WorldWideScience

Sample records for network coding nc

  1. Network Coded Software Defined Networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krigslund, Jeppe; Hansen, Jonas; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani

    2015-01-01

    Software Defined Networking (SDN) and Network Coding (NC) are two key concepts in networking that have garnered a large attention in recent years. On the one hand, SDN's potential to virtualize services in the Internet allows a large flexibility not only for routing data, but also to manage....... This paper advocates for the use of SDN to bring about future Internet and 5G network services by incorporating network coding (NC) functionalities. The inherent flexibility of both SDN and NC provides a fertile ground to envision more efficient, robust, and secure networking designs, that may also...... incorporate content caching and storage, all of which are key challenges of the future Internet and the upcoming 5G networks. This paper proposes some of the keys behind this intersection and supports it with use cases as well as a an implementation that integrated the Kodo library (NC) into OpenFlow (SDN...

  2. Network Coded Software Defined Networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jonas; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani; Krigslund, Jeppe

    2015-01-01

    . The inherent flexibility of both SDN and NC provides fertile ground to envision more efficient, robust, and secure networking designs, which may also incorporate content caching and storage, all of which are key challenges of the upcoming 5G networks. This article not only proposes the fundamentals......Software defined networking has garnered large attention due to its potential to virtualize services in the Internet, introducing flexibility in the buffering, scheduling, processing, and routing of data in network routers. SDN breaks the deadlock that has kept Internet network protocols stagnant...... for decades, while applications and physical links have evolved. This article advocates for the use of SDN to bring about 5G network services by incorporating network coding (NC) functionalities. The latter constitutes a major leap forward compared to the state-of-the- art store and forward Internet paradigm...

  3. Network Coding

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Network coding is a technique to increase the amount of information °ow in a network by mak- ing the key observation that information °ow is fundamentally different from commodity °ow. Whereas, under traditional methods of opera- tion of data networks, intermediate nodes are restricted to simply forwarding their incoming.

  4. Special issue on network coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Francisco A.; Burr, Alister; Chatzigeorgiou, Ioannis; Hollanti, Camilla; Krikidis, Ioannis; Seferoglu, Hulya; Skachek, Vitaly

    2017-12-01

    Future networks are expected to depart from traditional routing schemes in order to embrace network coding (NC)-based schemes. These have created a lot of interest both in academia and industry in recent years. Under the NC paradigm, symbols are transported through the network by combining several information streams originating from the same or different sources. This special issue contains thirteen papers, some dealing with design aspects of NC and related concepts (e.g., fountain codes) and some showcasing the application of NC to new services and technologies, such as data multi-view streaming of video or underwater sensor networks. One can find papers that show how NC turns data transmission more robust to packet losses, faster to decode, and more resilient to network changes, such as dynamic topologies and different user options, and how NC can improve the overall throughput. This issue also includes papers showing that NC principles can be used at different layers of the networks (including the physical layer) and how the same fundamental principles can lead to new distributed storage systems. Some of the papers in this issue have a theoretical nature, including code design, while others describe hardware testbeds and prototypes.

  5. Performance Evaluation of Coded Meshed Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krigslund, Jeppe; Hansen, Jonas; Pedersen, Morten Videbæk

    2013-01-01

    We characterize the performance of intra- and inter-session network coding (NC) in wireless networks using real-life implementations. We compare this performance to a recently developed hybrid approach, called CORE, which combines intra- and inter-session NC exploiting the code structure...

  6. Network Coding

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 15; Issue 7. Network Coding. K V Rashmi Nihar B Shah P Vijay Kumar. General Article Volume 15 Issue 7 July 2010 pp 604-621. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/015/07/0604-0621. Keywords.

  7. Selecting Optimal Parameters of Random Linear Network Coding for Wireless Sensor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heide, Janus; Zhang, Qi; Fitzek, Frank

    2013-01-01

    This work studies how to select optimal code parameters of Random Linear Network Coding (RLNC) in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). With Rateless Deluge [1] the authors proposed to apply Network Coding (NC) for Over-the-Air Programming (OAP) in WSNs, and demonstrated that with NC a significant...

  8. Noisy Network Coding

    CERN Document Server

    Lim, Sung Hoon; Gamal, Abbas El; Chung, Sae-Young

    2010-01-01

    A noisy network coding scheme for sending multiple sources over a general noisy network is presented. For multi-source multicast networks, the scheme naturally extends both network coding over noiseless networks by Ahlswede, Cai, Li, and Yeung, and compress-forward coding for the relay channel by Cover and El Gamal to general discrete memoryless and Gaussian networks. The scheme also recovers as special cases the results on coding for wireless relay networks and deterministic networks by Avestimehr, Diggavi, and Tse, and coding for wireless erasure networks by Dana, Gowaikar, Palanki, Hassibi, and Effros. The scheme involves message repetition coding, relay signal compression, and simultaneous decoding. Unlike previous compress--forward schemes, where independent messages are sent over multiple blocks, the same message is sent multiple times using independent codebooks as in the network coding scheme for cyclic networks. Furthermore, the relays do not use Wyner--Ziv binning as in previous compress-forward sch...

  9. Fulcrum Network Codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    Fulcrum network codes, which are a network coding framework, achieve three objectives: (i) to reduce the overhead per coded packet to almost 1 bit per source packet; (ii) to operate the network using only low field size operations at intermediate nodes, dramatically reducing complexity...... in the network; and (iii) to deliver an end-to-end performance that is close to that of a high field size network coding system for high-end receivers while simultaneously catering to low-end ones that can only decode in a lower field size. Sources may encode using a high field size expansion to increase...... the number of dimensions seen by the network using a linear mapping. Receivers can tradeoff computational effort with network delay, decoding in the high field size, the low field size, or a combination thereof....

  10. CNC LATHE MACHINE PRODUCING NC CODE BY USING DIALOG METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakup TURGUT

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an NC code generation program utilising Dialog Method was developed for turning centres. Initially, CNC lathes turning methods and tool path development techniques were reviewed briefly. By using geometric definition methods, tool path was generated and CNC part program was developed for FANUC control unit. The developed program made CNC part program generation process easy. The program was developed using BASIC 6.0 programming language while the material and cutting tool database were and supported with the help of ACCESS 7.0.

  11. Physical Layer Network Coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fukui, Hironori; Yomo, Hironori; Popovski, Petar

    2013-01-01

    Physical layer network coding (PLNC) has the potential to improve throughput of multi-hop networks. However, most of the works are focused on the simple, three-node model with two-way relaying, not taking into account the fact that there can be other neighboring nodes that can cause/receive inter......Physical layer network coding (PLNC) has the potential to improve throughput of multi-hop networks. However, most of the works are focused on the simple, three-node model with two-way relaying, not taking into account the fact that there can be other neighboring nodes that can cause...

  12. SiNC: Saliency-injected neural codes for representation and efficient retrieval of medical radiographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Jamil; Sajjad, Muhammad; Mehmood, Irfan; Baik, Sung Wook

    2017-01-01

    Medical image collections contain a wealth of information which can assist radiologists and medical experts in diagnosis and disease detection for making well-informed decisions. However, this objective can only be realized if efficient access is provided to semantically relevant cases from the ever-growing medical image repositories. In this paper, we present an efficient method for representing medical images by incorporating visual saliency and deep features obtained from a fine-tuned convolutional neural network (CNN) pre-trained on natural images. Saliency detector is employed to automatically identify regions of interest like tumors, fractures, and calcified spots in images prior to feature extraction. Neuronal activation features termed as neural codes from different CNN layers are comprehensively studied to identify most appropriate features for representing radiographs. This study revealed that neural codes from the last fully connected layer of the fine-tuned CNN are found to be the most suitable for representing medical images. The neural codes extracted from the entire image and salient part of the image are fused to obtain the saliency-injected neural codes (SiNC) descriptor which is used for indexing and retrieval. Finally, locality sensitive hashing techniques are applied on the SiNC descriptor to acquire short binary codes for allowing efficient retrieval in large scale image collections. Comprehensive experimental evaluations on the radiology images dataset reveal that the proposed framework achieves high retrieval accuracy and efficiency for scalable image retrieval applications and compares favorably with existing approaches.

  13. SiNC: Saliency-injected neural codes for representation and efficient retrieval of medical radiographs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamil Ahmad

    Full Text Available Medical image collections contain a wealth of information which can assist radiologists and medical experts in diagnosis and disease detection for making well-informed decisions. However, this objective can only be realized if efficient access is provided to semantically relevant cases from the ever-growing medical image repositories. In this paper, we present an efficient method for representing medical images by incorporating visual saliency and deep features obtained from a fine-tuned convolutional neural network (CNN pre-trained on natural images. Saliency detector is employed to automatically identify regions of interest like tumors, fractures, and calcified spots in images prior to feature extraction. Neuronal activation features termed as neural codes from different CNN layers are comprehensively studied to identify most appropriate features for representing radiographs. This study revealed that neural codes from the last fully connected layer of the fine-tuned CNN are found to be the most suitable for representing medical images. The neural codes extracted from the entire image and salient part of the image are fused to obtain the saliency-injected neural codes (SiNC descriptor which is used for indexing and retrieval. Finally, locality sensitive hashing techniques are applied on the SiNC descriptor to acquire short binary codes for allowing efficient retrieval in large scale image collections. Comprehensive experimental evaluations on the radiology images dataset reveal that the proposed framework achieves high retrieval accuracy and efficiency for scalable image retrieval applications and compares favorably with existing approaches.

  14. Physical layer network coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fukui, Hironori; Popovski, Petar; Yomo, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    Physical layer network coding (PLNC) has been proposed to improve throughput of the two-way relay channel, where two nodes communicate with each other, being assisted by a relay node. Most of the works related to PLNC are focused on a simple three-node model and they do not take into account...

  15. NETWORK CODING BY BEAM FORMING

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    Network coding by beam forming in networks, for example, in single frequency networks, can provide aid in increasing spectral efficiency. When network coding by beam forming and user cooperation are combined, spectral efficiency gains may be achieved. According to certain embodiments, a method...

  16. Network Coding Designs Suited for the Real World

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Morten Videbæk; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani; Fitzek, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Network coding (NC) has attracted tremendous attention from the research community due to its potential to significantly improve networks' throughput, delay, and energy performance as well as a means to simplify protocol design and naturally providing security support. The possibilities in code d...... practical pitfalls, this paper seeks to identify key ingredients to a successful design, critical and common limitations to most intra-session NC systems as well as promising techniques and ideas to guide future models and research problems grounded on practical concerns....

  17. Security Concerns and Countermeasures in Network Coding Based Communications Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Talooki, Vahid; Bassoli, Riccardo; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani

    2015-01-01

    This survey paper shows the state of the art in security mechanisms, where a deep review of the current research and the status of this topic is carried out. We start by introducing network coding and its variety applications in enhancing current traditional networks. In particular, we analyze two...... key protocol types, namely, state-aware and stateless protocols, specifying the benefits and disadvantages of each one of them. We also present the key security assumptions of network coding (NC) systems as well as a detailed analysis of the security goals and threats, both passive and active....... This paper also presents a detailed taxonomy and a timeline of the different NC security mechanisms and schemes reported in the literature. Current proposed security mechanisms and schemes for NC in the literature are classified later. Finally a timeline of these mechanism and schemes is presented....

  18. Network coded software defined networking: enabling 5G transmission and storage networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krigslund, Jeppe; Hansen, Jonas; Lucani Rötter, Daniel Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Software defined networking has garnered large attention due to its potential to virtualize services in the Internet, introducing flexibility in the buffering, scheduling, processing, and routing of data in network routers. SDN breaks the deadlock that has kept Internet network protocols stagnant...... for decades, while applications and physical links have evolved. This article advocates for the use of SDN to bring about 5G network services by incorporating network coding (NC) functionalities. The latter constitutes a major leap forward compared to the state-of-the- art store and forward Internet paradigm....... The inherent flexibility of both SDN and NC provides fertile ground to envision more efficient, robust, and secure networking designs, which may also incorporate content caching and storage, all of which are key challenges of the upcoming 5G networks. This article not only proposes the fundamentals...

  19. NC truck network model development research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    This research develops a validated prototype truck traffic network model for North Carolina. The model : includes all counties and metropolitan areas of North Carolina and major economic areas throughout the : U.S. Geographic boundaries, population a...

  20. Network Coding Fundamentals and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Medard, Muriel

    2011-01-01

    Network coding is a field of information and coding theory and is a method of attaining maximum information flow in a network. This book is an ideal introduction for the communications and network engineer, working in research and development, who needs an intuitive introduction to network coding and to the increased performance and reliability it offers in many applications. This book is an ideal introduction for the research and development communications and network engineer who needs an intuitive introduction to the theory and wishes to understand the increased performance and reliabil

  1. The Serializability of Network Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Blasiak, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Network coding theory studies the transmission of information in networks whose vertices may perform nontrivial encoding and decoding operations on data as it passes through the network. The main approach to deciding the feasibility of network coding problems aims to reduce the problem to optimization over a polytope of entropic vectors subject to constraints imposed by the network structure. In the case of directed acyclic graphs, these constraints are completely understood, but for general graphs the problem of enumerating them remains open: it is not known how to classify the constraints implied by a property that we call serializability, which refers to the absence of paradoxical circular dependencies in a network code. In this work we initiate the first systematic study of the constraints imposed on a network code by serializability. We find that serializability cannot be detected solely by evaluating the Shannon entropy of edge sets in the graph, but nevertheless, we give a polynomial-time algorithm tha...

  2. Software Defined Coded Networking: Benefits of the PlayNCool protocol in wireless mesh networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Paola, Carla; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani; Palazzo, Sergio

    2017-01-01

    the quality of each link and even across neighbouring links and using simulations to show that an additional reduction of packet transmission in the order of 40% is possible. Second, to advocate for the use of network coding (NC) jointly with software defined networking (SDN) providing an implementation...

  3. Naming 'junk': Human non-protein coding RNA (ncRNA gene nomenclature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wright Mathew W

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Previously, the majority of the human genome was thought to be 'junk' DNA with no functional purpose. Over the past decade, the field of RNA research has rapidly expanded, with a concomitant increase in the number of non-protein coding RNA (ncRNA genes identified in this 'junk'. Many of the encoded ncRNAs have already been shown to be essential for a variety of vital functions, and this wealth of annotated human ncRNAs requires standardised naming in order to aid effective communication. The HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee (HGNC is the only organisation authorised to assign standardised nomenclature to human genes. Of the 30,000 approved gene symbols currently listed in the HGNC database (http://www.genenames.org/search, the majority represent protein-coding genes; however, they also include pseudogenes, phenotypic loci and some genomic features. In recent years the list has also increased to include almost 3,000 named human ncRNA genes. HGNC is actively engaging with the RNA research community in order to provide unique symbols and names for each sequence that encodes an ncRNA. Most of the classical small ncRNA genes have now been provided with a unique nomenclature, and work on naming the long (> 200 nucleotides non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs is ongoing.

  4. Coded Network Function Virtualization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Shuwaili, A.; Simone, O.; Kliewer, J.

    2016-01-01

    Network function virtualization (NFV) prescribes the instantiation of network functions on general-purpose network devices, such as servers and switches. While yielding a more flexible and cost-effective network architecture, NFV is potentially limited by the fact that commercial off-the-shelf ha......Network function virtualization (NFV) prescribes the instantiation of network functions on general-purpose network devices, such as servers and switches. While yielding a more flexible and cost-effective network architecture, NFV is potentially limited by the fact that commercial off...

  5. Linear network error correction coding

    CERN Document Server

    Guang, Xuan

    2014-01-01

    There are two main approaches in the theory of network error correction coding. In this SpringerBrief, the authors summarize some of the most important contributions following the classic approach, which represents messages by sequences?similar to algebraic coding,?and also briefly discuss the main results following the?other approach,?that uses the theory of rank metric codes for network error correction of representing messages by subspaces. This book starts by establishing the basic linear network error correction (LNEC) model and then characterizes two equivalent descriptions. Distances an

  6. Cooperative and Adaptive Network Coding for Gradient Based Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks with Multiple Sinks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Migabo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite its low computational cost, the Gradient Based Routing (GBR broadcast of interest messages in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs causes significant packets duplications and unnecessary packets transmissions. This results in energy wastage, traffic load imbalance, high network traffic, and low throughput. Thanks to the emergence of fast and powerful processors, the development of efficient network coding strategies is expected to enable efficient packets aggregations and reduce packets retransmissions. For multiple sinks WSNs, the challenge consists of efficiently selecting a suitable network coding scheme. This article proposes a Cooperative and Adaptive Network Coding for GBR (CoAdNC-GBR technique which considers the network density as dynamically defined by the average number of neighbouring nodes, to efficiently aggregate interest messages. The aggregation is performed by means of linear combinations of random coefficients of a finite Galois Field of variable size GF(2S at each node and the decoding is performed by means of Gaussian elimination. The obtained results reveal that, by exploiting the cooperation of the multiple sinks, the CoAdNC-GBR not only improves the transmission reliability of links and lowers the number of transmissions and the propagation latency, but also enhances the energy efficiency of the network when compared to the GBR-network coding (GBR-NC techniques.

  7. On network coding and modulation mapping for three-phase bidirectional relaying

    KAUST Repository

    Chang, Ronald Y.

    2015-12-03

    © 2015 IEEE. In this paper, we consider the network coding (NC) enabled three-phase protocol for information exchange between two users in a wireless two-way (bidirectional) relay network. Modulo-based (nonbinary) and XOR-based (binary) NC schemes are considered as information mixture schemes at the relay while all transmissions adopt pulse amplitude modulation (PAM). We first obtain the optimal constellation mapping at the relay that maximizes the decoding performance at the users for each NC scheme. Then, we compare the two NC schemes, each in conjunction with the optimal constellation mapping at the relay, in different conditions. Our results demonstrate that, in the low SNR regime, binary NC outperforms nonbinary NC with 4-PAM, while they have mixed performance with 8-PAM. This observation applies to quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) composed of two parallel PAMs.

  8. Network Coding for Wireless Cooperative Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khamfroush, Hana; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani; Barros, João

    2014-01-01

    We consider the problem of finding an optimal packet transmission policy that minimizes the total cost of transmitting M data packets from a source S to two receivers R1,R2 over half-duplex, erasure channels. The source can either broadcast random linear network coding (RLNC) packets to the recei......We consider the problem of finding an optimal packet transmission policy that minimizes the total cost of transmitting M data packets from a source S to two receivers R1,R2 over half-duplex, erasure channels. The source can either broadcast random linear network coding (RLNC) packets...

  9. Comprehensive reconstruction and visualization of non-coding regulatory networks in human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnici, Vincenzo; Russo, Francesco; Bombieri, Nicola; Pulvirenti, Alfredo; Giugno, Rosalba

    2014-01-01

    Research attention has been powered to understand the functional roles of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs). Many studies have demonstrated their deregulation in cancer and other human disorders. ncRNAs are also present in extracellular human body fluids such as serum and plasma, giving them a great potential as non-invasive biomarkers. However, non-coding RNAs have been relatively recently discovered and a comprehensive database including all of them is still missing. Reconstructing and visualizing the network of ncRNAs interactions are important steps to understand their regulatory mechanism in complex systems. This work presents ncRNA-DB, a NoSQL database that integrates ncRNAs data interactions from a large number of well established on-line repositories. The interactions involve RNA, DNA, proteins, and diseases. ncRNA-DB is available at http://ncrnadb.scienze.univr.it/ncrnadb/. It is equipped with three interfaces: web based, command-line, and a Cytoscape app called ncINetView. By accessing only one resource, users can search for ncRNAs and their interactions, build a network annotated with all known ncRNAs and associated diseases, and use all visual and mining features available in Cytoscape.

  10. Comprehensive Reconstruction and Visualization of Non-Coding Regulatory Networks in Human

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnici, Vincenzo; Russo, Francesco; Bombieri, Nicola; Pulvirenti, Alfredo; Giugno, Rosalba

    2014-01-01

    Research attention has been powered to understand the functional roles of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs). Many studies have demonstrated their deregulation in cancer and other human disorders. ncRNAs are also present in extracellular human body fluids such as serum and plasma, giving them a great potential as non-invasive biomarkers. However, non-coding RNAs have been relatively recently discovered and a comprehensive database including all of them is still missing. Reconstructing and visualizing the network of ncRNAs interactions are important steps to understand their regulatory mechanism in complex systems. This work presents ncRNA-DB, a NoSQL database that integrates ncRNAs data interactions from a large number of well established on-line repositories. The interactions involve RNA, DNA, proteins, and diseases. ncRNA-DB is available at http://ncrnadb.scienze.univr.it/ncrnadb/. It is equipped with three interfaces: web based, command-line, and a Cytoscape app called ncINetView. By accessing only one resource, users can search for ncRNAs and their interactions, build a network annotated with all known ncRNAs and associated diseases, and use all visual and mining features available in Cytoscape. PMID:25540777

  11. Network coding at different layers in wireless networks

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This book focuses on how to apply network coding at different layers in wireless networks – including MAC, routing, and TCP – with special focus on cognitive radio networks. It discusses how to select parameters in network coding (e.g., coding field, number of packets involved, and redundant information ration) in order to be suitable for the varying wireless environments. The book explores how to deploy network coding in MAC to improve network performance and examines joint network coding with opportunistic routing to improve the successful rate of routing. In regards to TCP and network coding, the text considers transport layer protocol working with network coding to overcome the transmission error rate, particularly with how to use the ACK feedback of TCP to enhance the efficiency of network coding. The book pertains to researchers and postgraduate students, especially whose interests are in opportunistic routing and TCP in cognitive radio networks.

  12. A Survey of Linear Network Coding and Network Error Correction Code Constructions and Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Sanna

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Network coding was introduced by Ahlswede et al. in a pioneering work in 2000. This paradigm encompasses coding and retransmission of messages at the intermediate nodes of the network. In contrast with traditional store-and-forward networking, network coding increases the throughput and the robustness of the transmission. Linear network coding is a practical implementation of this new paradigm covered by several research works that include rate characterization, error-protection coding, and construction of codes. Especially determining the coding characteristics has its importance in providing the premise for an efficient transmission. In this paper, we review the recent breakthroughs in linear network coding for acyclic networks with a survey of code constructions literature. Deterministic construction algorithms and randomized procedures are presented for traditional network coding and for network-control network coding.

  13. A Mobile Application Prototype using Network Coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Morten Videbæk; Heide, Janus; Fitzek, Frank

    2010-01-01

    This paper looks into implementation details of network coding for a mobile application running on commercial mobile phones. We describe the necessary coding operations and algorithms that implements them. The coding algorithms forms the basis for a implementation in C++ and Symbian C++. We report...... on practical measurement results of coding throughput and energy consumption for a single-source multiple-sinks network, with and without recoding at the sinks. These results confirm that network coding is practical even on computationally weak platforms, and that network coding potentially can be used...

  14. Network Coded Cooperative Communication in a Real-Time Wireless Hospital Sensor Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, R; Balaji Ganesh, A; Sivabalan, Somu

    2017-05-01

    The paper presents a network coded cooperative communication (NC-CC) enabled wireless hospital sensor network architecture for monitoring health as well as postural activities of a patient. A wearable device, referred as a smartband is interfaced with pulse rate, body temperature sensors and an accelerometer along with wireless protocol services, such as Bluetooth and Radio-Frequency transceiver and Wi-Fi. The energy efficiency of wearable device is improved by embedding a linear acceleration based transmission duty cycling algorithm (NC-DRDC). The real-time demonstration is carried-out in a hospital environment to evaluate the performance characteristics, such as power spectral density, energy consumption, signal to noise ratio, packet delivery ratio and transmission offset. The resource sharing and energy efficiency features of network coding technique are improved by proposing an algorithm referred as network coding based dynamic retransmit/rebroadcast decision control (LA-TDC). From the experimental results, it is observed that the proposed LA-TDC algorithm reduces network traffic and end-to-end delay by an average of 27.8% and 21.6%, respectively than traditional network coded wireless transmission. The wireless architecture is deployed in a hospital environment and results are then successfully validated.

  15. Network Coding Over The 232

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Morten Videbæk; Heide, Janus; Vingelmann, Peter

    2013-01-01

    from a benchmark application written in C++. These results are finally compared to different binary and binary extension field implementations. The results show that the prime field implementation offers a large field size while maintaining a very good performance. We believe that using prime fields...... investigate the use of prime fields with a field size of 232 − 5, as this allows implementations which combines high field sizes and low complexity. First we introduce the algorithms needed to apply prime field arithmetics to arbitrary binary data. After this we present the initial throughput measurements...... will be useful in many network coding applications where large field sizes are required....

  16. Determining Associations between Human Diseases and non-coding RNAs with Critical Roles in Network Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagami, Haruna; Akutsu, Tatsuya; Maegawa, Shingo; Hosokawa, Hiroshi; Nacher, Jose C.

    2015-10-01

    Deciphering the association between life molecules and human diseases is currently an important task in systems biology. Research over the past decade has unveiled that the human genome is almost entirely transcribed, producing a vast number of non-protein-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) with potential regulatory functions. More recent findings suggest that many diseases may not be exclusively linked to mutations in protein-coding genes. The combination of these arguments poses the question of whether ncRNAs that play a critical role in network control are also enriched with disease-associated ncRNAs. To address this question, we mapped the available annotated information of more than 350 human disorders to the largest collection of human ncRNA-protein interactions, which define a bipartite network of almost 93,000 interactions. Using a novel algorithmic-based controllability framework applied to the constructed bipartite network, we found that ncRNAs engaged in critical network control are also statistically linked to human disorders (P-value of P = 9.8 × 10-109). Taken together, these findings suggest that the addition of those genes that encode optimized subsets of ncRNAs engaged in critical control within the pool of candidate genes could aid disease gene prioritization studies.

  17. Network Coding Protocols for Smart Grid Communications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prior, Rui; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani; Phulpin, Yannick

    2014-01-01

    We propose a robust network coding protocol for enhancing the reliability and speed of data gathering in smart grids. At the heart of our protocol lies the idea of tunable sparse network coding, which adopts the transmission of sparsely coded packets at the beginning of the transmission process b...

  18. Security Concerns and Countermeasures in Network Coding Based Communications Systems: A Survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nazari Talooki, Vahid; Bassoli, Riccardo; Lucani Rötter, Daniel Enrique

    2015-01-01

    This survey paper shows the state of the art in security mechanisms, where a deep review of the current research and the status of this topic is carried out. We start by introducing network coding and its variety applications in enhancing current traditional networks. In particular, we analyze two...... key protocol types, namely, state-aware and stateless protocols, specifying the benefits and disadvantages of each one of them. We also present the key security assumptions of network coding (NC) systems as well as a detailed analysis of the security goals and threats, both passive and active....... This paper also presents a detailed taxonomy and a timeline of the different NC security mechanisms and schemes reported in the literature. Current proposed security mechanisms and schemes for NC in the literature are classified later. Finally a timeline of these mechanism and schemes is presented....

  19. Network coding for multi-resolution multicast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    A method, apparatus and computer program product for utilizing network coding for multi-resolution multicast is presented. A network source partitions source content into a base layer and one or more refinement layers. The network source receives a respective one or more push-back messages from one...... or more network destination receivers, the push-back messages identifying the one or more refinement layers suited for each one of the one or more network destination receivers. The network source computes a network code involving the base layer and the one or more refinement layers for at least one...... of the one or more network destination receivers, and transmits the network code to the one or more network destination receivers in accordance with the push-back messages....

  20. Network Coding Protocols for Data Gathering Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nistor, Maricica; Lucani Rötter, Daniel Enrique; Barros, joao

    2014-01-01

    Tunable sparse network coding (TSNC) with various sparsity levels of the coded packets and different feedback mechanisms is analysed in the context of data gathering applications in multi-hop networks. The goal is to minimize the completion time, i.e., the total time required to collect all data...

  1. Reliable Communication in Wireless Meshed Networks using Network Coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pahlevani, Peyman; Paramanathan, Achuthan; Hundebøll, Martin

    2012-01-01

    The advantages of network coding have been extensively studied in the field of wireless networks. Integrating network coding with existing IEEE 802.11 MAC layer is a challenging problem. The IEEE 802.11 MAC does not provide any reliability mechanisms for overheard packets. This paper addresses th...... introduce some signaling overhead, the results show that the performance is yet improved....

  2. A Network Coding Approach to Loss Tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sattari, Pegah; Markopoulou, Athina; Fragouli, Christina

    2013-01-01

    multicast and/or unicast end-to-end probes. Independently, recent advances in network coding have shown that there are several advantages from allowing intermediate nodes to process and combine, in addition to just forward, packets. In this paper, we pose the problem of loss tomography in networks that have...... network coding capabilities. We design a framework for estimating link loss rates, which leverages network coding capabilities and we show that it improves several aspects of tomography, including the identifiability of links, the tradeoff between estimation accuracy and bandwidth efficiency...... and multiple paths between sources and receivers. This work was the first to make the connection between active network tomography and network coding, and thus opened a new research direction....

  3. Opportunistic Adaptive Transmission for Network Coding Using Nonbinary LDPC Codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cocco Giuseppe

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Network coding allows to exploit spatial diversity naturally present in mobile wireless networks and can be seen as an example of cooperative communication at the link layer and above. Such promising technique needs to rely on a suitable physical layer in order to achieve its best performance. In this paper, we present an opportunistic packet scheduling method based on physical layer considerations. We extend channel adaptation proposed for the broadcast phase of asymmetric two-way bidirectional relaying to a generic number of sinks and apply it to a network context. The method consists of adapting the information rate for each receiving node according to its channel status and independently of the other nodes. In this way, a higher network throughput can be achieved at the expense of a slightly higher complexity at the transmitter. This configuration allows to perform rate adaptation while fully preserving the benefits of channel and network coding. We carry out an information theoretical analysis of such approach and of that typically used in network coding. Numerical results based on nonbinary LDPC codes confirm the effectiveness of our approach with respect to previously proposed opportunistic scheduling techniques.

  4. On Delay and Security in Network Coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikaliotis, Theodoros K.

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis, delay and security issues in network coding are considered. First, we study the delay incurred in the transmission of a fixed number of packets through acyclic networks comprised of erasure links. The two transmission schemes studied are routing with hop-by-hop retransmissions, where every node in the network simply stores and…

  5. ADAPTIVE NETWORK CODING IN WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    A first network node (eNB) is configured to receive (404), from a second network node (UE), channel performance indicator values regarding a serving cell, and estimate (404) a number of network-coded packets based on the received channel performance indicator values, such that the estimated numbe...

  6. Random Network Coding over Composite Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geil, Olav; Lucani Rötter, Daniel Enrique

    2017-01-01

    Random network coding is a method that achieves multicast capacity asymptotically for general networks [1, 7]. In this approach, vertices in the network randomly and linearly combine incoming information in a distributed manner before forwarding it through their outgoing edges. To ensure success...

  7. Audio coding in wireless acoustic sensor networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zahedi, Adel; Østergaard, Jan; Jensen, Søren Holdt

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the problem of source coding for a wireless acoustic sensor network where each node in the network makes its own noisy measurement of the sound field, and communicates with other nodes in the network by sending and receiving encoded versions of the measurements. To make...

  8. Network Coding Protocols for Smart Grid Communications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prior, Rui; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani; Phulpin, Yannick

    2014-01-01

    We propose a robust network coding protocol for enhancing the reliability and speed of data gathering in smart grids. At the heart of our protocol lies the idea of tunable sparse network coding, which adopts the transmission of sparsely coded packets at the beginning of the transmission process...... but then switches to a denser coding structure towards the end. Our systematic mechanism maintains the sparse structure during the recombination of packets at the intermediate nodes. The performance of our protocol is compared by means of simulations of IEEE reference grids against standard master-slave protocols...

  9. A Connection between Network Coding and Convolutional Codes

    OpenAIRE

    Fragouli, C.; Soljanin, E.

    2004-01-01

    The min-cut, max-flow theorem states that a source node can send a commodity through a network to a sink node at the rate determined by the flow of the min-cut separating the source and the sink. Recently it has been shown that by liner re-encoding at nodes in communications networks, the min-cut rate can be also achieved in multicasting to several sinks. In this paper we discuss connections between such coding schemes and convolutional codes. We propose a method to simplify the convolutional...

  10. Wurf.it: A Network Coding Reliable Multicast Content Streaming Solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernandez, Nestor; Pihl, Jeppe; Heide, Janus

    One of the proven benets of Network Coding (NC) is to achieve the data capacity for multicast networks. However, even though there has been a signicant amount of research in this area, potentials demonstrators of these capabilities have not been widely shown or deployed. Thus, in this work we pre...... to highly crowded scenarios, for example: sports stadiums, airports, service-waiting areas and museums....

  11. Applying Physical-Layer Network Coding in Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liew SoungChang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A main distinguishing feature of a wireless network compared with a wired network is its broadcast nature, in which the signal transmitted by a node may reach several other nodes, and a node may receive signals from several other nodes, simultaneously. Rather than a blessing, this feature is treated more as an interference-inducing nuisance in most wireless networks today (e.g., IEEE 802.11. This paper shows that the concept of network coding can be applied at the physical layer to turn the broadcast property into a capacity-boosting advantage in wireless ad hoc networks. Specifically, we propose a physical-layer network coding (PNC scheme to coordinate transmissions among nodes. In contrast to "straightforward" network coding which performs coding arithmetic on digital bit streams after they have been received, PNC makes use of the additive nature of simultaneously arriving electromagnetic (EM waves for equivalent coding operation. And in doing so, PNC can potentially achieve 100% and 50% throughput increases compared with traditional transmission and straightforward network coding, respectively, in 1D regular linear networks with multiple random flows. The throughput improvements are even larger in 2D regular networks: 200% and 100%, respectively.

  12. Self-Control in Sparsely Coded Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez, D. R. C.; Bollé, D.

    1998-03-01

    A complete self-control mechanism is proposed in the dynamics of neural networks through the introduction of a time-dependent threshold, determined in function of both the noise and the pattern activity in the network. Especially for sparsely coded models this mechanism is shown to considerably improve the storage capacity, the basins of attraction, and the mutual information content.

  13. ncRNA-class Web Tool: Non-coding RNA feature extraction and pre-miRNA classification web tool

    KAUST Repository

    Kleftogiannis, Dimitrios A.

    2012-01-01

    Until recently, it was commonly accepted that most genetic information is transacted by proteins. Recent evidence suggests that the majority of the genomes of mammals and other complex organisms are in fact transcribed into non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), many of which are alternatively spliced and/or processed into smaller products. Non coding RNA genes analysis requires the calculation of several sequential, thermodynamical and structural features. Many independent tools have already been developed for the efficient calculation of such features but to the best of our knowledge there does not exist any integrative approach for this task. The most significant amount of existing work is related to the miRNA class of non-coding RNAs. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that play a significant role in gene regulation and their prediction is a challenging bioinformatics problem. Non-coding RNA feature extraction and pre-miRNA classification Web Tool (ncRNA-class Web Tool) is a publicly available web tool ( http://150.140.142.24:82/Default.aspx ) which provides a user friendly and efficient environment for the effective calculation of a set of 58 sequential, thermodynamical and structural features of non-coding RNAs, plus a tool for the accurate prediction of miRNAs. © 2012 IFIP International Federation for Information Processing.

  14. Silencing nc886, a Non-Coding RNA, Induces Apoptosis of Human Endometrial Cancer Cells-1A In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhuoying; Zhang, Hongyu; Tang, Liangdan; Lou, Meng; Geng, Yanqing

    2017-03-16

    BACKGROUND The role that nc886, a non-coding microRNA, plays in human endometrial cancer is unknown. The present study aimed to describe the functional role of nc886 in human endometrial cancer-1A (HEC-1A) cell line, which may provide another target for human endometrial cancer treatment. MATERIAL AND METHODS The expression levels of nv886 in normal human endometrial tissue and the early phase and late phase of human endometrial cancer tissues were determined and compared by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Small interference RNA (siRNA) was used to inhibit nc886, and cell proliferation was evaluated with the MTT test. mRNA levels of PKR, NF-κB, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and caspase-3 were determined against glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH between the HEC-1A control group and the silenced group (nc886 silenced with siRNA) by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The protein levels of PKR (total and phosphorylated form), NF-κB, VEGF, and caspase-3 were determined against GAPDH by Western blotting, and cell apoptosis was determined by flow cytometry. RESULTS Our results indicated that a higher level of nc886 was expressed in the late phase of human endometrial cancer tissue, less than in the early phase but still higher than in normal human endometrial tissue. After nc886 was silenced, protein levels of p-PKR (phosphorylated PKR) and caspase-3 were increased, whereas NF-κB and VEGF were decreased. CONCLUSIONS The rate of apoptosis in the silenced group was increased and the rate of cell proliferation was slower in comparison to the control.

  15. MINET (momentum integral network) code documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Tuyle, G J; Nepsee, T C; Guppy, J G [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (USA)

    1989-12-01

    The MINET computer code, developed for the transient analysis of fluid flow and heat transfer, is documented in this four-part reference. In Part 1, the MINET models, which are based on a momentum integral network method, are described. The various aspects of utilizing the MINET code are discussed in Part 2, The User's Manual. The third part is a code description, detailing the basic code structure and the various subroutines and functions that make up MINET. In Part 4, example input decks, as well as recent validation studies and applications of MINET are summarized. 32 refs., 36 figs., 47 tabs.

  16. On Network Coded Distributed Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cabrera Guerrero, Juan Alberto; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani; Fitzek, Frank Hanns Paul

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on distributed fog storage solutions, where a number of unreliable devices organize themselves in Peer-to-Peer (P2P) networks with the purpose to store reliably their data and that of other devices and/or local users and provide lower delay and higher throughput. Cloud storage...... P2P system that achieves the predicted performance within 1 dB in measurement campaigns using commercial devices....

  17. Network Coding Applications and Implementations on Mobile Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fitzek, Frank; Pedersen, Morten Videbæk; Heide, Janus

    2010-01-01

    Network coding has attracted a lot of attention lately. The goal of this paper is to demonstrate that the implementation of network coding is feasible on mobile platforms. The paper will guide the reader through some examples and demonstrate uses for network coding. Furthermore the paper will also...... show that the implementation of network coding is feasible today on commercial mobile platforms....

  18. Erasure Coded Storage on a Changing Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sipos, Marton A.; Venkat, Narayan; Oran, David

    2016-01-01

    a fixed repair mechanism or are constrained in the choice of repair strategies, therefore in theory benefit less from being network aware. We propose a general mechanism that explores the space of possible repairs and examine how much different types of erasure codes benefit by being network aware. We...... show significant gains for three erasure codes using both theoretical modeling and simulation results. We also consider the practical applicability of our proposed mechanism by limiting the search space to repairs that have the potential to be minimal cost and present a case study for RLNC, a class...

  19. Integrated coding-aware intra-ONU scheduling for passive optical networks with inter-ONU traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Dai, Shifang; Wu, Weiwei

    2016-12-01

    Recently, with the soaring of traffic among optical network units (ONUs), network coding (NC) is becoming an appealing technique for improving the performance of passive optical networks (PONs) with such inter-ONU traffic. However, in the existed NC-based PONs, NC can only be implemented by buffering inter-ONU traffic at the optical line terminal (OLT) to wait for the establishment of coding condition, such passive uncertain waiting severely limits the effect of NC technique. In this paper, we will study integrated coding-aware intra-ONU scheduling in which the scheduling of inter-ONU traffic within each ONU will be undertaken by the OLT to actively facilitate the forming of coding inter-ONU traffic based on the global inter-ONU traffic distribution, and then the performance of PONs with inter-ONU traffic can be significantly improved. We firstly design two report message patterns and an inter-ONU traffic transmission framework as the basis for the integrated coding-aware intra-ONU scheduling. Three specific scheduling strategies are then proposed for adapting diverse global inter-ONU traffic distributions. The effectiveness of the work is finally evaluated by both theoretical analysis and simulations.

  20. Emulating Wired Backhaul with Wireless Network Coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Henning; De Carvalho, Elisabeth; Popovski, Petar

    2014-01-01

    , the uplink traffic to the user, remains identical to the one performed in a wired system. In the broadcast phase, the decoding of the downlink traffic can also be guaranteed to remain identical. Hence, our solution claims an emulation of a wired backhaul with wireless network coding with same performance. We...

  1. Towards Authenticated Network Coding for Named Data Networking

    OpenAIRE

    Boussaha, Ryma; Challal, Yacine; Bessedik, Malika; Bouabdallah, Abdelmadjid

    2017-01-01

    International audience; Named Data Networking represents a novel and an alternative approach to the current host based Internet architecture, in which the content becomes the core of the communication model. In this paper, we propose to improve named data networking robustness and throughput performances by introducing network coding functionalities. We also propose an optimized authentication model based on homomorphic encryption to deal with the " pollution attacks " problem in which malici...

  2. Joint Network Coding for Interfering Wireless Multicast Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Qureshi, Jalaluddin; Cai, Jianfei

    2011-01-01

    Interference in wireless networks is one of the key-capacity limiting factor. The multicast capacity of an ad- hoc wireless network decreases with an increasing number of transmitting and/or receiving nodes within a fixed area. Digital Network Coding (DNC) has been shown to improve the multicast capacity of non-interfering wireless network. However recently proposed Physical-layer Network Coding (PNC) and Analog Network Coding (ANC) has shown that it is possible to decode an unknown packet from the collision of two packet, when one of the colliding packet is known a priori. Taking advantage of such collision decoding scheme, in this paper we propose a Joint Network Coding based Cooperative Retransmission (JNC- CR) scheme, where we show that ANC along with DNC can offer a much higher retransmission gain than that attainable through either ANC, DNC or Automatic Repeat reQuest (ARQ) based retransmission. This scheme can be applied for two wireless multicast groups interfering with each other. Because of the broa...

  3. Medical reliable network using concatenated channel codes through GSM network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Emtithal; Kohno, Ryuji

    2013-01-01

    Although the 4(th) generation (4G) of global mobile communication network, i.e. Long Term Evolution (LTE) coexisting with the 3(rd) generation (3G) has successfully started; the 2(nd) generation (2G), i.e. Global System for Mobile communication (GSM) still playing an important role in many developing countries. Without any other reliable network infrastructure, GSM can be applied for tele-monitoring applications, where high mobility and low cost are necessary. A core objective of this paper is to introduce the design of a more reliable and dependable Medical Network Channel Code system (MNCC) through GSM Network. MNCC design based on simple concatenated channel code, which is cascade of an inner code (GSM) and an extra outer code (Convolution Code) in order to protect medical data more robust against channel errors than other data using the existing GSM network. In this paper, the MNCC system will provide Bit Error Rate (BER) equivalent to the BER for medical tele monitoring of physiological signals, which is 10(-5) or less. The performance of the MNCC has been proven and investigated using computer simulations under different channels condition such as, Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN), Rayleigh noise and burst noise. Generally the MNCC system has been providing better performance as compared to GSM.

  4. Connectivity Restoration in Wireless Sensor Networks via Space Network Coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uwitonze, Alfred; Huang, Jiaqing; Ye, Yuanqing; Cheng, Wenqing

    2017-04-20

    The problem of finding the number and optimal positions of relay nodes for restoring the network connectivity in partitioned Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) is Non-deterministic Polynomial-time hard (NP-hard) and thus heuristic methods are preferred to solve it. This paper proposes a novel polynomial time heuristic algorithm, namely, Relay Placement using Space Network Coding (RPSNC), to solve this problem, where Space Network Coding, also called Space Information Flow (SIF), is a new research paradigm that studies network coding in Euclidean space, in which extra relay nodes can be introduced to reduce the cost of communication. Unlike contemporary schemes that are often based on Minimum Spanning Tree (MST), Euclidean Steiner Minimal Tree (ESMT) or a combination of MST with ESMT, RPSNC is a new min-cost multicast space network coding approach that combines Delaunay triangulation and non-uniform partitioning techniques for generating a number of candidate relay nodes, and then linear programming is applied for choosing the optimal relay nodes and computing their connection links with terminals. Subsequently, an equilibrium method is used to refine the locations of the optimal relay nodes, by moving them to balanced positions. RPSNC can adapt to any density distribution of relay nodes and terminals, as well as any density distribution of terminals. The performance and complexity of RPSNC are analyzed and its performance is validated through simulation experiments.

  5. Bridging Inter-flow and Intra-flow Network Coding for Video Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jonas; Krigslund, Jeppe; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani

    2013-01-01

    enhance reliability, common of the former, while maintaining an efficient spectrum usage, typical of the latter. This paper uses the intuition provided in [1] to propose a practical implementation of the protocol leveraging Random Linear Network Coding (RLNC) for intra-flow coding, a credit based packet...... transmission approach to decide how much and when to send redundancy in the network, and a minimalistic feedback mechanism to guarantee delivery of generations of the different flows. Given the delay constraints of video applications, we proposed a simple yet effective coding mechanism, Block Coding On The Fly...... (BCFly), that allows a block encoder to be fed on-the-fly, thus reducing the delay to accumulate enough packets that is introduced by typical generation based NC techniques. Our measurements and comparison to forwarding and COPE show that CORE not only outperforms these schemes even for small packet...

  6. A novel error detection due to joint CRC aided denoise-and-forward network coding for two-way relay channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yulun; Yang, Longxiang

    2014-01-01

    In wireless two-way (TW) relay channels, denoise-and-forward (DNF) network coding (NC) is a promising technique to achieve spectral efficiency. However, unsuccessful detection at relay severely deteriorates the diversity gain, as well as end-to-end pairwise error probability (PEP). To handle this issue, a novel joint cyclic redundancy code (CRC) check method (JCRC) is proposed in this paper by exploiting the property of two NC combined CRC codewords. Firstly, the detection probability bounds of the proposed method are derived to prove its efficiency in evaluating the reliability of NC signals. On the basis of that, three JCRC aided TW DNF NC schemes are proposed, and the corresponding PEP performances are also derived. Numerical results reveal that JCRC aided TW DNF NC has similar PEP comparing with the separate CRC one, while the complexity is reduced to half. Besides, it demonstrates that the proposed schemes outperform the conventional one with log-likelihood ratio threshold.

  7. A Novel Error Detection due to Joint CRC Aided Denoise-and-Forward Network Coding for Two-Way Relay Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulun Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In wireless two-way (TW relay channels, denoise-and-forward (DNF network coding (NC is a promising technique to achieve spectral efficiency. However, unsuccessful detection at relay severely deteriorates the diversity gain, as well as end-to-end pairwise error probability (PEP. To handle this issue, a novel joint cyclic redundancy code (CRC check method (JCRC is proposed in this paper by exploiting the property of two NC combined CRC codewords. Firstly, the detection probability bounds of the proposed method are derived to prove its efficiency in evaluating the reliability of NC signals. On the basis of that, three JCRC aided TW DNF NC schemes are proposed, and the corresponding PEP performances are also derived. Numerical results reveal that JCRC aided TW DNF NC has similar PEP comparing with the separate CRC one, while the complexity is reduced to half. Besides, it demonstrates that the proposed schemes outperform the conventional one with log-likelihood ratio threshold.

  8. On the Combination of Multi-Layer Source Coding and Network Coding for Wireless Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krigslund, Jeppe; Fitzek, Frank; Pedersen, Morten Videbæk

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces a mutually beneficial interplay between network coding and scalable video source coding in order to propose an energy-efficient video streaming approach accommodating multiple heterogeneous receivers, for which current solutions are either inefficient or insufficient. State...... support of multi-resolution video streaming....

  9. Asymmetric Modulation Gains in Network Coded Relay Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani; Fitzek, Frank

    2015-01-01

    to enhance data transmission of groups of data packets, generally using some packet-level coding approach. Network coding's recoding capabilities at intermediate nodes make it particularly suitable for the later. This paper's idea falls in between these two research lines. We aim to increase the end......Wireless relays have usually been considered in two ways. On the one hand, a physical layer approach focused on per-packet reliability and involving the relay on each packet transmission. On the other, recent approaches have relied on the judicious activation of the relay at the network level......–to–end throughput by (i) using network coding to control the use of the relay in an effective manner, and (ii) leveraging asymmetric modulation to enable the source to efficiently allocate its resources. We provide mathematical analysis and a simple optimization mechanism. Numerical results for the case of fading...

  10. A Network Coding Based Routing Protocol for Underwater Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Guan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Due to the particularities of the underwater environment, some negative factors will seriously interfere with data transmission rates, reliability of data communication, communication range, and network throughput and energy consumption of underwater sensor networks (UWSNs. Thus, full consideration of node energy savings, while maintaining a quick, correct and effective data transmission, extending the network life cycle are essential when routing protocols for underwater sensor networks are studied. In this paper, we have proposed a novel routing algorithm for UWSNs. To increase energy consumption efficiency and extend network lifetime, we propose a time-slot based routing algorithm (TSR.We designed a probability balanced mechanism and applied it to TSR. The theory of network coding is introduced to TSBR to meet the requirement of further reducing node energy consumption and extending network lifetime. Hence, time-slot based balanced network coding (TSBNC comes into being. We evaluated the proposed time-slot based balancing routing algorithm and compared it with other classical underwater routing protocols. The simulation results show that the proposed protocol can reduce the probability of node conflicts, shorten the process of routing construction, balance energy consumption of each node and effectively prolong the network lifetime.

  11. A network coding based routing protocol for underwater sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Huayang; Chen, Min; Guan, Xin

    2012-01-01

    Due to the particularities of the underwater environment, some negative factors will seriously interfere with data transmission rates, reliability of data communication, communication range, and network throughput and energy consumption of underwater sensor networks (UWSNs). Thus, full consideration of node energy savings, while maintaining a quick, correct and effective data transmission, extending the network life cycle are essential when routing protocols for underwater sensor networks are studied. In this paper, we have proposed a novel routing algorithm for UWSNs. To increase energy consumption efficiency and extend network lifetime, we propose a time-slot based routing algorithm (TSR).We designed a probability balanced mechanism and applied it to TSR. The theory of network coding is introduced to TSBR to meet the requirement of further reducing node energy consumption and extending network lifetime. Hence, time-slot based balanced network coding (TSBNC) comes into being. We evaluated the proposed time-slot based balancing routing algorithm and compared it with other classical underwater routing protocols. The simulation results show that the proposed protocol can reduce the probability of node conflicts, shorten the process of routing construction, balance energy consumption of each node and effectively prolong the network lifetime.

  12. Multiuser Cooperation with Hybrid Network Coding in Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Wang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a hybrid Network Coding Cooperation (hybrid-NCC system is proposed to achieve both reliable transmission and high throughput in wireless networks. To balance the transmission reliability with throughput, the users are divided into cooperative sub-networks based on the geographical information, and the cooperation is implemented in each sub-network. After receiving signals from the cooperative partners, each user encodes them by exploiting hybrid network coding and then forwards the recoded symbols via the Link-Adaptive Regenerative (LAR relaying. First, the Diversity-Multiplexing Tradeoff (DMT is analyzed to demonstrate that the proposed system is bandwidth-efficient. Second, the Symbol Error Probability (SEP is also derived, which shows that the proposed system achieves a higher reliability as compared to the traditional Complex Field Network Coding Cooperation (CFNCC. Moreover, because dedicated relays are not required, our proposed system can both reduce the costs and enhance the flexibility of the implementation. Finally, the analytical results are supported and validated by numerical simulations.

  13. Application and Implementation of Network Coding for Cooperative Wireless Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Morten Videbæk

    2012-01-01

    . 1) I have suggested the use of network coding as a key-enabler for technology- enabled cooperation. I refer to technology-enabled cooperation when we are able to provide all participating entities in the network a better performance by enabling user cooperation. In order to achieve this goal I apply...... ways that cooperative models may be implemented to cover a wide range of applications. This addresses the development of user cooperative protocols and how we in Device To Device (D2D) communication may reward users that contribute more to the network than they gain. In this area I suggest the use...

  14. Generalized instantly decodable network coding for relay-assisted networks

    KAUST Repository

    Elmahdy, Adel M.

