performance of the mobile stations is found...
Lopes, M A; Lee, K-E; Goltsev, A V; Mendes, J F F
We show that sensory noise can enhance the nonlinear response of neuronal networks, and when delivered together with a weak signal, it improves the signal detection by the network. We reveal this phenomenon in neuronal networks that are in a dynamical state preceding a saddle-node bifurcation corresponding to the appearance of sustained network oscillations. In this state, even a weak subthreshold pulse can evoke a large-amplitude oscillation of neuronal activity. The signal-to-noise ratio reaches a maximum at an optimum level of sensory noise, manifesting stochastic resonance (SR) at the population level. We demonstrate SR by use of simulations and numerical integration of rate equations in a cortical model. Using this model, we mimic the experiments of Gluckman et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 4098 (1996)PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.77.4098] that have given evidence of SR in mammalian brain. We also study neuronal networks in which neurons are grouped in modules and every module works in the regime of SR. We find that even a few modules can strongly enhance the reliability of signal detection in comparison with the case when a modular organization is absent.
Kölker, K.; Lopes dos Santos, B.F.; Lütjens, K.
The main focus of this study is to solve the network planning problem based on passenger decision criteria including the preferred departure time and travel time for a real-sized airline network. For this purpose, a model of the integrated network planning problem is formulated including scheduling
Kuan, Yen-Cheng; Lo, Yi-Kai; Kim, Yanghyo; Chang, Mau-Chung Frank; Liu, Wentai
Implantable wireless neural recording from a large ensemble of simultaneously acting neurons is a critical component to thoroughly investigate neural interactions and brain dynamics from freely moving animals. Recent researches have shown the feasibility of simultaneously recording from hundreds of neurons and suggested that the ability of recording a larger number of neurons results in better signal quality. This massive recording inevitably demands a large amount of data transfer. For example, recording 2000 neurons while keeping the signal fidelity ( > 12 bit, > 40 KS/s per neuron) needs approximately a 1-Gb/s data link. Designing a wireless data telemetry system to support such (or higher) data rate while aiming to lower the power consumption of an implantable device imposes a grand challenge on neuroscience community. In this paper, we present a wireless gigabit data telemetry for future large-scale neural recording interface. This telemetry comprises of a pair of low-power gigabit transmitter and receiver operating at 60 GHz, and establishes a short-distance wireless link to transfer the massive amount of neural signals outward from the implanted device. The transmission distance of the received neural signal can be further extended by an externally rendezvous wireless transceiver, which is less power/heat-constraint since it is not at the immediate proximity of the cortex and its radiated signal is not seriously attenuated by the lossy tissue. The gigabit data link has been demonstrated to achieve a high data rate of 6 Gb/s with a bit-error-rate of 10(-12) at a transmission distance of 6 mm, an applicable separation between transmitter and receiver. This high data rate is able to support thousands of recording channels while ensuring a low energy cost per bit of 2.08 pJ/b.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Pinnipeds, including many endangered and declining species, are inaccessible and difficult to monitor for extended periods using externally attached telemetry devices that are shed during the annual molt. Archival satellite transmitters were implanted intraperitoneally into four rehabilitated California sea lions (Zalophus californianus and 15 wild juvenile Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus to determine the viability of this surgical technique for the deployment of long-term telemetry devices in otariids. The life history transmitters record information throughout the life of the host and transmit data to orbiting satellites after extrusion following death of the host. Results Surgeries were performed under isoflurane anesthesia and single (n = 4 or dual (n = 15 transmitters were inserted into the ventrocaudal abdominal cavity via an 8.5 to 12 cm incision along the ventral midline between the umbilicus and pubic symphysis or preputial opening. Surgeries lasted 90 minutes (SD = 8 for the 19 sea lions. All animals recovered well and were released into the wild after extended monitoring periods from 27 to 69 days at two captive animal facilities. Minimum post-implant survival was determined via post-release tracking using externally attached satellite transmitters or via opportunistic re-sighting for mean durations of 73.7 days (SE = 9.0, Z. californianus and 223.6 days (SE = 71.5, E. jubatus. Conclusion The low morbidity and zero mortality encountered during captive observation and post-release tracking periods confirm the viability of this surgical technique for the implantation of long-term telemetry devices in otariids.
Full Text Available Distribution networks are designed as a ring and operated as a radial form. Therefore, the reconfiguration is a simple and cost-effective way to use existing facilities without the need for any new equipment in distribution networks to achieve various objectives such as: power loss reduction, feeder overload reduction, load balancing, voltage profile improvement, reducing the number of switching considering constraints that ultimately result in the power loss reduction. In this paper, a new method based on the Ant Lion algorithm (a modern meta-heuristic algorithm is provided for the reconfiguration of distribution networks. Considering the extension of the distribution networks and complexity of their communications networks, and the various parameters, using smart techniques is inevitable. The proposed approach is tested on the IEEE 33 & 69-bus radial standard distribution networks. The Evaluation of results in MATLAB software shows the effectiveness of the Ant Lion algorithm in the distribution network reconfiguration.
Winter, H.V.; Keeken, van, O.A.; Foekema, E.M.; Kleissen, F.; Friocourt, Y.; Beare, D.J.
Fish migration may be hampered by a range of physical barriers. That non-physical barriers such as sudden changes in water quality may also serve as barriers is often stated, but only very few studies address this issue. This study focusses on linking the behavioural response of silver eel and river lamprey when encountering a waste water plume (effluent) in field situations. Individual fish movements were tracked by means of acoustic telemetry in 2D (in 2009) and in 3D (in 2010) at a locatio...
Full Text Available An antipodal Vivaldi antenna operates simultaneously for telemetry and sensing when placed conformally onto PVC pipes. Good radiation efficiency is realised and the antenna impedance matching remains stable when a pipe is empty or contains water. The fidelity factor performance based on an input Ultra-Wideband Gaussian pulse is a suitable figure of merit to detect water presence. Different water levels and pipe conditions correspond to fidelity factors between 90% and 96%, which are a suitable dynamic range for sensing and the appropriate quality for pulse communications for remote monitoring.
Walker, Uriae M.
Plant Habitat (PH) is an experiment to be taken to the International Space Station (ISS) in 2016. It is critical that ground support computers have the ability to uplink commands to control PH, and that ISS computers have the ability to downlink PH telemetry data to ground support. This necessitates communication software that can send, receive, and process, PH specific commands and telemetry. The objective of the Plant Habitat Telemetry/ Command Interface is to provide this communication software, and to couple it with an intuitive Graphical User Interface (GUI). Initial investigation of the project objective led to the decision that code be written in C++ because of its compatibility with existing source code infrastructures and robustness. Further investigation led to a determination that multiple Ethernet packet structures would need to be created to effectively transmit data. Setting a standard for packet structures would allow us to distinguish these packets that would range from command type packets to sub categories of telemetry packets. In order to handle this range of packet types, the conclusion was made to take an object-oriented programming approach which complemented our decision to use the C++ programming language. In addition, extensive utilization of port programming concepts was required to implement the core functionality of the communication software. Also, a concrete understanding of a packet processing software was required in order to put aU the components of ISS-to-Ground Support Equipment (GSE) communication together and complete the objective. A second project discussed in this paper is Exposing Microbes to the Stratosphere (EMIST). This project exposes microbes into the stratosphere to observe how they are impacted by atmospheric effects. This paper focuses on the electrical and software expectations of the project, specifically drafting the printed circuit board, and programming the on-board sensors. The Eagle Computer-Aided Drafting
Caporali, E.; Tuneski, A.
, following the criteria and conditions for setting up a Joint Postgraduate Degree. The new second cycle degree courses are going to be activated in the academic year 2012/2012. Both the first and second cycle curricula, developed through the co-operation, exchange of know-how and expertise between partners, are based on the European Credit Transfer System and are in accordance with the Bologna Process. In DEREL a second objective is to implement a sustainable regional network aimed to offer lifelong learning seminars for environment and resources engineering education and training of interested stakeholders and organize workshops focused on strengthening the links in the knowledge triangle: environment education-innovation-research, with participation of postgraduate students, public services, enterprises and NGO's. Also, the good collaborative environment created, since 2005, with the project partners can be surely mentioned as an additional valuable objective of the two TEMPUS projects, enabling implementation of a sustainable international network for environment and resources engineering studies enhancement and development.
Luo, Chang-Yi; Komuro, Nobuyoshi; Takahashi, Kiyoshi; Kasai, Hiroyuki; Ueda, Hiromi; Tsuboi, Toshinori
Ad hoc networking uses wireless technologies to construct networks with no physical infrastructure and so are expected to provide instant networking in areas such as disaster recovery sites and inter-vehicle communication. Unlike conventional wired networks services, services in ad hoc networks are easily disrupted by the frequent changes in traffic and topology. Therefore, solutions to assure the Quality of Services (QoS) in ad hoc networks are different from the conventional ones used in wired networks. In this paper, we propose a new queue management scheme, Interference Drop Scheme (IDS) for ad hoc networks. In the conventional queue management approaches such as FIFO (First-in First-out) and RED (Random Early Detection), a queue is usually managed by a queue length limit. FIFO discards packets according to the queue limit, and RED discards packets in an early and random fashion. IDS, on the other hand, manages the queue according to wireless interference time, which increases as the number of contentions in the MAC layer increases. When there are many MAC contentions, IDS discards TCP data packets. By observing the interference time and discarding TCP data packets, our simulation results show that IDS improves TCP performance and reduces QoS violations in UDP in ad hoc networks with chain, grid, and random topologies. Our simulation results also demonstrate that wireless interference time is a better metric than queue length limit for queue management in multi-hop ad hoc networks.
Gosselin, David C.
The primary goals of this project were to: 1. Promote and enhance K-12 earth science education; and enhance the access to and exchange of information through the use of digital networks in K-12 institutions. We have achieved these two goals. Through the efforts of many individuals at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln (UNL), Nebraska Earth Science Education Network (NESEN) has become a viable and beneficial interdisciplinary outreach program for K-12 educators in Nebraska. Over the last three years, the NASA grant has provided personnel and equipment to maintain, expand and develop NESEN into a program that is recognized by its membership as a valuable source of information and expertise in earth systems science. Because NASA funding provided a framework upon which to build, other external sources of funding have become available to support NESEN programs.
Sowmiya, C; Raja, R; Cao, Jinde; Rajchakit, G; Alsaedi, Ahmed
This paper is concerned with the problem of enhanced results on robust finite-time passivity for uncertain discrete-time Markovian jumping BAM delayed neural networks with leakage delay. By implementing a proper Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional candidate, the reciprocally convex combination method together with linear matrix inequality technique, several sufficient conditions are derived for varying the passivity of discrete-time BAM neural networks. An important feature presented in our paper is that we utilize the reciprocally convex combination lemma in the main section and the relevance of that lemma arises from the derivation of stability by using Jensen's inequality. Further, the zero inequalities help to propose the sufficient conditions for finite-time boundedness and passivity for uncertainties. Finally, the enhancement of the feasible region of the proposed criteria is shown via numerical examples with simulation to illustrate the applicability and usefulness of the proposed method.
Zhou, Rui; Han, Cheng-jie; Wang, Xiao-min
Layered molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) owns graphene-like two-dimensional structure, and when used as the electrode material for energy storage devices, the intercalation of electrolyte ions is permitted. Herein, a simple dipping and drying method is employed to stack few-layered MoS2 nanosheets on a three-dimensional graphene network (3DGN). The structure measurement results indicate that the assembled hierarchical MoS2 nanosheets own expanded interlayer spacing (∼0.75 nm) and are stacked on the surface of 3DGN uncontinuously. The composite can achieve 110.57% capacitance retention after 4000 cycles of galvanostatic charge/discharge tests and 76.73% capacitance retention with increasing the current density from 1 A g-1 to 100 A g-1. Moreover, the asymmetric coin cell supercapacitor using MoS2@3DGN and active carbon as electrode materials is assembled. This device could achieve a working voltage window of 1.6 V along with the power and energy densities of 400.0-8001.6 W kg-1 and 36.43-1.12 Wh kg-1 respectively. The enhanced electrochemical performance can be attributed to: (1) the expanded interlayer spacing of hierarchical MoS2 nanosheets which can facilitate the fast intercalation/deintercalation of electrolyte cations, (2) the uncontinuous deposition of hierarchical MoS2 nanosheets which facilitates more contact between electrolyte and the section of MoS2 nanosheets to provide more gates for the intercalation/deintercalation.
Chen, Fu; Yang, Baodan; Zhang, Wangyuan; Ma, Jing; Lv, Jie; Yang, Yongjun
Electric bicycles (e-bicycles) are a primary means of commuting in China because of their light weight, speed, and low maintenance costs. Owing to short service life and environmental pollution hazards, recycling and reuse of e-bicycle batteries has always been a focus of industry and academia. As a typical case of both production and use of large electric bicycles, 113 major sellers, 378 corporate and individual buyers, 147 large e-bicycle repair centers, and 1317 e-bicycle owners in Xuzhou City were investigated in order to understand the sales, use, recycling, and disposal of spent e-bicycle batteries. The findings show that the existing distempered recycling system is the main limitation of spent battery recovery, and the actual recovery rate of spent batteries is lower than the estimated output (QW) for the years 2011-2014. Electric bicycle sellers play a fundamental role in the collection of spent batteries in Xuzhou, accounting for 42.3±8.3% of all batteries recovered. The widespread use of lithium batteries in recent years has resulted in a reduction in spent battery recycling because of lower battery prices. Furthermore, consumer preferences are another important factor affecting the actual recovery rate according to survey results evaluated using canonical correspondence analysis. In this paper, we suggest that a reverse logistics network system for spent battery recycling should be established in the future; in addition, enhancing producer responsibility, increasing publicity, raising of public awareness, developing green public transport, and reducing dependence on e-bicycles also should be pursued. This study seeks to provide guidance for planning construction and management policies for an effective spent battery recycling system in China and other developing countries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Li, Tim M H; Chau, Michael; Wong, Paul W C; Lai, Eliza S Y; Yip, Paul S F
Internet-based learning programs provide people with massive health care information and self-help guidelines on improving their health. The advent of Web 2.0 and social networks renders significant flexibility to embedding highly interactive components, such as games, to foster learning processes. The effectiveness of game-based learning on social networks has not yet been fully evaluated. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a fully automated, Web-based, social network electronic game on enhancing mental health knowledge and problem-solving skills of young people. We investigated potential motivational constructs directly affecting the learning outcome. Gender differences in learning outcome and motivation were also examined. A pre/posttest design was used to evaluate the fully automated Web-based intervention. Participants, recruited from a closed online user group, self-assessed their mental health literacy and motivational constructs before and after completing the game within a 3-week period. The electronic game was designed according to cognitive-behavioral approaches. Completers and intent-to-treat analyses, using multiple imputation for missing data, were performed. Regression analysis with backward selection was employed when examining the relationship between knowledge enhancement and motivational constructs. The sample included 73 undergraduates (42 females) for completers analysis. The gaming approach was effective in enhancing young people's mental health literacy (d=0.65). The finding was also consistent with the intent-to-treat analysis, which included 127 undergraduates (75 females). No gender differences were found in learning outcome (P=.97). Intrinsic goal orientation was the primary factor in learning motivation, whereas test anxiety was successfully alleviated in the game setting. No gender differences were found on any learning motivation subscales (P>.10). We also found that participants' self-efficacy for learning and
Full Text Available We present NetMatchStar, a Cytoscape app to find all the occurrences of a query graph in a network and check for its significance as a motif with respect to seven different random models. The query can be uploaded or built from scratch using Cytoscape facilities. The app significantly enhances the previous NetMatch in style, performance and functionality. Notably NetMatchStar allows queries with wildcards.
Ling, Mee Hong; Yau, Kok-Lim Alvin; Qadir, Junaid; Poh, Geong Sen; Ni, Qiang
Cognitive radio network (CRN) enables unlicensed users (or secondary users, SUs) to sense for and opportunistically operate in underutilized licensed channels, which are owned by the licensed users (or primary users, PUs). Cognitive radio network (CRN) has been regarded as the next-generation wireless network centered on the application of artificial intelligence, which helps the SUs to learn about, as well as to adaptively and dynamically reconfigure its operating parameters, including the s...
Friedrich, Claudia C; Lin, Yunfeng; Krannich, Alexander; Wu, Yinan; Vacanti, Joseph P; Neville, Craig M
Creation of functional, durable vasculature remains an important goal within the field of regenerative medicine. Engineered biological vasculature has the potential to restore or improve human tissue function. We hypothesized that the pleotropic effects of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) would enhance the engineering of capillary-like vasculature. The impact of IGF1 upon vasculogenesis was examined in in vitro cultures for a period of up to 40 days and as subcutaneous implants within immunodeficient mice. Co-cultures of human umbilical vein endothelial cells and human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells in collagen-fibronectin hydrogels were supplemented with either recombinant IGF1 protein or genetically engineered cells to provide sustained IGF1. Morphometric analysis was performed on the vascular networks that formed in four concentrations of IGF1. IGF1 supplementation significantly enhanced de novo vasculogenesis both in vitro and in vivo. Effects were long-term as they lasted the duration of the study period, and included network density, vessel length, and diameter. Bifurcation density was not affected. However, the highest concentrations of IGF1 tested were either ineffective or even deleterious. Sustained IGF1 delivery was required in vivo as the inclusion of recombinant IGF1 protein had minimal impact. IGF1 supplementation can be used to produce neovasculature with significantly enhanced network density and durability. Its use is a promising methodology for engineering de novo vasculature to support regeneration of functional tissue. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Selvam, Kayalvizhi; Vinod Kumar, D. M.; Siripuram, Ramakanth
In this paper, an optimization technique called peer enhanced teaching learning based optimization (PeTLBO) algorithm is used in multi-objective problem domain. The PeTLBO algorithm is parameter less so it reduced the computational burden. The proposed peer enhanced multi-objective based TLBO (PeMOTLBO) algorithm has been utilized to find a set of non-dominated optimal solutions [distributed generation (DG) location and sizing in distribution network]. The objectives considered are: real power loss and the voltage deviation subjected to voltage limits and maximum penetration level of DG in distribution network. Since the DG considered is capable of injecting real and reactive power to the distribution network the power factor is considered as 0.85 lead. The proposed peer enhanced multi-objective optimization technique provides different trade-off solutions in order to find the best compromise solution a fuzzy set theory approach has been used. The effectiveness of this proposed PeMOTLBO is tested on IEEE 33-bus and Indian 85-bus distribution system. The performance is validated with Pareto fronts and two performance metrics (C-metric and S-metric) by comparing with robust multi-objective technique called non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm-II and also with the basic TLBO.
Cagua, E Fernando; Cochran, Jesse E M; Rohner, Christoph A; Prebble, Clare E M; Sinclair-Taylor, Tane H; Pierce, Simon J; Berumen, Michael L
Although whale sharks (Rhincodon typus) have been documented to move thousands of kilometres, they are most frequently observed at a few predictable seasonal aggregation sites. The absence of sharks at the surface during visual surveys has led to the assumption that sharks disperse to places unknown during the long 'off-seasons' at most of these locations. Here we compare 2 years of R. typus visual sighting records from Mafia Island in Tanzania to concurrent acoustic telemetry of tagged individuals. Sightings revealed a clear seasonal pattern with a peak between October and February and no sharks observed at other times. By contrast, acoustic telemetry demonstrated year-round residency of R. typus. The sharks use a different habitat in the off-season, swimming deeper and further away from shore, presumably in response to prey distributions. This behavioural change reduces the sharks' visibility, giving the false impression that they have left the area. We demonstrate, for the first time to our knowledge, year-round residency of unprovisioned, individual R. typus at an aggregation site, and highlight the importance of using multiple techniques to study the movement ecology of marine megafauna. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.
