Sample records for network controlling salt

  1. Intelligent networked teleoperation control

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Zhijun; Su, Chun-Yi


    This book describes a unified framework for networked teleoperation systems involving multiple research fields: networked control systems for linear and nonlinear forms, bilateral teleoperation, trilateral teleoperation, multilateral teleoperation and cooperative teleoperation. It closely examines networked control as a field at the intersection of systems & control and robotics and presents a number of experimental case studies on testbeds for robotic systems, including networked haptic devices, robotic network systems and sensor network systems. The concepts and results outlined are easy to understand, even for readers fairly new to the subject. As such, the book offers a valuable reference work for researchers and engineers in the fields of systems & control and robotics.

  2. Dietary salt reduction for control of hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Tjan


    Full Text Available In developed as well as developing countries, the four main factors affecting blood pressure are high salt intake, low potassium intake, overweight, and low physical activity level. This is also true for the increase in blood pressure with advancing age, occurring in all societies. It is now accepted that excess dietary salt raises blood pressure levels, whereas dietary salt reduction reduces blood pressure and prevents vascular complications.(1 The effect of salt on blood pressure is presumably due to the inability of the kidneys to excrete large amounts of salt, as humans are evolutionary adapted to ingest and excrete less than 1 gram of salt per day.(2 In this connection it should be noted that the more important element in common salt (sodium chloride is the sodium ion, and any restrictions applying to common salt also apply to all food items that contain sodium ions, such as sodium glutamate and baking soda.

  3. Virtualized Network Control (VNC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehman, Thomas [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Guok, Chin [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ghani, Nasir [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    The focus of this project was on the development of a "Network Service Plane" as an abstraction model for the control and provisioning of multi-layer networks. The primary motivation for this work were the requirements of next generation networked applications which will need to access advanced networking as a first class resource at the same level as compute and storage resources. A new class of "Intelligent Network Services" were defined in order to facilitate the integration of advanced network services into application specific workflows. This new class of network services are intended to enable real-time interaction between the application co-scheduling algorithms and the network for the purposes of workflow planning, real-time resource availability identification, scheduling, and provisioning actions.

  4. Controllability of Complex Networks (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Slotine, Jean-Jacques; Barabasi, Albert-Laszlo


    The ultimate proof of our understanding of natural or technological systems is reflected in our ability to control them. While control theory offers mathematical tools to steer engineered systems towards a desired state, we lack a general framework to control complex self-organized systems, like the regulatory network of a cell or the Internet. Here we develop analytical tools to study the controllability of an arbitrary complex directed network, identifying the set of driver nodes whose time-dependent control can guide the system's dynamics. We apply these tools to real and model networks, finding that sparse inhomogeneous networks, which emerge in many real complex systems, are the most difficult to control. In contrast, dense and homogeneous networks can be controlled via a few driver nodes. Counterintuitively, we find that in both model and real systems the driver nodes tend to avoid the hubs. We show that the robustness of control to link failure is determined by a core percolation problem, helping us understand why many complex systems are relatively insensitive to link deletion. The developed approach offers a framework to address the controllability of an arbitrary network, representing a key step towards the eventual control of complex systems.

  5. Salt marsh vegetation promotes efficient tidal channel networks (United States)

    Kearney, W. S.; Fagherazzi, S.


    Tidal channel networks mediate the exchange of water, nutrients and sediment between an estuary and marshes and mudflats. Biology feeds back into channel morphodynamics through vegetation's influence on the cohesive strength of channel banks. Understanding the morphology of a tidal channel network is thus essential to understanding both the biological functioning of intertidal ecosystems and the topographic signature of life. A critical measure of the morphology of a channel network is the unchanneled path length, which is characteristic of the efficiency with which a network dissects the marsh platform. However, the processes which control the formation and maintenance of an efficient tidal channel network remain unclear. Here we show that an unvegetated marsh platform (Estero La Ramada, Baja California, Mexico) is dissected by a less efficient channel network than a vegetated one (Barnstable, Massachusetts, United States). The difference in geometric efficiency reflects a difference in the branching and meandering characteristics of the network, characteristics controlled by the density of vegetation on the channel banks. Our results suggest a feedback between network geometry and vegetation, mediated by fluxes of nutrients and salinity through the channel network, maintains the observed network geometries. An efficient network can support a denser vegetation community which stabilizes channel banks, leading to an efficient meandering geometry.

  6. Launch Control Network Engineer (United States)

    Medeiros, Samantha


    The Spaceport Command and Control System (SCCS) is being built at the Kennedy Space Center in order to successfully launch NASA’s revolutionary vehicle that allows humans to explore further into space than ever before. During my internship, I worked with the Network, Firewall, and Hardware teams that are all contributing to the huge SCCS network project effort. I learned the SCCS network design and the several concepts that are running in the background. I also updated and designed documentation for physical networks that are part of SCCS. This includes being able to assist and build physical installations as well as configurations. I worked with the network design for vehicle telemetry interfaces to the Launch Control System (LCS); this allows the interface to interact with other systems at other NASA locations. This network design includes the Space Launch System (SLS), Interim Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (ICPS), and the Orion Multipurpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV). I worked on the network design and implementation in the Customer Avionics Interface Development and Analysis (CAIDA) lab.

  7. Bile salts in control of lipid metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schonewille, Marleen; de Boer, Jan Freark; Groen, Albert K.

    Purpose of review The view on bile salts has evolved over the years from being regarded as simple detergents that aid intestinal absorption of fat-soluble nutrients to being important hormone-like integrators of metabolism. This review provides an update on the rapidly developing field of

  8. Dynamics and control of molten-salt breeder reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sing, Vikram; Lish, Matthew R.; Chvala, Ondrej; Upadhyaya, Belle R. [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville (United States)


    Preliminary results of the dynamic analysis of a two-fluid molten-salt breeder reactor (MSBR) system are presented. Based on an earlier work on the preliminary dynamic model of the concept, the model presented here is nonlinear and has been revised to accurately reflect the design exemplified in ORNL-4528. A brief overview of the model followed by results from simulations performed to validate the model is presented. Simulations illustrate stable behavior of the reactor dynamics and temperature feedback effects to reactivity excursions. Stable and smooth changes at various nodal temperatures are also observed. Control strategies for molten-salt reactor operation are discussed, followed by an illustration of the open-loop load-following capability of the molten-salt breeder reactor system. It is observed that the molten-salt breeder reactor system exhibits “self-regulating” behavior, minimizing the need for external controller action for load-following maneuvers.

  9. Broadband accelerator control network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skelly, J.; Clifford, T.; Frankel, R.


    A broadband data communications network has been implemented at BNL for control of the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AG) proton accelerator, using commercial CATV hardware, dual coaxial cables as the communications medium, and spanning 2.0 km. A 4 MHz bandwidth Digital Control channel using CSMA-CA protocol is provided for digital data transmission, with 8 access nodes available over the length of the RELWAY. Each node consists of an rf modem and a microprocessor-based store-and-forward message handler which interfaces the RELWAY to a branch line implemented in GPIB. A gateway to the RELWAY control channel for the (preexisting) AGS Computerized Accelerator Operating system has been constructed using an LSI-11/23 microprocessor as a device in a GPIB branch line. A multilayer communications protocol has been defined for the Digital Control Channel, based on the ISO Open Systems Interconnect layered model, and a RELWAY Device Language defined as the required universal language for device control on this channel.

  10. Salt-bridge networks within globular and disordered proteins: characterizing trends for designable interactions. (United States)

    Basu, Sankar; Mukharjee, Debasish


    There has been considerable debate about the contribution of salt bridges to the stabilization of protein folds, in spite of their participation in crucial protein functions. Salt bridges appear to contribute to the activity-stability trade-off within proteins by bringing high-entropy charged amino acids into close contacts during the course of their functions. The current study analyzes the modes of association of salt bridges (in terms of networks) within globular proteins and at protein-protein interfaces. While the most common and trivial type of salt bridge is the isolated salt bridge, bifurcated salt bridge appears to be a distinct salt-bridge motif having a special topology and geometry. Bifurcated salt bridges are found ubiquitously in proteins and interprotein complexes. Interesting and attractive examples presenting different modes of interaction are highlighted. Bifurcated salt bridges appear to function as molecular clips that are used to stitch together large surface contours at interacting protein interfaces. The present work also emphasizes the key role of salt-bridge-mediated interactions in the partial folding of proteins containing long stretches of disordered regions. Salt-bridge-mediated interactions seem to be pivotal to the promotion of "disorder-to-order" transitions in small disordered protein fragments and their stabilization upon binding. The results obtained in this work should help to guide efforts to elucidate the modus operandi of these partially disordered proteins, and to conceptualize how these proteins manage to maintain the required amount of disorder even in their bound forms. This work could also potentially facilitate explorations of geometrically specific designable salt bridges through the characterization of composite salt-bridge networks. Graphical abstract ᅟ.

  11. Artificial neural networks (Fuzzy ARTMAP) analysis of the dataobtained with an electronic tongue applied to a ham-curing processwith different salt formulations


    Gil Sánchez, Luís; Garrigues Baixauli, José; Garcia-Breijo, Eduardo; Grau Meló, Raúl; Aliño Alfaro, Marta; Baigts Allende, Diana Karina; Barat Baviera, José Manuel


    tThis paper describes the determination of optimum values of the parameters of a Simplified FuzzyARTMAP neural network for monitoring dry-cured ham processing with different salt formulations tobe implemented in a microcontroller device. The employed network must be set to the limited micro-controller memory but, at the same time, should achieve optimal performance to classify the samplesobtained from this application.Hams salted with different salt formulations (100% NaCl; 50% NaCl + 50% KCl...

  12. Neural Networks for Optimal Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, O.


    Two neural networks are trained to act as an observer and a controller, respectively, to control a non-linear, multi-variable process.......Two neural networks are trained to act as an observer and a controller, respectively, to control a non-linear, multi-variable process....

  13. Effects of Hofmeister salt series on gluten network formation: Part II. Anion series. (United States)

    Tuhumury, H C D; Small, D M; Day, L


    Different anion salts from the Hofmeister series were used to investigate their effects on gluten network formation. The effects of these anion salts on the mixing properties of the dough and the rheological and chemical properties of gluten samples extracted from the dough with these respective salts were compared. The aim of this work was to determine how different anion salts influence the formation of the gluten structure during dough mixing. It was found that the Hofmeister anion salts affected the gluten network formation by interacting directly with specific amino acid residues that resulted in changes in gluten protein composition, specifically the percentage of the unextractable polymeric protein fractions (%UPP). These changes consequently led to remarkable differences in the mixing profiles and microstructural features of the dough, small deformation rheological properties of the gluten and a strain hardening behaviour of both dough and gluten samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Controlling Congestion on Complex Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Buzna, Lubos


    From the Internet to road networks and the power grid, modern life depends on controlling flows on critical infrastructure networks that often operate in a congested state. Yet, we have a limited understanding of the relative performance of the control mechanisms available to manage congestion and of the interplay between network topology, path layout and congestion control algorithms. Here, we consider two flow algorithms (max-flow and uniform-flow), and two more realistic congestion control schemes (max-min fairness and proportional fairness). We analyse how the algorithms and network topology affect throughput, fairness and the location of bottleneck edges. Our results show that on large random networks a network operator can implement the trade-off (proportional fairness) instead of the fair allocation (max-min fairness) with little sacrifice in throughput. We illustrate how the previously studied uniform-flow approach leaves networks severely underutilised in comparison with congestion control algorithms...

  15. Reducing the Salt Added to Takeaway Food: Within-Subjects Comparison of Salt Delivered by Five and 17 Holed Salt Shakers in Controlled Conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis Goffe

    Full Text Available To determine if the amount of salt delivered by standard salt shakers commonly used in English independent takeaways varies between those with five and 17 holes; and to determine if any differences are robust to variations in: the amount of salt in the shaker, the length of time spent shaking, and the person serving.Four laboratory experiments comparing the amount of salt delivered by shakers. Independent variables considered were: type of shaker used (five or 17 holes, amount of salt in the shaker before shaking commences (shaker full, half full or nearly empty, time spent shaking (3s, 5s or 10s, and individual serving.Controlled, laboratory, conditions.A quota-based convenience sample of 10 participants (five women aged 18-59 years.Amount of salt delivered by salt shakers.Across all trials, the 17 holed shaker delivered a mean (SD of 7.86g (4.54 per trial, whilst the five holed shaker delivered 2.65g (1.22. The five holed shaker delivered a mean of 33.7% of the salt of the 17 holed shaker. There was a significant difference in salt delivered between the five and 17 holed salt shakers when time spent shaking, amount of salt in the shaker and participant were all kept constant (p<0.001. This difference was robust to variations in the starting weight of shakers, time spent shaking and participant shaking (pssalt shakers have the potential to reduce the salt content of takeaway food, and particularly food from Fish & Chip shops, where these shakers are particularly used. Further research will be required to determine the effects of this intervention on customers' salt intake with takeaway food and on total dietary salt intake.

  16. Effects of Hofmeister salt series on gluten network formation: Part I. Cation series. (United States)

    Tuhumury, H C D; Small, D M; Day, L


    Different cationic salts were used to investigate the effects of the Hofmeister salt series on gluten network formation. The effects of cationic salts on wheat flour dough mixing properties, the rheological and the chemical properties of the gluten extracted from the dough with different respective salts, were investigated. The specific influence of different cationic salts on the gluten structure formation during dough mixing, compared to the sodium ion, were determined. The effects of different cations on dough and gluten of different flours mostly followed the Hofmeister series (NH4(+), K(+), Na(+), Mg(2+) and Ca(2+)). The impacts of cations on gluten structure and dough rheology at levels tested were relatively small. Therefore, the replacement of sodium from a technological standpoint is possible, particularly by monovalent cations such as NH4(+), or K(+). However the levels of replacement need to take into account sensory attributes of the cationic salts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Asynchronous control for networked systems

    CERN Document Server

    Rubio, Francisco; Bencomo, Sebastián


    This book sheds light on networked control systems; it describes different techniques for asynchronous control, moving away from the periodic actions of classical control, replacing them with state-based decisions and reducing the frequency with which communication between subsystems is required. The text focuses specially on event-based control. Split into two parts, Asynchronous Control for Networked Systems begins by addressing the problems of single-loop networked control systems, laying out various solutions which include two alternative model-based control schemes (anticipatory and predictive) and the use of H2/H∞ robust control to deal with network delays and packet losses. Results on self-triggering and send-on-delta sampling are presented to reduce the need for feedback in the loop. In Part II, the authors present solutions for distributed estimation and control. They deal first with reliable networks and then extend their results to scenarios in which delays and packet losses may occur. The novel ...

  18. Cybersecurity of Critical Control Networks (United States)


    AFRL-OSR-VA-TR-2015-0173 CONGRESSIONAL) CYBERSECURITY OF CRITICAL CONTROL NETWORKS William Mahoney UNIVERSITY OF NEBRASKA Final Report 07/14/2015...Congressional) Cybersecurity of Critical Control Networks 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER FA9550-10-1-0341 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR...FA9550-10-1-0341 Cybersecurity of Critical Control Networks Report Type Final Report Primary Contact E-mail Primary

  19. Performance of Networked Control Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingwei Zhang


    Full Text Available Data packet dropout is a special kind of time delay problem. In this paper, predictive controllers for networked control systems (NCSs with dual-network are designed by model predictive control method. The contributions are as follows. (1 The predictive control problem of the dual-network is considered. (2 The predictive performance of the dual-network is evaluated. (3 Compared to the popular networked control systems, the optimal controller of the new NCSs with data packets dropout is designed, which can minimize infinite performance index at each sampling time and guarantee the closed-loop system stability. Finally, the simulation results show the feasibility and effectiveness of the controllers designed.

  20. Network Access Control For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Kelley, Jay; Wessels, Denzil


    Network access control (NAC) is how you manage network security when your employees, partners, and guests need to access your network using laptops and mobile devices. Network Access Control For Dummies is where you learn how NAC works, how to implement a program, and how to take real-world challenges in stride. You'll learn how to deploy and maintain NAC in your environment, identify and apply NAC standards, and extend NAC for greater network security. Along the way you'll become familiar with what NAC is (and what it isn't) as well as the key business drivers for deploying NAC.Learn the step

  1. Neural Networks in Control Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, O.

    The intention of this report is to make a systematic examination of the possibilities of applying neural networks in those technical areas, which are familiar to a control engineer. In other words, the potential of neural networks in control applications is given higher priority than a detailed...... examined, and it appears that considering 'normal' neural network models with, say, 500 samples, the problem of over-fitting is neglible, and therefore it is not taken into consideration afterwards. Numerous model types, often met in control applications, are implemented as neural network models...... Kalmann filter) representing state space description. The potentials of neural networks for control of non-linear processes are also examined, focusing on three different groups of control concepts, all considered as generalizations of known linear control concepts to handle also non-linear processes...

  2. Positive train control shared network. (United States)


    The Interoperable Train Control (ITC) Positive : Train Control (PTC) Shared Network (IPSN) : project investigated anticipated industry benefits : and the level of support for the development of : a hosted technological platform for PTC : messaging ac...

  3. Neural Networks in Control Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, O.

    simulated process and compared. The closing chapter describes some practical experiments, where the different control concepts and training methods are tested on the same practical process operating in very noisy environments. All tests confirm that neural networks also have the potential to be trained......The intention of this report is to make a systematic examination of the possibilities of applying neural networks in those technical areas, which are familiar to a control engineer. In other words, the potential of neural networks in control applications is given higher priority than a detailed...... study of the networks themselves. With this end in view the following restrictions have been made: - Amongst numerous neural network structures, only the Multi Layer Perceptron (a feed-forward network) is applied. - Amongst numerous training algorithms, only four algorithms are examined, all...

  4. HSUPA Transport Network Congestion Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nádas Szilveszter


    Full Text Available The introduction of High Speed Uplink Packet Access (HSUPA greatly improves achievable uplink bitrate but it presents new challenges to be solved in the WCDMA radio access network. In the transport network, bandwidth reservation for HSUPA is not efficient and TCP cannot efficiently resolve congestion because of lower layer retransmissions. This paper proposes an HSUPA transport network flow control algorithm that handles congestion situations efficiently and supports Quality of Service differentiation. In the Radio Network Controller (RNC, transport network congestion is detected. Relying on the standardized control frame, the RNC notifies the Node B about transport network congestion. In case of transport network congestion, the Node B part of the HSUPA flow control instructs the air interface scheduler to reduce the bitrate of the flow to eliminate congestion. The performance analysis concentrates on transport network limited scenarios. It is shown that TCP cannot provide efficient congestion control. The proposed algorithm can achieve high end-user perceived throughput, while maintaining low delay, loss, and good fairness in the transport network.

  5. Delays and networked control systems

    CERN Document Server

    Hetel, Laurentiu; Daafouz, Jamal; Johansson, Karl


    This edited monograph includes state-of-the-art contributions on continuous time dynamical networks with delays. The book is divided into four parts. The first part presents tools and methods for the analysis of time-delay systems with a particular attention on control problems of large scale or infinite-dimensional systems with delays. The second part of the book is dedicated to the use of time-delay models for the analysis and design of Networked Control Systems. The third part of the book focuses on the analysis and design of systems with asynchronous sampling intervals which occur in Networked Control Systems. The last part of the book exposes several contributions dealing with the design of cooperative control and observation laws for networked control systems. The target audience primarily comprises researchers and experts in the field of control theory, but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students. .

  6. Understanding control of network spreading from network controllability (United States)

    Sun, Peng Gang; Ma, Xiaoke


    How to control the spread of an epidemic or information is a great challenge for us. A dynamic network-based system’s structural controllability provides a new way to control spreading with the minimum input of external signals, and the dynamic system is controllable if the signals can drive it from any initial state to any desired final state in finite time. Therefore, we are motivated to develop a new framework by introducing spreading networks (SNs) to describe the spreading pathways from a global view, and we try to understand the control of the spreading by the structural controllability of the SNs. The SNs are transformed from original networks, in which each node is considered as a single spreading origin. The weights of directed links pointing at its direct contacts in the SNs denote the spreading abilities, which can be determined by a new probability function. Furthermore, we also investigate the impact of the dynamics of network structures on the framework. The results show that sparse homogeneous networks with a higher transmission probability tend to trigger a larger scale of diffusion, which is easier to control. We can also see that an epidemic or information is inclined to diffuse easily on the networks with strong community strengths and heterogeneous community sizes. From the structural controllability of the SNs, we observe that driver nodes for the control of the spread tend not to be the nodes located within the core of original networks or those with high-degree. In addition, the scale of diffusion, the number of driver nodes and positions of nodes are highly associated with the degree distribution of the original networks.

  7. Neural Networks in Control Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, O.

    The intention of this report is to make a systematic examination of the possibilities of applying neural networks in those technical areas, which are familiar to a control engineer. In other words, the potential of neural networks in control applications is given higher priority than a detailed...... study of the networks themselves. With this end in view the following restrictions have been made: - Amongst numerous neural network structures, only the Multi Layer Perceptron (a feed-forward network) is applied. - Amongst numerous training algorithms, only four algorithms are examined, all...... in a recursive form (sample updating). The simplest is the Back Probagation Error Algorithm, and the most complex is the recursive Prediction Error Method using a Gauss-Newton search direction. - Over-fitting is often considered to be a serious problem when training neural networks. This problem is specifically...

  8. Control and Optimization of Network in Networked Control System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Zhiwen


    Full Text Available In order to avoid quality of performance (QoP degradation resulting from quality of service (QoS, the solution to network congestion from the point of control theory, which marks departure of our results from the existing methods, is proposed in this paper. The congestion and bandwidth are regarded as state and control variables, respectively; then, the linear time-invariant (LTI model between congestion state and bandwidth of network is established. Consequently, linear quadratic method is used to eliminate the network congestion by allocating bandwidth dynamically. At last, numerical simulation results are given to illustrate the effectiveness of this modeling approach.

  9. A Network Traffic Control Enhancement Approach over Bluetooth Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Son, L.T.; Schiøler, Henrik; Madsen, Ole Brun


    This paper analyzes network traffic control issues in Bluetooth data networks as convex optimization problem. We formulate the problem of maximizing of total network flows and minimizing the costs of flows. An adaptive distributed network traffic control scheme is proposed as an approximated...... solution of the stated optimization problem that satisfies quality of service requirements and topologically induced constraints in Bluetooth networks, such as link capacity and node resource limitations. The proposed scheme is decentralized and complies with frequent changes of topology as well...... as capacity limitations and flow requirements in the network. Simulation shows that the performance of Bluetooth networks could be improved by applying the adaptive distributed network traffic control scheme...

  10. Information and control in networks

    CERN Document Server

    Bernhardsson, Bo; Rantzer, Anders


    Information and Control in Networks demonstrates the way in which system dynamics and information flows intertwine as they evolve, and the central role played by information in the control of complex networked systems. It is a milestone on the road to that convergence from traditionally independent development of control theory and information theory which has emerged strongly in the last fifteen years, and is now a very active research field. In addition to efforts in control and information theory, the text is witness to strong research in such diverse fields as computer science, mathematics, and statistics. Aspects that are given specialist treatment include: ·                 data-rate theorems; ·                 computation and control over communication networks; ·                 decentralized stochastic control; ·                 Gaussian networks and Gaussian–Markov random fields; and ·                 routability ...

  11. Salt controls feeding decisions in a blood-sucking insect. (United States)

    Pontes, Gina; Pereira, Marcos H; Barrozo, Romina B


    Salts are necessary for maintaining homeostatic conditions within the body of all living organisms. Like with all essential nutrients, deficient or excessive ingestion of salts can result in adverse health effects. The taste system is a primary sensory modality that helps animals to make adequate feeding decisions in terms of salt consumption. In this work we show that sodium and potassium chloride salts modulate the feeding behavior of Rhodnius prolixus in a concentration-dependent manner. Feeding is only triggered by an optimal concentration of any of these salts (0.1-0.15M) and in presence of the phagostimulant ATP. Conversely, feeding solutions that do not contain salts or have a high-salt concentration (>0.3M) are not ingested by insects. Notably, we show that feeding decisions of insects cannot be explained as an osmotic effect, because they still feed over hyperosmotic solutions bearing the optimal salt concentration. Insects perceive optimal-salt, no-salt and high-salt solutions as different gustatory information, as revealed the electromyogram recordings of the cibarial pump. Moreover, because insects do a continuous gustatory monitoring of the incoming food during feeding, sudden changes beyond the optimal sodium concentration decrease and even inhibit feeding. The administration of amiloride, a sodium channel blocker, noticeably reduces the ingestion of the optimal sodium solution but not of the optimal potassium solution. Salt detection seems to occur at least through two salt receptors, one amiloride-sensitive and another amiloride-insensitive. Our results confirm the importance of the gustatory system in R. prolixus, showing the relevant role that salts play on their feeding decisions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Dynamic Network Security Control Using Software Defined Networking (United States)


    not subject to copyright protection in the United States. AFIT-ENG-MS-16-M-049 DYNAMIC NETWORK SECURITY CONTROL USING SOFTWARE DEFINED NETWORKING... software and tools vetted by industry leaders in networking and security. After considering the technologies previously discussed, the four components...DYNAMIC NETWORK SECURITY CONTROL USING SOFTWARE DEFINED NETWORKING THESIS Michael C. Todd, Captain, USAF AFIT-ENG-MS-16-M-049 DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR

  13. Spectral coarse grained controllability of complex networks (United States)

    Wang, Pei; Xu, Shuang


    With the accumulation of interaction data from various systems, a fundamental question in network science is how to reduce the sizes while keeping certain properties of complex networks. Combined the spectral coarse graining theory and the structural controllability of complex networks, we explore the structural controllability of undirected complex networks during coarse graining processes. We evidence that the spectral coarse grained controllability (SCGC) properties for the Erdös-Rényi (ER) random networks, the scale-free (SF) random networks and the small-world (SW) random networks are distinct from each other. The SW networks are very robust, while the SF networks are sensitive during the coarse graining processes. As an emergent properties for the dense ER networks, during the coarse graining processes, there exists a threshold value of the coarse grained sizes, which separates the controllability of the reduced networks into robust and sensitive to coarse graining. Investigations on some real-world complex networks indicate that the SCGC properties are varied among different categories and different kinds of networks, some highly organized social or biological networks are more difficult to be controlled, while many man-made power networks and infrastructure networks can keep the controllability properties during the coarse graining processes. Furthermore, we speculate that the SCGC properties of complex networks may depend on their degree distributions. The associated investigations have potential implications in the control of large-scale complex networks, as well as in the understanding of the organization of complex networks.

  14. Virtualized Network Control. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghani, Nasir [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    This document is the final report for the Virtualized Network Control (VNC) project, which was funded by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science. This project was also informally referred to as Advanced Resource Computation for Hybrid Service and TOpology NEtworks (ARCHSTONE). This report provides a summary of the project's activities, tasks, deliverable, and accomplishments. It also provides a summary of the documents, software, and presentations generated as part of this projects activities. Namely, the Appendix contains an archive of the deliverables, documents, and presentations generated a part of this project.

  15. Controllability of the better chosen partial networks (United States)

    Liu, Xueming; Pan, Linqiang


    How to control large complex networks is a great challenge. Recent studies have proved that the whole network can be sufficiently steered by injecting control signals into a minimum set of driver nodes, and the minimum numbers of driver nodes for many real networks are high, indicating that it is difficult to control them. For some large natural and technological networks, it is impossible and not feasible to control the full network. For example, in biological networks like large-scale gene regulatory networks it is impossible to control all the genes. This prompts us to explore the question how to choose partial networks that are easy for controlling and important in networked systems. In this work, we propose a method to achieve this goal. By computing the minimum driver nodes densities of the partial networks of Erdös-Rényi (ER) networks, scale-free (SF) networks and 23 real networks, we find that our method performs better than random method that chooses nodes randomly. Moreover, we find that the nodes chosen by our method tend to be the essential elements of the whole systems, via studying the nodes chosen by our method of a real human signaling network and a human protein interaction network and discovering that the chosen nodes from these networks tend to be cancer-associated genes. The implementation of our method shows some interesting connections between the structure and the controllability of networks, improving our understanding of the control principles of complex systems.

  16. Robustness of network controllability in cascading failure (United States)

    Chen, Shi-Ming; Xu, Yun-Fei; Nie, Sen


    It is demonstrated that controlling complex networks in practice needs more inputs than that predicted by the structural controllability framework. Besides, considering the networks usually faces to the external or internal failure, we define parameters to evaluate the control cost and the variation of controllability after cascades, exploring the effect of number of control inputs on the controllability for random networks and scale-free networks in the process of cascading failure. For different topological networks, the results show that the robustness of controllability will be stronger through allocating different control inputs and edge capacity.

  17. Congestion control in satellite networks (United States)

    Byun, Do Jun

    Due to exponential increases in internet traffic, Active Queue Management (AQM) has been heavily studied by numerous researchers. However, little is known about AQM in satellite networks. A microscopic examination of queueing behavior in satellite networks is conducted to identify problems with applying existing AQM methods. A new AQM method is proposed to overcome the problems and it is validated using a realistic emulation environment and a mathematical model. Three problems that were discovered during the research are discussed in this dissertation. The first problem is oscillatory queueing, which is caused by high buffering due to Performance Enhancing Proxy (PEP) in satellite networks where congestion control after the PEP buffering does not effectively control traffic senders. Existing AQMs that can solve this problem have tail drop queueing that results in consecutive packet drops (global synchronization). A new AQM method called Adaptive Virtual Queue Random Early Detection (AVQRED) is proposed to solve this problem. The second problem is unfair bandwidth sharing caused by inaccurate measurements of per-flow bandwidth usage. AVQRED is enhanced to accurately measure per-flow bandwidth usage to solve this problem without adding much complexity to the algorithm. The third problem is queueing instability caused by buffer flow control where TCP receive windows are adjusted to flow control traffic senders instead of dropping received packets during congestion. Although buffer flow control is quite attractive to satellite networks, queueing becomes unstable because accepting packets instead of dropping them aggravates the congestion level. Furthermore, buffer flow control has abrupt reductions in the TCP receive window size due to high PEP buffering causing more instability. AVQRED with packet drop is proposed to solve this problem. Networks with scarce bandwidth and high propagation delays can not afford to have an unstable AQM. In this research, three problems

  18. Proxy SDN Controller for Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won-Suk Kim


    Full Text Available Management of wireless networks as well as wired networks by using software-defined networking (SDN has been highlighted continually. However, control features of a wireless network differ from those of a wired network in several aspects. In this study, we identify the various inefficient points when controlling and managing wireless networks by using SDN and propose SDN-based control architecture called Proxcon to resolve these problems. Proxcon introduces the concept of a proxy SDN controller (PSC for the wireless network control, and the PSC entrusted with the role of a main controller performs control operations and provides the latest network state for a network administrator. To address the control inefficiency, Proxcon supports offloaded SDN operations for controlling wireless networks by utilizing the PSC, such as local control by each PSC, hybrid control utilizing the PSC and the main controller, and locally cooperative control utilizing the PSCs. The proposed architecture and the newly supported control operations can enhance scalability and response time when the logically centralized control plane responds to the various wireless network events. Through actual experiments, we verified that the proposed architecture could address the various control issues such as scalability, response time, and control overhead.

  19. How rheological heterogeneities control the internal deformation of salt giants. (United States)

    Raith, Alexander; Urai, Janos L.


    Salt giants, like the North European Zechstein, consist of several evaporation cycles of different evaporites with highly diverse rheologies. Common Potassium and Magnesium (K-Mg) salt are typically 10 to 100 times less viscous as halite while stringers consisting of anhydrite and carbonates are about 100 times more viscous. In most parts, these mechanically layered bodies experienced complex deformation, resulting in large scale internal folding with ruptured stringers and shear zones, as observed in seismic images. Furthermore, locally varying evaporation history produced different mechanical stratigraphies across the salt basin. Although most of these extraordinary soft or strong layers are rather thin (pillow. Strain is accumulated in the soft layers leading to stronger salt flow near these layers and extensive deformation inside of them. Thus, if a soft layer is present near a stringer, it will experience more deformation. Additionally, the strong strain concentration in the soft layers could decouple parts of the salt body from the main deformation.

  20. Opinion control in complex networks (United States)

    Masuda, Naoki


    In many political elections, the electorate appears to be a composite of partisan and independent voters. Given that partisans are not likely to convert to a different party, an important goal for a political party could be to mobilize independent voters toward the party with the help of strong leadership, mass media, partisans, and the effects of peer-to-peer influence. Based on the exact solution of classical voter model dynamics in the presence of perfectly partisan voters (i.e., zealots), we propose a computational method that uses pinning control strategy to maximize the share of a party in a social network of independent voters. The party, corresponding to the controller or zealots, optimizes the nodes to be controlled given the information about the connectivity of independent voters and the set of nodes that the opposing party controls. We show that controlling hubs is generally a good strategy, but the optimized strategy is even better. The superiority of the optimized strategy is particularly eminent when the independent voters are connected as directed (rather than undirected) networks.

  1. Flexible Tube-Based Network Control Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Innovation Laboratory, Inc. builds a control system which controls the topology of an air traffic flow network and the network flow properties which enables Air...

  2. Controllability of flow-conservation networks (United States)

    Zhao, Chen; Zeng, An; Jiang, Rui; Yuan, Zhengzhong; Wang, Wen-Xu


    The ultimate goal of exploring complex networks is to control them. As such, controllability of complex networks has been intensively investigated. Despite recent advances in studying the impact of a network's topology on its controllability, a comprehensive understanding of the synergistic impact of network topology and dynamics on controllability is still lacking. Here, we explore the controllability of flow-conservation networks, trying to identify the minimal number of driver nodes that can guide the network to any desirable state. We develop a method to analyze the controllability on flow-conservation networks based on exact controllability theory, transforming the original analysis on adjacency matrix to Laplacian matrix. With this framework, we systematically investigate the impact of some key factors of networks, including link density, link directionality, and link polarity, on the controllability of these networks. We also obtain the analytical equations by investigating the network's structural properties approximatively and design the efficient tools. Finally, we consider some real networks with flow dynamics, finding that their controllability is significantly different from that predicted by only considering the topology. These findings deepen our understanding of network controllability with flow-conservation dynamics and provide a general framework to incorporate real dynamics in the analysis of network controllability.

  3. Gradient zone boundary control in salt gradient solar ponds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hull, John R. (Downers Grove, IL)


    A method and apparatus for suppressing zone boundary migration in a salt gradient solar pond includes extending perforated membranes across the pond at the boundaries, between the convective and non-convective zones, the perforations being small enough in size to prevent individual turbulence disturbances from penetrating the hole, but being large enough to allow easy molecular diffusion of salt thereby preventing the formation of convective zones in the gradient layer. The total area of the perforations is a sizable fraction of the membrane area to allow sufficient salt diffusion while preventing turbulent entrainment into the gradient zone.

  4. Constrained target controllability of complex networks (United States)

    Guo, Wei-Feng; Zhang, Shao-Wu; Wei, Ze-Gang; Zeng, Tao; Liu, Fei; Zhang, Jingsong; Wu, Fang-Xiang; Chen, Luonan


    It is of great theoretical interest and practical significance to study how to control a system by applying perturbations to only a few driver nodes. Recently, a hot topic of modern network researches is how to determine driver nodes that allow the control of an entire network. However, in practice, to control a complex network, especially a biological network, one may know not only the set of nodes which need to be controlled (i.e. target nodes), but also the set of nodes to which only control signals can be applied (i.e. constrained control nodes). Compared to the general concept of controllability, we introduce the concept of constrained target controllability (CTC) of complex networks, which concerns the ability to drive any state of target nodes to their desirable state by applying control signals to the driver nodes from the set of constrained control nodes. To efficiently investigate the CTC of complex networks, we further design a novel graph-theoretic algorithm called CTCA to estimate the ability of a given network to control targets by choosing driver nodes from the set of constrained control nodes. We extensively evaluate the CTC of numerous real complex networks. The results indicate that biological networks with a higher average degree are easier to control than biological networks with a lower average degree, while electronic networks with a lower average degree are easier to control than web networks with a higher average degree. We also show that our CTCA can more efficiently produce driver nodes for target-controlling the networks than existing state-of-the-art methods. Moreover, we use our CTCA to analyze two expert-curated bio-molecular networks and compare to other state-of-the-art methods. The results illustrate that our CTCA can efficiently identify proven drug targets and new potentials, according to the constrained controllability of those biological networks.

  5. Groundwater controls ecological zonation of salt marsh macrophytes. (United States)

    Wilson, Alicia M; Evans, Tyler; Moore, Willard; Schutte, Charles A; Joye, Samantha B; Hughes, Andrea H; Anderson, Joseph L


    Ecological zonation of salt marsh macrophytes is strongly influenced by hydrologic factors, but these factors are poorly understood. We examined groundwater flow patterns through surficial sediments in two saltmarshes in the southeastern United States to quantify hydrologic differences between distinct ecological zones. Both sites included tall- or medium-form Spartina alterniflora near the creek bank; short-form Spartina alterniflora in the mid-marsh; salt flats and Salicornia virginica in the high marsh; and Juncus roemarianus in brackish-to-fresh areas adjacent to uplands. Both sites had relatively small, sandy uplands and similar stratigraphy consisting of marsh muds overlying a deeper sand layer. We found significant hydrologic differences between the four ecological zones. In the zones colonized by S. alterniflora, the vertical flow direction oscillated with semi-diurnal tides. Net flow (14-day average) through the tall S. alterniflora zones was downward, whereas the short S. alterniflora zones included significant periods of net upward groundwater flow. An examination of tidal efficiency at these sites suggested that the net flow patterns rather than tidal damping controlled the width of the tall S. alterniflora zone. In contrast to the S. alterniflora zones, hypersaline zones populated by S. virginica were characterized by sustained periods (days) of continuous upward flow of saline water during neap tides. The fresher zone populated by J. roemarianus showed physical flow patterns that were similar to the hypersaline zones, but the upwelling porewaters were fresh rather than saline. These flow patterns were influenced by the hydrogeologic framework of the marshes, particularly differences in hydraulic head between the upland water table and the tidal creeks. We observed increases in hydraulic head of approximately 40 cm from the creek to the upland in the sand layers below both marshes, which is consistent with previous observations that sandy aquifers

  6. Development of a method for controlling salt and sodium use during meal preparation for food services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Barbosa Frantz


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The study developed a method for controlling the amount of salt and sodium during food preparation, Controlling Salt and Sodium use During Meal Preparation for food services based on the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points principles. METHODS: The method was conceived and perfected during a study case in a commercial food service located in Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil. Data were collected from technical cards, recipes and measurements during food preparation. The preparations were monitored and compared with criteria about the use of salt and sodium found in the literature. Critical control points were identified and corrective measures were proposed. RESULTS: The result was a method consisting of 9 stages: (1 determination of the sodium content in the ingredients; (2 and 3 analysis of menu planning and sodium content; (4 follow-up of food preparation; (5 estimate of the amount of sodium used in the preparations; (6 and 7 selection and following of the preparations with average- and high-sodium content; (8 definition of the critical points and establishment of corrective actions for the use of salt and sodium; and (9 creation of recommendations for the use of salt and sodium. CONCLUSION: The Controlling Salt and Sodium use During Meal Preparation may contribute to global discussions regarding the reduction of salt and sodium intakes and collaborate for the supply of nutritionally and sensorially appropriate meals with respect to salt and sodium content. It may also help to prevent non-communicable chronic diseases.

  7. Adaptive optimization and control using neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mead, W.C.; Brown, S.K.; Jones, R.D.; Bowling, P.S.; Barnes, C.W.


    Recent work has demonstrated the ability of neural-network-based controllers to optimize and control machines with complex, non-linear, relatively unknown control spaces. We present a brief overview of neural networks via a taxonomy illustrating some capabilities of different kinds of neural networks. We present some successful control examples, particularly the optimization and control of a small-angle negative ion source.

  8. Simplified LQG Control with Neural Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, O.


    A new neural network application for non-linear state control is described. One neural network is modelled to form a Kalmann predictor and trained to act as an optimal state observer for a non-linear process. Another neural network is modelled to form a state controller and trained to produce...

  9. Synchronizability on complex networks via pinning control

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    pinning strategies have different pinning synchronizability on the same complex network, and the synchronizability with pinning control is consistent with one without pinning control in various complex networks. Keywords. Complex network; the pinning synchronization; synchronizability. PACS Nos 05.45.Xt; 89.75.−k; 05.45.

  10. Opinion control in complex networks

    CERN Document Server

    Masuda, Naoki


    In many instances of election, the electorate appears to be a composite of partisan and independent voters. Given that partisans are not likely to convert to a different party, a main goal for a party could be to mobilize independent voters toward the party with the help of strong leadership, mass media, partisans, and effects of peer-to-peer influence. Based on the exact solution of the classical voter model dynamics in the presence of perfectly partisan voters (i.e., zealots), we propose a computational method to maximize the share of the party in a social network of independent voters by pinning control strategy. The party, corresponding to the controller or zealots, optimizes the nodes to be controlled given the information about the connectivity of independent voters and the set of nodes that the opponent party controls. We show that controlling hubs is generally a good strategy, whereas the optimized strategy is even better. The superiority of the optimized strategy is particularly eminent when the inde...

  11. Controlling complex networks with conformity behavior (United States)

    Wang, Xu-Wen; Nie, Sen; Wang, Wen-Xu; Wang, Bing-Hong


    Controlling complex networks accompanied by common conformity behavior is a fundamental problem in social and physical science. Conformity behavior that individuals tend to follow the majority in their neighborhood is common in human society and animal communities. Despite recent progress in understanding controllability of complex networks, the existent controllability theories cannot be directly applied to networks associated with conformity. Here we propose a simple model to incorporate conformity-based decision making into the evolution of a network system, which allows us to employ the exact controllability theory to explore the controllability of such systems. We offer rigorous theoretical results of controllability for representative regular networks. We also explore real networks in different fields and some typical model networks, finding some interesting results that are different from the predictions of structural and exact controllability theory in the absence of conformity. We finally present an example of steering a real social network to some target states to further validate our controllability theory and tools. Our work offers a more realistic understanding of network controllability with conformity behavior and can have potential applications in networked evolutionary games, opinion dynamics and many other complex networked systems.

  12. Model-based control of networked systems

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia, Eloy; Montestruque, Luis A


    This monograph introduces a class of networked control systems (NCS) called model-based networked control systems (MB-NCS) and presents various architectures and control strategies designed to improve the performance of NCS. The overall performance of NCS considers the appropriate use of network resources, particularly network bandwidth, in conjunction with the desired response of the system being controlled.   The book begins with a detailed description of the basic MB-NCS architecture that provides stability conditions in terms of state feedback updates . It also covers typical problems in NCS such as network delays, network scheduling, and data quantization, as well as more general control problems such as output feedback control, nonlinear systems stabilization, and tracking control.   Key features and topics include: Time-triggered and event-triggered feedback updates Stabilization of uncertain systems subject to time delays, quantization, and extended absence of feedback Optimal control analysis and ...

  13. Logistic control in automated transportation networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ebben, Mark


    Increasing congestion problems lead to a search for alternative transportation systems. Automated transportation networks, possibly underground, are an option. Logistic control systems are essential for future implementations of such automated transportation networks. This book contributes to the

  14. Controller placement problem in industrial networks


    Macián Ribera, Sergi


    SDN is the new trend in networks, for next Mobile and optical networks. Dimensioning, design and optimization of Software Defined Optical Networks. To be done at Technical University Munich (TUM) In this work the Controller Placement Problem (CPP) for SDN architecture is studied when it is applied to industrial networks. En este trabajo se estudia el problema CPP (controller placement problem) para la arquitectura SDN, aplicado a redes industriales. En aquest treball s'estudia el pro...

  15. Environmental controls on multiscale spatial patterns of salt marsh vegetation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Daehyun; Cairns, David; Bartholdy, Jesper


    physical processes operate. This study investigated such a topography-vegetation relationship in a Danish salt marsh, focusing upon two scales: a macro-scale (ca. 500 m) across the marsh platform, encompassing seaward and landward areas, and a meso-scale ( ca. 25 m) across tidal creeks. While long-term sea...... represented an ecological sequence from early to late succession, and strongly correlated with surface elevation. However, the gradient did not show any significant relationship with distance from shoreline or tidal channels. Our results suggest that, in salt marshes, elevation plays a still more important...

  16. 2016 Network Games, Control, and Optimization Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Jimenez, Tania; Solan, Eilon


    This contributed volume offers a collection of papers presented at the 2016 Network Games, Control, and Optimization conference (NETGCOOP), held at the University of Avignon in France, November 23-25, 2016. These papers highlight the increasing importance of network control and optimization in many networking application domains, such as mobile and fixed access networks, computer networks, social networks, transportation networks, and, more recently, electricity grids and biological networks. Covering a wide variety of both theoretical and applied topics in the areas listed above, the authors explore several conceptual and algorithmic tools that are needed for efficient and robust control operation, performance optimization, and better understanding the relationships between entities that may be acting cooperatively or selfishly in uncertain and possibly adversarial environments. As such, this volume will be of interest to applied mathematicians, computer scientists, engineers, and researchers in other relate...

  17. Some Lake Level Control Alternatives for the Great Salt Lake


    Allen, Marvin E.; Christensen, Ronald K.; Riley, J. Paul


    Fluctuations of the level of the Great Salt Lake cause large changes in both surface area and shoreline. Developments adjacent to the lake have been damaged by both high and low lake levels; and unless measures are implemented to regulate lake level fluctuations or otherwise to protect these developments, damages will continue. Various possible managment alternatives for mitigating potential damages from lake leve...

  18. Filtering and control of wireless networked systems

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Dan; Yu, Li


    This self-contained book, written by leading experts, offers a cutting-edge, in-depth overview of the filtering and control of wireless networked systems. It addresses the energy constraint and filter/controller gain variation problems, and presents both the centralized and the distributed solutions. The first two chapters provide an introduction to networked control systems and basic information on system analysis. Chapters (3–6) then discuss the centralized filtering of wireless networked systems, presenting different approaches to deal with energy efficiency and filter/controller gain variation problems. The next part (chapters 7–10) explores the distributed filtering of wireless networked systems, addressing the main problems of energy constraint and filter gain variation. The final part (chapters 11–14) focuses on the distributed control of wireless networked systems. networked systems for communication and control applications, the bo...

  19. Identification of novel and salt-responsive miRNAs to explore miRNA-mediated regulatory network of salt stress response in radish (Raphanus sativus L.). (United States)

    Sun, Xiaochuan; Xu, Liang; Wang, Yan; Yu, Rugang; Zhu, Xianwen; Luo, Xiaobo; Gong, Yiqin; Wang, Ronghua; Limera, Cecilia; Zhang, Keyun; Liu, Liwang


    Salt stress is one of the most representative abiotic stresses that severely affect plant growth and development. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are well known for their significant involvement in plant responses to abiotic stresses. Although miRNAs implicated in salt stress response have been widely reported in numerous plant species, their regulatory roles in the adaptive response to salt stress in radish (Raphanus sativus L.), an important root vegetable crop worldwide, remain largely unknown. Solexa sequencing of two sRNA libraries from NaCl-free (CK) and NaCl-treated (Na200) radish roots were performed for systematical identification of salt-responsive miRNAs and their expression profiling in radish. Totally, 136 known miRNAs (representing 43 miRNA families) and 68 potential novel miRNAs (belonging to 51 miRNA families) were identified. Of these miRNAs, 49 known and 22 novel miRNAs were differentially expressed under salt stress. Target prediction and annotation indicated that these miRNAs exerted a role by regulating specific stress-responsive genes, such as squamosa promoter binding-like proteins (SPLs), auxin response factors (ARFs), nuclear transcription factor Y (NF-Y) and superoxide dismutase [Cu-Zn] (CSD1). Further functional analysis suggested that these target genes were mainly implicated in signal perception and transduction, regulation of ion homeostasis, basic metabolic processes, secondary stress responses, as well as modulation of attenuated plant growth and development under salt stress. Additionally, the expression patterns of ten miRNAs and five corresponding target genes were validated by reverse-transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). With the sRNA sequencing, salt-responsive miRNAs and their target genes in radish were comprehensively identified. The results provide novel insight into complex miRNA-mediated regulatory network of salt stress response in radish, and facilitate further dissection of molecular mechanism underlying plant adaptive response

  20. PID Controller Based on Memristive CMAC Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidan Wang


    Full Text Available Compound controller which consists of CMAC network and PID network is mainly used in control system, especially in robot control. It can realize nonlinear tracking control of the real-time dynamic trajectory and possesses good approximation effect. According to the structure and principle of the compound controller, memristor is introduced to CMAC network to be a compound controller in this paper. The new PID controller based on memristive CMAC network is built up by replacing the synapse in the original controller by memristors. The effect of curve approximation is obtained by MATLAB simulation experiments. This network improves the response and learning speed of the system and processes better robustness and antidisturbance performance.

  1. Control theory of digitally networked dynamic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lunze, Jan


    The book gives an introduction to networked control systems and describes new modeling paradigms, analysis methods for event-driven, digitally networked systems, and design methods for distributed estimation and control. Networked model predictive control is developed as a means to tolerate time delays and packet loss brought about by the communication network. In event-based control the traditional periodic sampling is replaced by state-dependent triggering schemes. Novel methods for multi-agent systems ensure complete or clustered synchrony of agents with identical or with individual dynamic

  2. Additive Feed Forward Control with Neural Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, O.


    This paper demonstrates a method to control a non-linear, multivariable, noisy process using trained neural networks. The basis for the method is a trained neural network controller acting as the inverse process model. A training method for obtaining such an inverse process model is applied....... A suitable 'shaped' (low-pass filtered) reference is used to overcome problems with excessive control action when using a controller acting as the inverse process model. The control concept is Additive Feed Forward Control, where the trained neural network controller, acting as the inverse process model......, is placed in a supplementary pure feed-forward path to an existing feedback controller. This concept benefits from the fact, that an existing, traditional designed, feedback controller can be retained without any modifications, and after training the connection of the neural network feed-forward controller...

  3. Distributed medium access control in wireless networks

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Ping


    This brief investigates distributed medium access control (MAC) with QoS provisioning for both single- and multi-hop wireless networks including wireless local area networks (WLANs), wireless ad hoc networks, and wireless mesh networks. For WLANs, an efficient MAC scheme and a call admission control algorithm are presented to provide guaranteed QoS for voice traffic and, at the same time, increase the voice capacity significantly compared with the current WLAN standard. In addition, a novel token-based scheduling scheme is proposed to provide great flexibility and facility to the network servi

  4. Cloud-based Networked Visual Servo Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Haiyan; Lu, Lei; Chen, Chih-Chung


    feedback, ii) a stabilizing control law for the networked visual servo control system with time-varying feedback time delay, and iii) a sending rate scheduling strategy aiming at reducing the communication network load. The performance of the networked visual servo control system with sending rate......The performance of vision-based control systems, in particular of highly dynamic vision-based motion control systems, is often limited by the low sampling rate of the visual feedback caused by the long image processing time. In order to overcome this problem, the networked visual servo control......, which integrates networked computational resources for cloud image processing, is considered in this article. The main contributions of this article are i) a real-time transport protocol for transmitting large volume image data on a cloud computing platform, which enables high sampling rate visual...

  5. Trends in Integrated Ship Control Networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, N.; Nielsen, Jens Frederik Dalsgaard


    Integrated Ship Control systems can be designed as robust, distributed, autonomous control systems. The EU funded ATOMOS and ATOMOS II projects involves both technical and non technical aspects of this process. A reference modelling concept giving an outline of a generic ISC system covering...... the network and the equipment connected to it, a framework for verification of network functionality and performance by simulation and a general distribution platform for ISC systems, The ATOMOS Network, are results of this work....

  6. Neural Networks for Non-linear Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, O.


    This paper describes how a neural network, structured as a Multi Layer Perceptron, is trained to predict, simulate and control a non-linear process.......This paper describes how a neural network, structured as a Multi Layer Perceptron, is trained to predict, simulate and control a non-linear process....

  7. Stress controls the mechanics of collagen networks (United States)

    Licup, Albert James; Münster, Stefan; Sharma, Abhinav; Sheinman, Michael; Jawerth, Louise M.; Fabry, Ben; Weitz, David A.; MacKintosh, Fred C.


    Collagen is the main structural and load-bearing element of various connective tissues, where it forms the extracellular matrix that supports cells. It has long been known that collagenous tissues exhibit a highly nonlinear stress–strain relationship, although the origins of this nonlinearity remain unknown. Here, we show that the nonlinear stiffening of reconstituted type I collagen networks is controlled by the applied stress and that the network stiffness becomes surprisingly insensitive to network concentration. We demonstrate how a simple model for networks of elastic fibers can quantitatively account for the mechanics of reconstituted collagen networks. Our model points to the important role of normal stresses in determining the nonlinear shear elastic response, which can explain the approximate exponential relationship between stress and strain reported for collagenous tissues. This further suggests principles for the design of synthetic fiber networks with collagen-like properties, as well as a mechanism for the control of the mechanics of such networks. PMID:26195769

  8. Modeling, Optimization & Control of Hydraulic Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tahavori, Maryamsadat


    in water network is pressure management. By reducing the pressure in the water network, the leakage can be reduced significantly. Also it reduces the amount of energy consumption in water networks. The primary purpose of this work is to develop control algorithms for pressure control in water supply....... The nonlinear network model is derived based on the circuit theory. A suitable projection is used to reduce the state vector and to express the model in standard state-space form. Then, the controllability of nonlinear nonaffine hydraulic networks is studied. The Lie algebra-based controllability matrix is used...... to solve nonlinear optimal control problems. In the water supply system model, the hydraulic resistance of the valve is estimated by real data and it is considered to be a disturbance. The disturbance in our system is updated every 24 hours based on the amount of water usage by consumers every day. Model...

  9. Blood Pressure Genetic Risk Score Predicts Blood Pressure Responses to Dietary Sodium and Potassium: The GenSalt Study (Genetic Epidemiology Network of Salt Sensitivity). (United States)

    Nierenberg, Jovia L; Li, Changwei; He, Jiang; Gu, Dongfeng; Chen, Jichun; Lu, Xiangfeng; Li, Jianxin; Wu, Xigui; Gu, C Charles; Hixson, James E; Rao, Dabeeru C; Kelly, Tanika N


    We examined the association between genetic risk score (GRS) for blood pressure (BP), based on single nucleotide polymorphisms identified in previous BP genome-wide association study meta-analyses, and salt and potassium sensitivity of BP among participants of the GenSalt study (Genetic Epidemiology Network of Salt Sensitivity). The GenSalt study was conducted among 1906 participants who underwent a 7-day low-sodium (51.3 mmol sodium/d), 7-day high-sodium (307.8 mmol sodium/d), and 7-day high-sodium plus potassium (60 mmol potassium/d) intervention. BP was measured 9× at baseline and at the end of each intervention period using a random zero sphygmomanometer. Associations between systolic BP (SBP), diastolic BP, and mean arterial pressure GRS and respective SBP, diastolic BP, and mean arterial pressure responses to the dietary interventions were assessed using mixed linear regression models that accounted for familial dependencies and adjusted for age, sex, field center, body mass index, and baseline BP. As expected, baseline SBP, diastolic BP, and mean arterial pressure significantly increased per quartile increase in GRS (P=2.7×10-8, 9.8×10-8, and 6.4×10-6, respectively). In contrast, increasing GRS quartile conferred smaller SBP, diastolic BP, and mean arterial pressure responses to the low-sodium intervention (P=1.4×10-3, 0.02, and 0.06, respectively) and smaller SBP responses to the high-sodium and potassium interventions (P=0.10 and 0.05). In addition, overall findings were similar when examining GRS as a continuous measure. Contrary to our initial hypothesis, we identified an inverse relationship between BP GRS and salt and potassium sensitivity of BP. These data may provide novel implications on the relationship between BP responses to dietary sodium and potassium and hypertension. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  10. Combinations of nisin with salt (NaCl) to control Listeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluated the effect of combinations of nisin with salt (NaCl) to control Listeria monocytogenes on sheep natural sausage casings. Casings were inoculated with 3.0 x 105 cfu/g final inocula of L. monocytogenes, stored at 6°C in different solutions of nisin at 0, 100, 150 and 200 ìg/g. Each combined with salt at 0, 4, ...

