WorldWideScience

Sample records for network covers current

  1. Spatial Scaling of Land Cover Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Small, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Spatial networks of land cover are well-described by power law rank-size distributions. Continuous field proxies for human settlements, agriculture and forest cover have similar spatial scaling properties spanning 4 to 5 orders of magnitude. Progressive segmentation of these continuous fields yields spatial networks with rank-size distributions having slopes near -1 for a wide range of thresholds. We consider a general explanation for this scaling that does not require different processes for each type of land cover. The same conditions that give rise to scale-free networks in general can produce power law distributions of component sizes for bounded spatial networks confined to a plane or surface. Progressive segmentation of a continuous field naturally results in growth of the network while the increasing perimeters of the growing components result in preferential attachment to the larger components with the longer perimeters. Progressive segmentation of two types of random continuous field results in progr...

  2. Wave plus current over a ripple-covered bed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredsøe, Jørgen; Andersen, Ken Haste; Sumer, B. Mutlu

    1999-01-01

    -visualization study in the laboratory with ripples, 22 cm in length, and 3.5 cm in height. One wave-alone, three current-alone, and three combined waves and current tests were conducted. The wave-velocity-to-current-velocity ratio ranges from 1 to 2.4. The orbiral-amplitude-ro-ripple-length ratio (at the bed) is 0......This paper concerns the combined wave and current boundary layer flow over a ripple-covered bed, The study comprises experiments as well as a numerical modelling study: the experimental part comprises laser Doppler anemometry (LDA) velocity and turbulence measurements, and a flow.......41. The effect of superimposing waves on a current is to displace the velocity profile to higher elevations. The velocity profiles exhibit two "logarithmic layers", one associated with the actual roughness of the bed (the actual ripple roughness), and the other with the apparent roughness induced by the waves...

  3. Edge scour in current adjacent to stone covers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Thor Ugelvig; Sumer, B. Mutlu; Meyer, Knud Erik

    The present paper reports some early results of an experimental investigation of edge scour in currents. Two kinds of measurements are made (1) Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) measurements of secondary currents that take place near a junction between the stone cover and the sand bed in a clear...... the sediment and puts into suspension, and the secondary flow carries it away from the junction between the stone layer and the sand bed, resulting in a scour hole forming adjacent to the toe of the stone layer.......-water experiment; and (2) scour measurements in actual scour experiment in the live-bed regime. The early results indicate that edge scour in a steady current propagating in-line with a stone layer is caused by the combined action of two effects; (1) Primary flow and (2) Secondary flow. The primary flow stirs up...

  4. Clique covering of large real-world networks

    OpenAIRE

    Conte, Alessio; Grossi, Roberto; Marino, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    International audience; The edge clique covering (ecc) problem deals with discovering a set of (possibly overlapping) cliques in a given network, such that each edge is part of at least one of these cliques. We address the ecc problem from an alternative perspective reconsidering the quality of the cliques found, and proposing more structured criteria with respect to the traditional measures such as minimum number of cliques. In the case of real-world networks, having millions of nodes, such ...

  5. Adaptive dynamic capacity borrowing in road-covering mobile networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ule, A.; Boucherie, Richardus J.; Li, W.; Pan, Y.

    2006-01-01

    This paper introduces adaptive dynamic capacity borrowing strategies for wireless networks covering a road. In a F/TDMA-based model, road traffic prediction models are used to characterise the movement of hot spots, such as traffic jams, and subsequently to predict the teletraffic load offered to

  6. Flow and edge scour in current adjacent to stone covers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Thor U.; Sumer, B. Mutlu; Bøgelund, Jon

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation on edge scour adjacent to a stone cover laid on a sandy bed. The three-dimensional flow over the edge of the stone layer has been investigated by the use of particle image velocimetry. The flow measurements show a significant amount...... of turbulence in the primary flow near the junction between the stone layer and the sand bed and the formation of complex secondary-flow structures. The results show that the flow and the edge scour process in a steady current are governed by the size of the roughness elements and to some extent the side slope...... of the berm. The edge scour is caused by the combined action of the primary flow and the secondary flow. The primary flow stirs up the sediment and puts it into suspension, and the secondary flow carries it away from the junction between the stone layer and the sand bed, resulting in a scour hole forming...

  7. Current distribution in conducting nanowire networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ankush; Vidhyadhiraja, N. S.; Kulkarni, Giridhar U.

    2017-07-01

    Conducting nanowire networks find diverse applications in solar cells, touch-screens, transparent heaters, sensors, and various related transparent conducting electrode (TCE) devices. The performances of these devices depend on effective resistance, transmittance, and local current distribution in these networks. Although, there have been rigorous studies addressing resistance and transmittance in TCE, not much attention is paid on studying the distribution of current. Present work addresses this compelling issue of understanding current distribution in TCE networks using analytical as well as Monte-Carlo approaches. We quantified the current carrying backbone region against isolated and dangling regions as a function of wire density (ranging from percolation threshold to many multiples of threshold) and compared the wired connectivity with those obtained from template-based methods. Further, the current distribution in the obtained backbone is studied using Kirchhoff's law, which reveals that a significant fraction of the backbone (which is believed to be an active current component) may not be active for end-to-end current transport due to the formation of intervening circular loops. The study shows that conducting wire based networks possess hot spots (extremely high current carrying regions) which can be potential sources of failure. The fraction of these hot spots is found to decrease with increase in wire density, while they are completely absent in template based networks. Thus, the present work discusses unexplored issues related to current distribution in conducting networks, which are necessary to choose the optimum network for best TCE applications.

  8. Current-flow efficiency of networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kai; Yan, Xiaoyong

    2018-02-01

    Many real-world networks, from infrastructure networks to social and communication networks, can be formulated as flow networks. How to realistically measure the transport efficiency of these networks is of fundamental importance. The shortest-path-based efficiency measurement has limitations, as it assumes that flow travels only along those shortest paths. Here, we propose a new metric named current-flow efficiency, in which we calculate the average reciprocal effective resistance between all pairs of nodes in the network. This metric takes the multipath effect into consideration and is more suitable for measuring the efficiency of many real-world flow equilibrium networks. Moreover, this metric can handle a disconnected graph and can thus be used to identify critical nodes and edges from the efficiency-loss perspective. We further analyze how the topological structure affects the current-flow efficiency of networks based on some model and real-world networks. Our results enable a better understanding of flow networks and shed light on the design and improvement of such networks with higher transport efficiency.

  9. Floating RC Networks Using Current Conveyors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Zeman

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the design of floating one- and/or two-port high-order networks. The current conveyor CCII+ seems to be a suitable active building block for this purpose. Some examples of the above mentioned networks are shown .

  10. The Ferraro Financial Furor: How the Television Networks Covered It.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Jeanne M.; Sanders, Luther W.

    A study compared the three major American television networks' early evening newscast coverage of 1984 vice-presidential candidate Geraldine Ferraro's financial status, specifically examining the emphasis placed on the story and seeking to determine whether coverage was objective or biased. Early evening network newscasts (excluding weekends) for…

  11. USGS Historical, Current, and Projected Future Land Cover Mapping for the Northern Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohl, T. L.; Gallant, A.; Sayler, K. L.

    2008-12-01

    Land cover in the Northern Great Plains has changed considerably in the last several decades. While a significant proportion of the landscape has been cultivated for over one hundred years, the intensity of cultivation, crop type, and management practices have changed in response to shifts in government policy, commodity prices, access to water, and technological advances. Changes in land cover impact a wide variety of ecosystem processes and services, including carbon balances, climate, hydrology and water quality, and biodiversity. A consistent record of historical land cover is required to understand relations between land- cover change and these ecological processes, while projections of future land cover are needed for planning and potential mitigation efforts. Several U.S. Geological Survey efforts have been completed or are ongoing in the Northern Great Plains, resulting in the compilation of an unmatched record of historical, current, and future land-cover information for the region. The USGS Land Cover Trends project is using the historical record of Landsat imagery and a robust sampling approach to examine the rates, causes, and consequences of contemporary (1973-2000) land-cover change on an ecoregional basis for the conterminous United States. Results from completed Trends analyses for Great Plains ecoregions revealed changes in the proportion and distribution of grassland/shrubland and agricultural uses during the study period; Some areas exhibited considerable loss in cultivated land after initiation of the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) in the mid 1980s. In recent years (post-2000), agricultural commodity prices have skyrocketed as food and energy compete for use of agricultural products, which in conjunction with the expiration of many CRP contracts, has led to expansion of cultivated land. In the coming decades, calls for U.S. energy independence and the development of biofuels from cellulosic stock could result in a transformation of the Great

  12. Effect of landslides on the structural characteristics of land-cover based on complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jing; Tang, Chuan; Liu, Gang; Li, Weile

    2017-09-01

    Landslides have been widely studied by geologists. However, previous studies mainly focused on the formation of landslides and never considered the effect of landslides on the structural characteristics of land-cover. Here we define the modeling of the graph topology for the land-cover, using the satellite images of the earth’s surface before and after the earthquake. We find that the land-cover network satisfies the power-law distribution, whether the land-cover contains landslides or not. However, landslides may change some parameters or measures of the structural characteristics of land-cover. The results show that the linear coefficient, modularity and area distribution are all changed after the occurence of landslides, which means the structural characteristics of the land-cover are changed.

  13. Alternating current loss reduction for rectangular busbars by covering their edges with low permeable magnetic caps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasada, Ichiro, E-mail: sasada@ence.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Applied Science for Electronics and Materials, Kyushu University, Kasuga (Japan)

    2014-05-07

    A method to reduce ac conductive losses in a thin rectangular busbar made of copper is presented. The method is based on a technique, which makes the distribution of the ac current in the cross section of a busbar flatter. Edges of a thin busbar are covered with low permeability magnetic thin layers as caps. The magnetic cap makes the impedance experienced by the current flowing near the edge comparatively larger so that currents cannot get crowded near the edges of a busbar. This method is numerically verified.

  14. Alternating current loss reduction for rectangular busbars by covering their edges with low permeable magnetic caps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasada, Ichiro

    2014-05-01

    A method to reduce ac conductive losses in a thin rectangular busbar made of copper is presented. The method is based on a technique, which makes the distribution of the ac current in the cross section of a busbar flatter. Edges of a thin busbar are covered with low permeability magnetic thin layers as caps. The magnetic cap makes the impedance experienced by the current flowing near the edge comparatively larger so that currents cannot get crowded near the edges of a busbar. This method is numerically verified.

  15. Current status of Polish Fireball Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiśniewski, M.; Żołądek, P.; Olech, A.; Tyminski, Z.; Maciejewski, M.; Fietkiewicz, K.; Rudawska, R.; Gozdalski, M.; Gawroński, M. P.; Suchodolski, T.; Myszkiewicz, M.; Stolarz, M.; Polakowski, K.

    2017-09-01

    The Polish Fireball Network (PFN) is a project to monitor regularly the sky over Poland in order to detect bright fireballs. In 2016 the PFN consisted of 36 continuously active stations with 57 sensitive analogue video cameras and 7 high resolution digital cameras. In our observations we also use spectroscopic and radio techniques. A PyFN software package for trajectory and orbit determination was developed. The PFN project is an example of successful participation of amateur astronomers who can provide valuable scientific data. The network is coordinated by astronomers from Copernicus Astronomical Centre in Warsaw, Poland. In 2011-2015 the PFN cameras recorded 214,936 meteor events. Using the PFN data and the UFOOrbit software 34,609 trajectories and orbits were calculated. In the following years we are planning intensive modernization of the PFN network including installation of dozens of new digital cameras.

  16. Assessment of the accuracy of current snow cover mapping algorithms for MODIS (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painter, T. H.; Rittger, K. E.; Dozier, J.

    2009-12-01

    Over the past 20 years, many algorithms for mapping snow have been developed to map snow in the binary sense and in the fractional sense from optical multi-spectral imagers and imaging spectrometers. These algorithms include band thresholds, band ratios, normalized band differences, empirical relationships with normalized band differences, relative spectral mixture analysis, and multiple endmember spectral mixture analysis. With the introduction of NASA Earth Observation System and its flagship instrument Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) came the capacity to better characterize snow cover properties through improved algorithms. Unlike previous instrumentation, the surface reflectance bands of MODIS sample the spectrum of snow-covered surfaces in those wavelengths where the greatest variation occurs and without the saturation in visible wavelengths. Here we assess the current binary and fractional snow cover algorithms (MOD10A1) and the MODIS Snow Covered Area and Grain size (MODSCAG) algorithm against a base set of high spatial-resolution fractional snow cover from Thematic Mapper and Enhanced Thematic Mapper+ data with a suite of binary and fractional metrics. These validation data cover mountains, forests, and plains in Alberta/Saskatchewan, high plains of Wyoming, the Colorado River Basin, Sierra Nevada of California, and the Himalaya. In general, MOD10A1 binary and fractional algorithms accurately detect snow cover during mid-winter but by mid-March, begin to lose track of snow cover such that, by June, they detect none of the snow cover in these regions. Across March/April/May, the mean recall (fraction of actual snow cover detected) was ~60%. This quasi-monotonic transition from accurate detection to complete lack of detection occurs during the most critical period for hydrologic modeling - the ablation season. The MOD10A1 fractional model had RMSE ranging from 13 to 40% with a mean RMSE across the validation scenes of 28%. MODSCAG had

  17. Current redistribution in resistor networks: Fat-tail statistics in regular and small-world networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Jörg; Bernasconi, Jakob

    2017-03-01

    The redistribution of electrical currents in resistor networks after single-bond failures is analyzed in terms of current-redistribution factors that are shown to depend only on the topology of the network and on the values of the bond resistances. We investigate the properties of these current-redistribution factors for regular network topologies (e.g., d -dimensional hypercubic lattices) as well as for small-world networks. In particular, we find that the statistics of the current redistribution factors exhibits a fat-tail behavior, which reflects the long-range nature of the current redistribution as determined by Kirchhoff's circuit laws.

  18. Multitarget search on complex networks: A logarithmic growth of global mean random cover time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Tongfeng; Zhang, Jie; Small, Michael; Yang, Ji; Bijarbooneh, Farshid Hassani; Hui, Pan

    2017-09-01

    We investigate multitarget search on complex networks and derive an exact expression for the mean random cover time that quantifies the expected time a walker needs to visit multiple targets. Based on this, we recover and extend some interesting results of multitarget search on networks. Specifically, we observe the logarithmic increase of the global mean random cover time with the target number for a broad range of random search processes, including generic random walks, biased random walks, and maximal entropy random walks. We show that the logarithmic growth pattern is a universal feature of multi-target search on networks by using the annealed network approach and the Sherman-Morrison formula. Moreover, we find that for biased random walks, the global mean random cover time can be minimized, and that the corresponding optimal parameter also minimizes the global mean first passage time, pointing towards its robustness. Our findings further confirm that the logarithmic growth pattern is a universal law governing multitarget search in confined media.

  19. Artificial neural networks in predicting current in electric arc furnaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panoiu, M.; Panoiu, C.; Iordan, A.; Ghiormez, L.

    2014-03-01

    The paper presents a study of the possibility of using artificial neural networks for the prediction of the current and the voltage of Electric Arc Furnaces. Multi-layer perceptron and radial based functions Artificial Neural Networks implemented in Matlab were used. The study is based on measured data items from an Electric Arc Furnace in an industrial plant in Romania.

  20. Use of Neural Networks in Risk Assessment and Optimization of Insurance Cover in Innovative Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pukała Ryszard

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The scientific objective of the paper is to present the findings of a study into the use of artificial neural networks in quantifying activity related risks of an innovative enterprise and to optimize its insurance cover in order to minimize the probable financial losses whenever they materialize. The Kohonen network involving the activation of 51 input variables was applied in the study. The outcomes of the stimulation for the given set of variables made it possible to determine the probability of a threat occurring in the classes. The results of the analysis were used to prepare an optimal insurance cover for the activities of the innovative company. The research findings are suitable for use in risk theory as well as in issues relating to entrepreneurship and insurance. The analytical device employed can also be put to practical use as a support tool in corporate risk management.

  1. Current land cover in the tropics and its potential for sequestering carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houghton, R. A.; Unruh, J. D.; Lefebvre, P. A.

    1993-06-01

    Emissions of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases from human activity are increasing the concentrations of these gases in the atmosphere. The Earth is expected to warm as a result, with consequences that are potentially highly disruptive to human societies. Reductions in the use of fossil fuels and in rates of deforestation worldwide will reduce emissions of CO2, but atmospheric concentrations will continue to increase unless emissions are reduced by more than 60% (about 4.5 billion tons of carbon annually). Reforestation seems to offer one of the few means for reducing the atmospheric concentration of CO2 over periods as short as human generations. We report here an approach for evaluating the potential for reforestation to help stabilize or even reduce the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere. Reforestation is defined broadly to include tree plantations, natural regrowth of secondary forests, and the practice of agroforestry. Our premise is that human use of the land has generally reduced woody biomass and that such lands have a potential for reaccumulating carbon if appropriately managed. We used published ground studies together with global vegetation index data from the NOAA 7 satellite to estimate current land cover in tropical regions. Then, superimposing this map of current land cover over maps depicting the distribution of vegetation cover prior to human disturbance, we obtained an estimate of about 3200 X 106 ha in the tropics (almost 60% of the total land area considered) where woody biomass had been decreased, and where carbon might again be sequestered. We calculated the amount of carbon that could be withdrawn from the atmosphere and stored in woody biomass if several management options were implemented. Biomass accumulations were determined from forestry statistics. Application of the data on biomass to the areas suitable for accumulation of carbon yielded an estimate of potential accumulation of 160-170 Pg carbon, an amount equivalent to the

  2. Multi-Temporal Land Cover Classification with Long Short-Term Memory Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rußwurm, M.; Körner, M.

    2017-05-01

    Land cover classification (LCC) is a central and wide field of research in earth observation and has already put forth a variety of classification techniques. Many approaches are based on classification techniques considering observation at certain points in time. However, some land cover classes, such as crops, change their spectral characteristics due to environmental influences and can thus not be monitored effectively with classical mono-temporal approaches. Nevertheless, these temporal observations should be utilized to benefit the classification process. After extensive research has been conducted on modeling temporal dynamics by spectro-temporal profiles using vegetation indices, we propose a deep learning approach to utilize these temporal characteristics for classification tasks. In this work, we show how long short-term memory (LSTM) neural networks can be employed for crop identification purposes with SENTINEL 2A observations from large study areas and label information provided by local authorities. We compare these temporal neural network models, i.e., LSTM and recurrent neural network (RNN), with a classical non-temporal convolutional neural network (CNN) model and an additional support vector machine (SVM) baseline. With our rather straightforward LSTM variant, we exceeded state-of-the-art classification performance, thus opening promising potential for further research.

  3. MULTI-TEMPORAL LAND COVER CLASSIFICATION WITH LONG SHORT-TERM MEMORY NEURAL NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rußwurm

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Land cover classification (LCC is a central and wide field of research in earth observation and has already put forth a variety of classification techniques. Many approaches are based on classification techniques considering observation at certain points in time. However, some land cover classes, such as crops, change their spectral characteristics due to environmental influences and can thus not be monitored effectively with classical mono-temporal approaches. Nevertheless, these temporal observations should be utilized to benefit the classification process. After extensive research has been conducted on modeling temporal dynamics by spectro-temporal profiles using vegetation indices, we propose a deep learning approach to utilize these temporal characteristics for classification tasks. In this work, we show how long short-term memory (LSTM neural networks can be employed for crop identification purposes with SENTINEL 2A observations from large study areas and label information provided by local authorities. We compare these temporal neural network models, i.e., LSTM and recurrent neural network (RNN, with a classical non-temporal convolutional neural network (CNN model and an additional support vector machine (SVM baseline. With our rather straightforward LSTM variant, we exceeded state-of-the-art classification performance, thus opening promising potential for further research.

  4. Fractional Snow Cover Mapping by Artificial Neural Networks and Support Vector Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çiftçi, B. B.; Kuter, S.; Akyürek, Z.; Weber, G.-W.

    2017-11-01

    Snow is an important land cover whose distribution over space and time plays a significant role in various environmental processes. Hence, snow cover mapping with high accuracy is necessary to have a real understanding for present and future climate, water cycle, and ecological changes. This study aims to investigate and compare the design and use of artificial neural networks (ANNs) and support vector machines (SVMs) algorithms for fractional snow cover (FSC) mapping from satellite data. ANN and SVM models with different model building settings are trained by using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer surface reflectance values of bands 1-7, normalized difference snow index and normalized difference vegetation index as predictor variables. Reference FSC maps are generated from higher spatial resolution Landsat ETM+ binary snow cover maps. Results on the independent test data set indicate that the developed ANN model with hyperbolic tangent transfer function in the output layer and the SVM model with radial basis function kernel produce high FSC mapping accuracies with the corresponding values of R = 0.93 and R = 0.92, respectively.

  5. Application of Set Covering Location Problem for Organizing the Public Postal Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragana Šarac

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Most countries of the European Union ensure certain obligations (criteria which universal service providers must meet to ensure the realization of the universal service. These criteria vary from country to country, giving their own choice of an optimal model for the density of the postal network. Such postal network of the operator providing universal postal service must be organized so that post offices are accessible at the optimal distance from the user. This paper presents two different approaches. The first one is based on the population criteria determined in the previous study. The second one is new, a general method created to determine the minimum number of postal unit applications of Set Covering Location Problem. The authors apply both methods on real data collected from the Serbian municipalities and finally, compare the obtained results.

  6. Detection of land cover change using an Artificial Neural Network on a time-series of MODIS satellite data

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Olivier, JC

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available An Artificial Neural Network (ANN) is proposed to detect human-induced land cover change using a sliding window through a time-series of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite surface reflectance pixel values. Training...

  7. Modeling of surface dust concentration in snow cover at industrial area using neural networks and kriging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergeev, A. P.; Tarasov, D. A.; Buevich, A. G.; Shichkin, A. V.; Tyagunov, A. G.; Medvedev, A. N.

    2017-06-01

    Modeling of spatial distribution of pollutants in the urbanized territories is difficult, especially if there are multiple emission sources. When monitoring such territories, it is often impossible to arrange the necessary detailed sampling. Because of this, the usual methods of analysis and forecasting based on geostatistics are often less effective. Approaches based on artificial neural networks (ANNs) demonstrate the best results under these circumstances. This study compares two models based on ANNs, which are multilayer perceptron (MLP) and generalized regression neural networks (GRNNs) with the base geostatistical method - kriging. Models of the spatial dust distribution in the snow cover around the existing copper quarry and in the area of emissions of a nickel factory were created. To assess the effectiveness of the models three indices were used: the mean absolute error (MAE), the root-mean-square error (RMSE), and the relative root-mean-square error (RRMSE). Taking into account all indices the model of GRNN proved to be the most accurate which included coordinates of the sampling points and the distance to the likely emission source as input parameters for the modeling. Maps of spatial dust distribution in the snow cover were created in the study area. It has been shown that the models based on ANNs were more accurate than the kriging, particularly in the context of a limited data set.

  8. Intelligent Current Sensors as Part of Smart Grid Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Nowakowski

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The continuous development of the ITC systems, especially industrial Ethernet network using the IEC 61850 protocol allows to building a distributed sensor networks for control and monitor temporary states of the power infrastructure. In the paper the construction of the intelligent current sensors, Measurement Units (MU for the Smart Grid network has been presented. In the paper the circuit diagram of sensor and synchronization method of the analog to digital converter based on the UTC timestamps has been described. The presented method allows to synchronize intelligent current sensors with an accuracy better than 1 μs. The presented innovative synchronization method is characterized by a high level of resistance to disappearance and attack of the reference time signal. The measuring device MU design is based on the embedded Linux-platform and as a sensing element used air core current transducers based on Rogowski coil. The connection between the current transducers and the central unit is made using a fiber optic link. Built-in IEC-61850 server provides a real-time measurement value of the True RMS, harmonics spectrum and samples value. The intelligent current transducers in addition to being used in the MUs create also new possibilities in the substation construction like the possibility to place the Autonomous Sensors in large distance from Intelligent Electronic Devices that are located in the substation.

  9. Survey of current technologies for network security; Network security gijutsu no genjo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsui, S.

    2000-05-01

    The Internet and technologies derived from it are indispensable for business today. As the Internet have became a commodity, and number of cracking activities have grown rapidly, network security has become serious matter. This paper presents a survey of current technologies for network security. First a summary of current research trend in cryptography, IPSec, intrusion detection system, next generation firewall, and performance management. Then detailed description on intrusion detection system and next generation firewall will be given. (author)

  10. Covering the Monitoring Network: A Unified Framework to Protect E-Commerce Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lirong Qiu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Multimedia applications in smart electronic commerce (e-commerce, such as online trading and Internet marketing, always face security in storage and transmission of digital images and videos. This study addresses the problem of security in e-commerce and proposes a unified framework to analyze the security data. First, to allocate the definite security resources optimally, we build our e-commerce monitoring model as an undirected network, where a monitored node is a vertex of the graph and a connection between vertices is an undirected edge. Moreover, we aim to find a minimal cover for the monitoring network as the optimal solution of resource allocation, which is defined as the network monitoring minimization problem (NMM. This problem is proved to be NP-hard. Second, by analyzing the latent threats, we design a novel and trusted monitoring system that can integrate incident monitoring, data analysis, risk assessment, and security warnings. This system does not touch users’ privacy data. Third, we propose a sequential model-based risk assessment method, which can predict the risk according to the text semantics. Our experimental results on web scale data demonstrate that our system is flexible enough when monitoring, which also verify the effectiveness and efficiency of our system.

  11. The ISMAR high frequency coastal radar network: Monitoring surface currents for management of marine resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlson, Daniel Frazier

    2015-01-01

    The Institute of Marine Sciences (ISMAR) of the National Research Council of Italy (CNR) established a High Frequency (HF) Coastal Radar Network for the measurement of the velocity of surface currents in coastal seas. The network consists of four HF radar systems located on the coast of the Gargano...... Promontory (Southern Adriatic, Italy). The network has been operational since May 2013 and covers an area of approximately 1700 square kilometers in the Gulf of Manfredonia. Quality Assessment (QA) procedures are applied for the systems deployment and maintenance and Quality Control (QC) procedures...... of geospatial data, a netCDF architecture has been defined on the basis of the Radiowave Operators Working Group (US ROWG) recommendations and compliant to the Climate and Forecast (CF) Metadata Conventions CF-1.6. The hourly netCDF files are automatically attached to a Thematic Real-time Environmental...

  12. Perimeter Coverage Scheduling in Wireless Sensor Networks Using Sensors with a Single Continuous Cover Range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung Ka-Shun

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In target monitoring problem, it is generally assumed that the whole target object can be monitored by a single sensor if the target falls within its sensing range. Unfortunately, this assumption becomes invalid when the target object is very large that a sensor can only monitor part of it. In this paper, we study the perimeter coverage problem where the perimeter of a big object needs to be monitored, but each sensor can only cover a single continuous portion of the perimeter. We describe how to schedule the sensors so as to maximize the network lifetime in this problem. We formally prove that the perimeter coverage scheduling problem is NP-hard in general. However, polynomial time solution exists in some special cases. We further identify the sufficient conditions for a scheduling algorithm to be a 2-approximation solution to the general problem, and propose a simple distributed 2-approximation solution with a small message overhead.

  13. Urban Land Use and Land Cover Classification Using Remotely Sensed SAR Data through Deep Belief Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Lv

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Land use and land cover (LULC mapping in urban areas is one of the core applications in remote sensing, and it plays an important role in modern urban planning and management. Deep learning is springing up in the field of machine learning recently. By mimicking the hierarchical structure of the human brain, deep learning can gradually extract features from lower level to higher level. The Deep Belief Networks (DBN model is a widely investigated and deployed deep learning architecture. It combines the advantages of unsupervised and supervised learning and can archive good classification performance. This study proposes a classification approach based on the DBN model for detailed urban mapping using polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (PolSAR data. Through the DBN model, effective contextual mapping features can be automatically extracted from the PolSAR data to improve the classification performance. Two-date high-resolution RADARSAT-2 PolSAR data over the Great Toronto Area were used for evaluation. Comparisons with the support vector machine (SVM, conventional neural networks (NN, and stochastic Expectation-Maximization (SEM were conducted to assess the potential of the DBN-based classification approach. Experimental results show that the DBN-based method outperforms three other approaches and produces homogenous mapping results with preserved shape details.

  14. Classifying Multi-year Land Use and Land Cover using Deep Convolutional Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, B.

    2015-12-01

    Cultivated ecosystems constitute a particularly frequent form of human land use. Long-term management of a cultivated ecosystem requires us to know temporal change of land use and land cover (LULC) of the target system. Land use and land cover changes (LUCC) in agricultural ecosystem is often rapid and unexpectedly occurs. Thus, longitudinal LULC is particularly needed to examine trends of ecosystem functions and ecosystem services of the target system. Multi-temporal classification of land use and land cover (LULC) in complex heterogeneous landscape remains a challenge. Agricultural landscapes often made up of a mosaic of numerous LULC classes, thus spatial heterogeneity is large. Moreover, temporal and spatial variation within a LULC class is also large. Under such a circumstance, standard classifiers would fail to identify the LULC classes correctly due to the heterogeneity of the target LULC classes. Because most standard classifiers search for a specific pattern of features for a class, they fail to detect classes with noisy and/or transformed feature data sets. Recently, deep learning algorithms have emerged in the machine learning communities and shown superior performance on a variety of tasks, including image classification and object recognition. In this paper, we propose to use convolutional neural networks (CNN) to learn from multi-spectral data to classify agricultural LULC types. Based on multi-spectral satellite data, we attempted to classify agricultural LULC classes in Soyang watershed, South Korea for the three years' study period (2009-2011). The classification performance of support vector machine (SVM) and CNN classifiers were compared for different years. Preliminary results demonstrate that the proposed method can improve classification performance compared to the SVM classifier. The SVM classifier failed to identify classes when trained on a year to predict another year, whilst CNN could reconstruct LULC maps of the catchment over the study

  15. Non-linear Bio-geophysical and Remote Sensing Relations Revealed in Neural Network Training for Fractional Snow Cover Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czyzowska-Wisniewski, E. H.; Van Leeuwen, W. J. D.; Marsh, S. E.; Hirschboeck, K. K.; Wisniewski, W. T.

    2014-12-01

    Accurate estimation of Fractional Snow Cover (FSC) in complex alpine-forested terrain is now possible with appropriate remote sensing data and analysis techniques. This research examines what minimum combination of input variables are required to obtain state-of-the-art FSC estimates for heterogeneous alpine-forested terrains. Currently, one of the most accurate FSC estimators for alpine regions is based on training an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) that can deconvolve the relationships between numerous compounded and possibly non-linear bio-geophysical relations encountered in rugged terrain. Under the assumption that the ANN optimally extracts available information from its input data, we can exploit the ANN as a tool to assess the contributions toward FSC estimation of each of the data sources, and combinations thereof. By assessing the quality of the modeled FSC estimates versus ground equivalent data, suitable combinations of input variables can be identified. High spatial resolution imagery from IKONOS are used to estimate snow cover for ANN training and validation, and also for error assessment of the ANN FSC results. Input variables are initially chosen representing information already incorporated into leading snow cover estimators. Additional variables such as topographic slope, aspect, and shadow distribution are evaluated to observe the ANN as it accounts for illumination incidence and directional reflectance of surfaces affecting the viewed radiance in complex terrain. Snow usually covers vegetation and underlying geology partially, therefore the ANN also has to resolve spectral mixtures of unobscured surfaces surrounded by snow. Multispectral imagery if therefore acquired in the fall prior to the first snow of the season and are included in the ANN analyses for assessing the baseline reflectance values of the environment that later become modified by the snow. The best ANN FSC model performance was achieved when all 15 pre-selected inputs were used

  16. An Automated Artificial Neural Network System for Land Use/Land Cover Classification from Landsat TM Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siamak Khorram

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on an automated ANN classification system consisting of two modules: an unsupervised Kohonen’s Self-Organizing Mapping (SOM neural network module, and a supervised Multilayer Perceptron (MLP neural network module using the Backpropagation (BP training algorithm. Two training algorithms were provided for the SOM network module: the standard SOM, and a refined SOM learning algorithm which incorporated Simulated Annealing (SA. The ability of our automated ANN system to perform Land-Use/Land-Cover (LU/LC classifications of a Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM image was tested using a supervised MLP network, an unsupervised SOM network, and a combination of SOM with SA network. Our case study demonstrated that the ANN classification system fulfilled the tasks of network training pattern creation, network training, and network generalization. The results from the three networks were assessed via a comparison with reference data derived from the high spatial resolution Digital Colour Infrared (CIR Digital Orthophoto Quarter Quad (DOQQ data. The supervised MLP network obtained the most accurate classification accuracy as compared to the two unsupervised SOM networks. Additionally, the classification performance of the refined SOM network was found to be significantly better than that of the standard SOM network essentially due to the incorporation of SA. This is mainly due to the SA-assisted classification utilizing the scheduling cooling scheme. It is concluded that our automated ANN classification system can be utilized for LU/LC applications and will be particularly useful when traditional statistical classification methods are not suitable due to a statistically abnormal distribution of the input data.

  17. Steroid cover in dentistry: recommendations following a review of current policy in UK dental teaching hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, R J; McLaughlin, E A; Rice, P J

    2003-01-01

    This article reports a project that was undertaken to determine current UK dental hospital policy with regard to the management of patients taking therapeutic doses of corticosteroids receiving dental treatment under local anaesthesia. There is variation in the medical management of this patient group, and whether practice should be standardized by means of a national policy document warrants consideration.

  18. Learning a Transferable Change Rule from a Recurrent Neural Network for Land Cover Change Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haobo Lyu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available When exploited in remote sensing analysis, a reliable change rule with transfer ability can detect changes accurately and be applied widely. However, in practice, the complexity of land cover changes makes it difficult to use only one change rule or change feature learned from a given multi-temporal dataset to detect any other new target images without applying other learning processes. In this study, we consider the design of an efficient change rule having transferability to detect both binary and multi-class changes. The proposed method relies on an improved Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM model to acquire and record the change information of long-term sequence remote sensing data. In particular, a core memory cell is utilized to learn the change rule from the information concerning binary changes or multi-class changes. Three gates are utilized to control the input, output and update of the LSTM model for optimization. In addition, the learned rule can be applied to detect changes and transfer the change rule from one learned image to another new target multi-temporal image. In this study, binary experiments, transfer experiments and multi-class change experiments are exploited to demonstrate the superiority of our method. Three contributions of this work can be summarized as follows: (1 the proposed method can learn an effective change rule to provide reliable change information for multi-temporal images; (2 the learned change rule has good transferability for detecting changes in new target images without any extra learning process, and the new target images should have a multi-spectral distribution similar to that of the training images; and (3 to the authors’ best knowledge, this is the first time that deep learning in recurrent neural networks is exploited for change detection. In addition, under the framework of the proposed method, changes can be detected under both binary detection and multi-class change detection.

  19. A climatology of the California Current System from a network of underwater gliders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudnick, Daniel L.; Zaba, Katherine D.; Todd, Robert E.; Davis, Russ E.

    2017-05-01

    Autonomous underwater gliders offer the possibility of sustained observation of the coastal ocean. Since 2006 Spray underwater gliders in the California Underwater Glider Network (CUGN) have surveyed along California Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigations (CalCOFI) lines 66.7, 80.0, and 90.0, constituting the world's longest sustained glider network, to our knowledge. In this network, gliders dive between the surface and 500 m, completing a cycle in 3 h and covering 3 km in that time. Sections extend 350-500 km offshore and take 2-3 weeks to occupy. Measured variables include pressure, temperature, salinity, and depth-average velocity. The CUGN has amassed over 10,000 glider-days, covering over 210,000 km with over 95,000 dives. These data are used to produce a climatology whose products are for each variable a mean field, an annual cycle, and the anomaly from the annual cycle. The analysis includes a weighted least-squares fit to derive the mean and annual cycle, and an objective map to produce the anomaly. The final results are variables on rectangular grids in depth, distance offshore, and time. The mean fields are finely resolved sections across the main flows in the California Current System, including the poleward California Undercurrent and the equatorward California Current. The annual cycle shows a phase change from the surface to the thermocline, reflecting the effects of air/sea fluxes at the surface and upwelling in the thermocline. The interannual anomalies are examined with an emphasis on climate events of the last ten years including the 2009-2010 El Niño, the 2010-2011 La Niña, the warm anomaly of 2014-2015, and the 2015-2016 El Niño.

  20. Lake Michigan Diversion Accounting land cover change estimation by use of the National Land Cover Dataset and raingage network partitioning analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, Jennifer B.; Soong, David T.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), Chicago District, is responsible for monitoring and computation of the quantity of Lake Michigan water diverted by the State of Illinois. As part of this effort, the USACE uses the Hydrological Simulation Program–FORTRAN (HSPF) with measured meteorological data inputs to estimate runoff from the Lake Michigan diversion special contributing areas (SCAs), the North Branch Chicago River above Niles and the Little Calumet River above South Holland gaged basins, and the Lower Des Plaines and the Calumet ungaged that historically drained to Lake Michigan. These simulated runoffs are used for estimating the total runoff component from the diverted Lake Michigan watershed, which is accountable to the total diversion by the State of Illinois. The runoff is simulated from three interpreted land cover types in the HSPF models: impervious, grass, and forest. The three land cover data types currently in use were derived from aerial photographs acquired in the early 1990s.

  1. An artificial immune network approach to land use / land cover classification using multi-sensor remote sensing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Binglei

    An optimized immune network-based classification (OPTINC) method was developed and adapted for land use / land cover classification. Based on the widely-used artificial immune network (aiNet) model, three major improvements were made: (1) the preservation of the best antibodies for each class from being suppressed; (2) the usage of self-adaptive mutation rates in response to changes in model performance between learning generations; and (3) the integration of genetic algorithm-optimized linear combinations of Euclidean distance and spectral angle mapping distance as affinity measurements. OPTINC was evaluated for two study sites with multi-sensor data. Decision trees, neural networks and aiNet were also tested and compared in terms of classification accuracy, local homogeneity of the classified image, and model sensitivity to sample size. OPTINC outperformed the other models with higher accuracy and much less salt-and-pepper noise in the classification images. OPTINC was relatively less sensitive to training sample size than decision trees and neural networks were. Key Words: Artificial immune networks; Artificial neural networks; Decision trees; Land use / land cover classification

  2. Covering complete proteomes with X-ray structures: a current snapshot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizianty, Marcin J.; Fan, Xiao; Yan, Jing; Chalmers, Eric; Woloschuk, Christopher [University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2V4 (Canada); Joachimiak, Andrzej, E-mail: andrzejj@anl.gov [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Kurgan, Lukasz, E-mail: andrzejj@anl.gov [University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2V4 (Canada)

    2014-11-01

    The current and the attainable coverage by X-ray structures of proteins and their functions on the scale of the ‘protein universe’ are estimated. A detailed analysis of the coverage across nearly 2000 proteomes from all superkingdoms of life and functional annotations is performed, with particular focus on the human proteome and the family of GPCR proteins. Structural genomics programs have developed and applied structure-determination pipelines to a wide range of protein targets, facilitating the visualization of macromolecular interactions and the understanding of their molecular and biochemical functions. The fundamental question of whether three-dimensional structures of all proteins and all functional annotations can be determined using X-ray crystallography is investigated. A first-of-its-kind large-scale analysis of crystallization propensity for all proteins encoded in 1953 fully sequenced genomes was performed. It is shown that current X-ray crystallographic knowhow combined with homology modeling can provide structures for 25% of modeling families (protein clusters for which structural models can be obtained through homology modeling), with at least one structural model produced for each Gene Ontology functional annotation. The coverage varies between superkingdoms, with 19% for eukaryotes, 35% for bacteria and 49% for archaea, and with those of viruses following the coverage values of their hosts. It is shown that the crystallization propensities of proteomes from the taxonomic superkingdoms are distinct. The use of knowledge-based target selection is shown to substantially increase the ability to produce X-ray structures. It is demonstrated that the human proteome has one of the highest attainable coverage values among eukaryotes, and GPCR membrane proteins suitable for X-ray structure determination were determined.

  3. Assessing and comparing relationships between urban environmental stewardship networks and land cover in Baltimore and Seattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michele Romolini; J. Morgan Grove; Dexter H. Locke

    2013-01-01

    Implementation of urban sustainability policies often requires collaborations between organizations across sectors. Indeed, it is commonly agreed that governance by environmental networks is preferred to individual organizations acting alone. Yet research shows that network structures vary widely, and that these variations can impact network effectiveness. However,...

  4. Covering complete proteomes with X-ray structures: a current snapshot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizianty, Marcin J.; Fan, Xiao; Yan, Jing; Chalmers, Eric; Woloschuk, Christopher; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Kurgan, Lukasz

    2014-10-23

    Structural genomics programs have developed and applied structure-determination pipelines to a wide range of protein targets, facilitating the visualization of macromolecular interactions and the understanding of their molecular and biochemical functions. The fundamental question of whether three-dimensional structures of all proteins and all functional annotations can be determined using X-ray crystallography is investigated. A first-of-its-kind large-scale analysis of crystallization propensity for all proteins encoded in 1953 fully sequenced genomes was performed. It is shown that current X-ray crystallographic knowhow combined with homology modeling can provide structures for 25% of modeling families (protein clusters for which structural models can be obtained through homology modeling), with at least one structural model produced for each Gene Ontology functional annotation. The coverage varies between superkingdoms, with 19% for eukaryotes, 35% for bacteria and 49% for archaea, and with those of viruses following the coverage values of their hosts. It is shown that the crystallization propensities of proteomes from the taxonomic superkingdoms are distinct. The use of knowledge-based target selection is shown to substantially increase the ability to produce X-ray structures. It is demonstrated that the human proteome has one of the highest attainable coverage values among eukaryotes, and GPCR membrane proteins suitable for X-ray structure determination were determined.

  5. Internal structure and current evolution of very small debris-covered glacier systems located in alpine permafrost environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Baptiste eBosson

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This contribution explores the internal structure of very small debris-covered glacier systems located in permafrost environments and their current dynamical responses to short-term climatic variations. Three systems were investigated with electrical resistivity tomography and dGPS monitoring over a 3-year period. Five distinct sectors are highlighted in each system: firn and bare-ice glacier, debris-covered glacier, heavily debris-covered glacier of low activity, rock glacier and ice-free debris. Decimetric to metric movements, related to ice ablation, internal deformation and basal sliding affect the glacial zones, which are mainly active in summer. Conversely, surface lowering is close to zero (-0.04 m yr-1 in the rock glaciers. Here, a constant and slow internal deformation was observed (c. 0.2 m yr-1. Thus, these systems are affected by both direct and high magnitude responses and delayed and attenuated responses to climatic variations. This differential evolution appears mainly controlled by (1 the proportion of ice, debris and the presence of water in the ground, and (2 the thickness of the superficial debris layer.

  6. Neural synchrony in cortical networks: history, concept and current status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Uhlhaas

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Following the discovery of context-dependent synchronization of oscillatory neuronal responses in the visual system, the role of neural synchrony in cortical networks has been expanded to provide a general mechanism for the coordination of distributed neural activity patterns. In the current paper, we present an update of the status of this hypothesis through summarizing recent results from our laboratory that suggest important new insights regarding the mechanisms, function and relevance of this phenomenon. In the first part, we present recent results derived from animal experiments and mathematical simulations that provide novel explanations and mechanisms for zero and nero-zero phase lag synchronization. In the second part, we shall discuss the role of neural synchrony for expectancy during perceptual organization and its role in conscious experience. This will be followed by evidence that indicates that in addition to supporting conscious cognition, neural synchrony is abnormal in major brain disorders, such as schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorders. We conclude this paper with suggestions for further research as well as with critical issues that need to be addressed in future studies.

  7. The Current Performance of the Third Interplanetary Network

    OpenAIRE

    Hurley, K.; Cline, T.; Mitrofanov, I.; Mazets, E.; Golenetskii, S.; Frontera, F.; Montanari, E; Guidorzi, C; Feroci, M.

    2002-01-01

    The 3rd Interplanetary Network (IPN) has been operating since April 2001 with two distant spacecraft, Ulysses and Mars Odyssey, and numerous near-Earth spacecraft, such as BeppoSAX, Wind, and HETE-II. Mars Odyssey is presently in orbit about Mars, and the network has detected approximately 30 cosmic, SGR, and solar bursts. We discuss the results obtained to date and use them to predict the future performance of the network.

  8. Method of Geometric Connected Disk Cover Problem for UAV realy network deployment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuang Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at the problem of the effective connectivity of a large number of mobile combat units in the future aeronautic swarm operation, this paper proposes an idea of using UAV(Unmanned Aerial Vehicle to build, and studies the deployment of the network. User coverage and network connectivity are important for a relay network planning which are studied separately in traditional ways. In order to effectively combine these two factors while the network’s survivability is taken into account. Firstly, the concept of node aggregation degree is proposed. Secondly, a performance evaluation parameter for UAV relay network is proposed based on node aggregation degree, then analyzes the lack of deterministic deployment and presents one a PSO (VFA-PSO deployment algorithm based on virtual force. Finally, compared with the existing algorithms, the validity and stability of the algorithm are verified. The experimental results show that the VFA-PSO algorithm can effectively improve the network coverage and the survivability of the network under the premise of ensuring the network connectivity, and has better deployment effect.

  9. What do central counterparties default funds really cover? A network-based stress test answer

    CERN Document Server

    Poce, Giulia; Gabrielli, Andrea; Zaccaria, Andrea; Baldacci, Giuditta; Polito, Marco; Rizzo, Mariangela; Sabatini, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    In the last years, increasing efforts have been put into the development of effective stress tests to quantify the resilience of financial institutions. Here we propose a stress test methodology for central counterparties based on a network characterization of clearing members, whose links correspond to direct credits and debits. This network constitutes the ground for the propagation of financial distress: equity losses caused by an initial shock with both exogenous and endogenous components reverberate within the network and are amplified through credit and liquidity contagion channels. At the end of the dynamics, we determine the vulnerability of each clearing member, which represents its potential equity loss. We apply the proposed framework to the Fixed Income asset class of CC&G, the central counterparty operating in Italy whose main cleared securities are Italian Government Bonds. We consider two different scenarios: a distributed, plausible initial shock, as well as a shock corresponding to the co...

  10. Cloud cover and solar disk state estimation using all-sky images: deep neural networks approach compared to routine methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krinitskiy, Mikhail; Sinitsyn, Alexey

    2017-04-01

    Shortwave radiation is an important component of surface heat budget over sea and land. To estimate them accurate observations of cloud conditions are needed including total cloud cover, spatial and temporal cloud structure. While massively observed visually, for building accurate SW radiation parameterizations cloud structure needs also to be quantified using precise instrumental measurements. While there already exist several state of the art land-based cloud-cameras that satisfy researchers needs, their major disadvantages are associated with inaccuracy of all-sky images processing algorithms which typically result in the uncertainties of 2-4 octa of cloud cover estimates with the resulting true-scoring cloud cover accuracy of about 7%. Moreover, none of these algorithms determine cloud types. We developed an approach for cloud cover and structure estimating, which provides much more accurate estimates and also allows for measuring additional characteristics. This method is based on the synthetic controlling index, namely the "grayness rate index", that we introduced in 2014. Since then this index has already demonstrated high efficiency being used along with the technique namely the "background sunburn effect suppression", to detect thin clouds. This made it possible to significantly increase the accuracy of total cloud cover estimation in various sky image states using this extension of routine algorithm type. Errors for the cloud cover estimates significantly decreased down resulting the mean squared error of about 1.5 octa. Resulting true-scoring accuracy is more than 38%. The main source of this approach uncertainties is the solar disk state determination errors. While the deep neural networks approach lets us to estimate solar disk state with 94% accuracy, the final result of total cloud estimation still isn`t satisfying. To solve this problem completely we applied the set of machine learning algorithms to the problem of total cloud cover estimation

  11. Collecting and Using Networked Statistics: Current Status, Future Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiott, Judith

    2004-01-01

    For more than five years the Houston Public Library has collected statistics for measuring networked collections and services based on emerging guidelines. While the guidelines have provided authority and stability to the process, the clarification process continues. The development of information discovery software, such as federated search tools…

  12. Artificial Neural Networks in Policy Research: A Current Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woelfel, Joseph

    1993-01-01

    Suggests that artificial neural networks (ANNs) exhibit properties that promise usefulness for policy researchers. Notes that ANNs have found extensive use in areas once reserved for multivariate statistical programs such as regression and multiple classification analysis and are developing an extensive community of advocates for processing text…

  13. COVERING THE SEAMS IN U.S. NATIONAL SECURITY BY APPLYING NETWORK AND TEAM ATTRIBUTES

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-06

    with a wide range of threats facing the country. At the same time, each evolution has created unintended consequences and even some weaknesses...described al Qaeda as an “information- age terrorist organization” with “capabilities to strike multiple targets from multiple directions, in swarming...2017). 3. Ibid. 4. Michael Miklaucic and Jacqueline Brewer, ‘Introduction,” Convergence: Illicit Networks and National Security in the Age of

  14. Covering the Monitoring Network: A Unified Framework to Protect E-Commerce Security

    OpenAIRE

    Qiu,Lirong; Li, Jie

    2017-01-01

    Multimedia applications in smart electronic commerce (e-commerce), such as online trading and Internet marketing, always face security in storage and transmission of digital images and videos. This study addresses the problem of security in e-commerce and proposes a unified framework to analyze the security data. First, to allocate the definite security resources optimally, we build our e-commerce monitoring model as an undirected network, where a monitored node is a vertex of the graph and a...

  15. Radiofrequency Field Distribution Assessment in Indoor Areas Covered by Wireless Local Area Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HELBET, R.

