WorldWideScience

Sample records for network carries demand

  1. The Design of Passive Optical Networking+Ethernet over Coaxial Cable Access Networking and Video-on-Demand Services Carrying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Wei

    2013-07-01

    Video on demand is a very attractive service used for entertainment, education, and other purposes. The design of passive optical networking+Ethernet over coaxial cable accessing and a home gateway system is proposed. The network integrates the passive optical networking and Ethernet over coaxial cable to provide high dedicated bandwidth for the metropolitan video-on-demand services. Using digital video broadcasting, IP television protocol, unicasting, and broadcasting mechanisms maximizes the system throughput. The home gateway finishes radio frequency signal receiving and provides three kinds of interfaces for high-definition video, voice, and data, which achieves triple-play and wire/wireless access synchronously.

  2. Demand Moderation in Military Communication Networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blackmore, Perry

    2002-01-01

    .... Demand moderation is the term used to encompass the array of mechanisms aimed at achieving this end. Integrated Defence networks of the future should benefit enormously from demand moderation mechanisms.

  3. Driving demand for broadband networks and services

    CERN Document Server

    Katz, Raul L

    2014-01-01

    This book examines the reasons why various groups around the world choose not to adopt broadband services and evaluates strategies to stimulate the demand that will lead to increased broadband use. It introduces readers to the benefits of higher adoption rates while examining the progress that developed and emerging countries have made in stimulating broadband demand. By relying on concepts such as a supply and demand gap, broadband price elasticity, and demand promotion, this book explains differences between the fixed and mobile broadband demand gap, introducing the notions of substitution and complementarity between both platforms. Building on these concepts, ‘Driving Demand for Broadband Networks and Services’ offers a set of best practices and recommendations aimed at promoting broadband demand.  The broadband demand gap is defined as individuals and households that could buy a broadband subscription because they live in areas served by telecommunications carriers but do not do so because of either ...

  4. water demand prediction using artificial neural network

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2017-01-01

    Jan 1, 2017 ... Interface for activation and deactivation of valves. •. Interface demand ... process could be done and monitored at the computer terminal as expected of a .... [15] Arbib, M. A.The Handbook of Brain Theory and Neural. Networks.

  5. Carry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koijen, Ralph S.J.; Moskowitz, Tobias J.; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    that include global equities, global bonds, currencies, commodities, US Treasuries, credit, and equity index options. This predictability underlies the strong returns to "carry trades" that go long high-carry and short low-carry securities, applied almost exclusively to currencies, but shown here...

  6. Optimal transport on supply-demand networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Han; Wang, Bing-Hong; Zhao, Li-Chao; Zhou, Changsong; Zhou, Tao

    2010-06-01

    In the literature, transport networks are usually treated as homogeneous networks, that is, every node has the same function, simultaneously providing and requiring resources. However, some real networks, such as power grids and supply chain networks, show a far different scenario in which nodes are classified into two categories: supply nodes provide some kinds of services, while demand nodes require them. In this paper, we propose a general transport model for these supply-demand networks, associated with a criterion to quantify their transport capacities. In a supply-demand network with heterogeneous degree distribution, its transport capacity strongly depends on the locations of supply nodes. We therefore design a simulated annealing algorithm to find the near optimal configuration of supply nodes, which remarkably enhances the transport capacity compared with a random configuration and outperforms the degree target algorithm, the betweenness target algorithm, and the greedy method. This work provides a start point for systematically analyzing and optimizing transport dynamics on supply-demand networks.

  7. Carry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koijen, Ralph S.J.; Moskowitz, Tobias; Pedersen, Lasse Heje

    2018-01-01

    -sectionally and in time series for a host of different asset classes, including global equities, global bonds, commodities, US Treasuries, credit, and options. Carry is not explained by known predictors of returns from these asset classes, and it captures many of these predictors, providing a unifying framework...... for return predictability. We reject a generalized version of Uncovered Interest Parity and the Expectations Hypothesis in favor of models with varying risk premia, in which carry strategies are commonly exposed to global recession, liquidity, and volatility risks, though none fully explains carry’s premium....

  8. Reliability Demands in FTTH Access Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jens Myrup; Knudsen, Thomas Phillip; Madsen, Ole Brun

    2004-01-01

    In this paper reliability and bandwidth demands of existing, new and expected classes of applications running over Fiber To The Home (FTTH) networks to private users and small enterprises are analyzed and discussed. Certain applications such as home security and telemedicine are likely to require...

  9. Reliability Demands in FTTH Access Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jens Myrup; Knudsen, Thomas Phillip; Madsen, Ole Brun

    2005-01-01

    In this paper reliability and bandwidth demands of existing, new and expected classes of applications running over Fiber To The Home (FTTH) networks to private users and small enterprises are analysed and discussed. Certain applications such as home security and telemedicine are likely to require...

  10. Resiliently evolving supply-demand networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubido, Nicolás; Grebogi, Celso; Baptista, Murilo S.

    2014-01-01

    The ability to design a transport network such that commodities are brought from suppliers to consumers in a steady, optimal, and stable way is of great importance for distribution systems nowadays. In this work, by using the circuit laws of Kirchhoff and Ohm, we provide the exact capacities of the edges that an optimal supply-demand network should have to operate stably under perturbations, i.e., without overloading. The perturbations we consider are the evolution of the connecting topology, the decentralization of hub sources or sinks, and the intermittence of supplier and consumer characteristics. We analyze these conditions and the impact of our results, both on the current United Kingdom power-grid structure and on numerically generated evolving archetypal network topologies.

  11. Home Network Technologies and Automating Demand Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McParland, Charles

    2009-12-01

    Over the past several years, interest in large-scale control of peak energy demand and total consumption has increased. While motivated by a number of factors, this interest has primarily been spurred on the demand side by the increasing cost of energy and, on the supply side by the limited ability of utilities to build sufficient electricity generation capacity to meet unrestrained future demand. To address peak electricity use Demand Response (DR) systems are being proposed to motivate reductions in electricity use through the use of price incentives. DR systems are also be design to shift or curtail energy demand at critical times when the generation, transmission, and distribution systems (i.e. the 'grid') are threatened with instabilities. To be effectively deployed on a large-scale, these proposed DR systems need to be automated. Automation will require robust and efficient data communications infrastructures across geographically dispersed markets. The present availability of widespread Internet connectivity and inexpensive, reliable computing hardware combined with the growing confidence in the capabilities of distributed, application-level communications protocols suggests that now is the time for designing and deploying practical systems. Centralized computer systems that are capable of providing continuous signals to automate customers reduction of power demand, are known as Demand Response Automation Servers (DRAS). The deployment of prototype DRAS systems has already begun - with most initial deployments targeting large commercial and industrial (C & I) customers. An examination of the current overall energy consumption by economic sector shows that the C & I market is responsible for roughly half of all energy consumption in the US. On a per customer basis, large C & I customers clearly have the most to offer - and to gain - by participating in DR programs to reduce peak demand. And, by concentrating on a small number of relatively

  12. Cost and Demand Characteristics of Telecom Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falch, Morten

    1997-01-01

    The Chapter presents the general characteristics of the cost and demand profiles for telecommunication services and identifies the barriers towards a free competitive market for telecommunication services related to these characteristics.......The Chapter presents the general characteristics of the cost and demand profiles for telecommunication services and identifies the barriers towards a free competitive market for telecommunication services related to these characteristics....

  13. Software Defined Networking Demands on Software Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galinac Grbac, T.; Caba, Cosmin Marius; Soler, José

    2015-01-01

    Software Defined Networking (SDN) is a networking approach based on a centralized control plane architecture with standardised interfaces between control and data planes. SDN enables fast configuration and reconfiguration of the network to enhance resource utilization and service performances....... This new approach enables a more dynamic and flexible network, which may adapt to user needs and application requirements. To this end, systemized solutions must be implemented in network software, aiming to provide secure network services that meet the required service performance levels. In this paper......, we review this new approach to networking from an architectural point of view, and identify and discuss some critical quality issues that require new developments in software technologies. These issues we discuss along with use case scenarios. Here in this paper we aim to identify challenges...

  14. Scaling architecture-on-demand based optical networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyer, Hugo; Sancho, Jose Carlos; Mrdakovic, Milica; Peng, Shuping; Simeonidou, Dimitra; Miao, Wang; Calabretta, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyzes methodologies that allow scaling properly Architecture-On-Demand (AoD) based optical networks. As Data Centers and HPC systems are growing in size and complexity, optical networks seem to be the way to scale the bandwidth of current network infrastructures. To scale the number of

  15. Revenue Improvement Through Demand-Dependent Pricing of Network Services

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sanders, David

    2000-01-01

    ... of the expectation of rewards based upon variable demands. This work shows that revenue improvement can occur in this network environment when a dynamic pricing policy is applied as opposed to optimal static pricing...

  16. Fast demand response in support of the active distribution network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MacDougall, P.; Heskes, P.; Crolla, P.; Burt, G.; Warmer, C.

    2013-01-01

    Demand side management has traditionally been investigated for "normal" operation services such as balancing and congestion management. However they potentially could be utilized for Distributed Network Operator (DNO) services. This paper investigates and validates the use of a supply and demand

  17. Identifying demand effects in a large network of product categories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelper, S.E.C.; Wilms, I.; Croux, C.

    2016-01-01

    Planning marketing mix strategies requires retailers to understand within- as well as cross-category demand effects. Most retailers carry products in a large variety of categories, leading to a high number of such demand effects to be estimated. At the same time, we do not expect cross-category

  18. Service Demand Discovery Mechanism for Mobile Social Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dapeng; Yan, Junjie; Wang, Honggang; Wang, Ruyan

    2016-11-23

    In the last few years, the service demand for wireless data over mobile networks has continually been soaring at a rapid pace. Thereinto, in Mobile Social Networks (MSNs), users can discover adjacent users for establishing temporary local connection and thus sharing already downloaded contents with each other to offload the service demand. Due to the partitioned topology, intermittent connection and social feature in such a network, the service demand discovery is challenging. In particular, the service demand discovery is exploited to identify the best relay user through the service registration, service selection and service activation. In order to maximize the utilization of limited network resources, a hybrid service demand discovery architecture, such as a Virtual Dictionary User (VDU) is proposed in this paper. Based on the historical data of movement, users can discover their relationships with others. Subsequently, according to the users activity, VDU is selected to facilitate the service registration procedure. Further, the service information outside of a home community can be obtained through the Global Active User (GAU) to support the service selection. To provide the Quality of Service (QoS), the Service Providing User (SPU) is chosen among multiple candidates. Numerical results show that, when compared with other classical service algorithms, the proposed scheme can improve the successful service demand discovery ratio by 25% under reduced overheads.

  19. DEMAND FOR POT PLANTS FOR INTERIOR DECORATION IN VIEW OF THE SURVEY CARRIED OUT IN POZNAŃ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Henschke

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the demand for pot plants for interior decoration at various points of sale in Poznan. The results were based on questionnaires filled by clients of three retail sale points with pot plants: flower shop, horticultural centre and building material market in Poznan and its surroundings. Collected information was analysed for a frequency of purchases, amount of money spent on pot plants, place of purchases, occasions for which plant was bought, preferences of buyers and pattern of purchases. Customers purchase plants in various points of sale from 7 to 9 pot plants per year, mostly in horticultural centres and in spring. Plants are used for interior decoration and are cultivated for many years, however cut flowers are more often chosen for a gift than pot plants. Whereas a significant part of building material market customers cultivate flowers pot plants for a short time, and they buy pot plants for a gift as often as cut flowers. Among plants with flowers Phalaenopsis and Anthurium are selected most frequently, and Zamioculcas and Yucca among plants with decorative foliage. While choosing plants, buyers are guided by the overall appearance and price.

  20. On-demand Overlay Networks for Large Scientific Data Transfers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramakrishnan, Lavanya [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Guok, Chin [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Jackson, Keith [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Kissel, Ezra [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States); Swany, D. Martin [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States); Agarwal, Deborah [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2009-10-12

    Large scale scientific data transfers are central to scientific processes. Data from large experimental facilities have to be moved to local institutions for analysis or often data needs to be moved between local clusters and large supercomputing centers. In this paper, we propose and evaluate a network overlay architecture to enable highthroughput, on-demand, coordinated data transfers over wide-area networks. Our work leverages Phoebus and On-demand Secure Circuits and AdvanceReservation System (OSCARS) to provide high performance wide-area network connections. OSCARS enables dynamic provisioning of network paths with guaranteed bandwidth and Phoebus enables the coordination and effective utilization of the OSCARS network paths. Our evaluation shows that this approach leads to improved end-to-end data transfer throughput with minimal overheads. The achievedthroughput using our overlay was limited only by the ability of the end hosts to sink the data.

  1. Use of artificial neural networks for transport energy demand modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murat, Yetis Sazi; Ceylan, Halim

    2006-01-01

    The paper illustrates an artificial neural network (ANN) approach based on supervised neural networks for the transport energy demand forecasting using socio-economic and transport related indicators. The ANN transport energy demand model is developed. The actual forecast is obtained using a feed forward neural network, trained with back propagation algorithm. In order to investigate the influence of socio-economic indicators on the transport energy demand, the ANN is analyzed based on gross national product (GNP), population and the total annual average veh-km along with historical energy data available from 1970 to 2001. Comparing model predictions with energy data in testing period performs the model validation. The projections are made with two scenarios. It is obtained that the ANN reflects the fluctuation in historical data for both dependent and independent variables. The results obtained bear out the suitability of the adopted methodology for the transport energy-forecasting problem

  2. Redesign of a supply network by considering stochastic demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Camilo Paz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the problem of redesigning a supply network of large scale by considering variability of the demand. The central problematic takes root in determining strategic decisions of closing and adjusting of capacity of some network echelons and the tactical decisions concerning to the distribution channels used for transporting products. We have formulated a deterministic Mixed Integer Linear Programming Model (MILP and a stochastic MILP model (SMILP whose objective functions are the maximization of the EBITDA (Earnings before Interest, Taxes, Depreciation and Amortization. The decisions of Network Design on stochastic model as capacities, number of warehouses in operation, material and product flows between echelons, are determined in a single stage by defining an objective function that penalizes unsatisfied demand and surplus of demand due to demand changes. The solution strategy adopted for the stochastic model is a scheme denominated as Sample Average Approximation (SAA. The model is based on the case of a Colombian company dedicated to production and marketing of foodstuffs and supplies for the bakery industry. The results show that the proposed methodology was a solid reference for decision support regarding to the supply networks redesign by considering the expected economic contribution of products and variability of the demand.

  3. Impact of Demand Side Management in Active Distribution Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ponnaganti, Pavani; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte; Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna

    2017-01-01

    Demand Side Management (DSM) is an efficient flexible program which helps distribution network operators to meet the future critical peak demand. It is executed in cases of not only technical issues like voltage sag or swell, transformer burdening, cable congestions, but also to increase the degree...... of visibility in the electricity markets. The aim of this paper is to find the optimal flexible demands that can be shifted to another time in order to operate the active distribution system within secure operating limits. A simple mechanism is proposed for finding the flexibility of the loads where electric...

  4. A demand assignment control in international business satellite communications network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nohara, Mitsuo; Takeuchi, Yoshio; Takahata, Fumio; Hirata, Yasuo

    An experimental system is being developed for use in an international business satellite (IBS) communications network based on demand-assignment (DA) and TDMA techniques. This paper discusses its system design, in particular from the viewpoints of a network configuration, a DA control, and a satellite channel-assignment algorithm. A satellite channel configuration is also presented along with a tradeoff study on transmission rate, HPA output power, satellite resource efficiency, service quality, and so on.

  5. Information system design for demand-driven supply networks

    OpenAIRE

    Selk, Bernhard

    2004-01-01

    Information system design for demand-driven supply networks : integrating CRM & SCM / B. Selk, K. Turowski, C. Winnewisser. - In: EIS : Fourth International ICSC Symposium on Engineering of Intelligent Systems, EIS 2004. [Elektronische Ressource]. - Millet, Alberta : ICSC Interdisciplinary Research Canada, 2004. - 8 S. auf CD-ROM

  6. Dynamic Vehicle Scheduling for Working Service Network with Dual Demands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to develop some models to aid in making decisions on the combined fleet size and vehicle assignment in working service network where the demands include two types (minimum demands and maximum demands, and vehicles themselves can act like a facility to provide services when they are stationary at one location. This type of problem is named as the dynamic working vehicle scheduling with dual demands (DWVS-DD and formulated as a mixed integer programming (MIP. Instead of a large integer program, the problem is decomposed into small local problems that are guided by preset control parameters. The approach for preset control parameters is given. By introducing them into the MIP formulation, the model is reformulated as a piecewise form. Further, a piecewise method by updating preset control parameters is proposed for solving the reformulated model. Numerical experiments show that the proposed method produces better solution within reasonable computing time.

  7. Monthly electric energy demand forecasting with neural networks and Fourier series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez-Romera, E.; Jaramillo-Moran, M.A.; Carmona-Fernandez, D.

    2008-01-01

    Medium-term electric energy demand forecasting is a useful tool for grid maintenance planning and market research of electric energy companies. Several methods, such as ARIMA, regression or artificial intelligence, have been usually used to carry out those predictions. Some approaches include weather or economic variables, which strongly influence electric energy demand. Economic variables usually influence the general series trend, while weather provides a periodic behavior because of its seasonal nature. This work investigates the periodic behavior of the Spanish monthly electric demand series, obtained by rejecting the trend from the consumption series. A novel hybrid approach is proposed: the periodic behavior is forecasted with a Fourier series while the trend is predicted with a neural network. Satisfactory results have been obtained, with a lower than 2% MAPE, which improve those reached when only neural networks or ARIMA were used for the same purpose. (author)

  8. Designing container shipping network under changing demand and freight rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Chen

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the optimization of container shipping network and its operations under changing cargo demand and freight rates. The problem is formulated as a mixed integer non-linear programming problem (MINP with an objective of maximizing the average unit ship-slot profit at three stages using analytical methodology. The issues such as empty container repositioning, ship-slot allocating, ship sizing, and container configuration are simultaneously considered based on a series of the matrices of demand for a year. To solve the model, a bi-level genetic algorithm based method is proposed. Finally, numerical experiments are provided to illustrate the validity of the proposed model and algorithms. The obtained results show that the suggested model can provide a more realistic solution to the issues on the basis of changing demand and freight rates and arrange a more effective approach to the optimization of container shipping network structures and operations than does the model based on the average demand.

  9. Efficient network resource management for multimedia-on-demand services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Chinhwa; Chiu, Jui-Hwa; Wu, Jong-Jyh; Chen, Dxo-Shin

    1998-08-01

    A Multimedia Instruction on Demand (MID) serves the purpose of providing an environment for lecture design, lecture annotation, and lecture review over networks. In order to support real-time multimedia interactive playback for such an application, the underlying networks are required to provide network resource management mechanism to enforce the reservation policy. In our design, the MID server and MID gateway consist of the following mechanisms, namely, resource management agent, admission control agent, packet classifier, and packet scheduler. We make use of the framework of the ReSerVation Protocol to devise and implement a network resource management mechanism, which control end-to-end packet delays and bandwidth allocation for the designed MID system. In the present paper, our contributions are as follows: (1) a network resource management scheme is designed to support real-time multimedia over the Internet and (2) an experimental test bed is established to measure the system performance. The developed scheme is currently being implemented in the Multimedia Information Networking laboratory at Tamkang University.

  10. Australia's long-term electricity demand forecasting using deep neural networks

    OpenAIRE

    Hamedmoghadam, Homayoun; Joorabloo, Nima; Jalili, Mahdi

    2018-01-01

    Accurate prediction of long-term electricity demand has a significant role in demand side management and electricity network planning and operation. Demand over-estimation results in over-investment in network assets, driving up the electricity prices, while demand under-estimation may lead to under-investment resulting in unreliable and insecure electricity. In this manuscript, we apply deep neural networks to predict Australia's long-term electricity demand. A stacked autoencoder is used in...

  11. HOW TRAVEL DEMAND AFFECTS DETECTION OF NON-RECURRENT TRAFFIC CONGESTION ON URBAN ROAD NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Anbaroglu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Occurrence of non-recurrent traffic congestion hinders the economic activity of a city, as travellers could miss appointments or be late for work or important meetings. Similarly, for shippers, unexpected delays may disrupt just-in-time delivery and manufacturing processes, which could lose them payment. Consequently, research on non-recurrent congestion detection on urban road networks has recently gained attention. By analysing large amounts of traffic data collected on a daily basis, traffic operation centres can improve their methods to detect non-recurrent congestion rapidly and then revise their existing plans to mitigate its effects. Space-time clusters of high link journey time estimates correspond to non-recurrent congestion events. Existing research, however, has not considered the effect of travel demand on the effectiveness of non-recurrent congestion detection methods. Therefore, this paper investigates how travel demand affects detection of non-recurrent traffic congestion detection on urban road networks. Travel demand has been classified into three categories as low, normal and high. The experiments are carried out on London’s urban road network, and the results demonstrate the necessity to adjust the relative importance of the component evaluation criteria depending on the travel demand level.

  12. Distribution of Video-on-Demand Service over Cable Television Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. T. Jordanova

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with investigations carried out to increase the effectiveness of video-on-demand (VoD systems when cable television networks are used. A comparative analysis of the existing VoD architectures is made with respect to the equipment cost and the traffic load over the central transport network. Through statistical studies the main characteristics of a particular hybrid VoD are determined (such as twenty-four-hour distribution of the video traffic, average inter-arrival time of the VoD requests, average duration of video streams demanded, movies distribution according to the subscribers’ preferences. An algorithm for the videocontent flexible distribution among the distribution hubs is suggested. Thus a higher effectiveness of the system is achieved without significantly increasing the equipment cost.

  13. Deep Neural Network Based Demand Side Short Term Load Forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seunghyoung Ryu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the smart grid, one of the most important research areas is load forecasting; it spans from traditional time series analyses to recent machine learning approaches and mostly focuses on forecasting aggregated electricity consumption. However, the importance of demand side energy management, including individual load forecasting, is becoming critical. In this paper, we propose deep neural network (DNN-based load forecasting models and apply them to a demand side empirical load database. DNNs are trained in two different ways: a pre-training restricted Boltzmann machine and using the rectified linear unit without pre-training. DNN forecasting models are trained by individual customer’s electricity consumption data and regional meteorological elements. To verify the performance of DNNs, forecasting results are compared with a shallow neural network (SNN, a double seasonal Holt–Winters (DSHW model and the autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA. The mean absolute percentage error (MAPE and relative root mean square error (RRMSE are used for verification. Our results show that DNNs exhibit accurate and robust predictions compared to other forecasting models, e.g., MAPE and RRMSE are reduced by up to 17% and 22% compared to SNN and 9% and 29% compared to DSHW.

  14. Negative autoregulation matches production and demand in synthetic transcriptional networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Elisa; Giordano, Giulia; Forsberg, Per-Ola; Murray, Richard M

    2014-08-15

    We propose a negative feedback architecture that regulates activity of artificial genes, or "genelets", to meet their output downstream demand, achieving robustness with respect to uncertain open-loop output production rates. In particular, we consider the case where the outputs of two genelets interact to form a single assembled product. We show with analysis and experiments that negative autoregulation matches the production and demand of the outputs: the magnitude of the regulatory signal is proportional to the "error" between the circuit output concentration and its actual demand. This two-device system is experimentally implemented using in vitro transcriptional networks, where reactions are systematically designed by optimizing nucleic acid sequences with publicly available software packages. We build a predictive ordinary differential equation (ODE) model that captures the dynamics of the system and can be used to numerically assess the scalability of this architecture to larger sets of interconnected genes. Finally, with numerical simulations we contrast our negative autoregulation scheme with a cross-activation architecture, which is less scalable and results in slower response times.

  15. The development and work procedures to super speed network for the growing demands for the network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nosaki, Nobuhisa; Aoki, Kazuhisa

    2001-01-01

    Following the recently growing demands for the network, the modification of Local Area Network (LAN) and Wide Area Network (WAN) to super speed network have been reviewed in the Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC). Though the modification of the LAN to super speed network is being developed this year in Heisei 13 fiscal year, it of the WAN was developed in Heisei 12 fiscal year. In spite of various issues, technical reviews and etc., there are a lot of benefits and merit for the super speed network of the WAN and though the modification of it and reduction of the running cost are contradictory to each other, both of those have been achieved in the JNC. This paper introduces the development and work procedures for the WAN. (author)

  16. Response of pressurized water reactor (PWR) to network power generation demands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiner, L.A.

    1991-01-01

    The flexibility of the PWR type reactor in terms of response to the variations of the network power demands, is demonstrated. The factors that affect the transitory flexibility and some design prospects that allow the reactor fits the requirements of the network power demands, are also discussed. (M.J.A.)

  17. Implementation of IGMP v3 and its application to IPTV carrying network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Min; Dong, Ximing

    2008-11-01

    IGMP is a host-router signaling protocol, and it is used to manage the membership of Internet Protocol multicast groups for IPv4. IGMPv3 adds "source filtering" function required to support SSM. Firstly, this paper analyses the improvements and implementation of IGMPv3. Secondly, it points out the problems when applying IGMPv3 to IPTV carrying network. Then it presents the solutions by improving IGMPv3 protocol to reduce channel zapping time which is one of the important metrics affecting the QoE in IPTV service. Method to realize the end user authentication, authorization and accounting in the IP multicast security and authentication area by extending the IGMPv3 protocol is described at last.

  18. Influence of network demands on power plant operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spalthoff, F.J.

    1974-01-01

    The demands which are made by the user on an energy generation system are investigated and thoughts on the provision of the energy needed as well as procuring the supply are put forward. The consequences these user demands upon generating units in power plants have and the technical possibilities to meet these requirements are explained. The study ends with prospects of feasible developments through modern information systems. (orig./RW) [de

  19. Function-Oriented Networking and On-Demand Routing System in Network Using Ant Colony Optimization Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Bo Sim

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we proposed and developed Function-Oriented Networking (FON, a platform for network users. It has a different philosophy as opposed to technologies for network managers of Software-Defined Networking technology, OpenFlow. It is a technology that can immediately reflect the demands of the network users in the network, unlike the existing OpenFlow and Network Functions Virtualization (NFV, which do not reflect directly the needs of the network users. It allows the network user to determine the policy of the direct network, so it can be applied more precisely than the policy applied by the network manager. This is expected to increase the satisfaction of the service users when the network users try to provide new services. We developed FON function that performs on-demand routing for Low-Delay Required service. We analyzed the characteristics of the Ant Colony Optimization (ACO algorithm and found that the algorithm is suitable for low-delay required services. It was also the first in the world to implement the routing software using ACO Algorithm in the real Ethernet network. In order to improve the routing performance, several algorithms of the ACO Algorithm have been developed to enable faster path search-routing and path recovery. The relationship between the network performance index and the ACO routing parameters is derived, and the results are compared and analyzed. Through this, it was possible to develop the ACO algorithm.

  20. An Automation System for Optimizing a Supply Chain Network Design under the Influence of Demand Uncertainty

    OpenAIRE

    Polany, Rany

    2012-01-01

    This research develops and applies an integrated hierarchical framework for modeling a multi-echelon supply chain network design, under the influence of demand uncertainty. The framework is a layered integration of two levels: macro, high-level scenario planning combined with micro, low-level Monte Carlo simulation of uncertainties in demand. To facilitate rapid simulation of the effects of demand uncertainty, the integrated framework was implemented as a dashboard automation system using Mic...

  1. Timing of product introduction in network economies under heterogeneous demand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Christian Dahl

    This paper studies the introduction of a new and incompatible technology in a spatial market with network externalities. In competition with an established network, the entrant chooses how long to do research and a level of product differentiation, which determine the adoption patterns of consumers...... level of product differentiation that should be chosen by the sponsor of the new technology in equilibrium. Third, the formal relationship between these variables are derived under compatibility.  Fourth, the entering firm's problem is solved by numerical methods to gain insight into the optimal linkage...... between research time and product design....

  2. Demand Response in Low Voltage Distribution Networks with High PV Penetration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nainar, Karthikeyan; Pokhrel, Basanta Raj; Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna

    2017-01-01

    the required flexibility from the electricity market through an aggregator. The optimum demand response enables consumption of maximum renewable energy within the network constraints. Simulation studies are conducted using Matlab and DigSilent Power factory software on a Danish low-voltage distribution system......In this paper, application of demand response to accommodate maximum PV power in a low-voltage distribution network is discussed. A centralized control based on model predictive control method is proposed for the computation of optimal demand response on an hourly basis. The proposed method uses PV...

  3. Growing Brazilian demand to spur gas network in South America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deffarges, E.H.; Maurer, L.I.A.

    1993-01-01

    A recent combination in South America of economic and geopolitical factors is prompting development of a new integrated gas-pipeline network in the continent's Southern Cone. The crucial factors include privatization, regional integration, economic growth, and environmental concerns. The area, Latin America's largest regional entity, includes Brazil (population 150 million and a 1990 GNP of about $375 billion, 9th largest in the world), Argentina (population 32 million and the third largest Latin American economy after Brazil and Mexico), Bolivia, Chile, Paraguay, and Uruguay. Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, and Uruguay are members of the MercoSur economic bloc whose objective is to develop free trade in the region. There are very few integrated pipeline networks in the world. Besides the giant North American system, with hundreds of producers and pipelines, there is only one other large integrated network. It connects continental European countries to their outside suppliers such as Norway, the C.I.S., and Algeria. The emergence of a new pipeline system is therefore important for the natural-gas industry worldwide and even more so if it occurs in a region now growing rapidly after a decade of economic difficulties

  4. PREDICTION OF DEMAND FOR PRIMARY BOND OFFERINGS USING ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Tkac

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Primary bond markets represent an interesting investment opportunity not only for banks, insurance companies, and other institutional investors, but also for individuals looking for capital gains. Since offered securities vary in terms of their rating, industrial classification, coupon, or maturity, demand of buyers for particular offerings often overcomes issued volume and price of given bond on secondary market consequently rises. Investors might be regarded as consumers purchasing required service according to their specific preferences at desired price. This paper aims at analysis of demand for bonds on primary market using artificial neural networks.Design/methodology: We design a multilayered feedforward neural network trained by Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm in order to estimate demand for individual bonds based on parameters of particular offerings. Outcomes obtained by artificial neural network are compared with conventional econometric methods.Findings: Our results indicate that artificial neural network significantly outperformed standard econometric techniques and on examined sample of primary bond offerings achieved considerably better performance in terms of prediction accuracy and mean squared error.Originality: We show that proposed neural network is able to successfully predict demand for primary obligation offerings based on their specifications. Moreover, we identify relevant parameters of issues which are able to considerably affect total demand for given security.  Our findings might not only help investors to detect marketable securities, but also enable issuing entities to increase demand for their bonds in order to decrease their offering price. 

  5. New grid based test bed environment for carrying out ad-hoc networking experiments

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Johnson, D

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available and the third is to do analysis on a real test bed network which has implemented the ad-hoc networking protocol. This paper concerns the third option. Most researchers who have done work on test bed environments have used either indoor Wifi inter-office links...

  6. Supply-demand balance in outward-directed networks and Kleiber's law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painter, Page R

    2005-11-10

    Recent theories have attempted to derive the value of the exponent alpha in the allometric formula for scaling of basal metabolic rate from the properties of distribution network models for arteries and capillaries. It has recently been stated that a basic theorem relating the sum of nutrient currents to the specific nutrient uptake rate, together with a relationship claimed to be required in order to match nutrient supply to nutrient demand in 3-dimensional outward-directed networks, leads to Kleiber's law (b = 3/4). The validity of the supply-demand matching principle and the assumptions required to prove the basic theorem are assessed. The supply-demand principle is evaluated by examining the supply term and the demand term in outward-directed lattice models of nutrient and water distribution systems and by applying the principle to fractal-like models of mammalian arterial systems. Application of the supply-demand principle to bifurcating fractal-like networks that are outward-directed does not predict 3/4-power scaling, and evaluation of water distribution system models shows that the matching principle does not match supply to demand in such systems. Furthermore, proof of the basic theorem is shown to require that the covariance of nutrient uptake and current path length is 0, an assumption unlikely to be true in mammalian arterial systems. The supply-demand matching principle does not lead to a satisfactory explanation for the approximately 3/4-power scaling of mammalian basal metabolic rate.

  7. The Use of Artificial Neural Networks for Forecasting the Electric Demand of Stand-Alone Consumers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanin, O. A.; Direktor, L. B.

    2018-05-01

    The problem of short-term forecasting of electric power demand of stand-alone consumers (small inhabited localities) situated outside centralized power supply areas is considered. The basic approaches to modeling the electric power demand depending on the forecasting time frame and the problems set, as well as the specific features of such modeling, are described. The advantages and disadvantages of the methods used for the short-term forecast of the electric demand are indicated, and difficulties involved in the solution of the problem are outlined. The basic principles of arranging artificial neural networks are set forth; it is also shown that the proposed method is preferable when the input information necessary for prediction is lacking or incomplete. The selection of the parameters that should be included into the list of the input data for modeling the electric power demand of residential areas using artificial neural networks is validated. The structure of a neural network is proposed for solving the problem of modeling the electric power demand of residential areas. The specific features of generation of the training dataset are outlined. The results of test modeling of daily electric demand curves for some settlements of Kamchatka and Yakutia based on known actual electric demand curves are provided. The reliability of the test modeling has been validated. A high value of the deviation of the modeled curve from the reference curve obtained in one of the four reference calculations is explained. The input data and the predicted power demand curves for the rural settlement of Kuokuiskii Nasleg are provided. The power demand curves were modeled for four characteristic days of the year, and they can be used in the future for designing a power supply system for the settlement. To enhance the accuracy of the method, a series of measures based on specific features of a neural network's functioning are proposed.

  8. Modelling and Forecasting Cruise Tourism Demand to İzmir by Different Artificial Neural Network Architectures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Cuhadar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cruise ports emerged as an important sector for the economy of Turkey bordered on three sides by water. Forecasting cruise tourism demand ensures better planning, efficient preparation at the destination and it is the basis for elaboration of future plans. In the recent years, new techniques such as; artificial neural networks were employed for developing of the predictive models to estimate tourism demand. In this study, it is aimed to determine the forecasting method that provides the best performance when compared the forecast accuracy of Multi-layer Perceptron (MLP, Radial Basis Function (RBF and Generalized Regression neural network (GRNN to estimate the monthly inbound cruise tourism demand to İzmir via the method giving best results. We used the total number of foreign cruise tourist arrivals as a measure of inbound cruise tourism demand and monthly cruise tourist arrivals to İzmir Cruise Port in the period of January 2005 ‐December 2013 were utilized to appropriate model. Experimental results showed that radial basis function (RBF neural network outperforms multi-layer perceptron (MLP and the generalised regression neural networks (GRNN in terms of forecasting accuracy. By the means of the obtained RBF neural network model, it has been forecasted the monthly inbound cruise tourism demand to İzmir for the year 2014.

  9. Prosumer with demand response - Distribution network impact and mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackeby, S.; Bollen, M.; Munkhammar, J.

    2013-05-15

    This report is the result from a project funded by ELFORSK done by STRI. The project is studying the effects the introduction of so called 'prosumers' (customers with own production) and electrical vehicles will have on different types of networks. Four different cases are studied covering urban and rural areas with different types of customers. In the urban areas the power through the transformer will be the limiting factor. The major impact in the cases studied is from the introduction of production from photovoltaics at the customer-side of the meter. This will result in an introduction of surplus due to production which in one case led to an increase of the absolute power through the transformer with more than 30 %, which resulted in transformer overloading. In the rural areas the voltage drop or rise will be the limiting factor. The cases studied had already high voltage drops even in the base cases. In the case studies it was seen that the voltage drop could be slightly reduced when introducing more local production, but the production also led to that voltage rise could appear. As a result the interval of the voltage variations was increased, which in turn leads to difficulties with designing the network such that neither overvoltage nor undervoltage occurs. Introducing control algorithms had a very positive effect on reducing the net production from the photovoltaics. Using both hard and soft curtailment made it possible to remove all overcurrents or overvoltages. Using hard curtailment, where all production is turned off during overcurrent or overvoltage, leads however to a large reduction in energy from renewable energy sources. Therefore soft curtailment should as much as possible be used. The control algorithms studied for reducing the net consumption had a more limited effect and even resulted in an increase of the maximum net consumption. When trying to reduce the net consumption during an overload, the reason of the overload could only be

  10. Equilibrium Model of Discrete Dynamic Supply Chain Network with Random Demand and Advertisement Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guitao Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The advertisement can increase the consumers demand; therefore it is one of the most important marketing strategies in the operations management of enterprises. This paper aims to analyze the impact of advertising investment on a discrete dynamic supply chain network which consists of suppliers, manufactures, retailers, and demand markets associated at different tiers under random demand. The impact of advertising investment will last several planning periods besides the current period due to delay effect. Based on noncooperative game theory, variational inequality, and Lagrange dual theory, the optimal economic behaviors of the suppliers, the manufactures, the retailers, and the consumers in the demand markets are modeled. In turn, the supply chain network equilibrium model is proposed and computed by modified project contraction algorithm with fixed step. The effectiveness of the model is illustrated by numerical examples, and managerial insights are obtained through the analysis of advertising investment in multiple periods and advertising delay effect among different periods.

  11. Demand Forecasting Methods in Accommodation Establishments: A Research with Artificial Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebru ULUCAN

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available As it being seen in every sector, demand forecasting in tourism is been conducted with various qualitative and quantitative methods. In recent years, artificial neural network models, which have been developed as an alternative to these forecasting methods, give the nearest values in forecasting with the smallest failure percentage. This study aims to reveal that accomodation establishments can use the neural network models as an alternative while forecasting their demand. With this aim, neural network models have been tested by using the sold room values between the period of 2013-2016 of a five star hotel in Istanbul and it is found that the results acquired from the testing models are the nearest values comparing the realized figures. In the light of these results, tourism demand of the hotel for 2017 and 2018 has been forecasted.

  12. Contracting for Competitive Supply Chains under Network Externalities and Demand Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojing Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on network externalities and demand uncertainty environment, supply chain competition model is built; we identify the valid mechanism for the alternative range of profit-sharing contracts and also analyze the effect of product substitutability coefficient and network externalities on the alliance and profit-sharing contract. The results show that the vertical alliance contributes profit improvement to both the manufacturer and the retailer when the impact of network externalities on the product substitutability is not strong. However, vertical alliance will be out of operation when the effect of network externalities on the product substitutability is strong.

  13. Utilizing artificial neural networks to predict demand for weather-sensitive products at retail stores

    OpenAIRE

    Taghizadeh, Elham

    2017-01-01

    One key requirement for effective supply chain management is the quality of its inventory management. Various inventory management methods are typically employed for different types of products based on their demand patterns, product attributes, and supply network. In this paper, our goal is to develop robust demand prediction methods for weather sensitive products at retail stores. We employ historical datasets from Walmart, whose customers and markets are often exposed to extreme weather ev...

  14. A Nondominated Genetic Algorithm Procedure for Multiobjective Discrete Network Design under Demand Uncertainty

    OpenAIRE

    Changzhi, Bian

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the multiobjective discrete network design problem under demand uncertainty. The OD travel demands are supposed to be random variables with the given probability distribution. The problem is formulated as a bilevel stochastic optimization model where the decision maker’s objective is to minimize the construction cost, the expectation, and the standard deviation of total travel time simultaneously and the user’s route choice is described using user equilibrium model on the...

  15. Natural gas demand forecast system based on the application of artificial neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanfeliu, J.M.; Doumanian, J.E.

    1997-01-01

    Gas Natural BAN, as a distribution gas company since 1993 in the north and west area of Buenos Aires Argentina, with 1,000,000 customers, had to develop a gas demand forecast system which should comply with the following basic requirements: Be able to do reliable forecasts with short historical information (2 years); Distinguish demands in areas of different characteristics, i.e. mainly residential, mainly industrial; Self-learning capability. To accomplish above goals, Gas Natural BAN chose in view of its own necessities, an artificial intelligence application (neural networks). 'SANDRA', the gas demand forecast system for gas distribution used by Gas Natural BAN, has the following features: Daily gas demand forecast, Hourly gas demand forecast and Breakdown of both forecast for each of the 3 basic zones in which the distribution area of Gas Natural BAN is divided. (au)

  16. A Nondominated Genetic Algorithm Procedure for Multiobjective Discrete Network Design under Demand Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bian Changzhi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the multiobjective discrete network design problem under demand uncertainty. The OD travel demands are supposed to be random variables with the given probability distribution. The problem is formulated as a bilevel stochastic optimization model where the decision maker’s objective is to minimize the construction cost, the expectation, and the standard deviation of total travel time simultaneously and the user’s route choice is described using user equilibrium model on the improved network under all scenarios of uncertain demand. The proposed model generates globally near-optimal Pareto solutions for network configurations based on the Monte Carlo simulation and nondominated sorting genetic algorithms II. Numerical experiments implemented on Nguyen-Dupuis test network show trade-offs among construction cost, the expectation, and standard deviation of total travel time under uncertainty are obvious. Investment on transportation facilities is an efficient method to improve the network performance and reduce risk under demand uncertainty, but it has an obvious marginal decreasing effect.

  17. Geospatial Analysis of the Building Heat Demand and Distribution Losses in a District Heating Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Törnros

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The district heating (DH demand of various systems has been simulated in several studies. Most studies focus on the temporal aspects rather than the spatial component. In this study, the DH demand for a medium-sized DH network in a city in southern Germany is simulated and analyzed in a spatially explicit approach. Initially, buildings are geo-located and attributes obtained from various sources including building type, ground area, and number of stories are merged. Thereafter, the annual primary energy demand for heating and domestic hot water is calculated for individual buildings. Subsequently, the energy demand is aggregated on the segment level of an existing DH network and the water flow is routed through the system. The simulation results show that the distribution losses are overall the highest at the end segments (given in percentage terms. However, centrally located pipes with a low throughflow are also simulated to have high losses. The spatial analyses are not only useful when addressing the current demand. Based on a scenario taking into account the refurbishment of buildings and a decentralization of energy production, the future demand was also addressed. Due to lower demand, the distribution losses given in percentage increase under such conditions.

  18. Delivery of video-on-demand services using local storages within passive optical networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeywickrama, Sandu; Wong, Elaine

    2013-01-28

    At present, distributed storage systems have been widely studied to alleviate Internet traffic build-up caused by high-bandwidth, on-demand applications. Distributed storage arrays located locally within the passive optical network were previously proposed to deliver Video-on-Demand services. As an added feature, a popularity-aware caching algorithm was also proposed to dynamically maintain the most popular videos in the storage arrays of such local storages. In this paper, we present a new dynamic bandwidth allocation algorithm to improve Video-on-Demand services over passive optical networks using local storages. The algorithm exploits the use of standard control packets to reduce the time taken for the initial request communication between the customer and the central office, and to maintain the set of popular movies in the local storage. We conduct packet level simulations to perform a comparative analysis of the Quality-of-Service attributes between two passive optical networks, namely the conventional passive optical network and one that is equipped with a local storage. Results from our analysis highlight that strategic placement of a local storage inside the network enables the services to be delivered with improved Quality-of-Service to the customer. We further formulate power consumption models of both architectures to examine the trade-off between enhanced Quality-of-Service performance versus the increased power requirement from implementing a local storage within the network.

  19. Co-Planning of Demand Response and Distributed Generators in an Active Distribution Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Yu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The integration of renewables is fast-growing, in light of smart grid technology development. As a result, the uncertain nature of renewables and load demand poses significant technical challenges to distribution network (DN daily operation. To alleviate such issues, price-sensitive demand response and distributed generators can be coordinated to accommodate the renewable energy. However, the investment cost for demand response facilities, i.e., load control switch and advanced metering infrastructure, cannot be ignored, especially when the responsive demand is large. In this paper, an optimal coordinated investment for distributed generator and demand response facilities is proposed, based on a linearized, price-elastic demand response model. To hedge against the uncertainties of renewables and load demand, a two-stage robust investment scheme is proposed, where the investment decisions are optimized in the first stage, and the demand response participation with the coordination of distributed generators is adjusted in the second stage. Simulations on the modified IEEE 33-node and 123-node DN demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed model.

  20. Prediction of energy demands using neural network with model identification by global optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokoyama, Ryohei; Wakui, Tetsuya; Satake, Ryoichi [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuen-cho, Naka-ku, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan)

    2009-02-15

    To operate energy supply plants properly from the viewpoints of stable energy supply, and energy and cost savings, it is important to predict energy demands accurately as basic conditions. Several methods of predicting energy demands have been proposed, and one of them is to use neural networks. Although local optimization methods such as gradient ones have conventionally been adopted in the back propagation procedure to identify the values of model parameters, they have the significant drawback that they can derive only local optimal solutions. In this paper, a global optimization method called ''Modal Trimming Method'' proposed for non-linear programming problems is adopted to identify the values of model parameters. In addition, the trend and periodic change are first removed from time series data on energy demand, and the converted data is used as the main input to a neural network. Furthermore, predicted values of air temperature and relative humidity are considered as additional inputs to the neural network, and their effect on the prediction of energy demand is investigated. This approach is applied to the prediction of the cooling demand in a building used for a bench mark test of a variety of prediction methods, and its validity and effectiveness are clarified. (author)

  1. Measuring the impact of negative demand shocks on car dealer networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albuquerque, P.; Bronnenberg, B.J.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to study the behavior of consumers, dealers, and manufacturers in the car sector and present an approach that can be used by managers and policy makers to investigate the impact of significant demand shocks on profits, prices, and dealer networks. More specifically, we

  2. On-demand virtual optical network access using 100 Gb/s Ethernet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Osamu; Takamichi, Toru; Arai, Sachine; Kawate, Ryusuke; Toyoda, Hidehiro; Morita, Itsuro; Araki, Soichiro; Ichikawa, Toshiyuki; Hoshida, Takeshi; Murai, Hitoshi

    2011-12-12

    Our Terabit LAN initiatives attempt to enhance the scalability and utilization of lambda resources. This paper describes bandwidth-on-demand virtualized 100GE access to WDM networks on a field fiber test-bed using multi-domain optical-path provisioning. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  3. Better Water Demand and Pipe Description Improve the Distribution Network Modeling Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Distribution system modeling simplifies pipe network in skeletonization and simulates the flow and water quality by using generalized water demand patterns. While widely used, the approach has not been examined fully on how it impacts the modeling fidelity. This study intends to ...

  4. Pseudo dynamic transitional modeling of building heating energy demand using artificial neural network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paudel, S.; Elmtiri, M.; Kling, W.L.; Corre, le O.; Lacarriere, B.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the building heating demand prediction model with occupancy profile and operational heating power level characteristics in short time horizon (a couple of days) using artificial neural network. In addition, novel pseudo dynamic transitional model is introduced, which consider

  5. Social Demand of New Generation Information Network: Introduction to High Spectral Density Optical Communication Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiya, Takeshi; Miyazaki, Tetsuya; Kubota, Fumito

    In this section, first, current situation of traffic growth and penetration of broadband services are described. Then social demand, technical issues, and research trend for future information network in the United States, Europe, and Japan are described. Finally, a detailed construction of this book is introduced.

  6. Robustness of the Drinking Water Distribution Network under Changing Future Demand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agudelo-Vera, C.; Blokker, M.; Vreeburg, J.; Bongard, T.; Hillegers, S.; Van der Hoek, J.P.

    2014-01-01

    A methodology to determine the robustness of the drinking water distribution system is proposed. The performance of three networks under ten future demand scenarios was tested, using head loss and residence time as indicators. The scenarios consider technological and demographic changes. Daily

  7. Pollution source localization in an urban water supply network based on dynamic water demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xuesong; Zhu, Zhixin; Li, Tian

    2017-10-27

    Urban water supply networks are susceptible to intentional, accidental chemical, and biological pollution, which pose a threat to the health of consumers. In recent years, drinking-water pollution incidents have occurred frequently, seriously endangering social stability and security. The real-time monitoring for water quality can be effectively implemented by placing sensors in the water supply network. However, locating the source of pollution through the data detection obtained by water quality sensors is a challenging problem. The difficulty lies in the limited number of sensors, large number of water supply network nodes, and dynamic user demand for water, which leads the pollution source localization problem to an uncertainty, large-scale, and dynamic optimization problem. In this paper, we mainly study the dynamics of the pollution source localization problem. Previous studies of pollution source localization assume that hydraulic inputs (e.g., water demand of consumers) are known. However, because of the inherent variability of urban water demand, the problem is essentially a fluctuating dynamic problem of consumer's water demand. In this paper, the water demand is considered to be stochastic in nature and can be described using Gaussian model or autoregressive model. On this basis, an optimization algorithm is proposed based on these two dynamic water demand change models to locate the pollution source. The objective of the proposed algorithm is to find the locations and concentrations of pollution sources that meet the minimum between the analogue and detection values of the sensor. Simulation experiments were conducted using two different sizes of urban water supply network data, and the experimental results were compared with those of the standard genetic algorithm.

