WorldWideScience

Sample records for network based traffic

  1. Consensus-Based Cooperative Control Based on Pollution Sensing and Traffic Information for Urban Traffic Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Artuñedo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays many studies are being conducted to develop solutions for improving the performance of urban traffic networks. One of the main challenges is the necessary cooperation among different entities such as vehicles or infrastructure systems and how to exploit the information available through networks of sensors deployed as infrastructures for smart cities. In this work an algorithm for cooperative control of urban subsystems is proposed to provide a solution for mobility problems in cities. The interconnected traffic lights controller (TLC network adapts traffic lights cycles, based on traffic and air pollution sensory information, in order to improve the performance of urban traffic networks. The presence of air pollution in cities is not only caused by road traffic but there are other pollution sources that contribute to increase or decrease the pollution level. Due to the distributed and heterogeneous nature of the different components involved, a system of systems engineering approach is applied to design a consensus-based control algorithm. The designed control strategy contains a consensus-based component that uses the information shared in the network for reaching a consensus in the state of TLC network components. Discrete event systems specification is applied for modelling and simulation. The proposed solution is assessed by simulation studies with very promising results to deal with simultaneous responses to both pollution levels and traffic flows in urban traffic networks.

  2. Consensus-Based Cooperative Control Based on Pollution Sensing and Traffic Information for Urban Traffic Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artuñedo, Antonio; Del Toro, Raúl M; Haber, Rodolfo E

    2017-04-26

    Nowadays many studies are being conducted to develop solutions for improving the performance of urban traffic networks. One of the main challenges is the necessary cooperation among different entities such as vehicles or infrastructure systems and how to exploit the information available through networks of sensors deployed as infrastructures for smart cities. In this work an algorithm for cooperative control of urban subsystems is proposed to provide a solution for mobility problems in cities. The interconnected traffic lights controller ( TLC ) network adapts traffic lights cycles, based on traffic and air pollution sensory information, in order to improve the performance of urban traffic networks. The presence of air pollution in cities is not only caused by road traffic but there are other pollution sources that contribute to increase or decrease the pollution level. Due to the distributed and heterogeneous nature of the different components involved, a system of systems engineering approach is applied to design a consensus-based control algorithm. The designed control strategy contains a consensus-based component that uses the information shared in the network for reaching a consensus in the state of TLC network components. Discrete event systems specification is applied for modelling and simulation. The proposed solution is assessed by simulation studies with very promising results to deal with simultaneous responses to both pollution levels and traffic flows in urban traffic networks.

  3. Traffic sign recognition based on deep convolutional neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Shi-hao; Deng, Ji-cai; Zhang, Da-wei; Du, Jing-yuan

    2017-11-01

    Traffic sign recognition (TSR) is an important component of automated driving systems. It is a rather challenging task to design a high-performance classifier for the TSR system. In this paper, we propose a new method for TSR system based on deep convolutional neural network. In order to enhance the expression of the network, a novel structure (dubbed block-layer below) which combines network-in-network and residual connection is designed. Our network has 10 layers with parameters (block-layer seen as a single layer): the first seven are alternate convolutional layers and block-layers, and the remaining three are fully-connected layers. We train our TSR network on the German traffic sign recognition benchmark (GTSRB) dataset. To reduce overfitting, we perform data augmentation on the training images and employ a regularization method named "dropout". The activation function we employ in our network adopts scaled exponential linear units (SELUs), which can induce self-normalizing properties. To speed up the training, we use an efficient GPU to accelerate the convolutional operation. On the test dataset of GTSRB, we achieve the accuracy rate of 99.67%, exceeding the state-of-the-art results.

  4. Dynamic Traffic Congestion Simulation and Dissipation Control Based on Traffic Flow Theory Model and Neural Network Data Calibration Algorithm

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    Li Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic congestion is a common problem in many countries, especially in big cities. At present, China’s urban road traffic accidents occur frequently, the occurrence frequency is high, the accident causes traffic congestion, and accidents cause traffic congestion and vice versa. The occurrence of traffic accidents usually leads to the reduction of road traffic capacity and the formation of traffic bottlenecks, causing the traffic congestion. In this paper, the formation and propagation of traffic congestion are simulated by using the improved medium traffic model, and the control strategy of congestion dissipation is studied. From the point of view of quantitative traffic congestion, the paper provides the fact that the simulation platform of urban traffic integration is constructed, and a feasible data analysis, learning, and parameter calibration method based on RBF neural network is proposed, which is used to determine the corresponding decision support system. The simulation results prove that the control strategy proposed in this paper is effective and feasible. According to the temporal and spatial evolution of the paper, we can see that the network has been improved on the whole.

  5. Network Traffic Prediction Based on Deep Belief Network and Spatiotemporal Compressive Sensing in Wireless Mesh Backbone Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laisen Nie

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless mesh network is prevalent for providing a decentralized access for users and other intelligent devices. Meanwhile, it can be employed as the infrastructure of the last few miles connectivity for various network applications, for example, Internet of Things (IoT and mobile networks. For a wireless mesh backbone network, it has obtained extensive attention because of its large capacity and low cost. Network traffic prediction is important for network planning and routing configurations that are implemented to improve the quality of service for users. This paper proposes a network traffic prediction method based on a deep learning architecture and the Spatiotemporal Compressive Sensing method. The proposed method first adopts discrete wavelet transform to extract the low-pass component of network traffic that describes the long-range dependence of itself. Then, a prediction model is built by learning a deep architecture based on the deep belief network from the extracted low-pass component. Otherwise, for the remaining high-pass component that expresses the gusty and irregular fluctuations of network traffic, the Spatiotemporal Compressive Sensing method is adopted to predict it. Based on the predictors of two components, we can obtain a predictor of network traffic. From the simulation, the proposed prediction method outperforms three existing methods.

  6. Traffic Congestion Evaluation and Signal Control Optimization Based on Wireless Sensor Networks: Model and Algorithms

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    Wei Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the model and algorithms for traffic flow data monitoring and optimal traffic light control based on wireless sensor networks. Given the scenario that sensor nodes are sparsely deployed along the segments between signalized intersections, an analytical model is built using continuum traffic equation and develops the method to estimate traffic parameter with the scattered sensor data. Based on the traffic data and principle of traffic congestion formation, we introduce the congestion factor which can be used to evaluate the real-time traffic congestion status along the segment and to predict the subcritical state of traffic jams. The result is expected to support the timing phase optimization of traffic light control for the purpose of avoiding traffic congestion before its formation. We simulate the traffic monitoring based on the Mobile Century dataset and analyze the performance of traffic light control on VISSIM platform when congestion factor is introduced into the signal timing optimization model. The simulation result shows that this method can improve the spatial-temporal resolution of traffic data monitoring and evaluate traffic congestion status with high precision. It is helpful to remarkably alleviate urban traffic congestion and decrease the average traffic delays and maximum queue length.

  7. Weighted Networks Model Based on Traffic Dynamics with Local Perturbation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Hui; Gao Ziyou

    2007-01-01

    In the study of weighted complex networks, the interplay between traffic and topology have been paid much attention. However, the variation of topology and weight brought by new added vertices or edges should also be considered. In this paper, an evolution model of weighted networks driven by traffic dynamics with local perturbation is proposed. The model gives power-law distribution of degree, weight and strength, as confirmed by empirical measurements. By choosing appropriate parameters W and δ, the exponents of various power law distributions can be adjusted to meet real world networks. Nontrivial clustering coefficient C, degree assortativity coefficient r, and strength-degree correlation are also considered. What should be emphasized is that, with the consideration of local perturbation, one can adjust the exponent of strength-degree correlation more effectively. It makes our model more general than previous ones and may help reproducing real world networks more appropriately.

  8. FPGA Based Real-time Network Traffic Analysis using Traffic Dispersion Patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, F; Gokhale, M; Chuah, C N

    2010-03-26

    The problem of Network Traffic Classification (NTC) has attracted significant amount of interest in the research community, offering a wide range of solutions at various levels. The core challenge is in addressing high amounts of traffic diversity found in today's networks. The problem becomes more challenging if a quick detection is required as in the case of identifying malicious network behavior or new applications like peer-to-peer traffic that have potential to quickly throttle the network bandwidth or cause significant damage. Recently, Traffic Dispersion Graphs (TDGs) have been introduced as a viable candidate for NTC. The TDGs work by forming a network wide communication graphs that embed characteristic patterns of underlying network applications. However, these patterns need to be quickly evaluated for mounting real-time response against them. This paper addresses these concerns and presents a novel solution for real-time analysis of Traffic Dispersion Metrics (TDMs) in the TDGs. We evaluate the dispersion metrics of interest and present a dedicated solution on an FPGA for their analysis. We also present analytical measures and empirically evaluate operating effectiveness of our design. The mapped design on Virtex-5 device can process 7.4 million packets/second for a TDG comprising of 10k flows at very high accuracies of over 96%.

  9. IPTV traffic management using topology-based hierarchical scheduling in Carrier Ethernet transport networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Hao; Yan, Ying; Berger, Michael Stubert

    2009-01-01

    of Service (QoS) provisioning abilities, which guarantee end-to-end performances of voice, video and data traffic delivered over networks. This paper introduces a topology-based hierarchical scheduler scheme, which controls the incoming traffic at the edge of the network based on the network topology....... This work has been carried out as a part of the research project HIPT (High quality IP network for IPTV and VoIP) founded by Danish Advanced Technology Foundation....

  10. Variable speed limit strategies analysis with mesoscopic traffic flow model based on complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shu-Bin; Cao, Dan-Ni; Dang, Wen-Xiu; Zhang, Lin

    As a new cross-discipline, the complexity science has penetrated into every field of economy and society. With the arrival of big data, the research of the complexity science has reached its summit again. In recent years, it offers a new perspective for traffic control by using complex networks theory. The interaction course of various kinds of information in traffic system forms a huge complex system. A new mesoscopic traffic flow model is improved with variable speed limit (VSL), and the simulation process is designed, which is based on the complex networks theory combined with the proposed model. This paper studies effect of VSL on the dynamic traffic flow, and then analyzes the optimal control strategy of VSL in different network topologies. The conclusion of this research is meaningful to put forward some reasonable transportation plan and develop effective traffic management and control measures to help the department of traffic management.

  11. Next generation network based carrier ethernet test bed for IPTV traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fu, Rong; Berger, Michael Stübert; Zheng, Yu

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a Carrier Ethernet (CE) test bed based on the Next Generation Network (NGN) framework. After the concept of CE carried out by Metro Ethernet Forum (MEF), the carrier-grade Ethernet are obtaining more and more interests and being investigated as the low cost and high performanc...... services of transport network to carry the IPTV traffic. This test bed is approaching to support the research on providing a high performance carrier-grade Ethernet transport network for IPTV traffic....

  12. Understanding structure of urban traffic network based on spatial-temporal correlation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yanfang; Jia, Limin; Qin, Yong; Han, Shixiu; Dong, Honghui

    2017-08-01

    Understanding the structural characteristics of urban traffic network comprehensively can provide references for improving road utilization rate and alleviating traffic congestion. This paper focuses on the spatial-temporal correlations between different pairs of traffic series and proposes a complex network-based method of constructing the urban traffic network. In the network, the nodes represent road segments, and an edge between a pair of nodes is added depending on the result of significance test for the corresponding spatial-temporal correlation. Further, a modified PageRank algorithm, named the geographical weight-based PageRank algorithm (GWPA), is proposed to analyze the spatial distribution of important segments in the road network. Finally, experiments are conducted by using three kinds of traffic series collected from the urban road network in Beijing. Experimental results show that the urban traffic networks constructed by three traffic variables all indicate both small-world and scale-free characteristics. Compared with the results of PageRank algorithm, GWPA is proved to be valid in evaluating the importance of segments and identifying the important segments with small degree.