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Electromagnetic environment becomes day by day more congested. Radio communication systems in the short range are now part of everyday life, and there is a need to also assess the pollution level due to their emission if we take into account human health and protection. There is consistent scientific evidence that environmental electromagnetic field may cause undesirable biological effects or even health hazards. Present paper aims at giving a view on exposure level due to wireless local area networks (WLAN emission solely, as part of environmental radiofrequency pollution. Highly accurate measurements were made indoor by using a frequency-selective measurement system and identifying the correct settings for an error-minimum assessment. We focused on analysis of the electric flux density distribution inside a room, in the far field of the emitting antennas, in case of a single network communication channel. We analyze the influence the network configuration parameters have on the field level. Distance from the source and traffic rate are also important parameters that affect the exposure level. Our measurements indicate that in the immediate vicinity of the WLAN stations the average field may reach as much as 13% from the present accepted reference levels given in the human exposure standards.

  16. Evaluating the Capability of High-Altitude Infrasound Platforms to Cover Gaps in Existing Networks.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowman, Daniel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-09-01

    A variety of Earth surface and atmospheric sources generate low frequency sound waves that can travel great distances. Despite a rich history of ground-based sensor studies, very few experiments have investigated the prospects of free floating microphone arrays at high altitudes. However, recent initiatives have shown that such networks have very low background noise and may sample an acoustic wave field that is fundamentally different than that at the Earth's surface. The experiments have been limited to at most two stations at altitude, limiting their utility in acoustic event detection and localization. We describe the deployment of five drifting microphone stations at altitudes between 21 and 24 km above sea level. The stations detected one of two regional ground-based explosions as well as the ocean microbarom while traveling almost 500 km across the American Southwest. The explosion signal consisted of multiple arrivals; signal amplitudes did not correlate with sensor elevation or source range. A sparse network method that employed curved wave front corrections was able to determine the backazimuth from the free flying network to the acoustic source. Episodic broad band signals similar to those seen on previous flights in the same region were noted as well, but their source remains unclear. Background noise levels were commensurate with those on infrasound stations in the International Monitoring System (IMS) below 2 seconds, but sensor self noise appears to dominate at higher frequencies.

  17. Investigating and forecasting coastal Adriatic surface currents by using neural networks (NEURAL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilibic, Ivica; Zagar, Nedjeljka; Cosoli, Simone; Dadic, Vlado; Horvath, Kristian; Ivankovic, Damir; Jesenko, Blaz; Mihanovic, Hrvoje; Sepic, Jadranka; Tudor, Martina

    2014-05-01

    , which will be achieved by two WERA HF radars to be installed and become operational in early 2014. The advantages of the forecasting operational system based on neural networks versus classical oceanographic models are numerous: (i) their results are based on real data and therefore highly reliable, (ii) they need several orders of magnitude less computational time and resources than a full-scale 3D prognostic model based on Navier-Stokes equations in appropriate resolution, and (iii) forecasts can be made available to final users in a very short time. Within the project, the forecasts will be issued only for areas covered by ocean measurements; however, ocean model results may substitute HF radar measurements in such an ocean forecasting system and may be equally used. It is expected that the prototype ocean surface currents forecasting system will become operational in 2015.

  18. Fuzzy neural network model for the estimation of subpixel land cover composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binaghi, Elisabetta; Brivio, Pietro A.; Ghezzi, Pier P.; Rampini, Anna; Vicenzi, Massimo

    1998-12-01

    This paper reports on an experimental study designed for the in-depth investigation of how a supervised neuro-fuzzy classifier evaluates partial membership in land cover classes. The system is based on the Fuzzy Multilayer Perceptron model proposed by Pal and Mitra to which modifications in distance measures adopted for computing gradual membership to fuzzy class are introduced. During the training phase supervised learning is used to assign output class membership to pure training vectors (full membership to one land cover class); the model supports a procedure to automatically compute fuzzy output membership values for mixed training pixels. The classifier has been evaluated by conducting two experiments. The first employed simulated tests images which include pure and mixed pixels of known geometry and radiometry. The second experiment was conducted on a highly complex real scene of the Venice lagoon, Italy) where water and wetland merge into one another, at sub-pixel level. Accuracy of the results produced by the classifier was evaluated and compared using evaluation tools specifically defined and implemented to extend conventional descriptive and analytical statistical estimators to the case of multi-membership in classes. Results obtained demonstrated in the specific context of mixed pixels that the classification benefits from the integration of neural and fuzzy techniques.

  19. The European VLF/LF Radio Network: the current status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biagi, Pier Francesco; Maggipinto, Tommaso; Schiavulli, Luigi; Ligonzo, Teresa; Colella, Roberto; Ermini, Anita; Martinelli, Giovanni; Palangio, Paolo; Moldovan, Iren; Silva, Hugo; Contadakis, Michael; Frantzis, Xenophon; Katzis, Konstantinos; Buyuksarac, Aydin; D'Amico, Sebastiano

    2014-05-01

    Since 2009 a network of VLF (20-60 kHz) and LF (150-300 kHz) radio receivers has been put into operation in Europe in order to study earthquakes precursors. At the moment the network consists of eleven receivers four of which are located in Italy, two in Greece and one in Portugal, Romania, Malta, Cyprus and Turkey. The data (sampling rate of 1min) are downloaded automatically at the end of each day and they are stored in the server located at the Department of Physics of the University of Bari (Italy), that is the central node of the network. Still, in some case, problems of connection exist. The different trends are open and visible on the web site: http://beta.fisica.uniba.it/infrep/Hom.aspx. The data files can be downloaded by the same web site but they are protected by username and password. Among the different methods of data analysis the Wavelet spectra appear to be the most sensitive ones. The software able to apply this technique on the radio data automatically at the end of each day has been planned and realized. At the moment it operates on four signals collected by one of the Italian receivers; if an anomaly stands up and it is over a fixed threshold a warning advise appears. In the web site, this activity is protected by a specific username and password.

  20. Current challenges of implementing anthropogenic land-use and land-cover change in models contributing to climate change assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prestele, Reinhard; Arneth, Almut; Bondeau, Alberte; de Noblet-Ducoudré, Nathalie; Pugh, Thomas A. M.; Sitch, Stephen; Stehfest, Elke; Verburg, Peter H.

    2017-05-01

    Land-use and land-cover change (LULCC) represents one of the key drivers of global environmental change. However, the processes and drivers of anthropogenic land-use activity are still overly simplistically implemented in terrestrial biosphere models (TBMs). The published results of these models are used in major assessments of processes and impacts of global environmental change, such as the reports of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Fully coupled models of climate, land use and biogeochemical cycles to explore land use-climate interactions across spatial scales are currently not available. Instead, information on land use is provided as exogenous data from the land-use change modules of integrated assessment models (IAMs) to TBMs. In this article, we discuss, based on literature review and illustrative analysis of empirical and modeled LULCC data, three major challenges of this current LULCC representation and their implications for land use-climate interaction studies: (I) provision of consistent, harmonized, land-use time series spanning from historical reconstructions to future projections while accounting for uncertainties associated with different land-use modeling approaches, (II) accounting for sub-grid processes and bidirectional changes (gross changes) across spatial scales, and (III) the allocation strategy of independent land-use data at the grid cell level in TBMs. We discuss the factors that hamper the development of improved land-use representation, which sufficiently accounts for uncertainties in the land-use modeling process. We propose that LULCC data-provider and user communities should engage in the joint development and evaluation of enhanced LULCC time series, which account for the diversity of LULCC modeling and increasingly include empirically based information about sub-grid processes and land-use transition trajectories, to improve the representation of land use in TBMs. Moreover, we suggest concentrating on the

  1. Research for the Influence of Distribution Network Line Reclosing Current on Line Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Kansheng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the distribution network line structure and reclosing control strategy, the system simulation model of distribution network lines has established based on the real-time digital simulation RTDS. Based on this, distribution network switching impulse current characteristic has researched with different capacity, different distribution and different load power factor under the different voltage switching angles. The results of the study provide a scientific basis for distribution network line protection setting, in order to further lay the foundation for improvement the validity and reliability of distribution network line protection action.

  2. Engineering of a Biomimetic Pericyte-Covered 3D Microvascular Network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaerim Kim

    Full Text Available Pericytes enveloping the endothelium play an important role in the physiology and pathology of microvessels, especially in vessel maturation and stabilization. However, our understanding of fundamental pericyte biology is limited by the lack of a robust in vitro model system that allows researchers to evaluate the interactions among multiple cell types in perfusable blood vessels. The present work describes a microfluidic platform that can be used to investigate interactions between pericytes and endothelial cells (ECs during the sprouting, growth, and maturation steps of neovessel formation. A mixture of ECs and pericytes was attached to the side of a pre-patterned three dimensional fibrin matrix and allowed to sprout across the matrix. The effects of intact coverage and EC maturation by the pericytes on the perfused EC network were confirmed using a confocal microscope. Compared with EC monoculture conditions, EC-pericyte co-cultured vessels showed a significant reduction in diameter, increased numbers of junctions and branches and decreased permeability. In response to biochemical factors, ECs and pericytes in the platform showed the similar features with previous reports from in vivo experiments, thus reflect various pathophysiological conditions of in vivo microvessels. Taken together, these results support the physiological relevancy of our three-dimensional microfluidic culture system but also that the system can be used to screen drug effect on EC-pericyte biology.

  3. Engineering of a Biomimetic Pericyte-Covered 3D Microvascular Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jaerim; Chung, Minhwan; Kim, Sudong; Jo, Dong Hyun; Kim, Jeong Hun; Jeon, Noo Li

    2015-01-01

    Pericytes enveloping the endothelium play an important role in the physiology and pathology of microvessels, especially in vessel maturation and stabilization. However, our understanding of fundamental pericyte biology is limited by the lack of a robust in vitro model system that allows researchers to evaluate the interactions among multiple cell types in perfusable blood vessels. The present work describes a microfluidic platform that can be used to investigate interactions between pericytes and endothelial cells (ECs) during the sprouting, growth, and maturation steps of neovessel formation. A mixture of ECs and pericytes was attached to the side of a pre-patterned three dimensional fibrin matrix and allowed to sprout across the matrix. The effects of intact coverage and EC maturation by the pericytes on the perfused EC network were confirmed using a confocal microscope. Compared with EC monoculture conditions, EC-pericyte co-cultured vessels showed a significant reduction in diameter, increased numbers of junctions and branches and decreased permeability. In response to biochemical factors, ECs and pericytes in the platform showed the similar features with previous reports from in vivo experiments, thus reflect various pathophysiological conditions of in vivo microvessels. Taken together, these results support the physiological relevancy of our three-dimensional microfluidic culture system but also that the system can be used to screen drug effect on EC-pericyte biology.

  4. Pacemaker neuron and network oscillations depend on a neuromodulator-regulated linear current

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunbing Zhao

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Linear leak currents have been implicated in the regulation of neuronal excitability, generation of neuronal and network oscillations, and network state transitions. Yet, few studies have directly tested the dependence of network oscillations on leak currents or explored the role of leak currents on network activity. In the oscillatory pyloric network of decapod crustaceans neuromodulatory inputs are necessary for pacemaker activity. A large subset of neuromodulators is known to activate a single voltage-gated inward current IMI, which has been shown to regulate the rhythmic activity of the network and its pacemaker neurons. Using the dynamic clamp technique, we show that the crucial component of IMI for the generation of oscillatory activity is only a close-to-linear portion of the current-voltage relationship. The nature of this conductance is such that the presence or the absence of neuromodulators effectively regulates the amount of leak current and the input resistance in the pacemaker neurons. When deprived of neuromodulatory inputs, pyloric oscillations are disrupted; yet, a linear reduction of the total conductance in a single neuron within the pacemaker group recovers not only the pacemaker activity in that neuron, but also leads to a recovery of oscillations in the entire pyloric network. The recovered activity produces proper frequency and phasing that is similar to that induced by neuromodulators. These results show that the passive properties of pacemaker neurons can significantly affect their capacity to generate and regulate the oscillatory activity of an entire network, and that this feature is exploited by neuromodulatory inputs.

  5. Energization of networks of low-voltage of direct current; Energizacao de redes de corrente continua de baixa tensao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuutinen, Pasi; Kaipia, Tero; Lana, Andrey; Silventonien, Pertti [Universidade de Tecnologia de Lappeenranta (Finland)

    2011-10-15

    In CCBT networks, the terminal drive of the consumer requires the one capacitance connected directly to the DC network. This capacitance, which depends on the structure of the network and the number of consumers, is always greater than in a traditional AC network. When the network CCBT is energized, the capacitance need of the charging current, which, together with the inductance of the network, can cause surges in consumer.

  6. Current and emerging approaches to define intestinal epithelium-specific transcriptional networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Anders Krûger; Boyd, Mette; Danielsen, Erik Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Upon developmental or environmental cues, the composition of transcription factors in a transcriptional regulatory network is deeply implicated in controlling the signature of the gene expression and thereby specifies the cell- or tissue-type. Novel methods including ChIP-chip and ChIP-Seq have......, specific regulatory networks of transcription factors are activated to target specific genes, which determine the intestinal cell fate. The expanding genome-wide mapping of transcription factor binding sites and construction of transcriptional regulatory networks provide new insight into how intestinal...... differentiation is occurring. This review summarizes the current overview of the transcriptional regulatory networks driving the intestinal epithelial differentiation in adult. The novel technologies that have been implied to study these networks are presented and their prospects for implications in future...

  7. Central European MetEor NeTwork: Current status and future activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srba, J.; Koukal, J.; Ferus, M.; Lenža, L.; Gorková, S.; Civiš, S.; Simon, J.; Csorgei, T.; Jedlièka, M.; Korec, M.; Kaniansky, S.; Polák, J.; Spurný, M.; Brázdil, T.; Mäsiar, J.; Zima, M.; Delinèák, P.; Popek, M.; Bahýl, V.; Piffl, R.; Èechmánek, M.

    2016-06-01

    The Central European video Meteor Network (CEMeNt) established in 2010 is a platform for cross-border cooperation in the field of video meteor observations between Czech Republic and Slovakia. During five years of operation the CEMeNt network went through an extensive development. In total, 37 video systems were working on 20 permanent stations located in Czech Republic and Slovakia during 2015. In this paper we summarize CEMeNt current status and introduce some future activities.

  8. The GÉANT network: addressing current and future needs of the HEP community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capone, Vincenzo; Usman, Mian

    2015-12-01

    coordinated the setup of the network infrastructure to perform the BELLE II Trans-Atlantic Data Challenge, and has been active on helping the BELLE II community to sort out their end-to-end performance issues. In this talk we will provide information about the current GÉANT network architecture and of the international connectivity, along with the upcoming upgrades and the planned and foreseeable improvements. We will also describe the implementation of the solutions provided to support the LHC and BELLE II experiments.

  9. Buck-Boost Current-Source Inverters With Diode-Inductor Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Feng; Liang, Chao; Loh, Poh Chiang

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a number of novel currentsource inverters (CSIs) with enhanced current buck-boost capability. By adding a unique diode-inductor network between the inverter circuitry and current-boost elements, the proposed buck-boost CSIs demonstrate a doubling of current-boost capability......, as compared with other recently reported buck-boost CSIs. For controlling the proposed CSIs, two modulation schemes are designed for achieving either optimized harmonic performance or minimized commutation count without influencing the inverter current buck-boost gain. These theoretical findings were...

  10. On how much biodiversity is covered in Europe by national protected areas and by the Natura 2000 network: insights from terrestrial vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiorano, L; Amori, G; Montemaggiori, A; Rondinini, C; Santini, L; Saura, S; Boitani, L

    2015-08-01

    The European Union has made extensive biodiversity conservation efforts with the Habitats and Birds Directives and with the establishment of the Natura 2000 network of protected areas, one of the largest networks of conservation areas worldwide. We performed a gap analysis of the entire Natura 2000 system plus national protected areas and all terrestrial vertebrates (freshwater fish excluded). We also evaluated the level of connectivity of both systems, providing therefore a first estimate of the functionality of the Natura 2000 system as an effective network of protected areas. Together national protected areas and the Natura 2000 network covered more than one-third of the European Union. National protected areas did not offer protection to 13 total gap species (i.e., species not covered by any protected area) or to almost 300 partial gap species (i.e., species whose representation target is not met). Together the Natura 2000 network and national protected areas left 1 total gap species and 121 partial gap species unprotected. The terrestrial vertebrates listed in the Habitats and Birds Directives were relatively well covered (especially birds), and overall connectivity was improved considerably by Natura 2000 sites that act as stepping stones between national protected areas. Overall, we found that the Natura 2000 network represents at continental level an important network of protected areas that acts as a good complement to existing national protected areas. However, a number of problems remain that are mainly linked to the criteria used to list the species in the Habitats and Birds Directives. The European Commission initiated in 2014 a process aimed at assessing the importance of the Birds and Habitats Directives for biodiversity conservation. Our results contribute to this assessment and suggest the system is largely effective for terrestrial vertebrates but would benefit from further updating of the species lists and field management. © 2015 Society for

  11. Dynamic neural networks for real-time water level predictions of sewerage systems-covering gauged and ungauged sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Ming Chiang

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In this research, we propose recurrent neural networks (RNNs to build a relationship between rainfalls and water level patterns of an urban sewerage system based on historical torrential rain/storm events. The RNN allows signals to propagate in both forward and backward directions, which offers the network dynamic memories. Besides, the information at the current time-step with a feedback operation can yield a time-delay unit that provides internal input information at the next time-step to effectively deal with time-varying systems. The RNN is implemented at both gauged and ungauged sites for 5-, 10-, 15-, and 20-min-ahead water level predictions. The results show that the RNN is capable of learning the nonlinear sewerage system and producing satisfactory predictions at the gauged sites. Concerning the ungauged sites, there are no historical data of water level to support prediction. In order to overcome such problem, a set of synthetic data, generated from a storm water management model (SWMM under cautious verification process of applicability based on the data from nearby gauging stations, are introduced as the learning target to the training procedure of the RNN and moreover evaluating the performance of the RNN at the ungauged sites. The results demonstrate that the potential role of the SWMM coupled with nearby rainfall and water level information can be of great use in enhancing the capability of the RNN at the ungauged sites. Hence we can conclude that the RNN is an effective and suitable model for successfully predicting the water levels at both gauged and ungauged sites in urban sewerage systems.

  12. Circulating persistent current and induced magnetic field in a fractal network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saha, Srilekha [Condensed Matter Physics Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Sector-I, Block-AF, Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700 064 (India); Maiti, Santanu K., E-mail: santanu.maiti@isical.ac.in [Physics and Applied Mathematics Unit, Indian Statistical Institute, 203 Barrackpore Trunk Road, Kolkata 700 108 (India); Karmakar, S.N. [Condensed Matter Physics Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Sector-I, Block-AF, Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700 064 (India)

    2016-04-29

    We present the overall conductance as well as the circulating currents in individual loops of a Sierpinski gasket (SPG) as we apply bias voltage via the side attached electrodes. SPG being a self-similar structure, its manifestation on loop currents and magnetic fields is examined in various generations of this fractal and it has been observed that for a given configuration of the electrodes, the physical quantities exhibit certain regularity as we go from one generation to another. Also a notable feature is the introduction of anisotropy in hopping causes an increase in magnitude of overall transport current. These features are a subject of interest in this article. - Highlights: • Voltage driven circular current is analyzed in a fractal network. • Current induced magnetic field is strong enough to flip a spin. • Anisotropy in hopping enhances overall transport current.

  13. Active power filter for medium voltage networks with predictive current control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verne, Santiago A.; Valla, Maria I. [Laboratorio de Electronica Industrial, Control e Instrumentacion (LEICI), Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional de La Plata and CONICET, La Plata (Argentina)

    2010-12-15

    A transformer less Shunt Active Power Filter (SAPF) for medium voltage distribution networks based on Multilevel Diode Clamped Inverter is presented in this paper. Converter current control is based on a Model Predictive strategy, which gives very fast current response. Also, the algorithm includes voltage balancing capability which is essential for proper converter operation. The presented current control algorithm is naturally applicable to converters with an arbitrary number of levels with reduced computational effort by virtue of the incorporation of switching restrictions which are necessary for reliable converter operation. The performance of the proposed algorithm is evaluated by means of computer simulations. (author)

  14. Covering localization, mapping and evaluation of ducts, using Pipeline Current Mapper Methods (PCM); Localizacao, mapeamento e avaliacao de revestimento de dutos, utilizando o metodo Pipeline Current Mapper (PCM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furquim, Antonio Jorge [ESTEIO Engenharia e Aerolevantamentos S.A., Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    Esteio Engenharia e Aerolevantamentos S.A., together with the PETROBRAS - Petroleo Brasileiro S.A., comes accomplishing the Location, Geo positioning, Mapping and Inspection of the Coating in more than 5.000 km of pipes in several areas of the country. The works come being executed seeking the obtaining of the real position of Ducts (They-Built) and the conditions in that meets the coating of the same ones. The risings base on the method Pipeline Current Mapper (PCM), using the equipment of production of Radio detection to locate and to inspect the conditions of the coating. This work presents the results, analyses, precision, benefits and difficulties found during the execution of the surveying. (author)

  15. Bulgarian Seismological and GPS/GNSS networks-current status and practical implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solakov, Dimcho; Simeonova, Stela; Georgiev, Ivan; Dimitrova, Lilia; Slavcheva, Krasimira; Raykova, Plamena

    2016-04-01

    responsible governmental authorities if necessary urgent activities to be undertaken. The available infrastructure - permanent GNSS stations, spread all over the country allow performing permanent monitoring of the Earth's crust movements on the basis of the obtained velocities of the permanent stations and the time series with their coordinates. Additional information for the current movements is obtained by the processing and analysis of the regular GNSS measurements of geodynamic network. In the GNSS Analysis Center are acquired, processed and analyzed data from more than 70 permanent stations on Bulgarian territory. In the analysis are included also data from permanent stations on the Balkan Peninsula and from the European Permanent Network. Along with the seismological and geological information, the quantitative assessment of the movements of the Earth's crust is of the substantial importance for monitoring of the active tectonic structures and is the base for the seismic hazard assessment.

  16. Back-to-Back Energization of a 60kV Cable Network - Inrush Currents Phenomenon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faria da Silva, Filipe; Bak, Claus Leth; Hansen, M. Lind

    2010-01-01

    Network, and force a change in the approach used until now when planning, analyzing and operating electrical power systems. One problem that might arise is the energization of cables in parallel, as this operation may originate high inrush currents, which represent a risk to the circuit breakers connected...... to the purchase of a new circuit breaker for the cable. A theoretical background of this phenomenon is also presented....

  17. Identification of current attacks and their counter measures in Optical Burst Switched (OBS) network

    OpenAIRE

    Siddharth Singh Chouhan; Prof. Sanjay Sharma

    2012-01-01

    As day by day application grows internet requires large amount of bandwidth. Optical Burst Switching (OBS) is the next generation optical Internet with IP over WDM as the core architecture. It can achieve a balance between Optical Circuit Switching (OCS) and Optical Packet Switching (OPS). Optical network supports huge bandwidth and transmits data at an average rate of 50Tb/s. But we need to exploit the fiber’s huge bandwidth through WDM which is the current favorite multiplexing technology i...

  18. Land Use and Land Cover, Current land use layer developed by Bay-Lake Regional Planning Commission as part of the County's 2009 Smart Growth Plan., Published in 2008, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Manitowoc County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Land Use and Land Cover dataset current as of 2008. Current land use layer developed by Bay-Lake Regional Planning Commission as part of the County's 2009 Smart...

  19. Webcam network and image database for studies of phenological changes of vegetation and snow cover in Finland, image time series from 2014 to 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltoniemi, Mikko; Aurela, Mika; Böttcher, Kristin; Kolari, Pasi; Loehr, John; Karhu, Jouni; Linkosalmi, Maiju; Melih Tanis, Cemal; Tuovinen, Juha-Pekka; Nadir Arslan, Ali

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, monitoring of the status of ecosystems using low-cost web (IP) or time lapse cameras has received wide interest. With broad spatial coverage and high temporal resolution, networked cameras can provide information about snow cover and vegetation status, serve as ground truths to Earth observations and be useful for gap-filling of cloudy areas in Earth observation time series. Networked cameras can also play an important role in supplementing laborious phenological field surveys and citizen science projects, which also suffer from observer-dependent observation bias. We established a network of digital surveillance cameras for automated monitoring of phenological activity of vegetation and snow cover in the boreal ecosystems of Finland. Cameras were mounted at 14 sites, each site having 1-3 cameras. Here, we document the network, basic camera information and access to images in the permanent data repository (http://www.zenodo.org/communities/phenology_camera/). Individual DOI-referenced image time series consist of half-hourly images collected between 2014 and 2016 (https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1066862" target="_blank">https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1066862). Additionally, we present an example of a colour index time series derived from images from two contrasting sites.

  20. Design and simulation of a nanoelectronic DG MOSFET current source using artificial neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djeffal, F. [LEA, Department of Electronics, University of Batna 05000 (Algeria)], E-mail: faycaldzdz@hotmail.com; Dibi, Z. [LEA, Department of Electronics, University of Batna 05000 (Algeria)], E-mail: zohirdibi@univ-batna.dz; Hafiane, M.L.; Arar, D. [LEA, Department of Electronics, University of Batna 05000 (Algeria)

    2007-09-15

    The double gate (DG) MOSFET has received great attention in recent years owing to the inherent suppression of short channel effects (SCEs), excellent subthreshold slope (S), improved drive current (I{sub ds}) and transconductance (gm), volume inversion for symmetric devices and excellent scalability. Therefore, simulation tools which can be applied to design nanoscale transistors in the future require new theory and modeling techniques that capture the physics of quantum transport accurately and efficiently. In this sense, this work presents the applicability of the artificial neural networks (ANN) for the design and simulation of a nanoelectronic DG MOSFET current source. The latter is based on the 2D numerical Non-Equilibrium Green's Function (NEGF) simulation of the current-voltage characteristics of an undoped symmetric DG MOSFET. Our results are discussed in order to obtain some new and useful information about the ULSI technology.

  1. Geometric universality of currents in an open network of interacting particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinitsyn, Nikolai A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chernyak, Vladimir Y [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chertkov, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    We discuss a non-equilibrium statistical system on a graph or network. Identical particles are injected, interact with each other, traverse, and leave the graph in a stochastic manner described in terms of Poisson rates, possibly dependent on time and instantaneous occupation numbers at the nodes of the graph. We show that under the assumption of the relative rates constancy, the system demonstrates a profound statistical symmetry, resulting in geometric universality of the particle currents statistics. The phenomenon applies broadly to many man-made and natural open stochastic systems, such as queuing of packages over internet, transport of electrons and quasi-particles in mesoscopic systems, and chains of reactions in bio-chemical networks. We illustrate the utility of the general approach using two enabling examples from the two latter disciplines.

  2. Short term forecasting for HFSWR sea surface current mapping using artificial neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, J. W.; Lu, Y. C.; Hsieh, C. M.; Liau, J. M.; Yang, W. C.

    2016-02-01

    Taiwan Ocean Research Institute (TORI) established the Taiwan Ocean Radar Observing System (TOROS) based on the CODAR high frequency surface wave radar (HFSWR). The TOROS is the first network having complete, contiguous HFSWR coverage of nation's coastline in the world. This network consisting of 17 SeaSonde radars offers coverage across approximately 190,000 square kilometers an area, over five times the size of Taiwan's entire land mass. In the southernmost and narrowest part of Taiwan, two 13 MHz and one 24 MHz radars were established along the NanWan Bay since June, 2014. NanWan Bay, the southern tip of Taiwan, is a southward semi-enclosed basin bounded by two capes and is open to the Luzon Strait. The distance between the two caps is around 12 km, and the distance from the northernmost point of the bay to the caps are 5 and 11 km, respectively. Strong tidal currents dominate the ocean circulation in the NanWan Bay and induce obvious upwelling of cold water that intrudes on to the shallow regions of NanWan Bay around spring tides. From late fall to early spring, the seaward wind dominated by the northeast monsoon often destratifies the water column and decreases the sea surface temperature inside the Bay (Lee et al, 1997). Furthermore, the Nanwan Bay is famous with well-developed fringing reefs distributed along the shoreline. In this area, 230 species of scleractinian corals, nine species of non-scleractinian reef-building corals, and 40 species of alcyonacean corals have been recorded (Dai, 1991). NanWan, in the shape of a beautiful arch, attracts large crowds of people to take all kinds of beach or water activities every summer. In order to improve the applicability of HFSWR ocean surface current data on search and rescue issue and evaluation of coral spawn dispersal, a short term forecasting model using artificial neural network (ANN) was developed in this study. That ocean surface current vectors obtained from tidal theory are added as inputs in artificial

  3. Identification of geomagnetic current systems from a ground-based network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, F.; Dudok de Wit, T.; Menvielle, M.

    2003-04-01

    The Earth's total magnetic field is a superposition of magnetic fields from a variety of sources. At the Earth's surface, the most important source is the internal field produced by currents within the Earth's liquid core. At high latitudes of our planet, magnetopheric and ionospheric current systems are other important sources of magnetic field. A large part of research in geomagnetism is devoted to the identification of these internal and external sources. The separation of current systems from ground-based measurements is a source separation problem. In this study, our approach consists in inferring from a statistical analysis of the data set what are the different contributing source terms. Our analysis will be done by a statistical method known as the Singular Value Decomposition. The SVD is widely used in multivariate analysis for reduction of dimensionality, which offers a more concise description of the observed data and helps to extract significant information from the data. From geomagnetic data provided by the INTERMAGNET global network, the results of the SVD analysis can be interpreted in terms of current systems such as the magnetic field declination, the separation of the auroral electrojets into quiet and intermittent components, the seasonal effects, the ring current signature, the observation of the polar cusp and the cross-tail currents, the displacement of the auroral oval (and even the detection of geomagnetic jerks ?).

  4. Milling tool wear diagnosis by feed motor current signal using an artificial neural network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khajavi, Mehrdad Nouri; Nasernia, Ebrahim; Rostaghi, Mostafa [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-11-15

    In this paper, a Multi-layer perceptron (MLP) neural network was used to predict tool wear in face milling. For this purpose, a series of experiments was conducted using a milling machine on a CK45 work piece. Tool wear was measured by an optical microscope. To improve the accuracy and reliability of the monitoring system, tool wear state was classified into five groups, namely, no wear, slight wear, normal wear, severe wear and broken tool. Experiments were conducted with the aforementioned tool wear states, and different machining conditions and data were extracted. An increase in current amplitude was observed as the tool wear increased. Furthermore, effects of parameters such as tool wear, feed, and cut depth on motor current consumption were analyzed. Considering the complexity of the wear state classification, a multi-layer neural network was used. The root mean square of motor current, feed, cut depth, and tool rpm were chosen as the input and amount of flank wear as the output of MLP. Results showed good performance of the designed tool wear monitoring system.

  5. Urban Automation Networks: Current and Emerging Solutions for Sensed Data Collection and Actuation in Smart Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carles Gomez

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Urban Automation Networks (UANs are being deployed worldwide in order to enable Smart City applications. Given the crucial role of UANs, as well as their diversity, it is critically important to assess their properties and trade-offs. This article introduces the requirements and challenges for UANs, characterizes the main current and emerging UAN paradigms, provides guidelines for their design and/or choice, and comparatively examines their performance in terms of a variety of parameters including coverage, power consumption, latency, standardization status and economic cost.

  6. Urban Automation Networks: Current and Emerging Solutions for Sensed Data Collection and Actuation in Smart Cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Carles; Paradells, Josep

    2015-09-10

    Urban Automation Networks (UANs) are being deployed worldwide in order to enable Smart City applications. Given the crucial role of UANs, as well as their diversity, it is critically important to assess their properties and trade-offs. This article introduces the requirements and challenges for UANs, characterizes the main current and emerging UAN paradigms, provides guidelines for their design and/or choice, and comparatively examines their performance in terms of a variety of parameters including coverage, power consumption, latency, standardization status and economic cost.

  7. Predicting the activity phase of a follower neuron with A-current in an inhibitory network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Bose, Amitabha; Nadim, Farzan

    2008-09-01

    The transient potassium A-current is present in most neurons and plays an important role in determining the timing of action potentials. We examine the role of the A-current in the activity phase of a follower neuron in a rhythmic feed-forward inhibitory network with a reduced three-variable model and conduct experiments to verify the usefulness of our model. Using geometric analysis of dynamical systems, we explore the factors that determine the onset of activity in a follower neuron following release from inhibition. We first analyze the behavior of the follower neuron in a single cycle and find that the phase plane structure of the model can be used to predict the potential behaviors of the follower neuron following release from inhibition. We show that, depending on the relative scales of the inactivation time constant of the A-current and the time constant of the recovery variable, the follower neuron may or may not reach its active state following inhibition. Our simple model is used to derive a recursive set of equations to predict the contribution of the A-current parameters in determining the activity phase of a follower neuron as a function of the duration and frequency of the inhibitory input it receives. These equations can be used to demonstrate the dependence of activity phase on the period and duty cycle of the periodic inhibition, as seen by comparing the predictions of the model with the activity of the pyloric constrictor (PY) neurons in the crustacean pyloric network.

  8. Network communication for remote technology and NDT controls on current nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capitaine, A. [Electricite de France, 92 - Clamart (France). Service Etudes et Projets Thermiques et Nucleaires

    2001-07-01

    Among the most important targets for ''UTILITIES'' are to increase nuclear power plant availability and reduce the workers dosimetry. A possible way to reach these targets is to reduce the duration of the refueling period and to limit the number of operators in the work areas It is necessary to use remote technology and to provide much equipment to support the main activities during refueling. Remote technology is a possible solution to remove operators from the maintenance area. The main activities concerned are the NDT inspection on the primary components and fuel handling system. Recent progress on remote technology made by the electronic industry and network communication has increased their capacities. It is easier now to use them, and more and more people are familiar with these technologies. Internet, manufacturing, supervision, and surgery use these technologies. Now it seems appropriate to examine these technologies for current maintenance in nuclear plants. Remote technologies and communication network can help to solve current difficulties in the maintenance field and dosimetry limits. For a long time, many people thought that the cost and the difficulty of applying new technologies would be not extremely expensive, but this is no longer the case. Now with the first feed back we can show that these technologies are a good answer for increased availability and reduction of dosimetry. (author)

  9. Artificial neural networks in gynaecological diseases: current and potential future applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siristatidis, Charalampos S; Chrelias, Charalampos; Pouliakis, Abraham; Katsimanis, Evangelos; Kassanos, Dimitrios

    2010-10-01

    Current (and probably future) practice of medicine is mostly associated with prediction and accurate diagnosis. Especially in clinical practice, there is an increasing interest in constructing and using valid models of diagnosis and prediction. Artificial neural networks (ANNs) are mathematical systems being used as a prospective tool for reliable, flexible and quick assessment. They demonstrate high power in evaluating multifactorial data, assimilating information from multiple sources and detecting subtle and complex patterns. Their capability and difference from other statistical techniques lies in performing nonlinear statistical modelling. They represent a new alternative to logistic regression, which is the most commonly used method for developing predictive models for outcomes resulting from partitioning in medicine. In combination with the other non-algorithmic artificial intelligence techniques, they provide useful software engineering tools for the development of systems in quantitative medicine. Our paper first presents a brief introduction to ANNs, then, using what we consider the best available evidence through paradigms, we evaluate the ability of these networks to serve as first-line detection and prediction techniques in some of the most crucial fields in gynaecology. Finally, through the analysis of their current application, we explore their dynamics for future use.

  10. The Current State of Human Performance Technology: A Citation Network Analysis of "Performance Improvement Quarterly," 1988-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yonjoo; Jo, Sung Jun; Park, Sunyoung; Kang, Ingu; Chen, Zengguan

    2011-01-01

    This study conducted a citation network analysis (CNA) of human performance technology (HPT) to examine its current state of the field. Previous reviews of the field have used traditional research methods, such as content analysis, survey, Delphi, and citation analysis. The distinctive features of CNA come from using a social network analysis…

  11. Calculation of Initial Short-Circuit Currents in Medium Voltage Networks According to the Standard PN-EN 60909

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Krzysztof Księżyk; Tomasz Zdun

    2013-01-01

    Determining the short-circuit currents is usually conducted by network analyses. An important feature of this calculation is carried out according to the recommendations of the standard PN EN 60909...

  12. ELECTRIC MOTOR DIAGNOSTICS OF SWITCHES BASED ON THE NEURAL NETWORK DATA MODELING THE SPECTRAL DECOMPOSITION OF THE CURRENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Shvets

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The method of automated diagnostics of electric motors is offered. It uses a neural network revealing the electric motor faults on the basis of analysis of frequency spectrum of current flowing through the motor.

  13. Fundamental Active Current Adaptive Linear Neural Networks for Photovoltaic Shunt Active Power Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ammirrul Atiqi Mohd Zainuri

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents improvement of a harmonics extraction algorithm, known as the fundamental active current (FAC adaptive linear element (ADALINE neural network with the integration of photovoltaic (PV to shunt active power filters (SAPFs as active current source. Active PV injection in SAPFs should reduce dependency on grid supply current to supply the system. In addition, with a better and faster harmonics extraction algorithm, the SAPF should perform well, especially under dynamic PV and load conditions. The role of the actual injection current from SAPF after connecting PVs will be evaluated, and the better effect of using FAC ADALINE will be confirmed. The proposed SAPF was simulated and evaluated in MATLAB/Simulink first. Then, an experimental laboratory prototype was also developed to be tested with a PV simulator (CHROMA 62100H-600S, and the algorithm was implemented using a TMS320F28335 Digital Signal Processor (DSP. From simulation and experimental results, significant improvements in terms of total harmonic distortion (THD, time response and reduction of source power from grid have successfully been verified and achieved.

  14. Overlay networks toward information networking

    CERN Document Server

    Tarkoma, Sasu

    2010-01-01

    With their ability to solve problems in massive information distribution and processing, while keeping scaling costs low, overlay systems represent a rapidly growing area of R&D with important implications for the evolution of Internet architecture. Inspired by the author's articles on content based routing, Overlay Networks: Toward Information Networking provides a complete introduction to overlay networks. Examining what they are and what kind of structures they require, the text covers the key structures, protocols, and algorithms used in overlay networks. It reviews the current state of th

  15. Hillslope-scale hydrological and snow cover dynamics derived from a wireless soil moisture and temperature monitoring network and time-lapse digital photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollschläger, Ute; Vogt, Constantin; Kögler, Simon; Martini, Edoardo

    2015-04-01

    In mountainous catchments, snowmelt may be an important component of the water balance. We apply data from a wireless soil moisture and temperature monitoring network in combination with time-lapse digital photographs from a hillslope in the Schäfertal catchment, Lower Harz Mountains, to investigate interactions between hillslope-scale snow cover, soil moisture and soil temperature. The time series of digital photographs is evaluated using an automatic algorithm that estimates snow height at the position of several snow stakes placed along the hillslope using the green value of the RGB color cube. Inferred snow heights are applied to interpret near-subsurface soil moisture and soil temperature dynamics from the same time period including snow accumulation and melt. The combination of time-lapse digital photography, soil moisture and soil temperature monitoring clearly shows the strong influence of the snow cover on subsurface soil moisture and soil temperature dynamics. The shallow snow cover has a strong insulating effect on near-subsurface soil temperatures keeping the soil unfrozen even at air temperatures reaching down to less than -10 °C. The time-lapse photographs, soil moisture and soil temperature observations also show the different snowmelt behavior of the north- and south-exposed slopes. These observations are important information for future modelling of hillslope and catchment-scale hydrological dynamics.

  16. The way to cover prediction for cytotoxicity for all existing nano-sized metal oxides by using neural network method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fjodorova, Natalja; Novic, Marjana; Gajewicz, Agnieszka; Rasulev, Bakhtiyor

    2017-05-01

    The regulatory agencies should fulfil the data gap in toxicity for new chemicals including nano-sized compounds, like metal oxides nanoparticles (MeOx NPs) according to the registration, evaluation, authorisation and restriction of chemicals (REACH) legislation policy. This study demonstrates the perspective capability of neural network models for prediction of cytotoxicity of MeOx NPs to bacteria Escherichia coli (E. coli) for the widest range of metal oxides extracted from Periodic table. The counter propagation artificial neural network (CP ANN) models for prediction of cytotoxicity of MeOx NPs for data sets of 17, 36 and 72 metal oxides were employed in the study. The cytotoxicity of studied metal oxide NPs was correlated with (i) χ-metal electronegativity (EN) by Pauling scale and composition of metal oxides characterised by (ii) number of metal atoms in oxide, (iii) number of oxygen atoms in oxide and (iv) charge of metal cation in oxide. The paper describes the models in context of five OECD principles of validation models accepted for regulatory use. The recommendations were done for the minimal number of cytotoxicity tests needs for evaluation of the large set of MeOx with different oxidation states. The methodology is expected to be useful for potential hazard assessment of MeOx NPs and prioritisation for further testing and risk assessment.

  17. Land Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Land Cover database depicts 10 general land cover classes for the State of Kansas. The database was compiled from a digital classification of Landsat Thematic...

  18. Investigation of Microprocessor-based Current Protection of Distribution Networks Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. A. Romaniuk

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available As a result of computing experiment the basic indices of the technical perfection of microprocessor current protection of distribution networks lines were obtained. Test data are presented in the form of signal dependences in various protection circuits. Estimation of an operating capability and efficiency of the investigated protection under two- and three-phase short circuits at the beginning and end of the protected line and also at the end of an adjacent transmission line with a transient resistance were carried out in the paper. The paper proves an efficiency and high sensitivity of the proposed method which ensures a selective and proper operation of the protection in all modes of the controlled transmission line.

  19. Comparison between Possibilistic c-Means (PCM and Artificial Neural Network (ANN Classification Algorithms in Land use/ Land cover Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganchimeg Ganbold

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available There are several statistical classification algorithms available for landuse/land cover classification. However, each has a certain bias orcompromise. Some methods like the parallel piped approach in supervisedclassification, cannot classify continuous regions within a feature. Onthe other hand, while unsupervised classification method takes maximumadvantage of spectral variability in an image, the maximally separableclusters in spectral space may not do much for our perception of importantclasses in a given study area. In this research, the output of an ANNalgorithm was compared with the Possibilistic c-Means an improvementof the fuzzy c-Means on both moderate resolutions Landsat8 and a highresolution Formosat 2 images. The Formosat 2 image comes with an8m spectral resolution on the multispectral data. This multispectral imagedata was resampled to 10m in order to maintain a uniform ratio of1:3 against Landsat 8 image. Six classes were chosen for analysis including:Dense forest, eucalyptus, water, grassland, wheat and riverine sand. Using a standard false color composite (FCC, the six features reflecteddifferently in the infrared region with wheat producing the brightestpixel values. Signature collection per class was therefore easily obtainedfor all classifications. The output of both ANN and FCM, were analyzedseparately for accuracy and an error matrix generated to assess the qualityand accuracy of the classification algorithms. When you compare theresults of the two methods on a per-class-basis, ANN had a crisperoutput compared to PCM which yielded clusters with pixels especiallyon the moderate resolution Landsat 8 imagery.

  20. An algorithm for identifying the best current friend in a social network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Moreno

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A research field in the area of social networks (SNs is the identification of some types of users and groups. To facilitate this process, a SN is usually represented by a graph. The centrality measures, which identify the most important vertices in a graph according to some criterion, are usual tools to analyze a graph. One of these measures is the PageRank (a measure originally designed to classify web pages. Informally, in the context of a SN, the PageRank of a user i represents the probability that another user of the SN is seeing the page of i after a considerable time of navigation in the SN. In this paper, we define a new type of user in a SN: the best current friend. The idea is to identify, among the friends of a user i, who is the friend k that would generate the highest decrease in the PageRank of i if k stops being his/her friend. This may be useful to identify the users/customers whose friendship/relationship should be a priority to keep. We provide formal definitions, algorithms and some experiments for this subject. Our experiments showed that the best current friend of a user is not necessarily the one who has the highest PageRank in the SN nor the one who has more friends.

  1. Double-Frame Current Control with a Multivariable PI Controller and Power Compensation for Weak Unbalanced Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Siemaszko, Daniel

    2015-06-15

    The handling of weak networks with asymmetric loads and disturbances im- plies the accurate handling of the second-harmonic component that appears in an unbalanced network. This paper proposes a classic vector control approach using a PI-based controller with superior decoupling capabilities for operation in weak networks with unbalanced phase voltages. A synchronization method for weak unbalanced networks is detailed, with dedicated dimensioning rules. The use of a double-frame controller allows a current symmetry or controlled imbalance to be forced for compensation of power oscillations by controlling the negative current sequence. This paper also serves as a useful reminder of the proper way to cancel the inherent coupling effect due to the transformation to the synchronous rotating reference frame, and of basic considerations of the relationship between switching frequency and control bandwidth.

  2. Dimension Estimation of Rectangular Cracks Using Impedance Changes of the Eddy Current Probe with a Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Babaei

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a method for estimating the dimension of rectangular cracks is proposed. The use of Eddy current (ECnondestructive testing (NDT based on probe impedance changes on the crack regions is considered. The artificialneural network estimates the dimension of new cracks using impedance changes of the eddy current probe. Theexperimental results and finite element method (FEM results are used for training the artificial neural network. Byincreasing the number of experiments, the results of the finite element method are not necessary. The simulationresults are very promising.

  3. Reliability of Sensors Based on Nanowire Networks When the Electrical Current is Allowed to Move in All Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nader Ebrahimi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanowire networks have great potential in many industrial applications, including batteries, electrical circuits, solar cells, and sensors. In this paper we focus on a specific hydrogen gas nanosensor whose sensing element is a network of palladium nanowires. The nanosensor is modeled using a square, equilateral triangle, and hexagonal lattice. We provide the reliability behavior of this nanosensor when the electrical current is allowed to move in all directions. Our findings reveal an improvement in reliability compared to the scenario where the electrical current could not move from right to left. We show this improvement both analytically and through simulation.

  4. Social networks

    CERN Document Server

    Etaner-Uyar, A Sima

    2014-01-01

    The present volume provides a comprehensive resource for practitioners and researchers alike-both those new to the field as well as those who already have some experience. The work covers Social Network Analysis theory and methods with a focus on current applications and case studies applied in various domains such as mobile networks, security, machine learning and health. With the increasing popularity of Web 2.0, social media has become a widely used communication platform. Parallel to this development, Social Network Analysis gained in importance as a research field, while opening up many

  5. Development and application of network virtual instrument for emission spectrum of pulsed high-voltage direct current discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, X.; Wu, Q.

    2017-12-01

    Network virtual instrument (VI) is a new development direction in current automated test. Based on LabVIEW, the software and hardware system of VI used for emission spectrum of pulsed high-voltage direct current (DC) discharge is developed and applied to investigate pulsed high-voltage DC discharge of nitrogen. By doing so, various functions are realized including real time collection of emission spectrum of nitrogen, monitoring operation state of instruments and real time analysis and processing of data. By using shared variables and DataSocket technology in LabVIEW, the network VI system based on field VI is established. The system can acquire the emission spectrum of nitrogen in the test site, monitor operation states of field instruments, realize real time face-to-face interchange of two sites, and analyze data in the far-end from the network terminal. By employing the network VI system, the staff in the two sites acquired the same emission spectrum of nitrogen and conducted the real time communication. By comparing with the previous results, it can be seen that the experimental data obtained by using the system are highly precise. This implies that the system shows reliable network stability and safety and satisfies the requirements for studying the emission spectrum of pulsed high-voltage discharge in high-precision fields or network terminals. The proposed architecture system is described and the target group gets the useful enlightenment in many fields including engineering remote users, specifically in control- and automation-related tasks.

  6. Benthic Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Benthic cover (habitat) maps are derived from aerial imagery, underwater photos, acoustic surveys, and data gathered from sediment samples. Shallow to moderate-depth...

  7. History, current issues and future of the brazilian network for attending and studying Trypanosoma cruzi/HIV coinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos Júnior, Alberto Novaes; Correia, Dalmo; Almeida, Eros Antônio; Shikanai-Yasuda, Maria Aparecida

    2010-11-24

    In countries with endemic Chagas disease, coinfection involving Trypanosoma cruzi and HIV is expected to become more frequent. There is a clear need to structure a comprehensive care network aimed at dealing with this situation, with mobilization going from primary care to care at the highest level of technological complexity. The objective of this study was to describe the Brazilian response to the challenges of Chagas disease: the history, current issues, and future of the Brazilian Network for attending and studying T. cruzi/HIV coinfection. This descriptive study reviewed technical documents relating to the basis and structuring process of the Brazilian network for attending and studying T. cruzi/HIV coinfection. The process of setting up the network was marked by technical and political debates in technical-scientific meetings going back to the 1990s. This process made it possible to expand and focus on different aspects of comprehensive care for Chagas disease in Brazil, regardless of the associated immunosuppressive conditions. These meetings produced a structure of national technical guidelines and standards, health care and research protocols and research priorities, along with mobilization and awareness-raising among HIV/AIDS reference centers regarding occurrences of coinfection. The creation of the Brazilian network was a milestone for the country in terms of integration of control programs, with the reference point of quality of care and comprehensiveness. The possibility of extending this network to form a Latin American network is seen as a strategy for dealing more effectively with this condition.

  8. Gap assessment in current soil monitoring networks across Europe for measuring soil functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leeuwen, J. P.; Saby, N. P. A.; Jones, A.; Louwagie, G.; Micheli, E.; Rutgers, M.; Schulte, R. P. O.; Spiegel, H.; Toth, G.; Creamer, R. E.