  8. Supply-demand balance in outward-directed networks and Kleiber's law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Painter Page R

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent theories have attempted to derive the value of the exponent α in the allometric formula for scaling of basal metabolic rate from the properties of distribution network models for arteries and capillaries. It has recently been stated that a basic theorem relating the sum of nutrient currents to the specific nutrient uptake rate, together with a relationship claimed to be required in order to match nutrient supply to nutrient demand in 3-dimensional outward-directed networks, leads to Kleiber's law (b = 3/4. Methods The validity of the supply-demand matching principle and the assumptions required to prove the basic theorem are assessed. The supply-demand principle is evaluated by examining the supply term and the demand term in outward-directed lattice models of nutrient and water distribution systems and by applying the principle to fractal-like models of mammalian arterial systems. Results Application of the supply-demand principle to bifurcating fractal-like networks that are outward-directed does not predict 3/4-power scaling, and evaluation of water distribution system models shows that the matching principle does not match supply to demand in such systems. Furthermore, proof of the basic theorem is shown to require that the covariance of nutrient uptake and current path length is 0, an assumption unlikely to be true in mammalian arterial systems. Conclusion The supply-demand matching principle does not lead to a satisfactory explanation for the approximately 3/4-power scaling of mammalian basal metabolic rate.

  9. Performance Analysis of On-Demand Routing Protocols in Wireless Mesh Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arafatur RAHMAN

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Mesh Networks (WMNs have recently gained a lot of popularity due to their rapid deployment and instant communication capabilities. WMNs are dynamically self-organizing, self-configuring and self-healing with the nodes in the network automatically establishing an adiej hoc network and preserving the mesh connectivity. Designing a routing protocol for WMNs requires several aspects to consider, such as wireless networks, fixed applications, mobile applications, scalability, better performance metrics, efficient routing within infrastructure, load balancing, throughput enhancement, interference, robustness etc. To support communication, various routing protocols are designed for various networks (e.g. ad hoc, sensor, wired etc.. However, all these protocols are not suitable for WMNs, because of the architectural differences among the networks. In this paper, a detailed simulation based performance study and analysis is performed on the reactive routing protocols to verify the suitability of these protocols over such kind of networks. Ad Hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (AODV, Dynamic Source Routing (DSR and Dynamic MANET On-demand (DYMO routing protocol are considered as the representative of reactive routing protocols. The performance differentials are investigated using varying traffic load and number of source. Based on the simulation results, how the performance of each protocol can be improved is also recommended.

  10. Neural network controller for Active Demand-Side Management with PV energy in the residential sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matallanas, E.; Castillo-Cagigal, M.; Gutiérrez, A.; Monasterio-Huelin, F.; Caamaño-Martín, E.; Masa, D.; Jiménez-Leube, J.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We have developed a neural controller for Active Demand-Side Management. ► The controller consists of Multilayer Perceptrons evolved with a genetic algorithm. ► The architecture of the controller is distributed and modular. ► The simulations show that the electrical local behavior improves. ► Active Demand-Side Management helps users to control his energy behaviour. -- Abstract: In this paper, we describe the development of a control system for Demand-Side Management in the residential sector with Distributed Generation. The electrical system under study incorporates local PV energy generation, an electricity storage system, connection to the grid and a home automation system. The distributed control system is composed of two modules: a scheduler and a coordinator, both implemented with neural networks. The control system enhances the local energy performance, scheduling the tasks demanded by the user and maximizing the use of local generation.

  11. Definition of Distribution Network Tariffs Considering Distribution Generation and Demand Response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soares, Tiago; Faria, Pedro; Vale, Zita

    2014-01-01

    The use of distribution networks in the current scenario of high penetration of Distributed Generation (DG) is a problem of great importance. In the competitive environment of electricity markets and smart grids, Demand Response (DR) is also gaining notable impact with several benefits for the wh......The use of distribution networks in the current scenario of high penetration of Distributed Generation (DG) is a problem of great importance. In the competitive environment of electricity markets and smart grids, Demand Response (DR) is also gaining notable impact with several benefits...... the determination of topological distribution factors, and consequent application of the MW-mile method. The application of the proposed tariffs definition methodology is illustrated in a distribution network with 33 buses, 66 DG units, and 32 consumers with DR capacity...

  12. Peak load demand forecasting using two-level discrete wavelet decomposition and neural network algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunnoon, Pituk; Chalermyanont, Kusumal; Limsakul, Chusak

    2010-02-01

    This paper proposed the discrete transform and neural network algorithms to obtain the monthly peak load demand in mid term load forecasting. The mother wavelet daubechies2 (db2) is employed to decomposed, high pass filter and low pass filter signals from the original signal before using feed forward back propagation neural network to determine the forecasting results. The historical data records in 1997-2007 of Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand (EGAT) is used as reference. In this study, historical information of peak load demand(MW), mean temperature(Tmean), consumer price index (CPI), and industrial index (economic:IDI) are used as feature inputs of the network. The experimental results show that the Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE) is approximately 4.32%. This forecasting results can be used for fuel planning and unit commitment of the power system in the future.

  13. A robust optimization model for green regional logistics network design with uncertainty in future logistics demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dezhi Zhang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes a new model to address the design problem of a sustainable regional logistics network with uncertainty in future logistics demand. In the proposed model, the future logistics demand is assumed to be a random variable with a given probability distribution. A set of chance constraints with regard to logistics service capacity and environmental impacts is incorporated to consider the sustainability of logistics network design. The proposed model is formulated as a two-stage robust optimization problem. The first-stage problem before the realization of future logistics demand aims to minimize a risk-averse objective by determining the optimal location and size of logistics parks with CO2 emission taxes consideration. The second stage after the uncertain logistics demand has been determined is a scenario-based stochastic logistics service route choices equilibrium problem. A heuristic solution algorithm, which is a combination of penalty function method, genetic algorithm, and Gauss–Seidel decomposition approach, is developed to solve the proposed model. An illustrative example is given to show the application of the proposed model and solution algorithm. The findings show that total social welfare of the logistics system depends very much on the level of uncertainty in future logistics demand, capital budget for logistics parks, and confidence levels of the chance constraints.

  14. Transport energy demand modeling of South Korea using artificial neural network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geem, Zong Woo

    2011-01-01

    Artificial neural network models were developed to forecast South Korea's transport energy demand. Various independent variables, such as GDP, population, oil price, number of vehicle registrations, and passenger transport amount, were considered and several good models (Model 1 with GDP, population, and passenger transport amount; Model 2 with GDP, number of vehicle registrations, and passenger transport amount; and Model 3 with oil price, number of vehicle registrations, and passenger transport amount) were selected by comparing with multiple linear regression models. Although certain regression models obtained better R-squared values than neural network models, this does not guarantee the fact that the former is better than the latter because root mean squared errors of the former were much inferior to those of the latter. Also, certain regression model had structural weakness based on P-value. Instead, neural network models produced more robust results. Forecasted results using the neural network models show that South Korea will consume around 37 MTOE of transport energy in 2025. - Highlights: → Transport energy demand of South Korea was forecasted using artificial neural network. → Various variables (GDP, population, oil price, number of registrations, etc.) were considered. → Results of artificial neural network were compared with those of multiple linear regression.

  15. Limitations of demand- and pressure-driven modeling for large deficient networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Mathias; Piller, Olivier; Deuerlein, Jochen; Mortazavi, Iraj

    2017-10-01

    The calculation of hydraulic state variables for a network is an important task in managing the distribution of potable water. Over the years the mathematical modeling process has been improved by numerous researchers for utilization in new computer applications and the more realistic modeling of water distribution networks. But, in spite of these continuous advances, there are still a number of physical phenomena that may not be tackled correctly by current models. This paper will take a closer look at the two modeling paradigms given by demand- and pressure-driven modeling. The basic equations are introduced and parallels are drawn with the optimization formulations from electrical engineering. These formulations guarantee the existence and uniqueness of the solution. One of the central questions of the French and German research project ResiWater is the investigation of the network resilience in the case of extreme events or disasters. Under such extraordinary conditions where models are pushed beyond their limits, we talk about deficient network models. Examples of deficient networks are given by highly regulated flow, leakage or pipe bursts and cases where pressure falls below the vapor pressure of water. These examples will be presented and analyzed on the solvability and physical correctness of the solution with respect to demand- and pressure-driven models.

  16. The General Evolving Model for Energy Supply-Demand Network with Local-World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Mei; Han, Dun; Li, Dandan; Fang, Cuicui

    2013-10-01

    In this paper, two general bipartite network evolving models for energy supply-demand network with local-world are proposed. The node weight distribution, the "shifting coefficient" and the scaling exponent of two different kinds of nodes are presented by the mean-field theory. The numerical results of the node weight distribution and the edge weight distribution are also investigated. The production's shifted power law (SPL) distribution of coal enterprises and the installed capacity's distribution of power plants in the US are obtained from the empirical analysis. Numerical simulations and empirical results are given to verify the theoretical results.

  17. Competitive closed-loop supply chain network design with price-dependent demands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rezapour, Shabnam; Farahani, Reza Zanjirani; Fahimnia, Behnam

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This paper presents a bi-level model for the strategic reverse network design (upper level) and tactical/operational planning (lower level) of a closed-loop single-period supply chain operating in a competitive environment with price-dependent market demand. An existing supply chain (SC...... for the supply of new and remanufactured products. The performance behaviors of both SCs are evaluated with specific focus placed on investigating the impacts of the strategic facility location decisions of the new SC on the tactical/operational transport and inventory decisions of the overall network. The bi...

  18. Flexible Demand Control to Enhance the Dynamic Operation of Low Voltage Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diaz de Cerio Mendaza, Iker; Szczesny, Ireneusz Grzegorz; Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna

    2015-01-01

    Moving towards a carbon free energy system has become an objective for many countries nowadays. Among other changes, the electrification of strategic sectors such as heating and transportation is inevitable. As a consequence, the current power system load will substantially increase...... for controlling the demand response of a low voltage grid. This is designed to; i) maximize the grid utilization, thereby reducing the need for reinforcement, ii) accommodate the maximum number of flexible loads and iii) satisfy the power and comfort requirements from each of the consumers in the network....... In this context, the nature of the expected loads (heat pumps, plug-in electric vehicles, etc.) makes the low voltage networks specially targeted. A promising solution to overcome the challenges resulting from their grid integration, is demand response. This paper introduces a hierarchical structure...

  19. A Novel approach for predicting monthly water demand by combining singular spectrum analysis with neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubaidi, Salah L.; Dooley, Jayne; Alkhaddar, Rafid M.; Abdellatif, Mawada; Al-Bugharbee, Hussein; Ortega-Martorell, Sandra

    2018-06-01

    Valid and dependable water demand prediction is a major element of the effective and sustainable expansion of municipal water infrastructures. This study provides a novel approach to quantifying water demand through the assessment of climatic factors, using a combination of a pretreatment signal technique, a hybrid particle swarm optimisation algorithm and an artificial neural network (PSO-ANN). The Singular Spectrum Analysis (SSA) technique was adopted to decompose and reconstruct water consumption in relation to six weather variables, to create a seasonal and stochastic time series. The results revealed that SSA is a powerful technique, capable of decomposing the original time series into many independent components including trend, oscillatory behaviours and noise. In addition, the PSO-ANN algorithm was shown to be a reliable prediction model, outperforming the hybrid Backtracking Search Algorithm BSA-ANN in terms of fitness function (RMSE). The findings of this study also support the view that water demand is driven by climatological variables.

  20. Supply-demand balance in outward-directed networks and Kleiber's law

    OpenAIRE

    Painter Page R

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Recent theories have attempted to derive the value of the exponent α in the allometric formula for scaling of basal metabolic rate from the properties of distribution network models for arteries and capillaries. It has recently been stated that a basic theorem relating the sum of nutrient currents to the specific nutrient uptake rate, together with a relationship claimed to be required in order to match nutrient supply to nutrient demand in 3-dimensional outward-directed n...

  1. Optimizing Bus Frequencies under Uncertain Demand: Case Study of the Transit Network in a Developing City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengfeng Huang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Various factors can make predicting bus passenger demand uncertain. In this study, a bilevel programming model for optimizing bus frequencies based on uncertain bus passenger demand is formulated. There are two terms constituting the upper-level objective. The first is transit network cost, consisting of the passengers’ expected travel time and operating costs, and the second is transit network robustness performance, indicated by the variance in passenger travel time. The second term reflects the risk aversion of decision maker, and it can make the most uncertain demand be met by the bus operation with the optimal transit frequency. With transit link’s proportional flow eigenvalues (mean and covariance obtained from the lower-level model, the upper-level objective is formulated by the analytical method. In the lower-level model, the above two eigenvalues are calculated by analyzing the propagation of mean transit trips and their variation in the optimal strategy transit assignment process. The genetic algorithm (GA used to solve the model is tested in an example network. Finally, the model is applied to determining optimal bus frequencies in the city of Liupanshui, China. The total cost of the transit system in Liupanshui can be reduced by about 6% via this method.

  2. Multi-Model Prediction for Demand Forecast in Water Distribution Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Lopez Farias

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a multi-model predictor called Qualitative Multi-Model Predictor Plus (QMMP+ for demand forecast in water distribution networks. QMMP+ is based on the decomposition of the quantitative and qualitative information of the time-series. The quantitative component (i.e., the daily consumption prediction is forecasted and the pattern mode estimated using a Nearest Neighbor (NN classifier and a Calendar. The patterns are updated via a simple Moving Average scheme. The NN classifier and the Calendar are executed simultaneously every period and the most suited model for prediction is selected using a probabilistic approach. The proposed solution for water demand forecast is compared against Radial Basis Function Artificial Neural Networks (RBF-ANN, the statistical Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA, and Double Seasonal Holt-Winters (DSHW approaches, providing the best results when applied to real demand of the Barcelona Water Distribution Network. QMMP+ has demonstrated that the special modelling treatment of water consumption patterns improves the forecasting accuracy.

  3. Hybrid Forecasting Approach Based on GRNN Neural Network and SVR Machine for Electricity Demand Forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weide Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate electric power demand forecasting plays a key role in electricity markets and power systems. The electric power demand is usually a non-linear problem due to various unknown reasons, which make it difficult to get accurate prediction by traditional methods. The purpose of this paper is to propose a novel hybrid forecasting method for managing and scheduling the electricity power. EEMD-SCGRNN-PSVR, the proposed new method, combines ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD, seasonal adjustment (S, cross validation (C, general regression neural network (GRNN and support vector regression machine optimized by the particle swarm optimization algorithm (PSVR. The main idea of EEMD-SCGRNN-PSVR is respectively to forecast waveform and trend component that hidden in demand series to substitute directly forecasting original electric demand. EEMD-SCGRNN-PSVR is used to predict the one week ahead half-hour’s electricity demand in two data sets (New South Wales (NSW and Victorian State (VIC in Australia. Experimental results show that the new hybrid model outperforms the other three models in terms of forecasting accuracy and model robustness.

  4. Sustainability Analysis and Market Demand Estimation in the Retail Industry through a Convolutional Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luyao Wang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The Chinese retail industry is expected to grow dramatically over the next few years, owing to the rapid increase in purchasing power of Chinese consumers. Retail managers should analyze the market demands and avoid dull sales to promote the sustainable development of the retail industry. Economic sustainability in the retail industry, which refers to a suitable return of investment, requires the implementation of precise product allocation strategies in different regions. This study proposed a hybrid model to evaluate economic sustainability in the preparation of goods of retail shops on the basis of market demand evaluation. Through a grid-based convolutional neural network, a regression model was first established to model the relationship between consumer distribution and the potential market demand. Then, another model was proposed to evaluate the sustainability among regions based on their supply-demand analysis. An experiment was conducted based on the actual sales data of retail shops in Guiyang, China. Results showed an immense diversity of sustainability in the entire city and three classes of regions were distinguished, namely, high, moderate, and limited. Our model was proven to be effective in the sustainability evaluation of supply and demand in the retail industry after validation showed that its accuracy reached 92.8%.

  5. A multi-period distribution network design model under demand uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabrizi, Babak H.; Razmi, Jafar

    2013-05-01

    Supply chain management is taken into account as an inseparable component in satisfying customers' requirements. This paper deals with the distribution network design (DND) problem which is a critical issue in achieving supply chain accomplishments. A capable DND can guarantee the success of the entire network performance. However, there are many factors that can cause fluctuations in input data determining market treatment, with respect to short-term planning, on the one hand. On the other hand, network performance may be threatened by the changes that take place within practicing periods, with respect to long-term planning. Thus, in order to bring both kinds of changes under control, we considered a new multi-period, multi-commodity, multi-source DND problem in circumstances where the network encounters uncertain demands. The fuzzy logic is applied here as an efficient tool for controlling the potential customers' demand risk. The defuzzifying framework leads the practitioners and decision-makers to interact with the solution procedure continuously. The fuzzy model is then validated by a sensitivity analysis test, and a typical problem is solved in order to illustrate the implementation steps. Finally, the formulation is tested by some different-sized problems to show its total performance.

  6. Enhancing On-Demand Multicast Routing Protocols using Mobility Prediction in Mobile Ad-hoc Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nermin Makhlouf

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET is a self-organizing wireless communication network in which mobile devices are based on no infrastructure like base stations or access points. Minimal configuration and quick deployment make ad hoc networks suitable for emergency situations like disaster recovery or military conflict. Since node mobility may cause links to be broken frequently, a very important issue for routing in MANETs is how to set reliable paths which can last as long as possible. To solve this problem, non-random behaviors for the mobility patterns that mobile users exhibit are exploited. This paper introduces a scheme to improve On-Demand Multicast Routing Protocol (ODMRP performances by using mobility prediction. 

  7. Integration of V2H/V2G Hybrid System for Demand Response in Distribution Network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yubo; Sheikh, Omar; Hu, Boyang; Chu, Chi-Cheng; Gadh, Rajit

    2014-11-03

    Integration of Electrical Vehicles (EVs) with power grid not only brings new challenges for load management, but also opportunities for distributed storage and generation in distribution network. With the introduction of Vehicle-to-Home (V2H) and Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G), EVs can help stabilize the operation of power grid. This paper proposed and implemented a hybrid V2H/V2G system with commercialized EVs, which is able to support both islanded AC/DC load and the power grid with one single platform. Standard industrial communication protocols are implemented for a seamless respond to remote Demand Respond (DR) signals. Simulation and implementation are carried out to validate the proposed design. Simulation and implementation results showed that the hybrid system is capable of support critical islanded DC/AC load and quickly respond to the remote DR signal for V2G within 1.5kW of power range.

  8. Mobile cloud networking: mobile network, compute, and storage as one service on-demand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jamakovic, Almerima; Bohnert, Thomas Michael; Karagiannis, Georgios; Galis, A.; Gavras, A.

    2013-01-01

    The Future Communication Architecture for Mobile Cloud Services: Mobile Cloud Networking (MCN)1 is a EU FP7 Large scale Integrating Project (IP) funded by the European Commission. MCN project was launched in November 2012 for the period of 36 month. In total top-tier 19 partners from industry and

  9. On achieving network throughput demand in cognitive radio-based home area networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarijari, M.A.B.; Abdullah, M.S.; Janssen, G.J.M.; Van der Veen, A.J.

    2015-01-01

    The growing number of wireless devices for in-house use is causing a more intense use of the spectrum to satisfy the required quality-of-service such as throughput. This has contributed to spectrum scarcity and interference problems particularly in home area networks (HAN). Cognitive radio (CR) has

  10. First field trial of Virtual Network Operator oriented network on demand (NoD) service provisioning over software defined multi-vendor OTN networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yajie; Zhao, Yongli; Zhang, Jie; Yu, Xiaosong; Chen, Haoran; Zhu, Ruijie; Zhou, Quanwei; Yu, Chenbei; Cui, Rui

    2017-01-01

    A Virtual Network Operator (VNO) is a provider and reseller of network services from other telecommunications suppliers. These network providers are categorized as virtual because they do not own the underlying telecommunication infrastructure. In terms of business operation, VNO can provide customers with personalized services by leasing network infrastructure from traditional network providers. The unique business modes of VNO lead to the emergence of network on demand (NoD) services. The conventional network provisioning involves a series of manual operation and configuration, which leads to high cost in time. Considering the advantages of Software Defined Networking (SDN), this paper proposes a novel NoD service provisioning solution to satisfy the private network need of VNOs. The solution is first verified in the real software defined multi-domain optical networks with multi-vendor OTN equipment. With the proposed solution, NoD service can be deployed via online web portals in near-real time. It reinvents the customer experience and redefines how network services are delivered to customers via an online self-service portal. Ultimately, this means a customer will be able to simply go online, click a few buttons and have new services almost instantaneously.

  11. The energy demand of fast neuronal network oscillations: insights from brain slice preparations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver eKann

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fast neuronal network oscillations in the gamma range (30-100 Hz in the cerebral cortex have been implicated in higher cognitive functions such as sensual perception, working memory, and, perhaps, consciousness. However, little is known about the energy demand of gamma oscillations. This is mainly caused by technical limitations that are associated with simultaneous recordings of neuronal activity and energy metabolism in small neuronal networks and at the level of mitochondria in vivo. Thus recent studies have focused on brain slice preparations to address the energy demand of gamma oscillations in vitro. Here, reports will be summarized and discussed that combined electrophysiological recordings, oxygen sensor microelectrodes and live-cell fluorescence imaging in acutely prepared slices and organotypic slice cultures of the hippocampus from both, mouse and rat. These reports consistently show that gamma oscillations can be reliably induced in hippocampal slice preparations by different pharmacological tools. They suggest that gamma oscillations are associated with high energy demand, requiring both rapid adaptation of oxidative energy metabolism and sufficient supply with oxygen and nutrients. These findings might help to explain the exceptional vulnerability of higher cognitive functions during pathological processes of the brain, such as circulatory disturbances, genetic mitochondrial diseases, and neurodegeneration.

  12. Forecasting Electricity Demand in Thailand with an Artificial Neural Network Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Kandananond

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Demand planning for electricity consumption is a key success factor for the development of any countries. However, this can only be achieved if the demand is forecasted accurately. In this research, different forecasting methods—autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA, artificial neural network (ANN and multiple linear regression (MLR—were utilized to formulate prediction models of the electricity demand in Thailand. The objective was to compare the performance of these three approaches and the empirical data used in this study was the historical data regarding the electricity demand (population, gross domestic product: GDP, stock index, revenue from exporting industrial products and electricity consumption in Thailand from 1986 to 2010. The results showed that the ANN model reduced the mean absolute percentage error (MAPE to 0.996%, while those of ARIMA and MLR were 2.80981 and 3.2604527%, respectively. Based on these error measures, the results indicated that the ANN approach outperformed the ARIMA and MLR methods in this scenario. However, the paired test indicated that there was no significant difference among these methods at α = 0.05. According to the principle of parsimony, the ARIMA and MLR models might be preferable to the ANN one because of their simple structure and competitive performance

  13. Video-on-demand network design and maintenance using fuzzy optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abadpour, Arash; Alfa, Attahiru Sule; Diamond, Jeff

    2008-04-01

    Video-on-demand (VoD) is the entertainment source that, in the future, will likely overtake regular television in many aspects. Although many companies have deployed working VoD services, some aspects of the VoD should still undergo further improvement in order for it to reach to the foreseen potentials. An important aspect of a VoD system is the underlying network in which it operates. According to the huge number of customers in this network, it should be carefully designed to fulfill certain performance criteria. This process should be capable of finding optimal locations for the nodes of the network as well as determining the content that should be cached in each one. While this problem is categorized in the general group of network optimization problems, its specific characteristics demand a new solution to be sought for it. In this paper, which is inspired by the successful use of fuzzy optimization in similar problems in other fields, a fuzzy objective function that is heuristically shown to minimize the communication cost in a VoD network is derived while also controlling the storage cost. Then, an iterative algorithm is proposed to find a locally optimal solution to the proposed objective function. Capitalizing on the unrepeatable tendency of the proposed algorithm, a heuristic method for picking a good solution from a bundle of solutions produced by the proposed algorithm is also suggested. This paper includes a formal statement of the problem and its mathematical analysis. In addition, different scenarios in which the proposed algorithm can be utilized are discussed.

  14. DReAM: Demand Response Architecture for Multi-level District Heating and Cooling Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharya, Saptarshi; Chandan, Vikas; Arya, Vijay; Kar, Koushik

    2017-05-19

    In this paper, we exploit the inherent hierarchy of heat exchangers in District Heating and Cooling (DHC) networks and propose DReAM, a novel Demand Response (DR) architecture for Multi-level DHC networks. DReAM serves to economize system operation while still respecting comfort requirements of individual consumers. Contrary to many present day DR schemes that work on a consumer level granularity, DReAM works at a level of hierarchy above buildings, i.e. substations that supply heat to a group of buildings. This improves the overall DR scalability and reduce the computational complexity. In the first step of the proposed approach, mathematical models of individual substations and their downstream networks are abstracted into appropriately constructed low-complexity structural forms. In the second step, this abstracted information is employed by the utility to perform DR optimization that determines the optimal heat inflow to individual substations rather than buildings, in order to achieve the targeted objectives across the network. We validate the proposed DReAM framework through experimental results under different scenarios on a test network.

  15. Anticipation of Traffic Demands to Guarantee QoS in IP/Optical Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Pinart

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Traffic in the Internet backbone is expected to grow above a few Tbit/s in 2020. To cope with this, operators are moving to IP/optical network architectures, where IP is the convergence layer for all services. On the other hand, the quality of service (QoS requirements of future applications encompasses the individualization of services and the assurance of stricter quality parameters such as latency, jitter or capacity. In other words, future optical networks will not only transport more IP data, but they will also have to offer differentiated QoS requirements to services. Finally, some emerging applications, e.g., grid computing, need greater flexibility in the usage of network resources, which involves establishing and releasing connections as if they were virtualized resources controlled by other elements or layers. In this context, traffic-driven lightpath provisioning and service-plane approaches arise as very interesting candidate solutions to solve the main challenges described above. This work reviews the concepts of service-oriented and self-managed networks and relates them to propose an integrated approach to assure QoS by offering flow-aware networking in the sense that traffic demands will be anticipated in a suitable way, lightpaths will be established taking into account QoS information (i.e., impairments and complex services will be decomposed into optical connections so that the above techniques can be employed to assure QoS for any service.

  16. Evaluating auditory perception and communication demands required to carry out work tasks and complimentary hearing resources and skills for older workers with hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, M B; Shaw, L; Hodgins, H; Kuchar, D A; Bataghva, L Poost-Foroosh

    2010-01-01

    For older workers with acquired hearing loss, this loss as well as the changing nature of work and the workforce, may lead to difficulties and disadvantages in obtaining and maintaining employment. Currently there are very few instruments that can assist workplaces, employers and workers to prepare for older workers with hearing loss or with the evaluation of auditory perception demands of work, especially those relevant to communication, and safety sensitive workplaces that require high levels of communication. This paper introduces key theoretical considerations that informed the development of a new framework, The Audiologic Ergonomic (AE) Framework to guide audiologists, work rehabilitation professionals and workers in developing tools to support the identification and evaluation of auditory perception demands in the workplace, the challenges to communication and the subsequent productivity and safety in the performance of work duties by older workers with hearing loss. The theoretical concepts underpinning this framework are discussed along with next steps in developing tools such as the Canadian Hearing Demands Tool (C-HearD Tool) in advancing approaches to evaluate auditory perception and communication demands in the workplace.

  17. Strategic and Tactical Design of Competing Decentralized Supply Chain Networks with Risk-Averse Participants for Markets with Uncertain Demand

    OpenAIRE

    Hafezalkotob, Ashkan; Makui, Ahmad; Sadjadi, Seyed Jafar

    2011-01-01

    An integrated equilibrium model for tactical decisions in network design is developed. We consider a decentralized supply chain network operating in markets under uncertain demands when there is a rival decentralized chain. The primary assumption is that two chains provide partial substitutable products to the markets, and markets' demands are affected by tactical decisions such as price, service level, and advertising expenditure. Each chain consists of one risk-averse manufacturer and a set...

  18. Comprehensive Forecast of Urban Water-Energy Demand Based on a Neural Network Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziyi Yin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Water-energy nexus has been a popular topic of rese arch in recent years. The relationships between the demand for water resources and energy are intense and closely connected in urban areas. The primary, secondary, and tertiary industry gross domestic product (GDP, the total population, the urban population, annual precipitation, agricultural and industrial water consumption, tap water supply, the total discharge of industrial wastewater, the daily sewage treatment capacity, total and domestic electricity consumption, and the consumption of coal in industrial enterprises above the designed size were chosen as input indicators. A feedforward artificial neural network model (ANN based on a back-propagation algorithm with two hidden layers was constructed to combine urban water resources with energy demand. This model used historical data from 1991 to 2016 from Wuxi City, eastern China. Furthermore, a multiple linear regression model (MLR was introduced for comparison with the ANN. The results show the following: (a The mean relative error values of the forecast and historical urban water-energy demands are 1.58 % and 2.71%, respectively; (b The predicted water-energy demand value for 2020 is 4.843 billion cubic meters and 47.561 million tons of standard coal equivalent; (c The predicted water-energy demand value in the year 2030 is 5.887 billion cubic meters and 60.355 million tons of standard coal equivalent; (d Compared with the MLR, the ANN performed better in fitting training data, which achieved a more satisfactory accuracy and may provide a reference for urban water-energy supply planning decisions.

  19. An On-Demand Emergency Packet Transmission Scheme for Wireless Body Area Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Ameen, Moshaddique; Hong, Choong Seon

    2015-12-04

    The rapid developments of sensor devices that can actively monitor human activities have given rise to a new field called wireless body area network (BAN). A BAN can manage devices in, on and around the human body. Major requirements of such a network are energy efficiency, long lifetime, low delay, security, etc. Traffic in a BAN can be scheduled (normal) or event-driven (emergency). Traditional media access control (MAC) protocols use duty cycling to improve performance. A sleep-wake up cycle is employed to save energy. However, this mechanism lacks features to handle emergency traffic in a prompt and immediate manner. To deliver an emergency packet, a node has to wait until the receiver is awake. It also suffers from overheads, such as idle listening, overhearing and control packet handshakes. An external radio-triggered wake up mechanism is proposed to handle prompt communication. It can reduce the overheads and improve the performance through an on-demand scheme. In this work, we present a simple-to-implement on-demand packet transmission scheme by taking into considerations the requirements of a BAN. The major concern is handling the event-based emergency traffic. The performance analysis of the proposed scheme is presented. The results showed significant improvements in the overall performance of a BAN compared to state-of-the-art protocols in terms of energy consumption, delay and lifetime.

  20. An On-Demand Emergency Packet Transmission Scheme for Wireless Body Area Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moshaddique Al Ameen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The rapid developments of sensor devices that can actively monitor human activities have given rise to a new field called wireless body area network (BAN. A BAN can manage devices in, on and around the human body. Major requirements of such a network are energy efficiency, long lifetime, low delay, security, etc. Traffic in a BAN can be scheduled (normal or event-driven (emergency. Traditional media access control (MAC protocols use duty cycling to improve performance. A sleep-wake up cycle is employed to save energy. However, this mechanism lacks features to handle emergency traffic in a prompt and immediate manner. To deliver an emergency packet, a node has to wait until the receiver is awake. It also suffers from overheads, such as idle listening, overhearing and control packet handshakes. An external radio-triggered wake up mechanism is proposed to handle prompt communication. It can reduce the overheads and improve the performance through an on-demand scheme. In this work, we present a simple-to-implement on-demand packet transmission scheme by taking into considerations the requirements of a BAN. The major concern is handling the event-based emergency traffic. The performance analysis of the proposed scheme is presented. The results showed significant improvements in the overall performance of a BAN compared to state-of-the-art protocols in terms of energy consumption, delay and lifetime.

  1. Receiver-Based Ad Hoc On Demand Multipath Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Nahari, Abdulaziz; Mohamad, Mohd Murtadha

    2016-01-01

    Decreasing the route rediscovery time process in reactive routing protocols is challenging in mobile ad hoc networks. Links between nodes are continuously established and broken because of the characteristics of the network. Finding multiple routes to increase the reliability is also important but requires a fast update, especially in high traffic load and high mobility where paths can be broken as well. The sender node keeps re-establishing path discovery to find new paths, which makes for long time delay. In this paper we propose an improved multipath routing protocol, called Receiver-based ad hoc on demand multipath routing protocol (RB-AOMDV), which takes advantage of the reliability of the state of the art ad hoc on demand multipath distance vector (AOMDV) protocol with less re-established discovery time. The receiver node assumes the role of discovering paths when finding data packets that have not been received after a period of time. Simulation results show the delay and delivery ratio performances are improved compared with AOMDV.

  2. Integrated Strategic Planning of Global Production Networks and Financial Hedging under Uncertain Demands and Exchange Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achim Koberstein

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a multi-stage stochastic programming model that integrates financial hedging decisions into the planning of strategic production networks under uncertain exchange rates and product demands. This model considers the expenses of production plants and the revenues of markets in different currency areas. Financial portfolio planning decisions for two types of financial instruments, forward contracts and options, are represented explicitly by multi-period decision variables and a multi-stage scenario tree. Using an illustrative example, we analyze the impact of exchange-rate and demand volatility, the level of investment expenses and interest rate spreads on capacity location and dimensioning decisions. In particular, we show that, in the illustrative example, the exchange-rate uncertainty cannot be completely eliminated by financial hedging in the presence of demand uncertainty. In this situation, we find that the integrated model can result in better strategic planning decisions for a risk-averse decision maker compared to traditional modeling approaches.

  3. 77 FR 3544 - Meeting and Webinar on the Active Traffic and Demand Management and Intelligent Network Flow...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-24

    ... Intelligent Network Flow Optimization Operational Concepts; Notice of Public Meeting AGENCY: Research and... Demand Management (ADTM) and Intelligent Network Flow Optimization (INFLO) operational concepts. The ADTM... infrastructure. The vision for ATDM research is to allow transportation agencies to increase traffic flow...

  4. Influence of road network and population demand assumptions in evacuation modeling for distant tsunamis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Kevin; Wood, Nathan J.; Frazier, Tim G.

    2017-01-01

    Tsunami evacuation planning in coastal communities is typically focused on local events where at-risk individuals must move on foot in a matter of minutes to safety. Less attention has been placed on distant tsunamis, where evacuations unfold over several hours, are often dominated by vehicle use and are managed by public safety officials. Traditional traffic simulation models focus on estimating clearance times but often overlook the influence of varying population demand, alternative modes, background traffic, shadow evacuation, and traffic management alternatives. These factors are especially important for island communities with limited egress options to safety. We use the coastal community of Balboa Island, California (USA), as a case study to explore the range of potential clearance times prior to wave arrival for a distant tsunami scenario. We use a first-in–first-out queuing simulation environment to estimate variations in clearance times, given varying assumptions of the evacuating population (demand) and the road network over which they evacuate (supply). Results suggest clearance times are less than wave arrival times for a distant tsunami, except when we assume maximum vehicle usage for residents, employees, and tourists for a weekend scenario. A two-lane bridge to the mainland was the primary traffic bottleneck, thereby minimizing the effect of departure times, shadow evacuations, background traffic, boat-based evacuations, and traffic light timing on overall community clearance time. Reducing vehicular demand generally reduced clearance time, whereas improvements to road capacity had mixed results. Finally, failure to recognize non-residential employee and tourist populations in the vehicle demand substantially underestimated clearance time.

  5. Quality-on-Demand Compression of EEG Signals for Telemedicine Applications Using Neural Network Predictors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Sriraam

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A telemedicine system using communication and information technology to deliver medical signals such as ECG, EEG for long distance medical services has become reality. In either the urgent treatment or ordinary healthcare, it is necessary to compress these signals for the efficient use of bandwidth. This paper discusses a quality on demand compression of EEG signals using neural network predictors for telemedicine applications. The objective is to obtain a greater compression gains at a low bit rate while preserving the clinical information content. A two-stage compression scheme with a predictor and an entropy encoder is used. The residue signals obtained after prediction is first thresholded using various levels of thresholds and are further quantized and then encoded using an arithmetic encoder. Three neural network models, single-layer and multi-layer perceptrons and Elman network are used and the results are compared with linear predictors such as FIR filters and AR modeling. The fidelity of the reconstructed EEG signal is assessed quantitatively using parameters such as PRD, SNR, cross correlation and power spectral density. It is found from the results that the quality of the reconstructed signal is preserved at a low PRD thereby yielding better compression results compared to results obtained using lossless scheme.

  6. Accreditation and training on internal dosimetry in a laboratory network in Brazil: an increasing demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantas, B M; Dantas, A L A; Acar, M E D; Cardoso, J C S; Julião, L M Q C; Lima, M F; Taddei, M H T; Arine, D R; Alonso, T; Ramos, M A P; Fajgelj, A

    2011-03-01

    In recent years, Brazilian Nuclear Programme has been reviewed and updated by government authorities in face of the demand for energy supply and its associated environmental constraints. The immediate impact of new national programmes and projects in nuclear field is the increase in the number of exposed personnel and the consequent need for reliable dosimetry services in the country. Several Technical Documents related to internal dosimetry have been released by the International Atomic Energy Agency and International Commission on Radiological Protection. However, standard bioassay procedures and methodologies for bioassay data interpretation are still under discussion and, in some cases, both in routine and emergency internal monitoring, procedures can vary from one laboratory to another and responses may differ markedly among Dosimetry Laboratories. Thus, it may be difficult to interpret and use bioassay data generated from different laboratories of a network. The main goal of this work is to implement a National Network of Laboratories aimed to provide reliable internal monitoring services in Brazil. The establishment of harmonised in vivo and in vitro radioanalytical techniques, dose assessment methods and the implementation of the ISO/IEC 17025 requirements will result in the recognition of technical competence of the network.

  7. Strategic and Tactical Design of Competing Decentralized Supply Chain Networks with Risk-Averse Participants for Markets with Uncertain Demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashkan Hafezalkotob

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An integrated equilibrium model for tactical decisions in network design is developed. We consider a decentralized supply chain network operating in markets under uncertain demands when there is a rival decentralized chain. The primary assumption is that two chains provide partial substitutable products to the markets, and markets' demands are affected by tactical decisions such as price, service level, and advertising expenditure. Each chain consists of one risk-averse manufacturer and a set of risk-averse retailers. The strategic decisions are frequently taking precedence over tactical ones. Therefore, we first find equilibrium of tactical decisions for each possible scenario of supply chain network. Afterwards, we find optimal distribution network of the new supply chain by the scenario evaluation method. Numerical example, including sensitivity analysis will illustrate how the conservative behaviors of chains' members affect expected demand, profit, and utility of each distribution scenario.

  8. Impact Analysis of Demand Response Intensity and Energy Storage Size on Operation of Networked Microgrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhtar Hussain

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Integration of demand response (DR programs and battery energy storage system (BESS in microgrids are beneficial for both microgrid owners and consumers. The intensity of DR programs and BESS size can alter the operation of microgrids. Meanwhile, the optimal size for BESS units is linked with the uncertainties associated with renewable energy sources and load variations. Similarly, the participation of enrolled customers in DR programs is also uncertain and, among various other factors, uncertainty in market prices is a major cause. Therefore, in this paper, the impact of DR program intensity and BESS size on the operation of networked microgrids is analyzed while considering the prevailing uncertainties. The uncertainties associated with forecast load values, output of renewable generators, and market price are realized via the robust optimization method. Robust optimization has the capability to provide immunity against the worst-case scenario, provided the uncertainties lie within the specified bounds. The worst-case scenario of the prevailing uncertainties is considered for evaluating the feasibility of the proposed method. The two representative categories of DR programs, i.e., price-based and incentive-based DR programs are considered. The impact of change in DR intensity and BESS size on operation cost of the microgrid network, external power trading, internal power transfer, load profile of the network, and state-of-charge (SOC of battery energy storage system (BESS units is analyzed. Simulation results are analyzed to determine the integration of favorable DR program and/or BESS units for different microgrid networks with diverse objectives.

  9. Real-Time Congestion Management in Distribution Networks by Flexible Demand Swap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Shaojun; Wu, Qiuwei

    2017-01-01

    In addition to the day-ahead congestion management in distribution networks, the real-time congestion management is very important because many unforeseen events can occur at the real operation time, e.g. loss of generation of distributed energy resources (DERs) or inaccurate forecast of energy...... pumps (HPs) for real time congestion management. The swap method can maintain the power balance of the system and avoid the imbalance cost of activating the flexibility service. An algorithm for forming swaps through optimal power flow (OPF) and mixed integer linear programming (MILP) is proposed...... consumption or production. Flexibility service from demand will be a good option to solve the real-time congestions if the cost of activating the flexibility service is fully addressed. This paper proposes a new method, namely “swap”, to employ the flexibility service from electric vehicles (EVs) and heat...

  10. Multi-Time Scale Control of Demand Flexibility in Smart Distribution Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhattarai, Bishnu P.; Myers, Kurt S.; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2017-01-01

    , and distribution system operator’s perspectives. A hierarchical control architecture (HCA) comprising scheduling, coordinative, and adaptive layers is then designed to realize their coordinative goal. This is realized by integrating multi-time scale controls that work from a day-ahead scheduling up to real-time...... adaptive control. The performance of the developed method is investigated with high EV penetration in a typical residential distribution grid. The simulation results demonstrate that HCA efficiently utilizes demand flexibility stemming from EVs to solve grid unbalancing and congestions with simultaneous...... maximization of economic benefits to the participating actors. This is ensured by enabling EV participation in day-ahead, balancing, and regulation markets. For the given network configuration and pricing structure, HCA ensures the EV owners to get paid up to five times the cost they were paying without...

  11. Demand Response Design and Use Based on Network Locational Marginal Prices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morais, Hugo; Faria, Pedro; Vale, Zita

    2014-01-01

    Power systems have been experiencing huge changes mainly due to the substantial increase of distributed generation (DG) and the operation in competitive environments. Virtual Power Players (VPP) can aggregate several players, namely a diversity of energy resources, including distributed generation...... (DG) based on several technologies, electric storage systems (ESS) and demand response (DR). Energy resources management gains an increasing relevance in this competitive context. This makes the DR use more interesting and flexible, giving place to a wide range of new opportunities. This paper...... proposes a methodology to support VPPs in the DR programs’ management, considering all the existing energy resources (generation and storage units) and the distribution network. The proposed method is based on locational marginal prices (LMP) values. The evaluation of the impact of using DR specific...

  12. Emergency response network design for hazardous materials transportation with uncertain demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamran Shahanaghi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Transportation of hazardous materials play an essential role on keeping a friendly environment. Every day, a substantial amount of hazardous materials (hazmats, such as flammable liquids and poisonous gases, need to be transferred prior to consumption or disposal. Such transportation may result in unsuitable events for people and environment. Emergency response network is designed for this reason where specialist responding teams resolve any issue as quickly as possible. This study proposes a new multi-objective model to locate emergency response centers for transporting the hazardous materials. Since many real-world applications are faced with uncertainty in input parameters, the proposed model of this paper also assumes that reference and demand to such centre is subject to uncertainty, where demand is fuzzy random. The resulted problem formulation is modelled as nonlinear non-convex mixed integer programming and we used NSGAII method to solve the resulted problem. The performance of the proposed model is examined with several examples using various probability distribution and they are compared with the performance of other existing method.

  13. Multi-Time Scale Control of Demand Flexibility in Smart Distribution Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bishnu P. Bhattarai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a multi-timescale control strategy to deploy electric vehicle (EV demand flexibility for simultaneously providing power balancing, grid congestion management, and economic benefits to participating actors. First, an EV charging problem is investigated from consumer, aggregator, and distribution system operator’s perspectives. A hierarchical control architecture (HCA comprising scheduling, coordinative, and adaptive layers is then designed to realize their coordinative goal. This is realized by integrating multi-time scale controls that work from a day-ahead scheduling up to real-time adaptive control. The performance of the developed method is investigated with high EV penetration in a typical residential distribution grid. The simulation results demonstrate that HCA efficiently utilizes demand flexibility stemming from EVs to solve grid unbalancing and congestions with simultaneous maximization of economic benefits to the participating actors. This is ensured by enabling EV participation in day-ahead, balancing, and regulation markets. For the given network configuration and pricing structure, HCA ensures the EV owners to get paid up to five times the cost they were paying without control.

  14. A Complex Network Approach for the Estimation of the Energy Demand of Electric Mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mureddu, Mario; Facchini, Angelo; Scala, Antonio; Caldarelli, Guido; Damiano, Alfonso

    2018-01-10

    We study how renewable energy impacts regional infrastructures considering the full deployment of electric mobility at that scale. We use the Sardinia Island in Italy as a paradigmatic case study of a semi-closed system both by energy and mobility point of view. Human mobility patterns are estimated by means of census data listing the mobility dynamics of about 700,000 vehicles, the energy demand is estimated by modeling the charging behavior of electric vehicle owners. Here we show that current renewable energy production of Sardinia is able to sustain the commuter mobility even in the theoretical case of a full switch from internal combustion vehicles to electric ones. Centrality measures from network theory on the reconstructed network of commuter trips allows to identify the most important areas (hubs) involved in regional mobility. The analysis of the expected energy flows reveals long-range effects on infrastructures outside metropolitan areas and points out that the most relevant unbalances are caused by spatial segregation between production and consumption areas. Finally, results suggest the adoption of planning actions supporting the installation of renewable energy plants in areas mostly involved by the commuting mobility, avoiding spatial segregation between consumption and generation areas.

  15. Exploring the Impact of Network Structure and Demand Collaboration on the Dynamics of a Supply Chain Network Using a Robust Control Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongchang Wei

    2015-01-01

    uncertain environment. The impact of network structure and collaboration on the dynamics and robustness of supply chain network, however, remains to be explored. In this paper, a unified state space model for a two-layer supply chain network composed of multiple distributors and multiple retailers is developed. A robust control algorithm is advocated to reduce both order and demand fluctuations for unknown demand. Numerical simulations demonstrate that the robust control approach has the advantage to reduce both inventory and order fluctuations. In the simulation experiment, it is interesting to notice that complex network structure and collaborations might contribute to the reduction of inventory and order oscillations. This paper yields new insights into the overestimated bullwhip effect problem and helps us understand the complexities of supply chain networks.

  16. Structuring energy supply and demand networks in a general equilibrium model to simulate global warming control strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, S.; Veselka, T.D.; Cirillo, R.R.

    1991-01-01

    Global warming control strategies which mandate stringent caps on emissions of greenhouse forcing gases can substantially alter a country's demand, production, and imports of energy products. Although there is a large degree of uncertainty when attempting to estimate the potential impact of these strategies, insights into the problem can be acquired through computer model simulations. This paper presents one method of structuring a general equilibrium model, the ENergy and Power Evaluation Program/Global Climate Change (ENPEP/GCC), to simulate changes in a country's energy supply and demand balance in response to global warming control strategies. The equilibrium model presented in this study is based on the principle of decomposition, whereby a large complex problem is divided into a number of smaller submodules. Submodules simulate energy activities and conversion processes such as electricity production. These submodules are linked together to form an energy supply and demand network. Linkages identify energy and fuel flows among various activities. Since global warming control strategies can have wide reaching effects, a complex network was constructed. The network represents all energy production, conversion, transportation, distribution, and utilization activities. The structure of the network depicts interdependencies within and across economic sectors and was constructed such that energy prices and demand responses can be simulated. Global warming control alternatives represented in the network include: (1) conservation measures through increased efficiency; and (2) substitution of fuels that have high greenhouse gas emission rates with fuels that have lower emission rates. 6 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs

  17. Robust On-Demand Multipath Routing with Dynamic Path Upgrade for Delay-Sensitive Data over Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Node mobility in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs causes frequent route breakages and intermittent link stability. In this paper, we introduce a robust routing scheme, known as ad hoc on-demand multipath distance vector with dynamic path update (AOMDV-DPU, for delay-sensitive data transmission over MANET. The proposed scheme improves the AOMDV scheme by incorporating the following features: (i a routing metric based on the combination of minimum hops and received signal strength indicator (RSSI for discovery of reliable routes; (ii a local path update mechanism which strengthens the route, reduces the route breakage frequency, and increases the route longevity; (iii a keep alive mechanism for secondary route maintenance which enables smooth switching between routes and reduces the route discovery frequency; (iv a packet salvaging scheme to improve packet delivery in the event of a route breakage; and (v low HELLO packet overhead. The simulations are carried out in ns-2 for varying node speeds, number of sources, and traffic load conditions. Our AOMDV-DPU scheme achieves significantly higher throughput, lower delay, routing overhead, and route discovery frequency and latency compared to AOMDV. For H.264 compressed video traffic, AOMDV-DPU scheme achieves 3 dB or higher PSNR gain over AOMDV at both low and high node speeds.

  18. An adaptive network-based fuzzy inference system for short-term natural gas demand estimation: Uncertain and complex environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azadeh, A.; Asadzadeh, S.M.; Ghanbari, A.