  13. Entropy Based Analysis of DNS Query Traffic in the Campus Network

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    Dennis Arturo Ludeña Romaña

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available We carried out the entropy based study on the DNS query traffic from the campus network in a university through January 1st, 2006 to March 31st, 2007. The results are summarized, as follows: (1 The source IP addresses- and query keyword-based entropies change symmetrically in the DNS query traffic from the outside of the campus network when detecting the spam bot activity on the campus network. On the other hand (2, the source IP addresses- and query keywordbased entropies change similarly each other when detecting big DNS query traffic caused by prescanning or distributed denial of service (DDoS attack from the campus network. Therefore, we can detect the spam bot and/or DDoS attack bot by only watching DNS query access traffic.

  14. Traffic allocation strategies in WSS-based dynamic optical networks

    OpenAIRE

    Shakeri, Ali; Garrich, Miquel; Bravalheri, Anderson; Careglio, Davide; Solé Pareta, Josep; Fumagalli, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Elastic optical networking (EON) is a viable solution to meet future dynamic capacity requirements of Internet service provider and inter-datacenter networks. At the core of EON, wavelength selective switches (WSSs) are applied to individually route optical circuits, while assigning an arbitrary bandwidth to each circuit. Critically, the WSS control scheme and configuration time may delay the creation time of each circuit in the network. In this paper, we first detail the WSS-based optical da...

  15. A Wavelet Analysis-Based Dynamic Prediction Algorithm to Network Traffic

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    Meng Fan-Bo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Network traffic is a significantly important parameter for network traffic engineering, while it holds highly dynamic nature in the network. Accordingly, it is difficult and impossible to directly predict traffic amount of end-to-end flows. This paper proposes a new prediction algorithm to network traffic using the wavelet analysis. Firstly, network traffic is converted into the time-frequency domain to capture time-frequency feature of network traffic. Secondly, in different frequency components, we model network traffic in the time-frequency domain. Finally, we build the prediction model about network traffic. At the same time, the corresponding prediction algorithm is presented to attain network traffic prediction. Simulation results indicates that our approach is promising.

  16. Traffic Command Gesture Recognition for Virtual Urban Scenes Based on a Spatiotemporal Convolution Neural Network

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    Chunyong Ma

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Intelligent recognition of traffic police command gestures increases authenticity and interactivity in virtual urban scenes. To actualize real-time traffic gesture recognition, a novel spatiotemporal convolution neural network (ST-CNN model is presented. We utilized Kinect 2.0 to construct a traffic police command gesture skeleton (TPCGS dataset collected from 10 volunteers. Subsequently, convolution operations on the locational change of each skeletal point were performed to extract temporal features, analyze the relative positions of skeletal points, and extract spatial features. After temporal and spatial features based on the three-dimensional positional information of traffic police skeleton points were extracted, the ST-CNN model classified positional information into eight types of Chinese traffic police gestures. The test accuracy of the ST-CNN model was 96.67%. In addition, a virtual urban traffic scene in which real-time command tests were carried out was set up, and a real-time test accuracy rate of 93.0% was achieved. The proposed ST-CNN model ensured a high level of accuracy and robustness. The ST-CNN model recognized traffic command gestures, and such recognition was found to control vehicles in virtual traffic environments, which enriches the interactive mode of the virtual city scene. Traffic command gesture recognition contributes to smart city construction.

  17. Characterization and Modeling of Network Traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shawky, Ahmed; Bergheim, Hans; Ragnarsson, Olafur

    2011-01-01

    This paper attempts to characterize and model backbone network traffic, using a small number of statistics. In order to reduce cost and processing power associated with traffic analysis. The parameters affecting the behaviour of network traffic are investigated and the choice is that inter......-arrival time, IP addresses, port numbers and transport protocol are the only necessary parameters to model network traffic behaviour. In order to recreate this behaviour, a complex model is needed which is able to recreate traffic behaviour based on a set of statistics calculated from the parameters values....... The model investigates the traffic generation mechanisms, and grouping traffic into flows and applications....

  18. Protocol vulnerability detection based on network traffic analysis and binary reverse engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Shameng; Meng, Qingkun; Feng, Chao; Tang, Chaojing

    2017-01-01

    Network protocol vulnerability detection plays an important role in many domains, including protocol security analysis, application security, and network intrusion detection. In this study, by analyzing the general fuzzing method of network protocols, we propose a novel approach that combines network traffic analysis with the binary reverse engineering method. For network traffic analysis, the block-based protocol description language is introduced to construct test scripts, while the binary reverse engineering method employs the genetic algorithm with a fitness function designed to focus on code coverage. This combination leads to a substantial improvement in fuzz testing for network protocols. We build a prototype system and use it to test several real-world network protocol implementations. The experimental results show that the proposed approach detects vulnerabilities more efficiently and effectively than general fuzzing methods such as SPIKE.

  19. Protocol vulnerability detection based on network traffic analysis and binary reverse engineering.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shameng Wen

    Full Text Available Network protocol vulnerability detection plays an important role in many domains, including protocol security analysis, application security, and network intrusion detection. In this study, by analyzing the general fuzzing method of network protocols, we propose a novel approach that combines network traffic analysis with the binary reverse engineering method. For network traffic analysis, the block-based protocol description language is introduced to construct test scripts, while the binary reverse engineering method employs the genetic algorithm with a fitness function designed to focus on code coverage. This combination leads to a substantial improvement in fuzz testing for network protocols. We build a prototype system and use it to test several real-world network protocol implementations. The experimental results show that the proposed approach detects vulnerabilities more efficiently and effectively than general fuzzing methods such as SPIKE.

  20. Efficient traffic grooming with dynamic ONU grouping for multiple-OLT-based access network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shizong; Gu, Rentao; Ji, Yuefeng; Wang, Hongxiang

    2015-12-01

    Fast bandwidth growth urges large-scale high-density access scenarios, where the multiple Passive Optical Networking (PON) system clustered deployment can be adopted as an appropriate solution to fulfill the huge bandwidth demands, especially for a future 5G mobile network. However, the lack of interaction between different optical line terminals (OLTs) results in part of the bandwidth resources waste. To increase the bandwidth efficiency, as well as reduce bandwidth pressure at the edge of a network, we propose a centralized flexible PON architecture based on Time- and Wavelength-Division Multiplexing PON (TWDM PON). It can provide flexible affiliation for optical network units (ONUs) and different OLTs to support access network traffic localization. Specifically, a dynamic ONU grouping algorithm (DGA) is provided to obtain the minimal OLT outbound traffic. Simulation results show that DGA obtains an average 25.23% traffic gain increment under different OLT numbers within a small ONU number situation, and the traffic gain will increase dramatically with the increment of the ONU number. As the DGA can be deployed easily as an application running above the centralized control plane, the proposed architecture can be helpful to improve the network efficiency for future traffic-intensive access scenarios.

  1. A Big Network Traffic Data Fusion Approach Based on Fisher and Deep Auto-Encoder

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    Xiaoling Tao

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Data fusion is usually performed prior to classification in order to reduce the input space. These dimensionality reduction techniques help to decline the complexity of the classification model and thus improve the classification performance. The traditional supervised methods demand labeled samples, and the current network traffic data mostly is not labeled. Thereby, better learners will be built by using both labeled and unlabeled data, than using each one alone. In this paper, a novel network traffic data fusion approach based on Fisher and deep auto-encoder (DFA-F-DAE is proposed to reduce the data dimensions and the complexity of computation. The experimental results show that the DFA-F-DAE improves the generalization ability of the three classification algorithms (J48, back propagation neural network (BPNN, and support vector machine (SVM by data dimensionality reduction. We found that the DFA-F-DAE remarkably improves the efficiency of big network traffic classification.

  2. Development of a Software Based Firewall System for Computer Network Traffic Control

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    Ikhajamgbe OYAKHILOME

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The connection of an internal network to an external network such as Internet has made it vulnerable to attacks. One class of network attack is unauthorized penetration into network due to the openness of networks. It is possible for hackers to sum access to an internal network, this pose great danger to the network and network resources. Our objective and major concern of network design was to build a secured network, based on software firewall that ensured the integrity and confidentiality of information on the network. We studied several mechanisms to achieve this; one of such mechanism is the implementation of firewall system as a network defence. Our developed firewall has the ability to determine which network traffic should be allowed in or out of the network. Part of our studied work was also channelled towards a comprehensive study of hardware firewall security system with the aim of developing this software based firewall system. Our software firewall goes a long way in protecting an internal network from external unauthorized traffic penetration. We included an anti virus software which is lacking in most firewalls.

  3. A Feature Selection Method for Large-Scale Network Traffic Classification Based on Spark

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    Yong Wang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Currently, with the rapid increasing of data scales in network traffic classifications, how to select traffic features efficiently is becoming a big challenge. Although a number of traditional feature selection methods using the Hadoop-MapReduce framework have been proposed, the execution time was still unsatisfactory with numeral iterative computations during the processing. To address this issue, an efficient feature selection method for network traffic based on a new parallel computing framework called Spark is proposed in this paper. In our approach, the complete feature set is firstly preprocessed based on Fisher score, and a sequential forward search strategy is employed for subsets. The optimal feature subset is then selected using the continuous iterations of the Spark computing framework. The implementation demonstrates that, on the precondition of keeping the classification accuracy, our method reduces the time cost of modeling and classification, and improves the execution efficiency of feature selection significantly.

  4. Efficient IP Traffic over Optical Network Based on Wavelength Translation Switching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jha, Vikas; Kalia, Kartik; Chowdhary, Bhawani Shankar

    2016-01-01

    With the advent of TCP/IP protocol suite the overall era of communication technologies had been redefined. Now, we can’t ignore the presence of huge amount of IP traffic; data, voice or video increasing day by day creating more pressure on existing communicating media and supporting back bone....... With the humongous popularity of Internet the overall traffic on Internet has the same story. Focusing on transmission of IP traffic in an optical network with signals remaining in their optical nature generated at particular wavelength, proposed is the switching of optically generated IP packets through optical...... cross connects based on translation of wavelength when an IP packet is crossing the optical cross connect. Adding the concepts of layer 3 routing protocols along with the wavelength translation scheme, will help in spanning the overall optical network for a larger area....

  5. Traffic Flow Prediction Model for Large-Scale Road Network Based on Cloud Computing

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    Zhaosheng Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To increase the efficiency and precision of large-scale road network traffic flow prediction, a genetic algorithm-support vector machine (GA-SVM model based on cloud computing is proposed in this paper, which is based on the analysis of the characteristics and defects of genetic algorithm and support vector machine. In cloud computing environment, firstly, SVM parameters are optimized by the parallel genetic algorithm, and then this optimized parallel SVM model is used to predict traffic flow. On the basis of the traffic flow data of Haizhu District in Guangzhou City, the proposed model was verified and compared with the serial GA-SVM model and parallel GA-SVM model based on MPI (message passing interface. The results demonstrate that the parallel GA-SVM model based on cloud computing has higher prediction accuracy, shorter running time, and higher speedup.