    2013-09-01

    In this paper, we investigate the problem of minimizing the frame completion delay for Instantly Decodable Network Coding (IDNC) in relay-assisted wireless multicast networks. We first propose a packet recovery algorithm in the single relay topology which employs generalized IDNC instead of strict IDNC previously proposed in the literature for the same relay-assisted topology. This use of generalized IDNC is supported by showing that it is a super-set of the strict IDNC scheme, and thus can generate coding combinations that are at least as efficient as strict IDNC in reducing the average completion delay. We then extend our study to the multiple relay topology and propose a joint generalized IDNC and relay selection algorithm. This proposed algorithm benefits from the reception diversity of the multiple relays to further reduce the average completion delay in the network. Simulation results show that our proposed solutions achieve much better performance compared to previous solutions in the literature. © 2013 IEEE.

  15. A New Wavelength Optimization and Energy-Saving Scheme Based on Network Coding in Software-Defined WDM-PON Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Danping; Wu, Shanshan; Zhang, Lijing

    2016-09-01

    In view of the characteristics of the global control and flexible monitor of software-defined networks (SDN), we proposes a new optical access network architecture dedicated to Wavelength Division Multiplexing-Passive Optical Network (WDM-PON) systems based on SDN. The network coding (NC) technology is also applied into this architecture to enhance the utilization of wavelength resource and reduce the costs of light source. Simulation results show that this scheme can optimize the throughput of the WDM-PON network, greatly reduce the system time delay and energy consumption.

  16. A graph model for opportunistic network coding

    KAUST Repository

    Sorour, Sameh

    2015-08-12

    © 2015 IEEE. Recent advancements in graph-based analysis and solutions of instantly decodable network coding (IDNC) trigger the interest to extend them to more complicated opportunistic network coding (ONC) scenarios, with limited increase in complexity. In this paper, we design a simple IDNC-like graph model for a specific subclass of ONC, by introducing a more generalized definition of its vertices and the notion of vertex aggregation in order to represent the storage of non-instantly-decodable packets in ONC. Based on this representation, we determine the set of pairwise vertex adjacency conditions that can populate this graph with edges so as to guarantee decodability or aggregation for the vertices of each clique in this graph. We then develop the algorithmic procedures that can be applied on the designed graph model to optimize any performance metric for this ONC subclass. A case study on reducing the completion time shows that the proposed framework improves on the performance of IDNC and gets very close to the optimal performance.

  17. Improving Link Reliability through Network Coding in Cooperative Cellular Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zs. A. Polgar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes a XOR-based network coded cooperation protocol for the uplink transmission of relay assisted cellular networks and an algorithm for selection and assignment of the relay nodes. The performances of the cooperation protocol are expressed in terms of network decoder outage probability and Block Error Rate of the cooperating users. These performance indicators are analyzed theoretically and by computer simulations. The relay nodes assignment is based on the optimization, according to several criteria, of the graph that describes the cooperation cluster formed after an initial selection of the relay nodes. The graph optimization is performed using Genetic Algorithms adapted to the topology of the cooperation cluster and the optimization criteria considered.

  18. On Field Size and Success Probability in Network Coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geil, Hans Olav; Matsumoto, Ryutaroh; Thomsen, Casper

    2008-01-01

    Using tools from algebraic geometry and Gröbner basis theory we solve two problems in network coding. First we present a method to determine the smallest field size for which linear network coding is feasible. Second we derive improved estimates on the success probability of random linear network...

  19. Data Dissemination in Wireless Sensor Networks with Network Coding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiumin Wang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In wireless sensor networks (WSNs, it is often necessary to update the software running on sensors, which requires reliable dissemination of large data objects to each sensor with energy efficiency. During data dissemination, due to sleep scheduling designed for energy efficiency, some sensors may not receive some packets at some time slots. In the meantime, due to the unreliability of wireless communication, a sensor may not successfully receive a packet even when it is in the active mode. Thus, retransmission of such packets to those sensors is necessary, which consumes more energy and increases the delay of data dissemination cycle. In this paper, we propose a network coding-based approach in data dissemination such that data dissemination can be accomplished at the earliest time. Thus, less energy is consumed and the delay can be decreased. The impact of packet loss probability and the sleep probability of sensors on the network coding gain is analyzed. A threshold is also given to decide whether the current sleep scheduling is effective on energy saving in data dissemination process or not. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness and scalability of the proposed work.

  20. Spiking network simulation code for petascale computers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunkel, Susanne; Schmidt, Maximilian; Eppler, Jochen M.; Plesser, Hans E.; Masumoto, Gen; Igarashi, Jun; Ishii, Shin; Fukai, Tomoki; Morrison, Abigail; Diesmann, Markus; Helias, Moritz

    2014-01-01

    Brain-scale networks exhibit a breathtaking heterogeneity in the dynamical properties and parameters of their constituents. At cellular resolution, the entities of theory are neurons and synapses and over the past decade researchers have learned to manage the heterogeneity of neurons and synapses with efficient data structures. Already early parallel simulation codes stored synapses in a distributed fashion such that a synapse solely consumes memory on the compute node harboring the target neuron. As petaflop computers with some 100,000 nodes become increasingly available for neuroscience, new challenges arise for neuronal network simulation software: Each neuron contacts on the order of 10,000 other neurons and thus has targets only on a fraction of all compute nodes; furthermore, for any given source neuron, at most a single synapse is typically created on any compute node. From the viewpoint of an individual compute node, the heterogeneity in the synaptic target lists thus collapses along two dimensions: the dimension of the types of synapses and the dimension of the number of synapses of a given type. Here we present a data structure taking advantage of this double collapse using metaprogramming techniques. After introducing the relevant scaling scenario for brain-scale simulations, we quantitatively discuss the performance on two supercomputers. We show that the novel architecture scales to the largest petascale supercomputers available today. PMID:25346682

  1. Spiking network simulation code for petascale computers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunkel, Susanne; Schmidt, Maximilian; Eppler, Jochen M; Plesser, Hans E; Masumoto, Gen; Igarashi, Jun; Ishii, Shin; Fukai, Tomoki; Morrison, Abigail; Diesmann, Markus; Helias, Moritz

    2014-01-01

    Brain-scale networks exhibit a breathtaking heterogeneity in the dynamical properties and parameters of their constituents. At cellular resolution, the entities of theory are neurons and synapses and over the past decade researchers have learned to manage the heterogeneity of neurons and synapses with efficient data structures. Already early parallel simulation codes stored synapses in a distributed fashion such that a synapse solely consumes memory on the compute node harboring the target neuron. As petaflop computers with some 100,000 nodes become increasingly available for neuroscience, new challenges arise for neuronal network simulation software: Each neuron contacts on the order of 10,000 other neurons and thus has targets only on a fraction of all compute nodes; furthermore, for any given source neuron, at most a single synapse is typically created on any compute node. From the viewpoint of an individual compute node, the heterogeneity in the synaptic target lists thus collapses along two dimensions: the dimension of the types of synapses and the dimension of the number of synapses of a given type. Here we present a data structure taking advantage of this double collapse using metaprogramming techniques. After introducing the relevant scaling scenario for brain-scale simulations, we quantitatively discuss the performance on two supercomputers. We show that the novel architecture scales to the largest petascale supercomputers available today.

  2. Variable weight spectral amplitude coding for multiservice OCDMA networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyedzadeh, Saleh; Rahimian, Farzad Pour; Glesk, Ivan; Kakaee, Majid H.

    2017-09-01

    The emergence of heterogeneous data traffic such as voice over IP, video streaming and online gaming have demanded networks with capability of supporting quality of service (QoS) at the physical layer with traffic prioritisation. This paper proposes a new variable-weight code based on spectral amplitude coding for optical code-division multiple-access (OCDMA) networks to support QoS differentiation. The proposed variable-weight multi-service (VW-MS) code relies on basic matrix construction. A mathematical model is developed for performance evaluation of VW-MS OCDMA networks. It is shown that the proposed code provides an optimal code length with minimum cross-correlation value when compared to other codes. Numerical results for a VW-MS OCDMA network designed for triple-play services operating at 0.622 Gb/s, 1.25 Gb/s and 2.5 Gb/s are considered.

  3. On the Need of Network coding for Mobile Clouds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fitzek, Frank; Heide, Janus; Pedersen, Morten Videbæk

    This paper advocates the need of network coding for mobile clouds. Mobile clouds as well as network coding are describing two novel concepts. The concept of mobile clouds describes the potential of mobile devices to communicate with each other and form a cooperative cluster in which new services...... and potentials are created. Network coding on the other side enables the mobile cloud to communicate in a very efficient and secure way in terms of energy and bandwidth usage. Even though network coding can be applied in a variety of communication networks, it has some inherent features that makes it suitable...... for mobile clouds. The paper will list the benefits of network coding for mobile clouds as well as introduce both concepts in a tutorial way. The results used throughout this paper are collaborative work of different research institutes, but mainly taken from the mobile device group at Aalborg University....

  4. A Novel Cooperation-Based Network Coding Scheme for Walking Scenarios in WBANs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyun Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs, the tradeoff between network throughput and energy efficiency remains a key challenge. Most current transmission schemes try to cope with the challenge from the perspective of general Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs, which may not take the peculiarities of WBAN channels into account. In this paper, we take advantage of the correlation of on-body channels in walking scenarios to achieve a better tradeoff between throughput and energy consumption. We first analyze the characteristics of on-body channels based on realistic channel gain datasets, which are collected by our customized wireless transceivers in walking scenarios. The analytical results confirm the rationale of our newly proposed transmission scheme A3NC, which explores the combination of the aggregative allocation (AA mechanism in MAC layer and the Analog Network Coding (ANC technique in PHY layer. Both theoretical analyses and simulation results show that the A3NC scheme achieves significant improvement in upload throughput and energy efficiency, compared to the conventional approaches.

  5. Multimedia distribution using network coding on the iphone platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vingelmann, Peter; Pedersen, Morten Videbæk; Fitzek, Frank

    2010-01-01

    This paper looks into the implementation details of random linear network coding on the Apple iPhone and iPod Touch mobile platforms for multimedia distribution. Previous implementations of network coding on this platform failed to achieve a throughput which is sufficient to saturate the WLAN...

  6. Rate Aware Instantly Decodable Network Codes

    KAUST Repository

    Douik, Ahmed

    2016-02-26

    This paper addresses the problem of reducing the delivery time of data messages to cellular users using instantly decodable network coding (IDNC) with physical-layer rate awareness. While most of the existing literature on IDNC does not consider any physical layer complications, this paper proposes a cross-layer scheme that incorporates the different channel rates of the various users in the decision process of both the transmitted message combinations and the rates with which they are transmitted. The completion time minimization problem in such scenario is first shown to be intractable. The problem is, thus, approximated by reducing, at each transmission, the increase of an anticipated version of the completion time. The paper solves the problem by formulating it as a maximum weight clique problem over a newly designed rate aware IDNC (RA-IDNC) graph. Further, the paper provides a multi-layer solution to improve the completion time approximation. Simulation results suggest that the cross-layer design largely outperforms the uncoded transmissions strategies and the classical IDNC scheme. © 2015 IEEE.

  7. Fast frequency hopping codes applied to SAC optical CDMA network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Shin-Pin

    2015-06-01

    This study designed a fast frequency hopping (FFH) code family suitable for application in spectral-amplitude-coding (SAC) optical code-division multiple-access (CDMA) networks. The FFH code family can effectively suppress the effects of multiuser interference and had its origin in the frequency hopping code family. Additional codes were developed as secure codewords for enhancing the security of the network. In considering the system cost and flexibility, simple optical encoders/decoders using fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) and a set of optical securers using two arrayed-waveguide grating (AWG) demultiplexers (DeMUXs) were also constructed. Based on a Gaussian approximation, expressions for evaluating the bit error rate (BER) and spectral efficiency (SE) of SAC optical CDMA networks are presented. The results indicated that the proposed SAC optical CDMA network exhibited favorable performance.

  8. Merging Network Coding with Feedback Management in Multicast Streaming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moreira, André; Almeida, Luis; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani

    2015-01-01

    not scale well with the number of receivers and particularly with the packet loss rate. A more efficient alternative is to use erasure codes to generate packets that can help many receivers at the same time. In this paper, we propose using online network coding to send coded packets that repair losses...

  9. Conflict free network coding for distributed storage networks

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Habob, Ahmed A.

    2015-06-01

    © 2015 IEEE. In this paper, we design a conflict free instantly decodable network coding (IDNC) solution for file download from distributed storage servers. Considering previously downloaded files at the clients from these servers as side information, IDNC can speed up the current download process. However, transmission conflicts can occur since multiple servers can simultaneously send IDNC combinations of files to the same client, which can tune to only one of them at a time. To avoid such conflicts and design more efficient coded download patterns, we propose a dual conflict IDNC graph model, which extends the conventional IDNC graph model in order to guarantee conflict free server transmissions to each of the clients. We then formulate the download time minimization problem as a stochastic shortest path problem whose action space is defined by the independent sets of this new graph. Given the intractability of the solution, we design a channel-aware heuristic algorithm and show that it achieves a considerable reduction in the file download time, compared to applying the conventional IDNC approach separately at each of the servers.

  10. Reducing Computational Overhead of Network Coding with Intrinsic Information Conveying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heide, Janus; Zhang, Qi; Pedersen, Morten V.

    This paper investigated the possibility of intrinsic information conveying in network coding systems. The information is embedded into the coding vector by constructing the vector based on a set of predefined rules. This information can subsequently be retrieved by any receiver. The starting point...... is RLNC (Random Linear Network Coding) and the goal is to reduce the amount of coding operations both at the coding and decoding node, and at the same time remove the need for dedicated signaling messages. In a traditional RLNC system, coding operation takes up significant computational resources and adds...... to the overall energy consumption, which is particular problematic for mobile battery-driven devices. In RLNC coding is performed over a FF (Finite Field). We propose to divide this field into sub fields, and let each sub field signify some information or state. In order to embed the information correctly...

  11. Decoding Algorithms for Random Linear Network Codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heide, Janus; Pedersen, Morten Videbæk; Fitzek, Frank

    2011-01-01

    We consider the problem of efficient decoding of a random linear code over a finite field. In particular we are interested in the case where the code is random, relatively sparse, and use the binary finite field as an example. The goal is to decode the data using fewer operations to potentially a...

  12. Leaner and meaner: Network coding in SIMD enabled commercial devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    W. Sørensen, Chres; Paramanathan, Achuthan; Cabrera, Juan A.

    2016-01-01

    into energy use that may reduce the battery life of a device. This paper focuses not only on providing a comprehensive measurement study of the energy cost of RLNC in eight different computing platforms, but also explores novel approaches (e.g., tunable sparse network coding) and hardware optimizations...... 2x to as high as 20x. Finally, our results show that the latest generation of mobile processors reduce dramatically the energy per bit consumed for carrying out network coding operations compared to previous generations, thus making network coding a viable technology for the upcoming 5G...

  13. Joint Channel-Network Coding Strategies for Networks with Low Complexity Relays

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Sarah J; Kellett, Christopher M

    2011-01-01

    We investigate joint network and channel coding schemes for networks when relay nodes are not capable of performing channel coding operations. Rather, channel encoding is performed at the source node while channel decoding is done only at the destination nodes. We examine three different decoding strategies: independent network-then-channel decoding, serial network and channel decoding, and joint network and channel decoding. Furthermore, we describe how to implement such joint network and channel decoding using iteratively decodable error correction codes. Using simple networks as a model, we derive achievable rate regions and use simulations to demonstrate the effectiveness of the three decoders.

  14. Decoding small surface codes with feedforward neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varsamopoulos, Savvas; Criger, Ben; Bertels, Koen

    2018-01-01

    Surface codes reach high error thresholds when decoded with known algorithms, but the decoding time will likely exceed the available time budget, especially for near-term implementations. To decrease the decoding time, we reduce the decoding problem to a classification problem that a feedforward neural network can solve. We investigate quantum error correction and fault tolerance at small code distances using neural network-based decoders, demonstrating that the neural network can generalize to inputs that were not provided during training and that they can reach similar or better decoding performance compared to previous algorithms. We conclude by discussing the time required by a feedforward neural network decoder in hardware.

  15. Sending policies in dynamic wireless mesh using network coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pandi, Sreekrishna; Fitzek, Frank; Pihl, Jeppe

    2015-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the quick prototyping capabilities of the Python-Kodo library for network coding based performance evaluation and investigates the problem of data redundancy in a network coded wireless mesh with opportunistic overhearing. By means of several wireless meshed architectures...... simulated on the constructed test-bed, the advantage of network coding over state of the art routing schemes and the challenges of this new technology are shown. By providing maximum control of the network coding parameters and the simulation environment to the user, the test-bed facilitates quick...... construction of simulation setups on top of it. The paper highlights the problem of redundant transmission of data by the overhearing nodes in a wireless mesh and by means of three simple simulation setups that are built on top of the test-bed, the paper provides a brief insight into the selection...

  16. An Optical Multicast Routing with Minimal Network Coding Operations in WDM Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huanlin Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Network coding can improve the optical multicast routing performance in terms of network throughput, bandwidth utilization, and traffic load balance. But network coding needs high encoding operations costs in all-optical WDM networks due to shortage of optical RAM. In the paper, the network coding operation is defined to evaluate the number of network coding operation cost in the paper. An optical multicast routing algorithm based on minimal number of network coding operations is proposed to improve the multicast capacity. Two heuristic criteria are designed to establish the multicast routing with low network coding cost and high multicast capacity. One is to select one path from the former K shortest paths with the least probability of dropping the multicast maximal capacity. The other is to select the path with lowest potential coding operations with the highest link shared degree among the multiple wavelength disjoint paths cluster from source to each destination. Comparing with the other multicast routing based on network coding, simulation results show that the proposed multicast routing algorithm can effectively reduce the times of network coding operations, can improve the probability of reaching multicast maximal capacity, and can keep the less multicast routing link cost for optical WDM networks.

  17. ChIPBase v2.0: decoding transcriptional regulatory networks of non-coding RNAs and protein-coding genes from ChIP-seq data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ke-Ren; Liu, Shun; Sun, Wen-Ju; Zheng, Ling-Ling; Zhou, Hui; Yang, Jian-Hua; Qu, Liang-Hu

    2017-01-04

    The abnormal transcriptional regulation of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) and protein-coding genes (PCGs) is contributed to various biological processes and linked with human diseases, but the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. In this study, we developed ChIPBase v2.0 (http://rna.sysu.edu.cn/chipbase/) to explore the transcriptional regulatory networks of ncRNAs and PCGs. ChIPBase v2.0 has been expanded with ∼10 200 curated ChIP-seq datasets, which represent about 20 times expansion when comparing to the previous released version. We identified thousands of binding motif matrices and their binding sites from ChIP-seq data of DNA-binding proteins and predicted millions of transcriptional regulatory relationships between transcription factors (TFs) and genes. We constructed 'Regulator' module to predict hundreds of TFs and histone modifications that were involved in or affected transcription of ncRNAs and PCGs. Moreover, we built a web-based tool, Co-Expression, to explore the co-expression patterns between DNA-binding proteins and various types of genes by integrating the gene expression profiles of ∼10 000 tumor samples and ∼9100 normal tissues and cell lines. ChIPBase also provides a ChIP-Function tool and a genome browser to predict functions of diverse genes and visualize various ChIP-seq data. This study will greatly expand our understanding of the transcriptional regulations of ncRNAs and PCGs. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  18. Network Coding to Enhance Standard Routing Protocols in Wireless Mesh Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pahlevani, Peyman; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani; Fitzek, Frank

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces a design and simulation of a locally optimized network coding protocol, called PlayNCool, for wireless mesh networks. PlayN-Cool is easy to implement and compatible with existing routing protocols and devices. This allows the system to gain from network coding capabilities...

  19. Executable Code Recognition in Network Flows Using Instruction Transition Probabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ikkyun; Kang, Koohong; Choi, Yangseo; Kim, Daewon; Oh, Jintae; Jang, Jongsoo; Han, Kijun

    The ability to recognize quickly inside network flows to be executable is prerequisite for malware detection. For this purpose, we introduce an instruction transition probability matrix (ITPX) which is comprised of the IA-32 instruction sets and reveals the characteristics of executable code's instruction transition patterns. And then, we propose a simple algorithm to detect executable code inside network flows using a reference ITPX which is learned from the known Windows Portable Executable files. We have tested the algorithm with more than thousands of executable and non-executable codes. The results show that it is very promising enough to use in real world.

  20. Easy as Pi: A Network Coding Raspberry Pi Testbed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    W. Sørensen, Chres; Hernandez Marcano, Nestor Javier; Cabrera Guerrero, Juan A.

    2016-01-01

    of the hardware, but also due to maintenance challenges. In this paper, we present the required key steps to design, setup and maintain an inexpensive testbed using Raspberry Pi devices for communications and storage networks with network coding capabilities. This testbed can be utilized for any applications...

  1. Distributed Estimation, Coding, and Scheduling in Wireless Visual Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chao

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis, we consider estimation, coding, and sensor scheduling for energy efficient operation of wireless visual sensor networks (VSN), which consist of battery-powered wireless sensors with sensing (imaging), computation, and communication capabilities. The competing requirements for applications of these wireless sensor networks (WSN)…

  2. Towards Effective Intra-flow Network Coding in Software Defined Wireless Mesh Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donghai Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Mesh Networks (WMNs have potential to provide convenient broadband wireless Internet access to mobile users.With the support of Software-Defined Networking (SDN paradigm that separates control plane and data plane, WMNs can be easily deployed and managed. In addition, by exploiting the broadcast nature of the wireless medium and the spatial diversity of multi-hop wireless networks, intra-flow network coding has shown a greater benefit in comparison with traditional routing paradigms in data transmission for WMNs. In this paper, we develop a novel OpenCoding protocol, which combines the SDN technique with intra-flow network coding for WMNs. Our developed protocol can simplify the deployment and management of the network and improve network performance. In OpenCoding, a controller that works on the control plane makes routing decisions for mesh routers and the hop-by-hop forwarding function is replaced by network coding functions in data plane. We analyze the overhead of OpenCoding. Through a simulation study, we show the effectiveness of the OpenCoding protocol in comparison with existing schemes. Our data shows that OpenCoding outperforms both traditional routing and intra-flow network coding schemes.

  3. Fast Program Codes Dissemination for Smart Wireless Software Defined Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In smart wireless software defined networks (WSDNs, sensor nodes are deployed in the monitored area to sense data. In order to increase the flexibility of WSDNs configuration, sensor nodes use programmable technology. Thus, programming and software engineering that integrate Internet of Things (IoT lead to a smart world. Due to the large capacity of program codes and the limited energy of wireless network, only a subset of nodes is selected to spread program codes, and the remaining nodes are in sleep status to save energy. In this paper, a fast program codes dissemination (FPCD scheme for smart wireless software defined networking is proposed; many nodes in the area far from the sink will be selected to spread program codes; those areas have much energy left, while the area near the sink chooses less number of active nodes to spread program codes to save energy. Thus, FPCD scheme can reduce delay for spreading program codes while retaining network lifetime. The theoretical analysis and experimental results show that our approach can reduce transmission delay by 10.76%–105.791% while retaining network lifetime compares with previous broadcast schemes.

  4. Reciprocity in Linear Deterministic Networks under Linear Coding

    CERN Document Server

    Raja, Adnan; Viswanath, Pramod

    2009-01-01

    The linear deterministic model has been used recently to get a first order understanding of many wireless communication network problems. In many of these cases, it has been pointed out that the capacity regions of the network and its reciprocal (where the communication links are reversed and the roles of the sources and the destinations are swapped) are the same. In this paper, we consider a linear deterministic communication network with multiple unicast information flows. For this model and under the restriction to the class of linear coding, we show that the rate regions for a network and its reciprocal are the same. This can be viewed as a generalization of the linear reversibility of wireline networks, already known in the network coding literature.

  5. Energy-Efficient Channel Coding Strategy for Underwater Acoustic Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto, Grasielli; Simão, Daniel H; Pellenz, Marcelo E; Souza, Richard D; Jamhour, Edgard; Penna, Manoel C; Brante, Glauber; Chang, Bruno S

    2017-03-31

    Underwater acoustic networks (UAN) allow for efficiently exploiting and monitoring the sub-aquatic environment. These networks are characterized by long propagation delays, error-prone channels and half-duplex communication. In this paper, we address the problem of energy-efficient communication through the use of optimized channel coding parameters. We consider a two-layer encoding scheme employing forward error correction (FEC) codes and fountain codes (FC) for UAN scenarios without feedback channels. We model and evaluate the energy consumption of different channel coding schemes for a K -distributed multipath channel. The parameters of the FEC encoding layer are optimized by selecting the optimal error correction capability and the code block size. The results show the best parameter choice as a function of the link distance and received signal-to-noise ratio.

  6. Energy-Efficient Channel Coding Strategy for Underwater Acoustic Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grasielli Barreto

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Underwater acoustic networks (UAN allow for efficiently exploiting and monitoring the sub-aquatic environment. These networks are characterized by long propagation delays, error-prone channels and half-duplex communication. In this paper, we address the problem of energy-efficient communication through the use of optimized channel coding parameters. We consider a two-layer encoding scheme employing forward error correction (FEC codes and fountain codes (FC for UAN scenarios without feedback channels. We model and evaluate the energy consumption of different channel coding schemes for a K-distributed multipath channel. The parameters of the FEC encoding layer are optimized by selecting the optimal error correction capability and the code block size. The results show the best parameter choice as a function of the link distance and received signal-to-noise ratio.

  7. Network Coding Opportunities for Wireless Grids Formed by Mobile Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Karsten Fyhn; Madsen, Tatiana Kozlova; Fitzek, Frank

    2008-01-01

    Wireless grids have potential in sharing communication, computational and storage resources making these networks more powerful, more robust, and less cost intensive. However, to enjoy the benefits of cooperative resource sharing, a number of issues should be addressed and the cost of the wireless...... link should be taken into account. We focus on the question how nodes can efficiently communicate and distribute data in a wireless grid. We show the potential of a network coding approach when nodes have the possibility to combine packets thus increasing the amount of information per transmission. Our...... implementation demonstrates the feasibility of network coding for wireless grids formed by mobile devices....

  8. Enhanced Broadcasting and Code Assignment in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinfang Zhang

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available A CDMA-based mobile Ad Hoc networks face two main design challenges. One is to periodically update connectivity information, namely, neighboring nodes and the codes used by neighboring nodes. The other is to guarantee that there is no code collision in two hops' distance. This paper proposes an enhanced time-spread broadcasting schedule for connectivity information update. Based on the connectivity information, a code assignment and potential code collision resolution scheme to solve hidden/exposed nodes problem is proposed. Simulation results demonstrate the efficiency and effectiveness of the proposed schemes.

  9. Simulation of Code Spectrum and Code Flow of Cultured Neuronal Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Shinichi; Nishitani, Yoshi; Hosokawa, Chie; Miyoshi, Tomomitsu; Sawai, Hajime

    2016-01-01

    It has been shown that, in cultured neuronal networks on a multielectrode, pseudorandom-like sequences (codes) are detected, and they flow with some spatial decay constant. Each cultured neuronal network is characterized by a specific spectrum curve. That is, we may consider the spectrum curve as a "signature" of its associated neuronal network that is dependent on the characteristics of neurons and network configuration, including the weight distribution. In the present study, we used an integrate-and-fire model of neurons with intrinsic and instantaneous fluctuations of characteristics for performing a simulation of a code spectrum from multielectrodes on a 2D mesh neural network. We showed that it is possible to estimate the characteristics of neurons such as the distribution of number of neurons around each electrode and their refractory periods. Although this process is a reverse problem and theoretically the solutions are not sufficiently guaranteed, the parameters seem to be consistent with those of neurons. That is, the proposed neural network model may adequately reflect the behavior of a cultured neuronal network. Furthermore, such prospect is discussed that code analysis will provide a base of communication within a neural network that will also create a base of natural intelligence.

  10. Coded Cooperation for Multiway Relaying in Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Zhongwei; Ma, Junyang; Thobaben, Ragnar

    2015-06-29

    Wireless sensor networks have been considered as an enabling technology for constructing smart cities. One important feature of wireless sensor networks is that the sensor nodes collaborate in some manner for communications. In this manuscript, we focus on the model of multiway relaying with full data exchange where each user wants to transmit and receive data to and from all other users in the network. We derive the capacity region for this specific model and propose a coding strategy through coset encoding. To obtain good performance with practical codes, we choose spatially-coupled LDPC (SC-LDPC) codes for the coded cooperation. In particular, for the message broadcasting from the relay, we construct multi-edge-type (MET) SC-LDPC codes by repeatedly applying coset encoding. Due to the capacity-achieving property of the SC-LDPC codes, we prove that the capacity region can theoretically be achieved by the proposed MET SC-LDPC codes. Numerical results with finite node degrees are provided, which show that the achievable rates approach the boundary of the capacity region in both binary erasure channels and additive white Gaussian channels.

  11. Coded Cooperation for Multiway Relaying in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Zhongwei; Ma, Junyang; Thobaben, Ragnar

    2015-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks have been considered as an enabling technology for constructing smart cities. One important feature of wireless sensor networks is that the sensor nodes collaborate in some manner for communications. In this manuscript, we focus on the model of multiway relaying with full data exchange where each user wants to transmit and receive data to and from all other users in the network. We derive the capacity region for this specific model and propose a coding strategy through coset encoding. To obtain good performance with practical codes, we choose spatially-coupled LDPC (SC-LDPC) codes for the coded cooperation. In particular, for the message broadcasting from the relay, we construct multi-edge-type (MET) SC-LDPC codes by repeatedly applying coset encoding. Due to the capacity-achieving property of the SC-LDPC codes, we prove that the capacity region can theoretically be achieved by the proposed MET SC-LDPC codes. Numerical results with finite node degrees are provided, which show that the achievable rates approach the boundary of the capacity region in both binary erasure channels and additive white Gaussian channels. PMID:26131675

  12. Systematic network coding for two-hop lossy transmissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ye; Blostein, Steven; Chan, Wai-Yip

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we consider network transmissions over a single or multiple parallel two-hop lossy paths. These scenarios occur in applications such as sensor networks or WiFi offloading. Random linear network coding (RLNC), where previously received packets are re-encoded at intermediate nodes and forwarded, is known to be a capacity-achieving approach for these networks. However, a major drawback of RLNC is its high encoding and decoding complexity. In this work, a systematic network coding method is proposed. We show through both analysis and simulation that the proposed method achieves higher end-to-end rate as well as lower computational cost than RLNC for finite field sizes and finite-sized packet transmissions.

  13. Optimal content delivery with network coding

    OpenAIRE

    Leong, Derek; Ho, Tracey; Cathey, Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    We present a unified linear program formulation for optimal content delivery in content delivery networks (CDNs), taking into account various costs and constraints associated with content dissemination from the origin server to storage nodes, data storage, and the eventual fetching of content from storage nodes by end users. Our formulation can be used to achieve a variety of performance goals and system behavior, including the bounding of fetch delay, load balancing, and robustness against...

  14. A Secure Network Coding Based on Broadcast Encryption in SDN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available By allowing intermediate nodes to encode the received packets before sending them out, network coding improves the capacity and robustness of multicast applications. But it is vulnerable to the pollution attacks. Some signature schemes were proposed to thwart such attacks, but most of them need to be homomorphic that the keys cannot be generated and managed easily. In this paper, we propose a novel fast and secure switch network coding multicast (SSNC on the software defined networks (SDN. In our scheme, the complicated secure multicast management was separated from the fast data transmission based on the SDN. Multiple multicasts will be aggregated to one multicast group according to the requirements of services and the network status. Then, the controller will route aggregated multicast group with network coding; only the trusted switch will be allowed to join the network coding by using broadcast encryption. The proposed scheme can use the traditional cryptography without homomorphy, which greatly reduces the complexity of the computation and improves the efficiency of transmission.

  15. Minimizing The Completion Time Of A Wireless Cooperative Network Using Network Coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani; Khamfroush, Hana; Barros, João

    2013-01-01

    network coding solution in terms of completion time, outperforms broadcasting with network coding by a factor of 2.13 and outperforms forwarding mechanisms by a factor of 6.1. Beyond computing the optimal completion time, we identify the critical decision policies derived from the MDP solution....

  16. Single-shot secure quantum network coding on butterfly network with free public communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owari, Masaki; Kato, Go; Hayashi, Masahito

    2018-01-01

    Quantum network coding on the butterfly network has been studied as a typical example of quantum multiple cast network. We propose a secure quantum network code for the butterfly network with free public classical communication in the multiple unicast setting under restricted eavesdropper’s power. This protocol certainly transmits quantum states when there is no attack. We also show the secrecy with shared randomness as additional resource when the eavesdropper wiretaps one of the channels in the butterfly network and also derives the information sending through public classical communication. Our protocol does not require verification process, which ensures single-shot security.

  17. Joint opportunistic scheduling and network coding for bidirectional relay channel

    KAUST Repository

    Shaqfeh, Mohammad

    2013-07-01

    In this paper, we consider a two-way communication system in which two users communicate with each other through an intermediate relay over block-fading channels. We investigate the optimal opportunistic scheduling scheme in order to maximize the long-term average transmission rate in the system assuming symmetric information flow between the two users. Based on the channel state information, the scheduler decides that either one of the users transmits to the relay, or the relay transmits to a single user or broadcasts to both users a combined version of the two users\\' transmitted information by using linear network coding. We obtain the optimal scheduling scheme by using the Lagrangian dual problem. Furthermore, in order to characterize the gains of network coding and opportunistic scheduling, we compare the achievable rate of the system versus suboptimal schemes in which the gains of network coding and opportunistic scheduling are partially exploited. © 2013 IEEE.

  18. Osculating Spaces of Varieties and Linear Network Codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Johan P.

    intersects in the same dimension. Linear network coding transmits information in terms of a basis of a vector space and the information is received as a basis of a possible altered vector space. Ralf Koetter and Frank R. Kschischang introduced a metric on the set af vector spaces and showed that a minimal...... distance decoder for this metric achieves correct decoding if the dimension of the intersection of the transmitted and received vector space is sufficiently large. The obtained osculating spaces of Veronese varieties are equidistant in the above metric. The parameters of the resulting linear network codes......We present a general theory to obtain good linear network codes utilizing the osculating nature of algebraic varieties. In particular, we obtain from the osculating spaces of Veronese varieties explicit families of equideminsional vector spaces, in which any pair of distinct vector spaces...

  19. Osculating Spaces of Varieties and Linear Network Codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Johan P.

    2013-01-01

    intersects in the same dimension. Linear network coding transmits information in terms of a basis of a vector space and the information is received as a basis of a possible altered vector space. Ralf Koetter and Frank R. Kschischang introduced a metric on the set af vector spaces and showed that a minimal...... distance decoder for this metric achieves correct decoding if the dimension of the intersection of the transmitted and received vector space is sufficiently large. The obtained osculating spaces of Veronese varieties are equidistant in the above metric. The parameters of the resulting linear network codes......We present a general theory to obtain good linear network codes utilizing the osculating nature of algebraic varieties. In particular, we obtain from the osculating spaces of Veronese varieties explicit families of equidimensional vector spaces, in which any pair of distinct vector spaces...

  20. Applying a rateless code in content delivery networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suherman; Zarlis, Muhammad; Parulian Sitorus, Sahat; Al-Akaidi, Marwan

    2017-09-01

    Content delivery network (CDN) allows internet providers to locate their services, to map their coverage into networks without necessarily to own them. CDN is part of the current internet infrastructures, supporting multi server applications especially social media. Various works have been proposed to improve CDN performances. Since accesses on social media servers tend to be short but frequent, providing redundant to the transmitted packets to ensure lost packets not degrade the information integrity may improve service performances. This paper examines the implementation of rateless code in the CDN infrastructure. The NS-2 evaluations show that rateless code is able to reduce packet loss up to 50%.

  1. Dynamic Model on the Transmission of Malicious Codes in Network

    OpenAIRE

    Bimal Kumar Mishra; Apeksha Prajapati

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces differential susceptible e-epidemic model S_i IR (susceptible class-1 for virus (S1) - susceptible class-2 for worms (S2) -susceptible class-3 for Trojan horse (S3) – infectious (I) – recovered (R)) for the transmission of malicious codes in a computer network. We derive the formula for reproduction number (R0) to study the spread of malicious codes in computer network. We show that the Infectious free equilibrium is globally asymptotically stable and endemic equilibrium...

  2. Energy coding in neural network with inhibitory neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ziyin; Wang, Rubin; Fang, Ruiyan

    2015-04-01

    This paper aimed at assessing and comparing the effects of the inhibitory neurons in the neural network on the neural energy distribution, and the network activities in the absence of the inhibitory neurons to understand the nature of neural energy distribution and neural energy coding. Stimulus, synchronous oscillation has significant difference between neural networks with and without inhibitory neurons, and this difference can be quantitatively evaluated by the characteristic energy distribution. In addition, the synchronous oscillation difference of the neural activity can be quantitatively described by change of the energy distribution if the network parameters are gradually adjusted. Compared with traditional method of correlation coefficient analysis, the quantitative indicators based on nervous energy distribution characteristics are more effective in reflecting the dynamic features of the neural network activities. Meanwhile, this neural coding method from a global perspective of neural activity effectively avoids the current defects of neural encoding and decoding theory and enormous difficulties encountered. Our studies have shown that neural energy coding is a new coding theory with high efficiency and great potential.

  3. Code generation: a strategy for neural network simulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Dan F M

    2010-10-01

    We demonstrate a technique for the design of neural network simulation software, runtime code generation. This technique can be used to give the user complete flexibility in specifying the mathematical model for their simulation in a high level way, along with the speed of code written in a low level language such as C+ +. It can also be used to write code only once but target different hardware platforms, including inexpensive high performance graphics processing units (GPUs). Code generation can be naturally combined with computer algebra systems to provide further simplification and optimisation of the generated code. The technique is quite general and could be applied to any simulation package. We demonstrate it with the 'Brian' simulator ( http://www.briansimulator.org ).

  4. Superdense coding facilitated by hyper-entanglement and quantum networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, James F.

    2017-05-01

    A method of generating superdense coding based on quantum hyper-entanglement and facilitated by quantum networks is discussed. Superdense coding refers to the coding of more than one classical bit into each qubit. Quantum hyperentanglement refers to quantum entanglement in more than one degree of freedom, e.g. polarization, energy-time, and orbital angular momentum (OAM). The new superdense coding scheme permits 2L bits to be encoded into each qubit where L is the number of degrees of freedom used for quantum hyper-entanglement. The superdense coding procedure is based on a generalization of the Bell state for L degrees of freedom. Theory describing the structure, generation/transmission, and detection of the generalized Bell state is developed. Circuit models are provided describing the generation/transmission process and detection process. Detection processes are represented mathematically as projection operators. A mathematical proof that that the detection scheme permits the generalized Bell states to be distinguished with 100% probability is provided. Measures of effectiveness (MOEs) are derived for the superdense coding scheme based on open systems theory represented in terms of density operators. Noise and loss related to generation/transmission, detection and propagation are included. The MOEs include various probabilities, quantum Chernoff bound, a measure of the number of message photons that must be transmitted to successfully send and receive a message, SNR and the quantum Cramer Rao' lower bound. Quantum networks with quantum memory are used to increase the efficiency of the superdense coding scheme.

  5. Network Coded Cooperation Over Time-Varying Channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khamfroush, Hana; Lucani Rötter, Daniel Enrique; Barros, joao

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the optimal design of cooperative network-coded strategies for a three-node wireless network with time-varying, half-duplex erasure channels. To this end, we formulate the problem of minimizing the total cost of transmitting M packets from source to two receivers...... that are suitable for practical systems. We use two wireless channel models to analyse the performance of the proposed heuristics in practical wireless networks, namely, (a) an infrastructure-to-vehicle (I2V) communication in a highway scenario considering Rayleigh fading, and (b) real packet loss measurements...... for WiFi using Aalborg University’s Raspberry Pi testbed. We compare our results with random linear network coding (RLNC) broadcasting schemes showing that our heuristics can provide up to 2x gains in completion time and up to 4x gains in terms of reliably serviced data packets....

  6. Low Computational Complexity Network Coding For Mobile Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heide, Janus

    2012-01-01

    -flow coding technique. One of the key challenges of this technique is its inherent computational complexity which can lead to high computational load and energy consumption in particular on the mobile platforms that are the target platform in this work. To increase the coding throughput several...... library and will be available for researchers and students in the future. Chapter 1 introduces motivating examples and the state of art when this work commenced. In Chapter 2 selected publications are presented and how their content is related. Chapter 3 presents the main outcome of the work and briefly...

  7. Hybrid services efficient provisioning over the network coding-enabled elastic optical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Gu, Rentao; Ji, Yuefeng; Kavehrad, Mohsen

    2017-03-01

    As a variety of services have emerged, hybrid services have become more common in real optical networks. Although the elastic spectrum resource optimizations over the elastic optical networks (EONs) have been widely investigated, little research has been carried out on the hybrid services of the routing and spectrum allocation (RSA), especially over the network coding-enabled EON. We investigated the RSA for the unicast service and network coding-based multicast service over the network coding-enabled EON with the constraints of time delay and transmission distance. To address this issue, a mathematical model was built to minimize the total spectrum consumption for the hybrid services over the network coding-enabled EON under the constraints of time delay and transmission distance. The model guarantees different routing constraints for different types of services. The immediate nodes over the network coding-enabled EON are assumed to be capable of encoding the flows for different kinds of information. We proposed an efficient heuristic algorithm of the network coding-based adaptive routing and layered graph-based spectrum allocation algorithm (NCAR-LGSA). From the simulation results, NCAR-LGSA shows highly efficient performances in terms of the spectrum resources utilization under different network scenarios compared with the benchmark algorithms.

  8. Random Access with Physical-layer Network Coding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goseling, J.; Gastpar, M.C.; Weber, J.H.

    2013-01-01

    Leveraging recent progress in compute-and-forward we propose an approach to random access that is based on physical-layer network coding: When packets collide, it is possible to recover a linear combination of the packets at the receiver. Over many rounds of transmission, the receiver can thus

  9. A Practical View on Tunable Sparse Network Coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Chres Wiant; Shahbaz Badr, Arash; Cabrera Guerrero, Juan Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Tunable sparse network coding (TSNC) constitutes a promising concept for trading off computational complexity and delay performance. This paper advocates for the use of judicious feedback as a key not only to make TSNC practical, but also to deliver a highly consistent and controlled delay......) can result in a radical improvement of the complexity-delay trade-off....

  10. Riemann-Roch Spaces and Linear Network Codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Johan P.

    number of points for curves of their respective genera. Linear network coding transmits information in terms of a basis of a vector space and the information is received as a basis of a possibly altered vector space. Ralf Koetter and Frank R. Kschischang %\\cite{DBLP:journals/tit/KoetterK08} introduced...

  11. Network Coded Cooperation Over Time-Varying Channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khamfroush, Hana; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani; Barros, João

    2014-01-01

    for WiFi using Aalborg University’s Raspberry Pi testbed. We compare our results with random linear network coding (RLNC) broadcasting schemes showing that our heuristics can provide up to 2x gains in completion time and up to 4x gains in terms of reliably serviced data packets....

  12. On Optimal Policies for Network-Coded Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khamfroush, Hana; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani; Pahlevani, Peyman

    2015-01-01

    's Raspberry Pi testbed and compared with random linear network coding (RLNC) broadcast in terms of completion time, total number of required transmissions, and percentage of delivered generations. Our measurements show that enabling cooperation only among pairs of devices can decrease the completion time...

  13. On Optimal Policies for Network Coded Cooperation: Theory and Implementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khamfroush, Hana; Lucani Rötter, Daniel Enrique; Pahlevani, Peyman

    2014-01-01

    's Raspberry Pi testbed and compared with random linear network coding (RLNC) broadcast in terms of completion time, total number of required transmissions, and percentage of delivered generations. Our measurements show that enabling cooperation only among pairs of devices can decrease the completion time...

  14. A primer on physical-layer network coding

    CERN Document Server

    Liew, Soung Chang; Zhang, Shengli

    2015-01-01

    The concept of physical-layer network coding (PNC) was proposed in 2006 for application in wireless networks. Since then it has developed into a subfield of communications and networking with a wide following. This book is a primer on PNC. It is the outcome of a set of lecture notes for a course for beginning graduate students at The Chinese University of Hong Kong. The target audience is expected to have some prior background knowledge in communication theory and wireless communications, but not working knowledge at the research level. Indeed, a goal of this book/course is to allow the reader

  15. Non-coherent Network Coding: An Arbitrarily Varying Channel Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Jafari Siavoshani, Mahdi; Yang, Shenghao; Yeung, Raymond

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an “arbitrarily varying channel” (AVC) approach to study the capacity of non-coherent transmission in a network that employs randomized linear network coding. The network operation is modeled by a matrix channel over a finite field where the transfer matrix changes arbitrarily from time-slot to time-slot but up to a known distribution over its rank. By extending the AVC results to this setup, we characterize the capacity of such a non-coherent transmission scheme and s...

  16. On the Need of Novel Medium Access Control Schemes for Network Coding enabled Wireless Mesh Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paramanathan, Achuthan; Pahlevani, Peyman; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani

    2013-01-01

    This paper advocates for a new Medium Access Control (MAC) strategy for wireless meshed networks by identifying overload scenarios in order to provide additional channel access priority to the relay. The key behind our MAC protocol is that the relay will adjust its back off window size according...... that network coding will improve the throughput in such systems, but our novel medium access scheme improves the performance in the cross topology by another 66 % for network coding and 150 % for classical forwarding in theory. These gains translate in a theoretical gain of 33 % of network coding over...... classical forwarding when both systems implement the improved MAC. However, our measurement results show an even larger gain for network coding, namely, up to 65 % over forwarding, as it copes better with channel losses under high load scenarios....

  17. PlayNCool: Opportunistic Network Coding for Local Optimization of Routing in Wireless Mesh Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pahlevani, Peyman; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani; Pedersen, Morten Videbæk

    2013-01-01

    our protocol is that each helper to a link in a multi-hop path reinforces that link by listening to coded packets transmitted in the link and by judiciously choosing when to start transmitting to make the data exchange faster and more efficient. This paper pays special attention to techniques......This paper introduces PlayNCool, an opportunistic protocol with local optimization based on network coding to increase the throughput of a wireless mesh network (WMN). PlayNCool aims to enhance current routing protocols by (i) allowing random linear network coding transmissions end-to-end, (ii...

  18. On the Feasibility of a Network Coded Mobile Storage Cloud

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sipos, Marton; H. P. Fitzek, Frank; Lucani Rötter, Daniel Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Conventional cloud storage services offer relatively good reliability and performance in a cost-effective manner. However, they are typically structured in a centralized and highly controlled fashion. In more dynamic storage scenarios, these centralized approaches are unfeasible and developing...... decentralized storage approaches becomes critical. The novelty of this paper is the introduction of the highly dynamic distributed mobile cloud, which uses free resources on user devices to move storage to the edges of the network. At the core of our approach, lies the use of random linear network coding...... to provide an effective and flexible erasure correcting code. This paper identifies and answers key questions regarding the feasibility of such a system. We show that the mobile cloud has sufficient network resources to adapt to changes in node numbers and also study the redundancy level needed to maintain...

  19. On the Effects of Heterogeneous Packet Lengths on Network Coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Compta, Pol Torres; Fitzek, Frank; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani

    2014-01-01

    Random linear network coding (RLNC) has been shown to provide increased throughput, security and robustness for the transmission of data through the network. Most of the analysis and the demonstrators have focused on the study of data packets with the same size (number of bytes). This constitutes...... a best case scenario as coded packets will incur little overhead to handle such packets. However, packet lengths are quite heterogeneous in real networks, which can cause a high overhead or, alternatively, a high delay in the transmission of data packets. As we show, this can have a severe effect...... on a variety of applications. This paper proposes a series of mechanisms to manage heterogeneous packet lengths and analyzes the induced overhead of those mechanisms using real packet length distributions provided by CAIDA and own measurements using video content. Our results show that an appropriate...

  20. Peer-Assisted Content Distribution with Random Linear Network Coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hundebøll, Martin; Ledet-Pedersen, Jeppe; Sluyterman, Georg

    2014-01-01

    Peer-to-peer networks constitute a widely used, cost-effective and scalable technology to distribute bandwidth-intensive content. The technology forms a great platform to build distributed cloud storage without the need of a central provider. However, the majority of todays peer-to-peer systems...... require complex algorithms to schedule what parts of obtained content to forward to other peers. Random Linear Network Coding can greatly simplify these algorithm by removing the need for coordination between the distributing nodes. In this paper we propose and evaluate the structure of the BRONCO peer-to-peer....... Furthermore, we evaluate the performance of different parameters and suggest a suitable trade-off between CPU utilization and network overhead. Within the limitations of the used test environment, we have shown that networkc coding is usable in peer-assisted content distribution and we suggest further...

  1. Easy as Pi: A Network Coding Raspberry Pi Testbed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chres W. Sørensen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In the near future, upcoming communications and storage networks are expected to tolerate major difficulties produced by huge amounts of data being generated from the Internet of Things (IoT. For these types of networks, strategies and mechanisms based on network coding have appeared as an alternative to overcome these difficulties in a holistic manner, e.g., without sacrificing the benefit of a given network metric when improving another. There has been recurrent issues on: (i making large-scale deployments akin to the Internet of Things; (ii assessing and (iii replicating the obtained results in preliminary studies. Therefore, finding testbeds that can deal with large-scale deployments and not lose historic data in order to evaluate these mechanisms are greatly needed and desirable from a research perspective. However, this can be hard to manage, not only due to the inherent costs of the hardware, but also due to maintenance challenges. In this paper, we present the required key steps to design, setup and maintain an inexpensive testbed using Raspberry Pi devices for communications and storage networks with network coding capabilities. This testbed can be utilized for any applications requiring results replicability.

  2. Network coding on heterogeneous multi-core processors for wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Deokho; Park, Karam; Ro, Won W

    2011-01-01

    While network coding is well known for its efficiency and usefulness in wireless sensor networks, the excessive costs associated with decoding computation and complexity still hinder its adoption into practical use. On the other hand, high-performance microprocessors with heterogeneous multi-cores would be used as processing nodes of the wireless sensor networks in the near future. To this end, this paper introduces an efficient network coding algorithm developed for the heterogenous multi-core processors. The proposed idea is fully tested on one of the currently available heterogeneous multi-core processors referred to as the Cell Broadband Engine.

  3. Network Coding on Heterogeneous Multi-Core Processors for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won W. Ro

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available While network coding is well known for its efficiency and usefulness in wireless sensor networks, the excessive costs associated with decoding computation and complexity still hinder its adoption into practical use. On the other hand, high-performance microprocessors with heterogeneous multi-cores would be used as processing nodes of the wireless sensor networks in the near future. To this end, this paper introduces an efficient network coding algorithm developed for the heterogenous multi-core processors. The proposed idea is fully tested on one of the currently available heterogeneous multi-core processors referred to as the Cell Broadband Engine.

  4. TCP adaptation with network coding and opportunistic data forwarding in multi-hop wireless networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Zhang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Opportunistic data forwarding significantly increases the throughput in multi-hop wireless mesh networks by utilizing the broadcast nature of wireless transmissions and the fluctuation of link qualities. Network coding strengthens the robustness of data transmissions over unreliable wireless links. However, opportunistic data forwarding and network coding are rarely incorporated with TCP because the frequent occurrences of out-of-order packets in opportunistic data forwarding and long decoding delay in network coding overthrow TCP’s congestion control. In this paper, we propose a solution dubbed TCPFender, which supports opportunistic data forwarding and network coding in TCP. Our solution adds an adaptation layer to mask the packet loss caused by wireless link errors and provides early positive feedbacks to trigger a larger congestion window for TCP. This adaptation layer functions over the network layer and reduces the delay of ACKs for each coded packet. The simulation results show that TCPFender significantly outperforms TCP/IP in terms of the network throughput in different topologies of wireless networks.