  11. Distributed controller clustering in software defined networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Abdelaziz

    Full Text Available Software Defined Networking (SDN is an emerging promising paradigm for network management because of its centralized network intelligence. However, the centralized control architecture of the software-defined networks (SDNs brings novel challenges of reliability, scalability, fault tolerance and interoperability. In this paper, we proposed a novel clustered distributed controller architecture in the real setting of SDNs. The distributed cluster implementation comprises of multiple popular SDN controllers. The proposed mechanism is evaluated using a real world network topology running on top of an emulated SDN environment. The result shows that the proposed distributed controller clustering mechanism is able to significantly reduce the average latency from 8.1% to 1.6%, the packet loss from 5.22% to 4.15%, compared to distributed controller without clustering running on HP Virtual Application Network (VAN SDN and Open Network Operating System (ONOS controllers respectively. Moreover, proposed method also shows reasonable CPU utilization results. Furthermore, the proposed mechanism makes possible to handle unexpected load fluctuations while maintaining a continuous network operation, even when there is a controller failure. The paper is a potential contribution stepping towards addressing the issues of reliability, scalability, fault tolerance, and inter-operability.

  12. Distributed controller clustering in software defined networks. (United States)

    Abdelaziz, Ahmed; Fong, Ang Tan; Gani, Abdullah; Garba, Usman; Khan, Suleman; Akhunzada, Adnan; Talebian, Hamid; Choo, Kim-Kwang Raymond


    Software Defined Networking (SDN) is an emerging promising paradigm for network management because of its centralized network intelligence. However, the centralized control architecture of the software-defined networks (SDNs) brings novel challenges of reliability, scalability, fault tolerance and interoperability. In this paper, we proposed a novel clustered distributed controller architecture in the real setting of SDNs. The distributed cluster implementation comprises of multiple popular SDN controllers. The proposed mechanism is evaluated using a real world network topology running on top of an emulated SDN environment. The result shows that the proposed distributed controller clustering mechanism is able to significantly reduce the average latency from 8.1% to 1.6%, the packet loss from 5.22% to 4.15%, compared to distributed controller without clustering running on HP Virtual Application Network (VAN) SDN and Open Network Operating System (ONOS) controllers respectively. Moreover, proposed method also shows reasonable CPU utilization results. Furthermore, the proposed mechanism makes possible to handle unexpected load fluctuations while maintaining a continuous network operation, even when there is a controller failure. The paper is a potential contribution stepping towards addressing the issues of reliability, scalability, fault tolerance, and inter-operability.

  13. Heat Transfer Salts for Nuclear Reactor Systems - Chemistry Control, Corrosion Mitigation, and Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Mark [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Sridharan, Kumar [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Morgan, Dane [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Peterson, Per [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Calderoni, Pattrick [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Scheele, Randall [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Casekka, Andrew [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); McNamara, Bruce [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)


    The concept of a molten salt reactor has existed for nearly sixty years. Previously all work was done during a large collaborative effort at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, culminating in a research reactor which operated for 15,000 hours without major error. This technical success has garnished interest in modern, high temperature, reactor schemes. Research using molten fluoride salts for nuclear applications requires a steady supply of high grade molten salts. There is no bulk supplier of research grade fluoride salts in the world, so a facility which could provide all the salt needed for testing at the University of Wisconsin had to be produced. Two salt purification devices were made for this purpose, a large scale purifier, and a small scale purifier, each designed to clean the salts from impurities and reduce their corrosion potential. As of now, the small scale has performed with flibe salt, hydrogen, and hydrogen fluoride, yielding clean salt. This salt is currently being used in corrosion testing facilities at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and the University of Wisconsin. Working with the beryllium based salts requires extensive safety measures and health monitoring to prevent the development of acute or chronic beryllium disease, two pulmonary diseases created by an allergic reaction to beryllium in the lungs. Extensive health monitoring, engineering controls, and environment monitoring had to be set up with the University of Wisconsin department of Environment, Health and Safety. The hydrogen fluoride required for purification was also an extreme health hazard requiring thoughtful planning and execution. These dangers have made research a slow and tedious process. Simple processes, such as chemical handling and clean-up, can take large amounts of ingenuity and time. Other work has complemented the experimental research at Wisconsin to advance high temperature reactor goals. Modeling work has been performed in house to re

  14. Ion aggregation in high salt solutions. II. Spectral graph analysis of water hydrogen-bonding network and ion aggregate structures (United States)

    Choi, Jun-Ho; Cho, Minhaeng


    Graph theory in mathematics and computer science is the study of graphs that are structures with pairwise connections between any objects. Here, the spectral graph theory and molecular dynamics simulation method are used to describe both morphological variation of ion aggregates in high salt solutions and ion effects on water hydrogen-bonding network structure. From the characteristic value analysis of the adjacency matrices that are graph theoretical representations of ion clusters, ion networks, and water H-bond structures, we obtained the ensemble average eigenvalue spectra revealing intricate connectivity and topology of ion aggregate structure that can be classified as either ion cluster or ion network. We further show that there is an isospectral relationship between the eigenvalue spectra of ion networks in high KSCN solutions and those of water H-bonding networks. This reveals the isomorphic relationship between water H-bond structure and ion-ion network structure in KSCN solution. On the other hand, the ion clusters formed in high NaCl solutions are shown to be graph-theoretically and morphologically different from the ion network structures in KSCN solutions. These observations support the bifurcation hypothesis on large ion aggregate growth mechanism via either ion cluster or ion network formation. We thus anticipate that the present spectral graph analyses of ion aggregate structures and their effects on water H-bonding network structures in high salt solutions can provide important information on the specific ion effects on water structures and possibly protein stability resulting from protein-water interactions.

  15. Ion aggregation in high salt solutions. II. Spectral graph analysis of water hydrogen-bonding network and ion aggregate structures. (United States)

    Choi, Jun-Ho; Cho, Minhaeng


    Graph theory in mathematics and computer science is the study of graphs that are structures with pairwise connections between any objects. Here, the spectral graph theory and molecular dynamics simulation method are used to describe both morphological variation of ion aggregates in high salt solutions and ion effects on water hydrogen-bonding network structure. From the characteristic value analysis of the adjacency matrices that are graph theoretical representations of ion clusters, ion networks, and water H-bond structures, we obtained the ensemble average eigenvalue spectra revealing intricate connectivity and topology of ion aggregate structure that can be classified as either ion cluster or ion network. We further show that there is an isospectral relationship between the eigenvalue spectra of ion networks in high KSCN solutions and those of water H-bonding networks. This reveals the isomorphic relationship between water H-bond structure and ion-ion network structure in KSCN solution. On the other hand, the ion clusters formed in high NaCl solutions are shown to be graph-theoretically and morphologically different from the ion network structures in KSCN solutions. These observations support the bifurcation hypothesis on large ion aggregate growth mechanism via either ion cluster or ion network formation. We thus anticipate that the present spectral graph analyses of ion aggregate structures and their effects on water H-bonding network structures in high salt solutions can provide important information on the specific ion effects on water structures and possibly protein stability resulting from protein-water interactions.

  16. Detecting controlling nodes of boolean regulatory networks. (United States)

    Schober, Steffen; Kracht, David; Heckel, Reinhard; Bossert, Martin


    Boolean models of regulatory networks are assumed to be tolerant to perturbations. That qualitatively implies that each function can only depend on a few nodes. Biologically motivated constraints further show that functions found in Boolean regulatory networks belong to certain classes of functions, for example, the unate functions. It turns out that these classes have specific properties in the Fourier domain. That motivates us to study the problem of detecting controlling nodes in classes of Boolean networks using spectral techniques. We consider networks with unbalanced functions and functions of an average sensitivity less than 23k, where k is the number of controlling variables for a function. Further, we consider the class of 1-low networks which include unate networks, linear threshold networks, and networks with nested canalyzing functions. We show that the application of spectral learning algorithms leads to both better time and sample complexity for the detection of controlling nodes compared with algorithms based on exhaustive search. For a particular algorithm, we state analytical upper bounds on the number of samples needed to find the controlling nodes of the Boolean functions. Further, improved algorithms for detecting controlling nodes in large-scale unate networks are given and numerically studied.

  17. Controlling congestion on complex networks: fairness, efficiency and network structure. (United States)

    Buzna, Ľuboš; Carvalho, Rui


    We consider two elementary (max-flow and uniform-flow) and two realistic (max-min fairness and proportional fairness) congestion control schemes, and analyse how the algorithms and network structure affect throughput, the fairness of flow allocation, and the location of bottleneck edges. The more realistic proportional fairness and max-min fairness algorithms have similar throughput, but path flow allocations are more unequal in scale-free than in random regular networks. Scale-free networks have lower throughput than their random regular counterparts in the uniform-flow algorithm, which is favoured in the complex networks literature. We show, however, that this relation is reversed on all other congestion control algorithms for a region of the parameter space given by the degree exponent γ and average degree 〈k〉. Moreover, the uniform-flow algorithm severely underestimates the network throughput of congested networks, and a rich phenomenology of path flow allocations is only present in the more realistic α-fair family of algorithms. Finally, we show that the number of paths passing through an edge characterises the location of a wide range of bottleneck edges in these algorithms. Such identification of bottlenecks could provide a bridge between the two fields of complex networks and congestion control.

  18. Ion aggregation in high salt solutions. IV. Graph-theoretical analyses of ion aggregate structure and water hydrogen bonding network (United States)

    Choi, Jun-Ho; Cho, Minhaeng


    Ions in high salt solutions form a variety of ion aggregates, from ion pairs to clusters and networks. Their influences on water hydrogen bonding (H-bonding) network structures have long been of great interest. Recently, we have shown that the morphological structures of ion aggregates can be analyzed by using a spectral graph analysis theory, where each ion cluster or ion network is represented by a properly defined graph with edges and vertices. Here, to further examine the network properties of ion aggregates and water H-bonding networks in high salt solutions, we consider a few representative graph-theoretical descriptors: clustering coefficient, minimum path length, global efficiency, and degree distribution of ion aggregates. From the molecular dynamics trajectories, these graph theoretical properties of ion aggregates and water structures in NaCl and kosmotropic solutions are calculated and shown to be strongly dependent on the two types of ion aggregate structures, i.e., ion cluster and ion network. Ion clusters in high NaCl solutions exhibit typical behaviors of scale free network. The corresponding graph theoretical properties of ion networks in high KSCN solutions are notably different from those of NaCl ion clusters and furthermore they are very similar to those of water hydrogen-bonding network. The present graph-theoretical analysis results indicate that the high solubility limits of KSCN and other ion-network-forming salts might originate from their ability to form a large scale morphological network that can be intertwined with co-existing water H-bonding network. Furthermore, it is shown that the graph-theoretical properties of water H-bonding network structures do not strongly depend on the nature of dissolved ions nor on the morphological structures of ion aggregates, indicating that water's H-bonding interaction and network-forming capability are highly robust. We anticipate that the present graph-theoretical analysis results of high salt

  19. Ion aggregation in high salt solutions. IV. Graph-theoretical analyses of ion aggregate structure and water hydrogen bonding network. (United States)

    Choi, Jun-Ho; Cho, Minhaeng


    Ions in high salt solutions form a variety of ion aggregates, from ion pairs to clusters and networks. Their influences on water hydrogen bonding (H-bonding) network structures have long been of great interest. Recently, we have shown that the morphological structures of ion aggregates can be analyzed by using a spectral graph analysis theory, where each ion cluster or ion network is represented by a properly defined graph with edges and vertices. Here, to further examine the network properties of ion aggregates and water H-bonding networks in high salt solutions, we consider a few representative graph-theoretical descriptors: clustering coefficient, minimum path length, global efficiency, and degree distribution of ion aggregates. From the molecular dynamics trajectories, these graph theoretical properties of ion aggregates and water structures in NaCl and kosmotropic solutions are calculated and shown to be strongly dependent on the two types of ion aggregate structures, i.e., ion cluster and ion network. Ion clusters in high NaCl solutions exhibit typical behaviors of scale free network. The corresponding graph theoretical properties of ion networks in high KSCN solutions are notably different from those of NaCl ion clusters and furthermore they are very similar to those of water hydrogen-bonding network. The present graph-theoretical analysis results indicate that the high solubility limits of KSCN and other ion-network-forming salts might originate from their ability to form a large scale morphological network that can be intertwined with co-existing water H-bonding network. Furthermore, it is shown that the graph-theoretical properties of water H-bonding network structures do not strongly depend on the nature of dissolved ions nor on the morphological structures of ion aggregates, indicating that water's H-bonding interaction and network-forming capability are highly robust. We anticipate that the present graph-theoretical analysis results of high salt

  20. MPC control of water supply networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baunsgaard, Kenneth Marx Hoe; Ravn, Ole; Kallesoe, Carsten Skovmose


    This paper investigates the modelling and predictive control of a drinking water supply network with the aim of minimising the energy and economic cost. A model predictive controller, MPC, is applied to a nonlinear model of a drinking water network that follows certain constraints to maintain......, controlling the drinking water supply network with the MPC showed reduction of the energy and the economic cost of running the system. This has been achieved by minimising actuator control effort and by shifting the actuator use towards the night time, where energy prices are lower. Along with energy cost...

  1. Postharvest application of organic and inorganic salts to control potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) storage soft rot: plant tissue-salt physicochemical interactions. (United States)

    Yaganza, E S; Tweddell, R J; Arul, J


    Soft rot caused by Pectobacterium sp. is a devastating disease affecting stored potato tubers, and there is a lack of effective means of controlling this disease. In this study, 21 organic and inorganic salts were tested for their ability to control soft rot in potato tubers. In the preventive treatment, significant control of soft rot was observed with AlCl3 (≥66%) and Na2S2O3 (≥57%) and to a lesser extent with Al lactate and Na benzoate (≥34%) and K sorbate and Na propionate (≥27%). However, only a moderate control was achieved by curative treatment with AlCl3 and Na2S2O3 (42%) and sodium benzoate (≥33%). Overall, the in vitro inhibitory activity of salts was attenuated in the presence of plant tissue (in vivo) to different degrees. The inhibitory action of the salts in the preventive treatment, whether effective or otherwise, showed an inverse linear relationship with water ionization capacity (pK') of the salt ions, whereas in the curative treatment, only the effective salts showed this inverse linear relationship. Salt-plant tissue interactions appear to play a central role in the attenuated inhibitory activity of salts in potato tuber through reduction in the availability of the inhibitory ions for salt-bacteria interactions. This study demonstrates that AlCl3, Na2S2O3, and Na benzoate have potential in controlling potato tuber soft rot and provides a general basis for understanding of specific salt-tissue interactions.

  2. Emergence of bimodality in controlling complex networks

    CERN Document Server

    Jia, Tao; Csóka, Endre; Pósfai, Márton; Slotine, Jean-Jacques; Barabási, Albert-László


    Our ability to control complex systems is a fundamental challenge of contemporary science. Recently introduced tools to identify the driver nodes, nodes through which we can achieve full control, predict the existence of multiple control configurations, prompting us to classify each node in a network based on their role in control. Accordingly a node is critical, intermittent or redundant if it acts as a driver node in all, some or none of the control configurations. Here we develop an analytical framework to identify the category of each node, leading to the discovery of two distinct control modes in complex systems: centralized vs distributed control. We predict the control mode for an arbitrary network and show that one can alter it through small structural perturbations. The uncovered bimodality has implications from network security to organizational research and offers new insights into the dynamics and control of complex systems.

  3. Advanced mobile networking, sensing, and controls.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feddema, John Todd; Kilman, Dominique Marie; Byrne, Raymond Harry; Young, Joseph G.; Lewis, Christopher L.; Van Leeuwen, Brian P.; Robinett, Rush D. III; Harrington, John J.


    This report describes an integrated approach for designing communication, sensing, and control systems for mobile distributed systems. Graph theoretic methods are used to analyze the input/output reachability and structural controllability and observability of a decentralized system. Embedded in each network node, this analysis will automatically reconfigure an ad hoc communication network for the sensing and control task at hand. The graph analysis can also be used to create the optimal communication flow control based upon the spatial distribution of the network nodes. Edge coloring algorithms tell us that the minimum number of time slots in a planar network is equal to either the maximum number of adjacent nodes (or degree) of the undirected graph plus some small number. Therefore, the more spread out that the nodes are, the fewer number of time slots are needed for communication, and the smaller the latency between nodes. In a coupled system, this results in a more responsive sensor network and control system. Network protocols are developed to propagate this information, and distributed algorithms are developed to automatically adjust the number of time slots available for communication. These protocols and algorithms must be extremely efficient and only updated as network nodes move. In addition, queuing theory is used to analyze the delay characteristics of Carrier Sense Multiple Access (CSMA) networks. This report documents the analysis, simulation, and implementation of these algorithms performed under this Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) effort.

  4. Robust Multiobjective Controllability of Complex Neuronal Networks. (United States)

    Tang, Yang; Gao, Huijun; Du, Wei; Lu, Jianquan; Vasilakos, Athanasios V; Kurths, Jurgen


    This paper addresses robust multiobjective identification of driver nodes in the neuronal network of a cat's brain, in which uncertainties in determination of driver nodes and control gains are considered. A framework for robust multiobjective controllability is proposed by introducing interval uncertainties and optimization algorithms. By appropriate definitions of robust multiobjective controllability, a robust nondominated sorting adaptive differential evolution (NSJaDE) is presented by means of the nondominated sorting mechanism and the adaptive differential evolution (JaDE). The simulation experimental results illustrate the satisfactory performance of NSJaDE for robust multiobjective controllability, in comparison with six statistical methods and two multiobjective evolutionary algorithms (MOEAs): nondominated sorting genetic algorithms II (NSGA-II) and nondominated sorting composite differential evolution. It is revealed that the existence of uncertainties in choosing driver nodes and designing control gains heavily affects the controllability of neuronal networks. We also unveil that driver nodes play a more drastic role than control gains in robust controllability. The developed NSJaDE and obtained results will shed light on the understanding of robustness in controlling realistic complex networks such as transportation networks, power grid networks, biological networks, etc.

  5. Congestion control and routing over satellite networks (United States)

    Cao, Jinhua

    Satellite networks and transmissions find their application in fields of computer communications, telephone communications, television broadcasting, transportation, space situational awareness systems and so on. This thesis mainly focuses on two networking issues affecting satellite networking: network congestion control and network routing optimization. Congestion, which leads to long queueing delays, packet losses or both, is a networking problem that has drawn the attention of many researchers. The goal of congestion control mechanisms is to ensure high bandwidth utilization while avoiding network congestion by regulating the rate at which traffic sources inject packets into a network. In this thesis, we propose a stable congestion controller using data-driven, safe switching control theory to improve the dynamic performance of satellite Transmission Control Protocol/Active Queue Management (TCP/AQM) networks. First, the stable region of the Proportional-Integral (PI) parameters for a nominal model is explored. Then, a PI controller, whose parameters are adaptively tuned by switching among members of a given candidate set, using observed plant data, is presented and compared with some classical AQM policy examples, such as Random Early Detection (RED) and fixed PI control. A new cost detectable switching law with an interval cost function switching algorithm, which improves the performance and also saves the computational cost, is developed and compared with a law commonly used in the switching control literature. Finite-gain stability of the system is proved. A fuzzy logic PI controller is incorporated as a special candidate to achieve good performance at all nominal points with the available set of candidate controllers. Simulations are presented to validate the theory. An effocient routing algorithm plays a key role in optimizing network resources. In this thesis, we briefly analyze Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellite networks, review the Cross Entropy (CE

  6. Control of autonomous robot using neural networks (United States)

    Barton, Adam; Volna, Eva


    The aim of the article is to design a method of control of an autonomous robot using artificial neural networks. The introductory part describes control issues from the perspective of autonomous robot navigation and the current mobile robots controlled by neural networks. The core of the article is the design of the controlling neural network, and generation and filtration of the training set using ART1 (Adaptive Resonance Theory). The outcome of the practical part is an assembled Lego Mindstorms EV3 robot solving the problem of avoiding obstacles in space. To verify models of an autonomous robot behavior, a set of experiments was created as well as evaluation criteria. The speed of each motor was adjusted by the controlling neural network with respect to the situation in which the robot was found.

  7. Ion aggregation in high salt solutions. V. Graph entropy analyses of ion aggregate structure and water hydrogen bonding network (United States)

    Choi, Jun-Ho; Cho, Minhaeng


    Dissolved ions in water tend to form polydisperse ion aggregates such as ion pairs, relatively compact ion clusters, and even spatially extended ion networks with increasing salt concentration. Combining molecular dynamics simulation and graph theoretical analysis methods, we recently studied morphological structures of ion aggregates with distinctively different characteristics. They can be distinguished from each other by calculating various spectral graph theoretical properties such as eigenvalues and eigenvectors of adjacency matrices of ion aggregates and water hydrogen-bonding networks, minimum path lengths, clustering coefficients, and degree distributions. Here, we focus on percolation and graph entropic properties of ion aggregates and water hydrogen-bonding networks in high salt solutions. Ion network-forming K+ and SCN- ions at high concentrations show a percolating behavior in their aqueous solutions, but ion cluster-forming ions in NaCl solutions do not show such a transition from isolated ion aggregates to percolating ion-water mixture morphology. Despite that the ion aggregate structures are strikingly different for either cluster- or network-forming ions in high salt solutions, it is interesting that the water structures remain insensitive to the electrostatic properties, such as charge densities and polydentate properties, of dissolved ions, and morphological structures of water H-bonding networks appear to be highly robust regardless of the nature and concentration of salt. We anticipate that the present graph entropy analysis results would be of use in understanding a variety of anomalous behaviors of interfacial water around biomolecules as well as electric conductivities of high electrolyte solutions.

  8. Ion aggregation in high salt solutions. V. Graph entropy analyses of ion aggregate structure and water hydrogen bonding network. (United States)

    Choi, Jun-Ho; Cho, Minhaeng


    Dissolved ions in water tend to form polydisperse ion aggregates such as ion pairs, relatively compact ion clusters, and even spatially extended ion networks with increasing salt concentration. Combining molecular dynamics simulation and graph theoretical analysis methods, we recently studied morphological structures of ion aggregates with distinctively different characteristics. They can be distinguished from each other by calculating various spectral graph theoretical properties such as eigenvalues and eigenvectors of adjacency matrices of ion aggregates and water hydrogen-bonding networks, minimum path lengths, clustering coefficients, and degree distributions. Here, we focus on percolation and graph entropic properties of ion aggregates and water hydrogen-bonding networks in high salt solutions. Ion network-forming K(+) and SCN(-) ions at high concentrations show a percolating behavior in their aqueous solutions, but ion cluster-forming ions in NaCl solutions do not show such a transition from isolated ion aggregates to percolating ion-water mixture morphology. Despite that the ion aggregate structures are strikingly different for either cluster- or network-forming ions in high salt solutions, it is interesting that the water structures remain insensitive to the electrostatic properties, such as charge densities and polydentate properties, of dissolved ions, and morphological structures of water H-bonding networks appear to be highly robust regardless of the nature and concentration of salt. We anticipate that the present graph entropy analysis results would be of use in understanding a variety of anomalous behaviors of interfacial water around biomolecules as well as electric conductivities of high electrolyte solutions.

  9. Using mobile technology to support lower-salt food choices for people with cardiovascular disease: protocol for the SaltSwitch randomized controlled trial. (United States)

    Eyles, Helen; McLean, Rebecca; Neal, Bruce; Doughty, Robert N; Jiang, Yannan; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona


    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of early death worldwide, responsible for an estimated 29% of all global deaths. Reducing salt intake lowers blood pressure and risk of secondary cardiac events. However, identifying low salt foods can be challenging. SaltSwitch is a simple smartphone application (app) that enables shoppers to scan the barcode of packaged foods and receive an immediate, interpretive, traffic light nutrition label on the screen, along with suggestions for healthier lower-salt alternatives. A growing body of evidence suggests mobile technologies can support healthy behaviour change. However, robust evidence for the impact of smartphone interventions is lacking. This manuscript outlines the rationale and methods for a randomized controlled trial designed to determine the effectiveness of SaltSwitch in supporting people with CVD to make lower-salt food choices. A 6-week, two-arm, parallel, randomized controlled trial is being undertaken in New Zealand (2 weeks baseline and 4 weeks intervention). Three hundred adults aged 40 years and older with CVD and their main household shoppers are recruited from research lists, cardiac rehabilitation clinics, and communities in Auckland. Participants are randomized to receive either the SaltSwitch smartphone app or no intervention (control). Randomisation is stratified by ethnicity and age. The primary outcome is the salt content of household food purchases. Secondary outcomes are the saturated fat and energy content of household food purchases, household food expenditure, use and acceptability of the SaltSwitch app by shoppers, and urinary sodium and blood pressure of participants with CVD. Ambulatory blood pressure and potential longer-term impact (12 weeks) of SaltSwitch will be assessed in sub-studies (n ~ 40 and n ~ 20, respectively). Household purchases of salt and other nutrients will be assessed using till receipt data electronically linked with branded food composition data

  10. Self-Control in Sparsely Coded Networks (United States)

    Dominguez, D. R. C.; Bollé, D.


    A complete self-control mechanism is proposed in the dynamics of neural networks through the introduction of a time-dependent threshold, determined in function of both the noise and the pattern activity in the network. Especially for sparsely coded models this mechanism is shown to considerably improve the storage capacity, the basins of attraction, and the mutual information content.

  11. Neural PID Control Strategy for Networked Process Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhua Zhang


    Full Text Available A new method with a two-layer hierarchy is presented based on a neural proportional-integral-derivative (PID iterative learning method over the communication network for the closed-loop automatic tuning of a PID controller. It can enhance the performance of the well-known simple PID feedback control loop in the local field when real networked process control applied to systems with uncertain factors, such as external disturbance or randomly delayed measurements. The proposed PID iterative learning method is implemented by backpropagation neural networks whose weights are updated via minimizing tracking error entropy of closed-loop systems. The convergence in the mean square sense is analysed for closed-loop networked control systems. To demonstrate the potential applications of the proposed strategies, a pressure-tank experiment is provided to show the usefulness and effectiveness of the proposed design method in network process control systems.

  12. Optical network control plane for multi-domain networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manolova, Anna Vasileva

    This thesis focuses on multi-domain routing for traffice engineering and survivability support in optical transport networks under the Generalized Multi-Protocol Label Switching (GMPLS) control framework. First, different extensions to the Border Gateway Protocol for multi-domain Traffic Engineer......This thesis focuses on multi-domain routing for traffice engineering and survivability support in optical transport networks under the Generalized Multi-Protocol Label Switching (GMPLS) control framework. First, different extensions to the Border Gateway Protocol for multi-domain Traffic...... process are not enough for efficient TE in mesh multi-domain networks. Enhancing the protocol with multi-path dissemination capability, combined with the employment of an end-to-end TE metric proves to be a highly efficient solution. Simulation results show good performance characteristics of the proposed...... is not as essential for improved network performance as the length of the provided paths. Second, the issue of multi-domain survivability support is analyzed. An AS-disjoint paths is beneficial not only for resilience support, but also for facilitating adequate network reactions to changes in the network, which...

  13. Modeling of Flow, Transport and Controlled Sedimentation Phenomena during Mixing of Salt Solutions in Complex Porous Formations (United States)

    Skouras, Eugene D.; Jaho, Sofia; Pavlakou, Efstathia I.; Sygouni, Varvara; Petsi, Anastasia; Paraskeva, Christakis A.


    The deposition of salts in porous media is a major engineering phenomenon encountered in a plethora of industrial and environmental applications where in some cases is desirable and in other not (oil production, geothermal systems, soil stabilization etc). Systematic approach of these problems requires knowledge of the key mechanisms of precipitating salts within the porous structures, in order to develop new methods to control the process. In this work, the development and the solution of spatiotemporally variable mass balances during salt solution mixing along specific pores were performed. Both analytical models and finite differences CFD models were applied for the study of flow and transport with simultaneous homogeneous and heterogeneous nucleation (by crystal growth on the surface of the pores) in simple geometries, while unstructured finite elements and meshless methods were developed and implemented for spatial discretization, reconstruction, and solution of transport equations and homogeneous / heterogeneous reactions in more complex geometries. At initial stages of this work, critical problem parameters were identified, such as the characteristics of the porosity, the number of dissolved components, etc. The parameters were then used for solving problems which correspond to available experimental data. For each combination of ions and materials, specific data and process characteristics were included: (a) crystal kinetics (nucleation, growth rates or reaction surface rates of crystals, critical suspension concentrations), (b) physico-chemical properties (bulk density, dimensions of generated crystals, ion diffusion coefficients in the solution), (c) operating parameters (macroscopic velocity, flow, or pressure gradient of the solution, ion concentration) (d) microfluidic data (geometry, flow area), (e) porosity data in Darcy description (initial porosity, specific surface area, tortuosity). During the modeling of flow and transport in three

  14. Inferring network connectivity by delayed feedback control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongchuan Yu

    Full Text Available We suggest a control based approach to topology estimation of networks with N elements. This method first drives the network to steady states by a delayed feedback control; then performs structural perturbations for shifting the steady states M times; and finally infers the connection topology from the steady states' shifts by matrix inverse algorithm (M = N or l(1-norm convex optimization strategy applicable to estimate the topology of sparse networks from M << N perturbations. We discuss as well some aspects important for applications, such as the topology reconstruction quality and error sources, advantages and disadvantages of the suggested method, and the influence of (control perturbations, inhomegenity, sparsity, coupling functions, and measurement noise. Some examples of networks with Chua's oscillators are presented to illustrate the reliability of the suggested technique.

  15. OMWM - Quality Mosquito Control on Cordgrass Salt Marshes (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Open marsh water management ( OMWM) has evolved from over twenty years of cooperative efforts between mosquito control and conservation agencies. Its beginning came...

  16. Next Generation Network Routing and Control Plane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fu, Rong

    proved, the dominating Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) cannot address all the issues that in inter-domain QoS routing. Thus a new protocol or network architecture has to be developed to be able to carry the inter-domain traffic with the QoS and TE consideration. Moreover, the current network control also......-domain. It is a routing component that flexibly supports path computation with different requirements, constraints and areas. It is also can be seen as part of NGN transport control plane, which integrates with the other functions. In the aspect of resource control, an NGN release Resource and Admission Control Functions...... of Service classes. Under the NGN context, there are plenty of proposals intending to accommodate the issues listed above. Path Computation Elements (PCE) proposed by IETF designs suitable network architecture that aiming at compute the QoS based paths for traffic transportation through intra- and inter...

  17. On the Design of Energy Efficient Optical Networks with Software Defined Networking Control Across Core and Access Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jiayuan; Yan, Ying; Dittmann, Lars


    This paper presents a Software Defined Networking (SDN) control plane based on an overlay GMPLS control model. The SDN control platform manages optical core networks (WDM/DWDM networks) and the associated access networks (GPON networks), which makes it possible to gather global information...

  18. Tobacco Control Research, Dissemination and Networking in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Tobacco Control Research, Dissemination and Networking in Lebanon. The Tobacco Control Research Group (TCRG), University of Beirut (AUB), is a multidisciplinary team of professionals from the health sciences, medicine, chemistry and engineering departments. The Group was established in 1999 with IDRC support ...

  19. Neural network topology design for nonlinear control (United States)

    Haecker, Jens; Rudolph, Stephan


    Neural networks, especially in nonlinear system identification and control applications, are typically considered to be black-boxes which are difficult to analyze and understand mathematically. Due to this reason, an in- depth mathematical analysis offering insight into the different neural network transformation layers based on a theoretical transformation scheme is desired, but up to now neither available nor known. In previous works it has been shown how proven engineering methods such as dimensional analysis and the Laplace transform may be used to construct a neural controller topology for time-invariant systems. Using the knowledge of neural correspondences of these two classical methods, the internal nodes of the network could also be successfully interpreted after training. As further extension to these works, the paper describes the latest of a theoretical interpretation framework describing the neural network transformation sequences in nonlinear system identification and control. This can be achieved By incorporation of the method of exact input-output linearization in the above mentioned two transform sequences of dimensional analysis and the Laplace transformation. Based on these three theoretical considerations neural network topologies may be designed in special situations by pure translation in the sense of a structural compilation of the known classical solutions into their correspondent neural topology. Based on known exemplary results, the paper synthesizes the proposed approach into the visionary goals of a structural compiler for neural networks. This structural compiler for neural networks is intended to automatically convert classical control formulations into their equivalent neural network structure based on the principles of equivalence between formula and operator, and operator and structure which are discussed in detail in this work.

  20. Somatic surveillance: corporeal control through information networks


    Monahan, Torin; Wall, Tyler


    Somatic surveillance is the increasingly invasive technological monitoring of and intervention into body functions. Within this type of surveillance regime, bodies are recast as nodes on vast information networks, enabling corporeal control through remote network commands, automated responses, or self-management practices. In this paper, we investigate three developments in somatic surveillance: nanotechnology systems for soldiers on the battlefield, commercial body-monitoring systems for hea...

  1. Social Network Privacy via Evolving Access Control (United States)

    di Crescenzo, Giovanni; Lipton, Richard J.

    We study the problem of limiting privacy loss due to data shared in a social network, where the basic underlying assumptions are that users are interested in sharing data and cannot be assumed to constantly follow appropriate privacy policies. Note that if these two assumptions do not hold, social network privacy is theoretically very easy to achieve; for instance, via some form of access control and confidentiality transformation on the data.

  2. Decentralized control of ecological and biological networks through Evolutionary Network Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Ferrarini


    Full Text Available Evolutionary Network Control (ENC has been recently introduced to allow the control of any kind of ecological and biological networks, with an arbitrary number of nodes and links, acting from inside and/or outside. To date, ENC has been applied using a centralized approach where an arbitrary number of network nodes and links could be tamed. This approach has shown to be effective in the control of ecological and biological networks. However a decentralized control, where only one node and the correspondent input/output links are controlled, could be more economic from a computational viewpoint, in particular when the network is very large (i.e. big data. In this view, ENC is upgraded here to realize the decentralized control of ecological and biological nets.

  3. Scheduled Controller Design of Congestion Control Considering Network Resource Constraints (United States)

    Naito, Hiroyuki; Azuma, Takehito; Fujita, Masayuki

    In this paper, we consider a dynamical model of computer networks and derive a synthesis method for congestion control. First, we show a model of TCP/AQM (Transmission Control Protocol/Active Queue Management) as a dynamical model of computer networks. The dynamical model of TCP/AQM networks consists of models of TCP window size, queue length and AQM mechanisms. Second, we propose to describe the dynamical model of TCP/AQM networks as linear systems with self-scheduling parameters, which also depend on information delay. Here we focus on the constraints on the maximum queue length and TCP window-size, which are the network resources in TCP/AQM networks. We derive TCP/AQM networks as the LPV system (linear parameter varying system) with information delay and self-scheduling parameter. We design a memoryless state feedback controller of the LPV system based on a gain-scheduling method. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed method is evaluated by using MATLAB and the well-known ns-2 (Network Simulator Ver.2) simulator.

  4. Pore-network model of evaporation-induced salt precipitation in porous media: The effect of correlations and heterogeneity (United States)

    Dashtian, Hassan; Shokri, Nima; Sahimi, Muhammad


    Salt transport and precipitation in porous media constitute a set of complex and fascinating phenomena that are of considerable interest to several important problems, ranging from storage of CO2 in geological formations, to soil fertility, and protection of pavements and roads, as well as historical monuments. The phenomena occur at the pore scale and are greatly influenced by the heterogeneity of the pore space morphology. We present a pore-network (PN) model to study the phenomena. Vapor diffusion, capillary effect at the brine-vapor interface, flow of brine, and transport of salt and its precipitation in the pores that plug the pores partially or completely are all accounted for. The drying process is modeled by the invasion percolation, while transport of salt in brine is accounted for by the convective-diffusion equation. We demonstrate that the drying patterns, the clustering and connectivity of the pore throats in which salt precipitation occurs, the saturation distribution, and the drying rate are all strongly dependent upon the pore-size distribution, the correlations among the pore sizes, and the anisotropy of the pore space caused by stratification that most natural porous media contain. In particular, if the strata are more or less parallel to the direction of injection of the gas that dries out the pore space (air, for example) and/or causes salt precipitation (CO2, for example), the drying rate increases significantly. Moreover, salt tends to precipitate in clusters of neighboring pores that are parallel to the open surface of the porous medium.

  5. Offshore Stratigraphic Controls on Salt-Water Intrusion in Los Angeles Area Coastal Aquifers (United States)

    Edwards, B. D.; Ponti, D. J.; Ehman, K. D.; Tinsley, J. C.; Reichard, E. G.


    Ground water is a major component of the water supply for the ~10 million residents of Los Angeles County. Ground water pumping, linked to population growth since the early 1900's, caused water levels to decline, reversed seaward hydraulic gradients in some coastal aquifers, and resulted in salt water intrusion. United States Geological Survey geologists and hydrologists are working cooperatively with local water agencies to (1) understand and model the process of salt-water intrusion in this siliciclastic, structurally complex basin, and (2) identify potential pathways for the salt-water intrusion. We collected over 2000 trackline-km of single- and multi-channel intermediate- and high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles (60 to 5000 Hz) from the Los Angeles/Long Beach Harbor complex and the adjacent San Pedro shelf to develop a 3-dimensional stratigraphic model of the coastal aquifer system. These data define stratal geometries, paleo-channels, and fault traces in the offshore that are potential pathways of salt-water intrusion. The offshore seismic-reflection profiles correlate with onshore geophysical and borehole data collected from four nearby drill sites that were cored continuously to depths ranging to 400 meters. These core holes provide detailed 1-dimensional reference sections that furnish stratigraphic, age, and facies control for the seismic-reflection profiles. The coastal aquifer system is described using sequence stratigraphic concepts as units deposited during eustatic sea level fluctuations during the Pleistocene to Recent. Seismic-reflection profiles identify sequence boundaries, and hence aquifer and aquitard units, by the truncation and onlap of reflectors. If and where the sequences crop out on the sea floor provides a potential pathway for intrusion. The youngest unit, the Gaspur aquifer, is intruded with salt water and consists of at least two flat-lying sequences, each marked by basal gravelly sands deposited by the ancestral Los Angeles

  6. [The network of official medicines control laboratories]. (United States)

    Buchheit, K-H; Wanko, R


    Licensing, control and surveillance by competent authorities is the basis for ensuring efficacy, safety and quality of medicines in Europe. The control of the quality of medicines by national control laboratories, known as Official Medicines Control Laboratories (OMCLs) is an essential step in this process; it encompasses controls before and after granting a marketing authorisation. For certain groups of biomedical medicines (vaccines for human and veterinary use, medicines derived from human plasma) even each batch is controlled before it can be placed on the market. As single OMCLs would not be able to cope with their task, given the large number and diversity of medicines, in 1994 the OMCL network was founded upon initiative of the European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines & HealthCare, in close collaboration with the Commission of the European Union. Currently 68 OMCLs from 39 countries are part of the network. Prerequisite for the smooth operation of the OMCL network is the harmonisation of the quality management system of the individual OMCLs, based on the ISO 17025 standard, internal guidelines and the European Pharmacopoeia. Compliance with these standards is checked through regular audits, thus creating the basis for mutual recognition of test results. The collaboration in the OMCL network for the surveillance of the medicines market, the official control authority batch release and the fight against counterfeiting and illegal medicines enables OMCLs to keep pace with the developments in the field of medicines and to control the broad spectrum of medicines. In the 20 years since its start, the OMCL network has become a European success story.

  7. A case-control study of dietary salt intake in pediatric-onset multiple sclerosis. (United States)

    McDonald, Jamie; Graves, Jennifer; Waldman, Amy; Lotze, Timothy; Schreiner, Teri; Belman, Anita; Greenberg, Benjamin; Weinstock-Guttman, Bianca; Aaen, Gregory; Tillema, Jan-Mendelt; Hart, Janace; Lulu, Sabeen; Ness, Jayne; Harris, Yolanda; Rubin, Jennifer; Candee, Meghan; Krupp, Lauren B; Gorman, Mark; Benson, Leslie; Rodriguez, Moses; Chitnis, Tanuja; Mar, Soe; Barcellos, Lisa F; Laraia, Barbara; Rose, John; Roalstad, Shelly; Simmons, Timothy; Casper, T Charles; Waubant, Emmanuelle


    High salt intake may be associated with pro-inflammatory changes in the immune response, and increased clinical and MRI activity in adults with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. We sought to determine if dietary salt intake is associated with pediatric-onset MS risk in a multicenter, case-control study. Pediatric-onset CIS/MS cases within four years of onset and controls less than 22 years old recruited from 14 pediatric-MS centers were studied. Dietary sodium intake was assessed using the validated Block Kids Food Screener (NutritionQuest). Sodium intake, excess sodium, and sodium terciles were compared between cases and controls. Logistic regression models were adjusted for age, gender, ethnicity, body mass index, and socioeconomic status. Among 170 cases (mean age=15.2±3.5) and 331 controls (mean age=14.0±3.7), no significant difference in unadjusted mean sodium intake was found between cases (2044mg/d) and controls (2030mg/d, p=0.99). The proportion of subjects consuming excess sodium, based on the adequate intake for age and gender, was similar between cases and controls (65% versus 69%, p=0.34). There were no increased odds of higher sodium intake among cases as compared to controls (for each 100mg/d increase in sodium, OR=1.00, 95% CI 0.98, 1.02; p=0.93, for excess sodium intake, OR=1.05, 95% CI 0.67, 1.64; p=0.84). Our results show no strong association between dietary salt intake and pediatric-onset MS risk, suggesting that salt intake may not play a prominent role in susceptibility to MS in children. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Event-driven model predictive control of sewage pumping stations for sulfide mitigation in sewer networks. (United States)

    Liu, Yiqi; Ganigué, Ramon; Sharma, Keshab; Yuan, Zhiguo


    Chemicals such as Mg(OH)2 and iron salts are widely dosed to sewage for mitigating sulfide-induced corrosion and odour problems in sewer networks. The chemical dosing rate is usually not automatically controlled but profiled based on experience of operators, often resulting in over- or under-dosing. Even though on-line control algorithms for chemical dosing in single pipes have been developed recently, network-wide control algorithms are currently not available. The key challenge is that a sewer network is typically wide-spread comprising many interconnected sewer pipes and pumping stations, making network-wide sulfide mitigation with a relatively limited number of dosing points challenging. In this paper, we propose and demonstrate an Event-driven Model Predictive Control (EMPC) methodology, which controls the flows of sewage streams containing the dosed chemical to ensure desirable distribution of the dosed chemical throughout the pipe sections of interests. First of all, a network-state model is proposed to predict the chemical concentration in a network. An EMPC algorithm is then designed to coordinate sewage pumping station operations to ensure desirable chemical distribution in the network. The performance of the proposed control methodology is demonstrated by applying the designed algorithm to a real sewer network simulated with the well-established SeweX model using real sewage flow and characteristics data. The EMPC strategy significantly improved the sulfide mitigation performance with the same chemical consumption, compared to the current practice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Controls from remote through Social networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Ingrao


    Full Text Available The Author focuses on the recently reformed provisions regulating the employer’s power to control from remote the employees’ activities (art. 4 of the Workers Statute, with particular regard to controls performed by means of Social networks.Such controls are in fact extremely powerful due to the versatile and multi-purpose character of Social networks, which may also be used as a working device. A widespread case law shows indeed that employer’s controls may cost a worker his job.Therefore, after the reform, all employees will have to read carefully the employer’s Privacy policies, before accessing socials during the worktime to express opinions and/or frustrations.

  10. Controllable Buoys and Networked Buoy Systems (United States)

    Davoodi, Faranak (Inventor); Davoudi, Farhooman (Inventor)


    Buoyant sensor networks are described, comprising floating buoys with sensors and energy harvesting capabilities. The buoys can control their buoyancy and motion, and can organize communication in a distributed fashion. Some buoys may have tethered underwater vehicles with a smart spooling system that allows the vehicles to dive deep underwater while remaining in communication and connection with the buoys.

  11. Distributed control network for optogenetic experiments (United States)

    Kasprowicz, G.; Juszczyk, B.; Mankiewicz, L.


    Nowadays optogenetic experiments are constructed to examine social behavioural relations in groups of animals. A novel concept of implantable device with distributed control network and advanced positioning capabilities is proposed. It is based on wireless energy transfer technology, micro-power radio interface and advanced signal processing.

  12. Comparative efficacy of antihypertensive agents in salt-sensitive hypertensive patients: a network meta-analysis. (United States)

    Qi, Han; Liu, Zheng; Cao, Han; Sun, Wei-Ping; Peng, Wen-Juan; Liu, Bin; Dong, Sheng-Jie; Xiang, Yu-Tao; Zhang, Ling


    Salt-sensitive hypertension (SSH) is an intermediate inherited phenotype of essential hypertension as well as being an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. However, effective medications for the treatment of SSH have not been clarified. This study was to compare the efficacious of different classes of antihypertensive agents combined with salt intake on the reduction of blood pressure in patients with salt-sensitive hypertension (SSH). We used sources as PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, CENTRAL,, ICTRP, CNKI and WANFANG database from inception to November 2016. Studies that compared the efficacy of two or more antihypertensive agents or placebos in adult salt-sensitive hypertensive patients were included. The outcomes included variations in mean arterial blood pressure, systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Twenty-five studies were involved in this meta-analysis. A CCB with hydrochlorothiazide and moderate salt intake was significantly the most efficacious in comparison with placebo [standardized mean differences (SMD), 95% credibility intervals (CI): 26.66, 12.60-40.16], ARBs [SMD, 95% CI: 22.94, 5.26-40.51] and the other interventions for patients with SSH and no concomitant diseases. For SSH patients who were obese, the effect size of CCB with metformin and moderate salt intake was [SMD, 95% CI: 17.90, 6.26 -29.33]. For SSH patients with no concomitant diseases, CCB combined with hydrochlorothiazide and moderate salt intake were optimal in reducing blood pressure, while CCB combined with metformin and moderate salt intake were the most efficacious at reducing blood pressure in SSH patients with coexisting obesity.

  13. 78 FR 44590 - Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community-Amendment to Alcoholic Beverage Control Ordinance (United States)


    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community--Amendment to Alcoholic Beverage... publishes the amendment to the Salt River Pima- Maricopa Indian Community Alcoholic Beverage Control... sell or deliver to a person an unlimited number of alcoholic beverages during any set period of time...

  14. Towards Controlling Latency in Wireless Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Bouacida, Nader


    Wireless networks are undergoing an unprecedented revolution in the last decade. With the explosion of delay-sensitive applications in the Internet (i.e., online gaming and VoIP), latency becomes a major issue for the development of wireless technology. Taking advantage of the significant decline in memory prices, industrialists equip the network devices with larger buffering capacities to improve the network throughput by limiting packets drops. Over-buffering results in increasing the time that packets spend in the queues and, thus, introducing more latency in networks. This phenomenon is known as “bufferbloat”. While throughput is the dominant performance metric, latency also has a huge impact on user experience not only for real-time applications but also for common applications like web browsing, which is sensitive to latencies in order of hundreds of milliseconds. Concerns have arisen about designing sophisticated queue management schemes to mitigate the effects of such phenomenon. My thesis research aims to solve bufferbloat problem in both traditional half-duplex and cutting-edge full-duplex wireless systems by reducing delay while maximizing wireless links utilization and fairness. Our work shed lights on buffer management algorithms behavior in wireless networks and their ability to reduce latency resulting from excessive queuing delays inside oversized static network buffers without a significant loss in other network metrics. First of all, we address the problem of buffer management in wireless full-duplex networks by using Wireless Queue Management (WQM), which is an active queue management technique for wireless networks. Our solution is based on Relay Full-Duplex MAC (RFD-MAC), an asynchronous media access control protocol designed for relay full-duplexing. Compared to the default case, our solution reduces the end-to-end delay by two orders of magnitude while achieving similar throughput in most of the cases. In the second part of this thesis

  15. Fusion Control of Flexible Logic Control and Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihua Fu


    Full Text Available Based on the basic physical meaning of error E and error variety EC, this paper analyzes the logical relationship between them and uses Universal Combinatorial Operation Model in Universal Logic to describe it. Accordingly, a flexible logic control method is put forward to realize effective control on multivariable nonlinear system. In order to implement fusion control with artificial neural network, this paper proposes a new neuron model of Zero-level Universal Combinatorial Operation in Universal Logic. And the artificial neural network of flexible logic control model is implemented based on the proposed neuron model. Finally, stability control, anti-interference control of double inverted-pendulum system, and free walking of cart pendulum system on a level track are realized, showing experimentally the feasibility and validity of this method.

  16. Plug & Play Control of Hydraulic Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tom Nørgaard


    Process Control research program, which the work presented here is a part of. An industrial case study involving a large-scale hydraulic network with non-linear dynamics is studied. The hydraulic network underlies a district heating system, which provides heating water to a number of end-users in a city...... district. The case study considers a novel approach to the design of district heating systems in which the diameter of the pipes used in the system is reduced in order to reduce the heat losses in the system, thereby making it profitable to provide district heating to areas with low energy demands. The new...

  17. Flexible body control using neural networks (United States)

    Mccullough, Claire L.


    Progress is reported on the control of Control Structures Interaction suitcase demonstrator (a flexible structure) using neural networks and fuzzy logic. It is concluded that while control by neural nets alone (i.e., allowing the net to design a controller with no human intervention) has yielded less than optimal results, the neural net trained to emulate the existing fuzzy logic controller does produce acceptible system responses for the initial conditions examined. Also, a neural net was found to be very successful in performing the emulation step necessary for the anticipatory fuzzy controller for the CSI suitcase demonstrator. The fuzzy neural hybrid, which exhibits good robustness and noise rejection properties, shows promise as a controller for practical flexible systems, and should be further evaluated.

  18. Ion aggregation in high salt solutions. VII. The effect of cations on the structures of ion aggregates and water hydrogen-bonding network (United States)

    Choi, Jun-Ho; Choi, Hyung Ran; Jeon, Jonggu; Cho, Minhaeng


    Ions in high salt solutions have a strong propensity to form polydisperse ion aggregates with broad size and shape distributions. In a series of previous comparative investigations using femtosecond IR pump-probe spectroscopy, molecular dynamics simulation, and graph theoretical analysis, we have shown that there exists a morphological difference in the structures of ion aggregates formed in various salt solutions. As salt concentration increases, the ions in high salt solutions form either cluster-like structures excluding water molecules or network-like structures entwined with water hydrogen-bonding networks. Interestingly, such morphological characteristics of the ion aggregates have been found to be in correlation with the solubility limits of salts. An important question that still remains unexplored is why certain salts with different cations have notably different solubility limits in water. Here, carrying out a series of molecular dynamics simulations of aqueous salt solutions and analyzing the distributions and connectivity patterns of ion aggregates with a spectral graph analysis method, we establish the relationship between the salt solubility and the ion aggregate morphology with a special emphasis on the cationic effects on water structures and ion aggregation. We anticipate that the understanding of large scale ion aggregate structures revealed in this study will be critical for elucidating the specific ion effects on the solubility and conformational stability of co-solute molecules such as proteins in water.

  19. Evolution of Controllability in Interbank Networks (United States)

    Delpini, Danilo; Battiston, Stefano; Riccaboni, Massimo; Gabbi, Giampaolo; Pammolli, Fabio; Caldarelli, Guido


    The Statistical Physics of Complex Networks has recently provided new theoretical tools for policy makers. Here we extend the notion of network controllability to detect the financial institutions, i.e. the drivers, that are most crucial to the functioning of an interbank market. The system we investigate is a paradigmatic case study for complex networks since it undergoes dramatic structural changes over time and links among nodes can be observed at several time scales. We find a scale-free decay of the fraction of drivers with increasing time resolution, implying that policies have to be adjusted to the time scales in order to be effective. Moreover, drivers are often not the most highly connected ``hub'' institutions, nor the largest lenders, contrary to the results of other studies. Our findings contribute quantitative indicators which can support regulators in developing more effective supervision and intervention policies.

  20. Networked control of microgrid system of systems (United States)

    Mahmoud, Magdi S.; Rahman, Mohamed Saif Ur; AL-Sunni, Fouad M.


    The microgrid has made its mark in distributed generation and has attracted widespread research. However, microgrid is a complex system which needs to be viewed from an intelligent system of systems perspective. In this paper, a network control system of systems is designed for the islanded microgrid system consisting of three distributed generation units as three subsystems supplying a load. The controller stabilises the microgrid system in the presence of communication infractions such as packet dropouts and delays. Simulation results are included to elucidate the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy.

  1. Neural network controller for underwater work ROV. Suichu sagyoyo ROV no neural network controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Y.; Kidoshi, H.; Arahata, M.; Shoji, K.; Takahashi, Y. (Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries, Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))


    The previous underwater work ROV (remotely operated vehicle) has been controlled manually because its dynamic properties are changeable underwater. Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries (IHI) has applied a neural network to an adaptive controller for the ROV. This paper describes objectives of the research, design of control logic, and tank experiments on a model ROV. For the neural network, manual operation was used to provide the initial learning data for the neural network in order to initialize control parameters for optimization. The model ROV was designed to achieve and maintain constant depth in normal operation. As a consequence of the tank experiments, it was demonstrated that the controller can acquire skill of operators, can further improve the acquired skill of operators, and can construct an automatic control system autonomically even if any dynamic properties are not known. 6 refs., 8 figs.

  2. Improving Control Mechanism at Routers in TCP/IP Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Kim Quoc


    Full Text Available The existing control mechanisms at the network nodes have a good active and very effective at each local router, but they do not still strong enough to control nonlinear and dynamical behaviour of the network. Therefore, the control system requirements must be designed to be flexible to fully grasp the important status information of the variation and intelligent control methods to control network congestion in nonlinear network. To solve this problem, we propose a solution combined fuzzy reasoning with neural network control put on active queue management mechanisms at the network nodes.