  6. Self-Adapting Routing Overlay Network for Frequently Changing Application Traffic in Content-Based Publish/Subscribe System

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    Meng Chi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the large-scale distributed simulation area, the topology of the overlay network cannot always rapidly adapt to frequently changing application traffic to reduce the overall traffic cost. In this paper, we propose a self-adapting routing strategy for frequently changing application traffic in content-based publish/subscribe system. The strategy firstly trains the traffic information and then uses this training information to predict the application traffic in the future. Finally, the strategy reconfigures the topology of the overlay network based on this predicting information to reduce the overall traffic cost. A predicting path is also introduced in this paper to reduce the reconfiguration numbers in the process of the reconfigurations. Compared to other strategies, the experimental results show that the strategy proposed in this paper could reduce the overall traffic cost of the publish/subscribe system in less reconfigurations.

  7. Wireless traffic steering for green cellular networks

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Shan; Zhou, Sheng; Niu, Zhisheng; Shen, Xuemin (Sherman)

    2016-01-01

    This book introduces wireless traffic steering as a paradigm to realize green communication in multi-tier heterogeneous cellular networks. By matching network resources and dynamic mobile traffic demand, traffic steering helps to reduce on-grid power consumption with on-demand services provided. This book reviews existing solutions from the perspectives of energy consumption reduction and renewable energy harvesting. Specifically, it explains how traffic steering can improve energy efficiency through intelligent traffic-resource matching. Several promising traffic steering approaches for dynamic network planning and renewable energy demand-supply balancing are discussed. This book presents an energy-aware traffic steering method for networks with energy harvesting, which optimizes the traffic allocated to each cell based on the renewable energy status. Renewable energy demand-supply balancing is a key factor in energy dynamics, aimed at enhancing renewable energy sustainability to reduce on-grid energy consum...

  8. Receiver Based Traffic Control Mechanism to Protect Low Capacity Network in Infrastructure Based Wireless Mesh Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilani, Syed Sherjeel Ahmad; Zubair, Muhammad; Khan, Zeeshan Shafi

    Infrastructure-based Wireless Mesh Networks are emerging as an affordable, robust, flexible and scalable technology. With the advent of Wireless Mesh Networks (WMNs) the dream of connecting multiple technology based networks seems to come true. A fully secure WMN is still a challenge for the researchers. In infrastructure-based WMNs almost all types of existing Wireless Networks like Wi-Fi, Cellular, WiMAX, and Sensor etc can be connected through Wireless Mesh Routers (WMRs). This situation can lead to a security problem. Some nodes can be part of the network with high processing power, large memory and least energy issues while others may belong to a network having low processing power, small memory and serious energy limitations. The later type of the nodes is very much vulnerable to targeted attacks. In our research we have suggested to set some rules on the WMR to mitigate these kinds of targeted flooding attacks. The WMR will then share those set of rules with other WMRs for Effective Utilization of Resources.

  9. Threshold based AntNet algorithm for dynamic traffic routing of road networks

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    Ayman M. Ghazy

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic routing algorithms play an important role in road traffic routing to avoid congestion and to direct vehicles to better routes. AntNet routing algorithms have been applied, extensively and successfully, in data communication network. However, its application for dynamic routing on road networks is still considerably limited. This paper presents a modified version of the AntNet routing algorithm, called “Threshold based AntNet”, that has the ability to efficiently utilize a priori information of dynamic traffic routing, especially, for road networks. The modification exploits the practical and pre-known information for most road traffic networks, namely, the good travel times between sources and destinations. The values of those good travel times are manipulated as threshold values. This approach has proven to conserve tracking of good routes. According to the dynamic nature of the problem, the presented approach guards the agility of rediscovering a good route. Attaining the thresholds (good reported travel times, of a given source to destination route, permits for a better utilization of the computational resources, that, leads to better accommodation for the network changes. The presented algorithm introduces a new type of ants called “check ants”. It assists in preserving good routes and, better yet, exposes and discards the degraded ones. The threshold AntNet algorithm presents a new strategy for updating the routing information, supported by the backward ants.

  10. A method for classification of network traffic based on C5.0 Machine Learning Algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bujlow, Tomasz; Riaz, M. Tahir; Pedersen, Jens Myrup

    2012-01-01

    current network traffic. To overcome the drawbacks of existing methods for traffic classification, usage of C5.0 Machine Learning Algorithm (MLA) was proposed. On the basis of statistical traffic information received from volunteers and C5.0 algorithm we constructed a boosted classifier, which was shown...

  11. Traffic Management for Satellite-ATM Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Rohit; Jain, Raj; Fahmy, Sonia; Vandalore, Bobby; Goyal, Mukul

    1998-01-01

    Various issues associated with "Traffic Management for Satellite-ATM Networks" are presented in viewgraph form. Specific topics include: 1) Traffic management issues for TCP/IP based data services over satellite-ATM networks; 2) Design issues for TCP/IP over ATM; 3) Optimization of the performance of TCP/IP over ATM for long delay networks; and 4) Evaluation of ATM service categories for TCP/IP traffic.

  12. Model for Detection and Classification of DDoS Traffic Based on Artificial Neural Network

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    D. Peraković

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Detection of DDoS (Distributed Denial of Service traffic is of great importance for the availability protection of services and other information and communication resources. The research presented in this paper shows the application of artificial neural networks in the development of detection and classification model for three types of DDoS attacks and legitimate network traffic. Simulation results of developed model showed accuracy of 95.6% in classification of pre-defined classes of traffic.

  13. Classification and Analysis of Computer Network Traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bujlow, Tomasz

    2014-01-01

    for traffic classification, which can be used for nearly real-time processing of big amounts of data using affordable CPU and memory resources. Other questions are related to methods for real-time estimation of the application Quality of Service (QoS) level based on the results obtained by the traffic...... to create realistic traffic profiles of the selected applications, which can server as the training data for MLAs. We assessed the usefulness of C5.0 Machine Learning Algorithm (MLA) in the classification of computer network traffic. We showed that the application-layer payload is not needed to train the C5......Traffic monitoring and analysis can be done for multiple different reasons: to investigate the usage of network resources, assess the performance of network applications, adjust Quality of Service (QoS) policies in the network, log the traffic to comply with the law, or create realistic models...

  14. Analysis of Traffic Engineering capabilities for SDN-based Data Center Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilimon, Artur; Kentis, Angelos Mimidis; Ruepp, Sarah Renée

    2018-01-01

    techniques focusing on their limitations. Then, it highlights the benefits of incorporating the Software Defined Networking (SDN) paradigm to address these limitations. Furthermore, it illustrates two methodologies and addresses the scalability aspect of DCN-oriented TE, network and service testing...... Center Networks (DCN), thus creating the need to evolve them. Traffic Engineering (TE) has long been the way of attacking this problem, but as with DCN, needs to evolve by encompassing new technologies and paradigms. This paper provides a comprehensive analysis of current DCN operational and TE......In the recent years more and more existing services have moved from local execution environments into the cloud. In addition, new cloud-based services are emerging, which are characterized by very stringent delay requirements. This trend puts a stress in the existing monolithic architecture of Data...

  15. Adaptive EWMA Method Based on Abnormal Network Traffic for LDoS Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Tang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The low-rate denial of service (LDoS attacks reduce network services capabilities by periodically sending high intensity pulse data flows. For their concealed performance, it is more difficult for traditional DoS detection methods to detect LDoS attacks; at the same time the accuracy of the current detection methods for LDoS attacks is relatively low. As the fact that LDoS attacks led to abnormal distribution of the ACK traffic, LDoS attacks can be detected by analyzing the distribution characteristics of ACK traffic. Then traditional EWMA algorithm which can smooth the accidental error while being the same as the exceptional mutation may cause some misjudgment; therefore a new LDoS detection method based on adaptive EWMA (AEWMA algorithm is proposed. The AEWMA algorithm which uses an adaptive weighting function instead of the constant weighting of EWMA algorithm can smooth the accidental error and retain the exceptional mutation. So AEWMA method is more beneficial than EWMA method for analyzing and measuring the abnormal distribution of ACK traffic. The NS2 simulations show that AEWMA method can detect LDoS attacks effectively and has a low false negative rate and a false positive rate. Based on DARPA99 datasets, experiment results show that AEWMA method is more efficient than EWMA method.

  16. Energy Saving Scheme Based On Traffic Forwarding For Optical Fiber Access Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopez, G. Arturo Rodes; Estaran Tolosa, Jose Manuel; Vegas Olmos, Juan José

    2013-01-01

    We report on an energy saving block that regroups and powers off OLTs during low traffic periods, resulting in energy savings up to 87,5% in the central office of optical access networks.......We report on an energy saving block that regroups and powers off OLTs during low traffic periods, resulting in energy savings up to 87,5% in the central office of optical access networks....

  17. Analysis of Roadway Traffic Accidents Based on Rough Sets and Bayesian Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxia Xiong

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper integrates Rough Sets (RS and Bayesian Networks (BN for roadway traffic accident analysis. RS reduction of attributes is first employed to generate the key set of attributes affecting accident outcomes, which are then fed into a BN structure as nodes for BN construction and accident outcome classification. Such RS-based BN framework combines the advantages of RS in knowledge reduction capability and BN in describing interrelationships among different attributes. The framework is demonstrated using the 100-car naturalistic driving data from Virginia Tech Transportation Institute to predict accident type. Comparative evaluation with the baseline BNs shows the RS-based BNs generally have a higher prediction accuracy and lower network complexity while with comparable prediction coverage and receiver operating characteristic curve area, proving that the proposed RS-based BN overall outperforms the BNs with/without traditional feature selection approaches. The proposed RS-based BN indicates the most significant attributes that affect accident types include pre-crash manoeuvre, driver’s attention from forward roadway to centre mirror, number of secondary tasks undertaken, traffic density, and relation to junction, most of which feature pre-crash driver states and driver behaviours that have not been extensively researched in literature, and could give further insight into the nature of traffic accidents.

  18. Implementation of a FPGA-Based Feature Detection and Networking System for Real-time Traffic Monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Jieshi; Schafer, Benjamin Carrion; Ho, Ivan Wang-Hei

    2016-01-01

    With the growing demand of real-time traffic monitoring nowadays, software-based image processing can hardly meet the real-time data processing requirement due to the serial data processing nature. In this paper, the implementation of a hardware-based feature detection and networking system prototype for real-time traffic monitoring as well as data transmission is presented. The hardware architecture of the proposed system is mainly composed of three parts: data collection, feature detection,...

  19. Adaptive Correction Forecasting Approach for Urban Traffic Flow Based on Fuzzy c-Mean Clustering and Advanced Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Huang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Forecasting of urban traffic flow is important to intelligent transportation system (ITS developments and implementations. The precise forecasting of traffic flow will be pretty helpful to relax road traffic congestion. The accuracy of traditional single model without correction mechanism is poor. Summarizing the existing prediction models and considering the characteristics of the traffic itself, a traffic flow prediction model based on fuzzy c-mean clustering method (FCM and advanced neural network (NN was proposed. FCM can improve the prediction accuracy and robustness of the model, while advanced NN can optimize the generalization ability of the model. Besides these, the output value of the model is calibrated by the correction mechanism. The experimental results show that the proposed method has better prediction accuracy and robustness than the other models.