  5. Population Coding in Sparsely Connected Networks of Noisy Neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan Patrick Tripp

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the relationship between population coding and spatial connection statistics in networks of noisy neurons. Encoding of sensory information in the neocortex is thought to require coordinated neural populations, because individual cortical neurons respond to a wide range of stimuli, and exhibit highly variable spiking in response to repeated stimuli. Population coding is rooted in network structure, because cortical neurons receive information only from other neurons, and because the information they encode must be decoded by other neurons, if it is to affect behaviour. However, population coding theory has often ignored network structure, or assumed discrete, fully-connected populations (in contrast with the sparsely connected, continuous sheet of the cortex. In this study, we model a sheet of cortical neurons with sparse, primarily local connections, and find that a network with this structure can encode multiple internal state variables with high signal-to-noise ratio. However, in our model, although connection probability varies with the distance between neurons, we find that the connections cannot be instantiated at random according to these probabilities, but must have additional structure if information is to be encoded with high fidelity.

  6. Optical code division multiplexed fiber Bragg grating sensing networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triana, Cristian; Varón, Margarita; Pastor, Daniel

    2015-09-01

    We present the application of Optical Code Division Multiplexing (OCDM) techniques in order to enhance the spectral operation and detection capability of fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors networks even under overlapping conditions. In this paper, Optical Orthogonal Codes (OOC) are used to design FBG sensors composed of more than one reflection band. Simulation of the interaction between the encoded Gaussian-shaped sensors is presented. Signal decoding is performed in the electrical domain without requiring additional optical components by means of the autocorrelation product between the reflected spectrum and each sensor-codeword. Results illustrate the accuracy and distinction capability of the method.

  7. An efficient and reliable geographic routing protocol based on partial network coding for underwater sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Kun; Jin, Zhigang; Shen, Haifeng; Wang, Ying

    2015-05-28

    Efficient routing protocols for data packet delivery are crucial to underwater sensor networks (UWSNs). However, communication in UWSNs is a challenging task because of the characteristics of the acoustic channel. Network coding is a promising technique for efficient data packet delivery thanks to the broadcast nature of acoustic channels and the relatively high computation capabilities of the sensor nodes. In this work, we present GPNC, a novel geographic routing protocol for UWSNs that incorporates partial network coding to encode data packets and uses sensor nodes' location information to greedily forward data packets to sink nodes. GPNC can effectively reduce network delays and retransmissions of redundant packets causing additional network energy consumption. Simulation results show that GPNC can significantly improve network throughput and packet delivery ratio, while reducing energy consumption and network latency when compared with other routing protocols.

  8. Coding and Enhancement in Wireless Acoustic Sensor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zahedi, Adel; Østergaard, Jan; Jensen, Søren Holdt

    2015-01-01

    We formulate a new problem which bridges between source coding and enhancement in wireless acoustic sensor networks. We consider a network of wireless microphones, each of which encoding its own measurement under a covariance matrix distortion constraint and sending it to a fusion center....... To process the data at the center, we use a recent spatio-temporal prediction filter. We assume that a weighted sum-rate for the network is specified. The problem is to allocate optimal distortion matrices to the nodes in order to achieve a maximum output SNR at the fusion center after processing...... the received data, while the weighted sum-rate for the network is no more than the specified value. We formulate this problem as an optimization problem for which we derive a set of equalities imposed on the solution by studying the KKT conditions. In particular, for the special case of scalar sources with two...

  9. A Bipartite Network-based Method for Prediction of Long Non-coding RNA–protein Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengqu Ge

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available As one large class of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs, long ncRNAs (lncRNAs have gained considerable attention in recent years. Mutations and dysfunction of lncRNAs have been implicated in human disorders. Many lncRNAs exert their effects through interactions with the corresponding RNA-binding proteins. Several computational approaches have been developed, but only few are able to perform the prediction of these interactions from a network-based point of view. Here, we introduce a computational method named lncRNA–protein bipartite network inference (LPBNI. LPBNI aims to identify potential lncRNA–interacting proteins, by making full use of the known lncRNA–protein interactions. Leave-one-out cross validation (LOOCV test shows that LPBNI significantly outperforms other network-based methods, including random walk (RWR and protein-based collaborative filtering (ProCF. Furthermore, a case study was performed to demonstrate the performance of LPBNI using real data in predicting potential lncRNA–interacting proteins.

  10. Novel Concepts for Device to Device Communication using Network Coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pahlevani, Peyman; Hundebøll, Martin; Pedersen, Morten Videbæk

    2014-01-01

    assigned, licensed spectrum; thus, it is under full control of the cellular network. D2D communication creates a market potential for new services, new approaches to efficient spectrum use, and security concepts. This is especially true if D2D communication is extended to larger communication groups...... organized in meshed clusters. In this article, we discuss the potential and shortcomings of D2D communication as proposed today, advocating for the use of network coding as an enabling technology for enhanced security and communication efficiency using the PlayNCool and CORE protocols as key examples...

  11. Secure Network Coding against Wiretapping and Byzantine Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Guo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In wireless networks, an attacker can tune a receiver and tap the communication between two nodes. Whether or not some meaningful information is obtained by tapping a wireless connection depends on the transmission scheme. In this paper, we design some secure network coding by combining information-theoretic approaches with cryptographic approaches. It ensures that the wiretapper cannot get any meaningful information no matter how many channels are wiretapped. In addition, if each source packet is augmented with a hash symbol which is computed from a simple nonlinear polynomial function of the data symbols, then the probability of detecting the modification is very high.

  12. Riemann-Roch Spaces and Linear Network Codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Johan P.

    a metric on the set of vector spaces and showed that a minimal distance decoder for this metric achieves correct decoding if the dimension of the intersection of the transmitted and received vector space is sufficiently large. The vector spaces in our construction have minimal distance bounded from below......We construct linear network codes utilizing algebraic curves over finite fields and certain associated Riemann-Roch spaces and present methods to obtain their parameters. In particular we treat the Hermitian curve and the curves associated with the Suzuki and Ree groups all having the maximal...... number of points for curves of their respective genera. Linear network coding transmits information in terms of a basis of a vector space and the information is received as a basis of a possibly altered vector space. Ralf Koetter and Frank R. Kschischang %\\cite{DBLP:journals/tit/KoetterK08} introduced...

  13. QOS-aware error recovery in wireless body sensor networks using adaptive network coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razzaque, Mohammad Abdur; Javadi, Saeideh S; Coulibaly, Yahaya; Hira, Muta Tah

    2014-12-29

    Wireless body sensor networks (WBSNs) for healthcare and medical applications are real-time and life-critical infrastructures, which require a strict guarantee of quality of service (QoS), in terms of latency, error rate and reliability. Considering the criticality of healthcare and medical applications, WBSNs need to fulfill users/applications and the corresponding network's QoS requirements. For instance, for a real-time application to support on-time data delivery, a WBSN needs to guarantee a constrained delay at the network level. A network coding-based error recovery mechanism is an emerging mechanism that can be used in these systems to support QoS at very low energy, memory and hardware cost. However, in dynamic network environments and user requirements, the original non-adaptive version of network coding fails to support some of the network and user QoS requirements. This work explores the QoS requirements of WBSNs in both perspectives of QoS. Based on these requirements, this paper proposes an adaptive network coding-based, QoS-aware error recovery mechanism for WBSNs. It utilizes network-level and user-/application-level information to make it adaptive in both contexts. Thus, it provides improved QoS support adaptively in terms of reliability, energy efficiency and delay. Simulation results show the potential of the proposed mechanism in terms of adaptability, reliability, real-time data delivery and network lifetime compared to its counterparts.

  14. Supporting Dynamic Adaptive Streaming over HTTP in Wireless Meshed Networks using Random Linear Network Coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hundebøll, Martin; Pedersen, Morten Videbæk; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani

    2014-01-01

    This work studies the potential and impact of the FRANC network coding protocol for delivering high quality Dynamic Adaptive Streaming over HTTP (DASH) in wireless networks. Although DASH aims to tailor the video quality rate based on the available throughput to the destination, it relies...

  15. Molecular codes in biological and chemical reaction networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Görlich

    Full Text Available Shannon's theory of communication has been very successfully applied for the analysis of biological information. However, the theory neglects semantic and pragmatic aspects and thus cannot directly be applied to distinguish between (bio- chemical systems able to process "meaningful" information from those that do not. Here, we present a formal method to assess a system's semantic capacity by analyzing a reaction network's capability to implement molecular codes. We analyzed models of chemical systems (martian atmosphere chemistry and various combustion chemistries, biochemical systems (gene expression, gene translation, and phosphorylation signaling cascades, an artificial chemistry, and random reaction networks. Our study suggests that different chemical systems possess different semantic capacities. No semantic capacity was found in the model of the martian atmosphere chemistry, the studied combustion chemistries, and highly connected random networks, i.e. with these chemistries molecular codes cannot be implemented. High semantic capacity was found in the studied biochemical systems and in random reaction networks where the number of second order reactions is twice the number of species. We conclude that our approach can be applied to evaluate the information processing capabilities of a chemical system and may thus be a useful tool to understand the origin and evolution of meaningful information, e.g. in the context of the origin of life.

  16. QoS-Aware Error Recovery in Wireless Body Sensor Networks Using Adaptive Network Coding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Abdur Razzaque

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Wireless body sensor networks (WBSNs for healthcare and medical applications are real-time and life-critical infrastructures, which require a strict guarantee of quality of service (QoS, in terms of latency, error rate and reliability. Considering the criticality of healthcare and medical applications, WBSNs need to fulfill users/applications and the corresponding network’s QoS requirements. For instance, for a real-time application to support on-time data delivery, a WBSN needs to guarantee a constrained delay at the network level. A network coding-based error recovery mechanism is an emerging mechanism that can be used in these systems to support QoS at very low energy, memory and hardware cost. However, in dynamic network environments and user requirements, the original non-adaptive version of network coding fails to support some of the network and user QoS requirements. This work explores the QoS requirements of WBSNs in both perspectives of QoS. Based on these requirements, this paper proposes an adaptive network coding-based, QoS-aware error recovery mechanism for WBSNs. It utilizes network-level and user-/application-level information to make it adaptive in both contexts. Thus, it provides improved QoS support adaptively in terms of reliability, energy efficiency and delay. Simulation results show the potential of the proposed mechanism in terms of adaptability, reliability, real-time data delivery and network lifetime compared to its counterparts.

  17. Content-Based Multi-Channel Network Coding Algorithm in the Millimeter-Wave Sensor Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kai; Wang, Di; Hu, Long

    2016-07-01

    With the development of wireless technology, the widespread use of 5G is already an irreversible trend, and millimeter-wave sensor networks are becoming more and more common. However, due to the high degree of complexity and bandwidth bottlenecks, the millimeter-wave sensor network still faces numerous problems. In this paper, we propose a novel content-based multi-channel network coding algorithm, which uses the functions of data fusion, multi-channel and network coding to improve the data transmission; the algorithm is referred to as content-based multi-channel network coding (CMNC). The CMNC algorithm provides a fusion-driven model based on the Dempster-Shafer (D-S) evidence theory to classify the sensor nodes into different classes according to the data content. By using the result of the classification, the CMNC algorithm also provides the channel assignment strategy and uses network coding to further improve the quality of data transmission in the millimeter-wave sensor network. Extensive simulations are carried out and compared to other methods. Our simulation results show that the proposed CMNC algorithm can effectively improve the quality of data transmission and has better performance than the compared methods.

  18. Content-Based Multi-Channel Network Coding Algorithm in the Millimeter-Wave Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Lin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available With the development of wireless technology, the widespread use of 5G is already an irreversible trend, and millimeter-wave sensor networks are becoming more and more common. However, due to the high degree of complexity and bandwidth bottlenecks, the millimeter-wave sensor network still faces numerous problems. In this paper, we propose a novel content-based multi-channel network coding algorithm, which uses the functions of data fusion, multi-channel and network coding to improve the data transmission; the algorithm is referred to as content-based multi-channel network coding (CMNC. The CMNC algorithm provides a fusion-driven model based on the Dempster-Shafer (D-S evidence theory to classify the sensor nodes into different classes according to the data content. By using the result of the classification, the CMNC algorithm also provides the channel assignment strategy and uses network coding to further improve the quality of data transmission in the millimeter-wave sensor network. Extensive simulations are carried out and compared to other methods. Our simulation results show that the proposed CMNC algorithm can effectively improve the quality of data transmission and has better performance than the compared methods.

  19. Energy and Power Measurements for Network Coding in the Context of Green Mobile Clouds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paramanathan, Achuthan; Pedersen, Morten Videbæk; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani

    2013-01-01

    results for inter-session network coding in Open-Mesh routers underline that the energy invested in performing network coding pays off by dramatically reducing the total energy for the transmission of data over wireless links. We also show measurements for intra-session network coding in three different...

  20. ANNA: A Convolutional Neural Network Code for Spectroscopic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee-Brown, Donald; Anthony-Twarog, Barbara J.; Twarog, Bruce A.

    2018-01-01

    We present ANNA, a Python-based convolutional neural network code for the automated analysis of stellar spectra. ANNA provides a flexible framework that allows atmospheric parameters such as temperature and metallicity to be determined with accuracies comparable to those of established but less efficient techniques. ANNA performs its parameterization extremely quickly; typically several thousand spectra can be analyzed in less than a second. Additionally, the code incorporates features which greatly speed up the training process necessary for the neural network to measure spectra accurately, resulting in a tool that can easily be run on a single desktop or laptop computer. Thus, ANNA is useful in an era when spectrographs increasingly have the capability to collect dozens to hundreds of spectra each night. This talk will cover the basic features included in ANNA and demonstrate its performance in two use cases: an open cluster abundance analysis involving several hundred spectra, and a metal-rich field star study. Applicability of the code to large survey datasets will also be discussed.

  1. Integration and visualization of non-coding RNA and protein interaction networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junge, Alexander; Refsgaard, Jan Christian; Garde, Christian

    Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) fulfill a diverse set of biological functions relying on interactions with other molecular entities. The advent of new experimental and computational approaches makes it possible to study ncRNAs and their associations on an unprecedented scale. We present RAIN (RNA Associ......) co-occurrences found by text mining Medline abstracts. Each resource was assigned a reliability score by assessing its agreement with a gold standard set of microRNA-target interactions. RAIN is available at: http://rth.dk/resources/rain...

  2. Lossy Data Aggregation with Network Coding in Stand-Alone Wireless Sensor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Tatiana Kozlova

    2011-01-01

    in chemical plants, etc. Given resource constrained operation of a sensor network where the nodes are battery powered and buffer sizes are limited, efficient methods for in-network data storage abd it subsequent fast and reliable transmission to a gateway is desirable. To save scarse resources and to prolong...... aggregation using a network coding technique. We demonstrate that with low communication and processing overhead, a gateway can retrieve data fast from the network and the retrieved values are close to the sample means of the collected measurements. This method requires a special choice of coefficients...

  3. Random linear network coding for streams with unequally sized packets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taghouti, Maroua; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani; Pedersen, Morten Videbæk

    2016-01-01

    State of the art Random Linear Network Coding (RLNC) schemes assume that data streams generate packets with equal sizes. This is an assumption that results in the highest efficiency gains for RLNC. A typical solution for managing unequal packet sizes is to zero-pad the smallest packets. However...... of packets, which are strategies that require additional signalling. Performance is evaluated using CAIDA TCP packets and 4k video traces. Our results show that our mechanisms reduce significantly the padding overhead even for small field sizes. Finally, our strategies provide a natural trade-off between...

  4. Distributed processing and temporal codes in neuronal networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Wolf

    2009-09-01

    The cerebral cortex presents itself as a distributed dynamical system with the characteristics of a small world network. The neuronal correlates of cognitive and executive processes often appear to consist of the coordinated activity of large assemblies of widely distributed neurons. These features require mechanisms for the selective routing of signals across densely interconnected networks, the flexible and context dependent binding of neuronal groups into functionally coherent assemblies and the task and attention dependent integration of subsystems. In order to implement these mechanisms, it is proposed that neuronal responses should convey two orthogonal messages in parallel. They should indicate (1) the presence of the feature to which they are tuned and (2) with which other neurons (specific target cells or members of a coherent assembly) they are communicating. The first message is encoded in the discharge frequency of the neurons (rate code) and it is proposed that the second message is contained in the precise timing relationships between individual spikes of distributed neurons (temporal code). It is further proposed that these precise timing relations are established either by the timing of external events (stimulus locking) or by internal timing mechanisms. The latter are assumed to consist of an oscillatory modulation of neuronal responses in different frequency bands that cover a broad frequency range from 40 Hz (gamma) and ripples. These oscillations limit the communication of cells to short temporal windows whereby the duration of these windows decreases with oscillation frequency. Thus, by varying the phase relationship between oscillating groups, networks of functionally cooperating neurons can be flexibly configurated within hard wired networks. Moreover, by synchronizing the spikes emitted by neuronal populations, the saliency of their responses can be enhanced due to the coincidence sensitivity of receiving neurons in very much the same way as

  5. Channel estimation for physical layer network coding systems

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Feifei; Wang, Gongpu

    2014-01-01

    This SpringerBrief presents channel estimation strategies for the physical later network coding (PLNC) systems. Along with a review of PLNC architectures, this brief examines new challenges brought by the special structure of bi-directional two-hop transmissions that are different from the traditional point-to-point systems and unidirectional relay systems. The authors discuss the channel estimation strategies over typical fading scenarios, including frequency flat fading, frequency selective fading and time selective fading, as well as future research directions. Chapters explore the performa

  6. Collaborative multi-layer network coding for cellular cognitive radio networks

    KAUST Repository

    Sorour, Sameh

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, we propose a prioritized multi-layer network coding scheme for collaborative packet recovery in underlay cellular cognitive radio networks. This scheme allows the collocated primary and cognitive radio base-stations to collaborate with each other, in order to minimize their own and each other\\'s packet recovery overheads, and thus improve their throughput, without any coordination between them. This non-coordinated collaboration is done using a novel multi-layer instantly decodable network coding scheme, which guarantees that each network\\'s help to the other network does not result in any degradation in its own performance. It also does not cause any violation to the primary networks interference thresholds in the same and adjacent cells. Yet, our proposed scheme both guarantees the reduction of the recovery overhead in collocated primary and cognitive radio networks, and allows early recovery of their packets compared to non-collaborative schemes. Simulation results show that a recovery overhead reduction of 15% and 40% can be achieved by our proposed scheme in the primary and cognitive radio networks, respectively, compared to the corresponding non-collaborative scheme. © 2013 IEEE.

  7. Collaborative Multi-Layer Network Coding in Hybrid Cellular Cognitive Radio Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Moubayed, Abdallah J.

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, as an extension to [1], we propose a prioritized multi-layer network coding scheme for collaborative packet recovery in hybrid (interweave and underlay) cellular cognitive radio networks. This scheme allows the uncoordinated collaboration between the collocated primary and cognitive radio base-stations in order to minimize their own as well as each other\\'s packet recovery overheads, thus by improving their throughput. The proposed scheme ensures that each network\\'s performance is not degraded by its help to the other network. Moreover, it guarantees that the primary network\\'s interference threshold is not violated in the same and adjacent cells. Yet, the scheme allows the reduction of the recovery overhead in the collocated primary and cognitive radio networks. The reduction in the cognitive radio network is further amplified due to the perfect detection of spectrum holes which allows the cognitive radio base station to transmit at higher power without fear of violating the interference threshold of the primary network. For the secondary network, simulation results show reductions of 20% and 34% in the packet recovery overhead, compared to the non-collaborative scheme, for low and high probabilities of primary packet arrivals, respectively. For the primary network, this reduction was found to be 12%. © 2015 IEEE.

  8. O2-GIDNC: Beyond instantly decodable network coding

    KAUST Repository

    Aboutorab, Neda

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, we are concerned with extending the graph representation of generalized instantly decodable network coding (GIDNC) to a more general opportunistic network coding (ONC) scenario, referred to as order-2 GIDNC (O2-GIDNC). In the O2-GIDNC scheme, receivers can store non-instantly decodable packets (NIDPs) comprising two of their missing packets, and use them in a systematic way for later decodings. Once this graph representation is found, it can be used to extend the GIDNC graph-based analyses to the proposed O2-GIDNC scheme with a limited increase in complexity. In the proposed O2-GIDNC scheme, the information of the stored NIDPs at the receivers and the decoding opportunities they create can be exploited to improve the broadcast completion time and decoding delay compared to traditional GIDNC scheme. The completion time and decoding delay minimizing algorithms that can operate on the new O2-GIDNC graph are further described. The simulation results show that our proposed O2-GIDNC improves the completion time and decoding delay performance of the traditional GIDNC. © 2013 IEEE.

  9. Collaborative Image Coding and Transmission over Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Wu

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The imaging sensors are able to provide intuitive visual information for quick recognition and decision. However, imaging sensors usually generate vast amount of data. Therefore, processing and coding of image data collected in a sensor network for the purpose of energy efficient transmission poses a significant technical challenge. In particular, multiple sensors may be collecting similar visual information simultaneously. We propose in this paper a novel collaborative image coding and transmission scheme to minimize the energy for data transmission. First, we apply a shape matching method to coarsely register images to find out maximal overlap to exploit the spatial correlation between images acquired from neighboring sensors. For a given image sequence, we transmit background image only once. A lightweight and efficient background subtraction method is employed to detect targets. Only the regions of target and their spatial locations are transmitted to the monitoring center. The whole image can then be reconstructed by fusing the background and the target images as well as their spatial locations. Experimental results show that the energy for image transmission can indeed be greatly reduced with collaborative image coding and transmission.

  10. Distributed Coding/Decoding Complexity in Video Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro, Paulo J.; Assunção, Pedro

    2012-01-01

    Video Sensor Networks (VSNs) are recent communication infrastructures used to capture and transmit dense visual information from an application context. In such large scale environments which include video coding, transmission and display/storage, there are several open problems to overcome in practical implementations. This paper addresses the most relevant challenges posed by VSNs, namely stringent bandwidth usage and processing time/power constraints. In particular, the paper proposes a novel VSN architecture where large sets of visual sensors with embedded processors are used for compression and transmission of coded streams to gateways, which in turn transrate the incoming streams and adapt them to the variable complexity requirements of both the sensor encoders and end-user decoder terminals. Such gateways provide real-time transcoding functionalities for bandwidth adaptation and coding/decoding complexity distribution by transferring the most complex video encoding/decoding tasks to the transcoding gateway at the expense of a limited increase in bit rate. Then, a method to reduce the decoding complexity, suitable for system-on-chip implementation, is proposed to operate at the transcoding gateway whenever decoders with constrained resources are targeted. The results show that the proposed method achieves good performance and its inclusion into the VSN infrastructure provides an additional level of complexity control functionality. PMID:22736972

  11. Transport capacity of wireless networks: benefits from multi-access computation coding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goseling, Jasper; Gastpar, Michael; Weber, Jos H.

    2009-01-01

    We consider the effect on the transport capacity of wireless networks of different physical layer coding mechanisms. We compare the performance of traditional channel coding techniques, turning the wireless network in reliable point-to-point channels, with multi-access computation coding, in which

  12. RAIN: RNA-protein Association and Interaction Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junge, Alexander; Refsgaard, Jan Christian; Garde, Christian

    2017-01-01

    is challenging due to data heterogeneity. Here, we present a database of ncRNA-RNA and ncRNA-protein interactions and its integration with the STRING database of protein-protein interactions. These ncRNA associations cover four organisms and have been established from curated examples, experimental data...... web interface and all interaction data can be downloaded.......Protein association networks can be inferred from a range of resources including experimental data, literature mining and computational predictions. These types of evidence are emerging for non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) as well. However, integration of ncRNAs into protein association networks...

  13. Collaborative Multi-Layer Network Coding For Hybrid Cellular Cognitive Radio Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Moubayed, Abdallah J.

    2014-05-01

    In this thesis, as an extension to [1], we propose a prioritized multi-layer network coding scheme for collaborative packet recovery in hybrid (interweave and underlay) cellular cognitive radio networks. This scheme allows the uncoordinated collaboration between the collocated primary and cognitive radio base-stations in order to minimize their own as well as each other’s packet recovery overheads, thus by improving their throughput. The proposed scheme ensures that each network’s performance is not degraded by its help to the other network. Moreover, it guarantees that the primary network’s interference threshold is not violated in the same and adjacent cells. Yet, the scheme allows the reduction of the recovery overhead in the collocated primary and cognitive radio networks. The reduction in the cognitive radio network is further amplified due to the perfect detection of spectrum holes which allows the cognitive radio base station to transmit at higher power without fear of violating the interference threshold of the primary network. For the secondary network, simulation results show reductions of 20% and 34% in the packet recovery overhead, compared to the non-collaborative scheme, for low and high probabilities of primary packet arrivals, respectively. For the primary network, this reduction was found to be 12%. Furthermore, with the use of fractional cooperation, the average recovery overhead is further reduced by around 5% for the primary network and around 10% for the secondary network when a high fractional cooperation probability is used.

  14. A Novel Cross-Layer Routing Protocol Based on Network Coding for Underwater Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Wang, Shilian; Bu, Renfei; Zhang, Eryang

    2017-08-08

    Underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSNs) have attracted increasing attention in recent years because of their numerous applications in ocean monitoring, resource discovery and tactical surveillance. However, the design of reliable and efficient transmission and routing protocols is a challenge due to the low acoustic propagation speed and complex channel environment in UWSNs. In this paper, we propose a novel cross-layer routing protocol based on network coding (NCRP) for UWSNs, which utilizes network coding and cross-layer design to greedily forward data packets to sink nodes efficiently. The proposed NCRP takes full advantages of multicast transmission and decode packets jointly with encoded packets received from multiple potential nodes in the entire network. The transmission power is optimized in our design to extend the life cycle of the network. Moreover, we design a real-time routing maintenance protocol to update the route when detecting inefficient relay nodes. Substantial simulations in underwater environment by Network Simulator 3 (NS-3) show that NCRP significantly improves the network performance in terms of energy consumption, end-to-end delay and packet delivery ratio compared with other routing protocols for UWSNs.

  15. Data Dissemination Based on Fuzzy Logic and Network Coding in Vehicular Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolan Tang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Vehicular networks, as a significant technology in intelligent transportation systems, improve the convenience, efficiency, and safety of driving in smart cities. However, because of the high velocity, the frequent topology change, and the limited bandwidth, it is difficult to efficiently propagate data in vehicular networks. This paper proposes a data dissemination scheme based on fuzzy logic and network coding for vehicular networks, named SFN. It uses fuzzy logic to compute a transmission ability for each vehicle by comprehensively considering the effects of three factors: the velocity change rate, the velocity optimization degree, and the channel quality. Then, two nodes with high abilities are selected as primary backbone and slave backbone in every road segment, which propagate data to other vehicles in this segment and forward them to the backbones in the next segment. The backbone network helps to increase the delivery ratio and avoid invalid transmissions. Additionally, network coding is utilized to reduce transmission overhead and accelerate data retransmission in interbackbone forwarding and intrasegment broadcasting. Experiments show that, compared with existing schemes, SFN has a high delivery ratio and a short dissemination delay, while the backbone network keeps high reliability.

  16. Network Codes – European Energy Law in the Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Błajszczak

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The European Union is preparing a series of regulations governing in detail various aspects of grid operation and free-market trade in electricity and gas, the so-called network codes. The paper reviews this process of European energy legislation development. Also discussed are the European Union bodies and major stakeholders in this process, as well as the national law making and enforcing agencies. In the past, law in Poland was created by Polish citizens. After joining the European Union the law in effect is largely created elsewhere by someone else, even if with significant participation of Polish representatives. The law on energy is not only important for producers, distributors and trading companies, but it strongly effects industrial competitiveness and hence the quality of life of the population.

  17. Partially blind instantly decodable network codes for lossy feedback environment

    KAUST Repository

    Sorour, Sameh

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we study the multicast completion and decoding delay minimization problems for instantly decodable network coding (IDNC) in the case of lossy feedback. When feedback loss events occur, the sender falls into uncertainties about packet reception at the different receivers, which forces it to perform partially blind selections of packet combinations in subsequent transmissions. To determine efficient selection policies that reduce the completion and decoding delays of IDNC in such an environment, we first extend the perfect feedback formulation in our previous works to the lossy feedback environment, by incorporating the uncertainties resulting from unheard feedback events in these formulations. For the completion delay problem, we use this formulation to identify the maximum likelihood state of the network in events of unheard feedback and employ it to design a partially blind graph update extension to the multicast IDNC algorithm in our earlier work. For the decoding delay problem, we derive an expression for the expected decoding delay increment for any arbitrary transmission. This expression is then used to find the optimal policy that reduces the decoding delay in such lossy feedback environment. Results show that our proposed solutions both outperform previously proposed approaches and achieve tolerable degradation even at relatively high feedback loss rates.

  18. Coping with the Upcoming Heterogeneity in 5G Communications and Storage Using Fulcrum Network Codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani; Pedersen, Morten Videbæk; Heide, Janus

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, Fulcrum network codes are introduced as a viable solution to cope with the heterogeneity of 5G communication and storage systems. Fulcrum network codes are an enhancement of random linear network codes (RLNC) offering high throughput performance at low overhead. This contrasts...... with state of the art solutions that only offer a trade-off between performance and overhead. Additionally, Fulcrum network codes allow any communication or storage node to choose its decoding parameters, e.g., field size, based on their individual computational power or available energy. This means...

  19. Comprehensive reconstruction andvisualization of non-coding regulatorynetworks in human

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo eBonnici

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Research attention has been powered to understand the functional roles of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs. Many studies have demonstrated their deregulation in cancer and other human disorders. ncRNAs are also present in extracellular human body fluids such as serum and plasma, giving them a great potential as non-invasive biomarkers. However, non-coding RNAs have been relatively recently discovered and a comprehensive database including all of them is still missing. Reconstructing and visualizing the network of ncRNAs interactions are important steps to understand their regulatory mechanism in complex systems. This work presents ncRNA-DB, a NoSQL database that integrates ncRNAs data interactions from a large number of well established online repositories. The interactions involve RNA, DNA, proteins and diseases. ncRNA-DB is available at http://ncrnadb.scienze.univr.it/ncrnadb/. It is equipped with three interfaces: web based, command line and a Cytoscape app called ncINetView. By accessing only one resource, users can search for ncRNAs and their interactions, build a network annotated with all known ncRNAs and associated diseases, and use all visual and mining features available in Cytoscape.

  20. A coalitional graph game framework for network coding-aided D2D communication

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhao, Yulei; Li, Yong; Ding, Zhiguo; Ge, Ning; Poor, H Vincent

    2016-01-01

    .... In this paper, a coalitional graph game framework is proposed to jointly accomplish resource allocation and relay selection, two challenging problems in network coding-aided D2D communication networks...

  1. A Network Coding Based Hybrid ARQ Protocol for Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Wang, Shilian; Zhang, Eryang; Zou, Jianbin

    2016-09-07

    Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks (UASNs) have attracted increasing interest in recent years due to their extensive commercial and military applications. However, the harsh underwater channel causes many challenges for the design of reliable underwater data transport protocol. In this paper, we propose an energy efficient data transport protocol based on network coding and hybrid automatic repeat request (NCHARQ) to ensure reliability, efficiency and availability in UASNs. Moreover, an adaptive window length estimation algorithm is designed to optimize the throughput and energy consumption tradeoff. The algorithm can adaptively change the code rate and can be insensitive to the environment change. Extensive simulations and analysis show that NCHARQ significantly reduces energy consumption with short end-to-end delay.

  2. Technology Infusion of CodeSonar into the Space Network Ground Segment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Markland J.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the applicability of CodeSonar to the Space Network software. CodeSonar is a commercial off the shelf system that analyzes programs written in C, C++ or Ada for defects in the code. Software engineers use CodeSonar results as an input to the existing source code inspection process. The study is focused on large scale software developed using formal processes. The systems studied are mission critical in nature but some use commodity computer systems.

  3. Adaptive Network Coded Clouds: High Speed Downloads and Cost-Effective Version Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sipos, Marton A.; Heide, Janus; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani

    2018-01-01

    download speeds and reliability. Second, the ability to update coded fragments from a linear erasure code when the original file is modified. We exploit code structure to provide efficient representations of the evolution of the file. Evaluations using file changes on software library repositories show...... developed a novel scheme using recoding with limited packets to trade-off storage space, reliability, and data retrieval speed. Implementation and measurements with commercial cloud providers show that up to 9x less network use is needed compared to other network coding schemes, while maintaining similar...... providers simultaneously using network coding as the key enabling technology. Our goal is to study two challenges of network coded storage systems. First, the efficient update of the number of coded fragments per cloud in a system aggregating multiple clouds in order to boost the download speed of files. We...

  4. The EUROCET Network: Support for Coding, Vigilance and Surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mareri, Maura; Filippetti, Marzia; Ghirardini, Angelo; Vespasiano, Francesca; Ciaccio, Paola Di; Nanni Costa, Alessandro

    2011-12-01

    BACKGROUND: In the last years, there have been increasing concerns about the safety and traceability of human tissues and cells in Europe. In order to regulate this part of medical practice, the European Commission issued 3 directives between 2004 and 2006 and endorsed EUROCET to support member states in fulfilling some of their obligations. MATHODS: EUROCET created a connection with the European Union (EU) Competent Authorities (CAs) and set up a website where lists of the CAs, the authorized Tissue Establishments (TEs) and the activity data are published and updated. Moreover, EUROCET is involved within the Vigilance and Surveillance of Substances of Human Origin (SOHO V&S) project, aiming to support the EU member states in the establishment of vigilance and surveillance systems for tissues and cells. EUROCET is also working with EU stakeholders to develop a common coding system concerning donation and products. RESULTS: There are 33 countries in EUROCET and 57 CAs. 3,974 TEs are recorded: 1,108 for tissues, 1,480 for haematopoietic progenitor cells and 1,386 for assisted reproduction. On the website, it is possible to find the 2010 activity data report. CONCLUSION: Based on its cooperation with the CAs, EUROCET represents them in the European network. Nowadays, the EU member states can rely on a web portal and database in order to put the tissue and cell directives into practice.

  5. Prioritized degree distribution in wireless sensor networks with a network coded data collection method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Jan; Xiong, Naixue; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Qinchao; Wan, Zheng

    2012-12-12

    The reliability of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) can be greatly affected by failures of sensor nodes due to energy exhaustion or the influence of brutal external environment conditions. Such failures seriously affect the data persistence and collection efficiency. Strategies based on network coding technology for WSNs such as LTCDS can improve the data persistence without mass redundancy. However, due to the bad intermediate performance of LTCDS, a serious 'cliff effect' may appear during the decoding period, and source data are hard to recover from sink nodes before sufficient encoded packets are collected. In this paper, the influence of coding degree distribution strategy on the 'cliff effect' is observed and the prioritized data storage and dissemination algorithm PLTD-ALPHA is presented to achieve better data persistence and recovering performance. With PLTD-ALPHA, the data in sensor network nodes present a trend that their degree distribution increases along with the degree level predefined, and the persistent data packets can be submitted to the sink node according to its degree in order. Finally, the performance of PLTD-ALPHA is evaluated and experiment results show that PLTD-ALPHA can greatly improve the data collection performance and decoding efficiency, while data persistence is not notably affected.

  6. A Large Scale Code Resolution Service Network in the Internet of Things

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangzhan Yu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In the Internet of Things a code resolution service provides a discovery mechanism for a requester to obtain the information resources associated with a particular product code immediately. In large scale application scenarios a code resolution service faces some serious issues involving heterogeneity, big data and data ownership. A code resolution service network is required to address these issues. Firstly, a list of requirements for the network architecture and code resolution services is proposed. Secondly, in order to eliminate code resolution conflicts and code resolution overloads, a code structure is presented to create a uniform namespace for code resolution records. Thirdly, we propose a loosely coupled distributed network consisting of heterogeneous, independent; collaborating code resolution services and a SkipNet based code resolution service named SkipNet-OCRS, which not only inherits DHT’s advantages, but also supports administrative control and autonomy. For the external behaviors of SkipNet-OCRS, a novel external behavior mode named QRRA mode is proposed to enhance security and reduce requester complexity. For the internal behaviors of SkipNet-OCRS, an improved query algorithm is proposed to increase query efficiency. It is analyzed that integrating SkipNet-OCRS into our resolution service network can meet our proposed requirements. Finally, simulation experiments verify the excellent performance of SkipNet-OCRS.

  7. The Application of Social Characteristic and L1 Optimization in the Error Correction for Network Coding in Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guangzhi; Cai, Shaobin; Xiong, Naixue

    2018-02-03

    One of the remarkable challenges about Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) is how to transfer the collected data efficiently due to energy limitation of sensor nodes. Network coding will increase network throughput of WSN dramatically due to the broadcast nature of WSN. However, the network coding usually propagates a single original error over the whole network. Due to the special property of error propagation in network coding, most of error correction methods cannot correct more than C/2 corrupted errors where C is the max flow min cut of the network. To maximize the effectiveness of network coding applied in WSN, a new error-correcting mechanism to confront the propagated error is urgently needed. Based on the social network characteristic inherent in WSN and L1 optimization, we propose a novel scheme which successfully corrects more than C/2 corrupted errors. What is more, even if the error occurs on all the links of the network, our scheme also can correct errors successfully. With introducing a secret channel and a specially designed matrix which can trap some errors, we improve John and Yi's model so that it can correct the propagated errors in network coding which usually pollute exactly 100% of the received messages. Taking advantage of the social characteristic inherent in WSN, we propose a new distributed approach that establishes reputation-based trust among sensor nodes in order to identify the informative upstream sensor nodes. With referred theory of social networks, the informative relay nodes are selected and marked with high trust value. The two methods of L1 optimization and utilizing social characteristic coordinate with each other, and can correct the propagated error whose fraction is even exactly 100% in WSN where network coding is performed. The effectiveness of the error correction scheme is validated through simulation experiments.

  8. Throughput vs. Delay in Lossy Wireless Mesh Networks with Random Linear Network Coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hundebøll, Martin; Pahlevani, Peyman; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani

    2014-01-01

    This work proposes a new protocol applying on– the–fly random linear network coding in wireless mesh net- works. The protocol provides increased reliability, low delay, and high throughput to the upper layers, while being oblivious to their specific requirements. This seemingly conflicting goals ...... and evaluated in a real test bed with Raspberry Pi devices. We show that order of magnitude gains in throughput over plain TCP are possible with moderate losses and up to two fold improvement in per packet delay in our results....

  9. Network Coding for Wireless Cooperative Networks: Simple Rules, Near-optimal Delay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khamfroush, Hana; Lucani Rötter, Daniel Enrique; Barros, joao

    2014-01-01

    We consider the problem of finding an optimal packet transmission policy that minimizes the total cost of transmitting M data packets from a source S to two receivers R1,R2 over half-duplex, erasure channels. The source can either broadcast random linear network coding (RLNC) packets...... from the optimal policy and devise two simple, yet powerful heuristics that are useful in practice. Our heuristics rely on different levels of feedback, namely, sending 1 or 2 feedback packets per receiver per M data packets by choosing the right moment to send this feedback. Our numerical results show...

  10. Green Mobile Clouds: Network Coding and User Cooperation for Improved Energy Efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heide, Janus; Fitzek, Frank; Pedersen, Morten Videbæk

    2012-01-01

    This paper highlights the benefits of user cooperation and network coding for energy saving in cellular networks. It is shown that these techniques allow for reliable and efficient multicast services from both a user and network perspective. The working principles and advantages in terms of energy...... and spectrum usage is explained for user cooperation, network coding and a combination of both. For multicast services it is shown that the proposed approaches can save as much as 90% of the energy on the user side and 66% on network provider side for the topologies under investigation. One interesting finding...

  11. NC application to production site; Seisan genba eno NC oyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-01-10

    Fuji Electric Co., Ltd. built for and delivered to the Shinto plant of The Yokohama Rubber Co., Ltd., a manufacturing process management system with NC (network computer) used as an on-site client. This is a core system for manufacturing in the unified logistics plan of The Yokohama Rubber Co., Ltd., and constituted of five servers and about 200 NC client terminals. The on-site client terminals require (1) environmental resistance, (2) easiness of maintenance, and (3) reduction in maintenance control operations, for example. For these requirements, the system employed on-site client terminals by using the features of NC such as (1) it excels in the environmental resistance because of no magnetic disk device and (2) it reduces maintenance and maintenance control operations because of the unified management of software by the servers. Expected from now on are a number of NC applications to manufacturing sites having similar requirements. (translated by NEDO)

  12. When are Erasure Correcting Block Codes Better than Convolutional Codes in a Multi-hop Network?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jonas; Østergaard, Jan; Kudahl, Johnny

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the effect of imposing a maximum allowed delay on the symbol loss probability for a set of rate 1/2 erasure correcting codes. Given some maximum allowable delay, we define the effective symbol loss probability to be the probability that a symbol is received too late...... block codes, and systematic convolutional codes. For a wide range of packet loss probabilities and allowable symbol delays, our results show that the systematic triangular block codes are superior. Our results also show that the field size does not affect the gain in effective symbol loss probability....

  13. Network Coding for Hop-by-Hop Communication Enhancement in Multi-hop Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pahlevani, Peyman; Khamfroush, Hana; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani

    2016-01-01

    In our recent study, we introduced the PlayNCool protocol that increases the throughput of the wireless networks by enabling a helper node to strengthen the communication link between two neighboring nodes and using random linear network coding. This paper focuses on design and implementation...... using Aalborg University's Raspberry Pi test-bed. Our results show that selecting the best policy to activate the helper node is a key to guarantee the performance of PlayNCool protocol. We also study the effect of neighbor nodes in the performance of PlayNCool. Using a helper in presence of active...... neighbors is useful even if the channel from helper to destination is not better than the channel between sender and destination. PlayNCool increases the gain of end-to-end communication by two-fold or more while maintaining compatibility to standard wireless ad-hoc routing protocols....

  14. Adaptive Network Coded Clouds: High Speed Downloads and Cost-Effective Version Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sipos, Marton; Heide, Janus; Lucani Rötter, Daniel Enrique

    2014-01-01

    developed a novel scheme using recoding with limited packets to trade-off storage space, reliability, and data retrieval speed. Implementation and measurements with commercial cloud providers show that up to 9x less network use is needed compared to other network coding schemes, while maintaining similar...... download speeds and reliability. Second, the ability to update coded fragments from a linear erasure code when the original file is modified. We exploit code structure to provide efficient representations of the evolution of the file. Evaluations using file changes on software library repositories show...

  15. Iterated decoding of modified product codes in optical networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Jørn

    2009-01-01

    Appendix I of the standard ITU-T G.975 contains several codes that have been proposed for improved performance of optical transmission. While the original application was submarine cables, the codes are now also used in terrestrial systems where wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) is introduced...

  16. Network-Coded Content Delivery in Femtocaching-Assisted Cellular Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Shnaiwer, Yousef N.

    2015-12-06

    Next-generation cellular networks are expected to be assisted by femtocaches (FCs), which collectively store the most popular files for the clients. Given any arbitrary non-fragmented placement of such files, a strict no-latency constraint, and clients\\' prior knowledge, new file download requests could be efficiently handled by both the FCs and the macrocell base station (MBS) using opportunistic network coding (ONC). In this paper, we aim to find the best allocation of coded file downloads to the FCs so as to minimize the MBS involvement in this download process. We first formulate this optimization problem over an ONC graph, and show that it is NP-hard. We then propose a greedy approach that maximizes the number of files downloaded by the FCs, with the goal to reduce the download share of the MBS. This allocation is performed using a dual conflict ONC graph to avoid conflicts among the FC downloads. Simulations show that our proposed scheme almost achieves the optimal performance and significantly saves on the MBS bandwidth.

  17. Multi-tree Coding Method (MCM) for drainage networks supporting high-efficient search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Fu, Xudong; Wang, Guangqian

    2013-03-01

    River coding method for drainage networks plays an very important role in the physical simulation of river basins. In this study we developed a new river coding method named Multi-tree Coding Method (MCM), which has the following features: (1) it is established on a topological pattern reflecting the dendriform structure of drainage networks; (2) the multi-tree code can be effectively managed by the database to perform convenient topological search toward drainage networks using Structured Query Language (SQL); (3) the multi-tree code does not exhibit digital overflow problems in the computer, thus any resolution and scale drainage networks can easily be coded; and (4) it supports high-efficient search process. A river reach can be directly positioned in a drainage network under MCM, without the complex search process from all river reaches. This feature has great potential to improve the computational performance of basin models. We demonstrate here the efficiency and practicality of MCM by testing it in the Yalu Tsangpo river basin, Tibet. A drainage network with 140,745 digital reaches was extracted from the digital elevation model (DEM), and the multi-tree codes of all river reaches were obtained.

  18. Impact of dynamic rate coding aspects of mobile phone networks on forensic voice comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzqhoul, Esam A S; Nair, Balamurali B T; Guillemin, Bernard J

    2015-09-01

    Previous studies have shown that landline and mobile phone networks are different in their ways of handling the speech signal, and therefore in their impact on it. But the same is also true of the different networks within the mobile phone arena. There are two major mobile phone technologies currently in use today, namely the global system for mobile communications (GSM) and code division multiple access (CDMA) and these are fundamentally different in their design. For example, the quality of the coded speech in the GSM network is a function of channel quality, whereas in the CDMA network it is determined by channel capacity (i.e., the number of users sharing a cell site). This paper examines the impact on the speech signal of a key feature of these networks, namely dynamic rate coding, and its subsequent impact on the task of likelihood-ratio-based forensic voice comparison (FVC). Surprisingly, both FVC accuracy and precision are found to be better for both GSM- and CDMA-coded speech than for uncoded. Intuitively one expects FVC accuracy to increase with increasing coded speech quality. This trend is shown to occur for the CDMA network, but, surprisingly, not for the GSM network. Further, in respect to comparisons between these two networks, FVC accuracy for CDMA-coded speech is shown to be slightly better than for GSM-coded speech, particularly when the coded-speech quality is high, but in terms of FVC precision the two networks are shown to be very similar. Copyright © 2015 The Chartered Society of Forensic Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Network Coding Based Security for Routing Attacks in WRN: Frechet Interference and Rayleigh Outage Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Villalpando-Hernández

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available We present a network coding security method capable of detecting several routing attacks in wireless reconfigurablenetworks. Routing security attacks include selective forwarding, black holes, and wormholes. The proposed methodperforms linear network coding over intermediate nodes composing a given route, not only to distribute content, butalso to provide data confidentiality by cooperation as a mechanism of detection. The method presents a robust,accurate and fast response under security attacks for varying network conditions, such as interference and outagedue to channel fading. It also provides a gain in network throughput by increasing the number of successfully receivedpackets without a significant increase of the bandwidth usage.

  20. Effects of Energy Storage Systems Grid Code Requirements on Interface Protection Performances in Low Voltage Networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fabio Bignucolo; Alberto Cerretti; Massimiliano Coppo; Andrea Savio; Roberto Turri

    2017-01-01

    ...), with negative impact on the safety of medium voltage (MV) and low voltage (LV) systems. With the scope of preserving the main network stability, international and national grid connection codes have been updated recently...

  1. Validation Study of CODES Dragonfly Network Model with Theta Cray XC System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mubarak, Misbah [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Ross, Robert B. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2017-05-31

    This technical report describes the experiments performed to validate the MPI performance measurements reported by the CODES dragonfly network simulation with the Theta Cray XC system at the Argonne Leadership Computing Facility (ALCF).

  2. On Network Coded Filesystem Shim: Over-the-top Multipath Multi-Source Made Easy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Chres Wiant; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani; Médard, Muriel

    2017-01-01

    approach is that it allows caches in the network to store only a fraction of a specific content in coded form, but sharing the same object identification, i.e., it simplifies the signalling and search of coded content. We describe the NCFSS design and implementation using FUSE and carry out measurements...

  3. Parity-Check Network Coding for Multiple Access Relay Channel in Wireless Sensor Cooperative Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Du Bing

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A recently developed theory suggests that network coding is a generalization of source coding and channel coding and thus yields a significant performance improvement in terms of throughput and spatial diversity. This paper proposes a cooperative design of a parity-check network coding scheme in the context of a two-source multiple access relay channel (MARC model, a common compact model in hierarchical wireless sensor networks (WSNs. The scheme uses Low-Density Parity-Check (LDPC as the surrogate to build up a layered structure which encapsulates the multiple constituent LDPC codes in the source and relay nodes. Specifically, the relay node decodes the messages from two sources, which are used to generate extra parity-check bits by a random network coding procedure to fill up the rate gap between Source-Relay and Source-Destination transmissions. Then, we derived the key algebraic relationships among multidimensional LDPC constituent codes as one of the constraints for code profile optimization. These extra check bits are sent to the destination to realize a cooperative diversity as well as to approach MARC decode-and-forward (DF capacity.

  4. On the Throughput and Energy Benefits of Network Coded Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernandez, Nestor; Heide, Janus; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani

    2014-01-01

    Cooperative techniques in wireless mobile networks typically leverage short-range communication technologies, e.g., WiFi, to allow data exchange between devices forming a mobile cloud. These mobile clouds have been considered as a key to reduce the cost of multicast services for the network opera...

  5. Knowledge extraction from evolving spiking neural networks with rank order population coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltic, Snjezana; Kasabov, Nikola

    2010-12-01

    This paper demonstrates how knowledge can be extracted from evolving spiking neural networks with rank order population coding. Knowledge discovery is a very important feature of intelligent systems. Yet, a disproportionally small amount of research is centered on the issue of knowledge extraction from spiking neural networks which are considered to be the third generation of artificial neural networks. The lack of knowledge representation compatibility is becoming a major detriment to end users of these networks. We show that a high-level knowledge can be obtained from evolving spiking neural networks. More specifically, we propose a method for fuzzy rule extraction from an evolving spiking network with rank order population coding. The proposed method was used for knowledge discovery on two benchmark taste recognition problems where the knowledge learnt by an evolving spiking neural network was extracted in the form of zero-order Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy IF-THEN rules.

  6. Secure-Network-Coding-Based File Sharing via Device-to-Device Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to increase the efficiency and security of file sharing in the next-generation networks, this paper proposes a large scale file sharing scheme based on secure network coding via device-to-device (D2D communication. In our scheme, when a user needs to share data with others in the same area, the source node and all the intermediate nodes need to perform secure network coding operation before forwarding the received data. This process continues until all the mobile devices in the networks successfully recover the original file. The experimental results show that secure network coding is very feasible and suitable for such file sharing. Moreover, the sharing efficiency and security outperform traditional replication-based sharing scheme.

  7. Coded-subcarrier-aided chromatic dispersion monitoring scheme for flexible optical OFDM networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Kam-Hon; Chan, Chun-Kit

    2014-08-11

    A simple coded-subcarrier aided scheme is proposed to perform chromatic dispersion monitoring in flexible optical OFDM networks. A pair of coded label subcarriers is added to both edges of the optical OFDM signal spectrum at the edge transmitter node. Upon reception at any intermediate or the receiver node, chromatic dispersion estimation is performed, via simple direct detection, followed by electronic correlation procedures with the designated code sequences. The feasibility and the performance of the proposed scheme have been experimentally characterized. It provides a cost-effective monitoring solution for the optical OFDM signals across intermediate nodes in flexible OFDM networks.

  8. Kodo: An Open and Research Oriented Network Coding Library

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Morten Videbæk; Heide, Janus; Fitzek, Frank

    2011-01-01

    achieve a high coding throughput, and reduce energy consumption.We use an on-the-fly version of the Gauss-Jordan algorithm as a baseline, and provide several simple improvements to reduce the number of operations needed to perform decoding. Our tests show that the improvements can reduce the number...

  9. Source Coding in Networks with Covariance Distortion Constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zahedi, Adel; Østergaard, Jan; Jensen, Søren Holdt

    2016-01-01

    -distortion function (RDF). We then study the special cases and applications of this result. We show that two well-studied source coding problems, i.e. remote vector Gaussian Wyner-Ziv problems with mean-squared error and mutual information constraints are in fact special cases of our results. Finally, we apply our...

  10. Adaptive Relay Activation in the Network Coding Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pahlevani, Peyman; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani; Fitzek, Frank

    2015-01-01

    of the channel states. Furthermore, measurements using our Raspberry Pi testbed demonstrate that our adaptive approach outperforms the previous mechanism in real channel conditions, with only 1% overhead due to linearly dependent coded packets compared to the 11% overhead of the standard PlayNCool approach....