  3. Control of Ectoparasitic Monogenean Infestation on GIFT Tilapia (Oreochromis sp. using Salt Addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yani Hadiroseyani


    Full Text Available Ectoparasitic monogenean infestation is one of fish diseases which may cause mass mortality, therefore controlling the parasites is one of the important factors to ensure the success of aquaculture activities. Salt addition is one of disease curative and controlling techniques which is cheap, easy and environmental friendly as well as effective to control ectoparasites in freshwater environment. The objectives of this study were to examine monogenean parasites species in GIFT (Genetically Improved Farmed Tilapia tilapia, their tolerance to salt concentration and the most effective salt concentration to control the parasites. Identification, intensity and prevalence of parasitic monogenean were carried out on the external parts (body surface, fins and gills of 31 fishes. Subsequently, two different experiments were carried out  to determine parasites and fish resistance on various salt concentration at a range of 0 - 24 g/l with an interval of 2 g/l. To confirm the results of previous experiment, parasites infected fish was immersed in salt water at various concentration based on previous experiments. Two genera of monogenean were identified in GIFT tilapia, i.e. Gyrodactylus sp. on body surface and fins, and Cichlidogyrus sp. on gills with the same prevalence (100%. The intensity of those parasites was different, namely 27.84 ind/fish for Gyrodactylus sp. and 6.06 ind/fish for Cichlidogyrus sp. The intensity of both parasites was found to be lower as salt concentration increase. Salt concentration of 24 g/l was the most effective concentration to reduce parasites infestation and could totally treat the infested fish within 6 days. Keyword : tilapia, Oreochromis, monogenea, parasite and salt     ABSTRAK Serangan monogenea ektoparasitik merupakan salah satu masalah penyakit ikan yang dapat menyebabkan kematian masal, sehingga pengendaliannya merupakan salah satu kunci keberhasilan dalam usaha budidaya. Garam merupakan agen penyembuh atau

  4. Call Admission Control in Mobile Cellular Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Ghosh, Sanchita


    Call Admission Control (CAC) and Dynamic Channel Assignments (DCA) are important decision-making problems in mobile cellular communication systems. Current research in mobile communication considers them as two independent problems, although the former greatly depends on the resulting free channels obtained as the outcome of the latter. This book provides a solution to the CAC problem, considering DCA as an integral part of decision-making for call admission. Further, current technical resources ignore movement issues of mobile stations and fluctuation in network load (incoming calls) in the control strategy used for call admission. In addition, the present techniques on call admission offers solution globally for the entire network, instead of considering the cells independently.      CAC here has been formulated by two alternative approaches. The first approach aimed at handling the uncertainty in the CAC problem by employing fuzzy comparators.  The second approach is concerned with formulation of CAC ...

  5. Coordinated Voltage Control of Active Distribution Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xie Jiang


    Full Text Available This paper presents a centralized coordinated voltage control method for active distribution network to solve off-limit problem of voltage after incorporation of distributed generation (DG. The proposed method consists of two parts, it coordinated primal-dual interior point method-based voltage regulation schemes of DG reactive powers and capacitors with centralized on-load tap changer (OLTC controlling method which utilizes system’s maximum and minimum voltages, to improve the qualified rate of voltage and reduce the operation numbers of OLTC. The proposed coordination has considered the cost of capacitors. The method is tested using a radial edited IEEE-33 nodes distribution network which is modelled using MATLAB.

  6. Model Predictive Control of Sewer Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Einar B.; Herbertsson, Hannes R.; Niemann, Henrik


    The developments in solutions for management of urban drainage are of vital importance, as the amount of sewer water from urban areas continues to increase due to the increase of the world’s population and the change in the climate conditions. How a sewer network is structured, monitored and cont...... benchmark model. Due to the inherent constraints the applied approach is based on Model Predictive Control....

  7. Stochastic modelling and control of communication networks


    Zuraniewski, P.W.


    The unprecedented growth of the Information Technologies sector observed within the past years creates an excellent opportunity to conduct new, exciting and interdisciplinary research. Increasing complexity of the communication networks calls for incorporating rigorously developed and reliable methods for traffic control and management. Mathematics may offer extremely valuable tools to achieve these goals but transforming an engineering problem into the mathematical one requires a good unders...

  8. Inefficacy of osmotic backwash induced by sodium chloride salt solution in controlling SWRO membrane fouling (United States)

    Farooque, A. Mohammed; Al-Jeshi, Subhi; Saeed, Mohamed O.; Alreweli, Ali


    A study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of osmotic backwash induced by high salt (NaCl) concentration solution on feed side of seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) membranes, online and offline, in controlling membrane fouling and therefore minimizing/eliminating the need for chemical cleaning. SWRO membranes were deliberately fouled by feeding seawater from an open intake located on the Arabian Gulf Coast without dosing chemicals. The fouled membranes were subjected to offline cleaning with the salt solution of up to 25 % concentration. Despite the partial removal of foulants from the membrane surface, SWRO membrane performance could not be restored, indicating the ineffectiveness of osmotic backwash in aiding offline salt cleaning. Similarly, online osmotic backwash was found to be not only ineffective in removing foulants from membrane surfaces but actually increased the fouling rate, as indicated by faster fouling rates compared to other cases. Although the driving force required for the osmotic backwash existed, the generated back flow proved to be insufficient to detach foulants from membrane surfaces. During the study period, the average SWRO membrane flux was maintained between 19 and 23 LMH, whereas the average generated back flow flux by high salt concentration solution was only 11 LMH, which was not adequate to remove foulants from membrane surfaces. Moreover, it seems that the membrane configuration as well as inherent microstructure of SWRO membrane places certain constraints on the osmotic backwash process and renders osmotic backwash ineffective in tackling SWRO membrane fouling. Hence, chemical cleaning is essential to restore SWRO membrane performance whenever fouling occurs, and the use of highly concentrated salt solution does not have any significant benefit. Membrane autopsy revealed only an insignificant accumulation of biofouling layer despite the absence of disinfection. However, it was shown that culturable biofilm bacteria species

  9. A comprehensive Network Security Risk Model for process control networks. (United States)

    Henry, Matthew H; Haimes, Yacov Y


    The risk of cyber attacks on process control networks (PCN) is receiving significant attention due to the potentially catastrophic extent to which PCN failures can damage the infrastructures and commodity flows that they support. Risk management addresses the coupled problems of (1) reducing the likelihood that cyber attacks would succeed in disrupting PCN operation and (2) reducing the severity of consequences in the event of PCN failure or manipulation. The Network Security Risk Model (NSRM) developed in this article provides a means of evaluating the efficacy of candidate risk management policies by modeling the baseline risk and assessing expectations of risk after the implementation of candidate measures. Where existing risk models fall short of providing adequate insight into the efficacy of candidate risk management policies due to shortcomings in their structure or formulation, the NSRM provides model structure and an associated modeling methodology that captures the relevant dynamics of cyber attacks on PCN for risk analysis. This article develops the NSRM in detail in the context of an illustrative example.

  10. Towards structural controllability of local-world networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Shiwen, E-mail: [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Intelligence Computing and Novel Software Technology, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300384 (China); Key Laboratory of Computer Vision and System (Tianjin University of Technology), Ministry of Education, Tianjin 300384 (China); Ma, Yilin; Wu, Yafang; Wang, Li; Xia, Chengyi [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Intelligence Computing and Novel Software Technology, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300384 (China); Key Laboratory of Computer Vision and System (Tianjin University of Technology), Ministry of Education, Tianjin 300384 (China)


    Controlling complex networks is of vital importance in science and engineering. Meanwhile, local-world effect is an important ingredient which should be taken into consideration in the complete description of real-world complex systems. In this letter, structural controllability of a class of local-world networks is investigated. Through extensive numerical simulations, firstly, effects of local world size M and network size N on structural controllability are examined. For local-world networks with sparse topological configuration, compared to network size, local-world size can induce stronger influence on controllability, however, for dense networks, controllability is greatly affected by network size and local-world effect can be neglected. Secondly, relationships between controllability and topological properties are analyzed. Lastly, the robustness of local-world networks under targeted attacks regarding structural controllability is discussed. These results can help to deepen the understanding of structural complexity and connectivity patterns of complex systems. - Highlights: • Structural controllability of a class of local-world networks is investigated. • For sparse local-world networks, compared to network size, local-world size can bring stronger influence on controllability. • For dense networks, controllability is greatly affected by network size and the effect of local-world size can be neglected. • Structural controllability against targeted node attacks is discussed.

  11. Analysis and design of networked control systems

    CERN Document Server

    You, Keyou; Xie, Lihua


    This monograph focuses on characterizing the stability and performance consequences of inserting limited-capacity communication networks within a control loop. The text shows how integration of the ideas of control and estimation with those of communication and information theory can be used to provide important insights concerning several fundamental problems such as: ·         minimum data rate for stabilization of linear systems over noisy channels; ·         minimum network requirement for stabilization of linear systems over fading channels; and ·         stability of Kalman filtering with intermittent observations. A fundamental link is revealed between the topological entropy of linear dynamical systems and the capacities of communication channels. The design of a logarithmic quantizer for the stabilization of linear systems under various network environments is also extensively discussed and solutions to many problems of Kalman filtering with intermittent observations are de...

  12. neural network based load frequency control for restructuring power

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Mar 1, 2012 ... Abstract. In this study, an artificial neural network (ANN) application of load frequency control. (LFC) of a Multi-Area power system by using a neural network controller is presented. The comparison between a conventional Proportional Integral (PI) controller and the proposed artificial neural networks ...

  13. Efficient Access Control in Multimedia Social Networks (United States)

    Sachan, Amit; Emmanuel, Sabu

    Multimedia social networks (MMSNs) have provided a convenient way to share multimedia contents such as images, videos, blogs, etc. Contents shared by a person can be easily accessed by anybody else over the Internet. However, due to various privacy, security, and legal concerns people often want to selectively share the contents only with their friends, family, colleagues, etc. Access control mechanisms play an important role in this situation. With access control mechanisms one can decide the persons who can access a shared content and who cannot. But continuously growing content uploads and accesses, fine grained access control requirements (e.g. different access control parameters for different parts in a picture), and specific access control requirements for multimedia contents can make the time complexity of access control to be very large. So, it is important to study an efficient access control mechanism suitable for MMSNs. In this chapter we present an efficient bit-vector transform based access control mechanism for MMSNs. The proposed approach is also compatible with other requirements of MMSNs, such as access rights modification, content deletion, etc. Mathematical analysis and experimental results show the effectiveness and efficiency of our proposed approach.

  14. Effect of cooking classes for housewives on salt reduction in family members: a cluster randomized controlled trial. (United States)

    Takada, T; Imamoto, M; Fukuma, S; Yamamoto, Y; Sasaki, S; Uchida, M; Miura, Y; Shimizu, S; Nihata, K; Fukuhara, S


    Sodium reduction is very important in preventing cardiovascular diseases, especially in regions with high salt intake such as Japan. One strategy for salt reduction is to raise consumer awareness of the need to reduce daily salt intake. We investigated whether cooking classes given to housewives focussing on salt reduction would influence not only their own consumption behaviour but also that of their family members. Single-blinded, cluster randomized trial. We randomly assigned housewives to participate in cooking classes focussing on salt reduction (intervention group) or lectures about a healthy lifestyle (control group). The main outcome measure was the difference in estimated daily salt intake by spot urine sampling of housewives and their family members 2 months after intervention between the groups. A total of 35 housewives and 33 family members were randomized. The mean daily salt intake was 10.00 (standard deviation [SD] 1.75) g/day in the control group (17 housewives and 15 family members) and 9.57 (SD 2.45) g/day in the intervention group (18 housewives and 18 family members) at baseline. Two months after the intervention, the mean salt intake was 10.30 (SD 1.78) g/day in the control group and 8.95 (SD 2.45) g/day in the intervention group. The mean difference was -1.19 g/day (95% confidence interval -2.29, -0.09; P = 0.034). A similar tendency was observed in the subgroups of housewives and family members. Our trial suggested that the effects of cooking classes focussing on salt reduction for housewives could be transferred to family members (UMIN-CTR: 000018870). Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Identification and Position Control of Marine Helm using Artificial Neural Network Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui ZHU


    Full Text Available If nonlinearities such as saturation of the amplifier gain and motor torque, gear backlash, and shaft compliances- just to name a few - are considered in the position control system of marine helm, traditional control methods are no longer sufficient to be used to improve the performance of the system. In this paper an alternative approach to traditional control methods - a neural network reference controller - is proposed to establish an adaptive control of the position of the marine helm to achieve the controlled variable at the command position. This neural network controller comprises of two neural networks. One is the plant model network used to identify the nonlinear system and the other the controller network used to control the output to follow the reference model. The experimental results demonstrate that this adaptive neural network reference controller has much better control performance than is obtained with traditional controllers.

  16. Effects of oral salt supplementation on physical performance during a half-ironman: A randomized controlled trial. (United States)

    Del Coso, J; González-Millán, C; Salinero, J J; Abián-Vicén, J; Areces, F; Lledó, M; Lara, B; Gallo-Salazar, C; Ruiz-Vicente, D


    The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of oral salt supplementation to improve exercise performance during a half-ironman triathlon. Twenty-six experienced triathletes were matched for age, anthropometric data, and training status, and randomly placed into the salt group (113 mmol Na(+) and 112 mmol Cl(-)) or the control group (cellulose). The experimental treatments were ingested before and during a real half-ironman triathlon competition. Pre- and post-race body mass, maximal force during a whole-body isometric strength test, maximal height during a countermovement jump, were measured, and blood samples were obtained. Sweat samples were obtained during the running section. Total race time was lower in the salt group than in the control group (P = 0.04). After the race, whole-body isometric strength (P = 0.17) and jump height (P = 0.49) were similarly reduced in both groups. Sweat loss (P = 0.98) and sweat Na(+) concentration (P = 0.72) were similar between groups. However, body mass tended to be less reduced in the salt group than in the control group (P = 0.09) while post-race serum Na(+) (P = 0.03) and Cl(-) (P = 0.03) concentrations were higher in the salt group than in the control group. Oral salt supplementation was effective to lessen body mass loss and increase serum electrolyte concentration during a real half-ironman. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Neural Network Control of Asymmetrical Multilevel Converters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrice WIRA


    Full Text Available This paper proposes a neural implementation of a harmonic eliminationstrategy (HES to control a Uniform Step Asymmetrical Multilevel Inverter(USAMI. The mapping between the modulation rate and the requiredswitching angles is learned and approximated with a Multi-Layer Perceptron(MLP neural network. After learning, appropriate switching angles can bedetermined with the neural network leading to a low-computational-costneural controller which is well suited for real-time applications. Thistechnique can be applied to multilevel inverters with any number of levels. Asan example, a nine-level inverter and an eleven-level inverter are consideredand the optimum switching angles are calculated on-line. Comparisons to thewell-known sinusoidal pulse-width modulation (SPWM have been carriedout in order to evaluate the performance of the proposed approach. Simulationresults demonstrate the technical advantages of the proposed neuralimplementation over the conventional method (SPWM in eliminatingharmonics while controlling a nine-level and eleven-level USAMI. Thisneural approach is applied for the supply of an asynchronous machine andresults show that it ensures a highest quality torque by efficiently cancelingthe harmonics generated by the inverters.

  18. Neural Networks for Modeling and Control of Particle Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Edelen, A.L.; Chase, B.E.; Edstrom, D.; Milton, S.V.; Stabile, P.


    We describe some of the challenges of particle accelerator control, highlight recent advances in neural network techniques, discuss some promising avenues for incorporating neural networks into particle accelerator control systems, and describe a neural network-based control system that is being developed for resonance control of an RF electron gun at the Fermilab Accelerator Science and Technology (FAST) facility, including initial experimental results from a benchmark controller.

  19. Predictive Control of Networked Multiagent Systems via Cloud Computing. (United States)

    Liu, Guo-Ping


    This paper studies the design and analysis of networked multiagent predictive control systems via cloud computing. A cloud predictive control scheme for networked multiagent systems (NMASs) is proposed to achieve consensus and stability simultaneously and to compensate for network delays actively. The design of the cloud predictive controller for NMASs is detailed. The analysis of the cloud predictive control scheme gives the necessary and sufficient conditions of stability and consensus of closed-loop networked multiagent control systems. The proposed scheme is verified to characterize the dynamical behavior and control performance of NMASs through simulations. The outcome provides a foundation for the development of cooperative and coordinative control of NMASs and its applications.

  20. Hydrogen bonded anion ribbons, networks and clusters and sulfur-anion interactions in novel radical cation salts of BEDT-TTF with sulfamate, pentaborate and bromide. (United States)

    Brooks, Andrew C; Martin, Lee; Day, Peter; Lopes, Elsa B; Almeida, Manuel; Kikuchi, Koichi; Fujita, Wataru; Sasamori, Kota; Aktusu, Hiroki; Wallis, John D


    The novel radical cation salt (BEDT-TTF)3(sulfamate)2·2H2O (BEDT-TTF = bis(ethylenedithio)tetrathiafulvalene) is semiconducting with donor stacks comprised of pairs of partially oxidized molecules and a single more highly oxidized molecule which is twisted out of the stack by ca. 30°. Hydrogen bonded pairs of sulfamate ions are linked into parallel ribbons by further hydrogen bonding between sulfamates and bridging water molecules. In contrast, the BEDT-TTF salt with pentaborate contains infinite layers formed of a network of hydrogen bonded pentaborate anions. Two new bromide salts of BEDT-TTF are reported, one is a semiconducting 1 : 1 salt in which the bromide is integrated among the BEDT-TTF donors, while the other contain a square of four bromide ions linked together by hydrogen bonding to a centrally located H5O2(+) cation for every five BEDT-TTF molecules.

  1. Hanford Reach - Control of Salt Cedar Plants in an Isolated Zone (United States)

    Department of the Interior — Target Invasive Species: salt cedar (Tamarix sp.; a Class “B” noxious weed in WA, “B” designated weed in OR) minimum of 32 acres within ~760 acres. Salt cedar...

  2. Network Traffic Features for Anomaly Detection in Specific Industrial Control System Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matti Mantere


    Full Text Available The deterministic and restricted nature of industrial control system networks sets them apart from more open networks, such as local area networks in office environments. This improves the usability of network security, monitoring approaches that would be less feasible in more open environments. One of such approaches is machine learning based anomaly detection. Without proper customization for the special requirements of the industrial control system network environment, many existing anomaly or misuse detection systems will perform sub-optimally. A machine learning based approach could reduce the amount of manual customization required for different industrial control system networks. In this paper we analyze a possible set of features to be used in a machine learning based anomaly detection system in the real world industrial control system network environment under investigation. The network under investigation is represented by architectural drawing and results derived from network trace analysis. The network trace is captured from a live running industrial process control network and includes both control data and the data flowing between the control network and the office network. We limit the investigation to the IP traffic in the traces.

  3. An Efficient Congestion Control Protocol for Wired/Wireless Networks


    Hanaa Torkey; Gamal ATTIYA; Ahmed Abdel Nabi


    Recently, wide spectrum of heterogeneous wireless access networks integrate with high speed wired networks to deliver Internet services. End-to-end service delivery with satisfactory quality is challenging issue in such network architectures. Although the Internet transport control protocol (TCP) addresses such challenge, it has poor performance with high speed wired networks (i.e. high bandwidth-delay product). Moreover, it behaves badly with wireless access networks (i.e. misinterpretation ...

  4. Intelligent Joint Admission Control for Next Generation Wireless Networks


    Abdulqader M. Mohsen; Al-Akwaa, Fadhl M.; Mohammed M. Alkhawlani


    The Heterogeneous Wireless Network (HWN) integrates different wireless networks into one common network. The integrated networks often overlap coverage in the same wireless service areas, leading to the availability of a great variety of innovative services based on user demands in a cost-efficient manner. Joint Admission Control (JAC) handles all new or handoff service requests in the HWN. It checks whether the incoming service request to the selected Radio Access Network (RAN) by the initia...

  5. Pinning control of complex networked systems synchronization, consensus and flocking of networked systems via pinning

    CERN Document Server

    Su, Housheng


    Synchronization, consensus and flocking are ubiquitous requirements in networked systems. Pinning Control of Complex Networked Systems investigates these requirements by using the pinning control strategy, which aims to control the whole dynamical network with huge numbers of nodes by imposing controllers for only a fraction of the nodes. As the direct control of every node in a dynamical network with huge numbers of nodes might be impossible or unnecessary, it’s then very important to use the pinning control strategy for the synchronization of complex dynamical networks. The research on pinning control strategy in consensus and flocking of multi-agent systems can not only help us to better understand the mechanisms of natural collective phenomena, but also benefit applications in mobile sensor/robot networks. This book offers a valuable resource for researchers and engineers working in the fields of control theory and control engineering.   Housheng Su is an Associate Professor at the Department of Contro...

  6. Neural Network for Optimization of Existing Control Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Per Printz


    The purpose of this paper is to develop methods to use Neural Network based Controllers (NNC) as an optimization tool for existing control systems.......The purpose of this paper is to develop methods to use Neural Network based Controllers (NNC) as an optimization tool for existing control systems....

  7. Network resource control for grid workflow management systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strijkers, R.J.; Cristea, M.; Korkhov, V.; Marchal, D.; Belloum, A.; Laat,; Meijer, R.J.


    Grid workflow management systems automate the orchestration of scientific applications with large computational and data processing needs, but lack control over network resources. Consequently, the management system cannot prevent multiple communication intensive applications to compete for network

  8. Control and estimation methods over communication networks

    CERN Document Server

    Mahmoud, Magdi S


    This book provides a rigorous framework in which to study problems in the analysis, stability and design of networked control systems. Four dominant sources of difficulty are considered: packet dropouts, communication bandwidth constraints, parametric uncertainty, and time delays. Past methods and results are reviewed from a contemporary perspective, present trends are examined, and future possibilities proposed. Emphasis is placed on robust and reliable design methods. New control strategies for improving the efficiency of sensor data processing and reducing associated time delay are presented. The coverage provided features: ·        an overall assessment of recent and current fault-tolerant control algorithms; ·        treatment of several issues arising at the junction of control and communications; ·        key concepts followed by their proofs and efficient computational methods for their implementation; and ·        simulation examples (including TrueTime simulations) to...

  9. Distributed agro-hydrological modeling with SWAP to improve water and salt management of the Voshmgir Irrigaton and Drainage Network in Northern Iran

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noory, H.; Zee, van der S.E.A.T.M.; Liaghat, A.M.; Parsinejad, M.; Dam, van J.C.


    The agro-hydrological model SWAP was used in a distributed manner to quantify irrigation water management effects on the water and salt balances of the Voshmgir Network of North Iran during the agricultural year 2006–2007. Field experiments, satellite images and geographical data were processed into

  10. Developmental Control of Crassulacean Acid Metabolism Inducibility by Salt Stress in the Common Ice Plant 1 (United States)

    Cushman, John C.; Michalowski, Christine B.; Bohnert, Hans J.


    Ice plant (Mesembryanthemum crystallinum) is a facultative halophyte that responds to water stress in the form of drought or high salinity by switching from C3 photosynthesis to Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM), a physiological adaptation that increases water conservation. Although CAM is clearly environmentally controlled, and reversible upon removal of water stress, the competence to switch is developmentally determined. We have demonstrated this by measuring three parameters in the expression of a gene encoding a stress-specific isoform of a key enzyme of CAM, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPCase, Ppc1): (a) protein accumulation; (b) steady-state amounts of mRNA; and (3) transcriptional activity in isolated nuclei. Young plants (3 weeks of age) show little induction of PEPCase protein, mRNA, or transcription when stressed. In contrast, salt stress elicits a strong induction at all three levels of expression at 6 weeks of age. By 9 weeks of age, plants have already accumulated PEPCase protein and mRNA without being stressed. More importantly, transcriptional activation of Ppc1 by salt stress in 9-week-old plants is no longer observed despite an increase of both Ppc1 mRNA and protein. From these results we suggest that a developmental program exists that regulates PEPCase transcription and mRNA stability. This program appears to be synchronized with the climatic conditions in the plant's native environment. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:16667808

  11. Controllability of giant connected components in a directed network (United States)

    Liu, Xueming; Pan, Linqiang; Stanley, H. Eugene; Gao, Jianxi


    When controlling a complex networked system it is not feasible to control the full network because many networks, including biological, technological, and social systems, are massive in size and complexity. But neither is it necessary to control the full network. In complex networks, the giant connected components provide the essential information about the entire system. How to control these giant connected components of a network remains an open question. We derive the mathematical expression of the degree distributions for four types of giant connected components and develop an analytic tool for studying the controllability of these giant connected components. We find that for both Erdős-Rényi (ER) networks and scale-free (SF) networks with p fraction of remaining nodes, the minimum driver node density to control the giant component first increases and then decreases as p increases from zero to one, showing a peak at a critical point p =pm . We find that, for ER networks, the peak value of the driver node density remains the same regardless of its average degree and that it is determined by pm . In addition, we find that for SF networks the minimum driver node densities needed to control the giant components of networks decrease as the degree distribution exponents increase. Comparing the controllability of the giant components of ER networks and SF networks, we find that when the fraction of remaining nodes p is low, the giant in-connected, out-connected, and strong-connected components in ER networks have lower controllability than those in SF networks.

  12. Fault Detection for Quantized Networked Control Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Wei Che


    Full Text Available The fault detection problem in the finite frequency domain for networked control systems with signal quantization is considered. With the logarithmic quantizer consideration, a quantized fault detection observer is designed by employing a performance index which is used to increase the fault sensitivity in finite frequency domain. The quantized measurement signals are dealt with by utilizing the sector bound method, in which the quantization error is treated as sector-bounded uncertainty. By using the Kalman-Yakubovich-Popov (GKYP Lemma, an iterative LMI-based optimization algorithm is developed for designing the quantized fault detection observer. And a numerical example is given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  13. Urgent epidemic control mechanism for aviation networks

    KAUST Repository

    Peng, Chengbin


    In the current century, the highly developed transportation system can not only boost the economy, but also greatly accelerate the spreading of epidemics. While some epidemic diseases may infect quite a number of people ahead of our awareness, the health care resources such as vaccines and the medical staff are usually locally or even globally insufficient. In this research, with the network of major aviation routes as an example, we present a method to determine the optimal locations to allocate the medical service in order to minimize the impact of the infectious disease with limited resources. Specifically, we demonstrate that when the medical resources are insufficient, we should concentrate our efforts on the travelers with the objective of effectively controlling the spreading rate of the epidemic diseases. © 2011 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  14. Blood pressure control status and relationship between salt intake and lifestyle including diet in hypertensive outpatients treated at a general hospital. (United States)

    Ohta, Yuko; Kimura, Yorio; Kitaoka, Chie; Sakata, Tomoko; Abe, Isao; Kawano, Yuhei


    The purpose of the present study was to investigate blood pressure (BP) control and salt intake in hypertensive outpatients treated at a general hospital and to examine the relationship between their lifestyles and amount of salt intake. Subjects comprised 429 hypertensive patients (206 males, 223 females, and average age of 71 ± 11 years). We estimated 24-hour salt excretion using spot urine samples and assessed lifestyle using a self-description questionnaire. Average clinic BP and the number of antihypertensive drugs were 132 ± 11/73 ± 8 mmHg and 1.8 ± 0.9, respectively. In all subjects, average estimated salt intake was 9.2 ± 2.8 g/day and the rate of achievement of the estimated salt intake of salt intake was lower in patients living alone than in those with a family. In a multivariate analysis, estimated salt intake correlated positively with body mass index and negatively with age. Among patients with an excessive salt intake (≥10 g/day), 75.2% answered that they made an effort to reduce their salt intake. The amount of food and processed food consumption correlated with estimated salt intake. In conclusion, the rate of achievement of salt restriction was low in hypertensive patients treated at a general hospital. It may be important to provide data on actual salt intake and guide salt restriction in the individual management of hypertension.

  15. Application framework for programmable network control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strijkers, R.; Cristea, M.; de Laat, C.; Meijer, R.; Clemm, A.; Wolter, R.


    We present a framework that enables application developers to create complex and application specific network services. The essence of our approach is to utilize programmable network elements to create a software representation of network elements in the application. We show that the typical pattern

  16. Controlled Release Kinetics in Hydroxy Double Salts: Effect of Host Anion Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Majoni


    Full Text Available Nanodimensional layered metal hydroxides such as layered double hydroxides (LDHs and hydroxy double salts (HDSs can undergo anion exchange reactions releasing intercalated anions. Because of this, these metal hydroxides have found applications in controlled release delivery of bioactive species such as drugs and pesticides. In this work, isomers of hydroxycinnamate were used as model compounds to systematically explore the effects of anion structure on the rate and extent of anion release in HDSs. Following intercalation and subsequent release of the isomers, it has been demonstrated that the nature and position of substituent groups on intercalated anions have profound effects on the rate and extent of release. The extent of release was correlated with the magnitude of dipole moments while the rate of reaction showed strong dependence on the extent of hydrogen bonding within the layers. The orthoisomer showed a more sustained and complete release as compared to the other isomers.

  17. MQCC: Maximum Queue Congestion Control for Multipath Networks with Blockage (United States)


    Design, Implementation and Evaluation of Congestion Control for Multipath TCP ,” in Proc. of USENIX Conference on Networked Systems Design and...MQCC: Maximum Queue Congestion Control for Multipath Networks with Blockage Scott Pudlewski, Brooke Shrader, Laura Herrera, Nathaniel M. Jones...queue-based (MQCC) congestion control algorithm. MQCC uses average buffer occupancy as a measure of the congestion in a network (as opposed to packet

  18. Low-salt diet (United States)

    Low-sodium diet; Salt restriction ... control many functions. Too much sodium in your diet can be bad for you. For most people, ... you limit salt. Try to eat a balanced diet. Buy fresh vegetables and fruits whenever possible. They ...

  19. Near-Minimal Node Control of Networked Evolutionary Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riehl, James Robert; Cao, Ming


    We investigate a problem related to the controllability of networked evolutionary games, first presenting an algorithm that computes a near-minimal set of nodes to drive all nodes in a tree network to a desired strategy, and then briefly discussing an algorithm that works for arbitrary networks

  20. CFO finance network centrality, errors and internal control material weaknessess

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schabus, M.


    CFOs finance networks matter in determining certain accounting and reporting outcomes. Drawing on social network theory, this study shows that CFO centrality in a network of financial experts is inversely related to the occurrence of restatements due to errors and disclosure of internal control

  1. An improved method for network congestion control (United States)

    Qiao, Xiaolin


    The rapid progress of the wireless network technology has great convenience on the people's life and work. However, because of its openness, the mobility of the terminal and the changing topology, the wireless network is more susceptible to security attacks. Authentication and key agreement is the base of the network security. The authentication and key agreement mechanism can prevent the unauthorized user from accessing the network, resist malicious network to deceive the lawful user, encrypt the session data by using the exchange key and provide the identification of the data origination. Based on characteristics of the wireless network, this paper proposed a key agreement protocol for wireless network. The authentication of protocol is based on Elliptic Curve Cryptosystems and Diffie-Hellman.

  2. Complex systems and networks dynamics, controls and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Xinghuo; Chen, Guanrong; Yu, Wenwu


    This elementary book provides some state-of-the-art research results on broad disciplinary sciences on complex networks. It presents an in-depth study with detailed description of dynamics, controls and applications of complex networks. The contents of this book can be summarized as follows. First, the dynamics of complex networks, for example, the cluster dynamic analysis by using kernel spectral methods, community detection algorithms in bipartite networks, epidemiological modeling with demographics and epidemic spreading on multi-layer networks, are studied. Second, the controls of complex networks are investigated including topics like distributed finite-time cooperative control of multi-agent systems by applying homogenous-degree and Lyapunov methods, composite finite-time containment control for disturbed second-order multi-agent systems, fractional-order observer design of multi-agent systems, chaos control and anticontrol of complex systems via Parrondos game and many more. Third, the applications of ...

  3. Implementing controlled-unitary operations over the butterfly network (United States)

    Soeda, Akihito; Kinjo, Yoshiyuki; Turner, Peter S.; Murao, Mio


    We introduce a multiparty quantum computation task over a network in a situation where the capacities of both the quantum and classical communication channels of the network are limited and a bottleneck occurs. Using a resource setting introduced by Hayashi [1], we present an efficient protocol for performing controlled-unitary operations between two input nodes and two output nodes over the butterfly network, one of the most fundamental networks exhibiting the bottleneck problem. This result opens the possibility of developing a theory of quantum network coding for multiparty quantum computation, whereas the conventional network coding only treats multiparty quantum communication.

  4. Implementing controlled-unitary operations over the butterfly network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soeda, Akihito; Kinjo, Yoshiyuki; Turner, Peter S. [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Murao, Mio [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan and NanoQuine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)


    We introduce a multiparty quantum computation task over a network in a situation where the capacities of both the quantum and classical communication channels of the network are limited and a bottleneck occurs. Using a resource setting introduced by Hayashi [1], we present an efficient protocol for performing controlled-unitary operations between two input nodes and two output nodes over the butterfly network, one of the most fundamental networks exhibiting the bottleneck problem. This result opens the possibility of developing a theory of quantum network coding for multiparty quantum computation, whereas the conventional network coding only treats multiparty quantum communication.

  5. Adaptive bridge control strategy for opinion evolution on social networks. (United States)

    Qian, Cheng; Cao, Jinde; Lu, Jianquan; Kurths, Jürgen


    In this paper, we present an efficient opinion control strategy for complex networks, in particular, for social networks. The proposed adaptive bridge control (ABC) strategy calls for controlling a special kind of nodes named bridge and requires no knowledge of the node degrees or any other global or local knowledge, which are necessary for some other immunization strategies including targeted immunization and acquaintance immunization. We study the efficiency of the proposed ABC strategy on random networks, small-world networks, scale-free networks, and the random networks adjusted by the edge exchanging method. Our results show that the proposed ABC strategy is efficient for all of these four kinds of networks. Through an adjusting clustering coefficient by the edge exchanging method, it is found out that the efficiency of our ABC strategy is closely related with the clustering coefficient. The main contributions of this paper can be listed as follows: (1) A new high-order social network is proposed to describe opinion dynamic. (2) An algorithm, which does not require the knowledge of the nodes' degree and other global∕local network structure information, is proposed to control the "bridges" more accurately and further control the opinion dynamics of the social networks. The efficiency of our ABC strategy is illustrated by numerical examples. (3) The numerical results indicate that our ABC strategy is more efficient for networks with higher clustering coefficient.

  6. A study on the corrosion-control test of material for molten salt handling (I)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Young Joon; Zhang, J. S.; Oh, S. C.; Cho, S. H.; Park, H. S.; Do, J. B. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)


    On this technical report, corrosion behaviors of Incoloy 800H, Inconel 600 and Hastelloy C-276 in molten salts were investigated in the temperature range of 650 - 850 deg C. Due to Li{sub 2}O-induced basic fluxing mechanism, the corrosion rates of the alloys in mixed molten salt of LiCl-Li{sub 2}O were significantly higher than those in molten salt of LiCl. In the mixed molten salt, Fe-base alloys showed higher corrosion resistance than the Ni-base alloys, and C-276 with high Mo and W contents exhibited the highest corrosion rate among the examined alloys. the single layer of LiCrO{sub 2} was formed in molten salt of LiCl and two phase structure of a scale consisted of oxides and Ni was formed in the mixed molten salt. 48 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs. (Author)

  7. Minimizing communication cost among distributed controllers in software defined networks (United States)

    Arlimatti, Shivaleela; Elbreiki, Walid; Hassan, Suhaidi; Habbal, Adib; Elshaikh, Mohamed


    Software Defined Networking (SDN) is a new paradigm to increase the flexibility of today's network by promising for a programmable network. The fundamental idea behind this new architecture is to simplify network complexity by decoupling control plane and data plane of the network devices, and by making the control plane centralized. Recently controllers have distributed to solve the problem of single point of failure, and to increase scalability and flexibility during workload distribution. Even though, controllers are flexible and scalable to accommodate more number of network switches, yet the problem of intercommunication cost between distributed controllers is still challenging issue in the Software Defined Network environment. This paper, aims to fill the gap by proposing a new mechanism, which minimizes intercommunication cost with graph partitioning algorithm, an NP hard problem. The methodology proposed in this paper is, swapping of network elements between controller domains to minimize communication cost by calculating communication gain. The swapping of elements minimizes inter and intra communication cost among network domains. We validate our work with the OMNeT++ simulation environment tool. Simulation results show that the proposed mechanism minimizes the inter domain communication cost among controllers compared to traditional distributed controllers.

  8. Responses of salt marsh ecosystems to mosquito control management practices along the Atlantic Coast (U.S.A.) (United States)

    James-Pirri, Mary-Jane; Erwin, R. Michael; Prosser, Diann J.; Taylor, Janith D.


    Open marsh water management (OMWM) of salt marshes modifies grid-ditched marshes by creating permanent ponds and radial ditches in the high marsh that reduce mosquito production and enhance fish predation on mosquitoes. It is preferable to using pesticides to control salt marsh mosquito production and is commonly presented as a restoration or habitat enhancement tool for grid-ditched salt marshes. Monitoring of nekton, vegetation, groundwater level, soil salinity, and bird communities before and after OMWM at 11 (six treatment and five reference sites) Atlantic Coast (U.S.A.) salt marshes revealed high variability within and among differing OMWM techniques (ditch-plugging, reengineering of sill ditches, and the creation of ponds and radial ditches). At three marshes, the dominant nekton shifted from fish (primarily Fundulidae species) to shrimp (Palaemonidae species) after manipulations and shrimp density increased at other treatment sites. Vegetation changed at only two sites, one with construction equipment impacts (not desired) and one with a decrease in woody vegetation along existing ditches (desired). One marsh had lower groundwater level and soil salinity, and bird use, although variable, was often unrelated to OMWM manipulations. The potential effects of OMWM manipulations on non-target salt marsh resources need to be carefully considered by resource planners when managing marshes for mosquito control.

  9. Adaptive Dynamics, Control, and Extinction in Networked Populations (United States)


    Adaptive Dynamics, Control, and Extinction in Networked Populations Ira B. Schwartz US Naval Research Laboratory Code 6792 Nonlinear System Dynamics...theory of large deviations to stochastic network extinction to predict extinction times. In particular, we use the theory to find the most probable...paths leading to extinction . We then apply the methodology to network models and discover how mean extinction times scale with network parameters in Erdos

  10. Pebble Fuel Handling and Reactivity Control for Salt-Cooled High Temperature Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, Per [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering; Greenspan, Ehud [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering


    This report documents the work completed on the X-PREX facility under NEUP Project 11- 3172. This project seeks to demonstrate the viability of pebble fuel handling and reactivity control for fluoride salt-cooled high-temperature reactors (FHRs). The research results also improve the understanding of pebble motion in helium-cooled reactors, as well as the general, fundamental understanding of low-velocity granular flows. Successful use of pebble fuels in with salt coolants would bring major benefits for high-temperature reactor technology. Pebble fuels enable on-line refueling and operation with low excess reactivity, and thus simpler reactivity control and improved fuel utilization. If fixed fuel designs are used, the power density of salt- cooled reactors is limited to 10 MW/m3 to obtain adequate duration between refueling, but pebble fuels allow power densities in the range of 20 to 30 MW/m3. This can be compared to the typical modular helium reactor power density of 5 MW/m3. Pebble fuels also permit radial zoning in annular cores and use of thorium or graphite pebble blankets to reduce neutron fluences to outer radial reflectors and increase total power production. Combined with high power conversion efficiency, compact low-pressure primary and containment systems, and unique safety characteristics including very large thermal margins (>500°C) to fuel damage during transients and accidents, salt-cooled pebble fuel cores offer the potential to meet the major goals of the Advanced Reactor Concepts Development program to provide electricity at lower cost than light water reactors with improved safety and system performance.This report presents the facility description, experimental results, and supporting simulation methods of the new X-Ray Pebble Recirculation Experiment (X-PREX), which is now operational and being used to collect data on the behavior of slow dense granular flows relevant to pebble bed reactor core designs. The X

  11. Intelligent Control of Urban Road Networks: Algorithms, Systems and Communications (United States)

    Smith, Mike

    This paper considers control in road networks. Using a simple example based on the well-known Braess network [1] the paper shows that reducing delay for traffic, assuming that the traffic distribution is fixed, may increase delay when travellers change their travel choices in light of changes in control settings and hence delays. It is shown that a similar effect occurs within signal controlled networks. In this case the effect appears at first sight to be much stronger: the overall capacity of a network may be substantially reduced by utilising standard responsive signal control algorithms. In seeking to reduce delays for existing flows, these policies do not allow properly for consequent routeing changes by travellers. Control methods for signal-controlled networks that do take proper account of the reactions of users are suggested; these require further research, development, and careful real-life trials.

  12. Controllability analysis of transcriptional regulatory networks reveals circular control patterns among transcription factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Österlund, Tobias; Bordel, Sergio; Nielsen, Jens


    we analyze the topology and organization of nine transcriptional regulatory networks for E. coli, yeast, mouse and human, and we evaluate how the structure of these networks influences two of their key properties, namely controllability and stability. We calculate the controllability for each network......% for the human network. The high controllability (low number of drivers needed to control the system) in yeast, mouse and human is due to the presence of internal loops in their regulatory networks where the TFs regulate each other in a circular fashion. We refer to these internal loops as circular control...... motifs (CCM). The E. coli transcriptional regulatory network, which does not have any CCMs, shows a hierarchical structure of the transcriptional regulatory network in contrast to the eukaryal networks. The presence of CCMs also has influence on the stability of these networks, as the presence of cycles...

  13. Tolerance to drought and salt stress in plants: Unraveling the signaling networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dortje eGolldack


    Full Text Available Tolerance of plants to abiotic stressors such as drought and salinity is triggered by complex multicomponent signaling pathways to restore cellular homeostasis and promote survival. Major plant transcription factor families such as bZIP, NAC, AP2/ERF and MYB orchestrate regulatory networks underlying abiotic stress tolerance. Sucrose nonfermenting 1-related protein kinase 2 (SnRK2 and MAPK pathways contribute to initiation of stress adaptive downstream responses and promote plant growth and development. As a convergent point of multiple abiotic cues, cellular effects of environmental stresses are not only imbalances of ionic and osmotic homeostasis but also impaired photosynthesis, cellular energy depletion, and redox imbalances. Recent evidence of regulatory systems that link sensing and signaling of environmental conditions and the intracellular redox status have shed light on interfaces of stress and energy signaling. ROS (reactive oxygen species cause severe cellular damage by peroxidation and de-esterification of membrane lipids, however, current models also define a pivotal signaling function of ROS in triggering tolerance against stress. Recent research advances suggest and support a regulatory role of ROS in the cross talks of stress triggered hormonal signaling such as the abscisic acid (ABA pathway and endogenously induced redox and metabolite signals. Here, we discuss and review the versatile molecular convergence in the abiotic stress responsive signaling networks in the context of ROS and lipid derived signals and the specific role of stomatal signaling.

  14. Gene networks controlling Arabidopsis thaliana flower development. (United States)

    Ó'Maoiléidigh, Diarmuid Seosamh; Graciet, Emmanuelle; Wellmer, Frank


    The formation of flowers is one of the main models for studying the regulatory mechanisms that underlie plant development and evolution. Over the past three decades, extensive genetic and molecular analyses have led to the identification of a large number of key floral regulators and to detailed insights into how they control flower morphogenesis. In recent years, genome-wide approaches have been applied to obtaining a global view of the gene regulatory networks underlying flower formation. Furthermore, mathematical models have been developed that can simulate certain aspects of this process and drive further experimentation. Here, we review some of the main findings made in the field of Arabidopsis thaliana flower development, with an emphasis on recent advances. In particular, we discuss the activities of the floral organ identity factors, which are pivotal for the specification of the different types of floral organs, and explore the experimental avenues that may elucidate the molecular mechanisms and gene expression programs through which these master regulators of flower development act. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  15. Active Engine Mounting Control Algorithm Using Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadly Jashi Darsivan


    Full Text Available This paper proposes the application of neural network as a controller to isolate engine vibration in an active engine mounting system. It has been shown that the NARMA-L2 neurocontroller has the ability to reject disturbances from a plant. The disturbance is assumed to be both impulse and sinusoidal disturbances that are induced by the engine. The performance of the neural network controller is compared with conventional PD and PID controllers tuned using Ziegler-Nichols. From the result simulated the neural network controller has shown better ability to isolate the engine vibration than the conventional controllers.

  16. Deterministic learning enhanced neutral network control of unmanned helicopter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiming Jiang


    Full Text Available In this article, a neural network–based tracking controller is developed for an unmanned helicopter system with guaranteed global stability in the presence of uncertain system dynamics. Due to the coupling and modeling uncertainties of the helicopter systems, neutral networks approximation techniques are employed to compensate the unknown dynamics of each subsystem. In order to extend the semiglobal stability achieved by conventional neural control to global stability, a switching mechanism is also integrated into the control design, such that the resulted neural controller is always valid without any concern on either initial conditions or range of state variables. In addition, deterministic learning is applied to the neutral network learning control, such that the adaptive neutral networks are able to store the learned knowledge that could be reused to construct neutral network controller with improved control performance. Simulation studies are carried out on a helicopter model to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed control design.

  17. Positive train control interoperability and networking research : final report. (United States)


    This document describes the initial development of an ITC PTC Shared Network (IPSN), a hosted : environment to support the distribution, configuration management, and IT governance of Interoperable : Train Control (ITC) Positive Train Control (PTC) s...

  18. Smart Control of Energy Distribution Grids over Heterogeneous Communication Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwefel, Hans-Peter; Silva, Nuno; Olsen, Rasmus Løvenstein


    Off-the shelf wireless communication technologies reduce infrastructure deployment costs and are thus attractive for distribution system control. Wireless communication however may lead to variable network performance. Hence the impact of this variability on overall distribution system control be...

  19. Using a Control System Ethernet Network as a Field Bus

    CERN Document Server

    De Van, William R; Lawson, Gregory S; Wagner, William H; Wantland, David M; Williams, Ernest


    A major component of a typical accelerator distributed control system (DCS) is a dedicated, large-scale local area communications network (LAN). The SNS EPICS-based control system uses a LAN based on the popular IEEE-802.3 set of standards (Ethernet). Since the control system network infrastructure is available throughout the facility, and since Ethernet-based controllers are readily available, it is tempting to use the control system LAN for "fieldbus" communications to low-level control devices (e.g. vacuum controllers; remote I/O). These devices may or may not be compatible with the high-level DCS protocols. This paper presents some of the benefits and risks of combining high-level DCS communications with low-level "field bus" communications on the same network, and describes measures taken at SNS to promote compatibility between devices connected to the control system network.

  20. Connected Dominating Set Based Topology Control in Wireless Sensor Networks (United States)

    He, Jing


    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are now widely used for monitoring and controlling of systems where human intervention is not desirable or possible. Connected Dominating Sets (CDSs) based topology control in WSNs is one kind of hierarchical method to ensure sufficient coverage while reducing redundant connections in a relatively crowded network.…

  1. Implementation of neural network based non-linear predictive control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Paul Haase; Nørgård, Peter Magnus; Ravn, Ole


    of non-linear systems. GPC is model based and in this paper we propose the use of a neural network for the modeling of the system. Based on the neural network model, a controller with extended control horizon is developed and the implementation issues are discussed, with particular emphasis...

  2. Mitigating the controller performance bottlenecks in Software Defined Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caba, Cosmin Marius; Soler, José


    The centralization of the control plane decision logic in Software Defined Networking (SDN) has raised concerns regarding the performance of the SDN Controller (SDNC) when the network scales up. A number of solutions have been proposed in the literature to address these concerns. This paper...

  3. A control model for district heating networks with storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, Tjeert; De Persis, Claudio; Tesi, Pietro


    In [1] pressure control of hydraulic networks is investigated. We extend this work to district heating systems with storage capabilities and derive a model taking the topology of the network into account. The goal for the derived model is that it should allow for control of the storage level and

  4. Distributed Estimation and Control for Robotic Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simonetto, A.


    Mobile robots that communicate and cooperate to achieve a common task have been the subject of an increasing research interest in recent years. These possibly heterogeneous groups of robots communicate locally via a communication network and therefore are usually referred to as robotic networks.

  5. Projection learning algorithm for threshold - controlled neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reznik, A.M.


    The projection learning algorithm proposed in [1, 2] and further developed in [3] substantially improves the efficiency of memorizing information and accelerates the learning process in neural networks. This algorithm is compatible with the completely connected neural network architecture (the Hopfield network [4]), but its application to other networks involves a number of difficulties. The main difficulties include constraints on interconnection structure and the need to eliminate the state uncertainty of latent neurons if such are present in the network. Despite the encouraging preliminary results of [3], further extension of the applications of the projection algorithm therefore remains problematic. In this paper, which is a continuation of the work begun in [3], we consider threshold-controlled neural networks. Networks of this type are quite common. They represent the receptor neuron layers in some neurocomputer designs. A similar structure is observed in the lower divisions of biological sensory systems [5]. In multilayer projection neural networks with lateral interconnections, the neuron layers or parts of these layers may also have the structure of a threshold-controlled completely connected network. Here the thresholds are the potentials delivered through the projection connections from other parts of the network. The extension of the projection algorithm to the class of threshold-controlled networks may accordingly prove to be useful both for extending its technical applications and for better understanding of the operation of the nervous system in living organisms.

  6. Design and Simulation Analysis for Integrated Vehicle Chassis-Network Control System Based on CAN Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Yu


    Full Text Available Due to the different functions of the system used in the vehicle chassis control, the hierarchical control strategy also leads to many kinds of the network topology structure. According to the hierarchical control principle, this research puts forward the integrated control strategy of the chassis based on supervision mechanism. The purpose is to consider how the integrated control architecture affects the control performance of the system after the intervention of CAN network. Based on the principle of hierarchical control and fuzzy control, a fuzzy controller is designed, which is used to monitor and coordinate the ESP, AFS, and ARS. And the IVC system is constructed with the upper supervisory controller and three subcontrol systems on the Simulink platform. The network topology structure of IVC is proposed, and the IVC communication matrix based on CAN network communication is designed. With the common sensors and the subcontrollers as the CAN network independent nodes, the network induced delay and packet loss rate on the system control performance are studied by simulation. The results show that the simulation method can be used for designing the communication network of the vehicle.

  7. Optimal traffic control in highway transportation networks using linear programming

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yanning


    This article presents a framework for the optimal control of boundary flows on transportation networks. The state of the system is modeled by a first order scalar conservation law (Lighthill-Whitham-Richards PDE). Based on an equivalent formulation of the Hamilton-Jacobi PDE, the problem of controlling the state of the system on a network link in a finite horizon can be posed as a Linear Program. Assuming all intersections in the network are controllable, we show that the optimization approach can be extended to an arbitrary transportation network, preserving linear constraints. Unlike previously investigated transportation network control schemes, this framework leverages the intrinsic properties of the Halmilton-Jacobi equation, and does not require any discretization or boolean variables on the link. Hence this framework is very computational efficient and provides the globally optimal solution. The feasibility of this framework is illustrated by an on-ramp metering control example.

  8. Transient and permanent error control for networks-on-chip

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Qiaoyan


    This book addresses reliability and energy efficiency of on-chip networks using a configurable error control coding (ECC) scheme for datalink-layer transient error management. The method can adjust both error detection and correction strengths at runtime by varying the number of redundant wires for parity-check bits. Methods are also presented to tackle joint transient and permanent error correction, exploiting the redundant resources already available on-chip. A parallel and flexible network simulator is also introduced, which facilitates examining the impact of various error control methods on network-on-chip performance. Includes a complete survey of error control methods for reliable networks-on-chip, evaluated for reliability, energy and performance metrics; Provides analysis of error control in various network-on-chip layers, as well as presentation of an innovative multi-layer error control coding technique; Presents state-of-the-art solutions to address simultaneously reliability, energy and performan...

  9. Epigenetics and Why Biological Networks are More Controllable than Expected (United States)

    Motter, Adilson


    A fundamental property of networks is that perturbations to one node can affect other nodes, potentially causing the entire system to change behavior or fail. In this talk, I will show that it is possible to exploit this same principle to control network behavior. This approach takes advantage of the nonlinear dynamics inherent to real networks, and allows bringing the system to a desired target state even when this state is not directly accessible or the linear counterpart is not controllable. Applications show that this framework permits both reprogramming a network to a desired task as well as rescuing networks from the brink of failure, which I will illustrate through various biological problems. I will also briefly review the progress our group has made over the past 5 years on related control of complex networks in non-biological domains.

  10. Control Strategy on Worms Spread in Complex Networks (United States)

    Xianmei, Fang

    First, a preliminary understanding of what is meant by complex network and its features, and network worm virus that understanding and analysis of the emergence and development of the worm, the worm to understand the current situation, focus on the worm propagation model (simple propagation model, Kermack-Mckendrick model, SIS model, two-factor model, BCM model - network worms against the model). Contact the characteristics of complex networks and the worm theory, detection and prevention of worms and an important node in the network-based control strategy (target immunity, virus containment) for a simple discussion.

  11. VNEC - A Virtual Network Experiment Controller (United States)

    Gagnon, François; Dej, Tomas; Esfandiari, Babak

    This paper presents VNEC, a tool to specify and execute network experiments in a virtual environment. The user first formulates the network topology and then provides the tasks that should be performed by the computers together with their execution. Next, VNEC initializes the environment by powering up and configuring the virtual machines to match the desired network topology. Finally, commands are dispatched to the right virtual machines in the specified order. VNEC provides an environment for several types of research experiments such as virus propagation patterns and reactions of different targets against a given attack.

  12. Stochastic modelling and control of communication networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuraniewski, P.W.


    The unprecedented growth of the Information Technologies sector observed within the past years creates an excellent opportunity to conduct new, exciting and interdisciplinary research. Increasing complexity of the communication networks calls for incorporating rigorously developed and reliable

  13. Dynamics and control of diseases in networks with community structure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Salathé


    Full Text Available The dynamics of infectious diseases spread via direct person-to-person transmission (such as influenza, smallpox, HIV/AIDS, etc. depends on the underlying host contact network. Human contact networks exhibit strong community structure. Understanding how such community structure affects epidemics may provide insights for preventing the spread of disease between communities by changing the structure of the contact network through pharmaceutical or non-pharmaceutical interventions. We use empirical and simulated networks to investigate the spread of disease in networks with community structure. We find that community structure has a major impact on disease dynamics, and we show that in networks with strong community structure, immunization interventions targeted at individuals bridging communities are more effective than those simply targeting highly connected individuals. Because the structure of relevant contact networks is generally not known, and vaccine supply is often limited, there is great need for efficient vaccination algorithms that do not require full knowledge of the network. We developed an algorithm that acts only on locally available network information and is able to quickly identify targets for successful immunization intervention. The algorithm generally outperforms existing algorithms when vaccine supply is limited, particularly in networks with strong community structure. Understanding the spread of infectious diseases and designing optimal control strategies is a major goal of public health. Social networks show marked patterns of community structure, and our results, based on empirical and simulated data, demonstrate that community structure strongly affects disease dynamics. These results have implications for the design of control strategies.