  20. The performance evaluation of a new neural network based traffic management scheme for a satellite communication network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Nirwan; Liu, Dequan

    1991-01-01

    A neural-network-based traffic management scheme for a satellite communication network is described. The scheme consists of two levels of management. The front end of the scheme is a derivation of Kohonen's self-organization model to configure maps for the satellite communication network dynamically. The model consists of three stages. The first stage is the pattern recognition task, in which an exemplar map that best meets the current network requirements is selected. The second stage is the analysis of the discrepancy between the chosen exemplar map and the state of the network, and the adaptive modification of the chosen exemplar map to conform closely to the network requirement (input data pattern) by means of Kohonen's self-organization. On the basis of certain performance criteria, whether a new map is generated to replace the original chosen map is decided in the third stage. A state-dependent routing algorithm, which arranges the incoming call to some proper path, is used to make the network more efficient and to lower the call block rate. Simulation results demonstrate that the scheme, which combines self-organization and the state-dependent routing mechanism, provides better performance in terms of call block rate than schemes that only have either the self-organization mechanism or the routing mechanism.

  1. A Space-Time Network-Based Modeling Framework for Dynamic Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Routing in Traffic Incident Monitoring Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jisheng Zhang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available It is essential for transportation management centers to equip and manage a network of fixed and mobile sensors in order to quickly detect traffic incidents and further monitor the related impact areas, especially for high-impact accidents with dramatic traffic congestion propagation. As emerging small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs start to have a more flexible regulation environment, it is critically important to fully explore the potential for of using UAVs for monitoring recurring and non-recurring traffic conditions and special events on transportation networks. This paper presents a space-time network- based modeling framework for integrated fixed and mobile sensor networks, in order to provide a rapid and systematic road traffic monitoring mechanism. By constructing a discretized space-time network to characterize not only the speed for UAVs but also the time-sensitive impact areas of traffic congestion, we formulate the problem as a linear integer programming model to minimize the detection delay cost and operational cost, subject to feasible flying route constraints. A Lagrangian relaxation solution framework is developed to decompose the original complex problem into a series of computationally efficient time-dependent and least cost path finding sub-problems. Several examples are used to demonstrate the results of proposed models in UAVs’ route planning for small and medium-scale networks.

  2. A Space-Time Network-Based Modeling Framework for Dynamic Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Routing in Traffic Incident Monitoring Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jisheng; Jia, Limin; Niu, Shuyun; Zhang, Fan; Tong, Lu; Zhou, Xuesong

    2015-06-12

    It is essential for transportation management centers to equip and manage a network of fixed and mobile sensors in order to quickly detect traffic incidents and further monitor the related impact areas, especially for high-impact accidents with dramatic traffic congestion propagation. As emerging small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) start to have a more flexible regulation environment, it is critically important to fully explore the potential for of using UAVs for monitoring recurring and non-recurring traffic conditions and special events on transportation networks. This paper presents a space-time network- based modeling framework for integrated fixed and mobile sensor networks, in order to provide a rapid and systematic road traffic monitoring mechanism. By constructing a discretized space-time network to characterize not only the speed for UAVs but also the time-sensitive impact areas of traffic congestion, we formulate the problem as a linear integer programming model to minimize the detection delay cost and operational cost, subject to feasible flying route constraints. A Lagrangian relaxation solution framework is developed to decompose the original complex problem into a series of computationally efficient time-dependent and least cost path finding sub-problems. Several examples are used to demonstrate the results of proposed models in UAVs' route planning for small and medium-scale networks.

  3. The Stability of Multi-modal Traffic Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Linghui; Sun Huijun; Zhu Chengjuan; Jia Bin; Wu Jianjun

    2013-01-01

    There is an explicit and implicit assumption in multimodal traffic equilibrium models, that is, if the equilibrium exists, then it will also occur. The assumption is very idealized; in fact, it may be shown that the quite contrary could happen, because in multimodal traffic network, especially in mixed traffic conditions the interaction among traffic modes is asymmetric and the asymmetric interaction may result in the instability of traffic system. In this paper, to study the stability of multimodal traffic system, we respectively present the travel cost function in mixed traffic conditions and in traffic network with dedicated bus lanes. Based on a day-to-day dynamical model, we study the evolution of daily route choice of travelers in multimodal traffic network using 10000 random initial values for different cases. From the results of simulation, it can be concluded that the asymmetric interaction between the cars and buses in mixed traffic conditions can lead the traffic system to instability when traffic demand is larger. We also study the effect of travelers' perception error on the stability of multimodal traffic network. Although the larger perception error can alleviate the effect of interaction between cars and buses and improve the stability of traffic system in mixed traffic conditions, the traffic system also become instable when the traffic demand is larger than a number. For all cases simulated in this study, with the same parameters, traffic system with dedicated bus lane has better stability for traffic demand than that in mixed traffic conditions. We also find that the network with dedicated bus lane has higher portion of travelers by bus than it of mixed traffic network. So it can be concluded that building dedicated bus lane can improve the stability of traffic system and attract more travelers to choose bus reducing the traffic congestion. (general)

  4. Multivariate correlation analysis technique based on euclidean distance map for network traffic characterization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, Zhiyuan; Jamdagni, Aruna; He, Xiangjian; Nanda, Priyadarsi; Liu, Ren Ping; Qing, Sihan; Susilo, Willy; Wang, Guilin; Liu, Dongmei

    2011-01-01

    The quality of feature has significant impact on the performance of detection techniques used for Denial-of-Service (DoS) attack. The features that fail to provide accurate characterization for network traffic records make the techniques suffer from low accuracy in detection. Although researches

  5. A cost-effective traffic data collection system based on the iDEN mobile telecommunication network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-01

    This report describes a cost-effective data collection system for Caltrans 170 traffic signal : controller. The data collection system is based on TCP/IP communication over existing : low-cost mobile communication networks and Motorola iDEN1 mobile...

  6. Agent-based traffic management and reinforcement learning in congested intersection network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    This study evaluates the performance of traffic control systems based on reinforcement learning (RL), also called approximate dynamic programming (ADP). Two algorithms have been selected for testing: 1) Q-learning and 2) approximate dynamic programmi...

  7. An Interference-Aware Traffic-Priority-Based Link Scheduling Algorithm for Interference Mitigation in Multiple Wireless Body Area Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thien T. T. Le

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently, wireless body area networks (WBANs are effectively used for health monitoring services. However, in cases where WBANs are densely deployed, interference among WBANs can cause serious degradation of network performance and reliability. Inter-WBAN interference can be reduced by scheduling the communication links of interfering WBANs. In this paper, we propose an interference-aware traffic-priority-based link scheduling (ITLS algorithm to overcome inter-WBAN interference in densely deployed WBANs. First, we model a network with multiple WBANs as an interference graph where node-level interference and traffic priority are taken into account. Second, we formulate link scheduling for multiple WBANs as an optimization model where the objective is to maximize the throughput of the entire network while ensuring the traffic priority of sensor nodes. Finally, we propose the ITLS algorithm for multiple WBANs on the basis of the optimization model. High spatial reuse is also achieved in the proposed ITLS algorithm. The proposed ITLS achieves high spatial reuse while considering traffic priority, packet length, and the number of interfered sensor nodes. Our simulation results show that the proposed ITLS significantly increases spatial reuse and network throughput with lower delay by mitigating inter-WBAN interference.

  8. Clustering-based classification of road traffic accidents using hierarchical clustering and artificial neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taamneh, Madhar; Taamneh, Salah; Alkheder, Sharaf

    2017-09-01

    Artificial neural networks (ANNs) have been widely used in predicting the severity of road traffic crashes. All available information about previously occurred accidents is typically used for building a single prediction model (i.e., classifier). Too little attention has been paid to the differences between these accidents, leading, in most cases, to build less accurate predictors. Hierarchical clustering is a well-known clustering method that seeks to group data by creating a hierarchy of clusters. Using hierarchical clustering and ANNs, a clustering-based classification approach for predicting the injury severity of road traffic accidents was proposed. About 6000 road accidents occurred over a six-year period from 2008 to 2013 in Abu Dhabi were used throughout this study. In order to reduce the amount of variation in data, hierarchical clustering was applied on the data set to organize it into six different forms, each with different number of clusters (i.e., clusters from 1 to 6). Two ANN models were subsequently built for each cluster of accidents in each generated form. The first model was built and validated using all accidents (training set), whereas only 66% of the accidents were used to build the second model, and the remaining 34% were used to test it (percentage split). Finally, the weighted average accuracy was computed for each type of models in each from of data. The results show that when testing the models using the training set, clustering prior to classification achieves (11%-16%) more accuracy than without using clustering, while the percentage split achieves (2%-5%) more accuracy. The results also suggest that partitioning the accidents into six clusters achieves the best accuracy if both types of models are taken into account.

  9. A Spike Neural Controller for Traffic Load Parameter with Priority-Based Rate in Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Adnan Shiltagh

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks (WMSNs are a type of sensor network that contains sensor nodes equipped with cameras, microphones; therefore the WMSNS are able to produce multimedia data such as video and audio streams, still images, and scalar data from the surrounding environment. Most multimedia applications typically produce huge volumes of data, this leads to congestion. To address this challenge, This paper proposes Modify Spike Neural Network control for Traffic Load Parameter with Exponential Weight of Priority Based Rate Control algorithm (MSNTLP with EWBPRC. The Modify Spike Neural Network controller (MSNC can calculate the appropriate traffic load parameter μ for each parent node and then use in the EWPBRC algorithm to estimate the transmission rate of parent nodes and then assign a suitable transmission rate for each child node. A comparative study between (MSNTLP with EWBPRC and fuzzy logic controller for traffic load parameter with Exponential Weight of Priority Based Rate Control algorithm (FTLP with EWBPRC algorithm shows that the (MSNTLP with EWBPRC is more efficient than (FTLP with EWBPRC algorithm in terms of packet loss, queue delay and throughput. Another comparative study between (MSNTLP with EWBPRC and EWBPRC with fixed traffic load parameter (µ shows that the MSNTLP with EWBPRC is more efficient than EWBPRC with fixed traffic load parameter (µ in terms of packet loss ratio and queue delay. A simulation process is developed and tested using the network simulator _2 (NS2 in a computer having the following properties: windows 7 (64-bit, core i7, RAM 8GB, hard 1TB.

  10. INCITE: Edge-based Traffic Processing and Inference for High-Performance Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baraniuk, Richard G.; Feng, Wu-chun; Cottrell, Les; Knightly, Edward; Nowak, Robert; Riedi, Rolf

    2005-06-20

    The INCITE (InterNet Control and Inference Tools at the Edge) Project developed on-line tools to characterize and map host and network performance as a function of space, time, application, protocol, and service. In addition to their utility for trouble-shooting problems, these tools will enable a new breed of applications and operating systems that are network aware and resource aware. Launching from the foundation provided our recent leading-edge research on network measurement, multifractal signal analysis, multiscale random fields, and quality of service, our effort consisted of three closely integrated research thrusts that directly attack several key networking challenges of DOE's SciDAC program. These are: Thrust 1, Multiscale traffic analysis and modeling techniques; Thrust 2, Inference and control algorithms for network paths, links, and routers, and Thrust 3, Data collection tools.

  11. Active Traffic Capture for Network Forensics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaviero, Marco; Granova, Anna; Olivier, Martin

    Network traffic capture is an integral part of network forensics, but current traffic capture techniques are typically passive in nature. Under heavy loads, it is possible for a sniffer to miss packets, which affects the quality of forensic evidence.