Cagua, Edgar F.
Althoughwhale sharks (Rhincodon typus) have beendocumentedtomove thousands of kilometres, they are most frequently observed at a few predictable seasonal aggregation sites. The absence of sharks at the surface during visual surveys has led to the assumption that sharks disperse to places unknown during the long \\'off-seasons\\' at most of these locations. Here we compare 2 years of R. typus visual sighting records from Mafia Island in Tanzania to concurrent acoustic telemetry of tagged individuals. Sightings revealed a clear seasonal pattern with a peak between October and February and no sharks observed at other times. By contrast, acoustic telemetry demonstrated yearround residency of R. typus. The sharks use a different habitat in the offseason, swimming deeper and further away from shore, presumably in response to prey distributions. This behavioural change reduces the sharks\\' visibility, giving the false impression that they have left the area.We demonstrate, for the first timeto our knowledge, year-roundresidencyofunprovisioned, individual R. typus at an aggregation site, and highlight the importance of using multiple techniques to study the movement ecology of marine megafauna. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.
Mortensen, Dale J.; Handler, Louis M.; Quinn, Todd M.
A Software Communications Architecture (SCA) Waveform for space telemetry is being developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). The space telemetry waveform is implemented in a laboratory testbed consisting of general purpose processors, field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs), analog-to-digital converters (ADCs), and digital-to-analog converters (DACs). The radio hardware is integrated with an SCA Core Framework and other software development tools. The waveform design is described from both the bottom-up signal processing and top-down software component perspectives. Simulations and model-based design techniques used for signal processing subsystems are presented. Testing with legacy hardware-based modems verifies proper design implementation and dynamic waveform operations. The waveform development is part of an effort by NASA to define an open architecture for space based reconfigurable transceivers. Use of the SCA as a reference has increased understanding of software defined radio architectures. However, since space requirements put a premium on size, mass, and power, the SCA may be impractical for today s space ready technology. Specific requirements for an SCA waveform and other lessons learned from this development are discussed.
Full Text Available Abstract Transmission control protocol (TCP, which provides reliable end-to-end data delivery, performs well in traditional wired network environments, while in wireless ad hoc networks, it does not perform well. Compared to wired networks, wireless ad hoc networks have some specific characteristics such as node mobility and a shared medium. Owing to these specific characteristics of wireless ad hoc networks, TCP faces particular problems with, for example, route failure, channel contention and high bit error rates. These factors are responsible for the performance degradation of TCP in wireless ad hoc networks. The research community has produced a wide range of proposals to improve the performance of TCP in wireless ad hoc networks. This article presents a survey of these proposals (approaches. A classification of TCP improvement proposals for wireless ad hoc networks is presented, which makes it easy to compare the proposals falling under the same category. Tables which summarize the approaches for quick overview are provided. Possible directions for further improvements in this area are suggested in the conclusions. The aim of the article is to enable the reader to quickly acquire an overview of the state of TCP in wireless ad hoc networks.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation will utilize self learning neural network technology to determine the structure of osteoporosis, immune system disease, and excess radiation...
Nowak, Christian; Escobedo, Fernando A.
Molecular simulations are used to study the effect of synthesis conditions on the tensile response of liquid-crystalline elastomers formed by block copolymer chains. Remarkably, it is found that despite the significant presence of trapped entanglements, these networks can exhibit the sawtooth tensile response previously predicted for ideal unentangled networks. It is also found that the monomer concentration during crosslinking can be tuned to limit the extent of entanglements and inhomogeneities while also maximizing network extensibility. It is predicted that networks synthesized at a "critical" concentration will have the greatest toughness.
Bhalala, Utpal S; Bonafide, Christopher P; Coletti, Christian M; Rathmanner, Penny E; Nadkarni, Vinay M; Berg, Robert A; Witzke, Anita K; Kasprzak, Melody S; Zubrow, Marc T
Among in-hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA) patients, the first cardiac rhythm documented on resuscitation records (FDR) is often used as a surrogate for arrest etiology. Although the FDR generally represents the electrical activity at the time of cardiopulmonary resuscitation initiation, it may not be the ideal rhythm to infer the arrest etiology. We hypothesized that a rhythm present earlier-at the time of the code blue call-would frequently differ from the FDR, because the FDR might represent the later stage of a progressive cardiopulmonary process. To evaluate agreement between FDR and telemetry rhythm at the time of code blue call. Cross-sectional study. A 750-bed adult tertiary care hospital and a 240-bed adult inner city community hospital. Adult general ward patients monitored on the hospital's telemetry system during the 2 minutes prior to a code blue call for IHCA. None. Agreement between FDR and telemetry rhythm. Among 69 IHCAs, agreement between FDR and telemetry was 65% (kappa = 0.37). Among 17 events with FDRs of ventricular tachyarrhythmia (VTA), telemetry showed VTA in 12 (71%) and other organized rhythms in 5 (29%). Among 12 events with first documented rhythms of asystole, telemetry showed asystole in 3 (25%), VTA in 1 (8%), and other organized rhythms in 8 (67%). The FDR had only fair agreement with the telemetry rhythm at the time of code blue call. The telemetry rhythm may be a useful adjunct to the FDR when investigating arrest etiology. Copyright © 2013 Society of Hospital Medicine.
Wang, Haibo; Prasad, Devendra; Teyeb, Oumer
This paper investigates the end-to-end(E2E) quality of service(QoS) provisioning approaches for UMTS networks together with DiffServ IP network. The effort was put on QoS classes mapping from DiffServ to UMTS, Access Control(AC), buffering and scheduling optimization. The DiffServ Code Point (DSCP...
KILLER APP ........................................................................................65 H. DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS...initially implement and build the network. Several connection mediums were also used including serial connections, wireless Xbee devices, and wired CAT5...of these background ideas and technologies, it is important to keep in mind the common thread that they all rely on—communication. A. NETWORK
Devineau, Olivier; Kendall, William L.; Doherty, Paul F.; Shenk, Tanya M.; White, Gary C.; Lukacs, Paul M.; Burnham, Kenneth P.
Although telemetry is one of the most common tools used in the study of wildlife, advances in the analysis of telemetry data have lagged compared to progress in the development of telemetry devices. We demonstrate how standard known-fate telemetry and related nest-survival data analysis models are special cases of the more general multistate framework. We present a short theoretical development, and 2 case examples regarding the American black duck and the mallard. We also present a more complex lynx data analysis. Although not necessary in all situations, the multistate framework provides additional flexibility to analyze telemetry data, which may help analysts and biologists better deal with the vagaries of real-world data collection.
Román, Francisco J; Iturria-Medina, Yasser; Martínez, Kenia; Karama, Sherif; Burgaleta, Miguel; Evans, Alan C; Jaeggi, Susanne M; Colom, Roberto
The structural connectome provides relevant information about experience and training-related changes in the brain. Here, we used network-based statistics (NBS) and graph theoretical analyses to study structural changes in the brain as a function of cognitive training. Fifty-six young women were divided in two groups (experimental and control). We assessed their cognitive function before and after completing a working memory intervention using a comprehensive battery that included fluid and crystallized abilities, working memory and attention control, and we also obtained structural MRI images. We acquired and analyzed diffusion-weighted images to reconstruct the anatomical connectome and we computed standardized changes in connectivity as well as group differences across time using NBS. We also compared group differences relying on a variety of graph-theory indices (clustering, characteristic path length, global and local efficiency and strength) for the whole network as well as for the sub-network derived from NBS analyses. Finally, we calculated correlations between these graph indices and training performance as well as the behavioral changes in cognitive function. Our results revealed enhanced connectivity for the training group within one specific network comprised of nodes/regions supporting cognitive processes required by the training (working memory, interference resolution, inhibition, and task engagement). Significant group differences were also observed for strength and global efficiency indices in the sub-network detected by NBS. Therefore, the connectome approach is a valuable method for tracking the effects of cognitive training interventions across specific sub-networks. Moreover, this approach allowsfor the computation of graph theoretical network metricstoquantifythetopological architecture of the brain networkdetected. The observed structural brain changes support the behavioral results reported earlier (see Colom, Román, et al., 2013
Chen, Rui; Shu, Guangqiang; Chen, Peng; Zhang, Lijun
With the widely deployment of mobile wireless networks, we aim to propose a secure and seamless handover authentication scheme that allows users to roam freely in wireless networks without worrying about security and privacy issues. Given the open characteristic of wireless networks, safety and efficiency should be considered seriously. Several previous protocols are designed based on a bilinear pairing mapping, which is time-consuming and inefficient work, as well as unsuitable for practical situations. To address these issues, we designed a new pairing-free handover authentication scheme for mobile wireless networks. This scheme is an effective improvement of the protocol by Xu et al., which is suffer from the mobile node impersonation attack. Security analysis and simulation experiment indicate that the proposed protocol has many excellent security properties when compared with other recent similar handover schemes, such as mutual authentication and resistance to known network threats, as well as requiring lower computation and communication cost.
Yamamoto, Takehito; Tode, Hideki; Murakami, Koso
It is known that TCP data transfer in a wireless multihop network experiences a degradation in inter-connection fairness and throughput. This is because TCP is designed for use in wired networks, and the wireless multihop network has characteristics of sharing of the medium resources among nodes, which wired networks do not have. In particular, in wireless multihop networks where wireless nodes widely exist, hidden/exposed terminal problems are caused even if an RTS/CTS handshake is used. In this paper, two methods are proposed to improve fairness and throughput, without any feedback information from the intermediate nodes or cross-layer information. One method restricts the transfer period, while the other restrains the TCP congestion window. We evaluated these methods using computer simulations.
Full Text Available Wireless Sensor Network (WSN is known to be a highly resource constrained class of network where energy consumption is one of the prime concerns. In this research, a cross layer design methodology was adopted to design an energy efficient routing protocol entitled “Position Responsive Routing Protocol” (PRRP. PRRP is designed to minimize energy consumed in each node by (1 reducing the amount of time in which a sensor node is in an idle listening state and (2 reducing the average communication distance over the network. The performance of the proposed PRRP was critically evaluated in the context of network lifetime, throughput, and energy consumption of the network per individual basis and per data packet basis. The research results were analyzed and benchmarked against the well-known LEACH and CELRP protocols. The outcomes show a significant improvement in the WSN in terms of energy efficiency and the overall performance of WSN.
Full Text Available The sensing of volatile organic compounds by multiwall carbon nanotube networks of randomly entangled pristine nanotubes or the nanotubes functionalized by n-butylamine, which were deposited on polyurethane supporting electrospinned nonwoven membrane, has been investigated. The results show that the sensing of volatile organic compounds by functionalized nanotubes considerably increases with respect to pristine nanotubes. The increase is highly dependent on used vapor polarity. For the case of highly polar methanol, the functionalized MWCNT network exhibits even more than eightfold higher sensitivity in comparison to the network prepared from pristine nanotubes.
Over several years, the Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT) has been implementing the AASHTO Pontis Bridge Management System to support network-level and project-level decision making in the headquarters and district offices. Pontis is an int...
Motivation: Most functions within the cell emerge thanks to protein-protein interactions (PPIs), yet experimental determination of PPIs is both expensive and time-consuming. PPI networks present significant levels of noise and incompleteness. Predicting interactions using only PPI-network topology (topological prediction) is difficult but essential when prior biological knowledge is absent or unreliable.Methods: Network embedding emphasizes the relations between network proteins embedded in a low-dimensional space, in which protein pairs that are closer to each other represent good candidate interactions. To achieve network denoising, which boosts prediction performance, we first applied minimum curvilinear embedding (MCE), and then adopted shortest path (SP) in the reduced space to assign likelihood scores to candidate interactions. Furthermore, we introduce (i) a new valid variation of MCE, named non-centred MCE (ncMCE); (ii) two automatic strategies for selecting the appropriate embedding dimension; and (iii) two new randomized procedures for evaluating predictions.Results: We compared our method against several unsupervised and supervisedly tuned embedding approaches and node neighbourhood techniques. Despite its computational simplicity, ncMCE-SP was the overall leader, outperforming the current methods in topological link prediction.Conclusion: Minimum curvilinearity is a valuable non-linear framework that we successfully applied to the embedding of protein networks for the unsupervised prediction of novel PPIs. The rationale for our approach is that biological and evolutionary information is imprinted in the non-linear patterns hidden behind the protein network topology, and can be exploited for predicting new protein links. The predicted PPIs represent good candidates for testing in high-throughput experiments or for exploitation in systems biology tools such as those used for network-based inference and prediction of disease-related functional modules. The
Nisar, T.M.; Whitehead, C
This paper aims to investigate how user loyalty can be achieved and maintained through social networking sites. More specifically, we intend to test the relationships between brands, user loyalty and social media. The research thus provides insights into user-brand relationships through social media and argues how loyal customers can be through social networking websites. Although there are considerable numbers of studies about loyalty; there exists very limited work studying user loyalty thr...
Pallvi Garg; Naveen Goyal
Issue of congestion in Optical Burst Switching Networks is the main issue now days. Congestion occurs when the reception time is less than transmission time during the transfer of data. In this paper, we had used Modified Erlang’s Loss Formulae to control the congestion in Optical Burst Switching Networks. This control of congestion is done by controlling the blocking probability. The Blocking Probability is related to Traffic Intensity also. Simulation results show that with the value of tr...
El-Ghazawi, Tarek A.; Pritchard, Jim; Knoble, Gordon
Telemetry processing refers to the reconstruction of full resolution raw instrumentation data with artifacts, of space and ground recording and transmission, removed. Being the first processing phase of satellite data, this process is also referred to as level-zero processing. This study is aimed at investigating the use of massively parallel computing technology in providing level-zero processing to spaceflights that adhere to the recommendations of the Consultative Committee on Space Data Systems (CCSDS). The workload characteristics, of level-zero processing, are used to identify processing requirements in high-performance computing systems. An example of level-zero functions on a SIMD MPP, such as the MasPar, is discussed. The requirements in this paper are based in part on the Earth Observing System (EOS) Data and Operation System (EDOS).
Liang, Bin; Yang, Zhi; Liu, Wentai
This paper presents a demodulator design for Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK) based wireless telemetry system in biomedical application. It supports up to 300Kbits per second (bps) data rate and detects envelope with modulation index of 1% or more. The design includes a single-to-differential OTA, a current mode full-wave rectifier, a log-domain peak detector, a variable-gain amplifier and a comparator. The rising and falling time constants of our design are tunable through varying off-chip components to support a wide range of modulation indexes and data rate. The circuit blocks are designed and simulated in Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company (TSMC) 0.18microm process and occupying 120x420microm(2). The power consumption is 1mW with 1.8V supply voltage.
Thorbergsson, P T; Garwicz, M; Schouenborg, J; Johansson, A J
With an ever increasing need for assessment of neurophysiological activity in connection with injury and basic research, the demand for an efficient and reliable data acquisition system rises. Brain-machine interfaces is one class of such systems that targets the central nervous system. A necessary step in the development of a brain-machine interface is to design and implement a reliable and efficient measurement system for neurophysiological signals. The use of telemetric devices increases the flexibility of the devices in terms of subject mobility and unobtrusiveness of the equipment. In this paper, we present a complete system architecture for a wearable telemetry system for the acquisition of neurophysiological data. The system has been miniaturized and implemented using surface-mount technology. System performance has been successfully verified and bottlenecks in the architecture have been identified.
Full Text Available This work deals with the development and characterization of a potentially implantable blood pressure telemetry system, based on an active Radio-Frequency IDentification (RFID tag, International Organization for Standardization (ISO 15693 compliant. This approach aims to continuously measure the average, systolic and diastolic blood pressure of the small/medium animals. The measured pressure wave undergoes embedded processing and results are stored onboard in a non-volatile memory, providing the data under interrogation by an external RFID reader. In order to extend battery lifetime, RFID energy harvesting has been investigated. The paper presents the experimental characterization in a laboratory and preliminary in-vivo tests. The device is a prototype mainly intended, in a future engineered version, for monitoring freely moving test animals for pharmaceutical research and drug safety assessment purposes, but it could have multiple uses in environmental and industrial applications.
Giri, R. R.; Maxwell, M. S.
The Multimegabit Operation Multiplexer System (MOMS) is a high-data-rate PCM telemetry unit capable of sampling and encoding 60 scanning radiometer and four vidicon channels at 250 kilosamples/second and 5 megasamples/second, respectively. This sampling capacity plus the seven-bit quantization requires a total throughput rate of 40 megasamples/second and 280 megabits/second. To produce these rates efficiently, the system was divided into a pair of identical 140-megabit blocks. A low-power 20-MHz analog multiplexer and analog-to-digital converter were developed together with a video sample-and-hold that features an aperture time error of less than 50 psec. Breadboard testing of these basic building blocks confirmed the design prediction that the total system would consume 27 watts of power. Two 140-megabit output parts are suitable for quadriphase modulation.
Istepanian, R S; Woodward, B
This paper presents a microcontroller-based underwater acoustic telemetry system for digital transmission of the electrocardiogram (ECG). The system is designed for the real time, through-water transmission of data representing any parameter, and it was used initially for transmitting in multiplexed format the heart rate, breathing rate and depth of a diver using self-contained underwater breathing apparatus (SCUBA). Here, it is used to monitor cardiovascular reflexes during diving and swimming. The programmable capability of the system provides an effective solution to the problem of transmitting data in the presence of multipath interference. An important feature of the paper is a comparative performance analysis of two encoding methods, Pulse Code Modulation (PCM) and Pulse Position Modulation (PPM).
Full Text Available Wireless home automation networks are gaining importance for smart homes. In this ambit, ZigBee networks play an important role. The ZigBee specification defines a default set of protocol stack parameters and mechanisms that is further refined by the ZigBee Home Automation application profile. In a holistic approach, we analyze how the network performance is affected with the tuning of parameters and mechanisms across multiple layers of the ZigBee protocol stack and investigate possible performance gains by implementing and testing alternative settings. The evaluations are carried out in a testbed of 57 TelosB motes. The results show that considerable performance improvements can be achieved by using alternative protocol stack configurations. From these results, we derive two improved protocol stack configurations for ZigBee wireless home automation networks that are validated in various network scenarios. In our experiments, these improved configurations yield a relative packet delivery ratio increase of up to 33.6%, a delay decrease of up to 66.6% and an improvement of the energy efficiency for battery powered devices of up to 48.7%, obtainable without incurring any overhead to the network.