  14. Performance evaluation of power control algorithms in wireless cellular networks (United States)

    Temaneh-Nyah, C.; Iita, V.


    Power control in a mobile communication network intents to control the transmission power levels in such a way that the required quality of service (QoS) for the users is guaranteed with lowest possible transmission powers. Most of the studies of power control algorithms in the literature are based on some kind of simplified assumptions which leads to compromise in the validity of the results when applied in a real environment. In this paper, a CDMA network was simulated. The real environment was accounted for by defining the analysis area and the network base stations and mobile stations are defined by their geographical coordinates, the mobility of the mobile stations is accounted for. The simulation also allowed for a number of network parameters including the network traffic, and the wireless channel models to be modified. Finally, we present the simulation results of a convergence speed based comparative analysis of three uplink power control algorithms.

  15. Control of coupled oscillator networks with application to microgrid technologies (United States)

    Arenas, Alex

    The control of complex systems and network-coupled dynamical systems is a topic of vital theoretical importance in mathematics and physics with a wide range of applications in engineering and various other sciences. Motivated by recent research into smart grid technologies, we study the control of synchronization and consider the important case of networks of coupled phase oscillators with nonlinear interactions-a paradigmatic example that has guided our understanding of self-organization for decades. We develop a method for control based on identifying and stabilizing problematic oscillators, resulting in a stable spectrum of eigenvalues, and in turn a linearly stable syn- chronized state. The amount of control, that is, number of oscillators, required to stabilize the network is primarily dictated by the coupling strength, dynamical heterogeneity, and mean degree of the network, and depends little on the structural heterogeneity of the network itself.

  16. Control of coupled oscillator networks with application to microgrid technologies. (United States)

    Skardal, Per Sebastian; Arenas, Alex


    The control of complex systems and network-coupled dynamical systems is a topic of vital theoretical importance in mathematics and physics with a wide range of applications in engineering and various other sciences. Motivated by recent research into smart grid technologies, we study the control of synchronization and consider the important case of networks of coupled phase oscillators with nonlinear interactions-a paradigmatic example that has guided our understanding of self-organization for decades. We develop a method for control based on identifying and stabilizing problematic oscillators, resulting in a stable spectrum of eigenvalues, and in turn a linearly stable synchronized state. The amount of control, that is, number of oscillators, required to stabilize the network is primarily dictated by the coupling strength, dynamical heterogeneity, and mean degree of the network, and depends little on the structural heterogeneity of the network itself.

  17. Placebo-controlled evaluation of amphetamine mixture-dextroamphetamine salts and amphetamine salts (Adderall): efficacy rate and side effects. (United States)

    Ahmann, P A; Theye, F W; Berg, R; Linquist, A J; Van Erem, A J; Campbell, L R


    The primary objective of this study was to determine the efficacy rate of Adderall in children newly diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). A secondary objective was to address the severity of side effects associated with Adderall treatment in children with ADHD using the Barkley Side Effects Questionnaire (BSEQ). Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial. A large rural tertiary care clinic. Participants were prospectively recruited from children 5 to 18 years of age referred for academic and/or attention problems; 154 children who met the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition criteria for ADHD were enrolled. Interventions. Two doses of Adderall (0.15 mg/kg/dose and 0.3 mg/kg/dose) were compared with placebo in separate 2-week trials. Participants received each dosage regimen twice daily for 7 consecutive days. Efficacy rates were determined by comparing Adderall with placebo during the low-dose crossover sequence and also during the high-dose crossover sequence. The criteria that defined a positive response to Adderall relative to placebo (with each patient serving as their own control) included an indication of response by at least 1 of 2 parent measures of children's behavior or at least 2 of 5 teacher measures of children's behavior. The Adderall efficacy rate was determined based on parent criteria alone, teacher criteria alone, and by a more stringent definition of response that required concurrence between parent and teacher criteria. The Adderall response rate in this study ranged from 59% when requiring concurrence between parent and teacher observers, to 82% when based on parent criteria alone. Overall, 137 of 154 participants (89%) showed a positive response by either the parent or teacher response criteria. Parents completed a modified version of the BSEQ during each week of the trial. Appetite, stomachaches, and insomnia were rated as worse by parents while children were

  18. Robust receding horizon control for networked and distributed nonlinear systems

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Huiping


    This book offers a comprehensive, easy-to-understand overview of receding-horizon control for nonlinear networks. It presents novel general strategies that can simultaneously handle general nonlinear dynamics, system constraints, and disturbances arising in networked and large-scale systems and which can be widely applied. These receding-horizon-control-based strategies can achieve sub-optimal control performance while ensuring closed-loop stability: a feature attractive to engineers. The authors address the problems of networked and distributed control step-by-step, gradually increasing the level of challenge presented. The book first introduces the state-feedback control problems of nonlinear networked systems and then studies output feedback control problems. For large-scale nonlinear systems, disturbance is considered first, then communication delay separately, and lastly the simultaneous combination of delays and disturbances. Each chapter of this easy-to-follow book not only proposes and analyzes novel ...

  19. System Identification, Prediction, Simulation and Control with Neural Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, O.


    a Gauss-Newton search direction is applied. 3) Amongst numerous model types, often met in control applications, only the Non-linear ARMAX (NARMAX) model, representing input/output description, is examined. A simulated example confirms that a neural network has the potential to perform excellent System...... Identification, Prediction, Simulation and Control of a dynamic, non-linear and noisy process. Further, the difficulties to control a practical non-linear laboratory process in a satisfactory way by using a traditional controller are overcomed by using a trained neural network to perform non-linear System......The intention of this paper is to make a systematic examination of the possibilities of applying neural networks in those technical areas, which are familiar to a control engineer. In other words, the potential of neural networks in control applications is given higher priority than a detailed...

  20. Intake of low sodium salt substitute for 3years attenuates the increase in blood pressure in a rural population of North China - A randomized controlled trial. (United States)

    Zhou, Bo; Webster, Jacqui; Fu, Ling-Yu; Wang, Hai-Long; Wu, Xiao-Mei; Wang, Wen-Li; Shi, Jing-Pu


    Lowering salt intake is one of the successful and cost-effective methods to reduce blood pressure (BP). In this randomized controlled study, we investigated the effects of a 3-year substitution of table salt with a low-sodium salt substitute in a rural population of North China. Subjects from 200 families residing in five villages in Liaoning, North China were registered in this study and randomly divided into two groups: normal salt (100% sodium chloride) and low salt substitute (65% NaCl, 25% KCl, 10% MgSO4). We compared the effects of the low-sodium salt substitute and normal salt on differences in BP from baseline to various follow-up time points during this 3-year study period. We also examined several factors that may affect the long-term changes in BP. Hypertension was defined per World Health Organization guidelines as BP≥140/90mmHg. The low sodium substitute significantly reduced the increase in both systolic and diastolic BP compared with the regular salt (P=0.000). Also, the population aged 40-70years showed most beneficial response to the salt substitute compared with those aged 70years. The low salt substitute had similar beneficial effects in both males and females. In addition, the salt type consumed and body mass index significantly affected the change in BP. Use of the salt substitute significantly reduces the increase in BP over a long term, and thus, the salt substitute can be used as a replacement for regular salt in the daily diet to prevent/diminish the incidence of hypertension. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Formation and shape-control of hierarchical cobalt nanostructures using quaternary ammonium salts in aqueous media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchi Deshmukh


    Full Text Available Aggregation and self-assembly are influenced by molecular interactions. With precise control of molecular interactions, in this study, a wide range of nanostructures ranging from zero-dimensional nanospheres to hierarchical nanoplates and spindles have been successfully synthesized at ambient temperature in aqueous solution. The nanostructures reported here are formed by aggregation of spherical seed particles (monomers in presence of quaternary ammonium salts. Hydroxide ions and a magnetic moment of the monomers are essential to induce shape anisotropy in the nanostructures. The cobalt nanoplates are studied in detail, and a growth mechanism based on collision, aggregation, and crystal consolidation is proposed based on a electron microscopy studies. The growth mechanism is generalized for rods, spindles, and nearly spherical nanostructures, obtained by varying the cation group in the quaternary ammonium hydroxides. Electron diffraction shows different predominant lattice planes on the edge and on the surface of a nanoplate. The study explains, hereto unaddressed, the temporal evolution of complex magnetic nanostructures. These ferromagnetic nanostructures represent an interesting combination of shape anisotropy and magnetic characteristics.

  2. Formation and shape-control of hierarchical cobalt nanostructures using quaternary ammonium salts in aqueous media. (United States)

    Deshmukh, Ruchi; Mehra, Anurag; Thaokar, Rochish


    Aggregation and self-assembly are influenced by molecular interactions. With precise control of molecular interactions, in this study, a wide range of nanostructures ranging from zero-dimensional nanospheres to hierarchical nanoplates and spindles have been successfully synthesized at ambient temperature in aqueous solution. The nanostructures reported here are formed by aggregation of spherical seed particles (monomers) in presence of quaternary ammonium salts. Hydroxide ions and a magnetic moment of the monomers are essential to induce shape anisotropy in the nanostructures. The cobalt nanoplates are studied in detail, and a growth mechanism based on collision, aggregation, and crystal consolidation is proposed based on a electron microscopy studies. The growth mechanism is generalized for rods, spindles, and nearly spherical nanostructures, obtained by varying the cation group in the quaternary ammonium hydroxides. Electron diffraction shows different predominant lattice planes on the edge and on the surface of a nanoplate. The study explains, hereto unaddressed, the temporal evolution of complex magnetic nanostructures. These ferromagnetic nanostructures represent an interesting combination of shape anisotropy and magnetic characteristics.

  3. Operational predictive optimal control of Barcelona water transport network


    Pascual, J.; Romera, J.; Puig, V.; Cembrano, G.; Creus, R.; Minoves, M.


    This paper describes the application of model-based predictive control (MPC) techniques to the supervisory flow management in large-scale drinking water networks including a telemetry/telecontrol system. MPC is used to generate flow control strategies (set-points for the regulatory controllers) from the sources to the consumer areas to meet future demands, optimizing performance indexes associated to operational goals such as economic cost, safety storage volumes in the network and smoothness...

  4. Neural-Network Control Of Prosthetic And Robotic Hands (United States)

    Buckley, Theresa M.


    Electronic neural networks proposed for use in controlling robotic and prosthetic hands and exoskeletal or glovelike electromechanical devices aiding intact but nonfunctional hands. Specific to patient, who activates grasping motion by voice command, by mechanical switch, or by myoelectric impulse. Patient retains higher-level control, while lower-level control provided by neural network analogous to that of miniature brain. During training, patient teaches miniature brain to perform specialized, anthropomorphic movements unique to himself or herself.

  5. Topology Control in Aerial Multi Beam Directional Networks (United States)


    Topology Control in Aerial Multi-Beam Directional Networks Brian Proulx, Nathaniel M. Jones, Jennifer Madiedo, Greg Kuperman {brian.proulx, njones...significant interference. Topology control (i.e., selecting a subset of neighbors to communicate with) is vital to reduce the interference. Good topology... control balances the number of links utilized to achieve fewer collisions while maintaining robust network connectivity. In this work, we discuss the


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available In this work, we present the application of artificial neural networks to the identification and control of the asynchronous motor, which is a complex nonlinear system with variable internal dynamics.  We show that neural networks can be applied to control the stator currents of the induction motor.  The results of the different simulations are presented to evaluate the performance of the neural controller proposed.

  7. Muscle networks: Connectivity analysis of EMG activity during postural control (United States)

    Boonstra, Tjeerd W.; Danna-Dos-Santos, Alessander; Xie, Hong-Bo; Roerdink, Melvyn; Stins, John F.; Breakspear, Michael


    Understanding the mechanisms that reduce the many degrees of freedom in the musculoskeletal system remains an outstanding challenge. Muscle synergies reduce the dimensionality and hence simplify the control problem. How this is achieved is not yet known. Here we use network theory to assess the coordination between multiple muscles and to elucidate the neural implementation of muscle synergies. We performed connectivity analysis of surface EMG from ten leg muscles to extract the muscle networks while human participants were standing upright in four different conditions. We observed widespread connectivity between muscles at multiple distinct frequency bands. The network topology differed significantly between frequencies and between conditions. These findings demonstrate how muscle networks can be used to investigate the neural circuitry of motor coordination. The presence of disparate muscle networks across frequencies suggests that the neuromuscular system is organized into a multiplex network allowing for parallel and hierarchical control structures.



    Anatoly P. Yakimaho; Victoriya V. Bessarabova


    The problems of use of subjects of intellectual property in the global computer networks are stated. The main attention is focused on the ways of problems solutions arising during the work in computer networks. Legal problems of information society are considered. The analysis of global computer networks as places for the organization of collective management by copyrights in the world scale is carried out. Issues of creation of a system of automatic control of property rights of authors and ...

  9. Mission-Aware Medium Access Control in Random Access Networks


    Park, Jaeok; Van Der Schaar, Mihaela


    We study mission-critical networking in wireless communication networks, where network users are subject to critical events such as emergencies and crises. If a critical event occurs to a user, the user needs to send necessary information for help as early as possible. However, most existing medium access control (MAC) protocols are not adequate to meet the urgent need for information transmission by users in a critical situation. In this paer, we propose a novel class of MAC protocols that u...

  10. Resource Allocation and Cross Layer Control in Wireless Networks (United States)


    Modiano , and J. Tsitsiklis, �Optimal energy allocation and admis- sion control for communication satellites,�IEEE Transactions on Networking, vol. 11...E. Modiano , �Improving delay in ad-hoc mobile networks via redundant packet transfers,�in Proceedings of Conference on Information Sciences and...M. J. Neely, E. Modiano , and C.-P. Li, �Fairness and optimal stochastic con- trol for heterogeneous networks,�in Proceedings of IEEE INFOCOM, Miami

  11. Direct Adaptive Aircraft Control Using Dynamic Cell Structure Neural Networks (United States)

    Jorgensen, Charles C.


    A Dynamic Cell Structure (DCS) Neural Network was developed which learns topology representing networks (TRNS) of F-15 aircraft aerodynamic stability and control derivatives. The network is integrated into a direct adaptive tracking controller. The combination produces a robust adaptive architecture capable of handling multiple accident and off- nominal flight scenarios. This paper describes the DCS network and modifications to the parameter estimation procedure. The work represents one step towards an integrated real-time reconfiguration control architecture for rapid prototyping of new aircraft designs. Performance was evaluated using three off-line benchmarks and on-line nonlinear Virtual Reality simulation. Flight control was evaluated under scenarios including differential stabilator lock, soft sensor failure, control and stability derivative variations, and air turbulence.

  12. Submodularity in dynamics and control of networked systems

    CERN Document Server

    Clark, Andrew; Bushnell, Linda; Poovendran, Radha


    This book presents a framework for the control of networked systems utilizing submodular optimization techniques. The main focus is on selecting input nodes for the control of networked systems, an inherently discrete optimization problem with applications in power system stability, social influence dynamics, and the control of vehicle formations. The first part of the book is devoted to background information on submodular functions, matroids, and submodular optimization, and presents algorithms for distributed submodular optimization that are scalable to large networked systems. In turn, the second part develops a unifying submodular optimization approach to controlling networked systems based on multiple performance and controllability criteria. Techniques are introduced for selecting input nodes to ensure smooth convergence, synchronization, and robustness to environmental and adversarial noise. Submodular optimization is the first unifying approach towards guaranteeing both performance and controllabilit...

  13. Input graph: the hidden geometry in controlling complex networks (United States)

    Zhang, Xizhe; Lv, Tianyang; Pu, Yuanyuan


    The ability to control a complex network towards a desired behavior relies on our understanding of the complex nature of these social and technological networks. The existence of numerous control schemes in a network promotes us to wonder: what is the underlying relationship of all possible input nodes? Here we introduce input graph, a simple geometry that reveals the complex relationship between all control schemes and input nodes. We prove that the node adjacent to an input node in the input graph will appear in another control scheme, and the connected nodes in input graph have the same type in control, which they are either all possible input nodes or not. Furthermore, we find that the giant components emerge in the input graphs of many real networks, which provides a clear topological explanation of bifurcation phenomenon emerging in dense networks and promotes us to design an efficient method to alter the node type in control. The findings provide an insight into control principles of complex networks and offer a general mechanism to design a suitable control scheme for different purposes.

  14. Neural Networks for Modeling and Control of Particle Accelerators (United States)

    Edelen, A. L.; Biedron, S. G.; Chase, B. E.; Edstrom, D.; Milton, S. V.; Stabile, P.


    Particle accelerators are host to myriad nonlinear and complex physical phenomena. They often involve a multitude of interacting systems, are subject to tight performance demands, and should be able to run for extended periods of time with minimal interruptions. Often times, traditional control techniques cannot fully meet these requirements. One promising avenue is to introduce machine learning and sophisticated control techniques inspired by artificial intelligence, particularly in light of recent theoretical and practical advances in these fields. Within machine learning and artificial intelligence, neural networks are particularly well-suited to modeling, control, and diagnostic analysis of complex, nonlinear, and time-varying systems, as well as systems with large parameter spaces. Consequently, the use of neural network-based modeling and control techniques could be of significant benefit to particle accelerators. For the same reasons, particle accelerators are also ideal test-beds for these techniques. Many early attempts to apply neural networks to particle accelerators yielded mixed results due to the relative immaturity of the technology for such tasks. The purpose of this paper is to re-introduce neural networks to the particle accelerator community and report on some work in neural network control that is being conducted as part of a dedicated collaboration between Fermilab and Colorado State University (CSU). We describe some of the challenges of particle accelerator control, highlight recent advances in neural network techniques, discuss some promising avenues for incorporating neural networks into particle accelerator control systems, and describe a neural network-based control system that is being developed for resonance control of an RF electron gun at the Fermilab Accelerator Science and Technology (FAST) facility, including initial experimental results from a benchmark controller.

  15. Guaranteed Cost Fault-Tolerant Control for Networked Control Systems with Sensor Faults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qixin Zhu


    Full Text Available For the large scale and complicated structure of networked control systems, time-varying sensor faults could inevitably occur when the system works in a poor environment. Guaranteed cost fault-tolerant controller for the new networked control systems with time-varying sensor faults is designed in this paper. Based on time delay of the network transmission environment, the networked control systems with sensor faults are modeled as a discrete-time system with uncertain parameters. And the model of networked control systems is related to the boundary values of the sensor faults. Moreover, using Lyapunov stability theory and linear matrix inequalities (LMI approach, the guaranteed cost fault-tolerant controller is verified to render such networked control systems asymptotically stable. Finally, simulations are included to demonstrate the theoretical results.

  16. Analysis of Basic Transmission Networks for Integrated Ship Control Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, T.N.; Granum-Jensen, M.


    Description of a computer network for Integrated Ship Control Systems which is going to be developed as part of an EC-project. Today equipment of different make are not able to communicate with each other because most often each supplier of ISC systems has got their own proprietary network.....

  17. Analysis and control of flows in pressurized hydraulic networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gupta, R.K.


    Analysis, design and flow control problems in pressurized hydraulic networks such as water transmission and distribution systems consisting of pipes and other appurtenant components such as reservoirs, pumps, valves and surge devices are dealt with from the prospective of network synthesis aiming at

  18. Distributed control of networked Lur’e systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Fan


    In this thesis we systematically study distributed control of networked Lur'e systems, specifically, robust synchronization problems and cooperative robust output regulation problems. In such nonlinear multi-agent networks, the model of each agent dynamics is taken as a Lur'e system that consists of

  19. Complex Dynamical Network Control for Trajectory Tracking Using Delayed Recurrent Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose P. Perez


    Full Text Available In this paper, the problem of trajectory tracking is studied. Based on the V-stability and Lyapunov theory, a control law that achieves the global asymptotic stability of the tracking error between a delayed recurrent neural network and a complex dynamical network is obtained. To illustrate the analytic results, we present a tracking simulation of a dynamical network with each node being just one Lorenz’s dynamical system and three identical Chen’s dynamical systems.

  20. Public authority control strategy for opinion evolution in social networks (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Xiong, Xi; Zhang, Minghong; Li, Wei


    This paper addresses the need to deal with and control public opinion and rumors. Existing strategies to control public opinion include degree, random, and adaptive bridge control strategies. In this paper, we use the HK model to present a public opinion control strategy based on public authority (PA). This means utilizing the influence of expert or high authority individuals whose opinions we control to obtain the optimum effect in the shortest time possible and thus reach a consensus of public opinion. Public authority (PA) is only influenced by individuals' attributes (age, economic status, and education level) and not their degree distribution; hence, in this paper, we assume that PA complies with two types of public authority distribution (normal and power-law). According to the proposed control strategy, our experiment is based on random, degree, and public authority control strategies in three different social networks (small-world, scale-free, and random) and we compare and analyze the strategies in terms of convergence time (T), final number of controlled agents (C), and comprehensive efficiency (E). We find that different network topologies and the distribution of the PA in the network can influence the final controlling effect. While the effect of PA strategy differs in different network topology structures, all structures achieve comprehensive efficiency with any kind of public authority distribution in any network. Our findings are consistent with several current sociological phenomena and show that in the process of public opinion/rumor control, considerable attention should be paid to high authority individuals.

  1. Public authority control strategy for opinion evolution in social networks. (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Xiong, Xi; Zhang, Minghong; Li, Wei


    This paper addresses the need to deal with and control public opinion and rumors. Existing strategies to control public opinion include degree, random, and adaptive bridge control strategies. In this paper, we use the HK model to present a public opinion control strategy based on public authority (PA). This means utilizing the influence of expert or high authority individuals whose opinions we control to obtain the optimum effect in the shortest time possible and thus reach a consensus of public opinion. Public authority (PA) is only influenced by individuals' attributes (age, economic status, and education level) and not their degree distribution; hence, in this paper, we assume that PA complies with two types of public authority distribution (normal and power-law). According to the proposed control strategy, our experiment is based on random, degree, and public authority control strategies in three different social networks (small-world, scale-free, and random) and we compare and analyze the strategies in terms of convergence time (T), final number of controlled agents (C), and comprehensive efficiency (E). We find that different network topologies and the distribution of the PA in the network can influence the final controlling effect. While the effect of PA strategy differs in different network topology structures, all structures achieve comprehensive efficiency with any kind of public authority distribution in any network. Our findings are consistent with several current sociological phenomena and show that in the process of public opinion/rumor control, considerable attention should be paid to high authority individuals.

  2. The Life-Changing Magic of Nonlinearity in Network Control (United States)

    Cornelius, Sean

    The proper functioning and reliability of many man-made and natural systems is fundamentally tied to our ability to control them. Indeed, applications as diverse as ecosystem management, emergency response and cell reprogramming all, at their heart, require us to drive a system to--or keep it in--a desired state. This process is complicated by the nonlinear dynamics inherent to most real systems, which has traditionally been viewed as the principle obstacle to their control. In this talk, I will discuss two ways in which nonlinearity turns this view on its head, in fact representing an asset to the control of complex systems. First, I will show how nonlinearity in the form of multistability allows one to systematically design control interventions that can deliberately induce ``reverse cascading failures'', in which a network spontaneously evolves to a desirable (rather than a failed) state. Second, I will show that nonlinearity in the form of time-varying dynamics unexpectedly makes temporal networks easier to control than their static counterparts, with the former enjoying dramatic and simultaneous reductions in all costs of control. This is true despite the fact that temporality tends to fragment a network's structure, disrupting the paths that allow the directly-controlled or ``driver'' nodes to communicate with the rest of the network. Taken together, these studies shed new light on the crucial role of nonlinearity in network control, and provide support to the idea we can control nonlinearity, rather than letting nonlinearity control us.

  3. Energy scaling and reduction in controlling complex networks (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Zhong; Wang, Le-Zhi; Wang, Wen-Xu; Lai, Ying-Cheng


    Recent works revealed that the energy required to control a complex network depends on the number of driving signals and the energy distribution follows an algebraic scaling law. If one implements control using a small number of drivers, e.g. as determined by the structural controllability theory, there is a high probability that the energy will diverge. We develop a physical theory to explain the scaling behaviour through identification of the fundamental structural elements, the longest control chains (LCCs), that dominate the control energy. Based on the LCCs, we articulate a strategy to drastically reduce the control energy (e.g. in a large number of real-world networks). Owing to their structural nature, the LCCs may shed light on energy issues associated with control of nonlinear dynamical networks. PMID:27152220

  4. PID Neural Network Based Speed Control of Asynchronous Motor Using Programmable Logic Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARABA, V. A.


    Full Text Available This paper deals with the structure and characteristics of PID Neural Network controller for single input and single output systems. PID Neural Network is a new kind of controller that includes the advantages of artificial neural networks and classic PID controller. Functioning of this controller is based on the update of controller parameters according to the value extracted from system output pursuant to the rules of back propagation algorithm used in artificial neural networks. Parameters obtained from the application of PID Neural Network training algorithm on the speed model of the asynchronous motor exhibiting second order linear behavior were used in the real time speed control of the motor. Programmable logic controller (PLC was used as real time controller. The real time control results show that reference speed successfully maintained under various load conditions.

  5. Integrated control platform for converged optical and wireless networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Ying

    rates, whereas optical networks can offer much higher data rates but only provide fixed connection structures. Their complementary characteristics make the integration of the two networks a promising trend for next generation networks. With combined strengths, the converged network will provide both...... high data rate services and connectivity at anytime and anywhere. One major challenge in the interworking is how to achieve seamless integration. There are many aspects involved in designing an integrated control platform, such as QoS provisioning, mobility, and resiliency. This dissertation introduces...

  6. Intelligent Servo Drives Control Based on a Single Fieldbus Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Puiu


    Full Text Available Due to the quick evolution of manufacturing processes, the demand for more flexible automation systems is on the rise. To answer these requirements, distributed motion control architecture based on intelligent drives tends more and more to replace the traditional solutions. This paper presents the control of an articulated arm robot with two local intelligent servo drives connected on a CAN network to a motion controller which receives the trajectory of the robot from a computer. The control structure is based on a single CAN network where local intelligent servo drives, a motion controller and a computer are connected.

  7. Bile Salt Sequestration Induces Hepatic De Novo Lipogenesis Through Farnesoid X Receptor- and Liver X Receptor alpha-Controlled Metabolic Pathways in Mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herrema, Hillechien; Meissner, Maxi; van Dijk, Theo H.; Brufau Dones, Gemma; Boverhof, Renze; Oosterveer, Maaike H.; Reijngoud, Dirk-Jan; Muller, Michael; Stellaard, Frans; Groen, Albert K.; Kuipers, Folkert

    Diabetes is characterized by high blood glucose levels and dyslipidemia. Bile salt sequestration has been found to improve both plasma glycemic control and cholesterol profiles in diabetic patients. Yet bile salt sequestration is also known to affect triglyceride (TG) metabolism, possibly through

  8. Bile salt sequestration induces hepatic de novo lipogenesis through farnesoid X receptor– and liver X receptora–controlled metabolic pathways in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herrema, H.J.; Meissner, M.; Dijk, van Th.; Brufau, G.; Boverhof, R.; Oosterveer, M.H.; Reijngoud, D.J.; Müller, M.R.; Stellaard, F.; Groen, A.K.; Kuipers, F.


    Diabetes is characterized by high blood glucose levels and dyslipidemia. Bile salt sequestration has been found to improve both plasma glycemic control and cholesterol profiles in diabetic patients. Yet bile salt sequestration is also known to affect triglyceride (TG) metabolism, possibly through

  9. Coactivation of Cognitive Control Networks During Task Switching. (United States)

    Yin, Shouhang; Deák, Gedeon; Chen, Antao


    The ability to flexibly switch between tasks is considered an important component of cognitive control that involves frontal and parietal cortical areas. The present study was designed to characterize network dynamics across multiple brain regions during task switching. Functional magnetic resonance images (fMRI) were captured during a standard rule-switching task to identify switching-related brain regions. Multiregional psychophysiological interaction (PPI) analysis was used to examine effective connectivity between these regions. During switching trials, behavioral performance declined and activation of a generic cognitive control network increased. Concurrently, task-related connectivity increased within and between cingulo-opercular and fronto-parietal cognitive control networks. Notably, the left inferior frontal junction (IFJ) was most consistently coactivated with the 2 cognitive control networks. Furthermore, switching-dependent effective connectivity was negatively correlated with behavioral switch costs. The strength of effective connectivity between left IFJ and other regions in the networks predicted individual differences in switch costs. Task switching was supported by coactivated connections within cognitive control networks, with left IFJ potentially acting as a key hub between the fronto-parietal and cingulo-opercular networks. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Smart Home: Controlling and Monitoring Households Appliances Using Gsm Network

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Budi Rahmadya; Fahrul Ghazi; Derisma


    This study discussed about using the smart home automation systems for household appliances such as lights and fans, by utilizing the GSM network as a communication medium to control and monitor the household appliances...

  11. The value of peripheral nodes in controlling multilayer networks

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Yan; Schweitzer, Frank


    We analyze the controllability of a two-layer network, where driver nodes can be chosen only from one layer. Each layer contains a scale-free network with directed links. The dynamics of nodes depends on the incoming links from other nodes (reputation dynamics). We find that the controllable part of the network is larger when choosing peripherial nodes to connect the two layers. The control is as efficient for peripherial nodes as driver nodes as it is for more central nodes. If we assume a cost to utilize nodes which is proportional to their degree, utilizing peripherial nodes to connect the two layers or to act as driver nodes is not only the most cost-efficient solution, it is also the one that gives us the best performance in controlling the two-layer network.

  12. Neighbor-friendly autonomous power control in wireless heterogeneous networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Torrea-Duran, Rodolfo; Tsiaflakis, Paschalis; Vandendorpe, Luc; Moonen, Marc


    .... To solve this problem, we propose a neighbor-friendly autonomous algorithm for power control in wireless heterogeneous networks that protects victim users from neighboring cells through a penalty...

  13. Neural Network Predictive Control for Vanadium Redox Flow Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Feng Shen


    Full Text Available The vanadium redox flow battery (VRB is a nonlinear system with unknown dynamics and disturbances. The flowrate of the electrolyte is an important control mechanism in the operation of a VRB system. Too low or too high flowrate is unfavorable for the safety and performance of VRB. This paper presents a neural network predictive control scheme to enhance the overall performance of the battery. A radial basis function (RBF network is employed to approximate the dynamics of the VRB system. The genetic algorithm (GA is used to obtain the optimum initial values of the RBF network parameters. The gradient descent algorithm is used to optimize the objective function of the predictive controller. Compared with the constant flowrate, the simulation results show that the flowrate optimized by neural network predictive controller can increase the power delivered by the battery during the discharge and decrease the power consumed during the charge.

  14. Passivity-based control and estimation in networked robotics

    CERN Document Server

    Hatanaka, Takeshi; Fujita, Masayuki; Spong, Mark W


    Highlighting the control of networked robotic systems, this book synthesizes a unified passivity-based approach to an emerging cross-disciplinary subject. Thanks to this unified approach, readers can access various state-of-the-art research fields by studying only the background foundations associated with passivity. In addition to the theoretical results and techniques,  the authors provide experimental case studies on testbeds of robotic systems  including networked haptic devices, visual robotic systems,  robotic network systems and visual sensor network systems. The text begins with an introduction to passivity and passivity-based control together with the other foundations needed in this book. The main body of the book consists of three parts. The first examines how passivity can be utilized for bilateral teleoperation and demonstrates the inherent robustness of the passivity-based controller against communication delays. The second part emphasizes passivity’s usefulness for visual feedback control ...

  15. STIMULUS: End-System Network Interface Controller for 100 Gb/s Wide Area Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarkesh-Ha, Payman [University of New Mexico


    The main goal of this research grant is to develop a system-level solution leveraging novel technologies that enable network communications at 100 Gb/s or beyond. University of New Mexico in collaboration with Acadia Optronics LLC has been working on this project to develop the 100 Gb/s Network Interface Controller (NIC) under this Department of Energy (DOE) grant.

  16. The Vital Network: An Algorithmic Milieu of Communication and Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Robinson


    Full Text Available The biological turn in computing has influenced the development of algorithmic control and what I call the vital network: a dynamic, relational, and generative assemblage that is self-organizing in response to the heterogeneity of contemporary network processes, connections, and communication. I discuss this biological turn in computation and control for communication alongside historically significant developments in cybernetics that set out the foundation for the development of self-regulating computer systems. Control is shifting away from models that historically relied on the human-animal model of cognition to govern communication and control, as in early cybernetics and computer science, to a decentred, nonhuman model of control by algorithm for communication and networks. To illustrate the rise of contemporary algorithmic control, I outline a particular example, that of the biologically-inspired routing algorithm known as a ‘quorum sensing’ algorithm. The increasing expansion of algorithms as a sense-making apparatus is important in the context of social media, but also in the subsystems that coordinate networked flows of information. In that domain, algorithms are not inferring categories of identity, sociality, and practice associated with Internet consumers, rather, these algorithms are designed to act on information flows as they are transmitted along the network. The development of autonomous control realized through the power of the algorithm to monitor, sort, organize, determine, and transmit communication is the form of control emerging as a postscript to Gilles Deleuze’s ‘postscript on societies of control.’

  17. Graphs for information security control in software defined networks (United States)

    Grusho, Alexander A.; Abaev, Pavel O.; Shorgin, Sergey Ya.; Timonina, Elena E.


    Information security control in software defined networks (SDN) is connected with execution of the security policy rules regulating information accesses and protection against distribution of the malicious code and harmful influences. The paper offers a representation of a security policy in the form of hierarchical structure which in case of distribution of resources for the solution of tasks defines graphs of admissible interactions in a networks. These graphs define commutation tables of switches via the SDN controller.

  18. Impact of SDN Controllers Deployment on Network Availability


    Nencioni, Gianfranco; Helvik, Bjarne Emil; Gonzalez, Andres Javier; Heegaard, Poul Einar; Kamisinski, Andrzej


    Software-defined networking (SDN) promises to improve the programmability and flexibility of networks, but it may bring also new challenges that need to be explored. The purpose of this technical report is to assess how the deployment of the SDN controllers affects the overall availability of SDN. For this, we have varied the number, homing and location of SDN controllers. A two-level modelling approach that is used to evaluate the availability of the studied scenarios. Our results show how n...

  19. A hyperstable neural network for the modelling and control of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A multivariable hyperstable robust adaptive decoupling control algorithm based on a neural network is presented for the control of nonlinear multivariable coupled systems with unknown parameters and structure. The Popov theorem is used in the design of the controller. The modelling errors, coupling action and other ...

  20. Brain and cognitive reserve: Translation via network control theory. (United States)

    Medaglia, John Dominic; Pasqualetti, Fabio; Hamilton, Roy H; Thompson-Schill, Sharon L; Bassett, Danielle S


    Traditional approaches to understanding the brain's resilience to neuropathology have identified neurophysiological variables, often described as brain or cognitive "reserve," associated with better outcomes. However, mechanisms of function and resilience in large-scale brain networks remain poorly understood. Dynamic network theory may provide a basis for substantive advances in understanding functional resilience in the human brain. In this perspective, we describe recent theoretical approaches from network control theory as a framework for investigating network level mechanisms underlying cognitive function and the dynamics of neuroplasticity in the human brain. We describe the theoretical opportunities offered by the application of network control theory at the level of the human connectome to understand cognitive resilience and inform translational intervention. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. The application of neural network PID controller to control the light gasoline etherification (United States)

    Cheng, Huanxin; Zhang, Yimin; Kong, Lingling; Meng, Xiangyong


    Light gasoline etherification technology can effectively improve the quality of gasoline, which is environmental- friendly and economical. By combining BP neural network and PID control and using BP neural network self-learning ability for online parameter tuning, this method optimizes the parameters of PID controller and applies this to the Fcc gas flow control to achieve the control of the final product- heavy oil concentration. Finally, through MATLAB simulation, it is found that the PID control based on BP neural network has better controlling effect than traditional PID control.

  2. Controlling technology costs as integrated networks expand. (United States)

    Halverson, K


    The expansion of integrated healthcare networks is changing the way radiology technology should be acquired and maintained. Some significant effects are that utilization will decline with managed care; the radiology department is now a cost center, not a source of revenue; and integrated networks find themselves with redundant technology and excess radiology equipment. While hospitals shoulder additional financial risk associated with managed care, responsibility for finding solutions to new problems falls to the radiology administrator. Administrators can take the following steps to effectively reduce expense and risk: Understand current usage. Eliminate redundancies. Prioritize modalities. Find new financing opportunities. Lease equipment. Purchase reconditioned equipment. Redeploy assets instead of buying new. Radiology administrators who view these problems as a challenging puzzle will naturally explore creative options. They will provide the greatest flexibility and best position for their department's contributions to the hospital's overall strategic goals.

  3. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of paracetamol and ketoprofren lysine salt for pain control in children with pharyngotonsillitis cared by family pediatricians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Della Casa Alberighi Ornella


    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate the analgesic effect and tolerability of paracetamol syrup compared to placebo and ketoprofen lysine salt in children with pharyngotonsillitis cared by family pediatricians. Methods A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of a 12 mg/kg single dose of paracetamol paralleled by open-label ketoprofren lysine salt sachet 40 mg. Six to 12 years old children with diagnosis of pharyngo-tonsillitis and a Children's Sore Throat Pain (CSTP Thermometer score > 120 mm were enrolled. Primary endpoint was the Sum of Pain Intensity Differences (SPID of the CSTP Intensity scale by the child. Results 97 children were equally randomized to paracetamol, placebo or ketoprofen. Paracetamol was significantly more effective than placebo in the SPID of children and parents (P Conclusions A single oral dose of paracetamol or ketoprofen lysine salt are safe and effective analgesic treatments for children with sore throat in daily pediatric ambulatory care.

  4. Controlling Intervention Hazards in the Network MNC


    Foss, Kirsten; Foss, Nicolai J.; Nell, Phillip C.


    The MNC literature treats the (parent) HQ as entirely benevolent with respect to their perceived and actual intentions when they intervene at lower levels of the MNC. However, HQ may intervene in subsidiaries in ways that demotivate subsidiary employees and managers (and therefore harm value-creation). This may happen even if such intervention is benevolent in its intentions. We argue that the movement away from more traditional hierarchical forms of the MNC and towards network MNCs placed in...

  5. Wireless sensor network for streetlight monitoring and control (United States)

    Huang, Xin-Ming; Ma, Jing; Leblanc, Lawrence E.


    Wireless sensor network has attracted considerable research attention as the world becomes more information oriented. This technology provides an opportunity of innovations in traditional industries. Management and control of streetlight system is a labor-intensive high-cost task for public facility operations. This paper applies wireless sensor network technology in streetlight monitoring and control. Wireless sensor networks are employed to replace traditional physical patrol maintenance and manual switching on every lamp in the street or along the highway at the aim of reducing the maintenance and management expense. Active control is used to preserve energy cost while ensuring public safety. A proof-of-concept network architecture operated at 900 MHz industrial, scientific, and medical (ISM) band is designed for a two-way wireless telemetry system in streetlight remote control and monitoring. The radio architecture, multi-hop protocol and system interface are discussed in detail. MOTES sensor nodes are used in simulation and experimental tests. Simulation results show that the sensor network approach provides an efficient solution to monitor and control lighting infrastructures through wireless links. The unique application in this paper addresses an immediate need in streetlight control and monitoring, the architecture developed in this research could also serve as a platform for many other applications and researches in wireless sensor network.

  6. Software Defined Networking (SDN) controlled all optical switching networks with multi-dimensional switching architecture (United States)

    Zhao, Yongli; Ji, Yuefeng; Zhang, Jie; Li, Hui; Xiong, Qianjin; Qiu, Shaofeng


    Ultrahigh throughout capacity requirement is challenging the current optical switching nodes with the fast development of data center networks. Pbit/s level all optical switching networks need to be deployed soon, which will cause the high complexity of node architecture. How to control the future network and node equipment together will become a new problem. An enhanced Software Defined Networking (eSDN) control architecture is proposed in the paper, which consists of Provider NOX (P-NOX) and Node NOX (N-NOX). With the cooperation of P-NOX and N-NOX, the flexible control of the entire network can be achieved. All optical switching network testbed has been experimentally demonstrated with efficient control of enhanced Software Defined Networking (eSDN). Pbit/s level all optical switching nodes in the testbed are implemented based on multi-dimensional switching architecture, i.e. multi-level and multi-planar. Due to the space and cost limitation, each optical switching node is only equipped with four input line boxes and four output line boxes respectively. Experimental results are given to verify the performance of our proposed control and switching architecture.

  7. Preliminary projections of the effects of chloride-control structures on the Quaternary aquifer at Great Salt Plains, Oklahoma (United States)

    Reed, J.E.


    About 1,200 tons of chloride per day are added to the salt load of the Salt Fork of the Arkansas River at Great Salt Plains Lake from natural sources. The source of this chloride is brine discharge from the rocks of Permian age in the vicinity of the lake. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers has planned a chloride-control project. The Corps requested that the U.S. Geological Survey use a digital model to project the effects of the chloride-control plan on ground water. Ground-water flow and ground-water transport models were calibrated to represent the Quaternary aquifer that is the near-surface part of the flow system. The models were used to project the effects of planned chloride-control structures. Based on model results, ground-water levels are projected to rise as much as 19 feet. However, these water-level rises will occur only in areas near three reservoirs. Changes in ground-water level caused by the project will be small throughout most of the area. Chloride concentration of ground water is projected to increase by more than 90,000 milligrams per liter at one location. However, significant increases in chloride concentration during the 50-year period simulated are projected to be limited to areas where the ground water already contains excessive chloride concentrations.

  8. Fluoridated salt for caries prevention and control - a 2-year field study in a disadvantaged community

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wennhall, Inger; Hajem, Samara; Ilros, Susanna


    caries experience than RS children. There were no significant differences in total caries increment or proximal progression rate between the two schools. A negative correlation (r = -0.29; P caries progression rate was, however, noted. No side effects......BACKGROUND: Salt fluoridation is considered a cost-effective community strategy for reducing caries. AIM: To evaluate the effect of school-based and domestic distribution of F-salt to schoolchildren residing in a disadvantaged community. DESIGN: Seven hundred and thirty-three schoolchildren (12......-14 years), attending two public schools, were enrolled; one was assigned to intervention (IS), whereas the other served as reference (RS). Subjects in IS were given access to F-salt (250 ppm F) in marked jars at school lunch and through free supply for domestic use. The 2-year caries increment...

  9. Fluid Limits of Optimally Controlled Queueing Networks


    Guodong Pang; Day, Martin V.


    We consider a class of queueing processes represented by a Skorokhod problem coupled with a controlled point process. Posing a discounted control problem for such processes, we show that the optimal value functions converge, in the fluid limit, to the value of an analogous deterministic control problem for fluid processes. Peer Reviewed

  10. Fluid Limits of Optimally Controlled Queueing Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guodong Pang


    Full Text Available We consider a class of queueing processes represented by a Skorokhod problem coupled with a controlled point process. Posing a discounted control problem for such processes, we show that the optimal value functions converge, in the fluid limit, to the value of an analogous deterministic control problem for fluid processes.

  11. Uniaxial creep as a control on mercury intrusion capillary pressure in consolidating rock salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewers, Thomas [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Heath, Jason E. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Leigh, Christi D. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    The nature of geologic disposal of nuclear waste in salt formations requires validated and verified two - phase flow models of transport of brine and gas through intact, damaged, and consolidating crushed salt. Such models exist in oth er realms of subsurface engineering for other lithologic classes (oil and gas, carbon sequestration etc. for clastics and carbonates) but have never been experimentally validated and parameterized for salt repository scenarios or performance assessment. Mo dels for waste release scenarios in salt back - fill require phenomenological expressions for capillary pressure and relative permeability that are expected to change with degree of consolidation, and require experimental measurement to parameterize and vali date. This report describes a preliminary assessment of the influence of consolidation (i.e. volume strain or porosity) on capillary entry pressure in two phase systems using mercury injection capillary pressure (MICP). This is to both determine the potent ial usefulness of the mercury intrusion porosimetry method, but also to enable a better experimental design for these tests. Salt consolidation experiments are performed using novel titanium oedometers, or uniaxial compression cells often used in soil mech anics, using sieved run - of - mine salt from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) as starting material. Twelve tests are performed with various starting amounts of brine pore saturation, with axial stresses up to 6.2 MPa (%7E900 psi) and temperatures to 90 o C. This corresponds to UFD Work Package 15SN08180211 milestone "FY:15 Transport Properties of Run - of - Mine Salt Backfill - Unconsolidated to Consolidated". Samples exposed to uniaxial compression undergo time - dependent consolidation, or creep, to various deg rees. Creep volume strain - time relations obey simple log - time behavior through the range of porosities (%7E50 to 2% as measured); creep strain rate increases with temperature and applied stress as

  12. Generalized Mutual Synchronization between Two Controlled Interdependent Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quan Xu


    Full Text Available This paper mainly focuses on the generalized mutual synchronization between two controlled interdependent networks. First, we propose the general model of controlled interdependent networks A and B with time-varying internetwork delays coupling. Then, by constructing Lyapunov functions and utilizing adaptive control technique, some sufficient conditions are established to ensure that the mutual synchronization errors between the state variables of networks A and B can asymptotically converge to zero. Finally, two numerical examples are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the theoretical results and to explore potential application in future smart grid. The simulation results also show how interdependent topologies and internetwork coupling delays influence the mutual synchronizability, which help to design interdependent networks with optimal mutual synchronizability.

  13. Can We Control Contaminant Transport In Hydrologic Networks? Application Of Control Theory Concepts To Watershed Management (United States)

    Yeghiazarian, L.; Riasi, M. S.


    Although controlling the level of contamination everywhere in the surface water network may not be feasible, it is vital to maintain safe water quality levels in specific areas, e.g. recreational waters. The question then is "what is the most efficient way to fully/partially control water quality in surface water networks?". This can be posed as a control problem where the goal is to efficiently drive the system to a desired state by manipulating few input variables. Such problems reduce to (1) finding the best control locations in the network to influence the state of the system; and (2) choosing the time-variant inputs at the control locations to achieve the desired state of the system with minimum effort. We demonstrate that the optimal solution to control the level of contamination in the network can be found through application of control theory concepts to transport in dendritic surface water networks.

  14. Role extraction in complex networks and its application in control of networks (United States)

    Zhou, Mingyang; He, Xingsheng; Fu, Zhongqian; Zhuo, Zhao


    Given a large network, dynamics of the network are determined by both nodes' features and network connections. Some features could be extracted from node labels and other kinds of priori knowledge. But how to perform the feature classification without priori knowledge is a challenge. This paper addresses the key problem: how do we conduct role extraction in networks with only edge connections known? On the basis of behavior differences in dynamics, nodes are classified into three role groups: Leaders(L), Communicators(C) and Members(M). Unlike traditional community detections, we detect overlapping communities by link clustering first and then classify nodes according to the community entropy, which describes the disorder of how many different communities a node connects to. We propose a time saving and unsupervised learning approach for automatically discovering nodes' roles based solely on network topology. The effectiveness of this method is demonstrated on six real-world networks through pinning control. By controlling communicator nodes, the controllability is enhanced and the cost for control is reduced obviously in networks with strong community structure.

  15. Control Plane Strategies for Elastic Optical Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turus, Ioan

    Networks (EONs) concept is proposed as a solution to enable a more flexible handling of the optical capacity and allows an increase of available capacity over the existing optical infrastructure. One main requirement for enabling EONs is to have a flexible spectrum structure (i.e.Flex-Grid) which allows...... consumption. EONs offer the opportunity of deploying energy efficiency strategies, which benefit from the flexible nature of elastic optoelectronic devices. This thesis proposes and investigates different approaches for reducing power consumption based on EONs in realistic dynamic traffic scenarios....

  16. Preliminary analysis of the PreFlexMS molten salt once-through steam generator dynamics and control strategy (United States)

    Trabucchi, Stefano; Casella, Francesco; Maioli, Tommaso; Elsido, Cristina; Franzini, Davide; Ramond, Mathieu


    Concentrated Solar Power plants (CSP) coupled with thermal storage have the potential to guarantee both flexible and continuous energy production, thus being competitive with conventional fossil fuel and hydro power plants, in terms of dispatchability and provision of ancillary services. Hence, the plant equipment and control design have to be focused on flexible operation on one hand, and on plant safety concerning the molten salt freezing on the other hand. The PreFlexMS European project aims to introduce a molten salt Once-Through Steam Generator (OTSG) within a Rankine cycle based power unit, a technology that has greater flexibility potential if compared to steam drum boilers, currently used in CSP plants. The dynamic modelling and simulation from the early design stages is, thus, of paramount importance, to assess the plant dynamic behavior and controllability, and to predict the achievable closed-loop dynamic performance, potentially saving money and time during the detailed design, construction and commissioning phases. The present paper reports the main results of the analysis carried out during the first part of the project, regarding the system analysis and control design. In particular, two different control systems have been studied and tested with the plant dynamic model: a decentralized control strategy based on PI controllers and a Linear Model Predictive Control (LMPC).

  17. FIPA agent based network distributed control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Abbott; V. Gyurjyan; G. Heyes; E. Jastrzembski; C. Timmer; E. Wolin


    A control system with the capabilities to combine heterogeneous control systems or processes into a uniform homogeneous environment is discussed. This dynamically extensible system is an example of the software system at the agent level of abstraction. This level of abstraction considers agents as atomic entities that communicate to implement the functionality of the control system. Agents' engineering aspects are addressed by adopting the domain independent software standard, formulated by FIPA. Jade core Java classes are used as a FIPA specification implementation. A special, lightweight, XML RDFS based, control oriented, ontology markup language is developed to standardize the description of the arbitrary control system data processor. Control processes, described in this language, are integrated into the global system at runtime, without actual programming. Fault tolerance and recovery issues are also addressed.

  18. Controllability of Boolean networks via input controls under Harvey's update scheme (United States)

    Luo, Chao; Zhang, Xiaolin; Shao, Rui; Zheng, YuanJie


    In this article, the controllability of Boolean networks via input controls under Harvey's update scheme is investigated. First, the model of Boolean control networks under Harvey's stochastic update is proposed, by means of semi-tensor product approach, which is converted into discrete-time linear representation. And, a general formula of control-depending network transition matrix is provided. Second, based on discrete-time dynamics, controllability of the proposed model is analytically discussed by revealing the necessary and sufficient conditions of the reachable sets, respectively, for three kinds of controls, i.e., free Boolean control sequence, input control networks, and close-loop control. Examples are showed to demonstrate the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed scheme.

  19. A Network Scheduling Model for Distributed Control Simulation (United States)

    Culley, Dennis; Thomas, George; Aretskin-Hariton, Eliot


    Distributed engine control is a hardware technology that radically alters the architecture for aircraft engine control systems. Of its own accord, it does not change the function of control, rather it seeks to address the implementation issues for weight-constrained vehicles that can limit overall system performance and increase life-cycle cost. However, an inherent feature of this technology, digital communication networks, alters the flow of information between critical elements of the closed-loop control. Whereas control information has been available continuously in conventional centralized control architectures through virtue of analog signaling, moving forward, it will be transmitted digitally in serial fashion over the network(s) in distributed control architectures. An underlying effect is that all of the control information arrives asynchronously and may not be available every loop interval of the controller, therefore it must be scheduled. This paper proposes a methodology for modeling the nominal data flow over these networks and examines the resulting impact for an aero turbine engine system simulation.

  20. Noise Control for a Moving Evaluation Point Using Neural Networks (United States)

    Maeda, Toshiki; Shiraishi, Toshihiko


    This paper describes the noise control for a moving evaluation point using neural networks by making the best use of its learning ability. Noise control is a technology which is effective on low-frequency noise. Based on the principle of superposition, a primary sound wave can be cancelled at an evaluation point by emitting a secondary opposite sound wave. To obtain good control performance, it is important to precisely identify the characteristics of all the sound paths. One of the most popular algorithms of noise control is filtered-x LMS algorithm. This algorithm can deliver a good result while all the sound paths do not change. However, the control system becomes uncontrollable while the evaluation point is moving. To solve the problem, the characteristics of all the paths are must be identified at all time. In this paper, we applied neural networks with the learning ability to the noise control system to follow the time-varying paths and verified its control performance by numerical simulations. Then, dropout technique for the networks is also applied. Dropout is a technique that prevent the network from overfitting and enables better control performance. By applying dropout for noise control, it prevents the system from diverging.

  1. A source-controlled data center network model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yu

    Full Text Available The construction of data center network by applying SDN technology has become a hot research topic. The SDN architecture has innovatively separated the control plane from the data plane which makes the network more software-oriented and agile. Moreover, it provides virtual multi-tenancy, effective scheduling resources and centralized control strategies to meet the demand for cloud computing data center. However, the explosion of network information is facing severe challenges for SDN controller. The flow storage and lookup mechanisms based on TCAM device have led to the restriction of scalability, high cost and energy consumption. In view of this, a source-controlled data center network (SCDCN model is proposed herein. The SCDCN model applies a new type of source routing address named the vector address (VA as the packet-switching label. The VA completely defines the communication path and the data forwarding process can be finished solely relying on VA. There are four advantages in the SCDCN architecture. 1 The model adopts hierarchical multi-controllers and abstracts large-scale data center network into some small network domains that has solved the restriction for the processing ability of single controller and reduced the computational complexity. 2 Vector switches (VS developed in the core network no longer apply TCAM for table storage and lookup that has significantly cut down the cost and complexity for switches. Meanwhile, the problem of scalability can be solved effectively. 3 The SCDCN model simplifies the establishment process for new flows and there is no need to download flow tables to VS. The amount of control signaling consumed when establishing new flows can be significantly decreased. 4 We design the VS on the NetFPGA platform. The statistical results show that the hardware resource consumption in a VS is about 27% of that in an OFS.

  2. A source-controlled data center network model. (United States)

    Yu, Yang; Liang, Mangui; Wang, Zhe


    The construction of data center network by applying SDN technology has become a hot research topic. The SDN architecture has innovatively separated the control plane from the data plane which makes the network more software-oriented and agile. Moreover, it provides virtual multi-tenancy, effective scheduling resources and centralized control strategies to meet the demand for cloud computing data center. However, the explosion of network information is facing severe challenges for SDN controller. The flow storage and lookup mechanisms based on TCAM device have led to the restriction of scalability, high cost and energy consumption. In view of this, a source-controlled data center network (SCDCN) model is proposed herein. The SCDCN model applies a new type of source routing address named the vector address (VA) as the packet-switching label. The VA completely defines the communication path and the data forwarding process can be finished solely relying on VA. There are four advantages in the SCDCN architecture. 1) The model adopts hierarchical multi-controllers and abstracts large-scale data center network into some small network domains that has solved the restriction for the processing ability of single controller and reduced the computational complexity. 2) Vector switches (VS) developed in the core network no longer apply TCAM for table storage and lookup that has significantly cut down the cost and complexity for switches. Meanwhile, the problem of scalability can be solved effectively. 3) The SCDCN model simplifies the establishment process for new flows and there is no need to download flow tables to VS. The amount of control signaling consumed when establishing new flows can be significantly decreased. 4) We design the VS on the NetFPGA platform. The statistical results show that the hardware resource consumption in a VS is about 27% of that in an OFS.