  11. Unsupervised clustering with spiking neurons by sparse temporal coding and multi-layer RBF networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.M. Bohte (Sander); J.A. La Poutré (Han); J.N. Kok (Joost)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractWe demonstrate that spiking neural networks encoding information in spike times are capable of computing and learning clusters from realistic data. We show how a spiking neural network based on spike-time coding and Hebbian learning can successfully perform unsupervised clustering on

  12. Outage Analysis and Optimization of SWIPT in Network-Coded Two-Way Relay Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruihong Jiang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the outage performance of simultaneous wireless information and power transfer (SWIPT in network-coded two-way relay systems, where a relay first harvests energy from the signals transmitted by two sources and then uses the harvested energy to forward the received information to the two sources. We consider two transmission protocols, power splitting two-way relay (PS-TWR and time switching two-way relay (TS-TWR protocols. We present two explicit expressions for the system outage probability of the two protocols and further derive approximate expressions for them in high and low SNR cases. To explore the system performance limits, two optimization problems are formulated to minimize the system outage probability. Since the problems are nonconvex and have no known solution methods, a genetic algorithm- (GA- based algorithm is designed. Numerical and simulation results validate our theoretical analysis. It is shown that, by jointly optimizing the time assignment and SWIPT receiver parameters, a great performance gain can be achieved for both PS-TWR and TS-TWR. Moreover, the optimized PS-TWR always outperforms the optimized TS-TWR in terms of outage performance. Additionally, the effects of parameters including relay location and transmit powers are also discussed, which provide some insights for the SWIPT-enabled two-way relay networks.

  13. Network-Coded Macrocell Offloading in Femtocaching-Assisted Cellular Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Shnaiwer, Yousef

    2017-11-08

    Opportunistic network coding (ONC) has shown high potential in enhancing the quality-of-experience (QoE) for the clients of cellular networks using their previously downloaded files. In this paper, we study the problem of offloading clients from the macrocell base station (MBS) with the help of femtocaches (FCs) and ONC. We formulate this MBS offloading problem as an optimization problem over an ONC graph, and prove that it is non-deterministic polynomial-time (NP)-hard. Thus, we propose an ONC-broadcast offloading scheme, which utilizes separate ONC graphs at the MBS and FCs in addition to uncoded broadcasting, to offload the clients from the MBS. We analyze the performance of the ONC-broadcast offloading scheme and show that it is asymptotically optimal using random graph theory. Since even this ONC-broadcast offloading scheme is still NP-hard to implement, we devise an efficient heuristic to simplify the implementation. We show that the proposed heuristic reduces the worst-case complexity of implementing the ONC-broadcast offloading scheme from an exponential to a quadratic function of the total number of vertices in the FC ONC graph. Simulation results show that, despite its low complexity, the proposed heuristic achieves similar MBS offloading performance to the ONC-broadcast offloading scheme.

  14. On Goodput and Energy Measurements of Network Coding Schemes in the Raspberry Pi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernandez, Nestor; Sørensen, Chres Wiant; Cabrera, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Given that next generation networks are expected to be populated by a large number of devices, there is a need for quick deployment and evaluation of alternative mechanisms to cope with the possible generated traffic in large-scale distributed data networks. In this sense, the Raspberry Pi has been...... a popular network node choice due to its reduced size, processing capabilities, low cost and its support by widely-used operating systems. For information transport, network coding is a new paradigm for fast and reliable data processing in networking and storage systems which overcomes various limitations...... of state-of-the-art routing techniques. Therefore, in this work we provide an in-depth performance evaluation of Random Linear Network Coding (RLNC) based schemes for the Raspberry Pi models 1 and 2, by showing the processing speed of the encoding and decoding operations and the corresponding energy...

  15. Analysis and Construction of Full-Diversity Joint Network-LDPC Codes for Cooperative Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Capirone Daniele

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Transmit diversity is necessary in harsh environments to reduce the required transmit power for achieving a given error performance at a certain transmission rate. In networks, cooperative communication is a well-known technique to yield transmit diversity and network coding can increase the spectral efficiency. These two techniques can be combined to achieve a double diversity order for a maximum coding rate on the Multiple-Access Relay Channel (MARC, where two sources share a common relay in their transmission to the destination. However, codes have to be carefully designed to obtain the intrinsic diversity offered by the MARC. This paper presents the principles to design a family of full-diversity LDPC codes with maximum rate. Simulation of the word error rate performance of the new proposed family of LDPC codes for the MARC confirms the full diversity.

  16. Instantly Decodable Network Coding: From Centralized to Device-to-Device Communications

    KAUST Repository

    Douik, Ahmed S.

    2015-05-01

    From its introduction to its quindecennial, network coding have built a strong reputation in enhancing packet recovery process and achieving maximum information flow in both wires and wireless networks. Traditional studies focused on optimizing the throughput of the network by proposing complex schemes that achieve optimal delay. With the shift toward distributed computing at mobile devices, throughput and complexity become both critical factors that affect the efficiency of a coding scheme. Instantly decodable network coding imposed itself as a new paradigm in network coding that trades off this two aspects. This paper presents a survey of instantly decodable network coding schemes that are proposed in the literature. The various schemes are identified, categorized and evaluated. Two categories can be distinguished namely the conventional centralized schemes and the distributed or cooperative schemes. For each scheme, the comparison is carried out in terms of reliability, performance, complexity and packet selection methodology. Although the performance is generally inversely proportional to the computation complexity, numerous successful schemes from both the performance and complexity viewpoint are identified.

  17. Regulation of non-coding RNA networks in the nervous system--what's the REST of the story?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Irfan A; Mehler, Mark F

    2009-12-04

    Recent advances are now providing novel insights into the mechanisms that underlie how cellular complexity, diversity, and connectivity are encoded within the genome. The repressor element-1 silencing transcription factor/neuron-restrictive silencing factor (REST/NRSF) and non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) are emerging as key regulators that seem to orchestrate almost every aspect of nervous system development, homeostasis, and plasticity. REST and its primary cofactor, CoREST, dynamically recruit highly malleable macromolecular complexes to widely distributed genomic regulatory sequences, including the repressor element-1/neuron restrictive silencer element (RE1/NRSE). Through epigenetic mechanisms, such as site-specific targeting and higher-order chromatin remodeling, REST and CoREST can mediate cell type- and developmental stage-specific gene repression, gene activation, and long-term gene silencing for protein-coding genes and for several classes of ncRNAs (e.g. microRNAs [miRNAs] and long ncRNAs). In turn, these ncRNAs have similarly been implicated in the regulation of chromatin architecture and dynamics, transcription, post-transcriptional processing, and RNA editing and trafficking. In addition, REST and CoREST expression and function are tightly regulated by context-specific transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms including bidirectional feedback loops with various ncRNAs. Not surprisingly, deregulation of REST and ncRNAs are both implicated in the molecular pathophysiology underlying diverse disorders that range from brain cancer and stroke to neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative diseases. This review summarizes emerging aspects of the complex mechanistic relationships between these intricately interlaced control systems for neural gene expression and function.

  18. Regulation of Non-Coding RNA Networks in the Nervous System—What’s the REST of the Story?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Irfan A.; Mehler, Mark F.

    2009-01-01

    Recent advances are now providing novel insights into the mechanisms that underlie how cellular complexity, diversity, and connectivity are encoded within the genome. The repressor element-1 silencing transcription factor / neuron-restrictive silencing factor (REST/NRSF) and non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) are emerging as key regulators that seem to orchestrate almost every aspect of nervous system development, homeostasis, and plasticity. REST and its primary cofactor, CoREST, dynamically recruit highly malleable macromolecular complexes to widely distributed genomic regulatory sequences, including the repressor element 1 / neuron restrictive silencer element (RE1/NRSE). Through epigenetic mechanisms, such as site-specific targeting and higher-order chromatin remodeling, REST and CoREST can mediate cell type- and developmental stage-specific gene repression, gene activation, and long-term gene silencing for protein-coding genes and for several classes of ncRNAs (e.g. microRNAs [miRNAs] and long ncRNAs). In turn, these ncRNAs have similarly been implicated in the regulation of chromatin architecture and dynamics, transcription, post-transcriptional processing, and RNA editing and trafficking. In addition, REST and CoREST expression and function are tightly regulated by context-specific transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms including bidirectional feedback loops with various ncRNAs. Not surprisingly, deregulation of REST and ncRNAs are both implicated in the molecular pathophysiology underlying diverse disorders that range from brain cancer and stroke to neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative diseases. This review summarizes emerging aspects of the complex mechanistic relationships between these intricately interlaced control systems for neural gene expression and function. PMID:19679163

  19. FFT-based Network Coding For Peer-To-Peer Content Delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Soro, Alexandre; Lacan, Jérôme

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a structured peer-to-peer (P2P) distribution scheme based on Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) graphs. We build a peer-to-peer network that reproduces the FFT graph initially designed for hardware FFT codecs. This topology allows content delivery with a maximum diversity level for a minimum global complexity. The resulting FFT-based network is a structured architecture with an adapted network coding that brings flexibility upon content distribution and robustness upon the...

  20. All-optical code routing in interconnected optical CDMA and WDM ring networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yanhua; Fok, Mable P; Prucnal, Paul R; Wang, Ting

    2010-11-01

    We propose an all-optical hybrid network composed of optical code division multiple access (CDMA) rings interconnecting through a reconfigurable wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) metro area ring. This network retains the advantages of both the optical CDMA and WDM techniques, including asynchronous access and differentiated quality of service, while removing the hard limit on the number of subscribers and increasing network flexibility. The all-optical network is enabled by using nonlinear optical loop mirrors in an add/drop router (ADR) that performs code conversion, dropping, and switching asynchronously. We experimentally demonstrate the functionalities of the ADR in the proposed scheme asynchronously and obtain error-free performance. The bit-error rate measurements show acceptable power penalties for different code routes.

  1. A neutron spectrum unfolding computer code based on artificial neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Rodríguez, J. M.; Reyes Alfaro, A.; Reyes Haro, A.; Cervantes Viramontes, J. M.; Vega-Carrillo, H. R.

    2014-02-01

    The Bonner Spheres Spectrometer consists of a thermal neutron sensor placed at the center of a number of moderating polyethylene spheres of different diameters. From the measured readings, information can be derived about the spectrum of the neutron field where measurements were made. Disadvantages of the Bonner system are the weight associated with each sphere and the need to sequentially irradiate the spheres, requiring long exposure periods. Provided a well-established response matrix and adequate irradiation conditions, the most delicate part of neutron spectrometry, is the unfolding process. The derivation of the spectral information is not simple because the unknown is not given directly as a result of the measurements. The drawbacks associated with traditional unfolding procedures have motivated the need of complementary approaches. Novel methods based on Artificial Intelligence, mainly Artificial Neural Networks, have been widely investigated. In this work, a neutron spectrum unfolding code based on neural nets technology is presented. This code is called Neutron Spectrometry and Dosimetry with Artificial Neural networks unfolding code that was designed in a graphical interface. The core of the code is an embedded neural network architecture previously optimized using the robust design of artificial neural networks methodology. The main features of the code are: easy to use, friendly and intuitive to the user. This code was designed for a Bonner Sphere System based on a 6LiI(Eu) neutron detector and a response matrix expressed in 60 energy bins taken from an International Atomic Energy Agency compilation. The main feature of the code is that as entrance data, for unfolding the neutron spectrum, only seven rate counts measured with seven Bonner spheres are required; simultaneously the code calculates 15 dosimetric quantities as well as the total flux for radiation protection purposes. This code generates a full report with all information of the unfolding in

  2. Network Coding is the 5G Key Enabling Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Compta, Pol Torres; Fitzek, Frank; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani

    2015-01-01

    such packets. However, packet lengths are quite heterogeneous in real networks, which can cause a high overhead or, alternatively, a high delay in the transmission of data packets. As we show, this can have a severe effect on a variety of applications. This paper proposes a series of mechanisms to manage...

  3. Neural Network Approach to Locating Cryptography in Object Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jason L. Wright; Milos Manic

    2009-09-01

    Finding and identifying cryptography is a growing concern in the malware analysis community. In this paper, artificial neural networks are used to classify functional blocks from a disassembled program as being either cryptography related or not. The resulting system, referred to as NNLC (Neural Net for Locating Cryptography) is presented and results of applying this system to various libraries are described.

  4. Novel Concepts for Device to Device Communication using Network Coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pahlevani, Peyman; Hundebøll, Martin; Pedersen, Morten Videbæk

    2014-01-01

    Device-to-device communication is currently a hot research topic within 3GPP. Even though D2D communication has been part of previous ad hoc, meshed and sensor networks proposals, the main contribution by 3GPP is that the direct communication among two devices is carried out over a dynamically...

  5. Multipath Routing with Erasure Coding for Wireless Sensor Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu Jian, W.J.; Dulman, S.O.; Havinga, Paul J.M.; Nieberg, T.

    2004-01-01

    Multipath routing algorithm in wireless sensor networks (WSN) increase the reliability of the system at the cost of significantly increased traffic. This paper introduces a splitted multipath routing scheme to improve the reliability of data routing in WSN by keeping the traffic at a low level. Our

  6. Throughput-Delay Analysis of Random Linear Network Coding for Wireless Broadcasting

    CERN Document Server

    Swapna, B T; Shroff, Ness B

    2011-01-01

    In an unreliable single-hop broadcast network setting, we investigate the throughput and decoding-delay performance of random linear network coding as a function of the coding window size and the network size. Our model consists of a source transmitting packets of a single flow to a set of $n$ users over independent erasure channels. The source performs random linear network coding (RLNC) over $k$ (coding window size) packets and broadcasts them to the users. We note that the broadcast throughput of RLNC must vanish with increasing $n$, for any fixed $k.$ Hence, in contrast to other works in the literature, we investigate how the coding window size $k$ must scale for increasing $n$. Our analysis reveals that the coding window size of $\\Theta(\\ln(n))$ represents a phase transition rate, below which the throughput converges to zero, and above which it converges to the broadcast capacity. Further, we characterize the asymptotic distribution of decoding delay and provide approximate expressions for the mean and v...

  7. Multiple Description Coding with Feedback Based Network Compression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jesper Hemming; Østergaard, Jan; Popovski, Petar

    2010-01-01

    its description and forward it. Such a compression can also be done already at the source node; however, the feedback arrives more timely and reliably to intermediate nodes that are closer to the final receiver. In this paper we investigate the performance of such adaptation at the source node......This paper concerns multi path video streaming using adaptive multiple description coding. The adaptation leverages on the fact that multiple descriptions are correlated. Thus if an intermediate node gets feedback telling that another path is likely to deliver a description, this node can compress...

  8. Perfect quantum multiple-unicast network coding protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dan-Dan; Gao, Fei; Qin, Su-Juan; Wen, Qiao-Yan

    2018-01-01

    In order to realize long-distance and large-scale quantum communication, it is natural to utilize quantum repeater. For a general quantum multiple-unicast network, it is still puzzling how to complete communication tasks perfectly with less resources such as registers. In this paper, we solve this problem. By applying quantum repeaters to multiple-unicast communication problem, we give encoding-decoding schemes for source nodes, internal ones and target ones, respectively. Source-target nodes share EPR pairs by using our encoding-decoding schemes over quantum multiple-unicast network. Furthermore, quantum communication can be accomplished perfectly via teleportation. Compared with existed schemes, our schemes can reduce resource consumption and realize long-distance transmission of quantum information.

  9. Intensity Coding in Two-Dimensional Excitable Neural Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Copelli, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    In the light of recent experimental findings that gap junctions are essential for low level intensity detection in the sensory periphery, the Greenberg-Hastings cellular automaton is employed to model the response of a two-dimensional sensory network to external stimuli. We show that excitable elements (sensory neurons) that have a small dynamical range are shown to give rise to a collective large dynamical range. Therefore the network transfer (gain) function (which is Hill or Stevens law-like) is an emergent property generated from a pool of small dynamical range cells, providing a basis for a "neural psychophysics". The growth of the dynamical range with the system size is approximately logarithmic, suggesting a functional role for electrical coupling. For a fixed number of neurons, the dynamical range displays a maximum as a function of the refractory period, which suggests experimental tests for the model. A biological application to ephaptic interactions in olfactory nerve fascicles is proposed.

  10. Hardware Abstraction and Protocol Optimization for Coded Sensor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nistor, Maricica; Lucani Rötter, Daniel Enrique; Barros, joao

    2014-01-01

    The design of the communication protocols in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) often neglects several key characteristics of the sensor's hardware, while assuming that the number of transmitted bits is the dominating factor behind the system's energy consumption. A closer look at the hardware...... specifications of common sensors reveals, however, that other equally important culprits exist, such as the reception and processing energy. Hence, there is a need for a more complete hardware abstraction of a sensor node to reduce effectively the total energy consumption of the network by designing energy......-efficient protocols that use such an abstraction, as well as mechanisms to optimize a communication protocol in terms of energy consumption. The problem is modeled for different feedback-based techniques, where sensors are connected to a base station, either directly or through relays. We show that for four example...

  11. Coordination of Regenerative Relays and Direct Users in Wireless Cellular Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thai, Chan; Popovski, Petar

    2011-01-01

    The area of wireless cooperation/relaying has recently been significantly enriched by the ideas of wireless network coding (NC), which bring substantial gains in spectral efficiency. These gains have mainly been demonstrated in scenarios with two-way relaying. Inspired by the ideas of wireless NC...

  12. Effect of the metal environment on the ferromagnetic interaction in the Co-NC-W pairs of octacyanotungstate(V)-Cobalt(II) three-dimensional networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clima, Sergiu; Hendrickx, Marc F A; Chibotaru, Liviu F; Soncini, Alessandro; Mironov, Vladimir; Ceulemans, Arnout

    2007-04-02

    State of the art CASSCF and CASPT2 calculations have been performed to elucidate the nature of ferromagnetism of CoII-NC-WV pairs in the three-dimensional compound [[WV(CN)2]2[(micro-CN)4CoII(H2O)2]3.4H2O]n, which has been recently synthesized and investigated by a number of experimental techniques (Herrera, J. M.; Bleuzen, A.; Dromzée, Y.; Julve, M.; Lloret, F.; Verdaguer, M. Inorg. Chem. 2003, 42, 7052-7059). In this network, the Co ions are in the high-spin (S = 3/2) state, while the single unpaired electron on the W centers occupies the lowest orbital of the dz2 type of the 5d shell. In agreement with the suggestion made by Herrera et al., we find that the ferromagnetism is due to a certain occupation scheme of the orbitals from the parent octahedral t2g shell on CoII sites, in which the orbital accommodating the unpaired electron is orthogonal to the dz2 orbitals of the surrounding W ions. We investigate the stabilization of such an orbital configuration on the Co sites and find that it cannot be achieved in the ground state of isolated mononuclear fragments [CoII(NC)4(OH2)2]2- for any conformations of the coordinated water molecules and Co-N-C bond angles. On the other hand, it is stabilized by the interaction of the complex with neighboring W ions, which are simulated here by effective potentials. The calculated exchange coupling constants for the CoII-NC-WV binuclear fragments are in reasonable agreement with the measured Curie-Weiss constant for this compound. As additional evidence for the inferred electronic configuration on the Co sites, the ligand-field transitions, the temperature-dependent magnetic susceptibility, and the field-dependent low-temperature magnetization, simulated ab initio for the mononuclear Co fragments, are in agreement with the available data for another compound [WIV[(micro-CN)4-CoII(H2O)2]2.4H2O]n containing diamagnetic W and high-spin Co ions in an isostructural environment.

  13. Joint Network Coding and Opportunistic Scheduling for the Bidirectional Relay Channel

    KAUST Repository

    Shaqfeh, Mohammad

    2013-05-27

    In this paper, we consider a two-way communication system in which two users communicate with each other through an intermediate relay over block-fading channels. We investigate the optimal opportunistic scheduling scheme in order to maximize the long-term average transmission rate in the system assuming symmetric information flow between the two users. Based on the channel state information, the scheduler decides that either one of the users transmits to the relay, or the relay transmits to a single user or broadcasts to both users a combined version of the two users’ transmitted information by using linear network coding. We obtain the optimal scheduling scheme by using the Lagrangian dual problem. Furthermore, in order to characterize the gains of network coding and opportunistic scheduling, we compare the achievable rate of the system versus suboptimal schemes in which the gains of network coding and opportunistic scheduling are partially exploited.

  14. Enabling Cognitive Load-Aware AR with Rateless Coding on a Wearable Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Razavi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Augmented reality (AR on a head-mounted display is conveniently supported by a wearable wireless network. If, in addition, the AR display is moderated to take account of the cognitive load of the wearer, then additional biosensors form part of the network. In this paper, the impact of these additional traffic sources is assessed. Rateless coding is proposed to not only protect the fragile encoded video stream from wireless noise and interference but also to reduce coding overhead. The paper proposes a block-based form of rateless channel coding in which the unit of coding is a block within a packet. The contribution of this paper is that it minimizes energy consumption by reducing the overhead from forward error correction (FEC, while error correction properties are conserved. Compared to simple packet-based rateless coding, with this form of block-based coding, data loss is reduced and energy efficiency is improved. Cross-layer organization of piggy-backed response blocks must take place in response to feedback, as detailed in the paper. Compared also to variants of its default FEC scheme, results from a Bluetooth (IEEE 802.15.1 wireless network show a consistent improvement in energy consumption, packet arrival latency, and video quality at the AR display.

  15. Comparison of Analytical and Measured Performance Results on Network Coding in IEEE 802.11 Ad-Hoc Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Fang; Médard, Muriel; Hundebøll, Martin

    2012-01-01

    CATWOMAN that can run on standard WiFi hardware. We present an analytical model to evaluate the performance of COPE in simple networks, and our results show the excellent predictive quality of this model. By closely examining the performance in two simple topologies, we observe that the coding gain results...

  16. Energy Consumption Model and Measurement Results for Network Coding-enabled IEEE 802.11 Meshed Wireless Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paramanathan, Achuthan; Rasmussen, Ulrik Wilken; Hundebøll, Martin

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an energy model and energy measurements for network coding enabled wireless meshed networks based on IEEE 802.11 technology. The energy model and the energy measurement testbed is limited to a simple Alice and Bob scenario. For this toy scenario we compare the energy usages...... a flexible, low cost tool to be able to measure at any given node in a meshed network. We verify the precision of our tool by comparing it to a sophisticated device. Our main results in this paper are the derivation of an analytical energy model, the implementation of a distributed energy measurement testbed...

  17. Source Authentication for Code Dissemination Supporting Dynamic Packet Size in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daehee Kim

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Code dissemination in wireless sensor networks (WSNs is a procedure for distributing a new code image over the air in order to update programs. Due to the fact that WSNs are mostly deployed in unattended and hostile environments, secure code dissemination ensuring authenticity and integrity is essential. Recent works on dynamic packet size control in WSNs allow enhancing the energy efficiency of code dissemination by dynamically changing the packet size on the basis of link quality. However, the authentication tokens attached by the base station become useless in the next hop where the packet size can vary according to the link quality of the next hop. In this paper, we propose three source authentication schemes for code dissemination supporting dynamic packet size. Compared to traditional source authentication schemes such as μTESLA and digital signatures, our schemes provide secure source authentication under the environment, where the packet size changes in each hop, with smaller energy consumption.

  18. Identification of intermediate-size non-coding RNAs involved in the UV-induced DNA damage response in C. elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aqian Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A network of DNA damage response (DDR mechanisms functions coordinately to maintain genome integrity and prevent disease. The Nucleotide Excision Repair (NER pathway is known to function in the response to UV-induced DNA damage. Although numbers of coding genes and miRNAs have been identified and reported to participate in UV-induced DNA damage response (UV-DDR, the precise role of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs in UV-DDR remains largely unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used high-throughput RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq to discover intermediate-size (70-500 nt ncRNAs (is-ncRNAs in C. elegans, using the strains of L4 larvae of wild-type (N2, UV-irradiated (N2/UV100 and NER-deficient mutant (xpa-1, and 450 novel non-coding transcripts were initially identified. A customized microarray assay was then applied to examine the expression profiles of both novel transcripts and known is-ncRNAs, and 57 UV-DDR-related is-ncRNA candidates showed expression variations at different levels between UV irradiated strains and non- irradiated strains. The top ranked is-ncRNA candidates with expression differences were further validated by qRT-PCR analysis, of them, 8 novel is-ncRNAs were significantly up-regulated after UV irradiation. Knockdown of two novel is-ncRNAs, ncRNA317 and ncRNA415, by RNA interference, resulted in higher UV sensitivity and significantly decreased expression of NER-related genes in C. elegans. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The discovery of above two novel is-ncRNAs in this study indicated the functional roles of is-ncRNAs in the regulation of UV-DDR network, and aided our understanding of the significance of ncRNA involvement in the UV-induced DNA damage response.

  19. Identification of Intermediate-Size Non-Coding RNAs Involved in the UV-Induced DNA Damage Response in C. elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yunfei; Zhou, Ying; Zhang, Xian-en; Bi, Lijun; Chen, Runsheng

    2012-01-01

    Background A network of DNA damage response (DDR) mechanisms functions coordinately to maintain genome integrity and prevent disease. The Nucleotide Excision Repair (NER) pathway is known to function in the response to UV-induced DNA damage. Although numbers of coding genes and miRNAs have been identified and reported to participate in UV-induced DNA damage response (UV-DDR), the precise role of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) in UV-DDR remains largely unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings We used high-throughput RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq) to discover intermediate-size (70–500 nt) ncRNAs (is-ncRNAs) in C. elegans, using the strains of L4 larvae of wild-type (N2), UV-irradiated (N2/UV100) and NER-deficient mutant (xpa-1), and 450 novel non-coding transcripts were initially identified. A customized microarray assay was then applied to examine the expression profiles of both novel transcripts and known is-ncRNAs, and 57 UV-DDR-related is-ncRNA candidates showed expression variations at different levels between UV irradiated strains and non- irradiated strains. The top ranked is-ncRNA candidates with expression differences were further validated by qRT-PCR analysis, of them, 8 novel is-ncRNAs were significantly up-regulated after UV irradiation. Knockdown of two novel is-ncRNAs, ncRNA317 and ncRNA415, by RNA interference, resulted in higher UV sensitivity and significantly decreased expression of NER-related genes in C. elegans. Conclusions/Significance The discovery of above two novel is-ncRNAs in this study indicated the functional roles of is-ncRNAs in the regulation of UV-DDR network, and aided our understanding of the significance of ncRNA involvement in the UV-induced DNA damage response. PMID:23144846

  20. A web of possibilities: network-based discovery of protein interaction codes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Daniel L; Erce, Melissa A; Wilkins, Marc R

    2014-12-05

    Many proteins, including p53, the FoxO transcription factors, RNA polymerase II, pRb, and the chaperones, have extensive post-translational modifications (PTMs). Many of these modifications modulate protein-protein interactions, controlling interaction presence/absence and specificity. Here we propose the notion of the interaction code, a widespread means by which modifications are used to control interactions in the proteome. Minimal interaction codes are likely to exist on proteins that have two modifications and two or more interaction partners. By contrast, complex interaction codes are likely to be found on "date hub" proteins that have many interactions, many PTMs, or are targeted by many modifying and demodifying enzymes. Proteins with new interaction codes should be discoverable by examining protein interaction networks, annotated with PTMs and protein-modifying enzyme-substrate links. Multiple instances or combinations of phosphorylation, acetylation, methylation, O-GlcNAc, or ubiquitination will likely form interaction codes, especially when colocated on a protein's single interaction interface. A network-based example of code discovery is given, predicting the yeast protein Npl3p to have a methylation/phosphorylation-dependent interaction code.

  1. On Goodput and Energy Measurements of Network Coding Schemes in the Raspberry Pi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernandez Marcano, Nestor Javier; W. Sørensen, Chres; Cabrera, Juan A.

    2016-01-01

    Given that next generation networks are expected to be populated by a large number of devices, there is a need for quick deployment and evaluation of alternative mechanisms to cope with the possible generated traffic in large-scale distributed data networks. In this sense, the Raspberry Pi has been...... of state-of-the-art routing techniques. Therefore, in this work we provide an in-depth performance evaluation of Random Linear Network Coding (RLNC) based schemes for the Raspberry Pi models 1 and 2, by showing the processing speed of the encoding and decoding operations and the corresponding energy...... consumption. Our results show that, in several scenarios, processing speeds of more than 80 Mbps in the Raspberry Pi model 1 and 800 Mbps in the Raspberry Pi model 2 are attainable. Moreover, we show that the processing energy per bit for network coding is below 1 nJ or even an order of magnitude less...

  2. Improved Data Transmission Scheme of Network Coding Based on Access Point Optimization in VANET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available VANET is a hot spot of intelligent transportation researches. For vehicle users, the file sharing and content distribution through roadside access points (AP as well as the vehicular ad hoc networks (VANET have been an important complement to that cellular network. So the AP deployment is one of the key issues to improve the communication performance of VANET. In this paper, an access point optimization method is proposed based on particle swarm optimization algorithm. The transmission performances of the routing protocol with random linear network coding before and after the access point optimization are analyzed. The simulation results show the optimization model greatly affects the VANET transmission performances based on network coding, and it can enhance the delivery rate by 25% and 14% and reduce the average delay of transmission by 38% and 33%.

  3. Using Wireless Network Coding to Replace a Wired with Wireless Backhaul

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Henning; De Carvalho, Elisabeth; Popovski, Petar

    2014-01-01

    of wireless emulated wire (WEW), based on two-way relaying and network coding. This setup leads to a new type of broadcast problem, with decoding conditions that are specific to the requirement for equivalence to the wired backhaul. We formulate and solve the associated optimization problems. The proposed...

  4. The neural code in developing cultured networks: experiments and advanced simulation models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, Wim; Gritsun, T.; Stoyanova, Irina; le Feber, Jakob

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the neural code of cultured neuronal networks may help to forward our understanding of human brain processes.The most striking property of spontaneously firing cultures is their regular bursting activity, a burst being defined as synchronized firing of groups of neurons spread

  5. Relay-aided multi-cell broadcasting with random network coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Lu; Sun, Fan; Xiao, Ming

    2010-01-01

    We investigate a relay-aided multi-cell broadcasting system using random network codes, where the focus is on devising efficient scheduling algorithms between relay and base stations. Two scheduling algorithms are proposed based on different feedback strategies; namely, a one-step scheduling...

  6. Multiple description coding for SNR scalable video transmission over unreliable networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Choupani, R.; Wong, S.; Tolun, M.

    2012-01-01

    Streaming multimedia data on best-effort networks such as the Internet requires measures against bandwidth fluctuations and frame loss. Multiple Description Coding (MDC) methods are used to overcome the jitter and delay problems arising from frame losses by making the transmitted data more error

  7. Combining Topological Hardware and Topological Software: Color-Code Quantum Computing with Topological Superconductor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Litinski

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We present a scalable architecture for fault-tolerant topological quantum computation using networks of voltage-controlled Majorana Cooper pair boxes and topological color codes for error correction. Color codes have a set of transversal gates which coincides with the set of topologically protected gates in Majorana-based systems, namely, the Clifford gates. In this way, we establish color codes as providing a natural setting in which advantages offered by topological hardware can be combined with those arising from topological error-correcting software for full-fledged fault-tolerant quantum computing. We provide a complete description of our architecture, including the underlying physical ingredients. We start by showing that in topological superconductor networks, hexagonal cells can be employed to serve as physical qubits for universal quantum computation, and we present protocols for realizing topologically protected Clifford gates. These hexagonal-cell qubits allow for a direct implementation of open-boundary color codes with ancilla-free syndrome read-out and logical T gates via magic-state distillation. For concreteness, we describe how the necessary operations can be implemented using networks of Majorana Cooper pair boxes, and we give a feasibility estimate for error correction in this architecture. Our approach is motivated by nanowire-based networks of topological superconductors, but it could also be realized in alternative settings such as quantum-Hall–superconductor hybrids.

  8. nRC: non-coding RNA Classifier based on structural features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiannaca, Antonino; La Rosa, Massimo; La Paglia, Laura; Rizzo, Riccardo; Urso, Alfonso

    2017-01-01

    Non-coding RNA (ncRNA) are small non-coding sequences involved in gene expression regulation of many biological processes and diseases. The recent discovery of a large set of different ncRNAs with biologically relevant roles has opened the way to develop methods able to discriminate between the different ncRNA classes. Moreover, the lack of knowledge about the complete mechanisms in regulative processes, together with the development of high-throughput technologies, has required the help of bioinformatics tools in addressing biologists and clinicians with a deeper comprehension of the functional roles of ncRNAs. In this work, we introduce a new ncRNA classification tool, nRC (non-coding RNA Classifier). Our approach is based on features extraction from the ncRNA secondary structure together with a supervised classification algorithm implementing a deep learning architecture based on convolutional neural networks. We tested our approach for the classification of 13 different ncRNA classes. We obtained classification scores, using the most common statistical measures. In particular, we reach an accuracy and sensitivity score of about 74%. The proposed method outperforms other similar classification methods based on secondary structure features and machine learning algorithms, including the RNAcon tool that, to date, is the reference classifier. nRC tool is freely available as a docker image at https://hub.docker.com/r/tblab/nrc/. The source code of nRC tool is also available at https://github.com/IcarPA-TBlab/nrc.

  9. Analysis and Optimization of Sparse Random Linear Network Coding for Reliable Multicast Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tassi, Andrea; Chatzigeorgiou, Ioannis; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani

    2016-01-01

    techniques, and without any assumption on the implementation of the RLNC decoder in use, we provide an efficient way to characterize the performance of users targeted by ultra-reliable layered multicast services. The proposed modeling allows to efficiently derive the average number of coded packet...... transmissions needed to recover one or more service layers. We design a convex resource allocation framework that allows to minimize the complexity of the RLNC decoder by jointly optimizing the transmission parameters and the sparsity of the code. The designed optimization framework also ensures service......Point-to-multipoint communications are expected to play a pivotal role in next-generation networks. This paper refers to a cellular system transmitting layered multicast services to a multicast group of users. Reliability of communications is ensured via different random linear network coding (RLNC...

  10. Real-Coded Quantum-Inspired Genetic Algorithm-Based BP Neural Network Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianyong Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The method that the real-coded quantum-inspired genetic algorithm (RQGA used to optimize the weights and threshold of BP neural network is proposed to overcome the defect that the gradient descent method makes the algorithm easily fall into local optimal value in the learning process. Quantum genetic algorithm (QGA is with good directional global optimization ability, but the conventional QGA is based on binary coding; the speed of calculation is reduced by the coding and decoding processes. So, RQGA is introduced to explore the search space, and the improved varied learning rate is adopted to train the BP neural network. Simulation test shows that the proposed algorithm is effective to rapidly converge to the solution conformed to constraint conditions.

  11. Authorship attribution of source code by using back propagation neural network based on particle swarm optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xinyu; Xu, Guoai; Li, Qi; Guo, Yanhui; Zhang, Miao

    2017-01-01

    Authorship attribution is to identify the most likely author of a given sample among a set of candidate known authors. It can be not only applied to discover the original author of plain text, such as novels, blogs, emails, posts etc., but also used to identify source code programmers. Authorship attribution of source code is required in diverse applications, ranging from malicious code tracking to solving authorship dispute or software plagiarism detection. This paper aims to propose a new method to identify the programmer of Java source code samples with a higher accuracy. To this end, it first introduces back propagation (BP) neural network based on particle swarm optimization (PSO) into authorship attribution of source code. It begins by computing a set of defined feature metrics, including lexical and layout metrics, structure and syntax metrics, totally 19 dimensions. Then these metrics are input to neural network for supervised learning, the weights of which are output by PSO and BP hybrid algorithm. The effectiveness of the proposed method is evaluated on a collected dataset with 3,022 Java files belong to 40 authors. Experiment results show that the proposed method achieves 91.060% accuracy. And a comparison with previous work on authorship attribution of source code for Java language illustrates that this proposed method outperforms others overall, also with an acceptable overhead.

  12. A Probabilistically Weakly Secure Network Coding Scheme in Multipath Routing for WSNs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiang; Huang, Jie; Gao, Xiang

    2017-05-16

    In wireless sensor networks, nodes are mostly deployed in unsupervised areas and are vulnerable to a variety of attacks. Therefore, data security is a vital aspect to be considered. However, due to the limited computation capability and memory of sensor nodes, it is difficult to perform the complex encryption algorithm, as well as the key distribution and management algorithm. Toward this end, a low-complexity algorithm for security in wireless sensor networks is of significant importance. In this article, a weakly secure network coding based multipath routing scheme is proposed, which can guarantee the data confidentiality in transmission probabilistically, and can improve the energy efficiency in the meantime. Then the simulations of the probability of transmission being secure are performed. The results show that with the increase of the number of hops k, the probability of transmission being secure suffers from a rapid decrease. On the contrary, with the increase of multicast capacity h it undergoes a slight growth. Therefore, the weak security can be achieved with probability approaching 1 by limiting the number of hops and increasing the multicast capacity. Meanwhile, the simulations of energy consumption are performed and the comparison between the energy consumption of the scheme in this article and the multipath routing scheme without network coding is conducted. The results show that by employing network coding, the scheme in this article can improve the energy efficiency, and the more packets transmitted, the more energy consumption can be reduced.

  13. Towards a Fair and Efficient Packet Scheduling Scheme in Inter-Flow Network Coding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Wang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Network coding techniques are usually applied upon network-layer protocols to improve throughput in wireless networks. In scenarios with multiple unicast sessions, fairness is also an important factor. Therefore, a network coding-aware packet-scheduling algorithm is required. A packet-scheduling algorithm determines which packet to send next from a node’s packet backlog. Existing protocols mostly employ a basic round-robin scheduling algorithm to give “equal” opportunities to different packet flows. In fact, this “equal”-opportunity scheduling is neither fair, nor efficient. This paper intends to accentuate the importance of a coding-aware scheduling scheme. With a good scheduling scheme, we can gain more control over the per-flow throughput and fairness. Specifically, we first formulate a static scheduling problem and propose an algorithm to find the optimal scheduling scheme. We then extend the technique to a dynamic setting and, later, to practical routing protocols. Results show that the algorithm is comparatively scalable, and it can improve the throughput gain when the network is not severely saturated. The fairness among flows is drastically improved as a result of this scheduling scheme.

  14. On the Delay Characteristics for Point-to-Point links using Random Linear Network Coding with On-the-fly Coding Capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tömösközi, Máté; Fitzek, Frank; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani

    2014-01-01

    . This metric captures the elapsed time between (network) encoding RTP packets and completely decoding the packets in-order on the receiver side. Our solutions are implemented and evaluated on a point-to-point link between a Raspberry Pi device and a network (de)coding enabled software running on a regular PC...

  15. On the Energy Efficiency of LT Codes in Proactive Wireless Sensor Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Abouei, Jamshid; Plataniotis, Konstantinos N; Pasupathy, Subbarayan

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an in-depth analysis on the energy efficiency of Luby Transform (LT) codes with Frequency Shift Keying (FSK) modulation in a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) over Rayleigh fading channels with pathloss. We describe a proactive system model according to a flexible duty-cycling mechanism utilized in practical sensor apparatus. The present analysis is based on realistic parameters including the effect of channel bandwidth used in the IEEE 802.15.4 standard, active mode duration and computation energy. A comprehensive analysis, supported by some simulation studies on the probability mass function of the LT code rate and coding gain, shows that among uncoded FSK and various classical channel coding schemes, the optimized LT coded FSK is the most energy-efficient scheme for distance d greater than the pre-determined threshold level d_T , where the optimization is performed over coding and modulation parameters. In addition, although the optimized uncoded FSK outperforms coded schemes for d < d_T...

  16. Cooperative MIMO communication at wireless sensor network: an error correcting code approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Mohammad Rakibul; Han, Young Shin

    2011-01-01

    Cooperative communication in wireless sensor network (WSN) explores the energy efficient wireless communication schemes between multiple sensors and data gathering node (DGN) by exploiting multiple input multiple output (MIMO) and multiple input single output (MISO) configurations. In this paper, an energy efficient cooperative MIMO (C-MIMO) technique is proposed where low density parity check (LDPC) code is used as an error correcting code. The rate of LDPC code is varied by varying the length of message and parity bits. Simulation results show that the cooperative communication scheme outperforms SISO scheme in the presence of LDPC code. LDPC codes with different code rates are compared using bit error rate (BER) analysis. BER is also analyzed under different Nakagami fading scenario. Energy efficiencies are compared for different targeted probability of bit error p(b). It is observed that C-MIMO performs more efficiently when the targeted p(b) is smaller. Also the lower encoding rate for LDPC code offers better error characteristics.

  17. Comparison of a Ring On-Chip Network and a Code-Division Multiple-Access On-Chip Network

    OpenAIRE

    Xin Wang; Jari Nurmi

    2007-01-01

    Two network-on-chip (NoC) designs are examined and compared in this paper. One design applies a bidirectional ring connection scheme, while the other design applies a code-division multiple-access (CDMA) connection scheme. Both of the designs apply globally asynchronous locally synchronous (GALS) scheme in order to deal with the issue of transferring data in a multiple-clock-domain environment of an on-chip system. The two NoC designs are compared with each other by their network structures, ...

  18. MIMO Network Coding-Based PHY/MAC Protocol for Replacement of CSMA/CA in Efficient Two-Way Multihop Relay Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tran GiaKhanh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Backbone wireless mesh networks have attracted much of attention due to their wide-range applications. The use of CSMA/CA based MAC protocols in mesh networks, however, leads to an inefficient resource utilization, and to high latency. Several alternative protocols including directional MAC, multichannel MAC only provide marginal improvement. Recently, a cross-layer design employing multiple antenna techniques and network coding called MIMO network coding was proposed. Owing to multiple access interference cancellation ability of MIMO, bi-directional flow multiplexing capability of network coding in combination with an efficient channel access scheme of TDMA/TDD, MIMO two-way relay provides significantly high end-to-end capacity. In this paper, MIMO network coding is considered as an alternative PHY/MAC protocol of CSMA/CA. This paper provides details of the protocol and develops network simulators for performance evaluation. Furthermore, an efficient retransmission scheme for transmission system employing network coding is proposed. The paper shows that MIMO network coding achieves significant network performance improvement with respect to CSMA/CA mesh networks. The proposed retransmission scheme is also shown to be effective in terms of resource usage as well as QoS guarantee.

  19. Fountain-code Aided File Transfer in Vehicular Delay Tolerant Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YOUSEFI, S.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We propose a mechanism for facilitating file transferring in Vehicular Delay Tolerant Networks. The proposed architecture includes using Fountain coding in the application layer, UDP in the transport layer and a proposed DTN routing algorithm in the network layer. It is assumed that files are coded based on a sample of Fountain codes which does not need in-order reception of packets. As a result, there is no need of using close-loop reliable protocols such as TCP, hence suffering from their different overheads; as a result, UDP can be used in the transport layer. In the network layer, we propose a novel DTN routing algorithm based on AODV and Store-Carry and Forward policy. This algorithm (named as AODV-DTN uses a cross layer interaction between the network and the application layer. Results of extensive simulations study for highway scenarios show that the proposed architecture leads to a better performance in terms of file delivery ratio and byte throughput when compared with FOUNTAIN and classic FTP scenarios. Furthermore, the negative effect of increasing file size is mitigated in comparison to other alternatives. It is also shown that for delay tolerant and long-distanced inter-RSU communications the proposed architecture behaves sufficiently well.

  20. Beamforming-Based Physical Layer Network Coding for Non-Regenerative Multi-Way Relaying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klein Anja

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose non-regenerative multi-way relaying where a half-duplex multi-antenna relay station (RS assists multiple single-antenna nodes to communicate with each other. The required number of communication phases is equal to the number of the nodes, N. There are only one multiple-access phase, where the nodes transmit simultaneously to the RS, and broadcast (BC phases. Two transmission methods for the BC phases are proposed, namely, multiplexing transmission and analog network coded transmission. The latter is a cooperation method between the RS and the nodes to manage the interference in the network. Assuming that perfect channel state information is available, the RS performs transceive beamforming to the received signals and transmits simultaneously to all nodes in each BC phase. We address the optimum transceive beamforming maximising the sum rate of non-regenerative multi-way relaying. Due to the nonconvexity of the optimization problem, we propose suboptimum but practical signal processing schemes. For multiplexing transmission, we propose suboptimum schemes based on zero forcing, minimising the mean square error, and maximising the signal to noise ratio. For analog network coded transmission, we propose suboptimum schemes based on matched filtering and semidefinite relaxation of maximising the minimum signal to noise ratio. It is shown that analog network coded transmission outperforms multiplexing transmission.

  1. Improved compression of network coding vectors using erasure decoding and list decoding

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Shizheng

    2010-01-01

    Practical random network coding based schemes for multicast include a header in each packet that records the transformation between the sources and the terminal. The header introduces an overhead that can be significant in certain scenarios. In previous work, parity check matrices of error control codes along with error decoding were used to reduce this overhead. In this work we propose novel packet formats that allow us to use erasure decoding and list decoding. Both schemes have a smaller overhead compared to the error decoding based scheme, when the number of sources combined in a packet is not too small.

  2. Dynamic quality of service differentiation using fixed code weight in optical CDMA networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakaee, Majid H.; Essa, Shawnim I.; Abd, Thanaa H.; Seyedzadeh, Saleh

    2015-11-01

    The emergence of network-driven applications, such as internet, video conferencing, and online gaming, brings in the need for a network the environments with capability of providing diverse Quality of Services (QoS). In this paper, a new code family of novel spreading sequences, called a Multi-Service (MS) code, has been constructed to support multiple services in Optical- Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) system. The proposed method uses fixed weight for all services, however reducing the interfering codewords for the users requiring higher QoS. The performance of the proposed code is demonstrated using mathematical analysis. It shown that the total number of served users with satisfactory BER of 10-9 using NB=2 is 82, while they are only 36 and 10 when NB=3 and 4 respectively. The developed MS code is compared with variable-weight codes such as Variable Weight-Khazani Syed (VW-KS) and Multi-Weight-Random Diagonal (MW-RD). Different numbers of basic users (NB) are used to support triple-play services (audio, data and video) with different QoS requirements. Furthermore, reference to the BER of 10-12, 10-9, and 10-3 for video, data and audio, respectively, the system can support up to 45 total users. Hence, results show that the technique can clearly provide a relative QoS differentiation with lower value of basic users can support larger number of subscribers as well as better performance in terms of acceptable BER of 10-9 at fixed code weight.

  3. Multimedia Cross–Platform Content Distribution for Mobile Peer–to–Peer Networks using Network Coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Morten Videbæk; Heide, Janus; Vingelmann, Peter

    2010-01-01

    This paper is looking into the possibility of multimedia content distribution over multiple mobile platforms forming wireless peer–to–peer networks. State of the art mobile networks are centralized and base station or access point oriented. Current developments break ground for device to device...

  4. A Graph Theoretical Approach for Network Coding in Wireless Body Area Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Byrne, Eimear; Marinkovic, Stevan; Popovici, Emanuel

    2011-01-01

    Modern medical wireless systems, such as wireless body area networks (WBANs), are applications of wireless networks that can be used as a tool of data transmission between patients and doctors. Accuracy of data transmission is an important requirement for such systems. In this paper, we will propose a WBAN which is robust against erasures and describe its properties using graph theoretic techniques.

  5. Effects of Energy Storage Systems Grid Code Requirements on Interface Protection Performances in Low Voltage Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Bignucolo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The ever-growing penetration of local generation in distribution networks and the large diffusion of energy storage systems (ESSs foreseen in the near future are bound to affect the effectiveness of interface protection systems (IPSs, with negative impact on the safety of medium voltage (MV and low voltage (LV systems. With the scope of preserving the main network stability, international and national grid connection codes have been updated recently. Consequently, distributed generators (DGs and storage units are increasingly called to provide stabilizing functions according to local voltage and frequency. This can be achieved by suitably controlling the electronic power converters interfacing small-scale generators and storage units to the network. The paper focuses on the regulating functions required to storage units by grid codes currently in force in the European area. Indeed, even if such regulating actions would enable local units in participating to network stability under normal steady-state operating conditions, it is shown through dynamic simulations that they may increase the risk of unintentional islanding occurrence. This means that dangerous operating conditions may arise in LV networks in case dispersed generators and storage systems are present, even if all the end-users are compliant with currently applied connection standards.

  6. Delay reduction in multi-hop device-to-device communication using network coding

    KAUST Repository

    Douik, Ahmed S.

    2015-08-12

    This paper considers the problem of reducing the broadcast delay of wireless networks using instantly decodable network coding (IDNC) based device-to-device (D2D) communications. In D2D-enabled networks, devices help hasten the recovery of the lost packets of devices in their transmission range by sending network coded packets. To solve the problem, the different events occurring at each device are identified so as to derive an expression for the probability distribution of the decoding delay. The joint optimization problem over the set of transmitting devices and the packet combinations of each is formulated. Due to the high complexity of finding the optimal solution, this paper focuses on cooperation without interference between the transmitting users. The optimal solution, in such interference-less scenario, is expressed using a graph theory approach by introducing the cooperation graph. Extensive simulations compare the decoding delay experienced in the Point to Multi-Point (PMP), the fully connected D2D (FC-D2D) and the more practical partially connected D2D (PC-D2D) configurations and suggest that the PC-D2D outperforms the FC-D2D in all situations and provides an enormous gain for poorly connected networks.

  7. A neutron spectrum unfolding code based on generalized regression artificial neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz R, J. M.; Martinez B, M. R.; Castaneda M, R.; Solis S, L. O. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Ingenieria Electrica, Av. Ramon Lopez Velarde 801, Col. Centro, 98000 Zacatecas, Zac. (Mexico); Vega C, H. R., E-mail: morvymm@yahoo.com.mx [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas, Zac. (Mexico)

    2015-10-15

    The most delicate part of neutron spectrometry, is the unfolding process. Then derivation of the spectral information is not simple because the unknown is not given directly as result of the measurements. Novel methods based on Artificial Neural Networks have been widely investigated. In prior works, back propagation neural networks (BPNN) have been used to solve the neutron spectrometry problem, however, some drawbacks still exist using this kind of neural nets, as the optimum selection of the network topology and the long training time. Compared to BPNN, is usually much faster to train a generalized regression neural network (GRNN). That is mainly because spread constant is the only parameter used in GRNN. Another feature is that the network will converge to a global minimum. In addition, often are more accurate than BPNN in prediction. These characteristics make GRNN be of great interest in the neutron spectrometry domain. In this work is presented a computational tool based on GRNN, capable to solve the neutron spectrometry problem. This computational code, automates the pre-processing, training and testing stages, the statistical analysis and the post-processing of the information, using 7 Bonner spheres rate counts as only entrance data. The code was designed for a Bonner Spheres System based on a {sup 6}LiI(Eu) neutron detector and a response matrix expressed in 60 energy bins taken from an International Atomic Energy Agency compilation. (Author)

  8. Design and Performance Evaluation of Underwater Data Dissemination Strategies using Interference Avoidance and Network Coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palacios, Raul; Heide, Janus; Fitzek, Frank

    2012-01-01

    The long propagation delays of the underwater acoustic channel make traditional Medium Access schemes impractical and inefficient under water. This paper introduces and studies Interference Avoidance and Network Coding for Medium Access protocol design aiming to cope with the underwater channel...... these concepts could increase channel utilisation as well as improve energy efficiency of the network nodes. The main goal is to investigate the potential benefits of new strategies for data dissemination over a string topology scenario. Comprehensive simulations prove the feasibility of Interference Avoidance...

  9. Network coding and evolutionary theory for performance enhancement in wireless cooperative clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Militano, Leonardo; Fitzek, Frank; Iera, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    , portions of a file to be successively exchanged among all cluster members over wireless local area network (WLAN) links. Besides showing the beneficial effects of cooperation, this paper also focuses on the performance enhancement that can be achieved when using the network coding paradigm, whose...... are investigated and an ad hoc conceived Genetic Algorithm (GA) designed. Either the service time (the time needed for all nodes to receive the complete file) or the energy consumption for the nodes is used as objective function, showing in both cases the fast convergence for the algorithm that makes it preferable...

  10. Relay-assisted Network Coding Multicast in the Presence of Neighbours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khamfroush, Hana; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani; Pahlevani, Peyman

    2015-01-01

    We study the problem of minimizing the cost of packet transmission from a source to two receivers with the help of a relay and using network coding in wireless mesh networks consisting of many active neighbours sharing the same channel. The cost minimization problem is modeled as a Markov Decision...... in the presence of active neighbours compared to multicasting directly from the source. We further show that in scenarios which the links between relay and destinations are not better than the links between source and destinations, a relay can still provide up to 1.7x gain....