Paramasivan, B; Kaliappan, M
Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) are wireless networks consisting of number of autonomous mobile devices temporarily interconnected into a network by wireless media. MANETs become one of the most prevalent areas of research in the recent years. Resource limitations, energy efficiency, scalability, and security are the great challenging issues in MANETs. Due to its deployment nature, MANETs are more vulnerable to malicious attack. The secure routing protocols perform very basic security related functions which are not sufficient to protect the network. In this paper, a secure and fair cluster head selection protocol (SFCP) is proposed which integrates security factors into the clustering approach for achieving attacker identification and classification. Byzantine agreement based cooperative technique is used for attacker identification and classification to make the network more attack resistant. SFCP used to solve this issue by making the nodes that are totally surrounded by malicious neighbors adjust dynamically their belief and disbelief thresholds. The proposed protocol selects the secure and energy efficient cluster head which acts as a local detector without imposing overhead to the clustering performance. SFCP is simulated in network simulator 2 and compared with two protocols including AODV and CBRP.
Weissland, Thierry; Passavant, Éric; Allal, Aziz; Amiard, Valérie; Antczak, Boris; Manzo, Julie
Initiated by the Regional Olympic and Sports Committee and the Regional Directorate of Youth, Sports and Social Cohesion, the “Picardie en Forme” network has been working since 2011 in favour of adults of all ages, with chronic noncommunicable or similar diseases, to encourage a gradual return to reassuring and perennial regular physical activity,. A first step consisted of organizing a care pathway based on two principles: inform general practitioners so that they can encourage their patients to be physically active by referring them to the network, develop a range of local sports by accrediting certain clubs with sports instructors who have been trained in the management of this specific population. In 2013, 121 users entered the network at the request of 61 doctors. 48 sports instructors were trained and 20 associations obtained the Picardie en Forme label. Comparison of the results of tests performed on entry in the network and then eight months later shows a general physical reconditioning of users, increasing their motivation and perceived physical value. However, despite these encouraging results, the network has difficulty retaining users, and maintaining the involvement of general practitioners and certain local partners. This article discusses the relevance of initial approaches and describes the changes made to sustain this regional network, which, for the first time, links sport, health and users.
Full Text Available Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs are wireless networks consisting of number of autonomous mobile devices temporarily interconnected into a network by wireless media. MANETs become one of the most prevalent areas of research in the recent years. Resource limitations, energy efficiency, scalability, and security are the great challenging issues in MANETs. Due to its deployment nature, MANETs are more vulnerable to malicious attack. The secure routing protocols perform very basic security related functions which are not sufficient to protect the network. In this paper, a secure and fair cluster head selection protocol (SFCP is proposed which integrates security factors into the clustering approach for achieving attacker identification and classification. Byzantine agreement based cooperative technique is used for attacker identification and classification to make the network more attack resistant. SFCP used to solve this issue by making the nodes that are totally surrounded by malicious neighbors adjust dynamically their belief and disbelief thresholds. The proposed protocol selects the secure and energy efficient cluster head which acts as a local detector without imposing overhead to the clustering performance. SFCP is simulated in network simulator 2 and compared with two protocols including AODV and CBRP.
Betzler, August; Gomez, Carles; Demirkol, Ilker; Paradells, Josep
Wireless home automation networks are gaining importance for smart homes. In this ambit, ZigBee networks play an important role. The ZigBee specification defines a default set of protocol stack parameters and mechanisms that is further refined by the ZigBee Home Automation application profile. In a holistic approach, we analyze how the network performance is affected with the tuning of parameters and mechanisms across multiple layers of the ZigBee protocol stack and investigate possible performance gains by implementing and testing alternative settings. The evaluations are carried out in a testbed of 57 TelosB motes. The results show that considerable performance improvements can be achieved by using alternative protocol stack configurations. From these results, we derive two improved protocol stack configurations for ZigBee wireless home automation networks that are validated in various network scenarios. In our experiments, these improved configurations yield a relative packet delivery ratio increase of up to 33.6%, a delay decrease of up to 66.6% and an improvement of the energy efficiency for battery powered devices of up to 48.7%, obtainable without incurring any overhead to the network.
Fitch, Jeffery T.; Simon, Alan L.; Gouveia, John A.; Hillin, Andrew M.; Hernandez, Steve A.
Shewhart control charts have been established as an expedient method for analyzing dynamic, trending data in order to identify anomalous subsystem performance as soon as such performance would exceed a statistically established baseline. Additionally, this leading indicator tool integrates a selection methodology that reduces false positive indications, optimizes true leading indicator events, minimizes computer processor unit duty cycles, and addresses human factor concerns (i.e., the potential for flight-controller data overload). This innovation leverages statistical process control, and provides a relatively simple way to allow flight controllers to focus their attention on subtle system changes that could lead to dramatic off-nominal system performance. Finally, this capability improves response time to potential hardware damage and/or crew injury, thereby improving space flight safety. Shewhart control charts require normalized data. However, the telemetry from the ISS Early External Thermal Control System (EETCS) was not normally distributed. A method for normalizing the data was implemented, as was a means of selecting data windows, the number of standard deviations (Sigma Level), the number of consecutive points out of limits (Sequence), and direction (increasing or decreasing trend data). By varying these options, and treating them like dial settings, the number of nuisance alerts and leading indicators were optimized. The goal was to capture all leading indicators while minimizing the number of nuisances. Lean Six Sigma (L6S) design of experiment methodologies were employed. To optimize the results, Perl programming language was used to automate the massive amounts of telemetry data, control chart plots, and the data analysis.
Trifoglio, M.; Bulgarelli, A.; Gianotti, F.; Lazzarotto, F.; Di Cocco, G.; Fuschino, F.; Tavani, M.
AGILE is an Italian Space Agency (ASI) satellite dedicated to high energy Astrophysics. It was launched successfully on 23 April 2007, and it has been operated by the AGILE Ground Segment, consisting of the Ground Station located in Malindi (Kenia), the Mission Operations Centre (MOC) and the AGILE Data Centre (ADC) established in Italy, at Telespazio in Fucino and at the ASI Science Data Centre (ASDC) in Frascati respectively. Due to the low equatorial orbit at ~ 530 Km. with inclination angle of ~ 2.5°, the satellite passes over the Ground Station every ~ 100'. During the visibility period of . ~ 12', the Telemetry (TM) is down linked through two separated virtual channels, VC0 and VC1. The former is devoted to the real time TM generated during the pass at the average rate of 50 Kbit/s and is directly relayed to the Control Centre. The latter is used to downlink TM data collected on the satellite on-board mass memory during the non visibility period. This generates at the Ground Station a raw TM file of up to 37 MByte. Within 20' after the end of the contact, both the real time and mass memory TM arrive at ADC through the dedicated VPN ASINet. Here they are automatically detected and ingested by the TMPPS pipeline in less than 5 minutes. The TMPPS archives each TM file and sorts its packets into one stream for each of the different TM layout. Each stream is processed in parallel in order to unpack the various telemetry field and archive them into suitable FITS files. Each operation is tracked into a MySQL data base which interfaces the TMPPS pipeline to the rest of the scientific pipeline running at ADC. In this paper the architecture and the performance of the TMPPS will be described and discussed.
Full Text Available Lens induction is a classical developmental model allowing investigation of cell specification, spatiotemporal control of gene expression, as well as how transcription factors are integrated into highly complex gene regulatory networks (GRNs. Pax6 represents a key node in the gene regulatory network governing mammalian lens induction. Meis1 and Meis2 homeoproteins are considered as essential upstream regulators of Pax6 during lens morphogenesis based on their interaction with the ectoderm enhancer (EE located upstream of Pax6 transcription start site. Despite this generally accepted regulatory pathway, Meis1-, Meis2- and EE-deficient mice have surprisingly mild eye phenotypes at placodal stage of lens development. Here, we show that simultaneous deletion of Meis1 and Meis2 in presumptive lens ectoderm results in arrested lens development in the pre-placodal stage, and neither lens placode nor lens is formed. We found that in the presumptive lens ectoderm of Meis1/Meis2 deficient embryos Pax6 expression is absent. We demonstrate using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP that in addition to EE, Meis homeoproteins bind to a remote, ultraconserved SIMO enhancer of Pax6. We further show, using in vivo gene reporter analyses, that the lens-specific activity of SIMO enhancer is dependent on the presence of three Meis binding sites, phylogenetically conserved from man to zebrafish. Genetic ablation of EE and SIMO enhancers demostrates their requirement for lens induction and uncovers an apparent redundancy at early stages of lens development. These findings identify a genetic requirement for Meis1 and Meis2 during the early steps of mammalian eye development. Moreover, they reveal an apparent robustness in the gene regulatory mechanism whereby two independent "shadow enhancers" maintain critical levels of a dosage-sensitive gene, Pax6, during lens induction.
Alexander James Casson
Full Text Available Workload classification---the determination of whether a human operator is in a high or low workload state to allow their working environment to be optimized---is an emerging application of passive Brain-Computer Interface (BCI systems. Practical systems must not only accurately detect the current workload state, but also have good temporal performance: requiring little time to set up and train the classifier, and ensuring that the reported performance level is consistent and predictable over time. This paper investigates the temporal performance of an Artificial Neural Network based classification system. For networks trained on little EEG data good classification accuracies (86% are achieved over very short time frames, but substantial decreases in accuracy are found as the time gap between the network training and the actual use is increased. Noise-enhanced processing, where artificially generated noise is deliberately added to the testing signals, is investigated as a potential technique to mitigate this degradation without requiring the network to be re-trained using more data. Small stochastic resonance effects are demonstrated whereby the classification process gets better in the presence of more noise. The effect is small and does not eliminate the need for re-training, but it is consistent, and this is the first demonstration of such effects for non-evoked/free-running EEG signals suitable for passive BCI.
Full Text Available Due to its extreme simplicity and flexibility, the IEEE 802.11 standard is the dominant technology to implement both infrastructure-based WLANs and single-hop ad hoc networks. In spite of its popularity, there is a vast literature demonstrating the shortcomings of using the 802.11 technology in such environments, such as dramatic degradation of network capacity as contention increases and vulnerability to external interferences. Therefore, the design of enhancements and optimizations for the original 802.11 MAC protocol has been a very active research area in the last years. However, all these modifications to the 802.11 MAC protocol were validated only through simulations and/or analytical investigations. In this paper, we present a very unique work as we have designed a flexible hardware/software platform, fully compatible with current implementations of the IEEE 802.11 technology, which we have used to concretely implement and test an enhanced 802.11 backoff algorithm. Our experimental results clearly show that the enhanced mechanism outperforms the standard 802.11 MAC protocol in real scenarios.
Lawrence, Gregory W.
The Petite Amateur Navy Satellite (PANSAT) is a communications satellite designed to be used by civilian amateur radio operators. A master ground station is being built at the Naval Postgraduate School. This computer system performs satellite commands, displays telemetry, trouble-shoots problems, and passes messages. The system also controls an open loop tracking antenna. This paper concentrates on the telemetry display, decoding, and interpretation through artificial intelligence (AI). The telemetry is displayed in an easily interpretable format, so that any user can understand the current health of the satellite and be cued as to any problems and possible solutions. Only the master ground station has the ability to receive all telemetry and send commands to the spacecraft; civilian ham users do not have access to this information. The telemetry data is decommutated and analyzed before it is displayed to the user, so that the raw data will not have to be interpreted by ground users. The analysis will use CLIPS imbedded in the code, and derive its inputs from telemetry decommutation. The program is an expert system using a forward chaining set of rules based on the expected operation and parameters of the satellite. By building the rules during the construction and design of the satellite, the telemetry can be well understood and interpreted after the satellite is launched and the designers may no longer be available to provide input to the problem.
Safranski, David L.; Weiss, Daiana; Clark, J. Brian; Taylor, W.R.; Gall, Ken
Biodegradable polymers are clinically used in numerous biomedical applications, and classically show a loss in mechanical properties within weeks of implantation. This work demonstrates a new class of semi-degradable polymers that show an increase in mechanical properties through degradation via a controlled shift in a thermal transition. Semi-degradable polymer networks, poly(β-amino ester)-co-methyl methacrylate, were formed from a low glass transition temperature crosslinker, poly(β-amino ester), and high glass transition temperature monomer, methyl methacrylate, which degraded in a manner dependent upon the crosslinker chemical structure. In vitro and in vivo degradation revealed changes in mechanical behavior due to the degradation of the crosslinker from the polymer network. This novel polymer system demonstrates a strategy to temporally control the mechanical behavior of polymers and to enhance the initial performance of smart biomedical devices. PMID:24769113
Liu, Hang; Bouillet, E.; Pendarakis, Dimitrios; Komaee, Nooshin; Labourdette, J.; Chaudhuri, Sid
For distributed control, network topology and link resource information is required at the ingress nodes to compute and route optical paths. It is the responsibility of routing protocols to disseminate this information. Generalized MPLS has extended traditional IP routing protocols such as OSPF for explicit path computation and traffic engineering (TE) in optical transport networks. However it is noted that the current version of GMPLS-extended OSPF-TE does not carry sufficient link state information to compute shared mesh restored paths. This paper describes the new extensions to the GMPLS OSPF-TE protocol to support the path computation for shared mesh restoration in optical networks. The efficient methods for aggregation and dissemination of link resource availability and sharing information are proposed. Especially these new extensions support both Shared Risk Link Group (SRLG) disjoint and node disjoint restoration paths, which provides more flexibility to the network operators. The network operators can choose to guarantee recovery from a SRLG failure or from a node/SRLG failure based upon the applications and the service level agreements with their customers. Furthermore, the paper presents an analytical model to estimate the performance of the GMPLS OSPF-TE protocol and the proposed extensions, including control bandwidth and memory requirements.
Bhatt, Deepak; Aggarwal, Priyanka; Devabhaktuni, Vijay; Bhattacharya, Prabir
Integrated inertial navigation system (INS) and global positioning system (GPS) units provide reliable navigation solution compared to standalone INS or GPS. Traditional Kalman filter-based INS/GPS integration schemes have several inadequacies related to sensor error model and immunity to noise. Alternatively, multi-layer perceptron (MLP) neural networks with three layers have been implemented to improve the position accuracy of the integrated system. However, MLP neural networks show poor accuracy for low-cost INS because of the large inherent sensor errors. For the first time the paper demonstrates the use of knowledge-based source difference artificial neural network (SDANN) to improve navigation performance of low-cost sensor, with or without external aiding sources. Unlike the conventional MLP or artificial neural networks (ANN), the structure of SDANN consists of two MLP neural networks called the coarse model and the difference model. The coarse model learns the input-output data relationship whereas the difference model adds knowledge to the system and fine-tunes the coarse model output by learning the associated training or estimation error. Our proposed SDANN model illustrated a significant improvement in navigation accuracy of up to 81% over conventional MLP. The results demonstrate that the proposed SDANN method is effective for GPS/INS integration schemes using low-cost inertial sensors, with and without GPS.
Bagri, D. S.; Statman, J. I.
The Deep Space Array-based Network (DSAN) is part of >1000 times increases in the downlink/telemetry capability of the Deep Space Network. The key function of the DSAN is provision of cost-effective, robust, Telemetry, Tracking and Command (TT&C) services to the space missions of NASA and its international parameters. This paper presents the architecture of DSAN and its operations philosophy. It also briefly describes customer's view of operations, operations management, logistics, anomaly analysis and reporting.
Loubeyre, Jean Philippe
The increasing amount of telemetry parameters and the increasing complexity of procedures used for the in-orbit satellite follow-up has led to the development of new tools for telemetry monitoring and procedures performing. The name of the system presented here is Graphic Server. It provides an advanced graphic representation of the satellite subsystems, including real-time telemetry and alarm displaying, and a powerful help for decision making with on line contingency procedures. Used for 2.5 years at the TELECOM S.C.C. for procedure performing, it has become an essential part of the S.C.C.
Full Text Available An approach for nonsupervised segmentation of Computed Tomography (CT brain slices which is based on the use of Vector Quantization Networks (VQNs is described. Images are segmented via a VQN in such way that tissue is characterized according to its geometrical and topological neighborhood. The main contribution rises from the proposal of a similarity metric which is based on the application of Discrete Compactness (DC which is a factor that provides information about the shape of an object. One of its main strengths lies in the sense of its low sensitivity to variations, due to noise or capture defects, in the shape of an object. We will present, compare, and discuss some examples of segmentation networks trained under Kohonen’s original algorithm and also under our similarity metric. Some experiments are established in order to measure the effectiveness and robustness, under our application of interest, of the proposed networks and similarity metric.
Full Text Available Gene regulatory networks are a crucial aspect of systems biology in describing molecular mechanisms of the cell. Various computational models rely on random gene selection to infer such networks from microarray data. While incorporation of prior knowledge into data analysis has been deemed important, in practice, it has generally been limited to referencing genes in probe sets and using curated knowledge bases. We investigate the impact of augmenting microarray data with semantic relations automatically extracted from the literature, with the view that relations encoding gene/protein interactions eliminate the need for random selection of components in non-exhaustive approaches, producing a more accurate model of cellular behavior. A genetic algorithm is then used to optimize the strength of interactions using microarray data and an artificial neural network fitness function. The result is a directed and weighted network providing the individual contribution of each gene to its target. For testing, we used invasive ductile carcinoma of the breast to query the literature and a microarray set containing gene expression changes in these cells over several time points. Our model demonstrates significantly better fitness than the state-of-the-art model, which relies on an initial random selection of genes. Comparison to the component pathways of the KEGG Pathways in Cancer map reveals that the resulting networks contain both known and novel relationships. The p53 pathway results were manually validated in the literature. 60% of non-KEGG relationships were supported (74% for highly weighted interactions. The method was then applied to yeast data and our model again outperformed the comparison model. Our results demonstrate the advantage of combining gene interactions extracted from the literature in the form of semantic relations with microarray analysis in generating contribution-weighted gene regulatory networks. This methodology can make a
Huang, Jen-Fa; Chen, Kai-Sheng; Lin, Ying-Chen; Li, Chung-Yu
A reconfiguration scheme based on composite signature codes over waveguide-gratings-based optical code-division multiple-access (OCDMA) network coder/decoders (codecs) is proposed in the paper. By using central control node to monitor network traffic condition and reconfigure the composite signature codes made up of maximal-length sequence (M-sequence) component codes and random changing the signature codes assigned for each user to improve the confidentiality performance in an OCDMA system. The proposed scheme is analyzed with some practical eavesdroppers' attacks.
Being often deployed in remote or hostile environments, wireless sensor networks are vulnerable to various types of security attacks. A possible solution to reduce the security risks is to use directional antennas instead of omnidirectional ones or in conjunction with them. Due to their increased complexity, higher costs and larger sizes, directional antennas are not traditionally used in wireless sensor networks, but recent technology trends may support this method. This paper surveys existing state of the art approaches in the field, offering a broad perspective of the future use of directional antennas in mitigating security risks, together with new challenges and open research issues.
Full Text Available Being often deployed in remote or hostile environments, wireless sensor networks are vulnerable to various types of security attacks. A possible solution to reduce the security risks is to use directional antennas instead of omnidirectional ones or in conjunction with them. Due to their increased complexity, higher costs and larger sizes, directional antennas are not traditionally used in wireless sensor networks, but recent technology trends may support this method. This paper surveys existing state of the art approaches in the field, offering a broad perspective of the future use of directional antennas in mitigating security risks, together with new challenges and open research issues.
Bashar, Muhammad Shafi Al
In this dissertation, we present novel physical (PHY) and cross-layer design guidelines and resource adaptation algorithms to improve the security and user experience in the future wireless networks. Physical and cross-layer wireless security measures can provide stronger overall security with high efficiency and can also provide better…
Shawky, Ahmed Sherif Mahmoud
In Communication networks today there is an endless quest for increased capacity and improved quality. With wireless systems being now popular worldwide for allowing users and devices to communicate and share information with each other irrespective of their location, the development of sustainable...