  3. A source-controlled data center network model (United States)

    Yu, Yang; Liang, Mangui; Wang, Zhe


    The construction of data center network by applying SDN technology has become a hot research topic. The SDN architecture has innovatively separated the control plane from the data plane which makes the network more software-oriented and agile. Moreover, it provides virtual multi-tenancy, effective scheduling resources and centralized control strategies to meet the demand for cloud computing data center. However, the explosion of network information is facing severe challenges for SDN controller. The flow storage and lookup mechanisms based on TCAM device have led to the restriction of scalability, high cost and energy consumption. In view of this, a source-controlled data center network (SCDCN) model is proposed herein. The SCDCN model applies a new type of source routing address named the vector address (VA) as the packet-switching label. The VA completely defines the communication path and the data forwarding process can be finished solely relying on VA. There are four advantages in the SCDCN architecture. 1) The model adopts hierarchical multi-controllers and abstracts large-scale data center network into some small network domains that has solved the restriction for the processing ability of single controller and reduced the computational complexity. 2) Vector switches (VS) developed in the core network no longer apply TCAM for table storage and lookup that has significantly cut down the cost and complexity for switches. Meanwhile, the problem of scalability can be solved effectively. 3) The SCDCN model simplifies the establishment process for new flows and there is no need to download flow tables to VS. The amount of control signaling consumed when establishing new flows can be significantly decreased. 4) We design the VS on the NetFPGA platform. The statistical results show that the hardware resource consumption in a VS is about 27% of that in an OFS. PMID:28328925

  4. Microcontroller Protocol for Secure Broadcast in Controller Area Networks


    B Vijayalakshmi; Kumar, K


    Controller Area Network is a bus commonly used by controllers inside vehicles and in various industrial control applications. In the past controllers were assumed to operate in secure perimeters, but today these environments are well connected to the outside world and recent incidents showed them extremely vulnerable to cyber-attacks. To withstand such threats, one can implement security in the application layer of CAN. Here we design, refine and implement a broadcast authenti...

  5. A Network Access Control Framework for 6LoWPAN Networks (United States)

    Oliveira, Luís M. L.; Rodrigues, Joel J. P. C.; de Sousa, Amaro F.; Lloret, Jaime


    Low power over wireless personal area networks (LoWPAN), in particular wireless sensor networks, represent an emerging technology with high potential to be employed in critical situations like security surveillance, battlefields, smart-grids, and in e-health applications. The support of security services in LoWPAN is considered a challenge. First, this type of networks is usually deployed in unattended environments, making them vulnerable to security attacks. Second, the constraints inherent to LoWPAN, such as scarce resources and limited battery capacity, impose a careful planning on how and where the security services should be deployed. Besides protecting the network from some well-known threats, it is important that security mechanisms be able to withstand attacks that have not been identified before. One way of reaching this goal is to control, at the network access level, which nodes can be attached to the network and to enforce their security compliance. This paper presents a network access security framework that can be used to control the nodes that have access to the network, based on administrative approval, and to enforce security compliance to the authorized nodes. PMID:23334610

  6. Digitally Controlled Linear Four-Port Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Michalek


    Full Text Available The paper deals with the design of a universal linear multipart. The circuit is based on digitally controlled multiple voltage-controlled voltage sources (MVCVSs. The main advantages of this control are accuracy, invariability, and very small area requirements. The whole system is simply connected to a PC via its parallel port. This multipart can generally be used as a building block for any model of a nonlinear dynamic system, namely for the piecewise-linear (PWL model in both explicit and implicit forms.

  7. Some thoughts on the control of network systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Ferrarini


    Full Text Available The controllability of network-like systems is becoming a trendy key-issue in many disciplines, including ecology and biology. To control a biological, ecological or economic system is to make it behave according to our wishes, at the least possible cost. In this paper, I propose some ideas on networks control that do not precisely follow recent papers on the argument. By the way, since this scientific topic is still in open evolution, discordant thoughts might be helpful to the debate.

  8. Stability and synchronization control of stochastic neural networks

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Wuneng; Zhou, Liuwei; Tong, Dongbing


    This book reports on the latest findings in the study of Stochastic Neural Networks (SNN). The book collects the novel model of the disturbance driven by Levy process, the research method of M-matrix, and the adaptive control method of the SNN in the context of stability and synchronization control. The book will be of interest to university researchers, graduate students in control science and engineering and neural networks who wish to learn the core principles, methods, algorithms and applications of SNN.

  9. Practical Application of Neural Networks in State Space Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Jan Dimon

    theoretic notions followed by a detailed description of the topology, neuron functions and learning rules of the two types of neural networks treated in the thesis, the multilayer perceptron and the neurofuzzy networks. In both cases, a Least Squares second-order gradient method is used to train....... Then the controller is shown to work on a simulation example. We also address the potential problem of too rapidly fluctuating parameters by including regularization in the learning rule. Next we develop a direct adaptive certainty-equivalence controller based on neurofuzzy models. The control loop is proven...

  10. Contrasting network and modular perspectives on inhibitory control. (United States)

    Hampshire, Adam; Sharp, David J


    A prominent theory proposes that the right inferior frontal cortex of the human brain houses a dedicated region for motor response inhibition. However, there is growing evidence to support the view that this inhibitory control hypothesis is incorrect. Here, we discuss evidence in favour of our alternative hypothesis, which states that response inhibition is one example of a broader class of control processes that are supported by the same set of frontoparietal networks. These domain-general networks exert control by modulating local lateral inhibition processes, which occur ubiquitously throughout the cortex. We propose that to fully understand the neural basis of behavioural control requires a more holistic approach that considers how common network mechanisms support diverse cognitive processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Dual adaptive dynamic control of mobile robots using neural networks. (United States)

    Bugeja, Marvin K; Fabri, Simon G; Camilleri, Liberato


    This paper proposes two novel dual adaptive neural control schemes for the dynamic control of nonholonomic mobile robots. The two schemes are developed in discrete time, and the robot's nonlinear dynamic functions are assumed to be unknown. Gaussian radial basis function and sigmoidal multilayer perceptron neural networks are used for function approximation. In each scheme, the unknown network parameters are estimated stochastically in real time, and no preliminary offline neural network training is used. In contrast to other adaptive techniques hitherto proposed in the literature on mobile robots, the dual control laws presented in this paper do not rely on the heuristic certainty equivalence property but account for the uncertainty in the estimates. This results in a major improvement in tracking performance, despite the plant uncertainty and unmodeled dynamics. Monte Carlo simulation and statistical hypothesis testing are used to illustrate the effectiveness of the two proposed stochastic controllers as applied to the trajectory-tracking problem of a differentially driven wheeled mobile robot.

  12. Structure-based control of complex networks with nonlinear dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Zañudo, Jorge G T; Albert, Réka


    Given the network of interactions underlying a complex system, what can we learn about controlling such a system solely from its structure? Over a century of research in control theory has given us tools to answer this question, which were widely applied in science and engineering. Yet the current tools do not always consider the inherently nonlinear dynamics of real systems and the naturally occurring system states in their definition of "control", a term whose interpretation varies across disciplines. Here we use a new mathematical framework for structure-based control of networks governed by a broad class of nonlinear dynamics that includes the major dynamic models of biological, technological, and social processes. This framework provides realizable node overrides that steer a system towards any of its natural long term dynamic behaviors and which are guaranteed to be effective regardless of the dynamic details and parameters of the underlying system. We use this framework on several real networks, compar...

  13. Representational Similarity Analysis Reveals Heterogeneous Networks Supporting Speech Motor Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Zane; Cusack, Rhodri; Johnsrude, Ingrid

    The everyday act of speaking involves the complex processes of speech motor control. One important feature of such control is regulation of articulation when auditory concomitants of speech do not correspond to the intended motor gesture. While theoretical accounts of speech monitoring posit...... is supported by a complex neural network that is involved in linguistic, motoric and sensory processing. With the aid of novel real-time acoustic analyses and representational similarity analyses of fMRI signals, our data show functionally differentiated networks underlying auditory feedback control of speech....... multiple functional components required for detection of errors in speech planning (e.g., Levelt, 1983), neuroimaging studies generally indicate either single brain regions sensitive to speech production errors, or small, discrete networks. Here we demonstrate that the complex system controlling speech...

  14. An artificial neural network controller for intelligent transportation systems applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitela, J.E.; Hanebutte, U.R.; Reifman, J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Reactor Analysis Div.


    An Autonomous Intelligent Cruise Control (AICC) has been designed using a feedforward artificial neural network, as an example for utilizing artificial neural networks for nonlinear control problems arising in intelligent transportation systems applications. The AICC is based on a simple nonlinear model of the vehicle dynamics. A Neural Network Controller (NNC) code developed at Argonne National Laboratory to control discrete dynamical systems was used for this purpose. In order to test the NNC, an AICC-simulator containing graphical displays was developed for a system of two vehicles driving in a single lane. Two simulation cases are shown, one involving a lead vehicle with constant velocity and the other a lead vehicle with varying acceleration. More realistic vehicle dynamic models will be considered in future work.

  15. Epidemic Propagation of Control Plane Failures in GMPLS Controlled Optical Transport Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Fagertun, Anna Manolova


    In this paper, we investigate the behaviour of a dataplane-decoupled GMPLS control plane, when it is affected by failures that spread in the network in an epidemic manner. In particular, we consider network nodes to be either fully functional, or having a failed control plane, or having both...... a failed control and data plane. Through large-scale network simulation, we evaluate the effect of epidemically spreading control plane failures in terms of blocked connections requests and the amount of stranded capacity due to a dysfunctional control plane. Furthermore, we investigate the effect...

  16. Trust-Based Collaborative Control for Teams on Communication Networks (United States)


    year only [1] S. Ferrari, S. Jagannathan , and F.L. Lewis, “Special Issue on Approximate Dynamic Programming and Reinforcement Learning,” Journal appear, 2012. [17] H. Xu, S. Jagannathan , and F.L. Lewis, “Stochastic Optimal Control of Unknown Linear Networked Control System in the Presence

  17. Neural Network Based Load Frequency Control for Restructuring ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Electric load variations can happen independently in both units. Both neural controllers are trained with the back propagation-through-time algorithm. Use of a neural network to model the dynamic system is avoided by introducing the Jacobian matrices of the system in the back propagation chain used in controller training.

  18. Synchronization of general complex networks via adaptive control ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Mar 7, 2014 ... 3Artificial Intelligence Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, Sichuan University of Science &. Engineering, Zigong, Sichuan, 643000, People's Republic of China ...... inputs ui(t) (i = 1, 2, 3) and the values of control inputs are acceptable. From figures 1–5, it is easy to see that the controlled complex network ...

  19. Distributed MPC for controlling mu-CHPs in a network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larsen, Gunn; Trip, Sebastian; van Foreest, Nicky; Scherpen, Jacquelien M.A.


    This paper describes a dynamic price mechanism to coordinate electricity generation from micro Combined Heat and Power (mu-CHP) systems in a network of households. The control is done on household level in a completely distributed manner. Distributed Model Predictive control is applied to the

  20. Four Degree Freedom Robot Arm with Fuzzy Neural Network Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şinasi Arslan


    Full Text Available In this study, the control of four degree freedom robot arm has been realized with the computed torque control method.. It is usually required that the four jointed robot arm has high precision capability and good maneuverability for using in industrial applications. Besides, high speed working and external applied loads have been acting as important roles. For those purposes, the computed torque control method has been developed in a good manner that the robot arm can track the given trajectory, which has been able to enhance the feedback control together with fuzzy neural network control. The simulation results have proved that the computed torque control with the neural network has been so successful in robot control.

  1. Iodized Salt Use and Salt Iodine Content among Household Salts from Six Districts of Eastern Nepal. (United States)

    Khatiwada, S; Gelal, B; Tamang, M K; Kc, R; Singh, S; Lamsal, M; Baral, N


    Universal salt iodization is considered the best strategy for controlling iodine deficiency disorders in Nepal. This study was done to find iodized salt use among Nepalese population and the iodine content of household salts. Six districts (Siraha, Saptari, Jhapa, Udayapur, Ilam and Panchthar) were chosen randomly from 16 districts of eastern Nepal for the study. In each district, three schools (private and government) were chosen randomly for sample collection. A total of 1803 salt samples were collected from schools of those districts. For sample collection a clean air tight plastic pouch was provided to each school child and was asked to bring approximately 15 gm of their kitchen salt. The information about type of salt used; 'two child logo' iodized salt or crystal salt was obtained from each child and salt iodine content was estimated using iodometric titration. At the time of study, 85% (n=1533) of Nepalese households were found to use iodized salt whereas 15% (n=270) used crystal salt. The mean iodine content in iodized and crystal salt was 40.8±12.35 ppm and 18.43±11.49 ppm respectively. There was significant difference between iodized and crystal salts use and salt iodine content of iodized and crystal salt among different districts (p value <0.001 at confidence level of 95%). Of the total samples, only 169 samples (9.4% of samples) have iodine content<15 ppm. Most Nepalese households have access to iodized salt most salt samples have sufficient iodine content.

  2. Trend of office and home blood pressure control in treated hypertensive patients: changes in antihypertensive medication and salt intake. (United States)

    Ohta, Yuko; Iwashima, Yoshio; Hayashi, Shinichiro; Yoshihara, Fumiki; Nakamura, Satoko; Kamide, Kei; Horio, Takeshi; Kawano, Yuhei


    Blood pressure (BP) control in hypertensives has improved in recent years; however, it remains insufficient. We investigated the trend of BP control status in hypertensive patients with antihypertensive medication and salt intake. Two hundred and eight treated hypertensive patients were prospectively followed between 2007 and 2012. During this period, average clinic BP significantly decreased from 137±12/80±9 to 133±11/76±8 mmHg, and the achievement rate of BP control defined as home BP also significantly decreased from 132±8/80±8 to 130±8/76±7 mmHg, and the percentage of patients with sustained hypertension (CBP≥140/90 mmHg and HBP≥135/85 mmHg) decreased from 27% to 16% (pOffice and home BP decreased and the rate of BP control increased in treated hypertensive patients in the past 5 years. Intensive pharmacological therapy, but not a reduction in salt intake appears to have contributed to improved BP control.

  3. On the Need of Novel Medium Access Control Schemes for Network Coding enabled Wireless Mesh Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paramanathan, Achuthan; Pahlevani, Peyman; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani


    This paper advocates for a new Medium Access Control (MAC) strategy for wireless meshed networks by identifying overload scenarios in order to provide additional channel access priority to the relay. The key behind our MAC protocol is that the relay will adjust its back off window size according...... that network coding will improve the throughput in such systems, but our novel medium access scheme improves the performance in the cross topology by another 66 % for network coding and 150 % for classical forwarding in theory. These gains translate in a theoretical gain of 33 % of network coding over...... classical forwarding when both systems implement the improved MAC. However, our measurement results show an even larger gain for network coding, namely, up to 65 % over forwarding, as it copes better with channel losses under high load scenarios....

  4. Evolution of networks and sequences in eukaryotic cell cycle control. (United States)

    Cross, Frederick R; Buchler, Nicolas E; Skotheim, Jan M


    The molecular networks regulating the G1-S transition in budding yeast and mammals are strikingly similar in network structure. However, many of the individual proteins performing similar network roles appear to have unrelated amino acid sequences, suggesting either extremely rapid sequence evolution, or true polyphyly of proteins carrying out identical network roles. A yeast/mammal comparison suggests that network topology, and its associated dynamic properties, rather than regulatory proteins themselves may be the most important elements conserved through evolution. However, recent deep phylogenetic studies show that fungal and animal lineages are relatively closely related in the opisthokont branch of eukaryotes. The presence in plants of cell cycle regulators such as Rb, E2F and cyclins A and D, that appear lost in yeast, suggests cell cycle control in the last common ancestor of the eukaryotes was implemented with this set of regulatory proteins. Forward genetics in non-opisthokonts, such as plants or their green algal relatives, will provide direct information on cell cycle control in these organisms, and may elucidate the potentially more complex cell cycle control network of the last common eukaryotic ancestor.

  5. Energy management and multi-layer control of networked microgrids (United States)

    Zamora, Ramon

    Networked microgrids is a group of neighboring microgrids that has ability to interchange power when required in order to increase reliability and resiliency. Networked microgrid can operate in different possible configurations including: islanded microgrid, a grid-connected microgrid without a tie-line converter, a grid-connected microgrid with a tie-line converter, and networked microgrids. These possible configurations and specific characteristics of renewable energy offer challenges in designing control and management algorithms for voltage, frequency and power in all possible operating scenarios. In this work, control algorithm is designed based on large-signal model that enables microgrid to operate in wide range of operating points. A combination between PI controller and feed-forward measured system responses will compensate for the changes in operating points. The control architecture developed in this work has multi-layers and the outer layer is slower than the inner layer in time response. The main responsibility of the designed controls are to regulate voltage magnitude and frequency, as well as output power of the DG(s). These local controls also integrate with a microgrid level energy management system or microgrid central controller (MGCC) for power and energy balance for. the entire microgrid in islanded, grid-connected, or networked microgid mode. The MGCC is responsible to coordinate the lower level controls to have reliable and resilient operation. In case of communication network failure, the decentralized energy management will operate locally and will activate droop control. Simulation results indicate the superiority of designed control algorithms compared to existing ones.

  6. Optimization of stochastic discrete systems and control on complex networks computational networks

    CERN Document Server

    Lozovanu, Dmitrii


    This book presents the latest findings on stochastic dynamic programming models and on solving optimal control problems in networks. It includes the authors' new findings on determining the optimal solution of discrete optimal control problems in networks and on solving game variants of Markov decision problems in the context of computational networks. First, the book studies the finite state space of Markov processes and reviews the existing methods and algorithms for determining the main characteristics in Markov chains, before proposing new approaches based on dynamic programming and combinatorial methods. Chapter two is dedicated to infinite horizon stochastic discrete optimal control models and Markov decision problems with average and expected total discounted optimization criteria, while Chapter three develops a special game-theoretical approach to Markov decision processes and stochastic discrete optimal control problems. In closing, the book's final chapter is devoted to finite horizon stochastic con...

  7. Carrier ethernet network control plane based on the Next Generation Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fu, Rong; Wang, Yanmeng; Berger, Michael Stubert


    architecture. The approaches to QoS mapping, label distribution and connection and admission control (CAC) are specified here. At last, a simple T-MPLS based Carrier Ethernet network model with three kinds of users (VoIP, VoD and HTTP) and a RACE based control module is simulated in OPNET. The model is aiming...

  8. Intrusion Detection in Networked Control Systems: From System Knowledge to Network Security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caselli, M.


    Networked control system‿ (NCS) is an umbrella term encompassing a broad variety of infrastructures such as industrial control systems (ICSs) and building automation systems (BASs). Nowadays, all these infrastructures play an important role in several aspects of our daily life, from managing


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardine Immaculate Mary


    Full Text Available It is widely known that Control Area Networks (CAN are used in real-time, distributed and parallel processing which cover manufacture plants, humanoid robots, networking fields, etc., In applications where wireless conditions are encountered it is convenient to continue the exchange of CAN frames within the Wireless CAN (WCAN. The WCAN considered in this research is based on wireless token ring protocol (WTRP; a MAC protocol for wireless networks to reduce the number of retransmissions due to collision and the wired counterpart CAN attribute on message based communication. WCAN uses token frame method to provide channel access to the nodes in the system. This method allow all the nodes to share common broadcast channel by taken turns in transmitting upon receiving the token frame which is circulating within the network for specified amount of time. This method provides high throughput in bounded latency environment, consistent and predictable delays and good packet delivery ratio. The most important factor to consider when evaluating a control network is the end-to-end time delay between sensors, controllers, and actuators. The correct operation of a control system depends on the timeliness of the data coming over the network, and thus, a control network should be able to guarantee message delivery within a bounded transmission time. The proposed WCAN is modeled and simulated using QualNet, and its average end to end delay and packet delivery ratio (PDR are calculated. The parameters boundaries of WCAN are evaluated to guarantee a maximum throughput and a minimum latency time, in the case of wireless communications, precisely WCAN.

  10. Ethylene antagonizes salt-induced growth retardation and cell death process via transcriptional controlling of ethylene-, BAG- and senescence-associated genes in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YaJie ePan


    Full Text Available The existing question whether ethylene is involved in the modulation of salt-induced cell death to mediate plant salt tolerance is important for understanding the salt tolerance mechanisms. Here, we employed Arabidopsis plants to study the possible role of ethylene in salt-induced growth inhibition and programmed cell death (PCD profiles. The root length, DNA ladder and cell death indicated by Evan’s blue detection were measured by compared to the control or salt-stressed seedlings. Secondly, the protoplasts isolated from plant leaves and dyed with Annexin V-FITC were subjected to flow cytometric (FCM assay. Our results showed that ethylene works effectively in seedling protoplasts, antagonizing salt-included root retardation and restraining cell death both in seedlings or protoplasts. Due to salinity, the entire or partial insensitivity of ethylene signaling resulted in an elevated levels of cell death in ein2-5 and ein3-1 plants and the event were amended in ctr1-1 plants after salt treatment. The subsequent experiment with exogenous ACC further corroborated that ethylene could modulate salt-induced PCD process actively. Plant Bcl-2-associated athanogene (BAG family genes are recently identified to play an extensive role in plant PCD processes ranging from growth, development to stress responses and even cell death. Our result showed that salinity alone significantly suppressed the transcripts of BAG6, BAG7 and addition of ACC in the saline solution could obviously re-activate BAG6 and BAG7 expressions, which might play a key role to inhibit the salt-induced cell death. In summary, our research implies that ethylene and salinity antagonistically control BAG family-, ethylene-, and senescence-related genes to alleviate the salt-induced cell death.

  11. Effect of a behavioral intervention of the SALdável program to reduce salt intake among hypertensive women: A randomized controlled pilot study. (United States)

    Cornélio, Marilia E; Godin, Gaston; Rodrigues, Roberta Cm; de Freitas Agondi, Rúbia; Alexandre, Neusa Mc; Gallani, Maria-Cecilia Bj


    Excessive salt intake has been directly associated with cardiovascular diseases, especially hypertension, and non-cardiovascular diseases. Despite the current recommendations, salt intake remains high, indicating the need to develop theory-based interventions aimed at reducing this intake. The purpose of this study was to test the impact of a theory-based intervention - the SALdável Program - to promote the use of less than 4 g of salt/day during cooking. This was a two-arm parallel-group randomized study. A total of 92 hypertensive women were randomly assigned to an intervention or control group. The intervention was aimed at motivating participants to reduce salt addition by increasing self-efficacy and counteracting the negative influence of habit. Primary outcomes were the behavioral question of salt addition and total salt addition, secondary outcomes were overall salt intake, provided by 24-hour urinary sodium excretion, and psychosocial variables (intention, self-efficacy, and habit). At three-month follow-up, the intervention group improved significantly more than the control group regarding salt addition measures (p-values between 0.05 and 0.001) and psychosocial variables (all p-values ⩽0.001). The reduction in 24-hour urinary sodium excretion was not significant. The findings showed that this theory-based intervention was effective to motivate and change the behavior of hypertensive women regarding daily salt use in cooking meals. This was accomplished by means of improvements in intention and self-efficacy and reduction of the habit of using more than 4 g of salt/day during cooking. © The European Society of Cardiology 2015.

  12. Wireless Sensor/Actuator Network Design for Mobile Control Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youxian Sung


    Full Text Available Wireless sensor/actuator networks (WSANs are emerging as a new generationof sensor networks. Serving as the backbone of control applications, WSANs will enablean unprecedented degree of distributed and mobile control. However, the unreliability ofwireless communications and the real-time requirements of control applications raise greatchallenges for WSAN design. With emphasis on the reliability issue, this paper presents anapplication-level design methodology for WSANs in mobile control applications. Thesolution is generic in that it is independent of the underlying platforms, environment,control system models, and controller design. To capture the link quality characteristics interms of packet loss rate, experiments are conducted on a real WSAN system. From theexperimental observations, a simple yet efficient method is proposed to deal withunpredictable packet loss on actuator nodes. Trace-based simulations give promisingresults, which demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  13. Adaptive model predictive process control using neural networks (United States)

    Buescher, K.L.; Baum, C.C.; Jones, R.D.


    A control system for controlling the output of at least one plant process output parameter is implemented by adaptive model predictive control using a neural network. An improved method and apparatus provides for sampling plant output and control input at a first sampling rate to provide control inputs at the fast rate. The MPC system is, however, provided with a network state vector that is constructed at a second, slower rate so that the input control values used by the MPC system are averaged over a gapped time period. Another improvement is a provision for on-line training that may include difference training, curvature training, and basis center adjustment to maintain the weights and basis centers of the neural in an updated state that can follow changes in the plant operation apart from initial off-line training data. 46 figs.

  14. Expanding the NATO Movement Control Network (United States)


    mander of the 624th Movement Con- trol Team, 39th Transportation Battalion (Movement Control), 16th Sustainment Brigade, at Kleber Kaserne, Germany . He...Philip Stephens) 31 Army Sustainment November–December 2015 Challenges of Moving in Europe...have been operating in Germany and Italy since the end of World War II and understand those nations’ requirements well, but recent changes in

  15. Controlling high speed automated transport network operations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Feijter, R.


    This thesis presents a framework for the control of automated guided vehicles (AGVs). The framework implements the transport system as a community of cooperating agents. Besides the architecture and elements of the framework a wide range of infrastructure scene templates is described. These scene

  16. Modelling and control of cell reaction networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Jha; J.H. van Schuppen (Jan)


    textabstractThe project aims at a study of the nonlinear systems arising in the biochemical processes occuring inside a cell. The cellular regulation has been formulated in the more familiar framework used in control and system theory in terms of inputs as the variables which can be influenced

  17. Control of a hybrid compensator in a power network by an artificial neural network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. S. Shaw


    Full Text Available Increased interest in the elimination of distortion in electrical power networks has led to the development of various compensator topologies. The increasing cost of electrical energy necessitates the cost-effective operation of any of these topologies. This paper considers the development of an artificial neural network based controller, trained by means of the backpropagation method, that ensures the cost-effective operation of the hybrid compensator consisting of various converters and filters.

  18. Adaptive traffic control systems for urban networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radivojević Danilo


    Full Text Available Adaptive traffic control systems represent complex, but powerful tool for improvement of traffic flow conditions in locations or zones where applied. Many traffic agencies, especially those that have a large number of signalized intersections with high variability of the traffic demand, choose to apply some of the adaptive traffic control systems. However, those systems are manufactured and offered by multiple vendors (companies that are competing for the market share. Due to that fact, besides the information available from the vendors themselves, or the information from different studies conducted on different continents, very limited amount of information is available about the details how those systems are operating. The reason for that is the protecting of the intellectual property from plagiarism. The primary goal of this paper is to make a brief analysis of the functionalities, characteristics, abilities and results of the most recognized, but also less known adaptive traffic control systems to the professional public and other persons with interest in this subject.

  19. Adaptive Reference Control for Pressure Management in Water Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallesøe, Carsten; Jensen, Tom Nørgaard; Wisniewski, Rafal


    Water scarcity is an increasing problem worldwide and at the same time a huge amount of water is lost through leakages in the distribution network. It is well known that improved pressure control can lower the leakage problems. In this work water networks with a single pressure actuator and several....... Subsequently, these relations are exploited in an adaptive reference control scheme for the actuator pressure that ensures constant pressure at the critical points. Numerical experiments underpin the results. © Copyright IEEE - All rights reserved....

  20. Probabilistic Priority Message Checking Modeling Based on Controller Area Networks (United States)

    Lin, Cheng-Min

    Although the probabilistic model checking tool called PRISM has been applied in many communication systems, such as wireless local area network, Bluetooth, and ZigBee, the technique is not used in a controller area network (CAN). In this paper, we use PRISM to model the mechanism of priority messages for CAN because the mechanism has allowed CAN to become the leader in serial communication for automobile and industry control. Through modeling CAN, it is easy to analyze the characteristic of CAN for further improving the security and efficiency of automobiles. The Markov chain model helps us to model the behaviour of priority messages.

  1. Adaptive nonlinear control of missiles using neural networks (United States)

    McFarland, Michael Bryan

    Research has shown that neural networks can be used to improve upon approximate dynamic inversion for control of uncertain nonlinear systems. In one architecture, the neural network adaptively cancels inversion errors through on-line learning. Such learning is accomplished by a simple weight update rule derived from Lyapunov theory, thus assuring stability of the closed-loop system. In this research, previous results using linear-in-parameters neural networks were reformulated in the context of a more general class of composite nonlinear systems, and the control scheme was shown to possess important similarities and major differences with established methods of adaptive control. The neural-adaptive nonlinear control methodology in question has been used to design an autopilot for an anti-air missile with enhanced agile maneuvering capability, and simulation results indicate that this approach is a feasible one. There are, however, certain difficulties associated with choosing the proper network architecture which make it difficult to achieve the rapid learning required in this application. Accordingly, this technique has been further extended to incorporate the important class of feedforward neural networks with a single hidden layer. These neural networks feature well-known approximation capabilities and provide an effective, although nonlinear, parameterization of the adaptive control problem. Numerical results from a six-degree-of-freedom nonlinear agile anti-air missile simulation demonstrate the effectiveness of the autopilot design based on multilayer networks. Previous work in this area has implicitly assumed precise knowledge of the plant order, and made no allowances for unmodeled dynamics. This thesis describes an approach to the problem of controlling a class of nonlinear systems in the face of both unknown nonlinearities and unmodeled dynamics. The proposed methodology is similar to robust adaptive control techniques derived for control of linear

  2. ACTS TDMA network control. [Advanced Communication Technology Satellite (United States)

    Inukai, T.; Campanella, S. J.


    This paper presents basic network control concepts for the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) System. Two experimental systems, called the low-burst-rate and high-burst-rate systems, along with ACTS ground system features, are described. The network control issues addressed include frame structures, acquisition and synchronization procedures, coordinated station burst-time plan and satellite-time plan changes, on-board clock control based on ground drift measurements, rain fade control by means of adaptive forward-error-correction (FEC) coding and transmit power augmentation, and reassignment of channel capacities on demand. The NASA ground system, which includes a primary station, diversity station, and master control station, is also described.

  3. Connection adaption for control of networked mobile chaotic agents. (United States)

    Zhou, Jie; Zou, Yong; Guan, Shuguang; Liu, Zonghua; Xiao, Gaoxi; Boccaletti, S


    In this paper, we propose a strategy for the control of mobile chaotic oscillators by adaptively rewiring connections between nearby agents with local information. In contrast to the dominant adaptive control schemes where coupling strength is adjusted continuously according to the states of the oscillators, our method does not request adaption of coupling strength. As the resulting interaction structure generated by this proposed strategy is strongly related to unidirectional chains, by investigating synchronization property of unidirectional chains, we reveal that there exists a certain coupling range in which the agents could be controlled regardless of the length of the chain. This feature enables the adaptive strategy to control the mobile oscillators regardless of their moving speed. Compared with existing adaptive control strategies for networked mobile agents, our proposed strategy is simpler for implementation where the resulting interaction networks are kept unweighted at all time.

  4. An architecture for designing fuzzy logic controllers using neural networks (United States)

    Berenji, Hamid R.


    Described here is an architecture for designing fuzzy controllers through a hierarchical process of control rule acquisition and by using special classes of neural network learning techniques. A new method for learning to refine a fuzzy logic controller is introduced. A reinforcement learning technique is used in conjunction with a multi-layer neural network model of a fuzzy controller. The model learns by updating its prediction of the plant's behavior and is related to the Sutton's Temporal Difference (TD) method. The method proposed here has the advantage of using the control knowledge of an experienced operator and fine-tuning it through the process of learning. The approach is applied to a cart-pole balancing system.

  5. Discrete-event control of stochastic networks multimodularity and regularity

    CERN Document Server

    Altman, Eitan; Hordijk, Arie


    Opening new directions in research in both discrete event dynamic systems as well as in stochastic control, this volume focuses on a wide class of control and of optimization problems over sequences of integer numbers. This is a counterpart of convex optimization in the setting of discrete optimization. The theory developed is applied to the control of stochastic discrete-event dynamic systems. Some applications are admission, routing, service allocation and vacation control in queueing networks. Pure and applied mathematicians will enjoy reading the book since it brings together many disciplines in mathematics: combinatorics, stochastic processes, stochastic control and optimization, discrete event dynamic systems, algebra.

  6. Networked vision system using a Prolog controller (United States)

    Batchelor, B. G.; Caton, S. J.; Chatburn, L. T.; Crowther, R. A.; Miller, J. W. V.


    Prolog offers a very different style of programming compared to conventional languages; it can define object properties and abstract relationships in a way that Java, C, C++, etc. find awkward. In an accompanying paper, the authors describe how a distributed web-based vision systems can be built using elements that may even be located on different continents. One particular system of this general type is described here. The top-level controller is a Prolog program, which operates one, or more, image processing engines. This type of function is natural to Prolog, since it is able to reason logically using symbolic (non-numeric) data. Although Prolog is not suitable for programming image processing functions directly, it is ideal for analysing the results derived by an image processor. This article describes the implementation of two systems, in which a Prolog program controls several image processing engines, a simple robot, a pneumatic pick-and-place arm), LED illumination modules and a various mains-powered devices.

  7. Pathogen and nutrient pulsing and attenuation in "accidental" urban wetland networks along the Salt River in Phoenix, AZ (United States)

    Palta, M. M.; Grimm, N. B.


    Increases in available nutrients and bacteria in urban streams are at the forefront of research concerns within the ecological and medical communities, and both pollutants are expected to become more problematic under projected changes in climate. Season, discharge, instream conditions (oxygen, water velocity), and weather conditions (antecedent moisture) all may influence loading rates to and the retention capabilities of wetlands fed by urban runoff and storm flow. The aim of this research was to examine the effect of these variables on nutrient (nitrogen, phosphorus) and Escherichia coli (E. coli) loading and attenuation along flow paths in urban wetland networks along the Salt River in Phoenix, AZ. Samples were collected for one year along flowpaths through wetlands that formed below six perennially flowing outfalls. Collection took place monthly during baseflow (dry season) conditions, and before and immediately following storm events, in the summer monsoon and winter rainy seasons. Water quality was assessed at the following points: immediately downstream of the outfall, mid-wetland, and downstream of the wetland. For determination of E. coli counts, samples were plated on coliform-selective media (Chromocult) and incubated for 24 hours. Plates were then used to enumerate E. coli. For determination of nutrient concentrations, samples were filtered and frozen until they could be analyzed by ion chromatography and automated wet chemistry. During both summer and winter, total discharge into the wetlands increased during storm events. Concentrations of PO43+, NH4+, and E. coli were significantly higher following storm events than during baseflow conditions, and post-storm peaks in concentration ('pulses') were higher during the summer monsoon than in winter storms. Pulses of pollutants during storms were highest when preceded by hot, dry conditions. NO3- was high in both base and stormflow. E. coli counts and nutrient concentrations dropped along flowpaths

  8. Experimental determination of group flux control coefficients in metabolic networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, T.W.; Shimizu, Hiroshi; Stephanopoulos, G. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering


    Grouping of reactions around key metabolite branch points can facilitate the study of metabolic control of complex metabolic networks. This top-down Metabolic Control Analysis is exemplified through the introduction of group control coefficients whose magnitudes provide a measure of the relative impact of each reaction group on the overall network flux, as well as on the overall network stability, following enzymatic amplification. In this article, the authors demonstrate the application of previously developed theory to the determination of group flux control coefficients. Experimental data for the changes in metabolic fluxes obtained in response to the introduction of six different environmental perturbations are used to determine the group flux control coefficients for three reaction groups formed around the phosphoenolpyruvate/pyruvate branch point. The consistency of the obtained group flux control coefficient estimates is systematically analyzed to ensure that all necessary conditions are satisfied. The magnitudes of the determined control coefficients suggest that the control of lysine production flux in Corynebacterium glutamicum cells at a growth base state resides within the lysine biosynthetic pathway that begins with the PEP/PYR carboxylation anaplorotic pathway.

  9. Spiking neural network-based control chart pattern recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medhat H.A. Awadalla


    Full Text Available Due to an increasing competition in products, consumers have become more critical in choosing products. The quality of products has become more important. Statistical Process Control (SPC is usually used to improve the quality of products. Control charting plays the most important role in SPC. Control charts help to monitor the behavior of the process to determine whether it is stable or not. Unnatural patterns in control charts mean that there are some unnatural causes for variations in SPC. Spiking neural networks (SNNs are the third generation of artificial neural networks that consider time as an important feature for information representation and processing. In this paper, a spiking neural network architecture is proposed to be used for control charts pattern recognition (CCPR. Furthermore, enhancements to the SpikeProp learning algorithm are proposed. These enhancements provide additional learning rules for the synaptic delays, time constants and for the neurons thresholds. Simulated experiments have been conducted and the achieved results show a remarkable improvement in the overall performance compared with artificial neural networks.

  10. Steam turbine stress control using NARX neural network (United States)

    Dominiczak, Krzysztof; Rzadkowski, Romuald; Radulski, Wojciech


    Considered here is concept of steam turbine stress control, which is based on Nonlinear AutoRegressive neural networks with eXogenous inputs. Using NARX neural networks,whichwere trained based on experimentally validated FE model allows to control stresses in protected thickwalled steam turbine element with FE model quality. Additionally NARX neural network, which were trained base on FE model, includes: nonlinearity of steam expansion in turbine steam path during transients, nonlinearity of heat exchange inside the turbine during transients and nonlinearity of material properties during transients. In this article NARX neural networks stress controls is shown as an example of HP rotor of 18K390 turbine. HP part thermodynamic model as well as heat exchange model in vicinity of HP rotor,whichwere used in FE model of the HP rotor and the HP rotor FE model itself were validated based on experimental data for real turbine transient events. In such a way it is ensured that NARX neural network behave as real HP rotor during steam turbine transient events.

  11. The Adaptive Neural Network Control of Quadrotor Helicopter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Yushenko


    Full Text Available The current steady-rising interest in using the unmanned multi-rotor aerial vehicles (UMAV designed to solve a wide range of tasks is, mainly, due to their simple design and high weight-carrying capacity as compared to classical helicopter options. Unfortunately, to solve a problem of multi-copter control is complicated because of essential nonlinearity and environmental perturbations. The most widely spread PID controllers and linear-quadratic regulators do not quite well cope with this task. The need arises for the prompt adjustment of PID controller coefficients in the course of operation or their complete re-tuning in cases of changing parameters of the control object.One of the control methods under changing conditions is the use of the sliding mode. This technology enables us to reach the stabilization and proper operation of the controlled system even under accidental external exposures and when there is a lack of the reasonably accurate mathematical model of the control object. The sliding principle is to ensure the system motion in the immediate vicinity of the sliding surface in the phase space. On the other hand, the sliding mode has some essential disadvantages. The most significant one is the high-frequency jitter of the system near the sliding surface. The sliding mode also implies the complete knowledge of the system dynamics. Various methods have been proposed to eliminate these drawbacks. For example, A.G. Aissaoui’s, H. Abid’s and M. Abid’s paper describes the application of fuzzy logic to control a drive and in Lon-Chen Hung’s and Hung-Yuan Chung’s paper an artificial neural network is used for the manipulator control.This paper presents a method of the quad-copter control with the aid of a neural network controller. This method enables us to control the system without a priori information on parameters of the dynamic model of the controlled object. The main neural network is a MIMO (“Multiple Input Multiple

  12. Information spread in networks: Games, optimal control, and stabilization (United States)

    Khanafer, Ali

    This thesis focuses on designing efficient mechanisms for controlling information spread in networks. We consider two models for information spread. The first one is the well-known distributed averaging dynamics. The second model is a nonlinear one that describes virus spread in computer and biological networks. We seek to design optimal, robust, and stabilizing controllers under practical constraints. For distributed averaging networks, we study the interaction between a network designer and an adversary. We consider two types of attacks on the network. In Attack-I, the adversary strategically disconnects a set of links to prevent the nodes from reaching consensus. Meanwhile, the network designer assists the nodes in reaching consensus by changing the weights of a limited number of links in the network. We formulate two problems to describe this competition where the order in which the players act is reversed in the two problems. Although the canonical equations provided by the Pontryagin's Maximum Principle (MP) seem to be intractable, we provide an alternative characterization for the optimal strategies that makes connection to potential theory. Further, we provide a sufficient condition for the existence of a saddle-point equilibrium (SPE) for the underlying zero-sum game. In Attack-II, the designer and the adversary are both capable of altering the measurements of all nodes in the network by injecting global signals. We impose two constraints on both players: a power constraint and an energy constraint. We assume that the available energy to each player is not sufficient to operate at maximum power throughout the horizon of the game. We show the existence of an SPE and derive the optimal strategies in closed form for this attack scenario. As an alternative to the "network designer vs. adversary" framework, we investigate the possibility of stabilizing unknown network diffusion processes using a distributed mechanism, where the uncertainty is due to an attack

  13. Adaptive control of call acceptance in WCDMA network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Manojle Šunjevarić


    Full Text Available In this paper, an overview of the algorithms for access control in mobile wireless networks is presented. A review of adaptive control methods of accepting a call in WCDMA networks is discussed, based on the overview of the algorithms used for this purpose, and their comparison. Appropriate comments and conculsions in comparison with the basic characteristics of these algorithms are given. The OVSF codes are explained as well as how the allocation method influences the capacity and probability of blocking.. Introduction We are witnessing a steady increase in the number of demands placed upon modern wireless networks. New applications and an increasing number of users as well as user activities growth in recent years reinforce the need for an efficient use of the spectrum and its proper distribution among different applications and classes of services. Besides humans, the last few years saw different computers, machines, applications, and, in the future, many other devices, RFID applications, and finally networked objects, as a new kind of wireless networks "users". Because of the exceptional rise in the number of users, the demands placed upon modern wireless networks are becoming larger, and spectrum management plays an important role. For these reasons, choosing an appropriate call admission control algorithm is of great importance. Multiple access and resource management in wireless networks Radio resource management of mobile networks is a set of algorithms to manage the use of radio resources with the aim is to maximize the total capacity of wireless systems with equal distribution of resources to users. Management of radio resources in cellular networks is usually located in the base station controller, the base station and the mobile terminal, and is based on decisions made on appropriate measurement and feedback. It is often defined as the maximum volume of traffic load that the system can provide for some of the requirements for the

  14. Formation control for a network of small-scale robots. (United States)

    Kim, Yoonsoo


    In this paper, a network of small-scale robots (typically centimeter-scale robots) equipped with artificial actuators such as electric motors is considered. The purpose of this network is to have the robots keep a certain formation shape (or change to another formation shape) during maneuvers. The network has a fixed communication topology in the sense that robots have a fixed group of neighbors to communicate during maneuvers. Assuming that each robot and its actuator can be modeled as a linear system, a decentralized control law (such that each robot activates its actuator based on the information from its neighbors only) is introduced to achieve the purpose of formation keeping or change. A linear matrix inequality (LMI) for deriving the upper bound on the actuator's time constant is also presented. Simulation results are shown to demonstrate the merit of the introduced control law.

  15. Sparse Packetized Predictive Control for Networked Control over Erasure Channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nagahara, Masaaki; Quevedo, Daniel E.; Østergaard, Jan


    We study feedback control over erasure channels with packet-dropouts. To achieve robustness with respect to packet-dropouts, the controller transmits data packets containing plant input predictions, which minimize a finite horizon cost function. To reduce the data size of packets, we propose...... to adopt sparsity-promoting optimizations, namely, l1 - l2 and l2-constrained l0 optimizations, for which efficient algorithms exist. We show how to design the tuning parameters to ensure (practical) stability of the resulting feedback control systems when the number of consecutive packet...

  16. High Resolution Sensing and Control of Urban Water Networks (United States)

    Bartos, M. D.; Wong, B. P.; Kerkez, B.


    We present a framework to enable high-resolution sensing, modeling, and control of urban watersheds using (i) a distributed sensor network based on low-cost cellular-enabled motes, (ii) hydraulic models powered by a cloud computing infrastructure, and (iii) automated actuation valves that allow infrastructure to be controlled in real time. This platform initiates two major advances. First, we achieve a high density of measurements in urban environments, with an anticipated 40+ sensors over each urban area of interest. In addition to new measurements, we also illustrate the design and evaluation of a "smart" control system for real-world hydraulic networks. This control system improves water quality and mitigates flooding by using real-time hydraulic models to adaptively control releases from retention basins. We evaluate the potential of this platform through two ongoing deployments: (i) a flood monitoring network in the Dallas-Fort Worth metropolitan area that detects and anticipates floods at the level of individual roadways, and (ii) a real-time hydraulic control system in the city of Ann Arbor, MI—soon to be one of the most densely instrumented urban watersheds in the United States. Through these applications, we demonstrate that distributed sensing and control of water infrastructure can improve flash flood predictions, emergency response, and stormwater contaminant mitigation.

  17. H∞ Guaranteed Cost Control for Networked Control Systems under Scheduling Policy Based on Predicted Error

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qixin Zhu


    Full Text Available Scheduling policy based on model prediction error is presented to reduce energy consumption and network conflicts at the actuator node, where the characters of networked control systems are considered, such as limited network bandwidth, limited node energy, and high collision probability. The object model is introduced to predict the state of system at the sensor node. And scheduling threshold is set at the controller node. Control signal is transmitted only if the absolute value of prediction error is larger than the threshold value. Furthermore, the model of networked control systems under scheduling policy based on predicted error is established by taking uncertain parameters and long time delay into consideration. The design method of H∞ guaranteed cost controller is presented by using the theory of Lyapunov and linear matrix inequality (LMI. Finally, simulations are included to demonstrate the theoretical results.

  18. Converging Redundant Sensor Network Information for Improved Building Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dale Tiller; D. Phil; Gregor Henze; Xin Guo


    This project investigated the development and application of sensor networks to enhance building energy management and security. Commercial, industrial and residential buildings often incorporate systems used to determine occupancy, but current sensor technology and control algorithms limit the effectiveness of these systems. For example, most of these systems rely on single monitoring points to detect occupancy, when more than one monitoring point could improve system performance. Phase I of the project focused on instrumentation and data collection. During the initial project phase, a new occupancy detection system was developed, commissioned and installed in a sample of private offices and open-plan office workstations. Data acquisition systems were developed and deployed to collect data on space occupancy profiles. Phase II of the project demonstrated that a network of several sensors provides a more accurate measure of occupancy than is possible using systems based on single monitoring points. This phase also established that analysis algorithms could be applied to the sensor network data stream to improve the accuracy of system performance in energy management and security applications. In Phase III of the project, the sensor network from Phase I was complemented by a control strategy developed based on the results from the first two project phases: this controller was implemented in a small sample of work areas, and applied to lighting control. Two additional technologies were developed in the course of completing the project. A prototype web-based display that portrays the current status of each detector in a sensor network monitoring building occupancy was designed and implemented. A new capability that enables occupancy sensors in a sensor network to dynamically set the 'time delay' interval based on ongoing occupant behavior in the space was also designed and implemented.

  19. Control of Resources for Economic Development in Food Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brink, Tove


    of preferences on the control of resources, the significant benefit of oral instructions and the significant negative impact from supervising product quality on economic development in the context of the food networking SMEs. Previous level of knowledge has no significant influence on their economic development...... to control resources for innovation to add value and economic development. This paper reveals how crossing dynamic composite underlying boundaries can have an impact on control of resources for economic development in food networking SMEs .The analyses in this paper shows the broad and significant impact......The challenge of economic development in the 21st century is linked to innovation. Enabling innovation contains a wide span from the new idea to learning how to provide value through the new idea and continuing to how to control resources to perform at prime. The focus in this paper is set on how...

  20. Two stage neural network modelling for robust model predictive control. (United States)

    Patan, Krzysztof


    The paper proposes a novel robust model predictive control scheme realized by means of artificial neural networks. The neural networks are used twofold: to design the so-called fundamental model of a plant and to catch uncertainty associated with the plant model. In order to simplify the optimization process carried out within the framework of predictive control an instantaneous linearization is applied which renders it possible to define the optimization problem in the form of constrained quadratic programming. Stability of the proposed control system is also investigated by showing that a cost function is monotonically decreasing with respect to time. Derived robust model predictive control is tested and validated on the example of a pneumatic servomechanism working at different operating regimes. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Neural networks for process control and optimization: two industrial applications. (United States)

    Bloch, Gérard; Denoeux, Thierry


    The two most widely used neural models, multilayer perceptron (MLP) and radial basis function network (RBFN), are presented in the framework of system identification and control. The main steps for building such nonlinear black box models are regressor choice, selection of internal architecture, and parameter estimation. The advantages of neural network models are summarized: universal approximation capabilities, flexibility, and parsimony. Two applications are described in steel industry and water treatment, respectively, the control of alloying process in a hot dipped galvanizing line and the control of a coagulation process in a drinking water treatment plant. These examples highlight the interest of neural techniques, when complex nonlinear phenomena are involved, but the empirical knowledge of control operators can be learned.

  2. Handling uncertainty and networked structure in robot control

    CERN Document Server

    Tamás, Levente


    This book focuses on two challenges posed in robot control by the increasing adoption of robots in the everyday human environment: uncertainty and networked communication. Part I of the book describes learning control to address environmental uncertainty. Part II discusses state estimation, active sensing, and complex scenario perception to tackle sensing uncertainty. Part III completes the book with control of networked robots and multi-robot teams. Each chapter features in-depth technical coverage and case studies highlighting the applicability of the techniques, with real robots or in simulation. Platforms include mobile ground, aerial, and underwater robots, as well as humanoid robots and robot arms. Source code and experimental data are available at The text gathers contributions from academic and industry experts, and offers a valuable resource for researchers or graduate students in robot control and perception. It also benefits researchers in related areas, such as computer...

  3. On-board congestion control for satellite packet switching networks (United States)

    Chu, Pong P.


    It is desirable to incorporate packet switching capability on-board for future communication satellites. Because of the statistical nature of packet communication, incoming traffic fluctuates and may cause congestion. Thus, it is necessary to incorporate a congestion control mechanism as part of the on-board processing to smooth and regulate the bursty traffic. Although there are extensive studies on congestion control for both baseband and broadband terrestrial networks, these schemes are not feasible for space based switching networks because of the unique characteristics of satellite link. Here, we propose a new congestion control method for on-board satellite packet switching. This scheme takes into consideration the long propagation delay in satellite link and takes advantage of the the satellite's broadcasting capability. It divides the control between the ground terminals and satellite, but distributes the primary responsibility to ground terminals and only requires minimal hardware resource on-board satellite.

  4. Controlling self-organized criticality in complex networks

    CERN Document Server

    Cajueiro, Daniel O


    A control scheme to reduce the size of avalanches of the Bak-Tang-Wiesenfeld model on complex networks is proposed. Three network types are considered: those proposed by Erd\\H{o}s-Renyi, Goh-Kahng-Kim, and a real network representing the main connections of the electrical power grid of the western United States. The control scheme is based on the idea of triggering avalanches in the highest degree nodes that are near to become critical. We show that this strategy works in the sense that the dissipation of mass occurs most locally avoiding larger avalanches. We also compare this strategy with a random strategy where the nodes are chosen randomly. Although the random control has some ability to reduce the probability of large avalanches, its performance is much worse than the one based on the choice of the highest degree nodes. Finally, we argue that the ability of the proposed control scheme is related to its ability to reduce the concentration of mass on the network.

  5. Model-based Compositional Design of Networked Control Systems (United States)


    systems such as tele- robots for surgery , implanted heart monitors, nanoscale di- agnostic instruments, digital protheses and other medical devices, as...exploration, surgery , search and rescue missions, hazardous environment and other various military applications. An n-degrees of freedom robotic manipulator...lives. Examples of these systems include process control, automotive systems, networked robotics , medical systems, electrical power grids and

  6. Adaptive Media Access Control for Energy Harvesting - Wireless Sensor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fafoutis, Xenofon; Dragoni, Nicola


    ODMAC (On-Demand Media Access Control) is a recently proposed MAC protocol designed to support individual duty cycles for Energy Harvesting — Wireless Sensor Networks (EH-WSNs). Individual duty cycles are vital for EH-WSNs, because they allow nodes to adapt their energy consumption to the ever...

  7. Ubiquitous access control and policy management in personal networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyriazanos, Dimitris M.; Stassinopoulos, George I.; Prasad, Neeli R.


    In this paper the authors present the challenges for enabling Security Policies Management and subsequent Ubiquitous Access Control on the Personal Network (PN) environment. A solution based on Security Profiles is proposed, supporting both partially distributed architectures-having in this case...

  8. Specification Mining for Intrusion Detection in Networked Control Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caselli, M.; Zambon, Emmanuele; Amann, Johanna; Sommer, Robin; Kargl, Frank


    This paper discusses a novel approach to specification-based intrusion detection in the field of networked control systems. Our approach reduces the substantial human effort required to deploy a specification-based intrusion detection system by automating the development of its specification rules.

  9. Structure and Controls of the Global Virtual Water Trade Network (United States)

    Suweis, S. S.


    Recurrent or ephemeral water shortages are a crucial global challenge, in particular because of their impacts on food production. The global character of this challenge is reflected in the trade among nations of virtual water, i.e. the amount of water used to produce a given commodity. We build, analyze and model the network describing the transfer of virtual water between world nations for staple food products. We find that all the key features of the network are well described by a model, the fitness model, that reproduces both the topological and weighted properties of the global virtual water trade network, by assuming as sole controls each country's gross domestic product and yearly rainfall on agricultural areas. We capture and quantitatively describe the high degree of globalization of water trade and show that a small group of nations play a key role in the connectivity of the network and in the global redistribution of virtual water. Finally, we illustrate examples of prediction of the structure of the network under future political, economic and climatic scenarios, suggesting that the crucial importance of the countries that trade large volumes of water will be strengthened. Our results show the importance of incorporating a network framework in the study of virtual water trades and provide a model to study the structure and resilience of the GVWTN under future scenarios for social, economic and climate change.

  10. An approach to better understanding of salt weathering on stone monuments - the "petraSalt" research project (United States)

    Heinrichs, K.; Azzam, R.