  12. Predicting Information Flows in Network Traffic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinich, Melvin J.; Molyneux, Robert E.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses information flow in networks and predicting network traffic and describes a study that uses time series analysis on a day's worth of Internet log data. Examines nonlinearity and traffic invariants, and suggests that prediction of network traffic may not be possible with current techniques. (Author/LRW)

  13. Network traffic anomaly prediction using Artificial Neural Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciptaningtyas, Hening Titi; Fatichah, Chastine; Sabila, Altea

    2017-03-01

    As the excessive increase of internet usage, the malicious software (malware) has also increase significantly. Malware is software developed by hacker for illegal purpose(s), such as stealing data and identity, causing computer damage, or denying service to other user[1]. Malware which attack computer or server often triggers network traffic anomaly phenomena. Based on Sophos's report[2], Indonesia is the riskiest country of malware attack and it also has high network traffic anomaly. This research uses Artificial Neural Network (ANN) to predict network traffic anomaly based on malware attack in Indonesia which is recorded by Id-SIRTII/CC (Indonesia Security Incident Response Team on Internet Infrastructure/Coordination Center). The case study is the highest malware attack (SQL injection) which has happened in three consecutive years: 2012, 2013, and 2014[4]. The data series is preprocessed first, then the network traffic anomaly is predicted using Artificial Neural Network and using two weight update algorithms: Gradient Descent and Momentum. Error of prediction is calculated using Mean Squared Error (MSE) [7]. The experimental result shows that MSE for SQL Injection is 0.03856. So, this approach can be used to predict network traffic anomaly.

  14. Network-Wide Traffic Anomaly Detection and Localization Based on Robust Multivariate Probabilistic Calibration Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuchong Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Network anomaly detection and localization are of great significance to network security. Compared with the traditional methods of host computer, single link and single path, the network-wide anomaly detection approaches have distinctive advantages with respect to detection precision and range. However, when facing the actual problems of noise interference or data loss, the network-wide anomaly detection approaches also suffer significant performance reduction or may even become unavailable. Besides, researches on anomaly localization are rare. In order to solve the mentioned problems, this paper presents a robust multivariate probabilistic calibration model for network-wide anomaly detection and localization. It applies the latent variable probability theory with multivariate t-distribution to establish the normal traffic model. Not only does the algorithm implement network anomaly detection by judging whether the sample’s Mahalanobis distance exceeds the threshold, but also it locates anomalies by contribution analysis. Both theoretical analysis and experimental results demonstrate its robustness and wider use. The algorithm is applicable when dealing with both data integrity and loss. It also has a stronger resistance over noise interference and lower sensitivity to the change of parameters, all of which indicate its performance stability.

  15. Machine learning for identifying botnet network traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stevanovic, Matija; Pedersen, Jens Myrup

    2013-01-01

    . Due to promise of non-invasive and resilient detection, botnet detection based on network traffic analysis has drawn a special attention of the research community. Furthermore, many authors have turned their attention to the use of machine learning algorithms as the mean of inferring botnet......-related knowledge from the monitored traffic. This paper presents a review of contemporary botnet detection methods that use machine learning as a tool of identifying botnet-related traffic. The main goal of the paper is to provide a comprehensive overview on the field by summarizing current scientific efforts....... The contribution of the paper is three-fold. First, the paper provides a detailed insight on the existing detection methods by investigating which bot-related heuristic were assumed by the detection systems and how different machine learning techniques were adapted in order to capture botnet-related knowledge...

  16. Traffic Dynamics of Computer Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekete, Attila

    2008-10-01

    Two important aspects of the Internet, namely the properties of its topology and the characteristics of its data traffic, have attracted growing attention of the physics community. My thesis has considered problems of both aspects. First I studied the stochastic behavior of TCP, the primary algorithm governing traffic in the current Internet, in an elementary network scenario consisting of a standalone infinite-sized buffer and an access link. The effect of the fast recovery and fast retransmission (FR/FR) algorithms is also considered. I showed that my model can be extended further to involve the effect of link propagation delay, characteristic of WAN. I continued my thesis with the investigation of finite-sized semi-bottleneck buffers, where packets can be dropped not only at the link, but also at the buffer. I demonstrated that the behavior of the system depends only on a certain combination of the parameters. Moreover, an analytic formula was derived that gives the ratio of packet loss rate at the buffer to the total packet loss rate. This formula makes it possible to treat buffer-losses as if they were link-losses. Finally, I studied computer networks from a structural perspective. I demonstrated through fluid simulations that the distribution of resources, specifically the link bandwidth, has a serious impact on the global performance of the network. Then I analyzed the distribution of edge betweenness in a growing scale-free tree under the condition that a local property, the in-degree of the "younger" node of an arbitrary edge, is known in order to find an optimum distribution of link capacity. The derived formula is exact even for finite-sized networks. I also calculated the conditional expectation of edge betweenness, rescaled for infinite networks.

  17. Routing strategies in traffic network and phase transition in network ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The dynamics of information traffic over scale-free networks has been investigated systematically. A series of routing strategies of data packets have been proposed, including the local routing strategy, the next-nearest-neighbour routing strategy, and the mixed routing strategy based on local static and dynamic information.

  18. Analysis of network traffic flow dynamics based on gravitational field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Gang; Li Yong-Shu; Zhang Xi-Ping

    2013-01-01

    For further research on the gravity mechanism of the routing protocol in complex networks, we introduce the concept of routing awareness depth, which is represented by ρ. On this basis, we define the calculation formula of the gravity of the transmission route for the packet, and propose a routing strategy based on the gravitational field of the node and the routing awareness depth. In order to characterize the efficiency of the method, we introduce an order parameter, ζ, to measure the throughput of the network by the critical value of phase transition from free flow to congestion, and use the node betweenness centrality, B, to test the transmission efficiency of the network and congestion distribution. We simulate the network transmission performance under different values of the routing awareness depth, ρ. Simulation results show that if the value of the routing awareness depth ρ is too small, then the gravity of the route is composed of the attraction of very few nodes on the route, which cannot improve the capacity of the network effectively. If the value of the routing awareness depth ρ is greater than the network's average distance 〈l〉, then the capacity of the network may be improved greatly and no longer change with the sustainable increment of routing awareness depth ρ, and the routing strategy performance enters into a constant state. Moreover, whatever the value of the routing awareness depth ρ, our algorithm always effectively balances the distribution of the betweenness centrality and realizes equal distribution of the network load

  19. Energy-efficient multicast traffic grooming strategy based on light-tree splitting for elastic optical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huanlin; Yin, Yarui; Chen, Yong

    2017-07-01

    In order to address the problem of optimizing the spectrum resources and power consumption in elastic optical networks (EONs), we investigate the potential gains by jointly employing the light-tree splitting and traffic grooming for multicast requests. An energy-efficient multicast traffic grooming strategy based on light-tree splitting (EED-MTGS-LS) is proposed in this paper. Firstly, we design a traffic pre-processing mechanism to decide the multicast requests' routing order, which considers the request's bandwidth requirement and physical hops synthetically. Then, by dividing a light-tree to some sub-light-trees and grooming the request to these sub-light-trees, the light-tree sharing ratios of multicast requests can be improved. What's more, a priority scheduling vector is constructed, which aims to improve the success rate of spectrum assignment for grooming requests. Finally, a grooming strategy is designed to optimize the total power consumption by reducing the use of transponders and IP routers during routing. Simulation results show that the proposed strategy can significantly improve the spectrum utilization and save the power consumption.

  20. Multicast traffic grooming in flexible optical WDM networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Ankitkumar N.; Ji, Philip N.; Jue, Jason P.; Wang, Ting

    2012-12-01

    In Metropolitan Area Networks (MANs), point-to-multipoint applications, such as IPTV, video-on-demand, distance learning, and content distribution, can be efficiently supported through light-tree-based multicastcommunications instead of lightpath-based unicast-communications. The application of multicasting for such traffic is justified by its inherent benefits of reduced control and management overhead and elimination of redundant resource provisioning. Supporting such multicast traffic in Flexible optical WDM (FWDM) networks that can provision light-trees using optimum amount of spectrum within flexible channel spacing leads to higher wavelength and spectral efficiencies compared to the conventional ITU-T fixed grid networks. However, in spite of such flexibility, the residual channel capacity of stranded channels may not be utilized if the network does not offer channels with arbitrary line rates. Additionally, the spectrum allocated to guard bands used to isolate finer granularity channels remains unutilized. These limitations can be addressed by using traffic grooming in which low-rate multicast connections are aggregated and switched over high capacity light-trees. In this paper, we address the multicast traffic grooming problem in FWDM networks, and propose a novel auxiliary graph-based algorithm for the first time. The performance of multicast traffic grooming is evaluated in terms of spectral, cost, and energy efficiencies compared to lightpath-based transparent FWDM networks, lightpathbased traffic grooming-capable FWDM networks, multicast-enabled transparent FWDM networks, and multicast traffic grooming-capable fixed grid networks. Simulation results demonstrate that multicast traffic grooming in FWDM networks not only improves spectral efficiency, but also cost, and energy efficiencies compared to other multicast traffic provisioning approaches of FWDM and fixed grid networks.

  1. Consistency analysis of network traffic repositories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lastdrager, Elmer; Lastdrager, E.E.H.; Pras, Aiko

    Traffic repositories with TCP/IP header information are very important for network analysis. Researchers often assume that such repositories reliably represent all traffic that has been flowing over the network; little thoughts are made regarding the consistency of these repositories. Still, for

  2. Network traffic behaviour near phase transition point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawniczak, A. T.; Tang, X.

    2006-03-01

    We explore packet traffic dynamics in a data network model near phase transition point from free flow to congestion. The model of data network is an abstraction of the Network Layer of the OSI (Open Systems Interconnect) Reference Model of packet switching networks. The Network Layer is responsible for routing packets across the network from their sources to their destinations and for control of congestion in data networks. Using the model we investigate spatio-temporal packets traffic dynamics near the phase transition point for various network connection topologies, and static and adaptive routing algorithms. We present selected simulation results and analyze them.

  3. A Network Traffic Control Enhancement Approach over Bluetooth Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Son, L.T.; Schiøler, Henrik; Madsen, Ole Brun

    2003-01-01

    This paper analyzes network traffic control issues in Bluetooth data networks as convex optimization problem. We formulate the problem of maximizing of total network flows and minimizing the costs of flows. An adaptive distributed network traffic control scheme is proposed as an approximated...... as capacity limitations and flow requirements in the network. Simulation shows that the performance of Bluetooth networks could be improved by applying the adaptive distributed network traffic control scheme...... solution of the stated optimization problem that satisfies quality of service requirements and topologically induced constraints in Bluetooth networks, such as link capacity and node resource limitations. The proposed scheme is decentralized and complies with frequent changes of topology as well...

  4. Optimal signal timing design for urban street networks under user equilibrium based traffic conditions : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-20

    In the ever-growing travel demand, traffic congestion on freeways and expressways : recurs more frequently at a higher number of locations and for longer durations with : added severity. This becomes especially true in large metropolitan areas. Parti...