Yucel, Abdulkadir C.
An efficient method for statistically characterizing multiconductor transmission line (MTL) networks subject to a large number of manufacturing uncertainties is presented. The proposed method achieves its efficiency by leveraging a high-dimensional model representation (HDMR) technique that approximates observables (quantities of interest in MTL networks, such as voltages/currents on mission-critical circuits) in terms of iteratively constructed component functions of only the most significant random variables (parameters that characterize the uncertainties in MTL networks, such as conductor locations and widths, and lumped element values). The efficiency of the proposed scheme is further increased using a multielement probabilistic collocation (ME-PC) method to compute the component functions of the HDMR. The ME-PC method makes use of generalized polynomial chaos (gPC) expansions to approximate the component functions, where the expansion coefficients are expressed in terms of integrals of the observable over the random domain. These integrals are numerically evaluated and the observable values at the quadrature/collocation points are computed using a fast deterministic simulator. The proposed method is capable of producing accurate statistical information pertinent to an observable that is rapidly varying across a high-dimensional random domain at a computational cost that is significantly lower than that of gPC or Monte Carlo methods. The applicability, efficiency, and accuracy of the method are demonstrated via statistical characterization of frequency-domain voltages in parallel wire, interconnect, and antenna corporate feed networks.
Siraj, M.; Memon, M. I.; Shoaib, M.; Alshebeili, S.
The use of smart phone and tablet applications will provide the troops for executing, controlling and analyzing sophisticated operations with the commanders providing crucial documents directly to troops wherever and whenever needed. Wireless mesh networks (WMNs) is a cutting edge networking technology which is capable of supporting Joint Tactical radio System (JTRS).WMNs are capable of providing the much needed bandwidth for applications like hand held radios and communication for airborne and ground vehicles. Routing management tasks can be efficiently handled through WMNs through a central command control center. As the spectrum space is congested, cognitive radios are a much welcome technology that will provide much needed bandwidth. They can self-configure themselves, can adapt themselves to the user requirement, provide dynamic spectrum access for minimizing interference and also deliver optimal power output. Sometimes in the indoor environment, there are poor signal issues and reduced coverage. In this paper, a solution utilizing (CR WMNs) over optical network is presented by creating nanocells (PCs) inside the indoor environment. The phenomenon of four-wave mixing (FWM) is exploited to generate all-optical multicast using semiconductor ring laser (SRL). As a result same signal is transmitted at different wavelengths. Every PC is assigned a unique wavelength. By using CR technology in conjunction with PC will not only solve network coverage issue but will provide a good bandwidth to the secondary users.
de Janasz, Suzanne C.; Forret, Monica L.
In this era of boundaryless careers, with individuals making frequent career moves and needing to get up-to-speed quickly, networking is seen as a critical competency. Developing and maintaining relationships with others for the purpose of mutual benefit can help individuals search for and secure employment opportunities, gain access to needed…
Abrams, Neal M.
A cloud network system is combined with standard computing applications and a course management system to provide a robust method for sharing data among students. This system provides a unique method to improve data analysis by easily increasing the amount of sampled data available for analysis. The data can be shared within one course as well as…
Bode, F.; Nowak, W.; Reed, P. M.; Reuschen, S.
Drinking-water well catchments need effective early-warning monitoring networks. Groundwater water supply wells in complex urban environments are in close proximity to a myriad of potential industrial pollutant sources that could irreversibly damage their source aquifers. These urban environments pose fiscal and physical challenges to designing monitoring networks. Ideal early-warning monitoring networks would satisfy three objectives: to detect (1) all potential contaminations within the catchment (2) as early as possible before they reach the pumping wells, (3) while minimizing costs. Obviously, the ideal case is nonexistent, so we search for tradeoffs using multiobjective optimization. The challenge of this optimization problem is the high number of potential monitoring-well positions (the search space) and the non-linearity of the underlying groundwater flow-and-transport problem. This study evaluates (1) different ways to effectively restrict the search space in an efficient way, with and without expert knowledge, (2) different methods to represent the search space during the optimization and (3) the influence of incremental increases in uncertainty in the system. Conductivity, regional flow direction and potential source locations are explored as key uncertainties. We show the need and the benefit of our methods by comparing optimized monitoring networks for different uncertainty levels with networks that seek to effectively exploit expert knowledge. The study's main contributions are the different approaches restricting and representing the search space. The restriction algorithms are based on a point-wise comparison of decision elements of the search space. The representation of the search space can be either binary or continuous. For both cases, the search space must be adjusted properly. Our results show the benefits and drawbacks of binary versus continuous search space representations and the high potential of automated search space restriction
Wang, Zhengmu; Zhang, Hongbin; Chu, Axel J; Jackson, John; Lin, Karen; Lim, Chinten James; Lange, Dirk; Chiao, Mu
Well-organized composite formations such as hierarchical nested-network (NN) structure in bone tissue and reticular connective tissue present remarkable mechanical strength and play a crucial role in achieving physical and biological functions for living organisms. Inspired by these delicate microstructures in nature, an analogous scaffold of double network hydrogel was fabricated by creating a poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (pHEMA) network in the porous structure of alginate hydrogels. The resulting hydrogel possessed hierarchical NN structure and showed significantly improved mechanical strength but still maintained high elasticity comparable to soft tissues due to a mutual strengthening effect between the two networks. The tough hydrogel is also self-lubricated, exhibiting a surface friction coefficient comparable with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrates lubricated by a commercial aqueous lubricant (K-Y Jelly) and other low surface friction hydrogels. Additional properties of this hydrogel include high hydrophilicity, good biocompatibility, tunable cell adhesion and bacterial resistance after incorporation of silver nanoparticles. Firm bonding of the hydrogel on silicone substrates could be achieved through facile chemical modification, thus enabling the use of this hydrogel as a versatile coating material for biomedical applications. In this study, we developed a tough hydrogel by crosslinking HEMA monomers in alginate hydrogels and forming a well-organized structure of hierarchical nested network (NN). Different from most reported stretchable alginate-based hydrogels, the NN hydrogel shows higher compressive strength but retains comparable softness to alginate counterparts. This work further demonstrated the good integration of the tough hydrogel with silicone substrates through chemical modification and micropillar structures. Other properties including surface friction, biocompatibility and bacterial resistance were investigated and the hydrogel shows
Full Text Available This paper proposes an equivalent circuit parameters measurement and estimation method for proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC. The parameters measurement method is based on current loading technique; in current loading test a no load PEMFC is suddenly turned on to obtain the waveform of the transient terminal voltage. After the equivalent circuit parameters were measured, a hybrid method that combines a radial basis function (RBF neural network and enhanced particle swarm optimization (EPSO algorithm is further employed for the equivalent circuit parameters estimation. The RBF neural network is adopted such that the estimation problem can be effectively processed when the considered data have different features and ranges. In the hybrid method, EPSO algorithm is used to tune the connection weights, the centers, and the widths of RBF neural network. Together with the current loading technique, the proposed hybrid estimation method can effectively estimate the equivalent circuit parameters of PEMFC. To verify the proposed approach, experiments were conducted to demonstrate the equivalent circuit parameters estimation of PEMFC. A practical PEMFC stack was purposely created to produce the common current loading activities of PEMFC for the experiments. The practical results of the proposed method were studied in accordance with the conditions for different loading conditions.
L. S. Sindhuja
Full Text Available Security of Mobile Wireless Sensor Networks is a vital challenge as the sensor nodes are deployed in unattended environment and they are prone to various attacks. One among them is the node replication attack. In this, the physically insecure nodes are acquired by the adversary to clone them by having the same identity of the captured node, and the adversary deploys an unpredictable number of replicas throughout the network. Hence replica node detection is an important challenge in Mobile Wireless Sensor Networks. Various replica node detection techniques have been proposed to detect these replica nodes. These methods incur control overheads and the detection accuracy is low when the replica is selected as a witness node. This paper proposes to solve these issues by enhancing the Single Hop Detection (SHD method using the Clonal Selection algorithm to detect the clones by selecting the appropriate witness nodes. The advantages of the proposed method include (i increase in the detection ratio, (ii decrease in the control overhead, and (iii increase in throughput. The performance of the proposed work is measured using detection ratio, false detection ratio, packet delivery ratio, average delay, control overheads, and throughput. The implementation is done using ns-2 to exhibit the actuality of the proposed work.
Oleshko Tamara I.
Full Text Available The article provides the theoretical foundations of building a graph model of the survivability of a fuzzy network in terms of the theory of fuzzy sets of the second type. The possibility and the correctness of generalizing the concept of the fuzzy graph in terms of presentation of the set of n-ary relations for an arbitrary finite n ? ? have been studied. Definitions of the fuzzy hypergraph have been introduced. The natural spread of the concept of the degree of survivability on the hypergraph has been displayed. The main cases of reducing the survivability of the fuzzy oriented graph have been specified. Analyzes of the task of increasing the degree of survivability of a fuzzy transportation network by the criterion of least cost and its interpretation in the matters of air transportation have been carried out. The authors suggest a modification of the known algorithm that allows to increase the sum value of the functions of membership of the fuzzy graph edges so that its survivability can reach the desired value. It has been substantiated that, using the considered theoretical foundations, the proposed algorithm allows to enhance the degree of survivability of the fuzzy network of airports up to the specified level.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The at-sea habitat use of Steller sea lions was modeled from location and dive behavior data obtained from the deployment of satellite-linked telemetry tags on sea...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is comprised of satellite-linked telemetry data collected to investigate winter migration patterns and foraging strategies of adult male northern fur...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This accession contains the data descriptions for the OSTM/Jason-2 Telemetry data, which is served through the NOAA/NESDIS Comprehensive Large Array-data Stewardship...
U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Studies utilizing Global Positioning System (GPS) telemetry rarely result in 100% fix success rates (FSR). Many assessments of wildlife resource use do not account...
U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Bias correction in GPS telemetry data-sets requires a strong understanding of the mechanisms that result in missing data. We tested wildlife GPS collars in a variety...
U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Bias correction in GPS telemetry datasets requires a strong understanding of the mechanisms that result in missing data. We tested wildlife GPS collars in a variety...
Telemetry Standards, RCC Standard 106-17 Annex A .4, July 2017 ANNEX A .4 Asynchronous Recorder Multiplexer Output Re-Constructor (ARMOR...Acronyms ............................................................................................................................... A .4-iii 1...General ........................................................................................................................ A .4-1 1.1. Setup on Tape
Hoyt, Kenneth; Warram, Jason M; Umphrey, Heidi; Belt, Lin; Lockhart, Mark E; Robbin, Michelle L; Zinn, Kurt R
The purpose of this study was to evaluate contrast-enhanced ultrasound and neural network data classification for determining the breast cancer response to bevacizumab therapy in a murine model. An ultrasound scanner operating in the harmonic mode was used to measure ultrasound contrast agent (UCA) time-intensity curves in vivo. Twenty-five nude athymic mice with orthotopic breast cancers received a 30-microL tail vein bolus of a perflutren microsphere UCA, and baseline tumor imaging was performed using microbubble destruction-replenishment techniques. Subsequently, 15 animals received a 0.2-mg injection of bevacizumab, whereas 10 control animals received an equivalent dose of saline. Animals were reimaged on days 1, 2, 3, and 6 before euthanasia. Histologic assessment of excised tumor sections was performed. Time-intensity curve analysis for a given region of interest was conducted using customized software. Tumor perfusion metrics on days 1, 2, 3, and 6 were modeled using neural network data classification schemes (60% learning and 40% testing) to predict the breast cancer response to therapy. The breast cancer response to a single dose of bevacizumab in a murine model was immediate and transient. Permutations of input to the neural network data classification scheme revealed that tumor perfusion data within 3 days of bevacizumab dosing was sufficient to minimize the prediction error to 10%, whereas measurements of physical tumor size alone did not appear adequate to assess the therapeutic response. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound may be a useful tool for determining the response to bevacizumab therapy and monitoring the subsequent restoration of blood flow to breast cancer.
Lindbom, Lars; Krishnamurthy, Sandeep; Yao, Chunhai; Miki, Nobuhiko; Chandrasekhar, Vikram
Heterogeneous networks (het-nets) - comprising of conventional macrocell base stations overlaid with femtocells, picocells and wireless relays - offer cellular operators burgeoning traffic demands through cell-splitting gains obtained by bringing users closer to their access points. However, the often random and unplanned location of these access points can cause severe near-far problems, typically solved by coordinating base-station transmissions to minimize interference. Towards this direction, the 3rd generation partnership project Long Term Evolution-Advanced (3GPP-LTE or Rel-10) standard introduces time-domain inter-cell interference coordination (ICIC) for facilitating a seamless deployment of a het-net overlay. This article surveys the key features encompassing the physical layer, network layer and back-hauling aspects of time-domain ICIC in Rel-10.
Ganjefar, Soheil; Tofighi, Morteza; Karami, Hamidreza
In this study, we introduce an indirect adaptive fuzzy wavelet neural controller (IAFWNC) as a power system stabilizer to damp inter-area modes of oscillations in a multi-machine power system. Quantum computing is an efficient method for improving the computational efficiency of neural networks, so we developed an identifier based on a quantum neural network (QNN) to train the IAFWNC in the proposed scheme. All of the controller parameters are tuned online based on the Lyapunov stability theory to guarantee the closed-loop stability. A two-machine, two-area power system equipped with a static synchronous series compensator as a series flexible ac transmission system was used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed controller. The simulation and experimental results demonstrated that the proposed IAFWNC scheme can achieve favorable control performance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Diaz de Cerio Mendaza, Iker; Szczesny, Ireneusz Grzegorz; Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna
for controlling the demand response of a low voltage grid. This is designed to; i) maximize the grid utilization, thereby reducing the need for reinforcement, ii) accommodate the maximum number of flexible loads and iii) satisfy the power and comfort requirements from each of the consumers in the network....... The validation of the proposed concept is made using a model of a low voltage network currently operative in Denmark. The results show that by using the proposed strategy a considerable improvement of the minimum system voltage and a better load distribution is obtained.......Moving towards a carbon free energy system has become an objective for many countries nowadays. Among other changes, the electrification of strategic sectors such as heating and transportation is inevitable. As a consequence, the current power system load will substantially increase...
Schøtt, Thomas; Ashourizadeh, Shayegheh
Our study aims at accounting for entrepreneurial outcomes as shaped by individual behaviors and societal conditions. Expectation for growth or change of a business is the outcome in focus in this study. Expectation for growth is formed and modified in the mind of the entrepreneur starting...... or running the business. The entrepreneur’s expectation is shaped partly by individual behavior, including networking with others who give advice on the business. The entrepreneur’s expectation is also shaped by the societal context, including policies. Policy for growth-entrepreneurship is the societal...... condition in focus in this study. Our contribution is to account for entrepreneurs’ expectations by their networking and by national policy for growth-entrepreneurship. More broadly, our contribution is to show how an entrepreneurial outcome is shaped by individual behavior in the context of societal...
De la Torre, Pedro
This document describes the integrated satellite-acoustic telemetry (iSAT) system: an autonomous modular system for tracking the movements of large pelagic fish using acoustic telemetry and satellite communications. The sensor platform is described along with the propulsion and navigation systems. An application for tracking the whale shark (Rhincodon typus) in the Red Sea is included along with a discussion of the technical difficulties that such a system faces.
Bode, F.; Reuschen, S.; Nowak, W.
Drinking-water well catchments include many potential sources of contaminations like gas stations or agriculture. Finding optimal positions of early-warning monitoring wells is challenging because there are various parameters (and their uncertainties) that influence the reliability and optimality of any suggested monitoring location or monitoring network.The overall goal of this project is to develop and establish a concept to assess, design and optimize early-warning systems within well catchments. Such optimal monitoring networks need to optimize three competing objectives: a high detection probability, which can be reached by maximizing the "field of vision" of the monitoring network, a long early-warning time such that there is enough time left to install counter measures after first detection, and the overall operating costs of the monitoring network, which should ideally be reduced to a minimum. The method is based on numerical simulation of flow and transport in heterogeneous porous media coupled with geostatistics and Monte-Carlo, scenario analyses for real data, respectively, wrapped up within the framework of formal multi-objective optimization using a genetic algorithm.In order to speed up the optimization process and to better explore the Pareto-front, we developed a concept that forces the algorithm to search only in regions of the search space where promising solutions can be expected. We are going to show how to define these regions beforehand, using knowledge of the optimization problem, but also how to define them independently of problem attributes. With that, our method can be used with and/or without detailed knowledge of the objective functions.In summary, our study helps to improve optimization results in less optimization time by meaningful restrictions of the search space. These restrictions can be done independently of the optimization problem, but also in a problem-specific manner.
Paiva Melo Marin, Regina
In Social Network Systems (SNSs), the sharing of information leads to many privacy concernsabout potential abuses of personal information. Users’ control over information shared withthe SNS provider and with other users could be improved in SNSs through the decentralizationof personal data, and the proper management of policy conflicts. Inspired by thedecentralization approach, the first contribution of this thesis is the proposal of SNS designproperties relevant to privacy when considered al...
This paper deals with network architecture which is a combination of electronic commerce and security systems in the typical Internet ecosystems. The e-commerce model that is typically known as online shopping can be considered as a multichannel queueing system. In the other hand, stochastic security system is designed for improving the reliability and availability of the e-commerce system. The security system in this paper deals with a complex system that consists of main unreliable servers,...
Rong, Qinfeng; Han, Hongliang; Feng, Feng; Ma, Zhanfang
In this work, a new network nanocomposite composed of polypyrrole hydrogel (PPy hydrogel) loaded gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) was prepared. The PPy hydrogel was directly synthesized by mixing the pyrrole monomer and phytic acid, and the mixed solution can be gelated to form hydrogel at once. The three-dimensional network nanostructured PPy hydrogel not only provided a greater effective surface area for increasing the quantity of immobilized biomolecules and facilitated the transport of electrons and ions, but also exhibited an improved conductivity. Meanwhile, the electrodeposited AuNPs on the PPy hydrogel can further increase the specific surface area to capture a large amount of antibodies as well as improve the capability of electron transfer. The network PPy hydrogel/Au nanocomposites were successfully employed for the fabrication of a sensitive label-free amperometric immunosensor. Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) was used as a model protein. The proposed immunosensor exhibited a wide linear detection range from 1 fg mL-1 to 200 ng mL-1, and an ultralow limit of detection of 0.16 fg mL-1 (S/N = 3), and it also possessed good selectivity. Moreover, the detection of CEA in ten human serums showed satisfactory accuracy compared with the data determined by ELISA, indicating that the immunosensor provided potential application for clinical diagnosis.