    2017-12-01

    Soil is the most important natural resource for life on Earth after water. Given its fundamental role in sustaining the human population, both the availability and quality of soil must be managed sustainably and protected. To ensure sustainable management we need to understand the intrinsic functional capacity of different soils across Europe and how it changes over time. Soil monitoring is needed to support evidence-based policies to incentivise sustainable soil management. To this aim, we assessed which soil attributes can be used as potential indicators of five soil functions; (1) primary production, (2) water purification and regulation, (3) carbon sequestration and climate regulation, (4) soil biodiversity and habitat provisioning and (5) recycling of nutrients. We compared this list of attributes to existing national (regional) and EU-wide soil monitoring networks. The overall picture highlighted a clearly unbalanced dataset, in which predominantly chemical soil parameters were included, and soil biological and physical attributes were severely under represented. Methods applied across countries for indicators also varied. At a European scale, the LUCAS-soil survey was evaluated and again confirmed a lack of important soil biological parameters, such as C mineralisation rate, microbial biomass and earthworm community, and soil physical measures such as bulk density. In summary, no current national or European monitoring system exists which has the capacity to quantify the five soil functions and therefore evaluate multi-functional capacity of a soil and in many countries no data exists at all. This paper calls for the addition of soil biological and some physical parameters within the LUCAS-soil survey at European scale and for further development of national soil monitoring schemes.

  9. Medical applications of wireless sensor networkscurrent status and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krešimir Grgić

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent years a significant development of BASN (Body AreaSensor Networks as a special subclass of WSN (Wireless SensorNetworks has emerged. These networks have enabled a rapiddevelopment of telemedicine systems, which provide remote monitoringof patients and their vital parameters. The article givesa short overview of the BASN networks. Furthermore, a generalsystem architecture of telemedicine systems is proposed. The proposedarchitecture includes a local sensory area, a communicationnetwork area and an institutional network area. It also providesthe security and privacy of patient-related data. Furthermore, thearticle surveys some existing telemedicine systems. Finally, somecurrent problems are explained and the directions for the futuredevelopment of the telemedicine systems are given.

  10. Stratifying FIA Ground Plots Using A 3-Year Old MRLC Forest Cover Map and Current TM Derived Variables Selected By "Decision Tree" Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael Hoppus; Stan Arner; Andrew Lister

    2001-01-01

    A reduction in variance for estimates of forest area and volume in the state of Connecticut was accomplished by stratifying FIA ground plots using raw, transformed and classified Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery. A US Geological Survey (USGS) Multi-Resolution Landscape Characterization (MRLC) vegetation cover map for Connecticut was used to produce a forest/non-...

  11. Improved rotor current control of wind turbine driven doubly-fed induction generators during network voltage unbalance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Jiabing; He, Yikang [College of Electrical Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Xu, Lie [School of Electronic, Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, The Queen' s University of Belfast, Belfast BT9 5AH (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-15

    This paper investigates an improved control and operation of a doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG) system under unbalanced network conditions. A new rotor current control scheme is presented, which consists of a main controller and an auxiliary compensator. The main controller is constructed in the same way as the conventional vector control design without involving sequential-component decomposition in order to guarantee system stability and high transient response. While the auxiliary controller is specially designed to control the negative sequence current taking into account the impact of the main controller on negative sequence components. Simulated results on a commercial 1.5-MW DFIG system and experimental tests on a 1.5-kW DFIG prototype are provided and compared with those of conventional vector control and dual PI current control schemes to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy during steady-state and transient conditions when the network voltage is unbalanced. (author)

  12. Effects of Increasing Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation Current Intensity on Cortical Sensorimotor Network Activation: A Time Domain fNIRS Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makii Muthalib

    Full Text Available Neuroimaging studies have shown neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES-evoked movements activate regions of the cortical sensorimotor network, including the primary sensorimotor cortex (SMC, premotor cortex (PMC, supplementary motor area (SMA, and secondary somatosensory area (S2, as well as regions of the prefrontal cortex (PFC known to be involved in pain processing. The aim of this study, on nine healthy subjects, was to compare the cortical network activation profile and pain ratings during NMES of the right forearm wrist extensor muscles at increasing current intensities up to and slightly over the individual maximal tolerated intensity (MTI, and with reference to voluntary (VOL wrist extension movements. By exploiting the capability of the multi-channel time domain functional near-infrared spectroscopy technique to relate depth information to the photon time-of-flight, the cortical and superficial oxygenated (O2Hb and deoxygenated (HHb hemoglobin concentrations were estimated. The O2Hb and HHb maps obtained using the General Linear Model (NIRS-SPM analysis method, showed that the VOL and NMES-evoked movements significantly increased activation (i.e., increase in O2Hb and corresponding decrease in HHb in the cortical layer of the contralateral sensorimotor network (SMC, PMC/SMA, and S2. However, the level and area of contralateral sensorimotor network (including PFC activation was significantly greater for NMES than VOL. Furthermore, there was greater bilateral sensorimotor network activation with the high NMES current intensities which corresponded with increased pain ratings. In conclusion, our findings suggest that greater bilateral sensorimotor network activation profile with high NMES current intensities could be in part attributable to increased attentional/pain processing and to increased bilateral sensorimotor integration in these cortical regions.

  13. Integration of service, network and system management: current and forthcoming trends

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, José Luís; Aguiar, Rui; Lopes, Rui Pedro

    2000-01-01

    A major problem that industry is being faced with is related to the miscellaneous of management requirements and to the explosion of management information. Network and systems management often make use of different tools and technologies. The introduction of Quality of Service in the Internet will bring increased needs for efficient service management approaches in the network. The integration of these different kinds of management approaches into a common framewor...

  14. Framework for Development of Advanced Telecommunication Services in Current and Future Converged Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soler-Lucas, José

    2006-01-01

    This thesis presents different experiences related to architectures and mechanisms for deployment of telephony services, understood as especial features complementing the basic voice service. The context for these experiences is the transition of telecommunication (telephony) networks from circuit...... been designed, implemented and tested as part of this demonstration. Performance characterization of different service implementations is also provided. Finally, a data model for an overlay network to existing telecommunication (telephony) infrastructures, allowing operational convergence is described....

  15. Front cover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof.Dr. Hasan KÜÇÜKBAY

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This is the front cover of JOTCSA 4(2, which contains numerous fruitful information. Kindly read the contents and if you need to ask questions, contact the managing editor (Dr. Akkurt at jotcsa@turchemsoc.org or the chief editor (Prof. Dr. Küçükbay. Let us see each other in the next issue...

  16. Estimation of seismic quality factor: Artificial neural networks and current approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yıldırım, Eray; Saatçılar, Ruhi; Ergintav, Semih

    2017-01-01

    The aims of this study are to estimate soil attenuation using alternatives to traditional methods, to compare results of using these methods, and to examine soil properties using the estimated results. The performances of all methods, amplitude decay, spectral ratio, Wiener filter, and artificial neural network (ANN) methods, are examined on field and synthetic data with noise and without noise. High-resolution seismic reflection field data from Yeniköy (Arnavutköy, İstanbul) was used as field data, and 424 estimations of Q values were made for each method (1,696 total). While statistical tests on synthetic and field data are quite close to the Q value estimation results of ANN, Wiener filter, and spectral ratio methods, the amplitude decay methods showed a higher estimation error. According to previous geological and geophysical studies in this area, the soil is water-saturated, quite weak, consisting of clay and sandy units, and, because of current and past landslides in the study area and its vicinity, researchers reported heterogeneity in the soil. Under the same physical conditions, Q value calculated on field data can be expected to be 7.9 and 13.6. ANN models with various structures, training algorithm, input, and number of neurons are investigated. A total of 480 ANN models were generated consisting of 60 models for noise-free synthetic data, 360 models for different noise content synthetic data and 60 models to apply to the data collected in the field. The models were tested to determine the most appropriate structure and training algorithm. In the final ANN, the input vectors consisted of the difference of the width, energy, and distance of seismic traces, and the output was Q value. Success rate of both ANN methods with noise-free and noisy synthetic data were higher than the other three methods. Also according to the statistical tests on estimated Q value from field data, the method showed results that are more suitable. The Q value can be estimated

  17. Exploring the Ligand-Protein Networks in Traditional Chinese Medicine: Current Databases, Methods, and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingzhu Zhao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The traditional Chinese medicine (TCM, which has thousands of years of clinical application among China and other Asian countries, is the pioneer of the “multicomponent-multitarget” and network pharmacology. Although there is no doubt of the efficacy, it is difficult to elucidate convincing underlying mechanism of TCM due to its complex composition and unclear pharmacology. The use of ligand-protein networks has been gaining significant value in the history of drug discovery while its application in TCM is still in its early stage. This paper firstly surveys TCM databases for virtual screening that have been greatly expanded in size and data diversity in recent years. On that basis, different screening methods and strategies for identifying active ingredients and targets of TCM are outlined based on the amount of network information available, both on sides of ligand bioactivity and the protein structures. Furthermore, applications of successful in silico target identification attempts are discussed in detail along with experiments in exploring the ligand-protein networks of TCM. Finally, it will be concluded that the prospective application of ligand-protein networks can be used not only to predict protein targets of a small molecule, but also to explore the mode of action of TCM.

  18. Current and emerging approaches to define intestinal epithelium-specific transcriptional networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Anders Krüger; Boyd, Mette; Danielsen, Erik Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Upon developmental or environmental cues, the composition of transcription factors in a transcriptional regulatory network is deeply implicated in controlling the signature of the gene expression and thereby specifies the cell or tissue type. Novel methods including ChIP-chip and ChIP-Seq have been...... applied to analyze known transcription factors and their interacting regulatory DNA elements in the intestine. The intestine is an example of a dynamic tissue where stem cells in the crypt proliferate and undergo a differentiation process toward the villus. During this differentiation process, specific...... regulatory networks of transcription factors are activated to target specific genes, which determine the intestinal cell fate. The expanding genomewide mapping of transcription factor binding sites and construction of transcriptional regulatory networks provide new insight into how intestinal differentiation...

  19. Current Status of the International Lunar Network (ILN) Anchor Nodes Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Barbara A.; Bassler, Julie A.; Harris, Danny W.; Morse, Brian J.; Reed, Cheryl L.; Eng, Doug A.; Kirby, Karen W.

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Science Mission Directorate s (SMD) International Lunar Network Anchor Nodes Mission continues its concept development and is scheduled to complete the first formal milestone gate of a Mission Concept Review (MCR) in Autumn 2009. The mission will establish two-four nodes of the International Lunar Network (ILN), a network of lunar geophysical stations envisioned to be emplaced by the many nations collaborating on this joint endeavor. This mission will operate over six years or more and make significant progress in satisfying many of the National Research Council s lunar science objectives, while strategically contributing to the U.S. Vision for Space Exploration Policy's objective for a robust robotic lunar program. This paper will provide a status report on the ILN Anchor Nodes mission and overview of the concept to date, which is being implemented jointly by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center and The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory.

  20. Exploring the ligand-protein networks in traditional chinese medicine: current databases, methods and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Mingzhu; Wei, Dongqing

    2015-01-01

    While the concept of "single component-single target" in drug discovery seems to have come to an end, "Multi-component-multi-target" is considered to be another promising way out in this field. The Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), which has thousands of years' clinical application among China and other Asian countries, is the pioneer of the "Multi-component-multi-target" and network pharmacology. Hundreds of different components in a TCM prescription can cure the diseases or relieve the patients by modulating the network of potential therapeutic targets. Although there is no doubt of the efficacy, it is difficult to elucidate convincing underlying mechanism of TCM due to its complex composition and unclear pharmacology. Without thorough investigation of its potential targets and side effects, TCM is not able to generate large-scale medicinal benefits, especially in the days when scientific reductionism and quantification are dominant. The use of ligand-protein networks has been gaining significant value in the history of drug discovery while its application in TCM is still in its early stage. This article firstly surveys TCM databases for virtual screening that have been greatly expanded in size and data diversity in recent years. On that basis, different screening methods and strategies for identifying active ingredients and targets of TCM are outlined based on the amount of network information available, both on sides of ligand bioactivity and the protein structures. Furthermore, applications of successful in silico target identification attempts are discussed in details along with experiments in exploring the ligand-protein networks of TCM. Finally, it will be concluded that the prospective application of ligand-protein networks can be used not only to predict protein targets of a small molecule, but also to explore the mode of action of TCM.

  1. Determinação da cobertura do solo por análise de imagens e redes neurais Soil cover determination using image analysis and neural networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. A. Varella

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, desenvolveu-se um programa computacional para estimar a cobertura do solo, utilizando-se redes neurais (RN treinadas por retropropagação do erro. Os dados para treinamento das RN foram obtidos de imagens digitais coloridas. Utilizou-se a razão entre a banda do verde e do vermelho para o pré-processamento das amostras de treinamento. Foram testadas cinco RN com arquiteturas 25-n1-n2-2. A arquitetura 25-20-10-2 foi a que apresentou melhor resultado sendo, portanto, utilizada no programa computacional classificador. O classificador apresentou índice de exatidão global de 82,10%, cujo resultado mostra que redes neurais podem ser utilizadas em programas computacionais para separar feições onde a diferença entre a intensidade do brilho não permite a aplicação da técnica da limiarização.An image classification algorithm was developed to estimate the soil cover based on artificial neural networks (ANN trained by back-propagation algorithm. The learning data sets were obtained from digital normalized images. Five ANN architectures of the type 25-n1-n2-2 were tested. The architecture 25-20-10-2 presented the best result and therefore, it was used in the image classification program. The classification presented an overall accuracy of 82.10%. This result shows that ANN may be applied for separating features when the pixel brightness does not provide enough information to apply the threshold technique.

  2. Self-organizing cooperative sensor network for remote surveillance: current results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burne, Richard A.; Buczak, Anna L.; Jin, Yaochu; Jamalabad, Vikram R.; Kadar, Ivan; Eadan, Eitan R.

    1999-07-01

    The capabilities of unattended ground sensors (UGSs) have steadily improved and have been shown to be of value in various military missions. Today's UGS are multi-functional, integrated sensor platforms that can detect and locate a wide variety of ground-based and airborne targets. The rather large size (> 1 cubic foot) and relatively expensive cost of these integrated platforms are two main drawbacks for remote surveillance applications that support rapidly deployable, small unit operations. As an alternative, remote surveillance may be possible with smaller, less costly sensors that work cooperatively together as a network. The objective of this study was to develop algorithms that can optimally organized and adaptively control a network of UGSs in order to achieve a surveillance mission. In the present study, the sensor network, a random distribution of acoustic sensors over a surveillance area, is tasked to detect and track any targets entering into the surveillance area. In addition, the sensor network is required to maximize its tracking accuracy and minimize its power utilization.

  3. Evaluating primary care research networks: a review of currently available tools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bleeker, M.C.G.; Stalman, W.A.B.; van der Horst, H.E.

    2010-01-01

    Background: An increasing number of primary care research networks (PCRNs) are being developed around the world. Despite the fact that they have existed for a long time in some countries, little is known about what they have actually achieved. There is an ongoing debate in the literature about the

  4. Mathematical model of a multi-loop network of gas pipelines at various modes of current

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orifjon Sh. Bozorov

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A method of hydraulic calculation of a multi-loop network of gas pipelines based on Kirchhoff’s laws is offered. As completing relations, the formula for the change of pressure on elementary sites of the horizontal gas pipe, received on the basis of Leybenzon’s generalized formula of resistance is used.

  5. Current state of information technology use in a US primary care practice-based research network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Andrews

    2004-02-01

    Conclusion While interest in enabling information technologies was high in KAN, adoption was variable, with use of several key technologies reported as low.The results suggest that research in this network that would be dependent on or enhanced by IT might be impeded and, generally, greater attention should be given to enhancing the IT infrastructure in primary care.

  6. Modulation of large-scale brain networks by transcranial direct current stimulation evidenced by resting-state functional MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña-Gómez, Cleofé; Sala-Lonch, Roser; Junqué, Carme; Clemente, Immaculada C.; Vidal, Dídac; Bargalló, Núria; Falcón, Carles; Valls-Solé, Josep; Pascual-Leone, Álvaro; Bartrés-Faz, David

    2013-01-01

    Background Brain areas interact mutually to perform particular complex brain functions such as memory or language. Furthermore, under resting-state conditions several spatial patterns have been identified that resemble functional systems involved in cognitive functions. Among these, the default-mode network (DMN), which is consistently deactivated during task periods and is related to a variety of cognitive functions, has attracted most attention. In addition, in resting-state conditions some brain areas engaged in focused attention (such as the anticorrelated network, AN) show a strong negative correlation with DMN; as task demand increases, AN activity rises, and DMN activity falls. Objective We combined transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate these brain network dynamics. Methods Ten healthy young volunteers underwent four blocks of resting-state fMRI (10-minutes), each of them immediately after 20 minutes of sham or active tDCS (2 mA), on two different days. On the first day the anodal electrode was placed over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) (part of the AN) with the cathode over the contralateral supraorbital area, and on the second day, the electrode arrangement was reversed (anode right-DLPFC, cathode left-supraorbital). Results After active stimulation, functional network connectivity revealed increased synchrony within the AN components and reduced synchrony in the DMN components. Conclusions Our study reveals a reconfiguration of intrinsic brain activity networks after active tDCS. These effects may help to explain earlier reports of improvements in cognitive functions after anodal-tDCS, where increasing cortical excitability may have facilitated reconfiguration of functional brain networks to address upcoming cognitive demands. PMID:21962981

  7. [IT safety in medical networks--current problems and approach to solutions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pommerening, K

    2000-01-01

    Designers and users of medical networks have to face strong requirements for data protection and security. Professional discretion and data protection laws allow the transfer of or access to patient data only in a therapeutic context. These data should also be protected from the network provider. Patients should be safe from any harm by faulty data or buggy procedures. On the other hand the security of the most used software products gets worse and worse. The use of the internet endangers more and more the integrity of the user's computer. The security requirements can be met only through strict care in planning, building, and configuring the infrastructure. Some concrete recommendations and guiding principles can immediately be realized. If these recommendations are followed, the internet can be of immense value for health care.

  8. ALINE/LALINET Network Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Landulfo Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Latin American Lidar Network, ALINE a.k.a LALINET is a federation lidar network established in 2008 which became a member of GALION/GAW program in 2013. Currently the network consists of 9 operational stations with the perspective of two more stations to be included. The network today covers more than 18 million Km2 and spans in latitude from -52° to 21° and in longitude from -78° to -47°. It should cover a larger area in the future as planned with the inclusion of more active stations.

  9. Genetic Evaluation of Children with Global Developmental Delay—Current Status of Network Systems in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Lin Foo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This review article aims to introduce the screening and referral network of genetic evaluation for children with developmental delay in Taiwan. For these children, integrated systems provide services from the medical, educational, and social welfare sectors. All cities and counties in Taiwan have established a network for screening, detection, referral, evaluation, and intervention services. Increased awareness improves early detection and intervention. There remains a gap between supply and demand, especially with regard to financial resources and professional manpower. Genetic etiology has a major role in prenatal causes of developmental delay. A summary of reports on some related genetic disorders in the Taiwanese population is included in this review. Genetic diagnosis allows counseling with regard to recurrence risk and prevention. Networking with neonatal screening, laboratory diagnosis, genetic counseling, and orphan drugs logistics systems can provide effective treatment for patients. In Taiwan, several laboratories provide genetic tests for clinical diagnosis. Accessibility to advanced expensive tests such as gene chips or whole exome sequencing is limited because of funding problems; however, the service system in Taiwan can still operate in a relatively cost-effective manner. This experience in Taiwan may serve as a reference for other countries.

  10. Towards interprofessional networking in medication management of the aged: current challenges and potential solutions in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallio, Sonja; Kumpusalo-Vauhkonen, Anne; Järvensivu, Timo; Mäntylä, Antti; Pohjanoksa-Mäntylä, Marika; Airaksinen, Marja

    2016-01-01

    Objective The Finnish Medicines Agency (Fimea) initiated a programme in 2012 for enhancing interprofessional networking in the medication management of the aged. The goal is to develop national guidelines for interprofessional collaboration with respect to medication management. This study aims to explore the challenges and potential solutions experienced by existing health care teams in managing medication of the aged: (1) at the individual and team level (micro level), (2) organisational level (meso level) and (3) structural level (macro level). Design Group discussions (n = 10), pair (n = 3) and individual interviews (n = 2). Abductive content analysis combining data and theory was applied. Networking was used as a theoretical framework. Setting Meetings (n = 15) organised by Fimea in the formation phase of the interprofessional network in 2012. Subjects Health care professionals (n = 55). Main outcome measures Challenges and solutions in the medication management of the aged at the micro, meso and macro levels. Results Challenges in interprofessional collaboration, problems with patient record systems, and the organisation of work and lack of resources were present at all the levels contributing to patients’ medication problems. Participants suggested multiple potential solutions to improve interprofessional collaboration, sharing of tasks and responsibilities, better exploitation of pharmaceutical knowledge and developing tools as being the most commonly mentioned. Conclusions Optimising medication use of the aged requires new systemic solutions within and between different system levels. The main challenges can be solved by clarifying responsibilities, enhancing communication and applying operational models that involve pharmacists and the use of information technology in medication management. KEY POINTSAn interprofessional team approach has been suggested as a solution to promote rational medicine use among the aged.Fragmented health

  11. No Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Dan

    2012-01-01

    Born and raised in Los Angeles, Dan Vargas spent his twenties going to punk shows at King's Palace, Club 88, the Cathay de Grand, the Vex, the Starwood, the Hong Kong Cafe, Base's Hall, and the Masque. He has produced for several bands and is currently a songwriter and singer for an LA rock band. In this article, he reflects on the…

  12. Sganzerla Cover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor da Rosa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo, realizo uma leitura do cinema de Rogério Sganzerla, desde o clássico O bandido da luz vermelha até os documentários filmados na década de oitenta, a partir de duas noções centrais: cover e over. Para isso, parto de uma controvérsia com o ensaio de Ismail Xavier, Alegorias do subdesenvolvimento, em que o crítico realiza uma leitura do cinema brasileiro da década de sessenta através do conceito de alegoria; depois releio uma série de textos críticos do próprio Sganzerla, publicados em Edifício Sganzerla, procurando repensar as ideias de “herói vazio” ou “cinema impuro” e sugerindo assim uma nova relação do seu cinema com o tempo e a representação; então busco articular tais ideias com certos procedimentos de vanguarda, como a falsificação, a cópia, o clichê e a colagem; e finalmente procuro mostrar que, no cinema de Sganzerla, a partir principalmente de suas reflexões sobre Orson Welles, a voz é usada de maneira a deformar a interpretação naturalista.

  13. Estimation of stress distribution in ferromagnetic tensile specimens using low cost eddy current stress measurement system and BP neural network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianwei Li

    Full Text Available Estimation of the stress distribution in ferromagnetic components is very important for evaluating the working status of mechanical equipment and implementing preventive maintenance. Eddy current testing technology is a promising method in this field because of its advantages of safety, no need of coupling agent, etc. In order to reduce the cost of eddy current stress measurement system, and obtain the stress distribution in ferromagnetic materials without scanning, a low cost eddy current stress measurement system based on Archimedes spiral planar coil was established, and a method based on BP neural network to obtain the stress distribution using the stress of several discrete test points was proposed. To verify the performance of the developed test system and the validity of the proposed method, experiment was implemented using structural steel (Q235 specimens. Standard curves of sensors at each test point were achieved, the calibrated data were used to establish the BP neural network model for approximating the stress variation on the specimen surface, and the stress distribution curve of the specimen was obtained by interpolating with the established model. The results show that there is a good linear relationship between the change of signal modulus and the stress in most elastic range of the specimen, and the established system can detect the change in stress with a theoretical average sensitivity of -0.4228 mV/MPa. The obtained stress distribution curve is well consonant with the theoretical analysis result. At last, possible causes and improving methods of problems appeared in the results were discussed. This research has important significance for reducing the cost of eddy current stress measurement system, and advancing the engineering application of eddy current stress testing.

  14. A current controller of grid-connected converter for harmonic damping in a distribution network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xiongfei; Blaabjerg, Frede; Chen, Zhe

    2011-01-01

    Harmonic resonance caused by the increased use of shunt-connected capacitors in LCL-filters and power factor correction devices may become a serious power quality challenge in electric distribution systems. A voltage-detection method based on current control is developed to damp harmonic resonances....... However, it is susceptible to the mismatch between harmonic conductance and characteristic impedance of distribution feeder. This paper proposes a current controller which allows discrete adjustment of harmonic conductance for both the characteristic harmonic and the non-characteristic harmonic voltages...

  15. CALYPSO: a new HF RADAR network to monitor sea surface currents in the Malta-Sicily channel (Mediterranean sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosoli, S.; Ciraolo, G.; Drago, A.; Capodici, F.; Maltese, A.; Gauci, A.; Galea, A.; Azzopardi, J.; Buscaino, G.; Raffa, F.; Mazzola, S.; Sinatra, R.

    2016-12-01

    Located in one of the main shipping lanes in the Mediterranean Sea, and in a strategic region for oil extraction platforms, the Malta-Sicily channel is exposed to significant oil spill risks. Shipping and extraction activities constitute a major threat for marine areas of relevant ecological value in the area, and impacts of oil spills on the local ecosystems and the economic activities, including tourism and fisheries, can be dramatic. Damages would be even more devastating for the Maltese archipelago, where marine resources represent important economic assets. Additionally, North Africa coastal areas are also under threat, due to their proximity to the Malta-Sicily Channel. Prevention and mitigation measures, together with rapid-response and decision-making in case of emergency situations, are fundamental steps that help accomplishing the tasks of minimizing risks and reducing impacts to the various compartments. Thanks to state-of-art technology for the monitoring of sea-surface currents in real-time under all sea-state conditions, the CALYPSO network of High-Frequency Radars represents an essential and invaluable tool for the specific purpose. HF radars technology provide a unique tool to track surface currents in near-real time, and as such the dispersion of pollutants can be monitored and forecasted and their origin backtracked, for instance through data assimilation into ocean circulation models or through short-term data-driven statistical forecasts of ocean currents. The network is constituted of four SeaSonde systems that work in the 13.5MHz frequency band. The network is operative since August 2012 and has been extensively validated using a variety of independent platforms and devices, including current meter data and drifting buoys. The latter provided clear evidences of the reliability of the collected data as for tracking the drifting objects. Additionally, data have provided a new insight into the oceanographic characteristics of the region

  16. Mobile ad hoc networking

    CERN Document Server

    John Wiley & Sons

    2004-01-01

    "Assimilating the most up-to-date information on research and development activities in this rapidly growing area, Mobile Ad Hoc Networking covers physical, data link, network, and transport layers, as well as application, security, simulation, and power management issues in sensor, local area, personal, and mobile ad hoc networks. Each of the book's sixteen chapters has been written by a top expert and discusses in-depth the most important topics in the field. Mobile Ad Hoc Networking is an excellent reference and guide for professionals seeking an in-depth examination of topics that also provides a comprehensive overview of the current state-of-the-art."--Jacket.

  17. Comparison of Support Vector Machine, Neural Network, and CART Algorithms for the Land-Cover Classification Using Limited Training Data Points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Support vector machine (SVM) was applied for land-cover characterization using MODIS time-series data. Classification performance was examined with respect to training sample size, sample variability, and landscape homogeneity (purity). The results were compared to two convention...

  18. Fault Diagnosis System of Induction Motors Based on Neural Network and Genetic Algorithm Using Stator Current Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Han

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an online fault diagnosis system for induction motors through the combination of discrete wavelet transform (DWT, feature extraction, genetic algorithm (GA, and neural network (ANN techniques. The wavelet transform improves the signal-to-noise ratio during a preprocessing. Features are extracted from motor stator current, while reducing data transfers and making online application available. GA is used to select the most significant features from the whole feature database and optimize the ANN structure parameter. Optimized ANN is trained and tested by the selected features of the measurement data of stator current. The combination of advanced techniques reduces the learning time and increases the diagnosis accuracy. The efficiency of the proposed system is demonstrated through motor faults of electrical and mechanical origins on the induction motors. The results of the test indicate that the proposed system is promising for the real-time application.

  19. Professional social networking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowley, Robert D

    2014-12-01

    We review the current state of social communication between healthcare professionals, the role of consumer social networking, and some emerging technologies to address the gaps. In particular, the review covers (1) the current state of loose social networking for continuing medical education (CME) and other broadcast information dissemination; (2) social networking for business promotion; (3) social networking for peer collaboration, including simple communication as well as more robust data-centered collaboration around patient care; and (4) engaging patients on social platforms, including integrating consumer-originated data into the mix of healthcare data. We will see how, as the nature of healthcare delivery moves from the institution-centric way of tradition to a more social and networked ambulatory pattern that we see emerging today, the nature of health IT has also moved from enterprise-centric systems to more socially networked, cloud-based options.

  20. The influence of lithology, land cover, road network and slope gradient in the landslides triggered during the period November 2008 - February 2009 in northern Tuscany (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segoni, Samuele; Mucci, Alessandra; Casagli, Nicola

    2010-05-01

    In the provinces of Lucca and Pistoia (Tuscany, Central Italy) 650 landslides (mainly shallow rapid slides and debris flows) were registered by Civil Protection during the period spanning from November 2008 to February 2009. During that period both provinces were struck by widespread precipitations: in November three distinct brief but very intense events brought the monthly precipitation well above the mean value, while the month of December was conversely characterized by heavy and prolonged precipitations whose cumulative amount doubled the monthly mean value. During January and February brief and intense precipitations struck again diffusively the whole studied area. As a consequence of such a prolonged period of abundant rainfall, hundreds of landslides occurred in the provinces of Lucca and Pistoia damaging private and public buildings, assets and infrastructures. The state of emergency was declared by the National Civil Protection from December to February. Rainfall has been without doubt the triggering factor of the landslides, but can some predisposing feature be identified? The answer is decisive for improving risk assessments and for developing effective emergency plans for civil protection purposes. For example, rainfall thresholds can be easily used to set up warning systems that can forecast the time of occurrence of landslides but such methods have a very coarse spatial resolution: the identification of predisposing elements could be helpful to identify the most risky locations in order to reduce the spatial uncertainty. From the Provincial and Regional Civil Protection archives many information about the occurred landslides were gathered and organized into a geographic database making use of a GIS system. Data include the exact location and day of occurrence of the landslides and their type. By means of a GIS analysis, the landslides database was superimposed to various thematic maps (geology, land cover, road network, slope gradient) in order to

  1. Illuminating the Dark Side of the Internet with Actor-Network Theory: An Integrative Review of Current Cybercrime Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocci Luppicini

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Cybercrime is a relatively new area of research within criminology and media studies. The purpose of this paper is to pull together current research scholarship at the intersection of Actor-Network Theory (ANT and cybercrime by addressing the following question: How does ANT apply to cybercrime research? A selective integrative review of cybercrime research utilizing ANT was conducted to examine recent developments and identify trends. The review draws on core research papers that span 2002 to 2013. Findings provided a strong indication of ANT’s role in key areas of current cybercrime, namely, cyber bullying, cyber theft, and cyber terrorism and cyber espionage. More specifically, ANT was applied within cyber criminology research to address complex problems involving human-technological interactions, advance alternative models and theoretical perspectives, compare ANT with existing models and theoretical perspectives, and leverage understanding of network influences on actors. Recommendations are provided to help optimize the application of ANT to cybercrime research and practice. This paper helps advance knowledge at the intersection of ANT and the study of cyber criminology.

  2. Determination of the currents of transformers insertion in a electric network; Determinacion de las corrientes de insercion de transformadores en una red electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Disenfeld, Hector R. [TRANSENER S.A., Compania de Transporte de Energia Electrica en Alta Tension, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Sacchi, Jorge N.L. [Universidad de Moron (Argentina). Fac. de Ingenieria

    2001-07-01

    This paper analyses the insertion of large transformers in the high voltage networks. The conditions of non linearity due to the nucleus saturation and hysteresis effect on the residual magnetism, can produce transients with remarkable amplitude and duration both in voltage and current. The paper analyses the interaction among the transformer and the network during the energization phenomena.

  3. Globalization of Stem Cell Science: An Examination of Current and Past Collaborative Research Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jingyuan; Matthews, Kirstin R. W.

    2013-01-01

    Science and engineering research has becoming an increasingly international phenomenon. Traditional bibliometric studies have not captured the evolution of collaborative partnerships between countries, particularly in emerging technologies such as stem cell science, in which an immense amount of investment has been made in the past decade. Analyzing over 2,800 articles from the top journals that include stem cell research in their publications, this study demonstrates the globalization of stem cell science. From 2000 to 2010, international collaborations increased from 20.9% to 36% of all stem cell publications analyzed. The United States remains the most prolific and the most dominant country in the field in terms of publications in high impact journals. But Asian countries, particularly China are steadily gaining ground. Exhibiting the largest relative growth, the percent of Chinese-authored stem cell papers grew more than ten-fold, while the percent of Chinese-authored international papers increased over seven times from 2000 to 2010. And while the percent of total stem cell publications exhibited modest growth for European countries, the percent of international publications increased more substantially, particularly in the United Kingdom. Overall, the data indicated that traditional networks of collaboration extant in 2000 still predominate in stem cell science. Although more nations are becoming involved in international collaborations and undertaking stem cell research, many of these efforts, with the exception of those in certain Asian countries, have yet to translate into publications in high impact journals. PMID:24069210

  4. Introduction of voluntary environmental management systems into the Spanish hospital network: current state (2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio García Vicente

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Hospitals produce vast amounts of waste and are large consumers of energy and natural resources. However, do they worry about environmental health? With this question in mind, and in order to approach hospital environmental practices, the introduction into the Spanish hospital network of the most accepted certified environmental management systems (CEMS, such as ISO 14001 and EMAS, was evaluated so as to obtain a point of reference for environmental practices in our National Health System as no up-to-date, specific official register exists. To this end, a list of hospitals by Spanish Autonomous Community having CEMS in force in 2015 was drawn up using official databases, evaluating information and conducting fieldwork. We found that 18.9 % of hospitals had CEMS (ISO 14001 in all cases: 149 out of 787 hospitals, in the National Hospitals Catalogue, especially in Madrid (40 and Andalusia (37. Eighty-one of the certified hospitals are private. Only 23 had EMAS: 12 are public and 11 private. The resulting “map” shows the main references in order for the need to offer citizens a balance between healthcare and environmental friendliness, to be compared and envisaged based on hospital activity, considering hospitals socially responsible, environmentally friendly organisations, that seek leadership in the field of environmental sustainability together with other sectors (environmental, engineering, industrial.

  5. Towards Large-Scale, Heterogeneous Anomaly Detection Systems in Industrial Networks: A Survey of Current Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikel Iturbe

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Industrial Networks (INs are widespread environments where heterogeneous devices collaborate to control and monitor physical processes. Some of the controlled processes belong to Critical Infrastructures (CIs, and, as such, IN protection is an active research field. Among different types of security solutions, IN Anomaly Detection Systems (ADSs have received wide attention from the scientific community. While INs have grown in size and in complexity, requiring the development of novel, Big Data solutions for data processing, IN ADSs have not evolved at the same pace. In parallel, the development of Big Data frameworks such as Hadoop or Spark has led the way for applying Big Data Analytics to the field of cyber-security, mainly focusing on the Information Technology (IT domain. However, due to the particularities of INs, it is not feasible to directly apply IT security mechanisms in INs, as IN ADSs face unique characteristics. In this work we introduce three main contributions. First, we survey the area of Big Data ADSs that could be applicable to INs and compare the surveyed works. Second, we develop a novel taxonomy to classify existing IN-based ADSs. And, finally, we present a discussion of open problems in the field of Big Data ADSs for INs that can lead to further development.

  6. Globalization of stem cell science: an examination of current and past collaborative research networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jingyuan; Matthews, Kirstin R W

    2013-01-01

    Science and engineering research has becoming an increasingly international phenomenon. Traditional bibliometric studies have not captured the evolution of collaborative partnerships between countries, particularly in emerging technologies such as stem cell science, in which an immense amount of investment has been made in the past decade. Analyzing over 2,800 articles from the top journals that include stem cell research in their publications, this study demonstrates the globalization of stem cell science. From 2000 to 2010, international collaborations increased from 20.9% to 36% of all stem cell publications analyzed. The United States remains the most prolific and the most dominant country in the field in terms of publications in high impact journals. But Asian countries, particularly China are steadily gaining ground. Exhibiting the largest relative growth, the percent of Chinese-authored stem cell papers grew more than ten-fold, while the percent of Chinese-authored international papers increased over seven times from 2000 to 2010. And while the percent of total stem cell publications exhibited modest growth for European countries, the percent of international publications increased more substantially, particularly in the United Kingdom. Overall, the data indicated that traditional networks of collaboration extant in 2000 still predominate in stem cell science. Although more nations are becoming involved in international collaborations and undertaking stem cell research, many of these efforts, with the exception of those in certain Asian countries, have yet to translate into publications in high impact journals.

  7. A Bayesian Network Method for Quantitative Evaluation of Defects in Multilayered Structures from Eddy Current NDT Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Ye

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate evaluation and characterization of defects in multilayered structures from eddy current nondestructive testing (NDT signals are a difficult inverse problem. There is scope for improving the current methods used for solving the inverse problem by incorporating information of uncertainty in the inspection process. Here, we propose to evaluate defects quantitatively from eddy current NDT signals using Bayesian networks (BNs. BNs are a useful method in handling uncertainty in the inspection process, eventually leading to the more accurate results. The domain knowledge and the experimental data are used to generate the BN models. The models are applied to predict the signals corresponding to different defect characteristic parameters or to estimate defect characteristic parameters from eddy current signals in real time. Finally, the estimation results are analyzed. Compared to the least squares regression method, BNs are more robust with higher accuracy and have the advantage of being a bidirectional inferential mechanism. This approach allows results to be obtained in the form of full marginal conditional probability distributions, providing more information on the defect. The feasibility of BNs presented and discussed in this paper has been validated.

  8. The Influence of the A-Current on the Dynamics of an Oscillator-Follower Inhibitory Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Bose, Amitabha; Nadim, Farzan

    2009-01-01

    The transient potassium A-current is present in almost all neurons and plays an essential role in determining the timing and frequency of action potential generation. We use a three-variable mathematical model to examine the role of the A-current in a rhythmic inhibitory network, as is common in central pattern generation. We focus on a feed-forward architecture consisting of an oscillator neuron inhibiting a follower neuron. We use separation of time scales to demonstrate that the trajectory of the follower neuron within each cycle can be tracked by analyzing the dynamics on a two-dimensional slow manifold that is determined by the two slow model variables: the recovery variable and the inactivation of the A-current. The steady-state trajectory, however, requires tracking the slow variables across multiple cycles. We show that tracking the slow variables, under simplifying assumptions, leads to a one-dimensional map of the unit interval with at most a single discontinuity depending on g_A, the maximal conductance of the A-current, or other model parameters. We demonstrate that, as the value of g_A is varied, the trajectory of the follower neuron goes through a set of bifurcations to produce n:m periodic solutions, where the follower neuron becomes active m times for each n cycles of the oscillator. Using a generalized Pascal triangle, each n:m trajectory can be constructed as a combination of solutions from a higher level of the triangle.

  9. Wireless Distributed Environmental Sensor Networks for Air Pollution Measurement—The Promise and the Current Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The evaluation of the effects of air pollution on public health and human-wellbeing requires reliable data. Standard air quality monitoring stations provide accurate measurements of airborne pollutant levels, but, due to their sparse distribution, they cannot capture accurately the spatial variability of air pollutant concentrations within cities. Dedicated in-depth field campaigns have dense spatial coverage of the measurements but are held for relatively short time periods. Hence, their representativeness is limited. Moreover, the oftentimes integrated measurements represent time-averaged records. Recent advances in communication and sensor technologies enable the deployment of dense grids of Wireless Distributed Environmental Sensor Networks for air quality monitoring, yet their capability to capture urban-scale spatiotemporal pollutant patterns has not been thoroughly examined to date. Here, we summarize our studies on the practicalities of using data streams from sensor nodes for air quality measurement and the required methods to tune the results to different stakeholders and applications. We summarize the results from eight cities across Europe, five sensor technologies-three stationary (with one tested also while moving) and two personal sensor platforms, and eight ambient pollutants. Overall, few sensors showed an exceptional and consistent performance, which can shed light on the fine spatiotemporal urban variability of pollutant concentrations. Stationary sensor nodes were more reliable than personal nodes. In general, the sensor measurements tend to suffer from the interference of various environmental factors and require frequent calibrations. This calls for the development of suitable field calibration procedures, and several such in situ field calibrations are presented. PMID:28974042

  10. Current and future land use around a nationwide protected area network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Christopher M.; Martinuzzi, Sebastian; Plantinga, Andrew J.; Radeloff, Volker C.; Lewis, David J.; Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Heglund, Patricia J.; Pidgeon, Anna M.

    2013-01-01

    Land-use change around protected areas can reduce their effective size and limit their ability to conserve biodiversity because land-use change alters ecological processes and the ability of organisms to move freely among protected areas. The goal of our analysis was to inform conservation planning efforts for a nationwide network of protected lands by predicting future land use change. We evaluated the relative effect of three economic policy scenarios on land use surrounding the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's National Wildlife Refuges. We predicted changes for three land-use classes (forest/range, crop/pasture, and urban) by 2051. Our results showed an increase in forest/range lands (by 1.9% to 4.7% depending on the scenario), a decrease in crop/pasture between 15.2% and 23.1%, and a substantial increase in urban land use between 28.5% and 57.0%. The magnitude of land-use change differed strongly among different USFWS administrative regions, with the most change in the Upper Midwestern US (approximately 30%), and the Southeastern and Northeastern US (25%), and the rest of the U.S. between 15 and 20%. Among our scenarios, changes in land use were similar, with the exception of our “restricted-urban-growth” scenario, which resulted in noticeably different rates of change. This demonstrates that it will likely be difficult to influence land-use change patterns with national policies and that understanding regional land-use dynamics is critical for effective management and planning of protected lands throughout the U.S.

  11. Wireless Distributed Environmental Sensor Networks for Air Pollution Measurement-The Promise and the Current Reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broday, David M

    2017-10-02

    The evaluation of the effects of air pollution on public health and human-wellbeing requires reliable data. Standard air quality monitoring stations provide accurate measurements of airborne pollutant levels, but, due to their sparse distribution, they cannot capture accurately the spatial variability of air pollutant concentrations within cities. Dedicated in-depth field campaigns have dense spatial coverage of the measurements but are held for relatively short time periods. Hence, their representativeness is limited. Moreover, the oftentimes integrated measurements represent time-averaged records. Recent advances in communication and sensor technologies enable the deployment of dense grids of Wireless Distributed Environmental Sensor Networks for air quality monitoring, yet their capability to capture urban-scale spatiotemporal pollutant patterns has not been thoroughly examined to date. Here, we summarize our studies on the practicalities of using data streams from sensor nodes for air quality measurement and the required methods to tune the results to different stakeholders and applications. We summarize the results from eight cities across Europe, five sensor technologies-three stationary (with one tested also while moving) and two personal sensor platforms, and eight ambient pollutants. Overall, few sensors showed an exceptional and consistent performance, which can shed light on the fine spatiotemporal urban variability of pollutant concentrations. Stationary sensor nodes were more reliable than personal nodes. In general, the sensor measurements tend to suffer from the interference of various environmental factors and require frequent calibrations. This calls for the development of suitable field calibration procedures, and several such in situ field calibrations are presented.

  12. Comparison of the dynamics of neural interactions in integrate-and-fire networks with current-based and conductance-based synapses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano eCavallari

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Models of networks of Leaky Integrate-and-Fire neurons (LIF are a widely used tool for theoretical investigations of brain function. These models have been used both with current- and conductance-based synapses. However, the differences in the dynamics expressed by these two approaches have been so far mainly studied at the single neuron level. To investigate how these synaptic models affect network activity, we compared the single-neuron and neural population dynamics of conductance-based networks (COBN and current-based networks (CUBN of LIF neurons. These networks were endowed with sparse excitatory and inhibitory recurrent connections, and were tested in conditions including both low- and high-conductance states. We developed a novel procedure to obtain comparable networks by properly tuning the synaptic parameters not shared by the models. The so defined comparable networks displayed an excellent and robust match of first order statistics (average single neuron firing rates and average frequency spectrum of network activity. However, these comparable networks showed profound differences in the second order statistics of neural population interactions and in the modulation of these properties by external inputs. The correlation between inhibitory and excitatory synaptic currents and the cross-neuron correlation between synaptic inputs, membrane potentials and spike trains were stronger and more stimulus-sensitive in the COBN. Because of these properties, the spike train correlation carried more information about the strength of the input in the COBN, although the firing rates were equally informative in both network models. Moreover, COBN showed stronger neuronal population synchronization in the gamma band, and their spectral information about the network input was higher and spread over a broader range of frequencies. These results suggest that second order properties of network dynamics depend strongly on the choice of synaptic model.

  13. Comparison of the dynamics of neural interactions between current-based and conductance-based integrate-and-fire recurrent networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallari, Stefano; Panzeri, Stefano; Mazzoni, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Models of networks of Leaky Integrate-and-Fire (LIF) neurons are a widely used tool for theoretical investigations of brain function. These models have been used both with current- and conductance-based synapses. However, the differences in the dynamics expressed by these two approaches have been so far mainly studied at the single neuron level. To investigate how these synaptic models affect network activity, we compared the single neuron and neural population dynamics of conductance-based networks (COBNs) and current-based networks (CUBNs) of LIF neurons. These networks were endowed with sparse excitatory and inhibitory recurrent connections, and were tested in conditions including both low- and high-conductance states. We developed a novel procedure to obtain comparable networks by properly tuning the synaptic parameters not shared by the models. The so defined comparable networks displayed an excellent and robust match of first order statistics (average single neuron firing rates and average frequency spectrum of network activity). However, these comparable networks showed profound differences in the second order statistics of neural population interactions and in the modulation of these properties by external inputs. The correlation between inhibitory and excitatory synaptic currents and the cross-neuron correlation between synaptic inputs, membrane potentials and spike trains were stronger and more stimulus-modulated in the COBN. Because of these properties, the spike train correlation carried more information about the strength of the input in the COBN, although the firing rates were equally informative in both network models. Moreover, the network activity of COBN showed stronger synchronization in the gamma band, and spectral information about the input higher and spread over a broader range of frequencies. These results suggest that the second order statistics of network dynamics depend strongly on the choice of synaptic model.

  14. The current evolution of complex high mountain debris-covered glacier systems and its relation with ground ice nature and distribution: the case of Rognes and Pierre Ronde area (Mont-Blanc range, France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosson, Jean-Baptiste; Lambiel, Christophe

    2014-05-01

    The current climate forcing, through negative glacier mass balance and rockfall intensification, is leading to the rapid burring of many small glacier systems. When the debris mantle exceeds some centimeters of thickness, the climate control on ice melt is mitigated and delayed. As well, debris-covered glaciers respond to climate forcing in a complex way. This situation is emphasised in high mountain environments, where topo-climatic conditions, such as cold temperatures, amount of solid precipitation, duration of snow cover, nebulosity or shadow effect of rockwalls, limit the influence of rising air temperatures in the ground. Beside, due to Holocene climate history, glacier-permafrost interactions are not rare within the periglacial belt. Glacier recurrence may have removed and assimilated former ice-cemented sediments, the negative mass balance may have led to the formation of ice-cored rock glaciers and neopermafrost may have formed recently under cold climate conditions. Hence, in addition to sedimentary ice, high mountain debris-covered glacier systems can contain interstitial magmatic ice. Especially because of their position at the top of alpine cascade systems and of the amount of water and (unconsolidated) sediment involved, it is important to understand and anticipate the evolution of these complex landforms. Due to the continuous and thick debris mantle and to the common existence of dead ice in deglaciated areas, the current extent of debris-covered glacier can be difficult to point out. Thus, the whole system, according to Little Ice Age (LIA) extent, has sometimes to be investigated to understand the current response of glacier systems to the climate warming. In this context, two neighbouring sites, Rognes and Pierre Ronde systems (45°51'38''N, 6°48'40''E; 2600-3100m a.s.l), have been studied since 2011. These sites are almost completely debris-covered and only few ice outcrops in the upper slopes still witness the existence of former glaciers

  15. Analysis of the Network of Protected Areas in China Based on a Geographic Perspective: Current Status, Issues and Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengtian Cao

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available With the continued growth of protected areas (PAs in China in terms of the number, coverage and varieties of protected objects, how to efficiently manage the protected areas to ensure both resource protection and environmental protection has become a crucial research question. By applying a geographic perspective in an analysis of the development and evolution of protected areas in China, this paper presents the results of an analysis focused on the status and the types of current approaches to the management of natural protected areas to reveal the problems that exist in their management and to further explore an integration strategy for the protected area network. It proposes that the future management of protected areas should prioritize their legal status, the sustainable livelihood of individuals living in close proximity to them, and the establishment of a unified database to achieve grid and information management of the protected areas.

  16. Don’t Judge a (Face)Book by its Cover: A Critical Review of the Implications of Social Networking Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    Society, 1-8. Fogel, J. & Nehman, E. (2009). Internet social network communities: Risk taking, trust, and privacy concerns. Computers in Human Behavior , 25...associated with Facebook use. Computers in Human Behavior , 25, 578-586. Schneier, B. (2009, August 11). The consequences of trusting our

  17. The Seismic Broad Band Western Mediterranean (wm) Network and the Obs Fomar Pool: Current state and Obs activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazos, Antonio; Davila, Jose Martin; Buforn, Elisa; Bezzeghoud, Mourad; Harnafi, Mimoun; Mattesini, Mauricio; Caldeira, Bento; Hanka, Winfried; El Moudnib, Lahcen; Strollo, Angelo; Roca, Antoni; Lopez de Mesa, Mireya; Dahm, Torsten; Cabieces, Roberto

    2016-04-01

    ALERTES-RIM project. In this work the current state and future plans of the WM network, the results of the Gibraltar strait campaign and San Vicente Cape OBS experiment are shown.