  5. Scheduling Network Traffic for Grid Purposes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamst, Mette

    This thesis concerns scheduling of network traffic in grid context. Grid computing consists of a number of geographically distributed computers, which work together for solving large problems. The computers are connected through a network. When scheduling job execution in grid computing, data...... transmission has so far not been taken into account. This causes stability problems, because data transmission takes time and thus causes delays to the execution plan. This thesis proposes the integration of job scheduling and network routing. The scientific contribution is based on methods from operations...... research and consists of six papers. The first four considers data transmission in grid context. The last two solves the data transmission problem, where the number of paths per data connection is bounded from above. The thesis shows that it is possible to solve the integrated job scheduling and network...

  6. A neural network methodology for traffic congestion prediction and online traffic control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demmou, H.; Hermitte, L.; Sahraoui, A. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 31 - Toulouse (France). Laboratoire d`Analyse et d`Architecture des Systemes; Olivero, P. [ZELT, 31 - Toulouse (France)

    1998-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to present an approach for traffic light signals control and traffic congestion prediction based on the neural network technique. We propose to define and implement a modular and integrated functional structure to realize these two very important tasks when facing traffic problems. A methodology for Neural Network approach is proposed. The approach is intended for transportation systems and mainly for urban traffic control. The main objectives of the work are two fold; the first is to develop a generic methodology for Neural Network approach; the second is to enhance such development for transportation issues mainly in urban traffic congestion detection, congestion prediction, supervision and control. (authors) 5 refs.

  7. On traffic modelling in GPRS networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Tatiana Kozlova; Schwefel, Hans-Peter; Prasad, Ramjee

    2005-01-01

    Optimal design and dimensioning of wireless data networks, such as GPRS, requires the knowledge of traffic characteristics of different data services. This paper presents an in-detail analysis of an IP-level traffic measurements taken in an operational GPRS network. The data measurements reported...... here are done at the Gi interface. The aim of this paper is to reveal some key statistics of GPRS data applications and to validate if the existing traffic models can adequately describe traffic volume and inter-arrival time distribution for different services. Additionally, we present a method of user...

  8. Sonification of network traffic flow for monitoring and situational awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debashi, Mohamed; Vickers, Paul

    2018-01-01

    Maintaining situational awareness of what is happening within a computer network is challenging, not only because the behaviour happens within machines, but also because data traffic speeds and volumes are beyond human ability to process. Visualisation techniques are widely used to present information about network traffic dynamics. Although they provide operators with an overall view and specific information about particular traffic or attacks on the network, they often still fail to represent the events in an understandable way. Also, because they require visual attention they are not well suited to continuous monitoring scenarios in which network administrators must carry out other tasks. Here we present SoNSTAR (Sonification of Networks for SiTuational AwaReness), a real-time sonification system for monitoring computer networks to support network administrators' situational awareness. SoNSTAR provides an auditory representation of all the TCP/IP traffic within a network based on the different traffic flows between between network hosts. A user study showed that SoNSTAR raises situational awareness levels by enabling operators to understand network behaviour and with the benefit of lower workload demands (as measured by the NASA TLX method) than visual techniques. SoNSTAR identifies network traffic features by inspecting the status flags of TCP/IP packet headers. Combinations of these features define particular traffic events which are mapped to recorded sounds to generate a soundscape that represents the real-time status of the network traffic environment. The sequence, timing, and loudness of the different sounds allow the network to be monitored and anomalous behaviour to be detected without the need to continuously watch a monitor screen.

  9. Routing strategies in traffic network and phase transition in network ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    3Department of Electronic Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR,. China. *Corresponding author. ... networks. Keywords. Routing strategy; network traffic flow; hysteretic loop; phase transition from ... nication networks is to control the increasing traffic congestion and improve the efficiency of information ...

  10. Modeling Network Traffic in Wavelet Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Ma

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This work discovers that although network traffic has the complicated short- and long-range temporal dependence, the corresponding wavelet coefficients are no longer long-range dependent. Therefore, a "short-range" dependent process can be used to model network traffic in the wavelet domain. Both independent and Markov models are investigated. Theoretical analysis shows that the independent wavelet model is sufficiently accurate in terms of the buffer overflow probability for Fractional Gaussian Noise traffic. Any model, which captures additional correlations in the wavelet domain, only improves the performance marginally. The independent wavelet model is then used as a unified approach to model network traffic including VBR MPEG video and Ethernet data. The computational complexity is O(N for developing such wavelet models and generating synthesized traffic of length N, which is among the lowest attained.

  11. New Solutions Based On Wireless Networks For Dynamic Traffic Lights Management: A Comparison Between IEEE 802.15.4 And Bluetooth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collotta Mario

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Wireless Sensor Networks are widely used to detect and exchange information and in recent years they have been increasingly involved in Intelligent Transportation System applications, especially in dynamic management of signalized intersections. In fact, the real-time knowledge of information concerning traffic light junctions represents a valid solution to congestion problems. In this paper, a wireless network architecture, based on IEEE 802.15.4 or Bluetooth, in order to monitor vehicular traffic flows near to traffic lights, is introduced. Moreover, an innovative algorithm is proposed in order to determine dynamically green times and phase sequence of traffic lights, based on measured values of traffic flows. Several simulations compare IEEE 802.15.4 and Bluetooth protocols in order to identify the more suitable communication protocol for ITS applications. Furthermore, in order to confirm the validity of the proposed algorithm for the dynamic management of traffic lights, some case studies have been considered and several simulations have been performed.

  12. Power Efficient Service Differentiation Based on Traffic-Aware Survivable Elastic Optical Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turus, Ioan; Fagertun, Anna Manolova; Dittmann, Lars

    2014-01-01

    sections.Best-effort connections do not have any associated protection.Two scenarios are implemented and compared. The first, the baseline approach,does not take into account any traffic-aware strategies while the second one, the proposed approach,includes energy reduction strategies taking into account...

  13. A scalable acoustic sensor network for model based monitoring of urban traffic noise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Basten, T.G.H.; Wessels, P.W.; Eerden, F.J.M. van der

    2012-01-01

    A good understanding of the acoustic environment due to traffic in urban areas is very important. Long term monitoring within large areas provides a clear insight in the actual noise situation. This is needed to take appropriate and cost efficient measures; to asses the effect of measures by

  14. Volunteer-Based System for classification of traffic in computer networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bujlow, Tomasz; Balachandran, Kartheepan; Riaz, M. Tahir

    2011-01-01

    To overcome the drawbacks of existing methods for traffic classification (by ports, Deep Packet Inspection, statistical classification) a new system was developed, in which the data are collected from client machines. This paper presents design of the system, implementation, initial runs...

  15. Fixed Point Learning Based Intelligent Traffic Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zongyao, Wang; Cong, Sui; Cheng, Shao

    2017-10-01

    Fixed point learning has become an important tool to analyse large scale distributed system such as urban traffic network. This paper presents a fixed point learning based intelligence traffic network control system. The system applies convergence property of fixed point theorem to optimize the traffic flow density. The intelligence traffic control system achieves maximum road resources usage by averaging traffic flow density among the traffic network. The intelligence traffic network control system is built based on decentralized structure and intelligence cooperation. No central control is needed to manage the system. The proposed system is simple, effective and feasible for practical use. The performance of the system is tested via theoretical proof and simulations. The results demonstrate that the system can effectively solve the traffic congestion problem and increase the vehicles average speed. It also proves that the system is flexible, reliable and feasible for practical use.

  16. Relaxing Synchronization in Parallel Agent-Based Road Traffic Simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, Y.; Cai, W.; Aydt, H.; Lees, M.; Zehe, D.

    Large-scale agent-based traffic simulation is computationally intensive. Parallel computing can help to speed up agent-based traffic simulation. Parallelization of agent-based traffic simulations is generally achieved by decomposing the road network into subregions. The agents in each subregion are

  17. Railway Network Timetabling and Dynamic Traffic Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hansen, I.A.

    2009-01-01

    The paper discusses the current state of research concerning railway network timetabling and traffic management. Timetable effectiveness is governed by frequency, regularity, accurate running, recovery and layover times, as well as minimal headway, buffer times and waiting times. Analytic (queuing)

  18. Multirate IP traffic transmission in flexible access networks based on optical FFH-CDMA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raddo, Thiago R.; Sanches, Anderson L.; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new IP transmission architecture over optical fast frequency hopping code-division multiple-access (OFFH-CDMA) network capable of supporting multirate transmissions for applications in flexible optical access networks. The proposed network architecture is independent...

  19. A sensor network architecture for urban traffic state estimation with mixed eulerian/lagrangian sensing based on distributed computing

    KAUST Repository

    Canepa, Edward S.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a new approach to urban traffic flow sensing using decentralized traffic state estimation. Traffic sensor data is generated both by fixed traffic flow sensor nodes and by probe vehicles equipped with a short range transceiver. The data generated by these sensors is sent to a local coordinator node, that poses the problem of estimating the local state of traffic as a mixed integer linear program (MILP). The resulting optimization program is then solved by the nodes in a distributed manner, using branch-and-bound methods. An optimal amount of noise is then added to the maps before dissemination to a central database. Unlike existing probe-based traffic monitoring systems, this system does not transmit user generated location tracks nor any user presence information to a centralized server, effectively preventing privacy attacks. A simulation of the system performance on computer-generated traffic data shows that the system can be implemented with currently available technology. © 2014 Springer International Publishing Switzerland.

  20. Robustness of interrelated traffic networks to cascading failures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Zhen; Li, Lixiang; Peng, Haipeng; Kurths, Jürgen; Xiao, Jinghua; Yang, Yixian

    2014-06-24

    The vulnerability to real-life networks against small initial attacks has been one of outstanding challenges in the study of interrelated networks. We study cascading failures in two interrelated networks S and B composed from dependency chains and connectivity links respectively. This work proposes a realistic model for cascading failures based on the redistribution of traffic flow. We study the Barabási-Albert networks (BA) and Erdős-Rényi graphs (ER) with such structure, and found that the efficiency sharply decreases with increasing percentages of the dependency nodes for removing a node randomly. Furthermore, we study the robustness of interrelated traffic networks, especially the subway and bus network in Beijing. By analyzing different attacking strategies, we uncover that the efficiency of the city traffic system has a non-equilibrium phase transition at low capacity of the networks. This explains why the pressure of the traffic overload is relaxed by singly increasing the number of small buses during rush hours. We also found that the increment of some buses may release traffic jam caused by removing a node of the bus network randomly if the damage is limited. However, the efficiencies to transfer people flow will sharper increase when the capacity of the subway network α(S) > α0.

  1. Traffic Driven Analysis of Cellular and WiFi Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Utpal Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Since the days Internet traffic proliferated, measurement, monitoring and analysis of network traffic have been critical to not only the basic understanding of large networks, but also to seek improvements in resource management, traffic engineering and security. At the current times traffic in wireless local and wide area networks are facing…

  2. Traffic Management in ATM Networks Over Satellite Links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Rohit; Jain, Raj; Goyal, Mukul; Fahmy, Sonia; Vandalore, Bobby; vonDeak, Thomas

    1999-01-01

    This report presents a survey of the traffic management Issues in the design and implementation of satellite Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) networks. The report focuses on the efficient transport of Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) traffic over satellite ATM. First, a reference satellite ATM network architecture is presented along with an overview of the service categories available in ATM networks. A delay model for satellite networks and the major components of delay and delay variation are described. A survey of design options for TCP over Unspecified Bit Rate (UBR), Guaranteed Frame Rate (GFR) and Available Bit Rate (ABR) services in ATM is presented. The main focus is on traffic management issues. Several recommendations on the design options for efficiently carrying data services over satellite ATM networks are presented. Most of the results are based on experiments performed on Geosynchronous (GEO) latencies. Some results for Low Earth Orbits (LEO) and Medium Earth Orbit (MEO) latencies are also provided.