Chowdhury, A. K. M. Rezaul Haque; Tavangar, Amirhossein; Tan, Bo; Venkatakrishnan, Krishnan
Carbon nanomaterials have been investigated for various biomedical applications. In most cases, however, these nanomaterials must be functionalized biologically or chemically due to their biological inertness or possible cytotoxicity. Here, we report the development of a new carbon nanomaterial with a bioactive phase that significantly promotes cell adhesion. We synthesize the bioactive phase by introducing self-assembled nanotopography and altered nano-chemistry to graphite substrates using ultrafast laser. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that such a cytophilic bio-carbon is developed in a single step without requiring subsequent biological/chemical treatments. By controlling the nano-network concentration and chemistry, we develop platforms with different degrees of cell cytophilicity. We study quantitatively and qualitatively the cell response to nano-network platforms with NIH-3T3 fibroblasts. The findings from the in vitro study indicate that the platforms possess excellent biocompatibility and promote cell adhesion considerably. The study of the cell morphology shows a healthy attachment of cells with a well-spread shape, overextended actin filaments, and morphological symmetry, which is indicative of a high cellular interaction with the nano-network. The developed nanomaterial possesses great biocompatibility and considerably stimulates cell adhesion and subsequent cell proliferation, thus offering a promising path toward engineering various biomedical devices. PMID:28287138
Fan, Jingfang; Ashkenazy, Yosef; Havlin, Shlomo
We construct directed and weighted climate networks based on near surface air temperature to investigate the global impacts of El Nino and La Nina. We find that regions which are characterized by higher positive or negative network in weighted links, are exhibiting stronger correlations with the El Nino basin and are warmer or cooler during El Nino or La Nina periods. These stronger in-weighted activities are found to be concentrated in localized areas, as compared to non-El Nino periods, whereas a large fraction of the globe is not influenced by the events. The regions of localized activity vary from one El Nino (La Nina) event to another; still some El Nino (La Nina) events are more similar to each other. We quantify this similarity using network community structure. The results and methodology reported here may be used to improve the understanding and prediction of El Nino or La Nina events and also may be applied in the investigation of other climate variables.
Magtanong, Leslie; Ho, Cheuk Hei; Barker, Sarah L; Jiao, Wei; Baryshnikova, Anastasia; Bahr, Sondra; Smith, Andrew M; Heisler, Lawrence E; Choy, John S; Kuzmin, Elena; Andrusiak, Kerry; Kobylianski, Anna; Li, Zhijian; Costanzo, Michael; Basrai, Munira A; Giaever, Guri; Nislow, Corey; Andrews, Brenda; Boone, Charles
Dosage suppression is a genetic interaction in which overproduction of one gene rescues a mutant phenotype of another gene. Although dosage suppression is known to map functional connections among genes, the extent to which it might illuminate global cellular functions is unclear. Here we analyze a network of interactions linking dosage suppressors to 437 essential genes in yeast. For 424 genes, we curated interactions from the literature. Analyses revealed that many dosage suppression interactions occur between functionally related genes and that the majority do not overlap with other types of genetic or physical interactions. To confirm the generality of these network properties, we experimentally identified dosage suppressors for 29 genes from pooled populations of temperature-sensitive mutant cells transformed with a high-copy molecular-barcoded open reading frame library, MoBY-ORF 2.0. We classified 87% of the 1,640 total interactions into four general types of suppression mechanisms, which provided insight into their relative frequencies. This work suggests that integrating the results of dosage suppression studies with other interaction networks could generate insights into the functional wiring diagram of a cell.
Lemeshko, Oleksandr; Yeremenko, Oleksandra
A two-level method of fast re-routing with load balancing in a software-defined network (SDN) is proposed. The novelty of the method consists, firstly, in the introduction of a two-level hierarchy of calculating the routing variables responsible for the formation of the primary and backup paths, and secondly, in ensuring a balanced load of the communication links of the network, which meets the requirements of the traffic engineering concept. The method provides implementation of link, node, path, and bandwidth protection schemes for fast re-routing in SDN. The separation in accordance with the interaction prediction principle along two hierarchical levels of the calculation functions of the primary (lower level) and backup (upper level) routes allowed to abandon the initial sufficiently large and nonlinear optimization problem by transiting to the iterative solution of linear optimization problems of half the dimension. The analysis of the proposed method confirmed its efficiency and effectiveness in terms of obtaining optimal solutions for ensuring balanced load of communication links and implementing the required network element protection schemes for fast re-routing in SDN.
Sun, Yuewen; Li, Litao; Cong, Peng; Wang, Zhentao; Guo, Xiaojing
Digital radiography system is widely used for noninvasive security check and medical imaging examination. However, the system has a limitation of lower image quality in spatial resolution and signal to noise ratio. In this study, we explored whether the image quality acquired by the digital radiography system can be improved with a modified convolutional neural network to generate high-resolution images with reduced noise from the original low-quality images. The experiment evaluated on a test dataset, which contains 5 X-ray images, showed that the proposed method outperformed the traditional methods (i.e., bicubic interpolation and 3D block-matching approach) as measured by peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR) about 1.3 dB while kept highly efficient processing time within one second. Experimental results demonstrated that a residual to residual (RTR) convolutional neural network remarkably improved the image quality of object structural details by increasing the image resolution and reducing image noise. Thus, this study indicated that applying this RTR convolutional neural network system was useful to improve image quality acquired by the digital radiography system.
Bourg, S.; Poinssot, C. [French Nuclear and Alternative Energies Commission, CEA, Nuclear Energy Division, F RadioChemistry and Processes Department, CEA Marcoule, 30207 Bagnols sur Ceze (France)
Since 2004, Europe supports the strengthening of the European actinides sciences scientific community through the funding of dedicated networks: (i) from 2004 to 2008, the ACTINET6 network of excellence (6. Framework Programme) gathered major laboratories involved in nuclear research and a wide range of academic research organisations and universities with the specific aims of funding and implementing joint research projects to be performed within the network of pooled facilities; (ii) from 2009 to 2013, the ACTINET-I3 integrated infrastructure initiative (I3) supports the cost of access of any academics in the pooled EU hot laboratories. In this continuation, TALISMAN (Trans-national Access to Large Infrastructures for a Safe Management of Actinides) gathers now the main European hot laboratories in actinides sciences in order to promote their opening to academics and universities and strengthen the EU-skills in actinides sciences. Furthermore, a specific focus is set on the development of advanced cutting-edge experimental and spectroscopic capabilities, the combination of state-of-the art experimental with theoretical first-principle methods on a quantum mechanical level and to benefit from the synergy between the different scientific and technical communities. ACTINET-I3 and TALISMAN attach a great importance and promote the Education and Training of the young generation of actinides scientists in the Trans-national access but also by organizing Schools (general Summer Schools or Theoretical User Lab Schools) or by granting students to attend International Conference on actinide sciences. (authors)
Sbarufatti, C.; Manson, G.; Worden, K.
This paper describes a methodology for the design of a model-based diagnostic unit. The objective of the work is to define a suitable procedure for the design and verification of diagnostic performance in a simulated environment, trying to maximise the generalisation capability of pattern recognition algorithms when tested with real experimental signals. The system is designed and experimentally verified to solve the fatigue crack damage localisation and assessment problems in a realistic, though rather idealised, Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) framework. The study is applied to a piezoelectric Lamb wave sensor network and is validated experimentally on a simple aluminium skin. The analytically-derived dispersion curves for Lamb wave propagation in aluminium are used in order to determine the wave velocities and thus their arrival time at given sensors. The Local Interaction Simulation Approach (LISA) is used to simulate the entire waveform propagation. Once the agreement between analytical, numerical and experimental data is verified on a baseline undamaged condition, the parametric LISA model has been iteratively run, varying the position and the length of a crack on an aluminium skin panel, generating the virtual experience necessary to train a supervised learning regressor based on Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs). After the algorithm structure has been statistically optimised, the network sensitivity to input variations has been evaluated on simulated signals through a technique inspired by information gap theory. Real Lamb wave signals are then processed into the algorithm, providing feasible real-time indication of damage characteristics.
Kim, Eui-Jik; Shon, Taeshik; Park, James Jong Hyuk; Jeong, Young-Sik
Nowadays, with wireless sensor networks (WSNs) being widely applied to diverse applications, heterogeneous sensor networks (HSNs), which can simultaneously support multiple sensing tasks in a common sensor field, are being considered as the general form of WSN system deployment. In HSNs, each application generates data packets with a different size, thereby resulting in fairness issues in terms of the network performance. In this paper, we present the design and performance evaluation of a differentiated channel access scheme (abbreviated to DiffCA) to resolve the fairness problem in HSNs. DiffCA achieves fair performance among the application groups by providing each node with an additional backoff counter, whose value varies according to the size of the packets. A mathematical model based on the discrete time Markov chain is presented and is analyzed to measure the performance of DiffCA. The numerical results show that the performance degradation of disadvantaged application groups can be effectively compensated for by DiffCA. Simulation results are given to verify the accuracy of the numerical model.
Thomas T.H. Wan
Full Text Available Purpose: This study examines the integration effects on efficiency and financial viability of the top 100 integrated healthcare networks (IHNs in the United States. Theory: A contingency- strategic theory is used to identify the relationship of IHNs' performance to their structural and operational characteristics and integration strategies. Methods: The lists of the top 100 IHNs ranked in two years, 1998 and 1999, by the SMG Marketing Group were merged to create a database for the study. Multiple indicators were used to examine the relationship between IHNs' characteristics and their performance in efficiency and financial viability. A path analytical model was developed and validated by the Mplus statistical program. Factors influencing the top 100 IHNs' images, represented by attaining ranking among the top 100 in two consecutive years, were analysed. Results and conclusion: No positive associations were found between integration and network performance in efficiency or profits. Longitudinal data are needed to investigate the effect of integration on healthcare networks' financial performance.
Full Text Available Public Safety Network (PSN is the network for critical communication when disaster occurs. As a key technology in 5G, Cloud-Radio Access Network (C-RAN can play an important role in PSN instead of LTE-based RAN. This paper firstly introduces C-RAN based PSN architecture and models the OFDM resource allocation problem in C-RAN based PSN as an integer quadratic programming, which allows the trade-off between expected bitrates and allocating fairness of PSN Service User (PSU. However, C-RAN based PSN needs to improve the efficiency of allocating algorithm because of a mass of PSU-RRH associations when disaster occurs. To deal with it, the resources allocating problem with integer variables is relaxed into one with continuous variables in the first step and an algorithm based on Generalized Bender’s Decomposition (GBD is proposed to solve it. Then we use Feasible Pump (FP method to get a feasible integer solution on the original OFDM resources allocation problem. The final experiments show the total throughput achieved by C-RAN based PSN is at most higher by 19.17% than the LTE-based one. And the average computational time of the proposed GBD and FP algorithm is at most lower than Barrier by 51.5% and GBD with no relaxation by 30.1%, respectively.
Rong, Qinfeng; Han, Hongliang; Feng, Feng; Ma, Zhanfang
In this work, a new network nanocomposite composed of polypyrrole hydrogel (PPy hydrogel) loaded gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) was prepared. The PPy hydrogel was directly synthesized by mixing the pyrrole monomer and phytic acid, and the mixed solution can be gelated to form hydrogel at once. The three-dimensional network nanostructured PPy hydrogel not only provided a greater effective surface area for increasing the quantity of immobilized biomolecules and facilitated the transport of electrons and ions, but also exhibited an improved conductivity. Meanwhile, the electrodeposited AuNPs on the PPy hydrogel can further increase the specific surface area to capture a large amount of antibodies as well as improve the capability of electron transfer. The network PPy hydrogel/Au nanocomposites were successfully employed for the fabrication of a sensitive label-free amperometric immunosensor. Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) was used as a model protein. The proposed immunosensor exhibited a wide linear detection range from 1 fg mL−1 to 200 ng mL−1, and an ultralow limit of detection of 0.16 fg mL−1 (S/N = 3), and it also possessed good selectivity. Moreover, the detection of CEA in ten human serums showed satisfactory accuracy compared with the data determined by ELISA, indicating that the immunosensor provided potential application for clinical diagnosis. PMID:26074185
Li, Jing; Fan, Ming; Zhang, Juan; Li, Lihua
Convolutional neural networks (CNNs) are the state-of-the-art deep learning network architectures that can be used in a range of applications, including computer vision and medical image analysis. It exhibits a powerful representation learning mechanism with an automated design to learn features directly from the data. However, the common 2D CNNs only use the two dimension spatial information without evaluating the correlation between the adjoin slices. In this study, we established a method of 3D CNNs to discriminate between malignant and benign breast tumors. To this end, 143 patients were enrolled which include 66 benign and 77 malignant instances. The MRI images were pre-processed for noise reduction and breast tumor region segmentation. Data augmentation by spatial translating, rotating and vertical and horizontal flipping is applied to the cases to reduce possible over-fitting. A region-of-interest (ROI) and a volume-of-interest (VOI) were segmented in 2D and 3D DCE-MRI, respectively. The enhancement ratio for each MR series was calculated for the 2D and 3D images. The results for the enhancement ratio images in the two series are integrated for classification. The results of the area under the ROC curve(AUC) values are 0.739 and 0.801 for 2D and 3D methods, respectively. The results for 3D CNN which combined 5 slices for each enhancement ratio images achieved a high accuracy(Acc), sensitivity(Sens) and specificity(Spec) of 0.781, 0.744 and 0.823, respectively. This study indicates that 3D CNN deep learning methods can be a promising technology for breast tumor classification without manual feature extraction.
Kandler, Rosalind; Lai, Ming; Ponnusamy, Athi; Bland, Jeremy; Pang, Catherine
To assess patient safety during seizures occurring on UK video telemetry units and identify factors in unit infrastructure which may improve safety with the intention of producing national guidelines. A prospective multicentre national service evaluation of the occurrence of adverse events and level of nurse attendance during seizures occurring on video telemetry units was performed. Data from 272 seizures from 27 video telemetry units across the UK were analysed. Adverse events occurred in 12% of seizures: 7% were physical events such as falls or respiratory compromise and 5% were unnoticed seizures. Nursing staff did not attend the patients in 44% of seizures and attendance was delayed beyond 30s in a further 29%. Only 27% of seizures were attended by a Healthcare Professional within half a minute. The most important factor shown to improve timely attendance of patients during seizures was the presence of a nurse dedicated to the telemetry bed(s). The site of the telemetry bed (bay or cubicle) and method of observation (direct or indirect) was less important. An optimal nurse-to-patient ratio was difficult to identify but the study suggests that a ratio of at least 1 nurse to 4 patients is appropriate. The results provide an evidence base for the production of national standards and guidelines for surveillance of patients during video telemetry to improve patient safety. Copyright © 2013 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Aiming to the problems that excessive reduction of airborne telemetry antenna’s size will cause a sharp deterioration of the antenna’s bandwidth and gain, this paper proposed that using a high-impedance surface in the airborne telemetry antenna. As the size and bandwidth of the high-impedance surface is far from being able to meet the application requirements, this paper designed a new high-impedance surface which can be applied to the telemetry transmitter antenna, and reduced the profile size of the telemetry antenna and increased the gain of the antenna at the same time. In addition, based on the equivalent circuit model, we have resolved the contradictory situation of small size and wide band gap in the high-impedance surface design. The results show that the low profile, high gain and wide bandwidth of the telemetry antenna can be achieved by using the new high-impedance surface. The antenna structure and design ideas presented in this paper can significantly improve the performance of airborne telemetry antenna.
Brost, Brian M; Hooten, Mevin B; Hanks, Ephraim M; Small, Robert J
Multiple factors complicate the analysis of animal telemetry location data. Recent advancements address issues such as temporal autocorrelation and telemetry measurement error, but additional challenges remain. Difficulties introduced by complicated error structures or barriers to animal movement can weaken inference. We propose an approach for obtaining resource selection inference from animal location data that accounts for complicated error structures, movement constraints, and temporally autocorrelated observations. We specify a model for telemetry data observed with error conditional on unobserved true locations that reflects prior knowledge about constraints in the animal movement process. The observed telemetry data are modeled using a flexible distribution that accommodates extreme errors and complicated error structures. Although constraints to movement are often viewed as a nuisance, we use constraints to simultaneously estimate and account for telemetry error. We apply the model to simulated data, showing that it outperforms common ad hoc approaches used when confronted with measurement error and movement constraints. We then apply our framework to an Argos satellite telemetry data set on harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) in the Gulf of Alaska, a species that is constrained to move within the marine environment and adjacent coastlines.
Full Text Available Air transport development brings an increased focus on the safety of piloting. The safety conditions can be assessed by mental workload. Psychic discomfort or excessive stress on pilots can negatively influence the course of flights. Therefore it appears convenient to monitor such parameters, which represent the mental wellbeing, or discomfort of a pilot. Since physiological measurements can provide a good information about mental workload or stress, this work primarily focuses on the observation of the change in heart rate, as it is an indicator of stress during the training of pilots, using the designed modular telemetry system. Another aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of a change in the avionic data visualization. This can have an unfavorable effect on the piloting of an airplane. This work, based on the evaluation of heart rate shows, that the switch from analog visualization to glass cockpit creates increased levels of stress in pilots, which was proved for all examined subjects except one. Significant level of correlation in the heart beat rate change in subjects in the course of training was also discovered.
Carlson, Thomas J.; Myjak, Mitchell J.
At the request of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District, researchers from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory investigated the use of an application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) to reduce the weight and volume of Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS) transmitters while retaining current functionality. Review of the design of current JSATS transmitters identified components that could be replaced by an ASIC while retaining the function of the current transmitter and offering opportunities to extend function if desired. ASIC design alternatives were identified that could meet transmitter weight and volume targets of 200 mg and 100 mm3. If alternatives to the cylindrical batteries used in current JSATS transmitters can be identified, it could be possible to implant ASIC-based JSATS transmitters by injection rather than surgery. Using criteria for the size of fish suitable for surgical implantation of current JSATS transmitters, it was concluded that fish as small as 70 mm in length could be implanted with an ASIC-based transmitter, particularly if implantation by injection became feasible.
The development of a new telemetry system designed by AMEC Earth and Environment Services was discussed. The system will provide real-time information from the rig and the ocean floor for the White Rose project in Newfoundland. It will help operators assess the status of the drill pipe as it moves through the water and will help ensure that drilling is not interrupted. The real-time oceanographic monitoring system (ROMAN) uses acoustic modem technology to relay data on the water column's current speed and direction to a surface buoy. The buoy then sends the information to the rig, which sends it to the company, as well as to AMEC through a high-speed Internet connection. The acoustic technology is capable of sending the data through up to 5 km of water. The information can be incorporated into engineering designs, mooring advisory systems, ice management programs and emergency response, including oil-spill and man-overboard models. A background of the system's design was provided. AMEC is also using the technology to help with a project called SmartBay, part of an initiative by Fisheries and Oceans Canada to foster integrated management of Placentia Bay, an environmentally sensitive area located on the south coast of Newfoundland. The area has many users, as well as substantial oil tanker traffic. The system will be used to provide users with simple access to information about the ocean, in order to better manage resources. 1 fig.
Quaye, W.; Frempong, G.; Jongerden, J.P.; Ruivenkamp, G.T.P.
Over the last years an important focus in the combat of hunger and malnutrition,particularly in Africa has been food security. This article explores possibilities for enhancing food sovereignty, as an alternative concept to food security and an alternative strategy for reversing hunger and
This study explores blending virtual and physical learning environments to enhance the experience of first year by immersing students into university culture through social and academic interaction between peers. It reports on the progress made from 2008 to 2009 using an existing academic platform, the first year design elective course…
Giacobello, Daniele; Murthi, Manohar N.; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll
In this paper, we describe a new approach to cope with packet loss in speech coders. The idea is to split the information present in each speech packet into two components, one to independently decode the given speech frame and one to enhance it by exploiting interframe dependencies. The scheme i...