  11. Distributed Remote Vector Gaussian Source Coding for Wireless Acoustic Sensor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zahedi, Adel; Østergaard, Jan; Jensen, Søren Holdt

    2014-01-01

    encoding multiple sources. We focus on the case where node measurements are in form of noisy linearly mixed combinations of the sources and the acoustic channel mixing matrices are invertible. For this problem, we derive the rate-distortion function for vector Gaussian sources and under covariance......In this paper, we consider the problem of remote vector Gaussian source coding for a wireless acoustic sensor network. Each node receives messages from multiple nodes in the network and decodes these messages using its own measurement of the sound field as side information. The node’s measurement...

  12. On the effectiveness of recoding-based repair in network coded distributed storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sipos, Marton A.; Braun, Patrik J.; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani

    2017-01-01

    High capacity storage systems distribute less across several storage devices (nodes) and apply an erasure code to meet availability and reliability requirements. Since devices can lose network connectivity or fail permanently, a dynamic repair mechanism must be put in place. In such cases a new...... recovery node gets connected to a given subset of the operating nodes and receives a part of the stored data. The objective of this paper is to investigate data survival for Random Linear Network Coding (RLNC) as a function of topology and communication overhead, dened by the number of connections...... and the number of transmitted packets to the recovery node, respectively. The paper includes two main contributions. First, a sufficient set of conditions for quasi-infinite longevity of the stored data is derived. Second, a comparison using experimental results shows that RLNC can be up to 50% more effective...

  13. Isolated user security enhancement in optical code division multiple access network against eavesdropping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jyoti, Vishav; Kaler, Rajinder Singh

    2012-09-01

    A novel virtual user system is modeled for enhancing the security of an optical code division multiple access (OCDMA) network. Although the OCDMA system implementing code shift keying (CSK) is secure against a conventional power detector, it is susceptible to differential eavesdropping. An analytical framework is developed for the CSK-OCDMA system to show eavesdropper's code interception performance for a single transmitting user in the presence of a virtual user. It is shown that the eavesdropper's probability of correct bit interception decreases from 7.1×10-1 to 1.85×10-5 with the inclusion of the virtual user. Furthermore, the results confirm that the proposed virtual user scheme increases the confidentiality of the CSK-OCDMA system and outperforms the conventional OCDMA scheme in terms of security.

  14. Delay Analysis of Car-to-Car Reliable Data Delivery Strategies Based on Data Mulling with Network Coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Joon-Sang; Lee, Uichin; Oh, Soon Young; Gerla, Mario; Lun, Desmond Siumen; Ro, Won Woo; Park, Joonseok

    Vehicular ad hoc networks (VANET) aims to enhance vehicle navigation safety by providing an early warning system: any chance of accidents is informed through the wireless communication between vehicles. For the warning system to work, it is crucial that safety messages be reliably delivered to the target vehicles in a timely manner and thus reliable and timely data dissemination service is the key building block of VANET. Data mulling technique combined with three strategies, network codeing, erasure coding and repetition coding, is proposed for the reliable and timely data dissemination service. Particularly, vehicles in the opposite direction on a highway are exploited as data mules, mobile nodes physically delivering data to destinations, to overcome intermittent network connectivity cause by sparse vehicle traffic. Using analytic models, we show that in such a highway data mulling scenario the network coding based strategy outperforms erasure coding and repetition based strategies.

  15. Energy Efficient Cooperative Network Coding with Joint Relay Scheduling and Power Allocation

    OpenAIRE

    Qi, Nan; Xiao, Ming; Tsiftsis, Theodoros A.; Skoglund, Mikael; Cao, Phuong L.; Li, Lixin

    2016-01-01

    The energy efficiency (EE) of a multi-user multi-relay system with the maximum diversity network coding (MDNC) is studied. We explicitly find the connection among the outage probability, energy consumption and EE and formulate the maximizing EE problem under the outage probability constraints. Relay scheduling (RS) and power allocation (PA) are applied to schedule the relay states (transmitting, sleeping, \\emph{etc}) and optimize the transmitting power under the practical channel and power co...

  16. The NEST Dry-Run Mode: Efficient Dynamic Analysis of Neuronal Network Simulation Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunkel, Susanne; Schenck, Wolfram

    2017-01-01

    NEST is a simulator for spiking neuronal networks that commits to a general purpose approach: It allows for high flexibility in the design of network models, and its applications range from small-scale simulations on laptops to brain-scale simulations on supercomputers. Hence, developers need to test their code for various use cases and ensure that changes to code do not impair scalability. However, running a full set of benchmarks on a supercomputer takes up precious compute-time resources and can entail long queuing times. Here, we present the NEST dry-run mode, which enables comprehensive dynamic code analysis without requiring access to high-performance computing facilities. A dry-run simulation is carried out by a single process, which performs all simulation steps except communication as if it was part of a parallel environment with many processes. We show that measurements of memory usage and runtime of neuronal network simulations closely match the corresponding dry-run data. Furthermore, we demonstrate the successful application of the dry-run mode in the areas of profiling and performance modeling. PMID:28701946

  17. The NEST Dry-Run Mode: Efficient Dynamic Analysis of Neuronal Network Simulation Code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunkel, Susanne; Schenck, Wolfram

    2017-01-01

    NEST is a simulator for spiking neuronal networks that commits to a general purpose approach: It allows for high flexibility in the design of network models, and its applications range from small-scale simulations on laptops to brain-scale simulations on supercomputers. Hence, developers need to test their code for various use cases and ensure that changes to code do not impair scalability. However, running a full set of benchmarks on a supercomputer takes up precious compute-time resources and can entail long queuing times. Here, we present the NEST dry-run mode, which enables comprehensive dynamic code analysis without requiring access to high-performance computing facilities. A dry-run simulation is carried out by a single process, which performs all simulation steps except communication as if it was part of a parallel environment with many processes. We show that measurements of memory usage and runtime of neuronal network simulations closely match the corresponding dry-run data. Furthermore, we demonstrate the successful application of the dry-run mode in the areas of profiling and performance modeling.

  18. The NEST Dry-Run Mode: Efficient Dynamic Analysis of Neuronal Network Simulation Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Kunkel

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available NEST is a simulator for spiking neuronal networks that commits to a general purpose approach: It allows for high flexibility in the design of network models, and its applications range from small-scale simulations on laptops to brain-scale simulations on supercomputers. Hence, developers need to test their code for various use cases and ensure that changes to code do not impair scalability. However, running a full set of benchmarks on a supercomputer takes up precious compute-time resources and can entail long queuing times. Here, we present the NEST dry-run mode, which enables comprehensive dynamic code analysis without requiring access to high-performance computing facilities. A dry-run simulation is carried out by a single process, which performs all simulation steps except communication as if it was part of a parallel environment with many processes. We show that measurements of memory usage and runtime of neuronal network simulations closely match the corresponding dry-run data. Furthermore, we demonstrate the successful application of the dry-run mode in the areas of profiling and performance modeling.

  19. A Energy-Saving Path-Shared Protection Based on Diversity Network Coding for Multi-rate Multicast in WDM Mesh Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Danling; Lv, Lei; Liu, Huanlin

    2017-08-01

    For improving the survivability and energy saving of multi-rate multicast, a novel energy-saving path-shared protection based on diversity network coding (EPP-DNC) for multi-rate multicast in wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) mesh networks is proposed in the paper. In the EPP-DNC algorithm, diversity network coding on the source node for multi-rate multicast is adopted to reduce the coding energy consumption by avoiding network coding on the network's intermediate nodes. To decrease the transmission energy, shortest path shared based on heuristic is proposed to transmit the protection information for the request. To provision request's working paths efficiency, the working paths are routed on the preselected P-cycles with minimum required links and minimum energy consumption. Simulation results show that the proposed EPP-DNC can save energy consumption and improve bandwidth utilization.

  20. Labeling Diversity for 2x2 WLAN Coded-Cooperative Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ejaz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Labelling diversity is an efficient technique recently proposed in the literature and aims to improve the bit error rate(BER performance of wireless local area network (WLAN systems with two transmit and two receive antennas without increasing the transmit power and bandwidth requirements. In this paper, we employ labelling diversity with different space-time channel codes such as convolutional, turbo and low density parity check (LDPC for both point-to-point and coded-cooperative communication scenarios. Joint iterative decoding schemes for distributed turbo and LDPC codes are also presented. BER performance bounds at an error floor (EF region are derived and verified with the help of numerical simulations for both cooperative and non-cooperative schemes. Numerical simulations show that the coded-cooperative schemes with labelling diversity achieve better BER performances and use of labelling diversity at the source node significantly lowers relay outage probability and hence the overall BER performance of the coded-cooperative scheme is improved manifolds.

  1. AeroMTP: A fountain code-based multipath transport protocol for airborne networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Jie

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Airborne networks (ANs are special types of ad hoc networks that can be used to enhance situational awareness, flight coordination and flight efficiency in civil and military aviation. Compared to ground networks, ANs have some unique attributes including high node mobility, frequent topology changes, mechanical and aerodynamic constrains, strict safety requirements and harsh communication environment. Thus, the performance of conventional transmission control protocol (TCP will be dramatically degraded in ANs. Aircraft commonly have two or more heterogeneous network interfaces which offer an opportunity to form multiple communication paths between any two nodes in ANs. To satisfy the communication requirements in ANs, we propose aeronautical multipath transport protocol (AeroMTP for ANs, which effectively utilizes the available bandwidth and diversity provided by heterogeneous wireless paths. AeroMTP uses fountain codes as forward error correction (FEC codes to recover from data loss and deploys a TCP-friendly rate-based congestion control mechanism for each path. Moreover, we design a packet allocation algorithm based on optimization to minimize the delivery time of blocks. The performance of AeroMTP is evaluated through OMNeT++ simulations under a variety of test scenarios. Simulations demonstrate that AeroMTP is of great potential to be applied to ANs.

  2. Models of neural networks temporal aspects of coding and information processing in biological systems

    CERN Document Server

    Hemmen, J; Schulten, Klaus

    1994-01-01

    Since the appearance of Vol. 1 of Models of Neural Networks in 1991, the theory of neural nets has focused on two paradigms: information coding through coherent firing of the neurons and functional feedback. Information coding through coherent neuronal firing exploits time as a cardinal degree of freedom. This capacity of a neural network rests on the fact that the neuronal action potential is a short, say 1 ms, spike, localized in space and time. Spatial as well as temporal correlations of activity may represent different states of a network. In particular, temporal correlations of activity may express that neurons process the same "object" of, for example, a visual scene by spiking at the very same time. The traditional description of a neural network through a firing rate, the famous S-shaped curve, presupposes a wide time window of, say, at least 100 ms. It thus fails to exploit the capacity to "bind" sets of coherently firing neurons for the purpose of both scene segmentation and figure-ground segregatio...

  3. Comparison of a Ring On-Chip Network and a Code-Division Multiple-Access On-Chip Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Wang

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Two network-on-chip (NoC designs are examined and compared in this paper. One design applies a bidirectional ring connection scheme, while the other design applies a code-division multiple-access (CDMA connection scheme. Both of the designs apply globally asynchronous locally synchronous (GALS scheme in order to deal with the issue of transferring data in a multiple-clock-domain environment of an on-chip system. The two NoC designs are compared with each other by their network structures, data transfer principles, network node structures, and their asynchronous designs. Both the synchronous and the asynchronous designs of the two on-chip networks are realized using a hardware-description language (HDL in order to make the entire designs suit the commonly used synchronous design tools and flow. The performance estimation and comparison of the two NoC designs which are based on the HDL realizations are addressed. By comparing the two NoC designs, the advantages and disadvantages of applying direct connection and CDMA connection schemes in an on-chip communication network are discussed.

  4. Confinement at Large Nc

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooft, G. 't

    2004-01-01

    A discussion is given of the confinement mechanism in terms of the Abelian projection scheme, for a general number Nc of colors. There is a difficulty in the Nc to infinity limit that requires a careful treatment, as the charges of the condensing magnetic monopoles tend to infinity. We suggest that

  5. A Novel Architecture for Adaptive Traffic Control in Network on Chip using Code Division Multiple Access Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Fatemeh. Dehghani; Shahram. Darooei

    2016-01-01

    Network on chip has emerged as a long-term and effective method in Multiprocessor System-on-Chip communications in order to overcome the bottleneck in bus based communication architectures. Efficiency and performance of network on chip is so dependent on the architecture and structure of the network. In this paper a new structure and architecture for adaptive traffic control in network on chip using Code Division Multiple Access technique is presented. To solve the problem of synchronous acce...

  6. A neural network model of general olfactory coding in the insect antennal lobe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getz, W M; Lutz, A

    1999-08-01

    A central problem in olfaction is understanding how the quality of olfactory stimuli is encoded in the insect antennal lobe (or in the analogously structured vertebrate olfactory bulb) for perceptual processing in the mushroom bodies of the insect protocerebrum (or in the vertebrate olfactory cortex). In the study reported here, a relatively simple neural network model, inspired by our current knowledge of the insect antennal lobes, is used to investigate how each of several features and elements of the network, such as synapse strengths, feedback circuits and the steepness of neural activation functions, influences the formation of an olfactory code in neurons that project from the antennal lobes to the mushroom bodies (or from mitral cells to olfactory cortex). An optimal code in these projection neurons (PNs) should minimize potential errors by the mushroom bodies in misidentifying the quality of an odor across a range of concentrations while maximizing the ability of the mushroom bodies to resolve odors of different quality. Simulation studies demonstrate that the network is able to produce codes independent or virtually independent of concentration over a given range. The extent of this range is moderately dependent on a parameter that characterizes how long it takes for the voltage in an activated neuron to decay back to its resting potential, strongly dependent on the strength of excitatory feedback by the PNs onto antennal lobe intrinsic neurons (INs), and overwhelmingly dependent on the slope of the activation function that transforms the voltage of depolarized neurons into the rate at which spikes are produced. Although the code in the PNs is degraded by large variations in the concentration of odor stimuli, good performance levels are maintained when the complexity of stimuli, as measured by the number of component odorants, is doubled. When excitatory feedback from the PNs to the INs is strong, the activity in the PNs undergoes transitions from initial

  7. Delay reduction in lossy intermittent feedback for generalized instantly decodable network coding

    KAUST Repository

    Douik, Ahmed S.

    2013-10-01

    In this paper, we study the effect of lossy intermittent feedback loss events on the multicast decoding delay performance of generalized instantly decodable network coding. These feedback loss events create uncertainty at the sender about the reception statues of different receivers and thus uncertainty to accurately determine subsequent instantly decodable coded packets. To solve this problem, we first identify the different possibilities of uncertain packets at the sender and their probabilities. We then derive the expression of the mean decoding delay. We formulate the Generalized Instantly Decodable Network Coding (G-IDNC) minimum decoding delay problem as a maximum weight clique problem. Since finding the optimal solution is NP-hard, we design a variant of the algorithm employed in [1]. Our algorithm is compared to the two blind graph update proposed in [2] through extensive simulations. Results show that our algorithm outperforms the blind approaches in all the situations and achieves a tolerable degradation, against the perfect feedback, for large feedback loss period. © 2013 IEEE.

  8. An Improved MOEA/D for QoS Oriented Multimedia Multicasting with Network Coding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaoyuan Wang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent years witness a significant growth in multimedia applications. Among them, a stream of applications is real-time and requires one-to-many fast data transmission with stringent quality-of-service (QoS requirements, where multicast is an important supporting technology. In particular, with more and more mobile end users requesting real-time broadband multimedia applications, it is of vital importance to provide them with satisfied quality of experience. As network coding can offer higher bandwidth to users and accommodate more flows for networks than traditional routing, this paper studies the multicast routing problem with network coding and formulates it as a multi-objective optimization problem. As delay and packet loss ratio (PLR are two important performance indicators for QoS, we consider them as the two objectives for minimization. To address the problem above, we present a multi-objective evolutionary algorithm based on decomposition (MOEA/D, where an all population updating rule is devised to address the problem of lacking feasible solutions in the search space. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm and it outperforms a number of state-of-the-art algorithms.

  9. Surveying Multidisciplinary Aspects in Real-Time Distributed Coding for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Braccini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs, where a multiplicity of sensors observe a physical phenomenon and transmit their measurements to one or more sinks, pertain to the class of multi-terminal source and channel coding problems of Information Theory. In this category, “real-time” coding is often encountered for WSNs, referring to the problem of finding the minimum distortion (according to a given measure, under transmission power constraints, attainable by encoding and decoding functions, with stringent limits on delay and complexity. On the other hand, the Decision Theory approach seeks to determine the optimal coding/decoding strategies or some of their structural properties. Since encoder(s and decoder(s possess different information, though sharing a common goal, the setting here is that of Team Decision Theory. A more pragmatic vision rooted in Signal Processing consists of fixing the form of the coding strategies (e.g., to linear functions and, consequently, finding the corresponding optimal decoding strategies and the achievable distortion, generally by applying parametric optimization techniques. All approaches have a long history of past investigations and recent results. The goal of the present paper is to provide the taxonomy of the various formulations, a survey of the vast related literature, examples from the authors’ own research, and some highlights on the inter-play of the different theories.

  10. Performance characterization and transmission schemes for instantly decodable network coding in wireless broadcast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Mingchao; Sadeghi, Parastoo; Aboutorab, Neda

    2015-12-01

    We consider broadcasting a block of packets to multiple wireless receivers under random packet erasures using instantly decodable network coding (IDNC). The sender first broadcasts each packet uncoded once, then generates coded packets according to receivers' feedback about their missing packets. We focus on strict IDNC (S-IDNC), where each coded packet includes at most one missing packet of every receiver. But, we will also study its relation with generalized IDNC (G-IDNC), where this condition is relaxed. We characterize two fundamental performance limits of S-IDNC: (1) the number of transmissions to complete the broadcast, which measures throughput and (2) average packet decoding delay, which measures how fast each packet is decoded at each receiver on average. We derive a closed-form expression for the expected minimum number of transmissions in terms of the number of packets and receivers and the erasure probability. We prove that it is NP-hard to minimize the average packet decoding delay of S-IDNC. We also prove that the graph models of S- and G-IDNC share the same chromatic number. Next, we design efficient S-IDNC transmission schemes and coding algorithms with full/intermittent receiver feedback. We present simulation results to corroborate the developed theory and compare our schemes with existing ones.

  11. A Distributed Flow Rate Control Algorithm for Networked Agent System with Multiple Coding Rates to Optimize Multimedia Data Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Zeng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available With the development of wireless technologies, mobile communication applies more and more extensively in the various walks of life. The social network of both fixed and mobile users can be seen as networked agent system. At present, kinds of devices and access network technology are widely used. Different users in this networked agent system may need different coding rates multimedia data due to their heterogeneous demand. This paper proposes a distributed flow rate control algorithm to optimize multimedia data transmission of the networked agent system with the coexisting various coding rates. In this proposed algorithm, transmission path and upload bandwidth of different coding rate data between source node, fixed and mobile nodes are appropriately arranged and controlled. On the one hand, this algorithm can provide user nodes with differentiated coding rate data and corresponding flow rate. On the other hand, it makes the different coding rate data and user nodes networked, which realizes the sharing of upload bandwidth of user nodes which require different coding rate data. The study conducts mathematical modeling on the proposed algorithm and compares the system that adopts the proposed algorithm with the existing system based on the simulation experiment and mathematical analysis. The results show that the system that adopts the proposed algorithm achieves higher upload bandwidth utilization of user nodes and lower upload bandwidth consumption of source node.

  12. iRegNet3D: three-dimensional integrated regulatory network for the genomic analysis of coding and non-coding disease mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Siqi; Tippens, Nathaniel D; Zhou, Yaoda; Mort, Matthew; Stenson, Peter D; Cooper, David N; Yu, Haiyuan

    2017-01-18

    The mechanistic details of most disease-causing mutations remain poorly explored within the context of regulatory networks. We present a high-resolution three-dimensional integrated regulatory network (iRegNet3D) in the form of a web tool, where we resolve the interfaces of all known transcription factor (TF)-TF, TF-DNA and chromatin-chromatin interactions for the analysis of both coding and non-coding disease-associated mutations to obtain mechanistic insights into their functional impact. Using iRegNet3D, we find that disease-associated mutations may perturb the regulatory network through diverse mechanisms including chromatin looping. iRegNet3D promises to be an indispensable tool in large-scale sequencing and disease association studies.

  13. Equidistant Linear Network Codes with maximal Error-protection from Veronese Varieties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Johan P.

    2012-01-01

    , vol.54, no.8, pp. 3579-3591,2008) introduced a metric on the set af vector-spaces and showed that a minimal distance decoder for this metric achieves correct decoding if the dimension of the intersection of the transmitted and received vector-space is sufficiently large. From the Veronese varieties we...... construct explicit families of vector-spaces of constant dimension where any pair of distinct vector-spaces are equidistant in the above metric. The parameters of the resulting linear network codes which have maximal error-protection are determined....

  14. THE OPTIMAL CONTROL IN THE MODELOF NETWORK SECURITY FROM MALICIOUS CODE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with a mathematical model of network security. The model is described in terms of the nonlinear optimal control. As a criterion of the control problem quality the price of the summary damage inflicted by the harmful codes is chosen, under additional restriction: the number of recovered nodes is maximized. The Pontryagin maximum principle for construction of the optimal decisions is formulated. The number of switching points of the optimal control is found. The explicit form of optimal control is given using the Lagrange multipliers method.

  15. Stacked optical code label for multicasting in optical packet switching networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Ming; Chen, Minghua; Chen, Hongwei; Xie, Shizhong

    2009-03-16

    Stacked optical code (OC) label and its en/decoder based on fiber Bragg gratings (FBG) are proposed and experimentally demonstrated. This kind of label can carry several nodes' address information simultaneously in optical packet switching networks, so it can be employed in optical multicasting and simplify the node's structure a lot. The en/decoder is fabricated with high precision by our FBG techniques, and the experiment results show that the stacked OC label can support optical multicasting very well. (c) 2009 Optical Society of America

  16. Implementation of Finite Volume based Navier Stokes Algorithm Within General Purpose Flow Network Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schallhorn, Paul; Majumdar, Alok

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a finite volume based numerical algorithm that allows multi-dimensional computation of fluid flow within a system level network flow analysis. There are several thermo-fluid engineering problems where higher fidelity solutions are needed that are not within the capacity of system level codes. The proposed algorithm will allow NASA's Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program (GFSSP) to perform multi-dimensional flow calculation within the framework of GFSSP s typical system level flow network consisting of fluid nodes and branches. The paper presents several classical two-dimensional fluid dynamics problems that have been solved by GFSSP's multi-dimensional flow solver. The numerical solutions are compared with the analytical and benchmark solution of Poiseulle, Couette and flow in a driven cavity.

  17. Minimum-Energy Wireless Real-Time Multicast by Joint Network Coding and Scheduling Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoping Tan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For real-time multicast services over wireless multihop networks, to minimize the energy of transmissions with satisfying the requirements of a fixed data rate and high reliabilities, we construct a conflict graph based framework by joint optimizing network coding and scheduling. Then, we propose a primal-dual subgradient optimization algorithm by random sampling K maximal stable sets in a given conflict graph. This method transforms the NP-hard scheduling subproblem into a normal linear programming problem to obtain an approximate solution. The proposed algorithm only needs to adopt centralized technique for solving the linear programming problem while all of the other computations can be distributed. The simulation results show that, comparing with the existing algorithm, this algorithm can not only achieve about 20% performance gain, but also have better performance in terms of convergence and robustness.

  18. Dynamic Allocation and Efficient Distribution of Data Among Multiple Clouds Using Network Coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sipos, Marton A.; Fitzek, Frank; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani

    2014-01-01

    of random linear network coding to exploit multiple commercially available cloud storage providers simultaneously with the possibility to constantly adapt to changing cloud performance in order to optimize data retrieval times. The main contribution of this paper is a new data distribution mechanisms...... that cleverly stores and moves data among different clouds in order to optimize performance. Furthermore, we investigate the trade-offs among storage space, reliability and data retrieval speed for our proposed scheme. By means of real-world implementation and measurements using well-known and publicly...... accessible cloud service providers, we can show close to 9x less network use for the adaptation compared to more conventional dense recoding approaches, while maintaining similar download time performance and the same reliability....

  19. A Cloud-Assisted Random Linear Network Coding Medium Access Control Protocol for Healthcare Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elli Kartsakli

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Relay sensor networks are often employed in end-to-end healthcare applications to facilitate the information flow between patient worn sensors and the medical data center. Medium access control (MAC protocols, based on random linear network coding (RLNC, are a novel and suitable approach to efficiently handle data dissemination. However, several challenges arise, such as additional delays introduced by the intermediate relay nodes and decoding failures, due to channel errors. In this paper, we tackle these issues by adopting a cloud architecture where the set of relays is connected to a coordinating entity, called cloud manager. We propose a cloud-assisted RLNC-based MAC protocol (CLNC-MAC and develop a mathematical model for the calculation of the key performance metrics, namely the system throughput, the mean completion time for data delivery and the energy efficiency. We show the importance of central coordination in fully exploiting the gain of RLNC under error-prone channels.

  20. THATCH: A computer code for modelling thermal networks of high- temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroeger, P.G.; Kennett, R.J.; Colman, J.; Ginsberg, T. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States))

    1991-10-01

    This report documents the THATCH code, which can be used to model general thermal and flow networks of solids and coolant channels in two-dimensional r-z geometries. The main application of THATCH is to model reactor thermo-hydraulic transients in High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors (HTGRs). The available modules simulate pressurized or depressurized core heatup transients, heat transfer to general exterior sinks or to specific passive Reactor Cavity Cooling Systems, which can be air or water-cooled. Graphite oxidation during air or water ingress can be modelled, including the effects of added combustion products to the gas flow and the additional chemical energy release. A point kinetics model is available for analyzing reactivity excursions; for instance due to water ingress, and also for hypothetical no-scram scenarios. For most HTGR transients, which generally range over hours, a user-selected nodalization of the core in r-z geometry is used. However, a separate model of heat transfer in the symmetry element of each fuel element is also available for very rapid transients. This model can be applied coupled to the traditional coarser r-z nodalization. This report described the mathematical models used in the code and the method of solution. It describes the code and its various sub-elements. Details of the input data and file usage, with file formats, is given for the code, as well as for several preprocessing and postprocessing options. The THATCH model of the currently applicable 350 MW{sub th} reactor is described. Input data for four sample cases are given with output available in fiche form. Installation requirements and code limitations, as well as the most common error indications are listed. 31 refs., 23 figs., 32 tabs.

  1. Impact of Distributed Generation Grid Code Requirements on Islanding Detection in LV Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Bignucolo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent growing diffusion of dispersed generation in low voltage (LV distribution networks is entailing new rules to make local generators participate in network stability. Consequently, national and international grid codes, which define the connection rules for stability and safety of electrical power systems, have been updated requiring distributed generators and electrical storage systems to supply stabilizing contributions. In this scenario, specific attention to the uncontrolled islanding issue has to be addressed since currently required anti-islanding protection systems, based on relays locally measuring voltage and frequency, could no longer be suitable. In this paper, the effects on the interface protection performance of different LV generators’ stabilizing functions are analysed. The study takes into account existing requirements, such as the generators’ active power regulation (according to the measured frequency and reactive power regulation (depending on the local measured voltage. In addition, the paper focuses on other stabilizing features under discussion, derived from the medium voltage (MV distribution network grid codes or proposed in the literature, such as fast voltage support (FVS and inertia emulation. Stabilizing functions have been reproduced in the DIgSILENT PowerFactory 2016 software environment, making use of its native programming language. Later, they are tested both alone and together, aiming to obtain a comprehensive analysis on their impact on the anti-islanding protection effectiveness. Through dynamic simulations in several network scenarios the paper demonstrates the detrimental impact that such stabilizing regulations may have on loss-of-main protection effectiveness, leading to an increased risk of unintentional islanding.

  2. Reductive cleavage and reformation of the interchain and intrachain disulfide bonds in the globular hexameric domain NC1 involved in network assembly of basement membrane collagen (type IV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, S; Dölz, R; Timpl, R; Fessler, J H; Engel, J

    1988-08-01

    The formation of collagen IV dimers in the extracellular space requires the association of two C-terminal globular domains giving rise to a large hexameric structure NC1 (Mr = 170,000). NC1 hexamer was purified from collagenase digests of a mouse tumor and several human tissues. It was shown by electrophoresis to consist of two kinds of cross-linked, dimeric segments, Da and Db (Mr about 50,000), and monomeric segments in a molar ratio of about 3:1. In the native hexamers free SH groups were detectable by N-[14C]ethylmaleimide and other sulfhydryl reagents. They account for 4-11% of the total number of cysteine residues with some variations between preparations from different sources and in the distribution between monomers and dimers. Reduction with 10 mM dithioerythritol under non-denaturing condition completely converted dimers into monomers and allowed the alkylation of all twelve cysteine residues present in each monomeric NC1 segment. A monomeric intermediate with four to six free SH groups and a higher electrophoretic mobility than the final product was observed. Generation of this intermediate from dimers Da and Db follows apparently different routes proceeding either directly or through a dimeric intermediate respectively. The time course of conversion is best described by a mechanism consisting of two (Db) or three (Da) consecutive steps with pseudo-first-order rate constants ranging from 0.14 ms-1 to 0.5 ms-1. Glutathione-catalyzed reoxidation of completely reduced NC1 in the presence of 2 M urea results in a product indistinguishable from native material by ultracentrifugation and electrophoresis pattern. The data suggest that in situ formation of NC1 structures is catalyzed by a small fraction (5-10%) of intrinsic SH groups leading to the formation and stabilization of dimers by rearrangement of disulfide bonds.

  3. Bearing performance degradation assessment based on time-frequency code features and SOM network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Tang, Baoping; Han, Yan; Deng, Lei

    2017-04-01

    Bearing performance degradation assessment and prognostics are extremely important in supporting maintenance decision and guaranteeing the system’s reliability. To achieve this goal, this paper proposes a novel feature extraction method for the degradation assessment and prognostics of bearings. Features of time-frequency codes (TFCs) are extracted from the time-frequency distribution using a hybrid procedure based on short-time Fourier transform (STFT) and non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) theory. An alternative way to design the health indicator is investigated by quantifying the similarity between feature vectors using a self-organizing map (SOM) network. On the basis of this idea, a new health indicator called time-frequency code quantification error (TFCQE) is proposed to assess the performance degradation of the bearing. This indicator is constructed based on the bearing real-time behavior and the SOM model that is previously trained with only the TFC vectors under the normal condition. Vibration signals collected from the bearing run-to-failure tests are used to validate the developed method. The comparison results demonstrate the superiority of the proposed TFCQE indicator over many other traditional features in terms of feature quality metrics, incipient degradation identification and achieving accurate prediction. Highlights • Time-frequency codes are extracted to reflect the signals’ characteristics. • SOM network served as a tool to quantify the similarity between feature vectors. • A new health indicator is proposed to demonstrate the whole stage of degradation development. • The method is useful for extracting the degradation features and detecting the incipient degradation. • The superiority of the proposed method is verified using experimental data.

  4. Fast Prediction of HCCI Combustion with an Artificial Neural Network Linked to a Fluid Mechanics Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aceves, S M; Flowers, D L; Chen, J; Babaimopoulos, A

    2006-08-29

    We have developed an artificial neural network (ANN) based combustion model and have integrated it into a fluid mechanics code (KIVA3V) to produce a new analysis tool (titled KIVA3V-ANN) that can yield accurate HCCI predictions at very low computational cost. The neural network predicts ignition delay as a function of operating parameters (temperature, pressure, equivalence ratio and residual gas fraction). KIVA3V-ANN keeps track of the time history of the ignition delay during the engine cycle to evaluate the ignition integral and predict ignition for each computational cell. After a cell ignites, chemistry becomes active, and a two-step chemical kinetic mechanism predicts composition and heat generation in the ignited cells. KIVA3V-ANN has been validated by comparison with isooctane HCCI experiments in two different engines. The neural network provides reasonable predictions for HCCI combustion and emissions that, although typically not as good as obtained with the more physically representative multi-zone model, are obtained at a much reduced computational cost. KIVA3V-ANN can perform reasonably accurate HCCI calculations while requiring only 10% more computational effort than a motored KIVA3V run. It is therefore considered a valuable tool for evaluation of engine maps or other performance analysis tasks requiring multiple individual runs.

  5. Data compression in wireless sensors network using MDCT and embedded harmonic coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsalaet, Jaafar K; Ali, Abduladhem A

    2015-05-01

    One of the major applications of wireless sensors networks (WSNs) is vibration measurement for the purpose of structural health monitoring and machinery fault diagnosis. WSNs have many advantages over the wired networks such as low cost and reduced setup time. However, the useful bandwidth is limited, as compared to wired networks, resulting in relatively low sampling. One solution to this problem is data compression which, in addition to enhancing sampling rate, saves valuable power of the wireless nodes. In this work, a data compression scheme, based on Modified Discrete Cosine Transform (MDCT) followed by Embedded Harmonic Components Coding (EHCC) is proposed to compress vibration signals. The EHCC is applied to exploit harmonic redundancy present is most vibration signals resulting in improved compression ratio. This scheme is made suitable for the tiny hardware of wireless nodes and it is proved to be fast and effective. The efficiency of the proposed scheme is investigated by conducting several experimental tests. Copyright © 2014 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A Game Theoretic Approach to Minimize the Completion Time of Network Coded Cooperative Data Exchange

    KAUST Repository

    Douik, Ahmed S.

    2014-05-11

    In this paper, we introduce a game theoretic framework for studying the problem of minimizing the completion time of instantly decodable network coding (IDNC) for cooperative data exchange (CDE) in decentralized wireless network. In this configuration, clients cooperate with each other to recover the erased packets without a central controller. Game theory is employed herein as a tool for improving the distributed solution by overcoming the need for a central controller or additional signaling in the system. We model the session by self-interested players in a non-cooperative potential game. The utility function is designed such that increasing individual payoff results in a collective behavior achieving both a desirable system performance in a shared network environment and the Pareto optimal solution. Through extensive simulations, our approach is compared to the best performance that could be found in the conventional point-to-multipoint (PMP) recovery process. Numerical results show that our formulation largely outperforms the conventional PMP scheme in most practical situations and achieves a lower delay.

  7. Contaminant transport in fracture networks with heterogeneous rock matrices. The Picnic code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barten, Werner [Paul Scherrer Inst., CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Robinson, Peter C. [QuantiSci Limited, Henley-on-Thames (United Kingdom)

    2001-02-01

    In the context of safety assessment of radioactive waste repositories, complex radionuclide transport models covering key safety-relevant processes play a major role. In recent Swiss safety assessments, such as Kristallin-I, an important drawback was the limitation in geosphere modelling capability to account for geosphere heterogeneities. In marked contrast to this limitation in modelling capabilities, great effort has been put into investigating the heterogeneity of the geosphere as it impacts on hydrology. Structural geological methods have been used to look at the geometry of the flow paths on a small scale and the diffusion and sorption properties of different rock materials have been investigated. This huge amount of information could however be only partially applied in geosphere transport modelling. To make use of these investigations the 'PICNIC project' was established as a joint cooperation of PSI/Nagra and QuantiSci to provide a new geosphere transport model for Swiss safety assessment of radioactive waste repositories. The new transport code, PICNIC, can treat all processes considered in the older geosphere model RANCH MD generally used in the Kristallin-I study and, in addition, explicitly accounts for the heterogeneity of the geosphere on different spatial scales. The effects and transport phenomena that can be accounted for by PICNIC are a combination of (advective) macro-dispersion due to transport in a network of conduits (legs), micro-dispersion in single legs, one-dimensional or two-dimensional matrix diffusion into a wide range of homogeneous and heterogeneous rock matrix geometries, linear sorption of nuclides in the flow path and the rock matrix and radioactive decay and ingrowth in the case of nuclide chains. Analytical and numerical Laplace transformation methods are integrated in a newly developed hierarchical linear response concept to efficiently account for the transport mechanisms considered which typically act on extremely

  8. Joint NC-ARQ and AMC for QoS-Guaranteed Mobile Multicast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwefel Hans-Peter

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In mobile multicast transmissions, the receiver with the worst instantaneous channel condition limits the transmission data rate under the desired Quality-of-Service (QoS constraints. If Automatic Repeat reQuest (ARQ schemes are applied, the selection of Adaptive Modulation and Coding (AMC mode will not necessarily be limited by the worst channel anymore, and improved spectral efficiency may be obtained in the efficiency-reliability tradeoff. In this paper, we first propose a Network-Coding-based ARQ (NC-ARQ scheme in its optimal form and suboptimal form (denoted as Opt-ARQ and SubOpt-ARQ, resp. to solve the scalability problem of applying ARQ in multicast. Then we propose two joint NC-ARQ-AMC schemes, namely, the Average PER-based AMC (AvgPER-AMC with Opt-ARQ and AvgPER-AMC with SubOpt-ARQ in a cross-layer design framework to maximize the average spectral efficiency per receiver under specific QoS constraints. The performance is analyzed under Rayleigh fading channels for different group sizes, and numerical results show that significant gains in spectral efficiency can be achieved with the proposed joint NC-ARQ-AMC schemes compared with the existing multicast ARQ and/or AMC schemes.

  9. Instantly decodable network coding for real-time device-to-device communications

    KAUST Repository

    Douik, Ahmed

    2016-01-04

    This paper studies the delay reduction problem for instantly decodable network coding (IDNC)-based device-to-device (D2D) communication-enabled networks. Unlike conventional point-to-multipoint (PMP) systems in which the wireless base station has the sufficient computation abilities, D2D networks rely on battery-powered operations of the devices. Therefore, a particular emphasis on the computation complexity needs to be addressed in the design of delay reduction algorithms for D2D networks. While most of the existing literature on IDNC directly extend the delay reduction PMP schemes, known to be NP-hard, to the D2D setting, this paper proposes to investigate and minimize the complexity of such algorithms for battery-powered devices. With delay minimization problems in IDNC-based systems being equivalent to a maximum weight clique problems in the IDNC graph, the presented algorithms, in this paper, can be applied to different delay aspects. This paper introduces and focuses on the reduction of the maximum value of the decoding delay as it represents the most general solution. The complexity of the solution is reduced by first proposing efficient methods for the construction, the update, and the dimension reduction of the IDNC graph. The paper, further, shows that, under particular scenarios, the problem boils down to a maximum clique problem. Due to the complexity of discovering such maximum clique, the paper presents a fast selection algorithm. Simulation results illustrate the performance of the proposed schemes and suggest that the proposed fast selection algorithm provides appreciable complexity gain as compared to the optimal selection one, with a negligible degradation in performance. In addition, they indicate that the running time of the proposed solution is close to the random selection algorithm.

  10. Evaluating the performance of two neutron spectrum unfolding codes based on iterative procedures and artificial neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Rodríguez, J. M.; Reyes Alfaro, A.; Reyes Haro, A.; Solís Sánches, L. O.; Miranda, R. Castañeda; Cervantes Viramontes, J. M.; Vega-Carrillo, H. R.

    2013-07-01

    In this work the performance of two neutron spectrum unfolding codes based on iterative procedures and artificial neural networks is evaluated. The first one code based on traditional iterative procedures and called Neutron spectrometry and dosimetry from the Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas (NSDUAZ) use the SPUNIT iterative algorithm and was designed to unfold neutron spectrum and calculate 15 dosimetric quantities and 7 IAEA survey meters. The main feature of this code is the automated selection of the initial guess spectrum trough a compendium of neutron spectrum compiled by the IAEA. The second one code known as Neutron spectrometry and dosimetry with artificial neural networks (NDSann) is a code designed using neural nets technology. The artificial intelligence approach of neural net does not solve mathematical equations. By using the knowledge stored at synaptic weights on a neural net properly trained, the code is capable to unfold neutron spectrum and to simultaneously calculate 15 dosimetric quantities, needing as entrance data, only the rate counts measured with a Bonner spheres system. Similarities of both NSDUAZ and NSDann codes are: they follow the same easy and intuitive user's philosophy and were designed in a graphical interface under the LabVIEW programming environment. Both codes unfold the neutron spectrum expressed in 60 energy bins, calculate 15 dosimetric quantities and generate a full report in HTML format. Differences of these codes are: NSDUAZ code was designed using classical iterative approaches and needs an initial guess spectrum in order to initiate the iterative procedure. In NSDUAZ, a programming routine was designed to calculate 7 IAEA instrument survey meters using the fluence-dose conversion coefficients. NSDann code use artificial neural networks for solving the ill-conditioned equation system of neutron spectrometry problem through synaptic weights of a properly trained neural network. Contrary to iterative procedures, in neural

  11. NRZ versus RZ over Absolute Added Correlative coding in optical metro-access networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong-Nhat, Nguyen; Elsherif, Mohamed A.; Le Minh, Hoa; Malekmohammadi, Amin

    2017-03-01

    This paper comparatively investigates the transmission performance of absolute added correlative coding (AACC) using non-return-to-zero (NRZ) and return-to-zero (RZ) pulse shapes with a binary intensity modulation direct detection receiver in 40 Gb/s optical metro-access networks operating at 1550 nm. It is shown that, for AACC transmission, the NRZ impulse shaping is superior in comparison to RZ in spectral efficiency, dispersion tolerance, residual dispersion and self-phase modulation (SPM) tolerance. However, RZ-AACC experiences a 1-2 dB advantage in receiver sensitivity over NRZ-AACC for back-to-back configuration as well as after 300-km single-mode fiber delivery.

  12. Spreading Code and Widely-Linear Receiver Design: Non-Cooperative Games for Wireless CDMA Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Buzzi, Stefano; Zappone, Alessio

    2009-01-01

    The issue of non-cooperative transceiver optimization in the uplink of a multiuser wireless code division multiple access data network with widely-linear detection at the receiver is considered. While previous work in this area has focused on a simple real signal model, in this paper a baseband complex representation of the data is used, so as to properly take into account the I and Q components of the received signal. For the case in which the received signal is improper, a widely-linear reception structure, processing separately the data and their complex conjugates, is considered. Several non-cooperative resource allocation games are considered for this new scenario, and the performance gains granted by the use of widely-linear detection are assessed through theoretical analysis. Numerical results confirm the validity of the theoretical findings, and show that exploiting the improper nature of the data in non-cooperative resource allocation brings remarkable performance improvements in multiuser wireless s...

  13. Simply Coded Evolutionary Artificial Neural Networks on a Mobile Robot Control Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katada, Yoshiaki; Hidaka, Takuya

    One of the advantages of evolutionary robotics over other approaches in embodied cognitive science would be its parallel population search. Due to the population search, it takes a long time to evaluate all robot in a real environment. Thus, such techniques as to shorten the time are required for real robots to evolve in a real environment. This paper proposes to use simply coded evolutionary artificial neural networks for mobile robot control to make genetic search space as small as possible and investigates the performance of them using simulated and real robots. Two types of genetic algorithm (GA) are employed, one is the standard GA and the other is an extended GA, to achieve higher final fitnesses. The results suggest the benefits of the proposed method.

  14. Synchronized Multimedia Streaming on the iPhone Platform with Network Coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vingelmann, Peter; Fitzek, Frank; Pedersen, Morten Videbæk

    2011-01-01

    This work presents the implementation of synchronized multimedia streaming for the Apple iPhone platform. The idea is to stream multimedia content from a single source to multiple receivers with direct or multihop connections to the source. First we look into existing solutions for video streaming...... on the iPhone that use point-to-point architectures. After acknowledging their limitations, we propose a solution based on network coding to efficiently and reliably deliver the multimedia content to many devices in a synchronized manner. Then we introduce an application that implements this technique...... on the iPhone. We also present our testbed, which consists of 16 iPod Touch devices to showcase the capabilities of our application....

  15. Asynchronous Two-Way Relaying Networks Using Distributed Differential Space-Time Coding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minjie Qian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A signal detection scheme is proposed for two-way relaying network (TWRN using distributed differential space-time coding (DDSTC under imperfect synchronization. Unlike most of existing work, which assumed perfect synchronization and channel state information (CSI at all nodes, a more realistic scenario is investigated here by considering the signals transmitted from the two source nodes arriving at the relay not exactly at the same time due to the distributed nature of the nodes, and no CSI is available at any node. The proposed signal detection scheme is then demonstrated to remove the imperfect synchronization effect significantly through simulation results. Furthermore, pairwise error probability (PEP of the asynchronous TWRN is analyzed and derived for both source nodes. Based on the simplified PEP expression, an optimum power allocation (OPA scheme is then determined to further improve the whole system performance, when neither the source nor the relay has any knowledge of the CSI.

  16. Implementation and Performance Evaluation of Distributed Cloud Storage Solutions using Random Linear Network Coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fitzek, Frank H. P.; Toth, Tamas; Szabados, Aron

    2014-01-01

    Distributed storage is usually considered within a cloud provider to ensure availability and reliability of the data. However, the user is still directly dependent on the quality of a single system. It is also entrusting the service provider with large amounts of private data, which may be accessed...... by a successful attack to that cloud system or even be inspected by government agencies in some countries. This paper advocates a general framework for network coding enabled distributed storage over multiple commercial cloud solutions, such as, Dropbox, Box, Skydrive, and Google Drive, as a way to address...... these reliability and privacy issues. By means of theoretical analysis and real– life implementations, we show not only that our framework constitutes a viable solution to increase the reliability of stored data and to ensure data privacy, but it also provides a way to reduce the storage costs and to increase...

  17. Combating QR-Code-Based Compromised Accounts in Mobile Social Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Dong; Cao, Jian; Wang, Xiaoqi; Fu, Qiang; Li, Qiang

    2016-09-20

    Cyber Physical Social Sensing makes mobile social networks (MSNs) popular with users. However, such attacks are rampant as malicious URLs are spread covertly through quick response (QR) codes to control compromised accounts in MSNs to propagate malicious messages. Currently, there are generally two types of methods to identify compromised accounts in MSNs: one type is to analyze the potential threats on wireless access points and the potential threats on handheld devices' operation systems so as to stop compromised accounts from spreading malicious messages; the other type is to apply the method of detecting compromised accounts in online social networks to MSNs. The above types of methods above focus neither on the problems of MSNs themselves nor on the interaction of sensors' messages, which leads to the restrictiveness of platforms and the simplification of methods. In order to stop the spreading of compromised accounts in MSNs effectively, the attacks have to be traced to their sources first. Through sensors, users exchange information in MSNs and acquire information by scanning QR codes. Therefore, analyzing the traces of sensor-related information helps to identify the compromised accounts in MSNs. This paper analyzes the diversity of information sending modes of compromised accounts and normal accounts, analyzes the regularity of GPS (Global Positioning System)-based location information, and introduces the concepts of entropy and conditional entropy so as to construct an entropy-based model based on machine learning strategies. To achieve the goal, about 500,000 accounts of Sina Weibo and about 100 million corresponding messages are collected. Through the validation, the accuracy rate of the model is proved to be as high as 87.6%, and the false positive rate is only 3.7%. Meanwhile, the comparative experiments of the feature sets prove that sensor-based location information can be applied to detect the compromised accounts in MSNs.

  18. Combating QR-Code-Based Compromised Accounts in Mobile Social Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Guo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Cyber Physical Social Sensing makes mobile social networks (MSNs popular with users. However, such attacks are rampant as malicious URLs are spread covertly through quick response (QR codes to control compromised accounts in MSNs to propagate malicious messages. Currently, there are generally two types of methods to identify compromised accounts in MSNs: one type is to analyze the potential threats on wireless access points and the potential threats on handheld devices’ operation systems so as to stop compromised accounts from spreading malicious messages; the other type is to apply the method of detecting compromised accounts in online social networks to MSNs. The above types of methods above focus neither on the problems of MSNs themselves nor on the interaction of sensors’ messages, which leads to the restrictiveness of platforms and the simplification of methods. In order to stop the spreading of compromised accounts in MSNs effectively, the attacks have to be traced to their sources first. Through sensors, users exchange information in MSNs and acquire information by scanning QR codes. Therefore, analyzing the traces of sensor-related information helps to identify the compromised accounts in MSNs. This paper analyzes the diversity of information sending modes of compromised accounts and normal accounts, analyzes the regularity of GPS (Global Positioning System-based location information, and introduces the concepts of entropy and conditional entropy so as to construct an entropy-based model based on machine learning strategies. To achieve the goal, about 500,000 accounts of Sina Weibo and about 100 million corresponding messages are collected. Through the validation, the accuracy rate of the model is proved to be as high as 87.6%, and the false positive rate is only 3.7%. Meanwhile, the comparative experiments of the feature sets prove that sensor-based location information can be applied to detect the compromised accounts in MSNs.

  19. Assessment of BeiDou differential code bias variations from multi-GNSS network observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, S. G.; Jin, R.; Li, D.

    2016-02-01

    The differential code bias (DCB) of global navigation satellite systems (GNSSs) affects precise ionospheric modeling and applications. In this paper, daily DCBs of the BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) are estimated and investigated from 2-year multi-GNSS network observations (2013-2014) based on global ionospheric maps (GIMs) from the Center for Orbit Determination in Europe (CODE), which are compared with Global Positioning System (GPS) results. The DCB of BDS satellites is a little less stable than GPS solutions, especially for geostationary Earth orbit (GEO) satellites. The BDS GEO observations decrease the precision of inclined geosynchronous satellite orbit (IGSO) and medium Earth orbit (MEO) DCB estimations. The RMS of BDS satellites DCB decreases to about 0.2 ns when we remove BDS GEO observations. Zero-mean condition effects are not the dominant factor for the higher RMS of BDS satellites DCB. Although there are no obvious secular variations in the DCB time series, sub-nanosecond variations are visible for both BDS and GPS satellites DCBs during 2013-2014. For satellites in the same orbital plane, their DCB variations have similar characteristics. In addition, variations in receivers DCB in the same region are found with a similar pattern between BDS and GPS. These variations in both GPS and BDS DCBs are mainly related to the estimated error from ionospheric variability, while the BDS DCB intrinsic variation is in sub-nanoseconds.