    2010-01-01

    Accurate short-term natural gas (NG) demand estimation and forecasting is vital for policy and decision-making process in energy sector. Moreover, conventional methods may not provide accurate results. This paper presents an adaptive network-based fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) for estimation of NG demand. Standard input variables are used which are day of the week, demand of the same day in previous year, demand of a day before and demand of 2 days before. The proposed ANFIS approach is equipped with pre-processing and post-processing concepts. Moreover, input data are pre-processed (scaled) and finally output data are post-processed (returned to its original scale). The superiority and applicability of the ANFIS approach is shown for Iranian NG consumption from 22/12/2007 to 30/6/2008. Results show that ANFIS provides more accurate results than artificial neural network (ANN) and conventional time series approach. The results of this study provide policy makers with an appropriate tool to make more accurate predictions on future short-term NG demand. This is because the proposed approach is capable of handling non-linearity, complexity as well as uncertainty that may exist in actual data sets due to erratic responses and measurement errors.

  19. GLIF – striving towards a high-performance on-demand network

    CERN Multimedia

    Kristina Gunne

    2010-01-01

    If you were passing through the Mezzanine in the Main Building a couple of weeks ago, you probably noticed the large tiled panel display showing an ultra-high resolution visualization model of dark matter, developed by Cosmogrid. The display was one of the highlights of the 10th Annual Global Lambda Grid Workshop demo session, together with the first ever transfer of over 35 Gbit/second from one PC to another between the SARA Computing Centre in Amsterdam and CERN.   GLIF display. The transfer of such large amounts of data at this speed has been made possible thanks to the GLIF community's vision of a new computing paradigm, in which the central architectural element is an end-to-end path built on optical network wavelengths (so called lambdas). You may think of this as an on-demand private highway for data transfer: by using it you avoid the normal internet exchange points and “traffic jams”. GLIF is a virtual international organization managed as a cooperative activity, wi...

  20. Forecasting water demand using back propagation networks in the operation of reservoirs in the citarum cascade, west java, indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulya R. Mashudi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the use of Neural Networks (NN as a potential means of more accurately forecasting water demand in the Citarum River basin cascade. Neural Networks have the ability to recognise nonlinear patterns when sufficiently trained with historical data. The study constructs a NN model of the cascade, based on Back Propagation Networks (BPN. Data representing physical characteristics and meteorological conditions in the Citarum River basin from 1989 through 1995 were used to train the BPN. Nonlinear activation functions (sigmoid, tangent, and gaussian functions and hidden layers in the BPN were chosen for the study.

  1. Roadway network productivity assessment : system-wide analysis under variant travel demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-01

    The analysis documented in this report examines the hypothesis that the system-wide productivity of a metropolitan freeway system in peak periods is higher in moderate travel demand conditions than in excessive travel demand conditions. The approach ...

  2. Novel algorithm for aggregated demand response strategy for smart distribution network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Babar, M.; Ahamed, I.; Shah, A.; Al-Ammar, E.A.; Malik, N.H.

    2013-01-01

    Advancement in demand side management strategies enables smart grid to cope with the ever increasing energy demand and provide economic benefit to all of it's stakeholders. Moreover, emerging concept of smart pricing and advances in load control can provide new business opportunities for demand side

  3. Performansi Video on Demand (VOD) Pada Virtual Private Network (VPN) Menggunakan OpenVPN

    OpenAIRE

    Priyambudi, Henry Okta

    2013-01-01

    Multimedia streaming menggunakanmedia video, sebagai cara penyampaian informasi yanglebih baik dibandingkan dengan teks atau suara. Salahsatu jenis multimedia streaming adalah Video OnDemand (VOD). Pada sistem video on demand, file videotelah disimpan terlebih dahulu di dalam server. Clientmerequest file video yang diinginkan dan prosesstreaming dapat dilakukan.. Salah satu kelemahan darivideo on demand adalah tidak ada sistem authentifikasipada client. Setiap client dapat melakukan streaming...

  4. Carrying Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroll, Henning; Andersen, Jan; Kjærgård, Bente

    2012-01-01

    A spatial planning act was introduced inIndonesia 1992 and renewed in 2008. It emphasised the planning role of decentralised authorities. The spatial planning act covers both spatial and environmental issues. It defines the concept of carrying capacity and includes definitions of supportive....../cities. Four different sectors (water, food production, waste, and forests) were selected as core areas for decentralised spatial planning. Indicators for SCC and ACC were identified and assessed with regard to relevance and quantifiability. For each of the indicators selected, a legal threshold or guiding...... was introduced inIndonesia 1992 and renewed in 2008. It emphasised the planning role of decentralised authorities. The spatial planning act covers both spatial and environmental issues. It defines the concept of carrying capacity and includes definitions of supportive carrying capacity (SCC) and assimilative...

  5. Machine Perfusion of Porcine Livers with Oxygen-Carrying Solution Results in Reprogramming of Dynamic Inflammation Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Sadowsky

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ex vivo machine perfusion (MP can better preserve organs for transplantation. We have recently reported on the first application of a MP protocol in which liver allografts were fully oxygenated, under dual pressures and subnormothermic conditions, with a new hemoglobin-based oxygen carrier solution specifically developed for ex vivo utilization. In those studies, MP improved organ function post-operatively and reduced inflammation in porcine livers. Herein, we sought to refine our knowledge regarding the impact of MP by defining dynamic networks of inflammation in both tissue and perfusate. Methods: Porcine liver allografts were preserved either with MP (n = 6 or with cold static preservation (CSP; n = 6, then transplanted orthotopically after 9 h of preservation. Fourteen inflammatory mediators were measured in both tissue and perfusate during liver preservation at multiple time points, and analyzed using Dynamic Bayesian Network (DyBN inference to define feedback interactions, as well as Dynamic Network Analysis (DyNA to define the time-dependent development of inflammation networks.Results: Network analyses of tissue and perfusate suggested an NLRP3 inflammasome-regulated response in both treatment groups, driven by the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL-18 and the anti-inflammatory mediator IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA. Both DyBN and DyNA suggested a reduced role of IL-18 and increased role of IL-1RA with MP, along with increased liver damage with CSP. DyNA also suggested divergent progression of responses over the 9 h preservation time, with CSP leading to a stable pattern of IL-18-induced liver damage and MP leading to a resolution of the pro-inflammatory response. These results were consistent with prior clinical, biochemical, and histological findings after liver transplantation. Conclusion: Our results suggest that analysis of dynamic inflammation networks in the setting of liver preservation may identify novel

  6. Carrying the past to the future: Distinct brain networks underlie individual differences in human spatial working memory capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Siwei; Poh, Jia-Hou; Koh, Hui Li; Ng, Kwun Kei; Loke, Yng Miin; Lim, Joseph Kai Wei; Chong, Joanna Su Xian; Zhou, Juan

    2018-08-01

    Spatial working memory (SWM) relies on the interplay of anatomically separated and interconnected large-scale brain networks. EEG studies often observe load-associated sustained negative activity during SWM retention. Yet, whether and how such sustained negative activity in retention relates to network-specific functional activation/deactivation and relates to individual differences in SWM capacity remain to be elucidated. To cover these gaps, we recorded concurrent EEG-fMRI data in 70 healthy young adults during the Sternberg delayed-match-to-sample SWM task with three memory load levels. To a subset of participants (N = 28) that performed the task properly and had artefact-free fMRI and EEG data, we employed a novel temporo-spatial principal component analysis to derive load-dependent negative slow wave (NSW) from retention-related event-related potentials. The associations between NSW responses with SWM capacity were divergent in the higher (N = 14) and lower (N = 14) SWM capacity groups. Specifically, larger load-related increase in NSW amplitude was associated with greater SWM capacity for the higher capacity group but lower SWM capacity for the lower capacity group. Furthermore, for the higher capacity group, larger NSW amplitude was related to greater activation in bilateral parietal areas of the fronto-parietal network (FPN) and greater deactivation in medial frontal gyrus and posterior mid-cingulate cortex of the default mode network (DMN) during retention. In contrast, the lower capacity group did not show similar pattern. Instead, greater NSW was linked to higher deactivation in right posterior middle temporal gyrus. Our findings shed light on the possible differential EEG-informed neural network mechanism during memory maintenance underlying individual differences in SWM capacity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Demand response: Social welfare maximisation in an unbundled energy market - Case study for the low-voltage networks of a distribution network operator in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhuis, M.; Babar, M.; Gibescu, M.; Cobben, J.F.G.

    2017-01-01

    With the introduction of smart meters, dynamic pricing and home energy management systems, residential customers are able to react to changes in electricity prices. In an unbundled market, the energy supplier and the network operator may have conflicting interests with respect to demand response

  8. Demand response : social welfare maximisation in an unbundled energy market : case study for the low-voltage networks of a distribution network operator in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhuis, M.; Babar, M.; Gibescu, M.; Cobben, J.F.G.

    2015-01-01

    With the introduction of smart meters, dynamic pricing and home energy management systems, residential customers are able to react to changes in electricity prices. In an unbundled market, the energy supplier and the network operator may have conflicting interests with respect to demand response

  9. Distribution network design under demand uncertainty using genetic algorithm and Monte Carlo simulation approach: a case study in pharmaceutical industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izadi, Arman; Kimiagari, Ali Mohammad

    2014-05-01

    Distribution network design as a strategic decision has long-term effect on tactical and operational supply chain management. In this research, the location-allocation problem is studied under demand uncertainty. The purposes of this study were to specify the optimal number and location of distribution centers and to determine the allocation of customer demands to distribution centers. The main feature of this research is solving the model with unknown demand function which is suitable with the real-world problems. To consider the uncertainty, a set of possible scenarios for customer demands is created based on the Monte Carlo simulation. The coefficient of variation of costs is mentioned as a measure of risk and the most stable structure for firm's distribution network is defined based on the concept of robust optimization. The best structure is identified using genetic algorithms and 14 % reduction in total supply chain costs is the outcome. Moreover, it imposes the least cost variation created by fluctuation in customer demands (such as epidemic diseases outbreak in some areas of the country) to the logistical system. It is noteworthy that this research is done in one of the largest pharmaceutical distribution firms in Iran.

  10. A network resource availability model for IEEE802.11a/b-based WLAN carrying different service types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luo Weizhi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Operators of integrated wireless systems need to have knowledge of the resource availability in their different access networks to perform efficient admission control and maintain good quality of experience to users. Network availability depends on the access technology and the service types. Resource availability in a WLAN is complex to gather when UDP and TCP services co-exist. Previous study on IEEE802.11a/b derived the achievable throughput under the assumption of inelastic and uniformly distributed traffic. Further study investigated TCP connections and derived a model to calculate the effective transmission rate of packets under the assumption of saturated traffic flows. The assumptions are too stringent; therefore, we developed a model for evaluating WLAN resource availability that tries to narrow the gap to more realistic scenarios. It provides an indication of WLAN resource availability for admitting UDP/TCP requests. This article presents the assumptions, the mathematical formulations, and the effectiveness of our model.

  11. Prediction of Tourism Demand in Iran by Using Artificial Neural Network (ANN and Supporting Vector Machine (SVR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedehelham Sadatiseyedmahalleh

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This research examines and proves this effectiveness connected with artificial neural networks (ANNs as an alternative approach to the use of Support Vector Machine (SVR in the tourism research. This method can be used for the tourism industry to define the turism’s demands in Iran. The outcome reveals the use of ANNs in tourism research might result in better quotations when it comes to prediction bias and accuracy. Even more applications of ANNs in the context of tourism demand evaluation is needed to establish and validate the effects.

  12. A multi-stage stochastic program for supply chain network redesign problem with price-dependent uncertain demands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fattahi, Mohammad; Govindan, Kannan; Keyvanshokooh, Esmaeil

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we address a multi-period supply chain network redesign problem in which customer zones have price-dependent stochastic demand for multiple products. A novel multi-stage stochastic program is proposed to simultaneously make tactical decisions including products' prices and strategic...... redesign decisions. Existing uncertainty in potential demands of customer zones is modeled through a finite set of scenarios, described in the form of a scenario tree. The scenarios are generated using a Latin Hypercube Sampling method and then a forward scenario construction technique is employed...

  13. Mobile Ad Hoc Networks in Bandwidth-Demanding Mission-Critical Applications: Practical Implementation Insights

    KAUST Repository

    Bader, Ahmed

    2016-09-28

    There has been recently a growing trend of using live video feeds in mission-critical applications. Real-time video streaming from front-end personnel or mobile agents is believed to substantially improve situational awareness in mission-critical operations such as disaster relief, law enforcement, and emergency response. Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANET) is a natural contender in such contexts. However, classical MANET routing schemes fall short in terms of scalability, bandwidth and latency; all three metrics being quite essential for mission-critical applications. As such, autonomous cooperative routing (ACR) has gained traction as the most viable MANET proposition. Nonetheless, ACR is also associated with a few implementation challenges. If they go unaddressed, will deem ACR practically useless. In this paper, efficient and low-complexity remedies to those issues are presented, analyzed, and validated. The validation is based on field experiments carried out using software-defined radio (SDR) platforms. Compared to classical MANET routing schemes, ACR was shown to offer up to 2X better throughput, more than 4X reduction in end-to-end latency, while observing a given target of transport rate normalized to energy consumption.

  14. Hub network design for sparse travel demand within the African aviation industry

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ssamula, B

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available and analysed to reveal that the best option for a hub network is the so-called geo-political network. A geo-political network is where hubs are created in the North, South, East and West of Africa, at airports with strong political influence, high passenger...

  15. Stochastic water demand modelling for a better understanding of hydraulics in water distribution networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blokker, E.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    In the water distribution network water quality process take place influenced by de flow velocity and residence time of the water in the network. In order to understand how the water quality changes in the water distribution network, a good understanding of hydraulics is required. Specifically in

  16. Large-Scale Demand Driven Design of a Customized Bus Network: A Methodological Framework and Beijing Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihui Ma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, an innovative public transportation (PT mode known as the customized bus (CB has been proposed and implemented in many cities in China to efficiently and effectively shift private car users to PT to alleviate traffic congestion and traffic-related environmental pollution. The route network design activity plays an important role in the CB operation planning process because it serves as the basis for other operation planning activities, for example, timetable development, vehicle scheduling, and crew scheduling. In this paper, according to the demand characteristics and operational purpose, a methodological framework that includes the elements of large-scale travel demand data processing and analysis, hierarchical clustering-based route origin-destination (OD region division, route OD region pairing, and a route selection model is proposed for CB network design. Considering the operating cost and social benefits, a route selection model is proposed and a branch-and-bound-based solution method is developed. In addition, a computer-aided program is developed to analyze a real-world Beijing CB route network design problem. The results of the case study demonstrate that the current CB network of Beijing can be significantly improved, thus demonstrating the effectiveness of the proposed methodology.

  17. Ongoing activity in temporally coherent networks predicts intra-subject fluctuation of response time to sporadic executive control demands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozawa, Takayuki; Sugiura, Motoaki; Yokoyama, Ryoichi; Ihara, Mizuki; Kotozaki, Yuka; Miyauchi, Carlos Makoto; Kanno, Akitake; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2014-01-01

    Can ongoing fMRI BOLD signals predict fluctuations in swiftness of a person's response to sporadic cognitive demands? This is an important issue because it clarifies whether intrinsic brain dynamics, for which spatio-temporal patterns are expressed as temporally coherent networks (TCNs), have effects not only on sensory or motor processes, but also on cognitive processes. Predictivity has been affirmed, although to a limited extent. Expecting a predictive effect on executive performance for a wider range of TCNs constituting the cingulo-opercular, fronto-parietal, and default mode networks, we conducted an fMRI study using a version of the color-word Stroop task that was specifically designed to put a higher load on executive control, with the aim of making its fluctuations more detectable. We explored the relationships between the fluctuations in ongoing pre-trial activity in TCNs and the task response time (RT). The results revealed the existence of TCNs in which fluctuations in activity several seconds before the onset of the trial predicted RT fluctuations for the subsequent trial. These TCNs were distributed in the cingulo-opercular and fronto-parietal networks, as well as in perceptual and motor networks. Our results suggest that intrinsic brain dynamics in these networks constitute "cognitive readiness," which plays an active role especially in situations where information for anticipatory attention control is unavailable. Fluctuations in these networks lead to fluctuations in executive control performance.

  18. Robust optimal control of material flows in demand-driven supply networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laumanns, M.; Lefeber, A.A.J.

    2006-01-01

    We develop a model based on stochastic discrete-time controlleddynamical systems in order to derive optimal policies for controllingthe material flow in supply networks. Each node in the network isdescribed as a transducer such that the dynamics of the material andinformation flows within the entire

  19. Devising a New Model of Demand-Based Learning Integrated with Social Networks and Analyses of its Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bekim Fetaji

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The focus of the research study is to devise a new model for demand based learning that will be integrated with social networks such as Facebook, twitter and other. The study investigates this by reviewing the published literature and realizes a case study analyses in order to analyze the new models’ analytical perspectives of practical implementation. The study focuses on analyzing demand-based learning and investigating how it can be improved by devising a specific model that incorporates social network use. Statistical analyses of the results of the questionnaire through research of the raised questions and hypothesis showed that there is a need for introducing new models in the teaching process. The originality stands on the prologue of the social login approach to an educational environment, whereas the approach is counted as a contribution of developing a demand-based web application, which aims to modernize the educational pattern of communication, introduce the social login approach, and increase the process of knowledge transfer as well as improve learners’ performance and skills. Insights and recommendations are provided, argumented and discussed.

  20. Flexible investment under uncertainty in smart distribution networks with demand side response: Assessment framework and practical implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schachter, Jonathan A.; Mancarella, Pierluigi; Moriarty, John; Shaw, Rita

    2016-01-01

    Classical deterministic models applied to investment valuation in distribution networks may not be adequate for a range of real-world decision-making scenarios as they effectively ignore the uncertainty found in the most important variables driving network planning (e.g., load growth). As greater uncertainty is expected from growing distributed energy resources in distribution networks, there is an increasing risk of investing in too much or too little network capacity and hence causing the stranding and inefficient use of network assets; these costs are then passed on to the end-user. An alternative emerging solution in the context of smart grid development is to release untapped network capacity through Demand-Side Response (DSR). However, to date there is no approach able to quantify the value of ‘smart’ DSR solutions against ‘conventional’ asset-heavy investments. On these premises, this paper presents a general real options framework and a novel probabilistic tool for the economic assessment of DSR for smart distribution network planning under uncertainty, which allows the modeling and comparison of multiple investment strategies, including DSR and capacity reinforcements, based on different cost and risk metrics. In particular the model provides an explicit quantification of the economic value of DSR against alternative investment strategies. Through sensitivity analysis it is able to indicate the maximum price payable for DSR service such that DSR remains economically optimal against these alternatives. The proposed model thus provides Regulators with clear insights for overseeing DSR contractual arrangements. Further it highlights that differences exist in the economic perspective of the regulated DNO business and of customers. Our proposed model is therefore capable of highlighting instances where a particular investment strategy is favorable to the DNO but not to its customers, or vice-versa, and thus aspects of the regulatory framework which may

  1. Investigating risk and robustness measures for supply chain network design under demand uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Govindan, Kannan; Fattahi, Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    to obtain risk-averse and robust solutions, respectively. Computational results are presented on a real-life case study to illustrate the applicability of the proposed approaches. To compare these different decision-making situations, a simulation approach is used. Furthermore, by several test problems......-variable demands. To deal with the stochastic demands, a Latin Hypercube Sampling method is applied to generate a fan of scenarios and then, a backward scenario reduction technique reduces the number of scenarios. Weighted mean-risk objectives by using different risk measures and minimax objective are examined...

  2. Economic assessment of smart grids solutions. Analysis carried out by the distribution network operators. Executive Summary 2017. The new paths of electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-05-01

    The economic viability of the Smart grids solutions is a key concern. This was highlighted in a letter from the ministries for the Environment, Sustainable Development and Energy and for the Economy, Industry and Digital Technology, which requested additional information regarding this question with regard to the distribution and transmission networks. Enedis and ADEeF (Association gathering electricity distributors in France), have realized a study on the economic assessment of smart grids solutions, in order to analyze associated costs and benefits. This study is part of a global approach conducted by the Ministries and in collaboration with ADEME and RTE. The functions featured in this study concern the transmission substation and MV network: Operational planning system, Extension of self-healing capabilities of the distribution network, Centralised dynamic voltage control, Self-adaptive reactive power control by MV producers, Active power curtailment of MV production, Use of flexibility for demand constraints. The results presented in this study are coherent with actual investment decisions and foreshadow future action plans

  3. MQARR-AODV: A NOVEL MULTIPATH QOS AWARE RELIABLE REVERSE ON-DEMAND DISTANCE VECTOR ROUTING PROTOCOL FOR MOBILE AD-HOC NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.G. Santhiya

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available MANET (Mobile Ad-hoc Network is an infra structure less wireless ad-hoc network that does not require any basic central control. The topology of the network changes drastically due to very fast mobility of nodes. So an adaptive routing protocol is needed for routing in MANET. AODV (Ad-hoc On-demand Distance Vector routing is the effective and prominent on-demand Ad-hoc routing protocols. During route establishment phase in traditional AODV, only one route reply message will be sent in the reverse path to establish routing path. The high mobility of nodes may affect the reply messages which lead to the retransmission of route request message by the sender which in turn leads to higher communication delay, power consumption and the reduction in the ratio of packets delivered. Sending multiple route reply messages and establishing multiple paths in a single path discovery will reduce the routing overhead involved in maintaining the connection between source and destination nodes. Multipath routing can render high scalability, end-to-end throughput and provide load balancing in MANET. The new proposed novel Multipath QoS aware reliable routing protocol establishes two routes of maximum node disjoint paths and the data transfer is carried out in the two paths simultaneously. To select best paths, the new proposed protocol uses three parameters Link Eminence, MAC overhead and node residual energy. The experimental values prove that the MQARR-AODV protocol achieves high reliability, stability, low latency and outperforms AODV by the less energy consumption, overhead and delay.

  4. INDIA’S ELECTRICITY DEMAND FORECAST USING REGRESSION ANALYSIS AND ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS BASED ON PRINCIPAL COMPONENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Saravanan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Power System planning starts with Electric load (demand forecasting. Accurate electricity load forecasting is one of the most important challenges in managing supply and demand of the electricity, since the electricity demand is volatile in nature; it cannot be stored and has to be consumed instantly. The aim of this study deals with electricity consumption in India, to forecast future projection of demand for a period of 19 years from 2012 to 2030. The eleven input variables used are Amount of CO2 emission, Population, Per capita GDP, Per capita gross national income, Gross Domestic savings, Industry, Consumer price index, Wholesale price index, Imports, Exports and Per capita power consumption. A new methodology based on Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs using principal components is also used. Data of 29 years used for training and data of 10 years used for testing the ANNs. Comparison made with multiple linear regression (based on original data and the principal components and ANNs with original data as input variables. The results show that the use of ANNs with principal components (PC is more effective.

  5. POLARIS: Agent-based modeling framework development and implementation for integrated travel demand and network and operations simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auld, Joshua; Hope, Michael; Ley, Hubert; Sokolov, Vadim; Xu, Bo; Zhang, Kuilin

    2016-03-01

    This paper discusses the development of an agent-based modelling software development kit, and the implementation and validation of a model using it that integrates dynamic simulation of travel demand, network supply and network operations. A description is given of the core utilities in the kit: a parallel discrete event engine, interprocess exchange engine, and memory allocator, as well as a number of ancillary utilities: visualization library, database IO library, and scenario manager. The overall framework emphasizes the design goals of: generality, code agility, and high performance. This framework allows the modeling of several aspects of transportation system that are typically done with separate stand-alone software applications, in a high-performance and extensible manner. The issue of integrating such models as dynamic traffic assignment and disaggregate demand models has been a long standing issue for transportation modelers. The integrated approach shows a possible way to resolve this difficulty. The simulation model built from the POLARIS framework is a single, shared-memory process for handling all aspects of the integrated urban simulation. The resulting gains in computational efficiency and performance allow planning models to be extended to include previously separate aspects of the urban system, enhancing the utility of such models from the planning perspective. Initial tests with case studies involving traffic management center impacts on various network events such as accidents, congestion and weather events, show the potential of the system.

  6. Supply chain network downsizing with product line pruning using a new demand substitution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ashayeri, J.; Ma, N.; Sotirov, R.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an optimization model for downsizing a multi-product supply chain facing bankruptcy risk, where multi-functional production facilities are shared for producing a group of substitutable products. In order to determine the potential demand after discontinuation of certain product

  7. An up-link power control for demand assignment International Business Satellite Communications Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nohara, Mitsuo; Takeuchi, Yoshio; Takahata, Fumio

    Up-link power control (UPC) is one of the essential technologies to provide efficient satellite communication systems operated at frequency bands above 10 GHz. A simple and cost-effective UPC scheme applicable to a demand assignment international business satellite communications system has been developed. This paper presents the UPC scheme, including the hardware implementation and its performance.

  8. Controlling market power and price spikes in electricity networks: Demand-side bidding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassenti, Stephen J; Smith, Vernon L; Wilson, Bart J

    2003-03-04

    In this article we report an experiment that examines how demand-side bidding can discipline generators in a market for electric power. First we develop a treatment without demand-side bidding; two large firms are allocated baseload and intermediate cost generators such that either firm might unilaterally withhold the capacity of its intermediate cost generators from the market to benefit from the supracompetitive prices that would result from only selling its baseload units. In a converse treatment, ownership of some of the intermediate cost generators is transferred from each of these firms to two other firms such that no one firm could unilaterally restrict output to spawn supracompetitive prices. Having established a well controlled data set with price spikes paralleling those observed in the naturally occurring economy, we also extend the design to include demand-side bidding. We find that demand-side bidding completely neutralizes the exercise of market power and eliminates price spikes even in the presence of structural market power.

  9. On-Demand Routing in Multi-hop Wireless Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maltz, David A

    2001-01-01

    .... Routing protocols used in ad hoc networks must automatically adjust to environments that can vary between the extremes of high mobility with low bandwidth, and low mobility with high bandwidth...

  10. Power System Integration of Flexible Demand in the Low Voltage Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thavlov, Anders

    , it is natural to consider electricity consumption from households as an integrated part of a potential flexible demand side in the future power system. However, as an individual unit a single household is not able to generate a large impact in the power system. Therefore, a mechanism is needed which can...... is even greater as almost 50% of the electricity consumption in households is utilised for space heating and cooling and for heating of domestic hot water. Consequently, there exists a significant potential in the integration of power consumption for heating purposes in households for demand response...... of electricity on the Nordic energy exchange, Nord Pool, or alternatively the flexibility can be sold as an ancillary service to the transmission system operator. In this way, the electricity consumption in households are indirectly integrated into the power market, through the virtual power plant...

  11. Smart Demand for Improving Short-term Voltage Control on Distribution Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia-Valle, Rodrigo; P. Da Silva, Luiz C.; Xu, Zhao

    2009-01-01

    customer integration to aid power system performance is almost inevitable. This study introduces a new type of smart demand side technology, denoted demand as voltage controlled reserve (DVR), to improve short-term voltage control, where customers are expected to play a more dynamic role to improve voltage...... control. The technology can be provided by thermostatically controlled loads as well as other types of load. This technology is proven to be effective in case of distribution systems with a large composition of induction motors, where the voltage presents a slow recovery characteristic due to deceleration...... of the motors during faults. This study presents detailed models, discussion and simulation tests to demonstrate the technical viability and effectiveness of the DVR technology for short-term voltage control....

  12. Distracted in a Demanding Task : A Classification Study with Artificial Neural Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijser, Stefan; Taatgen, Niels; van Vugt, Marieke; Verheij, Bart; Wiering, Marco

    An important issue in cognitive science research is to know what your subjects are thinking about. In this paper, we trained multiple artificial Neural Network (ANN) classifiers to predict whether subjects’ thoughts were focused on the task (i.e., on-task) or if they were distracted (i.e.,

  13. Adaptive Demand-Driven Multicast Routing in Multi-Hop Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jetcheva, Jorjeta G

    2004-01-01

    ...) nodes that wish to communicate. Each node in the ad hoc network acts as a router and forwards packets on behalf of other nodes, allowing nodes that are not within wireless range of each other to communicate over multi-hop paths...

  14. Impaired action potential initiation in GABAergic interneurons causes hyperexcitable networks in an epileptic mouse model carrying a human Na(V)1.1 mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedrich, Ulrike B S; Liautard, Camille; Kirschenbaum, Daniel; Pofahl, Martin; Lavigne, Jennifer; Liu, Yuanyuan; Theiss, Stephan; Slotta, Johannes; Escayg, Andrew; Dihné, Marcel; Beck, Heinz; Mantegazza, Massimo; Lerche, Holger

    2014-11-05

    Mutations in SCN1A and other ion channel genes can cause different epileptic phenotypes, but the precise mechanisms underlying the development of hyperexcitable networks are largely unknown. Here, we present a multisystem analysis of an SCN1A mouse model carrying the NaV1.1-R1648H mutation, which causes febrile seizures and epilepsy in humans. We found a ubiquitous hypoexcitability of interneurons in thalamus, cortex, and hippocampus, without detectable changes in excitatory neurons. Interestingly, somatic Na(+) channels in interneurons and persistent Na(+) currents were not significantly changed. Instead, the key mechanism of interneuron dysfunction was a deficit of action potential initiation at the axon initial segment that was identified by analyzing action potential firing. This deficit increased with the duration of firing periods, suggesting that increased slow inactivation, as recorded for recombinant mutated channels, could play an important role. The deficit in interneuron firing caused reduced action potential-driven inhibition of excitatory neurons as revealed by less frequent spontaneous but not miniature IPSCs. Multiple approaches indicated increased spontaneous thalamocortical and hippocampal network activity in mutant mice, as follows: (1) more synchronous and higher-frequency firing was recorded in primary neuronal cultures plated on multielectrode arrays; (2) thalamocortical slices examined by field potential recordings revealed spontaneous activities and pathological high-frequency oscillations; and (3) multineuron Ca(2+) imaging in hippocampal slices showed increased spontaneous neuronal activity. Thus, an interneuron-specific generalized defect in action potential initiation causes multisystem disinhibition and network hyperexcitability, which can well explain the occurrence of seizures in the studied mouse model and in patients carrying this mutation. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/3414874-16$15.00/0.

  15. Dual Stack Deployment in a Carrier Grade Network to Fulfill the Demands of Next Generation of Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarique Jamil Saifullah Khanzada

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The Internet is migrating from IPv4 (Internet Protocol version 4 to IPv6 (Internet Protocol version 6. The high cost of migration services from IPv4-IPv6 and system complexity are main factors for slow adaption of IPv6 This paper presents the implementation of migration techniques from IPv4-IPv6. Furthermore, existing IPv4 addresses have already been depleted in IANA (Internet Assigned Numbers Authority and will be soon exhausted in RIR (Regional Internet Registry while more clients are joining the Internet. Slower rate of the progress of IPv6 confirms complete shifting from IPv4-IPv6 at once is still long away, although fewer parts of IPv6 have been employed in current market goods. Integration of IPv4 and IPv6 is carried in order to take care of online users. In this paper, it is suggested that hierarchical direction finding structural design in IPv4 and IPv6 will improve the efficiency of IPv4 network. This research work provides the way to design the network scenario for the carrier grade set of connections. The carrier grade network scenario routers are named to be Karachi, Sukkur, Islamabad, Multan and Peshawar for the managerial simulation purposes. The carrier grade network deployment is implemented along with dual stack to migrate to IPv6. This study holds the way to deploy IPv4-IPv6 carrier grade network by providing real time scenario which is yet not considered in the literature to the best of our knowledge

  16. Dual stack deployment in a carrier grade network to fulfill the demands of next generation of internet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khanzada, T.J.S.

    2013-01-01

    The Internet is migrating from IPv4 (Internet Protocol version 4) to IPv6 (Internet Protocol version 6). The high cost of migration services from IPv4-IPv6 and system complexity are main factors for slow adaption of IPv6 This paper presents the implementation of migration techniques from IPv4-IPv6. Furthermore, existing IPv4 addresses have already been depleted in IANA (Internet Assigned Numbers Authority) and will be soon exhausted in RIR (Regional Internet Registry) while more clients are joining the Internet. Slower rate of the progress of IPv6 confirms complete shifting from IPv4-IPv6 at once is still long away, although fewer parts of IPv6 have been employed in current market goods. Integration of IPv4 and IPv6 is carried in order to take care of online users. In this paper, it is suggested that hierarchical direction finding structural design in IPv4 and IPv6 will improve the efficiency of IPv4 network. This research work provides the way to design the network scenario for the carrier grade set of connections. The carrier grade network scenario routers are named to be Karachi, Sukkur, Islamabad, Multan and Peshawar for the managerial simulation purposes. The carrier grade network deployment is implemented along with dual stack to migrate to IPv6. This study holds the way to deploy IPv4-IPv6 carrier grade network by providing real time scenario which is yet not considered in the literature to the best of our knowledge. (author)

  17. Self-deployable mobile sensor networks for on-demand surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Lidan; Qi, Hairong; Wang, Feiyi

    2005-05-01

    This paper studies two interconnected problems in mobile sensor network deployment, the optimal placement of heterogeneous mobile sensor platforms for cost-efficient and reliable coverage purposes, and the self-organizable deployment. We first develop an optimal placement algorithm based on a "mosaicked technology" such that different types of mobile sensors form a mosaicked pattern uniquely determined by the popularity of different types of sensor nodes. The initial state is assumed to be random. In order to converge to the optimal state, we investigate the swarm intelligence (SI)-based sensor movement strategy, through which the randomly deployed sensors can self-organize themselves to reach the optimal placement state. The proposed algorithm is compared with the random movement and the centralized method using performance metrics such as network coverage, convergence time, and energy consumption. Simulation results are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the mosaic placement and the SI-based movement.

  18. Water demand prediction using artificial neural networks and support vector regression

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Msiza, IS

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Neural Networks and Support Vector Regression Ishmael S. Msiza1, Fulufhelo V. Nelwamondo1,2, Tshilidzi Marwala3 . 1Modelling and Digital Science, CSIR, Johannesburg,SOUTH AFRICA 2Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge..., Massachusetts, USA 3School of Electrical and Information Engineering, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, SOUTH AFRICA Email: imsiza@csir.co.za, nelwamon@fas.harvard.edu, tshilidzi.marwala@wits.ac.za Abstract— Computational Intelligence techniques...

  19. Study of the isolability of leaks in a network depending on calibration of demands

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Magrané, Ramon; Nejjari Akhi-Elarab, Fatiha; Puig Cayuela, Vicenç; Quevedo Casín, Joseba Jokin; Cugueró Escofet, Miquel Àngel; Cugueró Escofet, Miquel Àngel; Peralta, Antoni

    2011-01-01

    Using the simulation models a methodology was developed for leakage detection and localisation in a water distribution network [4]. Such methodology is based on fault detection and isolation techniques. Sensitivity matrix of pressures to leaks [8] is generated using simulation models [1]. Such models are available in water companies. The methodology showed promising results but two main issues appeared. Calibration in models and precision in sensors was required. Investment in sensors could b...

  20. Economic Assessment of Network-Constrained Transactive Energy for Managing Flexible Demand in Distribution Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junjie Hu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The increasing number of distributed energy resources such as electric vehicles and heat pumps connected to power systems raises operational challenges to the network operator, for example, introducing grid congestion and voltage deviations in the distribution network level if their operations are not properly coordinated. Coordination and control of a large number of distributed energy resources requires innovative approaches. In this paper, we follow up on a recently proposed network-constrained transactive energy (NCTE method for scheduling of electric vehicles and heat pumps within a retailer’s aggregation at distribution system level. We extend this method with: (1 a new modeling technique that allows the resulting congestion price to be directly interpreted as a locational marginal pricing in the system; (2 an explicit analysis of the benefits and costs of different actors when using the NCTE method in the system, given the high penetration of distributed energy resources. This paper firstly describes the NCTE-based distribution system that introduces a new interacting scheme for actors at the distribution system level. Then, technical modeling and economic interpretation of the NCTE-based distribution system are described. Finally, we show the benefits and costs of different actors within the NCTE-based distribution system.

  1. Key on demand (KoD) for software-defined optical networks secured by quantum key distribution (QKD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yuan; Zhao, Yongli; Colman-Meixner, Carlos; Yu, Xiaosong; Zhang, Jie

    2017-10-30

    Software-defined optical networking (SDON) will become the next generation optical network architecture. However, the optical layer and control layer of SDON are vulnerable to cyberattacks. While, data encryption is an effective method to minimize the negative effects of cyberattacks, secure key interchange is its major challenge which can be addressed by the quantum key distribution (QKD) technique. Hence, in this paper we discuss the integration of QKD with WDM optical networks to secure the SDON architecture by introducing a novel key on demand (KoD) scheme which is enabled by a novel routing, wavelength and key assignment (RWKA) algorithm. The QKD over SDON with KoD model follows two steps to provide security: i) quantum key pools (QKPs) construction for securing the control channels (CChs) and data channels (DChs); ii) the KoD scheme uses RWKA algorithm to allocate and update secret keys for different security requirements. To test our model, we define a security probability index which measures the security gain in CChs and DChs. Simulation results indicate that the security performance of CChs and DChs can be enhanced by provisioning sufficient secret keys in QKPs and performing key-updating considering potential cyberattacks. Also, KoD is beneficial to achieve a positive balance between security requirements and key resource usage.

  2. Edukacja zdrowotna w zakresie HIV/AIDS prowadzona przy pomocy portali społecznościowych = Health education on HIV/AIDS carried out using social networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Roberta Korczyńska

    2016-02-01

                        The first recommendation about HIV/AIDS prevention was created by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in 1981 [1]. Up to now they provide the foundation of actions aimed at reducing the number of infected people, but during the last 30 years, forms and means which can be used to achieve this goal have changed. Prevention actions are effective when they are adapted to the recipient [2]. Young adults (in age between 20-39 years old constitute one of the most exposed group to new HIV infections [3], so in the era of rapidly development of new technologies, especially the large impact of the Internet and social networks on this age group,  the effectiveness and the efficiency of health education on HIV carried out using this mass media should be considered.

  3. Mission Planning and Decision Support for Underwater Glider Networks: A Sampling on-Demand Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri, Gabriele; Cococcioni, Marco; Alvarez, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes an optimal sampling approach to support glider fleet operators and marine scientists during the complex task of planning the missions of fleets of underwater gliders. Optimal sampling, which has gained considerable attention in the last decade, consists in planning the paths of gliders to minimize a specific criterion pertinent to the phenomenon under investigation. Different criteria (e.g., A, G, or E optimality), used in geosciences to obtain an optimum design, lead to different sampling strategies. In particular, the A criterion produces paths for the gliders that minimize the overall level of uncertainty over the area of interest. However, there are commonly operative situations in which the marine scientists may prefer not to minimize the overall uncertainty of a certain area, but instead they may be interested in achieving an acceptable uncertainty sufficient for the scientific or operational needs of the mission. We propose and discuss here an approach named sampling on-demand that explicitly addresses this need. In our approach the user provides an objective map, setting both the amount and the geographic distribution of the uncertainty to be achieved after assimilating the information gathered by the fleet. A novel optimality criterion, called Aη, is proposed and the resulting minimization problem is solved by using a Simulated Annealing based optimizer that takes into account the constraints imposed by the glider navigation features, the desired geometry of the paths and the problems of reachability caused by ocean currents. This planning strategy has been implemented in a Matlab toolbox called SoDDS (Sampling on-Demand and Decision Support). The tool is able to automatically download the ocean fields data from MyOcean repository and also provides graphical user interfaces to ease the input process of mission parameters and targets. The results obtained by running SoDDS on three different scenarios are provided and show that So

  4. Mission Planning and Decision Support for Underwater Glider Networks: A Sampling on-Demand Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri, Gabriele; Cococcioni, Marco; Alvarez, Alberto

    2015-12-26

    This paper describes an optimal sampling approach to support glider fleet operators and marine scientists during the complex task of planning the missions of fleets of underwater gliders. Optimal sampling, which has gained considerable attention in the last decade, consists in planning the paths of gliders to minimize a specific criterion pertinent to the phenomenon under investigation. Different criteria (e.g., A, G, or E optimality), used in geosciences to obtain an optimum design, lead to different sampling strategies. In particular, the A criterion produces paths for the gliders that minimize the overall level of uncertainty over the area of interest. However, there are commonly operative situations in which the marine scientists may prefer not to minimize the overall uncertainty of a certain area, but instead they may be interested in achieving an acceptable uncertainty sufficient for the scientific or operational needs of the mission. We propose and discuss here an approach named sampling on-demand that explicitly addresses this need. In our approach the user provides an objective map, setting both the amount and the geographic distribution of the uncertainty to be achieved after assimilating the information gathered by the fleet. A novel optimality criterion, called A η , is proposed and the resulting minimization problem is solved by using a Simulated Annealing based optimizer that takes into account the constraints imposed by the glider navigation features, the desired geometry of the paths and the problems of reachability caused by ocean currents. This planning strategy has been implemented in a Matlab toolbox called SoDDS (Sampling on-Demand and Decision Support). The tool is able to automatically download the ocean fields data from MyOcean repository and also provides graphical user interfaces to ease the input process of mission parameters and targets. The results obtained by running SoDDS on three different scenarios are provided and show that So

  5. Mission Planning and Decision Support for Underwater Glider Networks: A Sampling on-Demand Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Ferri

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an optimal sampling approach to support glider fleet operators and marine scientists during the complex task of planning the missions of fleets of underwater gliders. Optimal sampling, which has gained considerable attention in the last decade, consists in planning the paths of gliders to minimize a specific criterion pertinent to the phenomenon under investigation. Different criteria (e.g., A, G, or E optimality, used in geosciences to obtain an optimum design, lead to different sampling strategies. In particular, the A criterion produces paths for the gliders that minimize the overall level of uncertainty over the area of interest. However, there are commonly operative situations in which the marine scientists may prefer not to minimize the overall uncertainty of a certain area, but instead they may be interested in achieving an acceptable uncertainty sufficient for the scientific or operational needs of the mission. We propose and discuss here an approach named sampling on-demand that explicitly addresses this need. In our approach the user provides an objective map, setting both the amount and the geographic distribution of the uncertainty to be achieved after assimilating the information gathered by the fleet. A novel optimality criterion, called A η , is proposed and the resulting minimization problem is solved by using a Simulated Annealing based optimizer that takes into account the constraints imposed by the glider navigation features, the desired geometry of the paths and the problems of reachability caused by ocean currents. This planning strategy has been implemented in a Matlab toolbox called SoDDS (Sampling on-Demand and Decision Support. The tool is able to automatically download the ocean fields data from MyOcean repository and also provides graphical user interfaces to ease the input process of mission parameters and targets. The results obtained by running SoDDS on three different scenarios are provided

  6. On-Demand Telemetry

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — AFRC has previously investigated the use of Network Based Telemetry. We will be building on that research to enable On-Demand Telemetry. On-Demand Telemetry is a way...

  7. High Electricity Demand in the Northeast U.S.: PJM Reliability Network and Peaking Unit Impacts on Air Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkas, Caroline M; Moeller, Michael D; Felder, Frank A; Henderson, Barron H; Carlton, Annmarie G

    2016-08-02

    On high electricity demand days, when air quality is often poor, regional transmission organizations (RTOs), such as PJM Interconnection, ensure reliability of the grid by employing peak-use electric generating units (EGUs). These "peaking units" are exempt from some federal and state air quality rules. We identify RTO assignment and peaking unit classification for EGUs in the Eastern U.S. and estimate air quality for four emission scenarios with the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model during the July 2006 heat wave. Further, we population-weight ambient values as a surrogate for potential population exposure. Emissions from electricity reliability networks negatively impact air quality in their own region and in neighboring geographic areas. Monitored and controlled PJM peaking units are generally located in economically depressed areas and can contribute up to 87% of hourly maximum PM2.5 mass locally. Potential population exposure to peaking unit PM2.5 mass is highest in the model domain's most populated cities. Average daily temperature and national gross domestic product steer peaking unit heat input. Air quality planning that capitalizes on a priori knowledge of local electricity demand and economics may provide a more holistic approach to protect human health within the context of growing energy needs in a changing world.

  8. Flexible Transmission Network Expansion Planning Considering Uncertain Renewable Generation and Load Demand Based on Hybrid Clustering Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Hao Li

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a flexible transmission network expansion planning (TNEP approach considering uncertainty. A novel hybrid clustering technique, which integrates the graph partitioning method and rough fuzzy clustering, is proposed to cope with uncertain renewable generation and load demand. The proposed clustering method is capable of recognizing the actual cluster distribution of complex datasets and providing high-quality clustering results. By clustering the hourly data for renewable generation and load demand, a multi-scenario model is proposed to consider the corresponding uncertainties in TNEP. Furthermore, due to the peak distribution characteristics of renewable generation and heavy investment in transmission, the traditional TNEP, which caters to rated renewable power output, is usually uneconomic. To improve the economic efficiency, the multi-objective optimization is incorporated into the multi-scenario TNEP model, while the curtailment of renewable generation is considered as one of the optimization objectives. The solution framework applies a modified NSGA-II algorithm to obtain a set of Pareto optimal planning schemes with different levels of investment costs and renewable generation curtailments. Numerical results on the IEEE RTS-24 system demonstrated the robustness and effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  9. Early Detection of Peak Demand Days of Chronic Respiratory Diseases Emergency Department Visits Using Artificial Neural Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatri, Krishan L; Tamil, Lakshman S

    2018-01-01

    Chronic respiratory diseases, mainly asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), affect the lives of people by limiting their activities in various aspects. Overcrowding of hospital emergency departments (EDs) due to respiratory diseases in certain weather and environmental pollution conditions results in the degradation of quality of medical care, and even limits its availability. A useful tool for ED managers would be to forecast peak demand days so that they can take steps to improve the availability of medical care. In this paper, we developed an artificial neural network based classifier using multilayer perceptron with back propagation algorithm that predicts peak event (peak demand days) of patients with respiratory diseases, mainly asthma and COPD visiting EDs in Dallas County of Texas in the United States. The precision and recall for peak event class were 77.1% and 78.0%, respectively, and those for nonpeak events were 83.9% and 83.2%, respectively. The overall accuracy of the system is 81.0%.

  10. A source-initiated on-demand routing algorithm based on the Thorup-Zwick theory for mobile wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yuxin; Zhu, Ping

    2013-01-01

    The unreliability and dynamics of mobile wireless sensor networks make it hard to perform end-to-end communications. This paper presents a novel source-initiated on-demand routing mechanism for efficient data transmission in mobile wireless sensor networks. It explores the Thorup-Zwick theory to achieve source-initiated on-demand routing with time efficiency. It is able to find out shortest routing path between source and target in a network and transfer data in linear time. The algorithm is easy to be implemented and performed in resource-constrained mobile wireless sensor networks. We also evaluate the approach by analyzing its cost in detail. It can be seen that the approach is efficient to support data transmission in mobile wireless sensor networks.

  11. GreenCommute: the Nortel Networks Transportation Demand Management (TDM) Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewinson, S [Transport Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    The structural elements and the environmental benefits to the employer, the employees and the community of the 'GreenCommute' program, designed by Nortel Networks and negotiated with the City of Ottawa, the National Capital Commission, and OC Transpo (the regional transportation authority), are described. The program is designed to mitigate congestion, minimize infrastructure requirements, minimize parking area requirements and to act as a pilot program for the region. The Program was designed after extensive consultation with employees. Some 87 per cent of those who responded (40 per cent response rate) expressed willingness to try a commuting alternative, including walking, cycling and car-pooling. A program is complete with a comprehensive 'GreenCoummute' website for up-to-date information, an efficient ride-matching system based on postal code, highly visible support for alternative commuting including lighted signage for all walking, cycling, transit and car-pooling information at the main entrance to the Nortel Campus, and a one-month free pass for transit riders from OC Transpo. Mid-year 2000 results indicated that the GreenCommute program was well on its way to achieve targeted objectives for 2000. Experience to-date indicate that the program is well appreciated by employees, but there is an ongoing need to market the program by varied promotion and positive messaging.

  12. Application of transport demand modeling in pollution estimation of a street network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jović Jadranka J.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of transportation modeling, especially personal car flow modeling, is well recognized in transportation planning. Modern software tools give the possibility of generating many development scenarios of transport system, which can be tested quickly. Transportation models represent a good (and necessary basis in the procedure of environmental traffic impacts and energy emission estimation. Research in this paper deals with the possibility of using transportation modeling as a tool for estimation of some air pollution and global warming indicators on street network, produced by personal cars with internal combustion engines. These indicators could be the basis for defining planning and management solutions for transport system with respect to their environmental impacts. All the analyses are based on several years of research experience in Belgrade. According to the emissions of gases from the model, the values of other green house gases can be estimated using the known relations between the pollutants. There is a possibility that all these data can be used to calculate the transportation systems impact on temperature increase in urban areas.