Lee, Chien I.; Chang, Chih C.
How to enhance students' reading comprehension as well as reading interest is a currently serious problem for elementary school students. Students can learn various knowledge through reading, as a result of this reason, the advantage and disadvantage of reading ability could directly affect the learning efficiency. This study proposes networked…
Tricco Andrea C
Full Text Available Abstract Background Elderly individuals who have memory problems without significant limitations in activities of daily living are often diagnosed as having mild cognitive impairment (MCI. Some of these individuals progress to dementia. Several cognitive enhancers (for example donepezil, galantamine, rivastigmine, memantine have been approved for use in people with Alzheimer’s dementia but their use in patients with MCI is unclear. We aimed to determine the comparative effectiveness, safety, and cost of cognitive enhancers for MCI through a systematic review and network (that is, indirect comparisons meta-analysis. Design/Methods We will include studies that examine the use of cognitive enhancers compared to placebo, supportive care, or other cognitive enhancers among patients diagnosed with MCI. Outcomes of interest include cognition and function (primary outcomes, as well as behavior, quality of life, safety, and cost (secondary outcomes. We will include all experimental studies (randomized controlled trials, quasi-randomized controlled trials, controlled clinical trials, quasi-experimental studies (controlled before-after, interrupted time series, and observational studies (cohort, case–control. Studies will be included regardless of publication status (that is, we will include unpublished studies, year, or language of dissemination. To identify potentially relevant material, we will search the following electronic databases from inception onwards: MEDLINE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, EMBASE, CINAHL, and Ageline. The electronic database search will be supplemented by scanning the reference lists of included studies, searching Google and organization websites for unpublished or difficult to locate material literature, and contacting experts. Two reviewers will independently screen the studies for inclusion using the eligibility criteria established a priori and independently extract data. Risk of bias will be assessed
Full Text Available Traditionally, departments of transportation (DOTs have dispatched probe vehicles with dedicated vehicles and drivers for monitoring traffic conditions. Emerging assisted GPS (AGPS and accelerometer-equipped smartphones offer new sources of raw data that arise from voluntarily-traveling smartphone users provided that their modes of transportation can correctly be identified. By introducing additional raster map layers that indicate the availability of each mode, it is possible to enhance the accuracy of mode detection results. Even in its simplest form, an artificial neural network (ANN excels at pattern recognition with a relatively short processing timeframe once it is properly trained, which is suitable for real-time mode identification purposes. Dubai is one of the major cities in the Middle East and offers unique environments, such as a high density of extremely high-rise buildings that may introduce multi-path errors with GPS signals. This paper develops real-time mode identification ANNs enhanced with proposed mode availability geographic information system (GIS layers, firstly for a universal mode detection and, secondly for an auto mode detection for the particular intelligent transportation system (ITS application of traffic monitoring, and compares the results with existing approaches. It is found that ANN-based real-time mode identification, enhanced by mode availability GIS layers, significantly outperforms the existing methods.
application had established the network traffic flow to the sink. The same scenario was repeated using a power-based IDS to compare it against the proposed model. To identify a clusterhead's ability to host monitoring agents after the temperature sensing application terminated, the deployed IDS utilized the communication history and other network factors in order to rank the nodes. Similarly, using the node's communication history, the deployed power-based IDS ranked nodes based on their remaining power. For each individual scenario, and after the IDS application was deployed, the temperature sensing application was run for a second time. This time, to monitor the temperature sensing agents as the data flowed towards the sink, the network traffic was rerouted through the new intrusion detection clusterheads. Consequently, if the clusterheads were shared, the re-routing step was not preformed. Experimental results in this research demonstrated the effectiveness of applying a robust deployment metric to improve upon the energy efficiency of a deployed application in a multi-application WSN. It was found that in the scenarios with the intrusion detection application that utilized the proposed model resulted in more remaining energy than in the scenarios that implemented the power-based IDS. The algorithm especially had a positive impact on the small, dense, and more homogeneous networks. This finding was reinforced by the smaller percentage of new clusterheads that was selected. Essentially, the energy cost of the route to the sink was reduced because the network traffic was rerouted through fewer new clusterheads. Additionally, it was found that the intrusion detection topology that used the proposed approach formed smaller and more connected sets of clusterheads than the power-based IDS. As a consequence, this proposed approach essentially achieved the research objective for enhancing energy use in a multi-application WSN.
Xu, Xiaohua; Warrington, Arthur E; Bieber, Allan J; Rodriguez, Moses
Repair of the central nervous system (CNS) constitutes an integral part of treating neurological disease and plays a crucial role in restoring CNS architecture and function. Distinct strategies have been developed to reconstruct the damaged neural tissue, with many tested preclinically in animal models. We review cell replacement-based repair strategies. By taking spinal cord injury, cerebral ischaemia and degenerative CNS disorders as examples for CNS repair, we discuss progress and potential problems in utilizing embryonic stem cells and adult neural/non-neural stem cells to repair cell loss in the CNS. Nevertheless, CNS repair is not simply a matter of cell transplantation. The major challenge is to induce regenerating neural cells to integrate into the neural network and compensate for damaged neural function. The neural cells confront an environment very different from that of the developmental stage in which these cells differentiate to form interwoven networks. During the repair process, one of the challenges is neurodegeneration, which can develop from interrupted innervations to/from the targets, chronic inflammation, ischaemia, aging or idiopathic neural toxicity. Neurodegeneration, which occurs on the basis of a characteristic vascular and neural web, usually presents as a chronically progressive process with unknown aetiology. Currently, there is no effective treatment to stop or slow down neurodegeneration. Pathological changes from patients with Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis indicate a broken homeostasis in the CNS. We discuss how the blood-brain barrier and neural networks are formed to maintain CNS homeostasis and their contribution to neurodegeneration in diseased conditions. Another challenge is that some inhibitors produced by CNS injury do not facilitate the regenerating neural cells to incorporate into a pre-existing network. We review glial responses to CNS injury. Of note, the reactive astrocytes
Yao, Wei; Fang, Jiakun; Zhao, Ping
In this paper, a nonlinear adaptive damping controller based on radial basis function neural network (RBFNN), which can infinitely approximate to nonlinear system, is proposed for thyristor controlled series capacitor (TCSC). The proposed TCSC adaptive damping controller can not only have...... system and a four-machine two-area power system under different operating conditions in comparison with the lead-lag damping controller tuned by evolutionary algorithm (EA). Simulation results show that the proposed damping controller achieves good robust performance for damping the low frequency...
Boundy-Mills, Kyria; Hess, Matthias; Bennett, A Rick; Ryan, Matthew; Kang, Seogchan; Nobles, David; Eisen, Jonathan A; Inderbitzin, Patrik; Sitepu, Irnayuli R; Torok, Tamas; Brown, Daniel R; Cho, Juliana; Wertz, John E; Mukherjee, Supratim; Cady, Sherry L; McCluskey, Kevin
The mission of the United States Culture Collection Network (USCCN; http://usccn.org) is "to facilitate the safe and responsible utilization of microbial resources for research, education, industry, medicine, and agriculture for the betterment of human kind." Microbial culture collections are a key component of life science research, biotechnology, and emerging global biobased economies. Representatives and users of several microbial culture collections from the United States and Europe gathered at the University of California, Davis, to discuss how collections of microorganisms can better serve users and stakeholders and to showcase existing resources available in public culture collections. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.
Boundy-Mills, K.; Hess, Matthias; Bennett, A. R.; Ryan, Matthew; Kang, Seogchan; Nobles, David; Eisen, Jonathan A.; Inderbitzin, Patrik; Sitepu, Irnayuli R.; Torok, Tamas; Brown, Daniel R; Cho, Juliana; Wertz, John E.; Mukherjee, Supratim; Cady, Sherry L.; McCluskey, Kevin
The mission of the United States Culture Collection Network (USCCN; http://usccn.org) is "to facilitate the safe and responsible utilization of microbial resources for research, education, industry, medicine, and agriculture for the betterment of human kind." Microbial culture collections are a key component of life science research, biotechnology, and emerging global biobased economies. Representatives and users of several microbial culture collections from the United States and Europe gathered at the University of California, Davis, to discuss how collections of microorganisms can better serve users and stakeholders and to showcase existing resources available in public culture collections.
Zaher, Ammar S. A. E.; Catterson, V. M.; Syed, M. H.
. The control room visualisation and decision support functionality for aiding the operator in restoring the frequency to its target value will be considered. The analysis takes place within the Web-ofCells framework, adopted to deal with power system control through a web of subsystems, called cells, which......This paper describes scenarios proposed for a control room decision support system aimed at future power network operators. The purpose is to consider the requirements of the future control room from the perspective of the operator under the conditions of a significant frequency excursion incident...
Wang, Chao; Vogt, Bryan; Weiss, R. A.
Hydrogels formed by hydrophobic physical crosslinks have high mechanical strength (larger than 100kPa).1 Surfactants, such as sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), can be used to control the mechanical strength and modulus of these hydrogels. Here we describe the change in the viscoelastic behavior of physically crosslinked copolymer hydrogels synthesized from N,N-dimethylacrylamide (DMA) and 2-(N-ethylperfluoro-octane sulfonamido) ethyl methacrylate (FOSM) by the addition of a SDS solution. Without confinement, SDS dissociates the FOSM micelle-like microstructure and facilitates swelling, which decreases the crosslink density of the hydrogel and reduces the modulus and strength of the hydrogel. With 1-dimensional macroscopic confinement, similar behavior was observed, but only for soaking times in the salt solution smaller than 15 h. For longer times (larger than 15 h), SDS improved the mechanical strength and modulus of the hydrogel presumably by reducing the imperfections in the hydrogel network and forming complexes with FOSM. 1. Hao, J.; Weiss, R. a. Mechanical Behavior of Hybrid Hydrogels Composed of a Physical and a Chemical Network. Polymer 2013, 54, 2174-2182.
Ennouri, Karim; Ayed, Rayda Ben; Hassen, Hanen Ben; Mazzarello, Maura; Ottaviani, Ennio
Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is a Gram-positive bacterium. The entomopathogenic activity of Bt is related to the existence of the crystal consisting of protoxins, also called delta-endotoxins. In order to optimize and explain the production of delta-endotoxins of Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki, we studied seven medium components: soybean meal, starch, KH₂PO₄, K₂HPO₄, FeSO₄, MnSO₄, and MgSO₄and their relationships with the concentration of delta-endotoxins using an experimental design (Plackett-Burman design) and Bayesian networks modelling. The effects of the ingredients of the culture medium on delta-endotoxins production were estimated. The developed model showed that different medium components are important for the Bacillus thuringiensis fermentation. The most important factors influenced the production of delta-endotoxins are FeSO₄, K2HPO₄, starch and soybean meal. Indeed, it was found that soybean meal, K₂HPO₄, KH₂PO₄and starch also showed positive effect on the delta-endotoxins production. However, FeSO4 and MnSO4 expressed opposite effect. The developed model, based on Bayesian techniques, can automatically learn emerging models in data to serve in the prediction of delta-endotoxins concentrations. The constructed model in the present study implies that experimental design (Plackett-Burman design) joined with Bayesian networks method could be used for identification of effect variables on delta-endotoxins variation.
Full Text Available Nowadays many camera-based advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS have been introduced to assist the drivers and ensure their safety under various driving conditions. One of the problems faced by drivers is the faded scene visibility and lower contrast while driving in foggy conditions. In this paper, we present a novel approach to provide a solution to this problem by employing deep neural networks. We assume that the fog in an image can be mathematically modeled by an unknown complex function and we utilize the deep neural network to approximate the corresponding mathematical model for the fog. The advantages of our technique are as follows: (i its real-time operation and (ii being based on minimal input, that is, a single image, and exhibiting robustness/generalization for various unseen image data. Experiments carried out on various synthetic images indicate that our proposed technique has the abilities to approximate the corresponding fog function reasonably and remove it for better visibility and safety.
Full Text Available Video data transfer is the major traffic in today’s Internet. With the emerging need for anytime anywhere communication, applications transmitting video is gaining momentum. Real Time Protocol is the primary standard for transfer of video data, as; it requires timely delivery and can tolerate loss of packets. Streaming is the method used for delivering video content from the source server to the user. But this has many drawbacks: a It sends only the amount of data equivalent to the streaming encoded rate to the client irrespective of the available bandwidth in the path. Hence the links are underutilized; b It utilizes the link for the entire period of transfer and hence the link is not available to service other new clients. Thus as the number of clients increases, the network performance decreases. In this work, the advantages and disadvantages of the combination of different protocols in the application layer and transport layer are analyzed. The significant characteristics of each of these protocols are utilized and a combination of protocols for improving the network performance is arrived at, while retaining the QoS of video transmission.
Jalali-Heravi, M; Mani-Varnosfaderani, A
Bayesian regularised genetic neural network (BRGNN) has been used for modelling the inhibition activity of 141 biphenylalanine derivatives as integrin antagonists. Three local pattern search (PS) methods, simulated annealing and threshold acceptance were combined with BRGNN in the form of a hybrid genetic algorithm (HGA). The results obtained revealed that PS is a suitable method for improving the ability of BRGNN to break out from the local minima. The proposed HGA technique is able to retrieve important variables from complex systems and nonlinear search spaces for optimisation. Two models with 8-3-1 artificial neural network (ANN) architectures were developed for describing α₄β₇ and α₄β₁ modulatory activities of integrin antagonists. Monte Carlo cross-validation was performed to validate the models and Q₂ values of 0.75 and 0.74 were obtained for α₄β₇ and α₄β₁ inhibitory activities, respectively. The scrambling technique was used for sensitivity analysis of descriptors appearing in ANN models. Frequencies of repetition and sensitivity analysis of molecular descriptors revealed that 3D-Morse descriptors are influential factors for describing α₄β₇ inhibitory activity, while in the case of α₄β₁ inhibitory activity, the Randic shape index, the lowest eigenvalue of the Burden matrix and the number of rotatable bonds are important parameters.
Ball, Owen; Nguyen, Bao-Ngoc B; Placone, Jesse K; Fisher, John P
There is a significant clinical need for engineered bone graft substitutes that can quickly, effectively, and safely repair large segmental bone defects. One emerging field of interest involves the growth of engineered bone tissue in vitro within bioreactors, the most promising of which are perfusion bioreactors. Using bioreactor systems, tissue engineered bone constructs can be fabricated in vitro. However, these engineered constructs lack inherent vasculature and once implanted, quickly develop a necrotic core, where no nutrient exchange occurs. Here, we utilized COMSOL modeling to predict oxygen diffusion gradients throughout aggregated alginate constructs, which allowed for the computer-aided design of printable vascular networks, compatible with any large tissue engineered construct cultured in a perfusion bioreactor. We investigated the effect of 3D printed macroscale vascular networks with various porosities on the viability of human mesenchymal stem cells in vitro, using both gas-permeable, and non-gas permeable bioreactor growth chamber walls. Through the use of 3D printed vascular structures in conjunction with a tubular perfusion system bioreactor, cell viability was found to increase by as much as 50% in the core of these constructs, with in silico modeling predicting construct viability at steady state.
Kuzmenko, Volodymyr [Wallenberg Wood Science Center, Chalmers University of Technology, Kemivägen 4, SE-412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden); Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience, Chalmers University of Technology, Kemivägen 9, SE-412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden); Kalogeropoulos, Theodoros [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Kemivägen 4, SE-412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden); Thunberg, Johannes [Wallenberg Wood Science Center, Chalmers University of Technology, Kemivägen 4, SE-412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden); Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Kemivägen 4, SE-412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden); Johannesson, Sara; Hägg, Daniel [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Kemivägen 4, SE-412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden); Enoksson, Peter [Wallenberg Wood Science Center, Chalmers University of Technology, Kemivägen 4, SE-412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden); Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience, Chalmers University of Technology, Kemivägen 9, SE-412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden); Gatenholm, Paul, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Wallenberg Wood Science Center, Chalmers University of Technology, Kemivägen 4, SE-412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden); Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Kemivägen 4, SE-412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden)
The problem of recovery from neurodegeneration needs new effective solutions. Tissue engineering is viewed as a prospective approach for solving this problem since it can help to develop healthy neural tissue using supportive scaffolds. This study presents effective and sustainable tissue engineering methods for creating biomaterials from cellulose that can be used either as scaffolds for the growth of neural tissue in vitro or as drug screening models. To reach this goal, nanofibrous electrospun cellulose mats were made conductive via two different procedures: carbonization and addition of multi-walled carbon nanotubes. The resulting scaffolds were much more conductive than untreated cellulose material and were used to support growth and differentiation of SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. The cells were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy and confocal microscopy methods over a period of 15 days at different time points. The results showed that the cellulose-derived conductive scaffolds can provide support for good cell attachment, growth and differentiation. The formation of a neural network occurred within 10 days of differentiation, which is a promising length of time for SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. - Highlights: • The conductive scaffolds for neural tissue engineering are derived from cellulose. • The scaffolds are used to support growth and differentiation of SH-SY5Y cells. • Distinctive cell differentiation occurs within 10 days on conductive scaffolds. • Electrical conductivity and nanotopography improve neural network formation.
Zhuo, Jia-Min; Tseng, Hua-An; Desai, Mitul; Bucklin, Mark E; Mohammed, Ali I; Robinson, Nick Tm; Boyden, Edward S; Rangel, Lara M; Jasanoff, Alan P; Gritton, Howard J; Han, Xue
Adult neurogenesis supports performance in many hippocampal dependent tasks. Considering the small number of adult-born neurons generated at any given time, it is surprising that this sparse population of cells can substantially influence behavior. Recent studies have demonstrated that heightened excitability and plasticity may be critical for the contribution of young adult-born cells for certain tasks. What is not well understood is how these unique biophysical and synaptic properties may translate to networks that support behavioral function. Here we employed a location discrimination task in mice while using optogenetics to transiently silence adult-born neurons at different ages. We discovered that adult-born neurons promote location discrimination during early stages of development but only if they undergo maturation during task acquisition. Silencing of young adult-born neurons also produced changes extending to the contralateral hippocampus, detectable by both electrophysiology and fMRI measurements, suggesting young neurons may modulate location discrimination through influences on bilateral hippocampal networks.
Luis A. Gallego; Marcos J. Rider; Marina Lavorato; Antonio Paldilha-Feltrin
An enhanced genetic algorithm (EGA) is applied to solve the long-term transmission expansion planning (LTTEP) problem. The following characteristics of the proposed EGA to solve the static and multistage LTTEP problem are presented, (1) generation of an initial population using fast, efficient heuristic algorithms, (2) better implementation of the local improvement phase and (3) efficient solution of linear programming problems (LPs). Critical comparative analysis is made between the proposed...