  18. Using active power filter to compensate the current component of asymmetrical non-linear load in the four wire network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Руслан Володимирович Власенко

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Electricity quality improving is extremely relevant nowadays. With such industrial loads as induction motors, induction furnaces, welding machines, controlled or uncontrolled rectifiers, frequency converters and others reactive power, harmonics and unbalance are generated in power grid. Reactive power, higher harmonic currents and asymmetry loads influence the functioning of electric devices and electrical mains. An effective technical solution is the use of new compensating devices, that is active power filters. The emergence of consumers with a unit capacity of four wire networks requires a new approach to building system control active power filter. When designing the active power filter control system the current flowing in the neutral wire must be taken into account. To assess the power balance in the four wire active power filter, scientists have proposed to apply pqr theory of power based on the Clarke transformation. There are different topologies of three-phase four wire active power filters. A visual simulation of Matlab / Simulink model with an active power filter based on pqr theory of power has been created. A method of pulse width modulation with four control channels was used as pulses forming systems with transistor keys. Operating conditions of three-phase four wire active power filter with asymmetry, non-sinosoidal voltage source and asymmetric load have been studied. The correction taking into account the means improving the active power filter has been offered as pqr theory of power does not take into account non-sinosoidal voltage

  19. Evaluation of Current Approaches to Stream Classification and a Heuristic Guide to Developing Classifications of Integrated Aquatic Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melles, S. J.; Jones, N. E.; Schmidt, B. J.

    2014-03-01

    Conservation and management of fresh flowing waters involves evaluating and managing effects of cumulative impacts on the aquatic environment from disturbances such as: land use change, point and nonpoint source pollution, the creation of dams and reservoirs, mining, and fishing. To assess effects of these changes on associated biotic communities it is necessary to monitor and report on the status of lotic ecosystems. A variety of stream classification methods are available to assist with these tasks, and such methods attempt to provide a systematic approach to modeling and understanding complex aquatic systems at various spatial and temporal scales. Of the vast number of approaches that exist, it is useful to group them into three main types. The first involves modeling longitudinal species turnover patterns within large drainage basins and relating these patterns to environmental predictors collected at reach and upstream catchment scales; the second uses regionalized hierarchical classification to create multi-scale, spatially homogenous aquatic ecoregions by grouping adjacent catchments together based on environmental similarities; and the third approach groups sites together on the basis of similarities in their environmental conditions both within and between catchments, independent of their geographic location. We review the literature with a focus on more recent classifications to examine the strengths and weaknesses of the different approaches. We identify gaps or problems with the current approaches, and we propose an eight-step heuristic process that may assist with development of more flexible and integrated aquatic classifications based on the current understanding, network thinking, and theoretical underpinnings.

  20. Analysis of the impact of connecting a larger number of small hydroelectric power plants to the short-circuit currents values and relay protection system of distribution network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sučević Nikola

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the influence of a large number of small hydro power plants on the short-circuit currents is analysed, as well as the operation of the relay protection system within the real distribution network in Serbia. The necessary modification of the existing protection functions, as well as the implementation of the new proposed protection functions, are presented and discussed. Network modeling and analysis are performed using the program tool DIgSILENT PowerFactory.

  1. Linear network theory

    CERN Document Server

    Sander, K F

    1964-01-01

    Linear Network Theory covers the significant algebraic aspect of network theory, with minimal reference to practical circuits. The book begins the presentation of network analysis with the exposition of networks containing resistances only, and follows it up with a discussion of networks involving inductance and capacity by way of the differential equations. Classification and description of certain networks, equivalent networks, filter circuits, and network functions are also covered. Electrical engineers, technicians, electronics engineers, electricians, and students learning the intricacies

  2. Land Cover - Minnesota Land Cover Classification System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Land cover data set based on the Minnesota Land Cover Classification System (MLCCS) coding scheme. This data was produced using a combination of aerial photograph...

  3. Why network neuroscience? Compelling evidence and current frontiers. Comment on “Understanding brain networks and brain organization” by Luiz Pessoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muldoon, Sarah Feldt; Bassett, Danielle S.

    2014-09-01

    The recent application of network theory to neuroscience has brought new insights into understanding the relationship between brain structure and function [1]. As Pessoa describes in his extensive review [2], the organization of the brain can be viewed as a complex system of connected components that interact at many scales [3], both in the underlying structural architecture and through temporal functional relationships. Importantly, he emphasizes that we must shed the view that a specific brain region can be tied to a specific function and instead view the brain as a dynamic and evolving network in which overlapping sub-networks of brain regions work together to produce different functions. In fact, the complexity of these evolving interactions is now driving the future of network science [4], as efforts focus on developing novel metrics to capture the dynamic essence of these interconnected networks.

  4. Emerging trends in communication networks

    CERN Document Server

    Hasan, Syed Faraz

    2014-01-01

    This book covers the state of the art in communication networks with the help of illustrative diagrams and recent references published in reputed journals and magazines. The book gives readers a glimpse into the next generation of communication networks. It explores topics that are currently in the research phase and/or are expected to be deployed in recent future such as LTE networks and IPv6 networks. This book is written for students/researchers who wish to come up to date with the recent trends in telecommunications.

  5. Maritime wideband communication networks video transmission scheduling

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Tingting

    2014-01-01

    This Springer Brief covers emerging maritime wideband communication networks and how they facilitate applications such as maritime distress, urgency, safety and general communications. It provides valuable insight on the data transmission scheduling and protocol design for the maritime wideband network. This brief begins with an introduction to maritime wideband communication networks including the architecture, framework, operations and a comprehensive survey on current developments. The second part of the brief presents the resource allocation and scheduling for video packet transmission wit

  6. One-Dimensional Convolutional Neural Network Land-Cover Classification of Multi-Seasonal Hyperspectral Imagery in the San Francisco Bay Area, California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Guidici

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a 1-D Convolutional Neural Network (CNN architecture was developed, trained and utilized to classify single (summer and three seasons (spring, summer, fall of hyperspectral imagery over the San Francisco Bay Area, California for the year 2015. For comparison, the Random Forests (RF and Support Vector Machine (SVM classifiers were trained and tested with the same data. In order to support space-based hyperspectral applications, all analyses were performed with simulated Hyperspectral Infrared Imager (HyspIRI imagery. Three-season data improved classifier overall accuracy by 2.0% (SVM, 1.9% (CNN to 3.5% (RF over single-season data. The three-season CNN provided an overall classification accuracy of 89.9%, which was comparable to overall accuracy of 89.5% for SVM. Both three-season CNN and SVM outperformed RF by over 7% overall accuracy. Analysis and visualization of the inner products for the CNN provided insight to distinctive features within the spectral-temporal domain. A method for CNN kernel tuning was presented to assess the importance of learned features. We concluded that CNN is a promising candidate for hyperspectral remote sensing applications because of the high classification accuracy and interpretability of its inner products.

  7. Assessing the performance of multiple spectral-spatial features of a hyperspectral image for classification of urban land cover classes using support vector machines and artificial neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pullanagari, Reddy; Kereszturi, Gábor; Yule, Ian J.; Ghamisi, Pedram

    2017-04-01

    Accurate and spatially detailed mapping of complex urban environments is essential for land managers. Classifying high spectral and spatial resolution hyperspectral images is a challenging task because of its data abundance and computational complexity. Approaches with a combination of spectral and spatial information in a single classification framework have attracted special attention because of their potential to improve the classification accuracy. We extracted multiple features from spectral and spatial domains of hyperspectral images and evaluated them with two supervised classification algorithms; support vector machines (SVM) and an artificial neural network. The spatial features considered are produced by a gray level co-occurrence matrix and extended multiattribute profiles. All of these features were stacked, and the most informative features were selected using a genetic algorithm-based SVM. After selecting the most informative features, the classification model was integrated with a segmentation map derived using a hidden Markov random field. We tested the proposed method on a real application of a hyperspectral image acquired from AisaFENIX and on widely used hyperspectral images. From the results, it can be concluded that the proposed framework significantly improves the results with different spectral and spatial resolutions over different instrumentation.

  8. The Legal Implications of Student Use of Social Networking Sites in the UK and US: Current Concerns and Lessons for the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Mark R.; Lee, Barbara A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper provides a comparative snapshot of the current state of the law in the US and UK with respect to potential liability of university and college students for use (and misuse) of social networking sites. It reviews the limited case law on this topic, highlights the differences in the two nations' laws of defamation and the various possible…

  9. How pattern formation in ring networks of excitatory and inhibitory spiking neurons depends on the input current regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriener, Birgit; Helias, Moritz; Rotter, Stefan; Diesmann, Markus; Einevoll, Gaute T.

    2014-01-01

    Pattern formation, i.e., the generation of an inhomogeneous spatial activity distribution in a dynamical system with translation invariant structure, is a well-studied phenomenon in neuronal network dynamics, specifically in neural field models. These are population models to describe the spatio-temporal dynamics of large groups of neurons in terms of macroscopic variables such as population firing rates. Though neural field models are often deduced from and equipped with biophysically meaningful properties, a direct mapping to simulations of individual spiking neuron populations is rarely considered. Neurons have a distinct identity defined by their action on their postsynaptic targets. In its simplest form they act either excitatorily or inhibitorily. When the distribution of neuron identities is assumed to be periodic, pattern formation can be observed, given the coupling strength is supracritical, i.e., larger than a critical weight. We find that this critical weight is strongly dependent on the characteristics of the neuronal input, i.e., depends on whether neurons are mean- or fluctuation driven, and different limits in linearizing the full non-linear system apply in order to assess stability. In particular, if neurons are mean-driven, the linearization has a very simple form and becomes independent of both the fixed point firing rate and the variance of the input current, while in the very strongly fluctuation-driven regime the fixed point rate, as well as the input mean and variance are important parameters in the determination of the critical weight. We demonstrate that interestingly even in “intermediate” regimes, when the system is technically fluctuation-driven, the simple linearization neglecting the variance of the input can yield the better prediction of the critical coupling strength. We moreover analyze the effects of structural randomness by rewiring individual synapses or redistributing weights, as well as coarse-graining on the formation of

  10. How pattern formation in ring networks of excitatory and inhibitoryspiking neurons depends on the input current regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgit eKriener

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pattern formation, i.e., the generation of an inhomogeneous spatial activity distribution in a dynamical system with translation invariant structure, is a well-studied phenomenon in neuronal network dynamics,specifically in neural field models. These are population models to describe the spatio-temporal dynamics of large groups of neurons in terms of macroscopic variables such as population firing rates. Though neural field models are often deduced from and equipped with biophysically meaningfulproperties, a direct mapping to simulations of individual spiking neuron populations is rarely considered. Neurons have a distinct identity defined by their action on their postsynaptic targets. In its simplest form they act either excitatorily or inhibitorily.When the distribution of neuron identities is assumed to be periodic, pattern formation can be observed, given the coupling strength is supercritical, i.e., larger than a critical weight. We find that this critical weight is strongly dependent on the characteristics of the neuronal input, i.e., depends on whether neurons are mean- orfluctuation driven, and different limits in linearizing the full non-linear system apply in order to assess stability.In particular, if neurons are mean-driven, the linearization has a very simple form and becomesindependent of both the fixed point firing rate and the variance of the input current, while in the very strongly fluctuation-driven regime the fixed point rate, as well as the input mean and variance areimportant parameters in the determination of the critical weight.We demonstrate that interestingly even in ``intermediate'' regimes, when the system is technically fluctuation-driven, the simple linearization neglecting the variance of the input can yield the better prediction of the critical couplingstrength. We moreover analyze the effects of structural randomness by rewiring individualsynapses or redistributing weights, as well as coarse-graining on pattern

  11. Mining social networks and security informatics

    CERN Document Server

    Özyer, Tansel; Rokne, Jon; Khoury, Suheil

    2013-01-01

    Crime, terrorism and security are in the forefront of current societal concerns. This edited volume presents research based on social network techniques showing how data from crime and terror networks can be analyzed and how information can be extracted. The topics covered include crime data mining and visualization; organized crime detection; crime network visualization; computational criminology; aspects of terror network analyses and threat prediction including cyberterrorism and the related area of dark web; privacy issues in social networks; security informatics; graph algorithms for soci

  12. Current status of the Essential Variables as an instrument to assess the Earth Observation Networks in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Palma, B.; Maso, J.; Bombelli, A.; Plag, H.P.; McCallum, I.; Serral, I.; Nativi, S.S.

    2016-01-01

    ConnectinGEO (Coordinating an Observation Network of Networks EnCompassing saTellite and IN-situ to fill the Gaps in European Observations" is an H2020 Coordination and Support Action with the primary goal of linking existing Earth Observation networks with science and technology (S&T) communities, the industry sector, the Group on Earth Observations (GEO), and Copernicus. The project will end in February 2017. Essential Variables (EVs) are defined by ConnectinGEO as "a minimal set of variabl...

  13. The organization, function, and outcomes of ST-elevation myocardial infarction networks worldwide: current state, unmet needs and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Kurt; Gersh, Bernard J; Goldstein, Patrick; Granger, Christopher B; Armstrong, Paul W

    2014-06-14

    The organization of networks in order to better coordinate and to faster offer reperfusion strategies for acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is an important recommendation of recent versions of international guidelines. This article focusses on similarities and dissimilarities of world-wide networks, highlights essential network components, offers insights into still unmet needs and discusses potential measures to further improve quality of STEMI treatment. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2014. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. 6th International Conference on Network Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Nikolaev, Alexey; Pardalos, Panos; Prokopyev, Oleg

    2017-01-01

    This valuable source for graduate students and researchers provides a comprehensive introduction to current theories and applications in optimization methods and network models. Contributions to this book are focused on new efficient algorithms and rigorous mathematical theories, which can be used to optimize and analyze mathematical graph structures with massive size and high density induced by natural or artificial complex networks. Applications to social networks, power transmission grids, telecommunication networks, stock market networks, and human brain networks are presented. Chapters in this book cover the following topics: Linear max min fairness Heuristic approaches for high-quality solutions Efficient approaches for complex multi-criteria optimization problems Comparison of heuristic algorithms New heuristic iterative local search Power in network structures Clustering nodes in random graphs Power transmission grid structure Network decomposition problems Homogeneity hypothesis testing Network analy...

  15. Cover/Frequency (CF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    John F. Caratti

    2006-01-01

    The FIREMON Cover/Frequency (CF) method is used to assess changes in plant species cover and frequency for a macroplot. This method uses multiple quadrats to sample within-plot variation and quantify statistically valid changes in plant species cover, height, and frequency over time. Because it is difficult to estimate cover in quadrats for larger plants, this method...

  16. Seizure-induced alterations in fast-spiking basket cell GABA currents modulate frequency and coherence of gamma oscillation in network simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proddutur, Archana; Yu, Jiandong; Elgammal, Fatima S.; Santhakumar, Vijayalakshmi

    2013-12-01

    Gamma frequency oscillations have been proposed to contribute to memory formation and retrieval. Fast-spiking basket cells (FS-BCs) are known to underlie development of gamma oscillations. Fast, high amplitude GABA synapses and gap junctions have been suggested to contribute to gamma oscillations in FS-BC networks. Recently, we identified that, apart from GABAergic synapses, FS-BCs in the hippocampal dentate gyrus have GABAergic currents mediated by extrasynaptic receptors. Our experimental studies demonstrated two specific changes in FS-BC GABA currents following experimental seizures [Yu et al., J. Neurophysiol. 109, 1746 (2013)]: increase in the magnitude of extrasynaptic (tonic) GABA currents and a depolarizing shift in GABA reversal potential (EGABA). Here, we use homogeneous networks of a biophysically based model of FS-BCs to examine how the presence of extrasynaptic GABA conductance (gGABA-extra) and experimentally identified, seizure-induced changes in gGABA-extra and EGABA influence network activity. Networks of FS-BCs interconnected by fast GABAergic synapses developed synchronous firing in the dentate gamma frequency range (40-100 Hz). Systematic investigation revealed that the biologically realistic range of 30 to 40 connections between FS-BCs resulted in greater coherence in the gamma frequency range when networks were activated by Poisson-distributed dendritic synaptic inputs rather than by homogeneous somatic current injections, which were balanced for FS-BC firing frequency in unconnected networks. Distance-dependent conduction delay enhanced coherence in networks with 30-40 FS-BC interconnections while inclusion of gap junctional conductance had a modest effect on coherence. In networks activated by somatic current injections resulting in heterogeneous FS-BC firing, increasing gGABA-extra reduced the frequency and coherence of FS-BC firing when EGABA was shunting (-74 mV), but failed to alter average FS-BC frequency when EGABA was depolarizing

  17. Seizure-induced alterations in fast-spiking basket cell GABA currents modulate frequency and coherence of gamma oscillation in network simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proddutur, Archana; Yu, Jiandong; Elgammal, Fatima S. [Department of Neurology and Neurosciences, New Jersey Medical School, Rutgers, Newark, New Jersey 07103 (United States); Santhakumar, Vijayalakshmi, E-mail: santhavi@njms.rutgers.edu [Department of Neurology and Neurosciences, New Jersey Medical School, Rutgers, Newark, New Jersey 07103 (United States); Department of Pharmacology and Physiology, New Jersey Medical School, Rutgers, Newark, New Jersey 07103 (United States)

    2013-12-15

    Gamma frequency oscillations have been proposed to contribute to memory formation and retrieval. Fast-spiking basket cells (FS-BCs) are known to underlie development of gamma oscillations. Fast, high amplitude GABA synapses and gap junctions have been suggested to contribute to gamma oscillations in FS-BC networks. Recently, we identified that, apart from GABAergic synapses, FS-BCs in the hippocampal dentate gyrus have GABAergic currents mediated by extrasynaptic receptors. Our experimental studies demonstrated two specific changes in FS-BC GABA currents following experimental seizures [Yu et al., J. Neurophysiol. 109, 1746 (2013)]: increase in the magnitude of extrasynaptic (tonic) GABA currents and a depolarizing shift in GABA reversal potential (E{sub GABA}). Here, we use homogeneous networks of a biophysically based model of FS-BCs to examine how the presence of extrasynaptic GABA conductance (g{sub GABA-extra}) and experimentally identified, seizure-induced changes in g{sub GABA-extra} and E{sub GABA} influence network activity. Networks of FS-BCs interconnected by fast GABAergic synapses developed synchronous firing in the dentate gamma frequency range (40–100 Hz). Systematic investigation revealed that the biologically realistic range of 30 to 40 connections between FS-BCs resulted in greater coherence in the gamma frequency range when networks were activated by Poisson-distributed dendritic synaptic inputs rather than by homogeneous somatic current injections, which were balanced for FS-BC firing frequency in unconnected networks. Distance-dependent conduction delay enhanced coherence in networks with 30–40 FS-BC interconnections while inclusion of gap junctional conductance had a modest effect on coherence. In networks activated by somatic current injections resulting in heterogeneous FS-BC firing, increasing g{sub GABA-extra} reduced the frequency and coherence of FS-BC firing when E{sub GABA} was shunting (−74 mV), but failed to alter average

  18. The role of autobiographical memory networks in the experience of negative emotions: how our remembered past elicits our current feelings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippe, Frederick L; Koestner, Richard; Lecours, Serge; Beaulieu-Pelletier, Genevieve; Bois, Katy

    2011-12-01

    The present research examined the role of autobiographical memory networks on negative emotional experiences. Results from 2 studies found support for an active but also discriminant role of autobiographical memories and their related networked memories on negative emotions. In addition, in line with self-determination theory, thwarting of the psychological needs for competence, autonomy, and relatedness was found to be the critical component of autobiographical memory affecting negative emotional experiences. Study 1 revealed that need thwarting in a specific autobiographical memory network related to the theme of loss was positively associated with depressive negative emotions, but not with other negative emotions. Study 2 showed within a prospective design a differential predictive validity between 2 autobiographical memory networks (an anger-related vs. a guilt-related memory) on situational anger reactivity with respect to unfair treatment. All of these results held after controlling for neuroticism (Studies 1 and 2), self-control (Study 2), and for the valence (Study 1) and emotions (Study 2) found in the measured autobiographical memory network. These findings highlight the ongoing emotional significance of representations of need thwarting in autobiographical memory networks. (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved.

  19. Construction Costs of Six Landfill Cover Designs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dwyer, S.F.

    1998-12-23

    A large-scale field demonstration comparing and contrasting final landfill cover designs has been constructed and is currently being monitored. Four alternative cover designs and two conventional designs (a RCRA Subtitle `D' Soil Cover and a RCRA Subtitle `C' Compacted Clay Cover) were constructed side-by-side for direct comparison. The demonstration is intended to evaluate the various cover designs based on their respective water balance performance, ease and reliability of construction, and cost. This paper provides an overview of the construction costs of each cover design.

  20. Persistence and storage of activity patterns in spiking recurrent cortical networks:Modulation of sigmoid signals by after-hyperpolarization currents and acetylcholine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse ePalma

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Many cortical networks contain recurrent architectures that transform input patterns before storing them in short-term memory (STM. Theorems in the 1970’s showed how feedback signal functions in rate-based recurrent on-center off-surround networks control this process. A sigmoid signal function induces a quenching threshold below which inputs are suppressed as noise and above which they are contrast-enhanced before pattern storage. This article describes how changes in feedback signaling, neuromodulation, and recurrent connectivity may alter pattern processing in recurrent on-center off-surround networks of spiking neurons. In spiking neurons, fast, medium, and slow after-hyperpolarization (AHP currents control sigmoid signal threshold and slope. Modulation of AHP currents by acetylcholine (ACh can change sigmoid shape and, with it, network dynamics. For example, decreasing signal function threshold and increasing slope can lengthen the persistence of a partially contrast-enhanced pattern, increase the number of active cells stored in STM, or, if connectivity is distance-dependent, cause cell activities to cluster. These results clarify how cholinergic modulation by the basal forebrain may alter the vigilance of category learning circuits, and thus their sensitivity to predictive mismatches, thereby controlling whether learned categories code concrete or abstract features, as predicted by Adaptive Resonance Theory. The analysis includes global, distance-dependent, and interneuron-mediated circuits. With an appropriate degree of recurrent excitation and inhibition, spiking networks maintain a partially contrast-enhanced pattern for 800 milliseconds or longer after stimuli offset, then resolve to no stored pattern, or to winner-take-all stored patterns with one or multiple winners. Strengthening inhibition prolongs a partially contrast-enhanced pattern by slowing the transition to stability, while strengthening excitation causes more winners

  1. Cover Your Cough

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Virus Testing Clinical Signs & Symptoms of Influenza Symptoms & Laboratory Diagnosis Information for Clinicians on Rapid Diagnostic Testing for ... of “Cover Your Cough” Posters only available as PDF files. Cover Your Cough, Flyer for Health Care ...

  2. Providing access to research data, publications and current research information at Data Archiving and Networked Services - DANS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, E.M.S.; Doorn, P.K.

    2014-01-01

    Data Archiving and Networked Services (DANS) promotes sustained access to digital research data in the Netherlands. Researchers can deposit their data through the online archiving system EASY. Via the portal NARCIS the research data are shown in context, namely in relation to publications, and other

  3. MSFC Robotic Lunar Lander Testbed and Current Status of the International Lunar Network (ILN) Anchor Nodes Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Barbara; Bassler, Julie; Harris, Danny; Morse, Brian; Reed, Cheryl; Kirby, Karen; Eng, Douglas

    2009-01-01

    The lunar lander robotic exploration testbed at Marshall Spaceflight Center provides a test environment for robotic lander test articles, components and algorithms to reduce the risk on the airless body designs during lunar landing. Also included is a chart comparing the two different types of Anchor nodes for the International Lunar Network (ILN): Solar/Battery and the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope generator (ARSG.)

  4. Social Networking in Schools: Benefits and Risks; Review of the Research; Policy Considerations; and Current Practices. Information Capsule. Volume 1109

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazer, Christie

    2012-01-01

    The role that social media should play in education is being hotly debated in school districts across the country. The adoption of social networking for educational purposes lags behind the public's general usage because educators fear that students will be exposed to inappropriate online content, unwanted adult interactions, and bullying from…

  5. ICFA SCIC Network Monitoring Report

    CERN Document Server

    McKee, Shawn; Babik, Marian; Hayashi, Soichi; Tierney, Brian; Giemza, Henryk; Vukotic, Ilija; O’Connor, Mike; CERN. Geneva. IT Department

    2016-01-01

    This report may be regarded as a follow up to the previous ICFA Standing Committee on Inter-regional Connectivity (SCIC) Monitoring working group’s Network reports dating back to 1997. The current report updates the January 2015 report. As noted, PingER activities will not be covered in the same depth as earlier reports because of a lack of funding for this effort. We will be including some new areas related to network monitoring in HEP including updates and status on the perfSONAR efforts globally as well as the WLCG Network and Transfer Metrics Working Group activities.

  6. Branched polynomial covering maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard

    1999-01-01

    A Weierstrass polynomial with multiple roots in certain points leads to a branched covering map. With this as the guiding example, we formally define and study the notion of a branched polynomial covering map. We shall prove that many finite covering maps are polynomial outside a discrete branch...... set. Particular studies are made of branched polynomial covering maps arising from Riemann surfaces and from knots in the 3-sphere....

  7. Branched polynomial covering maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard

    2002-01-01

    A Weierstrass polynomial with multiple roots in certain points leads to a branched covering map. With this as the guiding example, we formally define and study the notion of a branched polynomial covering map. We shall prove that many finite covering maps are polynomial outside a discrete branch...... set. Particular studies are made of branched polynomial covering maps arising from Riemann surfaces and from knots in the 3-sphere. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....

  8. Landfill Top Covers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheutz, Charlotte; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2011-01-01

    into the landfill in order to minimize leachate generation. In addition the cover also has to control the release of gases produced in the landfill so the gas can be ventilated, collected and utilized, or oxidized in situ. The landfill cover should also minimize erosion and support vegetation. Finally the cover...... sometimes are made to include components for recirculation of landfill leachate (see Section 10.9.2 for more details). The top cover is an important factor in the water management of landfills. Details about water infiltration through top covers and its influence on the hydrology of the landfill is covered...... in Chapter 10.3 on landfill hydrology. This chapter provides an overview on the components of traditional top covers used at landfills and the alternatives used for meeting other requirements (such as leachate recirculation or passive gas management by microbial oxidation processes)....

  9. Percent Forest Cover (Future)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Forests provide economic and ecological value. High percentages of forest cover (FORPCTFuture) generally indicate healthier ecosystems and cleaner surface water....

  10. Percent Forest Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Forests provide economic and ecological value. High percentages of forest cover (FORPCT) generally indicate healthier ecosystems and cleaner surface water. More...

  11. Security management of next generation telecommunications networks and services

    CERN Document Server

    Jacobs, Stuart

    2014-01-01

    This book will cover network management security issues and currently available security mechanisms by discussing how network architectures have evolved into the contemporary NGNs which support converged services (voice, video, TV, interactive information exchange, and classic data communications). It will also analyze existing security standards and their applicability to securing network management. This book will review 21st century security concepts of authentication, authorization, confidentiality, integrity, nonrepudiation, vulnerabilities, threats, risks, and effective approaches to enc

  12. Propagation phenomena in real world networks

    CERN Document Server

    Fay, Damien; Gabryś, Bogdan

    2015-01-01

    “Propagation, which looks at spreading in complex networks, can be seen from many viewpoints; it is undesirable, or desirable, controllable, the mechanisms generating that propagation can be the topic of interest, but in the end all depends on the setting. This book covers leading research on a wide spectrum of propagation phenomenon and the techniques currently used in its modelling, prediction, analysis and control. Fourteen papers range over topics including epidemic models, models for trust inference, coverage strategies for networks, vehicle flow propagation, bio-inspired routing algorithms, P2P botnet attacks and defences, fault propagation in gene-cellular networks, malware propagation for mobile networks, information propagation in crisis situations, financial contagion in interbank networks, and finally how to maximize the spread of influence in social networks. The compendium will be of interest to researchers, those working in social networking, communications and finance and is aimed at providin...

  13. The perfect cover letter

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Beatty, Richard H

    2004-01-01

    ... and care needed to prepare the employment cover letter- the very first document that meets the eyes of the employer when receiving a resume. As a seasoned employment professional, I have always found this a curious phenomenon, especially since it is the cover letter that serves as the initial introduction to prospective employers. iiiiv PREFACE ...

  14. On directed coverings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fajstrup, Lisbeth

    In [1], we study coverings in the setting of directed topology. Unfortunately, there is a condition missing in the definition of a directed covering. Some of the results in [1] require this extra condition and in fact it was claimed to follow from the original definition. It is the purpose...

  15. Covered Bridge Security Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brett Phares; Terry Wipf; Ryan Sievers; Travis Hosteng

    2013-01-01

    The design, construction, and use of covered timber bridges is all but a lost art in these days of pre-stressed concrete, high-performance steel, and the significant growth both in the volume and size of vehicles. Furthermore, many of the existing covered timber bridges are preserved only because of their status on the National Registry of Historic Places or the...

  16. Finite Coverings by Cones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijs, S.H.; Reijnierse, J.H.

    2001-01-01

    This paper considers analogues of statements concerning compactness and finite coverings, in which the roles of spheres are replaced by cones. Furthermore, one of the finite covering results provides an application in Multi-Objective Programming; infinite sets of alternatives are reduced to finite

  17. August Cover 09 Tp

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Admin

    (See article on p.782). T Ramakrishnan. (1922–2008). ( Illustration: Subhankar Biswas ). Front Cover. Back Cover. 737. Information and Announcements. Classics. The Control of. Tuberculosis: A. Continuous Game of. Snakes and Ladders. T Ramakrishnan and. P Chandrasekhar. Differential Scanning. Calorimetry: Funda-.

  18. Current trends in Bayesian methodology with applications

    CERN Document Server

    Upadhyay, Satyanshu K; Dey, Dipak K; Loganathan, Appaia

    2015-01-01

    Collecting Bayesian material scattered throughout the literature, Current Trends in Bayesian Methodology with Applications examines the latest methodological and applied aspects of Bayesian statistics. The book covers biostatistics, econometrics, reliability and risk analysis, spatial statistics, image analysis, shape analysis, Bayesian computation, clustering, uncertainty assessment, high-energy astrophysics, neural networking, fuzzy information, objective Bayesian methodologies, empirical Bayes methods, small area estimation, and many more topics.Each chapter is self-contained and focuses on

  19. Surface Current and Wave Validation of a Nested Regional HF Radar Network in the Mid-Atlantic Bight

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-22

    these are direction finding systems, the wave measurements are an average of the wave lb field over a measurement arc . The CODAR system has and 2... Electrique . 74, 54-59. [5] Lipa, B.J. and D.E. Barrick. 1983: Least-squares methods for the extraction of surface currents from CODAR cross-loop data

  20. Land Cover Characterization Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1997-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has a long heritage of leadership and innovation in land use and land cover mapping. The USGS Anderson system defined the principles for land use and land cover mapping that have been the model both nationally and internationally for more than 20 years. The Land Cover Characterization Program (LCCP) is founded on the premise that the Nation's needs for land cover and land use data are diverse and increasingly sophisticated. The range of projects, programs, and organizations that use land cover data to meet their planning, management, development, and assessment objectives has expanded significantly. The reasons for this are numerous, and include the improved capabilities provided by geographic information systems, better and more data-intensive analytic models, and increasing requirements for improved information for decision making. The overall goals of the LCCP are to:

  1. Current status of the Essential Variables as an instrument to assess the Earth Observation Networks in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blonda, Palma; Maso, Joan; Bombelli, Antonio; Plag, Hans Peter; McCallum, Ian; Serral, Ivette; Nativi, Stefano Stefano

    2016-04-01

    ConnectinGEO (Coordinating an Observation Network of Networks EnCompassing saTellite and IN-situ to fill the Gaps in European Observations" is an H2020 Coordination and Support Action with the primary goal of linking existing Earth Observation networks with science and technology (S&T) communities, the industry sector, the Group on Earth Observations (GEO), and Copernicus. The project will end in February 2017. Essential Variables (EVs) are defined by ConnectinGEO as "a minimal set of variables that determine the system's state and developments, are crucial for predicting system developments, and allow us to define metrics that measure the trajectory of the system". . Specific application-dependent characteristics, such as spatial and temporal resolution of observations and data quality thresholds, are not generally included in the EV definition. This definition and the present status of EV developments in different societal benefit areas was elaborated at the ConnectinGEO workshop "Towards a sustainability process for GEOSS Essential Variables (EVs)," which was held in Bari on June 11-12, 2015 (http://www.gstss.org/2015_Bari/). Presentations and reports contributed by a wide range of communities provided important inputs from different sectors for assessing the status of the EV development. In most thematic areas, the development of sets of EVs is a community process leading to an agreement on what is essential for the goals of the community. While there are many differences across the communities in the details of the criteria, methodologies and processes used to develop sets of EVs, there is also a considerable common core across the communities, particularly those with a more advanced discussion. In particular, there is some level of overlap in different topics (e.g., Climate and Water), and there is a potential to develop an integrated set of EVs common to several thematic areas as well as specific ones that satisfy only one community. The thematic areas with

  2. The current threat level of fish in river network of individual sea-drainage areas in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lusk Stanislav

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of changes in the population spread of individual ichthyofauna species (lampreys and fishes as well as the identification of unfavourable impacts is the necessary prerequisite for the correct selection of corrective measures. The river network in the Czech Republic belongs to the three sea-drainage areas (North Sea, Baltic Sea, and Black Sea. The species composition of the original ichthyofauna and the extent of the threat to some species differs in the individual sea-drainage areas. The original ichthyofauna in the Czech Republic consists of 4 lamprey species and 55 fish species. Out of this, only one lamprey species and 31 fish species originate in all three sea-drainage areas. There are 37 fish species considered as the original ones in the North Sea drainage area, there of 4 species are EX, 1 species EW, and 11 species (29.7% are threatened. In the Baltic Sea drainage area, there are 4 species EX, 1 species EW, and 8 species (22.8% threatened out of the total 35 assessed species. Out of 49 species in the Black Sea drainage area, there are 4 species EX and 23 species (46.9 % threatened.

  3. Contaminated Sites in Europe: Review of the Current Situation Based on Data Collected through a European Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panos Panagos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Under the European Union (EU Thematic Strategy for Soil Protection, the European Commission has identified soil contamination as a priority for the collection of policy-relevant soil data at European scale. In order to support EU soil management policies, soil-related indicators need to be developed which requires appropriate data collection and establishment of harmonized datasets for the EU Member States. In 2011-12, the European Soil Data Centre of the European Commission conducted a project to collect data on contaminated sites from national institutions in Europe using the European Environment Information and Observation Network for soil (EIONET-SOIL. This paper presents the results obtained from analysing the soil contaminated sites data submitted by participating countries. According to the received data, the number of estimated potential contaminated sites is more than 2.5 million and the identified contaminated sites around 342 thousand. Municipal and industrial wastes contribute most to soil contamination (38%, followed by the industrial/commercial sector (34%. Mineral oil and heavy metals are the main contaminants contributing around 60% to soil contamination. In terms of budget, the management of contaminated sites is estimated to cost around 6 billion Euros (€ annually.

  4. Geo-Wiki.Org: The Use of Crowdsourcing to Improve Global Land Cover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Kraxner

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Global land cover is one of the essential terrestrial baseline datasets available for ecosystem modeling, however uncertainty remains an issue. Tools such as Google Earth offer enormous potential for land cover validation. With an ever increasing amount of very fine spatial resolution images (up to 50 cm × 50 cm available on Google Earth, it is becoming possible for every Internet user (including non remote sensing experts to distinguish land cover features with a high degree of reliability. Such an approach is inexpensive and allows Internet users from any region of the world to get involved in this global validation exercise. The Geo-Wiki Project is a global network of volunteers who wish to help improve the quality of global land cover maps. Since large differences occur between existing global land cover maps, current ecosystem and land-use science lacks crucial accurate data (e.g., to determine the potential of additional agricultural land available to grow crops in Africa, volunteers are asked to review hotspot maps of global land cover disagreement and determine, based on what they actually see in Google Earth and their local knowledge, if the land cover maps are correct or incorrect. Their input is recorded in a database, along with uploaded photos, to be used in the future for the creation of a new and improved hybrid global land cover map.

  5. Stochastic network calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Yuming

    2009-01-01

    This book is devoted to a comprehensive treatment of this important field, a grand challenge for future networking research. It covers results from the authors as well as other researchers. Topics covered include Independent Case Analysis and its applications.

  6. Consistent circuit technique for zero-sequence currents evaluation in interconnected single/three-phase power networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Bellan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with a rigorous and mathematically consistent technique for circuit analysis of modern electrical power systems consisting in the interconnection of three-phase components and single-phase active loads. Indeed, it is well known that the standard technique based on the symmetrical components transformation is commonly used in the analysis of symmetrical threephase systems. Nowadays, however, the evolution of power systems towards the custom power conditioning (e.g., active filtering and the smart grid model requires the inclusion into the analytical tool of single-phase active loads. Starting from the symmetrical components transformation in its rational form instead of its classical form, a rigorous circuit representation of the interconnection of a three-phase system with single-phase active loads is derived in the paper. The proposed circuit representation allows the analysis of complex power systems by means of basic circuit techniques. In particular, the paper focuses on the evaluation of the zero-sequence component of the currents in any branch of the power system. The application of the proposed circuit technique is demonstrated through an example consisting in the analysis of an active filter designed to force to zero the current in the fourth wire of the mains.

  7. Projected 2020 Land Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Projected 2020 land cover was developed to provide one scenario of development in the year 2020. It was used to generate several metrics to compare to 1992 metrics...

  8. GAP Land Cover - Vector

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This vector dataset is a detailed (1-acre minimum), hierarchically organized vegetation cover map produced by computer classification of combined two-season pairs of...

  9. Percent of Impervious Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — High amounts of impervious cover (parking lots, rooftops, roads, etc.) can increase water runoff, which may directly enter surface water. Runoff from roads often...

  10. GAP Land Cover - Image

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This raster dataset is a simple image of the original detailed (1-acre minimum), hierarchically organized vegetation cover map produced by computer classification of...

  11. COVER AND CONTENTS PAGES

    OpenAIRE

    Anonymous

    1998-01-01

    Includes: Front Cover, Editorial Information, Contents Pages, Dr. Carl G. Anderson: Lifetime Achievement Award, Dr. Eldon D. Smith: Lifetime Achievement Award, Dr. Kenneth R. Tefertiller: Lifetime Achievement Award, Eduardo Segarra: 1998-99 President

  12. Mekong Land Cover Dasboard: Regional Land Cover Mointoring Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saah, D. S.; Towashiraporn, P.; Aekakkararungroj, A.; Phongsapan, K.; Triepke, J.; Maus, P.; Tenneson, K.; Cutter, P. G.; Ganz, D.; Anderson, E.

    2016-12-01

    SERVIR-Mekong, a USAID-NASA partnership, helps decision makers in the Lower Mekong Region utilize GIS and Remote Sensing information to inform climate related activities. In 2015, SERVIR-Mekong conducted a geospatial needs assessment for the Lower Mekong countries which included individual country consultations. The team found that many countries were dependent on land cover and land use maps for land resource planning, quantifying ecosystem services, including resilience to climate change, biodiversity conservation, and other critical social issues. Many of the Lower Mekong countries have developed national scale land cover maps derived in part from remote sensing products and geospatial technologies. However, updates are infrequent and classification systems do not always meet the needs of key user groups. In addition, data products stop at political boundaries and are often not accessible making the data unusable across country boundaries and with resource management partners. Many of these countries rely on global land cover products to fill the gaps of their national efforts, compromising consistency between data and policies. These gaps in national efforts can be filled by a flexible regional land cover monitoring system that is co-developed by regional partners with the specific intention of meeting national transboundary needs, for example including consistent forest definitions in transboundary watersheds. Based on these facts, key regional stakeholders identified a need for a land cover monitoring system that will produce frequent, high quality land cover maps using a consistent regional classification scheme that is compatible with national country needs. SERVIR-Mekong is currently developing a solution that leverages recent developments in remote sensing science and technology, such as Google Earth Engine (GEE), and working together with production partners to develop a system that will use a common set of input data sources to generate high

  13. Lightweight composite fighting cover prototype development program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wrenn, G.E. Jr.; Frame, B.J.; Gwaltney, R.C.; Akerman, M.A.

    1996-07-01

    The U.S. Army Field Assistance Science and Technology Program requested Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to demonstrate the use of lightweight composite materials in construction of overhead covers for reinforced infantry fighting positions. In recent years, ORNL researchers have designed and tested several concepts for lightweight ballistic protection structures, and they have developed numerous prototype composite structures for military and civilian applications. In the current program, composite panel designs and materials are tested and optimized to meet anticipated static and dynamic load conditions for the overhead cover structure. Ten prototype composite covers were built at ORNL for use in Army field tests. Each composite cover has a nominal surface area of 12 ft[sup 2] and a nominal weight of 8 lb. Four of the prototypes are made with folding sections to improve their handling characteristics. The composite covers exhibit equivalent performance in Army field tests to covers made with conventional materials that weigh four times as much.

  14. The Platte River - High Plains Aquifer (PR-HPA) Long Term Agroecosystem Research (LTAR) Network - Data and Technological Resources to Address Current and Emerging Issues in Agroecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okalebo, J. A.; Wienhold, B.; Suyker, A.; Erickson, G.; Hayes, M. J.; Awada, T.

    2015-12-01

    The Platte River - High Plains Aquifer (PR-HPA) is one of 18 established Long Term Agroecosystem Research (LTAR) networks across the US. PR-HPA is a partnership between the Institute of Agriculture and Natural Resources at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln (UNL), the USDA-ARS Agroecosystem Management Research Unit (AMRU) in Lincoln, and the USDA-ARS Environmental Management Research Unit (EMRU) in Clay Center, NE. The PR-HPA network encompasses 27,750 ha of research sites with data going back to the early 1900s. A partial list of on-going research projects include those encompassing long-term manuring and continuous corn (Est. 1912), dryland tillage plots (Est. 1970), soil nutrients and tillage (Est. 1983), biofuel feedstock studies (Est. 2001), and carbon sequestration study (Est. 2000). Affiliated partners include the National Drought Mitigation Center (NDMC) that develops measures to improve preparedness and adaptation to climate variability and drought; the High Plains Regional Climate Center (HPRCC) that coordinates data acquisition from over 170 automated weather stations and around 50 automated soil moisture network across NE and beyond; the AMERIFLUX and NEBFLUX networks that coordinate the water vapor and carbon dioxide flux measurements across NE with emphasis on rainfed and irrigated crop lands; the ARS Greenhouse gas Reduction through Agricultural Carbon Enhancement network (GRACEnet) and the Resilient Economic Agricultural Practices (REAP) project; and the Center for Advanced Land Management Information Technologies (CALMIT) that assists with the use of geospatial technologies for agriculture and natural resource applications. Current emphases are on addressing present-day and emerging issues related to profitability and sustainability of agroecosystems. The poster will highlight some of the ongoing and planned efforts in research pertaining to climate variability and change, water sustainability, and ecological and agronomic challenges associated

  15. Finite element and network electrical simulation of rotating magnetofluid flow in nonlinear porous media with inclined magnetic field and hall currents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bég Anwar O.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model is presented for viscous hydromagnetic flow through a hybrid non-Darcy porous media rotating generator. The system is simulated as steady, incompressible flow through a nonlinear porous regime intercalated between parallel plates of the generator in a rotating frame of reference in the presence of a strong, inclined magnetic field A pressure gradient term is included which is a function of the longitudinal coordinate. The general equations for rotating viscous magnetohydrodynamic flow are presented and neglecting convective acceleration effects, the two-dimensional viscous flow equations are derived incorporating current density components, porous media drag effects, Lorentz drag force components and Hall current effects. Using an appropriate group of dimensionless variables, the momentum equations for primary and secondary flow are rendered nondimensional and shown to be controlled by six physical parameters-Hartmann number (Ha, Hall current parameter (Nh, Darcy number (Da, Forchheimer number (Fs, Ekman number (Ek and dimensionless pressure gradient parameter (Np, in addition to one geometric parameter-the orientation of the applied magnetic field (θ . Several special cases are extracted from the general model, including the non-porous case studied earlier by Ghosh and Pop (2006. A numerical solution is presented to the nonlinear coupled ordinary differential equations using both the Network Simulation Method and Finite Element Method, achieving excellent agreement. Additionally very good agreement is also obtained with the earlier analytical solutions of Ghosh and Pop (2006. for selected Ha, Ek and Nh values. We examine in detail the effects of magnetic field, rotation, Hall current, bulk porous matrix drag, second order porous impedance, pressure gradient and magnetic field inclination on primary and secondary velocity distributions and also frictional shear stresses at the plates. Primary velocity is seen to decrease

  16. Basics of Computer Networking

    CERN Document Server

    Robertazzi, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Springer Brief Basics of Computer Networking provides a non-mathematical introduction to the world of networks. This book covers both technology for wired and wireless networks. Coverage includes transmission media, local area networks, wide area networks, and network security. Written in a very accessible style for the interested layman by the author of a widely used textbook with many years of experience explaining concepts to the beginner.

  17. Modulation of insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor and its signaling network for the treatment of cancer: Current status and future perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meizhong Jin

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Based on over three decades of preclinical data, insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R signaling has gained recognition as a promoter of tumorogenesis, driving cell survival and proliferation in multiple human cancers. As a result, IGF-1R has been pursued as a target for cancer treatment. Early pioneering efforts targeting IGF- 1R focused on highly selective monoclonal antibodies, with multiple agents advancing to clinical trials. However, despite some initial promising results, recent clinical disclosures have been less encouraging. Moreover, recent studies have revealed that IGF-1R participates in a dynamic and complex signaling network, interacting with additional targets and pathways thereof through various crosstalk and compensatory signaling mechanisms. Such mechanisms of bypass signaling help to shed some light on the decreased effectiveness of selective IGF-1R targeted therapies (e.g. monoclonal antibodies and suggest that targeting multiple nodes within this signaling network might be necessary to produce a more effective therapeutic response. Additionally, such finding have led to the development of small molecule IGF-1R inhibitors which also coinhibit additional targets such as IR and EGFR. Such findings have helped to guide the rationale design of numerous drug combinations which are currently being evaluated in clinical trials.

  18. Modulation of insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor and its signaling network for the treatment of cancer: current status and future perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meizhong Jin

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Based on over three decades of pre-clinical data, insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R signaling has gained recognition as a promoter of tumorogenesis, driving cell survival and proliferation in multiple human cancers. As a result, IGF-1R has been pursued as a target for cancer treatment. Early pioneering efforts targeting IGF-1R focused on highly selective monoclonal antibodies, with multiple agents advancing to clinical trials. However, despite some initial promising results, recent clinical disclosures have been less encouraging. Moreover, recent studies have revealed that IGF-1R participates in a dynamic and complex signaling network, interacting with additional targets and pathways thereof through various crosstalk and compensatory signaling mechanisms. Such mechanisms of bypass signaling help to shed some light on the decreased effectiveness of selective IGF- 1R targeted therapies (e.g. monoclonal antibodies and suggest that targeting multiple nodes within this signaling network might be necessary to produce a more effective therapeutic response. Additionally, such findings have led to the development of small molecule IGF-1R inhibitors which also co-inhibit additional targets such as insulin receptor and epidermal growth factor receptor. Such findings have helped to guide the design rationale of numerous drug combinations that are currently being evaluated in clinical trials.

  19. Expert consensus document: Cholangiocarcinoma: current knowledge and future perspectives consensus statement from the European Network for the Study of Cholangiocarcinoma (ENS-CCA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banales, Jesus M; Cardinale, Vincenzo; Carpino, Guido; Marzioni, Marco; Andersen, Jesper B; Invernizzi, Pietro; Lind, Guro E; Folseraas, Trine; Forbes, Stuart J; Fouassier, Laura; Geier, Andreas; Calvisi, Diego F; Mertens, Joachim C; Trauner, Michael; Benedetti, Antonio; Maroni, Luca; Vaquero, Javier; Macias, Rocio I R; Raggi, Chiara; Perugorria, Maria J; Gaudio, Eugenio; Boberg, Kirsten M; Marin, Jose J G; Alvaro, Domenico

    2016-05-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a heterogeneous group of malignancies with features of biliary tract differentiation. CCA is the second most common primary liver tumour and the incidence is increasing worldwide. CCA has high mortality owing to its aggressiveness, late diagnosis and refractory nature. In May 2015, the "European Network for the Study of Cholangiocarcinoma" (ENS-CCA: www.enscca.org or www.cholangiocarcinoma.eu) was created to promote and boost international research collaboration on the study of CCA at basic, translational and clinical level. In this Consensus Statement, we aim to provide valuable information on classifications, pathological features, risk factors, cells of origin, genetic and epigenetic modifications and current therapies available for this cancer. Moreover, future directions on basic and clinical investigations and plans for the ENS-CCA are highlighted.

  20. Climate under cover

    CERN Document Server

    Takakura, Tadashi

    2002-01-01

    1.1. INTRODUCTION Plastic covering, either framed or floating, is now used worldwide to protect crops from unfavorable growing conditions, such as severe weather and insects and birds. Protected cultivation in the broad sense, including mulching, has been widely spread by the innovation of plastic films. Paper, straw, and glass were the main materials used before the era of plastics. Utilization of plastics in agriculture started in the developed countries and is now spreading to the developing countries. Early utilization of plastic was in cold regions, and plastic was mainly used for protection from the cold. Now plastic is used also for protection from wind, insects and diseases. The use of covering techniques started with a simple system such as mulching, then row covers and small tunnels were developed, and finally plastic houses. Floating mulch was an exception to this sequence: it was introduced rather recently, although it is a simple structure. New development of functional and inexpensive films trig...

  1. Tilings and Coverings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steurer, Walter; Deloudi, Sofia

    Tilings fill space without gaps and overlaps, they can be periodic, quasiperiodic or nonperiodic. If decorated with atoms or larger atomic arrangements, tilings can serve as models for quasiperiodic structures. One-, two-, and three-dimensional examples will be discussed in detail. Beside substitutional sequences such as the Fibonacci and Octonacci sequences, also sequences with almost continuous and singular continuous spectra will be discussed. The tilings underlying really existing quasicrystals with 5-, 8-, 10-, 12-, and 14-fold symmetry or their approximants are treated in detail. Finally, the three-dimensional Penrose tiling is dealt with as example for the quasilattice of icosahedral quasicrystals. Furthermore, coverings will be discussed, which are important for understanding the geometry of cluster structures. Contrary to packings and tilings, coverings fill the space without gaps but with partial overlaps. There is always a one-to-one correspondence between coverings and tilings.