  13. What drives Senegalese migration to Europe? The role of economic restructuring, labor demand, and the multiplier effect of networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pau Baizán

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: International migration from Sub-Saharan Africa to Europe is poorly understood. Furthermore, existing studies pay insufficient attention to the links between the micro-level factors and political, social, and economic processes in both origin and destination areas. Here we integrate insights from institutional approaches in migration and development research with perspectives that highlight the role of labor market and social capital. Objective: We analyze the contextual and individual-level determinants of migration from Senegal to France, Italy, and Spain since the mid-1970s. We examine the following hypotheses: (1 In Senegal, the deterioration of living conditions and heightened economic insecurity have created the conditions for increasing out-migration propensities. (2 In Europe, labor market restructuring has increased job opportunities in particular places and job niches. (3 In facilitating access of Senegalese migrants to jobs in Europe, social networks have linked these two processes. (4 The conjunction of periods of strong labor demand and the availability of personal networks in Europe creates a boosting effect on the migration probabilities of the Senegalese to Europe. Methods: We use event history models to analyze life course data from the Migrations between Africa and Europe survey (2008. Results: Our empirical results concerning both individual socioeconomic indicators and contextual indicators provide consistent support for the four hypotheses proposed. Conclusions: The initiation and expansion of migration between Senegal and Europe stem from the simultaneous presence of several key factors at origin and destination, including processes of economic restructuring and the mutually reinforcing process of social capital formation and changing labor market conditions. These factors are historically contingent, but they may have a wider relevance in the explanation of migration from developing countries to developed

  14. Notification: Follow-Up on OIG Report 12-P-0417, Weaknesses in EPA’s Management of the Radiation Network System Demand Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Project #OPE-FY14-0010, January 2, 2014. The EPA OIG is beginning preliminary research on the EPA's actions to address the recommendations in the Apr 19, 2012, OIG Report, Weaknesses in EPA's Management of the Radiation Network System Demand Attention.

  15. Experimental demonstration of bandwidth on demand (BoD) provisioning based on time scheduling in software-defined multi-domain optical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yongli; Li, Yajie; Wang, Xinbo; Chen, Bowen; Zhang, Jie

    2016-09-01

    A hierarchical software-defined networking (SDN) control architecture is designed for multi-domain optical networks with the Open Daylight (ODL) controller. The OpenFlow-based Control Virtual Network Interface (CVNI) protocol is deployed between the network orchestrator and the domain controllers. Then, a dynamic bandwidth on demand (BoD) provisioning solution is proposed based on time scheduling in software-defined multi-domain optical networks (SD-MDON). Shared Risk Link Groups (SRLG)-disjoint routing schemes are adopted to separate each tenant for reliability. The SD-MDON testbed is built based on the proposed hierarchical control architecture. Then the proposed time scheduling-based BoD (Ts-BoD) solution is experimentally demonstrated on the testbed. The performance of the Ts-BoD solution is evaluated with respect to blocking probability, resource utilization, and lightpath setup latency.

  16. Forecasting annual gross electricity demand by artificial neural networks using predicted values of socio-economic indicators and climatic conditions: Case of Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Günay, M. Erdem

    2016-01-01

    In this work, the annual gross electricity demand of Turkey was modeled by multiple linear regression and artificial neural networks as a function population, gross domestic product per capita, inflation percentage, unemployment percentage, average summer temperature and average winter temperature. Among these, the unemployment percentage and the average winter temperature were found to be insignificant to determine the demand for the years between 1975 and 2013. Next, the future values of the statistically significant variables were predicted by time series ANN models, and these were simulated in a multilayer perceptron ANN model to forecast the future annual electricity demand. The results were validated with a very high accuracy for the years that the electricity demand was known (2007–2013), and they were also superior to the official predictions (done by Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources of Turkey). The model was then used to forecast the annual gross electricity demand for the future years, and it was found that, the demand will be doubled reaching about 460 TW h in the year 2028. Finally, it was concluded that the approach applied in this work can easily be implemented for other countries to make accurate predictions for the future. - Highlights: • Electricity demand of Turkey increased from 15.6 to 246.4 TW h in 1975–2013 period. • Population, GDP per capita, inflation and average summer temperature influence demand. • Future values of descriptor variables can be predicted by time series ANN models. • ANN model simulated by the predicted values of descriptors can forecast the demand. • Demand is forecasted to be doubled reaching about 460 TW h in the year 2028.

  17. Operations of electric taxis to serve advance reservations by trip chaining: Sensitivity analysis on network size, customer demand and number of charging stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Wang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This research investigated the performance of an Electric Taxi (ET fleet that catered solely for customers with advance reservations. In a previously related research, a customized Paired Pickup and Delivery Problem with Time Window and Charging Station (PPDPTWCS had been formulated to solve for the minimum number of taxis that would serve a fixed set of customer demand. The concept behind this fleet optimization was to chain multiple customer trips and trips to Charging Stations (CSs to form a route and assigned to a taxi driver. In this paper the sensitivity of the ET fleet’s operations with respect to network sizes, customer demand densities and number of CSs have been investigated. It also analyzed the market shares of the CSs and the occupancy of a CS over time. The results showed that, (1 the expansion of network size or the increase in customer demand density led to increase in fleet size, number of trips to the CSs and maximum occupancies at the CSs but these performance measures grew at different rates; (2 when the network size and number of CSs were fixed, an increase in customer demand density led to a better utilization of taxis in terms of more customers served per taxi and higher average revenue per taxi; (3 given the same network size and demand density, the ET fleet’s performance was relatively insensitive to the number of CSs; and (4 the usage of individual CS was affected by the number of CS and their locations; and (5 when all the ETs were fully charged at the beginning of the same shift hour, they visited the CSs in bunches when their batteries were about to run out. These findings contribute to a better understanding of the operations of the ET fleet and the CSs. They could be used for making better decisions in the planning of ET operations.

  18. A mismatch between supply and demand of social support in dementia care: a qualitative study on the perspectives of spousal caregivers and their social network members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dam, Alieske E H; Boots, Lizzy M M; van Boxtel, Martin P J; Verhey, Frans R J; de Vugt, Marjolein E

    2017-06-13

    Access to social support contributes to feelings of independence and better social health. This qualitative study aims to investigate multi-informant perspectives on informal social support in dementia care networks. Ten spousal caregivers of people with dementia (PwD) completed an ecogram, a social network card and a semi-structured interview. The ecogram aimed to trigger subjective experiences regarding social support. Subsequently, 17 network members were interviewed. The qualitative analyses identified codes, categories, and themes. Sixth themes emerged: (1) barriers to ask for support; (2) facilitators to ask for support; (3) barriers to offer support; (4) facilitators to offer support; (5) a mismatch between supply and demand of social support; and (6) openness in communication to repair the imbalance. Integrating social network perspectives resulted in a novel model identifying a mismatch between the supply and demand of social support, strengthened by a cognitive bias: caregivers reported to think for other social network members and vice versa. Openness in communication in formal and informal care systems might repair this mismatch.

  19. Orchestrating utility supply and demand in real-time via the Internet, home networks, and smart appliances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruickshank, R.F. III [Power Networks, Big Indian, NY (United States)

    2008-07-01

    This paper presented a model to illustrate the efficient coordination between the supply-side and demand-side of household electricity use and the magnitude of demand that can be managed using real-time pricing. In real-time supply and demand side management, a variable price for service is sent via Internet from the supply-side to the demand-side. The 3 benefits to this type of demand-side management are that traditional fossil-fuelled electrical capacity can operate less of the time and more efficiently; renewable electrical capacity such as wind and solar power can be put to use more efficiently when it becomes available; and additional means are available to protect the transmission and distribution infrastructure of the utility. A critical requirement is that pricing should change frequently throughout the day so that budget conscious consumers do not have to wait too long for favourable pricing to use their appliances. 12 refs., 9 figs.

  20. PERIODIC REVIEW SYSTEM FOR INVENTORY REPLENISHMENT CONTROL FOR A TWO-ECHELON LOGISTICS NETWORK UNDER DEMAND UNCERTAINTY: A TWO-STAGE STOCHASTIC PROGRAMING APPROACH

    OpenAIRE

    Cunha, P.S.A.; Oliveira, F.; Raupp, Fernanda M.P.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Here, we propose a novel methodology for replenishment and control systems for inventories of two-echelon logistics networks using a two-stage stochastic programming, considering periodic review and uncertain demands. In addition, to achieve better customer services, we introduce a variable rationing rule to address quantities of the item in short. The devised models are reformulated into their deterministic equivalent, resulting in nonlinear mixed-integer programming models, which a...

  1. The Investigation of Parents' Interactions and Their Children's Learning Levels at Parental Coaching Carried out over Social Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gündüz, Gülten Feryal

    2018-01-01

    The study aims to provide academic and affective support for children's learning by using teacher-parent collaboration through parental coaching realized via social network. This parental coaching includes three phases: preparation, implementation and evaluation. The participants of the study are 16 parents and their children. The data of the…

  2. Day-Ahead Natural Gas Demand Forecasting Using Optimized ABC-Based Neural Network with Sliding Window Technique: The Case Study of Regional Basis in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Akpinar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The increase of energy consumption in the world is reflected in the consumption of natural gas. However, this increment requires additional investment. This effect leads imbalances in terms of demand forecasting, such as applying penalties in the case of error rates occurring beyond the acceptable limits. As the forecasting errors increase, penalties increase exponentially. Therefore, the optimal use of natural gas as a scarce resource is important. There are various demand forecast ranges for natural gas and the most difficult range among these demands is the day-ahead forecasting, since it is hard to implement and makes predictions with low error rates. The objective of this study is stabilizing gas tractions on day-ahead demand forecasting using low-consuming subscriber data for minimizing error using univariate artificial bee colony-based artificial neural networks (ANN-ABC. For this purpose, households and low-consuming commercial users’ four-year consumption data between the years of 2011–2014 are gathered in daily periods. Previous consumption values are used to forecast day-ahead consumption values with sliding window technique and other independent variables are not taken into account. Dataset is divided into two parts. First, three-year daily consumption values are used with a seven day window for training the networks, while the last year is used for the day-ahead demand forecasting. Results show that ANN-ABC is a strong, stable, and effective method with a low error rate of 14.9 mean absolute percentage error (MAPE for training utilizing MAPE with a univariate sliding window technique.

  3. Modeling Relief Demands in an Emergency Supply Chain System under Large-Scale Disasters Based on a Queuing Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xinhua

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a multiple-rescue model for an emergency supply chain system under uncertainties in large-scale affected area of disasters. The proposed methodology takes into consideration that the rescue demands caused by a large-scale disaster are scattered in several locations; the servers are arranged in multiple echelons (resource depots, distribution centers, and rescue center sites) located in different places but are coordinated within one emergency supply chain system; depending on the types of rescue demands, one or more distinct servers dispatch emergency resources in different vehicle routes, and emergency rescue services queue in multiple rescue-demand locations. This emergency system is modeled as a minimal queuing response time model of location and allocation. A solution to this complex mathematical problem is developed based on genetic algorithm. Finally, a case study of an emergency supply chain system operating in Shanghai is discussed. The results demonstrate the robustness and applicability of the proposed model. PMID:24688367

  4. Modeling Relief Demands in an Emergency Supply Chain System under Large-Scale Disasters Based on a Queuing Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinhua He

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a multiple-rescue model for an emergency supply chain system under uncertainties in large-scale affected area of disasters. The proposed methodology takes into consideration that the rescue demands caused by a large-scale disaster are scattered in several locations; the servers are arranged in multiple echelons (resource depots, distribution centers, and rescue center sites located in different places but are coordinated within one emergency supply chain system; depending on the types of rescue demands, one or more distinct servers dispatch emergency resources in different vehicle routes, and emergency rescue services queue in multiple rescue-demand locations. This emergency system is modeled as a minimal queuing response time model of location and allocation. A solution to this complex mathematical problem is developed based on genetic algorithm. Finally, a case study of an emergency supply chain system operating in Shanghai is discussed. The results demonstrate the robustness and applicability of the proposed model.

  5. Modeling relief demands in an emergency supply chain system under large-scale disasters based on a queuing network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xinhua; Hu, Wenfa

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a multiple-rescue model for an emergency supply chain system under uncertainties in large-scale affected area of disasters. The proposed methodology takes into consideration that the rescue demands caused by a large-scale disaster are scattered in several locations; the servers are arranged in multiple echelons (resource depots, distribution centers, and rescue center sites) located in different places but are coordinated within one emergency supply chain system; depending on the types of rescue demands, one or more distinct servers dispatch emergency resources in different vehicle routes, and emergency rescue services queue in multiple rescue-demand locations. This emergency system is modeled as a minimal queuing response time model of location and allocation. A solution to this complex mathematical problem is developed based on genetic algorithm. Finally, a case study of an emergency supply chain system operating in Shanghai is discussed. The results demonstrate the robustness and applicability of the proposed model.

  6. 基于5A景区最大承载量和游客接待量的旅游供需关系模型研究%Study of Mathematical Model Between Tourism Supply and Demand Based on Relationship of the 5A Level Scenic Spots' Maximum Carrying Capacity and the Amount of the Tourists

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘静; 刘耀龙; 段锦

    2017-01-01

    旅游承载量是反映旅游供给能力的重要指标,游客接待量是衡量旅游需求状况的常用指标.在分析我国5A级景区最大承载量空间分异特征的基础上,对2014年各省市5A级景区日最大承载量和年游客接待量进行相关性和回归分析,构建基于景区承载量和游客接待量的旅游供需关系模型.结果表明:(1)5A级景区最大承载量和游客接待量之间存在显著的正相关关系;(2)旅游供需关系模型可由复合函数定量表征;(3)模型能够预测旅游供需变化,对旅游业发展具有一定的指示意义.%Tourism carrying capacity is an important index to reflect the tourism supply capacity, and the amount of the tourists is a common index to measure tourism demand. On the basis of the analysis of the spatial distribution characteristics of 5A level scenic spots' maximum carrying capacity, the paper carries out correlation and regression analysis about the 5A level scenic' maximum carrying capacity and the amount of the tourists. Sample data is calculated or statistical results of 31 provinces in 2014. Tourism supply and demand model is constructed based on the relationship between the 5A level scenic spots' maximum carrying capacity and the amount of the tourists. Results indicate: (1)There is a significant positive correlation between the 5A level scenic spot'maximum carrying capacity and the amount of tourists; (2)The model of tourism supply and demand relations can be quantitatively characterized by complex functions;(3)The model can predict the change of tourism supply and demand, which have referential meaning to the development of tourism.

  7. The Influence of Recognition and Social Support on European Health Professionals' Occupational Stress: A Demands-Control-Social Support-Recognition Bayesian Network Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Herrero, Susana; Lopez-Garcia, Jose R; Herrera, Sixto; Fontaneda, Ignacio; Báscones, Sonia Muñoz; Mariscal, Miguel A

    2017-01-01

    Healthcare professionals undergo high levels of occupational stress as a result of their working conditions. Thus, the aim of this study is to develop a model that focuses on healthcare professionals so as to analyze the influence that job demands, control, social support, and recognition have on the likelihood that a worker will experience stress. The data collected correspond to 2,211 healthcare workers from 35 countries, as reported in the sixth European Working Condition Survey (EWCS). The results obtained from this study allow us to infer stress under several working condition scenarios and to identify the more relevant variables in order to reduce this stress in healthcare professionals, which is of paramount importance to managing the stress of workers in this sector. The Bayesian network proposed indicates that emotional demands have a greater influence on raising the likelihood of stress due to workload than do family demands. The results show that the support of colleagues, in general, has less effect on reducing stress than social support from superiors. Furthermore, the sensitivity analysis shows that, in high-demand and low-control situations, recognition clearly impacts stress, drastically reducing it.

  8. PERIODIC REVIEW SYSTEM FOR INVENTORY REPLENISHMENT CONTROL FOR A TWO-ECHELON LOGISTICS NETWORK UNDER DEMAND UNCERTAINTY: A TWO-STAGE STOCHASTIC PROGRAMING APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.S.A. Cunha

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Here, we propose a novel methodology for replenishment and control systems for inventories of two-echelon logistics networks using a two-stage stochastic programming, considering periodic review and uncertain demands. In addition, to achieve better customer services, we introduce a variable rationing rule to address quantities of the item in short. The devised models are reformulated into their deterministic equivalent, resulting in nonlinear mixed-integer programming models, which are then approximately linearized. To deal with the uncertain nature of the item demand levels, we apply a Monte Carlo simulation-based method to generate finite and discrete sets of scenarios. Moreover, the proposed approach does not require restricted assumptions to the behavior of the probabilistic phenomena, as does several existing methods in the literature. Numerical experiments with the proposed approach for randomly generated instances of the problem show results with errors around 1%.

  9. An infrastructure with a unified control plane to integrate IP into optical metro networks to provide flexible and intelligent bandwidth on demand for cloud computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wei; Hall, Trevor

    2012-12-01

    The Internet is entering an era of cloud computing to provide more cost effective, eco-friendly and reliable services to consumer and business users and the nature of the Internet traffic will undertake a fundamental transformation. Consequently, the current Internet will no longer suffice for serving cloud traffic in metro areas. This work proposes an infrastructure with a unified control plane that integrates simple packet aggregation technology with optical express through the interoperation between IP routers and electrical traffic controllers in optical metro networks. The proposed infrastructure provides flexible, intelligent, and eco-friendly bandwidth on demand for cloud computing in metro areas.

  10. Urban development control based on transportation carrying capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miharja, M.; Sjafruddin, A. H.

    2017-06-01

    Severe transportation problems in Indonesian urban areas are stimulated by one fundamental factor, namely lack of awareness on transportation carrying capacity in these areas development control. Urban land use development towards more physical coverage is typically not related with the capability of transportation system to accommodate additional trips volume. Lack of clear connection between development permit with its implication on the transportation side has led to a phenomenon of exceeding transport demand over supply capacity. This paper discusses the concept of urban land use development control which will be related with transport carrying capacity. The discussion would cover both supply and demand sides of transportation. From supply side, the analysis regarding the capacity of transport system would take both existing as well as potential road network capacity could be developed. From demand side, the analysis would be through the control of a maximum floor area and public transport provision. Allowed maximum floor area for development would be at the level of generating traffic at reasonable volume. Ultimately, the objective of this paper is to introduce model to incorporate transport carrying capacity in Indonesian urban land use development control.

  11. Interneuron Deficit Associates Attenuated Network Synchronization to Mismatch of Energy Supply and Demand in Aging Mouse Brains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Sanne Barsballe; Mathiesen, Claus; Lind, Barbara Lykke

    2017-01-01

    Higher cognitive functions depend critically on synchronized network activity in the gamma range (30-100 Hz), which results from activity of fast-spiking parvalbumin-positive (PV) interneurons. Here, we examined synaptic activity in the gamma band in relation to PV interneuron activity, stimulati...

  12. Experimental Analysis of the Input Variables’ Relevance to Forecast Next Day’s Aggregated Electric Demand Using Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo García

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Thanks to the built in intelligence (deployment of new intelligent devices and sensors in places where historically they were not present, the Smart Grid and Microgrid paradigms are able to take advantage from aggregated load forecasting, which opens the door for the implementation of new algorithms to seize this information for optimization and advanced planning. Therefore, accuracy in load forecasts will potentially have a big impact on key operation factors for the future Smart Grid/Microgrid-based energy network like user satisfaction and resource saving, and new methods to achieve an efficient prediction in future energy landscapes (very different from the centralized, big area networks studied so far. This paper proposes different improved models to forecast next day’s aggregated load using artificial neural networks, taking into account the variables that are most relevant for the aggregated. In particular, seven models based on the multilayer perceptron will be proposed, progressively adding input variables after analyzing the influence of climate factors on aggregated load. The results section presents the forecast from the proposed models, obtained from real data.

  13. Demand Uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Daniel Xuyen

    This paper presents a model of trade that explains why firms wait to export and why many exporters fail. Firms face uncertain demands that are only realized after the firm enters the destination. The model retools the timing of uncertainty resolution found in productivity heterogeneity models....... This retooling addresses several shortcomings. First, the imperfect correlation of demands reconciles the sales variation observed in and across destinations. Second, since demands for the firm's output are correlated across destinations, a firm can use previously realized demands to forecast unknown demands...... in untested destinations. The option to forecast demands causes firms to delay exporting in order to gather more information about foreign demand. Third, since uncertainty is resolved after entry, many firms enter a destination and then exit after learning that they cannot profit. This prediction reconciles...

  14. Alkaline electrolyzer and V2G system DIgSILENT models for demand response analysis in future distribution networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diaz de Cerio Mendaza, Iker; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte; Chen, Zhe

    2013-01-01

    Grid instabilities originated by unsteady generation, characteristic consequence of some renewable energy resources such as wind and solar power, claims for new power balance solutions in largely penetrated systems. Denmark's solid investment in these energy sources has awaked a need of rethinking...... about the future control and operation of the power system. A widespread idea to face these challenges is to have a flexible demand easily adjustable to the system variations. Electrothermal loads, electric vehicles and hydrogen generation are among the most mentioned technologies capable to respond......, under certain strategies, to these variations. This paper presents two DIgSILENT PowerFactory models: an alkaline electrolyzer and a vehicle to the grid system. The models were performed using DIgSILENT Simulation Language, aiming to be used for long-term distribution systems simulations. Two voltage...

  15. Integrated Optimization of Service-Oriented Train Plan and Schedule on Intercity Rail Network with Varying Demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenliang Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For a better service level of a train operating plan, we propose an integrated optimization method of train planning and train scheduling, which generally are optimized, respectively. Based on the cost analysis of both passengers travelling and enterprises operation, and the constraint analysis of trains operation, we construct a multiobjective function and build an integrated optimization model with the aim of reducing both passenger travel costs and enterprise operating costs. Then, a solving algorithm is established based on the simulated annealing algorithm. Finally, using as an example the Changzhutan intercity rail network, as an example we analyze the optimized results and the influence of the model parameters on the results.

  16. News and Views: Research council resource allocations: managing demand; e-MERLIN radio telescope network is up and running

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    The research councils discovered in December the allocation of money from the UK government's Comprehensive Spending Review, and have set out their delivery plans outlining how they will spend it. Details and decisions will follow consultation in the coming months. The first image from eMerlin, the UK's national radio astronomy facility, shows the power of the enhanced network of radio telescopes spread over 220 km and now linked by fibre optics. These links and advanced receivers will allow astronomers to see in a single day what would have previously taken them more than a year of observations.

  17. Managing the growing energy demand - The case of Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Kholy, Hosni; Faried, Ragy

    2010-09-15

    The electric energy consumption rate in Egypt has an average increase of 7% per year through the last three decades. In order to satisfy the ever increasing energy demand, several actions were, and have to be taken. These actions have to be carried out in parallel. The one having the greatest effect is the measures carried out for energy conservation and loss reduction. Diversifying the energy source such as utilization of Renewable Energy technologies can contribute to satisfying the demand and extending the hydro-carbon reserves life. Regional integration of electrical networks will save expenditures used to build additional power plants.

  18. Building energy demand aggregation and simulation tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gianniou, Panagiota; Heller, Alfred; Rode, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    to neighbourhoods and cities. Buildings occupy a key place in the development of smart cities as they represent an important potential to integrate smart energy solutions. Building energy consumption affects significantly the performance of the entire energy network. Therefore, a realistic estimation...... of the aggregated building energy use will not only ensure security of supply but also enhance the stabilization of national energy balances. In this study, the aggregation of building energy demand was investigated for a real case in Sønderborg, Denmark. Sixteen single-family houses -mainly built in the 1960s......- were examined, all connected to the regional district heating network. The aggregation of building energy demands was carried out according to typologies, being represented by archetype buildings. These houses were modelled with dynamic energy simulation software and with a simplified simulation tool...

  19. Demand Modelling in Telecommunications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Chvalina

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the existing possibilities for using Standard Statistical Methods and Artificial Intelligence Methods for a short-term forecast and simulation of demand in the field of telecommunications. The most widespread methods are based on Time Series Analysis. Nowadays, approaches based on Artificial Intelligence Methods, including Neural Networks, are booming. Separate approaches will be used in the study of Demand Modelling in Telecommunications, and the results of these models will be compared with actual guaranteed values. Then we will examine the quality of Neural Network models. 

  20. A hybrid optical switch architecture to integrate IP into optical networks to provide flexible and intelligent bandwidth on demand for cloud computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wei; Hall, Trevor J.

    2013-12-01

    The Internet is entering an era of cloud computing to provide more cost effective, eco-friendly and reliable services to consumer and business users. As a consequence, the nature of the Internet traffic has been fundamentally transformed from a pure packet-based pattern to today's predominantly flow-based pattern. Cloud computing has also brought about an unprecedented growth in the Internet traffic. In this paper, a hybrid optical switch architecture is presented to deal with the flow-based Internet traffic, aiming to offer flexible and intelligent bandwidth on demand to improve fiber capacity utilization. The hybrid optical switch is capable of integrating IP into optical networks for cloud-based traffic with predictable performance, for which the delay performance of the electronic module in the hybrid optical switch architecture is evaluated through simulation.

  1. Optical Carry Adder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-01

    AOM’s) with the deflected beam as the modulator "on" state. These AOM’s ( TeO2 crystals, manufactured by Newport E.O. Systems) have high deflection...caused by the slow acoustic propagation (4.2 - 105 cm/s for TeO2 ), but this delay can be minimized by placing the laser beam close to the acoustic...dependent jitter in the optical carry to below 1 ns, the total carry path must be less than 30 cm long (or 20 cm in glass , 14 cm in LiNbO 3). Thus, a 32

  2. Electrical network capacity support from demand side response: Techno-economic assessment of potential business cases for small commercial and residential end-users

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martínez Ceseña, Eduardo A.; Good, Nicholas; Mancarella, Pierluigi

    2015-01-01

    Demand Side Response (DSR) is recognised for its potential to bring economic benefits to various electricity sector actors, such as energy retailers, Transmission System Operators (TSOs) and Distribution Network Operators (DNOs). However, most DSR is provided by large industrial and commercial consumers, and little research has been directed to the quantification of the value that small (below 100 kW) commercial and residential end-users could accrue by providing DSR services. In particular, suitable models and studies are needed to quantify potential business cases for DSR from small commercial and residential end-users. Such models and studies should consider the technical and physical characteristics of the power system and demand resources, together with the economic conditions of the power market. In addition, the majority of research focuses on provision of energy arbitrage or ancillary services, with very little attention to DSR services for network capacity support. Accordingly, this paper presents comprehensive techno-economic methodologies for the quantification of three capacity-based business cases for DSR from small commercial and residential end-users. Case study results applied to a UK context indicate that, if the appropriate regulatory framework is put in place, services for capacity support to both DNOs and TSOs can result into potentially attractive business cases for DSR from small end-users with minimum impact on their comfort level. -- Highlights: •We present three business cases for DSR from domestic and commercial end-users. •A comprehensive techno-economic methodology is proposed for the quantification of each DSR business cases. •The regulatory implications associated with each business case are discussed

  3. XD Metrics on Demand Value Analytics: Visualizing the Impact of Internal Information Technology Investments on External Funding, Publications, and Collaboration Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Scrivner

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Many universities invest substantial resources in the design, deployment, and maintenance of campus-based cyberinfrastructure (CI. To justify the expense, it is important that university administrators and others understand and communicate the value of these internal investments in terms of scholarly impact. This paper introduces two visualizations and their usage in the Value Analytics (VA module for Open XD metrics on demand (XDMoD, which enable analysis of external grant funding income, scholarly publications, and collaboration networks. The VA module was developed by Indiana University’s (IU Research Technologies division, Pervasive Technology Institute, and the CI for Network Science Center (CNS, in conjunction with the University at Buffalo’s Center for Computational Research. It provides diverse visualizations of measures of information technology (IT usage, external funding, and publications in support of IT strategic decision-making. This paper details the data, analysis workflows, and visual mappings used in two VA visualizations that aim to communicate the value of different IT usage in terms of NSF and NIH funding, resulting publications, and associated research collaborations. To illustrate the feasibility of measuring IT values on research, we measured its financial and academic impact from the period between 2012 and 2017 for IU. The financial return on investment (ROI is measured in terms of IU funding, totaling $339,013,365 for 885 NIH and NSF projects associated with IT usage, and the academic ROI constitutes 968 publications associated with 83 of these NSF and NIH awards. In addition, the results show that Medical Specialties, Brain Research, and Infectious Diseases are the top three scientific disciplines ranked by the number of publications during the given time period.

  4. Artificial neural network modelling of biological oxygen demand in rivers at the national level with input selection based on Monte Carlo simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šiljić, Aleksandra; Antanasijević, Davor; Perić-Grujić, Aleksandra; Ristić, Mirjana; Pocajt, Viktor

    2015-03-01

    Biological oxygen demand (BOD) is the most significant water quality parameter and indicates water pollution with respect to the present biodegradable organic matter content. European countries are therefore obliged to report annual BOD values to Eurostat; however, BOD data at the national level is only available for 28 of 35 listed European countries for the period prior to 2008, among which 46% of data is missing. This paper describes the development of an artificial neural network model for the forecasting of annual BOD values at the national level, using widely available sustainability and economical/industrial parameters as inputs. The initial general regression neural network (GRNN) model was trained, validated and tested utilizing 20 inputs. The number of inputs was reduced to 15 using the Monte Carlo simulation technique as the input selection method. The best results were achieved with the GRNN model utilizing 25% less inputs than the initial model and a comparison with a multiple linear regression model trained and tested using the same input variables using multiple statistical performance indicators confirmed the advantage of the GRNN model. Sensitivity analysis has shown that inputs with the greatest effect on the GRNN model were (in descending order) precipitation, rural population with access to improved water sources, treatment capacity of wastewater treatment plants (urban) and treatment of municipal waste, with the last two having an equal effect. Finally, it was concluded that the developed GRNN model can be useful as a tool to support the decision-making process on sustainable development at a regional, national and international level.

  5. Joint Optimization of Distribution Network Design and Two-Echelon Inventory Control with Stochastic Demand and CO2 Emission Tax Charges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuangyan; Li, Xialian; Zhang, Dezhi; Zhou, Lingyun

    2017-01-01

    This study develops an optimization model to integrate facility location and inventory control for a three-level distribution network consisting of a supplier, multiple distribution centers (DCs), and multiple retailers. The integrated model addressed in this study simultaneously determines three types of decisions: (1) facility location (optimal number, location, and size of DCs); (2) allocation (assignment of suppliers to located DCs and retailers to located DCs, and corresponding optimal transport mode choices); and (3) inventory control decisions on order quantities, reorder points, and amount of safety stock at each retailer and opened DC. A mixed-integer programming model is presented, which considers the carbon emission taxes, multiple transport modes, stochastic demand, and replenishment lead time. The goal is to minimize the total cost, which covers the fixed costs of logistics facilities, inventory, transportation, and CO2 emission tax charges. The aforementioned optimal model was solved using commercial software LINGO 11. A numerical example is provided to illustrate the applications of the proposed model. The findings show that carbon emission taxes can significantly affect the supply chain structure, inventory level, and carbon emission reduction levels. The delay rate directly affects the replenishment decision of a retailer.

  6. Joint Optimization of Distribution Network Design and Two-Echelon Inventory Control with Stochastic Demand and CO2 Emission Tax Charges.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuangyan Li

    Full Text Available This study develops an optimization model to integrate facility location and inventory control for a three-level distribution network consisting of a supplier, multiple distribution centers (DCs, and multiple retailers. The integrated model addressed in this study simultaneously determines three types of decisions: (1 facility location (optimal number, location, and size of DCs; (2 allocation (assignment of suppliers to located DCs and retailers to located DCs, and corresponding optimal transport mode choices; and (3 inventory control decisions on order quantities, reorder points, and amount of safety stock at each retailer and opened DC. A mixed-integer programming model is presented, which considers the carbon emission taxes, multiple transport modes, stochastic demand, and replenishment lead time. The goal is to minimize the total cost, which covers the fixed costs of logistics facilities, inventory, transportation, and CO2 emission tax charges. The aforementioned optimal model was solved using commercial software LINGO 11. A numerical example is provided to illustrate the applications of the proposed model. The findings show that carbon emission taxes can significantly affect the supply chain structure, inventory level, and carbon emission reduction levels. The delay rate directly affects the replenishment decision of a retailer.

  7. A methodology for extracting knowledge rules from artificial neural networks applied to forecast demand for electric power; Uma metodologia para extracao de regras de conhecimento a partir de redes neurais artificiais aplicadas para previsao de demanda por energia eletrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinmetz, Tarcisio; Souza, Glauber; Ferreira, Sandro; Santos, Jose V. Canto dos; Valiati, Joao [Universidade do Vale do Rio dos Sinos (PIPCA/UNISINOS), Sao Leopoldo, RS (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Computacao Aplicada], Emails: trsteinmetz@unisinos.br, gsouza@unisinos.br, sferreira, jvcanto@unisinos.br, jfvaliati@unisinos.br

    2009-07-01

    We present a methodology for the extraction of rules from Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) trained to forecast the electric load demand. The rules have the ability to express the knowledge regarding the behavior of load demand acquired by the ANN during the training process. The rules are presented to the user in an easy to read format, such as IF premise THEN consequence. Where premise relates to the input data submitted to the ANN (mapped as fuzzy sets), and consequence appears as a linear equation describing the output to be presented by the ANN, should the premise part holds true. Experimentation demonstrates the method's capacity for acquiring and presenting high quality rules from neural networks trained to forecast electric load demand for several amounts of time in the future. (author)

  8. WATER DEMAND PREDICTION USING ARTIFICIAL NEURAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents Hourly water demand prediction at the demand nodes of a water distribution network using NeuNet Pro 2.3 neural network software and the monitoring and control of water distribution using supervisory control. The case study is the Laminga Water Treatment Plant and its water distribution network, Jos.

  9. Ad hoc laser networks component technology for modular spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiujun; Shi, Dele; Shen, Jingshi

    2017-10-01

    Distributed reconfigurable satellite is a new kind of spacecraft system, which is based on a flexible platform of modularization and standardization. Based on the module data flow analysis of the spacecraft, this paper proposes a network component of ad hoc Laser networks architecture. Low speed control network with high speed load network of Microwave-Laser communication mode, no mesh network mode, to improve the flexibility of the network. Ad hoc Laser networks component technology was developed, and carried out the related performance testing and experiment. The results showed that ad hoc Laser networks components can meet the demand of future networking between the module of spacecraft.

  10. In demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman, B. [Bridgestone Ltd. (United Kingdom)

    2005-11-01

    The paper explains how good relationships can help alleviate potential tyre shortages. Demand for large dump truck tyres (largely for China) has increased by 50% within 12 months. Bridgestone's manufacturing plants are operating at maximum capacity. The company supplies tyres to all vehicles at Scottish Coal's opencast coal mines. Its Tyre Management System (TMS) supplied free of charge to customers helps maximise tyre life and minimise downtime from data on pressure, tread and general conditions fed into the hand-held TMS computer. 3 photos.

  11. Modelagem de redes logísticas com custos de inventário calculados a partir da cobertura de estoque Logistic networks modeling with inventory carrying costs calculated using inventory turnover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Hamad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A consideração dos custos de inventário tem se tornado cada vez mais importante na análise dos trade-offs e na tomada de decisões sobre redes logísticas. O artigo propõe uma metodologia para tratamento do custo de inventário a partir da cobertura de estoque esperada em cada instalação, incorporada na modelagem matemática da localização de fábricas e/ou centros de distribuição em redes logísticas com vários elos, representando uma nova versão do modelo apresentado em Hamad e Gualda (2008. As principais contribuições desta metodologia em relação a outros métodos encontrados na literatura são a facilidade de aplicação do método, a inclusão de restrições ligadas à capacidade de armazenagem e a consideração do custo total de inventário, e não apenas do custo relacionado aos produtos modelados.Inventory carrying cost has become very important in the analysis of the trade-offs and an important component to be considered when taking decisions about a logistic network. This paper proposes a methodology incorporated in a multi-echelon sourcing decision model, to be considered as a new version of the model presented in Hamad, Gualda (2008. It treats the carrying costs using the inventory Days-on-hand estimate in each echelon of the chain (plants and/or Distribution Centers. The main contributions of this methodology compared to other options found in the literature are the simplicity of its application, the consideration of all inventory costs (not only the ones related to the products being modeled and, also, the inclusion of constraints related to warehousing capacity.

  12. Ad Hoc on-Demand Distance Vector (AODV Routing Protocol Performance Evaluation on Hybrid Ad Hoc Network: Comparison of Result of Ns-2 Simulation and Implementation on Testbed using PDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riri Sari

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In Mobile Ad hoc NETwork (MANET, node supplemented with wireless equipment has the capacity to manage and organise autonomously, without the presence of network infrastructures. Hybrid ad hoc network, enable several nodes to move freely (mobile to create instant communication. Independent from infrastructure. They could access the Local Area Network (LAN or the Internet. Functionalities of ad hoc network very much dependent on the routing protocol that determines the routing around node. Ad hoc On-demand Distance Vector (AODV is one of routing protocols in ad hoc network which has a reactive characteristic. This protocol is the most common protocol being researched and used. In this Research, AODV protocol investigation was conducted by developing a testbed using Personal Computer, several Laptops (the Linux Red Hat operation system 9.0 and Fedora Core 2, and Personal Digital Assistant (PDA. This research also made a complete package by mean of cross compilation for PDA iPAQ. In general, results obtained from the simulation of AODV protocol using Network Simulator NS-2 are packet delivery ratio 99.89%, end-to-end delay of 0.14 seconds and routing overhead of 1,756.61 byte per second. Afterwards results from simulation were compared to results from testbed. Results obtained from testbed are as follows: the packet delivery ratio is 99.57%, the end-to-end delay is 1.004 seconds and the routing overhead is 1,360.36 byte per second.

  13. Categorical and continuous - disentangling the neural correlates of the carry effect in multi-digit addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dressel Katharina

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently it was suggested that the carry effect observed in addition involves both categorical and continuous processing characteristics. Methods In the present study, we aimed at identifying the specific neural correlates associated with processing either categorical or continuous aspects of the carry effect in an fMRI study on multi-digit addition. Results In line with our expectations, we observed two distinct parts of the fronto-parietal network subserving numerical cognition to be associated with either one of these two characteristics. On the one hand, the categorical aspect of the carry effect was associated with left-hemispheric language areas and the basal ganglia probably reflecting increased demands on procedural and problem solving processes. Complementarily, the continuous aspect of the carry effect was associated with increased intraparietal activation indicating increasing demands on magnitude processing as well as place-value integration with increasing unit sum. Conclusions In summary, the findings suggest representations and processes underlying the carry effect in multi-digit addition to be more complex and interactive than assumed previously.

  14. The Integron: Adaptation On Demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escudero, José Antonio; Loot, Céline; Nivina, Aleksandra; Mazel, Didier

    2015-04-01

    The integron is a powerful system which, by capturing, stockpiling, and rearranging new functions carried by gene encoding cassettes, confers upon bacteria a rapid adaptation capability in changing environments. Chromosomally located integrons (CI) have been identified in a large number of environmental Gram-negative bacteria. Integron evolutionary history suggests that these sedentary CIs acquired mobility among bacterial species through their association with transposable elements and conjugative plasmids. As a result of massive antibiotic use, these so-called mobile integrons are now widespread in clinically relevant bacteria and are considered to be the principal agent in the emergence and rise of antibiotic multiresistance in Gram-negative bacteria. Cassette rearrangements are catalyzed by the integron integrase, a site-specific tyrosine recombinase. Central to these reactions is the single-stranded DNA nature of one of the recombination partners, the attC site. This makes the integron a unique recombination system. This review describes the current knowledge on this atypical recombination mechanism, its implications in the reactions involving the different types of sites, attC and attI, and focuses on the tight regulation exerted by the host on integron activity through the control of attC site folding. Furthermore, cassette and integrase expression are also highly controlled by host regulatory networks and the bacterial stress (SOS) response. These intimate connections to the host make the integron a genetically stable and efficient system, granting the bacteria a low cost, highly adaptive evolution potential "on demand".

  15. Role of LNG in an optimized hybrid energy network, Part 1 : Balancing renewable energy supply and demand by integration of decentralized LNG regasifcation with a CHP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montoya Cardona, J.; Dam, J.A.M.; de Rooij, M.

    2017-01-01

    The future energy system could benefit from the integration of independent gas, heat and electricity infrastructures. Such a hybrid energy network could support the increase of intermittent renewable energy sources by offering increased operational flexibility. Nowadays, the expectations on Natural

  16. Role of lng in an optimized hybrid energy network : Part 1. Balancing renewable energy supply and demand by integration of decentralized lng regasification with a CHP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montoya Cardona, Juliana; Dam, Jacques; de Rooij, Marietta

    2017-01-01

    The future energy system could benefit from the integration of independent gas, heat and electricity infrastructures. Such a hybrid energy network could support the increase of intermittent renewable energy sources by offering increased operational flexibility. Nowadays, the expectations on Natural

  17. News Competition: Physics Olympiad hits Thailand Report: Institute carries out survey into maths in physics at university Event: A day for everyone teaching physics Conference: Welsh conference celebrates birthday Schools: Researchers in Residence scheme set to close Teachers: A day for new physics teachers Social: Network combines fun and physics Forthcoming events

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    Competition: Physics Olympiad hits Thailand Report: Institute carries out survey into maths in physics at university Event: A day for everyone teaching physics Conference: Welsh conference celebrates birthday Schools: Researchers in Residence scheme set to close Teachers: A day for new physics teachers Social: Network combines fun and physics Forthcoming events

  18. Exergy and Energy Analysis of Low Temperature District Heating Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Hongwei; Svendsen, Svend

    is in line with a pilot project that is carrying out in Denmark with network supply/return temperature at 55oC/25 oC. The consumer domestic hot water (DHW) demand is supplied with a special designed district heating (DH) storage tank. The space heating (SH) demand is supplied with a low temperature radiator......Low temperature district heating (LTDH) with reduced network supply and return temperature provides better match of the low quality building thermal demand and the low quality waste heat supply. In this paper, an exemplary LTDH network was designed for 30 low energy demand residential houses, which....... The network thermal and hydraulic conditions were simulated under steady state with an in-house district heating network design and simulation code. Through simulation, the overall system energetic and exergetic efficiencies were calculated and the exergy losses for the major district heating system...

  19. Applying demand side management using a generalised grid supportive approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaauwbroek, N.; Nguyen, H.P.; Slootweg, J.G.

    2017-01-01

    Demand side management is often seen as a promising tool for distribution network operators to mitigate network operation limit violations. Many demand side management applications have been proposed, each with their own objectives and methodology. Quite often, these demand side management

  20. Energy Efficiency in Self Organising Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kisielius, Edvinas; Popovska Avramova, Andrijana; Zakrzewska, Anna

    2013-01-01

    We evaluate the performance of an energy efficient algorithm that controls power emissions and the number of powered cell sites (eNBs) in overlaid Long Term Evolution (LTE) networks. Simulations are carried out in OPNET Modeler and we investigate cells cites designed to meet peak hours trac demand...

  1. Fiber to the home: next generation network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chengxin; Guo, Baoping

    2006-07-01

    Next generation networks capable of carrying converged telephone, television (TV), very high-speed internet, and very high-speed bi-directional data services (like video-on-demand (VOD), Game etc.) strategy for Fiber To The Home (FTTH) is presented. The potential market is analyzed. The barriers and some proper strategy are also discussed. Several technical problems like various powering methods, optical fiber cables, and different network architecture are discussed too.

  2. Bi-objective integrating sustainable order allocation and sustainable supply chain network strategic design with stochastic demand using a novel robust hybrid multi-objective metaheuristic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Govindan, Kannan; Jafarian, Ahmad; Nourbakhsh, Vahid

    2015-01-01

    simultaneously considering the sustainable OAP in the sustainable SCND as a strategic decision. The proposed supply chain network is composed of five echelons including suppliers classified in different classes, plants, distribution centers that dispatch products via two different ways, direct shipment......, a novel multi-objective hybrid approach called MOHEV with two strategies for its best particle selection procedure (BPSP), minimum distance, and crowding distance is proposed. MOHEV is constructed through hybridization of two multi-objective algorithms, namely the adapted multi-objective electromagnetism...

  3. Optical Access Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jun; Ansari, Nirwan

    2005-06-01

    Call for Papers: Optical Access Networks With the wide deployment of fiber-optic technology over the past two decades, we have witnessed a tremendous growth of bandwidth capacity in the backbone networks of today's telecommunications infrastructure. However, access networks, which cover the "last-mile" areas and serve numerous residential and small business users, have not been scaled up commensurately. The local subscriber lines for telephone and cable television are still using twisted pairs and coaxial cables. Most residential connections to the Internet are still through dial-up modems operating at a low speed on twisted pairs. As the demand for access bandwidth increases with emerging high-bandwidth applications, such as distance learning, high-definition television (HDTV), and video on demand (VoD), the last-mile access networks have become a bandwidth bottleneck in today's telecommunications infrastructure. To ease this bottleneck, it is imperative to provide sufficient bandwidth capacity in the access networks to open the bottleneck and thus present more opportunities for the provisioning of multiservices. Optical access solutions promise huge bandwidth to service providers and low-cost high-bandwidth services to end users and are therefore widely considered the technology of choice for next-generation access networks. To realize the vision of optical access networks, however, many key issues still need to be addressed, such as network architectures, signaling protocols, and implementation standards. The major challenges lie in the fact that an optical solution must be not only robust, scalable, and flexible, but also implemented at a low cost comparable to that of existing access solutions in order to increase the economic viability of many potential high-bandwidth applications. In recent years, optical access networks have been receiving tremendous attention from both academia and industry. A large number of research activities have been carried out or

  4. An Experimental QoE Performance Study for the Efficient Transmission of High Demanding Traffic over an Ad Hoc Network Using BATMAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramon Sanchez-Iborra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Multimedia communications are attracting great attention from the research, industry, and end-user communities. The latter are increasingly claiming for higher levels of quality and the possibility of consuming multimedia content from a plethora of devices at their disposal. Clearly, the most appealing gadgets are those that communicate wirelessly to access these services. However, current wireless technologies raise severe concerns to support extremely demanding services such as real-time multimedia transmissions. This paper evaluates from QoE and QoS perspectives the capability of the ad hoc routing protocol called BATMAN to support Voice over IP and video traffic. To this end, two test-benches were proposed, namely, a real (emulated testbed and a simulation framework. Additionally, a series of modifications was proposed on both protocols’ parameters settings and video-stream characteristics that contributes to further improving the multimedia quality perceived by the users. The performance of the well-extended protocol OLSR is also evaluated in detail to compare it with BATMAN. From the results, a notably high correlation between real experimentation and computer simulation outcomes was observed. It was also found out that, with the proper configuration, BATMAN is able to transmit several QCIF video-streams and VoIP calls with high quality. In addition, BATMAN outperforms OLSR supporting multimedia traffic in both experimental and simulated environments.

  5. Reduction of peak energy demand based on smart appliances energy consumption adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powroźnik, P.; Szulim, R.

    2017-08-01

    In the paper the concept of elastic model of energy management for smart grid and micro smart grid is presented. For the proposed model a method for reducing peak demand in micro smart grid has been defined. The idea of peak demand reduction in elastic model of energy management is to introduce a balance between demand and supply of current power for the given Micro Smart Grid in the given moment. The results of the simulations studies were presented. They were carried out on real household data available on UCI Machine Learning Repository. The results may have practical application in the smart grid networks, where there is a need for smart appliances energy consumption adjustment. The article presents a proposal to implement the elastic model of energy management as the cloud computing solution. This approach of peak demand reduction might have application particularly in a large smart grid.

  6. A Multi-Objective Demand Side Management Considering ENS Cost in Smart Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yousefi Khanghah, Babak; Ghassemzadeh, Saeid; Hosseini, Seyed Hossein

    2017-01-01

    In this paper a new method is presented to achieve economic exploitation and proper usage of network capacity by exerting controlling actions over flexible loads and energy storage (ES) equipment. Multi-objective planning for demand response programs (DRP) and battery management policies is carried...... out by considering energy not supplied (ENS). In order to achieve an optimal scheduling, charge/discharge control for batteries, demand response programs and dispatch of controllable distributed generations (DGs) are also considered. Then, the balanced cost and benefits of participants are evaluated...

  7. How honey bees carry pollen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matherne, Marguerite E.; Anyanwu, Gabriel; Leavey, Jennifer K.; Hu, David L.

    2017-11-01

    Honey bees are the tanker of the skies, carrying thirty percent of their weight in pollen per foraging trip using specialized orifices on their body. How do they manage to hang onto those pesky pollen grains? In this experimental study, we investigate the adhesion force of pollen to the honeybee. To affix pollen to themselves, honey bees form a suspension of pollen in nectar, creating a putty-like pollen basket that is skewered by leg hairs. We use tensile tests to show that the viscous force of the pollen basket is more than ten times the honeybee's flight force. This work may provide inspiration for the design of robotic flying pollinators.