    Salt weathering is known as a major cause of damage on stone monuments. However, processes and mechanisms of salt weathering still can not be explained satisfactorily. From the expertś point of view, better understanding of salt weathering deserves further comprehensive in-situ investigation jointly addressing active salt weathering processes and controlling factors. The 'petraSalt' research project takes this approach. The rock-cut monuments of Petra / Jordan were selected for studies, since stone type and spectra of monument exposure regimes, environmental influences, salt loading and weathering damage are representative for many stone monuments worldwide. The project aims at real-time / real-scale weathering models that depict characteristic interdependencies between stone properties, monument exposure regimes, environmental influences, salt loading and salt weathering damage. These models are expected to allow reliable rating and interpretation of aggressiveness and damage potential of the salt weathering regimes considering their variability under range of lithology, monument exposure scenarios, environmental conditions and time. The methodological approach systematically combines assessment of weathering damage (type, extent, spatial distribution and progression of damage), assessment of monument exposure characteristics and environmental influences acting on the monuments (monument orientation / geometry, lithology, rain impact, water run-off, rising humidity, wind impact, insolation, heating-cooling and drying-wetting behaviour, etc.), engineering geological studies (structural discontinuities and related failure processes) and investigation of salt loading (type, concentration, spatial distribution and origin of salt, salt crystallization / dissolution, phase transitions, etc.). Besides established methods, very innovative technologies are applied in the course of investigation such as high-resolution 3D terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) and wireless

  11. Adaptive PID control based on orthogonal endocrine neural networks. (United States)

    Milovanović, Miroslav B; Antić, Dragan S; Milojković, Marko T; Nikolić, Saša S; Perić, Staniša Lj; Spasić, Miodrag D


    A new intelligent hybrid structure used for online tuning of a PID controller is proposed in this paper. The structure is based on two adaptive neural networks, both with built-in Chebyshev orthogonal polynomials. First substructure network is a regular orthogonal neural network with implemented artificial endocrine factor (OENN), in the form of environmental stimuli, to its weights. It is used for approximation of control signals and for processing system deviation/disturbance signals which are introduced in the form of environmental stimuli. The output values of OENN are used to calculate artificial environmental stimuli (AES), which represent required adaptation measure of a second network-orthogonal endocrine adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (OEANFIS). OEANFIS is used to process control, output and error signals of a system and to generate adjustable values of proportional, derivative, and integral parameters, used for online tuning of a PID controller. The developed structure is experimentally tested on a laboratory model of the 3D crane system in terms of analysing tracking performances and deviation signals (error signals) of a payload. OENN-OEANFIS performances are compared with traditional PID and 6 intelligent PID type controllers. Tracking performance comparisons (in transient and steady-state period) showed that the proposed adaptive controller possesses performances within the range of other tested controllers. The main contribution of OENN-OEANFIS structure is significant minimization of deviation signals (17%-79%) compared to other controllers. It is recommended to exploit it when dealing with a highly nonlinear system which operates in the presence of undesirable disturbances. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Equipment to Support Development of Neuronal Network Controlled Robots (United States)


    Equipment to Support Development of Neuronal Network Controlled Robots With this award, our team purchased an ALA 2-channel stimulus generator, an...34 laser cutter, and a Rethink Robotics Baxter Robot . This equipment supported two ARO awards, a DARPA award and two NSF-funded projects. The views...Controlled Robots Report Title With this award, our team purchased an ALA 2-channel stimulus generator, an ALA 60-channel amplifier with pre-filter

  13. Controllable Soluble Protein Concentration Gradients in Hydrogel Networks**


    Peret, Brian J.; William L Murphy


    Here we report controlled formation of sustained, soluble protein concentration gradients within hydrated polymer networks. The approach involves spatially localizing proteins or biodegradable, protein-loaded microspheres within hydrogels to form a protein-releasing “depot”. Soluble protein concentration gradients are then formed as the released protein diffuses away from the localized source. Control over key gradient parameters, including maximum concentration, gradient magnitude, slope, an...

  14. Scalable Harmonization of Complex Networks With Local Adaptive Controllers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kárný, Miroslav; Herzallah, R.


    Roč. 47, č. 3 (2017), s. 394-404 ISSN 2168-2216 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-13502S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Adaptive control * Adaptive estimation * Bayes methods * Complex networks * Decentralized control * Feedback * Feedforward systems * Recursive estimation Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 2.350, year: 2016

  15. Piecewise-linear artificial neural networks for PID controller tuning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Doležel


    Full Text Available A new algorithm of PID controller tuning is presented in this paper. It is well known that there have been introduced manytechniques for PID controller tuning, both theoretical and experimental ones. However, this algorithm is suitable especially forhighly nonlinear processes. It uses a model of the controlled process in the shape of piecewise-linear neural network which islinearized continuously and resulting linearized model is used for PID controller online tuning. While at the beginning of the paperthe algorithm is described in theory, at the end there are mentioned some practical applications

  16. Linear Matrix Inequalities in Multirate Control over Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Cuenca


    Full Text Available This paper faces two of the main drawbacks in networked control systems: bandwidth constraints and timevarying delays. The bandwidth limitations are solved by using multirate control techniques. The resultant multirate controller must ensure closed-loop stability in the presence of time-varying delays. Some stability conditions and a state feedback controller design are formulated in terms of linear matrix inequalities. The theoretical proposal is validated in two different experimental environments: a crane-based test-bed over Ethernet, and a maglev based platform over Profibus.

  17. Adaptive Gain Scheduled Semiactive Vibration Control Using a Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhiko Hiramoto


    Full Text Available We propose an adaptive gain scheduled semiactive control method using an artificial neural network for structural systems subject to earthquake disturbance. In order to design a semiactive control system with high control performance against earthquakes with different time and/or frequency properties, multiple semiactive control laws with high performance for each of multiple earthquake disturbances are scheduled with an adaptive manner. Each semiactive control law to be scheduled is designed based on the output emulation approach that has been proposed by the authors. As the adaptive gain scheduling mechanism, we introduce an artificial neural network (ANN. Input signals of the ANN are the measured earthquake disturbance itself, for example, the acceleration, velocity, and displacement. The output of the ANN is the parameter for the scheduling of multiple semiactive control laws each of which has been optimized for a single disturbance. Parameters such as weight and bias in the ANN are optimized by the genetic algorithm (GA. The proposed design method is applied to semiactive control design of a base-isolated building with a semiactive damper. With simulation study, the proposed adaptive gain scheduling method realizes control performance exceeding single semiactive control optimizing the average of the control performance subject to various earthquake disturbances.

  18. The Effect of Potassium on the Controlling of Salt in Evening Primrose (Oenothera macrocarpa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Goldani


    Full Text Available Introduction: Salinity has been recognized as one of the major abiotic factors affecting crop yields in arid and semi-arid irrigated areas of the world and efforts for breeding salt-resistant crop plants have been made. Approximately one-third of the world irrigated soils and a large proportion of soils in dry land are saline. Two major effects have been identified as the probable causes of high salt toxicity in crop plant i.e., the ionic effect and the osmotic effect. The ionic effect results in alterations in enzymatic processes, disturbances in accumulation and transport of different ions or a combination of all these factors. As a result, shoot and root growing reduce and uptake of nutrient elements by plants is adversely affected. While excess Na accumulated in plants under salinity stress conditions hinders K uptake; Cl hinders NO3 uptake by plants and destroys ionic balance in plants. Evening primrose is a plant which belongs to Onagraceae. Its seed oil has a special arrangement in Glycerol molecule, so it has been used a lot in medical treatments and also feeding. Researchers showed that using the best techniques and methods in farming can increase the amount of oil in the seeds of this plant. The wrong method of agricultural activities in Iran caused increasing salt in the soil, so growing plants in this situation isn’t possible. For confronting with this phenomenon knowing and choosing kinds of plants that can resist the situation of salt is really a necessary. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted as a factorial experiment based on completely randomized design with three replicates was performed with five levels of NaCl salinity on Oenothera macrocarpa (0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 mM and potassium chloride levels (zero and 15.02 mM and three times in the Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad in 1390. Salt treatment to prevent osmotic shock was applied to four-leaf stage and treated with potassium was gradually

  19. INNER SALTS (United States)

    been characterized include: (1) mesomeric phosphonium salts possessing phototropic properties; (2) pentavalent phosphorus compounds; and (3) a...Products that have been characterized include: (1) mesomeric phosphonium salts possessing phototropic properties; (2) pentavalent phosphorus compounds; and (3) a mesomeric inner salt . (Author)...Novel phosphonium and phosphorane compounds ere prepared by a variety of m hods from triphenylphosphine and methylene bromide. Products that have

  20. Active Vibration Control of the Smart Plate Using Artificial Neural Network Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The active vibration control (AVC of a rectangular plate with single input and single output approach is investigated using artificial neural network. The cantilever plate of finite length, breadth, and thickness having piezoelectric patches as sensors/actuators fixed at the upper and lower surface of the metal plate is considered for examination. The finite element model of the cantilever plate is utilized to formulate the whole strategy. The compact RIO and MATLAB simulation software are exercised to get the appropriate results. The cantilever plate is subjected to impulse input and uniform white noise disturbance. The neural network is trained offline and tuned with LQR controller. The various training algorithms to tune the neural network are exercised. The best efficient algorithm is finally considered to tune the neural network controller designed for active vibration control of the smart plate.

  1. Tuning RED parameters in satellite networks using control theory (United States)

    Sridharan, Mukundan; Durresi, Arjan; Chellappan, Sriram; Ozbay, Hitay; Jain, Raj


    Congestion in the Internet results in wasted bandwidth and also stands in the way of guaranteeing QoS. The effect of congestion is multiplied many fold in Satellite networks, where the resources are very expensive. Thus congestion control has a special significance in the performance of Satellite networks. In today's Internet, congestion control is implemented mostly using some form of the de facto standard, RED. But tuning of parameters in RED has been a major problem throughout. Achieving high throughput with corresponding low delays is the main goal in parameter setting. It is also desired to keep the oscillations in the queue low to reduce jitter, so that the QoS guarantees can be improved. In this paper, we use a previously linearized fluid flow model of TCP-RED to study the performance and stability of the Queue in the router. We use classical control tools like Tracking Error minimization and Delay Margin to study the performance, stability of the system. We use the above-mentioned tools to provide guidelines for setting the parameters in RED, such that the throughput, delay and jitter of the system are optimized. Thus we provide guidelines for optimizing satellite IP networks. We apply our results exclusively for optimizing the performance of satellite networks, where the effects of congestion are much pronounced and need for optimization is much important. We use ns simulator to validate our results to support our analysis.

  2. Context-Based Topology Control for Wireless Mesh Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pragasen Mudali


    Full Text Available Topology Control has been shown to provide several benefits to wireless ad hoc and mesh networks. However these benefits have largely been demonstrated using simulation-based evaluations. In this paper, we demonstrate the negative impact that the PlainTC Topology Control prototype has on topology stability. This instability is found to be caused by the large number of transceiver power adjustments undertaken by the prototype. A context-based solution is offered to reduce the number of transceiver power adjustments undertaken without sacrificing the cumulative transceiver power savings and spatial reuse advantages gained from employing Topology Control in an infrastructure wireless mesh network. We propose the context-based PlainTC+ prototype and show that incorporating context information in the transceiver power adjustment process significantly reduces topology instability. In addition, improvements to network performance arising from the improved topology stability are also observed. Future plans to add real-time context-awareness to PlainTC+ will have the scheme being prototyped in a software-defined wireless mesh network test-bed being planned.

  3. Controllable Reconfiguration of Polymer-grafted Nanoparticle Networks Under Torsion (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Mbanga, Badel; Yashin, Victor; Balazs, Anna

    We use 3D computational modeling to study mechanically-induced changes in the structure of networks formed from polymer-grafted nanoparticles (PGNs). The nanoparticles rigid cores are decorated with a corona of grafted polymers, which contain reactive functional groups at the chain ends. With the overlap of the grafted polymers, these reactive groups can form labile bonds, which can reform after breakage. These PGN networks consist of two types of nanoparticles, which differ in the reactive functional groups at the chain ends. The energy of the labile bonds that are formed depends on the nature of these reactive groups. We demonstrate that the application of a rotational deformation results in a controllable reconfiguration of the network. Depending on the labile bond energies, the PGN networks are shown to exhibit a deformation-induced phase separation. The restructuring process can be controlled by boundary conditions. We can create complicated morphology such as spiral, with enhanced mechanical properties. Our results provide guidelines for designing mechano-mutable PGN-based materials whose nanoscale structures can be controllably changed under an applied mechanical action.

  4. Network efficient power control for wireless communication systems. (United States)

    Campos-Delgado, Daniel U; Luna-Rivera, Jose Martin; Martinez-Sánchez, C J; Gutierrez, Carlos A; Tecpanecatl-Xihuitl, J L


    We introduce a two-loop power control that allows an efficient use of the overall power resources for commercial wireless networks based on cross-layer optimization. This approach maximizes the network's utility in the outer-loop as a function of the averaged signal to interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) by considering adaptively the changes in the network characteristics. For this purpose, the concavity property of the utility function was verified with respect to the SINR, and an iterative search was proposed with guaranteed convergence. In addition, the outer-loop is in charge of selecting the detector that minimizes the overall power consumption (transmission and detection). Next the inner-loop implements a feedback power control in order to achieve the optimal SINR in the transmissions despite channel variations and roundtrip delays. In our proposal, the utility maximization process and detector selection and feedback power control are decoupled problems, and as a result, these strategies are implemented at two different time scales in the two-loop framework. Simulation results show that substantial utility gains may be achieved by improving the power management in the wireless network.

  5. Pyriproxyfen for the control of Australian salt-marsh mosquito, Aedes vigilax. (United States)

    Webb, Garry; Miller, Peter; Peters, Bryce


    The efficacy of pyriproxyfen against the Australian salt-marsh mosquito, Aedes vigilax, was examined in 2 laboratory and 1 semi-field study using both technical grade and formulated products. In a dose-response study, the median emergence inhibition (EI50) and EI95 values were determined to be 0.019 and 0.076 ppb, respectively, for pyriproxyfen technical grade, 0.021 and 0.092 ppb for a microencapsulated formulation (Sumilarv 90CS), and 0.054 and 0.236 ppb for the formulated s-methoprene product, Altosid Liquid Larvicide. A further laboratory comparison of the microencapsulated formulation of pyriproxyfen and Altosid, at the nominal field rate for Altosid, showed that both products provided 100% emergence inhibition and this was confirmed in a semi-field study, which also included a granular formulation of pyriproxyfen (Sumilarv 0.5G).

  6. Iterative Learning Control with Forgetting Factor for Urban Road Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianyi Lan


    Full Text Available In order to improve the traffic condition, a novel iterative learning control (ILC algorithm with forgetting factor for urban road network is proposed by using the repeat characteristics of traffic flow in this paper. Rigorous analysis shows that the proposed ILC algorithm can guarantee the asymptotic convergence. Through iterative learning control of the traffic signals, the number of vehicles on each road in the network can gradually approach the desired level, thereby preventing oversaturation and traffic congestion. The introduced forgetting factor can effectively adjust the control input according to the states of the system and filter along the direction of the iteration. The results show that the forgetting factor has an important effect on the robustness of the system. The theoretical analysis and experimental simulations are given to verify the validity of the proposed method.

  7. Spontaneous centralization of control in a network of company ownerships.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian M Krause

    Full Text Available We introduce a model for the adaptive evolution of a network of company ownerships. In a recent work it has been shown that the empirical global network of corporate control is marked by a central, tightly connected "core" made of a small number of large companies which control a significant part of the global economy. Here we show how a simple, adaptive "rich get richer" dynamics can account for this characteristic, which incorporates the increased buying power of more influential companies, and in turn results in even higher control. We conclude that this kind of centralized structure can emerge without it being an explicit goal of these companies, or as a result of a well-organized strategy.

  8. Control of Stochastic and Induced Switching in Biophysical Networks (United States)

    Wells, Daniel K.; Kath, William L.; Motter, Adilson E.


    Noise caused by fluctuations at the molecular level is a fundamental part of intracellular processes. While the response of biological systems to noise has been studied extensively, there has been limited understanding of how to exploit it to induce a desired cell state. Here we present a scalable, quantitative method based on the Freidlin-Wentzell action to predict and control noise-induced switching between different states in genetic networks that, conveniently, can also control transitions between stable states in the absence of noise. We apply this methodology to models of cell differentiation and show how predicted manipulations of tunable factors can induce lineage changes, and further utilize it to identify new candidate strategies for cancer therapy in a cell death pathway model. This framework offers a systems approach to identifying the key factors for rationally manipulating biophysical dynamics, and should also find use in controlling other classes of noisy complex networks.

  9. Predictive Closed-Loop Power Control for CDMA Cellular Networks (United States)

    Choe, Sangho; Uysal, Murat

    In this paper, we present and analyze a predictive closedloop power control (CLPC) scheme which employs a comb-type sample arrangement to effectively compensate multiple power control group (PCG) delays over mobile fading channels. We consider both least squares and recursive least squares filters in our CLPC scheme. The effects of channel estimation error, prediction filter error, and power control bit transmission error on the performance of the proposed CLPC method along with competing non-predictive and predictive CLPC schemes are thoroughly investigated. Our results clearly indicate the superiority of the proposed scheme with its improved robustness under non-ideal conditions. Furthermore, we carry out a Monte-Carlo simulation study of a 5×5 square grid cellular network and evaluate the user capacity. Capacity improvements up to 90% are observed for a typical cellular network scenario.

  10. Camera Control and Geo-Registration for Video Sensor Networks (United States)

    Davis, James W.

    With the use of large video networks, there is a need to coordinate and interpret the video imagery for decision support systems with the goal of reducing the cognitive and perceptual overload of human operators. We present computer vision strategies that enable efficient control and management of cameras to effectively monitor wide-coverage areas, and examine the framework within an actual multi-camera outdoor urban video surveillance network. First, we construct a robust and precise camera control model for commercial pan-tilt-zoom (PTZ) video cameras. In addition to providing a complete functional control mapping for PTZ repositioning, the model can be used to generate wide-view spherical panoramic viewspaces for the cameras. Using the individual camera control models, we next individually map the spherical panoramic viewspace of each camera to a large aerial orthophotograph of the scene. The result provides a unified geo-referenced map representation to permit automatic (and manual) video control and exploitation of cameras in a coordinated manner. The combined framework provides new capabilities for video sensor networks that are of significance and benefit to the broad surveillance/security community.

  11. A 9-state analysis of designer stimulant, "bath salt," hospital visits reported to poison control centers. (United States)

    Warrick, Brandon J; Hill, Meredith; Hekman, Kimberly; Christensen, Rachelle; Goetz, Robert; Casavant, Marcel J; Wahl, Michael; Mowry, James B; Spiller, Henry; Anderson, Deborah; Aleguas, Alfred; Gummin, David; Thomas, Ronald; Nezlek, Christopher; Smolinske, Susan


    A new generation of designer stimulants marketed as "bath salts" emerged in late 2010. The goal is to describe the epidemiologic emergence of designer stimulants in 9 states in the Midwest. A retrospective review of the National Poison Data System was performed between November 1, 2010, and November 30, 2011. Inclusion criteria were health care-evaluated bath salts or other synthetic stimulants exposures. Cases were excluded if the exposure was unrelated to a designer stimulant. Demographic and clinical characteristics of cases were calculated and differences in outcome and exposure by generation were examined. One thousand six hundred thirty-three patients met the inclusion criteria. Age ranged from 1 day to 61 years (mean=29.2 years), with 67.9% male patients. The most common clinical features were agitation (62.2%), tachycardia (55.2%), and hallucinations (32.7%). In addition to 15.5% of patients having a major medical effect, 0.6% died. Reason for use was primarily intentional abuse (88.5%). However, 0.7% of patients reported withdrawal. Treatment involved primarily benzodiazepines (58.5%), with 8.7% of patients being intubated. Baby Boomers were more likely to have a major medical outcome (24.2%) and to report injection as the method of administration (8.6%-12.9%). Synthetic stimulants rapidly swept across the Midwest, resulting in more than 1,600 patients seeking medical care. Serious medical effects or death was observed in 16.1% of cases. Older generations were more likely to inject and to have a major medical outcome. Copyright © 2013 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. TCP flow control using link layer information in mobile networks (United States)

    Koga, Hiroyuki; Kawahara, Kenji; Oie, Yuji


    Mobile Networks have been expanding and IMT-2000 further increases their available bandwidth over wireless links. However, TCP, which is a reliable end-to-end transport protocol, is tuned to perform well in wired networks where bit error rates are very low and packet loss occurs mostly because of congestion. Although a TCP sender can execute flow control to utilize as much available bandwidth as possible in wired networks, it cannot work well in wireless networks characterized by high bit error rates. In the next generation mobile systems, sophisticated error recovery technologies of FEC and ARQ are indeed employed over wireless links, i.e., over Layer 2, to avoid performance degradation of upper layers. However, multiple retransmissions by Layer 2 ARQ can adversely increase transmission delay of TCP segments, which will further make TCP unnecessarily increase RTO (Retransmission TimeOut). Furthermore, a link bandwidth assigned to TCP flows can change in response to changing air conditions to use wireless links efficiently. TCP thus has to adapt its transmission rate according to the changing available bandwidth. The major goal of this study is to develop a receiver-based effective TCP flow control without any modification on TCP senders, which are probably connected with wired networks. For this end, we propose a TCP flow control employing some Layer 2 information on a wireless link at the mobile station. Our performance evaluation of the proposed TCP shows that the receiver-based TCP flow control can moderate the performance degradation very well even if FER on Layer 2 is high.

  13. The network control system of high-bay warehouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malaka Julian


    Full Text Available Presentation of developing a method of automation of the storage process using electric drives with frequency converters, logic control and communication in industrial networks was the main purpose of this article. A connection structure was proposed to exchange information between devices that are part of a high-storage warehouse. It was assumed that modern communication protocols are used to synchronize the drives and to create a central control and information center in the PLC. The results of theoretical considerations were applied in practice by performing a laboratory model of a high storage warehouse with a developed automatic control system. Benefits of the proposed solutions was shown in the conclusions.

  14. A novel excitatory network for the control of breathing (United States)

    Anderson, Tatiana M.; Garcia, Alfredo J.; Baertsch, Nathan A.; Pollak, Julia; Bloom, Jacob C.; Wei, Aguan D.; Rai, Karan G.; Ramirez, Jan-Marino


    Breathing must be tightly coordinated with other behaviors such as vocalization, swallowing, and coughing. These behaviors occur after inspiration, during a respiratory phase termed postinspiration1. Failure to coordinate postinspiration with inspiration can result in aspiration pneumonia, the leading cause of death in Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, dementia, and other neurodegenerative diseases2. Here we describe an excitatory network that generates the neuronal correlate for postinspiratory activity. Glutamatergic-cholinergic neurons form the basis of this network, while GABAergic inhibition establishes the timing and coordination with inspiration. We refer to this novel network as the postinspiratory complex (PiCo). PiCo has autonomous rhythm generating properties and is necessary and sufficient for postinspiratory activity in vivo. PiCo also has distinct responses to neuromodulators when compared with other excitatory brainstem networks. Based on the discovery of PiCo we propose that each of the three phases of breathing is generated by a distinct excitatory network: The preBötzinger complex, which has been linked to inspiration3,4, the PiCo as described here for the neuronal control of postinspiration, and the Lateral parafacial region (pFL) which has been associated with active expiration, a respiratory phase recruited during high metabolic demand4,5,. PMID:27462817

  15. Evaluating network-level predictors of behavior change among injection networks enrolled in the HPTN 037 randomized controlled trial. (United States)

    Smith, Laramie R; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Metzger, David; Latkin, Carl


    Little is known about ways network-level factors that may influence the adoption of combination prevention behaviors among injection networks, or how network-oriented interventions might moderate this behavior change process. A total of 232 unique injection risk networks in Philadelphia, PA, were randomized to a peer educator network-oriented intervention or standard of care control arm. Network-level aggregates reflecting the injection networks' baseline substance use dynamics, social interactions, and the networks exposure to gender- and structural-related vulnerabilities were calculated and used to predict changes in the proportion of network members adopting safer injection practices at 6-month follow-up. At follow-up, safer injection practices were observed among 46.31% of a network's members on average. In contrast, 25.7% of networks observed no change. Controlling for the effects of the intervention, significant network-level factors influencing network-level behavior change reflected larger sized injection networks (b=2.20, p=0.013) with a greater proportion of members who shared needles (b=0.29, pnetwork's safer injection practices were also observed for networks with fewer new network members (b=-0.31, p=0.008), and for networks whose members were proportionally less likely to have experienced incarceration (b=-0.20, p=0.012) or more likely to have been exposed to drug treatment (b=0.17, p=0.034) in the 6-months prior to baseline. A significant interaction suggested the intervention uniquely facilitated change in safer injection practices among female-only networks (b=-0.32, p=0.046). Network-level factors offer insights into ways injection networks might be leveraged to promote combination prevention efforts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Network-Cognizant Voltage Droop Control for Distribution Grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Kyri; Bernstein, Andrey; Dall' Anese, Emiliano; Zhao, Changhong


    This paper examines distribution systems with a high integration of distributed energy resources (DERs) and addresses the design of local control methods for real-time voltage regulation. Particularly, the paper focuses on proportional control strategies where the active and reactive output-powers of DERs are adjusted in response to (and proportionally to) local changes in voltage levels. The design of the voltage-active power and voltage-reactive power characteristics leverages suitable linear approximation of the AC power-flow equations and is network-cognizant; that is, the coefficients of the controllers embed information on the location of the DERs and forecasted non-controllable loads/injections and, consequently, on the effect of DER power adjustments on the overall voltage profile. A robust approach is pursued to cope with uncertainty in the forecasted non-controllable loads/power injections. Stability of the proposed local controllers is analytically assessed and numerically corroborated.

  17. Effect of "no added salt diet" on blood pressure control and 24 hour urinary sodium excretion in mild to moderate hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahimi Rahim


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The incidence of Hypertension as a major cardiovascular threat is increasing. The best known diet for hypertensives is 'no added salt diet'. In this study we evaluated the effect of 'no added salt diet' on a hypertensive population with high dietary sodium intake by measuring 24 hour urinary sodium excretion. Methods In this single center randomized study 80 patients (60 cases and 20 controls not on any drug therapy for hypertension with mild to moderate hypertension were enrolled. 24 hour holter monitoring of BP and 24 hour urinary sodium excretion were measured before and after 6 weeks of 'no added salt diet'. Results There was no statistically significant difference between age, weight, sex, Hyperlipidemia, family history of hypertension, mean systolic and diastolic BP during the day and at night and mean urinary sodium excretion in 24 hour urine of case and control groups. Seventy eight percent of all patients had moderate to high salt intake. After 6 week of 'no added salt diet' systolic and diastolic BP significantly decreased during the day (mean decrease: 12.1/6.8 mmhg and at night (mean decrease: 11.1/5.9 mmhg which is statistically significant in comparison to control group (P 0.001 and 0.01. Urinary sodium excretion of 24 hour urine decreased by 37.1 meq/d ± 39,67 mg/dl in case group which is statistically significant in comparison to control group (p: 0.001. Only 36% of the patients, after no added salt diet, reached the pretreatment goal of 24 hour urinary sodium excretion of below 100 meq/dl (P:0.001. Conclusion Despite modest effect on dietary sodium restriction, no added salt diet significantly decreased systolic and diastolic BP and so it should be advised to every hypertensive patient. Trial Registration Clinicaltrial.govnumber NCT00491881

  18. Analog neural network control method proposed for use in a backup satellite control mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frigo, J.R.; Tilden, M.W.


    The authors propose to use an analog neural network controller implemented in hardware, independent of the active control system, for use in a satellite backup control mode. The controller uses coarse sun sensor inputs. The field of view of the sensors activate the neural controller, creating an analog dead band with respect to the direction of the sun on each axis. This network controls the orientation of the vehicle toward the sunlight to ensure adequate power for the system. The attitude of the spacecraft is stabilized with respect to the ambient magnetic field on orbit. This paper develops a model of the controller using real-time coarse sun sensor data and a dynamic model of a prototype system based on a satellite system. The simulation results and the feasibility of this control method for use in a satellite backup control mode are discussed.

  19. A Survey of Access Control Models in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Htoo Aung Maw


    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks (WSNs have attracted considerable interest in the research community, because of their wide range of applications. However, due to the distributed nature of WSNs and their deployment in remote areas, these networks are vulnerable to numerous security threats that can adversely affect their proper functioning. Resource constraints in sensor nodes mean that security mechanisms with a large overhead of computation and communication are impractical to use in WSNs; security in sensor networks is, therefore, a challenge. Access control is a critical security service that offers the appropriate access privileges to legitimate users and prevents illegitimate users from unauthorized access. However, access control has not received much attention in the context of WSNs. This paper provides an overview of security threats and attacks, outlines the security requirements and presents a state-of-the-art survey on access control models, including a comparison and evaluation based on their characteristics in WSNs. Potential challenging issues for access control schemes in WSNs are also discussed.

  20. Level Controlled Gossip Based Tsunami Warning Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh BHIMA


    Full Text Available This paper deals with a warning system based on distributed sensor networks employing level controlled gossip. Level controlled gossip is a technique that is being proposed which employs leveling and gossiping together. This technique reduces the number of messages by transmitting messages in the direction of base station and thereby increasing the life time of sensor network. By using various power levels at base station the sensor field is hierarchically partitioned into levels of increasing radius (containing various sensor nodes. The algorithm divides the entire sensor network into logical concentric zones based on proximity from the base station, whereby the packet is transmitted from a node of higher depth to nodes in the next zone with lesser depth. The transmission probability increases with the proximity of the Tsunami wave to the base station. The primary advantage of the protocol is transmitting a critical event with higher probability and at the same time conserving life time of the network for future monitoring.

  1. Towards resolving the transcription factor network controlling myelin gene expression. (United States)

    Fulton, Debra L; Denarier, Eric; Friedman, Hana C; Wasserman, Wyeth W; Peterson, Alan C


    In the central nervous system (CNS), myelin is produced from spirally-wrapped oligodendrocyte plasma membrane and, as exemplified by the debilitating effects of inherited or acquired myelin abnormalities in diseases such as multiple sclerosis, it plays a critical role in nervous system function. Myelin sheath production coincides with rapid up-regulation of numerous genes. The complexity of their subsequent expression patterns, along with recently recognized heterogeneity within the oligodendrocyte lineage, suggest that the regulatory networks controlling such genes drive multiple context-specific transcriptional programs. Conferring this nuanced level of control likely involves a large repertoire of interacting transcription factors (TFs). Here, we combined novel strategies of computational sequence analyses with in vivo functional analysis to establish a TF network model of coordinate myelin-associated gene transcription. Notably, the network model captures regulatory DNA elements and TFs known to regulate oligodendrocyte myelin gene transcription and/or oligodendrocyte development, thereby validating our approach. Further, it links to numerous TFs with previously unsuspected roles in CNS myelination and suggests collaborative relationships amongst both known and novel TFs, thus providing deeper insight into the myelin gene transcriptional network.

  2. Automated large-scale control of gene regulatory networks. (United States)

    Tan, Mehmet; Alhajj, Reda; Polat, Faruk


    Controlling gene regulatory networks (GRNs) is an important and hard problem. As it is the case in all control problems, the curse of dimensionality is the main issue in real applications. It is possible that hundreds of genes may regulate one biological activity in an organism; this implies a huge state space, even in the case of Boolean models. This is also evident in the literature that shows that only models of small portions of the genome could be used in control applications. In this paper, we empower our framework for controlling GRNs by eliminating the need for expert knowledge to specify some crucial threshold that is necessary for producing effective results. Our framework is characterized by applying the factored Markov decision problem (FMDP) method to the control problem of GRNs. The FMDP is a suitable framework for large state spaces as it represents the probability distribution of state transitions using compact models so that more space and time efficient algorithms could be devised for solving control problems. We successfully mapped the GRN control problem to an FMDP and propose a model reduction algorithm that helps find approximate solutions for large networks by using existing FMDP solvers. The test results reported in this paper demonstrate the efficiency and effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  3. Design and implementation of a new fuzzy PID controller for networked control systems. (United States)

    Fadaei, A; Salahshoor, K


    This paper presents a practical network platform to design and implement a networked-based cascade control system linking a Smar Foundation Fieldbus (FF) controller (DFI-302) and a Siemens programmable logic controller (PLC-S7-315-2DP) through Industrial Ethernet to a laboratory pilot plant. In the presented network configuration, the Smar OPC tag browser and Siemens WinCC OPC Channel provide the communicating interface between the two controllers. The paper investigates the performance of a PID controller implemented in two different possible configurations of FF function block (FB) and networked control system (NCS) via a remote Siemens PLC. In the FB control system implementation, the desired set-point is provided by the Siemens Human-Machine Interface (HMI) software (i.e, WinCC) via an Ethernet Modbus link. While, in the NCS implementation, the cascade loop is realized in remote Siemens PLC station and the final element set-point is sent to the Smar FF station via Ethernet bus. A new fuzzy PID control strategy is then proposed to improve the control performances of the networked-based control systems due to an induced transmission delay degradation effect. The proposed strategy utilizes an innovative idea based on sectionalizing the error signal of the step response into three different functional zones. The supporting philosophy behind these three functional zones is to decompose the desired control objectives in terms of rising time, settling time and steady-state error measures maintained by an appropriate PID-type controller in each zone. Then, fuzzy membership factors are defined to configure the control signal on the basis of the fuzzy weighted PID outputs of all three zones. The obtained results illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed fuzzy PID control scheme in improving the performances of the implemented NCS for different transportation delays.

  4. Application of Fuzzy-Logic Controller and Neural Networks Controller in Gas Turbine Speed Control and Overheating Control and Surge Control on Transient Performance (United States)

    Torghabeh, A. A.; Tousi, A. M.


    This paper presents Fuzzy Logic and Neural Networks approach to Gas Turbine Fuel schedules. Modeling of non-linear system using feed forward artificial Neural Networks using data generated by a simulated gas turbine program is introduced. Two artificial Neural Networks are used , depicting the non-linear relationship between gas generator speed and fuel flow, and turbine inlet temperature and fuel flow respectively . Off-line fast simulations are used for engine controller design for turbojet engine based on repeated simulation. The Mamdani and Sugeno models are used to expression the Fuzzy system . The linguistic Fuzzy rules and membership functions are presents and a Fuzzy controller will be proposed to provide an Open-Loop control for the gas turbine engine during acceleration and deceleration . MATLAB Simulink was used to apply the Fuzzy Logic and Neural Networks analysis. Both systems were able to approximate functions characterizing the acceleration and deceleration schedules . Surge and Flame-out avoidance during acceleration and deceleration phases are then checked . Turbine Inlet Temperature also checked and controls by Neural Networks controller. This Fuzzy Logic and Neural Network Controllers output results are validated and evaluated by GSP software . The validation results are used to evaluate the generalization ability of these artificial Neural Networks and Fuzzy Logic controllers.

  5. Capacity Limit, Link Scheduling and Power Control in Wireless Networks (United States)

    Zhou, Shan


    The rapid advancement of wireless technology has instigated the broad deployment of wireless networks. Different types of networks have been developed, including wireless sensor networks, mobile ad hoc networks, wireless local area networks, and cellular networks. These networks have different structures and applications, and require different…

  6. A normalized PID controller in networked control systems with varying time delays. (United States)

    Tran, Hoang-Dung; Guan, Zhi-Hong; Dang, Xuan-Kien; Cheng, Xin-Ming; Yuan, Fu-Shun


    It requires not only simplicity and flexibility but also high specified stability and robustness of system to design a PI/PID controller in such complicated networked control systems (NCSs) with delays. By gain and phase margins approach, this paper proposes a novel normalized PI/PID controller for NCSs based on analyzing the stability and robustness of system under the effect of network-induced delays. Specifically, We take into account the total measured network delays to formulate the gain and phase margins of the closed-loop system in the form of a set of equations. With pre-specified values of gain and phase margins, this set of equations is then solved for calculating the closed forms of control parameters which enable us to propose the normalized PI/PID controller simultaneously satisfying the following two requirements: (1) simplicity without re-solving the optimization problem for a new process, (2) high flexibility to cope with large scale of random delays and deal with many different processes in different conditions of network. Furthermore, in our method, the upper bound of random delay can be estimated to indicate the operating domain of proposed PI/PID controller. Finally, simulation results are shown to demonstrate the advantages of our proposed controller in many situations of network-induced delays. Copyright © 2013 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Active defense scheme against DDoS based on mobile agent and network control in network confrontation (United States)

    Luo, Rong; Li, Junshan; Ye, Xia; Wang, Rui


    In order to effective defend DDoS attacks in network confrontation, an active defense scheme against DDoS is built based on Mobile Agent and network control. A distributed collaborative active defense model is constructed by using mobile agent technology and encapsulating a variety of DDoS defense techniques. Meanwhile the network control theory is applied to establish a network confrontation's control model for DDoS to control the active defense process. It provides a new idea to solve the DDoS problem.

  8. Neural Network Control for a Batch Distillation Column

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duraid Fadhil Ahmed


    Full Text Available The  present  work  deals  with  studying  the  dynamic  behavior  of  a  batch  distillation  column  and implemented  two  types  of  control  strategies  for  the  separation  different  types  of  binary  systems.  The model  was  derived  and  then  simulated  using  "MATLAB"  program.  The  experimental  data  of  dynamic behavior  were  to  tune  the  parameters  of  PID  controller  and  developed  the  training  of  neural  networks controller by using supervised  learning algorithms. The simulation results show a qualitatively acceptable behavior.  This  study  shows  also  that  the  response  of  PID  controller  was  oscillatory  behavior  with  high offset value while neural network controller gave less offset value and less  time to reach the steady state. In general, a good improvement is achieved when the  neural network controller  is used compared with PID control.

  9. CO2/pH-Controllable Viscoelastic Nanostructured Fluid Based on Stearic Acid Soap and Bola-Type Quaternary Ammonium Salt. (United States)

    Zhang, Yongmin; Kong, Weiwei; An, Pengyun; He, Shuai; Liu, Xuefeng


    Fatty acid soaps such as sodium stearate (NaOSA) represent a class of cheap, environmentally friendly surfactants; however, their poor solubility seriously challenges their application in various fields. Herein, we describe a CO2/pH-controllable viscoelastic nanostructured fluid, which was developed by simple mixing of the commodity soap NaOSA with a bola-type quaternary ammonium salt (Bola2be) in a 2:1 molar ratio without the need for complex organic synthesis. The introduction of Bola2be increased NaOSA solubility and promoted micelle growth by forming a noncovalent pseudo-Gemini structure, 2NaOSA-Bola2be. Long aggregates are formed with increases in concentration, and these become entangled into a three-dimensional network at 10 times that of the critical micelle concentration (0.057 mM), showing strong thickening ability. Micellar branching occurs above 22.38 mM, as deduced by rheology and verified by cryo-transmission electron microscopy. The worm-based fluid formed from the noncovalent pseudo-Gemini surfactant is highly thermosensitive, and features a higher flow activation energy of 399.76 kJ·mol(-1) compared with common worm systems. Because of the pH-sensitivity of NaOSA, the viscoelastic fluid can respond to common pH stimuli or green CO2 gas, and shows a transition between a gel-like wormlike micellar network and a water-like dispersion with precipitate. However, the CO2-responsive behavior is irreversible.

  10. A Framework and Comparative Analysis of Control Plane Security of SDN and Conventional Networks


    Abdou, AbdelRahman; van Oorschot, Paul C.; Wan, Tao


    Software defined networking implements the network control plane in an external entity, rather than in each individual device as in conventional networks. This architectural difference implies a different design for control functions necessary for essential network properties, e.g., loop prevention and link redundancy. We explore how such differences redefine the security weaknesses in the SDN control plane and provide a framework for comparative analysis which focuses on essential network pr...

  11. Gene networks controlling the initiation of flower development. (United States)

    Wellmer, Frank; Riechmann, José L


    The onset of flower formation is a key regulatory event during the life cycle of angiosperm plants, which marks the beginning of the reproductive phase of development. It has been shown that floral initiation is under tight genetic control, and deciphering the underlying molecular mechanisms has been a main area of interest in plant biology for the past two decades. Here, we provide an overview of the developmental and genetic processes that occur during floral initiation. We further review recent studies that have led to the genome-wide identification of target genes of key floral regulators and discuss how they have contributed to an in-depth understanding of the gene regulatory networks controlling early flower development. We focus especially on a master regulator of floral initiation in Arabidopsis thaliana APETALA1 (AP1), but also outline what is known about the AP1 network in other plant species and the evolutionary implications. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Diagnostics and control of pressurized reactors using artificial neural networks (United States)

    Ikonomopoulos, Andreas; Tsoukalas, Lefteri H.; Uhrig, Robert E.


    A methodology employing artificial neural networks and fuzzy arithmetic in the diagnosis and control of complex systems such as pressurized water reactors is presented. Fuzzy numbers represent the linguistic values of plant-specific variables, e.g., performance or availability. The notion of a virtual instrument, i.e., a software-based measuring device calibrated to the idiosyncrasies of a specific system is used. Neural networks perform a mapping of physically measurable parameters to fuzzy numbers called Virtual Measurement Values (VMV). The methodology is tested with start-up data from an experimental nuclear reactor. The results demonstrate the very good capacity of such virtual instruments for failure-tolerance and suggest the possibility of developing alternative algorithms for diagnostics and control.

  13. Control capacity and a random sampling method in exploring controllability of complex networks. (United States)

    Jia, Tao; Barabási, Albert-László


    Controlling complex systems is a fundamental challenge of network science. Recent advances indicate that control over the system can be achieved through a minimum driver node set (MDS). The existence of multiple MDS's suggests that nodes do not participate in control equally, prompting us to quantify their participations. Here we introduce control capacity quantifying the likelihood that a node is a driver node. To efficiently measure this quantity, we develop a random sampling algorithm. This algorithm not only provides a statistical estimate of the control capacity, but also bridges the gap between multiple microscopic control configurations and macroscopic properties of the network under control. We demonstrate that the possibility of being a driver node decreases with a node's in-degree and is independent of its out-degree. Given the inherent multiplicity of MDS's, our findings offer tools to explore control in various complex systems.

  14. Mathematical inference and control of molecular networks from perturbation experiments (United States)

    Mohammed-Rasheed, Mohammed

    in order to affect the time evolution of molecular activity in a desirable manner. In this proposal, we address both the inference and control problems of GRNs. In the first part of the thesis, we consider the control problem. We assume that we are given a general topology network structure, whose dynamics follow a discrete-time Markov chain model. We subsequently develop a comprehensive framework for optimal perturbation control of the network. The aim of the perturbation is to drive the network away from undesirable steady-states and to force it to converge to a unique desirable steady-state. The proposed framework does not make any assumptions about the topology of the initial network (e.g., ergodicity, weak and strong connectivity), and is thus applicable to general topology networks. We define the optimal perturbation as the minimum-energy perturbation measured in terms of the Frobenius norm between the initial and perturbed networks. We subsequently demonstrate that there exists at most one optimal perturbation that forces the network into the desirable steady-state. In the event where the optimal perturbation does not exist, we construct a family of sub-optimal perturbations that approximate the optimal solution arbitrarily closely. In the second part of the thesis, we address the inference problem of GRNs from time series data. We model the dynamics of the molecules using a system of ordinary differential equations corrupted by additive white noise. For large-scale networks, we formulate the inference problem as a constrained maximum likelihood estimation problem. We derive the molecular interactions that maximize the likelihood function while constraining the network to be sparse. We further propose a procedure to recover weak interactions based on the Bayesian information criterion. For small-size networks, we investigated the inference of a globally stable 7-gene melanoma genetic regulatory network from genetic perturbation experiments. We considered five

  15. Simulasi Virtual Local Area Network (VLAN Berbasis Software Defined Network (SDN Menggunakan POX Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohmat Tulloh


    Full Text Available VLAN (Virtual LAN merupakan sebuah teknologi yang dapat mengkonfigurasi jaringan logis independen dari struktur jaringan fisik. Hasil dari penelitian sebelumnya sudah diprediksi bahwa dibutuhkan Virtual Network yang akhirnya terciptalah VLAN. Namun paradigma jaringan saat ini tidak flexible, ketergantungan terhadap vendor sangat besar karena fungsi data plane dan control plane berada dalam satu paket device. SDN (Software defined network yang merupakan salahsatu evolusi teknologi jaringan sesuai dengan tuntutan yang berkembang dimana memisahkan fungsi data plane dan control plane pada suatu perangkat. POX Controller digunakan untuk men-simulasikan dan menguji Platform SDN (Software defined network. Pada penelitian ini menggunakan Openflow versi 1.0 untuk memasang header VLAN sehingga penelitian ini difokuskan untuk mengevaluasi performa forwarding VLAN yang memanfaatkan Openflow sebagai control plane dapat berfungsi dengan baik. Hasil penelitian ini mengusulkan penerapan karakteristik teknologi VLAN pada SDN karena telah berjalan dengan benar sesuai hasil pengujian konektifitas, verifikasi dan keamanan. Kemudian hasil pengujian lanjutan untuk melihat pengaruh SDN dengan skenario penambahan jumlah VLAN ID didapatkan bahwa set-up time akan bertambah seiring meningkatnya jumlah host dan dengan menggunakan protokol OpenFlow, latency yang terjadi di jaringan dapat dipantau dengan parameter round trip time (RTT yang stabil direntang 0,2 sampai 6 second walaupun jumlah vlan_id dan background traffic bertambah.

  16. Brain mineralocorticoid receptor function in control of salt balance and stress-adaptation. (United States)

    de Kloet, Edo Ronald; Joëls, Marian


    We will highlight in honor of Randall Sakai the peculiar characteristics of the brain mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) in its response pattern to the classical mineralocorticoid aldosterone and the naturally occurring glucocorticoids corticosterone and cortisol. Neurons in the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) and circumventricular organs express MR, which mediate selectively the action of aldosterone on salt appetite, sympathetic outflow and volume regulation. The MR-containing NTS neurons innervate limbic-forebrain circuits enabling aldosterone to also modulate reciprocally arousal, motivation, fear and reward. MR expressed in abundance in this limbic-forebrain circuitry, is target of cortisol and corticosterone in modulation of appraisal processes, memory performance and selection of coping strategy. Complementary to this role of limbic MR is the action mediated by the lower affinity glucocorticoid receptors (GR), which promote subsequently memory storage of the experience and facilitate behavioral adaptation. Current evidence supports the hypothesis that an imbalance between MR- and GR-mediated actions compromises resilience and adaptation to stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Acute aerobic exercise alters executive control network in preadolescent children


    Chen, Ai-Guo


    The present study aimed to investigate the effect of acute aerobic exercise on executive function (EF) and executive control network (ECN) in preadolescent children, and further explored the neural basis of acute aerobic exercise on EF in these children. We used a within-subjects design with a counterbalanced order. Nine healthy, right-handed children were scanned with resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging and performed an EF task both in baseline session and exercise session. T...

  18. Parental control of children using the internet and social networks


    Zuković Slađana; Slijepčević Senka


    The paper starts from the standpoint that the expansion of the Internet imposes a need for instructing the parents to adequately guide children to use safely this virtual space. That is why we present the results of an empirical research, aimed at establishing how parents control the behaviour of their children on the Internet and social networks. The research was conducted on a sample of 105 parents of the sixth grade elementary school pupils, and the applied questionnaire was construed for ...

  19. On a multi-channel stochastic network with controlled input (United States)

    Livinska, Hanna; Lebedev, Eugene


    In this paper stationary properties of queueing network of the type [M|M|∞]r are investigated provided that the input flow is controlled by a Markov chain. We consider two cases. In the one-dimensional case a generating function of the stationary distribution is obtained. The form of the generating function is a matrix version of the well-known Takasc formula. For a multivariate service process the condition of a stationary regime existence and a correlation matrix are found.

  20. Novel methods of utilizing Jitter for Network Congestion Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel paradigm for network congestion control. Instead of perpetual conflict as in TCP, a proof-of-concept first-ever protocol enabling inter-flow communication without infrastructure support thru a side channel constructed on generic FIFO queue behaviour is presented. This enables independent flows passing thru the same bottleneck queue to communicate and achieve fair capacity sharing and a stable equilibrium state in a rapid fashion.

  1. Control Capacity and A Random Sampling Method in Exploring Controllability of Complex Networks


    Jia, Tao; Barab?si, Albert-L?szl?


    Controlling complex systems is a fundamental challenge of network science. Recent advances indicate that control over the system can be achieved through a minimum driver node set (MDS). The existence of multiple MDS's suggests that nodes do not participate in control equally, prompting us to quantify their participations. Here we introduce control capacity quantifying the likelihood that a node is a driver node. To efficiently measure this quantity, we develop a random sampling algorithm. Thi...

  2. Resilient Wireless Sensor Networks Using Topology Control: A Review (United States)

    Huang, Yuanjiang; Martínez, José-Fernán; Sendra, Juana; López, Lourdes


    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) may be deployed in failure-prone environments, and WSNs nodes easily fail due to unreliable wireless connections, malicious attacks and resource-constrained features. Nevertheless, if WSNs can tolerate at most losing k − 1 nodes while the rest of nodes remain connected, the network is called k − connected. k is one of the most important indicators for WSNs’ self-healing capability. Following a WSN design flow, this paper surveys resilience issues from the topology control and multi-path routing point of view. This paper provides a discussion on transmission and failure models, which have an important impact on research results. Afterwards, this paper reviews theoretical results and representative topology control approaches to guarantee WSNs to be k − connected at three different network deployment stages: pre-deployment, post-deployment and re-deployment. Multi-path routing protocols are discussed, and many NP-complete or NP-hard problems regarding topology control are identified. The challenging open issues are discussed at the end. This paper can serve as a guideline to design resilient WSNs. PMID:26404272

  3. A survey of trust, control and information in networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Morten

    This paper focuses on which characteristics managers take into account when they choose and evaluate business partners, and the interrelationship between the constructs trust, control and information. The paper is based on a survey which includes 101 small and middle-sized manufacturing companies...... in Denmark. The results show that managers frequently express that trust is an important aspect of a good relationship. Also product-related attributes and relational attributes have a bearing in a network setting. On the other hand, no significant correlation between neither trust and control nor trust...

  4. Qualitative analysis and control of complex neural networks with delays

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Zhanshan; Zheng, Chengde


    This book focuses on the stability of the dynamical neural system, synchronization of the coupling neural system and their applications in automation control and electrical engineering. The redefined concept of stability, synchronization and consensus are adopted to provide a better explanation of the complex neural network. Researchers in the fields of dynamical systems, computer science, electrical engineering and mathematics will benefit from the discussions on complex systems. The book will also help readers to better understand the theory behind the control technique and its design.

  5. On the Convenience of Using Simulation Models to Optimize the Control Strategy of Molten-Salt Heat Storage Systems in Solar Thermal Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel J. Prieto


    Full Text Available Thermal oil has been used as heat transfer fluid in many solar thermal power plants, which also use molten salts as thermal energy storage system. Since the engineering of these plants is relatively new, control of the thermal energy storage system is currently achieved in manual or semiautomatic ways, controlling its variables with proportional-integral-derivative (PID regulators. Once the plant is running, it is very difficult to obtain permission to try new control strategies. Hence, most plants keep running on these simple, sometimes inefficient control algorithms. This paper explores the results obtained with different control strategies implemented on a complete model of energy storage systems based on molten salt. The results provided by the model allow the optimum control strategy to be selected. Comparison of the results obtained by simulation of these control strategies and actual results obtained from a real plant, confirm the accuracy of the selection made.

  6. Improved methods in neural network-based adaptive output feedback control, with applications to flight control (United States)

    Kim, Nakwan

    Utilizing the universal approximation property of neural networks, we develop several novel approaches to neural network-based adaptive output feedback control of nonlinear systems, and illustrate these approaches for several flight control applications. In particular, we address the problem of non-affine systems and eliminate the fixed point assumption present in earlier work. All of the stability proofs are carried out in a form that eliminates an algebraic loop in the neural network implementation. An approximate input/output feedback linearizing controller is augmented with a neural network using input/output sequences of the uncertain system. These approaches permit adaptation to both parametric uncertainty and unmodeled dynamics. All physical systems also have control position and rate limits, which may either deteriorate performance or cause instability for a sufficiently high control bandwidth. Here we apply a method for protecting an adaptive process from the effects of input saturation and time delays, known as "pseudo control hedging". This method was originally developed for the state feedback case, and we provide a stability analysis that extends its domain of applicability to the case of output feedback. The approach is illustrated by the design of a pitch-attitude flight control system for a linearized model of an R-50 experimental helicopter, and by the design of a pitch-rate control system for a 58-state model of a flexible aircraft consisting of rigid body dynamics coupled with actuator and flexible modes. A new approach to augmentation of an existing linear controller is introduced. It is especially useful when there is limited information concerning the plant model, and the existing controller. The approach is applied to the design of an adaptive autopilot for a guided munition. Design of a neural network adaptive control that ensures asymptotically stable tracking performance is also addressed.

  7. Dynamic Cooperative Clustering Based Power Assignment: Network Capacity and Lifetime Efficient Topology Control in Cooperative Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Hong Li


    Full Text Available Cooperative communication (CC is used in topology control as it can reduce the transmission power and expand the transmission range. However, all previous research on topology control under the CC model focused on maintaining network connectivity and minimizing the total energy consumption, which would lead to low network capacity, transmission interruption, or even network paralysis. Meanwhile, without considering the balance of energy consumption in the network, it would reduce the network lifetime and greatly affect the network performance. This paper tries to solve the above problems existing in the research on topology control under the CC model by proposing a power assignment (DCCPA algorithm based on dynamic cooperative clustering in cooperative ad hoc networks. The new algorithm clusters the network to maximize network capacity and makes the clusters communicate with each other by CC. To reduce the number of redundant links between clusters, we design a static clustering method by using Kruskal algorithm. To maximize the network lifetime, we also propose a cluster head rotating method which can reach a good tradeoff between residual energy and distance for the cluster head reselection. Experimental results show that DCCPA can improve 80% network capacity with Cooperative Bridges algorithm; meanwhile, it can improve 20% network lifetime.

  8. Development of cognitive and affective control networks and decision making. (United States)

    Kar, Bhoomika R; Vijay, Nivita; Mishra, Shreyasi


    Cognitive control and decision making are two important research areas in the realm of higher-order cognition. Control processes such as interference control and monitoring in cognitive and affective contexts have been found to influence the process of decision making. Development of control processes follows a gradual growth pattern associated with the prolonged maturation of underlying neural circuits including the lateral prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate, and the medial prefrontal cortex. These circuits are also involved in the control of processes that influences decision making, particularly with respect to choice behavior. Developmental studies on affective control have shown distinct patterns of brain activity with adolescents showing greater activation of amygdala whereas adults showing greater activity in ventral prefrontal cortex. Conflict detection, monitoring, and adaptation involve anticipation and subsequent performance adjustments which are also critical to complex decision making. We discuss the gradual developmental patterns observed in two of our studies on conflict monitoring and adaptation in affective and nonaffective contexts. Findings of these studies indicate the need to look at the differences in the effects of the development of cognitive and affective control on decision making in children and particularly adolescents. Neuroimaging studies have shown the involvement of separable neural networks for cognitive (medial prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate) and affective control (amygdala, ventral medial prefrontal cortex) shows that one system can affect the other also at the neural level. Hence, an understanding of the interaction and balance between the cognitive and affective brain networks may be crucial for self-regulation and decision making during the developmental period, particularly late childhood and adolescence. The chapter highlights the need for empirical investigation on the interaction between the different aspects

  9. Learning anticipation via spiking networks: application to navigation control. (United States)

    Arena, Paolo; Fortuna, Luigi; Frasca, Mattia; Patané, Luca


    In this paper, we introduce a network of spiking neurons devoted to navigation control. Three different examples, dealing with stimuli of increasing complexity, are investigated. In the first one, obstacle avoidance in a simulated robot is achieved through a network of spiking neurons. In the second example, a second layer is designed aiming to provide the robot with a target approaching system, making it able to move towards visual targets. Finally, a network of spiking neurons for navigation based on visual cues is introduced. In all cases, the robot was assumed to rely on some a priori known responses to low-level sensors (i.e., to contact sensors in the case of obstacles, to proximity target sensors in the case of visual targets, or to the visual target for navigation with visual cues). Based on their knowledge, the robot has to learn the response to high-level stimuli (i.e., range finder sensors or visual input). The biologically plausible paradigm of spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) is included in the network to make the system able to learn high-level responses that guide navigation through a simple unstructured environment. The learning procedure is based on classical conditioning.