  2. Network analysis of semiconducting Zn1-xCdxS based photosensitive device using impedance spectroscopy and current-voltage measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Joydeep; Das, Mrinmay; Dey, Arka; Halder, Soumi; Sil, Sayantan; Ray, Partha Pratim

    2017-10-01

    ZnCdS is an intermediate ternary alloy type semiconducting material which has huge tunable structural, optical and electrical properties. Here, we have synthesized Zn1-xCdxS compound and characterized its structural, optical and charge transport properties. It is seen that the particle size is greatly influenced by the amount of alloy concentration of cadmium. The performance of semiconductor device such as Schottky diode depends mainly on the charge transportation through the metal-semiconductor junction. So, we have fabricated Al/Zn1-xCdxS/ITO device and investigated the bias dependent impedance properties through equivalent circuit network analysis to study the electron lifetime and interfacial region resistance. The result of network analysis indicates that the charge transportation through Al- Zn0.6Cd0.4S is better than the other fabricated devices. For further explanation, we have studied the capacitance-voltage (C-V) characteristic under dark and current-voltage (I-V) characteristic under dark and light. We have investigated barrier height, depletion layer width and employed SCLC (space charge limited current) theory in I-V characteristics to determine mobility, transit time and diffusion length. The mobility and diffusion length for Zn0.6Cd0.4S fabricated device are derived as 23.01 m2 V-1 s-1 and 4.4 μm respectively while both the values are less for the other devices. These values are enhanced upon illumination for all the devices but superiority comes from the Al/Zn0.6Cd0.4S/ITO device and it leads us to measure the photosensitivity, responsivity, specific detectivity. As expected, the photosensing parameters are enhanced for the Zn0.6Cd0.4S fabricated device. So, this literature not only explores the metal semiconductor charge transportation using impedance spectroscopy (IS) network analysis and SCLC theory but also explain it from the structural point of view.

  3. Markov Networks in Evolutionary Computation

    CERN Document Server

    Shakya, Siddhartha

    2012-01-01

    Markov networks and other probabilistic graphical modes have recently received an upsurge in attention from Evolutionary computation community, particularly in the area of Estimation of distribution algorithms (EDAs).  EDAs have arisen as one of the most successful experiences in the application of machine learning methods in optimization, mainly due to their efficiency to solve complex real-world optimization problems and their suitability for theoretical analysis. This book focuses on the different steps involved in the conception, implementation and application of EDAs that use Markov networks, and undirected models in general. It can serve as a general introduction to EDAs but covers also an important current void in the study of these algorithms by explaining the specificities and benefits of modeling optimization problems by means of undirected probabilistic models. All major developments to date in the progressive introduction of Markov networks based EDAs are reviewed in the book. Hot current researc...

  4. CORINE Land Cover 2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stjernholm, Michael

    "CORINE land cover" er en fælleseuropæisk kortlægning af arealanvendelse/arealdække. Arealanvendelse/arealdække er i Danmark kortlagt efter CORINE metode og klasseopdeling med satellitbilleder fra 3 forskellige tidsperioder, fra begyndelsen af 1990'erne (CLC90), fra år 2000 (CLC2000) og fra år 2006...

  5. Res Cover Sep 07

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    THOLASI

    BOOK REVIEW. 80 The Essential Microbe. S K Bhattacharjee. Front Cover. Transformation of pneumococcal types. See article on p.83. (Reproduced from the Journal of Experimental. Medicine, Vol.79, pp. 137–158, 1944.) Oswald T Avery. (1877 – 1955). (Illustration: Subhankar Biswas). RESONANCE | September 2007 ...

  6. Res Cover Oct 07

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Tender parts of the plant are covered with rusty brown star-shaped hairs. Petals are hooded with bifurcated appendages. Stamens are ten of which five are fertile and the rest sterile. They are fused into a hollow cup-like structure. Fruit is dry, indehiscent and is hard and dark when ripe. Bark is used in treating skin diseases ...

  7. Singular coverings of toposes

    CERN Document Server

    Bunge, Marta

    2006-01-01

    The self-contained theory of certain singular coverings of toposes called complete spreads, that is presented in this volume, is a field of interest to topologists working in knot theory, as well as to various categorists. It extends the complete spreads in topology due to R. H. Fox (1957) but, unlike the classical theory, it emphasizes an unexpected connection with topos distributions in the sense of F. W. Lawvere (1983). The constructions, though often motivated by classical theories, are sometimes quite different from them. Special classes of distributions and of complete spreads, inspired respectively by functional analysis and topology, are studied. Among the former are the probability distributions; the branched coverings are singled out amongst the latter. This volume may also be used as a textbook for an advanced one-year graduate course introducing topos theory with an emphasis on geometric applications. Throughout the authors emphasize open problems. Several routine proofs are left as exercises, but...

  8. Mobile ad hoc networking the cutting edge directions

    CERN Document Server

    Basagni, Stefano; Giordano, Silvia; Stojmenovic, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    ""An excellent book for those who are interested in learning the current status of research and development . . . [and] who want to get a comprehensive overview of the current state-of-the-art.""-E-Streams This book provides up-to-date information on research and development in the rapidly growing area of networks based on the multihop ad hoc networking paradigm. It reviews all classes of networks that have successfully adopted this paradigm, pointing out how they penetrated the mass market and sparked breakthrough research. Covering both physical issues and applica

  9. Extreme Learning Machine for land cover classification

    OpenAIRE

    Pal, Mahesh

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores the potential of extreme learning machine based supervised classification algorithm for land cover classification. In comparison to a backpropagation neural network, which requires setting of several user-defined parameters and may produce local minima, extreme learning machine require setting of one parameter and produce a unique solution. ETM+ multispectral data set (England) was used to judge the suitability of extreme learning machine for remote sensing classifications...

  10. Covering tree with stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumbach, Jan; Guo, Jian-Ying; Ibragimov, Rashid

    2013-01-01

    We study the tree edit distance problem with edge deletions and edge insertions as edit operations. We reformulate a special case of this problem as Covering Tree with Stars (CTS): given a tree T and a set of stars, can we connect the stars in by adding edges between them such that the resulting...... tree is isomorphic to T? We prove that in the general setting, CST is NP-complete, which implies that the tree edit distance considered here is also NP-hard, even when both input trees having diameters bounded by 10. We also show that, when the number of distinct stars is bounded by a constant k, CTS...

  11. Covering tree with stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumbach, Jan; Guo, Jiong; Ibragimov, Rashid

    2015-01-01

    We study the tree edit distance problem with edge deletions and edge insertions as edit operations. We reformulate a special case of this problem as Covering Tree with Stars (CTS): given a tree T and a set of stars, can we connect the stars in by adding edges between them such that the resulting...... tree is isomorphic to T? We prove that in the general setting, CST is NP-complete, which implies that the tree edit distance considered here is also NP-hard, even when both input trees having diameters bounded by 10. We also show that, when the number of distinct stars is bounded by a constant k, CTS...

  12. Radio resource management in multi-tier cellular wireless networks

    CERN Document Server

    Hossain, Ekram; Niyato, Dusit

    2013-01-01

    Providing an extensive overview of the radio resource management problem in femtocell networks, this invaluable book considers both code division multiple access femtocells and orthogonal frequency-division multiple access femtocells. In addition to incorporating current research on this topic, the book also covers technical challenges in femtocell deployment, provides readers with a variety of approaches to resource allocation and a comparison of their effectiveness, explains how to model various networks using Stochastic geometry and shot noise theory, and much more.

  13. Visualization of Social Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boertjes, E.M.; Kotterink, B.; Jager, E.J.

    2011-01-01

    Current visualizations of social networks are mostly some form of node-link diagram. Depending on the type of social network, this can be some treevisualization with a strict hierarchical structure or a more generic network visualization.

  14. RBF-Neural Network Applied to the Quality Classification of Tempered 100Cr6 Steel Cams by the Multi-Frequency Nondestructive Eddy Current Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Martínez-Martínez

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes a Radial Basis Function Artificial Neural Network (RBF-ANN to classify tempered steel cams as correctly or incorrectly treated pieces by using multi-frequency nondestructive eddy current testing. Impedances at five frequencies between 10 kHz and 300 kHz were employed to perform the binary sorting. The ANalysis Of VAriance (ANOVA test was employed to check the significance of the differences between the impedance samples for the two classification groups. Afterwards, eleven classifiers were implemented and compared with one RBF-ANN classifier: ten linear discriminant analysis classifiers and one Euclidean distance classifier. When employing the proposed RBF-ANN, the best performance was achieved with a precision of 95% and an area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC curve of 0.98. The obtained results suggest RBF-ANN classifiers processing multi-frequency impedance data could be employed to classify tempered steel DIN 100Cr6 cams with a better performance than other classical classifiers.

  15. Telecommunications network modelling, planning and design

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, Sharon

    2003-01-01

    Telecommunication Network Modelling, Planning and Design addresses sophisticated modelling techniques from the perspective of the communications industry and covers some of the major issues facing telecommunications network engineers and managers today. Topics covered include network planning for transmission systems, modelling of SDH transport network structures and telecommunications network design and performance modelling, as well as network costs and ROI modelling and QoS in 3G networks.

  16. Network Ambivalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Jagoda

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The language of networks now describes everything from the Internet to the economy to terrorist organizations. In distinction to a common view of networks as a universal, originary, or necessary form that promises to explain everything from neural structures to online traffic, this essay emphasizes the contingency of the network imaginary. Network form, in its role as our current cultural dominant, makes scarcely imaginable the possibility of an alternative or an outside uninflected by networks. If so many things and relationships are figured as networks, however, then what is not a network? If a network points towards particular logics and qualities of relation in our historical present, what others might we envision in the future? In  many ways, these questions are unanswerable from within the contemporary moment. Instead of seeking an avant-garde approach (to move beyond networks or opting out of networks (in some cases, to recover elements of pre-networked existence, this essay proposes a third orientation: one of ambivalence that operates as a mode of extreme presence. I propose the concept of "network aesthetics," which can be tracked across artistic media and cultural forms, as a model, style, and pedagogy for approaching interconnection in the twenty-first century. The following essay is excerpted from Network Ambivalence (Forthcoming from University of Chicago Press. 

  17. Security for multihop wireless networks

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, Shafiullah

    2014-01-01

    Security for Multihop Wireless Networks provides broad coverage of the security issues facing multihop wireless networks. Presenting the work of a different group of expert contributors in each chapter, it explores security in mobile ad hoc networks, wireless sensor networks, wireless mesh networks, and personal area networks.Detailing technologies and processes that can help you secure your wireless networks, the book covers cryptographic coprocessors, encryption, authentication, key management, attacks and countermeasures, secure routing, secure medium access control, intrusion detection, ep

  18. Assessing uncertainties in land cover projections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Peter; Prestele, Reinhard; Verburg, Peter H; Arneth, Almut; Baranzelli, Claudia; Batista E Silva, Filipe; Brown, Calum; Butler, Adam; Calvin, Katherine; Dendoncker, Nicolas; Doelman, Jonathan C; Dunford, Robert; Engström, Kerstin; Eitelberg, David; Fujimori, Shinichiro; Harrison, Paula A; Hasegawa, Tomoko; Havlik, Petr; Holzhauer, Sascha; Humpenöder, Florian; Jacobs-Crisioni, Chris; Jain, Atul K; Krisztin, Tamás; Kyle, Page; Lavalle, Carlo; Lenton, Tim; Liu, Jiayi; Meiyappan, Prasanth; Popp, Alexander; Powell, Tom; Sands, Ronald D; Schaldach, Rüdiger; Stehfest, Elke; Steinbuks, Jevgenijs; Tabeau, Andrzej; van Meijl, Hans; Wise, Marshall A; Rounsevell, Mark D A

    2017-02-01

    Understanding uncertainties in land cover projections is critical to investigating land-based climate mitigation policies, assessing the potential of climate adaptation strategies and quantifying the impacts of land cover change on the climate system. Here, we identify and quantify uncertainties in global and European land cover projections over a diverse range of model types and scenarios, extending the analysis beyond the agro-economic models included in previous comparisons. The results from 75 simulations over 18 models are analysed and show a large range in land cover area projections, with the highest variability occurring in future cropland areas. We demonstrate systematic differences in land cover areas associated with the characteristics of the modelling approach, which is at least as great as the differences attributed to the scenario variations. The results lead us to conclude that a higher degree of uncertainty exists in land use projections than currently included in climate or earth system projections. To account for land use uncertainty, it is recommended to use a diverse set of models and approaches when assessing the potential impacts of land cover change on future climate. Additionally, further work is needed to better understand the assumptions driving land use model results and reveal the causes of uncertainty in more depth, to help reduce model uncertainty and improve the projections of land cover. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Covering walks in graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Fujie, Futaba

    2014-01-01

    Covering Walks  in Graphs is aimed at researchers and graduate students in the graph theory community and provides a comprehensive treatment on measures of two well studied graphical properties, namely Hamiltonicity and traversability in graphs. This text looks into the famous Kӧnigsberg Bridge Problem, the Chinese Postman Problem, the Icosian Game and the Traveling Salesman Problem as well as well-known mathematicians who were involved in these problems. The concepts of different spanning walks with examples and present classical results on Hamiltonian numbers and upper Hamiltonian numbers of graphs are described; in some cases, the authors provide proofs of these results to illustrate the beauty and complexity of this area of research. Two new concepts of traceable numbers of graphs and traceable numbers of vertices of a graph which were inspired by and closely related to Hamiltonian numbers are introduced. Results are illustrated on these two concepts and the relationship between traceable concepts and...

  20. Objectives and Current Status of the IAEA Network of Centers of Excellence: Training in and Demonstration of Waste Disposal Technologies in Underground Research Laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, M. J.; Knapp, M. R.

    2003-02-27

    Underground Research Laboratories (URLs) to develop and demonstrate technologies for the safe geologic disposal of radioactive wastes have been established for national purposes by several Member States of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Under the auspices of the IAEA, nationally developed URLs and associated research institutions are being offered for use by other nations. These facilities form a Network of Centers of Excellence for training in and development of waste disposal technologies. Experience gained in the operation of the facilities, and through associated experimentation and demonstrations, will be transferred to participating Member States through hands-on work at the facilities. The Network consists of Network Members and Network Participants who share co-operative activities. Network Members are owners of facilities who have offered them to be part of the Network. At this time there are eight Members consisting of six underground facilities, a laboratory, and a university. Network Participants can potentially come from any interested IAEA Member State having spent nuclear fuel for disposal, with or without an established program for geologic disposal. There are presently about 15 Network Participants. A significant Network activity beginning in 2003 will be a Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on characterization and evaluation of swelling clays for use in engineered barrier systems of geologic repositories. At the end of this project, every involved Member State should be able to identify and characterize a swelling clay that is suitable for use in a geologic repository. As the Network grows, additional CRPs to be carried out in the Underground Research Facilities of the Network Members will be defined.

  1. Current practices in long-term video-EEG monitoring services : A survey among partners of the E-PILEPSY pilot network of reference for refractory epilepsy and epilepsy surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kobulashvili, Teia; Höfler, Julia; Dobesberger, Judith; Ernst, Florian; Ryvlin, Philippe; Cross, J. Helen; Braun, Kees|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/207237239; Dimova, Petia; Francione, Stefano; Hecimovic, Hrvoje; Helmstaedter, Christoph; Kimiskidis, Vasilios K.; Lossius, Morten Ingvar; Malmgren, Kristina; Marusic, Petr; Steinhoff, Bernhard J.; Boon, Paul; Craiu, Dana; Delanty, Norman; Fabo, Daniel; Gil-Nagel, Antonio; Guekht, Alla; Hirsch, Edouard; Kalviainen, Reetta; Mameniskiené, Ruta; Özkara, Çiǧdem; Seeck, Margitta; Rubboli, Guido; Krsek, Pavel; Rheims, Sylvain; Trinka, Eugen

    Purpose The European Union-funded E-PILEPSY network aims to improve awareness of, and accessibility to, epilepsy surgery across Europe. In this study we assessed current clinical practices in epilepsy monitoring units (EMUs) in the participating centers. Method A 60-item web-based survey was

  2. Landspotting: collecting essential land cover information via an attractive internet game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Steffen; McCallum, Ian; Perger, Christoph; Christian, Schill; Florian, Kraxner; Erik, Lindquist; Michael, Obersteiner

    2010-05-01

    Based on the geo-wiki.org concept of collecting land cover information via crowdsourcing, we present a novel approach on how to get the crowd involved. Internet games as well as social networks are becoming increasingly popular and the full potential is yet to be exploited. However, thus far, few if any games provide anything other than entertainment. Can an attractive philanthropic game be created which uses the crowd to collect essential information needed to help to acquire better data to improve the understanding of the earth system? Since accurate and up to date information on global land cover plays a very important role in a number of different research fields such as climate change, monitoring of tropical deforestation, land use monitoring and land-use modelling, but still shows high levels of disagreement, the game will focus on how this essential land cover calibration and validation data can be collected in areas where uncertainty is currently highest. In the current version of the land spotting game, we combine uncertainty hotspot information from three global land cover datasets (GLC, MODIS and GlobCover). With an ever increasing amount of high resolution images available on Google Earth, it is becoming increasingly possible to distinguish land cover features with a high degree of accuracy. We first direct the landspotting game community to certain hotspots of land cover uncertainty and then ask them to enter/record the type of land cover they see (for this they will be able to acquire a certain number of points), possibly uploading pictures at that location (additional points will be received). Even though the development of the game "landspotting.org" is still underway, we illustrate what the functionality will be and what features are envisaged for the near future. Landspotting.org will be designed in such a way as to challenge users to help map out the remaining areas of confusion over the globe - possibly in the form of an adventure game. Users

  3. Sensor networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chatterjea, Supriyo; Thurston, J.; Kininmonth, S.; Havinga, Paul J.M.

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the details of a sensor network that is currently being deployed at the Great Barrier Reef in Australia. The sensor network allows scientists to retrieve sensor data that has a high spatial and temporal resolution. We give an overview of the energy-efficient data aggregation

  4. Res Cover Sep 07

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    THOLASI

    of new high-quality schools, technical training institutes and institutes of higher learning, and a much larger allocation of funds for existing education programmes. However, an important thing that must change if we are to attract the best teachers to these schools and colleges is the current salaries for teachers.

  5. Res Cover Oct 07

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Science and Commerce,. Sion, Mumbai. Her current research interests are green technologies in synthetic organic chemistry. She is actively .... [1] Jean M Frechet and Kazi E Haque, Macromolecules, Vol.8, No.2, pp.130–134, 1975. [2] Bheemashankar A Kulkarni and Arasu Ganesan, Agnew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl., Vol.36, ...

  6. Covering the Desegregation Story: Current Experiences and Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, Meyer, Ed.; Martin, Gertrude, Ed.

    This book arose from a 1976 conference on school desegregation and the mass media. In it participants address critical legal and political issues and explore aspects of the coverage of desegregation by the news media. Five desegregation specialists describe and analyze court decisions, congressional actions, studies, plans and changes which have…

  7. Allegheny County Land Cover Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The Land Cover dataset demarcates 14 land cover types by area; such as Residential, Commercial, Industrial, Forest, Agriculture, etc. If viewing this description on...

  8. Noisy Network Coding

    CERN Document Server

    Lim, Sung Hoon; Gamal, Abbas El; Chung, Sae-Young

    2010-01-01

    A noisy network coding scheme for sending multiple sources over a general noisy network is presented. For multi-source multicast networks, the scheme naturally extends both network coding over noiseless networks by Ahlswede, Cai, Li, and Yeung, and compress-forward coding for the relay channel by Cover and El Gamal to general discrete memoryless and Gaussian networks. The scheme also recovers as special cases the results on coding for wireless relay networks and deterministic networks by Avestimehr, Diggavi, and Tse, and coding for wireless erasure networks by Dana, Gowaikar, Palanki, Hassibi, and Effros. The scheme involves message repetition coding, relay signal compression, and simultaneous decoding. Unlike previous compress--forward schemes, where independent messages are sent over multiple blocks, the same message is sent multiple times using independent codebooks as in the network coding scheme for cyclic networks. Furthermore, the relays do not use Wyner--Ziv binning as in previous compress-forward sch...

  9. RES COVER FEB 08

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    THOLASI

    T his initialcon¯guration is com pletely static w ith a m agnetic ¯eld B con¯ned w ithin the solenoid and an electric ¯eld E produced by the charge located on the ring. Let us suppose that the current source is dis- connected leading the m agnetic ¯eld to die dow n. T he change in the m agnetic °ux w illlead to an electric ¯eld.

  10. Navigable Waterway Network Node Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The National Waterway Network is a comprehensive network database of the nation's navigable waterways. The data set covers the 48 contiguous states plus the District...

  11. Gainesville's urban forest canopy cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco Escobedo; Jennifer A. Seitz; Wayne Zipperer

    2009-01-01

    Ecosystem benefits from trees are linked directly to the amount of healthy urban forest canopy cover. Urban forest cover is dynamic and changes over time due to factors such as urban development, windstorms, tree removals, and growth. The amount of a city's canopy cover depends on its land use, climate, and people's preferences. This fact sheet examines how...

  12. [Ecological effects of cover crops].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaobing; Song, Chunyu; Herbert, Stephen J; Xing, Baoshan

    2002-03-01

    This paper reviewed the effects of cover crops in reducing soil loss, surface runoff, NO3- leaching and water pollution, and elucidated roles of cover crops in controlling pest insects, weeds and diseases, and increasing soil nutrients. The potential roles and appropriate application of cover crops in sustainable development of agriculture were also discussed.

  13. Linux Networking Cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Schroder, Carla

    2008-01-01

    If you want a book that lays out the steps for specific Linux networking tasks, one that clearly explains the commands and configurations, this is the book for you. Linux Networking Cookbook is a soup-to-nuts collection of recipes that covers everything you need to know to perform your job as a Linux network administrator. You'll dive straight into the gnarly hands-on work of building and maintaining a computer network

  14. Social network data analytics

    CERN Document Server

    Aggarwal, Charu C

    2011-01-01

    Social network analysis applications have experienced tremendous advances within the last few years due in part to increasing trends towards users interacting with each other on the internet. Social networks are organized as graphs, and the data on social networks takes on the form of massive streams, which are mined for a variety of purposes. Social Network Data Analytics covers an important niche in the social network analytics field. This edited volume, contributed by prominent researchers in this field, presents a wide selection of topics on social network data mining such as Structural Pr

  15. Cisco networking essentials

    CERN Document Server

    McMillan, Troy

    2015-01-01

    Start a career in networking Cisco Networking Essentials, 2nd Edition provides the latest for those beginning a career in networking. This book provides the fundamentals of networking and leads you through the concepts, processes, and skills you need to master fundamental networking concepts. Thinking of taking the CCENT Cisco Certified Entry Networking Technician ICND1 Exam 100-101? This book has you covered! With coverage of important topics and objectives, each chapter outlines main points and provides clear, engaging discussion that will give you a sound understanding of core topics and c

  16. Current deformation of the Betic Cordillera from a new GPS observation of the southern sector of the IBERIA95 Zero-Order Geodetic Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Antonio J.; Galindo, Jesús; Alfaro, Pedro; de Lacy, María. Clara; Jesús Borque, María.; Franco, Juan A. Armenteros (1), Oscar; Ruano, Patricia; García Tortosa, Francisco Juan; López Garrido, Angel Carlos; Pedrera, Antonio

    2010-05-01

    The Betic Cordillera, located at the convergent plate boundary between Africa and Eurasia, is subjected to an average NNW-SSE compression and an associated orthogonal extension. In order to quantify this deformation a GPS campaign in the Southern Sector of IBERIA95 Zero-Order Geodetic Network was done in December 2008. This network was observed in 1995 by the Spanish National Geographical Institute (IGNE) and the Portuguese Institute of Cartography and Cadastre (IPCC) for the establishment of a Three-dimensional Geodetic Network in Spain and Portugal. The comparison of results in 1995 and 2009 provides one of the first geodetic results of the short-term deformation in the Betic Cordillera.

  17. Chaos control of the brushless direct current motor using adaptive dynamic surface control based on neural network with the minimum weights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Shaohua; Wu, Songli; Gao, Ruizhen

    2015-07-01

    This paper investigates chaos control for the brushless DC motor (BLDCM) system by adaptive dynamic surface approach based on neural network with the minimum weights. The BLDCM system contains parameter perturbation, chaotic behavior, and uncertainty. With the help of radial basis function (RBF) neural network to approximate the unknown nonlinear functions, the adaptive law is established to overcome uncertainty of the control gain. By introducing the RBF neural network and adaptive technology into the dynamic surface control design, a robust chaos control scheme is developed. It is proved that the proposed control approach can guarantee that all signals in the closed-loop system are globally uniformly bounded, and the tracking error converges to a small neighborhood of the origin. Simulation results are provided to show that the proposed approach works well in suppressing chaos and parameter perturbation.

  18. Chaos control of the brushless direct current motor using adaptive dynamic surface control based on neural network with the minimum weights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Shaohua [School of Automation, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Chongqing Aerospace Polytechnic, Chongqing, 400021 (China); Wu, Songli [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Chongqing Aerospace Polytechnic, Chongqing, 400021 (China); Gao, Ruizhen [School of Automation, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China)

    2015-07-15

    This paper investigates chaos control for the brushless DC motor (BLDCM) system by adaptive dynamic surface approach based on neural network with the minimum weights. The BLDCM system contains parameter perturbation, chaotic behavior, and uncertainty. With the help of radial basis function (RBF) neural network to approximate the unknown nonlinear functions, the adaptive law is established to overcome uncertainty of the control gain. By introducing the RBF neural network and adaptive technology into the dynamic surface control design, a robust chaos control scheme is developed. It is proved that the proposed control approach can guarantee that all signals in the closed-loop system are globally uniformly bounded, and the tracking error converges to a small neighborhood of the origin. Simulation results are provided to show that the proposed approach works well in suppressing chaos and parameter perturbation.

  19. Combinatorial aspects of covering arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles J. Colbourn

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Covering arrays generalize orthogonal arrays by requiring that t -tuples be covered, but not requiring that the appearance of t -tuples be balanced.Their uses in screening experiments has found application in software testing, hardware testing, and a variety of fields in which interactions among factors are to be identified. Here a combinatorial view of covering arrays is adopted, encompassing basic bounds, direct constructions, recursive constructions, algorithmic methods, and applications.

  20. Using networking and communications software in business

    CERN Document Server

    McBride, PK

    2014-01-01

    Using Networking and Communications Software in Business covers the importance of networks in a business firm, the benefits of computer communications within a firm, and the cost-benefit in putting up networks in businesses. The book is divided into six parts. Part I looks into the nature and varieties of networks, networking standards, and network software. Part II discusses the planning of a networked system, which includes analyzing the requirements for the network system, the hardware for the network, and network management. The installation of the network system and the network managemen

  1. A stationary reference frame current control for a multi-level H-bridge power converter for universal and flexible power management in future electricity network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciobotaru, Mihai; Iov, Florin; Zanchetta, Pericle

    2008-01-01

    More "green" power provided by Distributed Generation will enter into the European electricity network in the near future. In order to control the power flow and to ensure proper and secure operation of this future grid, with an increased level of the renewable power, new power electronic convert...

  2. The Standardization and Harmonization of Land Cover Classification Systems towards Harmonized Datasets: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Hui Yang; Songnian Li; Jun Chen; Xiaolu Zhang; Shishuo Xu

    2017-01-01

    A number of national, regional and global land cover classification systems have been developed to meet specific user requirements for land cover mapping exercises, independent of scale, nomenclature and quality. However, this variety of land-cover classification systems limits the compatibility and comparability of land cover data. Furthermore, the current lack of interoperability between different land cover datasets, often stemming from incompatible land cover classification systems, makes...

  3. Resonance June 2012 Cover Tp

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Admin

    Science Academies' Refresher Course on Action Zoology: Science Smiles 529. The Emerging Trends' Ayan Guha. Our Readers Write 620 Classroom 592. Simple Models for the 100 Meter Dash. Priyanka deSouza. Front Cover and Vijay A Singh. Microstructures of seashells. H. (see article on page 573). Inside Back Cover.

  4. Climate Impacts of Cover Crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardozzi, D.; Wieder, W. R.; Bonan, G. B.; Morris, C. K.; Grandy, S.

    2016-12-01

    Cover crops are planted in agricultural rotation with the intention of protecting soil rather than harvest. Cover crops have numerous environmental benefits that include preventing soil erosion, increasing soil fertility, and providing weed and pest control- among others. In addition to localized environmental benefits, cover crops can have important regional or global biogeochemical impacts by increasing soil organic carbon, changing emissions of greenhouse trace gases like nitrous oxide and methane, and reducing hydrologic nitrogen losses. Cover crops may additionally affect climate by changing biogeophysical processes, like albedo and latent heat flux, though these potential changes have not yet been evaluated. Here we use the coupled Community Atmosphere Model (CAM5) - Community Land Model (CLM4.5) to test how planting cover crops in the United States may change biogeophysical fluxes and climate. We present seasonal changes in albedo, heat fluxes, evaporative partitioning, radiation, and the resulting changes in temperature. Preliminary analyses show that during seasons when cover crops are planted, latent heat flux increases and albedo decreases, changing the evaporative fraction and surface temperatures. Understanding both the biogeophysical changes caused by planting cover crops in this study and the biogeochemical changes found in other studies will give a clearer picture of the overall impacts of cover crops on climate and atmospheric chemistry, informing how this land use strategy will impact climate in the future.

  5. Automatic design of magazine covers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahanian, Ali; Liu, Jerry; Tretter, Daniel R.; Lin, Qian; Damera-Venkata, Niranjan; O'Brien-Strain, Eamonn; Lee, Seungyon; Fan, Jian; Allebach, Jan P.

    2012-03-01

    In this paper, we propose a system for automatic design of magazine covers that quantifies a number of concepts from art and aesthetics. Our solution to automatic design of this type of media has been shaped by input from professional designers, magazine art directors and editorial boards, and journalists. Consequently, a number of principles in design and rules in designing magazine covers are delineated. Several techniques are derived and employed in order to quantify and implement these principles and rules in the format of a software framework. At this stage, our framework divides the task of design into three main modules: layout of magazine cover elements, choice of color for masthead and cover lines, and typography of cover lines. Feedback from professional designers on our designs suggests that our results are congruent with their intuition.

  6. Smoke and Pollution Aerosol Effect on Cloud Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Yoram J.; Koren, Ilan

    2006-01-01

    Pollution and smoke aerosols can increase or decrease the cloud cover. This duality in the effects of aerosols forms one of the largest uncertainties in climate research. Using solar measurements from Aerosol Robotic Network sites around the globe, we show an increase in cloud cover with an increase in the aerosol column concentration and an inverse dependence on the aerosol absorption of sunlight. The emerging rule appears to be independent of geographical location or aerosol type, thus increasing our confidence in the understanding of these aerosol effects on the clouds and climate. Preliminary estimates suggest an increase of 5% in cloud cover.

  7. A comparative analysis of the Global Land Cover 2000 and MODIS land cover data sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giri, C.; Zhu, Z.; Reed, B.

    2005-01-01

    Accurate and up-to-date global land cover data sets are necessary for various global change research studies including climate change, biodiversity conservation, ecosystem assessment, and environmental modeling. In recent years, substantial advancement has been achieved in generating such data products. Yet, we are far from producing geospatially consistent high-quality data at an operational level. We compared the recently available Global Land Cover 2000 (GLC-2000) and MODerate resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) global land cover data to evaluate the similarities and differences in methodologies and results, and to identify areas of spatial agreement and disagreement. These two global land cover data sets were prepared using different data sources, classification systems, and methodologies, but using the same spatial resolution (i.e., 1 km) satellite data. Our analysis shows a general agreement at the class aggregate level except for savannas/shrublands, and wetlands. The disagreement, however, increases when comparing detailed land cover classes. Similarly, percent agreement between the two data sets was found to be highly variable among biomes. The identified areas of spatial agreement and disagreement will be useful for both data producers and users. Data producers may use the areas of spatial agreement for training area selection and pay special attention to areas of disagreement for further improvement in future land cover characterization and mapping. Users can conveniently use the findings in the areas of agreement, whereas users might need to verify the informaiton in the areas of disagreement with the help of secondary information. Learning from past experience and building on the existing infrastructure (e.g., regional networks), further research is necessary to (1) reduce ambiguity in land cover definitions, (2) increase availability of improved spatial, spectral, radiometric, and geometric resolution satellite data, and (3) develop advanced

  8. Fertilizer effects on a winter cereal cover crop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benefits associated with conservation tillage in the Southeast are improved by using a winter cereal cover crop. In general, cover crop benefits increase as biomass production is increased, but the infertile soils typically require additional N (inorganic or organic). Currently, limited informatio...

  9. Fundamentals of computational intelligence neural networks, fuzzy systems, and evolutionary computation

    CERN Document Server

    Keller, James M; Fogel, David B

    2016-01-01

    This book covers the three fundamental topics that form the basis of computational intelligence: neural networks, fuzzy systems, and evolutionary computation. The text focuses on inspiration, design, theory, and practical aspects of implementing procedures to solve real-world problems. While other books in the three fields that comprise computational intelligence are written by specialists in one discipline, this book is co-written by current former Editor-in-Chief of IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems, a former Editor-in-Chief of IEEE Transactions on Fuzzy Systems, and the founding Editor-in-Chief of IEEE Transactions on Evolutionary Computation. The coverage across the three topics is both uniform and consistent in style and notation. Discusses single-layer and multilayer neural networks, radial-basi function networks, and recurrent neural networks Covers fuzzy set theory, fuzzy relations, fuzzy logic interference, fuzzy clustering and classification, fuzzy measures and fuzz...

  10. Networks an Food System Performance: How do networks contribute to performance of the food & agricultural system in the face of current challenges of high levels of change and uncertainty?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pascucci, S.; Dentoni, D.; Lombardi, A.; Cembalo, L.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the concept of Food Community Network (FCN) in credence transactions. A FCN could be defined as a governance structure where consumers and producers strongly integrate their functions (goals) by organizing a 'club'. It is based on pooling specific resources and using membership

  11. Design and application of air-conditioning suit based on eddy current cooling principle for distribution network working with power uninterrupted

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Li; Liu, Lanlan; Niu, Jie; Tang, Li; Li, Jinliang; Zhou, Zhanfan; Long, Chenhai; Yang, Qi; Yi, Ziqi; Guo, Hao; Long, Yang; Fu, Yanyi

    2017-05-01

    As social requirement of power supply reliability keeps rising, distribution network working with power uninterrupted has been widely carried out, while the high - temperature operating environment in summer can easily lead to physical discomfort for the operators, and then lead to safety incidents. Aiming at above problem, air-conditioning suit for distribution network working with power uninterrupted has been putted forward in this paper, and the structure composition and cooling principle of which has been explained, and it has been ultimately put to on-site application. The results showed that, cooling effect of air-conditioning suits was remarkable, and improved the working environment for the operators effectively, which is of great significance to improve Chinese level of working with power uninterrupted, reduce the probability of accidents and enhance the reliability of power supply.

  12. Security-Enhanced Autonomous Network Management for Space Networking Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA's Space Communications and Navigation (SCaN) program is integrating its three current agency networks: Space Network (SN), Deep Space Network (DSN), and Near...

  13. Understanding telecommunications networks

    CERN Document Server

    Valdar, Andy

    2017-01-01

    A telecommunications network is an electronic system of links, nodes and the controls that govern their operations to allow voice and data transfer among users and devices. This fully revised, updated and expanded second edition covers all aspects of today's networks, including how they are planned, formed and operated.

  14. Networking wireless sensors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Krishnamachari, Bhaskar

    2005-01-01

    ... by networking techniques across multiple layers. The topics covered include network deployment, localization, time synchronization, wireless radio characteristics, medium-access, topology control, routing, data-centric techniques, and transport protocols. Ideal for researchers and designers seeking to create new algorithms and protocols and enginee...

  15. Land Use and Land Cover Change Analysis along the Coastal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agribotix GCS 077

    LULC) change in. Africa is currently accelerating and causing widespread environmental problems and thus needs to be mapped. In Ghana, sand mining, forest degradation and other human activities are fast changing the cover and use of land.

  16. Computer-communication networks

    CERN Document Server

    Meditch, James S

    1983-01-01

    Computer- Communication Networks presents a collection of articles the focus of which is on the field of modeling, analysis, design, and performance optimization. It discusses the problem of modeling the performance of local area networks under file transfer. It addresses the design of multi-hop, mobile-user radio networks. Some of the topics covered in the book are the distributed packet switching queuing network design, some investigations on communication switching techniques in computer networks and the minimum hop flow assignment and routing subject to an average message delay constraint

  17. A long-term Northern Hemisphere snow cover extent data record for climate studies and monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estilow, T. W.; Young, A. H.; Robinson, D. A.

    2015-06-01

    This paper describes the long-term, satellite-based visible snow cover extent National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) climate data record (CDR) currently available for climate studies, monitoring, and model validation. This environmental data product is developed from weekly Northern Hemisphere snow cover extent data that have been digitized from snow cover maps onto a Cartesian grid draped over a polar stereographic projection. The data have a spatial resolution of 190.6 km at 60° latitude, are updated monthly, and span the period from 4 October 1966 to the present. The data comprise the longest satellite-based CDR of any environmental variable. Access to the data is provided in Network Common Data Form (netCDF) and archived by NOAA's National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) under the satellite Climate Data Record Program (doi:10.7289/V5N014G9). The basic characteristics, history, and evolution of the data set are presented herein. In general, the CDR provides similar spatial and temporal variability to its widely used predecessor product. Key refinements included in the CDR improve the product's grid accuracy and documentation and bring metadata into compliance with current standards for climate data records.

  18. Fourth international conference on Networks & Communications

    CERN Document Server

    Meghanathan, Natarajan; Nagamalai, Dhinaharan; Computer Networks & Communications (NetCom)

    2013-01-01

    Computer Networks & Communications (NetCom) is the proceedings from the Fourth International Conference on Networks & Communications. This book covers theory, methodology and applications of computer networks, network protocols and wireless networks, data communication technologies, and network security. The proceedings will feature peer-reviewed papers that illustrate research results, projects, surveys and industrial experiences that describe significant advances in the diverse areas of computer networks & communications.

  19. Evolution of Social networks

    OpenAIRE

    Hellmann, Tim; Staudigl, Mathias

    2014-01-01

    Modeling the evolution of networks is central to our understanding of modern large communication systems, such as theWorld-Wide-Web, as well as economic and social networks. The research on social and economic networks is truly interdisciplinary and the number of modeling strategies and concepts is enormous. In this survey we present some modeling approaches, covering classical random graph models and game-theoretic models, which may be used to provide a unified framework to model an...

  20. Forest Cover Types - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer portrays general forest cover types for the United States. Data were derived from Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) composite images...

  1. GAP Land Cover - Tiled Raster

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This raster dataset is a detailed (1-acre minimum), hierarchically organized vegetation cover map produced by computer classification of combined two-season pairs of...

  2. Simplifying Nondeterministic Finite Cover Automata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cezar Câmpeanu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The concept of Deterministic Finite Cover Automata (DFCA was introduced at WIA '98, as a more compact representation than Deterministic Finite Automata (DFA for finite languages. In some cases representing a finite language, Nondeterministic Finite Automata (NFA may significantly reduce the number of states used. The combined power of the succinctness of the representation of finite languages using both cover languages and non-determinism has been suggested, but never systematically studied. In the present paper, for nondeterministic finite cover automata (NFCA and l-nondeterministic finite cover automaton (l-NFCA, we show that minimization can be as hard as minimizing NFAs for regular languages, even in the case of NFCAs using unary alphabets. Moreover, we show how we can adapt the methods used to reduce, or minimize the size of NFAs/DFCAs/l-DFCAs, for simplifying NFCAs/l-NFCAs.

  3. Covering Numbers for Semicontinuous Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-29

    Considering the metric space of extended real-valued lower semicontinuous functions under the epi-distance, the paper gives an upper bound on the...the latter class of functions as well, but now under the hypo-distance metric . Keywords: covering numbers, metric entropy numbers, semicontinuous...functions, epi-distance, Attouch-Wets topology , epi-convergence, epi-spline, approximation theory. Date: April 29, 2016 1 Introduction Covering numbers of

  4. Costs of Residential Solar PV Plants in Distribution Grid Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Søren Bækhøj; Yang, Guangya; Ipsen, Hans Henrik

    2015-01-01

    In this article we investigate the impact of residential solar PV plants on energy losses in distribution networks and their impact on distribution transformers lifetime. Current guidelines in Denmark states that distribution transformers should not be loaded with more than 67% solar PV power...... to avoid accelerated loss of life. If a solar PV plant causes this limit to be exceeded, the particular owner has to pay for upgrading the transformer. Distribution Network Operators also charge an annual tariff from the solar PV plants to cover the expenses to keep the grid capacity available, the so...... called “Availability Tariff”. According to the Danish Energy Regulatory Authority, the Availability Tariff must cover the exact expenses, with energy savings etc. from the solar PV plants taken into consideration. Our conclusion is that a distribution network, which represents a typical residential...

  5. Impedance-Source Networks for Electric Power Conversion Part II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siwakoti, Yam P.; Peng, Fang Zheng; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2015-01-01

    -based power converters has been covered in a previous paper and main topologies were discussed from an application point of view. Now Part II provides a comprehensive review of the most popular control and modulation strategies for impedance-source network-based power converters/inverters. These methods...... are compared in terms of theoretical complexity and performance, when applied to the respective switching topologies. Further, this paper provides as a guide and quick reference for researchers and practicing engineers in deciding which control and modulation method to consider for an application in a given......Impedance-source networks cover the entire spectrum of electric power conversion applications (dc-dc, dc-ac, ac-dc, ac-ac) controlled and modulated by different modulation strategies to generate the desired dc or ac voltage and current at the output. A comprehensive review of various impedance-source-network...

  6. Land-cover change detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuexia; Giri, Chandra; Vogelmann, James

    2012-01-01

    Land cover is the biophysical material on the surface of the earth. Land-cover types include grass, shrubs, trees, barren, water, and man-made features. Land cover changes continuously.  The rate of change can be either dramatic and abrupt, such as the changes caused by logging, hurricanes and fire, or subtle and gradual, such as regeneration of forests and damage caused by insects (Verbesselt et al., 2001).  Previous studies have shown that land cover has changed dramatically during the past sevearal centuries and that these changes have severely affected our ecosystems (Foody, 2010; Lambin et al., 2001). Lambin and Strahlers (1994b) summarized five types of cause for land-cover changes: (1) long-term natural changes in climate conditions, (2) geomorphological and ecological processes, (3) human-induced alterations of vegetation cover and landscapes, (4) interannual climate variability, and (5) human-induced greenhouse effect.  Tools and techniques are needed to detect, describe, and predict these changes to facilitate sustainable management of natural resources.

  7. Statistical network analysis for analyzing policy networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robins, Garry; Lewis, Jenny; Wang, Peng

    2012-01-01

    To analyze social network data using standard statistical approaches is to risk incorrect inference. The dependencies among observations implied in a network conceptualization undermine standard assumptions of the usual general linear models. One of the most quickly expanding areas of social...... and policy network methodology is the development of statistical modeling approaches that can accommodate such dependent data. In this article, we review three network statistical methods commonly used in the current literature: quadratic assignment procedures, exponential random graph models (ERGMs...

  8. Temporal network epidemiology

    CERN Document Server

    Holme, Petter

    2017-01-01

    This book covers recent developments in epidemic process models and related data on temporally varying networks. It is widely recognized that contact networks are indispensable for describing, understanding, and intervening to stop the spread of infectious diseases in human and animal populations; “network epidemiology” is an umbrella term to describe this research field. More recently, contact networks have been recognized as being highly dynamic. This observation, also supported by an increasing amount of new data, has led to research on temporal networks, a rapidly growing area. Changes in network structure are often informed by epidemic (or other) dynamics, in which case they are referred to as adaptive networks. This volume gathers contributions by prominent authors working in temporal and adaptive network epidemiology, a field essential to understanding infectious diseases in real society.

  9. Land Use and Land Cover, This is a tif-format image of the Level 2 land cover classification encoded in the Wisconsin Land Cover Grid. The source data were dual-date Landsat TM data, primarily from 1992., Published in 1998, Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources (DNR).

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — Land Use and Land Cover dataset current as of 1998. This is a tif-format image of the Level 2 land cover classification encoded in the Wisconsin Land Cover Grid. The...

  10. Land Use and Land Cover, County-wide land cover areas. Land cover types are encoded by the County Appraiser's department. Features are aligned with the Section-wide parcel-lot-block coverages. The county-wide soils coverage is used as a data source. The primary attribute is ', Published in 2008, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Sedgwick County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Land Use and Land Cover dataset current as of 2008. County-wide land cover areas. Land cover types are encoded by the County Appraiser's department. Features are...

  11. Control Strategy for a Grid-Connected Inverter under Unbalanced Network Conditions—A Disturbance Observer-Based Decoupled Current Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emre Ozsoy

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new approach on the novel current control strategy for grid-tied voltage-source inverters (VSIs with circumstances of asymmetrical voltage conditions. A standard grid-connected inverter (GCI allows the degree of freedom to integrate the renewable energy system to enhance the penetration of total utility power. However, restrictive grid codes require that renewable sources connected to the grid must support stability of the grid under grid faults. Conventional synchronously rotating frame dq current controllers are insufficient under grid faults due to the low bandwidth of proportional-integral (PI controllers. Hence, this work proposes a proportional current controller with a first-order low-pass filter disturbance observer (DOb. The proposed controller establishes independent control on positive, as well as negative, sequence current components under asymmetrical grid voltage conditions. The approach is independent of parametric component values, as it estimates nonlinear feed-forward terms with the low-pass filter DOb. A numerical simulation model of the overall power system was implemented in a MATLAB/Simulink (2014B, MathWorks, Natick, MA, USA. Further, particular results show that double-frequency active power oscillations are suppressed by injecting appropriate negative-sequence currents. Moreover, a set of simulation results provided in the article matches the developed theoretical background for its feasibility.

  12. Wireless system for location of permanent faults by short circuit current monitoring in electric power distribution network; Sistema wireless para localizacao de faltas permanentes atraves da monitoracao da corrente de curto-circuito em redes de distribuicao de energia eletrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, A.G.; Correa, A.C.; Machado, R.N. das M.; Ferreira, A.M.D.; Pinto, J.A.C. [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia do Para (IFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil)], E-mail: alcidesmachado000@yahoo.com.br; Barra Junior, W. [Universidade Federal do Para (UFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Inst. de Tecnologia. Faculdade de Engenharia Eletrica], E-mail: walbarra@ufpa.br

    2009-07-01

    This paper presents the development of an automatic system for permanent short-circuits location in medium voltage (13.8 kV) electric power system distribution feeders, by indirect monitoring of the line current. When a permanent failure occurs, the developed system uses mobile telephony (GSM) text messages (SMS) to inform the power company operation center where the failure most likely took place. With this information in real time, the power company operation center may provide the network restoration in a faster and efficient way. (author)

  13. The National Land Cover Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homer, Collin H.; Fry, Joyce A.; Barnes, Christopher A.

    2012-01-01

    The National Land Cover Database (NLCD) serves as the definitive Landsat-based, 30-meter resolution, land cover database for the Nation. NLCD provides spatial reference and descriptive data for characteristics of the land surface such as thematic class (for example, urban, agriculture, and forest), percent impervious surface, and percent tree canopy cover. NLCD supports a wide variety of Federal, State, local, and nongovernmental applications that seek to assess ecosystem status and health, understand the spatial patterns of biodiversity, predict effects of climate change, and develop land management policy. NLCD products are created by the Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics (MRLC) Consortium, a partnership of Federal agencies led by the U.S. Geological Survey. All NLCD data products are available for download at no charge to the public from the MRLC Web site: http://www.mrlc.gov.

  14. Managing Cisco network security

    CERN Document Server

    Knipp, Eric

    2002-01-01

    An in-depth knowledge of how to configure Cisco IP network security is a MUST for anyone working in today''s internetworked world"There''s no question that attacks on enterprise networks are increasing in frequency and sophistication..."-Mike Fuhrman, Cisco Systems Manager, Security ConsultingManaging Cisco Network Security, Second Edition offers updated and revised information covering many of Cisco''s security products that provide protection from threats, detection of network security incidents, measurement of vulnerability and policy compliance and management of security policy across an extended organization. These are the tools that network administrators have to mount defenses against threats. Chapters also cover the improved functionality and ease of the Cisco Secure Policy Manger software used by thousands of small-to-midsized businesses and a special section on the Cisco Aironet Wireless Security Solutions.Security from a real-world perspectiveKey coverage of the new technologies offered by the Cisc...

  15. Using unsupervised neural networks for eddy currents signature discrimination: a prospective study; Perspective d`utilisation des reseaux de neurones non supervises en discrimination des signatures courants de Foucault

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grimaldi, V.

    1994-02-01

    This report describes an application of unsupervised neural networks for eddy currents Non Destructive Testing (NDT) inspection of steam generator tubes. As a matter of fact conventional neurocomputing techniques (multilayer perceptions) fail to achieve desired results because of the inherent lack of data and the slowly changing characteristics involved. This is an original neural approach to defect detection, characterized by two aspects: diagnosis is expressed in architectural terms and the potential advantages of using unsupervised neural techniques are systematically discussed. After briefly recalling the context and origin of the study, we present the framework of the Kohonen self organizing maps within the proposed diagnosis architecture. We then show how we intend to use them for sound/unsound discrimination compliant with eddy currents NDT requirements. Preliminary results are presented in the last part of the report. They seem confirm that this new approach is worth being more deeply investigated. (author). 13 figs., 17 refs., 3 annexes.