  8. Networking

    OpenAIRE

    Rauno Lindholm, Daniel; Boisen Devantier, Lykke; Nyborg, Karoline Lykke; Høgsbro, Andreas; Fries, de; Skovlund, Louise

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to examine what influencing factor that has had an impact on the presumed increasement of the use of networking among academics on the labour market and how it is expressed. On the basis of the influence from globalization on the labour market it can be concluded that the globalization has transformed the labour market into a market based on the organization of networks. In this new organization there is a greater emphasis on employees having social qualificati...

  9. Analysis of Facebook content demand patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Kihl, Maria; Larsson, Robin; Unnervik, Niclas; Haberkamm, Jolina; Arvidsson, Åke; Aurelius, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Data volumes in communication networks increase rapidly. Further, usage of social network applications is very wide spread among users, and among these applications, Facebook is the most popular. In this paper, we analyse user demands patterns and content popularity of Facebook generated traffic. The data comes from residential users in two metropolitan access networks in Sweden, and we analyse more than 17 million images downloaded by almost 16,000 Facebook users. We show that the distributi...

  10. Money Demand Features in CEE Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina-Ioana MERA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The existence of a stable relationship between money demand and its determinants is important for the efficiency of monetary policy. In this paper we carried a preliminary analysis on the variables that can influence money demand in five Central and Eastern European countries (Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and Romania in order to determine which characteristics define the evolution of money demand and its determinants, and how volatile they are. The results indicate a number of similarities in terms of monetary development and also suggest that some additional variables that may influence money demand in this specific sample.

  11. Retinal oscillations carry visual information to cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kilian Koepsell

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Thalamic relay cells fire action potentials that transmit information from retina to cortex. The amount of information that spike trains encode is usually estimated from the precision of spike timing with respect to the stimulus. Sensory input, however, is only one factor that influences neural activity. For example, intrinsic dynamics, such as oscillations of networks of neurons, also modulate firing pattern. Here, we asked if retinal oscillations might help to convey information to neurons downstream. Specifically, we made whole-cell recordings from relay cells to reveal retinal inputs (EPSPs and thalamic outputs (spikes and then analyzed these events with information theory. Our results show that thalamic spike trains operate as two multiplexed channels. One channel, which occupies a low frequency band (<30 Hz, is encoded by average firing rate with respect to the stimulus and carries information about local changes in the visual field over time. The other operates in the gamma frequency band (40-80 Hz and is encoded by spike timing relative to retinal oscillations. At times, the second channel conveyed even more information than the first. Because retinal oscillations involve extensive networks of ganglion cells, it is likely that the second channel transmits information about global features of the visual scene.

  12. Money Demand in Latvia

    OpenAIRE

    Ivars Tillers

    2004-01-01

    The econometric analysis of the demand for broad money in Latvia suggests a stable relationship of money demand. The analysis of parameter exogeneity indicates that the equilibrium adjustment is driven solely by the changes in the amount of money. The demand for money in Latvia is characterised by relatively high income elasticity typical for the economy in a monetary expansion phase. Due to stability, close fit of the money demand function and rapid equilibrium adjustment, broad money aggreg...

  13. Electricity demand forecasting techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gnanalingam, K.

    1994-01-01

    Electricity demand forecasting plays an important role in power generation. The two areas of data that have to be forecasted in a power system are peak demand which determines the capacity (MW) of the plant required and annual energy demand (GWH). Methods used in electricity demand forecasting include time trend analysis and econometric methods. In forecasting, identification of manpower demand, identification of key planning factors, decision on planning horizon, differentiation between prediction and projection (i.e. development of different scenarios) and choosing from different forecasting techniques are important

  14. Demanding Dynamics - Demand articulation of intermediary organisations in emerging pharmaceutical innovations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boon, W.P.C.

    2008-01-01

    User involvement in emerging technological fields is carried by so-called demand articulation processes. These demand articulation processes are interactive learning processes in which stakeholders try to address what they perceive as important characteristics of, and to unravel preferences for an

  15. Electricity demand in Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atakhanova, Zauresh; Howie, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Properties of electricity demand in transition economies have not been sufficiently well researched mostly due to data limitations. However, information on the properties of electricity demand is necessary for policy makers to evaluate effects of price changes on different consumers and obtain demand forecasts for capacity planning. This study estimates Kazakhstan's aggregate demand for electricity as well as electricity demand in the industrial, service, and residential sectors using regional data. Firstly, our results show that price elasticity of demand in all sectors is low. This fact suggests that there is considerable room for price increases necessary to finance generation and distribution system upgrading. Secondly, we find that income elasticity of demand in the aggregate and all sectoral models is less than unity. Of the three sectors, electricity demand in the residential sector has the lowest income elasticity. This result indicates that policy initiatives to secure affordability of electricity consumption to lower income residential consumers may be required. Finally, our forecast shows that electricity demand may grow at either 3% or 5% per year depending on rates of economic growth and government policy regarding price increases and promotion of efficiency. We find that planned supply increases would be sufficient to cover growing demand only if real electricity prices start to increase toward long-run cost-recovery levels and policy measures are implemented to maintain the current high growth of electricity efficiency

  16. Managing Disasters Using Pressure Dependent Demand Analysis – Case Study of Shirpur Town

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhuri Mulay

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Water is the most essential component for sustaining lives of humans and other living creatures. Supplying potable water with adequate residual pressure is a fundamental responsibility of city administration, which they do during normal conditions. But sometimes, abnormal conditions are formed resulting pressure deficient conditions during the daily operations of water distribution networks. These are caused due to common occurrences such as pump failure, pipe bursts, and isolation of major pipes from the system for planned maintenance work and excessive firefighting demands. Total water stop conditions may arise, when the major source supplying water to the city fails in natural disaster such as floods, Tsunami, earthquake or manmade disaster such as terrorist attack. Unlike the pipe failure, longer time is required for restoring water in case of source failure condition. In such situations, the quantity of water is generally decreased and the water distribution systems (WDS may not be able to satisfy all consumers’ demands. In this context, the assumption that all demands are fully satisfied regardless of the pressure in the system becomes unreasonable. A realistic behavior of the network performance can only be attained by considering demands to be pressure dependent. This paper aims to describe how pressure dependent demand analysis is useful for the simulation of disaster scenario due to source failure of the Shirpur town. The simulation of failure scenario is carried out using WaterGEMs software. The paper also aims to prepare the action plans for the recovery of water supply in such crisis conditions.

  17. Demand chain management - The evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Ericsson

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The concepts of Supply Chain Management (SCM and Demand Chain Management (DCM are among the new and debated topics concerning logistics in the literature. The question considered in this paper is: “Are these concepts needed or will they just add to the confusion?” Lasting business concepts have always evolved in close interaction between business and academia. Different approaches start out in business and they are then, more or less si- multaneously, aligned, integrated, systemised and structured in academia. In this way a terminology (or language is provided that helps in further diffusion of the concepts. There is a lack of consensus on the definition of the concept of SCM. This may be one of the major reasons for the difficulty in advancing the science and measuring the results of implementation in business. Relationships in SCM span from rather loose coalitions to highly structured virtual network integrations. DCM is a highly organised chain in which the key is mutual interdependence and partnership. The purpose is to create a distinctive competence for the chain as a whole that helps to identify and satisfy customer needs and wishes. The classical research concerning vertical marketing systems is very helpful in systemising the rather unstructured discussions in current SCM research. The trend lies in increasing competition between channels rather than between companies, which in turn leads to the creation of channels with a high degree of partnership and mutual interdependence between members. These types of channels are known as organised vertical marketing systems in the classic marketing channel research. The behaviour in these types of channels, as well as the formal and informal structures, roles in the network, power and dependence relations, etc. are well covered topics in the literature. The concept of vertical marketing systems lies behind the definition of demand chains and demand chain management proposed in this paper. A

  18. Innovation and Demand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Esben Sloth

    2007-01-01

    the demand-side of markets in the simplest possible way. This strategy has allowed a gradual increase in the sophistication of supply-side aspects of economic evolution, but the one-sided focus on supply is facing diminishing returns. Therefore, demand-side aspects of economic evolution have in recent years...... received increased attention. The present paper argues that the new emphasis on demand-side factors is quite crucial for a deepened understanding of economic evolution. The major reasons are the following: First, demand represents the core force of selection that gives direction to the evolutionary process....... Second, firms' innovative activities relate, directly or indirectly, to the structure of expected and actual demand. Third, the demand side represents the most obvious way of turning to the much-needed analysis of macro-evolutionary change of the economic system....

  19. PERFECT DEMAND ILLUSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Yu. Sulimov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to technique «Perfect demand illusion», which allows to strengthen the competitive advantageof retailers. Also in the paper spells out the golden rules of visual merchandising.The definition of the method «Demand illusion», formulated the conditions of its functioning, and is determined by the mainhypothesis of the existence of this method.Furthermore, given the definition of the «Perfect demand illusion», and describes its additional conditions. Also spells out the advantages of the «Perfect demandillusion», before the «Demand illusion».

  20. Divers of Passenger Demand

    OpenAIRE

    Wittmer, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    -Overview drivers of passenger demand -Driver 1: Economic growth in developing countries -Driver 2: International business travel in developed countries -Driver 3: International leisure travel in developed countries

  1. Communication technologies for demand side management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uuspaeae, P [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1998-08-01

    The scope of this research is data communications for electric utilities, specifically for the purposes of Demand Side Management (DSM). Demand Side Management has the objective to change the customer`s end use of energy in a manner that benefits both the customer and the utility. For example, peak demand may be reduced, and the peak demand may be relocated to off peak periods. Thus additional investments in generation and network may be avoided. A number of Demand Side Management functions can be implemented if a communication system is available between the Electric Utility and the Customer. The total communication capacity that is needed, will depend on several factors, such as the functions that are chosen for DSM, and on the number and type of customers. Some functions may be handled with one-way communications, while some other functions need to have two-way communication

  2. The energy demand in the Narino Department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unidad de Planeacion Minero Energetica, UPME

    2000-01-01

    In the object of making a first approach of regional energy requirements analysis and the good way of satisfying them, the UPME undertook a global energy study for the Narino Department. In this study (UPME 1999) was carried out an analysis of the energy demand and of the socioeconomic factors that determine it; they were also studied the consumptions and the current energy offer and the alternatives of future evolution, with the purpose of having the basic tools of a departmental energy plan. The present article refers specifically to the analysis of the demand and it seeks to show the readers the complexity and the volume of necessary information to carry out the demand studies. They are multiple factors that determine the energy demand in the Narino Department. The size, growth populations, geographical distribution and cultural characteristic, the border condition, the faulty infrastructure of communications, the agricultural economic structure and the low entrance per capita

  3. Delay model and performance testing for FPGA carry chain TDC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang Xiaowen; Liu Yaqiang; Cui Junjian Yang Zhangcan; Jin Yongjie

    2011-01-01

    Time-of-flight (TOF) information would improve the performance of PET (position emission tomography). TDC design is a key technique. It proposed Carry Chain TDC Delay model. Through changing the significant delay parameter of model, paper compared the difference of TDC performance, and finally realized Time-to-Digital Convertor (TDC) based on Carry Chain Method using FPGA EP2C20Q240C8N with 69 ps LSB, max error below 2 LSB. Such result could meet the TOF demand. It also proposed a Coaxial Cable Measuring method for TDC testing, without High-precision test equipment. (authors)

  4. Must-carry regulation: a must or a burden?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijk, N.; van der Sloot, B.; Nikoltchev, S.

    2012-01-01

    The first must-carry rules date back to 1990, the time when space on analogue broadcasting networks was limited and when supply grew quickly due to the introduction of private broadcasters. To ensure that channels of general interest would still be transmitted, countries introduced rules to regulate

  5. Uranium supply and demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spriggs, M J

    1976-01-01

    Papers were presented on the pattern of uranium production in South Africa; Australian uranium--will it ever become available; North American uranium resources, policies, prospects, and pricing; economic and political environment of the uranium mining industry; alternative sources of uranium supply; whither North American demand for uranium; and uranium demand and security of supply--a consumer's point of view. (LK)

  6. Wood supply and demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter J. Ince; David B. McKeever

    2011-01-01

    At times in history, there have been concerns that demand for wood (timber) would be greater than the ability to supply it, but that concern has recently dissipated. The wood supply and demand situation has changed because of market transitions, economic downturns, and continued forest growth. This article provides a concise overview of this change as it relates to the...

  7. Software defined wireless sensor networks application opportunities for efficient network management: a survey

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Modieginyane, KM

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are commonly used information technologies of modern networking and computing platforms. Today's network computing applications are faced with a high demand of powerful network functionalities. Functional network...

  8. Asian oil demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fesharaki, F.

    2005-01-01

    This conference presentation examined global oil market development and the role of Asian demand. It discussed plateau change versus cyclical movement in the global oil market; supply and demand issues of OPEC and non-OPEC oil; if high oil prices reduce demand; and the Asian oil picture in the global context. Asian oil demand has accounted for about 50 per cent of the global incremental oil market growth. The presentation provided data charts in graphical format on global and Asia-Pacific incremental oil demand from 1990-2005; Asia oil demand growth for selected nations; real GDP growth in selected Asian countries; and, Asia-Pacific oil production and net import requirements. It also included charts in petroleum product demand for Asia-Pacific, China, India, Japan, and South Korea. Other data charts included key indicators for China's petroleum sector; China crude production and net oil import requirements; China's imports and the share of the Middle East; China's oil exports and imports; China's crude imports by source for 2004; China's imports of main oil products for 2004; India's refining capacity; India's product balance for net-imports and net-exports; and India's trade pattern of oil products. tabs., figs

  9. Cloudification of mmwave-based and packet-based fronthaul for future heterogeneous mobile networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Artuso, Matteo; Marcano, Andrea; Christiansen, Henrik Lehrmann

    2015-01-01

    is seen as an enabler for next-generation heterogeneous mobile networks. This allows for simpler base stations and savings in deployment costs, but introduces challenges in the fronthaul network connecting the sites to the processing pool. The fronthaul needs to have very low latency and high capacity......, but the traditional architecture of this network uses point-to-point links between each site and the pool, thus making it impossible to share capacity as the demands change. To address these challenges, a flexible network architecture for the fronthaul is presented that is based on Ethernet to carry the baseband......Current deployments of mobile networks are seriously challenged by increasing capacity demands, and traditional solutions are no longer practical. The use of small cells is considered as a viable technique to meet these demands. In this context, the use of centralized signal processing in a pool...

  10. Uranium supply and demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-05-01

    This report covers the period 1983 to 1995. It draws together the industry's latest views on future trends in supply and demand, and sets them in their historical context. It devotes less discussion than its predecessors to the technical influences underpinning the Institute's supply and demand forecasts, and more to the factors which influence the market behaviour of the industry's various participants. As the last decade has clearly shown, these latter influences can easily be overlooked when undue attention is given to physical imbalances between supply and demand. (author)

  11. On energy demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haefele, W.

    1977-01-01

    Since the energy crisis, a number of energy plans have been proposed, and almost all of these envisage some kind of energy demand adaptations or conservation measures, hoping thus to escape the anticipated problems of energy supply. However, there seems to be no clear explanation of the basis on which our foreseeable future energy problems could be eased. And in fact, a first attempt at a more exact definition of energy demand and its interaction with other objectives, such as economic ones, shows that it is a highly complex concept which we still hardly understand. The article explains in some detail why it is so difficult to understand energy demand

  12. Consumerism and the Sister Carrie's American Dream%Consumerism and the Sister Carrie''s American Dream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢亚丽

    2017-01-01

    From the aspect of consumerism to this text analyze Sister Carrie's"American dream"destruction. The author wholly and deeply analyzes the embodiment of consumerism in Dreiser's Sister Carrie and Dreiser's outlook and values under the effect of consumerism. To prove that the reason for destruction of Carrie's American dream is consumerism.

  13. Energetics of load carrying in Nepalese porters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastien, Guillaume J; Schepens, Bénédicte; Willems, Patrick A; Heglund, Norman C

    2005-06-17

    Nepalese porters routinely carry head-supported loads equal to 100 to 200% of their body weight (Mb) for many days up and down steep mountain footpaths at high altitudes. Previous studies have shown that African women carry head-supported loads of up to 60% of their Mb far more economically than army recruits carrying equivalent loads in backpacks. Here we show that Nepalese porters carry heavier loads even more economically than African women. Female Nepalese porters, for example, carry on average loads that are 10% of their Mb heavier than the maximum loads carried by the African women, yet do so at a 25% smaller metabolic cost.

  14. Sizewell: UK power demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    The Sizewell Inquiry was about whether the next power stations to be built in the UK should be nuclear or coal and, if nuclear, PWRs or AGRs. During the period of the Inquiry forecasts of demand for electricity were low. Now, however, it seems that the forecast demand is much increased. This uncertainty in demand and the wide regional variations are examined in some detail. Facts and figures on electricity sales (area by area) are presented. Also the minutes of supply lost per consumer per year. These show that security of supply is also a problem. It is also shown that the way electricity is used has changed. Whilst electricity generation has been changing to large-scale, centralised power stations the demand patterns may make smaller scale, quickly-constructed units more sensible. The questions considered at the Sizewell Inquiry may, indeed, no longer be the right ones. (UK)

  15. Optical Access Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jun; Ansari, Nirwan

    2005-01-01

    Call for Papers: Optical Access Networks Guest Editors Jun Zheng, University of Ottawa Nirwan Ansari, New Jersey Institute of Technology Submission Deadline: 1 June 2005 Background With the wide deployment of fiber-optic technology over the past two decades, we have witnessed a tremendous growth of bandwidth capacity in the backbone networks of today's telecommunications infrastructure. However, access networks, which cover the "last-mile" areas and serve numerous residential and small business users, have not been scaled up commensurately. The local subscriber lines for telephone and cable television are still using twisted pairs and coaxial cables. Most residential connections to the Internet are still through dial-up modems operating at a low speed on twisted pairs. As the demand for access bandwidth increases with emerging high-bandwidth applications, such as distance learning, high-definition television (HDTV), and video on demand (VoD), the last-mile access networks have become a bandwidth bottleneck in today's telecommunications infrastructure. To ease this bottleneck, it is imperative to provide sufficient bandwidth capacity in the access networks to open the bottleneck and thus present more opportunities for the provisioning of multiservices. Optical access solutions promise huge bandwidth to service providers and low-cost high-bandwidth services to end users and are therefore widely considered the technology of choice for next-generation access networks. To realize the vision of optical access networks, however, many key issues still need to be addressed, such as network architectures, signaling protocols, and implementation standards. The major challenges lie in the fact that an optical solution must be not only robust, scalable, and flexible, but also implemented at a low cost comparable to that of existing access solutions in order to increase the economic viability of many potential high-bandwidth applications. In recent years, optical access networks

  16. A demanding market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, M.

    1997-01-01

    The article relates to the oil and natural gas market, and it gives a survey of proved reserves at the end of 1996 worldwide. The long term trend of increasing world energy demand has seen a major rise during 1996 when global consumption grew by 3%. But worldwide demand, excluding the Former Soviet Union, shows this figure increasing further to 3.7% for the whole of last year according to statistics. 3 figs

  17. Maximum power demand cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biondi, L.

    1998-01-01

    The charging for a service is a supplier's remuneration for the expenses incurred in providing it. There are currently two charges for electricity: consumption and maximum demand. While no problem arises about the former, the issue is more complicated for the latter and the analysis in this article tends to show that the annual charge for maximum demand arbitrarily discriminates among consumer groups, to the disadvantage of some [it

  18. Consumerism and the Sister Carrie's American Dream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢亚丽

    2017-01-01

    From the aspect of consumerism to this text analyze Sister Carrie's"American dream"destruction. The author wholly and deeply analyzes the embodiment of consumerism in Dreiser's Sister Carrie and Dreiser's outlook and values under the effect of consumerism. To prove that the reason for destruction of Carrie's American dream is consumerism.

  19. Local Dynamic Stability Associated with Load Carrying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Liu

    2013-03-01

    Conclusion: Current study confirmed the sensitivity of local dynamic stability measure in load carrying situation. It was concluded that load carrying tasks were associated with declined local dynamic stability, which may result in increased risk of fall accident. This finding has implications in preventing fall accidents associated with occupational load carrying.

  20. Energy and exergy analysis of low temperature district heating network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Hongwei; Svendsen, Svend

    2012-01-01

    is designed to supply heating for 30 low energy detached residential houses. The network operational supply/return temperature is set as 55 °C/25 °C, which is in line with a pilot project carried out in Denmark. Two types of in-house substations are analyzed to supply the consumer domestic hot water demand...... energy/exergy losses and increase the quality match between the consumer heating demand and the district heating supply.......Low temperature district heating with reduced network supply and return temperature provides better match of the low quality building heating demand and the low quality heating supply from waste heat or renewable energy. In this paper, a hypothetical low temperature district heating network...

  1. Robust total energy demand estimation with a hybrid Variable Neighborhood Search – Extreme Learning Machine algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sánchez-Oro, J.; Duarte, A.; Salcedo-Sanz, S.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The total energy demand in Spain is estimated with a Variable Neighborhood algorithm. • Socio-economic variables are used, and one year ahead prediction horizon is considered. • Improvement of the prediction with an Extreme Learning Machine network is considered. • Experiments are carried out in real data for the case of Spain. - Abstract: Energy demand prediction is an important problem whose solution is evaluated by policy makers in order to take key decisions affecting the economy of a country. A number of previous approaches to improve the quality of this estimation have been proposed in the last decade, the majority of them applying different machine learning techniques. In this paper, the performance of a robust hybrid approach, composed of a Variable Neighborhood Search algorithm and a new class of neural network called Extreme Learning Machine, is discussed. The Variable Neighborhood Search algorithm is focused on obtaining the most relevant features among the set of initial ones, by including an exponential prediction model. While previous approaches consider that the number of macroeconomic variables used for prediction is a parameter of the algorithm (i.e., it is fixed a priori), the proposed Variable Neighborhood Search method optimizes both: the number of variables and the best ones. After this first step of feature selection, an Extreme Learning Machine network is applied to obtain the final energy demand prediction. Experiments in a real case of energy demand estimation in Spain show the excellent performance of the proposed approach. In particular, the whole method obtains an estimation of the energy demand with an error lower than 2%, even when considering the crisis years, which are a real challenge.

  2. UK Nuclear Workforce Demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, John

    2017-01-01

    UK Nuclear Sites: DECOMMISSIONING - 26 Magnox Reactors, 2 Fast Reactors; OPERATIONAL - 14 AGRs, 1 PWR; 9.6 GWe Total Capacity. Nuclear Workforce Demand • Total workforce demand is expected to grow from ~88,000 in 2017 to ~101,000 in 2021 • Average “inflow” is ~7,000 FTEs per annum • 22% of the workforce is female (28% in civil, 12% in defence) • 81% generic skills, 18% nuclear skills, 1% subject matter experts • 3300 trainees total in SLCs and Defence Enterprise (16% graduate trainees) • At peak demand on Civils Construction, over 4,000 workers will be required on each nuclear new build site • Manufacturing workforce is expected to rise from around 4,000 in 2014 to 8,500 at the peak of onsite activity in 2025

  3. Demand Response Valuation Frameworks Paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heffner, Grayson

    2009-02-01

    While there is general agreement that demand response (DR) is a valued component in a utility resource plan, there is a lack of consensus regarding how to value DR. Establishing the value of DR is a prerequisite to determining how much and what types of DR should be implemented, to which customers DR should be targeted, and a key determinant that drives the development of economically viable DR consumer technology. Most approaches for quantifying the value of DR focus on changes in utility system revenue requirements based on resource plans with and without DR. This ''utility centric'' approach does not assign any value to DR impacts that lower energy and capacity prices, improve reliability, lower system and network operating costs, produce better air quality, and provide improved customer choice and control. Proper valuation of these benefits requires a different basis for monetization. The review concludes that no single methodology today adequately captures the wide range of benefits and value potentially attributed to DR. To provide a more comprehensive valuation approach, current methods such as the Standard Practice Method (SPM) will most likely have to be supplemented with one or more alternative benefit-valuation approaches. This report provides an updated perspective on the DR valuation framework. It includes an introduction and four chapters that address the key elements of demand response valuation, a comprehensive literature review, and specific research recommendations.

  4. DemandStat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    DemandStat is an accurate and up-to-date international statistics database dedicated to energy demand, with an unrivaled level of details for powerful market analysis. It provides detailed consumption statistics (30 sectors) on all energies, detailed 2003 data and historical annual data since 1970, frequent data revision and update (2 updates options), 150 data sources gathered and expertized, all data on a single database Consistent and homogeneous statistics, in line with all major data providers (IEA, Eurostat, ADB, OLADE, etc), no ruptures in time-series with easy request building and data analysis and reactive support from data experts. (A.L.B.)

  5. Education on Demand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boysen, Lis; Hende, Merete

    2015-01-01

    Dette notat beskriver nogle af resultaterne fra programmet "Education on Demand' i projektet Det erhvervsrettede Uddannelseslaboratorium. Programmet har haft fokus på udfordringer og forandringsbehov i uddannelsesinstitutioner og -systemet. Herunder har det beskæftiget sig særligt med de to temat......Dette notat beskriver nogle af resultaterne fra programmet "Education on Demand' i projektet Det erhvervsrettede Uddannelseslaboratorium. Programmet har haft fokus på udfordringer og forandringsbehov i uddannelsesinstitutioner og -systemet. Herunder har det beskæftiget sig særligt med de...

  6. Access control for on-demand provisioned cloud infrastructure services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ngo, C.T.

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of Cloud Computing brings advantages to both customers and service providers to utilize and manage computing and network resources more efficiently with virtualization, service-oriented architecture technologies, and automated on-demand resource provisioning. However, these advantages

  7. [Ecological carrying capacity and Chongming Island's ecological construction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kaiyun; Zou, Chunjing; Kong, Zhenghong; Wang, Tianhou; Chen, Xiaoyong

    2005-12-01

    This paper overviewed the goals of Chongming Island's ecological construction and its background, analyzed the current eco-economic status and constraints of the Island, and put forward some scientific issues on its ecological construction. It was suggested that for the resources-saving and sustainable development of the Island, the researches on its ecological construction should be based on its ecological carrying capacity, fully take the regional characteristics into consideration, and refer the successful development modes at home and abroad. The carrying capacity study should ground on systemic and dynamic views, give a thorough evaluation of the Island's present carrying capacity, simulate its possible changes, and forecast its demands and risks. Operable countermeasures to promote the Island's carrying capacity should be worked out, new industry structure, population scale, and optimized distribution projects conforming to regional carrying capacity should be formulated, and effective ecological security alarming and control system should be built, with the aim of providing suggestions and strategic evidences for the decision-making of economic development and sustainable environmental resources use of the region.

  8. Carrying capacity of water resources in Bandung Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marganingrum, D.

    2018-02-01

    The concept of carrying capacity is widely used in various sectors as a management tool for sustainable development processes. This idea has also been applied in watershed or basin scale. Bandung Basin is the upstream of Citarum watershed known as one of the national strategic areas. This area has developed into a metropolitan area loaded with various environmental problems. Therefore, research that is related to environmental carrying capacity in this area becomes a strategic issue. However, research on environmental carrying capacity that has been done in this area is still partial either in water balance terminology, land suitability, ecological footprint, or balance of supply and demand of resources. This paper describes the application of the concept of integrated environmental carrying capacity in order to overcome the increasing complexity and dynamic environmental problems. The sector that becomes the focus of attention is the issue of water resources. The approach method to be carried out is to combine the concept of maximum balance and system dynamics. The dynamics of the proposed system is the ecological dynamics and population that cannot be separated from one another as a unity of the Bandung Basin ecosystem.

  9. Measuring Social carrying Capacity: An Exploratory Study

    OpenAIRE

    López-Bonilla, Jesús Manuel; López-Bonilla, Luis Miguel

    2007-01-01

    The tourist carrying capacity commands a growing interest given that it is closely linked with sustainable tourist development. The justification of the utility of this concept is given by means of a simple and efficient methodological proposal, by analysing the social carrying capacity. To this end, an empirical application is carried out in the Western Andalusia. In some of the cases analysed, the satisfaction of the tourist is found to decline when the levels of the tourist use are higher ...

  10. Violence and weapon carrying in music videos. A content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuRant, R H; Rich, M; Emans, S J; Rome, E S; Allred, E; Woods, E R

    1997-05-01

    The positive portrayal of violence and weapon carrying in televised music videos is thought to have a considerable influence on the normative expectations of adolescents about these behaviors. To perform a content analysis of the depictions of violence and weapon carrying in music videos, including 5 genres of music (rock, rap, adult contemporary, rhythm and blues, and country), from 4 television networks and to analyze the degree of sexuality or eroticism portrayed in each video and its association with violence and weapon carrying, as an indicator of the desirability of violent behaviors. Five hundred eighteen videos were recorded during randomly selected days and times of the day from the Music Television, Video Hits One, Black Entertainment Television, and Country Music Television networks. Four female and 4 male observers aged 17 to 24 years were trained to use a standardized content analysis instrument. Interobserver reliability testing resulted in a mean (+/- SD) percentage agreement of 89.25% +/- 7.10% and a mean (+/- SD) kappa of 0.73 +/- 0.20. All videos were observed by rotating 2-person, male-female teams that were required to reach agreement on each behavior that was scored. Music genre and network differences in behaviors were analyzed with chi 2 tests. A higher percentage (22.4%) of Music Television videos portrayed overt violence than Video Hits One (11.8%), Country Music Television (11.8%), and Black Entertainment Television (11.5%) videos (P = .02). Rap (20.4%) had the highest portrayal of violence, followed by rock (19.8%), country (10.8%), adult contemporary (9.7%), and rhythm and blues (5.9%) (P = .006). Weapon carrying was higher on Music Television (25.0%) than on Black Entertainment Television (11.5%), Video Hits One (8.4%), and Country Music Television (6.9%) (P violence (P violence and weapon carrying, which is glamorized by music artists, actors, and actresses.

  11. A Novel Technique to Enhance Demand Responsiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farashbashi-Astaneh, Seyed-Mostafa; Bhattarai, Bishnu Prasad; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a new pricing approach is proposed to increase demand responsiveness. The proposed approach considers two well-known demand side management techniques, namely peak shaving and valley filling. This is done by incentivising consumers by magnifying price difference between peak and off......-peak hours. The usefulness of the suggested method is then investigated by its combination with an electric vehicle optimal scheduling methodology which captures both economic valuation and grid technical constraints. This case is chosen in this study to address network congestion issues, namely under...

  12. Demand modelling for central heating systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heller, A.

    2000-07-01

    Most researchers in the field of heat demand estimation have focussed on explaning the load for a given plant based on rather few measurements. This approach is simply the only one adaptable with the very limited data material and limited computer power. This way of dealing with the subject is here called the top-down approach, due to the fact that one tries to explain the load from the overall data. The results of such efforts are discussed in the report, leading to inspiration for own work. Also the significance of the findings to the causes for given heat loads are discussed and summarised. Contrary to the top-down approach applied in literature, a here-called bottom-up approach is applied in this work, describing the causes of a given partial load in detail and combining them to explain the total load for the system. Three partial load 'components' are discussed: 1) Space heating. 2) Hot-Water Consumption. 3) Heat losses in pipe networks. The report is aimed at giving an introduction to these subjects, but at the same time at collecting the previous work done by the author. Space heating is shortly discussed and loads are generated by an advanced simulation model. A hot water consumption model is presented and heat loads, generated by this model, utilised in the overall work. Heat loads due to heat losses in district heating a given a high priority in the current work. Hence a detailed presentation and overview of the subject is given to solar heating experts normally not dealing with district heating. Based on the 'partial' loads generated by the above-mentioned method, an overall load model is built in the computer simulation environment TRNSYS. The final tool is then employed for the generation of time series for heat demand, representing a district heating area. The results are compared to alternative methods for the generation of heat demand profiles. Results form this comparison will be presented. Computerised modelling of systems

  13. Causality in demand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Max; Jensen, Frank; Setälä, Jari

    2011-01-01

    to fish demand. On the German market for farmed trout and substitutes, it is found that supply sources, i.e. aquaculture and fishery, are not the only determinant of causality. Storing, tightness of management and aggregation level of integrated markets might also be important. The methodological...

  14. Oil supply and demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babusiaux, D

    2004-07-01

    Following the military intervention in Iraq, it is taking longer than expected for Iraqi exports to make a comeback on the market. Demand is sustained by economic growth in China and in the United States. OPEC is modulating production to prevent inventory build-up. Prices have stayed high despite increased production by non-OPEC countries, especially Russia. (author)

  15. Oil supply and demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rech, O

    2006-07-01

    The year 2004 saw a change in the oil market paradigm that was confirmed in 2005. Despite a calmer geopolitical context, prices continued to rise vigorously. Driven by world demand, they remain high as a result of the saturation of production and refining capacity. The market is still seeking its new equilibrium. (author)

  16. Oil supply and demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rech, O.

    2006-01-01

    The year 2004 saw a change in the oil market paradigm that was confirmed in 2005. Despite a calmer geopolitical context, prices continued to rise vigorously. Driven by world demand, they remain high as a result of the saturation of production and refining capacity. The market is still seeking its new equilibrium. (author)

  17. The demand for euros

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnold, I.J.M.; Roelands, S.

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the demand for euros using panel data for 10 euro area countries covering the period from 1999 to 2008. Monetary aggregates are constructed to ensure that money is a national concept by excluding deposits owned by non-residents and including external deposits owned by

  18. Oil supply and demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babusiaux, D.

    2004-01-01

    Following the military intervention in Iraq, it is taking longer than expected for Iraqi exports to make a comeback on the market. Demand is sustained by economic growth in China and in the United States. OPEC is modulating production to prevent inventory build-up. Prices have stayed high despite increased production by non-OPEC countries, especially Russia. (author)

  19. Oil supply and demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rech, O.

    2004-01-01

    World oil demand, driven by economic development in China, posted the highest growth rate in 20 years. In a context of geopolitical uncertainty, prices are soaring, encouraged by low inventory and the low availability of residual production capacity. Will 2004 bring a change in the oil market paradigm? (author)

  20. Textbook Factor Demand Curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Joe C.

    1994-01-01

    Maintains that teachers and textbook graphics follow the same basic pattern in illustrating changes in demand curves when product prices increase. Asserts that the use of computer graphics will enable teachers to be more precise in their graphic presentation of price elasticity. (CFR)

  1. Oil supply and demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rech, O

    2004-07-01

    World oil demand, driven by economic development in China, posted the highest growth rate in 20 years. In a context of geopolitical uncertainty, prices are soaring, encouraged by low inventory and the low availability of residual production capacity. Will 2004 bring a change in the oil market paradigm? (author)

  2. Minimum cost connection networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Tvede, Mich

    In the present paper we consider the allocation of cost in connection networks. Agents have connection demands in form of pairs of locations they want to be connected. Connections between locations are costly to build. The problem is to allocate costs of networks satisfying all connection demands...

  3. Smart electric storage heating and potential for residential demand response

    OpenAIRE

    Darby, S

    2017-01-01

    Low-carbon transition plans for temperate and sub-polar regions typically involve some electrification of space heating. This poses challenges to electricity system operation and market design, as it increases overall demand and alters the temporal patterns of that demand. One response to the challenge is to ‘smarten’ electrical heating, enabling it to respond to network conditions by storing energy at times of plentiful supply, releasing it in response to customer demands and offering rapid-...

  4. the determinants of demand for public transport services in kumasi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dmosman.admin

    The objective of the study was to establish the major factors influencing demand as well as de- velop a demand model for urban passenger transport services in Kumasi, Ghana. ... Cities in developing countries often spend be- ... the total urban road network was in “Good” ... several other functions of a national, regional.

  5. Electricity demand in Tunisia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gam, Imen; Ben Rejeb, Jaleleddine

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the global electricity demand in Tunisia as a function of gross domestic product in constant price, the degree of urbanization, the average annual temperature, and the real electricity price per Kwh. This demand will be examined employing annual data over a period spanning almost thirty one years from 1976 to 2006. A long run relationship between the variables under consideration is determined using the Vector Autoregressive Regression. The empirical results suggest that the electricity demand in Tunisia is sensitive to its past value, any changes in gross domestic product and electricity price. The electricity price effects have a negative impact on long-run electricity consumption. However, the gross domestic product and the past value of electricity consumption have a positive effect. Moreover, the causality test reveals a unidirectional relationship between price and electricity consumption. Our empirical findings are effective to policy makers to maintain the electricity consumption in Tunisia by using the appropriate strategy. - Highlights: ► This paper examined the electricity demand in Tunisia in the long-run. ► The empirical analysis revealed that in the long-run the electricity demand is affected by changes in its past value, GDP in constant price and real electricity price. ► There is a unidirectional relationship between price and electricity consumption, that is to say, that the electricity price causes the consumption. ► Those results suggest that a pricing policy can be an effective instrument to rationalize the electricity consumption in Tunisia in the long-run.

  6. The Concept of Carrying Capacity in Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Zelenka

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Carrying capacity is often pragmatically, theoretically as well as purely intuitively considered as a concept in the context of tourism sustainability. The carrying capacity application has the greatest potential in protected areas, in frequently visited cultural and natural attractions, and in relation to sustaining of the lifestyle of the local community and tourism destination potential in general. Despite its importance, partial applications, determination of basic theoretical principles, and specifying connection to the other theoretical concepts in tourism (particularly destination life cycle, LAC concept, visitors management, there still is a rightful opinion of some authors suggesting that there is no consistent theory of tourism carrying capacity. This theory would be the base for sophisticated practical carrying capacity applications. This paper is therefore focused on introduction of the theoretical concept of carrying capacity, which can be discussed and possibly further elaborated.

  7. Minimum cost connection networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Tvede, Mich

    2015-01-01

    In the present paper we consider the allocation of costs in connection networks. Agents have connection demands in form of pairs of locations they want to have connected. Connections between locations are costly to build. The problem is to allocate costs of networks satisfying all connection...... demands. We use a few axioms to characterize allocation rules that truthfully implement cost minimizing networks satisfying all connection demands in a game where: (1) a central planner announces an allocation rule and a cost estimation rule; (2) every agent reports her own connection demand as well...... as all connection costs; (3) the central planner selects a cost minimizing network satisfying reported connection demands based on the estimated costs; and, (4) the planner allocates the true costs of the selected network. It turns out that an allocation rule satisfies the axioms if and only if relative...

  8. Vocational Education Teachers' Personal Network at School as a Resource for Innovative Work Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messmann, Gerhard; Mulder, Regina H.; Palonen, Tuire

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to investigate the role of characteristics of vocational education teachers' personal network at the workplace for determining the resources that enable them to cope with innovation-related demands at work. Design/methodology/approach: A survey study with 48 vocational education teachers is carried out. Social network…

  9. Sensitivity analysis of energy demands on performance of CCHP system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, C.Z.; Shi, Y.M.; Huang, X.H.

    2008-01-01

    Sensitivity analysis of energy demands is carried out in this paper to study their influence on performance of CCHP system. Energy demand is a very important and complex factor in the optimization model of CCHP system. Average, uncertainty and historical peaks are adopted to describe energy demands. The mix-integer nonlinear programming model (MINLP) which can reflect the three aspects of energy demands is established. Numerical studies are carried out based on energy demands of a hotel and a hospital. The influence of average, uncertainty and peaks of energy demands on optimal facility scheme and economic advantages of CCHP system are investigated. The optimization results show that the optimal GT's capacity and economy of CCHP system mainly lie on the average energy demands. Sum of capacities of GB and HE is equal to historical heating demand peaks, and sum of capacities of AR and ER are equal to historical cooling demand peaks. Maximum of PG is sensitive with historical peaks of energy demands and not influenced by uncertainty of energy demands, while the corresponding influence on DH is adverse

  10. Aggregated Demand Modelling Including Distributed Generation, Storage and Demand Response

    OpenAIRE

    Marzooghi, Hesamoddin; Hill, David J.; Verbic, Gregor

    2014-01-01

    It is anticipated that penetration of renewable energy sources (RESs) in power systems will increase further in the next decades mainly due to environmental issues. In the long term of several decades, which we refer to in terms of the future grid (FG), balancing between supply and demand will become dependent on demand actions including demand response (DR) and energy storage. So far, FG feasibility studies have not considered these new demand-side developments for modelling future demand. I...

  11. Parallelization of Reversible Ripple-carry Adders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Michael Kirkedal; Axelsen, Holger Bock

    2009-01-01

    The design of fast arithmetic logic circuits is an important research topic for reversible and quantum computing. A special challenge in this setting is the computation of standard arithmetical functions without the generation of \\emph{garbage}. Here, we present a novel parallelization scheme...... wherein $m$ parallel $k$-bit reversible ripple-carry adders are combined to form a reversible $mk$-bit \\emph{ripple-block carry adder} with logic depth $\\mathcal{O}(m+k)$ for a \\emph{minimal} logic depth $\\mathcal{O}(\\sqrt{mk})$, thus improving on the $mk$-bit ripple-carry adder logic depth $\\mathcal...

  12. Sulphur demand growing. [Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-01-20

    Sulfur markets look better going into 1975 than they have for several years, as North American demand growth is being filled largely by elemental sulfur producers and overseas. Demand is rising as fast as the capacity of Canadian transportation and handling facilities. It will take a long time to make much of a dent in the total Alberta stockpile of 14 million long tons at the end of 1974, with involuntary production from sour gas plants exceeding sales volume since 1972. However, there is some encouragement in the approaching peakout of production combined with a substantial increase in price since the low point of the cycle at the beginning of 1973, and a predicted rise of at least 20% in domestic (North American) sales this year over 1974.

  13. Network Intrusion Detection through Stacking Dilated Convolutional Autoencoders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Network intrusion detection is one of the most important parts for cyber security to protect computer systems against malicious attacks. With the emergence of numerous sophisticated and new attacks, however, network intrusion detection techniques are facing several significant challenges. The overall objective of this study is to learn useful feature representations automatically and efficiently from large amounts of unlabeled raw network traffic data by using deep learning approaches. We propose a novel network intrusion model by stacking dilated convolutional autoencoders and evaluate our method on two new intrusion detection datasets. Several experiments were carried out to check the effectiveness of our approach. The comparative experimental results demonstrate that the proposed model can achieve considerably high performance which meets the demand of high accuracy and adaptability of network intrusion detection systems (NIDSs. It is quite potential and promising to apply our model in the large-scale and real-world network environments.

  14. Ontario demand response scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowlands, I.H.

    2005-09-01

    Strategies for demand management in Ontario were examined via 2 scenarios for a commercial/institutional building with a normal summertime peak load of 300 kW between 14:00 and 18:00 during a period of high electricity demand and high electricity prices. The first scenario involved the deployment of a 150 kW on-site generator fuelled by either diesel or natural gas. The second scenario involved curtailing load by 60 kW during the same periods. Costs and benefits of both scenarios were evaluated for 3 groups: consumers, system operators and society. Benefits included electricity cost savings, deferred transmission capacity development, lower system prices for electricity, as well as environmental changes, economic development, and a greater sense of corporate social responsibility. It was noted that while significant benefits were observed for all 3 groups, they were not substantial enough to encourage action, as the savings arising from deferred generation capacity development do not accrue to individual players. The largest potential benefit was identified as lower prices, spread across all users of electricity in Ontario. It was recommended that representative bodies cooperate so that the system-wide benefits can be reaped. It was noted that if 10 municipal utilities were able to have 250 commercial or institutional customers engaged in distributed response, then a total peak demand reduction of 375 MW could be achieved, representing more than 25 per cent of Ontario's target for energy conservation. It was concluded that demand response often involves the investment of capital and new on-site procedures, which may affect reactions to various incentives. 78 refs., 10 tabs., 5 figs

  15. Household electricity demand profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marszal, Anna Joanna; Heiselberg, Per Kvols; Larsen, Olena Kalyanova

    2016-01-01

    Highlights •A 1-min resolution household electricity load model is presented. •Model adapts a bottom-up approach with single appliance as the main building block. •Load profiles are used to analyse the flexibility potential of household appliances. •Load profiles can be applied in other domains, .......g. building energy simulations. •The demand level of houses with different number of occupants is well captured....

  16. Energy demand patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, L; Schipper, L; Meyers, S; Sathaye, J; Hara, Y

    1984-05-01

    This report brings together three papers on energy demand presented at the Energy Research Priorities Seminar held in Ottawa on 8-10 August 1983. The first paper suggests a framework in which energy demand studies may be organized if they are to be useful in policy-making. Disaggregation and the analysis of the chain of energy transformations are possible paths toward more stable and reliable parameters. The second paper points to another factor that leads to instability in sectoral parameters, namely a changeover from one technology to another; insofar as technologies producing a product (or service) vary in their energy intensity, a technological shift will also change the energy intensity of the product. Rapid technological change is characteristic of some sectors in developing countries, and may well account for the high aggregate GDP-elasticities of energy consumption observed. The third paper begins with estimates of these elasticities, which were greater than one for all the member countries of the Asian Development Bank in 1961-78. The high elasticities, together with extreme oil dependence, made them vulnerable to the drastic rise in the oil price after 1973. The author distinguishes three diverging patterns of national experience. The oil-surplus countries naturally gained from the rise in the oil price. Among oil-deficit countries, the newly industrialized countries expanded their exports so rapidly that the oil crisis no longer worried them. For the rest, balance of payments adjustments became a prime concern of policy. Whether they dealt with the oil bill by borrowing, by import substitution, or by demand restraint, the impact of energy on their growth was unmistakable. The paper also shows why energy-demand studies, and energy studies in general, deserve to be taken seriously. 16 refs., 4 figs., 18 tabs.

  17. Migration and Tourism Demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuno Carlos LEITÃO

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This study considers the relationship between immigration and Portuguese tourism demand for the period 1995-2008, using a dynamic panel data approach. The findings indicate that Portuguese tourism increased significantly during the period in accordance with the values expected for a developed country. The regression results show that income, shock of immigration, population, and geographical distance between Portugal and countries of origin are the main determinants of Portuguese tourism.

  18. Demand scenarios, worldwide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, A [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Center for Technology, Policy and Industrial Development and the MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1996-11-01

    Existing methods are inadequate for developing aggregate (regional and global) and long-term (several decades) passenger transport demand scenarios, since they are mainly based on simple extensions of current patterns rather than causal relationships that account for the competition among transport modes (aircraft, automobiles, buses and trains) to provide transport services. The demand scenario presented in this paper is based on two empirically proven invariances of human behavior. First, transport accounts for 10 to 15 percent of household total expenditures for those owning an automobile, and around 5 percent for non-motorized households on average (travel money budget). Second, the mean time spent traveling is approximately one hour per capita per day (travel time budget). These two budgets constraints determine the dynamics of the scenario: rising income increases per capita expenditure on travel which, in turn, increase demand for mobility. Limited travel time constraints travelers to shift to faster transport systems. The scenario is initiated with the first integrated historical data set on traffic volume in 11 world regions and the globe from 1960 to 1990 for all major modes of motorized transport. World average per capita traffic volume, which was 1,800 kilometers in 1960 and 4,2090 in 1990, is estimated to rise to 7,900 kilometers in 2020 - given a modest average increase in Gross World Product of 1.9% per year. Higher economic growth rates in Asian regions result in an increase in regional per capita traffic volume up to a factor of 5.3 from 1990 levels. Modal splits continue shifting to more flexible and faster modes of transport. At one point, passenger cars can no longer satisfy the increasing demand for speed (i.e. rising mobility within a fixed time budget). In North America it is estimated that the absolute traffic volume of automobiles will gradually decline starting in the 2010s. (author) 13 figs., 6 tabs., 35 refs.

  19. Price elasticity estimation of electricity demand in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourbonnais, Regis; Keppler, Jan Horst

    2013-10-01

    On request of the French Union of Electricity (UFE), the authors have carried out a series of econometric statistical tests in order to determine the price elasticity of electricity demand in France. The results obtained are all solid and realistic

  20. Gun Carrying by High School Students in Boston, MA: Does Overestimation of Peer Gun Carrying Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemenway, David; Vriniotis, Mary; Johnson, Renee M.; Miller, Matthew; Azrael, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates: (1) whether high school students overestimate gun carrying by their peers, and (2) whether those students who overestimate peer gun carrying are more likely to carry firearms. Data come from a randomly sampled survey conducted in 2008 of over 1700 high school students in Boston, MA. Over 5% of students reported carrying a…

  1. [Ecotourism carrying capacity of Hangzhou Xixi National Wetland Park in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rui; Rong, Liang

    2007-10-01

    In this paper, an integrated estimation on the ecotourism carrying capacity of Hangzhou Xixi National Wetland Park in China was made from the aspects of ecological carrying capacity, spatial carrying capacity, facility carrying capacity, management carrying capacity, and psychological carrying capacity. The results indicated that the tourism carrying capacity of the Park was 4 145 - 6 450 persons per day. The rational distance between man and bird was first adopted to determine the ecotourism carrying capacity of wetland, which provided an effective solution both to fully ensure bird safety and to appropriately develop wetland tourism. The estimation of psychological carrying capacity based on tourist satisfaction degree reflected more objectively the extent the tourist demands satisfied at the planning, construction and management of tour places. Such an integrated estimation method based on the distance between man and bird and the tourist satisfaction degree could be of practical and instructive significances in the planning and management of wetland parks.