  3. Does Bidirectional Traffic Do More Harm Than Good in LoRaWAN Based LPWA Networks?

    OpenAIRE

    Pop, Alexandru-Ioan; Raza, Usman; Kulkarni, Parag; Sooriyabandara, Mahesh

    2017-01-01

    The need for low power, long range and low cost connectivity to meet the requirements of IoT applications has led to the emergence of Low Power Wide Area (LPWA) networking technologies. The promise of these technologies to wirelessly connect massive numbers of geographically dispersed devices at a low cost continues to attract a great deal of attention in the academic and commercial communities. Several rollouts are already underway even though the performance of these technologies is yet to ...

  4. Traffic networks as information systems a viability approach

    CERN Document Server

    Aubin, Jean-Pierre

    2017-01-01

    This authored monograph covers a viability to approach to traffic management by advising to vehicles circulated on the network the velocity they should follow for satisfying global traffic conditions;. It presents an investigation of three structural innovations: The objective is to broadcast at each instant and at each position the advised celerity to vehicles, which could be read by auxiliary speedometers or used by cruise control devices. Namely, 1. Construct regulation feedback providing at each time and position advised velocities (celerities) for minimizing congestion or other requirements. 2. Taking into account traffic constraints of different type, the first one being to remain on the roads, to stop at junctions, etc. 3. Use information provided by the probe vehicles equipped with GPS to the traffic regulator; 4. Use other global traffic measures of vehicles provided by different types of sensors; These results are based on convex analysis, intertemporal optimization and viability theory as mathemati...

  5. Competitive Traffic Assignment in Road Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krylatov Alexander Y.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently in-vehicle route guidance and information systems are rapidly developing. Such systems are expected to reduce congestion in an urban traffic area. This social benefit is believed to be reached by imposing the route choices on the network users that lead to the system optimum traffic assignment. However, guidance service could be offered by different competitive business companies. Then route choices of different mutually independent groups of users may reject traffic assignment from the system optimum state. In this paper, a game theoretic approach is shown to be very efficient to formalize competitive traffic assignment problem with various groups of users in the form of non-cooperative network game with the Nash equilibrium search. The relationships between the Wardrop’s system optimum associated with the traffic assignment problem and the Nash equilibrium associated with the competitive traffic assignment problem are investigated. Moreover, some related aspects of the Nash equilibrium and the Wardrop’s user equilibrium assignments are also discussed.

  6. Linking network usage patterns to traffic Gaussianity fit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Oliveira Schmidt, R.; Sadre, R.; Melnikov, Nikolay; Schönwälder, Jürgen; Pras, Aiko

    Gaussian traffic models are widely used in the domain of network traffic modeling. The central assumption is that traffic aggregates are Gaussian distributed. Due to its importance, the Gaussian character of network traffic has been extensively assessed by researchers in the past years. In 2001,

  7. Traffic Management for Next Generation Transport Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Hao

    Video services are believed to be prevalent in the next generation transport networks. The popularity of these bandwidth-intensive services, such as Internet Protocol Television (IPTV), online gaming, and Videoon- Demand (VoD), are currently driving the network service providers to upgrade...... their network capacities. However, in order to provide more advanced video services than simply porting the traditional television services to the network, the service provider needs to do more than just augment the network capacity. Advanced traffic management capability is one of the relevant abilities...... required by the next generation transport network to provide Quality-of-Service (QoS) guaranteed video services. Augmenting network capacity and upgrading network nodes indicate long deployment period, replacement of equipment and thus significant cost to the network service providers. This challenge may...

  8. Golden Ratio Genetic Algorithm Based Approach for Modelling and Analysis of the Capacity Expansion of Urban Road Traffic Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lun; Zhang, Meng; Yang, Wenchen; Dong, Decun

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the modelling and analysis of the capacity expansion of urban road traffic network (ICURTN). Thebilevel programming model is first employed to model the ICURTN, in which the utility of the entire network is maximized with the optimal utility of travelers' route choice. Then, an improved hybrid genetic algorithm integrated with golden ratio (HGAGR) is developed to enhance the local search of simple genetic algorithms, and the proposed capacity expansion model is solved by the combination of the HGAGR and the Frank-Wolfe algorithm. Taking the traditional one-way network and bidirectional network as the study case, three numerical calculations are conducted to validate the presented model and algorithm, and the primary influencing factors on extended capacity model are analyzed. The calculation results indicate that capacity expansion of road network is an effective measure to enlarge the capacity of urban road network, especially on the condition of limited construction budget; the average computation time of the HGAGR is 122 seconds, which meets the real-time demand in the evaluation of the road network capacity. PMID:25802512

  9. Scaling in Computer Network Traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-07

    behaviour, measurement .... 29 The Self-Similar Traffic Model Fractional Gaussian Noise (fGn) and Fractional Brownian Motion (fBm) The unique...AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for public release, distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES See also ADM001750, Wavelets and Multifractal Analysis... Multifractality Wavelet qth order moments: IE|dX(j, k)|q ∼ C 2αqj, j → 0. Estimating the LHS from data using Sq(j) = 1 nj ∑ k |dX(j, k)|q, and measure the slopes

  10. Exploiting traffic periodicity in industrial control networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barbosa, R.R.R.; Sadre, R.; Pras, Aiko

    Industrial control systems play a major role in the operation of critical infrastructure assets. Due to the polling mechanisms typically used to retrieve data from field devices, industrial control network traffic exhibits strong periodic patterns. This paper presents a novel approach that uses

  11. Multimodale trafiknet i GIS (Multimodal Traffic Network in GIS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronbak, Jacob; Brems, Camilla Riff

    1996-01-01

    The report introduces the use of multi-modal traffic networks within a geographical Information System (GIS). The necessary theory of modelling multi-modal traffic network is reviewed and applied to the ARC/INFO GIS by an explorative example.......The report introduces the use of multi-modal traffic networks within a geographical Information System (GIS). The necessary theory of modelling multi-modal traffic network is reviewed and applied to the ARC/INFO GIS by an explorative example....

  12. A Traffic Prediction Model for Self-Adapting Routing Overlay Network in Publish/Subscribe System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Chi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In large-scale location-based service, an ideal situation is that self-adapting routing strategies use future traffic data as input to generate a topology which could adapt to the changing traffic well. In the paper, we propose a traffic prediction model for the broker in publish/subscribe system, which can predict the traffic of the link in future by neural network. We first introduced our traffic prediction model and then described the model integration. Finally, the experimental results show that our traffic prediction model could predict the traffic of link well.

  13. Research on the Method of Traffic Organization and Optimization Based on Dynamic Traffic Flow Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-bin Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The modern transportation system is becoming sluggish by traffic jams, so much so that it can harm the economic and society in our country. One of the reasons is the surging vehicles day by day. Another reason is the shortage of the traffic supply seriously. But the most important reason is that the traffic organization and optimization hardly met the conditions of modern transport development. In this paper, the practical method of the traffic organization and optimization used in regional area is explored by the dynamic traffic network analysis method. Firstly, the operational states of the regional traffic network are obtained by simulation method based on the self-developed traffic simulation software DynaCHINA, in which the improved traffic flow simulation model was proposed in order to be more suitable for actual domestic urban transport situation. Then the appropriated optimization model and algorithm were proposed according to different optimized content and organization goals, and the traffic simulation processes more suitable to regional optimization were designed exactly. Finally, a regional network in Tai’an city was selected as an example. The simulation results show that the proposed method is effective and feasible. It can provide strong scientific and technological support for the traffic management department.

  14. Best Practices Handbook: Traffic Engineering in Range Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    configuration of the attached equipment, using the SNMP signaling protocol. Best Practices Handbook Traffic Engineering in Range Networks, RCC...Telecommunications and Timing Group Document 220-16 BEST PRACTICES HANDBOOK TRAFFIC ENGINEERING IN RANGE NETWORKS...DOCUMENT 220-16 BEST PRACTICES HANDBOOK TRAFFIC ENGINEERING IN RANGE NETWORKS March 2016 Prepared by Timing

  15. Traffic resource allocation for complex networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ling Xiang; Long Jian-Cheng; Ding Jian-Xun; Shi Qin; Hu Mao-Bin

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, an optimal resource allocation strategy is proposed to enhance traffic dynamics in complex networks. The network resources are the total node packet-delivering capacity and the total link bandwidth. An analytical method is developed to estimate the overall network capacity by using the concept of efficient betweenness (ratio of algorithmic betweenness and local processing capacity). Three network structures (scale-free, small-world, and random networks) and two typical routing protocols (shortest path protocol and efficient routing protocol) are adopted to demonstrate the performance of the proposed strategy. Our results show that the network capacity is reversely proportional to the average path length for a particular routing protocol and the shortest path protocol can achieve the largest network capacity when the proposed resource allocation strategy is adopted. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  16. Networks and their traffic in multiplayer games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Andrés Melo López

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Computer games called multiplayer real-time, or (MCG are at the forefront of the use of the possibilities of the network. Research on this subject have been made for military simulations, virtual reality systems, computer support teamwork, the solutions diverge on the problems posed by MCG. With this in mind, this document provides an overview of the four issues affecting networking at the MCG. First, network resources (bandwidth, latency and computing capacity, together with the technical limits within which the MCG must operate. Second, the distribution concepts include communication architectures (peer-to-peer, client / server, server / network, and data and control architectures (centralized, distributed and reproduced .Thirdly, scalability allows the MCG to adapt to changes in parameterization resources. Finally, security is intended to fend off the traps and vandalism, which are common in online games; to check traffic, particularly these games we decided to take the massively multiplayer game League of Legends, a scene corresponding to a situation of real life in a network of ADSL access network is deployed has been simulated by using NS2 Three variants of TCP, it means SACK TCP, New Reno TCP, and TCP Vegas, have been considered for the cross traffic. The results show that TCP Vegas is able to maintain a constant speed while racing against the game traffic, since it avoids the packet loss and the delays in the tail caused by high peaks, without increasing the size of the sender window. SACK TCP and TCP New Reno, on the other hand, tend to increase continuously the sender window size, which could allow a greater loss of packages and also to cause unwanted delays for the game traffic.

  17. Traffic data reconstruction based on Markov random field modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kataoka, Shun; Tanaka, Kazuyuki; Yasuda, Muneki; Furtlehner, Cyril

    2014-01-01

    We consider the traffic data reconstruction problem. Suppose we have the traffic data of an entire city that are incomplete because some road data are unobserved. The problem is to reconstruct the unobserved parts of the data. In this paper, we propose a new method to reconstruct incomplete traffic data collected from various sensors. Our approach is based on Markov random field modeling of road traffic. The reconstruction is achieved by using a mean-field method and a machine learning method. We numerically verify the performance of our method using realistic simulated traffic data for the real road network of Sendai, Japan. (paper)

  18. An auxiliary graph based dynamic traffic grooming algorithm in spatial division multiplexing enabled elastic optical networks with multi-core fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yongli; Tian, Rui; Yu, Xiaosong; Zhang, Jiawei; Zhang, Jie

    2017-03-01

    A proper traffic grooming strategy in dynamic optical networks can improve the utilization of bandwidth resources. An auxiliary graph (AG) is designed to solve the traffic grooming problem under a dynamic traffic scenario in spatial division multiplexing enabled elastic optical networks (SDM-EON) with multi-core fibers. Five traffic grooming policies achieved by adjusting the edge weights of an AG are proposed and evaluated through simulation: maximal electrical grooming (MEG), maximal optical grooming (MOG), maximal SDM grooming (MSG), minimize virtual hops (MVH), and minimize physical hops (MPH). Numeric results show that each traffic grooming policy has its own features. Among different traffic grooming policies, an MPH policy can achieve the lowest bandwidth blocking ratio, MEG can save the most transponders, and MSG can obtain the fewest cores for each request.