The sbv IMPROVER project team (in alphabetical order
Full Text Available The construction and application of biological network models is an approach that offers a holistic way to understand biological processes involved in disease. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is a progressive inflammatory disease of the airways for which therapeutic options currently are limited after diagnosis, even in its earliest stage. COPD network models are important tools to better understand the biological components and processes underlying initial disease development. With the increasing amounts of literature that are now available, crowdsourcing approaches offer new forms of collaboration for researchers to review biological findings, which can be applied to the construction and verification of complex biological networks. We report the construction of 50 biological network models relevant to lung biology and early COPD using an integrative systems biology and collaborative crowd-verification approach. By combining traditional literature curation with a data-driven approach that predicts molecular activities from transcriptomics data, we constructed an initial COPD network model set based on a previously published non-diseased lung-relevant model set. The crowd was given the opportunity to enhance and refine the networks on a website (https://bionet.sbvimprover.com/ and to add mechanistic detail, as well as critically review existing evidence and evidence added by other users, so as to enhance the accuracy of the biological representation of the processes captured in the networks. Finally, scientists and experts in the field discussed and refined the networks during an in-person jamboree meeting. Here, we describe examples of the changes made to three of these networks: Neutrophil Signaling, Macrophage Signaling, and Th1-Th2 Signaling. We describe an innovative approach to biological network construction that combines literature and data mining and a crowdsourcing approach to generate a comprehensive set of COPD
the basic knowledge and understanding of the Windows-based computer operations as well as basic knowledge of Microsoft Structured Query Language ( SQL ...Enhancement (IOAIDE) and the US Army Research Laboratory Campus Sensor Network (ARL CSN) by Laurel C Sadler Computational and Information...Laboratory Campus Sensor Network (ARL CSN) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Laurel C Sadler 5d
Nayar, Priya; Singh, Bhim; Mishra, Sukumar
An artificial intelligence based control algorithm is used in solving power quality problems of a diesel engine driven synchronous generator with automatic voltage regulator and governor based standalone system. A voltage source converter integrated with a battery energy storage system is employed to mitigate the power quality problems. An adaptive neural network based signed regressor control algorithm is used for the estimation of the fundamental component of load currents for control of a standalone system with load leveling as an integral feature. The developed model of the system performs accurately under varying load conditions and provides good dynamic response to the step changes in loads. The real time performance is achieved using MATLAB along with simulink/simpower system toolboxes and results adhere to an IEEE-519 standard for power quality enhancement.
Sun, Weifang; Yao, Bin; Zeng, Nianyin; Chen, Binqiang; He, Yuchao; Cao, Xincheng; He, Wangpeng
As a typical example of large and complex mechanical systems, rotating machinery is prone to diversified sorts of mechanical faults. Among these faults, one of the prominent causes of malfunction is generated in gear transmission chains. Although they can be collected via vibration signals, the fault signatures are always submerged in overwhelming interfering contents. Therefore, identifying the critical fault's characteristic signal is far from an easy task. In order to improve the recognition accuracy of a fault's characteristic signal, a novel intelligent fault diagnosis method is presented. In this method, a dual-tree complex wavelet transform (DTCWT) is employed to acquire the multiscale signal's features. In addition, a convolutional neural network (CNN) approach is utilized to automatically recognise a fault feature from the multiscale signal features. The experiment results of the recognition for gear faults show the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method, especially in the gear's weak fault features.
Full Text Available In this work, we propose ANT, a network of agents which exchange information in a stigmergy-based fashion. In ANT, each system’s actor distributes pheromones as a way of indicating places’ attractiveness, as well as for building a proper routing path to those sites. The goal of ANT is to improve the chances of discovering points of interest, as well as to reduce the time required for doing so. We have applied ANT to a tourist mobility scenario, where both people and things (events, restaurants, performances, etc. participate. ANT has achieved notable success in this example case. We find that probability of discovering temporary events and dates improves by more than 35%, while the mean time employed to determine static point decreases by more than a third. We also introduce a mobile-based architecture which performs ANT tasks efficiently and easily for the user.
Full Text Available Random packet CDMA (RP-CDMA is a recently proposed random transmission scheme which has been designed from the beginning as a cross-layer method to overcome the restrictive nature of the Aloha protocol. Herein, we more precisely model its performance and investigate throughput and network stability. In contrast to previous works, we adopt the spread Aloha model for header transmission, and the performance of different joint detection methods for the payload data is investigated. Furthermore, we introduce performance measures for multiple access systems based on the diagonal elements of a modified multipacket reception matrix, and show that our measures describe the upper limit of the vector of stable arrival rates for a finite number of users. Finally, we simulate queue sizes and throughput characteristics of RP-CDMA with various receiver structures and compare them to spread Aloha.
Full Text Available Low Voltage (LV electricity distribution grid operations can be improved through a combination of new smart metering systems’ capabilities based on real time Power Line Communications (PLC and LV grid topology mapping. This paper presents two novel contributions. The first one is a new methodology developed for smart metering PLC network monitoring and analysis. It can be used to obtain relevant information from the grid, thus adding value to existing smart metering deployments and facilitating utility operational activities. A second contribution describes grid conditioning used to obtain LV feeder and phase identification of all connected smart electric meters. Real time availability of such information may help utilities with grid planning, fault location and a more accurate point of supply management.
Ye, Zhihang; Chen, Zheng
Dielectric elastomer (DE) is a type of soft actuating material, the shape of which can be changed under electrical voltage stimuli. DE materials have promising usage in future’s soft actuators and sensors, such as soft robotics, energy harvesters, and wearable sensors. In this paper, a stripe DE actuator with integrated sensing capability is designed, fabricated, and characterized. Since the strip actuator can be approximated as a compliant capacitor, it is possible to detect the actuator’s displacement by analyzing the actuator’s impedance change. An integrated sensing scheme that adds a high frequency probing signal into actuation signal is developed. Electrical impedance changes in the probing signal are extracted by fast Fourier transform algorithm, and nonlinear data fitting methods involving artificial neural network are implemented to detect the actuator’s displacement. A series of experiments show that by improving data processing and analyzing methods, the integrated sensing method can achieve error level of lower than 1%.
Bennett, V M; Dell, E Y
The Interlibrary Loan, Document Delivery, and Union List Task Force of the Health Sciences Libraries Consortium (HSLC) accepted the charge of maximizing use of the advanced features of group 3-level memory telefacsimiles. A pilot project was initiated to address the task force's recommendation to the HSLC Board that all nonrush interlibrary loan (ILL) documents be transmitted to participants within forty-eight hours of request receipt. This paper describes the project, which tests a network application for unattended, overnight transmission of documents. In determining whether this technology could be used as the primary medium for ILL of photocopies, the following criteria were used: the percentage of ILL requests filled by telefacsimile; the speed, quality, and reliability of service; and the impact of telefacsimile on document delivery costs. The article discusses the project history, optimal use of equipment features for library applications, full-scale implementation, and operational issues that affect ILL policy.
Delorme, L; Machuron, J L; Sow, I; Diagne, R; Sakandé, J; Nikiéma, A; Bougoudogo, F; Keita, A; Longuet, C
The Fondation Mérieux, in partnership with the Ministries of Health of Burkina Faso, Mali and Senegal, implemented for four years a project to reinforce the laboratory sector in the three participating countries: the RESAOLAB project (West African Network of Biomedical Analysis Laboratories).The objective of RESAOLAB project, in partnership with the WHO Office for West Africa and the West African Health Organization, was to strengthen the systems of biomedical laboratories to improve diagnostic services, access, monitoring and management of infectious diseases. Following the successful results achieved under the RESAOLAB project and due to the demand of the neighbour countries ministries, the RESAOLAB project is now extended to four other countries of the West African region: Benin, Guinea-Conakry, Niger and Togo. The RESAOLAB project has become the RESAOLAB programme, its purpose is to strengthen the quality of the medical biology services thanks to a regional and transversal approach.
Sun, Wenqing; Tseng, Tzu-Liang Bill; Zhang, Jianying; Qian, Wei
In this study we developed a graph based semi-supervised learning (SSL) scheme using deep convolutional neural network (CNN) for breast cancer diagnosis. CNN usually needs a large amount of labeled data for training and fine tuning the parameters, and our proposed scheme only requires a small portion of labeled data in training set. Four modules were included in the diagnosis system: data weighing, feature selection, dividing co-training data labeling, and CNN. 3158 region of interests (ROIs) with each containing a mass extracted from 1874 pairs of mammogram images were used for this study. Among them 100 ROIs were treated as labeled data while the rest were treated as unlabeled. The area under the curve (AUC) observed in our study was 0.8818, and the accuracy of CNN is 0.8243 using the mixed labeled and unlabeled data. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Kempter, Roland; Amini, Peiman; Farhang-Boroujeny, Behrouz
Random packet CDMA (RP-CDMA) is a recently proposed random transmission scheme which has been designed from the beginning as a cross-layer method to overcome the restrictive nature of the Aloha protocol. Herein, we more precisely model its performance and investigate throughput and network stability. In contrast to previous works, we adopt the spread Aloha model for header transmission, and the performance of different joint detection methods for the payload data is investigated. Furthermore, we introduce performance measures for multiple access systems based on the diagonal elements of a modified multipacket reception matrix, and show that our measures describe the upper limit of the vector of stable arrival rates for a finite number of users. Finally, we simulate queue sizes and throughput characteristics of RP-CDMA with various receiver structures and compare them to spread Aloha.
Lin, Wen-Juan; He, Yong; Zhang, Chuan-Ke; Wu, Min
This paper is concerned with the stability analysis of neural networks with a time-varying delay. To assess system stability accurately, the conservatism reduction of stability criteria has attracted many efforts, among which estimating integral terms as exact as possible is a key issue. At first, this paper develops a new relaxed integral inequality to reduce the estimation gap of popular Wirtinger-based inequality (WBI). Then, for showing the advantages of the proposed inequality over several existing inequalities that also improve the WBI, four stability criteria are derived through different inequalities and the same Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional (LKF), and the conservatism comparison of them is analyzed theoretically. Moreover, an improved criterion is established by combining the proposed inequality and an augmented LKF with delay-product-type terms. Finally, several numerical examples are used to demonstrate the advantages of the proposed method.
Francis, N K; Luther, A; Salib, E; Allanby, L; Messenger, D; Allison, A S; Smart, N J; Ockrim, J B
Artificial neural networks (ANNs) can be used to develop predictive tools to enable the clinical decision-making process. This study aimed to investigate the use of an ANN in predicting the outcomes from enhanced recovery after colorectal cancer surgery. Data were obtained from consecutive colorectal cancer patients undergoing laparoscopic surgery within the enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) program between 2002 and 2009 in a single center. The primary outcomes assessed were delayed discharge and readmission within a 30-day period. The data were analyzed using a multilayered perceptron neural network (MLPNN), and a prediction tools were created for each outcome. The results were compared with a conventional statistical method using logistic regression analysis. A total of 275 cancer patients were included in the study. The median length of stay was 6 days (range 2-49 days) with 67 patients (24.4 %) staying longer than 7 days. Thirty-four patients (12.5 %) were readmitted within 30 days. Important factors predicting delayed discharge were related to failure in compliance with ERAS, particularly with the postoperative elements in the first 48 h. The MLPNN for delayed discharge had an area under a receiver operator characteristic curve (AUROC) of 0.817, compared with an AUROC of 0.807 for the predictive tool developed from logistic regression analysis. Factors predicting 30-day readmission included overall compliance with the ERAS pathway and receiving neoadjuvant treatment for rectal cancer. The MLPNN for readmission had an AUROC of 0.68. These results may plausibly suggest that ANN can be used to develop reliable outcome predictive tools in multifactorial intervention such as ERAS. Compliance with ERAS can reliably predict both delayed discharge and 30-day readmission following laparoscopic colorectal cancer surgery.
Sabir, Zeeshan; Babar, M. Inayatullah; Shah, Syed Waqar
Mobile adhoc network (MANET) refers to an arrangement of wireless mobile nodes that have the tendency of dynamically and freely self-organizing into temporary and arbitrary network topologies. Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) is the foremost choice for MANET system designers at the Physical Layer due to its inherent property of high data rate transmission that corresponds to its lofty spectrum efficiency. The downside of OFDM includes its sensitivity to synchronization errors (frequency offsets and symbol time). Most of the present day techniques employing OFDM for data transmission support mobility as one of the primary features. This mobility causes small frequency offsets due to the production of Doppler frequencies. It results in intercarrier interference (ICI) which degrades the signal quality due to a crosstalk between the subcarriers of OFDM symbol. An efficient frequency-domain block-type pilot-assisted ICI mitigation scheme is proposed in this article which nullifies the effect of channel frequency offsets from the received OFDM symbols. Second problem addressed in this article is the noise effect induced by different sources into the received symbol increasing its bit error rate and making it unsuitable for many applications. Forward-error-correcting turbo codes have been employed into the proposed model which adds redundant bits into the system which are later used for error detection and correction purpose. At the receiver end, maximum a posteriori (MAP) decoding algorithm is implemented using two component MAP decoders. These decoders tend to exchange interleaved extrinsic soft information among each other in the form of log likelihood ratio improving the previous estimate regarding the decoded bit in each iteration.
Iedema, Rick; Verma, Raj; Wutzke, Sonia; Lyons, Nigel; McCaughan, Brian
Purpose To further our insight into the role of networks in health system reform, the purpose of this paper is to investigate how one agency, the NSW Agency for Clinical Innovation (ACI), and the multiple networks and enabling resources that it encompasses, govern, manage and extend the potential of networks for healthcare practice improvement. Design/methodology/approach This is a case study investigation which took place over ten months through the first author's participation in network activities and discussions with the agency's staff about their main objectives, challenges and achievements, and with selected services around the state of New South Wales to understand the agency's implementation and large system transformation activities. Findings The paper demonstrates that ACI accommodates multiple networks whose oversight structures, self-organisation and systems change approaches combined in dynamic ways, effectively yield a diversity of network governances. Further, ACI bears out a paradox of "centralised decentralisation", co-locating agents of innovation with networks of implementation and evaluation expertise. This arrangement strengthens and legitimates the role of the strategic hybrid - the healthcare professional in pursuit of change and improvement, and enhances their influence and impact on the wider system. Research limitations/implications While focussing the case study on one agency only, this study is unique as it highlights inter-network connections. Contributing to the literature on network governance, this paper identifies ACI as a "network of networks" through which resources, expectations and stakeholder dynamics are dynamically and flexibly mediated and enhanced. Practical implications The co-location of and dynamic interaction among clinical networks may create synergies among networks, nurture "strategic hybrids", and enhance the impact of network activities on health system reform. Social implications Network governance requires more
Elliott, E. M.; Bain, D. J.; Divers, M. T.; Crowley, K. J.; Povis, K.; Scardina, A.; Steiner, M.
We describe a newly funded collaborative NSF initiative, ENERGY-NET (Energy, Environment and Society Learning Network), that brings together the Carnegie Museum of Natural History (CMNH) with the Learning Science and Geoscience research strengths at the University of Pittsburgh. ENERGY-NET aims to create rich opportunities for participatory learning and public education in the arena of energy, the environment, and society using an Earth systems science framework. We build upon a long-established teen docent program at CMNH and to form Geoscience Squads comprised of underserved teens. Together, the ENERGY-NET team, including museum staff, experts in informal learning sciences, and geoscientists spanning career stage (undergraduates, graduate students, faculty) provides inquiry-based learning experiences guided by Earth systems science principles. Together, the team works with Geoscience Squads to design "Exploration Stations" for use with CMNH visitors that employ an Earth systems science framework to explore the intersecting lenses of energy, the environment, and society. The goals of ENERGY-NET are to: 1) Develop a rich set of experiential learning activities to enhance public knowledge about the complex dynamics between Energy, Environment, and Society for demonstration at CMNH; 2) Expand diversity in the geosciences workforce by mentoring underrepresented teens, providing authentic learning experiences in earth systems science and life skills, and providing networking opportunities with geoscientists; and 3) Institutionalize ENERGY-NET collaborations among geosciences expert, learning researchers, and museum staff to yield long-term improvements in public geoscience education and geoscience workforce recruiting.
Kim, Hee Jin; Talukdar, Krishan; Choi, Sang-June
Metal-organic frameworks can be intentionally coordinated to achieve improved proton conductivity because they have highly ordered structures and modular nature that serve as a scaffold to anchor acidic groups and develop efficient proton transfer pathways for fuel cell application. Using the concept of a coordination network, the conductivity of Nafion® was tuned by the incorporation of HKUST-1. It has CuII-paddle wheel type nodes and 1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylate struts, feature accessible sites that provides an improved protonic channel depending on the water content. In spite of the fact that HKUST-1 is neutral, coordinated water molecules are contributed adequately acidic by CuII to supply protons to enhance proton conductivity. Water molecules play a vital part in transfer of proton as conducting media and serve as triggers to change proton conductivity through reforming hydrogen bonding networks by water adsorption/desorption process. Increased ion exchange capacity and proton conductivity with lower water uptake of the H3PO4-doped material, and improved thermal stability (as confirmed by thermogravimetric analysis) were achieved. The structure of HKUST-1 was confirmed via field emission scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction, while the porosity and adsorption desorption capacity were characterized by porosity analysis.
Huang, Da; Yang, Zhi; Li, Xiaolin; Zhang, Liling; Hu, Jing; Su, Yanjie; Hu, Nantao; Yin, Guilin; He, Dannong; Zhang, Yafei
Graphene is an ideal candidate for gas sensing due to its excellent conductivity and large specific surface areas. However, it usually suffers from sheet stacking, which seriously debilitates its sensing performance. Herein, we demonstrate a three-dimensional conductive network based on stacked SiO2@graphene core-shell hybrid frameworks for enhanced gas sensing. SiO2 spheres are uniformly encapsulated by graphene oxide (GO) through an electrostatic self-assembly approach to form SiO2@GO core-shell hybrid frameworks, which are reduced through thermal annealing to establish three-dimensional (3D) conductive sensing networks. The SiO2 supported 3D conductive graphene frameworks reveal superior sensing performance to bare reduced graphene oxide (RGO) films, which can be attributed to their less agglomeration and larger surface area. The response value of the 3D framework based sensor for 50 ppm NH3 and 50 ppm NO2 increased 8 times and 5 times, respectively. Additionally, the sensing performance degradation caused by the stacking of the sensing materials is significantly suppressed because the graphene layers are separated by the SiO2 spheres. The sensing performance decays by 92% for the bare RGO films when the concentration of the sensing material increases 8 times, while there is only a decay of 25% for that of the SiO2@graphene core-shell hybrid frameworks. This work provides an insight into 3D frameworks of hybrid materials for effectively improving gas sensing performance.
Rahmanian, Bashir; Pakizeh, Majid; Mansoori, Seyed Ali Akbar; Abedini, Reza
In this study, micellar-enhanced ultrafiltration (MEUF) was applied to remove zinc ions from wastewater efficiently. Frequently, experimental design and artificial neural networks (ANNs) have been successfully used in membrane filtration process in recent years. In the present work, prediction of the permeate flux and rejection of metal ions by MEUF was tested, using design of experiment (DOE) and ANN models. In order to reach the goal of determining all the influential factors and their mutual effect on the overall performance the fractional factorial design has been used. The results show that due to the complexity in generalization of the MEUF process by any mathematical model, the neural network proves to be a very promising method in compared with fractional factorial design for the purpose of process simulation. These mathematical models are found to be reliable and predictive tools with an excellent accuracy, because their AARE was ±0.229%, ±0.017%, in comparison with experimental values for permeate flux and rejection, respectively. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Wells, George; Baroth, Edmund C.