  2. Supply and demand perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trienekens, Pieter

    1999-01-01

    The outlook for the European gas market is one of steady growth. This growth will manifest itself in all regions and in all sectors of the market, but most strongly in the power generating sector. To meet future demand, it is necessary to bring gas to Western Europe from remote sources in Russia, North Africa and Norway. These new gas supplies require heavy investments in production and transportation, which can only be undertaken on the basis of long-term take-or-pay contracts. Famous examples of such contracts are the development of the Troll field, the Yamal-Europe pipeline connection, and the bringing on stream of Nigerian LNG for Europe. Tensions are likely to arise between the nature of these long-term gas contracts and the dynamic nature of demand in the gas market, and more specifically in the main growth market, the power sector. The presentation further elaborates on the tensions underlying supply and demand in the years to come

  3. Impacts of climate change on electricity network business

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auvinen, O.; Martikainen, A.

    2006-01-01

    In this project the impact of climate change on electricity network business was study. The results are based on RCAO climate model scenarios. The climate predictions were composed to the period 2016- 2045. The period 1960-1990 was used as a control period. The climate predictions were composed for precipitation, temperature, hoarfrost, thunder, ground frost and wind. Impacts of the change of the climate variables on electricity network business were estimated from technical and economical points of view. It is expected that climate change will cause more damages than benefits on the electricity network business. The increase of the number of network faults will be the most significant and demanding disadvantage caused by climate change in distribution network. If networks are not improved to be more resistant for faults, then thunder, heavy snow and wind cause more damages especially to overhead lines in medium voltage network. Increasing precipitation and decreasing amount of ground frost weaken the strength of soil. The construction work will be more difficult with the present vehicles because wet and unfrozen ground can not carry heavy vehicles. As a consequence of increasing temperature, the demand of heating energy will decrease and the demand of cooling energy will increase. This is significant for the electricity consumption and the peak load of temperature-dependent electricity users. (orig.)

  4. The demand of guava in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio César Alonso-Cifuentes

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In Colombia, no systematic work have been carried out to determine the demand for fruits beyond descriptive analysis of per capita consumption according to different individual socioeconomic characteristics and much less for a specific product such as guava, Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae. This paper estimates the relationship between guava prices and the demand of guava in Colombia. We found that guava consumption is not affected by its price and its demand is highly correlated to income. While socio-economic characteristics such as income, education and household head labor affect the decision-making for consuming guava, other characteristics such as race and the number of household members determine the quantity of guava consumed in a Colombian household.

  5. Meeting increased demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Andrew

    2004-07-01

    New Zealand is a little country with a little economy but with a population that's rapidly aging. New Zealand's population is only 4.3 million people. It's GDP is only $US58.6 billion (2002). New Zealand's expenditure on health as a percentage of GDP is not out of line with that of other countries. As a nation we have been increasing expenditure on health over recent years. In 1990 we spent 7% of GDP on health. In 1995 that increased to 7.65% and is now 8.3%. However, in per capita terms our expenditure on health does not compare so well with like countries. The size of New Zealand's economy is restricting what our country spends on health. Health is already the second highest demand on the New Zealand tax dollar. The tolerance of New Zealanders would be challenged if a Government attempted to increase taxes further to meet the growing demands for expenditure on health, but at the same time the population's expectations are increasing. This is the challenging situation we face today. What lies ahead? Like all industrialized countries New Zealand is facing an aging population. The population below age 40 is decreasing, but it is increasing significantly over that age. 16% of the population is currently aged over 60. By 2051 this proportion will almost double to just over 31%. Coupled with the aging population is increased awareness and expectations, as access to options for treatment and technology becomes readily accessible to the population through such media as the internet. The extent of the impact of the aging population can be clearly represented by focusing on one specialty such as orthopaedics. The New Zealand Orthopaecic Association undertook a study in July 2003 which concluded (among other things) that as a result of the projected aging of the population, over the next 50 years: Musculo-skeletal operations will increase by over 30%. The number of hip replacements will nearly double. The incidence of osteoporosis will increase by a massive 201%. The number

  6. Psychopathology and tobacco demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, Samantha G; Aston, Elizabeth R; Zvolensky, Michael J; Abrantes, Ana M; Metrik, Jane

    2017-08-01

    Behavioral economic measurement of the relative value of tobacco (Cigarette Purchase Task; CPT) is used to examine individual differences in motivation for tobacco under certain contexts. Smokers with psychopathology, relative to those without, may demonstrate stronger demand for tobacco following a period of smoking deprivation, which could account for disparate rates of smoking and cessation among this subgroup. Participants (n=111) were community-recruited adult daily smokers who completed the CPT after a deprivation period of approximately 60min. Presence of psychopathology was assessed via clinical interview; 40.5% (n=45) of the sample met criteria for past-year psychological diagnosis. Specifically, 31.5% (n=35) had an emotional disorder (anxiety/depressive disorder), 17.1% (n=19) had a substance use disorder, and 19.1% of the sample had more than one disorder. Smokers with any psychopathology showed significantly higher intensity (demand at unrestricted cost; $0) and O max (peak expenditure for a drug) relative to smokers with no psychopathology. Intensity was significantly higher among smokers with an emotional disorder compared to those without. Smokers with a substance use disorder showed significantly higher intensity and O max , and lower elasticity, reflecting greater insensitivity to price increases. Having≥2 disorders was associated with higher intensity relative to having 1 or no disorders. Findings suggest that presence of psychopathology may be associated with greater and more persistent motivation to smoke. Future work is needed to explore the mechanism linking psychopathology to tobacco demand. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Ethane supply and demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamerson, J.B.

    1993-01-01

    Estimates are given for ethane production, chiefly from the Gulf Coast area. Increase in interregional transfers are predicted. Comparisons from 1992 through 1995 are made. The author concludes the following: ethane will be supply limited over the decade of the 90's; values will be over competing feedstocks; minimum practical demands will be close to available supply; regional relationships will reflect pipeline tariffs; purity ethane/EP spreads may narrow with new Mt. Belvieu fractionation capacity; new domestic supplies will back out imports; and Ethane's share of ethylene production may drop over the period

  8. Road infrastructure and demand induction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick; Hovgesen, Henrik Harder; Lahrmann, Harry

    2006-01-01

    a long screenline is used to measure the development in aggregate demand in selected corridors. The paper analyses demand induction by establishing time series of aggregate demand that is compared with the national traffic index. Significant trend breaks in the association between aggregate demand...... in the corridors and the national index, following the opening of motorways or bridges, indicates demand induction by infrastructure expansion in a number of instances. Lack of significant trend breaks following opening year is found in peripheral areas where major population centres are missing. This indicates...... the necessity of some latent demand within suitable travel range for new infrastructure elements to produce significant amounts of induced demand. Estimates of demand induction as a percentage of the realised demand five years after opening are between 10% and 67% for new motorway sections depending...

  9. Demand response in energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skytte, K.; Birk Mortensen, J.

    2004-11-01

    Improving the ability of energy demand to respond to wholesale prices during critical periods of the spot market can reduce the total costs of reliably meeting demand, and the level and volatility of the prices. This fact has lead to a growing interest in the short-run demand response. There has especially been a growing interest in the electricity market where peak-load periods with high spot prices and occasional local blackouts have recently been seen. Market concentration at the supply side can result in even higher peak-load prices. Demand response by shifting demand from peak to base-load periods can counteract the market power in the peak-load. However, demand response has so far been modest since the current short-term price elasticity seems to be small. This is also the case for related markets, for example, green certificates where the demand is determined as a percentage of the power demand, or for heat and natural gas markets. This raises a number of interesting research issues: 1) Demand response in different energy markets, 2) Estimation of price elasticity and flexibility, 3) Stimulation of demand response, 4) Regulation, policy and modelling aspects, 5) Demand response and market power at the supply side, 6) Energy security of supply, 7) Demand response in forward, spot, ancillary service, balance and capacity markets, 8) Demand response in deviated markets, e.g., emission, futures, and green certificate markets, 9) Value of increased demand response, 10) Flexible households. (BA)

  10. Abstraction carrying code and resource-awareness

    OpenAIRE

    Hermenegildo, Manuel V.; Albert Albiol, Elvira; López García, Pedro; Puebla Sánchez, Alvaro Germán

    2005-01-01

    Proof-Carrying Code (PCC) is a general approach to mobile code safety in which the code supplier augments the program with a certifícate (or proof). The intended benefit is that the program consumer can locally validate the certifícate w.r.t. the "untrusted" program by means of a certifícate checker—a process which should be much simpler, eíñcient, and automatic than generating the original proof. Abstraction Carrying Code (ACC) is an enabling technology for PCC in which an abstract mod...

  11. Grower demand for sensor-controlled irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenberg, Erik; Majsztrik, John; Saavoss, Monica

    2015-01-01

    Water scarcity is likely to increase in the coming years, making improvements in irrigation efficiency increasingly important. An emerging technology that promises to increase irrigation efficiency substantially is a wireless irrigation sensor network that uploads sensor data into irrigation management software, creating an integrated system that allows real-time monitoring and control of moisture status that has been shown in experimental settings to reduce irrigation costs, lower plant loss rates, shorten production times, decrease pesticide application, and increase yield, quality, and profit. We use an original survey to investigate likely initial acceptance, ceiling adoption rates, and profitability of this new sensor network technology in the nursery and greenhouse industry. We find that adoption rates for a base system and demand for expansion components are decreasing in price, as expected. The price elasticity of the probability of adoption suggests that sensor networks are likely to diffuse at a rate somewhat greater than that of drip irrigation. Adoption rates for a base system and demand for expansion components are increasing in specialization in ornamental production: growers earning greater shares of revenue from greenhouse and nursery operations are willing to pay more for a base system and are willing to purchase larger numbers of expansion components at any given price. We estimate that growers who are willing to purchase a sensor network expect investment in this technology to generate significant profit, consistent with findings from experimental studies.

  12. Energy and exergy analysis of low temperature district heating network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Hongwei; Svendsen, Svend

    2012-01-01

    Low temperature district heating with reduced network supply and return temperature provides better match of the low quality building heating demand and the low quality heating supply from waste heat or renewable energy. In this paper, a hypothetical low temperature district heating network is designed to supply heating for 30 low energy detached residential houses. The network operational supply/return temperature is set as 55 °C/25 °C, which is in line with a pilot project carried out in Denmark. Two types of in-house substations are analyzed to supply the consumer domestic hot water demand. The space heating demand is supplied through floor heating in the bathroom and low temperature radiators in the rest of rooms. The network thermal and hydraulic conditions are simulated under steady state. A district heating network design and simulation code is developed to incorporate the network optimization procedure and the network simultaneous factor. Through the simulation, the overall system energy and exergy efficiencies are calculated and the exergy losses for the major district heating system components are identified. Based on the results, suggestions are given to further reduce the system energy/exergy losses and increase the quality match between the consumer heating demand and the district heating supply. -- Highlights: ► Exergy and energy analysis for low and medium temperature district heating systems. ► Different district heating network dimensioning methods are analyzed. ► Major exergy losses are identified in the district heating network and the in-house substations. ► Advantages to apply low temperature district heating are highlighted through exergy analysis. ► The influence of thermal by-pass on system exergy/energy performance is analyzed.

  13. Demand for electrical energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergougnoux, J.; Fouquet, D.

    1983-01-01

    The different utilizations of electric energy are reviewed in the residential and tertiary sectors, in the industry. The competitive position of electricity in regard to other fuels has been strengthned by the sudden rise in the price of oil in 1973-1974 and 1979-1980. The evolution of electricity prices depended on the steps taken to adjust the electricity generation system. The substitution of electricity applications for hydro-carbons is an essential point of energy policy. The adjustment at all times, at least cost and most reliability, of the supply of electricity to the demand for it is a major problem in the design and operation of electric systems. National demand for power at a given moment is extremely diversified. Electricity consumption presents daily and seasonal variations, and variations according to the different sectors. Forecasting power requirements is for any decision on operation or investment relating to an electrical system. Load management is desirable (prices according to the customers, optional tariffs for ''peak-day withdrawal''). To conclude, prospects for increased electricity consumption are discussed [fr

  14. Transgenic cassava lines carrying heterologous alternative oxidase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Afuape

    2013-07-03

    Jul 3, 2013 ... production of flowers, apomixis (Nassar et al., 2000; ... In order to increase the stress tolerance capacity of ... stress-related procedure due to the activities of auxin ... the evaluation of the transgenic lines for rate of OES .... Some transgenic lines carrying the 35S-AOX fragment amplified using 35S303F1 and.

  15. Infections That Pets Carry (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... how to protect your family from infections. How Pets Spread Infections Like people, all animals carry germs . Illnesses common among housepets — ... get an infection that can be passed to people. Safely Caring for Your Pet Here are some tips to help your family ...

  16. Construction of expression vectors carrying mouse peroxisomal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to construct expression vectors carrying mouse peroxisomal protein gene (PEP-cDNA) in prokaryotic and mammalian expression vectors in ... pGEX6p2-PEP and pUcD3-FLAG-PEP constructed vectors were transformed into the one shot TOP10 and JM105 bacterial competent cells, respectively.

  17. Magnetoacoustic waves in current-carrying plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brennan, M.H.

    1980-04-01

    The results of theoretical and experimental investigations of the characteristics of magnetoacoustic waves in non-uniform, current-carrying plasmas are reviewed. Dissipative MHD and collisionless theories are considered. Also discussed is the use of magnetoacoustic waves in plasma diagnostics and plasma heating

  18. Construction of expression vectors carrying mouse peroxisomal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-11-16

    Nov 16, 2009 ... The aim of this study was to construct expression vectors carrying mouse peroxisomal protein gene. (PEP-cDNA) in prokaryotic and mammalian expression vectors in chimeric cDNA types, encompassing. GST and FLAG with PEP-cDNA. PEP-cDNA was sub-cloned in pGEX6p2 prokaryotic expression ...

  19. Transgenic cassava lines carrying heterologous alternative oxidase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Afuape

    2013-07-03

    Jul 3, 2013 ... Organized embryogenic callus development: In our experiment, somatic embryos were developed from leaf lobes collected from transgenic cassava lines carrying the AtAOX1a gene. Immature leaf lobes measuring about 1 to 6 mm obtained from about six weeks old in vitro derived plants were used.

  20. Modelling of demand response and market power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kristoffersen, B.B.; Donslund, B.; Boerre Eriksen, P.

    2004-01-01

    Demand-side flexibility and demand response to high prices are prerequisites for the proper functioning of the Nordic power market. If the consumers are unwilling to respond to high prices, the market may fail the clearing, and this may result in unwanted forced demand disconnections. Being the TSO of Western Denmark, Eltra is responsible of both security of supply and the design of the power market within its area. On this basis, Eltra has developed a new mathematical model tool for analysing the Nordic wholesale market. The model is named MARS (MARket Simulation). The model is able to handle hydropower and thermal production, nuclear power and wind power. Production, demand and exchanges modelled on an hourly basis are new important features of the model. The model uses the same principles as Nord Pool (The Nordic Power Exchange), including the division of the Nordic countries into price areas. On the demand side, price elasticity is taken into account and described by a Cobb-Douglas function. Apart from simulating perfect competition markets, particular attention has been given to modelling imperfect market conditions, i.e. exercise of market power on the supply side. Market power is simulated by using game theory, including the Nash equilibrium concept. The paper gives a short description of the MARS model. Besides, focus is on the application of the model in order to illustrate the importance of demand response in the Nordic market. Simulations with different values of demand elasticity are compared. Calculations are carried out for perfect competition and for the situation in which market power is exercised by the large power producers in the Nordic countries (oligopoly). (au)

  1. Software Defined Networking for Next Generation Converged Metro-Access Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffini, M.; Slyne, F.; Bluemm, C.; Kitsuwan, N.; McGettrick, S.

    2015-12-01

    While the concept of Software Defined Networking (SDN) has seen a rapid deployment within the data center community, its adoption in telecommunications network has progressed slowly, although the concept has been swiftly adopted by all major telecoms vendors. This paper presents a control plane architecture for SDN-driven converged metro-access networks, developed through the DISCUS European FP7 project. The SDN-based controller architecture was developed in a testbed implementation targeting two main scenarios: fast feeder fiber protection over dual-homed Passive Optical Networks (PONs) and dynamic service provisioning over a multi-wavelength PON. Implementation details and results of the experiment carried out over the second scenario are reported in the paper, showing the potential of SDN in providing assured on-demand services to end-users.

  2. Demand for male contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorman, Emily; Bishai, David

    2012-10-01

    The biological basis for male contraception was established decades ago, but despite promising breakthroughs and the financial burden men increasingly bear due to better enforcement of child support policies, no viable alternative to the condom has been brought to market. Men who wish to control their fertility must rely on female compliance with contraceptives, barrier methods, vasectomy or abstinence. Over the last 10 years, the pharmaceutical industry has abandoned most of its investment in the field, leaving only nonprofit organisations and public entities pursuing male contraception. Leading explanations are uncertain forecasts of market demand pitted against the need for critical investments to demonstrate the safety of existing candidate products. This paper explores the developments and challenges in male contraception research. We produce preliminary estimates of potential market size for a safe and effective male contraceptive based on available data to estimate the potential market for a novel male method.

  3. Animating the Ethical Demand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vistisen, Peter; Jensen, Thessa; Poulsen, Søren Bolvig

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the challenge of attaining ethical user stances during the design process of products and services and proposes animation-based sketching as a design method, which supports elaborating and examining different ethical stances towards the user. The discussion is qualified...... by an empirical study of Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI) in a Triple Helix constellation. Using a three-week long innovation workshop, U- CrAc, involving 16 Danish companies and organisations and 142 students as empirical data, we discuss how animation-based sketching can explore not yet existing user...... dispositions, as well as create an incentive for ethical conduct in development and innovation processes. The ethical fulcrum evolves around Løgstrup’s Ethical Demand and his notion of spontaneous life manifestations. From this, three ethical stances are developed; apathy, sympathy and empathy. By exploring...

  4. Rewarding yet demanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørkedal, S T B; Torsting, A M B; Møller, T

    2016-01-01

    in a logbook. The Canadian Occupational Performance Measure was used to initiate and guide the intervention and the Canadian Model of Client-Centred Enablement for the client-therapist relationship. RESULTS: Participants described the intervention, which presupposed a certain level of patient readiness...... design comprising an eight-week client-centred occupational therapy intervention with semi-structured interviews with five of the six clients out of 10 who completed the intervention. Braun and Clark's thematic analysis was applied to the transcripts. Adherence rate and dropouts were recorded......, as demanding. Participants valued engaging in real-life occupations while anchoring new strategies but also the occupational therapist's role in dealing with failure. Participants felt the intervention assisted in their recovery process and enabled them to engage in meaningful occupations. CONCLUSION...

  5. PROOF on Demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malzacher, Peter; Manafov, Anar

    2010-01-01

    PROOF on Demand (PoD) is a set of utilities, which allows starting a PROOF cluster at user request, on any resource management system. It provides a plug-in based system, which allows to use different job submission frontends, such as LSF or gLite WMS. Main components of PoD are the PROOFAgent and the PAConsole. PROOFAgent provides the communication layer between the PROOF master on the local machine and the PROOF workers on the remote resources, possibly behind a firewall. PAConsole provides a user-friendly GUI, which is used to setup, manage, and shutdown the dynamic PROOF cluster. Installation is simple and doesn't require administrator privileges, and all the processes run in user space. PoD gives users, who don't have a centrally-administrated static PROOF cluster at their institute, the possibility to enjoy the full power of interactive analysis with PROOF.

  6. Família e redes sociais de apoio para o atendimento das demandas de saúde do idoso Familia y redes sociales de apoyo para el atendimiento de las demandas de salud del anciano Family and social networks of support for meeting the demands of health of the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Rochelly do Nascimento Mota

    2010-12-01

    networks of families with elderly using the Calgary Family Assessment Model. Quantitative cross-sectional study with exploratory and descriptive character, carried out among families with elderly living in the outskirts of Fortaleza, from November/2008 to January/2009. Data obtained from 218 families by interviewing the one responsible for the care of the family in their own home. Concerning the social networks of support, nursing was considered very significant (32.1%. In disease situation, the demand of support from others was 68.3% and the one in which the family most supports others was 76.6%. As for financial aid, 58.7% report doing it; however, only 36.2% ask for such help. The structure of families with elderly deserves attention in the search for scientific knowledge in the face of the holism to support the professional practice of the nurse.

  7. Does Knowledge Contribute to the Acceptance of Demand Response?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salla Annala

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available More flexible demand side would benefit the electricity markets, networks and sustainable power generation in many ways. The success of demand response programs, however, relies on consumer acceptance. This paper reviews previous studies about acceptability of different kinds of residential demand response programs. Furthermore, it discusses whether consumers who are more aware of the principles and benefits of demand response have more positive attitudes towards demand response programs. The results of the literature review and two survey studies suggest that price and security of supply are currently bigger motives to change consumption behaviour than environmental issues and that the savings expected to trigger any action (and to lead to lasting change in behaviour may be relatively high. Therefore, the framing of demand response programs goals may affect the acceptance. Additionally, consumers seem to prefer simple price structures that remain constant for a long time to more dynamic options.

  8. Hierarchical Network Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomadsen, Tommy

    2005-01-01

    Communication networks are immensely important today, since both companies and individuals use numerous services that rely on them. This thesis considers the design of hierarchical (communication) networks. Hierarchical networks consist of layers of networks and are well-suited for coping...... with changing and increasing demands. Two-layer networks consist of one backbone network, which interconnects cluster networks. The clusters consist of nodes and links, which connect the nodes. One node in each cluster is a hub node, and the backbone interconnects the hub nodes of each cluster and thus...... the clusters. The design of hierarchical networks involves clustering of nodes, hub selection, and network design, i.e. selection of links and routing of ows. Hierarchical networks have been in use for decades, but integrated design of these networks has only been considered for very special types of networks...

  9. Research on Water Resources Design Carrying Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanghua Qin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Water resources carrying capacity (WRCC is a recently proposed management concept, which aims to support sustainable socio-economic development in a region or basin. However, the calculation of future WRCC is not well considered in most studies, because water resources and the socio-economic development mode for one area or city in the future are quite uncertain. This paper focused on the limits of traditional methods of WRCC and proposed a new concept, water resources design carrying capacity (WRDCC, which incorporated the concept of design. In WRDCC, the population size that the local water resources can support is calculated based on the balance of water supply and water consumption, under the design water supply and design socio-economic development mode. The WRDCC of Chengdu city in China is calculated. Results show that the WRDCC (population size of Chengdu city in development modeI (II, III will be 997 ×104 (770 × 104, 504 × 104 in 2020, and 934 × 104 (759 × 104, 462 × 104 in 2030. Comparing the actual population to the carrying population (WRDCC in 2020 and 2030, a bigger gap will appear, which means there will be more and more pressure on the society-economic sustainable development.

  10. The 30/20 GHz communications satellite trunking network study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, W.

    1981-01-01

    Alternative transmission media for a CONUS-wide trunking network in the years 1990 and 2000 are examined. The alternative technologies comprised fiber optic cable, conventional C- and Ku-band satellites, and 30/20 GHz satellites. Three levels of implementation were considered - a 10-city network, a 20-city network, and a 40-city network. The cities selected were the major metropolitan areas with the greatest communications demand. All intercity voice, data, and video traffic carried more than 40 miles was included in the analysis. In the optimized network, traffic transmitted less than 500 miles was found to be better served by fiber optic cable in 1990. By the year 2000, the crossover point would be down to 200 miles, assuming availability of 30/20 GHz satellites.

  11. Smart Demand Response Based on Smart Homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingang Lai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Smart homes (SHs are crucial parts for demand response management (DRM of smart grid (SG. The aim of SHs based demand response (DR is to provide a flexible two-way energy feedback whilst (or shortly after the consumption occurs. It can potentially persuade end-users to achieve energy saving and cooperate with the electricity producer or supplier to maintain balance between the electricity supply and demand through the method of peak shaving and valley filling. However, existing solutions are challenged by the lack of consideration between the wide application of fiber power cable to the home (FPCTTH and related users’ behaviors. Based on the new network infrastructure, the design and development of smart DR systems based on SHs are related with not only functionalities as security, convenience, and comfort, but also energy savings. A new multirouting protocol based on Kruskal’s algorithm is designed for the reliability and safety of the SHs distribution network. The benefits of FPCTTH-based SHs are summarized at the end of the paper.

  12. Smart control for minimizing distribution network reinforcement cost due to electrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pudjianto, Danny; Djapic, Predrag; Aunedi, Marko; Gan, Chin Kim; Strbac, Goran; Huang, Sikai; Infield, David

    2013-01-01

    Electrification of transport fleets and heating sectors is seen as one of the key strategies to further reduce the use of fossil fuels and the resulting greenhouse gas emissions. However, it will potentially cause a significant increase of electricity peak demand and have adverse consequences on the electricity system, in particular on distribution networks. This paper will address the benefits of various applications of smart network control and demand response technologies for enhancing the integration of these future load categories, and for improvements in operation management and efficient use of distribution network assets. A range of numerical simulations have been carried out on different distribution network topologies (rural and urban networks) to identify the need and the cost of network reinforcement required to accommodate future load under various operating strategies such as Business as Usual (passive demand and passive network) against the smart grid approach. Applications of smart Plug-in vehicle (PiV) charging, smart heat pumps, and optimised control of network voltage regulators to reduce network investment have been studied, and selected key results of our studies on evaluating the benefits of implementing these technologies for Great Britain's distribution networks are presented and discussed in this paper. - Highlights: ► Growth of electricity loads driven by electrification of transport and heat will be significant. ► It will increase the electricity peak demand up to 2–3 times and cost tens of billion pounds if we maintain Business as Usual approach. ► A coordinated application of smart demand technologies can significantly reduce this cost. ► It requires sets of policies and regulations to facilitate timely deployment of such technologies.

  13. Impacts of climate change on electricity network business

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martikainen, A.

    2006-04-01

    Climate has a significant impact on the electricity network business. The electricity network is under the weather pressure all the time and it is planned and constructed to withstand normal climatic stresses. The electricity network that has been planned and constructed now, is expected to be in operation next 40 years. If climatic stresses change in this period, it can cause significant impacts on electricity network business. If the impacts of climate change are figured out in advance, it is possible to mitigate negative points of climate change and exploit the positive points. In this paper the impact of climate change on electricity network business is presented. The results are based on RCAO climate model scenarios. The climate predictions were composed to the period 2016. 2045. The period 1960.1990 was used as a control period. The climate predictions were composed for precipitation, temperature, hoarfrost, thunder, ground frost and wind. The impacts of the change of the climate variables on electricity network business were estimated from technical and economical points of view. The estimation was based on the change predictions of the climate variables. It is expected that climate change will cause more damages than benefits on the electricity network business. The increase of the number of network faults will be the most significant and demanding disadvantage caused by climate change. If networks are not improved to be more resistant for faults, then thunder, heavy snow and wind cause more damages especially to overhead lines in medium voltage network. Increasing precipitation and decreasing amount of ground frost weaken the strength of soil. The construction work will be more difficult with the present vehicles because wet and unfrozen ground can not carry heavy vehicles. As a consequence of increasing temperature, the demand of heating energy will decrease and the demand of cooling energy will increase. This is significant for the electricity

  14. Environment-quality demands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delfini, M.G.; Leenhouts, H.P.

    1988-12-01

    In the framework of the Environment Quality Requirements (MKE) project a model has been designed in which environment-quality demands have been defined and quantified, and a measuring strategy has been developed. In the model it is required for the quality of the environment that the radionuclide concentration in the various environment compartiments remains limited in order to keep the effective dose equivalence for the 'reference man' under a certain reference level. In order to be able to determine the maximum nuclide concentration it is necessary to quantify the relation between the concentration in the environment and the dose for the people. The quantitative relation between concentration and dose has been established on the base of parameters (Derived Activity Limits (DAL's) which have to be calculated for each environment compartiment, each nuclide and each exposure pathway. This model has been described and, as example, the DAL's have been calculated for the compartiment air (for which the two exposure pathways inhalation and direct radiation were considered). For the other environment compartiments a similar elaboration is needed. The feasibility of application of the MKE-model in the actual practice of measurements in the environment and examination of dose for the population depends upon the possibility for performing nuclide specific measurements in all environment compartiments, the level of the dose resulting from the contamination of the environment and the related accurateness of the measurements

  15. Demand side participation for frequency containment in the web of cells architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Syed, M.H.; Burt, G.M.; Kok, J.K.; Hulst, R. d

    2015-01-01

    A large number of demand side management schemes have been proposed in literature for provision of frequency control ancillary services to the network. However, it is assumed that all the flexible devices within the network are managed and controlled under one demand side management (DSM) scheme. In

  16. Placarding of road vehicles carrying radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-09-01

    The purpose of this Code is to give guidance on the placarding requirements for vehicles carrying radioactive materials by road in Great Britain and on the continent of Europe. Additional placards may be required regarding dangerous properties other than radioactivity. The labelling of packages for transport is dealt with in AECP 1030. This Code deals with two aspects of road vehicle placarding:-(a) placarding on the outside of road vehicles in Great Britain and on the continent of Europe, (b) a fireproof placard fixed in the driver's cab. Responsibility for placarding the vehicle rests with the carrier, but in practice the consignor may need to provide the placards. (U.K.)

  17. Energy and electricity demand forecasting for nuclear power planning in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-07-01

    This Guidebook is designed to be a reference document to forecast energy and electricity demand. It presents concepts and methodologies that have been developed to make an analytical approach to energy/electricity demand forecasting as part of the planning process. The Guidebook is divided into 6 main chapters: (Energy demand and development, energy demand analysis, electric load curve analysis, energy and electricity demand forecasting, energy and electricity demand forecasting tools used in various organizations, IAEA methodologies for energy and electricity demand forecasting) and 3 appendices (experience with case studies carried out by the IAEA, reference technical data, reference economic data). A bibliography and a glossary complete the Guidebook. Refs, figs and tabs

  18. Efficient Bandwidth Management for Ethernet Passive Optical Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Elrasad, Amr

    2016-01-01

    The increasing bandwidth demands in access networks motivates network operators, networking devices manufacturers, and standardization institutions to search for new approaches for access networks. These approaches should support higher bandwidth

  19. A Hybrid Approach on Tourism Demand Forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nor, M. E.; Nurul, A. I. M.; Rusiman, M. S.

    2018-04-01

    Tourism has become one of the important industries that contributes to the country’s economy. Tourism demand forecasting gives valuable information to policy makers, decision makers and organizations related to tourism industry in order to make crucial decision and planning. However, it is challenging to produce an accurate forecast since economic data such as the tourism data is affected by social, economic and environmental factors. In this study, an equally-weighted hybrid method, which is a combination of Box-Jenkins and Artificial Neural Networks, was applied to forecast Malaysia’s tourism demand. The forecasting performance was assessed by taking the each individual method as a benchmark. The results showed that this hybrid approach outperformed the other two models

  20. Airborne Network Optimization with Dynamic Network Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-26

    source si and a target ti . For each commodity (si, ki) the commodity specifies a non- negative demand di [5]. The objective of the multi-commodity...queue predictions, and network con- gestion [15]. The implementation of the DRQC uses the Kalman filter to predict the state of the network and optimize

  1. Review of the Main Activities Carried out by the CSN in the Last Five Years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Nearing the time to finalise a new phase for the Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear, it is time to make a brief account of the main activities carried out over the past five years. During this period, one in which the CSN celebrated its 25th Anniversary, the organisation has served a social demand in a modernisation and adjustment process, followed by the continuous improvement process which throughout its history the former management, teams have carried out with great stamina and dedication. (Author)

  2. Modelling Commodity Demands and Labour Supply with m-Demands

    OpenAIRE

    Browning, Martin

    1999-01-01

    In the empirical modelling of demands and labour supply we often lack data on a full set of goods. The usual response is to invoke separability assumptions. Here we present an alternative based on modelling demands as a function of prices and the quantity of a reference good rather than total expenditure. We term such demands m-demands. The advantage of this approach is that we make maximum use of the data to hand without invoking implausible separability assumptions. In the theory section qu...

  3. Cryptococcus neoformans carried by Odontomachus bauri ants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Santos de Jesus

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Cryptococcus neoformans is the most common causative agent of cryptococcosis worldwide. Although this fungus has been isolated from a variety of organic substrates, several studies suggest that hollow trees constitute an important natural niche for C. neoformans. A previously surveyed hollow of a living pink shower tree (Cassia grandis positive for C. neoformans in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, was chosen for further investigation. Odontomachus bauri ants (trap-jaw ants found inside the hollow were collected for evaluation as possible carriers of Cryptococcus spp. Two out of 10 ants were found to carry phenoloxidase-positive colonies identified as C. neoformans molecular types VNI and VNII. The ants may have acted as a mechanical vector of C. neoformans and possibly contributed to the dispersal of the fungi from one substrate to another. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the association of C. neoformans with ants of the genus Odontomachus.

  4. Spatial dimensions of the demand for homeownership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jens Fyhn Lykke

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces the concept of "spatial location satisfaction" and examines its relation to the individual demand for homeownership. Based on a Danish questionnaire survey carried out in a rural study area (N=1000) and in an urban study area (N=1015), a tenure choice model was estimated...... relating spatial location satisfaction to homeownership, while adjusting for control variables. The spatial location satisfaction variable was constructed from two questionnaire items asking respondents to state their actual and preferred place of settlement given five location type options: large city......, medium-sized city, small town, village, and "in the countryside". As hypothesised, the study shows a strong association between spatial location satisfaction and the individual demand for homeownership. This association is robust across study areas. Spatial location satisfaction is highest in the rural...

  5. Global energy demand outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatcher, S.R.

    1999-01-01

    Perhaps the most compelling issue the world will face in the next century is the quality of life of the increasing populations of the poorer regions of the world. Energy is the key to generating wealth and protecting the environment. Today, most of the energy generated comes from fossil fuels and there should be enough for an increase in consumption over the next half century. However, this is likely to be impacted by the Kyoto Protocol on carbon dioxide emissions. Various authoritative studies lead to a global energy demand projection of between 850 to 1070 EJ per year in the mid-21 st century, which is nearly three times as much as the world uses today. The studies further indicate that, unless there is a major thrust by governments to create incentives and/or to levy heavy taxes, the use of fossil fuels will continue to increase and there will be a major increase in carbon dioxide emissions globally. Most of the increase will come from the newly industrializing countries which do not have the technology or financial resources to install non-carbon energy sources such as nuclear power, and the new renewable energy technologies. The real issue for the nuclear industry is investment cost. Developing countries, in particular will have difficulty in raising capital for energy projects with a high installed cost and will have difficulties in raising large blocks of capital. A reduction in investment costs of the order of 50% with a short construction schedule is in order if nuclear power is to compete and contribute significantly to energy supply and the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions. Current nuclear power plants and methods are simply not suited to the production of plants that will compete in this situation. Mass production designs are needed to get the benefits of cost reduction. Water cooled reactors are well demonstrated and positioned to achieve the cost reduction necessary but only via some radical thinking on the part of the designers. The reactors of

  6. Promotion and Fast Food Demand

    OpenAIRE

    Timothy J. Richards; Luis Padilla

    2009-01-01

    Many believe that fast food promotion is a significant cause of the obesity epidemic in North America. Industry members argue that promotion only reallocates brand shares and does not increase overall demand. We study the effect of fast food promotion on market share and total demand by estimating a discrete / continuous model of fast food restaurant choice and food expenditure that explicitly accounts for both spatial and temporal determinants of demand. Estimates are obtained using a unique...

  7. Intercity Travel Demand Analysis Model

    OpenAIRE

    Ming Lu; Hai Zhu; Xia Luo; Lei Lei

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that intercity travel is an important component of travel demand which belongs to short distance corridor travel. The conventional four-step method is no longer suitable for short distance corridor travel demand analysis for the time spent on urban traffic has a great impact on traveler's main mode choice. To solve this problem, the author studied the existing intercity travel demand analysis model, then improved it based on the study, and finally established a combined model...

  8. Job demands-resources model

    OpenAIRE

    Bakker, Arnold; Demerouti, Eva

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract* The question of what causes job stress and what motivates people has received a lot of research attention during the past five decades. In this paper, we discuss Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) theory, which represents an extension of the Job Demands-Resources model (Bakker & Demerouti, 2007; Demerouti, Bakker, Nachreiner, & Schaufeli, 2001) and is inspired by job design and job stress theories. JD-R theory explains how job demands and resources have unique and multiplicative e...

  9. VuFind: eBooks on Demand Suchmaschine

    OpenAIRE

    Gstrein, Silvia

    2011-01-01

    The eBooks-on-Demand (EOD) network provides a trans-European digital document delivery service for end-users from all over the world offering digitization on demand of the public domain holdings of participating libraries. Currently the EOD network comprises over 30 libraries from 12 European countries. The service is offered through „EOD buttons“ placed at each record in the different library catalogues. Already in the first years of the service a common interface to search for all books off...

  10. Intrinsic motivation and organizational identification among on-demand workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockmann, Kevin W; Ballinger, Gary A

    2017-09-01

    On-demand firms provide services for clients through a network of on-demand workers ready to complete specific tasks for a set contractual price. Given such on-demand work is defined by payment on short-term contracts with no obligation for continued employment, there is little reason to believe on-demand workers experience more than extrinsic motivation and a transactional relationship with the on-demand firm. However, using self-determination theory, we argue that to the degree that on-demand work fulfills innate psychological needs individual on-demand workers will develop intrinsic motivation, which further leads to organizational identification with the on-demand firm. Across 2 survey-based studies we find support for this path to organizational identification. This adds to the literature on motivation and identification by strengthening the link between individual needs and the individual-organizational relationship. Implications for theory and for the management of on-demand workers are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. National networks of Healthy Cities in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janss Lafond, Leah; Heritage, Zoë

    2009-11-01

    National networks of Healthy Cities emerged in the late 1980s as a spontaneous reaction to a great demand by cities to participate in the Healthy Cities movement. Today, they engage at least 1300 cities in the European region and form the backbone of the Healthy Cities movement. This article provides an analysis of the results of the regular surveys of national networks that have been carried out principally since 1997. The main functions and achievements of national networks are presented alongside some of their most pressing challenges. Although networks have differing priorities and organizational characteristics, they do share common goals and strategic directions based on the Healthy Cities model (see other articles in this special edition of HPI). Therefore, it has been possible to identify a set of organizational and strategic factors that contribute to the success of networks. These factors form the basis of a set of accreditation criteria for national networks and provide guidance for the establishment of new national networks. Although national networks have made substantial achievements, they continue to face a number of dilemmas that are discussed in the article. Problems a national network must deal with include how to obtain sustainable funding, how to raise the standard of work in cities without creating exclusive participation criteria and how to balance the need to provide direct support to cities with its role as a national player. These dilemmas are similar to other public sector networks. During the last 15 years, the pooling of practical expertise in urban health has made Healthy Cities networks an important resource for national as well as local governments. Not only do they provide valuable support to their members but they often advise ministries and other national institutions on effective models to promote sustainable urban health development.

  12. North American oil demand outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, M.B.

    1995-01-01

    An understanding of the relationship of economic growth and potential petroleum product demand is needed to forecast the potential for North American oil demand growth as well as knowledge of world supply and price. The bullish expectations for economic growth in the US and Canada auger well for North American refiners and marketeers. The growth in world economic output forecast, however, means a larger oil demand and an increase in OPEC's pricing power. Such price increases could depress North American oil demand growth. (author)

  13. The determining factors of natural gas demand in domestic sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadoret, I.

    1992-01-01

    Natural gas plays an important role in domestic sector. For example, in France, Italy, Germany and United-Kingdom the natural gas share in energy demand of domestic sector is respectively 26%, 44%, 34% and 63%. A study of energy policies, natural gas industry structure and tarification system of this four countries indicates that gas development is linked to the government and petroleum companies policy. Econometric models estimation show by another way that when natural gas is introduced in domestic sector, the demand follows the distribution network. When the market is saturated, the demand changes with energy price and household income. 8 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs

  14. Voltage-carrying states in superconducting microstrips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuivinga, M.E.C.

    1983-01-01

    When the critical current is exceeded in a superconducting microstrip, voltage-carrying states with a resistance significantly below the normal state resistance can occur. Phase-slip centers (PSC) appear at about the critical temperature. These are successive local voltage units which manifest themselves as strip-like increments in voltage in the I-V characteristic. For temperatures off the critical temperature the PSC regime degenerates into a region of normal material, a so-called hot spot. These two phenomena, PSC and hot spots, form the subject of this thesis. To gain a better understanding of the phase-slip center process, an experiment was designed to measure local values of the quasi-particle and pair potential. The results of local potential and gap measurements at a PSC in aluminium are presented and discussed. Special attention is paid to pair-breaking interactions which can shorten the relaxation time. A non-linear differential equation is derived which describes the development of a PSC into a normal hot spot under the influence of Joule heating. It incorporates the temperature rise due to the dissipative processes occurring in the charge imbalance tails. Numerical solutions are presented for a set of parameters, including those for aluminium and tin. Subsequently, they are compared with experiments. (Auth.)

  15. Detecting Vessels Carrying Migrants Using Machine Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sfyridis, A.; Cheng, T.; Vespe, M.

    2017-10-01

    Political instability, conflicts and inequalities result into significant flows of people worldwide, moving to different countries in search of a better life, safety or to be reunited with their families. Irregular crossings into Europe via sea routes, despite not being new, have recently increased together with the loss of lives of people in the attempt to reach EU shores. This highlights the need to find ways to improve the understanding of what is happening at sea. This paper, intends to expand the knowledge available on practices among smugglers and contribute to early warning and maritime situational awareness. By identifying smuggling techniques and based on anomaly detection methods, behaviours of interest are modelled and one class support vector machines are used to classify unlabelled data and detect potential smuggling vessels. Nine vessels are identified as potentially carrying irregular migrants and refugees. Though, further inspection of the results highlights possible misclassifications caused by data gaps and limited knowledge on smuggling tactics. Accepted classifications are considered subject to further investigation by the authorities.

  16. DETECTING VESSELS CARRYING MIGRANTS USING MACHINE LEARNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sfyridis

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Political instability, conflicts and inequalities result into significant flows of people worldwide, moving to different countries in search of a better life, safety or to be reunited with their families. Irregular crossings into Europe via sea routes, despite not being new, have recently increased together with the loss of lives of people in the attempt to reach EU shores. This highlights the need to find ways to improve the understanding of what is happening at sea. This paper, intends to expand the knowledge available on practices among smugglers and contribute to early warning and maritime situational awareness. By identifying smuggling techniques and based on anomaly detection methods, behaviours of interest are modelled and one class support vector machines are used to classify unlabelled data and detect potential smuggling vessels. Nine vessels are identified as potentially carrying irregular migrants and refugees. Though, further inspection of the results highlights possible misclassifications caused by data gaps and limited knowledge on smuggling tactics. Accepted classifications are considered subject to further investigation by the authorities.

  17. Analisis Permintaan (Demand Analysis) Pelayanan Kesehatan Puskesmas di Kabupaten Mojokerto

    OpenAIRE

    Budiarto, Wasis

    1996-01-01

    A study on demand for health centre was carried out at Mojokerto Regency, East Java. The study convered 300 respondents (15 years old and over) which were collected from two areas, urban (Kecamatan Bangsal) and rural (Kecamatan Puri). The objectives of this study were to measure the demand for health centre services and to determine the influencing factors. A household survey was conducted in this study, using household and individual as unit of analysis and a multiple linier regression techn...

  18. Distributed Optimisation Algorithm for Demand Side Management in a Grid-Connected Smart Microgrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omowunmi Mary Longe

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The contributions of Distributed Energy Generation (DEG and Distributed Energy Storage (DES for Demand Side Management (DSM purposes in a smart macrogrid or microgrid cannot be over-emphasised. However, standalone DEG and DES can lead to under-utilisation of energy generation by consumers and financial investments; in grid-connection mode, though, DEG and DES can offer arbitrage opportunities for consumers and utility provider(s. A grid-connected smart microgrid comprising heterogeneous (active and passive smart consumers, electric vehicles and a large-scale centralised energy storage is considered in this paper. Efficient energy management by each smart entity is carried out by the proposed Microgrid Energy Management Distributed Optimisation Algorithm (MEM-DOA installed distributively within the network according to consumer type. Each smart consumer optimises its energy consumption and trading for comfort (demand satisfaction and profit. The proposed model was observed to yield better consumer satisfaction, higher financial savings, and reduced Peak-to-Average-Ratio (PAR demand on the utility grid. Other associated benefits of the model include reduced investment on peaker plants, grid reliability and environmental benefits. The MEM-DOA also offered participating smart consumers energy and tariff incentives so that passive smart consumers do not benefit more than active smart consumers, as was the case with some previous energy management algorithms.

  19. ANALISIS PERMINTAAN (DEMAND ANALYSIS PELAYANAN KESEHATAN PUSKESMAS DI KABUPATEN MOJOKERTO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wasis Budiarto

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A study on demand for health centre was carried out at Mojokerto Regency, East Java. The study convered 300 respondents (15 years old and over which were collected from two areas, urban (Kecamatan Bangsal and rural (Kecamatan Puri. The objectives of this study were to measure the demand for health centre services and to determine the influencing factors. A household survey was conducted in this study, using household and individual as unit of analysis and a multiple linier regression technique was used as analysis. In general, the result showed that needs were the most important factor affecting demand. In the urban health centres positive factor affecting individual demand were distance, family size and need, however in the rural health centre were cost, time and need were factors affecting demand. Factors affecting family demand for health services is different from individual demand. In urban and rural areas, family demand for health center was substitute alternative of the demand for the phycisian services.

  20. Harnessing the power of demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheffrin, Anjali; Yoshimura, Henry; LaPlante, David; Neenan, Bernard

    2008-03-15

    Demand response can provide a series of economic services to the market and also provide ''insurance value'' under low-likelihood, but high-impact circumstances in which grid reliablity is enhanced. Here is how ISOs and RTOs are fostering demand response within wholesale electricity markets. (author)

  1. Guidelines for forecasting energy demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonino, T.

    1976-11-01

    Four methodologies for forecasting energy demand are reviewed here after considering the role of energy in the economy and the analysis of energy use in different economic sectors. The special case of Israel is considered throughout, and some forecasts for energy demands in the year 2000 are presented. An energy supply mix that may be considered feasible is proposed. (author)

  2. Coal background paper. Coal demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Statistical data are presented on coal demands in IEA and OECD member countries and in other countries. Coal coaking and coaking coal consumption data are tabulated, and IEA secretariat's coal demand projections are summarized. Coal supply and production data by countries are given. Finally, coal trade data are presented, broken down for hard coal, steam coal, coking coal (imports and export). (R.P.)

  3. Uranium resources, demand and production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stipanicic, P.N.

    1985-05-01

    Estimations of the demand and production of principal uranium resource categories are presented. The estimations based on data analysis made by a joint 'NEA/IAEA Working Party on Uranium Resources' and the corresponding results are published by the OECD (Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development) in the 'Uranium Resources, Production and Demand' Known as 'Red Book'. (M.C.K.) [pt

  4. Demand differentiation in inventory systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleijn, M.J.

    1998-01-01

    This book deals with inventory systems where customer demand is categorised into different classes. Most inventory systems do not take into account individual customer preferences for a given product, and therefore handle all demand in a similar way. Nowadays, market segmentation has become a

  5. Demand Response in Smart Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jacob; Knudsen, Jesper Viese; Annaswamy, Anuradha M.

    2014-01-01

    In recent decades, moves toward higher integration of Renewable Energy Resources have called for fundamental changes in both the planning and operation of the overall power grid. One such change is the incorporation of Demand Response (DR), the process by which consumers can adjust their demand...

  6. Credit demand in Mozambican manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byiers, Bruce; Rand, John; Tarp, Finn

    2010-01-01

    This paper uses two industrial firm surveys to identify the key determinants of credit demand in Mozambican manufacturing. We construct five different measures of being credit constrained and estimate desired debt demand. Besides firm size and ownership structure, we find evidence that general...