  16. Control Strategy for a Grid-Connected Inverter under Unbalanced Network Conditions—A Disturbance Observer-Based Decoupled Current Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Emre Ozsoy; Sanjeevikumar Padmanaban; Lucian Mihet-Popa; Viliam Fedák; Fiaz Ahmad; Rasool Akhtar; Asif Sabanovic

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a new approach on the novel current control strategy for grid-tied voltage-source inverters (VSIs) with circumstances of asymmetrical voltage conditions. A standard grid-connected inverter (GCI) allows the degree of freedom to integrate the renewable energy system to enhance the penetration of total utility power. However, restrictive grid codes require that renewable sources connected to the grid must support stability of the grid under grid faults. Conventional synchrono...

  17. Handbook of Large-Scale Random Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Bollobas, Bela; Miklos, Dezso

    2008-01-01

    Covers various aspects of large-scale networks, including mathematical foundations and rigorous results of random graph theory, modeling and computational aspects of large-scale networks, as well as areas in physics, biology, neuroscience, sociology and technical areas

  18. Local area networks and protocols of data transmission in electric power systems: current status and tendencies; Redes locales y protocolos de transmision de datos en sistemas electricos de potencia: estado actual y tendencias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pellizzoni, Rodolfo [TRANSBA S.A., Empresa de Transporte de Energia Electrica por Distribucion Troncal de la Provincia de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Vignoni, Roberto [Universidad Nacional de La Plata (UNLP), Ciudad de La Plata, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2001-07-01

    In electric power systems, overcome the stage of the remote system (SCADA) implementation, the current tendency is the automation and use of open architectures. That tendency is reflected in the use of standardized local area networks of industrial use and adoption of data transmission protocols which are based in international standards. The result is the connectivity and operationalization among the local devices and terminals usually called IED. In this document it is presented a summary of the standardized data transmission protocols, which have been used in electric power substations currently, based on a architecture which defines three layers of the OSI/ISO reference pattern. Based on the tendency increase of automation in substations, some ways of communication have been analyzed, they mean: local area networks such as the Ethernet pattern and some industrial ones and others such as Profibus and its respective implementation in electric power systems. It also is analyzed the tasks which have supported IEC and EPRI for defining a standardization and a model for the open communications in electric power substations.

  19. Land cover change in Colombia: surprising forest recovery trends between 2001 and 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Cuervo, Ana María; Aide, T Mitchell; Clark, Matthew L; Etter, Andrés

    2012-01-01

    Monitoring land change at multiple spatial scales is essential for identifying hotspots of change, and for developing and implementing policies for conserving biodiversity and habitats. In the high diversity country of Colombia, these types of analyses are difficult because there is no consistent wall-to-wall, multi-temporal dataset for land-use and land-cover change. To address this problem, we mapped annual land-use and land-cover from 2001 to 2010 in Colombia using MODIS (250 m) products coupled with reference data from high spatial resolution imagery (QuickBird) in Google Earth. We used QuickBird imagery to visually interpret percent cover of eight land cover classes used for classifier training and accuracy assessment. Based on these maps we evaluated land cover change at four spatial scales country, biome, ecoregion, and municipality. Of the 1,117 municipalities, 820 had a net gain in woody vegetation (28,092 km(2)) while 264 had a net loss (11,129 km(2)), which resulted in a net gain of 16,963 km(2) in woody vegetation at the national scale. Woody regrowth mainly occurred in areas previously classified as mixed woody/plantation rather than agriculture/herbaceous. The majority of this gain occurred in the Moist Forest biome, within the montane forest ecoregions, while the greatest loss of woody vegetation occurred in the Llanos and Apure-Villavicencio ecoregions. The unexpected forest recovery trend, particularly in the Andes, provides an opportunity to expand current protected areas and to promote habitat connectivity. Furthermore, ecoregions with intense land conversion (e.g. Northern Andean Páramo) and ecoregions under-represented in the protected area network (e.g. Llanos, Apure-Villavicencio Dry forest, and Magdalena-Urabá Moist forest ecoregions) should be considered for new protected areas.

  20. Land cover change in Colombia: surprising forest recovery trends between 2001 and 2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Sánchez-Cuervo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Monitoring land change at multiple spatial scales is essential for identifying hotspots of change, and for developing and implementing policies for conserving biodiversity and habitats. In the high diversity country of Colombia, these types of analyses are difficult because there is no consistent wall-to-wall, multi-temporal dataset for land-use and land-cover change. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To address this problem, we mapped annual land-use and land-cover from 2001 to 2010 in Colombia using MODIS (250 m products coupled with reference data from high spatial resolution imagery (QuickBird in Google Earth. We used QuickBird imagery to visually interpret percent cover of eight land cover classes used for classifier training and accuracy assessment. Based on these maps we evaluated land cover change at four spatial scales country, biome, ecoregion, and municipality. Of the 1,117 municipalities, 820 had a net gain in woody vegetation (28,092 km(2 while 264 had a net loss (11,129 km(2, which resulted in a net gain of 16,963 km(2 in woody vegetation at the national scale. Woody regrowth mainly occurred in areas previously classified as mixed woody/plantation rather than agriculture/herbaceous. The majority of this gain occurred in the Moist Forest biome, within the montane forest ecoregions, while the greatest loss of woody vegetation occurred in the Llanos and Apure-Villavicencio ecoregions. CONCLUSIONS: The unexpected forest recovery trend, particularly in the Andes, provides an opportunity to expand current protected areas and to promote habitat connectivity. Furthermore, ecoregions with intense land conversion (e.g. Northern Andean Páramo and ecoregions under-represented in the protected area network (e.g. Llanos, Apure-Villavicencio Dry forest, and Magdalena-Urabá Moist forest ecoregions should be considered for new protected areas.

  1. Emerging Infectious Diseases Cover Art

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-07-26

    Byron Breedlove, managing editor of the EID Journal, discusses his approach to cover art.  Created: 7/26/2017 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 7/26/2017.

  2. Gambia Land Use Land Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This series of three-period land use land cover (LULC) datasets (1975, 2000, and 2013) aids in monitoring change in West Africa’s land resources (exception is...

  3. Prevalence, Recurrence, and Incidence of Current Depressive Symptoms among People Living with HIV in Ontario, Canada: Results from the Ontario HIV Treatment Network Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie K Y Choi

    Full Text Available Current studies of depression among people living with HIV focus on describing its point prevalence. Given the fluctuating nature of depression and its profound impacts on clinical and quality-of-life outcomes, this study aimed to examine the prevalence, recurrence and incidence of current depressive symptoms and its underlying catalysts longitudinally and systematically among these individuals.We conducted a prospective cohort study between October 1, 2007 and December 31, 2012 using longitudinal linked data sources. Current depressive symptoms was identified using the Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale or the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale, first at baseline and again during follow-up interviews. Multivariable regressions were used to characterize the three outcomes.Of the 3,816 HIV-positive participants, the point prevalence of depressive symptoms was estimated at 28%. Of the 957 participants who were identified with depressive symptoms at baseline and who had at least two years of follow-up, 43% had a recurrent episode. The cumulative incidence among 1,745 previously depressive symptoms free participants (at or prior to baseline was 14%. During the five-year follow-up, our multivariable models showed that participants with greater risk of recurrent cases were more likely to feel worried about their housing situation. Participants at risk of developing incident cases were also likely to be younger, gay or bisexual, and unable to afford housing-related expenses.Depressive symptoms are prevalent and likely to recur among people living with HIV. Our results support the direction of Ontario's HIV/AIDS Strategy to 2026, which addresses medical concerns associated with HIV (such as depression and the social drivers of health in order to enhance the overall well-being of people living with or at risk of HIV. Our findings reinforce the importance of providing effective mental health care and demonstrate the need for long

  4. Heterogeneous cellular networks

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, Rose Qingyang

    2013-01-01

    A timely publication providing coverage of radio resource management, mobility management and standardization in heterogeneous cellular networks The topic of heterogeneous cellular networks has gained momentum in industry and the research community, attracting the attention of standardization bodies such as 3GPP LTE and IEEE 802.16j, whose objectives are looking into increasing the capacity and coverage of the cellular networks. This book focuses on recent progresses,  covering the related topics including scenarios of heterogeneous network deployment, interference management i

  5. Network Monitoring with Nagios

    CERN Document Server

    Dondich, Taylor

    2006-01-01

    Network monitoring can be a complex task to implement and maintain in your IT infrastructure. Nagios, an open-source host, service and network monitoring program can help you streamline your network monitoring tasks and reduce the cost of operation.With this shortcut guide, we'll go over how Nagios fits in the overall network monitoring puzzle. We'll also cover installation and basic usage. Finally, we'll show you how to extend Nagios with other tools to extend functionality.

  6. Sustainable wireless networks

    CERN Document Server

    Zheng, Zhongming; Xuemin

    2013-01-01

    This brief focuses on network planning and resource allocation by jointly considering cost and energy sustainability in wireless networks with sustainable energy. The characteristics of green energy and investigating existing energy-efficient green approaches for wireless networks with sustainable energy is covered in the first part of this brief. The book then addresses the random availability and capacity of the energy supply. The authors explore how to maximize the energy sustainability of the network and minimize the failure probability that the mesh access points (APs) could deplete their

  7. National Land Cover Database 2001 (NLCD01)

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaMotte, Andrew E.

    2016-01-01

    This 30-meter data set represents land use and land cover for the conterminous United States for the 2001 time period. The data have been arranged into four tiles to facilitate timely display and manipulation within a Geographic Information System (see http://water.usgs.gov/GIS/browse/nlcd01-partition.jpg). The National Land Cover Data Set for 2001 was produced through a cooperative project conducted by the Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics (MRLC) Consortium. The MRLC Consortium is a partnership of Federal agencies (http://www.mrlc.gov), consisting of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), the U.S. Forest Service (USFS), the National Park Service (NPS), the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), and the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS). One of the primary goals of the project is to generate a current, consistent, seamless, and accurate National Land Cover Database (NLCD) circa 2001 for the United States at medium spatial resolution. For a detailed definition and discussion on MRLC and the NLCD 2001 products, refer to Homer and others (2004), (see: http://www.mrlc.gov/mrlc2k.asp). The NLCD 2001 was created by partitioning the United States into mapping zones. A total of 68 mapping zones (see http://water.usgs.gov/GIS/browse/nlcd01-mappingzones.jpg), were delineated within the conterminous United States based on ecoregion and geographical characteristics, edge-matching features, and the size requirement of Landsat mosaics. Mapping zones encompass the whole or parts of several states. Questions about the NLCD mapping zones can be directed to the NLCD 2001 Land Cover Mapping Team at the USGS/EROS, Sioux Falls, SD (605) 594-6151 or mrlc@usgs.gov.

  8. Fifth International Conference on Networks & Communications

    CERN Document Server

    Nagamalai, Dhinaharan; Rajasekaran, Sanguthevar

    2014-01-01

    This book covers theory, methodology and applications of computer networks, network protocols and wireless networks, data communication technologies, and network security. The book is based on the proceedings from the Fifth International Conference on Networks & Communications (NetCom). The proceedings will feature peer-reviewed papers that illustrate research results, projects, surveys and industrial experiences that describe significant advances in the diverse areas of computer networks & communications.

  9. Impacts of future climate and land cover changes on threatened mammals in the semi-arid Chinese Altai Mountains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xinping; Yu, Xiaoping; Yu, Changqing; Tayibazhaer, Aletai; Xu, Fujun; Skidmore, Andrew K; Wang, Tiejun

    2018-01-15

    Dryland biodiversity plays important roles in the fight against desertification and poverty, but is highly vulnerable to the impacts of environmental change. However, little research has been conducted on dual pressure from climate and land cover changes on biodiversity in arid and semi-arid environments. Concequntly, it is crutial to understand the potential impacts of future climate and land cover changes on dryland biodiversity. Here, using the Chinese Altai Mountains as a case study area, we predicted the future spatial distributions and local assemblages of nine threatened mammal species under projected climate and land cover change scenarios for the period 2010-2050. The results show that remarkable declines in mammal species richness as well as high rates of species turnover are seen to occur across large areas in the Chinese Altai Mountains, highlighting an urgent need for developing protection strategies for areas outside of current nature reserve network. The selected mammals are predicted to lose more than 50% of their current ranges on average, which is much higher than species' range gains (around 15%) under future climate and land cover changes. Most of the species are predicted to contract their ranges while moving eastwards and to higher altitudes, raising the need for establishing cross-border migration pathways for species. Furthermore, the inclusion of land cover changes had notable effects on projected range shifts of individual species under climate changes, demonstrating that land cover changes should be incorporated into the assessment of future climate impacts to facilitate biodiversity conservation in arid and semi-arid environments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Simulating Land Cover Changes and Their Impacts on Land Surface Temperature in Dhaka, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayes Ahmed

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite research that has been conducted elsewhere, little is known, to-date, about land cover dynamics and their impacts on land surface temperature (LST in fast growing mega cities of developing countries. Landsat satellite images of 1989, 1999, and 2009 of Dhaka Metropolitan (DMP area were used for analysis. This study first identified patterns of land cover changes between the periods and investigated their impacts on LST; second, applied artificial neural network to simulate land cover changes for 2019 and 2029; and finally, estimated their impacts on LST in respective periods. Simulation results show that if the current trend continues, 56% and 87% of the DMP area will likely to experience temperatures in the range of greater than or equal to 30 °C in 2019 and 2029, respectively. The findings possess a major challenge for urban planners working in similar contexts. However, the technique presented in this paper would help them to quantify the impacts of different scenarios (e.g., vegetation loss to accommodate urban growth on LST and consequently to devise appropriate policy measures.

  11. Shaping Plastic Covers Quickly And Cheaply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurman, I.; Muckey, D.

    1988-01-01

    Fixture enables thermal forming of custom-contoured plastic covers in half hour. In assembled cover-forming fixture, spring-loaded plate presses plastic sheet toward baseplate. Finished covers stacked at left side of table.

  12. 4G and Beyond - Exploiting Heterogeneity in Mobile Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zakrzewska, Anna

    Current and future mobile networks will constitute of multiple coexisting Radio Access Technologies (RATs), cells of different size (macro-, metro-, pico-, femtocells) forming a Heterogeneous Network (HetNet), and Base Stations (BSs) of various architectures. This thesis addresses different aspects...... of mobile networks and focuses on the main challenges resulting from their heterogeneity. To effectively manage this diversity, a novel hierarchical approach considering all types of resources, spectral, optical and computational is proposed. The generic framework covers all kinds of network heterogeneity...... throughput degradation, which leads to a more stable connectivity in multi-RAT environments. A new HetNet architecture with control and user plane separation is thoroughly evaluated. The study focuses on the soft-pilot requirements and assignment problem, which is solved using a proposed optimisation model...

  13. A Methodology for Physical Interconnection Decisions of Next Generation Transport Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gutierrez Lopez, Jose Manuel; Riaz, M. Tahir; Madsen, Ole Brun

    2011-01-01

    of possibilities when designing the physical network interconnection. This paper develops and presents a methodology in order to deal with aspects related to the interconnection problem of optical transport networks. This methodology is presented as independent puzzle pieces, covering diverse topics going from...... novel design criteria to well-known organized topologies. These can be used to investigate the influence of the physical interconnection of networks over their performance properties, and draw conclusions to improve the current decision support techniques related to this theme. In addition, several...

  14. Sky cover from MFRSR observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Kassianov

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The diffuse all-sky surface irradiances measured at two nearby wavelengths in the visible spectral range and their modeled clear-sky counterparts are the main components of a new method for estimating the fractional sky cover of different cloud types, including cumuli. The performance of this method is illustrated using 1-min resolution data from a ground-based Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR. The MFRSR data are collected at the US Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM Climate Research Facility (ACRF Southern Great Plains (SGP site during the summer of 2007 and represent 13 days with cumuli. Good agreement is obtained between estimated values of the fractional sky cover and those provided by a well-established independent method based on broadband observations.

  15. Identifying vertex covers in graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henning, Michael A.; Yeo, Anders

    2012-01-01

    An identifying vertex cover in a graph G is a subset T of vertices in G that has a nonempty intersection with every edge of G such that T distinguishes the edges, that is, e∩T ≠ 0 for every edge e in G and e∩T ≠ f∩T for every two distinct edges e and f in G. The identifying vertex cover number TD......(G) of G is the minimum size of an identifying vertex cover in G. We observe that TD(G)+ρ(G) = |V (G)|, where ρ(G) denotes the packing number of G. We conjecture that if G is a graph of order n and size m with maximum degree Δ, then TD(G) ≤(Δ(Δ-1)/ Δ2+1)n + (2/Δ2+1) m. If the conjecture is true......, then the bound is best possible for all Δ ≥ 1. We prove this conjecture when Δ ≥ 1 and G is a Δ-regular graph. The three known Moore graphs of diameter 2, namely the 5-cycle, the Petersen graph and the Hoffman-Singleton graph, are examples of regular graphs that achieves equality in the upper bound. We also...

  16. Understanding and designing computer networks

    CERN Document Server

    King, Graham

    1995-01-01

    Understanding and Designing Computer Networks considers the ubiquitous nature of data networks, with particular reference to internetworking and the efficient management of all aspects of networked integrated data systems. In addition it looks at the next phase of networking developments; efficiency and security are covered in the sections dealing with data compression and data encryption; and future examples of network operations, such as network parallelism, are introduced.A comprehensive case study is used throughout the text to apply and illustrate new techniques and concepts as th

  17. Network Survivability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marzo, José L.; Stidsen, Thomas Riis; Ruepp, Sarah Renée

    2010-01-01

    – are vital to modern services such as mobile telephony, online banking and VoIP. This book examines communication networking from a mathematical viewpoint. The contributing authors took part in the European COST action 293 – a four-year program of multidisciplinary research on this subject. In this book...... they offer introductory overviews and state-of-the-art assessments of current and future research in the fields of broadband, optical, wireless and ad hoc networks. Particular topics of interest are design, optimization, robustness and energy consumption. The book will be of interest to graduate students......, researchers and practitioners in the areas of networking, theoretical computer science, operations research, distributed computing and mathematics....

  18. Geometric covers, graph orientations, counter games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berglin, Edvin

    2017-01-01

    Geometric Cover is a large family of NP-complete special cases of the broader Set Cover problem. Unlike the general problem, Geometric Cover involves objects that exist in a geometric setting, consequently implying that they are all restricted to obeying some inherent structure. The archetypal...... example is Line Cover, also known as Point-Line Cover, where a set of points in a geometric space are to be covered by placing a restricted number of lines. We present new FPT algorithms for the sub-family Curve Cover (which includes Line Cover), as well as for Hyperplane Cover restricted to R 3 (i.......e. Plane Cover), with improved time complexity compared to the previous best results. Our improvements are derived from a more careful treatment of the geometric properties of the covering objects than before, and invoking incidence bounds from pure geometry. An orientation of an un-directed graph...

  19. Exploring link covering and node covering formulations of detection layout problem

    OpenAIRE

    Barceló Bugeda, Jaime; Gilliéron, Fanny; Linares Herreros, Mª Paz; Serch Muni, Oriol; Montero Mercadé, Lídia

    2012-01-01

    The primary data input used in principal traffic models comes from Origin-Destination (OD) trip matrices, which describe the patterns of traffic behavior across the network. In this way, OD matrices become a critical requirement in Advanced Traffic Management and/or Information Systems that are supported by Dynamic Traffic Assignment models. However, because OD matrices are not directly observable, the current practice consists of adjusting an initial or seed matrix from link flow counts whic...

  20. Networked sensors for the combat forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klager, Gene

    2004-11-01

    Real-time and detailed information is critical to the success of ground combat forces. Current manned reconnaissance, surveillance, and target acquisition (RSTA) capabilities are not sufficient to cover battlefield intelligence gaps, provide Beyond-Line-of-Sight (BLOS) targeting, and the ambush avoidance information necessary for combat forces operating in hostile situations, complex terrain, and conducting military operations in urban terrain. This paper describes a current US Army program developing advanced networked unmanned/unattended sensor systems to survey these gaps and provide the Commander with real-time, pertinent information. Networked Sensors for the Combat Forces plans to develop and demonstrate a new generation of low cost distributed unmanned sensor systems organic to the RSTA Element. Networked unmanned sensors will provide remote monitoring of gaps, will increase a unit"s area of coverage, and will provide the commander organic assets to complete his Battlefield Situational Awareness (BSA) picture for direct and indirect fire weapons, early warning, and threat avoidance. Current efforts include developing sensor packages for unmanned ground vehicles, small unmanned aerial vehicles, and unattended ground sensors using advanced sensor technologies. These sensors will be integrated with robust networked communications and Battle Command tools for mission planning, intelligence "reachback", and sensor data management. The network architecture design is based on a model that identifies a three-part modular design: 1) standardized sensor message protocols, 2) Sensor Data Management, and 3) Service Oriented Architecture. This simple model provides maximum flexibility for data exchange, information management and distribution. Products include: Sensor suites optimized for unmanned platforms, stationary and mobile versions of the Sensor Data Management Center, Battle Command planning tools, networked communications, and sensor management software. Details

  1. Tropical Montane Cloud Forests: Hydrometeorological variability in three neighbouring catchments with different forest cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, Beatriz H.; Teuling, Adriaan J.; Ganzeveld, Laurens; Hegger, Zita; Leemans, Rik

    2017-09-01

    Mountain areas are characterized by a large heterogeneity in hydrological and meteorological conditions. This heterogeneity is currently poorly represented by gauging networks and by the coarse scale of global and regional climate and hydrological models. Tropical Montane Cloud Forests (TMCFs) are found in a narrow elevation range and are characterized by persistent fog. Their water balance depends on local and upwind temperatures and moisture, therefore, changes in these parameters will alter TMCF hydrology. Until recently the hydrological functioning of TMCFs was mainly studied in coastal regions, while continental TMCFs were largely ignored. This study contributes to fill this gap by focusing on a TMCF which is located on the northern eastern Andes at an elevation of 1550-2300 m asl, in the Orinoco river basin highlands. In this study, we describe the spatial and seasonal meteorological variability, analyse the corresponding catchment hydrological response to different land cover, and perform a sensitivity analysis on uncertainties related to rainfall interpolation, catchment area estimation and streamflow measurements. Hydro-meteorological measurements, including hourly solar radiation, temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, precipitation, soil moisture and streamflow, were collected from June 2013 to May 2014 at three gauged neighbouring catchments with contrasting TMCF/grassland cover and less than 250 m elevation difference. We found wetter and less seasonally contrasting conditions at higher elevations, indicating a positive relation between elevation and fog or rainfall persistence. This pattern is similar to that of other eastern Andean TMCFs, however, the study site had higher wet season rainfall and lower dry season rainfall suggesting that upwind contrasts in land cover and moisture can influence the meteorological conditions at eastern Andean TMCFs. Contrasting streamflow dynamics between the studied catchments reflect the overall system response

  2. New topology of hybrid circuit breaker/current limiter for AES MV networks; Nouvelle topologie de disjoncteur hybride-limiteur de courant pour les reseaux HT des navires tout electrique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francis, M. [Areva Technicatome, 75 - Paris (France); Dupraz, J.P. [AREVA T et D, 75 - Paris (France); Bats, G. [Capsim, 13 - Meyrargues (France); Ladoux, Ph. [Laboratoire d' Electrotechnique et d' Electronique Industrielle (LEEI), 31 - Toulouse (France); Armata, J.M. [Delegation Generale pour l' Armement (DGA CTSN) Centre Technique des Systemes Navals, 83 - Toulon (France)

    2006-04-15

    This paper presents a new topology of hybrid circuit breaker based on the use of serial and parallel semiconductors. This new topology improves drastically the accessible performances of hybrid circuit breakers. This arc-free patented solution (patent n 03 293 050.5) performs additionally the current limitation function. A marine application, with 6.6 kV AC breakers, have been taken as reference and studied for the DGA (Delegation generale pour l'armement - French defence procurement agency). A functional test bench has been developed at LEEI (Laboratoire d'electrotechnique et d'electronique industrielle) of Toulouse in order to validate the basic working sequence. This new circuit breaker shows interesting performances and functionalities that should be able to give additional margins on network design. (authors)

  3. Avian mortalities due to transmission line collisions: a review of current estimates and field methods with an emphasis on applications to the Canadian electric network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Rioux

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Birds are vulnerable to collisions with human-made fixed structures. Despite ongoing development and increases in infrastructure, we have few estimates of the magnitude of collision mortality. We reviewed the existing literature on avian mortality associated with transmission lines and derived an initial estimate for Canada. Estimating mortality from collisions with power lines is challenging due to the lack of studies, especially from sites within Canada, and due to uncertainty about the magnitude of detection biases. Detection of bird collisions with transmission lines varies due to habitat type, species size, and scavenging rates. In addition, birds can be crippled by the impact and subsequently die, although crippling rates are poorly known and rarely incorporated into estimates. We used existing data to derive a range of estimates of avian mortality associated with collisions with transmission lines in Canada by incorporating detection, scavenging, and crippling biases. There are 231,966 km of transmission lines across Canada, mostly in the boreal forest. Mortality estimates ranged from 1 million to 229.5 million birds per year, depending on the bias corrections applied. We consider our most realistic estimate, taking into account variation in risk across Canada, to range from 2.5 million to 25.6 million birds killed per year. Data from multiple studies across Canada and the northern U.S. indicate that the most vulnerable bird groups are (1 waterfowl, (2 grebes, (3 shorebirds, and (4 cranes, which is consistent with other studies. Populations of several groups that are vulnerable to collisions are increasing across Canada (e.g., waterfowl, raptors, which suggests that collision mortality, at current levels, is not limiting population growth. However, there may be impacts on other declining species, such as shorebirds and some species at risk, including Alberta's Trumpeter Swans (Cygnus buccinator and western Canada's endangered Whooping

  4. Enhanced snow cover products from MODIS for the hydrologic sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painter, T. H.; Bales, R.

    2004-12-01

    Near mountain ranges of the globe, over a billion people use melt of the seasonal snow cover as the dominant source of their water resources. These regions are increasingly experiencing the pressing, coupled implications of climate change, drought, and population/demand increase. Enhanced snow cover products have been developed using a multiple endmember spectral mixture analysis model that inverts MODIS surface reflectance products (MOD09) for fractional snow cover, plus the grain size and albedo of the fractional snow cover. Referred to as the MODIS Snow Covered Area and Grain Size/Albedo (MODSCAG) model, this tool is specifically aimed at providing an accurate estimate of snowcover for regional studies in mountainous areas across the globe. The model uses spectral libraries generated with a radiative transfer model for varying grain size snow, adapting the spectral library according to the specific scene solar geometry. Both the albedo and snow-covered area products stimulate advances in hydrologic forecasting by providing more accurate, spatially distributed data than are currently available for assimilation and model evaluation. Data are being developed and provided through an end-to-end NASA REASoN project that includes: (i) standard and custom product development, (ii) distribution through multiple user interfaces and (iii) user support for product evaluation and applications. Currently, MODSCAG is producing snow cover products for hydrologic research clients working in the Colorado River Basin, the Sierra Nevada of California, the Columbia River Basin, and central Tibet. Within the framework of the REASoN project, MODSCAG is designed to address `client' research needs in snow-covered basins around the globe. In this work, we present the introduction of the MODSCAG fractional snow cover products into a model of basin hydrology in the Sierra Nevada. We analyze the differences between the MODSCAG fractional product and the standard MODIS binary snowcover

  5. Spectrum and network measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Witte, Robert A

    2014-01-01

    This new edition of Spectrum and Network Measurements enables readers to understand the basic theory, relate it to measured results, and apply it when creating new designs. This comprehensive treatment of frequency domain measurements successfully consolidates all the pertinent theory into one text. It covers the theory and practice of spectrum and network measurements in electronic systems. It also provides thorough coverage of Fourier analysis, transmission lines, intermodulation distortion, signal-to-noise ratio and S-parameters.

  6. Artificial neural network modelling

    CERN Document Server

    Samarasinghe, Sandhya

    2016-01-01

    This book covers theoretical aspects as well as recent innovative applications of Artificial Neural networks (ANNs) in natural, environmental, biological, social, industrial and automated systems. It presents recent results of ANNs in modelling small, large and complex systems under three categories, namely, 1) Networks, Structure Optimisation, Robustness and Stochasticity 2) Advances in Modelling Biological and Environmental Systems and 3) Advances in Modelling Social and Economic Systems. The book aims at serving undergraduates, postgraduates and researchers in ANN computational modelling. .

  7. Braids and coverings selected topics

    CERN Document Server

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard

    1989-01-01

    This book is based on a graduate course taught by the author at the University of Maryland, USA. The lecture notes have been revised and augmented by examples. The work falls into two strands. The first two chapters develop the elementary theory of Artin Braid groups both geometrically and via homotopy theory, and discuss the link between knot theory and the combinatorics of braid groups through Markov's Theorem. The final two chapters give a detailed investigation of polynomial covering maps, which may be viewed as a homomorphism of the fundamental group of the base space into the Artin braid

  8. Land use and land cover changes in the commercial farming region ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study analyses land use and land cover changes that occurred in the commercial farming region of Chiredzi district in Zimbabwe between 1989 and 2012. It analysed the current arrangement of land use and land cover and the changes in land use and land cover over the 23 years along with the extent of changes that ...

  9. 24 CFR 1710.105 - Cover page.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cover page. 1710.105 Section 1710... Cover page. The cover page of the Property Report shall be prepared in accordance with the following... period and the Cover Page must reflect the requirements of the longer period, rather than the seven days...

  10. 46 CFR 171.117 - Dead covers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dead covers. 171.117 Section 171.117 Shipping COAST... Dead covers. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, each port light with the sill located below the margin line must have a hinged, inside dead cover. (b) The dead cover on a port light...

  11. Learning Networks, Networked Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloep, Peter; Berlanga, Adriana

    2010-01-01

    Sloep, P. B., & Berlanga, A. J. (2011). Learning Networks, Networked Learning [Redes de Aprendizaje, Aprendizaje en Red]. Comunicar, XIX(37), 55-63. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.3916/C37-2011-02-05

  12. The CzeCOS Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havránková, Kateřina; Taufarová, Klára; Šigut, Ladislav; McGloin, Ryan; Acosta, Manuel; Dušek, Jiří; Krupková, Lenka; Macálková-Mžourková, Lenka; Pavelka, Marian; Dařenová, Eva; Yadav, Shilpi; Nguyen, Vinh; Guerra, Carlos; Janous, Dalibor; Marek, Michal V.

    2017-04-01

    The Global Change Research Institute of the Czech Academy of Sciences (CzechGlobe) have established a well-equipped network of ecosystem stations, with modern instrumentation for eco-physiological, plant physiological and micrometeorological studies, and estimation of GHG emissions. The network of stations (CzeCOS) covers the main terrestrial ecosystems of the Czech Republic (young and old coniferous forest, deciduous forest, mixed floodplain forest, grassland, wetland and cropland). The ecosystem stations are equipped with eddy covariance systems, soil and stem chamber systems for CO2 efflux and instruments for making micrometeorological measurements. The network enables detailed research to be conducted on topics such as: the carbon balance of different ecosystems, energy balance closure, the impact of current climate conditions on production and ecosystem disturbances during extreme weather conditions (drought, floods, winter storms, etc.) at regional, national and international scales. As a part of global networks (Fluxnet, ANAEe, ICOS), CzeCOS participates in evaluating and predicting environmental change and helps in the proposal of mitigation measures. Another important issue studied at some of the CzeCOS sites is the use of the eddy covariance method in sloping terrain in order to improve eddy covariance data processing for sites in this kind of terrain. Here we show specific results from the sites and outline the importance of the regional/national network for improving our knowledge about the exchange of matter and energy fluxes at different ecosystems. This study was supported by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of CR within the National Sustainability Program I (NPU I), grant number LO1415 and LD 15040. Computational resources were provided by the CESNET LM2015042 and the CERIT Scientific Cloud LM2015085, provided under the programme "Projects of Large Research, Development, and Innovations Infrastructures".

  13. Covering #SAE: A Mobile Reporting Class's Changing Patterns of Interaction on Twitter over Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Julie

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the social network that emerged on Twitter surrounding a mobile reporting class as they covered a national breaking news event. The work introduces pedagogical strategies that enhance students' learning opportunities. Through NodeXL and social network cluster analysis, six groups emerged from the Twitter interactions tied to…

  14. Spin current

    CERN Document Server

    Valenzuela, Sergio O; Saitoh, Eiji; Kimura, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    In a new branch of physics and technology called spin-electronics or spintronics, the flow of electrical charge (usual current) as well as the flow of electron spin, the so-called 'spin current', are manipulated and controlled together. This book provides an introduction and guide to the new physics and application of spin current.

  15. Dust and Debris Tolerant Retractable Cover Connector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Mark E. (Inventor); Dokos, Adam G. (Inventor); Townsend, III, Ivan I. (Inventor); Carlson, Jeffrey W. (Inventor); Bastin, Gary L. (Inventor); Murtland, Kevin A. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    A debris exclusion and removal apparatus for connectors which have retractable cover configurations which include internal wafers that clean the connectors prior to mating. XXXX connectors. More particularly, embodiments relate to dust tolerant connectors. Some embodiments also relate to an intelligent connector system capable of detecting damage to or faults within a conductor and then rerouting the energy to a non-damaged spare conductor. Discussion Connectors of the present invention may be used to transfer electrical current, fluid, and gas in a wide variety of environments containing dust and other debris, wherein that debris may present substantial challenges. For example, lunar/Martian dust intrusion and/or accumulation in connectors used to transfer oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, etc., may lead to larger system failures as well as loss of life in extraterrestrial human exploration endeavors. Additionally, embodiments of the present invention may also be suitable for use where connectors must resist water intrusion, such as terrestrial deep water operations.

  16. UnCover: the article access solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittaker, M; Malamud, J

    1994-04-01

    The current climate for academic libraries is such that traditional collection development philosophies are being examined anew. The rising cost of journals, coupled with steady or declining budgets, has necessitated a review of the means for providing access to information at the local level. Where once the local collection was all-important, the focus now has shifted in other directions. As Leach describes it, libraries will begin to shift collection development funds to document delivery services. Instead of purchasing resources "just in case," the new paradigm may be purchasing information "just in time". Anticipating this shift and taking advantage of existing technologies, the UnCover Company has developed a service that, although relatively new, has been widely discussed.

  17. A network of networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iedema, Rick; Verma, Raj; Wutzke, Sonia; Lyons, Nigel; McCaughan, Brian

    2017-04-10

    Purpose To further our insight into the role of networks in health system reform, the purpose of this paper is to investigate how one agency, the NSW Agency for Clinical Innovation (ACI), and the multiple networks and enabling resources that it encompasses, govern, manage and extend the potential of networks for healthcare practice improvement. Design/methodology/approach This is a case study investigation which took place over ten months through the first author's participation in network activities and discussions with the agency's staff about their main objectives, challenges and achievements, and with selected services around the state of New South Wales to understand the agency's implementation and large system transformation activities. Findings The paper demonstrates that ACI accommodates multiple networks whose oversight structures, self-organisation and systems change approaches combined in dynamic ways, effectively yield a diversity of network governances. Further, ACI bears out a paradox of "centralised decentralisation", co-locating agents of innovation with networks of implementation and evaluation expertise. This arrangement strengthens and legitimates the role of the strategic hybrid - the healthcare professional in pursuit of change and improvement, and enhances their influence and impact on the wider system. Research limitations/implications While focussing the case study on one agency only, this study is unique as it highlights inter-network connections. Contributing to the literature on network governance, this paper identifies ACI as a "network of networks" through which resources, expectations and stakeholder dynamics are dynamically and flexibly mediated and enhanced. Practical implications The co-location of and dynamic interaction among clinical networks may create synergies among networks, nurture "strategic hybrids", and enhance the impact of network activities on health system reform. Social implications Network governance requires more

  18. Challenges of Integrating NASAs Space Communication Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinert, Jessica M.; Barnes, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    significant obstacle for integration. Over the past few decades of use, user missions and network personnel alike have grown accustomed to the processes by which services are provided by the NASA communications and navigation networks. The culture established by each network has created several challenges that need to be overcome in order to effectively integrate the networks. As with any change, there has been resistance, an apprehension to explore automation of existing processes, and a working environment that attempts to indirectly influence change without mandating compliance. Overcoming technical and cultural challenges is essential to successfully integrating the networks and although the challenges are numerous, the integration of the networks promises a more efficient space communications network for NASA and its customers, as well as potential long-term cost savings to the agency. This paper, Challenges of Integrating NASA Legacy Communications Networks, will provide a brief overview of the current NASA space communications networks as well as the an overview of the process implemented while performing the SCaN Trade Studies and an introduction to the requirements driving integration of the SCaN Networks. This paper will describe in detail the challenges experienced, both technical and cultural, while working with NASA space communications network-specific personnel. The paper will also cover lessons learned during the performance of architecture trade studies and provide recommendations for ways to improve the process.

  19. Challenges of Integrating NASA's Space Communications Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinert, Jessica; Barnes, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    significant obstacle for integration. Over the past few decades of use, user missions and network personnel alike have grown accustomed to the processes by which services are provided by the NASA communications and navigation networks. The culture established by each network has created several challenges that need to be overcome in order to effectively integrate the networks. As with any change, there has been resistance, an apprehension to explore automation of existing processes, and a working environment that attempts to indirectly influence change without mandating compliance. Overcoming technical and cultural challenges is essential to successfully integrating the networks and although the challenges are numerous, the integration of the networks promises a more efficient space communications network for NASA and its customers, as well as potential long-term cost savings to the agency. This paper, Challenges of Integrating NASA Legacy Communications Networks, will provide a brief overview of the current NASA space communications networks as well as the an overview of the process implemented while performing the SCaN Trade Studies and an introduction to the requirements driving integration of the SCaN Networks. This paper will describe in detail the challenges experienced, both technical and cultural, while working with NASA space communications network-specific personnel. The paper will also cover lessons learned during the performance of architecture trade studies and provide recommendations for ways to improve the process.

  20. Energy-Efficiency in Optical Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saldaña Cercos, Silvia

    This thesis expands the state-of-the-art on the complex problem of implementing energy efficient optical networks. The main contribution of this Ph.D. thesis is providing a holistic approach in a multi-layered manner where different tools are used to tackle the urgent need of both estimating...... with current traffic demands and this dissertation tackles the trade-off between energy efficiency and quality of service in terms of latency. Another important contribution of this thesis is the novel mixed integer linear programing (MILP) formulation for internet protocol (IP) over wavelength division...... with parallel optics and WDM systems is reported. These results show the trade-off between increased capacity and both power consumption and system performance. In conclusion, an energy-efficient set of tools has been provided covering different aspects of the telecommunication network resulting in a cohesive...

  1. Safety message broadcast in vehicular networks

    CERN Document Server

    Bi, Yuanguo; Zhuang, Weihua; Zhao, Hai

    2017-01-01

    This book presents the current research on safety message dissemination in vehicular networks, covering medium access control and relay selection for multi-hop safety message broadcast. Along with an overall overview of the architecture, characteristics, and applications of vehicular networks, the authors discuss the challenging issues in the research on performance improvement for safety applications, and provide a comprehensive review of the research literature. A cross layer broadcast protocol is included to support efficient safety message broadcast by jointly considering geographical location, physical-layer channel condition, and moving velocity of vehicles in the highway scenario. To further support multi-hop safety message broadcast in a complex road layout, the authors propose an urban multi-hop broadcast protocol that utilizes a novel forwarding node selection scheme. Additionally, a busy tone based medium access control scheme is designed to provide strict priority to safety applications in vehicle...

  2. Determinants of Network Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ysa, Tamyko; Sierra, Vicenta; Esteve, Marc

    2014-01-01

    The literature on network management is extensive. However, it generally explores network structures, neglecting the impact of management strategies. In this article we assess the effect of management strategies on network outcomes, providing empirical evidence from 119 urban revitalization...... networks. We go beyond current work by testing a path model for the determinants of network outcomes and considering the interactions between the constructs: management strategies, trust, complexity, and facilitative leadership. Our results suggest that management strategies have a strong effect on network...... outcomes and that they enhance the level of trust. We also found that facilitative leadership has a positive impact on network management as well as on trust in the network. Our findings also show that complexity has a negative impact on trust. A key finding of our research is that managers may wield more...

  3. Wireless rechargeable sensor networks

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Yuanyuan

    2015-01-01

    This SpringerBrief provides a concise guide to applying wireless energy transfer techniques in traditional battery-powered sensor networks. It examines the benefits and challenges of wireless power including efficiency and reliability. The authors build a wireless rechargeable sensor networks from scratch and aim to provide perpetual network operation. Chapters cover a wide range of topics from the collection of energy information and recharge scheduling to joint design with typical sensing applications such as data gathering. Problems are approached using a natural combination of probability

  4. Self-organizing networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marchetti, Nicola; Prasad, Neeli R.; Johansson, Johan

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a general overview of Self-Organizing Networks (SON), and the rationale and state-of-the-art of wireless SON are first presented. The technical and business requirements are then briefly treated, and the research challenges within the field of SON are highlighted. Thereafter......, the relation between SON and Cognitive Networks (CN) is covered. At last, the application of Algorithmic Information Theory (AIT) as a possible theoretical tool to support SON in addressing the growing complexity of networks is discussed....

  5. Connected networks economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamerak, K.

    1981-05-05

    Two foremost requirements for interconnected power systems are: constancy of frequency and constancy of voltage. Because there is a rigid relation between main frequency and the number of revolutions of the synchronous generators, and this leads to active load alterations in the case of frequency changes of the network, there is a need for control systems for power networks. In practice they are designed for automatic operation. For control of the number of revolutions of turbines proportional controllers are the most useful. Autocontrol also has an advantageous influence on frequency stability. Peak loads in connected networks are covered by pumping storage power plants.

  6. Combinatorial optimization networks and matroids

    CERN Document Server

    Lawler, Eugene

    2011-01-01

    Perceptively written text examines optimization problems that can be formulated in terms of networks and algebraic structures called matroids. Chapters cover shortest paths, network flows, bipartite matching, nonbipartite matching, matroids and the greedy algorithm, matroid intersections, and the matroid parity problems. A suitable text or reference for courses in combinatorial computing and concrete computational complexity in departments of computer science and mathematics.

  7. Networks Technology Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasaki, Keiji K. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    The papers included in these proceedings represent the most interesting and current topics being pursued by personnel at GSFC's Networks Division and supporting contractors involved in Space, Ground, and Deep Space Network (DSN) technical work. Although 29 papers are represented in the proceedings, only 12 were presented at the conference because of space and time limitations. The proceedings are organized according to five principal technical areas of interest to the Networks Division: Project Management; Network Operations; Network Control, Scheduling, and Monitoring; Modeling and Simulation; and Telecommunications Engineering.

  8. Power quality. Analysis of the losses related to the tension and current distortion in the electric network; Calidad de la energia electrica. Analisis de las perdidas relacionadas con la distorsion de la tension y corriente de la red electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rauch Sitar, Vladimir [Universidad Autonoma de Queretaro, Facultad de Ingenieria, Queretaro (Mexico)

    1994-12-31

    In recent times every day one speaks more about power quality and about the losses produced by the tension and current distortion. The distortion in the electric network and the consumption tend to keep on increasing, and each day there will be the need of applying more resources to handle it inside a reasonable range. In this article the situation of the power quality is analyzed in the most general case and also simplified for special cases. On base on the distortion coefficients of tension and current a matrix is created where the harmonics coefficients of tension as well as the current appear in an organized form an all of the elements of that matrix are analyzed. Some topological rules are created in order to give the simplest orientation in the complex situation. The article is useful to supervise the power quality in all of the typical cases and establish a base for a more detailed analysis. [Espanol] En los ultimos tiempos cada dia mas se esta hablando sobre la calidad de la energia electrica (Power Quality) y sobre las perdidas provocadas con este factor. La distorsion de la red electrica y del consumo tiene la tendencia de seguir aumentando y cada dia mas habra que dedicar mas recursos para manejarla dentro de un rango razonable. En el articulo presentado se analiza la situacion de la calidad de energia en caso mas general y tambien simplificada para los casos especiales. A base de coeficientes de distorsion, de tension y corriente se crea una Matriz donde figuran tanto los coeficientes de armonicas de tension como de corriente en una forma ordenada y se analizan todos los elementos de esta matriz. Se crean algunas reglas topologicas para dar la orientacion mas simple en la situacion compleja. El articulo sirve para dar supervision a la calidad de energia en todos los casos tipicos y establecer una base para el analisis mas detallado.

  9. Neural Networks For Electrohydrodynamic Effect Modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiesław Wajs

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents currently achieved results concerning methods of electrohydrodynamiceffect used in geophysics simulated with feedforward networks trained with backpropagation algorithm, radial basis function networks and generalized regression networks.

  10. The covering number of $M_{24}$

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Epstein

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A  finite cover $\\mathcal{C}$ of a group $G$ is a finite collection of proper subgroups of $G$ such that $G$ is equal to the union of all of the members of $\\mathcal{C}$. Such a cover is called {\\em minimal} if it has the smallest cardinality among all finite covers of $G$. The  covering number of $G$, denoted by $\\sigma(G$, is the number of subgroups in a minimal cover of $G$. In this paper the covering number of the Mathieu group $M_{24}$ is shown to be 3336.

  11. Globally scalable generation of high-resolution land cover from multispectral imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stutts, S. Craig; Raskob, Benjamin L.; Wenger, Eric J.

    2017-05-01

    We present an automated method of generating high resolution ( 2 meter) land cover using a pattern recognition neural network trained on spatial and spectral features obtained from over 9000 WorldView multispectral images (MSI) in six distinct world regions. At this resolution, the network can classify small-scale objects such as individual buildings, roads, and irrigation ponds. This paper focuses on three key areas. First, we describe our land cover generation process, which involves the co-registration and aggregation of multiple spatially overlapping MSI, post-aggregation processing, and the registration of land cover to OpenStreetMap (OSM) road vectors using feature correspondence. Second, we discuss the generation of land cover derivative products and their impact in the areas of region reduction and object detection. Finally, we discuss the process of globally scaling land cover generation using cloud computing via Amazon Web Services (AWS).

  12. Survey the Current State of Quality Potable Water Clearing Supplied to the Distribution System and the Role of Water & Wastewater Company And the Distribution of Network and Improve Its Quality Case Study in Shahrood City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakineh Molaei Tvani

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available  Background and Purpose: Supply of high-quality water (drinking water quality, is a critical component for sustainable socioeconomic development. This study aimed to assess the current state of water quality supplied to the distribution system and importance of participating water and sewer its distribution network to improve the quality selected. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study in 1394 in both spring and summer, during a systematic search, local information on the quality (microbiological, physical and chemical drinking water distribution systems were evaluated using a questionnaire. The samples for the presence of CL, PH, TDS, sulfates, total hardness, nitrite, nitrate, fluoride, chloride, turbidity and total coliform were analyzed by standard methods and 1053 were compared with the national standard. Results: The average parameters studied a total of 303 water samples collected from amount CL, PH, TDS, sulfates, total hardness, magnesium, calcium, nitrite, nitrate, fluoride, chloride, turbidity and total coliform respectively equal Was reported 0/1 mg/L, 7/66 mg/L, 773/39 mg/L,108/15 mg/L, 287/84 mg/L, 31/59 mg/L, 50/05 mg/L, 0/02 mg/L, 19/56 mg/L, 1/08 mg/L, 80/57 mg/L, 0/6 mg/L, 24/5 MPN/100ML. The role of water and sewage company as well as the effect of the drinking water distribution network respectively physicochemical and microbiological quality of drinking water in the utility had a significant relationship (p <0/005, (p <0/0001. And significant relationship between the quality of water supplied by the technical infrastructure and health, fatigue and corrosion, leakage and pressure was high hydro Leakey (p <0/000. According to the results of the statistical test Pearson and Spearman correlation coefficient also showed a strong correlation between the leak with water quality. Conclusion: The results showed that the water samples tested for microbial and physico-chemical parameters were within the range of Iran

  13. Evaluation of organic cover crop termination methods: flame or fiction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Use of winter cover crops is an integral component of organic vegetable systems. However, timely spring termination currently relies on tillage in most instances due to time constraints. Thus, the use of conservation practices in organic systems is usually disjointed with some tillage required betw...

  14. Complex Networks IX

    CERN Document Server

    Coronges, Kate; Gonçalves, Bruno; Sinatra, Roberta; Vespignani, Alessandro; Proceedings of the 9th Conference on Complex Networks; CompleNet 2018

    2018-01-01

    This book aims to bring together researchers and practitioners working across domains and research disciplines to measure, model, and visualize complex networks. It collects the works presented at the 9th International Conference on Complex Networks (CompleNet) 2018 in Boston, MA in March, 2018. With roots in physical, information and social science, the study of complex networks provides a formal set of mathematical methods, computational tools and theories to describe prescribe and predict dynamics and behaviors of complex systems. Despite their diversity, whether the systems are made up of physical, technological, informational, or social networks, they share many common organizing principles and thus can be studied with similar approaches. This book provides a view of the state-of-the-art in this dynamic field and covers topics such as group decision-making, brain and cellular connectivity, network controllability and resiliency, online activism, recommendation systems, and cyber security.

  15. Optical networks a practical perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Ramaswami, Rajiv

    2001-01-01

    This fully updated and expanded second edition of Optical Networks: A Practical Perspective succeeds the first as the authoritative source for information on optical networking technologies and techniques. Written by two of the field's most respected individuals, it covers componentry and transmission in detail but also emphasizes the practical networking issues that affect organizations as they evaluate, deploy, or develop optical solutions. This book captures all the hard-to-find information on architecture, control and management, and other communications topics that

  16. The value of snow cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokratov, S. A.

    2009-04-01

    only and not even the main outcome from snow cover use. The value of snow cover for agriculture, water resources, industry and transportation is so naturally inside the activities that is not often quantified. However, any considerations of adaptation strategies for climate change with changing snow conditions need such quantification.