  20. Application of flow network models of SINDA/FLUINT{sup TM} to a nuclear power plant system thermal hydraulic code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Ji Bum [Institute for Advanced Engineering, Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jong Woon [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-12-31

    In order to enhance the dynamic and interactive simulation capability of a system thermal hydraulic code for nuclear power plant, applicability of flow network models in SINDA/FLUINT{sup TM} has been tested by modeling feedwater system and coupling to DSNP which is one of a system thermal hydraulic simulation code for a pressurized heavy water reactor. The feedwater system is selected since it is one of the most important balance of plant systems with a potential to greatly affect the behavior of nuclear steam supply system. The flow network model of this feedwater system consists of condenser, condensate pumps, low and high pressure heaters, deaerator, feedwater pumps, and control valves. This complicated flow network is modeled and coupled to DSNP and it is tested for several normal and abnormal transient conditions such turbine load maneuvering, turbine trip, and loss of class IV power. The results show reasonable behavior of the coupled code and also gives a good dynamic and interactive simulation capabilities for the several mild transient conditions. It has been found that coupling system thermal hydraulic code with a flow network code is a proper way of upgrading simulation capability of DSNP to mature nuclear plant analyzer (NPA). 5 refs., 10 figs. (Author)

  1. FONESYS: The FOrum and NEtwork of SYStem Thermal-Hydraulic Codes in Nuclear Reactor Thermal-Hydraulics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, S.H., E-mail: k175ash@kins.re.kr [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS) (Korea, Republic of); Aksan, N., E-mail: nusr.aksan@gmail.com [University of Pisa San Piero a Grado Nuclear Research Group (GRNSPG) (Italy); Austregesilo, H., E-mail: henrique.austregesilo@grs.de [Gesellschaft für Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) (Germany); Bestion, D., E-mail: dominique.bestion@cea.fr [Commissariat à l’énergie atomique et aux énergies alternatives (CEA) (France); Chung, B.D., E-mail: bdchung@kaeri.re.kr [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) (Korea, Republic of); D’Auria, F., E-mail: f.dauria@ing.unipi.it [University of Pisa San Piero a Grado Nuclear Research Group (GRNSPG) (Italy); Emonot, P., E-mail: philippe.emonot@cea.fr [Commissariat à l’énergie atomique et aux énergies alternatives (CEA) (France); Gandrille, J.L., E-mail: jeanluc.gandrille@areva.com [AREVA NP (France); Hanninen, M., E-mail: markku.hanninen@vtt.fi [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) (Finland); Horvatović, I., E-mail: i.horvatovic@ing.unipi.it [University of Pisa San Piero a Grado Nuclear Research Group (GRNSPG) (Italy); Kim, K.D., E-mail: kdkim@kaeri.re.kr [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) (Korea, Republic of); Kovtonyuk, A., E-mail: a.kovtonyuk@ing.unipi.it [University of Pisa San Piero a Grado Nuclear Research Group (GRNSPG) (Italy); Petruzzi, A., E-mail: a.petruzzi@ing.unipi.it [University of Pisa San Piero a Grado Nuclear Research Group (GRNSPG) (Italy)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • We briefly presented the project called Forum and Network of System Thermal-Hydraulics Codes in Nuclear Reactor Thermal-Hydraulics (FONESYS). • We presented FONESYS participants and their codes. • We explained FONESYS projects motivation, its main targets and working modalities. • We presented FONESYS position about projects topics and subtopics. - Abstract: The purpose of this article is to present briefly the project called Forum and Network of System Thermal-Hydraulics Codes in Nuclear Reactor Thermal-Hydraulics (FONESYS), its participants, the motivation for the project, its main targets and working modalities. System Thermal-Hydraulics (SYS-TH) codes, also as part of the Best Estimate Plus Uncertainty (BEPU) approaches, are expected to achieve a more-and-more relevant role in nuclear reactor technology, safety and design. Namely, the number of code-users can easily be predicted to increase in the countries where nuclear technology is exploited. Thus, the idea of establishing a forum and a network among the code developers and with possible extension to code users has started to have major importance and value. In this framework the FONESYS initiative has been created. The main targets of FONESYS are: • To promote the use of SYS-TH Codes and the application of the BEPU approaches. • To establish acceptable and recognized procedures and thresholds for Verification and Validation (V and V). • To create a common ground for discussing envisaged improvements in various areas, including user-interface, and the connection with other numerical tools, including Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Codes.

  2. Storage of phase-coded patterns via STDP in fully-connected and sparse network: a study of the network capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Scarpetta

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available We study the storage and retrieval of phase-coded patterns as stable dynamical attractors in recurrent neural networks, for both an analog and a integrate-and-fire spiking model. The synaptic strength is determined by a learning rule based on spike-time-dependent plasticity, with an asymmetric time window depending on the relative timing between pre- and post-synaptic activity. We store multiple patterns and study the network capacity. For the analog model, we find that the network capacity scales linearly with the network size, and that both capacity and the oscillation frequency of the retrieval state depend on the asymmetry of the learning time window. In addition to fully-connected networks, we study sparse networks, where each neuron is connected only to a small number $zll N$ of other neurons. Connections can be short range, between neighboring neurons placed on a regular lattice, or long range, between randomly chosen pairs of neurons. We find that a small fraction of long range connections is able to amplify the capacity of the network. This imply that a small-world-network topology is optimal, as a compromise between the cost of long range connections and the capacity increase. Also in the spiking integrate and fire model the crucial result of storing and retrieval of multiple phase-coded patterns is observed. The capacity of the fully-connected spiking network is investigated, together with the relation between oscillation frequency of retrieval state and window asymmetry.

  3. A Game-theoretic Framework for Network Coding Based Device-to-Device Communications

    KAUST Repository

    Douik, Ahmed

    2016-06-29

    This paper investigates the delay minimization problem for instantly decodable network coding (IDNC) based deviceto- device (D2D) communications. In D2D enabled systems, users cooperate to recover all their missing packets. The paper proposes a game theoretic framework as a tool for improving the distributed solution by overcoming the need for a central controller or additional signaling in the system. The session is modeled by self-interested players in a non-cooperative potential game. The utility functions are designed so as increasing individual payoff results in a collective behavior achieving both a desirable system performance in a shared network environment and the Nash equilibrium. Three games are developed whose first reduces the completion time, the second the maximum decoding delay and the third the sum decoding delay. The paper, further, improves the formulations by including a punishment policy upon collision occurrence so as to achieve the Nash bargaining solution. Learning algorithms are proposed for systems with complete and incomplete information, and for the imperfect feedback scenario. Numerical results suggest that the proposed game-theoretical formulation provides appreciable performance gain against the conventional point-to-multipoint (PMP), especially for reliable user-to-user channels.

  4. Evaluation of four-dimensional nonbinary LDPC-coded modulation for next-generation long-haul optical transport networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yequn; Arabaci, Murat; Djordjevic, Ivan B

    2012-04-09

    Leveraging the advanced coherent optical communication technologies, this paper explores the feasibility of using four-dimensional (4D) nonbinary LDPC-coded modulation (4D-NB-LDPC-CM) schemes for long-haul transmission in future optical transport networks. In contrast to our previous works on 4D-NB-LDPC-CM which considered amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) noise as the dominant impairment, this paper undertakes transmission in a more realistic optical fiber transmission environment, taking into account impairments due to dispersion effects, nonlinear phase noise, Kerr nonlinearities, and stimulated Raman scattering in addition to ASE noise. We first reveal the advantages of using 4D modulation formats in LDPC-coded modulation instead of conventional two-dimensional (2D) modulation formats used with polarization-division multiplexing (PDM). Then we demonstrate that 4D LDPC-coded modulation schemes with nonbinary LDPC component codes significantly outperform not only their conventional PDM-2D counterparts but also the corresponding 4D bit-interleaved LDPC-coded modulation (4D-BI-LDPC-CM) schemes, which employ binary LDPC codes as component codes. We also show that the transmission reach improvement offered by the 4D-NB-LDPC-CM over 4D-BI-LDPC-CM increases as the underlying constellation size and hence the spectral efficiency of transmission increases. Our results suggest that 4D-NB-LDPC-CM can be an excellent candidate for long-haul transmission in next-generation optical networks.

  5. ncRNA consensus secondary structure derivation using grammar strings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achawanantakun, Rujira; Sun, Yanni; Takyar, Seyedeh Shohreh

    2011-04-01

    Many noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) function through both their sequences and secondary structures. Thus, secondary structure derivation is an important issue in today's RNA research. The state-of-the-art structure annotation tools are based on comparative analysis, which derives consensus structure of homologous ncRNAs. Despite promising results from existing ncRNA aligning and consensus structure derivation tools, there is a need for more efficient and accurate ncRNA secondary structure modeling and alignment methods. In this work, we introduce a consensus structure derivation approach based on grammar string, a novel ncRNA secondary structure representation that encodes an ncRNA's sequence and secondary structure in the parameter space of a context-free grammar (CFG) and a full RNA grammar including pseudoknots. Being a string defined on a special alphabet constructed from a grammar, grammar string converts ncRNA alignment into sequence alignment. We derive consensus secondary structures from hundreds of ncRNA families from BraliBase 2.1 and 25 families containing pseudoknots using grammar string alignment. Our experiments have shown that grammar string-based structure derivation competes favorably in consensus structure quality with Murlet and RNASampler. Source code and experimental data are available at http://www.cse.msu.edu/~yannisun/grammar-string.

  6. Technology Infusion of CodeSonar into the Space Network Ground Segment (RII07): Software Assurance Symposium Technical Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Markland J.

    2008-01-01

    Presents a source code analysis tool (CodeSonar) for use in the Space Network Ground Segment. The Space Network requires 99.9% proficiency and 97.0% availability of systems. Software has historically accounted for an annual average of 28% of the Space Network loss of availability and proficiency. CSCI A and CSCI B account for 42% of the previous eight months of software data loss. The technology infusion of CodeSonar into the Space Network Ground segment is meant to aid in determining the impact of the technology on the project both in the expenditure of effort and the technical results of the technology. Running a CodeSonar analysis and performing a preliminary review of the results averaged 3.5 minutes per finding (approximately 20 hours total). An additional 40 hours is estimated to analyze the 37 findings deemed too complex for the initial review. Using CodeSonar's tools to suppress known non-problems, delta tool runs will not repeat findings that have been marked as non-problems, further reducing the time needed for review. The 'non-interesting' finding rate of 70% is a large number, but filtering, search, and detailed contextual features of CodeSonar reduce the time per finding. Integration of the tool into the build process may also provide further savings by preventing developers from having to configure and operate the tool separately. These preliminary results show the tool to be easy to use and incorporate into the engineering process. These findings also provide significant potential improvements in proficiency and availability on the part of the software. As time-to-fix data become available a better cost trade can be made on person hours saved versus tool cost. Selective factors may be necessary to determine where best to apply CodeSonar to balance cost and benefits.

  7. Interactive Video Coding and Transmission over Heterogeneous Wired-to-Wireless IP Networks Using an Edge Proxy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Modestino James W

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Digital video delivered over wired-to-wireless networks is expected to suffer quality degradation from both packet loss and bit errors in the payload. In this paper, the quality degradation due to packet loss and bit errors in the payload are quantitatively evaluated and their effects are assessed. We propose the use of a concatenated forward error correction (FEC coding scheme employing Reed-Solomon (RS codes and rate-compatible punctured convolutional (RCPC codes to protect the video data from packet loss and bit errors, respectively. Furthermore, the performance of a joint source-channel coding (JSCC approach employing this concatenated FEC coding scheme for video transmission is studied. Finally, we describe an improved end-to-end architecture using an edge proxy in a mobile support station to implement differential error protection for the corresponding channel impairments expected on the two networks. Results indicate that with an appropriate JSCC approach and the use of an edge proxy, FEC-based error-control techniques together with passive error-recovery techniques can significantly improve the effective video throughput and lead to acceptable video delivery quality over time-varying heterogeneous wired-to-wireless IP networks.

  8. Efficacy analysis of LDPC coded APSK modulated differential space-time-frequency coded for wireless body area network using MB-pulsed OFDM UWB technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manimegalai, C T; Gauni, Sabitha; Kalimuthu, K

    2017-12-04

    Wireless body area network (WBAN) is a breakthrough technology in healthcare areas such as hospital and telemedicine. The human body has a complex mixture of different tissues. It is expected that the nature of propagation of electromagnetic signals is distinct in each of these tissues. This forms the base for the WBAN, which is different from other environments. In this paper, the knowledge of Ultra Wide Band (UWB) channel is explored in the WBAN (IEEE 802.15.6) system. The measurements of parameters in frequency range from 3.1-10.6 GHz are taken. The proposed system, transmits data up to 480 Mbps by using LDPC coded APSK Modulated Differential Space-Time-Frequency Coded MB-OFDM to increase the throughput and power efficiency.

  9. A hybrid path-oriented code assignment CDMA-based MAC protocol for underwater acoustic sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huifang; Fan, Guangyu; Xie, Lei; Cui, Jun-Hong

    2013-11-04

    Due to the characteristics of underwater acoustic channel, media access control (MAC) protocols designed for underwater acoustic sensor networks (UWASNs) are quite different from those for terrestrial wireless sensor networks. Moreover, in a sink-oriented network with event information generation in a sensor field and message forwarding to the sink hop-by-hop, the sensors near the sink have to transmit more packets than those far from the sink, and then a funneling effect occurs, which leads to packet congestion, collisions and losses, especially in UWASNs with long propagation delays. An improved CDMA-based MAC protocol, named path-oriented code assignment (POCA) CDMA MAC (POCA-CDMA-MAC), is proposed for UWASNs in this paper. In the proposed MAC protocol, both the round-robin method and CDMA technology are adopted to make the sink receive packets from multiple paths simultaneously. Since the number of paths for information gathering is much less than that of nodes, the length of the spreading code used in the POCA-CDMA-MAC protocol is shorter greatly than that used in the CDMA-based protocols with transmitter-oriented code assignment (TOCA) or receiver-oriented code assignment (ROCA). Simulation results show that the proposed POCA-CDMA-MAC protocol achieves a higher network throughput and a lower end-to-end delay compared to other CDMA-based MAC protocols.

  10. On the Packet Delay Characteristics for Serially-Connected Links using Random Linear Network Coding with and without Recoding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tömösközi, Máté; Fitzek, Frank; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani

    2015-01-01

    decoding of the packets on the receiver side while playing out the video recording contained in the payload. Our solutions are implemented and evaluated on serially connected Raspberry Pi devices and a network (de)coding enabled software running on a regular PC. We find that the recoding relays work...

  11. On the coded packet relay network in the presence of Neighbors: Benefits of speaking in a crowded room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khamfroush, Hana; Pahlevani, Peyman; Lucani Rötter, Daniel Enrique

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies the problem of optimal use of a relay for reducing the transmission time of data packets from a source to a destination using network coding. More importantly, we address an effect that is typically overlooked in previous studies: the presence of active transmitting nodes...

  12. Exploring a QoS Driven Scheduling Approach for Peer-to-Peer Live Streaming Systems with Network Coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Laizhong; Lu, Nan; Chen, Fu

    2014-01-01

    Most large-scale peer-to-peer (P2P) live streaming systems use mesh to organize peers and leverage pull scheduling to transmit packets for providing robustness in dynamic environment. The pull scheduling brings large packet delay. Network coding makes the push scheduling feasible in mesh P2P live streaming and improves the efficiency. However, it may also introduce some extra delays and coding computational overhead. To improve the packet delay, streaming quality, and coding overhead, in this paper are as follows. we propose a QoS driven push scheduling approach. The main contributions of this paper are: (i) We introduce a new network coding method to increase the content diversity and reduce the complexity of scheduling; (ii) we formulate the push scheduling as an optimization problem and transform it to a min-cost flow problem for solving it in polynomial time; (iii) we propose a push scheduling algorithm to reduce the coding overhead and do extensive experiments to validate the effectiveness of our approach. Compared with previous approaches, the simulation results demonstrate that packet delay, continuity index, and coding ratio of our system can be significantly improved, especially in dynamic environments. PMID:25114968

  13. Automated processing of thermal infrared images of Osservatorio Vesuviano permanent surveillance network by using Matlab code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansivero, Fabio; Vilardo, Giuseppe; Caputo, Teresa

    2017-04-01

    The permanent thermal infrared surveillance network of Osservatorio Vesuviano (INGV) is composed of 6 stations which acquire IR frames of fumarole fields in the Campi Flegrei caldera and inside the Vesuvius crater (Italy). The IR frames are uploaded to a dedicated server in the Surveillance Center of Osservatorio Vesuviano in order to process the infrared data and to excerpt all the information contained. In a first phase the infrared data are processed by an automated system (A.S.I.R.A. Acq- Automated System of IR Analysis and Acquisition) developed in Matlab environment and with a user-friendly graphic user interface (GUI). ASIRA daily generates time-series of residual temperature values of the maximum temperatures observed in the IR scenes after the removal of seasonal effects. These time-series are displayed in the Surveillance Room of Osservatorio Vesuviano and provide information about the evolution of shallow temperatures field of the observed areas. In particular the features of ASIRA Acq include: a) efficient quality selection of IR scenes, b) IR images co-registration in respect of a reference frame, c) seasonal correction by using a background-removal methodology, a) filing of IR matrices and of the processed data in shared archives accessible to interrogation. The daily archived records can be also processed by ASIRA Plot (Matlab code with GUI) to visualize IR data time-series and to help in evaluating inputs parameters for further data processing and analysis. Additional processing features are accomplished in a second phase by ASIRA Tools which is Matlab code with GUI developed to extract further information from the dataset in automated way. The main functions of ASIRA Tools are: a) the analysis of temperature variations of each pixel of the IR frame in a given time interval, b) the removal of seasonal effects from temperature of every pixel in the IR frames by using an analytic approach (removal of sinusoidal long term seasonal component by using a

  14. ISP-Friendly Data Scheduling by Advanced Locality-Aware Network Coding for P2P Distribution Cloud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanjun Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Peer-to-peer (P2P file distribution imposes increasingly heavy traffic burden on the Internet service providers (ISPs. The vast volume of traffic pushes up ISPs’ costs in routing and investment and degrades their networks performance. Building ISP-friendly P2P is therefore of critical importance for ISPs and P2P services. So far most efforts in this area focused on improving the locality-awareness of P2P applications, for example, to construct overlay networks with better knowledge of the underlying network topology. There is, however, growing recognition that data scheduling algorithms also play an effective role in P2P traffic reduction. In this paper, we introduce the advanced locality-aware network coding (ALANC for P2P file distribution. This data scheduling algorithm completely avoids the transmission of linearly dependent data blocks, which is a notable problem of previous network coding algorithms. Our simulation results show that, in comparison to other algorithms, ALANC not only significantly reduces interdomain P2P traffic, but also remarkably improves both the application-level performance (for P2P services and the network-level performance (for ISP networks. For example, ALANC is 30% faster in distributing data blocks and it reduces the average traffic load on the underlying links by 40%. We show that ALANC holds the above gains when the tit-for-tat incentive mechanism is introduced or the overlay topology changes dynamically.

  15. Throughput Maximization for Cognitive Radio Networks Using Active Cooperation and Superposition Coding

    KAUST Repository

    Hamza, Doha R.

    2015-02-13

    We propose a three-message superposition coding scheme in a cognitive radio relay network exploiting active cooperation between primary and secondary users. The primary user is motivated to cooperate by substantial benefits it can reap from this access scenario. Specifically, the time resource is split into three transmission phases: The first two phases are dedicated to primary communication, while the third phase is for the secondary’s transmission. We formulate two throughput maximization problems for the secondary network subject to primary user rate constraints and per-node power constraints with respect to the time durations of primary transmission and the transmit power of the primary and the secondary users. The first throughput maximization problem assumes a partial power constraint such that the secondary power dedicated to primary cooperation, i.e. for the first two communication phases, is fixed apriori. In the second throughput maximization problem, a total power constraint is assumed over the three phases of communication. The two problems are difficult to solve analytically when the relaying channel gains are strictly greater than each other and strictly greater than the direct link channel gain. However, mathematically tractable lowerbound and upperbound solutions can be attained for the two problems. For both problems, by only using the lowerbound solution, we demonstrate significant throughput gains for both the primary and the secondary users through this active cooperation scheme. We find that most of the throughput gains come from minimizing the second phase transmission time since the secondary nodes assist the primary communication during this phase. Finally, we demonstrate the superiority of our proposed scheme compared to a number of reference schemes that include best relay selection, dual-hop routing, and an interference channel model.

  16. Non-linear blend coding in the moth antennal lobe emerges from random glomerular networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto eCapurro

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Neural responses to odor blends often interact at different stages of the olfactory pathway. The first olfactory processing center in insects, the antennal lobe (AL, exhibits a complex network connectivity. We attempt to determine if non-linear blend interactions can arise purely as a function of the AL network connectivity itself, without necessitating additional factors such as competitive ligand binding at the periphery or intrinsic cellular properties. To assess this, we compared blend interactions among responses from single neurons recorded intracellularly in the AL of the moth M. sexta with those generated using a population-based computational model constructed from the morphologically-based connectivity pattern of projection neurons (PNs and local interneurons (LNs with randomized connection probabilities, from which we excluded detailed intrinsic neuronal properties. The model accurately predicted most of the proportions of blend interaction types observed in the physiological data. Our simulations also indicate that input from LNs is important in establishing both the type of blend interaction and the nature of the neuronal response (excitation or inhibition exhibited by AL neurons. For LNs, the only input that significantly impacted the blend interaction type was received from other LNs, while for PNs the input from olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs and other PNs contributed agonistically with the LN input to shape the AL output. Our results demonstrate that non-linear blend interactions can be a natural consequence of AL connectivity, and highlight the importance of lateral inhibition as a key feature of blend coding to be addressed in future experimental and computational studies.

  17. Pathway Detection from Protein Interaction Networks and Gene Expression Data Using Color-Coding Methods and A* Search Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Yu Yeh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available With the large availability of protein interaction networks and microarray data supported, to identify the linear paths that have biological significance in search of a potential pathway is a challenge issue. We proposed a color-coding method based on the characteristics of biological network topology and applied heuristic search to speed up color-coding method. In the experiments, we tested our methods by applying to two datasets: yeast and human prostate cancer networks and gene expression data set. The comparisons of our method with other existing methods on known yeast MAPK pathways in terms of precision and recall show that we can find maximum number of the proteins and perform comparably well. On the other hand, our method is more efficient than previous ones and detects the paths of length 10 within 40 seconds using CPU Intel 1.73GHz and 1GB main memory running under windows operating system.

  18. On minimizing the maximum broadcast decoding delay for instantly decodable network coding

    KAUST Repository

    Douik, Ahmed S.

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we consider the problem of minimizing the maximum broadcast decoding delay experienced by all the receivers of generalized instantly decodable network coding (IDNC). Unlike the sum decoding delay, the maximum decoding delay as a definition of delay for IDNC allows a more equitable distribution of the delays between the different receivers and thus a better Quality of Service (QoS). In order to solve this problem, we first derive the expressions for the probability distributions of maximum decoding delay increments. Given these expressions, we formulate the problem as a maximum weight clique problem in the IDNC graph. Although this problem is known to be NP-hard, we design a greedy algorithm to perform effective packet selection. Through extensive simulations, we compare the sum decoding delay and the max decoding delay experienced when applying the policies to minimize the sum decoding delay and our policy to reduce the max decoding delay. Simulations results show that our policy gives a good agreement among all the delay aspects in all situations and outperforms the sum decoding delay policy to effectively minimize the sum decoding delay when the channel conditions become harsher. They also show that our definition of delay significantly improve the number of served receivers when they are subject to strict delay constraints.

  19. An electric mandate. The EU procedure for harmonising cross-border network codes for electricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jevnaker, Torbjoerg

    2012-07-01

    The research question addressed in this report is why the EU procedure for developing network codes for electricity was enacted in its particular form. Passed by the EU in 2009, European organisations partly outside of the formal EU structure were given a mandate to make rules that would apply across the EU. This was puzzling given the observed resistance on part of the member states to let go of national control over energy issues. Drawing on institutionalist perspectives, the analysis shows that the procedure would not have been passed without support from and compromise among the Commission, European Parliament and the member states in Council; that parts of the procedure imitated existing practices within related policy areas; that horizontal and vertical specialization within the nation-states along with a Commission actively promoting transnational cooperation changed the feedback mechanisms, which changed the direction of European energy market regulation; and finally, that the new actors played an active role vis-a-vis EU bodies as the latter were legislating on the procedure. (Author)

  20. Real-time distributed video coding for 1K-pixel visual sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanca, Jan; Deligiannis, Nikos; Munteanu, Adrian

    2016-07-01

    Many applications in visual sensor networks (VSNs) demand the low-cost wireless transmission of video data. In this context, distributed video coding (DVC) has proven its potential to achieve state-of-the-art compression performance while maintaining low computational complexity of the encoder. Despite their proven capabilities, current DVC solutions overlook hardware constraints, and this renders them unsuitable for practical implementations. This paper introduces a DVC architecture that offers highly efficient wireless communication in real-world VSNs. The design takes into account the severe computational and memory constraints imposed by practical implementations on low-resolution visual sensors. We study performance-complexity trade-offs for feedback-channel removal, propose learning-based techniques for rate allocation, and investigate various simplifications of side information generation yielding real-time decoding. The proposed system is evaluated against H.264/AVC intra, Motion-JPEG, and our previously designed DVC prototype for low-resolution visual sensors. Extensive experimental results on various data show significant improvements in multiple configurations. The proposed encoder achieves real-time performance on a 1k-pixel visual sensor mote. Real-time decoding is performed on a Raspberry Pi single-board computer or a low-end notebook PC. To the best of our knowledge, the proposed codec is the first practical DVC deployment on low-resolution VSNs.

  1. Completion time reduction in instantly decodable network coding through decoding delay control

    KAUST Repository

    Douik, Ahmed S.

    2014-12-01

    For several years, the completion time and the decoding delay problems in Instantly Decodable Network Coding (IDNC) were considered separately and were thought to completely act against each other. Recently, some works aimed to balance the effects of these two important IDNC metrics but none of them studied a further optimization of one by controlling the other. In this paper, we study the effect of controlling the decoding delay to reduce the completion time below its currently best known solution. We first derive the decoding-delay-dependent expressions of the users\\' and their overall completion times. Although using such expressions to find the optimal overall completion time is NP-hard, we use a heuristic that minimizes the probability of increasing the maximum of these decoding-delay-dependent completion time expressions after each transmission through a layered control of their decoding delays. Simulation results show that this new algorithm achieves both a lower mean completion time and mean decoding delay compared to the best known heuristic for completion time reduction. The gap in performance becomes significant for harsh erasure scenarios.

  2. On Channel Estimation for Analog Network Coding in a Frequency-Selective Fading Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sjödin Tomas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, broadband analog network coding (ANC was introduced for high-speed transmission over the wireless (frequency-selective fading channel. However, ANC requires the knowledge of channel state information (CSI for self-information removal and coherent signal detection. In ANC, the users' pilot signals interfere during the first slot, which renders the relay unable to estimate CSIs of different users, and, consequently, four time-slot pilot-assisted channel estimation (CE is required to avoid interference. Naturally, this will reduce the capacity of ANC scheme. In this paper, we theoretically analyze the bit error rate (BER performance of bi-directional broadband ANC communication based on orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM radio access. We also theoretically analyze the performance of the channel estimator's mean square error (MSE. The analysis is based on the assumption of perfect timing and frequency synchronization. The achievable BER performance and the estimator's MSE for broadband ANC is evaluated by numerical and computer simulation. We discuss how, and by how much, the imperfect knowledge of CSI affects the BER performance of broadband ANC. It is shown that the CE scheme achieves a slightly higher BER in comparison with ideal CE case for a low and moderate mobile terminal speed in a frequency-selective fading channel.

  3. Delay reduction in persistent erasure channels for generalized instantly decodable network coding

    KAUST Repository

    Sorour, Sameh

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, we consider the problem of minimizing the decoding delay of generalized instantly decodable network coding (G-IDNC) in persistent erasure channels (PECs). By persistent erasure channels, we mean erasure channels with memory, which are modeled as a Gilbert-Elliott two-state Markov model with good and bad channel states. In this scenario, the channel erasure dependence, represented by the transition probabilities of this channel model, is an important factor that could be exploited to reduce the decoding delay. We first formulate the G-IDNC minimum decoding delay problem in PECs as a maximum weight clique problem over the G-IDNC graph. Since finding the optimal solution of this formulation is NP-hard, we propose two heuristic algorithms to solve it and compare them using extensive simulations. Simulation results show that each of these heuristics outperforms the other in certain ranges of channel memory levels. They also show that the proposed heuristics significantly outperform both the optimal strict IDNC in the literature and the channel-unaware G-IDNC algorithms. © 2013 IEEE.

  4. Delay Reduction for Instantly Decodable Network Coding in Persistent Channels With Feedback Imperfections

    KAUST Repository

    Douik, Ahmed S.

    2015-11-05

    This paper considers the multicast decoding delay reduction problem for generalized instantly decodable network coding (G-IDNC) over persistent erasure channels with feedback imperfections. The feedback scenario discussed is the most general situation in which the sender does not always receive acknowledgments from the receivers after each transmission and the feedback communications are subject to loss. The decoding delay increment expressions are derived and employed to express the decoding delay reduction problem as a maximum weight clique problem in the G-IDNC graph. This paper provides a theoretical analysis of the expected decoding delay increase at each time instant. Problem formulations in simpler channel and feedback models are shown to be special cases of the proposed generalized formulation. Since finding the optimal solution to the problem is known to be NP-hard, a suboptimal greedy algorithm is designed and compared with blind approaches proposed in the literature. Through extensive simulations, the proposed algorithm is shown to outperform the blind methods in all situations and to achieve significant improvement, particularly for high time-correlated channels.

  5. A lossy graph model for delay reduction in generalized instantly decodable network coding

    KAUST Repository

    Douik, Ahmed S.

    2014-06-01

    The problem of minimizing the decoding delay in Generalized instantly decodable network coding (G-IDNC) for both perfect and lossy feedback scenarios is formulated as a maximum weight clique problem over the G-IDNC graph in. In this letter, we introduce a new lossy G-IDNC graph (LG-IDNC) model to further minimize the decoding delay in lossy feedback scenarios. Whereas the G-IDNC graph represents only doubtless combinable packets, the LG-IDNC graph represents also uncertain packet combinations, arising from lossy feedback events, when the expected decoding delay of XORing them among themselves or with other certain packets is lower than that expected when sending these packets separately. We compare the decoding delay performance of LG-IDNC and G-IDNC graphs through extensive simulations. Numerical results show that our new LG-IDNC graph formulation outperforms the G-IDNC graph formulation in all lossy feedback situations and achieves significant improvement in the decoding delay especially when the feedback erasure probability is higher than the packet erasure probability. © 2012 IEEE.

  6. Basset: learning the regulatory code of the accessible genome with deep convolutional neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, David R; Snoek, Jasper; Rinn, John L

    2016-07-01

    The complex language of eukaryotic gene expression remains incompletely understood. Despite the importance suggested by many noncoding variants statistically associated with human disease, nearly all such variants have unknown mechanisms. Here, we address this challenge using an approach based on a recent machine learning advance-deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs). We introduce the open source package Basset to apply CNNs to learn the functional activity of DNA sequences from genomics data. We trained Basset on a compendium of accessible genomic sites mapped in 164 cell types by DNase-seq, and demonstrate greater predictive accuracy than previous methods. Basset predictions for the change in accessibility between variant alleles were far greater for Genome-wide association study (GWAS) SNPs that are likely to be causal relative to nearby SNPs in linkage disequilibrium with them. With Basset, a researcher can perform a single sequencing assay in their cell type of interest and simultaneously learn that cell's chromatin accessibility code and annotate every mutation in the genome with its influence on present accessibility and latent potential for accessibility. Thus, Basset offers a powerful computational approach to annotate and interpret the noncoding genome. © 2016 Kelley et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  7. An analytical model for perpetual network codes in packet erasure channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pahlevani, Peyman; Crisostomo, Sergio; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani

    2016-01-01

    Perpetual codes provide a sparse, but structured coding for fast encoding and decoding. In this work, we illustrate that perpetual codes introduce linear dependent packet transmissions in the presence of an erasure channel. We demonstrate that the number of linear dependent packet transmissions i...

  8. On the Packet Loss Correlation in Wireless Mesh Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pahlevani, Peyman; Cabrera Guerrero, Juan Alberto; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani

    2014-01-01

    /or multi-path routing approaches as well as network coding (NC) subgraph selection problems (routing in NC). This paper proposes simple channel models to incorporate the effect of correlation between receivers in a parametric fashion and supports them with a measurement campaign that leverages various......State-of-the-art analysis and protocols in wireless mesh networks typically assume an independent packet loss channel for each receiver of a transmission. Although this is usually transparent for single-path protocol design, this assumption may severely degrade the performance of opportunistic and...

  9. Differential Service in a Bidirectional Radio-over-Fiber System over a Spectral-Amplitude-Coding OCDMA Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Chin Yang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A new scheme of radio-over-fiber (RoF network based on spectral-amplitude-coding (SAC optical code division multiple access (OCDMA is herein proposed. Differential service is provided by a power control scheme that classifies users into several classes and assigns each of them with a specific power level. Additionally, the wavelength reuse technique is adapted to support bidirectional transmission and reduce base station (BS cost. Both simulation and numerical results show that significantly differential quality-of-service (QoS in bit-error rate (BER is achieved in both downlink and uplink transmissions.

  10. Optimal Index Codes for a Class of Multicast Networks with Receiver Side Information

    CERN Document Server

    Ong, Lawrence

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies a special class of multicast index coding problems where a sender transmits messages to multiple receivers, each with some side information. Here, each receiver knows a unique message a priori, and there is no restriction on how many messages each receiver requests from the sender. For this class of multicast index coding problems, we obtain the optimal index code, which has the shortest codelength for which the sender needs to send in order for all receivers to obtain their (respective) requested messages. This is the first class of index coding problems where the optimal index codes are found. In addition, linear index codes are shown to be optimal for this class of index coding problems.

  11. Structural studies of n-type nc-Si-QD thin films for nc-Si solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Debajyoti; Kar, Debjit

    2017-12-01

    A wide optical gap nanocrystalline silicon (nc-Si) dielectric material is a basic requirement at the n-type window layer of nc-Si solar cells in thin film n-i-p structure on glass substrates. Taking advantage of the high atomic-H density inherent to the planar inductively coupled low-pressure (SiH4 + CH4)-plasma, development of an analogous material in P-doped nc-Si-QD/a-SiC:H network has been tried. Incorporation of C in the Si-network extracted from the CH4 widens the optical band gap; however, at enhanced PH3-dilution of the plasma spontaneous miniaturization of the nc-Si-QDs below the dimension of Bohr radius (∼4.5 nm) further enhances the band gap by virtue of the quantum size effect. At increased flow rate of PH3, dopant induced continuous amorphization of the intrinsic crystalline network is counterbalanced by the further crystallization promoted by the supplementary atomic-H extracted from PH3 (1% in H2) in the plasma, eventually holding a moderately high degree of crystallinity. The n-type wide band gap (∼1.93 eV) window layer with nc-Si-QDs in adequate volume fraction (∼52%) could furthermore be instrumental as an effective seed layer for advancing sequential crystallization in the i-layer of nc-Si solar cells with n-i-p structure in superstrate configuration.

  12. ORF Alignment: NC_003424 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_003424 gi|19115543 >1unqA 2 108 330 443 2e-04 ... gb|EAK91599.1| potential signalling network... protein [Candida albicans SC5314] ... gb|EAK91583.1| potential signalling network protein

  13. Decoding Delay Controlled Completion Time Reduction in Instantly Decodable Network Coding

    KAUST Repository

    Douik, Ahmed

    2016-06-27

    For several years, the completion time and the decoding delay problems in Instantly Decodable Network Coding (IDNC) were considered separately and were thought to act completely against each other. Recently, some works aimed to balance the effects of these two important IDNC metrics but none of them studied a further optimization of one by controlling the other. This paper investigates the effect of controlling the decoding delay to reduce the completion time below its currently best-known solution in both perfect and imperfect feedback with persistent erasure channels. To solve the problem, the decodingdelay- dependent expressions of the users’ and overall completion times are derived in the complete feedback scenario. Although using such expressions to find the optimal overall completion time is NP-hard, the paper proposes two novel heuristics that minimizes the probability of increasing the maximum of these decoding-delay-dependent completion time expressions after each transmission through a layered control of their decoding delays. Afterward, the paper extends the study to the imperfect feedback scenario in which uncertainties at the sender affects its ability to anticipate accurately the decoding delay increase at each user. The paper formulates the problem in such environment and derives the expression of the minimum increase in the completion time. Simulation results show the performance of the proposed solutions and suggest that both heuristics achieves a lower mean completion time as compared to the best-known heuristics for the completion time reduction in perfect and imperfect feedback. The gap in performance becomes more significant as the erasure of the channel increases.

  14. Neural network river forecasting through baseflow separation and binary-coded swarm optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taormina, Riccardo; Chau, Kwok-Wing; Sivakumar, Bellie

    2015-10-01

    The inclusion of expert knowledge in data-driven streamflow modeling is expected to yield more accurate estimates of river quantities. Modular models (MMs) designed to work on different parts of the hydrograph are preferred ways to implement such approach. Previous studies have suggested that better predictions of total streamflow could be obtained via modular Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) trained to perform an implicit baseflow separation. These MMs fit separately the baseflow and excess flow components as produced by a digital filter, and reconstruct the total flow by adding these two signals at the output. The optimization of the filter parameters and ANN architectures is carried out through global search techniques. Despite the favorable premises, the real effectiveness of such MMs has been tested only on a few case studies, and the quality of the baseflow separation they perform has never been thoroughly assessed. In this work, we compare the performance of MM against global models (GMs) for nine different gaging stations in the northern United States. Binary-coded swarm optimization is employed for the identification of filter parameters and model structure, while Extreme Learning Machines, instead of ANN, are used to drastically reduce the large computational times required to perform the experiments. The results show that there is no evidence that MM outperform global GM for predicting the total flow. In addition, the baseflow produced by the MM largely underestimates the actual baseflow component expected for most of the considered gages. This occurs because the values of the filter parameters maximizing overall accuracy do not reflect the geological characteristics of the river basins. The results indeed show that setting the filter parameters according to expert knowledge results in accurate baseflow separation but lower accuracy of total flow predictions, suggesting that these two objectives are intrinsically conflicting rather than compatible.

  15. Non-binary coded modulation for FMF-based coherent optical transport networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Changyu

    The Internet has fundamentally changed the way of modern communication. Current trends indicate that high-capacity demands are not going to be saturated anytime soon. From Shannon's theory, we know that information capacity is a logarithmic function of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), but a linear function of the number of dimensions. Ideally, we can increase the capacity by increasing the launch power, however, due to the nonlinear characteristics of silica optical fibers that imposes a constraint on the maximum achievable optical-signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR). So there exists a nonlinear capacity limit on the standard single mode fiber (SSMF). In order to satisfy never ending capacity demands, there are several attempts to employ additional degrees of freedom in transmission system, such as few-mode fibers (FMFs), which can dramatically improve the spectral efficiency. On the other hand, for the given physical links and network equipment, an effective solution to relax the OSNR requirement is based on forward error correction (FEC), as the response to the demands of high speed reliable transmission. In this dissertation, we first discuss the model of FMF with nonlinear effects considered. Secondly, we simulate the FMF based OFDM system with various compensation and modulation schemes. Thirdly, we propose tandem-turbo-product nonbinary byte-interleaved coded modulation (BICM) for next-generation high-speed optical transmission systems. Fourthly, we study the Q factor and mutual information as threshold in BICM scheme. Lastly, an experimental study of the limits of nonlinearity compensation with digital signal processing has been conducted.

  16. Improvement of signal to noise ratio of time domain mutliplexing fiber Bragg grating sensor network with Golay complementary codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgaud, M. M.; Zan, M. S. D.; Abushagur, A. G.; Bakar, A. Ashrif A.

    2017-07-01

    This paper reports the employment of autocorrelation properties of Golay complementary codes (GCC) to enhance the performance of the time domain multiplexing fiber Bragg grating (TDM-FBG) sensing network. By encoding the light from laser with a stream of non-return-to-zero (NRZ) form of GCC and launching it into the sensing area that consists of the FBG sensors, we have found that the FBG signals can be decoded correctly with the autocorrelation calculations, confirming the successful demonstration of coded TDM-FBG sensor network. OptiGrating and OptiSystem simulators were used to design customized FBG sensors and perform the coded TDM-FBG sensor simulations, respectively. Results have substantiated the theoretical dependence of SNR enhancement on the code length of GCC, where the maximum SNR improvement of about 9 dB is achievable with the use of 256 bits of GCC compared to that of 4 bits case. Furthermore, the GCC has also extended the strain exposure up to 30% higher compared to the maximum of the conventional single pulse case. The employment of GCC in the TDM-FBG sensor system provides overall performance enhancement over the conventional single pulse case, under the same conditions.

  17. Initial code exchange for asynchronous TR-UWB ad hoc networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Djapic, R.; Shi, N.; Leus, G.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we present an initial code exchange scheme for a transmit-reference ultra wide-band (TR-UWB) system. We exploit the facts that a TR-UWB transceiver scheme allows for simultaneous transmission and reception as well as detection and separation of distinct users with the same code even if

  18. Adaptive Ranging Code Allocation Scheme in IEEE 802.16 Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chu Kuo-Chih

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available IEEE 802.16 uses the code division multiple access (CDMA method as the channel access method to decrease the collision probability of data delivery. However, IEEE 802.16 does not regulate a ranging code allocation scheme in its specification. In this paper, we propose the adaptive ranging code allocation (ARCA scheme, a novel ranging code allocation scheme for IEEE 802.16. According to the traffic sent to the base station (BS from the mobile station (MS, the ARCA scheme not only forecasts the traffic quantity of the MS but also finds the optimal ranging code allocation value for the MS to improve the transmission success rate next time. The ARCA scheme is verified with simulation and compared with other schemes in performance differences. According to the simulation results, the ARCA scheme is proved to have better performance than other schemes.

  19. An Approximation of the Error Backpropagation Algorithm in a Predictive Coding Network with Local Hebbian Synaptic Plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittington, James C R; Bogacz, Rafal

    2017-05-01

    To efficiently learn from feedback, cortical networks need to update synaptic weights on multiple levels of cortical hierarchy. An effective and well-known algorithm for computing such changes in synaptic weights is the error backpropagation algorithm. However, in this algorithm, the change in synaptic weights is a complex function of weights and activities of neurons not directly connected with the synapse being modified, whereas the changes in biological synapses are determined only by the activity of presynaptic and postsynaptic neurons. Several models have been proposed that approximate the backpropagation algorithm with local synaptic plasticity, but these models require complex external control over the network or relatively complex plasticity rules. Here we show that a network developed in the predictive coding framework can efficiently perform supervised learning fully autonomously, employing only simple local Hebbian plasticity. Furthermore, for certain parameters, the weight change in the predictive coding model converges to that of the backpropagation algorithm. This suggests that it is possible for cortical networks with simple Hebbian synaptic plasticity to implement efficient learning algorithms in which synapses in areas on multiple levels of hierarchy are modified to minimize the error on the output.

  20. Application for pinch design of heat exchanger networks by use of a computer code employing an improved problem algorithm table

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozkan, Semra; Dincer, Salih [Department of Chemical Engineering, Chemical-Metallurgical Faculty, Yildiz Technical University, Davutpasa Kampusu, No 127, 34210 Esenler, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2001-12-01

    In this work, the methods used in pinch design were applied to a heat exchanger network with the aid of an improved problem algorithm table. This table enables one to compose composite and grand composite curves in a simplified way. A user friendly computer code entitled DarboTEK, compiled by using Visual Basic 3.0, was developed for the design of integrated heat exchanger networks and estimation of related capital costs. Based on the data obtained from the TUPRAS petroleum refinery at Izmit, a retrofit design of heat exchanger networks was accomplished using DarboTEK. An investment of 3,576,627 dollars is needed which will be paid back in 1.69 years simply by energy conservation due to heat integration. (Author)

  1. Classification of ncRNAs using position and size information in deep sequencing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erhard, Florian; Zimmer, Ralf

    2010-09-15

    Small non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) play important roles in various cellular functions in all clades of life. With next-generation sequencing techniques, it has become possible to study ncRNAs in a high-throughput manner and by using specialized algorithms ncRNA classes such as miRNAs can be detected in deep sequencing data. Typically, such methods are targeted to a certain class of ncRNA. Many methods rely on RNA secondary structure prediction, which is not always accurate and not all ncRNA classes are characterized by a common secondary structure. Unbiased classification methods for ncRNAs could be important to improve accuracy and to detect new ncRNA classes in sequencing data. Here, we present a scoring system called ALPS (alignment of pattern matrices score) that only uses primary information from a deep sequencing experiment, i.e. the relative positions and lengths of reads, to classify ncRNAs. ALPS makes no further assumptions, e.g. about common structural properties in the ncRNA class and is nevertheless able to identify ncRNA classes with high accuracy. Since ALPS is not designed to recognize a certain class of ncRNA, it can be used to detect novel ncRNA classes, as long as these unknown ncRNAs have a characteristic pattern of deep sequencing read lengths and positions. We evaluate our scoring system on publicly available deep sequencing data and show that it is able to classify known ncRNAs with high sensitivity and specificity. Calculated pattern matrices of the datasets hESC and EB are available at the project web site http://www.bio.ifi.lmu.de/ALPS. An implementation of the described method is available upon request from the authors. florian.erhard@bio.ifi.lmu.de

  2. Codes for a priority queue on a parallel data bus. [Deep Space Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallis, D. E.; Taylor, H.

    1979-01-01

    Some codes for arbitration of priorities among subsystem computers or peripheral device controllers connected to a parallel data bus are described. At arbitration time, several subsystems present wire-OR, parallel code words to the bus, and the central computer can identify the subsystem of highest priority and determine which of two or more transmission services the subsystem requires. A mathematical discussion of the optimality of the codes with regard to the number of subsystems that may participate in the scheme for a given number of wires is presented along with the number of services that each subsystem may request.

  3. Joint NC-ARQ and AMC for QoS-Guaranteed Mobile Multicast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Haibo; Schwefel, Hans-Peter; Chu, Xiaoli

    2010-01-01

    In mobile multicast transmissions, the receiver with the worst instantaneous channel condition limits the transmission data rate under the desired Quality-of-Service (QoS) constraints. If Automatic Repeat reQuest (ARQ) schemes are applied, the selection of Adaptive Modulation and Coding (AMC) mode...... will not necessarily be limited by the worst channel anymore, and improved spectral efficiency may be obtained in the efficiency-reliability tradeoff. In this paper, we first propose a Network-Coding-based ARQ (NC-ARQ) scheme in its optimal form and suboptimal form (denoted as Opt-ARQ and SubOpt-ARQ, resp.) to solve...... the scalability problem of applying ARQ in multicast. Then we propose two joint NC-ARQ-AMC schemes, namely, the Average PER-based AMC (AvgPER-AMC) with Opt-ARQ and AvgPER-AMC with SubOpt-ARQ in a cross-layer design framework to maximize the average spectral efficiency per receiver under specific QoS constraints...

  4. MATIN: a random network coding based framework for high quality peer-to-peer live video streaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barekatain, Behrang; Khezrimotlagh, Dariush; Aizaini Maarof, Mohd; Ghaeini, Hamid Reza; Salleh, Shaharuddin; Quintana, Alfonso Ariza; Akbari, Behzad; Cabrera, Alicia Triviño

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, Random Network Coding (RNC) has emerged as a promising solution for efficient Peer-to-Peer (P2P) video multicasting over the Internet. This probably refers to this fact that RNC noticeably increases the error resiliency and throughput of the network. However, high transmission overhead arising from sending large coefficients vector as header has been the most important challenge of the RNC. Moreover, due to employing the Gauss-Jordan elimination method, considerable computational complexity can be imposed on peers in decoding the encoded blocks and checking linear dependency among the coefficients vectors. In order to address these challenges, this study introduces MATIN which is a random network coding based framework for efficient P2P video streaming. The MATIN includes a novel coefficients matrix generation method so that there is no linear dependency in the generated coefficients matrix. Using the proposed framework, each peer encapsulates one instead of n coefficients entries into the generated encoded packet which results in very low transmission overhead. It is also possible to obtain the inverted coefficients matrix using a bit number of simple arithmetic operations. In this regard, peers sustain very low computational complexities. As a result, the MATIN permits random network coding to be more efficient in P2P video streaming systems. The results obtained from simulation using OMNET++ show that it substantially outperforms the RNC which uses the Gauss-Jordan elimination method by providing better video quality on peers in terms of the four important performance metrics including video distortion, dependency distortion, End-to-End delay and Initial Startup delay.

  5. An Efficient Network Coding-Based Fault-Tolerant Mechanism in WBAN for Smart Healthcare Monitoring Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhuai Peng

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available As a key technology in smart healthcare monitoring systems, wireless body area networks (WBANs can pre-embed sensors and sinks on body surface or inside bodies for collecting different vital signs parameters, such as human Electrocardiograph (ECG, Electroencephalograph (EEG, Electromyogram (EMG, body temperature, blood pressure, blood sugar, blood oxygen, etc. Using real-time online healthcare, patients can be tracked and monitored in normal or emergency conditions at their homes, hospital rooms, and in Intensive Care Units (ICUs. In particular, the reliability and effectiveness of the packets transmission will be directly related to the timely rescue of critically ill patients with life-threatening injuries. However, traditional fault-tolerant schemes either have the deficiency of underutilised resources or react too slowly to failures. In future healthcare systems, the medical Internet of Things (IoT for real-time monitoring can integrate sensor networks, cloud computing, and big data techniques to address these problems. It can collect and send patient’s vital parameter signal and safety monitoring information to intelligent terminals and enhance transmission reliability and efficiency. Therefore, this paper presents a design in healthcare monitoring systems for a proactive reliable data transmission mechanism with resilience requirements in a many-to-one stream model. This Network Coding-based Fault-tolerant Mechanism (NCFM first proposes a greedy grouping algorithm to divide the topology into small logical units; it then constructs a spanning tree based on random linear network coding to generate linearly independent coding combinations. Numerical results indicate that this transmission scheme works better than traditional methods in reducing the probability of packet loss, the resource redundant rate, and average delay, and can increase the effective throughput rate.

  6. MATIN: a random network coding based framework for high quality peer-to-peer live video streaming.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrang Barekatain

    Full Text Available In recent years, Random Network Coding (RNC has emerged as a promising solution for efficient Peer-to-Peer (P2P video multicasting over the Internet. This probably refers to this fact that RNC noticeably increases the error resiliency and throughput of the network. However, high transmission overhead arising from sending large coefficients vector as header has been the most important challenge of the RNC. Moreover, due to employing the Gauss-Jordan elimination method, considerable computational complexity can be imposed on peers in decoding the encoded blocks and checking linear dependency among the coefficients vectors. In order to address these challenges, this study introduces MATIN which is a random network coding based framework for efficient P2P video streaming. The MATIN includes a novel coefficients matrix generation method so that there is no linear dependency in the generated coefficients matrix. Using the proposed framework, each peer encapsulates one instead of n coefficients entries into the generated encoded packet which results in very low transmission overhead. It is also possible to obtain the inverted coefficients matrix using a bit number of simple arithmetic operations. In this regard, peers sustain very low computational complexities. As a result, the MATIN permits random network coding to be more efficient in P2P video streaming systems. The results obtained from simulation using OMNET++ show that it substantially outperforms the RNC which uses the Gauss-Jordan elimination method by providing better video quality on peers in terms of the four important performance metrics including video distortion, dependency distortion, End-to-End delay and Initial Startup delay.

  7. Turbo codes for multi-hop wireless sensor networks with decode-and-forward mechanism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Abughalieh, Nashat; Steenhaut, Kris; Nowé, Ann; Anpalagan, Alagan

    2014-01-01

    .... Error correcting codes (ECCs) can be used to reduce number of retransmissions, but most ECCs have complex decoding algorithms, which leads to high processing energy consumption at the receiving nodes in the WSN...

  8. Data-driven inference of network connectivity for modeling the dynamics of neural codes in the insect antennal lobe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eli eShlizerman

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The antennal lobe (AL, olfactory processing center in insects, is able to process stimuli into distinct neural activity patterns, called olfactory neural codes. To model their dynamics we perform multichannel recordings from the projection neurons in the AL driven by different odorants. We then derive a dynamic neuronal network from the electrophysiological data. The network consists of lateral-inhibitory neurons and excitatory neurons (modeled as firing-rate units, and is capable of producing unique olfactory neural codes for the tested odorants. To construct the network, we (i design a projection, an odor space, for the neural recording from the AL, which discriminates between distinct odorants trajectories (ii characterize scent recognition, i.e., decision-making based on olfactory signals and (iii infer the wiring of the neural circuit, the connectome of the AL. We show that the constructed model is consistent with biological observations, such as contrast enhancement and robustness to noise. The study suggests a data-driven approach to answer a key biological question in identifying how lateral inhibitory neurons can be wired to excitatory neurons to permit robust activity patterns.

  9. Data-driven inference of network connectivity for modeling the dynamics of neural codes in the insect antennal lobe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shlizerman, Eli; Riffell, Jeffrey A; Kutz, J Nathan

    2014-01-01

    The antennal lobe (AL), olfactory processing center in insects, is able to process stimuli into distinct neural activity patterns, called olfactory neural codes. To model their dynamics we perform multichannel recordings from the projection neurons in the AL driven by different odorants. We then derive a dynamic neuronal network from the electrophysiological data. The network consists of lateral-inhibitory neurons and excitatory neurons (modeled as firing-rate units), and is capable of producing unique olfactory neural codes for the tested odorants. To construct the network, we (1) design a projection, an odor space, for the neural recording from the AL, which discriminates between distinct odorants trajectories (2) characterize scent recognition, i.e., decision-making based on olfactory signals and (3) infer the wiring of the neural circuit, the connectome of the AL. We show that the constructed model is consistent with biological observations, such as contrast enhancement and robustness to noise. The study suggests a data-driven approach to answer a key biological question in identifying how lateral inhibitory neurons can be wired to excitatory neurons to permit robust activity patterns.