  10. Statistical process control using optimized neural networks: a case study. (United States)

    Addeh, Jalil; Ebrahimzadeh, Ata; Azarbad, Milad; Ranaee, Vahid


    The most common statistical process control (SPC) tools employed for monitoring process changes are control charts. A control chart demonstrates that the process has altered by generating an out-of-control signal. This study investigates the design of an accurate system for the control chart patterns (CCPs) recognition in two aspects. First, an efficient system is introduced that includes two main modules: feature extraction module and classifier module. In the feature extraction module, a proper set of shape features and statistical feature are proposed as the efficient characteristics of the patterns. In the classifier module, several neural networks, such as multilayer perceptron, probabilistic neural network and radial basis function are investigated. Based on an experimental study, the best classifier is chosen in order to recognize the CCPs. Second, a hybrid heuristic recognition system is introduced based on cuckoo optimization algorithm (COA) algorithm to improve the generalization performance of the classifier. The simulation results show that the proposed algorithm has high recognition accuracy. Copyright © 2013 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The Study of Maglev Train Control and Diagnosis Networks Based on Role Automation Decentralization

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    LIU, Zhigang; WANG, Qi; TAN, Yongdong


    The control and diagnosis networks in Maglev Train are the most important parts. In the paper, the control and diagnosis network structures are discussed, and the disadvantages of them are described and analyzed...

  12. Messaging Performance of FIPA Interaction Protocols in Networked Embedded Controllers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Jehovani López Orozco


    Full Text Available Agent-based technologies in production control systems could facilitate seamless reconfiguration and integration of mechatronic devices/modules into systems. Advances in embedded controllers which are continuously improving computational capabilities allow for software modularization and distribution of decisions. Agent platforms running on embedded controllers could hide the complexity of bootstrap and communication. Therefore, it is important to investigate the messaging performance of the agents whose main motivation is the resource allocation in manufacturing systems (i.e., conveyor system. The tests were implemented using the FIPA-compliant JADE-LEAP agent platform. Agent containers were distributed through networked embedded controllers, and agents were communicating using request and contract-net FIPA interaction protocols. The test scenarios are organized in intercontainer and intracontainer communications. The work shows the messaging performance for the different test scenarios using both interaction protocols.

  13. Inefficacy of osmotic backwash induced by sodium chloride salt solution in controlling SWRO membrane fouling

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Farooque, A Mohammed; Al-Jeshi, Subhi; Saeed, Mohamed O; Alreweli, Ali


    ...) concentration solution on feed side of seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) membranes, online and offline, in controlling membrane fouling and therefore minimizing/eliminating the need for chemical cleaning...

  14. A molecular quantum spin network controlled by a single qubit. (United States)

    Schlipf, Lukas; Oeckinghaus, Thomas; Xu, Kebiao; Dasari, Durga Bhaktavatsala Rao; Zappe, Andrea; de Oliveira, Felipe Fávaro; Kern, Bastian; Azarkh, Mykhailo; Drescher, Malte; Ternes, Markus; Kern, Klaus; Wrachtrup, Jörg; Finkler, Amit


    Scalable quantum technologies require an unprecedented combination of precision and complexity for designing stable structures of well-controllable quantum systems on the nanoscale. It is a challenging task to find a suitable elementary building block, of which a quantum network can be comprised in a scalable way. We present the working principle of such a basic unit, engineered using molecular chemistry, whose collective control and readout are executed using a nitrogen vacancy (NV) center in diamond. The basic unit we investigate is a synthetic polyproline with electron spins localized on attached molecular side groups separated by a few nanometers. We demonstrate the collective readout and coherent manipulation of very few (≤ 6) of these S = 1/2 electronic spin systems and access their direct dipolar coupling tensor. Our results show that it is feasible to use spin-labeled peptides as a resource for a molecular qubit-based network, while at the same time providing simple optical readout of single quantum states through NV magnetometry. This work lays the foundation for building arbitrary quantum networks using well-established chemistry methods, which has many applications ranging from mapping distances in single molecules to quantum information processing.

  15. Remote controlled gate controller using a GSM network and Arduino platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pospisilik Martin


    Full Text Available Most remote controllers for entrance gates operate on free frequencies 433 or 868 MHz. However, this technology limits the user comfort, as it is usually not common that bi-directional communication is established. A higher comfort of controlling the entrance gates can be achieved by employing the GSM network for transmission of commands and messages between the gate controller and the user. In this case, only a conventional GSM cellular phone is needed to control the gate. A description of such a controller based on the GSM module and Arduino controller is provided in this paper.

  16. A QoS-Oriented Congestion Control Mechanism for Satellite Networks


    Heyu Liu; Fuchun Sun


    The sharply increasing amount of data, which are transferred by the satellite network, requires the satellite network to provide quality-of-service (QoS). However, the upsurge in the data flow leads to the network congestion, impeding its ability to offer QoS. Congestion control mechanisms, deployed in the ground networks, have been thoroughly studied. But those deployed in the satellite networks have not been studied yet. As satellite networks are now important supplements to the ground back...

  17. Improved Road-Network-Flow Control Strategy Based on Macroscopic Fundamental Diagrams and Queuing Length in Connected-Vehicle Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohui Lin


    Full Text Available Connected-vehicles network provides opportunities and conditions for improving traffic signal control, and macroscopic fundamental diagrams (MFD can control the road network at the macrolevel effectively. This paper integrated proposed real-time access to the number of mobile vehicles and the maximum road queuing length in the Connected-vehicles network. Moreover, when implementing a simple control strategy to limit the boundary flow of a road network based on MFD, we determined whether the maximum queuing length of each boundary section exceeds the road-safety queuing length in real-time calculations and timely adjusted the road-network influx rate to avoid the overflow phenomenon in the boundary section. We established a road-network microtraffic simulation model in VISSIM software taking a district as the experimental area, determined MFD of the region based on the number of mobile vehicles, and weighted traffic volume of the road network. When the road network was tending to saturate, we implemented a simple control strategy and our algorithm limits the boundary flow. Finally, we compared the traffic signal control indicators with three strategies: (1 no control strategy, (2 boundary control, and (3 boundary control with limiting queue strategy. The results show that our proposed algorithm is better than the other two.

  18. Wearable Device Control Platform Technology for Network Application Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heejung Kim


    Full Text Available Application development platform is the most important environment in IT industry. There are a variety of platforms. Although the native development enables application to optimize, various languages and software development kits need to be acquired according to the device. The coexistence of smart devices and platforms has rendered the native development approach time and cost consuming. Cross-platform development emerged as a response to these issues. These platforms generate applications for multiple devices based on web languages. Nevertheless, development requires additional implementation based on a native language because of the coverage and functions of supported application programming interfaces (APIs. Wearable devices have recently attracted considerable attention. These devices only support Bluetooth-based interdevice communication, thereby making communication and device control impossible beyond a certain range. We propose Network Application Agent (NetApp-Agent in order to overcome issues. NetApp-Agent based on the Cordova is a wearable device control platform for the development of network applications, controls input/output functions of smartphones and wearable/IoT through the Cordova and Native API, and enables device control and information exchange by external users by offering a self-defined API. We confirmed the efficiency of the proposed platform through experiments and a qualitative assessment of its implementation.

  19. Model of nonhierarchical control in distributed sensor networks (United States)

    Meinkoehn, Jens; Knoll, A.


    In this paper a model of lateral coordination control in sensor networks is proposed. It is based on the notion of negotiated cooperation between pairs of equal and autonomously acting sensor nodes. The actual communication phase is preceded by a bidding scheme to establish appropriate communication links. This model incorporates the aspect of network self- organization in order to adapt to changing environmental conditions. The cooperation is modelled on human behavior in the case of a task being worked on sequentially by team members with equal rights but different capabilities. To this end, a generalized approach to the organization of distributed systems is given and a cooperation protocol is described to achieve the desired lateral coordination. The qualitative reasoning is supplemented by simulation results to support the superiority of lateral over pure vertical coordination, particularly under severe environmental conditions, such as sensor failure.

  20. Glass-Fiber Networks as an Orbit for Ions: Fabrication of Excellent Antistatic PP/GF Composites with Extremely Low Organic Salt Loadings. (United States)

    Gu, Senlin; Zhu, Leon; Mercier, Claude; Li, Yongjin


    Polypropylene (PP)/glass fiber (GF) composites showing excellent antistatic performance were prepared by a simple melt process blending PP with GF and a small amount of organic salts (OSs). Two types of OSs, tribuyl(octyl)phosphonium bis(trifloromethanesulfonyl)imide (TBOP-TFSI) and lithium bis(trifloromethanesulfonyl)imide (Li-TFSI), with equivalent anions were used as antistatic agents for the composites. It was found that the GF and OSs exhibited significant synergistic effects on the antistatic performance as well as the mechanical properties of the composites. On the one hand, the incorporation of GF significantly enhanced the electric conductivity of the composites at a constant OS loading. On the other hand, the two types of OSs improved the interfacial adhesion between the GF and the PP matrix, which led to an enhancement of the mechanical properties. This study showed that OSs had specific interactions with GFs and were absorbed exclusively on the GF surface. The GF network in the PP matrix provided perfect orbits for the movement of ions, inducing the excellent antistatic performance exhibited by the PP/GF composites at an OS loading of as low as 0.25 wt % when the GF formed a network in the PP matrix.

  1. Non-Markovian quantum feedback networks II: Controlled flows (United States)

    Gough, John E.


    The concept of a controlled flow of a dynamical system, especially when the controlling process feeds information back about the system, is of central importance in control engineering. In this paper, we build on the ideas presented by Bouten and van Handel [Quantum Stochastics and Information: Statistics, Filtering and Control (World Scientific, 2008)] and develop a general theory of quantum feedback. We elucidate the relationship between the controlling processes, Z, and the measured processes, Y, and to this end we make a distinction between what we call the input picture and the output picture. We should note that the input-output relations for the noise fields have additional terms not present in the standard theory but that the relationship between the control processes and measured processes themselves is internally consistent—we do this for the two main cases of quadrature measurement and photon-counting measurement. The theory is general enough to include a modulating filter which post-processes the measurement readout Y before returning to the system. This opens up the prospect of applying very general engineering feedback control techniques to open quantum systems in a systematic manner, and we consider a number of specific modulating filter problems. Finally, we give a brief argument as to why most of the rules for making instantaneous feedback connections [J. Gough and M. R. James, Commun. Math. Phys. 287, 1109 (2009)] ought to apply for controlled dynamical networks as well.

  2. Congestion control algorithms in wireless sensor networks: Trends and opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Afsar Shah


    Full Text Available Congestion control is an extremely important area within wireless sensor networks (WSN, where traffic becomes greater than the aggregated or individual capacity of the underlying channels. Therefore, special considerations are required to develop more sophisticated techniques to avoid, detect, and resolve congestion. The constrained resources of the WSN must be considered while devising such techniques to achieve the maximum throughput. Various approaches have been introduced in the past few years that include routing protocols aided with congestion detection and control mechanism, and dedicated congestion control protocols. In the former schemes, the congestion avoidance is performed by the sink node that causes topology reset and bulk traffic drop. As a consequence, the latter mentioned congestion control protocols addressing the congestion avoidance, detection, and resolution were introduced at the node level. In this paper, we explore mechanisms for controlling congestion in the WSNs and present a comparative study. The congestion control schemes are categorized as centralized with partial congestion control and distributed with dedicated congestion control.

  3. Controllable deformation of salt water-filled carbon nanotubes using an electric field with application to molecular sieving (United States)

    Ye, Hongfei; Zheng, Yonggang; Zhang, Zhongqiang; Zhang, Hongwu; Chen, Zhen


    Precisely controlling the deformation of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) has practical application in the development of nanoscale functional devices, although it is a challenging task. Here, we propose a novel method to guide the deformation of CNTs through filling them with salt water and applying an electric field. With the electric field along the axial direction, the height of CNTs is enlarged by the axial electric force due to the internal ions and polar water molecules. Under an electric field with two mutually orthogonal components, the transverse electric force could further induce the bending deformation of CNTs. Based on the classical rod and beam theories, two mechanical models are constructed to verify and quantitatively describe the relationships between the tension and bending deformations of CNTs and the electric field intensity. Moreover, by means of the electric field-driven tension behavior of CNTs, we design a stretchable molecular sieve to control the flow rate of mixed gas and collect a single high-purity gas. The present work opens up new avenues in the design and fabrication of nanoscale controlling units.

  4. Neural network based adaptive control for nonlinear dynamic regimes (United States)

    Shin, Yoonghyun

    Adaptive control designs using neural networks (NNs) based on dynamic inversion are investigated for aerospace vehicles which are operated at highly nonlinear dynamic regimes. NNs play a key role as the principal element of adaptation to approximately cancel the effect of inversion error, which subsequently improves robustness to parametric uncertainty and unmodeled dynamics in nonlinear regimes. An adaptive control scheme previously named 'composite model reference adaptive control' is further developed so that it can be applied to multi-input multi-output output feedback dynamic inversion. It can have adaptive elements in both the dynamic compensator (linear controller) part and/or in the conventional adaptive controller part, also utilizing state estimation information for NN adaptation. This methodology has more flexibility and thus hopefully greater potential than conventional adaptive designs for adaptive flight control in highly nonlinear flight regimes. The stability of the control system is proved through Lyapunov theorems, and validated with simulations. The control designs in this thesis also include the use of 'pseudo-control hedging' techniques which are introduced to prevent the NNs from attempting to adapt to various actuation nonlinearities such as actuator position and rate saturations. Control allocation is introduced for the case of redundant control effectors including thrust vectoring nozzles. A thorough comparison study of conventional and NN-based adaptive designs for a system under a limit cycle, wing-rock, is included in this research, and the NN-based adaptive control designs demonstrate their performances for two highly maneuverable aerial vehicles, NASA F-15 ACTIVE and FQM-117B unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), operated under various nonlinearities and uncertainties.

  5. Development of Active External Network Topology Module for Floodlight SDN Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Noskov


    Full Text Available Traditional network architecture is inflexible and complicated. This observation has led to a paradigm shift towards software-defined networking (SDN, where network management level is separated from data forwarding level. This change was made possible by control plane transfer from the switching equipment to software modules that run on a dedicated server, called the controller (or network operating system, or network applications, that work with this controller. Methods of representation, storage and communication interfaces with network topology elements are the most important aspects of network operating systems available to SDN user because performance of some key controller modules is heavily dependent on internal representation of the network topology. Notably, firewall and routing modules are examples of such modules. This article describes the methods used for presentation and storage of network topologies, as well as interface to the corresponding Floodlight modules. An alternative algorithm has been suggested and developed for message exchange conveying network topology alterations between the controller and network applications. Proposed algorithm makes implementation of module alerting based on subscription to the relevant events. API for interaction between controller and network applications has been developed. This algorithm and API formed the base for Topology Tracker module capable to inform network applications about the changes that had occurred in the network topology and also stores compact representation of the network to speed up the interaction process.

  6. TCP Congestion Control for the Networks with Markovian Jump Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOMENI, H. R.


    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the problem of TCP congestion control for the class of communication networks with random parameters. The linear dynamic model of TCP New Reno in congestion avoidance mode is considered which contains round trip delays in both state and input. The randomness of link capacity, round trip time delay and the number of TCP sessions is modeled with a continuous-time finite state Markov process. An Active Queue Management (AQM technique is then used to adjust the queue level of the congested link to a predefined value. For this purpose, a dynamic output feedback controller with mode dependent parameters is synthesized to stochastically stabilize the TCP/AQM dynamics. The procedure of the control synthesis is implemented by solving a linear matrix inequality (LMI. The results are tested within a simulation example and the effectiveness of the proposed design method is verified.

  7. Neural network output feedback control of robot formations. (United States)

    Dierks, Travis; Jagannathan, Sarangapani


    In this paper, a combined kinematic/torque output feedback control law is developed for leader-follower-based formation control using backstepping to accommodate the dynamics of the robots and the formation in contrast with kinematic-based formation controllers. A neural network (NN) is introduced to approximate the dynamics of the follower and its leader using online weight tuning. Furthermore, a novel NN observer is designed to estimate the linear and angular velocities of both the follower robot and its leader. It is shown, by using the Lyapunov theory, that the errors for the entire formation are uniformly ultimately bounded while relaxing the separation principle. In addition, the stability of the formation in the presence of obstacles, is examined using Lyapunov methods, and by treating other robots in the formation as obstacles, collisions within the formation are prevented. Numerical results are provided to verify the theoretical conjectures.

  8. Biogeochemical and hydrologic processes controlling mercury cycling in Great Salt Lake, Utah (United States)

    Naftz, D.; Kenney, T.; Angeroth, C.; Waddell, B.; Darnall, N.; Perschon, C.; Johnson, W. P.


    Great Salt Lake (GSL), in the Western United States, is a terminal lake with a highly variable surface area that can exceed 5,100 km2. The open water and adjacent wetlands of the GSL ecosystem support millions of migratory waterfowl and shorebirds from throughout the Western Hemisphere, as well as a brine shrimp industry with annual revenues exceeding 70 million dollars. Despite the ecologic and economic significance of GSL, little is known about the biogeochemical cycling of mercury (Hg) and no water-quality standards currently exist for this system. Whole water samples collected since 2000 were determined to contain elevated concentrations of total Hg (100 ng/L) and methyl Hg (33 ng/L). The elevated levels of methyl Hg are likely the result of high rates of SO4 reduction and associated Hg methylation in persistently anoxic areas of the lake at depths greater than 6.5 m below the water surface. Hydroacoustic equipment deployed in this anoxic layer indicates a "conveyor belt" flow system that can distribute methyl Hg in a predominantly southerly direction throughout the southern half of GSL (fig. 1, URL: AUG06.pdf). Periodic and sustained wind events on GSL may result in transport of the methyl Hg-rich anoxic water and bottom sediments into the oxic and biologically active regions. Sediment traps positioned above the anoxic brine interface have captured up to 6 mm of bottom sediment during cumulative wind-driven resuspension events (fig. 2, URL: Vertical velocity data collected with hydroacoustic equipment indicates upward flow > 1.5 cm/sec during transient wind events (fig. 3, URL: Transport of methyl Hg into the oxic regions of GSL is supported by biota samples. The median Hg concentration (wet weight) in brine shrimp increased seasonally from the spring to fall time period and is likely a

  9. Output feedback control of a quadrotor UAV using neural networks. (United States)

    Dierks, Travis; Jagannathan, Sarangapani


    In this paper, a new nonlinear controller for a quadrotor unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) is proposed using neural networks (NNs) and output feedback. The assumption on the availability of UAV dynamics is not always practical, especially in an outdoor environment. Therefore, in this work, an NN is introduced to learn the complete dynamics of the UAV online, including uncertain nonlinear terms like aerodynamic friction and blade flapping. Although a quadrotor UAV is underactuated, a novel NN virtual control input scheme is proposed which allows all six degrees of freedom (DOF) of the UAV to be controlled using only four control inputs. Furthermore, an NN observer is introduced to estimate the translational and angular velocities of the UAV, and an output feedback control law is developed in which only the position and the attitude of the UAV are considered measurable. It is shown using Lyapunov theory that the position, orientation, and velocity tracking errors, the virtual control and observer estimation errors, and the NN weight estimation errors for each NN are all semiglobally uniformly ultimately bounded (SGUUB) in the presence of bounded disturbances and NN functional reconstruction errors while simultaneously relaxing the separation principle. The effectiveness of proposed output feedback control scheme is then demonstrated in the presence of unknown nonlinear dynamics and disturbances, and simulation results are included to demonstrate the theoretical conjecture.

  10. Design and Research on Automotive Controller Area Network Bus Analyzer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwei CUI


    Full Text Available The detection method of automotive controller area network bus is researched in this paper. Failure identifying of CAN bus under different working conditions has been realized. In order to realizing intelligent failure diagnosis, data fusion means has been put forward in this paper. The composition of analysis and detection system is introduced. By analyzing and processing the data of CAN bus and sensors, work condition of automotive is achieved. Multi-pattern data fusion model and algorithm for failure diagnosis are researched. The analyzer and detection system designed in this paper can be applied to automotive fault analysis, troubleshooting and maintenance.

  11. Robust control of integrated motor-transmission powertrain system over controller area network for automotive applications (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaoyuan; Zhang, Hui; Cao, Dongpu; Fang, Zongde


    Integrated motor-transmission (IMT) powertrain system with directly coupled motor and gearbox is a good choice for electric commercial vehicles (e.g., pure electric buses) due to its potential in motor size reduction and energy efficiency improvement. However, the controller design for powertrain oscillation damping becomes challenging due to the elimination of damping components. On the other hand, as controller area network (CAN) is commonly adopted in modern vehicle system, the network-induced time-varying delays that caused by bandwidth limitation will further lead to powertrain vibration or even destabilize the powertrain control system. Therefore, in this paper, a robust energy-to-peak controller is proposed for the IMT powertrain system to address the oscillation damping problem and also attenuate the external disturbance. The control law adopted here is based on a multivariable PI control, which ensures the applicability and performance of the proposed controller in engineering practice. With the linearized delay uncertainties characterized by polytopic inclusions, a delay-free closed-loop augmented system is established for the IMT powertrain system under discrete-time framework. The proposed controller design problem is then converted to a static output feedback (SOF) controller design problem where the feedback control gains are obtained by solving a set of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). The effectiveness as well as robustness of the proposed controller is demonstrated by comparing its performance against that of a conventional PI controller.

  12. Control of 12-Cylinder Camless Engine with Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashhab Moh’d Sami


    Full Text Available The 12-cyliner camless engine breathing process is modeled with artificial neural networks (ANN’s. The inputs to the net are the intake valve lift (IVL and intake valve closing timing (IVC whereas the output of the net is the cylinder air charge (CAC. The ANN is trained with data collected from an engine simulation model which is based on thermodynamics principles and calibrated against real engine data. A method for adapting single-output feed-forward neural networks is proposed and applied to the camless engine ANN model. As a consequence the overall 12-cyliner camless engine feedback controller is upgraded and the necessary changes are implemented in order to contain the adaptive neural network with the objective of tracking the cylinder air charge (driver’s torque demand while minimizing the pumping losses (increasing engine efficiency. All the needed measurements are extracted only from the two conventional and inexpensive sensors, namely, the mass air flow through the throttle body (MAF and the intake manifold absolute pressure (MAP sensors. The feedback controller’s capability is demonstrated through computer simulation.

  13. An Efficient Wireless Sensor Network for Industrial Monitoring and Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Aponte-Luis


    Full Text Available This paper presents the design of a wireless sensor network particularly designed for remote monitoring and control of industrial parameters. The article describes the network components, protocol and sensor deployment, aimed to accomplish industrial constraint and to assure reliability and low power consumption. A particular case of study is presented. The system consists of a base station, gas sensing nodes, a tree-based routing scheme for the wireless sensor nodes and a real-time monitoring application that operates from a remote computer and a mobile phone. The system assures that the industrial safety quality and the measurement and monitoring system achieves an efficient industrial monitoring operations. The robustness of the developed system and the security in the communications have been guaranteed both in hardware and software level. The system is flexible and can be adapted to different environments. The testing of the system confirms the feasibility of the proposed implementation and validates the functional requirements of the developed devices, the networking solution and the power consumption management.

  14. An Efficient Wireless Sensor Network for Industrial Monitoring and Control. (United States)

    Aponte-Luis, Juan; Gómez-Galán, Juan Antonio; Gómez-Bravo, Fernando; Sánchez-Raya, Manuel; Alcina-Espigado, Javier; Teixido-Rovira, Pedro Miguel


    This paper presents the design of a wireless sensor network particularly designed for remote monitoring and control of industrial parameters. The article describes the network components, protocol and sensor deployment, aimed to accomplish industrial constraint and to assure reliability and low power consumption. A particular case of study is presented. The system consists of a base station, gas sensing nodes, a tree-based routing scheme for the wireless sensor nodes and a real-time monitoring application that operates from a remote computer and a mobile phone. The system assures that the industrial safety quality and the measurement and monitoring system achieves an efficient industrial monitoring operations. The robustness of the developed system and the security in the communications have been guaranteed both in hardware and software level. The system is flexible and can be adapted to different environments. The testing of the system confirms the feasibility of the proposed implementation and validates the functional requirements of the developed devices, the networking solution and the power consumption management.

  15. Idiotypic immune networks in mobile-robot control. (United States)

    Whitbrook, Amanda M; Aickelin, Uwe; Garibaldi, Jonathan M


    Jerne's idiotypic-network theory postulates that the immune response involves interantibody stimulation and suppression, as well as matching to antigens. The theory has proved the most popular artificial immune system (AIS) model for incorporation into behavior-based robotics, but guidelines for implementing idiotypic selection are scarce. Furthermore, the direct effects of employing the technique have not been demonstrated in the form of a comparison with nonidiotypic systems. This paper aims to address these issues. A method for integrating an idiotypic AIS network with a reinforcement-learning (RL)-based control system is described, and the mechanisms underlying antibody stimulation and suppression are explained in detail. Some hypotheses that account for the network advantage are put forward and tested using three systems with increasing idiotypic complexity. The basic RL, a simplified hybrid AIS-RL that implements idiotypic selection independently of derived concentration levels, and a full hybrid AIS-RL scheme are examined. The test bed takes the form of a simulated Pioneer robot that is required to navigate through maze worlds detecting and tracking door markers.

  16. Evolution of Wireless Sensor Networks for Industrial Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Low


    Full Text Available Technologies evolve in a process of gradual scientific change, but the commercial application of technologies is discontinuous. Managers interested in technology evolution can integrate these contrasting ideas using a powerful theoretical framework, based on the concept of punctuated equilibrium from evolutionary biology. The framework, which enables the differentiation of the technical evolution of a technology from its market application, is used in this article to compare the two standards for wireless sensor networks (WSN for industrial instrumentation and control: WirelessHART and ISA100.11a. The two WSN standards are the product of two different market contexts, which have selected different minimum viable technologies for evolution in their respective niches. Network security issues present some important selection criteria. Both WSN standards implement security countermeasures against localized wireless network attacks based on the application of the AES encryption standard, but some specific security threats – some local, others remotely launched – are only well-defended by the adoption of public-key cryptographic (PKC protocols, which only ISA100.11a supports. This article concludes that the mainstream market potential of the Internet has influenced the evolution of ISA100.11a and will continue to demand that each WSN standard evolve in ways that are difficult to predict.

  17. Mars Digital Image Model 2.1 Control Network (United States)

    Archinal, B. A.; Kirk, R. L.; Duxbury, T. C.; Lee, E. M.; Sucharski, R.; Cook, D.


    USGS is currently preparing a new version of its global Mars digital image mosaic, which will be known as MDIM 2.1. As part of this process we are completing a new photogrammetric solution of the global Mars control network. This is an improved version of the network established earlier by RAND and USGS personnel, as partially described previously. MDIM 2.1 will have many improvements over earlier Viking Orbiter (VO) global mosaics. Geometrically, it will be an orthoimage product, draped on Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) derived topography, thus accounting properly for the commonly oblique VO imagery. Through the network being described here it will be tied to the newly defined IAU/IAG 2000 Mars coordinate system via ties to MOLA data. Thus, MDIM 2.1 will provide complete global orthorectified imagery coverage of Mars at the resolution of 1/256 deg of MDIM 2.0, and be compatible with MOLA and other products produced in the current coordinate system.

  18. Rbfox2 controls autoregulation in RNA-binding protein networks. (United States)

    Jangi, Mohini; Boutz, Paul L; Paul, Prakriti; Sharp, Phillip A


    The tight regulation of splicing networks is critical for organismal development. To maintain robust splicing patterns, many splicing factors autoregulate their expression through alternative splicing-coupled nonsense-mediated decay (AS-NMD). However, as negative autoregulation results in a self-limiting window of splicing factor expression, it is unknown how variations in steady-state protein levels can arise in different physiological contexts. Here, we demonstrate that Rbfox2 cross-regulates AS-NMD events within RNA-binding proteins to alter their expression. Using individual nucleotide-resolution cross-linking immunoprecipitation coupled to high-throughput sequencing (iCLIP) and mRNA sequencing, we identified >200 AS-NMD splicing events that are bound by Rbfox2 in mouse embryonic stem cells. These "silent" events are characterized by minimal apparent splicing changes but appreciable changes in gene expression upon Rbfox2 knockdown due to degradation of the NMD-inducing isoform. Nearly 70 of these AS-NMD events fall within genes encoding RNA-binding proteins, many of which are autoregulated. As with the coding splicing events that we found to be regulated by Rbfox2, silent splicing events are evolutionarily conserved and frequently contain the Rbfox2 consensus UGCAUG. Our findings uncover an unexpectedly broad and multilayer regulatory network controlled by Rbfox2 and offer an explanation for how autoregulatory splicing networks are tuned.

  19. Overflow control mechanism (OCM) for Ethernet passive optical networks (EPONs) (United States)

    Hajduczenia, Marek; da Silva, Henrique J. A.; Monteiro, Paulo P.


    The nonfragmentable nature of Ethernet data frames, as well as operation of the priority oriented packet schedulers in the optical network units, in conjunction with heavy network load conditions and the lack of detailed knowledge about the queue's composition at the optical line terminal (OLT) level, result in the creation of upstream channel slot remainders. The existing methods, in the form of nonpreemptive packet schedulers and multithreshold reporting process defined vaguely by the IEEE 802.3-2005 standard, result in either increased packet delay or Ethernet passive optical network (EPON) system incompatibility, respectively, since threshold processing was never officially defined in the scope of the respective EPON standard. We propose an alternative approach, based on basic modifications of the standard and extended GATE multipoint control protocol data unit format and meaning, allowing for the OLT packet scheduling agent to grant always exactly the requested slot size, thus preventing creation of any upstream channel slot remainders. It is estimated that, on average, ˜3% of upstream channel bandwidth can be salvaged when slot remainders are absent in the upstream channel transmission.

  20. Microglia Control Neuronal Network Excitability via BDNF Signalling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Ferrini


    Full Text Available Microglia-neuron interactions play a crucial role in several neurological disorders characterized by altered neural network excitability, such as epilepsy and neuropathic pain. While a series of potential messengers have been postulated as substrates of the communication between microglia and neurons, including cytokines, purines, prostaglandins, and nitric oxide, the specific links between messengers, microglia, neuronal networks, and diseases have remained elusive. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF released by microglia emerges as an exception in this riddle. Here, we review the current knowledge on the role played by microglial BDNF in controlling neuronal excitability by causing disinhibition. The efforts made by different laboratories during the last decade have collectively provided a robust mechanistic paradigm which elucidates the mechanisms involved in the synthesis and release of BDNF from microglia, the downstream TrkB-mediated signals in neurons, and the biophysical mechanism by which disinhibition occurs, via the downregulation of the K+-Cl− cotransporter KCC2, dysrupting Cl−homeostasis, and hence the strength of GABAA- and glycine receptor-mediated inhibition. The resulting altered network activity appears to explain several features of the associated pathologies. Targeting the molecular players involved in this canonical signaling pathway may lead to novel therapeutic approach for ameliorating a wide array of neural dysfunctions.

  1. Interactive control over a programmable computer network using a multi-touch surface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strijkers, R.J.; Muller, L.; Cristea, M.L.; Belleman, R.; de Laat, C.; Sloot, P.; Meijer, R.


    This article introduces the Interactive Network concept and describes the design and implementation of the first prototype. In an Interactive Network humans become an integral part of the control system to manage programmable networks and grid networks. The implementation consists of a multi-touch

  2. A scaled experimental study of control blade insertion dynamics in Pebble-Bed Fluoride-Salt-Cooled High-Temperature Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buster, Grant C., E-mail:; Laufer, Michael R.; Peterson, Per F.


    Highlights: • A granular dynamics scaling methodology is discussed. • Control blade insertion in a representative pebble-bed core is experimentally studied. • Control blade insertion forces and pebble displacements are experimentally measured. • X-ray tomography techniques are used to observe pebble displacement distributions. - Abstract: Direct control element insertion into a pebble-bed reactor core is proposed as a viable control system in molten-salt-cooled pebble-bed reactors. Unlike helium-cooled pebble-bed reactors, this reactor type uses spherical fuel elements with near-neutral buoyancy in the molten-salt coolant, thus reducing contact forces on the fuel elements. This study uses the X-ray Pebble Bed Recirculation Experiment facility to measure the force required to insert a control element directly into a scaled pebble-bed. The required control element insertion force, and therefore the contact force on fuel elements, is measured to be well below recommended limits. Additionally, X-ray tomography is used to observe how the direct insertion of a control element physically displaces spherical fuel elements. The tomography results further support the viability of direct control element insertion into molten-salt-cooled pebble-bed reactor cores.

  3. Different actions of salt and pyrophosphate on protein extraction from myofibrils reveal the mechanism controlling myosin dissociation. (United States)

    Shen, Qingwu W; Swartz, Darl R; Wang, Zhenyu; Liu, Yue; Gao, Yuan; Zhang, Dequan


    Myosin is the major functional protein in muscle foods for water retention, protein binding/gelation and fat holding/emulsification. To maximize its functionality, myosin needs to be released from thick filaments. Understanding of the mechanism controlling myosin extraction will help improve quality traits of meat products. The data obtained show that actomyosin binding is the rate-limiting constraint for myosin release in rigor condition. Magnesium pyrophosphate (MgPPi) increased myosin extraction by weakening actomyosin interaction and maximized myosin extraction at 0.4 mol L(-1) NaCl, which was not attained at 1.0 mol L(-1) NaCl in the absence of PPi. Interaction between myosin rod domains is another critical constraint for myosin extraction, which is, rather than PPi, salt dependent. Further, our data suggest that MyBP-C (myosin binding protein C) and M-line might not be of significance in the process of NaCl-induced myosin extraction, though further study was needed. Our study provides new insight into the mechanism that controls myosin extraction from intact sarcomere, which could be applied to maximize myosin function and to improve meat quality in practice. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Combinations of nisin with salt (NaCl) to control Listeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Feb 22, 2010 ... (European Food Safety Authority, 2006), this pathogen has the ability to growth over a wide range of .... oblique Henry illumination system, Gram staining, examination for catalase activity, tumbling motility, ... nisin treated simples when compared to the control (p <. 0.001) (Figure 1). This reduction may be ...

  5. Using a low-sodium, high-potassium salt substitute to reduce blood pressure among Tibetans with high blood pressure: a patient-blinded randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingshan Zhao

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of a low-sodium and high-potassium salt-substitute on lowering blood pressure (BP among Tibetans living at high altitude (4300 meters. METHOD: The study was a patient-blinded randomized controlled trial conducted between February and May 2009 in Dangxiong County, Tibetan Autonomous Region, China. A total of 282 Tibetans aged 40 or older with known hypertension (systolic BP≥140 mmHg were recruited and randomized to intervention (salt-substitute, 65% sodium chloride, 25% potassium chloride and 10% magnesium sulfate or control (100% sodium chloride in a 1: 1 allocation ratio with three months' supply. Primary outcome was defined as the change in BP levels measured from baseline to followed-up with an automated sphygmomanometer. Per protocol (PP and intention to treat (ITT analyses were conducted. RESULTS: After the three months' intervention period, the net reduction in SBP/DBP in the intervention group in comparison to the control group was -8.2/-3.4 mmHg (all p<0.05 in PP analysis, after adjusting for baseline BP and other variables. ITT analysis showed the net reduction in SBP/DBP at -7.6/-3.5 mmHg with multiple imputations (all p<0.05. Furthermore, the whole distribution of blood pressure showed an overall decline in SBP/DBP and the proportion of patients with BP under control (SBP/DBP<140 mmHg was significantly higher in salt-substitute group in comparison to the regular salt group (19.2% vs. 8.8%, p = 0.027. CONCLUSION: Low sodium high potassium salt-substitute is effective in lowering both systolic and diastolic blood pressure and offers a simple, low-cost approach for hypertension control among Tibetans in China. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT01429246.

  6. Comparative studies on two formulas of double fortified salt and it’s impact on anemia control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Nair


    the issue in public health scenario.The vulnerable groups are the most affected ones. Even though the supplementation program is in place, compliance is not at its optimal levels. India already has an existing program on USI norms to supply iodized salt to all populations. Therefore, double fortification of salt with iron and iodine as a tool to combat these deficiencies was the best thought approach by various scientists. The efforts towards producing a stable formula containing iron merging with iodine together was pioneered by Dr. Narsinga Rao in early 70s with all final inputs to design the formula and launch it by 1984. As a sequel to National Policy in the country, National Institute of Nutrition (NIN evolved the concept of double-fortified salt (DFS with iodine and iron for controlling the deficiencies of both these micro nutrients in a single measure as one intervention to control two micronutrient deficiencies. With lot of technical issues, bioavailabilty related issues it took a whale of time for its public utility level and took almost twenty years for localisation of the product into the market.The details of the product is provided in Table1

  7. Web based educational tool for neural network robot control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jure Čas


    Full Text Available Abstract— This paper describes the application for teleoperations of the SCARA robot via the internet. The SCARA robot is used by students of mehatronics at the University of Maribor as a remote educational tool. The developed software consists of two parts i.e. the continuous neural network sliding mode controller (CNNSMC and the graphical user interface (GUI. Application is based on two well-known commercially available software packages i.e. MATLAB/Simulink and LabVIEW. Matlab/Simulink and the DSP2 Library for Simulink are used for control algorithm development, simulation and executable code generation. While this code is executing on the DSP-2 Roby controller and through the analog and digital I/O lines drives the real process, LabVIEW virtual instrument (VI, running on the PC, is used as a user front end. LabVIEW VI provides the ability for on-line parameter tuning, signal monitoring, on-line analysis and via Remote Panels technology also teleoperation. The main advantage of a CNNSMC is the exploitation of its self-learning capability. When friction or an unexpected impediment occurs for example, the user of a remote application has no information about any changed robot dynamic and thus is unable to dispatch it manually. This is not a control problem anymore because, when a CNNSMC is used, any approximation of changed robot dynamic is estimated independently of the remote’s user. Index Terms—LabVIEW; Matlab/Simulink; Neural network control; remote educational tool; robotics

  8. Distributed Interplanetary Delay/Disruption Tolerant Network (DTN) Monitor and Control System (United States)

    Wang, Shin-Ywan


    The main purpose of Distributed interplanetary Delay Tolerant Network Monitor and Control System as a DTN system network management implementation in JPL is defined to provide methods and tools that can monitor the DTN operation status, detect and resolve DTN operation failures in some automated style while either space network or some heterogeneous network is infused with DTN capability. In this paper, "DTN Monitor and Control system in Deep Space Network (DSN)" exemplifies a case how DTN Monitor and Control system can be adapted into a space network as it is DTN enabled.

  9. Neural network based optimal control of HVAC&R systems (United States)

    Ning, Min

    Heating, Ventilation, Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration (HVAC&R) systems have wide applications in providing a desired indoor environment for different types of buildings. It is well acknowledged that 30%-40% of the total energy generated is consumed by buildings and HVAC&R systems alone account for more than 50% of the building energy consumption. Low operational efficiency especially under partial load conditions and poor control are part of reasons for such high energy consumption. To improve energy efficiency, HVAC&R systems should be properly operated to maintain a comfortable and healthy indoor environment under dynamic ambient and indoor conditions with the least energy consumption. This research focuses on the optimal operation of HVAC&R systems. The optimization problem is formulated and solved to find the optimal set points for the chilled water supply temperature, discharge air temperature and AHU (air handling unit) fan static pressure such that the indoor environment is maintained with the least chiller and fan energy consumption. To achieve this objective, a dynamic system model is developed first to simulate the system behavior under different control schemes and operating conditions. The system model is modular in structure, which includes a water-cooled vapor compression chiller model and a two-zone VAV system model. A fuzzy-set based extended transformation approach is then applied to investigate the uncertainties of this model caused by uncertain parameters and the sensitivities of the control inputs with respect to the interested model outputs. A multi-layer feed forward neural network is constructed and trained in unsupervised mode to minimize the cost function which is comprised of overall energy cost and penalty cost when one or more constraints are violated. After training, the network is implemented as a supervisory controller to compute the optimal settings for the system. In order to implement the optimal set points predicted by the

  10. End-System Network Interface Controller for 100 Gb/s Wide Area Networks: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, Jesse [Acadia Optronics LLC, Rockville, MD (United States)


    In recent years, network bandwidth requirements have scaled multiple folds, pushing the need for the development of data exchange mechanisms at 100 Gb/s and beyond. High performance computing, climate modeling, large-scale storage, and collaborative scientific research are examples of applications that can greatly benefit by leveraging high bandwidth capabilities of the order of 100 Gb/s. Such requirements and advances in IEEE Ethernet standards, Optical Transport Unit4 (OTU4), and host-system interconnects demand a network infrastructure supporting throughput rates of the order of 100 Gb/s with a single wavelength. To address such a demand Acadia Optronics in collaboration with the University of New Mexico, proposed and developed a end-system Network Interface Controller (NIC) for the 100Gbps WANs. Acadia’s 100G NIC employs an FPGA based system with a high-performance processor interconnect (PCIe 3.0) and a high capacity optical transmission link (CXP) to provide data transmission at the rate of 100 Gbps.

  11. Energy-efficient power control for OFDMA cellular networks

    KAUST Repository

    Sboui, Lokman


    In this paper, we study the energy efficiency (EE) of orthogonal frequency-division multiple access (OFDMA) cellular networks. Our objective is to present a power allocation scheme that maximizes the EE of downlink communications. We propose a novel explicit expression of the optimal power allocation to each subcarrier. We also present the power control when the transmit power is limited by power budget constraint or/and minimal rate constraint and we highlight the occurrence of some transmission outage events depending on the constraints\\' parameters. In the numerical results, we show that our proposed power control improves the EE especially at high power budget regime and low minimal rate regime. In addition, we show that having a higher number of subcarriers enhances the OFDMA EE.

  12. Enhancing coherent transport in a photonic network using controllable decoherence (United States)

    Biggerstaff, Devon N.; Heilmann, René; Zecevik, Aidan A.; Gräfe, Markus; Broome, Matthew A.; Fedrizzi, Alessandro; Nolte, Stefan; Szameit, Alexander; White, Andrew G.; Kassal, Ivan


    Transport phenomena on a quantum scale appear in a variety of systems, ranging from photosynthetic complexes to engineered quantum devices. It has been predicted that the efficiency of coherent transport can be enhanced through dynamic interaction between the system and a noisy environment. We report an experimental simulation of environment-assisted coherent transport, using an engineered network of laser-written waveguides, with relative energies and inter-waveguide couplings tailored to yield the desired Hamiltonian. Controllable-strength decoherence is simulated by broadening the bandwidth of the input illumination, yielding a significant increase in transport efficiency relative to the narrowband case. We show integrated optics to be suitable for simulating specific target Hamiltonians as well as open quantum systems with controllable loss and decoherence.

  13. Service-Aware Retransmission Control in Cellular Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadhir Ben Halima


    Full Text Available This paper proposes a service-aware cross-layer approach between application/transport layers on the mobile terminal and link layer on the wireless base station to enable dynamic control on the level of per-packet error protection for multimedia data streams. Specifically, in the context of cellular networks, the proposed scheme enables the mobile terminal to specify to the base station the desired level of Hybrid ARQ (HARQ protection by using an in-band control feedback channel. Such protection is dynamically adapted on a per-packet basis and depends on the perceptual importance of different packets as well as on the reception history of the flow. Experimental results demonstrate the potential benefits deriving from the proposed strategy either for audio and video real-time streams as well as for TCP-based data transfers.

  14. Wireless Network Control with Privacy Using Hybrid ARQ

    CERN Document Server

    Sarikaya, Yunus; Koksal, Emre C


    We consider the problem of resource allocation in a wireless cellular network, in which nodes have both open and private information to be transmitted to the base station over block fading uplink channels. We develop a cross-layer solution, based on hybrid ARQ transmission with incremental redundancy. We provide a scheme that combines power control, flow control, and scheduling in order to maximize a global utility function, subject to the stability of the data queues, an average power constraint, and a constraint on the privacy outage probability. Our scheme is based on the assumption that each node has an estimate of its uplink channel gain at each block, while only the distribution of the cross channel gains is available. We prove that our scheme achieves a utility, arbitrarily close to the maximum achievable utility given the available channel state information.

  15. Synchronization control for large-scale network systems

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Yuanqing; Su, Hongye; Shi, Peng; Wu, Zheng-Guang


    This book provides recent advances in analysis and synthesis of Large-scale network systems (LSNSs) with sampled-data communication and non-identical nodes. In its first chapter of the book presents an introduction to Synchronization of LSNSs and Algebraic Graph Theory as well as an overview of recent developments of LSNSs with sampled data control or output regulation control. The main text of the book is organized into two main parts - Part I: LSNSs with sampled-data communication and Part II: LSNSs with non-identical nodes. This monograph provides up-to-date advances and some recent developments in the analysis and synthesis issues for LSNSs with sampled-data communication and non-identical nodes. It describes the constructions of the adaptive reference generators in the first stage and the robust regulators in the second stage. Examples are presented to show the effectiveness of the proposed design techniques.

  16. Wireless Plug and Play Control Systems: Hardware, Networks, and Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meybodi, Soroush Afkhami


    D project are presented in two distinct areas which are: 1) Signal propagation in underground and confined areas, and 2) Access and Networking protocols that accommodate the required flexibility, scalability, and quality of services for plug and play control systems. The first category finds application...... the damp soil medium. To overcome the challenge, all potentially useful signal propagation methods are surveyed either by reviewing the open literature, or by doing simulations, or even running experiments. At the end, Magnetic Induction (MI) is chosen as the winning candidate. New findings are achieved...... in antenna design of magneto-inductive communication systems. They are verified by simulations and experiments. It is shown, via simulations, that MI is a reliable signal propagation technique for the full-scale case study: Distributed Control of the New Generation of District Heating Systems...

  17. Network-Cognizant Design of Decentralized Volt/VAR Controllers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Kyri A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bernstein, Andrey [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zhao, Changhong [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dall-Anese, Emiliano [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)


    This paper considers the problem of designing decentralized Volt/VAR controllers for distributed energy resources (DERs). The voltage-reactive power characteristics of individual DERs are obtained by solving a convex optimization problem, where given performance objectives (e.g., minimization of the voltage deviations from a given profile) are specified and stability constraints are enforced. The resultant Volt/VAR characteristics are network-cognizant, in the sense that they embed information on the location of the DERs and, consequently, on the effect of reactive-power adjustments on the voltages throughout the feeder. Bounds on the maximum voltage deviation incurred by the controllers are analytically established. Numerical results are reported to corroborate the technical findings.

  18. Optimal control of metabolic networks with saturable enzyme kinetics. (United States)

    Oyarzuun, D A


    This note addresses the optimal control of non-linear metabolic networks by means of time-dependent enzyme synthesis rates. The authors consider networks with general topologies described by a control-affine dynamical system coupled with a linear model for enzyme synthesis and degradation. The problem formulation accounts for transitions between two metabolic equilibria, which typically arise in metabolic adaptations to environmental changes, and the minimisation of a quadratic functional that weights the cost/benefit relation between the transcriptional effort required for enzyme synthesis and the transition to the new phenotype. Using a linear time-variant approximation of the non-linear dynamics, the problem is recast as a sequence of linear-quadratic problems, the solution of which involves a sequence of differential Lyapunov equations. The authors provide conditions for convergence to an approximate solution of the original problem, which are naturally satisfied by a wide class of models for saturable enzyme kinetics. As a case study the authors use the method to examine the robustness of an optimal just-in-time gene expression pattern with respect to heterogeneity in the biosynthetic costs of individual proteins.

  19. Investigation of some copolymers based on acrylic salts as circulation loss control agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Mohamed Alsabagh


    The prepared copolymers were investigated as loss circulation control materials by measuring different filtration parameters such as; spurt loss, fluid loss and permeability plugging tester value according to the American Petroleum Institute (API standard. From the obtained data, it was found that the 0.6% from the poly[PA-co-AM](0.4:0.6 exhibited the best results of the filtration parameters among the other copolymers. At the same time all the studied copolymers enhanced the rheological properties of the drilling mud. These results were discussed on the light of the swelling capacity of the copolymers.

  20. Modeling of the height control system using artificial neural networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R Tahavvor


    Full Text Available Introduction Automation of agricultural and machinery construction has generally been enhanced by intelligent control systems due to utility and efficiency rising, ease of use, profitability and upgrading according to market demand. A broad variety of industrial merchandise are now supplied with computerized control systems of earth moving processes to be performed by construction and agriculture field vehicle such as grader, backhoe, tractor and scraper machines. A height control machine which is used in measuring base thickness is consisted of two mechanical and electronic parts. The mechanical part is consisted of conveyor belt, main body, electrical engine and invertors while the electronic part is consisted of ultrasonic, wave transmitter and receiver sensor, electronic board, control set, and microcontroller. The main job of these controlling devices consists of the topographic surveying, cutting and filling of elevated and spotted low area, and these actions fundamentally dependent onthe machine's ability in elevation and thickness measurement and control. In this study, machine was first tested and then some experiments were conducted for data collection. Study of system modeling in artificial neural networks (ANN was done for measuring, controlling the height for bases by input variable input vectors such as sampling time, probe speed, conveyer speed, sound wave speed and speed sensor are finally the maximum and minimum probe output vector on various conditions. The result reveals the capability of this procedure for experimental recognition of sensors' behavior and improvement of field machine control systems. Inspection, calibration and response, diagnosis of the elevation control system in combination with machine function can also be evaluated by some extra development of this system. Materials and Methods Designing and manufacture of the planned apparatus classified in three dissimilar, mechanical and electronic module, courses of

  1. Dynamic Resource Allocation and QoS Control Capabilities of the Japanese Academic Backbone Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michihiro Aoki


    Full Text Available Dynamic resource control capabilities have become increasingly important for academic networks that must support big scientific research projects at the same time as less data intensive research and educational activities. This paper describes the dynamic resource allocation and QoS control capabilities of the Japanese academic backbone network, called SINET3, which supports a variety of academic applications with a wide range of network services. The article describes the network architecture, networking technologies, resource allocation, QoS control, and layer-1 bandwidth on-demand services. It also details typical services developed for scientific research, including the user interface, resource control, and management functions, and includes performance evaluations.

  2. Neural network based adaptive output feedback control: Applications and improvements (United States)

    Kutay, Ali Turker

    Application of recently developed neural network based adaptive output feedback controllers to a diverse range of problems both in simulations and experiments is investigated in this thesis. The purpose is to evaluate the theory behind the development of these controllers numerically and experimentally, identify the needs for further development in practical applications, and to conduct further research in directions that are identified to ultimately enhance applicability of adaptive controllers to real world problems. We mainly focus our attention on adaptive controllers that augment existing fixed gain controllers. A recently developed approach holds great potential for successful implementations on real world applications due to its applicability to systems with minimal information concerning the plant model and the existing controller. In this thesis the formulation is extended to the multi-input multi-output case for distributed control of interconnected systems and successfully tested on a formation flight wind tunnel experiment. The command hedging method is formulated for the approach to further broaden the class of systems it can address by including systems with input nonlinearities. Also a formulation is adopted that allows the approach to be applied to non-minimum phase systems for which non-minimum phase characteristics are modeled with sufficient accuracy and treated properly in the design of the existing controller. It is shown that the approach can also be applied to augment nonlinear controllers under certain conditions and an example is presented where the nonlinear guidance law of a spinning projectile is augmented. Simulation results on a high fidelity 6 degrees-of-freedom nonlinear simulation code are presented. The thesis also presents a preliminary adaptive controller design for closed loop flight control with active flow actuators. Behavior of such actuators in dynamic flight conditions is not known. To test the adaptive controller design in

  3. Electrostatic networks control plug stabilization in the PapC usher. (United States)

    Pham, Thieng; Henderson, Nadine S; Werneburg, Glenn T; Thanassi, David G; Delcour, Anne H


    The PapC usher, a β-barrel pore in the outer membrane of uropathogenic Escherichia coli, is used for assembly of the P pilus, a key virulence factor in bacterial colonization of human kidney cells. Each PapC protein is composed of a 24-stranded β-barrel channel, flanked by N- and C-terminal globular domains protruding into the periplasm, and occluded by a plug domain (PD). The PD is displaced from the channel towards the periplasm during pilus biogenesis, but the molecular mechanism for PD displacement remains unclear. Two structural features within the β-barrel, an α-helix and β5-6 hairpin loop, may play roles in controlling plug stabilization. Here we have tested clusters of residues at the interface of the plug, barrel, α-helix and hairpin, which participate in electrostatic networks. To assess the roles of these residues in plug stabilization, we used patch-clamp electrophysiology to compare the activity of wild-type and mutant PapC channels containing alanine substitutions at these sites. Mutations interrupting each of two salt bridge networks were relatively ineffective in disrupting plug stabilization. However, mutation of two pairs of arginines located at the inner and the outer surfaces of the PD resulted in an enhanced propensity for plug displacement. One arginine pair involved in a repulsive interaction between the linkers that tether the plug to the β-barrel was particularly sensitive to mutation. These results suggest that plug displacement, which is necessary for pilus assembly and translocation, may require a weakening of key electrostatic interactions between the plug linkers, and the plug and the α-helix.

  4. Salt cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Saha, Anirban


    If you are a professional associated with system and infrastructure management, looking at automated infrastructure and deployments, then this book is for you. No prior experience of Salt is required.

  5. Mindfulness Meditation Training and Executive Control Network Resting State Functional Connectivity: A Randomized Controlled Trial. (United States)

    Taren, Adrienne A; Gianaros, Peter J; Greco, Carol M; Lindsay, Emily K; Fairgrieve, April; Brown, Kirk Warren; Rosen, Rhonda K; Ferris, Jennifer L; Julson, Erica; Marsland, Anna L; Creswell, J David

    Mindfulness meditation training has been previously shown to enhance behavioral measures of executive control (e.g., attention, working memory, cognitive control), but the neural mechanisms underlying these improvements are largely unknown. Here, we test whether mindfulness training interventions foster executive control by strengthening functional connections between dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC)-a hub of the executive control network-and frontoparietal regions that coordinate executive function. Thirty-five adults with elevated levels of psychological distress participated in a 3-day randomized controlled trial of intensive mindfulness meditation or relaxation training. Participants completed a resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging scan before and after the intervention. We tested whether mindfulness meditation training increased resting state functional connectivity (rsFC) between dlPFC and frontoparietal control network regions. Left dlPFC showed increased connectivity to the right inferior frontal gyrus (T = 3.74), right middle frontal gyrus (MFG) (T = 3.98), right supplementary eye field (T = 4.29), right parietal cortex (T = 4.44), and left middle temporal gyrus (T = 3.97, all p < .05) after mindfulness training relative to the relaxation control. Right dlPFC showed increased connectivity to right MFG (T = 4.97, p < .05). We report that mindfulness training increases rsFC between dlPFC and dorsal network (superior parietal lobule, supplementary eye field, MFG) and ventral network (right IFG, middle temporal/angular gyrus) regions. These findings extend previous work showing increased functional connectivity among brain regions associated with executive function during active meditation by identifying specific neural circuits in which rsFC is enhanced by a mindfulness intervention in individuals with high levels of psychological distress.,NCT01628809.