  17. Deep belief networks for electroencephalography: A review of recent contributions and future outlooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movahedi, Faezeh; Coyle, James L; Sejdic, Ervin

    2017-07-14

    Deep learning, a relatively new branch of machine learning, has been investigated for use in a variety of biomedical applications. Deep learning algorithms have been used to analyze different physiological signals and gain a better understanding of human physiology for automated diagnosis of abnormal conditions. In this manuscript, we provide an overview of deep learning approaches with a focus on deep belief networks in electroencephalography applications. We investigate the state of- the-art algorithms for deep belief networks and then cover the application of these algorithms and their performances in electroencephalographic applications. We covered various applications of electroencephalography in medicine, including emotion recognition, sleep stage classification, and seizure detection, in order to understand how deep learning algorithms could be modified to better suit the tasks desired. This review is intended to provide researchers with a broad overview of the currently existing deep belief network methodology for electroencephalography signals, as well as to highlight potential challenges for future research.

  18. Updating Road Networks by Local Renewal from GPS Trajectories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Wu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The long production cycle and huge cost of collecting road network data often leave the data lagging behind the latest real conditions. However, this situation is rapidly changing as the positioning techniques ubiquitously used in mobile devices are gradually being implemented in road network research and applications. Currently, the predominant approaches infer road networks from mobile location information (e.g., GPS trajectory data directly using various extracting algorithms, which leads to expensive consumption of computational resources in the case of large-scale areas. For this reason, we propose an alternative that renews road networks with a novel spiral strategy, including a hidden Markov model (HMM for detecting potential problems in existing road network data and a method to update the data, on the local scale, by generating new road segments from trajectory data. The proposed approach reduces computation costs on roads with completed or updated information by updating problem road segments in the minimum range of the road network. We evaluated the performance of our proposals using GPS traces collected from taxies and OpenStreetMap (OSM road networks covering urban areas of Wuhan City.

  19. Watershed impervious cover relative to stream location

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Estimates of watershed (12-digit huc) impervious cover and impervious cover near streams and water body shorelines for three dates (2001, 2006, 2011) using NLCD...

  20. Indicators: Lakeshore Habitat/Riparian Vegetative Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riparian and lakeshore vegetative cover consist of the vegetation corridor alongside streams, rivers, and lakes. Vegetative cover refers to overhanging or submerged tree limbs, shrubs, and other plants growing along the shore of the waterbody.

  1. VT National Land Cover Dataset - 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The NLCD2001 layer available from VCGI is a subset of the the National Land Cover Database 2001 land cover layer for mapping zone 65 was produced...

  2. A Citizen's Guide to Evapotranspiration Covers

    Science.gov (United States)

    This guide explains Evapotranspiration Covers which are Evapotranspiration (ET) covers are a type of cap placed over contaminated material, such as soil, landfill waste, or mining tailings, to prevent water from reaching it.

  3. National Land Cover Database: 1986-1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — NLCD 92 (National Land Cover Dataset 1992) is a 21-category land cover classification scheme that has been applied consistently over the conterminous U.S. It is...

  4. Comparing RTK positioning from updated REGAM and MERISTEMUM CORS networks in Southeast Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giménez, Elena; Selmira Garrido, Ma; de Lacy, Ma Clara; Gil, Antonio J.

    2011-05-01

    For many countries, regional networks of Continuously Operating Reference Station (CORS) are the basic infrastructure to support the needs of users requiring positioning with centimeter-scale accuracy. However, nationwide NRTK (RTK Network) coverage is often not economically viable for countries with large rural regions. In contrast, for administrative reasons and social proximity sometimes several networks may cover the same territory. Reference station placement affects the quality of the positioning services and the cost of the network. Spain has a high density of regional NRTK networks. Indeed, the Region of Murcia has two such networks: REGAM and MERISTEMUM. REGAM uses the MAC (Master Auxiliary Concept) and MERISTEMUM uses the VRS (Virtual Reference Station), which are currently the most commonly used approaches to generate network RTK corrections. Control tests based on simultaneous determination of position have been performed in the Region of Murcia to analyze the performance of the REGAM and MERISTEMUM networks. The results confirm that both the VRS and MAC network solutions provide centimeter-scale accuracy: the positioning error for the test points inside the NRTK cells is lesser than 1.5 cm in planimetry and around 3.5 cm in height. The ambiguity resolution, the coverage and the connection to the networks services were highly satisfactory.

  5. Core Stability of Vertex Cover Games

    OpenAIRE

    Fang, Qizhi; Kong, Liang; Zhao, Jia

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we focus on the core stability of vertex cover games, which arise from vertex cover problems on graphs. Based on duality theory of linear programming, we prove that a balanced vertex cover game has a stable core if and only if every edge belongs to a maximum matching in the underlying graph. We also prove that for a totally balanced vertex cover game, the core largeness, extendability, and exactness are all equivalent, which implies core stability. Furtherm...

  6. Differences in land cover interpretation in landscapes rich in cover gradients: reflections based on the montado of South Portugal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorn, van A.M.; Correia, T.P.

    2007-01-01

    This paper contributes to the discussion on current issues in methodologies of mapping land cover in the agro-silvo-pastoral landscapes of the Mediterranean. These landscapes, characterized by intermixed land use and indefinite boundaries, require particular attention in applying the

  7. Current limiters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loescher, D.H. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Systems Surety Assessment Dept.; Noren, K. [Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    1996-09-01

    The current that flows between the electrical test equipment and the nuclear explosive must be limited to safe levels during electrical tests conducted on nuclear explosives at the DOE Pantex facility. The safest way to limit the current is to use batteries that can provide only acceptably low current into a short circuit; unfortunately this is not always possible. When it is not possible, current limiters, along with other design features, are used to limit the current. Three types of current limiters, the fuse blower, the resistor limiter, and the MOSFET-pass-transistor limiters, are used extensively in Pantex test equipment. Detailed failure mode and effects analyses were conducted on these limiters. Two other types of limiters were also analyzed. It was found that there is no best type of limiter that should be used in all applications. The fuse blower has advantages when many circuits must be monitored, a low insertion voltage drop is important, and size and weight must be kept low. However, this limiter has many failure modes that can lead to the loss of over current protection. The resistor limiter is simple and inexpensive, but is normally usable only on circuits for which the nominal current is less than a few tens of milliamperes. The MOSFET limiter can be used on high current circuits, but it has a number of single point failure modes that can lead to a loss of protective action. Because bad component placement or poor wire routing can defeat any limiter, placement and routing must be designed carefully and documented thoroughly.

  8. Flow structure at an ice-covered river confluence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, Nancy; Biron, Pascale; Buffin-Bélanger, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    River confluences are known to exhibit complex relationships between flow structure, sediment transport and bed-form development. Flow structure at these sites is influenced by the junction angle, the momentum flux ratio (Mr) and bed morphology. In cold regions where an ice cover is present for most of the winter period, the flow structure is also likely affected by the roughness effect of the ice. However, very few studies have examined the impact of an ice cover on the flow structure at a confluence. The aims of this study are (1) to describe the evolution of an ice cover at a river confluence and (2) to characterize and compare the flow structure at a river confluence with and without an ice cover. The field site is a medium-sized confluence (around 40 m wide) between the Mit is and Neigette Rivers in the Bas-Saint-Laurent region, Quebec (Canada). The confluence was selected because a thick ice cover is present for most of the winter allowing for safe field work. Two winter field campaigns were conducted in 2015 and 2016 to obtain ice cover measurements in addition to hydraulic and morphological measurements. Daily monitoring of the evolution of the ice cover was made with a Reconyx camera. Velocity profiles were collected with an acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) to reconstruct the three-dimensional flow structure. Time series of photographs allow the evolution of the ice cover to be mapped, linking the processes leading to the formation of the primary ice cover for each year. The time series suggests that these processes are closely related with both confluence flow zones and hydro-climatic conditions. Results on the thickness of the ice cover from in situ measurements reveal that the ice thickness tends to be thinner at the center of the confluence where high turbulent exchanges take place. Velocity measurements reveal that the ice cover affects velocity profiles by moving the highest velocities towards the center of the profiles. A spatio

  9. Deriving Continuous Fields of Tree Cover at 1-m over the Continental United States From the National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP) Imagery to Reduce Uncertainties in Forest Carbon Stock Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguly, S.; Basu, S.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Michaelis, A.; Milesi, C.; Votava, P.; Nemani, R. R.

    2013-12-01

    An unresolved issue with coarse-to-medium resolution satellite-based forest carbon mapping over regional to continental scales is the high level of uncertainty in above ground biomass (AGB) estimates caused by the absence of forest cover information at a high enough spatial resolution (current spatial resolution is limited to 30-m). To put confidence in existing satellite-derived AGB density estimates, it is imperative to create continuous fields of tree cover at a sufficiently high resolution (e.g. 1-m) such that large uncertainties in forested area are reduced. The proposed work will provide means to reduce uncertainty in present satellite-derived AGB maps and Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) based regional estimates. Our primary objective will be to create Very High Resolution (VHR) estimates of tree cover at a spatial resolution of 1-m for the Continental United States using all available National Agriculture Imaging Program (NAIP) color-infrared imagery from 2010 till 2012. We will leverage the existing capabilities of the NASA Earth Exchange (NEX) high performance computing and storage facilities. The proposed 1-m tree cover map can be further aggregated to provide percent tree cover at any medium-to-coarse resolution spatial grid, which will aid in reducing uncertainties in AGB density estimation at the respective grid and overcome current limitations imposed by medium-to-coarse resolution land cover maps. We have implemented a scalable and computationally-efficient parallelized framework for tree-cover delineation - the core components of the algorithm [that] include a feature extraction process, a Statistical Region Merging image segmentation algorithm and a classification algorithm based on Deep Belief Network and a Feedforward Backpropagation Neural Network algorithm. An initial pilot exercise has been performed over the state of California (~11,000 scenes) to create a wall-to-wall 1-m tree cover map and the classification accuracy has been assessed

  10. 21 CFR 880.6185 - Cast cover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cast cover. 880.6185 Section 880.6185 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES....6185 Cast cover. (a) Identification. A cast cover is a device intended for medical purposes that is...

  11. 40 CFR 1502.11 - Cover sheet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cover sheet. 1502.11 Section 1502.11 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENT § 1502.11 Cover sheet. The cover sheet shall not exceed one page. It shall include: (a) A list of the responsible...

  12. 16 CFR 436.3 - Cover page.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cover page. 436.3 Section 436.3 Commercial... CONCERNING FRANCHISING Contents of a Disclosure Document § 436.3 Cover page. Begin the disclosure document with a cover page, in the order and form as follows: (a) The title “FRANCHISE DISCLOSURE DOCUMENT” in...

  13. Land cover changes in central Sonora Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diego Valdez-Zamudio; Alejandro Castellanos-Villegas; Stuart Marsh

    2000-01-01

    Remote sensing techniques have been demonstrated to be very effective tools to help detect, analyze, and evaluate land cover changes in natural areas of the world. Changes in land cover can generally be attributed to either natural or anthropogenic forces. Multitemporal satellite imagery and airborne videography were used to detect, analyze, and evaluate land cover...

  14. Managing cover crops: an economic perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Common reasons given by producers as to why they do not adopt cover crops are related to economics: time, labor, and cost required for planting and managing cover crops. While many of the agronomic benefits of cover crops directly relate to economics, there are costs associated with adopting the pra...

  15. Field Water Balance of Landfill Final Covers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landfill covers are critical to waste containment, yet field performance of specific cover designs has not been well documented and seldom been compared in side-by-side testing. A study was conducted to assess the ability of landfill final covers to control percolation into unde...

  16. 49 CFR 193.2167 - Covered systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Covered systems. 193.2167 Section 193.2167...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Design Impoundment Design and Capacity § 193.2167 Covered systems. A covered impounding system is prohibited except for concrete wall designed tanks where the concrete wall is an outer...

  17. Developed land cover of Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    William A. Gould; Sebastian Martinuzzi; Olga M. Ramos Gonzalez

    2008-01-01

    This map shows the distribution of developed land cover in Puerto Rico (Martinuzzi et al. 2007). Developed land cover refers to urban, built-up and non-vegetated areas that result from human activity. These typically include built structures, concrete, asphalt, and other infrastructure. The developed land cover was estimated using Landsat 7 ETM+ satellite images pan...

  18. RSRM top hat cover simulator lightning test, volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    The test sequence was to measure electric and magnetic fields induced inside a redesigned solid rocket motor case when a simulated lightning discharge strikes an exposed top hat cover simulator. The test sequence was conducted between 21 June and 17 July 1990. Thirty-six high rate-of-rise Marx generator discharges and eight high current bank discharges were injected onto three different test article configurations. Attach points included three locations on the top hat cover simulator and two locations on the mounting bolts. Top hat cover simulator and mounting bolt damage and grain cover damage was observed. Overall electric field levels were well below 30 kilowatts/meter. Electric field levels ranged from 184.7 to 345.9 volts/meter and magnetic field levels were calculated from 6.921 to 39.73 amperes/meter. It is recommended that the redesigned solid rocket motor top hat cover be used in Configuration 1 or Configuration 2 as an interim lightning protection device until a lightweight cover can be designed.

  19. Early neural network development history: the age of Camelot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhart, R C; Dobbins, R W

    1990-01-01

    What the authors refer to as the first of four ages in the development of neural networks is discussed. It begins about a century ago with the American psychologist William James, and ends in 1969 with the publication of the book by M. Minsky and S. Papert on perceptrons. The history of this period is reviewed, focusing on people rather than just on theory or technology. The contributions of a number of individuals are discussed and related to how neural network tools are being implemented today. The selection of individuals discussed is somewhat arbitrary and not exhaustive, as the intent is to provide a broad sampling of people who contributed to current neural network technology. Besides James, the authors cover the work of W.C. McCulloch and W. Pitts (1943), D. Hebb (1949), and B. Widrow and M. Hoff (1960).

  20. Impedance-Source Networks for Electric Power Conversion Part I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siwakoti, Yam P.; Peng, Fang Zheng; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2015-01-01

    of the traditional voltage source, current source as well as various classical buck-boost, unidirectional, and bidirectional converter topologies. Proper implementation of the impedance-source network with appropriate switching configurations and topologies reduces the number of power conversion stages in the system...... power chain, which may improve the reliability and performance of the power system. The first part of this paper provides a comprehensive review of the various impedance-source-networks-based power converters and discusses the main topologies from an application point of view. This review paper......Impedance networks cover the entire of electric power conversion from dc (converter, rectifier), ac (inverter), to phase and frequency conversion (ac-ac) in a wide range of applications. Various converter topologies have been reported in the literature to overcome the limitations and problems...

  1. Security Shift in Future Network Architectures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, T.; Schotanus, H.A.; Verkoelen, C.A.A.

    2010-01-01

    In current practice military communication infrastructures are deployed as stand-alone networked information systems. Network-Enabled Capabilities (NEC) and combined military operations lead to new requirements which current communication architectures cannot deliver. This paper informs IT

  2. Diamagnetic currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macris, N.; Martin, Ph. A.; Pulé, J. V.

    1988-06-01

    We study the diamagnetic surface currents of particles in thermal equilibrium submitted to a constant magnetic field. The current density of independent electrons with Boltzmann (respectively Fermi) statistics has a gaussian (respectively exponential) bound for its fall off into the bulk. For a system of interacting particles at low activity with Boltzmann statistics, the current density is localized near to the boundary and integrable when the two-body potential decays as |x|-α, α >4, α>4, in three dimensions. In all cases, the integral of the current density is independent of the nature of the confining wall and correctly related to the bulk magnetisation. The results hold for hard and soft walls and all field strength. The analysis relies on the Feynman-Kac-Ito representation of the Gibbs state and on specific properties of the Brownian bridge process.

  3. Spin current

    CERN Document Server

    Valenzuela, Sergio O; Saitoh, Eiji; Kimura, Takashi

    2017-01-01

    Since the discovery of the giant magnetoresistance effect in magnetic multilayers in 1988, a new branch of physics and technology, called spin-electronics or spintronics, has emerged, where the flow of electrical charge as well as the flow of electron spin, the so-called “spin current,” are manipulated and controlled together. The physics of magnetism and the application of spin current have progressed in tandem with the nanofabrication technology of magnets and the engineering of interfaces and thin films. This book aims to provide an introduction and guide to the new physics and applications of spin current, with an emphasis on the interaction between spin and charge currents in magnetic nanostructures.

  4. Path Network Recovery Using Remote Sensing Data and Geospatial-Temporal Semantic Graphs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLendon, William C.,; Brost, Randolph

    2016-05-01

    Remote sensing systems produce large volumes of high-resolution images that are difficult to search. The GeoGraphy (pronounced Geo-Graph-y) framework [2, 20] encodes remote sensing imagery into a geospatial-temporal semantic graph representation to enable high level semantic searches to be performed. Typically scene objects such as buildings and trees tend to be shaped like blocks with few holes, but other shapes generated from path networks tend to have a large number of holes and can span a large geographic region due to their connectedness. For example, we have a dataset covering the city of Philadelphia in which there is a single road network node spanning a 6 mile x 8 mile region. Even a simple question such as "find two houses near the same street" might give unexpected results. More generally, nodes arising from networks of paths (roads, sidewalks, trails, etc.) require additional processing to make them useful for searches in GeoGraphy. We have assigned the term Path Network Recovery to this process. Path Network Recovery is a three-step process involving (1) partitioning the network node into segments, (2) repairing broken path segments interrupted by occlusions or sensor noise, and (3) adding path-aware search semantics into GeoQuestions. This report covers the path network recovery process, how it is used, and some example use cases of the current capabilities.

  5. Cognitive Dynamic Optical Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Miguel, Ignacio; Duran, Ramon J.; Jimenez, Tamara

    2013-01-01

    The use of cognition is a promising element for the control of heterogeneous optical networks. Not only are cognitive networks able to sense current network conditions and act according to them, but they also take into account the knowledge acquired through past experiences; that is, they include...... learning with the aim of improving performance. In this paper, we review the fundamentals of cognitive networks and focus on their application to the optical networking area. In particular, a number of cognitive network architectures proposed so far, as well as their associated supporting technologies......, are reviewed. Moreover, several applications, mainly developed in the framework of the EU FP7 Cognitive Heterogeneous Reconfigurable Optical Network (CHRON) project, are also described....

  6. Wheelspace windage cover plate for turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathrop, Norman Douglas

    2002-01-01

    Windage cover plates are secured between the wheels and spacer of a turbine rotor to prevent hot flow path gas ingestion into the wheelspace cavities. Each cover plate includes a linear, axially extending body curved circumferentially with a radially outwardly directed wall at one axial end. The wall defines a axially opening recess for receiving a dovetail lug. The cover plate includes an axially extending tongue received in a circumferential groove of the spacer. The cover plate is secured with the tongue in the groove and dovetail lug in the recess. Lap joints between circumferentially adjacent cover plates are provided.

  7. Wireless networked music performance

    CERN Document Server

    Gabrielli, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive overview of the state of the art in Networked Music Performance (NMP) and a historical survey of computer music networking. It introduces current technical trends in NMP and technical issues yet to be addressed. It also lists wireless communication protocols and compares these to the requirements of NMP. Practical use cases and advancements are also discussed.

  8. Fish Assemblage Responses to Forest Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burcher, Chris L.; McTammany, Matthew E.; Benfield, E. Fred; Helfman, Gene S.

    2008-03-01

    We investigated whether fish assemblage structure in southern Appalachian streams differed with historical and contemporary forest cover. We compared fish assemblages in 2nd-4th order streams draining watersheds that had increased forest cover between 1950 and 1993 (i.e ., reforesting watersheds). We sampled fish in 50 m reaches during August 2001 and calculated catch-per-unit-effort (CPUE) by taxonomic, distributional, trophic, reproductive, and thermal metrics. We assigned streams to reforestation categories based on cluster analysis of years 1950 and 1993 near-stream forest cover. The relationship between forest cover and assemblage structure was assessed using analysis of variance to identify differences in fish CPUE in five forest cover categories. Streams contained 23 fish species representing six families, and taxa richness ranged from 1 to 13 at 30 stream sites. Streams with relatively low near-stream forest cover were different from streams having moderate to high near-stream forest cover in 1950 and 1993. Fish assemblages in streams having the lowest amount of forest cover (53-75%) were characterized by higher cosmopolitan, brood hider, detritivore/herbivore, intermediate habitat breadths, run-pool dweller, and warm water tolerant fish CPUE compared to streams with higher riparian forest cover. Our results suggest that fish assemblage’s structural and functional diversity and/or richness may be lower in streams having lower recent or past riparian forest cover compared to assemblages in streams having a high degree of near-stream forest cover.

  9. Application and Network-Cognizant Proxies - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonio Ortega; Daniel C. Lee

    2003-03-24

    OAK B264 Application and Network-Cognizant Proxies - Final Report. Current networks show increasing heterogeneity both in terms of their bandwidths/delays and the applications they are required to support. This is a trend that is likely to intensify in the future, as real-time services, such as video, become more widely available and networking access over wireless links becomes more widespread. For this reason they propose that application-specific proxies, intermediate network nodes that broker the interactions between server and client, will become an increasingly important network element. These proxies will allow adaptation to changes in network characteristics without requiring a direct intervention of either server or client. Moreover, it will be possible to locate these proxies strategically at those points where a mismatch occurs between subdomains (for example, a proxy could be placed so as to act as a bridge between a reliable network domain and an unreliable one). This design philosophy favors scalability in the sense that the basic network infrastructure can remain unchanged while new functionality can be added to proxies, as required by the applications. While proxies can perform numerous generic functions, such as caching or security, they concentrate here on media-specific, and in particular video-specific, tasks. The goal of this project was to demonstrate that application- and network-specific knowledge at a proxy can improve overall performance especially under changing network conditions. They summarize below the work performed to address these issues. Particular effort was spent in studying caching techniques and on video classification to enable DiffServ delivery. other work included analysis of traffic characteristics, optimized media scheduling, coding techniques based on multiple description coding, and use of proxies to reduce computation costs. This work covered much of what was originally proposed but with a necessarily reduced scope.

  10. Optical Access Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jun; Ansari, Nirwan

    2005-06-01

    Call for Papers: Optical Access Networks With the wide deployment of fiber-optic technology over the past two decades, we have witnessed a tremendous growth of bandwidth capacity in the backbone networks of today's telecommunications infrastructure. However, access networks, which cover the "last-mile" areas and serve numerous residential and small business users, have not been scaled up commensurately. The local subscriber lines for telephone and cable television are still using twisted pairs and coaxial cables. Most residential connections to the Internet are still through dial-up modems operating at a low speed on twisted pairs. As the demand for access bandwidth increases with emerging high-bandwidth applications, such as distance learning, high-definition television (HDTV), and video on demand (VoD), the last-mile access networks have become a bandwidth bottleneck in today's telecommunications infrastructure. To ease this bottleneck, it is imperative to provide sufficient bandwidth capacity in the access networks to open the bottleneck and thus present more opportunities for the provisioning of multiservices. Optical access solutions promise huge bandwidth to service providers and low-cost high-bandwidth services to end users and are therefore widely considered the technology of choice for next-generation access networks. To realize the vision of optical access networks, however, many key issues still need to be addressed, such as network architectures, signaling protocols, and implementation standards. The major challenges lie in the fact that an optical solution must be not only robust, scalable, and flexible, but also implemented at a low cost comparable to that of existing access solutions in order to increase the economic viability of many potential high-bandwidth applications. In recent years, optical access networks have been receiving tremendous attention from both academia and industry. A large number of research activities have been carried out or

  11. Symmetry in Complex Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Garrido

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we analyze a few interrelated concepts about graphs, such as their degree, entropy, or their symmetry/asymmetry levels. These concepts prove useful in the study of different types of Systems, and particularly, in the analysis of Complex Networks. A System can be defined as any set of components functioning together as a whole. A systemic point of view allows us to isolate a part of the world, and so, we can focus on those aspects that interact more closely than others. Network Science analyzes the interconnections among diverse networks from different domains: physics, engineering, biology, semantics, and so on. Current developments in the quantitative analysis of Complex Networks, based on graph theory, have been rapidly translated to studies of brain network organization. The brain's systems have complex network features—such as the small-world topology, highly connected hubs and modularity. These networks are not random. The topology of many different networks shows striking similarities, such as the scale-free structure, with the degree distribution following a Power Law. How can very different systems have the same underlying topological features? Modeling and characterizing these networks, looking for their governing laws, are the current lines of research. So, we will dedicate this Special Issue paper to show measures of symmetry in Complex Networks, and highlight their close relation with measures of information and entropy.

  12. Bioprinting: Functional droplet networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durmus, Naside Gozde; Tasoglu, Savas; Demirci, Utkan

    2013-06-01

    Tissue-mimicking printed networks of droplets separated by lipid bilayers that can be functionalized with membrane proteins are able to spontaneously fold and transmit electrical currents along predefined paths.

  13. Neutral currents

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2069482

    1986-01-01

    The present status of weak neutral currents is reviewed. F.mphasis is put on the comparison of recent experimental results with earlier ones, and with predictions of gauge models of the SU(Z) ® U(l) type. The coupling constants governing the weak neutral current interaction are given, and their quantitative agreement with the Salam-Weinberg model is critically examined. 1. INrRODUCT ION 25 The last year has been a period of consolidation for neutral current physics. Important new results and improvements of old results have been reported, but our picture of the neutral current interaction did not change compared to that of one year ago 1 • 2). Hence the emphasis of this review is put on recent experimental results, and on a critical discussion of the precision of those experiments which yield the most stringent constraints on model parameters. The processes which can occur via the weak neutral current interaction are depicted in the "Sakurai tetragon" 3) which is shown in Fig. 1. It is an analogue to the P...

  14. Large-Scale Field Study of Landfill Covers at Sandia National Laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dwyer, S.F.

    1998-09-01

    A large-scale field demonstration comparing final landfill cover designs has been constructed and is currently being monitored at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Two conventional designs (a RCRA Subtitle `D' Soil Cover and a RCRA Subtitle `C' Compacted Clay Cover) were constructed side-by-side with four alternative cover test plots designed for dry environments. The demonstration is intended to evaluate the various cover designs based on their respective water balance performance, ease and reliability of construction, and cost. This paper presents an overview of the ongoing demonstration.

  15. Design Criteria For Networked Image Analysis System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reader, Cliff; Nitteberg, Alan

    1982-01-01

    Image systems design is currently undergoing a metamorphosis from the conventional computing systems of the past into a new generation of special purpose designs. This change is motivated by several factors, notably among which is the increased opportunity for high performance with low cost offered by advances in semiconductor technology. Another key issue is a maturing in understanding of problems and the applicability of digital processing techniques. These factors allow the design of cost-effective systems that are functionally dedicated to specific applications and used in a utilitarian fashion. Following an overview of the above stated issues, the paper presents a top-down approach to the design of networked image analysis systems. The requirements for such a system are presented, with orientation toward the hospital environment. The three main areas are image data base management, viewing of image data and image data processing. This is followed by a survey of the current state of the art, covering image display systems, data base techniques, communications networks and software systems control. The paper concludes with a description of the functional subystems and architectural framework for networked image analysis in a production environment.

  16. KNOWLEDGE TRANSFER THROUGH NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GYÖRGY ATTILA

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge is a vital intangible asset for any organization and cannot be valued exactly due its special form of materialization. Although we have this drawback, a scientifically established value should be used in order to measure the performance of knowledge holders. A correct valuation helps to know the worth of assets offered in exploitation. Exploitation of this resource could be done in several different ways, but integration in knowledge networks seems to generate best efficiency ratio. Networks offer the possibility to change information, to obtain new information, to build further ideas arose from network partners or to develop together new ideas. Thus, networks assure conditions to optimize the members’ knowledge portfolios. Optimization of knowledge usage creates benefits for network members. These benefits could be profits (if members are private companies or social welfare (if members are looking after collective purposes. Taxonomy of knowledge networks is diverse, permitting an adaptation to the needs of members. Networks permit a large scale of heterogeneity. Since an important part of new knowledge creating costs is covered from public budgetary resources, a special development is recorded at those networks which are exclusively or partly organized in the public sector or benefit by participation from the public sector.

  17. Advances in dynamic network modeling in complex transportation systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ukkusuri, Satish V

    2013-01-01

    This book focuses on the latest in dynamic network modeling, including route guidance and traffic control in transportation systems and other complex infrastructure networks. Covers dynamic traffic assignment, flow modeling, mobile sensor deployment and more.

  18. Parameterized study of the test cover problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crowston, Robert; Gutin, Gregory; Jones, Mark

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we carry out a systematic study of a natural covering problem, used for identification across several areas, in the realm of parameterized complexity. In the Test Cover problem we are given a set [n] = {1,...,n} of items together with a collection, , of distinct subsets of these items...... called tests. We assume that is a test cover, i.e., for each pair of items there is a test in containing exactly one of these items. The objective is to find a minimum size subcollection of , which is still a test cover. The generic parameterized version of Test Cover is denoted by -Test Cover. Here, we...... are given and a positive integer parameter k as input and the objective is to decide whether there is a test cover of size at most . We study four parameterizations for Test Cover and obtain the following: (a) k-Test Cover, and (n - k)-Test Cover are fixed-parameter tractable (FPT), i.e., these problems can...

  19. Tree diversity and canopy cover in cocoa systems in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asare, Richard; Ræbild, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) growing systems in Ghana and West Africa consist of diverse tree species and densities.This study was conducted to determine factors that influence tree species configurations and how tree characteristics affect canopy cover in cocoa farms. Eighty-six farmers...... and corresponding farms were selected in a systematic approach in four districts across two agro-ecological zones in Ghana. Results show that men tend to have larger farm sizes, higher tree density and diversity than women. Tree density and canopy cover of shade trees were low on large farms, but diversity...... increased with increasing farm sizes. Even though there was a significant correlation between diameter at breast height and crown area for all species investigated, tree species differed considerably in their crown area and thus the amount of ground cover provided. Current recommendations for shade...

  20. Current Titles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Various

    2006-06-01

    This booklet is published for those interested in current research being conducted at the National Center for Electron Microscopy. The NCEM is a DOE-designated national user facility and is available at no charge to qualified researchers. Access is controlled by an external steering committee. Interested researchers may contact Jane Cavlina, Administrator, at 510/486-6036.

  1. Cable networks, services, and management

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    Cable Networks, Services, and Management is the first book to cover cable networks, services, and their management, in-depth, for network operators, engineers, researchers, and students. Thirteen experts in various fields have contributed their knowledge of network architectures and services, Operations, Administration, Maintenance, Provisioning, Troubleshooting (OAMPT) for residential and business services, cloud, Software Defined Networks (SDN), as well as virtualization concepts and their applications as part of the future directions of cable networks. The book begins by introducing architecture and services for Data Over Cable Service Interface Specification (DOCSIS) 3.0/ 3.1, Converged Cable Access Platform (CCAP), Content Distribution Networks (CDN, IP TV, and Packet Cable and Wi-Fi for Residential Services. Topics that are discussed in proceeding chapters include: operational systems and management architectures, service orders, provisioning, fault manageme t, performance management, billing systems a...

  2. Declarative Networking

    CERN Document Server

    Loo, Boon Thau

    2012-01-01

    Declarative Networking is a programming methodology that enables developers to concisely specify network protocols and services, which are directly compiled to a dataflow framework that executes the specifications. Declarative networking proposes the use of a declarative query language for specifying and implementing network protocols, and employs a dataflow framework at runtime for communication and maintenance of network state. The primary goal of declarative networking is to greatly simplify the process of specifying, implementing, deploying and evolving a network design. In addition, decla

  3. Global Operations Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    In the current context of global economic liberalisation and technological advancements, industrial companies are less likely to generate value in the traditional vertically integrated chain. Instead, they are doing so by means of elaborate cross-border and cross-organisational networks. As a rule...... and processes in global operations networks, and • Trajectories and reconfiguration of global operations networks. The themes are intended to incorporate elements which in combination provide a comprehensive multidisciplinary view on operations networks. Behind these themes lay clusters of questions and topics...

  4. Circuit switched optical networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kloch, Allan

    2003-01-01

    -connects can substitute the electrical nodes that today connect the installed optical fibres. This substitution will enable a massive increase in capacity since the bandwidth of the individual wavelength channels can be increased drastically when the electronic bit processing can be omitted. Furthermore......, it is expected that the optical solution will offer an economical benefit for hight bit rate networks. This thesis begins with a discussion of the expected impact on communications systems from the rapidly growing IP traffic, which is expected to become the dominant source for traffic. IP traffic has some...... characteristics, which are best supported by an optical network. The interest for such an optical network is exemplified by the formation of the ACTS OPEN project which aim was to investigate the feasibility of an optical network covering Europe. Part of the work presented in this thesis is carried out within...

  5. MATHEMATIC SIMULATION OF TRANSIENT PROCESS IN A. C – SYSTEM “ELECTRIC – TRACTION – NETWORK – LOCOMOTIVE” 2. SWITCH ON THE MAIN LOCOMOTIVE’S POWER CONVERTER IN “FREE PAY” MODE; DEFINITION AND ANALYSIS CURRENT SURGE OF MAGNETIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. Mischenko

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is a continuation of analysis of mathematical models for AC systems, in which the elements of electric-traction network and switch-on of power transformer in an idling mode are gradually connected. The numerical calculations and analysis of current of transformer magnetization are executed.

  6. TCP/IP Network Administration

    CERN Document Server

    Hunt, Craig

    2002-01-01

    This complete guide to setting up and running a TCP/IP network is essential for network administrators, and invaluable for users of home systems that access the Internet. The book starts with the fundamentals -- what protocols do and how they work, how addresses and routing are used to move data through the network, how to set up your network connection -- and then covers, in detail, everything you need to know to exchange information via the Internet. Included are discussions on advanced routing protocols (RIPv2, OSPF, and BGP) and the gated software package that implements them, a tutorial

  7. Human factors in network security

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Francis B.

    1991-01-01

    Human factors, such as ethics and education, are important factors in network information security. This thesis determines which human factors have significant influence on network security. Those factors are examined in relation to current security devices and procedures. Methods are introduced to evaluate security effectiveness by incorporating the appropriate human factors into network security controls

  8. Forest Cover Mapping in Iskandar Malaysia Using Satellite Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanniah, K. D.; Mohd Najib, N. E.; Vu, T. T.

    2016-09-01

    Malaysia is the third largest country in the world that had lost forest cover. Therefore, timely information on forest cover is required to help the government to ensure that the remaining forest resources are managed in a sustainable manner. This study aims to map and detect changes of forest cover (deforestation and disturbance) in Iskandar Malaysia region in the south of Peninsular Malaysia between years 1990 and 2010 using Landsat satellite images. The Carnegie Landsat Analysis System-Lite (CLASlite) programme was used to classify forest cover using Landsat images. This software is able to mask out clouds, cloud shadows, terrain shadows, and water bodies and atmospherically correct the images using 6S radiative transfer model. An Automated Monte Carlo Unmixing technique embedded in CLASlite was used to unmix each Landsat pixel into fractions of photosynthetic vegetation (PV), non photosynthetic vegetation (NPV) and soil surface (S). Forest and non-forest areas were produced from the fractional cover images using appropriate threshold values of PV, NPV and S. CLASlite software was found to be able to classify forest cover in Iskandar Malaysia with only a difference between 14% (1990) and 5% (2010) compared to the forest land use map produced by the Department of Agriculture, Malaysia. Nevertheless, the CLASlite automated software used in this study was found not to exclude other vegetation types especially rubber and oil palm that has similar reflectance to forest. Currently rubber and oil palm were discriminated from forest manually using land use maps. Therefore, CLASlite algorithm needs further adjustment to exclude these vegetation and classify only forest cover.

  9. FOREST COVER MAPPING IN ISKANDAR MALAYSIA USING SATELLITE DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. D. Kanniah

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Malaysia is the third largest country in the world that had lost forest cover. Therefore, timely information on forest cover is required to help the government to ensure that the remaining forest resources are managed in a sustainable manner. This study aims to map and detect changes of forest cover (deforestation and disturbance in Iskandar Malaysia region in the south of Peninsular Malaysia between years 1990 and 2010 using Landsat satellite images. The Carnegie Landsat Analysis System-Lite (CLASlite programme was used to classify forest cover using Landsat images. This software is able to mask out clouds, cloud shadows, terrain shadows, and water bodies and atmospherically correct the images using 6S radiative transfer model. An Automated Monte Carlo Unmixing technique embedded in CLASlite was used to unmix each Landsat pixel into fractions of photosynthetic vegetation (PV, non photosynthetic vegetation (NPV and soil surface (S. Forest and non-forest areas were produced from the fractional cover images using appropriate threshold values of PV, NPV and S. CLASlite software was found to be able to classify forest cover in Iskandar Malaysia with only a difference between 14% (1990 and 5% (2010 compared to the forest land use map produced by the Department of Agriculture, Malaysia. Nevertheless, the CLASlite automated software used in this study was found not to exclude other vegetation types especially rubber and oil palm that has similar reflectance to forest. Currently rubber and oil palm were discriminated from forest manually using land use maps. Therefore, CLASlite algorithm needs further adjustment to exclude these vegetation and classify only forest cover.

  10. Sentinel-1 Potential for Land Cover Classification

    OpenAIRE

    Schwarz, Gottfried; Dumitru, Octavian; Datcu, Mihai

    2017-01-01

    One of the main applications of ESA’s Sentinel-1 SAR data is land cover analysis and classification. The regular repeat cycle imaging and the resulting time series of overlapping Sentinel-1 SAR images prompted us to develop reliable image classification tools that allow a quantitative inter-comparison of selected land cover areas. Our aim was to identify pre-defined land cover categories, and to observe the temporal evolution of these categories versus time.

  11. The model of social crypto-network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Марк Миколайович Орел

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the theoretical model of social network with the enhanced mechanism of privacy policy. It covers the problems arising in the process of implementing the mentioned type of network. There are presented the methods of solving problems arising in the process of building the social network with privacy policy. It was built a theoretical model of social networks with enhanced information protection methods based on information and communication blocks

  12. Sinkhole Avoidance Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-09

    COVERED (From- To) 09-05-2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Sinkhole Avoidance Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks 5b . GRANT NUMBER . 5c...reliability of wireless sensor networks. 15. SUBJECT TERMS wireless sensor networks, sinkhole attack, routing protocol 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION...Include area code) Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8/98) Prescribed by ANSI Std . Z39.18 1 Sinkhole Avoidance Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks MIDN 1/C

  13. The handbook of optical communication networks

    CERN Document Server

    Ilyas, Mohammad

    2003-01-01

    The Handbook of Optical Communication Networks presents comprehensive, up-to-date technical information on integrated, state-of-the-art optical networks. Beginning with an in-depth intoduction to the field, top international authorities explore every major aspect of optical networks, from basic concepts to research grade material. Their discussions cover all of the essential topics, including protocols, resource management, routing and wavelength assignment in WDM networks, connection management, survivability, enabling technologies, and future trends.

  14. The model of social crypto-network

    OpenAIRE

    Марк Миколайович Орел

    2015-01-01

    The article presents the theoretical model of social network with the enhanced mechanism of privacy policy. It covers the problems arising in the process of implementing the mentioned type of network. There are presented the methods of solving problems arising in the process of building the social network with privacy policy. It was built a theoretical model of social networks with enhanced information protection methods based on information and communication blocks

  15. Fixed Access Network Sharing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornaglia, Bruno; Young, Gavin; Marchetta, Antonio

    2015-12-01

    Fixed broadband network deployments are moving inexorably to the use of Next Generation Access (NGA) technologies and architectures. These NGA deployments involve building fiber infrastructure increasingly closer to the customer in order to increase the proportion of fiber on the customer's access connection (Fibre-To-The-Home/Building/Door/Cabinet… i.e. FTTx). This increases the speed of services that can be sold and will be increasingly required to meet the demands of new generations of video services as we evolve from HDTV to "Ultra-HD TV" with 4k and 8k lines of video resolution. However, building fiber access networks is a costly endeavor. It requires significant capital in order to cover any significant geographic coverage. Hence many companies are forming partnerships and joint-ventures in order to share the NGA network construction costs. One form of such a partnership involves two companies agreeing to each build to cover a certain geographic area and then "cross-selling" NGA products to each other in order to access customers within their partner's footprint (NGA coverage area). This is tantamount to a bi-lateral wholesale partnership. The concept of Fixed Access Network Sharing (FANS) is to address the possibility of sharing infrastructure with a high degree of flexibility for all network operators involved. By providing greater configuration control over the NGA network infrastructure, the service provider has a greater ability to define the network and hence to define their product capabilities at the active layer. This gives the service provider partners greater product development autonomy plus the ability to differentiate from each other at the active network layer.

  16. Thresholds for soil cover and weathering in mountainous landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Jean; Benjaram, Sarah

    2017-04-01

    The patterns of soil formation, weathering, and erosion shape terrestrial landscapes, forming the foundation on which ecosystems and human civilizations are built. Several fundamental questions remain regarding how soils evolve, especially in mountainous landscapes where tectonics and climate exert complex forcings on erosion and weathering. In these systems, quantifying weathering is made difficult by the fact that soil cover is discontinuous and heterogeneous. Therefore, studies that attempt to measure soil weathering in such systems face a difficult bias in measurements towards more weathered portions of the landscape. Here, we explore current understanding of erosion-weathering feedbacks, and present new data from mountain systems in Western Montana. Using field mapping, analysis of LiDAR and remotely sensed land-cover data, and soil chemical analyses, we measure soil cover and surface weathering intensity across multiple spatial scales, from the individual soil profile to a landscape perspective. Our data suggest that local emergence of bedrock cover at the surface marks a landscape transition from supply to kinetic weathering regimes in these systems, and highlights the importance of characterizing complex critical zone architecture in mountain landscapes. This work provides new insight into how landscape morphology and erosion may drive important thresholds for soil cover and weathering.

  17. Managing Interorganizational Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, Jeppe

    bold enough to predict that networks will become the dominant organisation form in future. Several authors maintain that the shift from traditional hierarchical structures to networks involves dramatic changes for managers and employees (Champy 2002, Rohlin 1994, Kanter 2002). This article seeks...... to isolate some of the forthcoming changes and outlines a map for network management. We will try to avoid summarising the increasingly extensive literature about organisations which are characterised by networks and restrict our focus to management in inter-organisational networks. Inter......Management literature’s many descriptions of the current and future challenges and new trends within organisation and management forms depict a motley and kaleidoscopic picture of the future. However, one idea reoccurs throughout most of the literature – the organisational network. Some are even...

  18. Software Defined Networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caba, Cosmin Marius

    resources are limited. Hence, to counteract this trend, current QoS mechanisms must become simpler to deploy and operate, in order to motivate NSPs to employ QoS techniques instead of overprovisioning. Software Defined Networking (SDN) represents a paradigm shift in the way telecommunication and data...... networks are designed and managed. This thesis argues that SDN can greatly simplify QoS provisioning in communication networks, and even improve QoS in various ways. To this end, the impact of SDN on QoS is assessed from both a network performance perspective (e.g. bandwidth, delay), and also from a more...... generic perspective (e.g. service provisioning speed, resources availability). As a result, new mechanisms for providing QoS are proposed, solutions for SDN-specific QoS challenges are designed and tested, and new network management concepts are prototyped, all aiming to improve QoS for network services...

  19. Macroecology of pollination networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristian Trøjelsgaard; Olesen, Jens Mogens

    2013-01-01

    Aim Interacting communities of species are organized into complex networks, and network analysis is reckoned to be a strong tool for describing their architecture. Many species assemblies show strong macroecological patterns, e.g. increasing species richness with decreasing latitude, but whether...... towards the tropics, and that network topology would be affected by current climate. Location Global. Methods Each network was organized as a presence/absence matrix, consisting of P plant species, A pollinator species and their links. From these matrices, network parameters were estimated. Additionally......, data about geography (latitude, elevation), climate at the network site (temperature, precipitation) and sampling effort (observation days) and extent (study-plot size) were gathered. Analyses were done using simultaneous autoregressive modelling (SAR). Results Species richness did not vary strongly...

  20. Cloud cover estimation optical package: New facility, algorithms and techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krinitskiy, Mikhail

    2017-02-01

    Short- and long-wave radiation is an important component of surface heat budget over sea and land. For estimating them accurate observations of the cloud cover are needed. While massively observed visually, for building accurate parameterizations cloud cover needs also to be quantified using precise instrumental measurements. Major disadvantages of the most of existing cloud-cameras are associated with their complicated design and inaccuracy of post-processing algorithms which typically result in the uncertainties of 20% to 30% in the camera-based estimates of cloud cover. The accuracy of these types of algorithm in terms of true scoring compared to human-observed values is typically less than 10%. We developed new generation package for cloud cover estimating, which provides much more accurate results and also allows for measuring additional characteristics. New algorithm, namely SAIL GrIx, based on routine approach, also developed for this package. It uses the synthetic controlling index ("grayness rate index") which allows to suppress the background sunburn effect. This makes it possible to increase the reliability of the detection of the optically thin clouds. The accuracy of this algorithm in terms of true scoring became 30%. One more approach, namely SAIL GrIx ML, we have used to increase the cloud cover estimating accuracy is the algorithm that uses machine learning technique along with some other signal processing techniques. Sun disk condition appears to be a strong feature in this kind of models. Artificial Neural Networks type of model demonstrates the best quality. This model accuracy in terms of true scoring increases up to 95,5%. Application of a new algorithm lets us to modify the design of the optical sensing package and to avoid the use of the solar trackers. This made the design of the cloud camera much more compact. New cloud-camera has already been tested in several missions across Atlantic and Indian oceans on board of IORAS research vessels.

  1. Global Ocean Currents Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, T.; Sun, L.

    2016-02-01

    The NOAA's National Centers for Environmental Information has released an ocean currents database portal that aims 1) to integrate global ocean currents observations from a variety of instruments with different resolution, accuracy and response to spatial and temporal variability into a uniform network common data form (NetCDF) format and 2) to provide a dedicated online data discovery, access to NCEI-hosted and distributed data sources for ocean currents data. The portal provides a tailored web application that allows users to search for ocean currents data by platform types and spatial/temporal ranges of their interest. The dedicated web application is available at http://www.nodc.noaa.gov/gocd/index.html. The NetCDF format supports widely-used data access protocols and catalog services such as OPeNDAP (Open-source Project for a Network Data Access Protocol) and THREDDS (Thematic Real-time Environmental Distributed Data Services), which the GOCD users can use data files with their favorite analysis and visualization client software without downloading to their local machine. The potential users of the ocean currents database include, but are not limited to, 1) ocean modelers for their model skills assessments, 2) scientists and researchers for studying the impact of ocean circulations on the climate variability, 3) ocean shipping industry for safety navigation and finding optimal routes for ship fuel efficiency, 4) ocean resources managers while planning for the optimal sites for wastes and sewages dumping and for renewable hydro-kinematic energy, and 5) state and federal governments to provide historical (analyzed) ocean circulations as an aid for search and rescue

  2. Evaluating the connectivity of a protected areas' network under the prism of global change: the efficiency of the European Natura 2000 network for four birds of prey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazaris, Antonios D; Papanikolaou, Alexandra D; Barbet-Massin, Morgane; Kallimanis, Athanasios S; Jiguet, Frédéric; Schmeller, Dirk S; Pantis, John D

    2013-01-01

    Climate and land use changes are major threats to biodiversity. To preserve biodiversity, networks of protected areas have been established worldwide, like the Natura 2000 network across the European Union (EU). Currently, this reserve network consists of more than 26000 sites covering more than 17% of EU terrestrial territory. Its efficiency to mitigate the detrimental effects of land use and climate change remains an open research question. Here, we examined the potential current and future geographical ranges of four birds of prey under scenarios of both land use and climate changes. By using graph theory, we examined how the current Natura 2000 network will perform in regard to the conservation of these species. This approach determines the importance of a site in regard to the total network and its connectivity. We found that sites becoming unsuitable due to climate change are not a random sample of the network, but are less connected and contribute less to the overall connectivity than the average site and thus their loss does not disrupt the full network. Hence, the connectivity of the remaining network changed only slightly from present day conditions. Our findings highlight the need to establish species-specific management plans with flexible conservation strategies ensuring protection under potential future range expansions. Aquila pomarina is predicted to disappear from the southern part of its range and to become restricted to northeastern Europe. Gyps fulvus, Aquila chrysaetos, and Neophron percnopterus are predicted to locally lose some suitable sites; hence, some isolated small populations may become extinct. However, their geographical range and metapopulation structure will remain relatively unaffected throughout Europe. These species would benefit more from an improved habitat quality and management of the existing network of protected areas than from increased connectivity or assisted migration.

  3. Evaluating the connectivity of a protected areas' network under the prism of global change: the efficiency of the European Natura 2000 network for four birds of prey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonios D Mazaris

    Full Text Available Climate and land use changes are major threats to biodiversity. To preserve biodiversity, networks of protected areas have been established worldwide, like the Natura 2000 network across the European Union (EU. Currently, this reserve network consists of more than 26000 sites covering more than 17% of EU terrestrial territory. Its efficiency to mitigate the detrimental effects of land use and climate change remains an open research question. Here, we examined the potential current and future geographical ranges of four birds of prey under scenarios of both land use and climate changes. By using graph theory, we examined how the current Natura 2000 network will perform in regard to the conservation of these species. This approach determines the importance of a site in regard to the total network and its connectivity. We found that sites becoming unsuitable due to climate change are not a random sample of the network, but are less connected and contribute less to the overall connectivity than the average site and thus their loss does not disrupt the full network. Hence, the connectivity of the remaining network changed only slightly from present day conditions. Our findings highlight the need to establish species-specific management plans with flexible conservation strategies ensuring protection under potential future range expansions. Aquila pomarina is predicted to disappear from the southern part of its range and to become restricted to northeastern Europe. Gyps fulvus, Aquila chrysaetos, and Neophron percnopterus are predicted to locally lose some suitable sites; hence, some isolated small populations may become extinct. However, their geographical range and metapopulation structure will remain relatively unaffected throughout Europe. These species would benefit more from an improved habitat quality and management of the existing network of protected areas than from increased connectivity or assisted migration.