  10. Neural network-based brain tissue segmentation in MR images using extracted features from intraframe coding in H.264

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, Mehdi; Kasaei, Shohreh

    2012-01-01

    Automatic brain tissue segmentation is a crucial task in diagnosis and treatment of medical images. This paper presents a new algorithm to segment different brain tissues, such as white matter (WM), gray matter (GM), cerebral spinal fluid (CSF), background (BKG), and tumor tissues. The proposed technique uses the modified intraframe coding yielded from H.264/(AVC), for feature extraction. Extracted features are then imposed to an artificial back propagation neural network (BPN) classifier to assign each block to its appropriate class. Since the newest coding standard, H.264/AVC, has the highest compression ratio, it decreases the dimension of extracted features and thus yields to a more accurate classifier with low computational complexity. The performance of the BPN classifier is evaluated using the classification accuracy and computational complexity terms. The results show that the proposed technique is more robust and effective with low computational complexity compared to other recent works.

  11. LEARNING ALGORITHM EFFECT ON MULTILAYER FEED FORWARD ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK PERFORMANCE IN IMAGE CODING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OMER MAHMOUD

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the essential factors that affect the performance of Artificial Neural Networks is the learning algorithm. The performance of Multilayer Feed Forward Artificial Neural Network performance in image compression using different learning algorithms is examined in this paper. Based on Gradient Descent, Conjugate Gradient, Quasi-Newton techniques three different error back propagation algorithms have been developed for use in training two types of neural networks, a single hidden layer network and three hidden layers network. The essence of this study is to investigate the most efficient and effective training methods for use in image compression and its subsequent applications. The obtained results show that the Quasi-Newton based algorithm has better performance as compared to the other two algorithms.

  12. Beyond the Cut Set Bound: Uncertainty Computations in Network Coding with Correlated Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Gohari, Amin Aminzadeh; Jaggi, Sidharth

    2011-01-01

    Cut-set bounds on achievable rates for network communication protocols are not in general tight. In this paper we introduce a new technique for proving converses for the problem of transmission of correlated sources in networks, that results in bounds that are tighter than the corresponding cut-set bounds. The technique works as follows: on one hand we show that if the communication problem is solvable, the uncertainty of certain random variables in the network with respect to imaginary parties that have partial knowledge of the sources must satisfy some constraints that depend on the network architecture. On the other hand, the same uncertainties have to satisfy constraints that only depend on the joint distribution of the sources. Matching these two leads to restrictions on the statistical joint distribution of the sources in communication problems that are solvable over a given network architecture.

  13. Emerging putative associations between non-coding RNAs and protein-coding genes in Neuropathic Pain. Added value from re-using microarray data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Capobianco

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Regeneration of injured nerves is likely occurring in the peripheral nervous system, but not in the central nervous system. Although protein-coding gene expression has been assessed during nerve regeneration, little is currently known about the role of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs. This leaves open questions about the potential effects of ncRNAs at transcriptome level. Due to the limited availability of human neuropathic pain data, we have identified the most comprehensive time-course gene expression profile referred to sciatic nerve injury, and studied in a rat model, using two neuronal tissues, namely dorsal root ganglion (DRG and sciatic nerve (SN. We have developed a methodology to identify differentially expressed bioentities starting from microarray probes, and re-purposing them to annotate ncRNAs, while analyzing the expression profiles of protein-coding genes. The approach is designed to reuse microarray data and perform first profiling and then meta-analysis through three main steps. First, we used contextual analysis to identify what we considered putative or potential protein coding targets for selected ncRNAs. Relevance was therefore assigned to differential expression of neighbor protein-coding genes, with neighborhood defined by a fixed genomic distance from long or antisense ncRNA loci, and of parent genes associated with pseudogenes. Second, connectivity among putative targets was used to build networks, in turn useful to conduct inference at interactomic scale. Last, network paths were annotated to assess relevance to neuropathic pain. We found significant differential expression in long-intergenic ncRNAs (32 lincRNAs in SN, and 8 in DRG, antisense RNA (31 asRNA in SN, and 12 in DRG and pseudogenes (456 in SN, 56 in DRG. In particular, contextual analysis centered on pseudogenes revealed some targets with known association to neurodegeneration and/or neurogenesis processes. While modules of the olfactory receptors were clearly

  14. Predicting CYP2C19 catalytic parameters for enantioselective oxidations using artificial neural networks and a chirality code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Jessica H; Cothren, Steven D; Park, Sun-Ha; Yun, Chul-Ho; Darsey, Jerry A; Miller, Grover P

    2013-07-01

    Cytochromes P450 (CYP for isoforms) play a central role in biological processes especially metabolism of chiral molecules; thus, development of computational methods to predict parameters for chiral reactions is important for advancing this field. In this study, we identified the most optimal artificial neural networks using conformation-independent chirality codes to predict CYP2C19 catalytic parameters for enantioselective reactions. Optimization of the neural networks required identifying the most suitable representation of structure among a diverse array of training substrates, normalizing distribution of the corresponding catalytic parameters (k(cat), K(m), and k(cat)/K(m)), and determining the best topology for networks to make predictions. Among different structural descriptors, the use of partial atomic charges according to the CHelpG scheme and inclusion of hydrogens yielded the most optimal artificial neural networks. Their training also required resolution of poorly distributed output catalytic parameters using a Box-Cox transformation. End point leave-one-out cross correlations of the best neural networks revealed that predictions for individual catalytic parameters (k(cat) and K(m)) were more consistent with experimental values than those for catalytic efficiency (k(cat)/K(m)). Lastly, neural networks predicted correctly enantioselectivity and comparable catalytic parameters measured in this study for previously uncharacterized CYP2C19 substrates, R- and S-propranolol. Taken together, these seminal computational studies for CYP2C19 are the first to predict all catalytic parameters for enantioselective reactions using artificial neural networks and thus provide a foundation for expanding the prediction of cytochrome P450 reactions to chiral drugs, pollutants, and other biologically active compounds. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Throughput, Energy and Overhead of Multicast Device-to-Device Communications with Network Coded Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernandez Marcano, Nestor Javier; Heide, Janus; Lucani Rötter, Daniel Enrique

    2016-01-01

    Cooperation strategies in mobile networks typically rely in short range technologies, like LTE-A Device to Device (D2D) communications, for data exchange between devices forming mobile clouds. These communications provide a better device experience since the clouds offload the network. Nevertheless......, this assumes that the throughput gains and energy savings in multicasting are much larger between devices than the base station to the receivers. However, current mobile networks suffer from many different issues varying the performance in data rates, which calls into question these assumptions. Therefore...

  16. When are network coding based dynamic multi-homing techniques beneficial?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pereira, Carlos; Aguiar, Ana; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani

    2016-01-01

    high resiliency under time-varying channel conditions. This paper seeks to explore the parameter space and identify the operating regions where dynamic coded policies offer most improvement over static ones in terms of energy consumption and channel utilization. We leverage meta-heuristics to find...

  17. Technology Infusion of CodeSonar into the Space Network Ground Segment (RII07)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Markland

    2008-01-01

    The NASA Software Assurance Research Program (in part) performs studies as to the feasibility of technologies for improving the safety, quality, reliability, cost, and performance of NASA software. This study considers the application of commercial automated source code analysis tools to mission critical ground software that is in the operations and sustainment portion of the product lifecycle.

  18. The information coded in the yeast response elements accounts for most of the topological properties of its transcriptional regulation network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duygu Balcan

    Full Text Available The regulation of gene expression in a cell relies to a major extent on transcription factors, proteins which recognize and bind the DNA at specific binding sites (response elements within promoter regions associated with each gene. We present an information theoretic approach to modeling transcriptional regulatory networks, in terms of a simple "sequence-matching" rule and the statistics of the occurrence of binding sequences of given specificity in random promoter regions. The crucial biological input is the distribution of the amount of information coded in these cognate response elements and the length distribution of the promoter regions. We provide an analysis of the transcriptional regulatory network of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which we extract from the available databases, with respect to the degree distributions, clustering coefficient, degree correlations, rich-club coefficient and the k-core structure. We find that these topological features are in remarkable agreement with those predicted by our model, on the basis of the amount of information coded in the interaction between the transcription factors and response elements.

  19. Integer-Linear-Programing Optimization in Scalable Video Multicast with Adaptive Modulation and Coding in Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongyul Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The advancement in wideband wireless network supports real time services such as IPTV and live video streaming. However, because of the sharing nature of the wireless medium, efficient resource allocation has been studied to achieve a high level of acceptability and proliferation of wireless multimedia. Scalable video coding (SVC with adaptive modulation and coding (AMC provides an excellent solution for wireless video streaming. By assigning different modulation and coding schemes (MCSs to video layers, SVC can provide good video quality to users in good channel conditions and also basic video quality to users in bad channel conditions. For optimal resource allocation, a key issue in applying SVC in the wireless multicast service is how to assign MCSs and the time resources to each SVC layer in the heterogeneous channel condition. We formulate this problem with integer linear programming (ILP and provide numerical results to show the performance under 802.16 m environment. The result shows that our methodology enhances the overall system throughput compared to an existing algorithm.

  20. Integer-linear-programing optimization in scalable video multicast with adaptive modulation and coding in wireless networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dongyul; Lee, Chaewoo

    2014-01-01

    The advancement in wideband wireless network supports real time services such as IPTV and live video streaming. However, because of the sharing nature of the wireless medium, efficient resource allocation has been studied to achieve a high level of acceptability and proliferation of wireless multimedia. Scalable video coding (SVC) with adaptive modulation and coding (AMC) provides an excellent solution for wireless video streaming. By assigning different modulation and coding schemes (MCSs) to video layers, SVC can provide good video quality to users in good channel conditions and also basic video quality to users in bad channel conditions. For optimal resource allocation, a key issue in applying SVC in the wireless multicast service is how to assign MCSs and the time resources to each SVC layer in the heterogeneous channel condition. We formulate this problem with integer linear programming (ILP) and provide numerical results to show the performance under 802.16 m environment. The result shows that our methodology enhances the overall system throughput compared to an existing algorithm.

  1. p53-dependent non-coding RNA networks in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blume, C J; Hotz-Wagenblatt, A; Hüllein, J; Sellner, L; Jethwa, A; Stolz, T; Slabicki, M; Lee, K; Sharathchandra, A; Benner, A; Dietrich, S; Oakes, C C; Dreger, P; te Raa, D; Kater, A P; Jauch, A; Merkel, O; Oren, M; Hielscher, T; Zenz, T

    2015-10-01

    Mutations of the tumor suppressor p53 lead to chemotherapy resistance and a dismal prognosis in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Whereas p53 targets are used to identify patient subgroups with impaired p53 function, a comprehensive assessment of non-coding RNA targets of p53 in CLL is missing. We exploited the impaired transcriptional activity of mutant p53 to map out p53 targets in CLL by small RNA sequencing. We describe the landscape of p53-dependent microRNA/non-coding RNA induced in response to DNA damage in CLL. Besides the key p53 target miR-34a, we identify a set of p53-dependent microRNAs (miRNAs; miR-182-5p, miR-7-5p and miR-320c/d). In addition to miRNAs, the long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) nuclear enriched abundant transcript 1 (NEAT1) and long intergenic non-coding RNA p21 (lincRNA-p21) are induced in response to DNA damage in the presence of functional p53 but not in CLL with p53 mutation. Induction of NEAT1 and lincRNA-p21 are closely correlated to the induction of cell death after DNA damage. We used isogenic lymphoma cell line models to prove p53 dependence of NEAT1 and lincRNA-p21. The current work describes the p53-dependent miRNome and identifies lncRNAs NEAT1 and lincRNA-p21 as novel elements of the p53-dependent DNA damage response machinery in CLL and lymphoma.

  2. Analysing Renewable Energy Source Impacts on Power System National Network Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgiana Balaban

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the impact on renewable energy sources integrated into the Romanian power system on the electrical network operation considering the reduction of electricity consumption with respect to the 1990s. This decrease has led to increased difficulties in integrating the renewable energy sources into the power system (network reinforcements, as well as issues concerning the balance of production/consumption. Following the excess of certain proportions of the energy mix, intermittent renewable energy sources require the expansion of networks, storage, back-up capacities and efforts for a flexible consumption, in the absence of which renewable energy sources cannot be used or the grid can be overloaded. To highlight the difficulty of connecting some significant capacities installed in wind power plants and photovoltaic installation, the paper presents a case study for Dobrogea area that has the most installed capacity from renewable energy sources in operation.

  3. ETRANS: an energy transport system optimization code for distributed networks of solar collectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnhart, J.S.

    1980-09-01

    The optimization code ETRANS was developed at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory to design and estimate the costs associated with energy transport systems for distributed fields of solar collectors. The code uses frequently cited layouts for dish and trough collectors and optimizes them on a section-by-section basis. The optimal section design is that combination of pipe diameter and insulation thickness that yields the minimum annualized system-resultant cost. Among the quantities included in the costing algorithm are (1) labor and materials costs associated with initial plant construction, (2) operating expenses due to daytime and nighttime heat losses, and (3) operating expenses due to pumping power requirements. Two preliminary series of simulations were conducted to exercise the code. The results indicate that transport system costs for both dish and trough collector fields increase with field size and receiver exit temperature. Furthermore, dish collector transport systems were found to be much more expensive to build and operate than trough transport systems. ETRANS itself is stable and fast-running and shows promise of being a highly effective tool for the analysis of distributed solar thermal systems.

  4. Achievable Rates of Cognitive Radio Networks Using Multi-Layer Coding with Limited CSI

    KAUST Repository

    Sboui, Lokman

    2016-03-01

    In a Cognitive Radio (CR) framework, the channel state information (CSI) feedback to the secondary transmitter (SU Tx) can be limited or unavailable. Thus, the statistical model is adopted in order to determine the system performance using the outage concept. In this paper, we adopt a new approach using multi-layer-coding (MLC) strategy, i.e., broadcast approach, to enhance spectrum sharing over fading channels. First, we consider a scenario where the secondary transmitter has no CSI of both the link between SU Tx and the primary receiver (cross-link) and its own link. We show that using MLC improves the cognitive rate compared to the rate provided by a singlelayer- coding (SLC). In addition, we observe numerically that 2-Layer coding achieves most of the gain for Rayleigh fading. Second, we analyze a scenario where SU Tx is provided by partial CSI about its link through quantized CSI. We compute its achievable rate adopting the MLC and highlight the improvement over SLC. Finally, we study the case in which the cross-link is perfect, i.e., a cooperative primary user setting, and compare the performance with the previous cases. We present asymptotic analysis at high power regime and show that the cooperation enhances considerably the cognitive rate at high values of the secondary power budget.

  5. An overview on STEP-NC compliant controller development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, M. A.; Minhat, M.; Jamaludin, Z.

    2017-10-01

    The capabilities of conventional Computer Numerical Control (CNC) machine tools as termination organiser to fabricate high-quality parts promptly, economically and precisely are undeniable. To date, most CNCs follow the programming standard of ISO 6983, also called G & M code. However, in fluctuating shop floor environment, flexibility and interoperability of current CNC system to react dynamically and adaptively are believed still limited. This outdated programming language does not explicitly relate to each other to have control of arbitrary locations other than the motion of the block-by-block. To address this limitation, new standard known as STEP-NC was developed in late 1990s and is formalized as an ISO 14649. It adds intelligence to the CNC in term of interoperability, flexibility, adaptability and openness. This paper presents an overview of the research work that have been done in developing a STEP-NC controller standard and the capabilities of STEP-NC to overcome modern manufacturing demands. Reviews stated that most existing STEP-NC controller prototypes are based on type 1 and type 2 implementation levels. There are still lack of effort being done to develop type 3 and type 4 STEP-NC compliant controller.

  6. Class-Based Fair Code Allocation with Delay Guarantees for OVSF-CDMA and VSF-OFCDM in Next-Generation Cellular Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Challa Narasimha

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel class-based fair code allocation (CFCA protocol to support delay and rate guarantees for real-time flows and to provide fairness for non-real-time flows on the downlink of WCDMA- and VSF-OFCDM-based cellular networks. CFCA not only assigns bandwidth dynamically to different flows but also determines those appropriate OVSF codes whose assignment results in the minimum overhead for code reassignments during dynamic bandwidth allocation. To reduce the overhead of code reassignments, this paper introduces the concept of affinity-mate and enables bandwidth allocation and code placement to interact with each other. A new performance metric, called class-based rate degradation ratio (CRD, is introduced to ensure fairness in providing rate and delay guarantees by measuring the rate degradations of flows based on their traffic types. The simulation results show that code reassignment overhead can be reduced by up to 60% for high network loads. For low network loads, fairness is achieved fully, but for high network loads the average rate requirement is met fairly for 95% of the flows.

  7. Optimal modulation and coding scheme allocation of scalable video multicast over IEEE 802.16e networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsai Chia-Tai

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract With the rapid development of wireless communication technology and the rapid increase in demand for network bandwidth, IEEE 802.16e is an emerging network technique that has been deployed in many metropolises. In addition to the features of high data rate and large coverage, it also enables scalable video multicasting, which is a potentially promising application, over an IEEE 802.16e network. How to optimally assign the modulation and coding scheme (MCS of the scalable video stream for the mobile subscriber stations to improve spectral efficiency and maximize utility is a crucial task. We formulate this MCS assignment problem as an optimization problem, called the total utility maximization problem (TUMP. This article transforms the TUMP into a precedence constraint knapsack problem, which is a NP-complete problem. Then, a branch and bound method, which is based on two dominance rules and a lower bound, is presented to solve the TUMP. The simulation results show that the proposed branch and bound method can find the optimal solution efficiently.

  8. Behavioral analysis of malicious code through network traffic and system call monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grégio, André R. A.; Fernandes Filho, Dario S.; Afonso, Vitor M.; Santos, Rafael D. C.; Jino, Mario; de Geus, Paulo L.

    2011-06-01

    Malicious code (malware) that spreads through the Internet-such as viruses, worms and trojans-is a major threat to information security nowadays and a profitable business for criminals. There are several approaches to analyze malware by monitoring its actions while it is running in a controlled environment, which helps to identify malicious behaviors. In this article we propose a tool to analyze malware behavior in a non-intrusive and effective way, extending the analysis possibilities to cover malware samples that bypass current approaches and also fixes some issues with these approaches.

  9. Cognitive radio networks with orthogonal space-time block coding and multiuser diversity

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Liang

    2013-04-01

    This paper considers a multiuser spectrum sharing (SS) system operating in a Rayleigh fading environment and in which every node is equipped with multiple antennas. The system employs orthogonal space-time block coding at the secondary users. Under such a framework, the average capacity and error performance under a peak interference constraint are first analyzed. For a comparison purpose, an analysis of the transmit antenna selection scheme is also presented. Finally, some selected numerical results are presented to corroborate the proposed analysis. © 1997-2012 IEEE.

  10. On Network Coded Distributed Storage: How to Repair in a Fog of Unreliable Peers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cabrera, Juan A.; Lucani Rötter, Daniel Enrique; Fitzek, Frank H P

    2017-01-01

    This paper focuses on distributed fog storage solutions, where a number of unreliable devices organize themselves in Peer-to-Peer (P2P) networks with the purpose to store reliably their data and that of other devices and/or local users and provide lower delay and higher throughput. Cloud storage...... systems typically rely on expensive infrastructure with centralized control to store, repair and access the data. This approach introduces a large delay for accessing and storing the data driven in part by a high RTT between users and the cloud. These characteristics are at odds with the massive increase...... assume that additional nodes will be available, we focus on an unaddressed problem: performing a repair within the pool of surviving nodes because no new/alternative nodes are available. We provide a mathematical characterization under different storage and network use conditions and develop a practical...

  11. Genomic context analysis reveals dense interaction network between vertebrate ultraconserved non-coding elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrieva, Slavica; Bucher, Philipp

    2012-09-15

    Genomic context analysis, also known as phylogenetic profiling, is widely used to infer functional interactions between proteins but rarely applied to non-coding cis-regulatory DNA elements. We were wondering whether this approach could provide insights about utlraconserved non-coding elements (UCNEs). These elements are organized as large clusters, so-called gene regulatory blocks (GRBs) around key developmental genes. Their molecular functions and the reasons for their high degree of conservation remain enigmatic. In a special setting of genomic context analysis, we analyzed the fate of GRBs after a whole-genome duplication event in five fish genomes. We found that in most cases all UCNEs were retained together as a single block, whereas the corresponding target genes were often retained in two copies, one completely devoid of UCNEs. This 'winner-takes-all' pattern suggests that UCNEs of a GRB function in a highly cooperative manner. We propose that the multitude of interactions between UCNEs is the reason for their extreme sequence conservation. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online and at http://ccg.vital-it.ch/ucne/

  12. Communicating transparancy : a genre network approach : how do corporate governance codes - the SOX and the Tabaksblad Code - affect Dutch cross-listed companies' corporate communication?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laval, S.C.

    2010-01-01

    The financial scandals around 2000 caused the need for changes in the corporate governance systems. The consequence was the establishment of the US Sarbanes-Oxley Act and the Dutch Tabaksblat Code. These corporate governance codes include rules for 'good governance'. The goal of 'good governance' is

  13. Wavelet-based compression with ROI coding support for mobile access to DICOM images over heterogeneous radio networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maglogiannis, Ilias; Doukas, Charalampos; Kormentzas, George; Pliakas, Thomas

    2009-07-01

    Most of the commercial medical image viewers do not provide scalability in image compression and/or region of interest (ROI) encoding/decoding. Furthermore, these viewers do not take into consideration the special requirements and needs of a heterogeneous radio setting that is constituted by different access technologies [e.g., general packet radio services (GPRS)/ universal mobile telecommunications system (UMTS), wireless local area network (WLAN), and digital video broadcasting (DVB-H)]. This paper discusses a medical application that contains a viewer for digital imaging and communications in medicine (DICOM) images as a core module. The proposed application enables scalable wavelet-based compression, retrieval, and decompression of DICOM medical images and also supports ROI coding/decoding. Furthermore, the presented application is appropriate for use by mobile devices activating in heterogeneous radio settings. In this context, performance issues regarding the usage of the proposed application in the case of a prototype heterogeneous system setup are also discussed.

  14. MOBILITY MODELS, MOBILE CODE OFFLOADING, AND P2P NETWORKS OF SMARTPHONES ON THE CLOUD

    OpenAIRE

    KOSTA, SOKOL

    2013-01-01

    It was just a few years ago when I bought my first smartphone. And now, (almost) all of my friends possess at least one of these powerful devices. International Data Corporation (IDC) reports that smartphone sales showed strong growth worldwide in 2011, with 491.4 million units sold – up to 61.3 percent from 2010. Furthermore, IDC predicts that 686 million smartphones will be sold in 2012, 38.4 percent of all handsets shipped. Silently, we are becoming part of a big mobile smartphone network,...

  15. Targeting non-coding RNAs in Plants with the CRISPR-Cas technology is a challenge yet worth accepting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolly eBasak

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs have emerged as versatile master regulator of biological functions in recent years. MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small endogenous ncRNAs of 18-24 nucleotides in length that originates from long self-complementary precursors. Besides their direct involvement in developmental processes, plant miRNAs play key roles in gene regulatory networks and varied biological processes. Alternatively, long ncRNAs (lncRNAs are a large and diverse class of transcribed ncRNAs whose length exceed that of 200 nucleotides. Plant lncRNAs are transcribed by different RNA polymerases, showing diverse structural features. Plant lncRNAs also are important regulators of gene expression in diverse biological processes. There has been a breakthrough in the technology of genome editing, the CRISPR-Cas9 (clustered regulatory interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated protein 9 technology, in the last decade. CRISPR loci are transcribed into ncRNA and eventually form a functional complex with Cas9 and further guide the complex to cleave complementary invading DNA. The CRISPR-Cas technology has been successfully applied in model plants such as Arabidopsis and tobacco and important crops like wheat, maize and rice. However, all these studies are focused on protein coding genes. Information about targeting non-coding genes is scarce. Hitherto, the CRISPR-Cas technology has been exclusively used in vertebrate systems to engineer miRNA/lncRNAs, but it is still relatively unexplored in plants. While briefing miRNAs, lncRNAs and applications of the CRISPR-Cas technology in human and animals, this review essentially elaborates several strategies to overcome the challenges of applying the CRISPR-Cas technology in editing ncRNAs in plants and the future perspective of this field.

  16. Eigen-Direction Alignment Based Physical-Layer Network Coding for MIMO Two-Way Relay Channels

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Tao; Ping, Li; Collings, Iain B; Yuan, Jinhong

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel communication strategy which incorporates physical-layer network coding (PNC) into multiple-input multiple output (MIMO) two-way relay channels (TWRCs). At the heart of the proposed scheme lies a new key technique referred to as eigen-direction alignment (EDA) precoding. The EDA precoding efficiently aligns the two-user's eigen-modes into the same directions. Based on that, we carry out multi-stream PNC over the aligned eigen-modes. We derive an achievable rate of the proposed EDA-PNC scheme, based on nested lattice codes, over a MIMO TWRC. Asymptotic analysis shows that the proposed EDA-PNC scheme approaches the capacity upper bound as the number of user antennas increases towards infinity. For a finite number of user antennas, we formulate the design criterion of the optimal EDA precoder and present solutions. Numerical results show that there is only a marginal gap between the achievable rate of the proposed EDA-PNC scheme and the capacity upper bound of the MIMO TWRC, in ...

  17. Mnemonic networks in the hippocampal formation: from spatial maps to temporal and conceptual codes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milivojevic, Branka; Doeller, Christian F

    2013-11-01

    The hippocampal formation has been associated with a wide variety of functions including spatial navigation and planning, memory encoding and retrieval, relational processing, novelty detection, and imagination. These functions are dissimilar in terms of their behavioral consequences and modality of representation. Consequently, theoretical standpoints have focused on explaining the role of the hippocampal formation in terms of either its spatial or nonspatial functions. Contrary to this dichotomy, we propose that it is essential to look beyond these traditional boundaries between mnemonic and spatial functions and focus instead on the processes that these functions have in common. In this framework, we use electrophysiology data from the spatial domain to predict effects on the systems level, both in spatial and nonspatial domains. We initially outline the results of studies that have used findings from spatial navigation in rodents to predict the patterns of brain activity observable in people who are exploring virtual environments. We discuss how certain properties of space-defining neurons enable space to be represented as a mental map of interconnected locations, which are expressed at multiple spatial scales in separate modules in the hippocampal formation. We then suggest that memories are also organized in networks, characterized by mnemonic and temporal hierarchies. We finish by discussing how virtual-reality techniques can be used to create novel lifelike episodes allowing us to look at episodic memory processes while multivariate analysis tools can be used to explore the organizational structure of mnemonic networks. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  18. Computational Approaches Reveal New Insights into Regulation and Function of Non; coding RNAs and their Targets

    KAUST Repository

    Alam, Tanvir

    2016-11-28

    Regulation and function of protein-coding genes are increasingly well-understood, but no comparable evidence exists for non-coding RNA (ncRNA) genes, which appear to be more numerous than protein-coding genes. We developed a novel machine-learning model to distinguish promoters of long ncRNA (lncRNA) genes from those of protein-coding genes. This represents the first attempt to make this distinction based on properties of the associated gene promoters. From our analyses, several transcription factors (TFs), which are known to be regulated by lncRNAs, also emerged as potential global regulators of lncRNAs, suggesting that lncRNAs and TFs may participate in bidirectional feedback regulatory network. Our results also raise the possibility that, due to the historical dependence on protein-coding gene in defining the chromatin states of active promoters, an adjustment of these chromatin signature profiles to incorporate lncRNAs is warranted in the future. Secondly, we developed a novel method to infer functions for lncRNA and microRNA (miRNA) transcripts based on their transcriptional regulatory networks in 119 tissues and 177 primary cells of human. This method for the first time combines information of cell/tissueVspecific expression of a transcript and the TFs and transcription coVfactors (TcoFs) that control activation of that transcript. Transcripts were annotated using statistically enriched GO terms, pathways and diseases across cells/tissues and associated knowledgebase (FARNA) is developed. FARNA, having the most comprehensive function annotation of considered ncRNAs across the widest spectrum of cells/tissues, has a potential to contribute to our understanding of ncRNA roles and their regulatory mechanisms in human. Thirdly, we developed a novel machine-learning model to identify LD motif (a protein interaction motif) of paxillin, a ncRNA target that is involved in cell motility and cancer metastasis. Our recognition model identified new proteins not

  19. Polarization-multiplexed rate-adaptive non-binary-quasi-cyclic-LDPC-coded multilevel modulation with coherent detection for optical transport networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arabaci, Murat; Djordjevic, Ivan B; Saunders, Ross; Marcoccia, Roberto M

    2010-02-01

    In order to achieve high-speed transmission over optical transport networks (OTNs) and maximize its throughput, we propose using a rate-adaptive polarization-multiplexed coded multilevel modulation with coherent detection based on component non-binary quasi-cyclic (QC) LDPC codes. Compared to prior-art bit-interleaved LDPC-coded modulation (BI-LDPC-CM) scheme, the proposed non-binary LDPC-coded modulation (NB-LDPC-CM) scheme not only reduces latency due to symbol- instead of bit-level processing but also provides either impressive reduction in computational complexity or striking improvements in coding gain depending on the constellation size. As the paper presents, compared to its prior-art binary counterpart, the proposed NB-LDPC-CM scheme addresses the needs of future OTNs, which are achieving the target BER performance and providing maximum possible throughput both over the entire lifetime of the OTN, better.

  20. 78 FR 45909 - Designation for the Amarillo, TX; Cairo, IL; Baton Rouge, LA; Raleigh, NC; and Belmond, IA Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-30

    ... Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration Designation for the Amarillo, TX; Cairo, IL; Baton Rouge, LA; Raleigh, NC; and Belmond, IA Areas AGENCY: Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards... Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration. BILLING CODE 3410-KD-P ...

  1. Decoding the encoding of functional brain networks: An fMRI classification comparison of non-negative matrix factorization (NMF), independent component analysis (ICA), and sparse coding algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jianwen; Douglas, Pamela K; Wu, Ying Nian; Brody, Arthur L; Anderson, Ariana E

    2017-04-15

    Brain networks in fMRI are typically identified using spatial independent component analysis (ICA), yet other mathematical constraints provide alternate biologically-plausible frameworks for generating brain networks. Non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) would suppress negative BOLD signal by enforcing positivity. Spatial sparse coding algorithms (L1 Regularized Learning and K-SVD) would impose local specialization and a discouragement of multitasking, where the total observed activity in a single voxel originates from a restricted number of possible brain networks. The assumptions of independence, positivity, and sparsity to encode task-related brain networks are compared; the resulting brain networks within scan for different constraints are used as basis functions to encode observed functional activity. These encodings are then decoded using machine learning, by using the time series weights to predict within scan whether a subject is viewing a video, listening to an audio cue, or at rest, in 304 fMRI scans from 51 subjects. The sparse coding algorithm of L1 Regularized Learning outperformed 4 variations of ICA (pICA and sparse coding algorithms. Holding constant the effect of the extraction algorithm, encodings using sparser spatial networks (containing more zero-valued voxels) had higher classification accuracy (pICA. Negative BOLD signal may capture task-related activations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. CCS-DTN: clustering and network coding-based efficient routing in social DTNs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhenjing; Ma, Maode; Jin, Zhigang

    2014-12-25

    With the development of mobile Internet, wireless communication via mobile devices has become a hot research topic, which is typically in the form of Delay Tolerant Networks (DTNs). One critical issue in the development of DTNs is routing. Although there is a lot research work addressing routing issues in DTNs, they cannot produce an advanced solution to the comprehensive challenges since only one or two aspects (nodes' movements, clustering, centricity and so on) are considered when the routing problem is handled. In view of these defects in the existing works, we propose a novel solution to address the routing issue in social DTNs. By this solution, mobile nodes are divided into different clusters. The scheme, Spray and Wait, is used for the intra-cluster communication while a new forwarding mechanism is designed for the inter-cluster version. In our solution, the characteristics of nodes and the relation between nodes are fully considered. The simulation results show that our proposed scheme can significantly improve the performance of the routing scheme in social DTNs.

  3. IPMiner: hidden ncRNA-protein interaction sequential pattern mining with stacked autoencoder for accurate computational prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xiaoyong; Fan, Yong-Xian; Yan, Junchi; Shen, Hong-Bin

    2016-08-09

    Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) play crucial roles in many biological processes, such as post-transcription of gene regulation. ncRNAs mainly function through interaction with RNA binding proteins (RBPs). To understand the function of a ncRNA, a fundamental step is to identify which protein is involved into its interaction. Therefore it is promising to computationally predict RBPs, where the major challenge is that the interaction pattern or motif is difficult to be found. In this study, we propose a computational method IPMiner (Interaction Pattern Miner) to predict ncRNA-protein interactions from sequences, which makes use of deep learning and further improves its performance using stacked ensembling. One of the IPMiner's typical merits is that it is able to mine the hidden sequential interaction patterns from sequence composition features of protein and RNA sequences using stacked autoencoder, and then the learned hidden features are fed into random forest models. Finally, stacked ensembling is used to integrate different predictors to further improve the prediction performance. The experimental results indicate that IPMiner achieves superior performance on the tested lncRNA-protein interaction dataset with an accuracy of 0.891, sensitivity of 0.939, specificity of 0.831, precision of 0.945 and Matthews correlation coefficient of 0.784, respectively. We further comprehensively investigate IPMiner on other RNA-protein interaction datasets, which yields better performance than the state-of-the-art methods, and the performance has an increase of over 20 % on some tested benchmarked datasets. In addition, we further apply IPMiner for large-scale prediction of ncRNA-protein network, that achieves promising prediction performance. By integrating deep neural network and stacked ensembling, from simple sequence composition features, IPMiner can automatically learn high-level abstraction features, which had strong discriminant ability for RNA-protein detection. IPMiner achieved

  4. Subband Coding, Wavelet Packet and Prony Analysis of Simulated and Measured Earth Faults on Compensated 10 kV Power Distribution Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Stefan; Nielsen, Hans Ove

    2002-01-01

    This paper deals with the subband coding (wavelet multiresolution analysis) and Wavelet packet signal processing tool on corrected PSCAD/EMTD® simulations and some results of a full scale earth fault experiment carried out on the Petersen-Coil compensated 10 kV research/laboratory distribution...... network at Kyndbyvaerket, Denmark. The PSCAD/EMTD® simulation model is equivalent to the research/laboratory network at Kyndbyvaerket, build on 25 corrected cable models and 4 line models in a radial network of approximately 7.4 km length connected to four distribution transformers. The purpose is to show...... fault transients and the Prony estimated exponential damped sinusoids....

  5. Advanced video coding systems

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Wen

    2015-01-01

    This comprehensive and accessible text/reference presents an overview of the state of the art in video coding technology. Specifically, the book introduces the tools of the AVS2 standard, describing how AVS2 can help to achieve a significant improvement in coding efficiency for future video networks and applications by incorporating smarter coding tools such as scene video coding. Topics and features: introduces the basic concepts in video coding, and presents a short history of video coding technology and standards; reviews the coding framework, main coding tools, and syntax structure of AV

  6. Structured non-coding RNAs and the RNP Renaissance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogg, J. Robert; Collins, Kathleen

    2009-01-01

    Summary Non-protein-coding (nc) RNAs are diverse in their modes of synthesis, processing, assembly, and function. The inventory of transcripts known or suspected to serve their biological roles as RNA has increased dramatically in recent years. Although studies of ncRNA function are only beginning to match the pace of ncRNA discovery, some principles are emerging. Here we focus on a framework for understanding functions of ncRNAs that have evolved in a protein-rich cellular environment, as distinct from ncRNAs that arose originally in the ancestral RNA World. The folding and function of ncRNAs in the context of ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes provide myriad opportunities for ncRNA gain of function, leading to a modern-day RNP Renaissance. PMID:18950732

  7. Group-Orthogonal Code-Division Multiplex: A Physical-Layer Enhancement for IEEE 802.11n Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felip Riera-Palou

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The new standard for wireless local area networks (WLANs, named IEEE 802.11n, has been recently released. This new norm builds upon and remains compatible with the previous WLANs standards IEEE 802.11a/g while it is able to achieve transmission rates of up to 600 Mbps. These increased data rates are mainly a consequence of two important new features: (1 multiple antenna technology at transmission and reception, and (2 optional doubling of the system bandwidth thanks to the availability of an additional 20 MHz band. This paper proposes the use of Group-Orthogonal Code Division Multiplex (GO-CDM as a means to improve the performance of the 802.11n standard by further exploiting the inherent frequency diversity. It is explained why GO-CDM synergistically matches with the two aforementioned new features and the performance gains it can offer under different configurations is illustrated. Furthermore, the effects that group-orthogonal has on key implementation issues such as channel estimation, carrier frequency offset, and peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR are also considered.

  8. Dysregulated A to I RNA editing and non-coding RNAs in neurodegeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Minati

    2012-01-01

    RNA editing is an alteration in the primary nucleotide sequences resulting from a chemical change in the base. RNA editing is observed in eukaryotic mRNA, transfer RNA, ribosomal RNA, and non-coding RNAs (ncRNA). The most common RNA editing in the mammalian central nervous system is a base modification, where the adenosine residue is base-modified to inosine (A to I). Studies from ADAR (adenosine deaminase that act on RNA) mutants in Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila, and mice clearly show that the RNA editing process is an absolute requirement for nervous system homeostasis and normal physiology of the animal. Understanding the mechanisms of editing and findings of edited substrates has provided a better knowledge of the phenotype due to defective and hyperactive RNA editing. A to I RNA editing is catalyzed by a family of enzymes knows as ADARs. ADARs modify duplex RNAs and editing of duplex RNAs formed by ncRNAs can impact RNA functions, leading to an altered regulatory gene network. Such altered functions by A to I editing is observed in mRNAs, microRNAs (miRNA) but other editing of small and long ncRNAs (lncRNAs) has yet to be identified. Thus, ncRNA and RNA editing may provide key links between neural development, nervous system function, and neurological diseases. This review includes a summary of seminal findings regarding the impact of ncRNAs on biological and pathological processes, which may be further modified by RNA editing. NcRNAs are non-translated RNAs classified by size and function. Known ncRNAs like miRNAs, smallRNAs (smRNAs), PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs), and lncRNAs play important roles in splicing, DNA methylation, imprinting, and RNA interference. Of note, miRNAs are involved in development and function of the nervous system that is heavily dependent on both RNA editing and the intricate spatiotemporal expression of ncRNAs. This review focuses on the impact of dysregulated A to I editing and ncRNAs in neurodegeneration.

  9. Editing of EIA coded, numerically controlled, machine tool tapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, J. M.

    1975-01-01

    Editing of numerically controlled (N/C) machine tool tapes (8-level paper tape) using an interactive graphic display processor is described. A rapid technique required for correcting production errors in N/C tapes was developed using the interactive text editor on the IMLAC PDS-ID graphic display system and two special programs resident on disk. The correction technique and special programs for processing N/C tapes coded to EIA specifications are discussed.

  10. De Novo Discovery of Structured ncRNA Motifs in Genomic Sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruzzo, Walter L; Gorodkin, Jan

    2014-01-01

    De novo discovery of "motifs" capturing the commonalities among related noncoding ncRNA structured RNAs is among the most difficult problems in computational biology. This chapter outlines the challenges presented by this problem, together with some approaches towards solving them, with an emphas...... on an approach based on the CMfinder CMfinder program as a case study. Applications to genomic screens for novel de novo structured ncRNA ncRNA s, including structured RNA elements in untranslated portions of protein-coding genes, are presented.......De novo discovery of "motifs" capturing the commonalities among related noncoding ncRNA structured RNAs is among the most difficult problems in computational biology. This chapter outlines the challenges presented by this problem, together with some approaches towards solving them, with an emphasis...

  11. Algebraic geometric codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahshahani, M.

    1991-01-01

    The performance characteristics are discussed of certain algebraic geometric codes. Algebraic geometric codes have good minimum distance properties. On many channels they outperform other comparable block codes; therefore, one would expect them eventually to replace some of the block codes used in communications systems. It is suggested that it is unlikely that they will become useful substitutes for the Reed-Solomon codes used by the Deep Space Network in the near future. However, they may be applicable to systems where the signal to noise ratio is sufficiently high so that block codes would be more suitable than convolutional or concatenated codes.

  12. Non-coding RNAs as epigenetic regulator of glioma stem-like cell differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keisuke eKatsushima

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Glioblastomas show heterogeneous histological features. These distinct phenotypic states are thought to be associated with the presence of glioma stem cells (GSCs, which are highly tumorigenic and self-renewing sub-population of tumor cells that have different functional characteristics. Differentiation of GSCs may be regulated by multi-tiered epigenetic mechanisms that orchestrate the expression of thousands of genes. One such regulatory mechanism involves functional non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs, such as microRNAs (miRNAs; a large number of ncRNAs have been identified and shown to regulate the expression of genes associated with cell differentiation programs. Given the roles of miRNAs in cell differentiation, it is possible they are involved in the regulation of gene expression networks in GSCs that are important for the maintenance of the pluripotent state and for directing differentiation. Here, we review recent findings on ncRNAs associated with GSC differentiation and discuss how these ncRNAs contribute to the establishment of tissue heterogeneity during glioblastoma tumor formation.

  13. Computational approaches in detecting non- coding RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunyu; Wei, Leyi; Guo, Maozu; Zou, Quan

    2013-09-01

    The important role of non coding RNAs (ncRNAs) in the cell has made their identification a critical issue in the biological research. However, traditional approaches such as PT-PCR and Northern Blot are costly. With recent progress in bioinformatics and computational prediction technology, the discovery of ncRNAs has become realistically possible. This paper aims to introduce major computational approaches in the identification of ncRNAs, including homologous search, de novo prediction and mining in deep sequencing data. Furthermore, related software tools have been compared and reviewed along with a discussion on future improvements.

  14. Microarray analysis of ncRNA expression patterns in Caenorhabditis elegans after RNAi against snoRNA associated proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skogerbø Geir

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Short non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs perform their cellular functions in ribonucleoprotein (RNP complexes, which are also essential for maintaining the stability of the ncRNAs. Depletion of individual protein components of non-coding ribonucleoprotein (ncRNP particles by RNA interference (RNAi may therefore affect expression levels of the corresponding ncRNA, and depletion of candidate associated proteins may constitute an alternative strategy when investigating ncRNA-protein interactions and ncRNA functions. Therefore, we carried out a pilot study in which the effects of RNAi against protein components of small nucleolar RNPs (snoRNPs in Caenorhabditis elegans were observed on an ncRNA microarray. Results RNAi against individual C. elegans protein components of snoRNPs produced strongly reduced mRNA levels and distinct phenotypes for all targeted proteins. For each type of snoRNP, individual depletion of at least three of the four protein components produced significant (P ≦ 1.2 × 10-5 reductions in the expression levels of the corresponding small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs, whereas the expression levels of other ncRNAs were largely unaffected. The effects of depletion of individual proteins were in accordance with snoRNP structure analyses obtained in other species for all but two of the eight targeted proteins. Variations in snoRNA size, sequence and secondary structure characteristics were not systematically reflected in the affinity for individual protein component of snoRNPs. The data supported the classification of nearly all annotated snoRNAs and suggested the presence of several novel snoRNAs among unclassified short ncRNA transcripts. A number of transcripts containing canonical Sm binding element sequences (Sm Y RNAs also showed reduced expression after depletion of protein components of C/D box snoRNPs, whereas the expression of some stem-bulge RNAs (sbRNAs was increased after depletion of the same proteins. Conclusion

  15. An FPGA design of generalized low-density parity-check codes for rate-adaptive optical transport networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Ding; Djordjevic, Ivan B.

    2016-02-01

    Forward error correction (FEC) is as one of the key technologies enabling the next-generation high-speed fiber optical communications. In this paper, we propose a rate-adaptive scheme using a class of generalized low-density parity-check (GLDPC) codes with a Hamming code as local code. We show that with the proposed unified GLDPC decoder architecture, a variable net coding gains (NCGs) can be achieved with no error floor at BER down to 10-15, making it a viable solution in the next-generation high-speed fiber optical communications.

  16. 33 CFR 80.525 - Cape Lookout, NC to Cape Fear, NC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cape Lookout, NC to Cape Fear, NC... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Fifth District § 80.525 Cape Lookout, NC to Cape Fear... southeast side of the Inlet. (g) Except as provided elsewhere in this section from Cape Lookout to Cape Fear...

  17. Distinguishing protein-coding from non-coding RNAs through support vector machines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinfeng Liu

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available RIKEN's FANTOM project has revealed many previously unknown coding sequences, as well as an unexpected degree of variation in transcripts resulting from alternative promoter usage and splicing. Ever more transcripts that do not code for proteins have been identified by transcriptome studies, in general. Increasing evidence points to the important cellular roles of such non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs. The distinction of protein-coding RNA transcripts from ncRNA transcripts is therefore an important problem in understanding the transcriptome and carrying out its annotation. Very few in silico methods have specifically addressed this problem. Here, we introduce CONC (for "coding or non-coding", a novel method based on support vector machines that classifies transcripts according to features they would have if they were coding for proteins. These features include peptide length, amino acid composition, predicted secondary structure content, predicted percentage of exposed residues, compositional entropy, number of homologs from database searches, and alignment entropy. Nucleotide frequencies are also incorporated into the method. Confirmed coding cDNAs for eukaryotic proteins from the Swiss-Prot database constituted the set of true positives, ncRNAs from RNAdb and NONCODE the true negatives. Ten-fold cross-validation suggested that CONC distinguished coding RNAs from ncRNAs at about 97% specificity and 98% sensitivity. Applied to 102,801 mouse cDNAs from the FANTOM3 dataset, our method reliably identified over 14,000 ncRNAs and estimated the total number of ncRNAs to be about 28,000.

  18. Calculation codes in radiation protection, radiation physics and dosimetry; Codes de calcul en radioprotection, radiophysique et dosimetrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    These scientific days had for objective to draw up the situation of calculation codes of radiation transport, of sources estimation, of radiation doses managements and to draw the future perspectives. (N.C.)

  19. Development of STEP-NC Adaptor for Advanced Web Manufacturing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajay Konapala, Mr.; Koona, Ramji, Dr.

    2017-08-01

    Information systems play a key role in the modern era of Information Technology. Rapid developments in IT & global competition calls for many changes in basic CAD/CAM/CAPP/CNC manufacturing chain of operations. ‘STEP-NC’ an enhancement to STEP for operating CNC machines, creating new opportunities for collaborative, concurrent, adaptive works across the manufacturing chain of operations. Schemas and data models defined by ISO14649 in liaison with ISO10303 standards made STEP-NC file rich with feature based, rather than mere point to point information of G/M Code format. But one needs to have a suitable information system to understand and modify these files. Various STEP-NC information systems are reviewed to understand the suitability of STEP-NC for web manufacturing. Present work also deals with the development of an adaptor which imports STEP-NC file, organizes its information, allowing modifications to entity values and finally generates a new STEP-NC file to export. The system is designed and developed to work on web to avail additional benefits through the web and also to be part of a proposed ‘Web based STEP-NC manufacturing platform’ which is under development and explained as future scope.

  20. ncRNAclassifier: a tool for detection and classification of transposable element sequences in RNA hairpins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tempel Sébastien

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inverted repeat genes encode precursor RNAs characterized by hairpin structures. These RNA hairpins are then metabolized by biosynthetic pathways to produce functional small RNAs. In eukaryotic genomes, short non-autonomous transposable elements can have similar size and hairpin structures as non-coding precursor RNAs. This resemblance leads to problems annotating small RNAs. Results We mapped all microRNA precursors from miRBASE to several genomes and studied the repetition and dispersion of the corresponding loci. We then searched for repetitive elements overlapping these loci. We developed an automatic method called ncRNAclassifier to classify pre-ncRNAs according to their relationship with transposable elements (TEs. We showed that there is a correlation between the number of scattered occurrences of ncRNA precursor candidates and the presence of TEs. We applied ncRNAclassifier on six chordate genomes and report our findings. Among the 1,426 human and 721 mouse pre-miRNAs of miRBase, we identified 235 and 68 mis-annotated pre-miRNAs respectively corresponding completely to TEs. Conclusions We provide a tool enabling the identification of repetitive elements in precursor ncRNA sequences. ncRNAclassifier is available at http://EvryRNA.ibisc.univ-evry.fr.

  1. Coherent spectral amplitude coded label detection for DQPSK payload signals in packet-switched metropolitan area networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osadchiy, Alexey Vladimirovich; Guerrero Gonzalez, Neil; Jensen, Jesper Bevensee

    2011-01-01

    We report on an experimental demonstration of a frequency swept local oscillator-based spectral amplitude coding (SAC) label detection for DQPSK signals after 40km of fiber transmission. Label detection was performed for a 10.7Gbaud DQPSK signal labeled with a SAC label composed of four-frequency......We report on an experimental demonstration of a frequency swept local oscillator-based spectral amplitude coding (SAC) label detection for DQPSK signals after 40km of fiber transmission. Label detection was performed for a 10.7Gbaud DQPSK signal labeled with a SAC label composed of four...

  2. The materiality of Code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soon, Winnie

    2014-01-01

    , Twitter and Facebook). The focus is not to investigate the functionalities and efficiencies of the code, but to study and interpret the program level of code in order to trace the use of various technological methods such as third-party libraries and platforms’ interfaces. These are important...... to understand the socio-technical side of a changing network environment. Through the study of code, including but not limited to source code, technical specifications and other materials in relation to the artwork production, I would like to explore the materiality of code that goes beyond technical...

  3. EnviroAtlas - Durham, NC - Block Groups

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset is the base layer for the Durham, NC EnviroAtlas Area. The block groups are from the US Census Bureau and are included/excluded based on...

  4. Improving the physical layer security of wireless communication networks using spread spectrum coding and artificial noise approach

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Adedeji, K

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in technologies has led to the use of wireless communication networks for the transmission of information. However, the broadcast nature of wireless channels has made it vulnerable to attacks. In this paper, we present work...

  5. Optical coding theory with Prime

    CERN Document Server

    Kwong, Wing C

    2013-01-01

    Although several books cover the coding theory of wireless communications and the hardware technologies and coding techniques of optical CDMA, no book has been specifically dedicated to optical coding theory-until now. Written by renowned authorities in the field, Optical Coding Theory with Prime gathers together in one volume the fundamentals and developments of optical coding theory, with a focus on families of prime codes, supplemented with several families of non-prime codes. The book also explores potential applications to coding-based optical systems and networks. Learn How to Construct

  6. RNA-CODE: a noncoding RNA classification tool for short reads in NGS data lacking reference genomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Yuan

    Full Text Available The number of transcriptomic sequencing projects of various non-model organisms is still accumulating rapidly. As non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs are highly abundant in living organism and play important roles in many biological processes, identifying fragmentary members of ncRNAs in small RNA-seq data is an important step in post-NGS analysis. However, the state-of-the-art ncRNA search tools are not optimized for next-generation sequencing (NGS data, especially for very short reads. In this work, we propose and implement a comprehensive ncRNA classification tool (RNA-CODE for very short reads. RNA-CODE is specifically designed for ncRNA identification in NGS data that lack quality reference genomes. Given a set of short reads, our tool classifies the reads into different types of ncRNA families. The classification results can be used to quantify the expression levels of different types of ncRNAs in RNA-seq data and ncRNA composition profiles in metagenomic data, respectively. The experimental results of applying RNA-CODE to RNA-seq of Arabidopsis and a metagenomic data set sampled from human guts demonstrate that RNA-CODE competes favorably in both sensitivity and specificity with other tools. The source codes of RNA-CODE can be downloaded at http://www.cse.msu.edu/~chengy/RNA_CODE.