The Measurement Technology Center of the Instrumentation Section configures automated data acquisition systems to meet the diverse needs of JPL's experimental research community. These systems are based on personal computers or workstations (Apple, IBM/Compatible, Hewlett-Packard, and Sun Microsystems) and often include integrated data analysis, visualization and experiment control functions in addition to data acquisition capabilities. These integrated systems may include sensors, signal conditioning, data acquisition interface cards, software, and a user interface. Graphical programming is used to simplify configuration of such systems. Employment of a graphical programming language is the most important factor in enabling the implementation of data acquisition, analysis, display and visualization systems at low cost. Other important factors are the use of commercial software packages and off-the-shelf data acquisition hardware where possible. Understanding the experimenter's needs is also critical. An interactive approach to user interface construction and training of operators is also important. One application was created as a result of a competative effort between a graphical programming language team and a text-based C language programming team to verify the advantages of using a graphical programming language approach. With approximately eight weeks of funding over a period of three months, the text-based programming team accomplished about 10% of the basic requirements, while the Macintosh/LabVIEW team accomplished about 150%, having gone beyond the original requirements to simulate a telemetry stream and provide utility programs. This application verified that using graphical programming can significantly reduce software development time. As a result of this initial effort, additional follow-on work was awarded to the graphical programming team.
Simons, Rainee N.; Miranda, Felix A.; Wilson, Jeffrey D.; Simons, Renita E.
Telemetry systems of a type that have been proposed for the monitoring of physiological functions in humans would include the following subsystems: Surgically implanted or ingested units that would comprise combinations of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS)- based sensors [bioMEMS sensors] and passive radio-frequency (RF) readout circuits that would include miniature loop antennas. Compact radio transceiver units integrated into external garments for wirelessly powering and interrogating the implanted or ingested units. The basic principles of operation of these systems are the same as those of the bioMEMS-sensor-unit/external-RFpowering- and-interrogating-unit systems described in "Printed Multi-Turn Loop Antennas for Biotelemetry" (LEW-17879-1) NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 31, No. 6 (June 2007), page 48, and in the immediately preceding article, "Hand-Held Units for Short-Range Wireless Biotelemetry" (LEW-17483-1). The differences between what is reported here and what was reported in the cited prior articles lie in proposed design features and a proposed mode of operation. In a specific system of the type now proposed, the sensor unit would comprise mainly a capacitive MEMS pressure sensor located in the annular region of a loop antenna (more specifically, a square spiral inductor/ antenna), all fabricated as an integral unit on a high-resistivity silicon chip. The capacitor electrodes, the spiral inductor/antenna, and the conductor lines interconnecting them would all be made of gold. The dimensions of the sensor unit have been estimated to be about 110.4 mm. The external garment-mounted powering/ interrogating unit would include a multi-turn loop antenna and signal-processing circuits. During operation, this external unit would be positioned in proximity to the implanted or ingested unit to provide for near-field, inductive coupling between the loop antennas, which we have as the primary and secondary windings of an electrical transformer.
Martin I. Bayala
Full Text Available Land Surface Temperature (LST is a key parameter in the energy balance model. However, the spatial resolution of the retrieved LST from sensors with high temporal resolution is not accurate enough to be used in local-scale studies. To explore the LST–Normalised Difference Vegetation Index relationship potential and obtain thermal images with high spatial resolution, six enhanced image sharpening techniques were assessed: the disaggregation procedure for radiometric surface temperatures (TsHARP, the Dry Edge Quadratic Function, the Difference of Edges (Ts∗DL and three models supported by the relationship of surface temperature and water stress of vegetation (Normalised Difference Water Index, Normalised Difference Infrared Index and Soil wetness index. Energy Balance Station data and in situ measurements were used to validate the enhanced LST images over a mixed agricultural landscape in the sub-humid Pampean Region of Argentina (PRA, during 2006–2010. Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (EOS-MODIS thermal datasets were assessed for different spatial resolutions (e.g., 960, 720 and 240 m and the performances were compared with global and local TsHARP procedures. Results suggest that the Ts∗DL technique is the most adequate for simulating LST to high spatial resolution over the heterogeneous landscape of a sub-humid region, showing an average root mean square error of less than 1 K.
Madrid, G. A.; Westmoreland, P. T.
A progress report is presented on a program to upgrade the existing NASA Deep Space Network in terms of a redesigned computer-controlled data acquisition system for channelling tracking, telemetry, and command data between a California-based control center and three signal processing centers in Australia, California, and Spain. The methodology for the improvements is oriented towards single subsystem development with consideration for a multi-system and multi-subsystem network of operational software. Details of the existing hardware configurations and data transmission links are provided. The program methodology includes data flow design, interface design and coordination, incremental capability availability, increased inter-subsystem developmental synthesis and testing, system and network level synthesis and testing, and system verification and validation. The software has been implemented thus far to a 65 percent completion level, and the methodology being used to effect the changes, which will permit enhanced tracking and communication with spacecraft, has been concluded to feature effective techniques.
Xia, Xingda; Yang, Bingchu; Zhang, Xiang; Zhou, Conghua
Bending is usually used to test durability of flexible transparent and conductive films. Due to the large stress incurred by this technique, bending has always been observed to deteriorate conductance of electrodes such as indium tin oxide film. In contrast, we here demonstrate that bending could be used to improve conductance of silver nanowire-based flexible transparent and conductive films. The enhanced conductance is due to improved contact between nanowires, which was favored by the hydrogen bond formed between residential polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) on silver nanowire and TiOx nanoparticles pre-coated on the substrate. The enhanced conductance was found to be affected by bending direction; bending towards the substrate not only yielded quicker decrease in sheet resistance, but also showed better film conductance than bending towards the nanowires. Then, with assistance of surface modification of substrate and ultra-long silver nanowires (averaged at 124 μm, maximum at 438 μm), optoelectronic performance of 90.2% (transmittance at 550 nm) and 12.5 Ω sq-1 (sheet resistance) has been achieved by bending. Such performance was better than commercialized flexible ITO films, and even competed with that obtained from thermal annealing at temperature of 200 °C. Moreover, Fourier transfer infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy study showed strong coordination between C=O (heterocyclic ring of PVP) and silver atoms, showing obvious capping behavior of PVP on silver nanowires.
Hatch, D.; Perica, S.; Mizukami, N.
A quantitative assessment of the spatial distribution of snow data provides valuable insight and information for water resource management and many other environmental studies. Hydrologic models that include spatial distribution of snow water equivalent (SWE) and snowmelt are shown to significantly improve estimates of spring and summer discharge where snowfall and snowmelt components are dominant. In the western United States, SWE data mainly comes from the snow telemetry (SNOTEL) network of the United States Department of Agriculture, Natural Resource Conservation Service. Unfortunately, SNOTEL observation sites are generally sparse, and therefore cannot provide adequate information about the spatial distribution of the snow data. Two methods for estimating spatial distribution of SWE in mountainous basins in the western United States are developed and evaluated in this research. The first one is based on the observation that high correlation exists between precipitation and SWE in mountainous regions during winter months. The method takes advantage of high quality, monthly climate maps of precipitation and temperature derived using the Parameter-elevation Regression on Independent Slopes Model (PRISM) methodology developed by Oregon State University. Since the PRISM methodology is designed to account for effects of varying terrains, topographic facets, proximity to coastal regions and other complex climatic regimes on precipitation and temperature, it was hypothesized that SWE climate maps derived through PRISM maps will account for the same effects. For the second method, the western U.S. is divided into nine homogeneous snow climate regions. For each region, a multivariate regression technique was used to estimate the SWE normals at 1 km grid from physiographic parameters of elevation, slope, aspect and forest density; as well as solar radiation, precipitation and temperature normals. Different statistical measures were used to evaluate and compare two methods
Full Text Available Multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT films have been deposited by using plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD system onto alumina substrates, provided with 6 nm thick cobalt (Co growth catalyst for remarkably improved NO2 gas sensing, at working temperature in the range of 100–250∘C. Functionalization of the MWCNTs with nanoclusters of gold (Au sputtering has been performed to modify the surface of carbon nanotube networked films for enhanced and specific NO2 gas detection up to sub-ppm level. It is demonstrated that the NO2 gas sensitivity of the MWCNT-based sensors depends on Au-loading used as surface-catalyst. The gas response of MWCNT-based chemiresistor is attributed to p-type conductivity in the Au-modified semiconducting MWCNTs with a very good short-term repeatability and faster recovery. The sensor temperature of maximum NO2 sensitivity of the Au-functionalized MWCNTs is found to decrease with increasing Au-loading on their surface, and continuous gas monitoring at ppb level of NO2 is effectively performed with Au-modified MWCNT chemiresistors.
Kang, Myunggoo; Lee, Dong Heon; Jung, Hyun [Dongguk University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
In this study, we attempted to apply Co metal nanoparticles decorated on the surface of the porous graphene (Co-PG) as the electrochemical hydrogen storage system. Co-PG was successfully synthesized by the soft-template method. To determine the synthetic strategy of porous graphene and Co nanoparticles, we compare the obtained Co-PG with two different materials such as Co nanoparticle decorated reduced graphene oxide without soft-template (Co-RGO) and porous graphene without Co nanoparticle (PG). The experimental details regarding the synthesis and characterization of the Co-PG, Co-RGO, and PG samples are provided in Supporting Information. Co-PG with interpenetrating porous networks and immobilized Co metal nanoparticles were successfully synthesized by the soft-template method. The obtained Co-PG exhibited high-surface area with ink-bottle open pores owing to the homogeneous dispersion of P123 micellar rods. The XRD and FE-SEM analyses clearly confirm that Co nanoparticles were immobilized on to the surface of porous graphene without any significant aggregation. The as-obtained Co-PG showed good electrochemical performance such as capacity and cycle stability for hydrogen storage. Based on these results, we believe that the Co-PG with a high-specific surface area could be worthwhile to investigate as not only electrochemical hydrogen storage materials but also other energy storage applications.
Bi, Yanzhi; Yuan, Kai; Yu, Dahua; Wang, Ruonan; Li, Min; Li, Yangding; Zhai, Jinquan; Lin, Wei; Tian, Jie
The attentional bias to smoking cues contributes to smoking cue reactivity and cognitive declines underlines smoking behaviors, which were probably associated with the central executive network (CEN). However, little is known about the implication of the structural connectivity of the CEN in smoking cue reactivity and cognitive control impairments in smokers. In the present study, the white matter structural connectivity of the CEN was quantified in 35 smokers and 26 non-smokers using the diffusion tensor imaging and deterministic fiber tractography methods. Smoking cue reactivity was evaluated using cue exposure tasks, and cognitive control performance was assessed by the Stroop task. Relative to non-smokers, smokers showed increased fractional anisotropy (FA) values of the bilateral CEN fiber tracts. The FA values of left CEN positively correlated with the smoking cue-induced activation of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and right middle occipital cortex in smokers. Meanwhile, the FA values of left CEN positively correlated with the incongruent errors during Stroop task in smokers. Collectively, the present study highlighted the role of the structural connectivity of the CEN in smoking cue reactivity and cognitive control performance, which may underpin the attentional bias to smoking cues and cognitive deficits in smokers. The multimodal imaging method by forging links from brain structure to brain function extended the notion that structural connections can modulate the brain activity in specific projection target regions. Hum Brain Mapp 38:6239-6249, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Miao, Zhidong; Liu, Dake; Gong, Chen
Inductive wireless power transfer (IWPT) is a promising power technology for implantable biomedical devices, where the power consumption is low and the efficiency is the most important consideration. In this paper, we propose an optimization method of impedance matching networks (IMN) to maximize the IWPT efficiency. The IMN at the load side is designed to achieve the optimal load, and the IMN at the source side is designed to deliver the required amount of power (no-more-no-less) from the power source to the load. The theoretical analyses and design procedure are given. An IWPT system for an implantable glaucoma therapeutic prototype is designed as an example. Compared with the efficiency of the resonant IWPT system, the efficiency of our optimized system increases with a factor of 1.73. Besides, the efficiency of our optimized IWPT system is 1.97 times higher than that of the IWPT system optimized by the traditional maximum power transfer method. All the discussions indicate that the optimization method proposed in this paper could achieve a high efficiency and long working time when the system is powered by a battery.
The multi-tier heterogeneous structure of 5G with dense small cells deployment, relays, and device-to-device (D2D) communications operating in an underlay fashion is envisioned as a potential solution to satisfy the future demand for cellular services. However, efficient power allocation among dense secondary transmitters that maintains quality of service (QoS) for macro (primary) cell users and secondary cell users is a critical challenge for operating such radio. In this paper, we focus on the power allocation problem in the multi-tier 5G network structure using a non-cooperative methodology with energy efficiency consideration. Therefore, we propose a distributive intuition-based online learning scheme for power allocation in the downlink of the 5G systems, where each transmitter surmises other transmitters power allocation strategies without information exchange. The proposed learning model exploits a brief state representation to account for the problem of dimensionality in online learning and expedite the convergence. The convergence of the proposed scheme is proved and numerical results demonstrate its capability to achieve fast convergence with QoS guarantee and significant improvement in system energy efficiency.
Kipping, David M.; Lam, Christopher
The upcoming Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) mission is expected to find thousands of transiting planets around bright stars, yet for three-quarters of the fields observed the temporal coverage will limit discoveries to planets with orbital periods below 13.7 d. From the Kepler catalogue, the mean probability of these short-period transiting planets having additional longer period transiters (which would be missed by TESS) is 18 per cent, a value 10 times higher than the average star. In this work, we show how this probability is not uniform but functionally dependent upon the properties of the observed short-period transiters, ranging from less than 1 per cent up to over 50 per cent. Using artificial neural networks (ANNs) trained on the Kepler catalogue and making careful feature selection to account for the differing sensitivity of TESS, we are able to predict the most likely short-period transiters to be accompanied by additional transiters. Through cross-validation, we predict that a targeted, optimized TESS transit and/or radial velocity follow-up programme using our trained ANN would have a discovery yield improved by a factor of 2. Our work enables a near-optimal follow-up strategy for surveys following TESS targets for additional planets, improving the science yield derived from TESS and particularly beneficial in the search for habitable-zone transiting worlds.
Fahriye Altınay Aksal
Full Text Available The impact of the digital age within learning and social interaction has been growing rapidly. The realm of digital age and computer mediated communication requires reconsidering instruction based on collaborative interactive learning process and socio-contextual experience for learning. Social networking sites such as facebook can help create group space for digital dialogue to inform, question and challenge within a frame of connectivism as learning theory within the digital age. The aim of this study is to elaborate the practice of connectivism as learning theory in terms of internship course. Facebook group space provided social learning platform for dialogue and negotiation beside the classroom learning and teaching process in this study. The 35 internship students provided self-reports within a frame of this qualitative research. This showed how principles of theory practiced and how this theory and facebook group space contribute learning, selfleadership, decision making and reflection skills. As the research reflects a practice of new theory based on action research, learning is not individualistic attempt in the digital age as regards the debate on learning in digital age within a frame of connectivism
Keite Lira de Almeida França
Full Text Available Structural rearrangement of the dentate gyrus has been described as the underlying cause of many types of epilepsies, particularly temporal lobe epilepsy. It is said to occur when aberrant connections are established in the damaged hippocampus, as described in human epilepsy and experimental models. Computer modelling of the dentate gyrus circuitry and the corresponding structural changes has been used to understand how abnormal mossy fibre sprouting can subserve seizure generation observed in experimental models when epileptogenesis is induced by status epilepticus. The model follows the McCulloch-Pitts formalism including the representation of the nonsynaptic mechanisms. The neuronal network comprised granule cells, mossy cells, and interneurons. The compensation theory and the Hebbian and anti-Hebbian rules were used to describe the structural rearrangement including the effects of the nonsynaptic mechanisms on the neuronal activity. The simulations were based on neuroanatomic data and on the connectivity pattern between the cells represented. The results suggest that there is a joint action of the compensation theory and Hebbian rules during the inflammatory process that accompanies the status epilepticus. The structural rearrangement simulated for the dentate gyrus circuitry promotes speculation about the formation of the abnormal mossy fiber sprouting and its role in epileptic seizures.
Kuzmenko, Volodymyr; Kalogeropoulos, Theodoros; Thunberg, Johannes; Johannesson, Sara; Hägg, Daniel; Enoksson, Peter; Gatenholm, Paul
The problem of recovery from neurodegeneration needs new effective solutions. Tissue engineering is viewed as a prospective approach for solving this problem since it can help to develop healthy neural tissue using supportive scaffolds. This study presents effective and sustainable tissue engineering methods for creating biomaterials from cellulose that can be used either as scaffolds for the growth of neural tissue in vitro or as drug screening models. To reach this goal, nanofibrous electrospun cellulose mats were made conductive via two different procedures: carbonization and addition of multi-walled carbon nanotubes. The resulting scaffolds were much more conductive than untreated cellulose material and were used to support growth and differentiation of SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. The cells were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy and confocal microscopy methods over a period of 15 days at different time points. The results showed that the cellulose-derived conductive scaffolds can provide support for good cell attachment, growth and differentiation. The formation of a neural network occurred within 10 days of differentiation, which is a promising length of time for SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Life expectancy for people with severe mental disorders is up to 25 years less in comparison to the general population, mainly due to diseases caused or worsened by smoking. However, smoking is usually a neglected issue in mental healthcare settings. The aim of this article is to describe a strategy to improve tobacco control in the hospital mental healthcare services of Catalonia (Spain. To bridge this gap, the Catalan Network of Smoke-free Hospitals launched a nationwide bottom-up strategy in Catalonia in 2007. The strategy relied on the creation of a working group of key professionals from various hospitals —the early adopters— based on Rogers’ theory of the Diffusion of Innovations. In 2016, the working group is composed of professionals from 17 hospitals (70.8% of all hospitals in the region with mental health inpatient units. Since 2007, tobacco control has improved in different areas such as increasing mental health professionals’ awareness of smoking, training professionals on smoking cessation interventions and achieving good compliance with the national smoking ban. The working group has produced and disseminated various materials, including clinical practice and best practice guidelines, implemented smoking cessation programmes and organised seminars and training sessions on smoking cessation measures in patients with mental illnesses. The next challenge is to ensure effective follow-up for smoking cessation after discharge. While some areas of tobacco control within these services still require significant improvement, the aforementioned initiative promotes successful tobacco control in these settings.
Nayak, Sanjay; Kumar, Rajendra; Shivaprasad, S. M.
We address the mechanism of early stages of growth and shape transition of the unique nanowall network (NwN) of GaN by experimentally monitoring its morphological evolution and complementing it by first-principles calculations. Using atomic force and scanning electron microscopy, we observe the formation of oval shaped islands at very early stages of the growth which later transformed into tetrahedron shaped (3 faced pyramid) islands. These tetrahedron shaped islands further grow anisotropically along their edges of the (20 2 ¯ 1) facets to form the wall-like structure as the growth proceeds. The mechanism of this crystal growth is discussed in light of surface free energies of the different surfaces, adsorption energy, and diffusion barrier of Ga ad-atoms on the (20 2 ¯ 1) facets. By first-principles calculations, we find that the diffusion barrier of ad-atoms reduces with decreasing width of facets and is responsible for the anisotropic growth leading to the formation of NwN. This study suggests that formation of NwN is an archetype example of structure dependent attachment kinetic instability induced shape transition in thin film growth.