  4. Application of MODIS snow cover products: wildfire impacts on snow and melt in the Sierra Nevada

    OpenAIRE

    P. D. Micheletty; A. M. Kinoshita; T. S. Hogue

    2014-01-01

    The current work evaluates the spatial and temporal variability in snow after a large forest fire in northern California with Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) snow covered area and grain size (MODSCAG) algorithm. MODIS MOD10A1 fractional snow covered area and MODSCAG fractional snow cover products are utilized to detect spatial and temporal changes in snowpack after the 2007 Moonlight Fire and an unburned basin, Grizzly Ridge, for water years...

  5. Application of MODIS snow cover products: wildfire impacts on snow and melt in the Sierra Nevada

    OpenAIRE

    P. D. Micheletty; A. M. Kinoshita; T. S. Hogue

    2014-01-01

    The current work evaluates the spatial and temporal variability in snow after a large forest fire in northern California using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) snow-covered area and grain size (MODSCAG). MODIS MOD10A1 fractional snow-covered area and MODSCAG fractional snow cover products are utilized to detect spatial and temporal changes in snowpack after the 2007 Moonlight Fire and an unburned basin, Grizzly Ridge, for water years (WY) 2002–2012. Esti...

  6. Current titles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    This booklet is published for those interested in current research being conducted at the National Center for Electron Microscopy. The NCEM is a DOE-designated national user facility and is available at no charge to qualified researchers. Access is controlled by an external steering committee. Interested researchers may contact Gretchen Hermes at (510) 486-5006 or address below for a User`s Guide. Copies of available papers can be ordered from: Theda Crawford National Center for Electron Microscopy, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, One Cyclotron Rd., MS72, Berkeley, California, USA 94720.

  7. Statistical mechanics of complex networks

    CERN Document Server

    Rubi, Miguel; Diaz-Guilera, Albert

    2003-01-01

    Networks can provide a useful model and graphic image useful for the description of a wide variety of web-like structures in the physical and man-made realms, e.g. protein networks, food webs and the Internet. The contributions gathered in the present volume provide both an introduction to, and an overview of, the multifaceted phenomenology of complex networks. Statistical Mechanics of Complex Networks also provides a state-of-the-art picture of current theoretical methods and approaches.

  8. Mumford coverings of the projective line

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Put, Marius van der; Voskuil, Harm H.

    A Mumford covering of the projective line over a complete non-archimedean valued field K is a Galois covering X → P1K such that X is a Mumford curve over K. The question which finite groups do occur as Galois group is answered in this paper. This result is extended to the case where P1K is replaced

  9. 42 CFR 6.4 - Covered individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Covered individuals. 6.4 Section 6.4 Public Health... COVERAGE OF CERTAIN GRANTEES AND INDIVIDUALS § 6.4 Covered individuals. (a) Officers and employees of a... if they meet the requirements of section 224(g)(5) of the Act. (c) An individual physician or other...

  10. Use of Cover Crops in Hardwood Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randy Rentz

    2005-01-01

    Cover crops are as essential a practice in hardwood production as in pine production or any other nursery operation. Without proper cover crop rotation in a nursery plan, we open ourselves up to an array of problems: more diseases, wrong pH, more weeds, reduced fertility, and less downward percolation of soil moisture due, in part, to compaction....

  11. "Lolita": Genealogy of a Cover Girl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Shari L.

    2015-01-01

    At the publication of Vladimir Nabokov's controversial novel "Lolita" (1958), the author insisted that a girl never appear on the cover. This discourse analysis of 185 "Lolita" book covers, most of which feature a girl, considers the genealogy of "Lolita" in relation to representation, myth, and tacit knowledge…

  12. Managing cover crops on strawberry furrow bottoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bare furrows in strawberry fields with plastic mulch covered beds can lead to lots of soil erosion and runoff during winter rainy periods. This article describes how growers can plant and manage cover crops in these furrows to minimize runoff and soil erosion. This is based on on-going research at...

  13. 49 CFR 633.11 - Covered projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Covered projects. 633.11 Section 633.11..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PROJECT MANAGEMENT OVERSIGHT Project Management Oversight Services § 633.11 Covered projects. The Administrator may contract for project management oversight services when the...

  14. Border Lakes land-cover classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvin Bauer; Brian Loeffelholz; Doug. Shinneman

    2009-01-01

    This document contains metadata and description of land-cover classification of approximately 5.1 million acres of land bordering Minnesota, U.S.A. and Ontario, Canada. The classification focused on the separation and identification of specific forest-cover types. Some separation of the nonforest classes also was performed. The classification was derived from multi-...

  15. 10 CFR 1040.14 - Covered employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., color, national origin, or sex (when covered by section 16 and section 401) in its employment practices under the program (including recruitment or recruitment advertising, employment, layoff, or termination... origin, or sex (when covered by section 16 or section 401) in such employment practices tends to exclude...

  16. Current ornithology

    CERN Document Server

    1983-01-01

    The appearance of the first volume of a projected series is the occasion for comment on scope, aims, and genesis of the work. The scope of Current Ornithology is all of the biology of birds. Ornithology, as a whole-organism science, is concerned with birds at every level of bi­ ological organization, from the molecular to the community, at least from the Jurassic to the present time, and over every scholarly discipline in which bird biology is done; to say this is merely to expand a dic­ tionary definition of "ornithology. " The aim of the work, to be realized over several volumes, is to present reviews or position statements con­ cerning the active fields of ornithological research. The reviews will be relatively short, and often will be done from the viewpoint of a readily­ identified group or school. Such a work could have come into being at any time within the past fifty years, but that Current Ornithology appears now is a result of events that are only seven to eight years old. One important event wa...

  17. Sampling and measurement issues in establishing a climate reference upper air network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardiner, T.; Madonna, F.; Wang, J.; Whiteman, D. N.; Dykema, J.; Fassò, A.; Thorne, P. W.; Bodeker, G.

    2013-09-01

    The GCOS Reference Upper Air Network (GRUAN) is an international reference observing network, designed to meet climate requirements and to fill a major void in the current global observing system. Upper air observations within the GRUAN network will provide long-term high-quality climate records, will be used to constrain and validate data from space based remote sensors, and will provide accurate data for the study of atmospheric processes. The network covers measurements of a range of key climate variables including temperature. Implementation of the network has started, and as part of this process a number of scientific questions need to be addressed in order to establish a viable climate reference upper air network, in addition to meeting the other objectives for the network measurements. These include quantifying collocation issues for different measurement techniques including the impact on the overall uncertainty of combined measurements; change management requirements when switching between sensors; assessing the benefit of complementary measurements of the same variable using different measurement techniques; and establishing the appropriate sampling strategy to determine long-term trends. This paper reviews the work that is currently underway to address these issues.

  18. Un/covering: Making Disability Identity Legible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Dawn Evans

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article examines one aspect of disability identity among people with non-apparent or "invisible" disabilities: the decision to emphasize, remind others about, or openly acknowledge impairment in social settings. I call this process "un/covering," and situate this concept in the sociological and Disability Studies literature on disability stigma, passing, and covering. Drawing on interviews with people who have acquired a non-apparent impairment through chronic illness or injury, I argue that decisions to un/cover (after a disability disclosure has already been made play a pivotal role for this group in developing a strong, positive disability identity and making that identity legible to others. Decisions to pass, cover, or un/cover are ongoing decisions that stitch together the fabric of each person's daily life experiences, thus serving as primary mechanisms for identity negotiation and management.

  19. Liquidity in Government versus Covered Bond Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dick-Nielsen, Jens; Gyntelberg, Jacob; Sangill, Thomas

    We present findings on the secondary market liquidity of government and covered bonds in Denmark before, during and after the 2008 financial crisis. The analysis focuses on wholesale trading in the two markets and is based on a complete transaction level dataset covering November 2007 until end...... 2011. Overall, our findings suggest that Danish benchmark covered bonds by and large are as liquid as Danish government bonds - including in periods of market stress. Before the financial crisis of 2008, government bonds were slightly more liquid than covered bonds. During the crisis, trading continued...... in both markets but the government bond market experienced a brief but pronounced decline in market liquidity while liquidity in the covered bond market was more robust - partly reflective of a number of events as well as policy measures introduced in the autumn of 2008. After the crisis, liquidity...

  20. N-Covers of hyperelliptic curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruin, N.; Flynn, E. V.

    2003-05-01

    For a hyperelliptic curve {ax C} of genus g with a divisor class of order n = g + 1, we shall consider an associated covering collection of curves {ax D}_delta, each of genus g(2) . We describe, up to isogeny, the Jacobian of each {ax D}_delta via a map from {ax D}_delta to {ax C}, and two independent maps from {ax D}_delta to a curve of genus g(g-1)/2. For some curves, this allows covering techniques that depend on arithmetic data of number fields of smaller degree than standard 2-coverings; we illustrate this by using 3-coverings to find all {Bbb Q}-rational points on a curve of genus 2 for which 2-covering techniques would be impractical.

  1. The network researchers' network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henneberg, Stephan C.; Jiang, Zhizhong; Naudé, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The Industrial Marketing and Purchasing (IMP) Group is a network of academic researchers working in the area of business-to-business marketing. The group meets every year to discuss and exchange ideas, with a conference having been held every year since 1984 (there was no meeting in 1987). In thi......The Industrial Marketing and Purchasing (IMP) Group is a network of academic researchers working in the area of business-to-business marketing. The group meets every year to discuss and exchange ideas, with a conference having been held every year since 1984 (there was no meeting in 1987......). In this paper, based upon the papers presented at the 22 conferences held to date, we undertake a Social Network Analysis in order to examine the degree of co-publishing that has taken place between this group of researchers. We identify the different components in this database, and examine the large main...

  2. Guide for In-Place Treatment of Covered and Timber Bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stan Lebow; Grant Kirker; Robert White; Terry Amburgey; H. Michael Barnes; Michael Sanders; Jeff Morrell

    2012-01-01

    Historic covered bridges and current timber bridges can be vulnerable to damage from biodeterioration or fire. This guide describes procedures for selecting and applying in-place treatments to prevent or arrest these forms of degradation. Vulnerable areas for biodeterioration in covered bridges include members contacting abutments, members near the ends of bridges...

  3. Coevolutionary modeling in network formation

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Shyoukh, Ibrahim

    2014-12-03

    Network coevolution, the process of network topology evolution in feedback with dynamical processes over the network nodes, is a common feature of many engineered and natural networks. In such settings, the change in network topology occurs at a comparable time scale to nodal dynamics. Coevolutionary modeling offers the possibility to better understand how and why network structures emerge. For example, social networks can exhibit a variety of structures, ranging from almost uniform to scale-free degree distributions. While current models of network formation can reproduce these structures, coevolutionary modeling can offer a better understanding of the underlying dynamics. This paper presents an overview of recent work on coevolutionary models of network formation, with an emphasis on the following three settings: (i) dynamic flow of benefits and costs, (ii) transient link establishment costs, and (iii) latent preferential attachment.

  4. A high accuracy land use/cover retrieval system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaa Hefnawy

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of spatial resolution on the accuracy of mapping land use/cover types have received increasing attention as a large number of multi-scale earth observation data become available. Although many methods of semi automated image classification of remotely sensed data have been established for improving the accuracy of land use/cover classification during the past 40 years, most of them were employed in single-resolution image classification, which led to unsatisfactory results. In this paper, we propose a multi-resolution fast adaptive content-based retrieval system of satellite images. Through our proposed system, we apply a Super Resolution technique for the Landsat-TM images to have a high resolution dataset. The human–computer interactive system is based on modified radial basis function for retrieval of satellite database images. We apply the backpropagation supervised artificial neural network classifier for both the multi and single resolution datasets. The results show significant improved land use/cover classification accuracy for the multi-resolution approach compared with those from single-resolution approach.

  5. Network cosmology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krioukov, Dmitri; Kitsak, Maksim; Sinkovits, Robert S; Rideout, David; Meyer, David; Boguñá, Marián

    2012-01-01

    Prediction and control of the dynamics of complex networks is a central problem in network science. Structural and dynamical similarities of different real networks suggest that some universal laws might accurately describe the dynamics of these networks, albeit the nature and common origin of such laws remain elusive. Here we show that the causal network representing the large-scale structure of spacetime in our accelerating universe is a power-law graph with strong clustering, similar to many complex networks such as the Internet, social, or biological networks. We prove that this structural similarity is a consequence of the asymptotic equivalence between the large-scale growth dynamics of complex networks and causal networks. This equivalence suggests that unexpectedly similar laws govern the dynamics of complex networks and spacetime in the universe, with implications to network science and cosmology.

  6. Network Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krioukov, Dmitri; Kitsak, Maksim; Sinkovits, Robert S.; Rideout, David; Meyer, David; Boguñá, Marián

    2012-01-01

    Prediction and control of the dynamics of complex networks is a central problem in network science. Structural and dynamical similarities of different real networks suggest that some universal laws might accurately describe the dynamics of these networks, albeit the nature and common origin of such laws remain elusive. Here we show that the causal network representing the large-scale structure of spacetime in our accelerating universe is a power-law graph with strong clustering, similar to many complex networks such as the Internet, social, or biological networks. We prove that this structural similarity is a consequence of the asymptotic equivalence between the large-scale growth dynamics of complex networks and causal networks. This equivalence suggests that unexpectedly similar laws govern the dynamics of complex networks and spacetime in the universe, with implications to network science and cosmology. PMID:23162688

  7. Neural networks and statistical learning

    CERN Document Server

    Du, Ke-Lin

    2014-01-01

    Providing a broad but in-depth introduction to neural network and machine learning in a statistical framework, this book provides a single, comprehensive resource for study and further research. All the major popular neural network models and statistical learning approaches are covered with examples and exercises in every chapter to develop a practical working understanding of the content. Each of the twenty-five chapters includes state-of-the-art descriptions and important research results on the respective topics. The broad coverage includes the multilayer perceptron, the Hopfield network, associative memory models, clustering models and algorithms, the radial basis function network, recurrent neural networks, principal component analysis, nonnegative matrix factorization, independent component analysis, discriminant analysis, support vector machines, kernel methods, reinforcement learning, probabilistic and Bayesian networks, data fusion and ensemble learning, fuzzy sets and logic, neurofuzzy models, hardw...

  8. Solid-state current transformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnsworth, D. L. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    A signal transformation network which is uniquely characterized to exhibit a very low input impedance while maintaining a linear transfer characteristic when driven from a voltage source and when quiescently biased in the low microampere current range is described. In its simplest form, it consists of a tightly coupled two transistor network in which a common emitter input stage is interconnected directly with an emitter follower stage to provide virtually 100 percent negative feedback to the base input of the common emitter stage. Bias to the network is supplied via the common tie point of the common emitter stage collector terminal and the emitter follower base stage terminal by a regulated constant current source, and the output of the circuit is taken from the collector of the emitter follower stage.

  9. Linear Programming and Network Flows

    CERN Document Server

    Bazaraa, Mokhtar S; Sherali, Hanif D

    2011-01-01

    The authoritative guide to modeling and solving complex problems with linear programming-extensively revised, expanded, and updated The only book to treat both linear programming techniques and network flows under one cover, Linear Programming and Network Flows, Fourth Edition has been completely updated with the latest developments on the topic. This new edition continues to successfully emphasize modeling concepts, the design and analysis of algorithms, and implementation strategies for problems in a variety of fields, including industrial engineering, management science, operations research

  10. Security in wireless sensor networks

    CERN Document Server

    Oreku, George S

    2016-01-01

    This monograph covers different aspects of sensor network security including new emerging technologies. The authors present a mathematical approach to the topic and give numerous practical examples as well as case studies to illustrate the theory. The target audience primarily comprises experts and practitioners in the field of sensor network security, but the book may also be beneficial for researchers in academia as well as for graduate students.

  11. Algorithmic Approaches to Finding Cover in Three-Dimensional, Virtual Environments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Morgan, David

    2003-01-01

    .... The ability to find cover is fairly intuitive for humans, but current attempts at replicating this ability in computer simulations and video games have been either simplistic or totally missing...

  12. Minimal vertex covers of random trees

    OpenAIRE

    Coulomb, Stephane

    2004-01-01

    We study minimal vertex covers of trees. Contrarily to the number $N_{vc}(A)$ of minimal vertex covers of the tree $A$, $\\log N_{vc}(A)$ is a self-averaging quantity. We show that, for large sizes $n$, $\\lim_{n\\to +\\infty} _n/n= 0.1033252\\pm 10^{-7}$. The basic idea is, given a tree, to concentrate on its degenerate vertices, that is those vertices which belong to some minimal vertex cover but not to all of them. Deletion of the other vertices induces a forest of totally degenerate trees. We ...

  13. Forest service contributions to the national land cover database (NLCD): Tree Canopy Cover Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnie Ruefenacht; Robert Benton; Vicky Johnson; Tanushree Biswas; Craig Baker; Mark Finco; Kevin Megown; John Coulston; Ken Winterberger; Mark. Riley

    2015-01-01

    A tree canopy cover (TCC) layer is one of three elements in the National Land Cover Database (NLCD) 2011 suite of nationwide geospatial data layers. In 2010, the USDA Forest Service (USFS) committed to creating the TCC layer as a member of the Multi-Resolution Land Cover (MRLC) consortium. A general methodology for creating the TCC layer was reported at the 2012 FIA...

  14. Estimating juniper cover from NAIP imagery and evaluating relationships between potential cover and environmental variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juniper management is constrained by limited tools to estimate juniper cover and potential cover at stand closure across landscapes. We evaluated if remotely sensed imagery (NAIP) could be used to estimate juniper cover and if environmental characteristic could be used to determine potential junipe...

  15. 7 CFR 1437.503 - Covered losses and recordkeeping requirements for covered tropical crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... covered tropical crops. 1437.503 Section 1437.503 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... NONINSURED CROP DISASTER ASSISTANCE PROGRAM Determining Coverage in the Tropical Region § 1437.503 Covered losses and recordkeeping requirements for covered tropical crops. (a) Prevented planting coverage is not...

  16. Evaluation of Integration Degree of the ASG-EUPOS Polish Reference Networks With Ukrainian GeoTerrace Network Stations in the Border Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siejka, Zbigniew

    2017-09-01

    GNSS systems are currently the basic tools for determination of the highest precision station coordinates (e.g. basic control network stations or stations used in the networks for geodynamic studies) as well as for land, maritime and air navigation. All of these tasks are carried out using active, large scale, satellite geodetic networks which are complex, intelligent teleinformatic systems offering post processing services along with corrections delivered in real-time for kinematic measurements. Many countries in the world, also in Europe, have built their own multifunctional networks and enhance them with their own GNSS augmentation systems. Nowadays however, in the era of international integration, there is a necessity to consider collective actions in order to build a unified system, covering e.g. the whole Europe or at least some of its regions. Such actions have already been undertaken in many regions of the world. In Europe such an example is the development for EUPOS which consists of active national networks built in central eastern European countries. So far experience and research show, that the critical areas for connecting these networks are border areas, in which the positioning accuracy decreases (Krzeszowski and Bosy, 2011). This study attempts to evaluate the border area compatibility of Polish ASG-EUPOS (European Position Determination System) reference stations and Ukrainian GeoTerrace system reference stations in the context of their future incorporation into the EUPOS. The two networks analyzed in work feature similar hardware parameters. In the ASG-EUPOS reference stations network, during the analyzed period, 2 stations (WLDW and CHEL) used only one system (GPS), while, in the GeoTerrace network, all the stations were equipped with both GPS and GLONASS receivers. The ASG EUPOS reference station network (95.6%) has its average completeness greater by about 6% when compared to the GeoTerrace network (89.8%).

  17. Developing A Generic Optical Avionic Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Jiang; An, Yi; Berger, Michael Stübert

    2011-01-01

    We propose a generic optical network design for future avionic systems in order to reduce the weight and power consumption of current networks on board. A three-layered network structure over a ring optical network topology is suggested, as it can provide full reconfiguration flexibility and supp...

  18. Regional cross national networks for education and training in health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøhr, Christian; Bygholm, Ann; Hejlesen, Ole

    The paper argues that the education activities in health informatics should be established in net-works covering regions with comparable health care systems involving one or more comparable countries.......The paper argues that the education activities in health informatics should be established in net-works covering regions with comparable health care systems involving one or more comparable countries....

  19. Optical network democratization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nejabati, Reza; Peng, Shuping; Simeonidou, Dimitra

    2016-03-06

    The current Internet infrastructure is not able to support independent evolution and innovation at physical and network layer functionalities, protocols and services, while at same time supporting the increasing bandwidth demands of evolving and heterogeneous applications. This paper addresses this problem by proposing a completely democratized optical network infrastructure. It introduces the novel concepts of the optical white box and bare metal optical switch as key technology enablers for democratizing optical networks. These are programmable optical switches whose hardware is loosely connected internally and is completely separated from their control software. To alleviate their complexity, a multi-dimensional abstraction mechanism using software-defined network technology is proposed. It creates a universal model of the proposed switches without exposing their technological details. It also enables a conventional network programmer to develop network applications for control of the optical network without specific technical knowledge of the physical layer. Furthermore, a novel optical network virtualization mechanism is proposed, enabling the composition and operation of multiple coexisting and application-specific virtual optical networks sharing the same physical infrastructure. Finally, the optical white box and the abstraction mechanism are experimentally evaluated, while the virtualization mechanism is evaluated with simulation. © 2016 The Author(s).

  20. Building capacity for providing canopy cover and canopy height at FIA plot locations using high-resolution imagery and leaf-off LiDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachel Riemann; Jarlath O' Neil-Dunne; Greg C. Liknes

    2012-01-01

    Tree canopy cover and canopy height information are essential for estimating volume, biomass, and carbon; defining forest cover; and characterizing wildlife habitat. The amount of tree canopy cover also influences water quality and quantity in both rural and urban settings. Tree canopy cover and canopy height are currently collected at FIA plots either in the field or...

  1. Analysis of computer networks

    CERN Document Server

    Gebali, Fayez

    2015-01-01

    This textbook presents the mathematical theory and techniques necessary for analyzing and modeling high-performance global networks, such as the Internet. The three main building blocks of high-performance networks are links, switching equipment connecting the links together, and software employed at the end nodes and intermediate switches. This book provides the basic techniques for modeling and analyzing these last two components. Topics covered include, but are not limited to: Markov chains and queuing analysis, traffic modeling, interconnection networks and switch architectures and buffering strategies.   ·         Provides techniques for modeling and analysis of network software and switching equipment; ·         Discusses design options used to build efficient switching equipment; ·         Includes many worked examples of the application of discrete-time Markov chains to communication systems; ·         Covers the mathematical theory and techniques necessary for ana...

  2. Advances Made in the Next Generation of Satellite Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhasin, Kul B.

    1999-01-01

    Because of the unique networking characteristics of communications satellites, global satellite networks are moving to the forefront in enhancing national and global information infrastructures. Simultaneously, broadband data services, which are emerging as the major market driver for future satellite and terrestrial networks, are being widely acknowledged as the foundation for an efficient global information infrastructure. In the past 2 years, various task forces and working groups around the globe have identified pivotal topics and key issues to address if we are to realize such networks in a timely fashion. In response, industry, government, and academia undertook efforts to address these topics and issues. A workshop was organized to provide a forum to assess the current state-of-the-art, identify key issues, and highlight the emerging trends in the next-generation architectures, data protocol development, communication interoperability, and applications. The Satellite Networks: Architectures, Applications, and Technologies Workshop was hosted by the Space Communication Program at the NASA Lewis Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio. Nearly 300 executives and technical experts from academia, industry, and government, representing the United States and eight other countries, attended the event (June 2 to 4, 1998). The program included seven panels and invited sessions and nine breakout sessions in which 42 speakers presented on technical topics. The proceedings covers a wide range of topics: access technology and protocols, architectures and network simulations, asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) over satellite networks, Internet over satellite networks, interoperability experiments and applications, multicasting, NASA interoperability experiment programs, NASA mission applications, and Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) over satellite: issues, relevance, and experience.

  3. WIRELESS FIDELITY (Wi-Fi) BROADBAND NETWORK ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ES Obe

    provide Internet connectivity to mobile Wi-Fi users. This paper explores .... Mobile Wireless evolution started with the first generation ... range of the wireless network connected to the Internet. The area covered by one or more interconnected access points is called a hotspot. Hotspots can cover as little as a single room with ...

  4. Central Asian Snow Cover from Hydrometeorological Surveys

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Central Asian Snow Cover from Hydrometeorological Surveys data are based on observations made by personnel for three river basins: Amu Darya, Sir Darya, and...

  5. Expansion of Medicaid Covered Smoking Cessation Services

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Expansionof Medicaid Covered Smoking Cessation Services - Maternal Smoking and Birth Outcomes. To assess whether Medicaid coverage of smoking cessation services...

  6. C-CAP Niihau 2005 Land Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set consists of land cover derived from high resolution imagery according to the Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) protocol. This data set utilized 1...

  7. Bradycardia in armadillos experimentally covered with soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanave, E B; García Samartino, L; Affanni, J M

    1995-04-01

    Chaetophractus villosus is able to maintain efficient respiratory movements when its nostrils are experimentally covered with soil. Under these conditions, a progressive bradycardia develops. It would depend on hypothermia and asphyxia.

  8. Skillful prediction of Barents Sea ice cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onarheim, Ingrid H.; Eldevik, Tor; Årthun, Marius; Ingvaldsen, Randi B.; Smedsrud, Lars H.

    2015-07-01

    A main concern of present climate change is the Arctic sea ice cover. In wintertime, its observed variability is largely carried by the Barents Sea. Here we propose and evaluate a simple quantitative and prognostic framework based on first principles and rooted in observations to predict the annual mean Barents Sea ice cover, which variance is carried by the winter ice (96%). By using observed ocean heat transport and sea ice area, the proposed framework appears skillful and explains 50% of the observed sea ice variance up to 2 years in advance. The qualitative prediction of increase versus decrease in ice cover is correct 88% of the time. Model imperfections can largely be diagnosed from simultaneous meridional winds. The framework and skill are supported by a 60 year simulation from a regional ice-ocean model. We particularly predict that the winter sea ice cover for 2016 will be slightly less than 2015.

  9. Global Land Cover Characterization: 1992-1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has a long history of involvement in multi-scale, and multi-temporal land cover characterization and mapping of the world. During...

  10. 49 CFR 192.327 - Cover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... locations 36 (914) 24 (610) Drainage ditches of public roads and railroad crossings 36 (914) 24 (610) (b... least 24 inches (610 millimeters) of cover. (c) Where an underground structure prevents the installation...

  11. Dynamic Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Gabriele

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The present paper discusses the possibility of using dynamic sensor networks for measurements over large areas. The main idea is to replace static networks, where the allocation of the sensors is pre defined, no matter how, and then the configuration is assumed and maintained, with a dynamic network whose configuration continuously changes in order to cover the whole measure area getting the different measures of the same point within a prefixed time interval. The main advantages are the reduced number of sensors required, a faster recover from damages, the possibility of changing dynamically the area or the subareas of interest, etc. The feasibility of such solution is shown by finding, in an optimal control problem formulation context, the trajectories of each sensor and the controls for such a motion. Simulation results are reported to highlight such results.

  12. Universality in network dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzel, Baruch; Barabási, Albert-László

    2013-01-01

    Despite significant advances in characterizing the structural properties of complex networks, a mathematical framework that uncovers the universal properties of the interplay between the topology and the dynamics of complex systems continues to elude us. Here we develop a self-consistent theory of dynamical perturbations in complex systems, allowing us to systematically separate the contribution of the network topology and dynamics. The formalism covers a broad range of steady-state dynamical processes and offers testable predictions regarding the system's response to perturbations and the development of correlations. It predicts several distinct universality classes whose characteristics can be derived directly from the continuum equation governing the system's dynamics and which are validated on several canonical network-based dynamical systems, from biochemical dynamics to epidemic spreading. Finally, we collect experimental data pertaining to social and biological systems, demonstrating that we can accurately uncover their universality class even in the absence of an appropriate continuum theory that governs the system's dynamics.

  13. DCFRN: a radio network for small farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amt, W

    1986-01-01

    The Developing Countries Farm Radio Network (DCFRN), a media group founded in 1979, is committed to assisting small farmers to increase their food supplies by using established radio stations along with other local communication channels to spread agricultural information. The success of this effort is evident in the fact that over 500 broadcasters or organizations in over 100 countries disseminate DCFRN information to an estimated 100,000,000 listeners in about 100 languages. 9 packets have been produced and distributed thus far. Information is gathered on appropriate and inexpensive technologies grassroots level farmers use in developing countries to increase food production, decrease post harvest losses and to make more efficient use of food. The source of this information is on-site interviews with small farmers, farm broadcasters, extension workers, health workers, scientists, and university and government officials; printed materials; and feedback from questionnaires that are included in each information packet. Information on agricultural or nutritional innovations must be developed, tested, and proven in the developing world and must be adaptable in other developing countries in order to be put on tape and then be disseminated by DCFRN. The radio scripts are prepared in a culturally and religiously neutral style. The scripts cover a wide variety of agricultural or health and nutrition issues. Each packet contains "The Blue Sheet," DCFRN's newsletter for participants in the Network. It provides current information about the Network and also covers other development issues not included in the radio scripts. DCFRN information also has been used in newspaper articles, posters, classroom teaching, video tapes, television shows, loudspeaker broadcasts, and puppet shows.

  14. Un/covering: Making Disability Identity Legible

    OpenAIRE

    Heather Dawn Evans

    2017-01-01

    This article examines one aspect of disability identity among people with non-apparent or "invisible" disabilities: the decision to emphasize, remind others about, or openly acknowledge impairment in social settings. I call this process "un/covering," and situate this concept in the sociological and Disability Studies literature on disability stigma, passing, and covering. Drawing on interviews with people who have acquired a non-apparent impairment through chronic illness or injury, I argue ...

  15. Regulatory guidance on soil cover systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kane, J.D. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1991-12-31

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in September 1991, completed revisions to 14 sections of the Standard Review Plan (SRP) for the Review of a License Application for a Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility. The major purposes of the SRP are to ensure the quality and uniformity of the NRC staff`s safety reviews, and to present a well-defined base from which to evaluate the acceptability of information and data provided in the Safety Analysis Report (SAR) portion of the license application. SRP 3.2, entitled, Design Considerations for Normal and Abnormal/Accident Conditions, was one of the sections that was revised by the NRC staff. This revision was completed to provide additional regulatory guidance on the important considerations that need to be addressed for the proper design and construction of soil cover systems that are to be placed over the LLW. The cover system over the waste is acknowledged to be one of the most important engineered barriers for the long-term stable performance of the disposal facility. The guidance in revised SRP 3.2 summarizes the previous efforts and recommendations of the US Army Corps of Engineers (COE), and a peer review panel on the placement of soil cover systems. NRC published these efforts in NUREG/CR-5432. The discussions in this paper highlight selected recommendations on soil cover issues that the NRC staff considers important for ensuring the safe, long-term performance of the soil cover systems. The development phases to be discussed include: (1) cover design; (2) cover material selection; (3) laboratory and field testing; (4) field placement control and acceptance; and (5) penetrations through the constructed covers.

  16. Covered by lines and Conic connected varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Massarenti

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We study some properties of an embedded variety covered by lines and give a numerical criterion ensuring the existence of a singular conic through two of its general points. We show that our criterion is sharp. Conic-connected, covered by lines, QEL, LQEL, prime Fano, defective, and dual defective varieties are closely related. We study some relations between the above mentioned classes of objects using basic results by Ein and Zak.

  17. Covers, soap films and BV functions

    OpenAIRE

    Bellettini, Giovanni; Paolini, Maurizio; Pasquarelli, Franco; Scianna, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we first review the covering space method with constrained BV functions for solving the classical Plateau's problem. Next, we carefully analyze some interesting examples of soap films compatible with the covering space method: in particular, the case of a soap film only partially wetting a space curve, a soap film spanning a cubical frame but having a large tunnel, aa soap film that retracts onto its boundary, hence not modelable with the Reifenberg method, and various soap film...

  18. Special study on vegetative covers. [UMTRA Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-11-01

    This report describes the findings of a special study on the use of vegetative covers to stabilize tailings piles for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The principal rationale for using plants would be to establish a dynamic system for controlling water balance. Specifically, vegetation would be used to intercept and transpire precipitation to the atmosphere, rather than allowing water to drain into the tailings and mobilize contaminants. This would facilitate compliance with groundwater standards proposed for the UMTRA Project by the Environmental Protection Agency. The goals of the study were to evaluate the feasibility of using vegetative covers on UMTRA Project piles, define the advantages and disadvantages of vegetative covers, and develop general guidelines for their use when such use seems reasonable. The principal method for the study was to analyze and apply to the UMTRA Project the results of research programs on vegetative covers at other US Department of Energy (DOE) waste management facilities. The study also relied upon observations made of existing stabilized piles at UMTRA Project sites where natural vegetation is growing on the rock-covered surfaces. Water balance and erosion models were also used to quantify the long-term performance of vegetative covers planned for the topslopes of stabilized piles at Grand Junction and Durango, Colorado, two UMTRA Project sites where the decision was made during the course of this special study to use vegetative covers. Elements in the design and construction of the vegetative covers at these two sites are discussed in the report, with explanations of the differing features that reflect differing environmental conditions. 28 refs., 18 figs., 9 tabs.

  19. Well-covered graphs and factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Randerath, Bert; Vestergaard, Preben D.

    2006-01-01

    a perfect [1,2]-factor F_G, i.e. a spanning subgraph such that each component is 1-regular og 2-regular. Here, we characterize all well-covered graphs G satisfying α(G)=α(F_G) for some perfect [1,2]-factor F_G. This class contains all well-covered graphs G without isolated vertices of order n with α ≥ (n...

  20. VennMaker for Historians: Sources, Social Networks and Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marten Düring

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the applicability of the software VennMaker to historical research. The paper draws on two case studies from current network-oriented historical research projects, covering different time periods and sources. VennMaker’s biggest advantage is that it inverts the process of data collection. While traditional software uses pre-coded data to produce a network map, VennMaker generates data while the researcher draws nodes and creates a network map. Prefabricated data matrices are no longer necessary; therefore, the software can easily be used by historians lacking training in the social sciences. Our two cases include an analysis of a family structure in ancient history and ego-networks of Jews in hiding during National Socialism. We argue that a visual representation of social relations helps to reveal unseen patterns and characteristics of networks therefore offering scholars new perspectives on their research subjects. The software offers a variety of tools to represent social relations and their development over time and space.

  1. Telecommunication networks

    CERN Document Server

    Iannone, Eugenio

    2011-01-01

    Many argue that telecommunications network infrastructure is the most impressive and important technology ever developed. Analyzing the telecom market's constantly evolving trends, research directions, infrastructure, and vital needs, Telecommunication Networks responds with revolutionized engineering strategies to optimize network construction. Omnipresent in society, telecom networks integrate a wide range of technologies. These include quantum field theory for the study of optical amplifiers, software architectures for network control, abstract algebra required to design error correction co

  2. Decentralized Online Social Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Anwitaman; Buchegger, Sonja; Vu, Le-Hung; Strufe, Thorsten; Rzadca, Krzysztof

    Current Online social networks (OSN) are web services run on logically centralized infrastructure. Large OSN sites use content distribution networks and thus distribute some of the load by caching for performance reasons, nevertheless there is a central repository for user and application data. This centralized nature of OSNs has several drawbacks including scalability, privacy, dependence on a provider, need for being online for every transaction, and a lack of locality. There have thus been several efforts toward decentralizing OSNs while retaining the functionalities offered by centralized OSNs. A decentralized online social network (DOSN) is a distributed system for social networking with no or limited dependency on any dedicated central infrastructure. In this chapter we explore the various motivations of a decentralized approach to online social networking, discuss several concrete proposals and types of DOSN as well as challenges and opportunities associated with decentralization.

  3. Online social support networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Neil; Atreja, Ashish

    2015-04-01

    Peer support groups have a long history and have been shown to improve health outcomes. With the increasing familiarity with online social networks like Facebook and ubiquitous access to the Internet, online social support networks are becoming popular. While studies have shown the benefit of these networks in providing emotional support or meeting informational needs, robust data on improving outcomes such as a decrease in health services utilization or reduction in adverse outcomes is lacking. These networks also pose unique challenges in the areas of patient privacy, funding models, quality of content, and research agendas. Addressing these concerns while creating patient-centred, patient-powered online support networks will help leverage these platforms to complement traditional healthcare delivery models in the current environment of value-based care.

  4. Network ties and survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Acheampong, George; Narteh, Bedman; Rand, John

    2017-01-01

    Poultry farming has been touted as one of the major ways by which poverty can be reduced in low-income economies like Ghana. Yet, anecdotally there is a high failure rate among these poultry farms. This current study seeks to understand the relationship between network ties and survival chances...... of small commercial poultry farms (SCPFs). We utilize data from a 2-year network survey of SCPFs in rural Ghana. The survival of these poultry farms are modelled using a lagged probit model of farms that persisted from 2014 into 2015. We find that network ties are important to the survival chances...... but this probability reduces as the number of industry ties increases but moderation with dynamic capability of the firm reverses this trend. Our findings show that not all network ties aid survival and therefore small commercial poultry farmers need to be circumspect in the network ties they cultivate and develop....

  5. Multidimensional Analysis of Linguistic Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Tanya; Banisch, Sven

    Network-based approaches play an increasingly important role in the analysis of data even in systems in which a network representation is not immediately apparent. This is particularly true for linguistic networks, which use to be induced from a linguistic data set for which a network perspective is only one out of several options for representation. Here we introduce a multidimensional framework for network construction and analysis with special focus on linguistic networks. Such a framework is used to show that the higher is the abstraction level of network induction, the harder is the interpretation of the topological indicators used in network analysis. Several examples are provided allowing for the comparison of different linguistic networks as well as to networks in other fields of application of network theory. The computation and the intelligibility of some statistical indicators frequently used in linguistic networks are discussed. It suggests that the field of linguistic networks, by applying statistical tools inspired by network studies in other domains, may, in its current state, have only a limited contribution to the development of linguistic theory.

  6. PANIC: current status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas, M. C.; Rodríguez Gómez, J.

    2011-11-01

    PANIC, the PAnoramic Near Infrared Camera, is a new instrument for Calar Alto Observatory (CAHA) is a wide-field infraredimager for the CAHA 2.2 m and 3.5 m telescopes. The optics is a folded single optical train, pure lens optics, with a pixel scale of 0.45 arcsec/pixel (18 microns) at the 2.2 m telescope and 0.23 arcsec/pixel at the 3.5 m. A mosaic of four Hawaii-2RG detectorsprovides a field of view (FOV) of 0.5x0.5 degrees and 0.25x0.25 degrees, respectively. It will cover the photometric bandsfrom Z to K_s (0.8 to 2.5 microns) with a low thermal background due to cold stops. Here we present the current status of the project.

  7. Application and Implementation of Network Coding for Cooperative Wireless Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Morten Videbæk

    2012-01-01

    . 1) I have suggested the use of network coding as a key-enabler for technology- enabled cooperation. I refer to technology-enabled cooperation when we are able to provide all participating entities in the network a better performance by enabling user cooperation. In order to achieve this goal I apply...... ways that cooperative models may be implemented to cover a wide range of applications. This addresses the development of user cooperative protocols and how we in Device To Device (D2D) communication may reward users that contribute more to the network than they gain. In this area I suggest the use...

  8. Computer Network Security- The Challenges of Securing a Computer Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotti, Vincent, Jr.

    2011-01-01

    This article is intended to give the reader an overall perspective on what it takes to design, implement, enforce and secure a computer network in the federal and corporate world to insure the confidentiality, integrity and availability of information. While we will be giving you an overview of network design and security, this article will concentrate on the technology and human factors of securing a network and the challenges faced by those doing so. It will cover the large number of policies and the limits of technology and physical efforts to enforce such policies.

  9. METHODS OF TEXT INFORMATION CLASSIFICATION ON THE BASIS OF ARTIFICIAL NEURAL AND SEMANTIC NETWORKS

    OpenAIRE

    L. V. Serebryanaya; V. V. Potaraev

    2016-01-01

    The article covers the use of perseptron, Hopfild artificial neural network and semantic network for classification of text information. Network training algorithms are studied. An algorithm of inverse mistake spreading for perceptron network and convergence algorithm for Hopfild network are implemented. On the basis of the offered models and algorithms automatic text classification software is developed and its operation results are evaluated.

  10. Introduction of A New Toolbox for Processing Digital Images From Multiple Camera Networks: FMIPROT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melih Tanis, Cemal; Nadir Arslan, Ali

    2017-04-01

    Webcam networks intended for scientific monitoring of ecosystems is providing digital images and other environmental data for various studies. Also, other types of camera networks can also be used for scientific purposes, e.g. usage of traffic webcams for phenological studies, camera networks for ski tracks and avalanche monitoring over mountains for hydrological studies. To efficiently harness the potential of these camera networks, easy to use software which can obtain and handle images from different networks having different protocols and standards is necessary. For the analyses of the images from webcam networks, numerous software packages are freely available. These software packages have different strong features not only for analyzing but also post processing digital images. But specifically for the ease of use, applicability and scalability, a different set of features could be added. Thus, a more customized approach would be of high value, not only for analyzing images of comprehensive camera networks, but also considering the possibility to create operational data extraction and processing with an easy to use toolbox. At this paper, we introduce a new toolbox, entitled; Finnish Meteorological Institute Image PROcessing Tool (FMIPROT) which a customized approach is followed. FMIPROT has currently following features: • straightforward installation, • no software dependencies that require as extra installations, • communication with multiple camera networks, • automatic downloading and handling images, • user friendly and simple user interface, • data filtering, • visualizing results on customizable plots, • plugins; allows users to add their own algorithms. Current image analyses in FMIPROT include "Color Fraction Extraction" and "Vegetation Indices". The analysis of color fraction extraction is calculating the fractions of the colors in a region of interest, for red, green and blue colors along with brightness and luminance parameters. The

  11. Introduction to network emulation

    CERN Document Server

    Beuran, Razvan

    2012-01-01

    ""Since network emulation permits investigation of how higher-level protocols interact with the underlying network behaviour, it will be of particular interest to anyone tasked with designing and rolling out new applications and services, especially those aimed at wireless transport. This book represents a comprehensive survey of the current state of the art. It will give the readers a good sense of the various techniques available, allowing them to make an informed decision as to which are appropriate to their particular problem.""-Dr. Neil Davies - Predictable Network Solutions, UK""The Inte

  12. Evolving production network structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunow, Martin; Gunther, H.O.; Burdenik, H.

    2007-01-01

    When deciding about future production network configurations, the current structures have to be taken into account. Further, core issues such as the maturity of the products and the capacity requirements for test runs and ramp-ups must be incorporated. Our approach is based on optimization...... modelling and assigns products and capacity expansions to production sites under the above constraints. It also considers the production complexity at the individual sites and the flexibility of the network. Our implementation results for a large manufacturing network reveal substantial possible cost...... reductions compared to the traditional manual planning results of our industrial partner....

  13. Power consumption analysis of operating systems for wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lajara, Rafael; Pelegrí-Sebastiá, José; Perez Solano, Juan J

    2010-01-01

    In this paper four wireless sensor network operating systems are compared in terms of power consumption. The analysis takes into account the most common operating systems--TinyOS v1.0, TinyOS v2.0, Mantis and Contiki--running on Tmote Sky and MICAz devices. With the objective of ensuring a fair evaluation, a benchmark composed of four applications has been developed, covering the most typical tasks that a Wireless Sensor Network performs. The results show the instant and average current consumption of the devices during the execution of these applications. The experimental measurements provide a good insight into the power mode in which the device components are running at every moment, and they can be used to compare the performance of different operating systems executing the same tasks.

  14. The macroecology of phylogenetically structured hummingbird-plant networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    González, Ana M. Martín; Dalsgaard, Bo; Nogues, David Bravo

    2015-01-01

    Aim To investigate the association between hummingbird–plant network structure and species richness, phylogenetic signal on species' interaction pattern, insularity and historical and current climate. Location Fifty-four communities along a c. 10,000 km latitudinal gradient across the Americas (39......° N–32° S), ranging from sea level to c. 3700 m a.s.l., located on the mainland and on islands and covering a wide range of climate regimes. Methods We measured the level of specialization and modularity in mutualistic plant–hummingbird interaction networks. Using an ordinary least squares multimodel.......32–0.45, respectively). Specifically, higher levels of specialization and modularity were associated with species-rich communities and communities in which closely related hummingbirds visited distinct sets of flowering species. On the mainland, specialization was also associated with warmer temperatures and greater...

  15. THE MATHEMATIC STIMULATION OF TRANSIENT PROCESS IN A.C. – SYSTEM “ELECTRIC-TRACTION NETWORK – LOCOMOTIVE” 3. SWITCHING ON MAIN POWER CONVERTER IN “FREE PLAY” MODE; THE ANALYSIS OF VOLTS AND CURRENTS IN THE POWER SUPPLY INPUT SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. Mischenko

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The article is a continuation of analysis of the electric equivalent AC circuit «traction substation − device of transversal compensation − electric-traction network − electric locomotive DS 3» and the influence on a power transformer in the idle mode, depending on the feeder voltage and the distance of an electric locomotive from a traction substation. The numeral calculations are performed and the voltage and current values in the electric power supply system are analyzed.

  16. Optical Access Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jun; Ansari, Nirwan

    2005-01-01

    Call for Papers: Optical Access Networks Guest Editors Jun Zheng, University of Ottawa Nirwan Ansari, New Jersey Institute of Technology Submission Deadline: 1 June 2005 h2>Backgroundh2> With the wide deployment of fiber-optic technology over the past two decades, we have witnessed a tremendous growth of bandwidth capacity in the backbone networks of today's telecommunications infrastructure. However, access networks, which cover the "last-mile" areas and serve numerous residential and small business users, have not been scaled up commensurately. The local subscriber lines for telephone and cable television are still using twisted pairs and coaxial cables. Most residential connections to the Internet are still through dial-up modems operating at a low speed on twisted pairs. As the demand for access bandwidth increases with emerging high-bandwidth applications, such as distance learning, high-definition television (HDTV), and video on demand (VoD), the last-mile access networks have become a bandwidth bottleneck in today's telecommunications infrastructure. To ease this bottleneck, it is imperative to provide sufficient bandwidth capacity in the access networks to open the bottleneck and thus present more opportunities for the provisioning of multiservices. Optical access solutions promise huge bandwidth to service providers and low-cost high-bandwidth services to end users and are therefore widely considered the technology of choice for next-generation access networks. To realize the vision of optical access networks, however, many key issues still need to be addressed, such as network architectures, signaling protocols, and implementation standards. The major challenges lie in the fact that an optical solution must be not only robust, scalable, and flexible, but also implemented at a low cost comparable to that of existing access solutions in order to increase the economic viability of many potential high-bandwidth applications. In recent years, optical access

  17. Intelligent sensor networks the integration of sensor networks, signal processing and machine learning

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, Fei

    2012-01-01

    Although governments worldwide have invested significantly in intelligent sensor network research and applications, few books cover intelligent sensor networks from a machine learning and signal processing perspective. Filling this void, Intelligent Sensor Networks: The Integration of Sensor Networks, Signal Processing and Machine Learning focuses on the close integration of sensing, networking, and smart signal processing via machine learning. Based on the world-class research of award-winning authors, the book provides a firm grounding in the fundamentals of intelligent sensor networks, incl

  18. A Survey of Linear Network Coding and Network Error Correction Code Constructions and Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Sanna

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Network coding was introduced by Ahlswede et al. in a pioneering work in 2000. This paradigm encompasses coding and retransmission of messages at the intermediate nodes of the network. In contrast with traditional store-and-forward networking, network coding increases the throughput and the robustness of the transmission. Linear network coding is a practical implementation of this new paradigm covered by several research works that include rate characterization, error-protection coding, and construction of codes. Especially determining the coding characteristics has its importance in providing the premise for an efficient transmission. In this paper, we review the recent breakthroughs in linear network coding for acyclic networks with a survey of code constructions literature. Deterministic construction algorithms and randomized procedures are presented for traditional network coding and for network-control network coding.

  19. Wireless home networking for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Briere, Danny; Ferris, Edward

    2010-01-01

    The perennial bestseller shows you how share your files and Internet connection across a wireless network. Fully updated for Windows 7 and Mac OS X Snow Leopard, this new edition of this bestseller returns with all the latest in wireless standards and security. This fun and friendly guide shows you how to integrate your iPhone, iPod touch, smartphone, or gaming system into your home network. Veteran authors escort you through the various financial and logisitical considerations that you need to take into account before building a wireless network at home.: Covers the basics of planning, instal

  20. Snow Cover Recognition for Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau Using Deep Learning and Multispectral Remote Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KAN Xi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Snow cover in Qinghai-Tibetan plateau (QT plateau is very important to global climate change. Because of the complex topography and high altitude, the recognition accuracies of existing snow cover products in QT plateau are significantly lower than flat areas. This paper proposed a new method of snow cover recognition for QT plateau based on deep learning. The multispectral remote sensing data from Chinese meteorological satellite FY-3A and the multiple geographic elements information are put together as the data sources, the insitu snow depth measurements and existing snow cover products are used for selecting the labeled samples. A stacked denoising auto-encoders (SDAE network was built and trained for feature extraction and classification, this network can be used as a classifier for distinguishing the snow cover from cloud and other snow-free surface features. The recognition results are verified by snow depth data of meteorological station observations, verification results show that the recognition accuracy of this method is significantly higher than the snow product FY-3A/MULSS, which is using the same remote sensing data source FY-3A, and slightly higher than the widely used snow products MOD10A1 and MYD10A1,and the cloud coverage rate of this method is the lowest. According to the validation results, this method can effectively improve the accuracy of snow cover recognition, and reduce the interference of clouds.