  7. DES-ncRNA: A knowledgebase for exploring information about human micro and long noncoding RNAs based on literature-mining

    KAUST Repository

    Salhi, Adil

    2017-04-07

    Noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs), particularly microRNAs (miRNAs) and long ncRNAs (lncRNAs), are important players in diseases and emerge as novel drug targets. Thus, unraveling the relationships between ncRNAs and other biomedical entities in cells are critical for better understanding ncRNA roles that may eventually help develop their use in medicine. To support ncRNA research and facilitate retrieval of relevant information regarding miRNAs and lncRNAs from the plethora of published ncRNA-related research, we developed DES-ncRNA ( www.cbrc.kaust.edu.sa/des_ncrna ). DES-ncRNA is a knowledgebase containing text- and data-mined information from public scientific literature and other public resources. Exploration of mined information is enabled through terms and pairs of terms from 19 topic-specific dictionaries including, for example, antibiotics, toxins, drugs, enzymes, mutations, pathways, human genes and proteins, drug indications and side effects, mutations, diseases, etc. DES-ncRNA contains approximately 878,000 associations of terms from these dictionaries of which 36,222 (5,373) are with regards to miRNAs (lncRNAs). We provide several ways to explore information regarding ncRNAs to users including controlled generation of association networks as well as hypotheses generation. We show an example how DES-ncRNA can aid research on Alzheimer\\'s disease and suggest potential therapeutic role for Fasudil. DES-ncRNA is a powerful tool that can be used on its own or as a complement to the existing resources, to support research in human ncRNA. To our knowledge, this is the only knowledgebase dedicated to human miRNAs and lncRNAs derived primarily through literature-mining enabling exploration of a broad spectrum of associated biomedical entities, not paralleled by any other resource.

  8. DES-ncRNA: A knowledgebase for exploring information about human micro and long noncoding RNAs based on literature-mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salhi, Adil; Essack, Magbubah; Alam, Tanvir; Bajic, Vladan P; Ma, Lina; Radovanovic, Aleksandar; Marchand, Benoit; Schmeier, Sebastian; Zhang, Zhang; Bajic, Vladimir B

    2017-07-03

    Noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs), particularly microRNAs (miRNAs) and long ncRNAs (lncRNAs), are important players in diseases and emerge as novel drug targets. Thus, unraveling the relationships between ncRNAs and other biomedical entities in cells are critical for better understanding ncRNA roles that may eventually help develop their use in medicine. To support ncRNA research and facilitate retrieval of relevant information regarding miRNAs and lncRNAs from the plethora of published ncRNA-related research, we developed DES-ncRNA ( www.cbrc.kaust.edu.sa/des_ncrna ). DES-ncRNA is a knowledgebase containing text- and data-mined information from public scientific literature and other public resources. Exploration of mined information is enabled through terms and pairs of terms from 19 topic-specific dictionaries including, for example, antibiotics, toxins, drugs, enzymes, mutations, pathways, human genes and proteins, drug indications and side effects, mutations, diseases, etc. DES-ncRNA contains approximately 878,000 associations of terms from these dictionaries of which 36,222 (5,373) are with regards to miRNAs (lncRNAs). We provide several ways to explore information regarding ncRNAs to users including controlled generation of association networks as well as hypotheses generation. We show an example how DES-ncRNA can aid research on Alzheimer disease and suggest potential therapeutic role for Fasudil. DES-ncRNA is a powerful tool that can be used on its own or as a complement to the existing resources, to support research in human ncRNA. To our knowledge, this is the only knowledgebase dedicated to human miRNAs and lncRNAs derived primarily through literature-mining enabling exploration of a broad spectrum of associated biomedical entities, not paralleled by any other resource.

  9. Role of Non-Coding RNAs in the Transgenerational Epigenetic Transmission of the Effects of Reprotoxicants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Larriba

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs are regulatory elements of gene expression and chromatin structure. Both long and small ncRNAs can also act as inductors and targets of epigenetic programs. Epigenetic patterns can be transmitted from one cell to the daughter cell, but, importantly, also through generations. Diversity of ncRNAs is emerging with new and surprising roles. Functional interactions among ncRNAs and between specific ncRNAs and structural elements of the chromatin are drawing a complex landscape. In this scenario, epigenetic changes induced by environmental stressors, including reprotoxicants, can explain some transgenerationally-transmitted phenotypes in non-Mendelian ways. In this review, we analyze mechanisms of action of reprotoxicants upon different types of ncRNAs and epigenetic modifications causing transgenerationally transmitted characters through germ cells but affecting germ cells and reproductive systems. A functional model of epigenetic mechanisms of transgenerational transmission ncRNAs-mediated is also proposed.

  10. Non-coding RNAs: New therapeutic targets and opportunities for hepatocellular carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Cuiyun

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Non-coding RNAs (ncRNA are RNA molecules without protein coding functions owing to the lack of an open reading frame (ORF. Based on the length, ncRNAs can be divided into long and short ncRNAs; short ncRNAs include miRNAs and piRNAs. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is among the most frequent forms of cancer worldwide and its incidence is increasing rapidly. Studies have found that ncRNAs are likely to play a crucial role in a variety of biological processes including the pathogenesis and progression of HCC. In this review, we summarized the regulation mechanism and biological functions of ncRNAs in HCC with respect to its application in HCC diagnosis, therapy and prognosis.

  11. Non-coding RNA prediction and verification in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanaugh, Laura A; Dietrich, Fred S

    2009-01-01

    Non-coding RNA (ncRNA) play an important and varied role in cellular function. A significant amount of research has been devoted to computational prediction of these genes from genomic sequence, but the ability to do so has remained elusive due to a lack of apparent genomic features. In this work, thermodynamic stability of ncRNA structural elements, as summarized in a Z-score, is used to predict ncRNA in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This analysis was coupled with comparative genomics to search for ncRNA genes on chromosome six of S. cerevisiae and S. bayanus. Sets of positive and negative control genes were evaluated to determine the efficacy of thermodynamic stability for discriminating ncRNA from background sequence. The effect of window sizes and step sizes on the sensitivity of ncRNA identification was also explored. Non-coding RNA gene candidates, common to both S. cerevisiae and S. bayanus, were verified using northern blot analysis, rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE), and publicly available cDNA library data. Four ncRNA transcripts are well supported by experimental data (RUF10, RUF11, RUF12, RUF13), while one additional putative ncRNA transcript is well supported but the data are not entirely conclusive. Six candidates appear to be structural elements in 5' or 3' untranslated regions of annotated protein-coding genes. This work shows that thermodynamic stability, coupled with comparative genomics, can be used to predict ncRNA with significant structural elements.

  12. Non-coding RNA prediction and verification in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura A Kavanaugh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-coding RNA (ncRNA play an important and varied role in cellular function. A significant amount of research has been devoted to computational prediction of these genes from genomic sequence, but the ability to do so has remained elusive due to a lack of apparent genomic features. In this work, thermodynamic stability of ncRNA structural elements, as summarized in a Z-score, is used to predict ncRNA in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This analysis was coupled with comparative genomics to search for ncRNA genes on chromosome six of S. cerevisiae and S. bayanus. Sets of positive and negative control genes were evaluated to determine the efficacy of thermodynamic stability for discriminating ncRNA from background sequence. The effect of window sizes and step sizes on the sensitivity of ncRNA identification was also explored. Non-coding RNA gene candidates, common to both S. cerevisiae and S. bayanus, were verified using northern blot analysis, rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE, and publicly available cDNA library data. Four ncRNA transcripts are well supported by experimental data (RUF10, RUF11, RUF12, RUF13, while one additional putative ncRNA transcript is well supported but the data are not entirely conclusive. Six candidates appear to be structural elements in 5' or 3' untranslated regions of annotated protein-coding genes. This work shows that thermodynamic stability, coupled with comparative genomics, can be used to predict ncRNA with significant structural elements.

  13. Turbo-Gallager Codes: The Emergence of an Intelligent Coding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work proposes a blend of the two technologies, yielding a code that we nicknamed Turbo-Gallager or TG Code. The code has additional “intelligence” compared to its parents. It detects and corrects the so-called “undetected errors” and recovers from individual decoder failure by making use of a network of decoders.

  14. Expander chunked codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Bin; Yang, Shenghao; Ye, Baoliu; Yin, Yitong; Lu, Sanglu

    2015-12-01

    Chunked codes are efficient random linear network coding (RLNC) schemes with low computational cost, where the input packets are encoded into small chunks (i.e., subsets of the coded packets). During the network transmission, RLNC is performed within each chunk. In this paper, we first introduce a simple transfer matrix model to characterize the transmission of chunks and derive some basic properties of the model to facilitate the performance analysis. We then focus on the design of overlapped chunked codes, a class of chunked codes whose chunks are non-disjoint subsets of input packets, which are of special interest since they can be encoded with negligible computational cost and in a causal fashion. We propose expander chunked (EC) codes, the first class of overlapped chunked codes that have an analyzable performance, where the construction of the chunks makes use of regular graphs. Numerical and simulation results show that in some practical settings, EC codes can achieve rates within 91 to 97 % of the optimum and outperform the state-of-the-art overlapped chunked codes significantly.

  15. Uplink capacity of multi-class IEEE 802.16j relay networks with adaptive modulation and coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Hua; Xiong, C; Iversen, Villy Bæk

    2009-01-01

    The emerging IEEE 802.16j mobile multi-hop relay (MMR) network is currently being developed to increase the user throughput and extend the service coverage as an enhancement of existing 802.16e standard. In 802.16j, the intermediate relay stations (RSs) help the base station (BS) communicate...... with those mobile stations (MSs) that are either too far away from the BS or placed in an area where direct communication with BS experiences unsatisfactory level of service. In this paper, we investigate the uplink Erlang capacity of a two-hop 802.16j relay system supporting both voice and data traffics...

  16. Feedforward Neural Network for Force Coding of an MRI-Compatible Tactile Sensor Array Based on Fiber Bragg Grating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Saccomandi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This work shows the development and characterization of a fiber optic tactile sensor based on Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG technology. The sensor is a 3 × 3 array of FBGs encapsulated in a PDMS compliant polymer. The strain experienced by each FBG is transduced into a Bragg wavelength shift and the inverse characteristics of the sensor were computed by means of a feedforward neural network. A 21 mN RMSE error was achieved in estimating the force over the 8 N experimented load range while including all probing sites in the neural network training procedure, whereas the median force RMSE was 199 mN across the 200 instances of a Monte Carlo randomized selection of experimental sessions to evaluate the calibration under generalized probing conditions. The static metrological properties and the possibility to fabricate sensors with relatively high spatial resolution make the proposed design attractive for the sensorization of robotic hands. Furthermore, the proved MRI-compatibility of the sensor opens other application scenarios, such as the possibility to employ the array for force measurement during functional MRI-measured brain activation.

  17. Regulation of anti-sense transcription by Mot1p and NC2 via removal of TATA-binding protein (TBP) from the 3'-end of genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koster, Maria J E; Timmers, H Th Marc

    2015-01-01

    The activity and dynamic nature of TATA-binding protein (TBP) crucial to RNA polymerase II-mediated transcription is under control of the Mot1p and NC2 complexes. Here we show that both TBP regulatory factors play 'hidden' roles in ensuring transcription fidelity by restricting anti-sense non-coding RNA (ncRNA) synthesis. Production of anti-sense ncRNA transcripts is suppressed by Mot1p- and NC2-mediated release of TBP from binding sites at the 3'-end of genes. In this, Mot1p and NC2 collaborate with the Nrd1p-Nab3p-Sen1p (NNS) complex that terminates the synthesis of anti-sense ncRNAs. In several cases anti-sense ncRNA expression interferes with expression of the cognate sense transcript. Our data reveal a novel regulatory mechanism to suppress anti-sense ncRNA expression and pre-initiation complex (PIC) formation at spurious sites. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  18. 78 FR 72009 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Star, NC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-02

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Star, NC AGENCY: Federal... at Star, NC, to accommodate a new Area Navigation (RNAV) Global Positioning System (GPS) Standard... Federal Register a notice of proposed rulemaking to establish Class E airspace at Star, NC (78 FR 54413...

  19. The roles of non-coding RNAs in cardiac regenerative medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oi Kuan Choong

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs has challenged the central dogma of molecular biology that dictates that the decryption of genetic information starts from transcription of DNA to RNA, with subsequent translation into a protein. Large numbers of ncRNAs with biological significance have now been identified, suggesting that ncRNAs are important in their own right and their roles extend far beyond what was originally envisaged. ncRNAs do not only regulate gene expression, but are also involved in chromatin architecture and structural conformation. Several studies have pointed out that ncRNAs participate in heart disease; however, the functions of ncRNAs still remain unclear. ncRNAs are involved in cellular fate, differentiation, proliferation and tissue regeneration, hinting at their potential therapeutic applications. Here, we review the current understanding of both the biological functions and molecular mechanisms of ncRNAs in heart disease and describe some of the ncRNAs that have potential heart regeneration effects. Keywords: Non-coding RNAs, Cardiac regeneration, Cardiac fate, Proliferation, Differentiation, Reprograming

  20. Cyclone Codes

    OpenAIRE

    Schindelhauer, Christian; Jakoby, Andreas; Köhler, Sven

    2016-01-01

    We introduce Cyclone codes which are rateless erasure resilient codes. They combine Pair codes with Luby Transform (LT) codes by computing a code symbol from a random set of data symbols using bitwise XOR and cyclic shift operations. The number of data symbols is chosen according to the Robust Soliton distribution. XOR and cyclic shift operations establish a unitary commutative ring if data symbols have a length of $p-1$ bits, for some prime number $p$. We consider the graph given by code sym...

  1. New technologies accelerate the exploration of non-coding RNAs in horticultural plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Degao; Mewalal, Ritesh; Hu, Rongbin; Tuskan, Gerald A.; Yang, Xiaohan

    2017-07-05

    Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), that is, RNAs not translated into proteins, are crucial regulators of a variety of biological processes in plants. While protein-encoding genes have been relatively well-annotated in sequenced genomes, accounting for a small portion of the genome space in plants, the universe of plant ncRNAs is rapidly expanding. Recent advances in experimental and computational technologies have generated a great momentum for discovery and functional characterization of ncRNAs. Here we summarize the classification and known biological functions of plant ncRNAs, review the application of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology and ribosome profiling technology to ncRNA discovery in horticultural plants and discuss the application of new technologies, especially the new genome-editing tool clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9) systems, to functional characterization of plant ncRNAs.

  2. Principles of speech coding

    CERN Document Server

    Ogunfunmi, Tokunbo

    2010-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly apparent that all forms of communication-including voice-will be transmitted through packet-switched networks based on the Internet Protocol (IP). Therefore, the design of modern devices that rely on speech interfaces, such as cell phones and PDAs, requires a complete and up-to-date understanding of the basics of speech coding. Outlines key signal processing algorithms used to mitigate impairments to speech quality in VoIP networksOffering a detailed yet easily accessible introduction to the field, Principles of Speech Coding provides an in-depth examination of the

  3. Coding Partitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Burderi

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Motivated by the study of decipherability conditions for codes weaker than Unique Decipherability (UD, we introduce the notion of coding partition. Such a notion generalizes that of UD code and, for codes that are not UD, allows to recover the ``unique decipherability" at the level of the classes of the partition. By tacking into account the natural order between the partitions, we define the characteristic partition of a code X as the finest coding partition of X. This leads to introduce the canonical decomposition of a code in at most one unambiguouscomponent and other (if any totally ambiguouscomponents. In the case the code is finite, we give an algorithm for computing its canonical partition. This, in particular, allows to decide whether a given partition of a finite code X is a coding partition. This last problem is then approached in the case the code is a rational set. We prove its decidability under the hypothesis that the partition contains a finite number of classes and each class is a rational set. Moreover we conjecture that the canonical partition satisfies such a hypothesis. Finally we consider also some relationships between coding partitions and varieties of codes.

  4. NC10 bacteria in marine oxygen minimum zones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Padilla, Cory C; Bristow, Laura A; Sarode, Neha

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria of the NC10 phylum link anaerobic methane oxidation to nitrite denitrification through a unique O2-producing intra-aerobic methanotrophy pathway. A niche for NC10 in the pelagic ocean has not been confirmed. We show that NC10 bacteria are present and transcriptionally active in oceanic....... rRNA and mRNA transcripts assignable to NC10 peaked within the OMZ and included genes of the putative nitrite-dependent intra-aerobic pathway, with high representation of transcripts containing the unique motif structure of the nitric oxide (NO) reductase of NC10 bacteria, hypothesized...

  5. Expanding the genetic code of Salmonella with non-canonical amino acids

    OpenAIRE

    Qinglei Gan; Lehman, Brent P.; Bobik, Thomas A.; Chenguang Fan

    2016-01-01

    The diversity of non-canonical amino acids (ncAAs) endows proteins with new features for a variety of biological studies and biotechnological applications. The genetic code expansion strategy, which co-translationally incorporates ncAAs into specific sites of target proteins, has been applied in many organisms. However, there have been only few studies on pathogens using genetic code expansion. Here, we introduce this technique into the human pathogen Salmonella by incorporating p-azido-pheny...

  6. Coding Class

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejsing-Duun, Stine; Hansbøl, Mikala

    Sammenfatning af de mest væsentlige pointer fra hovedrapporten: Dokumentation og evaluering af Coding Class......Sammenfatning af de mest væsentlige pointer fra hovedrapporten: Dokumentation og evaluering af Coding Class...

  7. Identification and characterisation of non-coding small RNAs in the pathogenic filamentous fungus Trichophyton rubrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tao; Ren, Xianwen; Xiao, Tengfei; Yang, Jian; Xu, Xingye; Dong, Jie; Sun, Lilian; Chen, Runsheng; Jin, Qi

    2013-12-30

    Accumulating evidence demonstrates that non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) are indispensable components of many organisms and play important roles in cellular events, regulation, and development. Here, we analysed the small non-coding RNA (ncRNA) transcriptome of Trichophyton rubrum by constructing and sequencing a cDNA library from conidia and mycelia. We identified 352 ncRNAs and their corresponding genomic loci. These ncRNA candidates included 198 entirely novel ncRNAs and 154 known ncRNAs classified as snRNAs, snoRNAs and other known ncRNAs. Further bioinformatic analysis detected 96 snoRNAs, including 56 snoRNAs that had been annotated in other organisms and 40 novel snoRNAs. All snoRNAs belonged to two major classes--C/D box snoRNAs and H/ACA snoRNAs--and their potential target sites in rRNAs and snRNAs were predicted. To analyse the evolutionary conservation of the ncRNAs in T. rubrum, we aligned all 352 ncRNAs to the genomes of six dermatophytes and to the NCBI non-redundant nucleotide database (NT). The results showed that most of the identified snRNAs were conserved in dermatophytes. Of the 352 ncRNAs, 102 also had genomic loci in other dermatophytes, and 27 were dermatophyte-specific. Our systematic analysis may provide important clues to the function and evolution of ncRNAs in T. rubrum. These results also provide important information to complement the current annotation of the T. rubrum genome, which primarily comprises protein-coding genes.

  8. code {poems}

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishac Bertran

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available "Exploring the potential of code to communicate at the level of poetry," the code­ {poems} project solicited submissions from code­writers in response to the notion of a poem, written in a software language which is semantically valid. These selections reveal the inner workings, constitutive elements, and styles of both a particular software and its authors.

  9. Hyper conserved elements in vertebrate mRNA 3'-UTRs reveal a translational network of RNA-binding proteins controlled by HuR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dassi, Erik; Zuccotti, Paola; Leo, Sara; Provenzani, Alessandro; Assfalg, Michael; D'Onofrio, Mariapina; Riva, Paola; Quattrone, Alessandro

    2013-03-01

    Little is known regarding the post-transcriptional networks that control gene expression in eukaryotes. Additionally, we still need to understand how these networks evolve, and the relative role played in them by their sequence-dependent regulatory factors, non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) and RNA-binding proteins (RBPs). Here, we used an approach that relied on both phylogenetic sequence sharing and conservation in the whole mapped 3'-untranslated regions (3'-UTRs) of vertebrate species to gain knowledge on core post-transcriptional networks. The identified human hyper conserved elements (HCEs) were predicted to be preferred binding sites for RBPs and not for ncRNAs, namely microRNAs and long ncRNAs. We found that the HCE map identified a well-known network that post-transcriptionally regulates histone mRNAs. We were then able to discover and experimentally confirm a translational network composed of RNA Recognition Motif (RRM)-type RBP mRNAs that are positively controlled by HuR, another RRM-type RBP. HuR shows a preference for these RBP mRNAs bound in stem-loop motifs, confirming its role as a 'regulator of regulators'. Analysis of the transcriptome-wide HCE distribution revealed a profile of prevalently small clusters separated by unconserved intercluster RNA stretches, which predicts the formation of discrete small ribonucleoprotein complexes in the 3'-UTRs.

  10. Non-coding RNAs as theranostics in human cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redis, Roxana S; Berindan-Neagoe, Ioana; Pop, Victor I; Calin, George A

    2012-05-01

    Theranostics was coined originally as a term used to describe a system that combines diagnosis and therapy, aiming to provide the tools for personalized medicine. This review reasserts the grounds for regarding non-coding RNAs (ncRNA) as theranostics in human cancers. The microRNAs (miRNAs) are the most well studied ncRNAs in recent years; their pivotal role in orchestrating tumor initiation and progression has been confirmed in all types of cancers. Hence, these small ncRNAs have emerged as attractive therapeutic targets and diagnostic tool. Various approaches to use their therapeutic potential have been taken, here we summarize the most important ones. In the near future, the focus of theranostics will be shifted towards longer and mechanistically more versatile ncRNAs, and we included some recent advances supporting this view. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Sub-Transport Layer Coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jonas; Krigslund, Jeppe; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani

    2014-01-01

    Packet losses in wireless networks dramatically curbs the performance of TCP. This paper introduces a simple coding shim that aids IP-layer traffic in lossy environments while being transparent to transport layer protocols. The proposed coding approach enables erasure correction while being...... oblivious to the congestion control algorithms of the utilised transport layer protocol. Although our coding shim is indifferent towards the transport layer protocol, we focus on the performance of TCP when ran on top of our proposed coding mechanism due to its widespread use. The coding shim provides gains...

  12. Sharing code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubilius, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    Sharing code is becoming increasingly important in the wake of Open Science. In this review I describe and compare two popular code-sharing utilities, GitHub and Open Science Framework (OSF). GitHub is a mature, industry-standard tool but lacks focus towards researchers. In comparison, OSF offers a one-stop solution for researchers but a lot of functionality is still under development. I conclude by listing alternative lesser-known tools for code and materials sharing.

  13. Discrete fracture network code development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dershowitz, W.; Doe, T.; Shuttle, D.; Eiben, T.; Fox, A.; Emsley, S.; Ahlstrom, E. [Golder Associates Inc., Redmond, Washington (United States)

    1999-02-01

    This report presents the results of fracture flow model development and application performed by Golder Associates Inc. during the fiscal year 1998. The primary objective of the Golder Associates work scope was to provide theoretical and modelling support to the JNC performance assessment effort in fiscal year 2000. In addition, Golder Associates provided technical support to JNC for the Aespoe project. Major efforts for performance assessment support included extensive flow and transport simulations, analysis of pathway simplification, research on excavation damage zone effects, software verification and cross-verification, and analysis of confidence bounds on Monte Carlo simulations. In addition, a Fickian diffusion algorithm was implemented for Laplace Transform Galerkin solute transport. Support for the Aespoe project included predictive modelling of sorbing tracer transport in the TRUE-1 rock block, analysis of 1 km geochemical transport pathways for Task 5', and data analysis and experimental design for the TRUE Block Scale experiment. Technical information about Golder Associates support to JNC is provided in the appendices to this report. (author)

  14. Analog Coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    CODING, ANALOG SYSTEMS), INFORMATION THEORY, DATA TRANSMISSION SYSTEMS , TRANSMITTER RECEIVERS, WHITE NOISE, PROBABILITY, ERRORS, PROBABILITY DENSITY FUNCTIONS, DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS, SET THEORY, COMPUTER PROGRAMS

  15. CyNC: A method for real time analysis of systems with cyclic data flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Jan Jacob; Schiøler, Henrik; Nielsen, Jens Frederik Dalsgaard

    2006-01-01

    The paper addresses a novel method for performance analysis of distributed realtime systems with complex, and especially cyclic data flow graphs. The presented method is based on Network Calculus principles, where flow and service constraint functions are used to bound data flows and processing...... constraints implicitely given by a fix point equation in a space of constraint functions. In this paper a method denoted CyNC for obtaining a well defined solution to that problem is presented along with a theoretical justification of the method as well as comparative results for CyNC and alternative methods...

  16. nocoRNAc: Characterization of non-coding RNAs in prokaryotes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nieselt Kay

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The interest in non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs constantly rose during the past few years because of the wide spectrum of biological processes in which they are involved. This led to the discovery of numerous ncRNA genes across many species. However, for most organisms the non-coding transcriptome still remains unexplored to a great extent. Various experimental techniques for the identification of ncRNA transcripts are available, but as these methods are costly and time-consuming, there is a need for computational methods that allow the detection of functional RNAs in complete genomes in order to suggest elements for further experiments. Several programs for the genome-wide prediction of functional RNAs have been developed but most of them predict a genomic locus with no indication whether the element is transcribed or not. Results We present NOCORNAc, a program for the genome-wide prediction of ncRNA transcripts in bacteria. NOCORNAc incorporates various procedures for the detection of transcriptional features which are then integrated with functional ncRNA loci to determine the transcript coordinates. We applied RNAz and NOCORNAc to the genome of Streptomyces coelicolor and detected more than 800 putative ncRNA transcripts most of them located antisense to protein-coding regions. Using a custom design microarray we profiled the expression of about 400 of these elements and found more than 300 to be transcribed, 38 of them are predicted novel ncRNA genes in intergenic regions. The expression patterns of many ncRNAs are similarly complex as those of the protein-coding genes, in particular many antisense ncRNAs show a high expression correlation with their protein-coding partner. Conclusions We have developed NOCORNAc, a framework that facilitates the automated characterization of functional ncRNAs. NOCORNAc increases the confidence of predicted ncRNA loci, especially if they contain transcribed ncRNAs. NOCORNAc is not restricted to

  17. NC10 bacteria in marine oxygen minimum zones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Padilla, Cory C; Bristow, Laura A; Sarode, Neha

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria of the NC10 phylum link anaerobic methane oxidation to nitrite denitrification through a unique O2-producing intra-aerobic methanotrophy pathway. A niche for NC10 in the pelagic ocean has not been confirmed. We show that NC10 bacteria are present and transcriptionally active in oceanic...... oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) off northern Mexico and Costa Rica. NC10 16S rRNA genes were detected at all sites, peaking in abundance in the anoxic zone with elevated nitrite and methane concentrations. Phylogenetic analysis of particulate methane monooxygenase genes further confirmed the presence of NC10...... to participate in O2-producing NO dismutation. These findings confirm pelagic OMZs as a niche for NC10, suggesting a role for this group in OMZ nitrogen, methane and oxygen cycling....

  18. Low complexity hevc intra coding

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz Coll, José Damián

    2016-01-01

    Over the last few decades, much research has focused on the development and optimization of video codecs for media distribution to end-users via the Internet, broadcasts or mobile networks, but also for videoconferencing and for the recording on optical disks for media distribution. Most of the video coding standards for delivery are characterized by using a high efficiency hybrid schema, based on inter-prediction coding for temporal picture decorrelation, and intra-prediction coding for spat...

  19. Error correcting coding for OTN

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Jørn; Larsen, Knud J.; Pedersen, Lars A.

    2010-01-01

    Forward error correction codes for 100 Gb/s optical transmission are currently receiving much attention from transport network operators and technology providers. We discuss the performance of hard decision decoding using product type codes that cover a single OTN frame or a small number...... of such frames. In particular we argue that a three-error correcting BCH is the best choice for the component code in such systems....

  20. Distributed space-time coding

    CERN Document Server

    Jing, Yindi

    2014-01-01

    Distributed Space-Time Coding (DSTC) is a cooperative relaying scheme that enables high reliability in wireless networks. This brief presents the basic concept of DSTC, its achievable performance, generalizations, code design, and differential use. Recent results on training design and channel estimation for DSTC and the performance of training-based DSTC are also discussed.

  1. Divergence coding for convolutional codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valery Zolotarev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper we propose a new coding/decoding on the divergence principle. A new divergent multithreshold decoder (MTD for convolutional self-orthogonal codes contains two threshold elements. The second threshold element decodes the code with the code distance one greater than for the first threshold element. Errorcorrecting possibility of the new MTD modification have been higher than traditional MTD. Simulation results show that the performance of the divergent schemes allow to approach area of its effective work to channel capacity approximately on 0,5 dB. Note that we include the enough effective Viterbi decoder instead of the first threshold element, the divergence principle can reach more. Index Terms — error-correcting coding, convolutional code, decoder, multithreshold decoder, Viterbi algorithm.

  2. ORF Sequence: NC_005296 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_005296 gi|39933242 >gi|39933242|ref|NP_945518.1| possible nicotinate-nucleotide adn...WWLVSPGNPLKDISSLREIDARVAAAQAIADDPRIQVSRLEAVIGTRYTADTLRYLRRHCPGARFVWIMGADNLAQFHRWQQWQQIAAEIPIAVIDRPPTSFRALAAPAAQRLMRMRIPNNKAATLADREPPAWVYLTGLKSLVSSTALRNPDGSWKT

  3. ORF Sequence: NC_005814 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_005814 gi|45476500 >gi|45476500|ref|NP_995415.1| putative RepA protein [Yersinia pestis biovar Mediev...VNEANKFGLEALCELMLAILDDLDLRDWQTIHNLETLADRAGLTTRSDAGHKSISRASRGCDRLSWLNAIISEKAPFNPYDARCACKHIEVTEDFFAILGIPLKQVYRERARLLKANPEEIISSGDVRLIAIKVENWTRKAAAGLARMKARRDAARQRKQEYYSPTFA

  4. ORF Sequence: NC_005810 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_005810 gi|45440883 >gi|45440883|ref|NP_992422.1| heat shock protein GrpE [Yersinia pestis biovar Mediev...RRRTELDVEKAHKFALERFSSELLPVIDNLERALDTADKTNTELTSMIEGVELTLKSLLDAVGKFGIEVVGETHVPFNPEVHQAMTMLESADHEPNHVMMVMQKGYTLNGRLLRPAMVAVSKAKS

  5. ORF Sequence: NC_005810 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_005810 gi|45439868 >gi|45439868|ref|NP_991407.1| aspartate-ammonia ligase [Yersinia pestis biovar Mediev...alis str. 91001] MKKQFIQKQQQISFVKSFFSRQLEQQLGLIEVQAPILSRVGDGTQDNLSGSEKAVQVKVKSLPDST

  6. ORF Sequence: NC_005810 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_005810 gi|45440421 >gi|45440421|ref|NP_991960.1| malate dehydrogenase [Yersinia pestis biovar Mediev...DIVLISAGVARKPGMDRSDLFNVNAGIVRNLVEQIARTCPNALIGIITNPVNTTVAIAAEVLKKAGVYDKNKLFGITTLDTIRSNTFVAELKGKQPQDIEVPVIGGHS

  7. ORF Sequence: NC_005810 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_005810 gi|45441614 >gi|45441614|ref|NP_993153.1| putative lipoprotein [Yersinia pestis biovar Mediev...VGTHFDYVLSSGADEFLTLLVTGQIDKKKIEVVRDGSFNLNKKKDGFTGKIALKYRYQTAEERGKIEPLIKGADWNCPSLTETTGICNINLNNLVGTIHRKGATPADIFRFEHPLQVKFYSKNTTSAKRALYPVAVAADVVMLPVYLLSAAAVAAFYGVVSLN

  8. ORF Sequence: NC_005810 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_005810 gi|45443443 >gi|45443443|ref|NP_994982.1| chaperone protein DnaJ [Yersinia pestis biovar Mediev...IFEREGNNLYCEVPINFAMAALGGEIEVPTLDGRVKLKIPAETQTGKMFRMRGKGVKSVRGGSQGDLLCRVVVETPVSLSEKQKQLLRELEESFVGAAGEKNSPRAKSFLDGVKKFFDDLTR

  9. ORF Sequence: NC_005810 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available rsinia pestis biovar Medievalis str. 91001] MTTTTPIRLLVRPITAGDNLAIANVIREVSAEFGLTADKGYTVSDPNLDHLYELYSQPRSAYWVIEV... NC_005810 gi|45440492 >gi|45440492|ref|NP_992031.1| putative acetyltransferase [Ye

  10. ORF Sequence: NC_005810 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available PIVLEIGFGMGTSLVTMATNNPQQNFLGIEVHSPGVGACLSSAHDAGLSNLRIMCHDAVEVLENMIPEASLDMVQLFFPDPWHKARHNKRRIVQTPFVELVKSKLKVGGVFHMATDWQPYAEHMLEVMSGVSGYLNLSEQNDYVPRPDSRPLTKFELRGQRLGHGVWDLMFERKE ... NC_005810 gi|45443229 >gi|45443229|ref|NP_994768.1| Putative methyltransferase [Ye...rsinia pestis biovar Medievalis str. 91001] MINDVISPEFDENGRALRRIRSFVRRQGRLTKGQQLALDSYWPVMGVEYQAAPVDLNTLFGREA

  11. ORF Sequence: NC_005810 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_005810 gi|45441658 >gi|45441658|ref|NP_993197.1| putative esterase [Yersinia pestis biovar Mediev...alis str. 91001] MNINTVPLATDFANLLAARRLFFGKGAQHETDYGRQRVARWIANVSAPLSGKIEVTGHVRRFIPEKLRSAEPI

  12. ORF Sequence: NC_005810 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_005810 gi|45439934 >gi|45439934|ref|NP_991473.1| serine acetyltransferase [Yersinia pestis biovar Mediev...VSILQSVTLGGTGKTSGDRHPKIREGVMIGAGAKILGNIEVGRGAKIGAGSVVLQSVPAHTTAAGVPARIVGKPESDKPSLDMDQHFNGSIQGFEYGDGI

  13. ORF Sequence: NC_005810 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_005810 gi|45442769 >gi|45442769|ref|NP_994308.1| putative membrane protein [Yer...NKTKGMENGIAIDSKSMSSKQRQKYSLNNVIPDMPILSIKTYSPEELSVKNNKNNKTEEYSLGYIEVIMKIQDLEFIHTVEKAGEVFLTPKSGDHKRIDLDDIIPTLQTIRELRG

  14. ORF Sequence: NC_005810 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_005810 gi|45442616 >gi|45442616|ref|NP_994155.1| putative membrane protein [Yer...sinia pestis biovar Medievalis str. 91001] MSYVMFLQHLFSAKRRVLLLYLLVISIPIVYYITSRVIEVRNNKLLIKYSELSYHLQQHSIMAKK

  15. ORF Sequence: NC_005810 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_005810 gi|45439885 >gi|45439885|ref|NP_991424.1| Predicted GTPases [Yersinia pestis biovar Mediev...alis str. 91001] MTIRNYNYHMTHFVISAPDIRHLPRDEGIEVAFAGRSNAGKSSALNTLTNQKGLARTSKTPGRTQLINLFEVV

  16. ORF Sequence: NC_005810 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_005810 gi|45443717 >gi|45443717|ref|NP_995256.1| heat shock protein [Yersinia pestis biovar Mediev...alis str. 91001] MATYYLASKKELTYMRNYDLSPLLRQWIGFDKLASTMQGGQEPQGFPPYNIEKTDDNHYRISLALAGFKQSELDIEV

  17. ORF Sequence: NC_005810 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_005810 gi|45440351 >gi|45440351|ref|NP_991890.1| 4Fe-4S ferrodoxin [Yersinia pestis biovar Mediev...AIITGSHGVQLLASRCIGCKTCMLVCPFGAMSIIERPADGQQAADSQPVMASGSGRAQAHKCDLCHQRESGPACIEVCPTNALKLVTPGVLEALQREKQLRAARGSAPGIAR

  18. ORF Sequence: NC_005810 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_005810 gi|45442659 >gi|45442659|ref|NP_994198.1| putative membrane protein [Yer...sinia pestis biovar Medievalis str. 91001] MINFRGRFGRPLWHYLVLPVVLLLLAVILLTPMIVQTESTLKIRPNQQGLSLPDGFYLYQHLNGRGIHIKSIIPENDSLVVSLEFPEQQMQAIEVLQDVLPAGYAIVASESKKRHRLLPVFRSNQQNLG

  19. ORF Sequence: NC_006155 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available g protein (involved in environmental [Yersinia pseudotuberculosis IP 32953] MTKTDYLMRLRKCTTIDTLERVIEKNKYELSDDELELFYSAADHRLAELTMNKLYDKIPPTVWQHVK ... NC_006155 gi|51595328 >gi|51595328|ref|YP_069519.1| hemolysin expression modulatin

  20. ORF Sequence: NC_003078 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available etitiveness [Sinorhizobium meliloti 1021] MQLSACARRREAVRYRRRMARILILLFSLLSAFAFPVTPVP... NC_003078 gi|16264863 >gi|16264863|ref|NP_437655.1| probable membrane protein necessary for nodulation comp

  1. ORF Sequence: NC_002678 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_002678 gi|13471138 >gi|13471138|ref|NP_102707.1| transcriptional regulatory protein, nodulation competit...iveness determinant [Mesorhizobium loti MAFF303099] MTNESDTRSAELAELTADIVSAYVSNNPLPV

  2. ORF Sequence: NC_002607 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MRRDDRDDPFDDIFREIERMMEDMMADGQRLDRGDQSGFASSTHVDVHETEDAIRVIADLPGVEKDDISIQCDGTSVTVSAQSGHREYDERVDLPGRVDAHSGAATYNNGILEVAFDRTESSTNIDVQ ... NC_002607 gi|15789422 >gi|15789422|ref|NP_279246.1| Hsp2 [Halobacterium sp. NRC-1

  3. ORF Sequence: NC_004088 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available rsinia pestis KIM] MVKQFTSGLIISTFFLAVPGYAASFDCDNAKGYVETSICTNPVLSKLDDTLLSVYAKAQAAAPDQEINIRNEQREWLKNSRNTLTSEDALILSYEARIAQLSKANVSIPASAASETPVSTPD ... NC_004088 gi|22125156 >gi|22125156|ref|NP_668579.1| hypothetical protein y1256 [Ye

  4. ORF Sequence: NC_004431 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_004431 gi|26249430 >gi|26249430|ref|NP_755470.1| Transposase [Escherichia coli ...CFT073] MPLLDKLREQYGVGPVCSELHIAPSTYYHCQQQRHHPDKRSARAQRDDWLKKEIQRVYDENHQVYGVRKVWRQLLREGIRVARCTVARLMAVMGLAGVLRGKKVRTTSAGKPLLQVTA

  5. ORF Sequence: NC_002128 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available O157:H7] MPLLDKLREQYGVGPVCSELHIAPSTYYHCQQQRHHPDKRSARAQRDDWLKREIQRVYDENHQVYGVRKVWRQLLREGIRVARCTVARLMAVMGLAGVL... NC_002128 gi|10955343 >gi|10955343|ref|NP_052684.1| transposase [Escherichia coli

  6. ORF Sequence: NC_003070 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_003070 gi|18407972 >gi|18407972|ref|NP_564823.1| no apical meristem (NAM) famil...y protein [Arabidopsis thaliana] MQAEEIICRVSDEEIIENYLRPKINGETSSIPRYVVELAEELYTVEPWLLPRQTAPILNPGEWFYFGKRNRKYSN

  7. ORF Sequence: NC_003901 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available anosarcina mazei Go1] MMFATIGASFHKGWRAGPSIFMGHALVECILFMLILIGASSFLRQSIISYLSIVGGFVMVAFGLLMIKKAKEASTMDVSISASSLN... NC_003901 gi|21228124 >gi|21228124|ref|NP_634046.1| transporter, LysE family [Meth

  8. Speaking Code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cox, Geoff

    Speaking Code begins by invoking the “Hello World” convention used by programmers when learning a new language, helping to establish the interplay of text and code that runs through the book. Interweaving the voice of critical writing from the humanities with the tradition of computing and software...... development, Speaking Code unfolds an argument to undermine the distinctions between criticism and practice, and to emphasize the aesthetic and political aspects of software studies. Not reducible to its functional aspects, program code mirrors the instability inherent in the relationship of speech......; alternatives to mainstream development, from performances of the live-coding scene to the organizational forms of commons-based peer production; the democratic promise of social media and their paradoxical role in suppressing political expression; and the market’s emptying out of possibilities for free...

  9. 32 X 2.5 Gb/s Optical Code Division Multiplexing (O-CDM) For Agile Optical Networking (Phase II) Final Report CRADA No. TC02051.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, C. V. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Mendez, A. J. [Mendez R & D Associates, El Segundo, CA (United States)

    2017-09-08

    This was a collaborative effort between Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC (formerly The Regents of the University of California)/Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Mendez R & D Associates (MRDA) to develop and demonstrate a reconfigurable and cost effective design for optical code division multiplexing (O-CDM) with high spectral efficiency and throughput, as applied to the field of distributed computing, including multiple accessing (sharing of communication resources) and bidirectional data distribution in fiber-to-the-premise (FTTx) networks.

  10. The Spanish national health care-associated infection surveillance network (INCLIMECC): data summary January 1997 through December 2006 adapted to the new National Healthcare Safety Network Procedure-associated module codes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Cristina Díaz-Agero; Rodela, Ana Robustillo; Monge Jodrá, Vincente

    2009-12-01

    In 1997, a national standardized surveillance system (designated INCLIMECC [Indicadores Clínicos de Mejora Continua de la Calidad]) was established in Spain for health care-associated infection (HAI) in surgery patients, based on the National Nosocomial Infection Surveillance (NNIS) system. In 2005, in its procedure-associated module, the National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) inherited the NNIS program for surveillance of HAI in surgery patients and reorganized all surgical procedures. INCLIMECC actively monitors all patients referred to the surgical ward of each participating hospital. We present a summary of the data collected from January 1997 to December 2006 adapted to the new NHSN procedures. Surgical site infection (SSI) rates are provided by operative procedure and NNIS risk index category. Further quality indicators reported are surgical complications, length of stay, antimicrobial prophylaxis, mortality, readmission because of infection or other complication, and revision surgery. Because the ICD-9-CM surgery procedure code is included in each patient's record, we were able to reorganize our database avoiding the loss of extensive information, as has occurred with other systems.

  11. Biocomputational prediction of non-coding RNAs in model cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Björn; Georg, Jens; Schön, Verena; Ude, Susanne; Hess, Wolfgang R

    2009-03-23

    In bacteria, non-coding RNAs (ncRNA) are crucial regulators of gene expression, controlling various stress responses, virulence, and motility. Previous work revealed a relatively high number of ncRNAs in some marine cyanobacteria. However, for efficient genetic and biochemical analysis it would be desirable to identify a set of ncRNA candidate genes in model cyanobacteria that are easy to manipulate and for which extended mutant, transcriptomic and proteomic data sets are available. Here we have used comparative genome analysis for the biocomputational prediction of ncRNA genes and other sequence/structure-conserved elements in intergenic regions of the three unicellular model cyanobacteria Synechocystis PCC6803, Synechococcus elongatus PCC6301 and Thermosynechococcus elongatus BP1 plus the toxic Microcystis aeruginosa NIES843. The unfiltered numbers of predicted elements in these strains is 383, 168, 168, and 809, respectively, combined into 443 sequence clusters, whereas the numbers of individual elements with high support are 94, 56, 64, and 406, respectively. Removing also transposon-associated repeats, finally 78, 53, 42 and 168 sequences, respectively, are left belonging to 109 different clusters in the data set. Experimental analysis of selected ncRNA candidates in Synechocystis PCC6803 validated new ncRNAs originating from the fabF-hoxH and apcC-prmA intergenic spacers and three highly expressed ncRNAs belonging to the Yfr2 family of ncRNAs. Yfr2a promoter-luxAB fusions confirmed a very strong activity of this promoter and indicated a stimulation of expression if the cultures were exposed to elevated light intensities. Comparison to entries in Rfam and experimental testing of selected ncRNA candidates in Synechocystis PCC6803 indicate a high reliability of the current prediction, despite some contamination by the high number of repetitive sequences in some of these species. In particular, we identified in the four species altogether 8 new ncRNA homologs

  12. Biocomputational prediction of non-coding RNAs in model cyanobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ude Susanne

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In bacteria, non-coding RNAs (ncRNA are crucial regulators of gene expression, controlling various stress responses, virulence, and motility. Previous work revealed a relatively high number of ncRNAs in some marine cyanobacteria. However, for efficient genetic and biochemical analysis it would be desirable to identify a set of ncRNA candidate genes in model cyanobacteria that are easy to manipulate and for which extended mutant, transcriptomic and proteomic data sets are available. Results Here we have used comparative genome analysis for the biocomputational prediction of ncRNA genes and other sequence/structure-conserved elements in intergenic regions of the three unicellular model cyanobacteria Synechocystis PCC6803, Synechococcus elongatus PCC6301 and Thermosynechococcus elongatus BP1 plus the toxic Microcystis aeruginosa NIES843. The unfiltered numbers of predicted elements in these strains is 383, 168, 168, and 809, respectively, combined into 443 sequence clusters, whereas the numbers of individual elements with high support are 94, 56, 64, and 406, respectively. Removing also transposon-associated repeats, finally 78, 53, 42 and 168 sequences, respectively, are left belonging to 109 different clusters in the data set. Experimental analysis of selected ncRNA candidates in Synechocystis PCC6803 validated new ncRNAs originating from the fabF-hoxH and apcC-prmA intergenic spacers and three highly expressed ncRNAs belonging to the Yfr2 family of ncRNAs. Yfr2a promoter-luxAB fusions confirmed a very strong activity of this promoter and indicated a stimulation of expression if the cultures were exposed to elevated light intensities. Conclusion Comparison to entries in Rfam and experimental testing of selected ncRNA candidates in Synechocystis PCC6803 indicate a high reliability of the current prediction, despite some contamination by the high number of repetitive sequences in some of these species. In particular, we

  13. Research of Cubic Bezier Curve NC Interpolation Signal Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shijun Ji

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Interpolation technology is the core of the computer numerical control (CNC system, and the precision and stability of the interpolation algorithm directly affect the machining precision and speed of CNC system. Most of the existing numerical control interpolation technology can only achieve circular arc interpolation, linear interpolation or parabola interpolation, but for the numerical control (NC machining of parts with complicated surface, it needs to establish the mathematical model and generate the curved line and curved surface outline of parts and then discrete the generated parts outline into a large amount of straight line or arc to carry on the processing, which creates the complex program and a large amount of code, so it inevitably introduce into the approximation error. All these factors affect the machining accuracy, surface roughness and machining efficiency. The stepless interpolation of cubic Bezier curve controlled by analog signal is studied in this paper, the tool motion trajectory of Bezier curve can be directly planned out in CNC system by adjusting control points, and then these data were put into the control motor which can complete the precise feeding of Bezier curve. This method realized the improvement of CNC trajectory controlled ability from the simple linear and circular arc to the complex project curve, and it provides a new way for economy realizing the curve surface parts with high quality and high efficiency machining.

  14. Neural Decoder for Topological Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torlai, Giacomo; Melko, Roger G.

    2017-07-01

    We present an algorithm for error correction in topological codes that exploits modern machine learning techniques. Our decoder is constructed from a stochastic neural network called a Boltzmann machine, of the type extensively used in deep learning. We provide a general prescription for the training of the network and a decoding strategy that is applicable to a wide variety of stabilizer codes with very little specialization. We demonstrate the neural decoder numerically on the well-known two-dimensional toric code with phase-flip errors.

  15. Long Non-Coding RNAs (lncRNAs) of Sea Cucumber: Large-Scale Prediction, Expression Profiling, Non-Coding Network Construction, and lncRNA-microRNA-Gene Interaction Analysis of lncRNAs in Apostichopus japonicus and Holothuria glaberrima During LPS Challenge and Radial Organ Complex Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Chuang; Wang, Ruijia; Li, Tianqi; Li, Yuqiang; Tian, Meilin; Jiao, Wenqian; Huang, Xiaoting; Zhang, Lingling; Hu, Xiaoli; Wang, Shi; Bao, Zhenmin

    2016-08-01

    Long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) structurally resembles mRNA but cannot be translated into protein. Although the systematic identification and characterization of lncRNAs have been increasingly reported in model species, information concerning non-model species is still lacking. Here, we report the first systematic identification and characterization of lncRNAs in two sea cucumber species: (1) Apostichopus japonicus during lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge and in heathy tissues and (2) Holothuria glaberrima during radial organ complex regeneration, using RNA-seq datasets and bioinformatics analysis. We identified A. japonicus and H. glaberrima lncRNAs that were differentially expressed during LPS challenge and radial organ complex regeneration, respectively. Notably, the predicted lncRNA-microRNA-gene trinities revealed that, in addition to targeting protein-coding transcripts, miRNAs might also target lncRNAs, thereby participating in a potential novel layer of regulatory interactions among non-coding RNA classes in echinoderms. Furthermore, the constructed coding-non-coding network implied the potential involvement of lncRNA-gene interactions during the regulation of several important genes (e.g., Toll-like receptor 1 [TLR1] and transglutaminase-1 [TGM1]) in response to LPS challenge and radial organ complex regeneration in sea cucumbers. Overall, this pioneer systematic identification, annotation, and characterization of lncRNAs in echinoderm pave the way for similar studies and future genetic, genomic, and evolutionary research in non-model species.

  16. Primate-specific Long Non-coding RNAs and MicroRNAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassaan Mehboob Awan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs are critical regulators of gene expression in essentially all life forms. Long ncRNAs (lncRNAs and microRNAs (miRNAs are two important RNA classes possessing regulatory functions. Up to date, many primate-specific ncRNAs have been identified and investigated. Their expression specificity to primate lineage suggests primate-specific roles. It is thus critical to elucidate the biological significance of primate or even human-specific ncRNAs, and to develop potential ncRNA-based therapeutics. Here, we have summarized the studies regarding regulatory roles of some key primate-specific lncRNAs and miRNAs.

  17. Coding Labour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony McCosker

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available As well as introducing the Coding Labour section, the authors explore the diffusion of code across the material contexts of everyday life, through the objects and tools of mediation, the systems and practices of cultural production and organisational management, and in the material conditions of labour. Taking code beyond computation and software, their specific focus is on the increasingly familiar connections between code and labour with a focus on the codification and modulation of affect through technologies and practices of management within the contemporary work organisation. In the grey literature of spreadsheets, minutes, workload models, email and the like they identify a violence of forms through which workplace affect, in its constant flux of crisis and ‘prodromal’ modes, is regulated and governed.

  18. Coding labour

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McCosker, Anthony; Milne, Esther

    2014-01-01

    ... software. Code encompasses the laws that regulate human affairs and the operation of capital, behavioural mores and accepted ways of acting, but it also defines the building blocks of life as DNA...

  19. Inherent and antigen-induced airway hyperreactivity in NC mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuto Kobayashi

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to clarify the airway physiology of NC mice, the following experiments were carried out. To investigate inherent airway reactivity, we compared tracheal reactivity to various chemical mediators in NC, BALB/c, C57BL/6 and A/J mice in vitro. NC mice showed significantly greater reactivity to acetylcholine than BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice and a reactivity comparable to that of A/J mice, which are known as high responders. Then, airway reactivity to acetylcholine was investigated in those strains in vivo. NC mice again showed comparable airway reactivity to that seen in A/J mice and a significantly greater reactivity than that seen in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice. To investigate the effects of airway inflammation on airway reactivity to acetylcholine in vivo, NC and BALB/c mice were sensitized to and challenged with antigen. Sensitization to and challenge with antigen induced accumulation of inflammatory cells, especially eosinophils, in lung and increased airway reactivity in NC and BALB/c mice. These results indicate that NC mice exhibit inherent and antigen-induced airway hyperreactivity. Therefore, NC mice are a suitable strain to use in investigating the mechanisms underlying airway hyperreactivity and such studies will provide beneficial information for understanding the pathophysiology of asthma.

  20. 76 FR 49664 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Beaufort Channel, Beaufort, NC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-11

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Beaufort Channel, Beaufort, NC AGENCY... the Grayden Paul Bridge across the Beaufort (Gallants) Channel, mile 0.1 at Beaufort, NC. The... current operating regulations of the Grayden Paul Bridge, across the Beaufort (Gallants) Channel, mile 0.1...