  6. A biologically inspired neural network controller for ballistic arm movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmid Maurizio


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In humans, the implementation of multijoint tasks of the arm implies a highly complex integration of sensory information, sensorimotor transformations and motor planning. Computational models can be profitably used to better understand the mechanisms sub-serving motor control, thus providing useful perspectives and investigating different control hypotheses. To this purpose, the use of Artificial Neural Networks has been proposed to represent and interpret the movement of upper limb. In this paper, a neural network approach to the modelling of the motor control of a human arm during planar ballistic movements is presented. Methods The developed system is composed of three main computational blocks: 1 a parallel distributed learning scheme that aims at simulating the internal inverse model in the trajectory formation process; 2 a pulse generator, which is responsible for the creation of muscular synergies; and 3 a limb model based on two joints (two degrees of freedom and six muscle-like actuators, that can accommodate for the biomechanical parameters of the arm. The learning paradigm of the neural controller is based on a pure exploration of the working space with no feedback signal. Kinematics provided by the system have been compared with those obtained in literature from experimental data of humans. Results The model reproduces kinematics of arm movements, with bell-shaped wrist velocity profiles and approximately straight trajectories, and gives rise to the generation of synergies for the execution of movements. The model allows achieving amplitude and direction errors of respectively 0.52 cm and 0.2 radians. Curvature values are similar to those encountered in experimental measures with humans. The neural controller also manages environmental modifications such as the insertion of different force fields acting on the end-effector. Conclusion The proposed system has been shown to properly simulate the development of

  7. Involvement of source-sink relationship and hormonal control in the response of Medicago ciliaris - Sinorhizobium medicae symbiosis to salt stress. (United States)

    Ben Salah, Imène; Jelali, Nahida; Slatni, T; Gruber, Margaret; Albacete, A; Martínez Andújar, Cristina; Martinez, V; Pérez-Alfocea, F; Abdelly, C


    In order to explore the relationship between leaf hormonal status and source-sink relations in the response of symbiotic nitrogen fixation (SNF) to salt stress, three major phytohormones (cytokinins, abscisic acid and the ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid), sucrose phosphate synthase activity in source leaves and sucrolytic activities in sink organs were analysed in two lines of Medicago ciliaris (salt-tolerant TNC 1.8 and salt-sensitive TNC 11.9). SNF (measured as nitrogenase activity and amount of N-fixed) was more affected by salt treatment in the TNC 11.9 than in TNC 1.8, and this could be explained by a decrease in nodule sucrolytic activities. SNF capacity was reflected in leaf biomass production and in the sink activity under salinity, as suggested by the higher salt-induced decrease in the young leaf sucrolytic activities in the sensitive line TNC 11.9, while they were not affected in the tolerant line TNC 1.8. As a consequence of maintaining sink activities in the actively growing organs, the key enzymatic activity for synthesis of sucrose (sucrose phosphate synthase) was also less affected in the mature leaves of the more tolerant genotype. Ours results showed also that the major hormone factor associated with the relative tolerance of TNC 1.8 was the stimulation of abscisic acid concentration in young leaves under salt treatment. This stimulation may control photosynthetic organ growth and also may contribute to a certain degree in the maintenance of coordinated sink-source relationships. Therefore, ABA may be an important component which conserves sucrose synthesis in source leaves.

  8. Consensus-Based Cooperative Control Based on Pollution Sensing and Traffic Information for Urban Traffic Networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Antonio Artuñedo; Raúl M del Toro; Rodolfo E Haber


    .... The interconnected traffic lights controller (TLC) network adapts traffic lights cycles, based on traffic and air pollution sensory information, in order to improve the performance of urban traffic networks...

  9. Clay, Water, and Salt: Controls on the Permeability of Fine-Grained Sedimentary Rocks. (United States)

    Bourg, Ian C; Ajo-Franklin, Jonathan B


    theory of colloidal interactions that accurately predicts clay swelling in a narrow range of conditions (low salinity, low compaction, Na + counterion). An important feature of clay swelling that is not predicted by these models is the coexistence, in most conditions of aqueous chemistry and dry bulk density, of two types of pores between parallel smectite particles: mesopores with a pore width of >3 nm that are controlled by long-range interactions (the osmotic swelling regime) and nanopores with a pore width <1 nm that are controlled by short-range interactions (the crystalline swelling regime). Nanogeochemical characterization and simulation techniques, including coarse-grained and all-atom molecular dynamics simulations, hold significant promise for the development of advanced constitutive relations that predict this coexistence and its dependence on aqueous chemistry.

  10. Optimal dynamics for quality control in spatially distributed mitochondrial networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinkesh K Patel

    Full Text Available Recent imaging studies of mitochondrial dynamics have implicated a cycle of fusion, fission, and autophagy in the quality control of mitochondrial function by selectively increasing the membrane potential of some mitochondria at the expense of the turnover of others. This complex, dynamical system creates spatially distributed networks that are dependent on active transport along cytoskeletal networks and on protein import leading to biogenesis. To study the relative impacts of local interactions between neighboring mitochondria and their reorganization via transport, we have developed a spatiotemporal mathematical model encompassing all of these processes in which we focus on the dynamics of a health parameter meant to mimic the functional state of mitochondria. In agreement with previous models, we show that both autophagy and the generation of membrane potential asymmetry following a fusion/fission cycle are required for maintaining a healthy mitochondrial population. This health maintenance is affected by mitochondrial density and motility primarily through changes in the frequency of fusion events. Health is optimized when the selectivity thresholds for fusion and fission are matched, providing a mechanistic basis for the observed coupling of the two processes through the protein OPA1. We also demonstrate that the discreteness of the components exchanged during fusion is critical for quality control, and that the effects of limiting total amounts of autophagy and biogenesis have distinct consequences on health and population size, respectively. Taken together, our results show that several general principles emerge from the complexity of the quality control cycle that can be used to focus and interpret future experimental studies, and our modeling framework provides a road-map for deconstructing the functional importance of local interactions in communities of cells as well as organelles.

  11. Optimization of a neural network based direct inverse control for controlling a quadrotor unmanned aerial vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heryanto M Ary


    Full Text Available UAVs are mostly used for surveillance, inspection and data acquisition. We have developed a Quadrotor UAV that is constructed based on a four motors with a lift-generating propeller at each motors. In this paper, we discuss the development of a quadrotor and its neural networks direct inverse control model using the actual flight data. To obtain a better performance of the control system of the UAV, we proposed an Optimized Direct Inverse controller based on re-training the neural networks with the new data generated from optimal maneuvers of the quadrotor. Through simulation of the quadrotor using the developed DIC and Optimized DIC model, results show that both models have the ability to stabilize the quadrotor with a good tracking performance. The optimized DIC model, however, has shown a better performance, especially in the settling time parameter.

  12. Composite learning from adaptive backstepping neural network control. (United States)

    Pan, Yongping; Sun, Tairen; Liu, Yiqi; Yu, Haoyong


    In existing neural network (NN) learning control methods, the trajectory of NN inputs must be recurrent to satisfy a stringent condition termed persistent excitation (PE) so that NN parameter convergence is obtainable. This paper focuses on command-filtered backstepping adaptive control for a class of strict-feedback nonlinear systems with functional uncertainties, where an NN composite learning technique is proposed to guarantee convergence of NN weights to their ideal values without the PE condition. In the NN composite learning, spatially localized NN approximation is employed to handle functional uncertainties, online historical data together with instantaneous data are exploited to generate prediction errors, and both tracking errors and prediction errors are employed to update NN weights. The influence of NN approximation errors on the control performance is also clearly shown. The distinctive feature of the proposed NN composite learning is that NN parameter convergence is guaranteed without the requirement of the trajectory of NN inputs being recurrent. Illustrative results have verified effectiveness and superiority of the proposed method compared with existing NN learning control methods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparative Study between Robust Control of Robotic Manipulators by Static and Dynamic Neural Networks


    Ghrab, Nadya; Kallel, Hichem


    A comparative study between static and dynamic neural networks for robotic systems control is considered. So, two approaches of neural robot control were selected, exposed, and compared. One uses a static neural network; the other uses a dynamic neural network. Both compensate the nonlinear modeling and uncertainties of robotic systems. The first approach is direct; it approximates the nonlinearities and uncertainties by a static neural network. The second approach is indirect; it uses a dyna...

  14. Model-based dynamic control and optimization of gas networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofsten, Kai


    This work contributes to the research on control, optimization and simulation of gas transmission systems to support the dispatch personnel at gas control centres for the decision makings in the daily operation of the natural gas transportation systems. Different control and optimization strategies have been studied. The focus is on the operation of long distance natural gas transportation systems. Stationary optimization in conjunction with linear model predictive control using state space models is proposed for supply security, the control of quality parameters and minimization of transportation costs for networks offering transportation services. The result from the stationary optimization together with a reformulation of a simplified fluid flow model formulates a linear dynamic optimization model. This model is used in a finite time control and state constrained linear model predictive controller. The deviation from the control and the state reference determined from the stationary optimization is penalized quadratically. Because of the time varying status of infrastructure, the control space is also generally time varying. When the average load is expected to change considerably, a new stationary optimization is performed, giving a new state and control reference together with a new dynamic model that is used for both optimization and state estimation. Another proposed control strategy is a control and output constrained nonlinear model predictive controller for the operation of gas transmission systems. Here, the objective is also the security of the supply, quality control and minimization of transportation costs. An output vector is defined, which together with a control vector are both penalized quadratically from their respective references in the objective function. The nonlinear model predictive controller can be combined with a stationary optimization. At each sampling instant, a non convex nonlinear programming problem is solved giving a local minimum

  15. A computational systems biology study for understanding salt tolerance mechanism in rice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juexin Wang

    Full Text Available Salinity is one of the most common abiotic stresses in agriculture production. Salt tolerance of rice (Oryza sativa is an important trait controlled by various genes. The mechanism of rice salt tolerance, currently with limited understanding, is of great interest to molecular breeding in improving grain yield. In this study, a gene regulatory network of rice salt tolerance is constructed using a systems biology approach with a number of novel computational methods. We developed an improved volcano plot method in conjunction with a new machine-learning method for gene selection based on gene expression data and applied the method to choose genes related to salt tolerance in rice. The results were then assessed by quantitative trait loci (QTL, co-expression and regulatory binding motif analysis. The selected genes were constructed into a number of network modules based on predicted protein interactions including modules of phosphorylation activity, ubiquity activity, and several proteinase activities such as peroxidase, aspartic proteinase, glucosyltransferase, and flavonol synthase. All of these discovered modules are related to the salt tolerance mechanism of signal transduction, ion pump, abscisic acid mediation, reactive oxygen species scavenging and ion sequestration. We also predicted the three-dimensional structures of some crucial proteins related to the salt tolerance QTL for understanding the roles of these proteins in the network. Our computational study sheds some new light on the mechanism of salt tolerance and provides a systems biology pipeline for studying plant traits in general.

  16. Dynamic Control of Synchronous Activity in Networks of Spiking Neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel Hutt

    Full Text Available Oscillatory brain activity is believed to play a central role in neural coding. Accumulating evidence shows that features of these oscillations are highly dynamic: power, frequency and phase fluctuate alongside changes in behavior and task demands. The role and mechanism supporting this variability is however poorly understood. We here analyze a network of recurrently connected spiking neurons with time delay displaying stable synchronous dynamics. Using mean-field and stability analyses, we investigate the influence of dynamic inputs on the frequency of firing rate oscillations. We show that afferent noise, mimicking inputs to the neurons, causes smoothing of the system's response function, displacing equilibria and altering the stability of oscillatory states. Our analysis further shows that these noise-induced changes cause a shift of the peak frequency of synchronous oscillations that scales with input intensity, leading the network towards critical states. We lastly discuss the extension of these principles to periodic stimulation, in which externally applied driving signals can trigger analogous phenomena. Our results reveal one possible mechanism involved in shaping oscillatory activity in the brain and associated control principles.

  17. Parental control of children using the internet and social networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuković Slađana


    Full Text Available The paper starts from the standpoint that the expansion of the Internet imposes a need for instructing the parents to adequately guide children to use safely this virtual space. That is why we present the results of an empirical research, aimed at establishing how parents control the behaviour of their children on the Internet and social networks. The research was conducted on a sample of 105 parents of the sixth grade elementary school pupils, and the applied questionnaire was construed for this occasion. The obtained results show that the majority of parents think that they know about their children's activities on the Internet, and that a significant number of parents recognize potentional dangers of using the Internet and social networks. When it comes to mediation, i.e. the ways of guiding/regulating the child's behaviour on the Internet, it turned out that the parents most commonly use mediation based on facts or restrictive mediation, while value-based, i.e. active mediation is used by a considerably smaller number of parents. Especially important finding is that the majority of parents show interest for organized instruction on protection of children on the Internet. This interest of parents should be a starting point for creating a systemic support of the society, and especially the support of educational institutions for strengthening parental competencies for providing a safe Internet space for their children.

  18. Dynamic Output Feedback Control for Nonlinear Networked Control Systems with Random Packet Dropout and Random Delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuiqing Yu


    Full Text Available This paper investigates the dynamic output feedback control for nonlinear networked control systems with both random packet dropout and random delay. Random packet dropout and random delay are modeled as two independent random variables. An observer-based dynamic output feedback controller is designed based upon the Lyapunov theory. The quantitative relationship of the dropout rate, transition probability matrix, and nonlinear level is derived by solving a set of linear matrix inequalities. Finally, an example is presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  19. Guaranteeing Isochronous Control of Networked Motion Control Systems Using Phase Offset Adjustment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikhwan Kim


    Full Text Available Guaranteeing isochronous transfer of control commands is an essential function for networked motion control systems. The adoption of real-time Ethernet (RTE technologies may be profitable in guaranteeing deterministic transfer of control messages. However, unpredictable behavior of software in the motion controller often results in unexpectedly large deviation in control message transmission intervals, and thus leads to imprecise motion. This paper presents a simple and efficient heuristic to guarantee the end-to-end isochronous control with very small jitter. The key idea of our approach is to adjust the phase offset of control message transmission time in the motion controller by investigating the behavior of motion control task. In realizing the idea, we performed a pre-runtime analysis to determine a safe and reliable phase offset and applied the phase offset to the runtime code of motion controller by customizing an open-source based integrated development environment (IDE. We also constructed an EtherCAT-based motion control system testbed and performed extensive experiments on the testbed to verify the effectiveness of our approach. The experimental results show that our heuristic is highly effective even for low-end embedded controller implemented in open-source software components under various configurations of control period and the number of motor drives.

  20. Adaptive pinning control of deteriorated nonlinear coupling networks with circuit realization. (United States)

    Jin, Xiao-Zheng; Yang, Guang-Hong; Che, Wei-Wei


    This paper deals with a class of complex networks with nonideal coupling networks, and addresses the problem of asymptotic synchronization of the complex network through designing adaptive pinning control and coupling adjustment strategies. A more general coupled nonlinearity is considered as perturbations of the network, while a serious faulty network named deteriorated network is also proposed to be further study. For the sake of eliminating these adverse impacts for synchronization, indirect adaptive schemes are designed to construct controllers and adjusters on pinned nodes and nonuniform couplings of un-pinned nodes, respectively. According to Lyapunov stability theory, the proposed adaptive strategies are successful in ensuring the achievement of asymptotic synchronization of the complex network even in the presence of perturbed and deteriorated networks. The proposed schemes are physically implemented by circuitries and tested by simulation on a Chua's circuit network.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bedri BAHTİYAR


    Full Text Available To make efficiency analysis and to increase efficiency of a weaving hall, it is necessary to obtain and then analyze technical and weaving data received from looms. In small and mid-size weaving halls, generally technical data of the looms are kept by responsible technical personnel. Data processing without a defined automation makes efficiency analysis of weaving hall more complex, or may decrease liability of the analysis. In this paper, a data acquisition system that uses controller area network (CAN for the efficiency analysis of looms where developed and implemented in a mid-size weaving hall is presented. In system, technical and weaving data taken from the ports of the looms are sent to central computer via CAN, and then are processed in central computer.

  2. Phoebe: A preliminary control network and rotational elements (United States)

    Colvin, Tim R.; Davies, Merton E.; Rogers, Patricia G.; Heller, Jeanne (Editor)


    A preliminary control network for the Saturnian satellite Phoebe was determined based upon 6 distinct albedo features mapped on 16 Voyager 2 images. Using an existing map and an analytical triangulation program which minimized the measurement error, the north pole of Phoebe was calculated to be alpha sub 0 = 355.0 deg + or - 9.6 deg, delta sub 0 = 68.7 deg + or - 7.9 deg, where alpha sub 0, delta sub 0 are standard equatorial coordinates with equinox J2000 at epoch J2000. The prime meridian of Phoebe was computed to be W = 304.7 deg + 930.833872d, where d is the interval in days from JD 2451545.0 TDB.

  3. Delay compensation using Smith predictor for wireless network control system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Gamal


    In this paper, a delay compensation scheme using classical and adaptive Smith predictor is applied to wireless NCS. The Markov model is proposed to compute the estimated network delay used in the classical predictor. In the adaptive predictor, the channel delay statistics using shift register is proposed to update the estimated delay. To evaluate the proposed schemes, a DC-motor controller system based on IEEE 802.15.4 is built using True Time Matlab software. The system performance with and without the proposed delay compensation scheme is studied. It is also compared to other delay compensation schemes. The results show that the proposed scheme improves the NCS performance significantly and reduces the effect of the delay on the system.

  4. Distributed Ship Navigation Control System Based on Dual Network (United States)

    Yao, Ying; Lv, Wu


    Navigation system is very important for ship’s normal running. There are a lot of devices and sensors in the navigation system to guarantee ship’s regular work. In the past, these devices and sensors were usually connected via CAN bus for high performance and reliability. However, as the development of related devices and sensors, the navigation system also needs the ability of high information throughput and remote data sharing. To meet these new requirements, we propose the communication method based on dual network which contains CAN bus and industrial Ethernet. Also, we import multiple distributed control terminals with cooperative strategy based on the idea of synchronizing the status by multicasting UDP message contained operation timestamp to make the system more efficient and reliable.

  5. Stochastic Characterization of Communication Network Latency for Wide Area Grid Control Applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ameme, Dan Selorm Kwami [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Guttromson, Ross [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    This report characterizes communications network latency under various network topologies and qualities of service (QoS). The characterizations are probabilistic in nature, allowing deeper analysis of stability for Internet Protocol (IP) based feedback control systems used in grid applications. The work involves the use of Raspberry Pi computers as a proxy for a controlled resource, and an ns-3 network simulator on a Linux server to create an experimental platform (testbed) that can be used to model wide-area grid control network communications in smart grid. Modbus protocol is used for information transport, and Routing Information Protocol is used for dynamic route selection within the simulated network.

  6. Upregulation of cognitive control networks in older adults’ speech comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia eErb


    Full Text Available Speech comprehension abilities decline with age and with age-related hearing loss, but it is unclear how this decline expresses in terms of central neural mechanisms. The current study examined neural speech processing in a group of older adults (aged 56–77, n=16, with varying degrees of sensorineural hearing loss, and compared them to a cohort of young adults (aged 22–31, n=30, self-reported normal hearing. In an fMRI experiment, listeners heard and repeated back degraded sentences (4-band vocoding, which preserves the temporal envelope of the acoustic signal, while substantially degrading spectral information. Behaviourally, older adults adapted to degraded speech at the same rate as young listeners, although their overall comprehension of degraded speech was lower. Neurally, both older and young adults relied on the left anterior insula for degraded more than clear speech perception. However, anterior insula engagement in older adults was dependent on hearing acuity. Young adults additionally employed the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC. Interestingly, this age group × degradation interaction was driven by a reduced dynamic range in older adults, who displayed elevated levels of ACC activity in both conditions, consistent with a persistent upregulation in cognitive control irrespective of task difficulty. For correct speech comprehension, older adults recruited the middle frontal gyrus in addition to a core speech comprehension network on which young adults relied, suggestive of a compensatory mechanism. Taken together, the results indicate that older adults increasingly recruit cognitive control networks, even under optimal listening conditions, at the expense of these systems’ dynamic range.

  7. Position Control of a Pneumatic Muscle Actuator Using RBF Neural Network Tuned PID Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Zhao


    Full Text Available Pneumatic Muscle Actuator (PMA has a broad application prospect in soft robotics. However, PMA has highly nonlinear and hysteretic properties among force, displacement, and pressure, which lead to difficulty in accurate position control. A phenomenological model is developed to portray the hysteretic behavior of PMA. This phenomenological model consists of linear component and hysteretic component force. The latter component is described by Duhem model. An experimental apparatus is built up and sets of experimental data are acquired. Based on the experimental data, parameters of the model are identified. Validation of the model is performed. Then a novel cascade position PID controller is devised for a 1-DOF manipulator actuated by PMA. The outer loop of the controller is to cope with position control whilst the inner loop deals with pressure dynamics within PMA. To enhance the adaptability of the PID algorithm to the high nonlinearities of the manipulator, PID parameters are tuned online using RBF Neural Network. Experiments are performed and comparison between position response of RBF Neural Network based PID controller and that of classic PID controller demonstrates the effectiveness of the novel adaptive controller on the manipulator.

  8. Static-dynamic hybrid communication scheduling and control co-design for networked control systems. (United States)

    Wen, Shixi; Guo, Ge


    In this paper, the static-dynamic hybrid communication scheduling and control co-design is proposed for the networked control systems (NCSs) to solve the capacity limitation of the wireless communication network. The analytical most regular binary sequences (MRBSs) are used as the communication scheduling function for NCSs. When the communication conflicts yielded in the binary sequence MRBSs, a dynamic scheduling strategy is proposed to on-line reallocate the medium access status for each plant. Under such static-dynamic hybrid scheduling policy, plants in NCSs are described as the non-uniform sampled-control systems, whose controller have a group of controller gains and switch according to the sampling interval yielded by the binary sequence. A useful communication scheduling and control co-design framework is proposed for the NCSs to simultaneously decide the controller gains and the parameters used to generate the communication sequences MRBS. Numerical example and realistic example are respectively given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed co-design method. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Molecular networks involved in the immune control of BK polyomavirus. (United States)

    Girmanova, Eva; Brabcova, Irena; Klema, Jiri; Hribova, Petra; Wohlfartova, Mariana; Skibova, Jelena; Viklicky, Ondrej


    BK polyomavirus infection is the important cause of virus-related nephropathy following kidney transplantation. BK virus reactivates in 30%-80% of kidney transplant recipients resulting in BK virus-related nephropathy in 1%-10% of cases. Currently, the molecular processes associated with asymptomatic infections in transplant patients infected with BK virus remain unclear. In this study we evaluate intrarenal molecular processes during different stages of BKV infection. The gene expression profiles of 90 target genes known to be associated with immune response were evaluated in kidney graft biopsy material using TaqMan low density array. Three patient groups were examined: control patients with no evidence of BK virus reactivation (n = 11), infected asymptomatic patients (n = 9), and patients with BK virus nephropathy (n = 10). Analysis of biopsies from asymptomatic viruria patients resulted in the identification of 5 differentially expressed genes (CD3E, CD68, CCR2, ICAM-1, and SKI) (P < 0.05), and functional analysis showed a significantly heightened presence of costimulatory signals (e.g., CD40/CD40L; P < 0.05). Gene ontology analysis revealed several biological networks associated with BKV immune control in comparison to the control group. This study demonstrated that asymptomatic BK viruria is associated with a different intrarenal regulation of several genes implicating in antiviral immune response.

  10. Molecular Networks Involved in the Immune Control of BK Polyomavirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Girmanova


    Full Text Available BK polyomavirus infection is the important cause of virus-related nephropathy following kidney transplantation. BK virus reactivates in 30%–80% of kidney transplant recipients resulting in BK virus-related nephropathy in 1%–10% of cases. Currently, the molecular processes associated with asymptomatic infections in transplant patients infected with BK virus remain unclear. In this study we evaluate intrarenal molecular processes during different stages of BKV infection. The gene expression profiles of 90 target genes known to be associated with immune response were evaluated in kidney graft biopsy material using TaqMan low density array. Three patient groups were examined: control patients with no evidence of BK virus reactivation (n=11, infected asymptomatic patients (n=9, and patients with BK virus nephropathy (n=10. Analysis of biopsies from asymptomatic viruria patients resulted in the identification of 5 differentially expressed genes (CD3E, CD68, CCR2, ICAM-1, and SKI (P<0.05, and functional analysis showed a significantly heightened presence of costimulatory signals (e.g., CD40/CD40L; P<0.05. Gene ontology analysis revealed several biological networks associated with BKV immune control in comparison to the control group. This study demonstrated that asymptomatic BK viruria is associated with a different intrarenal regulation of several genes implicating in antiviral immune response.

  11. Neural network control of mobile robot formations using RISE feedback. (United States)

    Dierks, Travis; Jagannathan, S


    In this paper, an asymptotically stable (AS) combined kinematic/torque control law is developed for leader-follower-based formation control using backstepping in order to accommodate the complete dynamics of the robots and the formation, and a neural network (NN) is introduced along with robust integral of the sign of the error feedback to approximate the dynamics of the follower as well as its leader using online weight tuning. It is shown using Lyapunov theory that the errors for the entire formation are AS and that the NN weights are bounded as opposed to uniformly ultimately bounded stability which is typical with most NN controllers. Additionally, the stability of the formation in the presence of obstacles is examined using Lyapunov methods, and by treating other robots in the formation as obstacles, collisions within the formation do not occur. The asymptotic stability of the follower robots as well as the entire formation during an obstacle avoidance maneuver is demonstrated using Lyapunov methods, and numerical results are provided to verify the theoretical conjectures.

  12. Using a low-sodium, high-potassium salt substitute to reduce blood pressure among Tibetans with high blood pressure: a patient-blinded randomized controlled trial. (United States)

    Zhao, Xingshan; Yin, Xuejun; Li, Xian; Yan, Lijing L; Lam, Christopher T; Li, Shenshen; He, Feng; Xie, Wuxiang; Sang, Ba; Luobu, Gesang; Ke, Liang; Wu, Yangfeng


    To evaluate the effects of a low-sodium and high-potassium salt-substitute on lowering blood pressure (BP) among Tibetans living at high altitude (4300 meters). The study was a patient-blinded randomized controlled trial conducted between February and May 2009 in Dangxiong County, Tibetan Autonomous Region, China. A total of 282 Tibetans aged 40 or older with known hypertension (systolic BP≥140 mmHg) were recruited and randomized to intervention (salt-substitute, 65% sodium chloride, 25% potassium chloride and 10% magnesium sulfate) or control (100% sodium chloride) in a 1: 1 allocation ratio with three months' supply. Primary outcome was defined as the change in BP levels measured from baseline to followed-up with an automated sphygmomanometer. Per protocol (PP) and intention to treat (ITT) analyses were conducted. After the three months' intervention period, the net reduction in SBP/DBP in the intervention group in comparison to the control group was -8.2/-3.4 mmHg (all pLow sodium high potassium salt-substitute is effective in lowering both systolic and diastolic blood pressure and offers a simple, low-cost approach for hypertension control among Tibetans in China. NCT01429246.

  13. Utilizing Network QoS for Dependability of Adaptive Smart Grid Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jacob Theilgaard; Kristensen, Thomas le Fevre; Olsen, Rasmus Løvenstein


    A smart grid is a complex system consisting of a wide range of electric grid components, entities controlling power distribution, generation and consumption, and a communication network supporting data exchange. This paper focuses on the influence of imperfect network conditions on smart grid con......- trollers, and how this can be counteracted by utilizing Quality of Service (QoS) information from the communication network. Such an interface between grid controller and network QoS is particularly relevant for smart grid scenarios that use third party communication network infrastructure, where...... modification of networking and lower layer protocols are impossible. This paper defines a middleware solution for adaptation of smart grid control, which uses network QoS information and interacts with the smart grid controller to increase dependability. In order to verify the methodology, an example scenario...

  14. SDN-Enabled Dynamic Feedback Control and Sensing in Agile Optical Networks (United States)

    Lin, Likun

    Fiber optic networks are no longer just pipelines for transporting data in the long haul backbone. Exponential growth in traffic in metro-regional areas has pushed higher capacity fiber toward the edge of the network, and highly dynamic patterns of heterogeneous traffic have emerged that are often bursty, severely stressing the historical "fat and dumb pipe" static optical network, which would need to be massively over-provisioned to deal with these loads. What is required is a more intelligent network with a span of control over the optical as well as electrical transport mechanisms which enables handling of service requests in a fast and efficient way that guarantees quality of service (QoS) while optimizing capacity efficiency. An "agile" optical network is a reconfigurable optical network comprised of high speed intelligent control system fed by real-time in situ network sensing. It provides fast response in the control and switching of optical signals in response to changing traffic demands and network conditions. This agile control of optical signals is enabled by pushing switching decisions downward in the network stack to the physical layer. Implementing such agility is challenging due to the response dynamics and interactions of signals in the physical layer. Control schemes must deal with issues such as dynamic power equalization, EDFA transients and cascaded noise effects, impairments due to self-phase modulation and dispersion, and channel-to-channel cross talk. If these issues are not properly predicted and mitigated, attempts at dynamic control can drive the optical network into an unstable state. In order to enable high speed actuation of signal modulators and switches, the network controller must be able to make decisions based on predictive models. In this thesis, we consider how to take advantage of Software Defined Networking (SDN) capabilities for network reconfiguration, combined with embedded models that access updates from deployed network

  15. Deep Space Network (DSN), Network Operations Control Center (NOCC) computer-human interfaces (United States)

    Ellman, Alvin; Carlton, Magdi


    The Network Operations Control Center (NOCC) of the DSN is responsible for scheduling the resources of DSN, and monitoring all multi-mission spacecraft tracking activities in real-time. Operations performs this job with computer systems at JPL connected to over 100 computers at Goldstone, Australia and Spain. The old computer system became obsolete, and the first version of the new system was installed in 1991. Significant improvements for the computer-human interfaces became the dominant theme for the replacement project. Major issues required innovating problem solving. Among these issues were: How to present several thousand data elements on displays without overloading the operator? What is the best graphical representation of DSN end-to-end data flow? How to operate the system without memorizing mnemonics of hundreds of operator directives? Which computing environment will meet the competing performance requirements? This paper presents the technical challenges, engineering solutions, and results of the NOCC computer-human interface design.

  16. Genetic control of functional brain network efficiency in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvel, M.P.; van Soelen, I.L.C.; Stam, C.J.; Kahn, R.S.; Boomsma, D.I.; Hulshoff Pol, H.E.


    The human brain is a complex network of interconnected brain regions. In adulthood, the brain's network was recently found to be under genetic influence. However, the extent to which genes influence the functional brain network early in development is not yet known. We report on the heritability of

  17. RBF Neural Network of Sliding Mode Control for Time-Varying 2-DOF Parallel Manipulator System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haizhong Chen


    Full Text Available This paper presents a radial basis function (RBF neural network control scheme for manipulators with actuator nonlinearities. The control scheme consists of a time-varying sliding mode control (TVSMC and an RBF neural network compensator. Since the actuator nonlinearities are usually included in the manipulator driving motor, a compensator using RBF network is proposed to estimate the actuator nonlinearities and their upper boundaries. Subsequently, an RBF neural network controller that requires neither the evaluation of off-line dynamical model nor the time-consuming training process is given. In addition, Barbalat Lemma is introduced to help prove the stability of the closed control system. Considering the SMC controller and the RBF network compensator as the whole control scheme, the closed-loop system is proved to be uniformly ultimately bounded. The whole scheme provides a general procedure to control the manipulators with actuator nonlinearities. Simulation results verify the effectiveness of the designed scheme and the theoretical discussion.

  18. Multi-level Control Framework for Enhanced Flexibility of Active Distribution Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nainar, Karthikeyan; Pokhrel, Basanta Raj; Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna


    In this paper, the control objectives of future active distribution networks with high penetration of renewables and flexible loads are analyzed and reviewed. From a state of the art review, the important control objectives seen from the perspective of a distribution system operator are identified...... to be hosting capacity improvement, high reliable operation and cost effective network management. Based on this review and a state of the art review concerning future distribution network control methods, a multi-level control architecture is constructed for an active distribution network, which satisfies...... the selected control objectives and provides enhanced flexibility. The control architecture is supported by generation/load forecasting and distribution state estimation techniques to improve the controllability of the network. The multi-level control architecture consists of three levels of hierarchical...

  19. Natural versus human control on subsurface salt dissolution and development of thousands of sinkholes along the Dead Sea coast (United States)

    Abelson, Meir; Yechieli, Yoseph; Baer, Gidon; Lapid, Gil; Behar, Nicole; Calvo, Ran; Rosensaft, Marcelo


    One of the most hazardous results of the human-induced Dead Sea (DS) shrinkage is the formation of more than 6000 sinkholes over the last 25 years. The DS shrinkage caused eastward retreat of underground brine replaced by fresh groundwater, which in turn dissolved a subsurface salt layer, to generate cavities and collapse sinkholes. The areal growth rate of sinkhole clusters is considered the most pertinent proxy for sinkholes development. Analysis of light detection and ranging, digital elevation models, and interferometric synthetic aperture radar allows translation of the areal growth rate to a salt dissolution rate of the salt layer, revealing two peaks in the history of the salt dissolution rate. These peaks cannot be attributed to the decline of the DS level. Instead, we show that they are related to long-term variations of precipitation in the groundwater source region, the Judea Mountains, and the delayed response of the aquifer system between the mountains and the DS rift. This response is documented by groundwater levels and salinity variations. We thus conclude that while the DS level decline is the major trigger for sinkholes formation, the rainfall variations more than 30 km to the west dominate their evolution rate. The influence of increasing rainfall in the Judea Mountains reaches the DS at a typical time lag of 4 years, and the resulting increase in the salt dissolution rate lags by a total time of 5-6 years.

  20. Using Cognitive Control in Software Defined Networking for Port Scan Detection (United States)


    ARL-TR-8059 ● July 2017 US Army Research Laboratory Using Cognitive Control in Software -Defined Networking for Port Scan...Cognitive Control in Software -Defined Networking for Port Scan Detection by Vinod K Mishra Computational and Information Sciences Directorate, ARL...Technical Report 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 15 June–31 July 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Using Cognitive Control in Software -Defined Networking for

  1. Asymmetric Synthesis of γ-Lactones through Koga Amine-Controlled Addition of Enediolates to α,β-Unsaturated Sulfoxonium Salts. (United States)

    Peraino, Nicholas J; Kaster, Sven H; Wheeler, Kraig A; Kerrigan, Nessan J


    A chiral Koga amine-controlled asymmetric synthesis of cis-γ-lactones through a formal [3 + 2] cycloaddition of enediolates with α,β-unsaturated sulfoxonium salts is described. The desired structural motif was formed in moderate to good yields (50-71% for 13 examples), with good to very good diastereoselectivity (dr 5:1 to 10:1 for 20 examples), favoring the cis-isomer, and good to excellent enantioselectivity (70-91% ee for 13 examples).


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye. I. Sokol


    Full Text Available Purpose. The development of the control system for three-phase network is based on intelligent technologies of network-centric control of heterogeneous objects. The introduction of unmanned aerial vehicles for monitoring of three-phase network increases the efficiency of management. Methodology. The case of decomposition of the instantaneous capacities of the fixed and variable components for 3-wire system. The features of power balance for the different modes of its functioning. It should be noted that symmetric sinusoidal mode is balanced and good, but really unbalanced, if the standard reactive power is not zero. To solve the problem of compensation is sufficient knowledge of the total value of the inactive components of full power (value of the inactive power without detail. The creation of a methodology of measurement and assessment will require knowledge of the magnitudes of each inactive component separately, which leads to the development of a unified approach to the measurement and compensation of inactive components of full power and the development of a generalized theory of power. Results. Procedure for the compensation of the current of zero sequence excludes from circuit the source, as the active component of instantaneous power of zero sequence, and a vector due to a current of zero sequence. This procedure is performed without time delay as it does not require integration. Only a 3–wire system with symmetrical voltage eliminates pulsations and symmetrization of the equivalent conductances of the phases of the task. Under asymmetric voltage, the power is different, its analysis requires the creation of a vector mathematical model of the energy processes of asymmetrical modes of 3–phase systems. Originality. The proposed method extends the basis of the vector method for any zero sequence voltages and shows that the various theories of instantaneous power three wired scheme due to the choice of a basis in a two

  3. Adaptive robotic control driven by a versatile spiking cerebellar network. (United States)

    Casellato, Claudia; Antonietti, Alberto; Garrido, Jesus A; Carrillo, Richard R; Luque, Niceto R; Ros, Eduardo; Pedrocchi, Alessandra; D'Angelo, Egidio


    The cerebellum is involved in a large number of different neural processes, especially in associative learning and in fine motor control. To develop a comprehensive theory of sensorimotor learning and control, it is crucial to determine the neural basis of coding and plasticity embedded into the cerebellar neural circuit and how they are translated into behavioral outcomes in learning paradigms. Learning has to be inferred from the interaction of an embodied system with its real environment, and the same cerebellar principles derived from cell physiology have to be able to drive a variety of tasks of different nature, calling for complex timing and movement patterns. We have coupled a realistic cerebellar spiking neural network (SNN) with a real robot and challenged it in multiple diverse sensorimotor tasks. Encoding and decoding strategies based on neuronal firing rates were applied. Adaptive motor control protocols with acquisition and extinction phases have been designed and tested, including an associative Pavlovian task (Eye blinking classical conditioning), a vestibulo-ocular task and a perturbed arm reaching task operating in closed-loop. The SNN processed in real-time mossy fiber inputs as arbitrary contextual signals, irrespective of whether they conveyed a tone, a vestibular stimulus or the position of a limb. A bidirectional long-term plasticity rule implemented at parallel fibers-Purkinje cell synapses modulated the output activity in the deep cerebellar nuclei. In all tasks, the neurorobot learned to adjust timing and gain of the motor responses by tuning its output discharge. It succeeded in reproducing how human biological systems acquire, extinguish and express knowledge of a noisy and changing world. By varying stimuli and perturbations patterns, real-time control robustness and generalizability were validated. The implicit spiking dynamics of the cerebellar model fulfill timing, prediction and learning functions.

  4. Adaptive robotic control driven by a versatile spiking cerebellar network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Casellato

    Full Text Available The cerebellum is involved in a large number of different neural processes, especially in associative learning and in fine motor control. To develop a comprehensive theory of sensorimotor learning and control, it is crucial to determine the neural basis of coding and plasticity embedded into the cerebellar neural circuit and how they are translated into behavioral outcomes in learning paradigms. Learning has to be inferred from the interaction of an embodied system with its real environment, and the same cerebellar principles derived from cell physiology have to be able to drive a variety of tasks of different nature, calling for complex timing and movement patterns. We have coupled a realistic cerebellar spiking neural network (SNN with a real robot and challenged it in multiple diverse sensorimotor tasks. Encoding and decoding strategies based on neuronal firing rates were applied. Adaptive motor control protocols with acquisition and extinction phases have been designed and tested, including an associative Pavlovian task (Eye blinking classical conditioning, a vestibulo-ocular task and a perturbed arm reaching task operating in closed-loop. The SNN processed in real-time mossy fiber inputs as arbitrary contextual signals, irrespective of whether they conveyed a tone, a vestibular stimulus or the position of a limb. A bidirectional long-term plasticity rule implemented at parallel fibers-Purkinje cell synapses modulated the output activity in the deep cerebellar nuclei. In all tasks, the neurorobot learned to adjust timing and gain of the motor responses by tuning its output discharge. It succeeded in reproducing how human biological systems acquire, extinguish and express knowledge of a noisy and changing world. By varying stimuli and perturbations patterns, real-time control robustness and generalizability were validated. The implicit spiking dynamics of the cerebellar model fulfill timing, prediction and learning functions.

  5. Graphite anode surface modification with controlled reduction of specific aryl diazonium salts for improved microbial fuel cells power output. (United States)

    Picot, Matthieu; Lapinsonnière, Laure; Rothballer, Michael; Barrière, Frédéric


    Graphite electrodes were modified with reduction of aryl diazonium salts and implemented as anodes in microbial fuel cells. First, reduction of 4-aminophenyl diazonium is considered using increased coulombic charge density from 16.5 to 200 mC/cm(2). This procedure introduced aryl amine functionalities at the surface which are neutral at neutral pH. These electrodes were implemented as anodes in "H" type microbial fuel cells inoculated with waste water, acetate as the substrate and using ferricyanide reduction at the cathode and a 1000 Ω external resistance. When the microbial anode had developed, the performances of the microbial fuel cells were measured under acetate saturation conditions and compared with those of control microbial fuel cells having an unmodified graphite anode. We found that the maximum power density of microbial fuel cell first increased as a function of the extent of modification, reaching an optimum after which it decreased for higher degree of surface modification, becoming even less performing than the control microbial fuel cell. Then, the effect of the introduction of charged groups at the surface was investigated at a low degree of surface modification. It was found that negatively charged groups at the surface (carboxylate) decreased microbial fuel cell power output while the introduction of positively charged groups doubled the power output. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the microbial anode modified with positively charged groups was covered by a dense and homogeneous biofilm. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analyses showed that this biofilm consisted to a large extent of bacteria from the known electroactive Geobacter genus. In summary, the extent of modification of the anode was found to be critical for the microbial fuel cell performance. The nature of the chemical group introduced at the electrode surface was also found to significantly affect the performance of the microbial fuel cells. The method used for

  6. Performance in wireless networks and industrial wireless networks on control processes in real time under industrial environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan F. Monsalve-Posada


    Full Text Available The growing use of Ethernet networks on the industrial automation pyramid has led many companies to develop new devices to operate in requirements of this level, nowadays it is called Industrial Ethernet network, on the market there are various sensors and actuators to industrial scale equipped with this technology, many of these devices are very expensive. In this paper, the performance of two wireless networks is evaluated, the first network has conventional Ethernet devices, and the second network has Industrial Ethernet devices. For the process we vary four parameters such as distance, number of bytes, the signal to noise ratio, and the packet error rate, and then we measure delays and compare with metric statistics results, Box Plot graphs were used for the analysis. Finally, we conclude that under the parameters and conditions tested, wireless networks can serve as a communication system in control applications with allowable delays of up to 50 ms, in addition, the results show a better performance of Industrial Ethernet networks over conventional networks, with differences in the RTT of milliseconds. Therefore, it is recommended to establish what risk is for the process to control these delays to determine if the equipment conventional applies, since under certain features like humidity and temperature can operate properly for a considerable time and at lower cost than devices to Industrial Ethernet.

  7. Urban Traffic Signal System Control Structural Optimization Based on Network Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Wang


    Full Text Available Advanced urban traffic signal control systems such as SCOOT and SCATS normally coordinate traffic network using multilevel hierarchical control mechanism. In this mechanism, several key intersections will be selected from traffic signal network and the network will be divided into different control subareas. Traditionally, key intersection selection and control subareas division are executed according to dynamic traffic counts and link length between intersections, which largely rely on traffic engineers’ experience. However, it omits important inherent characteristics of traffic network topology. In this paper, we will apply network analysis approach into these two aspects for traffic system control structure optimization. Firstly, the modified C-means clustering algorithm will be proposed to assess the importance of intersections in traffic network and furthermore determine the key intersections based on three indexes instead of merely on traffic counts in traditional methods. Secondly, the improved network community discovery method will be used to give more reasonable evidence in traffic control subarea division. Finally, to test the effectiveness of network analysis approach, a hardware-in-loop simulation environment composed of regional traffic control system, microsimulation software and signal controller hardware, will be built. Both traditional method and proposed approach will be implemented on simulation test bed to evaluate traffic operation performance indexes, for example, travel time, stop times, delay and average vehicle speed. Simulation results show that the proposed network analysis approach can improve the traffic control system operation performance effectively.

  8. Sufficient Condition for the Existence of the Compact Set in the RBF Neural Network Control. (United States)

    Zhu, Jiaming; Cao, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Tianping; Yang, Yuequan; Yi, Yang


    In this brief, sufficient conditions are proposed for the existence of the compact sets in the neural network controls. First, we point out that the existence of the compact set in a classical neural network control scheme is unsolved and its result is incomplete. Next, as a simple case, we derive the sufficient condition of the existence of the compact set for the neural network control of first-order systems. Finally, we propose the sufficient condition of the existence of the compact set for the neural-network-based backstepping control of high-order nonlinear systems. The theoretic result is illustrated through a simulation example.

  9. State feedback controller design for the synchronization of Boolean networks with time delays (United States)

    Li, Fangfei; Li, Jianning; Shen, Lijuan


    State feedback control design to make the response Boolean network synchronize with the drive Boolean network is far from being solved in the literature. Motivated by this, this paper studies the feedback control design for the complete synchronization of two coupled Boolean networks with time delays. A necessary condition for the existence of a state feedback controller is derived first. Then the feedback control design procedure for the complete synchronization of two coupled Boolean networks is provided based on the necessary condition. Finally, an example is given to illustrate the proposed design procedure.

  10. Network Support II: Randomized controlled trial of Network Support treatment and cognitive behavioral therapy for alcohol use disorder. (United States)

    Litt, Mark D; Kadden, Ronald M; Tennen, Howard; Kabela-Cormier, Elise


    The social network of those treated for alcohol use disorder can play a significant role in subsequent drinking behavior, both for better and worse. Network Support treatment was devised to teach ways to reconstruct social networks so that they are more supportive of abstinence and less supportive of drinking. For many patients this may involve engagement with AA, but other strategies are also used. The current trial of Network Support treatment, building on our previous work, was intended to further enhance the ability of patients to construct abstinence-supportive social networks, and to test this approach against a strong control treatment. Patients were 193 men and women with alcohol use disorder recruited from the community and assigned to either 12 weeks of Network Support (NS) or Packaged Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment (PCBT), and followed for 27 months. Results of multilevel analyses indicated that NS yielded better posttreatment results in terms of both proportion of days abstinent and drinking consequences, and equivalent improvements in 90-day abstinence, heavy drinking days and drinks per drinking day. Mediation analyses revealed that NS treatment effects were mediated by pre-post changes in abstinence self-efficacy and in social network variables, especially proportion of non-drinkers in the social network and attendance at Alcoholics Anonymous. It was concluded that helping patients enhance their abstinent social network can be effective, and may provide a useful alternative or adjunctive approach to treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Autonomous Distributed Congestion Control Scheme in WCDMA Network (United States)

    Ahmad, Hafiz Farooq; Suguri, Hiroki; Choudhary, Muhammad Qaisar; Hassan, Ammar; Liaqat, Ali; Khan, Muhammad Umer

    Wireless technology has become widely popular and an important means of communication. A key issue in delivering wireless services is the problem of congestion which has an adverse impact on the Quality of Service (QoS), especially timeliness. Although a lot of work has been done in the context of RRM (Radio Resource Management), the deliverance of quality service to the end user still remains a challenge. Therefore there is need for a system that provides real-time services to the users through high assurance. We propose an intelligent agent-based approach to guarantee a predefined Service Level Agreement (SLA) with heterogeneous user requirements for appropriate bandwidth allocation in QoS sensitive cellular networks. The proposed system architecture exploits Case Based Reasoning (CBR) technique to handle RRM process of congestion management. The system accomplishes predefined SLA through the use of Retrieval and Adaptation Algorithm based on CBR case library. The proposed intelligent agent architecture gives autonomy to Radio Network Controller (RNC) or Base Station (BS) in accepting, rejecting or buffering a connection request to manage system bandwidth. Instead of simply blocking the connection request as congestion hits the system, different buffering durations are allocated to diverse classes of users based on their SLA. This increases the opportunity of connection establishment and reduces the call blocking rate extensively in changing environment. We carry out simulation of the proposed system that verifies efficient performance for congestion handling. The results also show built-in dynamism of our system to cater for variety of SLA requirements.

  12. Modeling and Output Feedback Control of Networked Control Systems with Both Time Delays; and Packet Dropouts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Qiu


    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the problem of modeling and output feedback controller design for a class of discrete-time networked control systems (NCSs with time delays and packet dropouts. A Markovian jumping method is proposed to deal with random time delays and packet dropouts. Different from the previous studies on the issue, the characteristics of networked communication delays and packet dropouts can be truly reflected by the unified model; namely, both sensor-to-controller (S-C and controller-to-actuator (C-A time delays, and packet dropouts are modeled and their history behavior is described by multiple Markov chains. The resulting closed-loop system is described by a new Markovian jump linear system (MJLS with Markov delays model. Based on Lyapunov stability theory and linear matrix inequality (LMI method, sufficient conditions of the stochastic stability and output feedback controller design method for NCSs with random time delays and packet dropouts are presented. A numerical example is given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  13. Self-Tuning Vibration Control of a Rotational Flexible Timoshenko Arm Using Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minoru Sasaki


    Full Text Available A self-tuning vibration control of a rotational flexible arm using neural networks is presented. To the self-tuning control system, the control scheme consists of gain tuning neural networks and a variable-gain feedback controller. The neural networks are trained so as to make the root moment zero. In the process, the neural networks learn the optimal gain of the feedback controller. The feedback controller is designed based on Lyapunov's direct method. The feedback control of the vibration of the flexible system is derived by considering the time rate of change of the total energy of the system. This approach has the advantage over the conventional methods in the respect that it allows one to deal directly with the system's partial differential equations without resorting to approximations. Numerical and experimental results for the vibration control of a rotational flexible arm are discussed. It verifies that the proposed control system is effective at controlling flexible dynamical systems.

  14. Neural-networks-based feedback linearization versus model predictive control of continuous alcoholic fermentation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mjalli, F.S.; Al-Asheh, S. [Chemical Engineering Department, Qatar University, Doha (Qatar)


    In this work advanced nonlinear neural networks based control system design algorithms are adopted to control a mechanistic model for an ethanol fermentation process. The process model equations for such systems are highly nonlinear. A neural network strategy has been implemented in this work for capturing the dynamics of the mechanistic model for the fermentation process. The neural network achieved has been validated against the mechanistic model. Two neural network based nonlinear control strategies have also been adopted using the model identified. The performance of the feedback linearization technique was compared to neural network model predictive control in terms of stability and set point tracking capabilities. Under servo conditions, the feedback linearization algorithm gave comparable tracking and stability. The feedback linearization controller achieved the control target faster than the model predictive one but with vigorous and sudden controller moves. (Abstract Copyright [2005], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  15. Radial basis function (RBF) neural network control for mechanical systems design, analysis and Matlab simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Jinkun


    Radial Basis Function (RBF) Neural Network Control for Mechanical Systems is motivated by the need for systematic design approaches to stable adaptive control system design using neural network approximation-based techniques. The main objectives of the book are to introduce the concrete design methods and MATLAB simulation of stable adaptive RBF neural control strategies. In this book, a broad range of implementable neural network control design methods for mechanical systems are presented, such as robot manipulators, inverted pendulums, single link flexible joint robots, motors, etc. Advanced neural network controller design methods and their stability analysis are explored. The book provides readers with the fundamentals of neural network control system design.   This book is intended for the researchers in the fields of neural adaptive control, mechanical systems, Matlab simulation, engineering design, robotics and automation. Jinkun Liu is a professor at Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronauti...

  16. Modeling and adaptive pinning synchronization control for a chaotic-motion motor in complex network (United States)

    Zhu, Darui; Liu, Chongxin; Yan, Bingnan


    We introduce a chaos model for a permanent-magnet synchronous motor and construct a coupled chaotic motor in a complex dynamic network using the Newman-Watts small-world network algorithm. We apply adaptive pinning control theory for complex networks to obtain suitable adaptive feedback gain and the number of nodes to be pinned. Nodes of low degree are pinned to realize global asymptotic synchronization in the complex network. The proposed adaptive pinning controller is added to the complex motor network for simulation and verification.

  17. Effect of edge pruning on structural controllability and observability of complex networks (United States)

    Mengiste, Simachew Abebe; Aertsen, Ad; Kumar, Arvind


    Controllability and observability of complex systems are vital concepts in many fields of science. The network structure of the system plays a crucial role in determining its controllability and observability. Because most naturally occurring complex systems show dynamic changes in their network connectivity, it is important to understand how perturbations in the connectivity affect the controllability of the system. To this end, we studied the control structure of different types of artificial, social and biological neuronal networks (BNN) as their connections were progressively pruned using four different pruning strategies. We show that the BNNs are more similar to scale-free networks than to small-world networks, when comparing the robustness of their control structure to structural perturbations. We introduce a new graph descriptor, ‘the cardinality curve’, to quantify the robustness of the control structure of a network to progressive edge pruning. Knowing the susceptibility of control structures to different pruning methods could help design strategies to destroy the control structures of dangerous networks such as epidemic networks. On the other hand, it could help make useful networks more resistant to edge attacks.

  18. Design of energy efficient optical networks with software enabled integrated control plane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jiayuan; Yan, Ying; Dittmann, Lars


    energy consumption by proposing a new integrated control plane structure utilising Software Defined Networking technologies. The integrated control plane increases the efficiencies of exchanging control information across different network domains, while introducing new possibilities to the routing...... methods and the control over quality of service (QoS). The structure is defined as an overlay generalised multi-protocol label switching (GMPLS) control model. With the defined structure, the integrated control plane is able to gather information from different domains (i.e. optical core network...

  19. Reliable monitoring and controling of energy transport networks; Energietransportnetze zuverlaessig ueberwachen und steuern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarz, Hans-Joachim [Keymile GmbH, Hannover (Germany). Consulting and Projects


    Energy suppliers distribute their products often over long distances. For a long time, monitoring data and control data are exchanged in supply networks and transport networks. The necessary data lines and data networks are typically arranged in parallel to the power supply routes. Increasing demands on the transmission rate and hence the bandwidth of such remote systems are not easy to fulfill. But the today's broadcast technology provides cost-effective solutions also for cable networks which exist for decades.

  20. Loss Performance Modeling for Hierarchical Heterogeneous Wireless Networks With Speed-Sensitive Call Admission Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Qian; Huang, Yue-Cai; Ko, King-Tim


    A hierarchical overlay structure is an alternative solution that integrates existing and future heterogeneous wireless networks to provide subscribers with better mobile broadband services. Traffic loss performance in such integrated heterogeneous networks is necessary for an operator's network...... dimensioning and planning. This paper investigates the computationally efficient loss performance modeling for multiservice in hierarchical heterogeneous wireless networks. A speed-sensitive call admission control (CAC) scheme is considered in our model to assign overflowed calls to appropriate tiers...