  7. Job demands-resources model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.B. Bakker (Arnold); E. Demerouti (Eva)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract* The question of what causes job stress and what motivates people has received a lot of research attention during the past five decades. In this paper, we discuss Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) theory, which represents an extension of the Job Demands-Resources model (Bakker &

  8. Residential energy demand in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arouca, M.; Gomes, F.M.; Rosa, L.P.

    1981-01-01

    The energy demand in Brazilian residential sector is studied, discussing the methodology for analyzing this demand from some ideas suggested, for developing an adequate method to brazilian characteristics. The residential energy consumption of several fuels in Brazil is also presented, including a comparative evaluation with the United States and France. (author)

  9. Demand as Frequency Controlled Reserve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Zhao; Togeby, Mikael; Østergaard, Jacob

    This report summaries the research outcomes of the project ‘Demand as Frequency Controlled Reserve (DFR)’, which has received the support from Energinet.dk’s PSO program, Grant no. 2005-2-6380. The objective of this project is to investigate the technology of using electricity demands for providing...

  10. Can `loss and damage' carry the load?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verchick, Robert R. M.

    2018-05-01

    Even assuming a heroic rush towards carbon reduction and adaptation, some regions of the world will be hammered hard by climate impacts. Thus, a global consensus now sees the need for a supplemental plan to deal with the kind of harms that cannot be avoided-what Parties call `loss and damage'. For a loss-and-damage plan to work, it must be capable of carrying the load, the load being whatever minimal standards that morality and political consensus require. But if residual risk climbs too high, it will fall short of even the most basic expectations. The Paris Agreement calls for holding the rise in global average temperature to `well below 2°C above pre-industrial levels', while working to limit the increase to 1.5°C. How much difference is in that half-degree? From the point of view of residual risk, quite a lot. According to a 2016 study published by the European Geosciences Union, a jump from 1.5°C to 2°C could produce outsize impacts, particularly in tropical latitudes. That difference could mark the line between a plan that is politically and morally defensible and one that is not. At the very least, the difference is enough to inform the design and expectations of any future plan. This article is part of the theme issue `The Paris Agreement: understanding the physical and social challenges for a warming world of 1.5°C above pre-industrial levels'.

  11. Analysis of Environmental Carrying Capacity with Emergy Perspective of Jeju Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanhoon Jung

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Jeju Island experienced an approximately 42% increase in energy consumption from 2006 to 2015 and the demand for energy consumption is expected to continue to increase. Thus, Jeju Island is planning a project entitled “Carbon Free Island by 2030” to promote sustainable development and is required to estimate the environmental carrying capacity for future energy demand changes. The purpose of this study was to calculate the emergy inherent in Jeju Island’s energy, materials, and information in 2015 using the emergy analysis method and local characteristics. In addition, this study aimed to estimate the emergy indices to evaluate the environmental carrying capacity for sustainable development in 2005, 2015, and 2030 considering the future energy demand. This study’s outputs provide the environmental carrying capacity with emergy indices, such as the percent renewable (%Renew, emergy yield ratio (EYR, environmental loading ratio (ELR, sustainability index (SI, and carrying capacity of the population (CCP for social and economic activities on Jeju Island, which are expected to be saturated. These findings show regions with heavy tourism require development strategies, including the concept of environmental carrying capacity.

  12. Demand side management. Benefits and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strbac, Goran

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the major benefits and challenges of electricity demand side management (DSM) are discussed in the context of the UK electricity system. The relatively low utilisation of generation and networks (of about 50%) means that there is significant scope for DSM to contribute to increasing the efficiency of the system investment. The importance of the diversity of electricity load is discussed and the negative effects of DSM on load diversity illustrated. Ageing assets, the growth in renewable and other low-carbon generation technologies and advances in information and communication technologies are identified as major additional drivers that could lead to wider applications of DSM in the medium term. Potential benefits of DSM are discussed in the context of generation and of transmission and distribution networks. The provision of back-up capacity by generation may not be efficient as it will be needed relatively infrequently, and DSM may be better placed to support security. We also present an analysis of the value of DSM in balancing generation and demand in a future UK electricity system with significant variable renewable generation. We give a number of reasons for the relatively slow uptake of DSM, particularly in the residential, commercial and small business sectors. They include a lack of metering, information and communication infrastructure, lack of understanding of the benefits of DSM, problems with the competitiveness of DSM when compared with traditional approaches, an increase in the complexity of system operation and inappropriate market incentives. (author)

  13. Demand access communications for TDRSS users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zillig, David; Weinberg, Aaron; Mcomber, Robert

    1994-01-01

    The Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) has long been used to provide reliable low and high-data rate relay services between user spacecraft in Earth orbit and the ground. To date, these TDRSS services have been implemented via prior scheduling based upon estimates of user needs and mission event timelines. While this approach may be necessary for large users that require greater amounts of TDRSS resources, TDRSS can potentially offer the planned community of smaller science missions (e.g., the small explorer missions), and other emerging users, the unique opportunity for services on demand. In particular, innovative application of the existing TDRSS Multiple Access (MA) subsystem, with its phased array antenna, could be used to implement true demand access services without modification to either the TDRSS satellites or the user transponder, thereby introducing operational and performance benefits to both the user community and the Space Network. In this paper, candidate implementations of demand access service via the TDRSS MA subsystem are examined in detail. Both forward and return link services are addressed and a combination of qualitative and quantitative assessments are provided. The paper also identifies further areas for investigation in this ongoing activity that is being conducted by GSFC/Code 531 under the NASA Code O Advanced Systems Program.

  14. BLOOD SUBSTITUTES: EVOLUTION FROM NON-CARRYING TO OXYGEN AND GAS CARRYING FLUIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrales, Pedro; Intaglietta, Marcos

    2013-01-01

    The development of oxygen (O2) carrying blood substitutes has evolved from the goal of replicating blood O2 transports properties to that of preserving microvascular and organ function, reducing the inherent or potential toxicity of the material used to carry O2, and treating pathologies initiated by anemia and hypoxia. Furthermore, the emphasis has shifted from blood replacement fluid to “O2 therapeutics” that restore tissue oxygenation to specific tissues regions. This review covers the different alternatives, potential and limitations of hemoglobin based O2 carriers (HBOCs) and perfluorocarbon based O2 carriers (PFCOCs), with emphasis on the physiological conditions disturbed in the situation that they will be used. It describes how concepts learned from plasma expanders without O2 carrying capacity can be applied to maintain O2 delivery and summarizes the microvascular responses due to HBOCs and PFCOCs. This review also presents alternative applications of HBOCs and PFCOCs namely: 1) How HBOC O2 affinity can be engineered to target O2 delivery to hypoxic tissues; and 2) How the high gas solubility of PFCOCs provides new opportunities for carrying, dissolving and delivering gases with biological activity. It is concluded that current blood substitutes development has amplified their applications horizon by devising therapeutic functions for oxygen carriers requiring limited O2 delivery capacity restoration. Conversely, full, blood-like O2 carrying capacity re-establishment awaits control of O2 carrier toxicity. PMID:23820271

  15. Are demand forecasting techniques applicable to libraries?

    OpenAIRE

    Sridhar, M. S.

    1984-01-01

    Examines the nature and limitations of demand forecasting, discuses plausible methods of forecasting demand for information, suggests some useful hints for demand forecasting and concludes by emphasizing unified approach to demand forecasting.

  16. Acquisition of ICU data: concepts and demands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imhoff, M

    1992-12-01

    As the issue of data overload is a problem in critical care today, it is of utmost importance to improve acquisition, storage, integration, and presentation of medical data, which appears only feasible with the help of bedside computers. The data originates from four major sources: (1) the bedside medical devices, (2) the local area network (LAN) of the ICU, (3) the hospital information system (HIS) and (4) manual input. All sources differ markedly in quality and quantity of data and in the demands of the interfaces between source of data and patient database. The demands for data acquisition from bedside medical devices, ICU-LAN and HIS concentrate on technical problems, such as computational power, storage capacity, real-time processing, interfacing with different devices and networks and the unmistakable assignment of data to the individual patient. The main problem of manual data acquisition is the definition and configuration of the user interface that must allow the inexperienced user to interact with the computer intuitively. Emphasis must be put on the construction of a pleasant, logical and easy-to-handle graphical user interface (GUI). Short response times will require high graphical processing capacity. Moreover, high computational resources are necessary in the future for additional interfacing devices such as speech recognition and 3D-GUI. Therefore, in an ICU environment the demands for computational power are enormous. These problems are complicated by the urgent need for friendly and easy-to-handle user interfaces. Both facts place ICU bedside computing at the vanguard of present and future workstation development leaving no room for solutions based on traditional concepts of personal computers.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Methodology to guide the expansion of natural gas distribution network through the identification of potential demand based on the use of urban land; Metodologia de suporte a expansao da rede de distribuicao de gas natural atraves da identificacao da demanda potencial com base no uso do solo urbano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandeira, Maria Ines V.Q.B.; Arruda, Joao Bosco F. [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The search for sustainability and the largest efficiency in the energy supply has implied in the gradual substitution of the electric power source for the use of the Natural Gas in the residential, automotive, services and industrial sectors. This paper reports a study which aims at the construction of a methodology to support the expansion of the Natural Gas distribution network using concepts of Space Syntax Theory. Through the analysis of the geographical location of urban land use activity system it is expected to define priority roadway routes in terms of potential demand for Natural Gas. A case study is on process in Fortaleza city, in the Northeastern Brazil, which is adequate to such an approach given its disperse density pattern and the present low scale of Natural Gas use in the four above mentioned urban sectors. (author)

  18. Security framework for virtualised infrastructure services provisioned on-demand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ngo, C.; Membrey, P.; Demchenko, Y.; de Laat, C.

    2011-01-01

    Cloud computing is developing as a new wave of ICT technologies, offering a common approach to on-demand provisioning computation, storage and network resources which are generally referred to as infrastructure services. Most of currently available commercial Cloud services are built and organized

  19. Security Services Lifecycle Management in on-demand infrastructure services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demchenko, Y.; de Laat, C.; Lopez, D.R.; García-Espín, J.A.; Qiu, J.; Zhao, G.; Rong, C.

    2010-01-01

    Modern e-Science and high technology industry require high-performance and complicated network and computer infrastructure to support distributed collaborating groups of researchers and applications that should be provisioned on-demand. The effective use and management of the dynamically provisioned

  20. Inventory redistribution for fashion products under demand parameter update

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiesmuller, G.P.; Minner, S.

    2009-01-01

    Demand for fashion products is usually highly uncertain. Often, there is only one possibility for procurement before the selling season. In order to improve the traditional newsvendor-type overage-underage trade-off we study a network of two expected profit maximizing retailers selling a fashion

  1. Distributed MPC applied to power demand side control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larsen, G.K.H.; Pons, J.; Achterop, S.; Scherpen, J.M.A.

    2013-01-01

    In the future, global energy balance of a smart grid system can be achieved by its agents deciding on their own power demand locally and the exchange of these decisions. In this paper, we model a network of households with washing machine programs that can be shifted in time so that the overall

  2. Demand side integration aspects in active distribution planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silvestro, Federico; Baitch, Alex; Pilo, Fabrizio

    2013-01-01

    will be implemented in practice? How will regulatory frameworks and connection agreements evolve to support ADSs? The present work provides some information about the closer and closer integration between network planning and Demand Side Integration that is foreseen in the future and shows the necessity to develop...

  3. Robustness of airline route networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lordan, Oriol; Sallan, Jose M.; Escorihuela, Nuria; Gonzalez-Prieto, David

    2016-03-01

    Airlines shape their route network by defining their routes through supply and demand considerations, paying little attention to network performance indicators, such as network robustness. However, the collapse of an airline network can produce high financial costs for the airline and all its geographical area of influence. The aim of this study is to analyze the topology and robustness of the network route of airlines following Low Cost Carriers (LCCs) and Full Service Carriers (FSCs) business models. Results show that FSC hubs are more central than LCC bases in their route network. As a result, LCC route networks are more robust than FSC networks.

  4. WATER NETWORK INTEGRATION IN RAW SUGAR PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junior Lorenzo Llanes

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the main process industries in Cuba is that of the sugarcane. Among the characteristics of this industry is the high demand of water in its processes. In this work a study of water integration was carried out from the different operations of the production process of raw sugar, in order to reduce the fresh water consumption. The compound curves of sources and demands were built, which allowed the determination of the minimum water requirement of the network (1587,84 m3/d, as well as the amount of effluent generated (0,35 m3/tcane.The distribution scheme of fresh water and water reuse among different operations were obtained from the nearest neighbor algorithm. From considering new quality constrains was possible to eliminate the external water consumption, as well as to reduce the amount of effluent in a 37% in relation to the initial constrains.

  5. Proliferation Networks and Financing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruselle, Bruno

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study is to propose practical solutions aimed at completing and strengthening the existing arrangement for the control of nuclear proliferation through a control of financial as well as material or immaterial flows. In a first part, the author proposes a systemic analysis of networks of suppliers and demanders. He notably evokes the Khan's network and the Iraqi acquisition network during the 1993-2001 period. He also proposes a modelling of proliferation networks (supplier networks and acquisition networks) and of their interactions. In a second part, the author examines possible means and policies aimed at neutralising proliferation networks: organisation, adaptation and improvement of intelligence tools in front of proliferation networks, and means, limitations and perspectives of network neutralisation. He also briefly addresses the possibility of military action to contain proliferation flows

  6. Quantitative Efficiency Evaluation Method for Transportation Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Qin

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available An effective evaluation of transportation network efficiency/performance is essential to the establishment of sustainable development in any transportation system. Based on a redefinition of transportation network efficiency, a quantitative efficiency evaluation method for transportation network is proposed, which could reflect the effects of network structure, traffic demands, travel choice, and travel costs on network efficiency. Furthermore, the efficiency-oriented importance measure for network components is presented, which can be used to help engineers identify the critical nodes and links in the network. The numerical examples show that, compared with existing efficiency evaluation methods, the network efficiency value calculated by the method proposed in this paper can portray the real operation situation of the transportation network as well as the effects of main factors on network efficiency. We also find that the network efficiency and the importance values of the network components both are functions of demands and network structure in the transportation network.

  7. Voltage Controlled Dynamic Demand Response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhattarai, Bishnu Prasad; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte; Mahat, Pukar

    2013-01-01

    Future power system is expected to be characterized by increased penetration of intermittent sources. Random and rapid fluctuations in demands together with intermittency in generation impose new challenges for power balancing in the existing system. Conventional techniques of balancing by large...... central or dispersed generations might not be sufficient for future scenario. One of the effective methods to cope with this scenario is to enable demand response. This paper proposes a dynamic voltage regulation based demand response technique to be applied in low voltage (LV) distribution feeders....... An adaptive dynamic model has been developed to determine composite voltage dependency of an aggregated load on feeder level. Following the demand dispatch or control signal, optimum voltage setting at the LV substation is determined based on the voltage dependency of the load. Furthermore, a new technique...

  8. Energy demand: Facts and trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chateau, B; Lapillonne, B

    1982-01-01

    The relationship between economic development and energy demand is investigated in this book. It gives a detailed analysis of the energy demand dynamics in industrialized countries and compares the past evolution of the driving factors behind energy demand by sector and by end-uses for the main OECD countries: residential sector (space heating, water heating, cooking...), tertiary sector, passenger and goods transport by mode, and industry (with particular emphasis on the steel and cement industry). This analysis leads to a more precise understanding of the long-term trends of energy demand; highlighting the influence on these trends of energy prices, especially after the oil price shocks, and of the type of economic development pattern.

  9. Temperature Effect on Energy Demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Duk [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    1999-03-01

    We provide various estimates of temperature effect for accommodating seasonality in energy demand, particularly natural gas demand. We exploit temperature response and monthly temperature distribution to estimate the temperature effect on natural gas demand. Both local and global smoothed temperature responses are estimated from empirical relationship between hourly temperature and hourly energy consumption data during the sample period (1990 - 1996). Monthly temperature distribution estimates are obtained by kernel density estimation from temperature dispersion within a month. We integrate temperature response and monthly temperature density over all the temperatures in the sample period to estimate temperature effect on energy demand. Then, estimates of temperature effect are compared between global and local smoothing methods. (author). 15 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Demand Response Spinning Reserve Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eto, Joseph H.; Nelson-Hoffman, Janine; Torres, Carlos; Hirth,Scott; Yinger, Bob; Kueck, John; Kirby, Brendan; Bernier, Clark; Wright,Roger; Barat, A.; Watson, David S.

    2007-05-01

    The Demand Response Spinning Reserve project is a pioneeringdemonstration of how existing utility load-management assets can providean important electricity system reliability resource known as spinningreserve. Using aggregated demand-side resources to provide spinningreserve will give grid operators at the California Independent SystemOperator (CAISO) and Southern California Edison (SCE) a powerful, newtool to improve system reliability, prevent rolling blackouts, and lowersystem operating costs.

  11. Television Advertising and Soda Demand

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez, Rigoberto A.; Liu, Yizao; Zhu, Chen

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the effects of television advertising on consumer demand for carbonated soft drinks using a random coefficients logit model (BLP) with household and advertising data from seven U.S. cities over a three year period. We find that advertising decreases the price elasticity of demand, indicating that advertising plays predominantly a persuasive, therefore anti-competitive role in this market. Further results show that brand spillover effects are significant and that measuring ...

  12. Balancing supply and demand resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, J.; Saleeby, R.G.

    1990-01-01

    This article deals with using demand-side management (DSM) resources as an effective means of balancing supply and demand as a part of least-cost planning. The authors present a more sophisticated application of the load forecast adjustment method that reduces the number of DSM programs that need to be evaluated and provides blocks large enough to eliminate resolution problems in production costing models

  13. Cisco Networking Essentials

    CERN Document Server

    McMillan, Troy

    2011-01-01

    An engaging approach for anyone beginning a career in networking As the world leader of networking products and services, Cisco products are constantly growing in demand. Yet, few books are aimed at those who are beginning a career in IT--until now. Cisco Networking Essentials provides a solid foundation on the Cisco networking products and services with thorough coverage of fundamental networking concepts. Author Troy McMillan applies his years of classroom instruction to effectively present high-level topics in easy-to-understand terms for beginners. With this indispensable full-color resour

  14. Analysis of a Residential Building Energy Consumption Demand Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Liu

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to estimate the energy consumption demand of residential buildings, this paper first discusses the status and shortcomings of current domestic energy consumption models. Then it proposes and develops a residential building energy consumption demand model based on a back propagation (BP neural network model. After that, taking residential buildings in Chongqing (P.R. China as an example, 16 energy consumption indicators are introduced as characteristics of the residential buildings in Chongqing. The index system of the BP neutral network prediction model is established and the multi-factorial BP neural network prediction model of Chongqing residential building energy consumption is developed using the Cshap language, based on the SQL server 2005 platform. The results obtained by applying the model in Chongqing are in good agreement with actual ones. In addition, the model provides corresponding approximate data by taking into account the potential energy structure adjustments and relevant energy policy regulations.

  15. Comparison of neural network applications for channel assignment in cellular TDMA networks and dynamically sectored PCS networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hortos, William S.

    1997-04-01

    The use of artificial neural networks (NNs) to address the channel assignment problem (CAP) for cellular time-division multiple access and code-division multiple access networks has previously been investigated by this author and many others. The investigations to date have been based on a hexagonal cell structure established by omnidirectional antennas at the base stations. No account was taken of the use of spatial isolation enabled by directional antennas to reduce interference between mobiles. Any reduction in interference translates into increased capacity and consequently alters the performance of the NNs. Previous studies have sought to improve the performance of Hopfield- Tank network algorithms and self-organizing feature map algorithms applied primarily to static channel assignment (SCA) for cellular networks that handle uniformly distributed, stationary traffic in each cell for a single type of service. The resulting algorithms minimize energy functions representing interference constraint and ad hoc conditions that promote convergence to optimal solutions. While the structures of the derived neural network algorithms (NNAs) offer the potential advantages of inherent parallelism and adaptability to changing system conditions, this potential has yet to be fulfilled the CAP for emerging mobile networks. The next-generation communication infrastructures must accommodate dynamic operating conditions. Macrocell topologies are being refined to microcells and picocells that can be dynamically sectored by adaptively controlled, directional antennas and programmable transceivers. These networks must support the time-varying demands for personal communication services (PCS) that simultaneously carry voice, data and video and, thus, require new dynamic channel assignment (DCA) algorithms. This paper examines the impact of dynamic cell sectoring and geometric conditioning on NNAs developed for SCA in omnicell networks with stationary traffic to improve the metrics

  16. An EPQ Model with Increasing Demand and Demand Dependent Production Rate under Trade Credit Financing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juanjuan QIN

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates an EPQ model with the increasing demand and demand dependent production rate involving the trade credit financing policy, which is seldom reported in the literatures. The model considers the manufacturer was offered by the supplier a delayed payment time. It is assumed that the demand is a linear increasing function of the time and the production rate is proportional to the demand. That is, the production rate is also a linear function of time. This study attempts to offer a best policy for the replenishment cycle and the order quantity for the manufacturer to maximum its profit per cycle. First, the inventory model is developed under the above situation. Second, some useful theoretical results have been derived to characterize the optimal solutions for the inventory system. The Algorithm is proposed to obtain the optimal solutions of the manufacturer. Finally, the numerical examples are carried out to illustrate the theorems, and the sensitivity analysis of the optimal solutions with respect to the parameters of the inventory system is performed. Some important management insights are obtained based on the analysis.

  17. Modelos de análise hidráulica de redes de distribuição de água considerando demanda dirigida pela pressão e vazamentos Water distribution networks analysis considering leakage and pressure driven demand modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klebber Teodomiro Martins Formiga

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available As ferramentas para análise hidráulica são componentes importantes na avaliação do funcionamento das redes de distribuição de água para abastecimento. Existem diversos métodos que podem ser utilizados para essa análise, no entanto, os modelos que procuram resolver o sistema de equações correspondente através do método Newton-Raphson ou por meio de linearizações sucessivas são os mais eficientes. Quatro formulações baseadas nestes esquemas são avaliadas neste trabalho. O objetivo deste trabalho é fazer uma comparação dos métodos Newton-Raphson, Teoria Linear, Híbrido e Gradiente para a análise de redes de distribuição de água em regime permanente, considerando a demanda dirigida pela pressão e os Vazamentos. Para tanto, foi utilizado um layout de rede frequentemente empregado na literatura dotado de válvulas. O método do Gradiente foi o que convergiu em um número menor de iterações para redes mais simples, o Método Híbrido foi o que mais se adaptou para sistemas mais complexos.The hydraulic analysis tools are important in the performance evaluation of water distribution networks. Various methods are available for such analysis. However, the hydraulic models that solve the system of equations describing the flow problem through Newton-Raphson or through its successive linearizations are the most efficient. It is the purpose of this paper to compare Newton-Raphson, Linear Theory, Hybrid and Gradient methods for steady-state hydraulic network analysis, considering leakage and pressure driven demand modeling. The network layout with hydraulic components frequently used in the literature was employed for this analysis. The Gradient method was found to produce best results in terms of number of iterations for the more simple networks, whereas the Hybrid method was better for more complex networks.

  18. A-Source Impedance Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siwakoti, Yam Prasad; Blaabjerg, Frede; Galigekere, Veda Prakash

    2016-01-01

    A novel A-source impedance network is proposed in this letter. The A-source impedance network uses an autotransformer for realizing converters for any application that demand a very high dc voltage gain. The network utilizes a minimal turns ratio compared to other Magnetically Coupled Impedance S...

  19. Stochastic model of forecasting spare parts demand

    OpenAIRE

    Ivan S. Milojević; Rade V. Guberinić

    2012-01-01

    If demand is known for the whole planning period (complete information), then this type of demand or a supply system is deterministic. In the simplest cases, the demand per time unit is constant. If demand levels change over time following a precisely determined and pre-known principle, this type of demand is also classified as deterministic. This quality of demand is very rare. In most cases demand is the product of a process, for example TMS maintenance, whose progression cannot be predicte...

  20. New Class of Hybrid Materials for Detection, Capture, and "On-Demand" Release of Carbon Monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitto-Barry, Anaïs; Lupan, Alexandru; Ellingford, Christopher; Attia, Amr A A; Barry, Nicolas P E

    2018-04-25

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is both a substance hazardous to health and a side product of a number of industrial processes, such as methanol steam reforming and large-scale oxidation reactions. The separation of CO from nitrogen (N 2 ) in industrial processes is considered to be difficult because of the similarities of their electronic structures, sizes, and physicochemical properties (e.g., boiling points). Carbon monoxide is also a major poison in fuel cells because of its adsorption onto the active sites of the catalysts. It is therefore of the utmost economic importance to discover new materials that enable effective CO capture and release under mild conditions. However, methods to specifically absorb and easily release CO in the presence of contaminants, such as water, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and oxygen, at ambient temperature are not available. Here, we report the simple and versatile fabrication of a new class of hybrid materials that allows capture and release of carbon monoxide under mild conditions. We found that carborane-containing metal complexes encapsulated in networks made of poly(dimethylsiloxane) react with CO, even when immersed in water, leading to dramatic color and infrared signature changes. Furthermore, we found that the CO can be easily released from the materials by simply dipping the networks into an organic solvent for less than 1 min, at ambient temperature and pressure, which not only offers a straightforward recycling method, but also a new method for the "on-demand" release of carbon monoxide. We illustrated the utilization of the on-demand release of CO from the networks by carrying out a carbonylation reaction on an electron-deficient metal complex that led to the formation of the CO-adduct, with concomitant recycling of the gel. We anticipate that our sponge-like materials and scalable methodology will open up new avenues for the storage, transport, and controlled release of CO, the silent killer and a major industrial poison.

  1. Sonification of network traffic flow for monitoring and situational awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Maintaining situational awareness of what is happening within a computer network is challenging, not only because the behaviour happens within machines, but also because data traffic speeds and volumes are beyond human ability to process. Visualisation techniques are widely used to present information about network traffic dynamics. Although they provide operators with an overall view and specific information about particular traffic or attacks on the network, they often still fail to represent the events in an understandable way. Also, because they require visual attention they are not well suited to continuous monitoring scenarios in which network administrators must carry out other tasks. Here we present SoNSTAR (Sonification of Networks for SiTuational AwaReness), a real-time sonification system for monitoring computer networks to support network administrators’ situational awareness. SoNSTAR provides an auditory representation of all the TCP/IP traffic within a network based on the different traffic flows between between network hosts. A user study showed that SoNSTAR raises situational awareness levels by enabling operators to understand network behaviour and with the benefit of lower workload demands (as measured by the NASA TLX method) than visual techniques. SoNSTAR identifies network traffic features by inspecting the status flags of TCP/IP packet headers. Combinations of these features define particular traffic events which are mapped to recorded sounds to generate a soundscape that represents the real-time status of the network traffic environment. The sequence, timing, and loudness of the different sounds allow the network to be monitored and anomalous behaviour to be detected without the need to continuously watch a monitor screen. PMID:29672543

  2. Sonification of network traffic flow for monitoring and situational awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debashi, Mohamed; Vickers, Paul

    2018-01-01

    Maintaining situational awareness of what is happening within a computer network is challenging, not only because the behaviour happens within machines, but also because data traffic speeds and volumes are beyond human ability to process. Visualisation techniques are widely used to present information about network traffic dynamics. Although they provide operators with an overall view and specific information about particular traffic or attacks on the network, they often still fail to represent the events in an understandable way. Also, because they require visual attention they are not well suited to continuous monitoring scenarios in which network administrators must carry out other tasks. Here we present SoNSTAR (Sonification of Networks for SiTuational AwaReness), a real-time sonification system for monitoring computer networks to support network administrators' situational awareness. SoNSTAR provides an auditory representation of all the TCP/IP traffic within a network based on the different traffic flows between between network hosts. A user study showed that SoNSTAR raises situational awareness levels by enabling operators to understand network behaviour and with the benefit of lower workload demands (as measured by the NASA TLX method) than visual techniques. SoNSTAR identifies network traffic features by inspecting the status flags of TCP/IP packet headers. Combinations of these features define particular traffic events which are mapped to recorded sounds to generate a soundscape that represents the real-time status of the network traffic environment. The sequence, timing, and loudness of the different sounds allow the network to be monitored and anomalous behaviour to be detected without the need to continuously watch a monitor screen.

  3. Data-driven Demand Response Characterization and Quantification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Ray, Guillaume; Pinson, Pierre; Larsen, Emil Mahler

    2017-01-01

    Analysis of load behavior in demand response (DR) schemes is important to evaluate the performance of participants. Very few real-world experiments have been carried out and quantification and characterization of the response is a difficult task. Nevertheless it will be a necessary tool for portf...

  4. Market integration of flexible demand and DG-RES supply. A new approach for demand response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warmer, C.J.; Hommelberg, M.P.F.; Kamphuis, I.G.; Kok, J.K.

    2007-06-01

    In this paper we discuss the shortcomings of traditional Demand Response programs in an environment in which a large amount of distributed generation is available. An innovative approach is given in which true Customer Site Integration is obtained in the spirit of the liberalized electricity market, by making use of the load flexibility of underlying processes of production and consumption devices. The approach is based on distributed control mechanisms and incorporates new market models for distribution and aggregation costs, load losses, and network constraints

  5. Big data analytics for the virtual network topology reconfiguration use case

    OpenAIRE

    Gifre Renom, Lluís; Morales Alcaide, Fernando; Velasco Esteban, Luis Domingo; Ruiz Ramírez, Marc

    2016-01-01

    ABNO's OAM Handler is extended with big data analytics capabilities to anticipate traffic changes in volume and direction. Predicted traffic is used to trigger virtual network topology re-optimization. When the virtual topology needs to be reconfigured, predicted and current traffic matrices are used to find the optimal topology. A heuristic algorithm to adapt current virtual topology to meet both actual demands and expected traffic matrix is proposed. Experimental assessment is carried ou...

  6. Pattern of Demand For Money

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Berlian

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the activity of the modern economy, the availability of money as a means of transaction is very important, because with the money as a means to pay consumers can easily to get the basic material needs are required, the manufacturer can provide the raw materials of labor for production, and distributors can obtain a variety of merchandise to be delivered at the end consumer. The pattern of use of money is influenced by the attitude of the public in the transaction. Researchers assume, that there are differences among communities, either by group differences in income, educational differences, ethnic differences, differences in profession, and perhaps even religious differences embraced. So as to provide information to the monetary authorities, to enrich the theory of demand for money based economic agents in Indonesia, and for the application of the theory of demand for money, the researchers felt the need to study patterns of use of money. Qualitative research, in addition to knowing whether the variables that affect the demand for money as the above theory is still relevant for economic actors in Indonesia at this time, or even are new variables, as well as the motive of money demand. Keywords: Demand for money, Keynes Theory, qualitative method

  7. Networking for the Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dickel, Petra; Hörisch, Jacob; Ritter, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    Although the public debate on the environmental orientation of firms has intensified, there is a lack of understanding about the consequences of that orientation, especially in terms of its impact on firms' networking behavior. In order to fill this gap, this paper analyzes the impact of external...... and internal environmental orientation on start-ups’ network characteristics, because networks are both vital for the success of start-ups and resource demanding. More specifically, the effects of environmental orientation on networking frequency and network size among start-ups are analyzed. Empirical data...... from 248 technology-based start-ups shows that those firms with a strong external environmental orientation have significantly higher networking frequencies and build larger networks. Conversely, a strong internal environmental orientation is linked to smaller networks. Thus, the results highlight...

  8. Carrying capacities for nature parks as engines for sustainable regional development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Jesper; Holmes, Esbern

    as a departure for the comparison of the protectional conditions for the parks. Many other aspects of the nature and social carrying capacities however also constitute important conditions for the park management. Increasing emphasis on visitor experience is not only a challenge for the nature protection......Growth in the number of visitors is an upcoming problem in nature parks. Nature parks are at the same time facing increasing demand, falling public appropriations and receding focus on their conservation functions. To ensure a balancing of nature protection and economic utilization the concept...... of carrying capacity has received increasing attention among park-authorities all over the world. A comparative analysis of conditions and initiatives related to visitor/nature carrying capacities in 8 nature parks in the Baltic region has been carried out. All the parks are candidates for recognition...

  9. Calculation method of water injection forward modeling and inversion process in oilfield water injection network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Long; Liu, Wei

    2018-04-01

    A forward modeling and inversion algorithm is adopted in order to determine the water injection plan in the oilfield water injection network. The main idea of the algorithm is shown as follows: firstly, the oilfield water injection network is inversely calculated. The pumping station demand flow is calculated. Then, forward modeling calculation is carried out for judging whether all water injection wells meet the requirements of injection allocation or not. If all water injection wells meet the requirements of injection allocation, calculation is stopped, otherwise the demand injection allocation flow rate of certain step size is reduced aiming at water injection wells which do not meet requirements, and next iterative operation is started. It is not necessary to list the algorithm into water injection network system algorithm, which can be realized easily. Iterative method is used, which is suitable for computer programming. Experimental result shows that the algorithm is fast and accurate.

  10. Energy supply and demand in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, E. D.

    1978-01-01

    The author expresses his views on future energy demand on the west coast of the United States and how that energy demand translates into demand for major fuels. He identifies the major uncertainties in determining what future demands may be. The major supply options that are available to meet projected demands and the policy implications that flow from these options are discussed.

  11. International Oil Supplies and Demands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    The eleventh Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) working group met four times over the 1989--90 period to compare alternative perspectives on international oil supplies and demands through 2010 and to discuss how alternative supply and demand trends influence the world's dependence upon Middle Eastern oil. Proprietors of eleven economic models of the world oil market used their respective models to simulate a dozen scenarios using standardized assumptions. From its inception, the study was not designed to focus on the short-run impacts of disruptions on oil markets. Nor did the working group attempt to provide a forecast or just a single view of the likely future path for oil prices. The model results guided the group's thinking about many important longer-run market relationships and helped to identify differences of opinion about future oil supplies, demands, and dependence.

  12. Fundamental Travel Demand Model Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanssen, Joel

    2010-01-01

    Instances of transportation models are abundant and detailed "how to" instruction is available in the form of transportation software help documentation. The purpose of this paper is to look at the fundamental inputs required to build a transportation model by developing an example passenger travel demand model. The example model reduces the scale to a manageable size for the purpose of illustrating the data collection and analysis required before the first step of the model begins. This aspect of the model development would not reasonably be discussed in software help documentation (it is assumed the model developer comes prepared). Recommendations are derived from the example passenger travel demand model to suggest future work regarding the data collection and analysis required for a freight travel demand model.

  13. International Oil Supplies and Demands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-09-01

    The eleventh Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) working group met four times over the 1989--90 period to compare alternative perspectives on international oil supplies and demands through 2010 and to discuss how alternative supply and demand trends influence the world's dependence upon Middle Eastern oil. Proprietors of eleven economic models of the world oil market used their respective models to simulate a dozen scenarios using standardized assumptions. From its inception, the study was not designed to focus on the short-run impacts of disruptions on oil markets. Nor did the working group attempt to provide a forecast or just a single view of the likely future path for oil prices. The model results guided the group's thinking about many important longer-run market relationships and helped to identify differences of opinion about future oil supplies, demands, and dependence

  14. International Oil Supplies and Demands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-04-01

    The eleventh Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) working group met four times over the 1989--1990 period to compare alternative perspectives on international oil supplies and demands through 2010 and to discuss how alternative supply and demand trends influence the world's dependence upon Middle Eastern oil. Proprietors of eleven economic models of the world oil market used their respective models to simulate a dozen scenarios using standardized assumptions. From its inception, the study was not designed to focus on the short-run impacts of disruptions on oil markets. Nor did the working group attempt to provide a forecast or just a single view of the likely future path for oil prices. The model results guided the group's thinking about many important longer-run market relationships and helped to identify differences of opinion about future oil supplies, demands, and dependence

  15. Consumer demand and quality assurance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G; Wognum, Nel; Trienekens, Jacques

    2011-01-01

    Consumers differ in their demands, and this mau have implications for the type of supply chain governance that is most suitable for serving them. We present a segmentation of pork consumers in the EU based on their food-related lifestyles and demand for different pork products. We then present...... an inventory of pork chain governance and quality management systems, also resulting from a pan-European study, and attempt to match types of chains to consumer segments, arguing that the type of quality demanded by the consumers has implications especially for the quality management system governing the chain......, and that these implications are different for fresh meat and processed meat. The paper closes with a call for more collaboration between chain researchers and consumer researchers....

  16. International Oil Supplies and Demands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-04-01

    The eleventh Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) working group met four times over the 1989--1990 period to compare alternative perspectives on international oil supplies and demands through 2010 and to discuss how alternative supply and demand trends influence the world's dependence upon Middle Eastern oil. Proprietors of eleven economic models of the world oil market used their respective models to simulate a dozen scenarios using standardized assumptions. From its inception, the study was not designed to focus on the short-run impacts of disruptions on oil markets. Nor did the working group attempt to provide a forecast or just a single view of the likely future path for oil prices. The model results guided the group's thinking about many important longer-run market relationships and helped to identify differences of opinion about future oil supplies, demands, and dependence.

  17. North American supply/demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pocino, M.C.

    1998-01-01

    The projected supply and demand for natural gas in five major regions of North America for the year 2000 was presented. In most regions, supply is expected to be greater than demand. A summary of how California dealt with an increase in natural gas demand in 1990 was presented. The California strategy included a readjustment of pipeline capacity, storage capacity and transportation. Whereas in the 1980s, when capacity was inadequate, the focus was on competition with alternate fuels, maximized capacity use, primary concern about reliability and only secondary concern about price, in the the 1990s, with excess capacity, the emphasis is on 'gas on gas' competition, efforts to satisfy the customer, primary concern about price, and only marginal concern about reliability. tabs., figs

  18. Climate change and energy demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hengeveld, H.G.

    1991-01-01

    Climate and weather events affect energy demand in most economic sectors. Linear relationships exist between consumption and heating degree days, and peak electricity demand increases significantly during heat waves. The relative magnitudes of demand changes for a two times carbon dioxide concentration scenario are tabulated, illustrating heating degree days and cooling degree days for 5 Prairie locations. Irrigation, water management, crop seeding and harvesting and weed control are examples of climate-dependent agricultural activities involving significant energy use. The variability of summer season liquid fuel use in the agricultural sector in the Prairie provinces from 1984-1989 shows a relationship between agricultural energy use and regional climate fluctuations. 4 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  19. Supplies should match growing demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmusen, H.J.

    1997-01-01

    The natural gas industry is currently enjoying healthy growth prospects. Not only is the demand for natural gas steadily growing; the outlook for increasing gas reserves is promising as well. The success of natural gas in the marketplace reflects, on one hand, continuous attention paid to public and customer requirements and, on the other hand, the ability of the gas industry to direct technological developments toward the increasing public demand for gas at competitive market prices supplied in a reliable, safe and environmentally friendly manner. In the past, the gas industry has been involved in the development of technologies for everything from gas production to the end user and from borehole to burner tip, and the author believes that the industry must continue or even increase its emphasis on technology in the future in order to capture new market opportunities. He explains this by looking at the supply side, the demand side and the structural side of the business

  20. Pay for load demand - electricity pricing with load demand component

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyrko, Jurek; Sernhed, Kerstin; Abaravicius, Juozas

    2003-01-01

    This publication is part of a project called Direct and Indirect Load Control in Buildings. Peak load problems have attracted considerable attention in Sweden during last three winters, caused by a significant decrease in available reserve power, which is a consequence of political decisions and liberalisation of the electricity market. A possible way to lower peak loads, avoiding electricity shortages and reducing electricity costs both for users and utilities, is to make customers experience the price difference during peak load periods and, in this way, become more aware of their energy consumption pattern and load demand. As of January 1st 2001, one of the Swedish energy utilities - Sollentuna Energi - operating in the Stockholm area, introduced a new electricity tariff with differentiated grid fees based on a mean value of the peak load every month. This tariff was introduced for all residential customers in the service area. The objective of this study is to investigate the extent to which a Load Demand Component, included in electricity pricing, can influence energy use and load demand in residential buildings. What are the benefits and disadvantages for customers and utilities? This paper investigates the impact of the new tariff on the utility and different types of typical residential customers, making comparisons with previous tariff. Keywords Load demand, electricity pricing, tariff, residential customers, energy behaviour

  1. Open Automated Demand Response Communications Specification (Version 1.0)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piette, Mary Ann; Ghatikar, Girish; Kiliccote, Sila; Koch, Ed; Hennage, Dan; Palensky, Peter; McParland, Charles

    2009-02-28

    The development of the Open Automated Demand Response Communications Specification, also known as OpenADR or Open Auto-DR, began in 2002 following the California electricity crisis. The work has been carried out by the Demand Response Research Center (DRRC), which is managed by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. This specification describes an open standards-based communications data model designed to facilitate sending and receiving demand response price and reliability signals from a utility or Independent System Operator to electric customers. OpenADR is one element of the Smart Grid information and communications technologies that are being developed to improve optimization between electric supply and demand. The intention of the open automated demand response communications data model is to provide interoperable signals to building and industrial control systems that are preprogrammed to take action based on a demand response signal, enabling a demand response event to be fully automated, with no manual intervention. The OpenADR specification is a flexible infrastructure to facilitate common information exchange between the utility or Independent System Operator and end-use participants. The concept of an open specification is intended to allow anyone to implement the signaling systems, the automation server or the automation clients.

  2. Feature Extraction Method for High Impedance Ground Fault Localization in Radial Power Distribution Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kåre Jean; Munk, Steen M.; Sørensen, John Aasted

    1998-01-01

    A new approach to the localization of high impedance ground faults in compensated radial power distribution networks is presented. The total size of such networks is often very large and a major part of the monitoring of these is carried out manually. The increasing complexity of industrial...... of three phase voltages and currents. The method consists of a feature extractor, based on a grid description of the feeder by impulse responses, and a neural network for ground fault localization. The emphasis of this paper is the feature extractor, and the detection of the time instance of a ground fault...... processes and communication systems lead to demands for improved monitoring of power distribution networks so that the quality of power delivery can be kept at a controlled level. The ground fault localization method for each feeder in a network is based on the centralized frequency broadband measurement...

  3. Electronic Equipment of Self-Actuated Mobile Device for Load Carrying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Janecka

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available The device dealt in this work is determined namely for carrying invalid persons on various types of stairs or other not flat surfaces. But it can serve also to other purposes.To enable fulfilling all given demands, the design was consulted with other research workers solving the tasks of similar features.Resulting mechanical device, enabling aspects of movement required, is controlled by electronic and microprocessor circuits that obtain the input information from sensitive units investigating the terrain.

  4. A Simplified Network Model for Travel Time Reliability Analysis in a Road Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenetsu Uchida

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a simplified network model which analyzes travel time reliability in a road network. A risk-averse driver is assumed in the simplified model. The risk-averse driver chooses a path by taking into account both a path travel time variance and a mean path travel time. The uncertainty addressed in this model is that of traffic flows (i.e., stochastic demand flows. In the simplified network model, the path travel time variance is not calculated by considering all travel time covariance between two links in the network. The path travel time variance is calculated by considering all travel time covariance between two adjacent links in the network. Numerical experiments are carried out to illustrate the applicability and validity of the proposed model. The experiments introduce the path choice behavior of a risk-neutral driver and several types of risk-averse drivers. It is shown that the mean link flows calculated by introducing the risk-neutral driver differ as a whole from those calculated by introducing several types of risk-averse drivers. It is also shown that the mean link flows calculated by the simplified network model are almost the same as the flows calculated by using the exact path travel time variance.

  5. Demand as Frequency Controlled Reserve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Zhao; Østergaard, Jacob; Togeby, Mikael

    2011-01-01

    Relying on generation side alone is deemed insufficient to fulfill the system balancing needs for future Danish power system, where a 50% wind penetration is outlined by the government for year 2025. This paper investigates using the electricity demand as frequency controlled reserve (DFR) as a new...... balancing measure, which has a high potential and can provide many advantages. Firstly, the background of the research is reviewed, including conventional power system reserves and the electricity demand side potentials. Subsequently, the control logics and corresponding design considerations for the DFR...

  6. Collusion and the elasticity of demand

    OpenAIRE

    David Collie

    2004-01-01

    The analysis of collusion in infinitely repeated Cournot oligopoly games has generally assumed that demand is linear, but this note uses constant-elasticity demand functions to investigate how the elasticity of demand affects the sustainability of collusion.

  7. EIA projections of coal supply and demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, D.E.

    1989-01-01

    Contents of this report include: EIA projections of coal supply and demand which covers forecasted coal supply and transportation, forecasted coal demand by consuming sector, and forecasted coal demand by the electric utility sector; and policy discussion

  8. New Method for Leakage Detection by Using Artificial Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Attari

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays water loss has been turned into a global concern and on the other hand the demand for water is increasing. This problem has made the demand management and consumption pattern reform necessary. One of the most important methods for managing water consumption is to decrease the water loss. In this study by using neural networks, a new method is presented to specify the location and quantity of leakages in water distribution networks.  In this method, by producing the training data and applying it to neural network, the network is able to determine approximate location and quantity of nodal leakage with receiving the nodal pressure. Production of training data is carried out by applying assumed leakage to specific nodes in the network and calculating the new nodal pressures. The results show that by minimum use of hydraulic data taken from pressures, not only this method can determine the location of nodal leakages, but also it can specify the amount of leakage on each node with reasonable accuracy.

  9. User Requirements & Demand for Services and Applications in PNs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Bo

    This paper focuses on the methodology for analyses of user requirements and demand for specific services and applications in relation to personal networks (PNs). The paper has a strong user-centric approach to service and application development based on the widely accepted fact that future servi...... demand for services and applications in a PN setting. This further includes discussion of service categorization, service description and human-value issues as personalization, security and privacy, billing and price and human-computer interaction paradigms....

  10. Window-Based Popularity Caching for IPTV On-Demand Services

    OpenAIRE

    Hsuan Chiu; Chi-He Chang; Chao-Wei Tseng; Chi-Shi Liu

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, many telecommunication companies have regarded IP network as a new delivery platform for providing TV services because IP network is equipped with two-way and high-speed communication abilities which are appropriate to provide on-demand services and linear TV programs. However, in this IPTV system, the requests of VOD (video on demand) are usually aggregated in a short period intensively and user preferences are fluctuated dynamically. Moreover, the VOD content is updated fre...

  11. Consumer Demand for Major Foods in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Basem Fayaad; Stanley R. Johnson; Mohamed El-Khishin

    1995-01-01

    This study provides information on the structure of the consumer demand for major foods in Egypt. The information is in the form of key parameters for consumer demand systems. The modern theory of consumer behavior is the basis for estimating systems of demand equations. These systems yield estimates of own- and cross-price elasticities. The Linear Almost Ideal Demand System (LAIDS) model is applied in estimating a system of demand equations for food commodities. A full demand matrix results ...

  12. Intercity Travel Demand Analysis Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Lu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that intercity travel is an important component of travel demand which belongs to short distance corridor travel. The conventional four-step method is no longer suitable for short distance corridor travel demand analysis for the time spent on urban traffic has a great impact on traveler's main mode choice. To solve this problem, the author studied the existing intercity travel demand analysis model, then improved it based on the study, and finally established a combined model of main mode choice and access mode choice. At last, an integrated multilevel nested logit model structure system was built. The model system includes trip generation, destination choice, and mode-route choice based on multinomial logit model, and it achieved linkage and feedback of each part through logsum variable. This model was applied in Shenzhen intercity railway passenger demand forecast in 2010 as a case study. As a result, the forecast results were consistent with the actuality. The model's correctness and feasibility were verified.

  13. Uranium. Resources, production and demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The events characterising the world uranium market in the last several years illustrate the persistent uncertainly faced by uranium producers and consumers worldwide. With world nuclear capacity expanding and uranium production satisfying only about 60 per cent of demand, uranium stockpiles continue to be depleted at a high rate. The uncertainty related to the remaining levels of world uranium stockpiles and to the amount of surplus defence material that will be entering the market makes it difficult to determine when a closer balance between uranium supply and demand will be reached. Information in this report provides insights into changes expected in uranium supply and demand until well into the next century. The 'Red Book', jointly prepared by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency and the International Atomic Energy Agency, is the foremost reference on uranium. This world report is based on official information from 59 countries and includes compilations of statistics on resources, exploration, production and demand as of 1 January 1997. It provides substantial new information from all of the major uranium producing centres in Africa, Australia, Eastern Europe, North America and the New Independent States, including the first-ever official reports on uranium production in Estonia, Mongolia, the Russian Federation and Uzbekistan. It also contains an international expert analysis of industry statistics and worldwide projections of nuclear energy growth, uranium requirements and uranium supply

  14. Criteria for demand response systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lampropoulos, I.; Kling, W.L.; Bosch, van den P.P.J.; Ribeiro, P.F.; Berg, van den J.

    2013-01-01

    The topic of demand side management is currently becoming more important than ever, in parallel with the further deregulation of the electricity sector, and the increasing integration of renewable energy sources. A historical review of automation integration in power system control assists in

  15. The moral demands of affluence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sønderholm, Jørn

    2015-01-01

    In 2004, Garrett Cullity made a significant contribution to the literature on what the world’s relatively affluent owe to the world’s relatively poor through the publishing of The Moral Demands of Affluence. In this discussion note, I draw attention to a logical problem in Cullity’s master argument...

  16. Future butanes supply/demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitley, S.C.

    1992-01-01

    This paper graphically depicts, through in-depth supply/demand analysis, how environmental regulations can be both bad and good for an industry. In the case of n-butane, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) summertime gasoline volatility regulations are a culprit - threatening to ultimately destroy refinery demand for the product as a gasoline blendstock. Waiting in the wings are environmental regulations that should eventually prove to be n-butane's savior. The regulations referred to here are the Clean Air Act (CAA) of 1990's mandate for motor fuel oxygenates. The negative impact of gasoline volatility regulations on U.S. n-butane demand and the positive impact that should come from the use of n-butane as a MTBE precursor are covered. Many variables exist which make studying the effects of these environmental regulations very difficult. Over the past three years RPC Group has conducted numerous studies on n-butane supply/demand, as impacted by both EPA gasoline volatility and fuel oxygenate regulations

  17. Smart Buildings and Demand Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiliccote, Sila; Piette, Mary Ann; Ghatikar, Girish

    2011-11-01

    Advances in communications and control technology, the strengthening of the Internet, and the growing appreciation of the urgency to reduce demand side energy use are motivating the development of improvements in both energy efficiency and demand response (DR) systems in buildings. This paper provides a framework linking continuous energy management and continuous communications for automated demand response (Auto-DR) in various times scales. We provide a set of concepts for monitoring and controls linked to standards and procedures such as Open Automation Demand Response Communication Standards (OpenADR). Basic building energy science and control issues in this approach begin with key building components, systems, end-uses and whole building energy performance metrics. The paper presents a framework about when energy is used, levels of services by energy using systems, granularity of control, and speed of telemetry. DR, when defined as a discrete event, requires a different set of building service levels than daily operations. We provide examples of lessons from DR case studies and links to energy efficiency.

  18. Consumer surplus and CES demand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Raa, Thijs

    2015-01-01

    This article presents the consumer surplus formula for constant elasticity of substitution (CES) demands. The formula is used to compare the monopoly and optimum provisions of product variety. It is shown that a monopolist under-provides variety. This result is contrasted with Lambertini’s analysis

  19. Projecting Electricity Demand in 2050

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hostick, Donna J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Belzer, David B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hadley, Stanton W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Markel, Tony [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Marnay, Chris [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Kintner-Meyer, Michael C. W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-07-01

    This paper describes the development of end-use electricity projections and load curves that were developed for the Renewable Electricity (RE) Futures Study (hereafter RE Futures), which explored the prospect of higher percentages (30% - 90%) of total electricity generation that could be supplied by renewable sources in the United States. As input to RE Futures, two projections of electricity demand were produced representing reasonable upper and lower bounds of electricity demand out to 2050. The electric sector models used in RE Futures required underlying load profiles, so RE Futures also produced load profile data in two formats: 8760 hourly data for the year 2050 for the GridView model, and in 2-year increments for 17 time slices as input to the Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) model. The process for developing demand projections and load profiles involved three steps: discussion regarding the scenario approach and general assumptions, literature reviews to determine readily available data, and development of the demand curves and load profiles.

  20. The Cognitive Demands of Writing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torrance, Mark; Jeffery, Gaynor

    1999-01-01

    Writing is a complex activity that places demands on cognitive resources. This volume presents original theory and research exploring the ways in which the sub-components of the writing process (generating and organizing content, producing grammatical sentences, etc.) differ in their cognitive

  1. Future demand of petroleum products in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Sajal

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the long-run equilibrium relationship between total petroleum products consumption and economic growth in India for the period 1970-1971 to 2001-2002 using cointegration and error-correction modeling approach. Augmented Dickey-Fuller tests reveal that both the series, after logarithmic transformation, are non-stationary and individually integrated of order one. The empirical results suggest that the series are cointegrated. The 'long-term demand elasticity for petroleum products' has been estimated. Furthermore, as a special case, similar sort of exercise between the consumption of middle-distillates and economic growth in India using annual data for the time span 1974-1975 to 2001-2002 has been carried out, which also confirms the existence of cointegration. In-sample forecasts fitted well against actual numbers. Finally, the paper forecasts total petroleum products and middle-distillates demands till 2011-2012 and provide an idea about the investment required in refinery sector in India till 2011-2012

  2. Impact of Mobility-on-Demand on Traffic Congestion: Simulation-based Study

    OpenAIRE

    Fiedler, David; Čáp, Michal; Čertický, Michal

    2017-01-01

    The increasing use of private vehicles for transportation in cities results in a growing demand for parking space and road network capacity. In many densely populated urban areas, however, the capacity of existing infrastructure is insufficient and extremely difficult to expand. Mobility-on-demand systems have been proposed as a remedy to the problem of limited parking space because they are able to satisfy the existing transportation demand with fewer shared vehicles and consequently require...

  3. Demand Controlled Ventilation and Classroom Ventilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, William J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Mendell, Mark J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Davies, Molly [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Eliseeva, Ekaterina [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Faulkner, David [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hong, Tienzen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sullivan, Douglas P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-05-01

    This document summarizes a research effort on demand controlled ventilation and classroom ventilation. The research on demand controlled ventilation included field studies and building energy modeling.

  4. Demand controlled ventilation and classroom ventilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, William J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Mendell, Mark J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Davies, Molly [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Eliseeva, Ekaterina [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Faulkner, David [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hong, Tienzen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sullivan, Douglas P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-01-06

    This document summarizes a research effort on demand controlled ventilation and classroom ventilation. The research on demand controlled ventilation included field studies and building energy modeling.

  5. Demand as frequency controlled reserve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Z.; Togeby, M.; OEstergaard, J.

    2008-09-15

    Using demand as frequency controlled reserve (DFR) is an emerging technology which allow demand to participate actively in maintaining the system operation without reducing the energy service delivered to the customer and without need of user interaction. The basic premise is that traditional frequency controlled reserves from power plants and interconnections with neighbouring systems can be costly, slow and not fulfil the need for future power grids with a high share of wind power and fewer central power plants, and an intention to perform flexible operation such as is landing. Electricity demands, on the other hand, have advantages as frequency reserve including fast activation speed, smooth linear activation, low expected costs, and well-dispersed in the distribution grid. The main challenge of DFR is new methods for monitoring the available capacity. This project has investigated the technology of using electricity demands for providing frequency reserve to power systems. Within the project the potential and economy of DFR compatible loads in Denmark has been investigated, control logic has been designed, power system impact has been investigated, potential business models has been evaluated and an implementation strategy has been suggested. The tasks and goals of the project have been successfully accomplished based on which the conclusion and future recommendation are made. This project has developed the DFR technology that enables electricity demands to autonomously disconnect or reconnect to the grid in response to system frequency variations. The developed DFR technology is proved to be a promising technology from several perspectives. Technically, using DFR is feasible to provide reserves and enhance power system frequency control, while fulfilling technical requirements such as linear activation (or reconnection) according to frequency (or time). Environmentally, the DFR technology is pollution free in contrast to traditional reserves from generation

  6. Environmental sustainability control by water resources carrying capacity concept: application significance in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djuwansyah, M. R.

    2018-02-01

    This paper reviews the use of Water Resources carrying capacity concept to control environmental sustainability with the particular note for the case in Indonesia. Carrying capacity is a capability measure of an environment or an area to support human and the other lives as well as their activities in a sustainable manner. Recurrently water-related hazards and environmental problems indicate that the environments are exploited over its carrying capacity. Environmental carrying capacity (ECC) assessment includes Land and Water Carrying Capacity analysis of an area, suggested to always refer to the dimension of the related watershed as an incorporated hydrologic unit on the basis of resources availability estimation. Many countries use this measure to forecast the future sustainability of regional development based on water availability. Direct water Resource Carrying Capacity (WRCC) assessment involves population number determination together with their activities could be supported by available water, whereas indirect WRCC assessment comprises the analysis of supply-demand balance status of water. Water resource limits primarily environmental carrying capacity rather than the land resource since land capability constraints are easier. WRCC is a crucial factor known to control land and water resource utilization, particularly in a growing densely populated area. Even though capability of water resources is relatively perpetual, the utilization pattern of these resources may change by socio-economic and cultural technology level of the users, because of which WRCC should be evaluated periodically to maintain usage sustainability of water resource and environment.

  7. On the choice of the demand and hydraulic modeling approach to WDN real-time simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creaco, Enrico; Pezzinga, Giuseppe; Savic, Dragan

    2017-07-01

    This paper aims to analyze two demand modeling approaches, i.e., top-down deterministic (TDA) and bottom-up stochastic (BUA), with particular reference to their impact on the hydraulic modeling of water distribution networks (WDNs). In the applications, the hydraulic modeling is carried out through the extended period simulation (EPS) and unsteady flow modeling (UFM). Taking as benchmark the modeling conditions that are closest to the WDN's real operation (UFM + BUA), the analysis showed that the traditional use of EPS + TDA produces large pressure head and water discharge errors, which can be attenuated only when large temporal steps (up to 1 h in the case study) are used inside EPS. The use of EPS + BUA always yields better results. Indeed, EPS + BUA already gives a good approximation of the WDN's real operation when intermediate temporal steps (larger than 2 min in the case study) are used for the simulation. The trade-off between consistency of results and computational burden makes EPS + BUA the most suitable tool for real-time WDN simulation, while benefitting from data acquired through smart meters for the parameterization of demand generation models.

  8. Water demand forecasting: review of soft computing methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghalehkhondabi, Iman; Ardjmand, Ehsan; Young, William A; Weckman, Gary R

    2017-07-01

    Demand forecasting plays a vital role in resource management for governments and private companies. Considering the scarcity of water and its inherent constraints, demand management and forecasting in this domain are critically important. Several soft computing techniques have been developed over the last few decades for water demand forecasting. This study focuses on soft computing methods of water consumption forecasting published between 2005 and 2015. These methods include artificial neural networks (ANNs), fuzzy and neuro-fuzzy models, support vector machines, metaheuristics, and system dynamics. Furthermore, it was discussed that while in short-term forecasting, ANNs have been superior in many cases, but it is still very difficult to pick a single method as the overall best. According to the literature, various methods and their hybrids are applied to water demand forecasting. However, it seems soft computing has a lot more to contribute to water demand forecasting. These contribution areas include, but are not limited, to various ANN architectures, unsupervised methods, deep learning, various metaheuristics, and ensemble methods. Moreover, it is found that soft computing methods are mainly used for short-term demand forecasting.

  9. Addressing Energy Demand through Demand Response. International Experiences and Practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Bo [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ghatikar, Girish [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ni, Chun Chun [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Dudley, Junqiao [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Martin, Phil [Enernoc, Inc., Boston, MA (United States); Wikler, Greg

    2012-06-01

    Demand response (DR) is a load management tool which provides a cost-effective alternative to traditional supply-side solutions to address the growing demand during times of peak electrical load. According to the US Department of Energy (DOE), demand response reflects “changes in electric usage by end-use customers from their normal consumption patterns in response to changes in the price of electricity over time, or to incentive payments designed to induce lower electricity use at times of high wholesale market prices or when system reliability is jeopardized.” 1 The California Energy Commission (CEC) defines DR as “a reduction in customers’ electricity consumption over a given time interval relative to what would otherwise occur in response to a price signal, other financial incentives, or a reliability signal.” 2 This latter definition is perhaps most reflective of how DR is understood and implemented today in countries such as the US, Canada, and Australia where DR is primarily a dispatchable resource responding to signals from utilities, grid operators, and/or load aggregators (or DR providers).

  10. Mobile Virtual Private Networking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulkkis, Göran; Grahn, Kaj; Mårtens, Mathias; Mattsson, Jonny

    Mobile Virtual Private Networking (VPN) solutions based on the Internet Security Protocol (IPSec), Transport Layer Security/Secure Socket Layer (SSL/TLS), Secure Shell (SSH), 3G/GPRS cellular networks, Mobile IP, and the presently experimental Host Identity Protocol (HIP) are described, compared and evaluated. Mobile VPN solutions based on HIP are recommended for future networking because of superior processing efficiency and network capacity demand features. Mobile VPN implementation issues associated with the IP protocol versions IPv4 and IPv6 are also evaluated. Mobile VPN implementation experiences are presented and discussed.

  11. Y-Source Impedance Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siwakoti, Yam Prasad; Loh, Poh Chiang; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2014-01-01

    This letter introduces a new versatile Y-shaped impedance network for realizing converters that demand a very high-voltage gain, while using a small duty ratio. To achieve that, the proposed network uses a tightly coupled transformer with three windings, whose obtained gain is presently not matched...... by existing networks operated at the same duty ratio. The proposed impedance network also has more degrees of freedom for varying its gain, and hence, more design freedom for meeting requirements demanded from it. This capability has been demonstrated by mathematical derivation, and proven in experiment...

  12. Demand Response Load Following of Source and Load Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Jianqiang; Cao, Jinde; Yong, Taiyou

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a demand response load following strategy for an interconnected source and load system, in which we utilize traditional units and population of cooling thermostatically controlled loads (TCLs) to follow the mismatched power caused by the load activities and the renewable power...... injection in real time. In the demand side of power systems, these TCLs are often affiliated to a bus load agent and can be aggregated to multiple TCL aggregators. Firstly, aggregate evaluation of the TCL aggregator is carried out based on a bilinear aggregate model so as to derive the available regulation...

  13. Conceptual Framework and Computational Research of Hierarchical Residential Household Water Demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baodeng Hou

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Although the quantity of household water consumption does not account for a huge proportion of the total water consumption amidst socioeconomic development, there has been a steadily increasing trend due to population growth and improved urbanization standards. As such, mastering the mechanisms of household water demand, scientifically predicting trends of household water demand, and implementing reasonable control measures are key focuses of current urban water management. Based on the categorization and characteristic analysis of household water, this paper used Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs to establish a level and grade theory of household water demand, whereby household water is classified into three levels (rigid water demand, flexible water demand, and luxury water demand and three grades (basic water demand, reasonable water demand, and representational water demand. An in-depth analysis was then carried out on the factors that influence the computation of household water demand, whereby equations for different household water categories were established, and computations for different levels of household water were proposed. Finally, observational experiments on household water consumption were designed, and observation and simulation computations were performed on three typical households in order to verify the scientific outcome and rationality of the computation of household water demand. The research findings contribute to the enhancement and development of prediction theories on water demand, and they are of high theoretical and realistic significance in terms of scientifically predicting future household water demand and fine-tuning the management of urban water resources.

  14. DataBase on Demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aparicio, R Gaspar; Gomez, D; Wojcik, D; Coz, I Coterillo

    2012-01-01

    At CERN a number of key database applications are running on user-managed MySQL database services. The database on demand project was born out of an idea to provide the CERN user community with an environment to develop and run database services outside of the actual centralised Oracle based database services. The Database on Demand (DBoD) empowers the user to perform certain actions that had been traditionally done by database administrators, DBA's, providing an enterprise platform for database applications. It also allows the CERN user community to run different database engines, e.g. presently open community version of MySQL and single instance Oracle database server. This article describes a technology approach to face this challenge, a service level agreement, the SLA that the project provides, and an evolution of possible scenarios.

  15. Advertising media and cigarette demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Rajeev K

    2011-01-01

    Using state-level panel data for the USA spanning three decades, this research estimates the demand for cigarettes. The main contribution lies in studying the effects of cigarette advertising disaggregated across five qualitatively different groups. Results show cigarette demand to be near unit elastic, the income effects to be generally insignificant and border price effects and habit effects to be significant. Regarding advertising effects, aggregate cigarette advertising has a negative effect on smoking. Important differences across advertising media emerge when cigarette advertising is disaggregated. The effects of public entertainment and Internet cigarette advertising are stronger than those of other media. Anti-smoking messages accompanying print cigarette advertising seem relatively more effective. Implications for smoking control policy are discussed.

  16. Uranium Resources, production and demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    Periodic assessments of world uranium supply and demand have been conducted by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) since the mid 1960s. Published every two years, the report URANIUM RESOURCES, PRODUCTION AND DEMAND, commonly referred to as the RED BOOK, has become an essential reference document for nuclear planners and policy makers in the international nuclear community. The latest Red Book, published in 1988, was based on data collected mainly in early 1987. Most of the data for 1987 were therefore provisional. The STATISTICAL UPDATE 1988 provides updated 1987 data collected in 1988 and provisional data for 1988. The publication, which covers OECD Countries and gives Secretariat estimates for the rest of the World Outside Centrally Planned Economies (WOCA), is being issued every second year, between publications of more complete Red Books

  17. Enrichment demand boosts SWU prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    The enrichment market is picking up significantly on very brisk demand. US utilities, which normally purchase material nine months to a year ahead of time, are already hitting the market to fill their 1996 requirements. In June, two non-US utilities, one European entity and a US utility bought SWUs, the entity in an off-market deal. But that doesn't tell the whole story. Three other US utilities entered the market during the month. Meanwhile, we count 13 more utilities getting ready to hit the market for more than 4 million SWUs. Why the surge in demand? Utilities, uncertain of the role to be played by the new US Enrichment Corp. and seeking to take advantage of low interest rates, are implementing buy and hold strategies. As a result, the upper end of NUKEM's SWU price range inched up to $78. The lower end dipped to $67 based on the European deal

  18. Achieving demand side management through eco-industrial networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knight, N.

    2002-01-01

    This Power Point presentation describes the progress made by the Greater Vancouver Regional District (GVRD) in achieving sustainable development. The GVRD provides regional level infrastructure for drinking water, liquid waste treatment and solid waste management. Member municipalities provide the complementary services to businesses and residents of the communities. Particular emphasis has been given to protecting the green zone, building complete communities, achieving a compact Metropolitain region, and increasing transportation choices. The GVRD has also adopted a Livable Region Strategic Plan (LRSP) which encompasses economic, social and environmental issues. All member municipalities of the GVRD have prepared statements that indicate how their local policies will help achieve the LRSP goals. This presentation also includes a review of the region's air quality in order to emphasize the link between air quality and the pattern of urban development and transportation choices. The GVRD air quality management is unique in Canada. tabs., figs

  19. Corporate Environmental Responsibility in Demand Networks (summary section only)

    OpenAIRE

    Kovács, Gyöngyi

    2006-01-01

    Research on corporate responsibility has traditionally focused on the responsibilities of companies within their corporate boundaries only. Yet this view is challenged today as more and more companies face the situation in which the environmental and social performance of their suppliers, distributors, industry or other associated partners impacts on their sales performance and brand equity. Simultaneously, policy-makers have taken up the discussion on corporate responsibility from the perspe...

  20. Parameterized Algorithms for Survivable Network Design with Uniform Demands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang-Jensen, Jørgen; Klinkby Knudsen, Kristine Vitting; Saurabh, Saket

    2018-01-01

    problem in combinatorial optimization that captures numerous well-studied problems in graph theory and graph algorithms. Consequently, there is a long line of research into exact-polynomial time algorithms as well as approximation algorithms for various restrictions of this problem. An important...... that SNDP is W[1]-hard for both arc and vertex connectivity versions on digraphs. The core of our algorithms is composed of new combinatorial results on connectivity in digraphs and undirected graphs....

  1. Optimization of Container Line Networks with Flexible Demands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plum, Christian Edinger Munk

    on real world problem instances of 500+ vessels and 500+ contracts. The method allows a global liner carrier to efficiently plan bunker purchases for their vessels, using a large number of bunker contracts to lower costs. Container vessels operate on tight schedules to meet the customers transit time...... is investigated and models supporting decision making is developed, with the aim of reducing costs, bunker consumption and increasing the revenue and service levels of a liner shipping company. These problems are complex, dealing with millions of containers traveling on hundreds of vessels calling hundreds...... aspects where important and relevant to include. To alleviate this a thorough description of the domain of liner shipping is given, explaining the industry in the words of an operations researcher. At the same time a set of benchmark instances LINER-LIB 2012 is introduced. It is the hope...

  2. Demand controlled ventilation; Behovsstyrt ventilasjon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soerensen, Henning Holm

    2006-07-01

    The terms CAV and VAV have been known terms for many years in the ventilation business. The terms are also included in building regulations, but the time is now right to focus on demand controlled ventilation (DCV). The new building regulations and the accompanying energy framework underline the need for a more nuanced thinking when it comes to controlling ventilation systems. Descriptions and further details of the ventilation systems are provided (ml)

  3. Strong demand for natural uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalinowski, P.

    1975-01-01

    The Deutsches Atomforum and the task group 'fuel elements' of the Kerntechnische Gesellschaft had organized an international two-day symposium in Mainz on natural uranium supply which was attended by 250 experts from 20 countries. The four main themes were: Demand for natural uranium, uranium deposits and uranium production, attitude of the uranium producing countries, and energy policy of the industrial nations. (orig./AK) [de

  4. Alcohol demand and risk preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave, Dhaval; Saffer, Henry

    2008-12-01

    Both economists and psychologists have studied the concept of risk preference. Economists categorize individuals as more or less risk-tolerant based on the marginal utility of income. Psychologists categorize individuals' propensity towards risk based on harm avoidance, novelty seeking and reward dependence traits. The two concepts of risk are related, although the instruments used for empirical measurement are quite different. Psychologists have found risk preference to be an important determinant of alcohol consumption; however economists have not included risk preference in studies of alcohol demand. This is the first study to examine the effect of risk preference on alcohol consumption in the context of a demand function. The specifications employ multiple waves from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) and the Health and Retirement Study (HRS), which permit the estimation of age-specific models based on nationally representative samples. Both of these data sets include a unique and consistent survey instrument designed to directly measure risk preference in accordance with the economist's definition. This study estimates the direct impact of risk preference on alcohol demand and also explores how risk preference affects the price elasticity of demand. The empirical results indicate that risk preference has a significant negative effect on alcohol consumption, with the prevalence and consumption among risk-tolerant individuals being 6-8% higher. Furthermore, the tax elasticity is similar across both risk-averse and risk-tolerant individuals. This suggests that tax policies are as equally effective in deterring alcohol consumption among those who have a higher versus a lower propensity for alcohol use.

  5. Millennium bim managing growing demand

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes, Francisca Barbosa Malpique de Paiva

    2014-01-01

    Millennium bim, the Mozambican operation of Millennium bcp group, was the Company selected to serve as background for the development of a teaching case in Marketing. This case is followed by a teaching note, and is intended to be used as a pedagogical tool in undergraduate and/or graduate programs. Even though Mozambique is still characterized by high financial exclusion, the number of people entering within the banking industry has been growing at a fast pace. Actually, the demand for fi...

  6. Demand for healthcare in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brijesh C. Purohit

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In a developing country like India, allocation of scarce fiscal resources has to be based on a clear understanding of how investments in the heath sector are going to affect demand. Three aspects like overall healthcare demand, consumer decisions to use public and/or private care and role of price/quality influencing poor/rich consumer’s decisions are critical to assessing the equity implications of alternative policies. Our paper addresses these aspects through examining the pattern of healthcare demand in India. Data from the National Family Health Survey are used to model the healthcare choices that individuals make. We consider what these behavioral characteristics imply for public policy. This analysis aims to study disparities between rural and urban areas from all throughout India to five Indian states representing three levels of per capita incomes (all-India average, rich and poor. Results evidence that healthcare demand both in rural and urban areas is a commodity emerging as an essential need. Choices between public or private provider are guided by income and quality variables mainly with regard to public healthcare denoting thus a situation of very limited alternatives in terms of availing private providers. These results emphasize that existing public healthcare facilities do not serve the objective of providing care to the poor in a satisfactory manner in rural areas. Thus, any financing strategy to improve health system and reduce disparities across rich-poor states and rural-urban areas should also take into account not only overcoming inadequacy but also inefficiency in allocation and utilization of healthcare inputs.

  7. Uranium resources, production and demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    Nuclear power-generating capacity will continue to expand, albeit at a slower pace than during the past fifteen years. This expansion must be matched by an adequately increasing supply of uranium. This report compares uranium supply and demand data in free market countries with the nuclear industry's natural uranium requirements up to the year 2000. It also reviews the status of uranium exploration, resources and production in 46 countries

  8. The economics of uranium demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, A.D.

    1983-01-01

    The major characteristics of the demand for uranium are identified, and a number of factors which determine the actual level of uranium requirements of the nuclear power industry are discussed. Since the role of inventories is central to the process of short-term price formation, by comparing projections of uranium production and apparent consumption, the relative level of total inventories is calculated and an assessment is made of its likely impact on the uranium market during the 1980s. (author)

  9. Forecasting Croatian inbound tourism demand

    OpenAIRE

    Tica, Josip; Kožić, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a forecasting model for the overnight stays of foreign tourists in Croatia. Tourism is one of the most important parts of the Croatian economy. It is particularly important in the context of the services sector. Regular and significant surpluses and the consumption of foreign guests are an important element of budget revenues, especially VAT. The ability to forecast the development of inbound tourism demand in a timely manner is crucial for both business...

  10. Optimal Advertising with Stochastic Demand

    OpenAIRE

    George E. Monahan

    1983-01-01

    A stochastic, sequential model is developed to determine optimal advertising expenditures as a function of product maturity and past advertising. Random demand for the product depends upon an aggregate measure of current and past advertising called "goodwill," and the position of the product in its life cycle measured by sales-to-date. Conditions on the parameters of the model are established that insure that it is optimal to advertise less as the product matures. Additional characteristics o...

  11. Demand, Energy, and Power Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-08-01

    POWER FACTOR DEFINITION I Basically , power factor (pf) is a measure of how effectively the plant uses the electricity it purchases from the utility. It...not be made available by the plant. U 24 This video is relatively short, less than fifteen-minutes, and covers the basics on demand, block extenders... ratemaking methodology and test period as used in determining the NC-RS rates. Pending final decision by the FERC, the Federal Government would pay a rate as

  12. World gas supply-demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rushby, I.L.

    1996-01-01

    The rapid growth in demand for natural gas from a global perspective is documented in this paper. Low prices compared to other fuels and a return to normal winter temperatures is argued to be the cause of this increase in consumption. Natural gas production and prices for 1995 are discussed and forecasts made for future years, in particular the prospects for LNG in Asia. Data on energy growth and gas specific information in world markets are included. (UK)

  13. Coal demand prediction based on a support vector machine model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia, Cun-liang; Wu, Hai-shan; Gong, Dun-wei [China University of Mining & Technology, Xuzhou (China). School of Information and Electronic Engineering

    2007-01-15

    A forecasting model for coal demand of China using a support vector regression was constructed. With the selected embedding dimension, the output vectors and input vectors were constructed based on the coal demand of China from 1980 to 2002. After compared with lineal kernel and Sigmoid kernel, a radial basis function(RBF) was adopted as the kernel function. By analyzing the relationship between the error margin of prediction and the model parameters, the proper parameters were chosen. The support vector machines (SVM) model with multi-input and single output was proposed. Compared the predictor based on RBF neural networks with test datasets, the results show that the SVM predictor has higher precision and greater generalization ability. In the end, the coal demand from 2003 to 2006 is accurately forecasted. l0 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. Automation of energy demand forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddique, Sanzad

    Automation of energy demand forecasting saves time and effort by searching automatically for an appropriate model in a candidate model space without manual intervention. This thesis introduces a search-based approach that improves the performance of the model searching process for econometrics models. Further improvements in the accuracy of the energy demand forecasting are achieved by integrating nonlinear transformations within the models. This thesis introduces machine learning techniques that are capable of modeling such nonlinearity. Algorithms for learning domain knowledge from time series data using the machine learning methods are also presented. The novel search based approach and the machine learning models are tested with synthetic data as well as with natural gas and electricity demand signals. Experimental results show that the model searching technique is capable of finding an appropriate forecasting model. Further experimental results demonstrate an improved forecasting accuracy achieved by using the novel machine learning techniques introduced in this thesis. This thesis presents an analysis of how the machine learning techniques learn domain knowledge. The learned domain knowledge is used to improve the forecast accuracy.

  15. Energy demand and population change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, E L; Edmonds, J A

    1981-09-01

    During the post World War 2 years energy consumption has grown 136% while population grew about 51%; per capita consumption of energy expanded, therefore, about 60%. For a given population size, demographic changes mean an increase in energy needs; for instance the larger the group of retirement age people, the smaller their energy needs than are those for a younger group. Estimates indicate that by the year 2000 the energy impact will be toward higher per capita consumption with 60% of the population in the 19-61 age group of workers. Rising female labor force participation will increase the working group even more; it has also been found that income and energy grow at a proportional rate. The authors predict that gasoline consumption within the US will continue to rise with availability considering the larger number of female drivers and higher per capita incomes. The flow of illegal aliens (750,000/year) will have a major impact on income and will use greater amounts of energy than can be expected. A demographic change which will lower energy demands will be the slowdown of the rate of household formation caused by the falling number of young adults. The response of energy demand to price changes is small and slow but incomes play a larger role as does the number of personal automobiles and social changes affecting household formation. Households, commercial space, transportation, and industry are part of every demand analysis and population projections play a major role in determining these factors.

  16. Demand for radiotherapy in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, A; Borrás, J M; López-Torrecilla, J; Algara, M; Palacios-Eito, A; Gómez-Caamaño, A; Olay, L; Lara, P C

    2017-02-01

    Assessing the demand for radiotherapy in Spain based on existing evidence to estimate the human resources and equipment needed so that every person in Spain has access to high-quality radiotherapy when they need it. We used data from the European Cancer Observatory on the estimated incidence of cancer in Spain in 2012, along with the evidence-based indications for radiotherapy developed by the Australian CCORE project, to obtain an optimal radiotherapy utilisation proportion (OUP) for each tumour. About 50.5 % of new cancers in Spain require radiotherapy at least once over the course of the disease. Additional demand for these services comes from reradiation therapy and non-melanoma skin cancer. Approximately, 25-30 % of cancer patients with an indication for radiotherapy do not receive it due to factors that include access, patient preference, familiarity with the treatment among physicians, and especially resource shortages, all of which contribute to its underutilisation. Radiotherapy is underused in Spain. The increasing incidence of cancer expected over the next decade and the greater frequency of reradiations necessitate the incorporation of radiotherapy demand into need-based calculations for cancer services planning.

  17. Demands from the school inclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma Norberto Matos

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available From the implementation of public policies on school inclusion, mainly those directed to the target audience of special education, the number of students with special educational needs in common classes has increased. This fact has helped to compose the picture in schools where the limitations and contradictions of the Brazilian educational system have appeared. Educational actors and authors are challenged to build knowledge able of responding to demands of daily school, concerning living and learning in diversity. Whereas this inclusive process is new in the schools, the study aimed to analyze the demands of teachers from the school inclusion. The research was qualitative and exploratory, and six teachers, their students with special educational needs and three professionals in the Nucleus of Inclusive Education from the Municipal Department of Education took in it. Technique of participant observation, field diary, semi-structured interview and questionnaire were used for data collection, while analysis of content was used for discussion of the data. The results indicate that there are achievements and contradictions in the reality of schools that themselves propose inclusive; advances and limitations resulting from the municipal politics; that the model of performance of the group of special education, in the context analyzed, may be revised or expanded; and that the teachers has demands with regard to public policy, training, and the psychologist.

  18. PREDICTING DEMAND FOR COTTON YARNS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SALAS-MOLINA Francisco

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Predicting demand for fashion products is crucial for textile manufacturers. In an attempt to both avoid out-of-stocks and minimize holding costs, different forecasting techniques are used by production managers. Both linear and non-linear time-series analysis techniques are suitable options for forecasting purposes. However, demand for fashion products presents a number of particular characteristics such as short life-cycles, short selling seasons, high impulse purchasing, high volatility, low predictability, tremendous product variety and a high number of stock-keeping-units. In this paper, we focus on predicting demand for cotton yarns using a non-linear forecasting technique that has been fruitfully used in many areas, namely, random forests. To this end, we first identify a number of explanatory variables to be used as a key input to forecasting using random forests. We consider explanatory variables usually labeled either as causal variables, when some correlation is expected between them and the forecasted variable, or as time-series features, when extracted from time-related attributes such as seasonality. Next, we evaluate the predictive power of each variable by means of out-of-sample accuracy measurement. We experiment on a real data set from a textile company in Spain. The numerical results show that simple time-series features present more predictive ability than other more sophisticated explanatory variables.

  19. Advanced Communication Technology Satellite (ACTS) Very Small Aperture Terminal (VSAT) Network Control Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coney, T. A.

    1996-01-01

    This paper discusses the performance of the network control function for the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) very small aperture terminal (VSAT) full mesh network. This includes control of all operational activities such as acquisition, synchronization, timing and rain fade compensation as well as control of all communications activities such as on-demand integrated services (voice, video, and date) connects and disconnects Operations control is provided by an in-band orderwire carried in the baseboard processor (BBP) control burst, the orderwire burst, the reference burst, and the uplink traffic burst. Communication services are provided by demand assigned multiple access (DAMA) protocols. The ACTS implementation of DAMA protocols ensures both on-demand and integrated voice, video and data services. Communications services control is also provided by the in-band orderwire but uses only the reference burst and the uplink traffic burst. The performance of the ACTS network control functions have been successfully tested during on-orbit checkout and in various VSAT networks in day to day operations. This paper discusses the network operations and services control performance.

  20. 46 CFR 169.689 - Demand loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Demand loads. 169.689 Section 169.689 Shipping COAST... Electrical Electrical Installations on Vessels of 100 Gross Tons and Over § 169.689 Demand loads. Demand loads must meet § 111.60-7 of this chapter except that smaller demand loads for motor feeders are...

  1. Demands for Modern Shipping and SUiveillance of the Adriatic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Lakota

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work modem navigation and Adriatic control demandcharacteristics are developed. It correlates the modemnavigation characteristics and the Adriatic sea control. Thepresent operating procedures used for sea control are mentionedas well as the new systems and procedures based on newcomputer and communication technologies (automatic identificationsystems, GPS, computer networks, Internet/Intranetstandards. It discusses unmanned aerial vehicles characteristicsaccording to demands and grading standards for picture/scene interpretation (NIIRS grading scale.

  2. Demand for food products in Finland: A demand system approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilkka P. Laurila

    1994-07-01

    Full Text Available The study was concerned with the estimation of food-demand parameters in a system context. The patterns of food consumption in Finland were presented over the period 1950-1991, and a complete demand system of food expenditures was estimated. Price and expenditure elasticities of demand were derived, and the results were used to obtain projections on future consumption. While the real expenditure on food has increased, the budget share of food has decreased. In the early 19505, combined Food-at-Home and Food-away-from-Home corresponded to about 40% of consumers’ total expenditure. In 1991 the share was 28%. There was a shift to meals eaten outside the home. While the budget share of Food-away-from-Home increased from 3% to 7% over the observation period, Food-at-Home fell from 37% to 21%, and Food-at-Home excluding Alcoholic Drinks fell from 34% to 16%. Within Food-at-Home, the budget shares of the broad aggregate groups, Animalia (food from animal sources, Beverages, and Vegetablia (food from vegetable sources, remained about the same over the four decades, while structural change took place within the aggregates. Within Animalia, consumption shifted from Dairy Products (other than Fresh Milk to Meat and Fish. Within Beverages, consumption shifted from Fresh Milk and Hot Drinks to Alcoholic Drinks and Soft Drinks. Within Vegetablia, consumption shifted from Flour to Fruits, while the shares of Bread and Cake and Vegetables remained about the same. As the complete demand system, the Almost Ideal Demand System (AIDS was employed. The conventional AIDS was extended by developing a dynamic generalisation of the model and allowing for systematic shifts in structural relationships over time. A four-stage budgeting system was specified, consisting of seven sub-systems (groups, and covering 18 food categories. Tests on parameter restrictions and misspecification tests were used to choose the most preferred model specification for each group. Generally

  3. Economic Analysis of Urban Fuelwood Demand - The case of Harare in Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chambwera, M.

    2004-01-01

    This study carries out an economic analysis of the demand for fuelwood in urban areas using Harare, the capital city of Zimbabwe, as a case study. The demand for fuelwood in urban areas is one of the causes of several environmental and health problems in Africa, where the up to 90% of energy

  4. The Training Demand in Organizational Changes Processes in the Spanish Wine Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Alfonso J.; Garcia-Alcaraz, Jorge L.; Mataveli, Mara

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe the role of training demand in the organisational changes. Design/methodology/approach: The paper describes the demand of training courses in the Rioja wine sector in Spain and its relation with the changes in the sector carried out in recent years. Through a questionnaire, wineries' managers asked…

  5. MPLS for metropolitan area networks

    CERN Document Server

    Tan, Nam-Kee

    2004-01-01

    METROPOLITAN AREA NETWORKS AND MPLSRequirements of Metropolitan Area Network ServicesMetropolitan Area Network OverviewThe Bandwidth DemandThe Metro Service Provider's Business ApproachesThe Emerging Metro Customer Expectations and NeedsSome Prevailing Metro Service OpportunitiesService Aspects and RequirementsRoles of MPLS in Metropolitan Area NetworksMPLS PrimerMPLS ApplicationsTRAFFIC ENGINEERING ASPECTS OF METROPOLITAN AREA NETWORKSTraffic Engineering ConceptsNetwork CongestionHyper Aggregation ProblemEasing CongestionNetwork ControlTactical versus Strategic Traffic EngineeringIP/ATM Overl

  6. Reciprocity on Demand : Sharing and Exchanging Food in Northwestern Namibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnegg, Michael

    2015-09-01

    Two competing models concerning food transfers prominent in the anthropological literature conceptualize such transfers either as sharing or as exchange. Sharing is understood as situational transactions formed through demands and unconditional giving, whereas reciprocal exchange is understood in terms of networking and keeping score. I propose that the picture is more complicated than these classifications suggests. Drawing on data collected in Northwestern Namibia, I show that sharing and reciprocal exchange are dynamically interrelated in actual food transfers. As a local norm, people can demand food from anyone, and they are typically given food in response to a demand. However, in practice, food transfer networks emerge (N = 62) that are highly reciprocal and fit the exchange model much better. Although the sharing norm makes no restrictions on whom to ask, in practice people often turn to their neighbors. Interpersonal dynamics account for why some of those ties become strongly reciprocal and others do not. Under these circumstances, unconditional sharing, a norm that has been viewed as an alternative to exchange, can lead to reciprocity via reciprocity on demand.

  7. Considering supply and demand of electric energy in life cycle assessments - a review of current methodologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehberger, M.; Hiete, M.

    2015-01-01

    A stable power grid requires a balance between electricity supply and demand. To compensate for changes in the demand the network operator puts on or takes off power plants from the net. Peak load plants operate only at times of high electricity demand. As levels for air pollutants emissions are typically lower for peak load plants for reasons of cost-effectiveness, one could argue that a unit of electric energy consumed during peak load has always been associated with a higher environmental impact than at other times. Furthermore, renewable energy technologies, smart approaches for improving the matching between electricity consumption and supply and new products such as electric vehicles or net zero emission buildings gain in importance. In life cycle assessment (LCA) environmental impacts associated with the production and possibly transmission of electricity are most often assessed based on temporally averaged national electricity mixes as electricity flows cannot be traced back to their origin. Neither fluctuations in the supply structure nor the composition of energy supply at a certain moment or regional differences are accounted for. A literature review of approaches for handling electricity in LCA is carried out to compare strengths and weaknesses of the approaches. A better understanding and knowledge about the source of electricity at a given time and place might be valuable information for further reducing environmental impacts, e.g. by shifting electricity consumption to times with ample supply of renewables. Integrating such information into LCA will allow a fairer assessment of a variety of new products which accept a lower energy efficiency to achieve a better integration of renewables into the grid. (authors)

  8. 30 CFR 56.16014 - Operator-carrying overhead cranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Operator-carrying overhead cranes. 56.16014 Section 56.16014 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Storage and Handling § 56.16014 Operator-carrying overhead cranes. Operator-carrying overhead cranes shall...

  9. 30 CFR 57.16014 - Operator-carrying overhead cranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Operator-carrying overhead cranes. 57.16014 Section 57.16014 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Storage and Handling § 57.16014 Operator-carrying overhead cranes. Operator-carrying overhead cranes shall...

  10. 46 CFR 111.105-35 - Vessels carrying coal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vessels carrying coal. 111.105-35 Section 111.105-35...-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Hazardous Locations § 111.105-35 Vessels carrying coal. (a) The following are Class II, Division 1, (Zone 10 or Z) locations on a vessel that carries coal: (1) The interior of each coal...

  11. Fuel switching in Harare: An almost ideal demand system approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chambwera, Muyeye; Folmer, Henk

    2007-01-01

    In urban areas several energy choices are available and the amount of (a given type of) fuel consumed is based on complex household decision processes. This paper analyzes urban fuel (particularly firewood) demand in an energy mix context by means of an Almost Ideal Demand System based on a survey carried out among 500 households in Harare in 2003. Using a multi-stage budgeting approach, the model estimates the share of energy in total household expenditure and the shares of firewood, electricity and kerosene in total energy expenditure. Using the model results simulations show that the main policy handles to reduce the demand for firewood and to mitigate environmental degradation such as deforestation include decreasing prices of alternative fuels, notably kerosene. Moreover, in the long run sound economic policy will positively impact on the energy budget whereas education and the degree of electrification will contribute to a reduction of the use of firewood

  12. Radon levels in a water distribution network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alabdula'aly, A.I.

    1997-01-01

    The capital city of Saudi Arabia, Riyadh, relies on both desalinated sea water as well as treated groundwater to meet all its water requirements. About 66% of the water demand is met by desalinated sea water, and the remaining is supplied by six groundwater treatment plants located in the vicinity of the city and supplied with water from 161 wells. The desalinated sea water is blended with only one plant product water and pumped to the distribution network, whereas the other five plants product water is pumped directly to the network. A study of 222 Rn levels in the city distribution network was carried out in which 89 samples were collected from different locations representing the city districts. All samples have shown low radon levels with an average concentration of 0.2 Bq l -1 and a range values of 0.1-1.0 Bq l -1 . The level of radon in different parts of the network was found to be influenced by the water sources to which they are supplied. The lowest radon levels were observed in districts supplied mostly by desalinated sea water. (Author)

  13. Market demands to Danish pork

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredahl, Lone

    2001-01-01

    position on its markets. It is expected that results of the analysis will be part of superior strategic decisions for the Danish pork sector as regards future Danish pork export markets. The market demands to be identified will therefore be evaluated in relation to resources and competences within the line...... of business. The study takes its starting point in a value chain perspective. The value chain covers the product- and distribution stages a product passes through before reaching the consumers. The value chain perspective presumes that added value is accumulated when a product passes through the stages...

  14. Uranium, resources, production and demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The thirteenth edition of the report looks at recent developments and their impact on the short term (i.e. to the year 2005) and presents a longer term (to 2030) analysis of supply possibilities in the context of a range of requirement scenarios. It presents results of a 1989 review of uranium supply and demand in the World Outside Centrally Planned Economies Areas. It contains updated information on uranium exploration activities, resources and production for over 40 countries including a few CPEs, covering the period 1987 and 1988

  15. Growing energy demand - environmental impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rama Rao, G.A.

    2012-01-01

    Scientists can bring information, insights, and analytical skills to bear on matters of public concern. Often they can help the public and its representatives to understand the likely causes of events (such as natural and technological disasters) and to estimate the possible effects of projected policies. Often they can testify to what is not possible. Even so, scientists can seldom bring definitive answers to matters of public debate. Some issues are too complex to fit within the current scope of science, or there may be little reliable information available, or the values involved may lie outside of science. Scientists and technologists strive to find an answer to the growing energy demand

  16. LPG world supply and demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, Ch.

    2008-01-01

    Over the course of this decade, the global LPG market has moved from being tight, where supply barely exceeded non-price sensitive demand, to the current market situation where supply growth has outstripped demand growth to such an extent that current fundamentals suggest that considerable length will prevail in the market over the near term. As is the case for many other energy commodity markets, the LPG industry has experienced a considerable transformation over the last five years with many new LPG supply projects coming on-stream and demand growth in many developing markets slowing in response to higher energy prices. The near term challenge for LPG producers will be securing outlets for output as the market becomes increasingly oversupplied. With expanding LPG supply and a worldwide tightness in the naphtha market, it is expected that petrochemical consumers will favor relatively low priced LPG over naphtha and the resulting increase in LPG cracking rates will go some way to reducing the expected supply surplus. However, the timing of several new LPG supply projects and the start-up of LPG-based petrochemical plants in the Middle-East are expected to impact global LPG trade and pricing over the next few years. Thus, at this point in time, the global LPG market has a high degree of uncertainty with questions remaining over the impact of high energy (and LPG) prices on traditional and developing market demand, the timing of new supply projects and the combined effect of these two factors on international LPG prices. World LPG production has been rising in nearly every region of the world over the last few years and totaled about 229 million tons in 2007, which is some 30 million tons per year higher than in 2000. The exception is North America which accounts for the largest share of global LPG supply at about 24% but production there has remained relatively flat in recent years. Strong LPG production growth in the Middle-East which contributed to about 19% of

  17. World oil supply and demand'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    Apart from a collapse of oil and gas consumption in the CIS, a strong increase in demand in the newly industrialized countries and an upward trend in the OECD countries are observed. Non-Opec supply continued to grow, with a production decline in Usa and Russia but a record production level in the North Sea and a remarkable revival in South America (Colombia, Argentina) and Africa (Congo, Angola). In Opec countries, the trend goes from supply control to development of production capacity. Situations in Saudi Arabia, Iran and Iraq are detailed

  18. Predikanten in ballingschap. De carrièrekansen van Jean en Isaac Claude in de Republiek

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David van der Linden

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available After the revocation of the Edict of Nantes in 1685, over 400 Huguenot ministers made their way to the Dutch Republic in search of a new pulpit. They stood a good chance, because the Huguenot exodus resulted in a corresponding demand for French preachers, while Dutch authorities offered financial support. Yet a surplus of ministers also meant fierce competition over positions. The careers of Jean and Isaac Claude show that on this highly competitive market Huguenot ministers succeeded in gaining a position in the Dutch Republic by virtue of their reputation, networks, and religious and political ideas.

  19. Demand for abortion and post abortion care in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awoyemi, Bosede O; Novignon, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    While induced abortion is considered to be illegal and socially unacceptable in Nigeria, it is still practiced by many women in the country. Poor family planning and unsafe abortion practices have daunting effects on maternal health. For instance, Nigeria is on the verge of not meeting the Millennium development goals on maternal health due to high maternal mortality ratio, estimated to be about 630 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births. Recent evidences have shown that a major factor in this trend is the high incidence of abortion in the country. The objective of this paper is, therefore, to investigate the factors determining the demand for abortion and post-abortion care in Ibadan city of Nigeria. The study employed data from a hospital-based/exploratory survey carried out between March to September 2010. Closed ended questionnaires were administered to a sample of 384 women of reproductive age from three hospitals within the Ibadan metropolis in South West Nigeria. However, only 308 valid responses were received and analysed. A probit model was fitted to determine the socioeconomic factors that influence demand for abortion and post-abortion care. The results showed that 62% of respondents demanded for abortion while 52.3% of those that demanded for abortion received post-abortion care. The findings again showed that income was a significant determinant of abortion and post-abortion care demand. Women with higher income were more likely to demand abortion and post-abortion care. Married women were found to be less likely to demand for abortion and post-abortion care. Older women were significantly less likely to demand for abortion and post-abortion care. Mothers' education was only statistically significant in determining abortion demand but not post-abortion care demand. The findings suggest that while abortion is illegal in Nigeria, some women in the Ibadan city do abort unwanted pregnancies. The consequence of this in the absence of proper post

  20. Demand for abortion and post abortion care in Ibadan, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background While induced abortion is considered to be illegal and socially unacceptable in Nigeria, it is still practiced by many women in the country. Poor family planning and unsafe abortion practices have daunting effects on maternal health. For instance, Nigeria is on the verge of not meeting the Millennium development goals on maternal health due to high maternal mortality ratio, estimated to be about 630 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births. Recent evidences have shown that a major factor in this trend is the high incidence of abortion in the country. The objective of this paper is, therefore, to investigate the factors determining the demand for abortion and post-abortion care in Ibadan city of Nigeria. Methods The study employed data from a hospital-based/exploratory survey carried out between March to September 2010. Closed ended questionnaires were administered to a sample of 384 women of reproductive age from three hospitals within the Ibadan metropolis in South West Nigeria. However, only 308 valid responses were received and analysed. A probit model was fitted to determine the socioeconomic factors that influence demand for abortion and post-abortion care. Results The results showed that 62% of respondents demanded for abortion while 52.3% of those that demanded for abortion received post-abortion care. The findings again showed that income was a significant determinant of abortion and post-abortion care demand. Women with higher income were more likely to demand abortion and post-abortion care. Married women were found to be less likely to demand for abortion and post-abortion care. Older women were significantly less likely to demand for abortion and post-abortion care. Mothers’ education was only statistically significant in determining abortion demand but not post-abortion care demand. Conclusion The findings suggest that while abortion is illegal in Nigeria, some women in the Ibadan city do abort unwanted pregnancies. The consequence of this