  19. Control of Networked Traffic Flow Distribution - A Stochastic Distribution System Perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hong [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Aziz, H M Abdul [ORNL; Young, Stan [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); Patil, Sagar [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)

    2017-10-01

    Networked traffic flow is a common scenario for urban transportation, where the distribution of vehicle queues either at controlled intersections or highway segments reflect the smoothness of the traffic flow in the network. At signalized intersections, the traffic queues are controlled by traffic signal control settings and effective traffic lights control would realize both smooth traffic flow and minimize fuel consumption. Funded by the Energy Efficient Mobility Systems (EEMS) program of the Vehicle Technologies Office of the US Department of Energy, we performed a preliminary investigation on the modelling and control framework in context of urban network of signalized intersections. In specific, we developed a recursive input-output traffic queueing models. The queue formation can be modeled as a stochastic process where the number of vehicles entering each intersection is a random number. Further, we proposed a preliminary B-Spline stochastic model for a one-way single-lane corridor traffic system based on theory of stochastic distribution control.. It has been shown that the developed stochastic model would provide the optimal probability density function (PDF) of the traffic queueing length as a dynamic function of the traffic signal setting parameters. Based upon such a stochastic distribution model, we have proposed a preliminary closed loop framework on stochastic distribution control for the traffic queueing system to make the traffic queueing length PDF follow a target PDF that potentially realizes the smooth traffic flow distribution in a concerned corridor.

  20. An Evaluation of Best Effort Traffic Management of Server and Agent-Based Active Network Management (SAAM) Architecture

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ayvat, Birol

    2003-01-01

    The Server and Agent-based Active Network Management (SAAM) architecture was initially designed to work with the next generation Internet where increasingly sophisticated applications will require QoS guarantees...

  1. Radio resource management for mobile traffic offloading in heterogeneous cellular networks

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Yuan; Huang, Jianwei; Shen, Xuemin (Sherman)

    2017-01-01

    This SpringerBrief offers two concrete design examples for traffic offloading. The first is an optimal resource allocation for small-cell based traffic offloading that aims at minimizing mobile users’ data cost. The second is an optimal resource allocation for device-to-device assisted traffic offloading that also minimizes the total energy consumption and cellular link usage (while providing an overview of the challenging issues). Both examples illustrate the importance of proper resource allocation to the success of traffic offloading, show the consequent performance advantages of executing optimal resource allocation, and present the methodologies to achieve the corresponding optimal offloading solution for traffic offloading in heterogeneous cellular networks. The authors also include an overview of heterogeneous cellular networks and explain different traffic offloading paradigms ranging from uplink traffic offloading through small cells to downlink traffic offloading via mobile device-to-device cooper...

  2. Visual traffic jam analysis based on trajectory data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zuchao; Lu, Min; Yuan, Xiaoru; Zhang, Junping; van de Wetering, Huub

    2013-12-01

    In this work, we present an interactive system for visual analysis of urban traffic congestion based on GPS trajectories. For these trajectories we develop strategies to extract and derive traffic jam information. After cleaning the trajectories, they are matched to a road network. Subsequently, traffic speed on each road segment is computed and traffic jam events are automatically detected. Spatially and temporally related events are concatenated in, so-called, traffic jam propagation graphs. These graphs form a high-level description of a traffic jam and its propagation in time and space. Our system provides multiple views for visually exploring and analyzing the traffic condition of a large city as a whole, on the level of propagation graphs, and on road segment level. Case studies with 24 days of taxi GPS trajectories collected in Beijing demonstrate the effectiveness of our system.

  3. Breakdown in traffic networks fundamentals of transportation science

    CERN Document Server

    Kerner, Boris S

    2017-01-01

    This book offers a detailed investigation of breakdowns in traffic and transportation networks. It shows empirically that transitions from free flow to so-called synchronized flow, initiated by local disturbances at network bottlenecks, display a nucleation-type behavior: while small disturbances in free flow decay, larger ones grow further and lead to breakdowns at the bottlenecks. Further, it discusses in detail the significance of this nucleation effect for traffic and transportation theories, and the consequences this has for future automatic driving, traffic control, dynamic traffic assignment, and optimization in traffic and transportation networks. Starting from a large volume of field traffic data collected from various sources obtained solely through measurements in real world traffic, the author develops his insights, with an emphasis less on reviewing existing methodologies, models and theories, and more on providing a detailed analysis of empirical traffic data and drawing consequences regarding t...

  4. Traffic Rules in Electronic Financial Transactions (EFT Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vedran Batoš

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the traffic rules in the EFT (ElectronicFinancial Transactions networks, based on the implementationof the solution called Gold-Net developed and implementedby Euronet Worldwide Inc. Following the traffic rulesin EFT networks, out of its worldwide experience, Gold-Netevolved a comprehensive and expandable EFT network solutiondesigned to meet an institution's needs today and in the future.It is an ITM (Integrated Transaction Management solution,modular and expandable, and consists of a comprehensiveEFT software modules with ATM and POS driving capabilities.The combination of ATM management and the onlineconnection form the intercept processing control module. Asthe marketplace grows, this solution ensures that an ente1prisemay position itself for future growth and expanded service offerings.

  5. Encapsulating Urban Traffic Rhythms into Road Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junjie; Wei, Dong; He, Kun; Gong, Hang; Wang, Pu

    2014-01-01

    Using road GIS (geographical information systems) data and travel demand data for two U.S. urban areas, the dynamical driver sources of each road segment were located. A method to target road clusters closely related to urban traffic congestion was then developed to improve road network efficiency. The targeted road clusters show different spatial distributions at different times of a day, indicating that our method can encapsulate dynamical travel demand information into the road networks. As a proof of concept, when we lowered the speed limit or increased the capacity of road segments in the targeted road clusters, we found that both the number of congested roads and extra travel time were effectively reduced. In addition, the proposed modeling framework provided new insights on the optimization of transport efficiency in any infrastructure network with a specific supply and demand distribution. PMID:24553203

  6. Agent Based Individual Traffic Guidance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wanscher, Jørgen

    This thesis investigates the possibilities in applying Operations Research (OR) to autonomous vehicular traffic. The explicit difference to most other research today is that we presume that an agent is present in every vehicle - hence Agent Based Individual Traffic guidance (ABIT). The next...... evolutionary step for the in-vehicle route planners is the introduction of two-way communication. We presume that the agent is capable of exactly this. Based on this presumption we discuss the possibilities and define a taxonomy and use this to discuss the ABIT system. Based on a set of scenarios we conclude...... that the system can be divided into two separate constituents. The immediate dispersion, which is used for small areas and quick response, and the individual alleviation, which considers the longer distance decision support. Both of these require intrinsicate models and cost functions which at the beginning...

  7. Understanding characteristics in multivariate traffic flow time series from complex network structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Ying; Zhang, Shen; Tang, Jinjun; Wang, Xiaofei

    2017-07-01

    Discovering dynamic characteristics in traffic flow is the significant step to design effective traffic managing and controlling strategy for relieving traffic congestion in urban cities. A new method based on complex network theory is proposed to study multivariate traffic flow time series. The data were collected from loop detectors on freeway during a year. In order to construct complex network from original traffic flow, a weighted Froenius norm is adopt to estimate similarity between multivariate time series, and Principal Component Analysis is implemented to determine the weights. We discuss how to select optimal critical threshold for networks at different hour in term of cumulative probability distribution of degree. Furthermore, two statistical properties of networks: normalized network structure entropy and cumulative probability of degree, are utilized to explore hourly variation in traffic flow. The results demonstrate these two statistical quantities express similar pattern to traffic flow parameters with morning and evening peak hours. Accordingly, we detect three traffic states: trough, peak and transitional hours, according to the correlation between two aforementioned properties. The classifying results of states can actually represent hourly fluctuation in traffic flow by analyzing annual average hourly values of traffic volume, occupancy and speed in corresponding hours.

  8. Performability indicators for the traffic analysis of wide area networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsopelas, Panagiotis; Platis, Agapios

    2003-01-01

    In connecting computing networks, reliability term is strongly related to the availability of connections of Wide Area networks (WANs) or Local Area networks (LANs). In this paper we will examine the network connections activity of a Greek University in order to provide two sources of information: The Quantity of Information Not Delivered (QIND) and the Information Flow Interruption (IFI). These indicators will provide us with the inference of information from observable characteristics of data flow(s), even when the data is encrypted or otherwise not directly available (traffic), which is lost due to failures or upgrades inside this network. The reliability analysis is obtained by collecting the network failures data (duration and frequency) and traffic (total and average) for a specified period of 1 year. It is assumed that the numerical analysis is based on the fact that the lifetime follows and exponential distribution (here as we are working on discrete time the distribution must be the geometric distribution). Hence a Markov chain model seems suitable for modelling the functioning of this system. An algorithm concentrates the results in a transition probability matrix and calculates the reward functions for the QIND/IFI indicators with the use of the power method. Finally, the application part provides an example of how final results can be used to evaluate the observed network

  9. Traffic and Driving Simulator Based on Architecture of Interactive Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz, Alexander; Veeramisti, Naveen; Khaddar, Romesh; de la Fuente-Mella, Hanns; Modorcea, Luiza

    2015-01-01

    This study proposes an architecture for an interactive motion-based traffic simulation environment. In order to enhance modeling realism involving actual human beings, the proposed architecture integrates multiple types of simulation, including: (i) motion-based driving simulation, (ii) pedestrian simulation, (iii) motorcycling and bicycling simulation, and (iv) traffic flow simulation. The architecture has been designed to enable the simulation of the entire network; as a result, the actual driver, pedestrian, and bike rider can navigate anywhere in the system. In addition, the background traffic interacts with the actual human beings. This is accomplished by using a hybrid mesomicroscopic traffic flow simulation modeling approach. The mesoscopic traffic flow simulation model loads the results of a user equilibrium traffic assignment solution and propagates the corresponding traffic through the entire system. The microscopic traffic flow simulation model provides background traffic around the vicinities where actual human beings are navigating the system. The two traffic flow simulation models interact continuously to update system conditions based on the interactions between actual humans and the fully simulated entities. Implementation efforts are currently in progress and some preliminary tests of individual components have been conducted. The implementation of the proposed architecture faces significant challenges ranging from multiplatform and multilanguage integration to multievent communication and coordination. PMID:26491711

  10. Optimum principle for a vehicular traffic network: minimum probability of congestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerner, Boris S

    2011-01-01

    We introduce an optimum principle for a vehicular traffic network with road bottlenecks. This network breakdown minimization (BM) principle states that the network optimum is reached when link flow rates are assigned in the network in such a way that the probability for spontaneous occurrence of traffic breakdown in at least one of the network bottlenecks during a given observation time reaches the minimum possible value. Based on numerical simulations with a stochastic three-phase traffic flow model, we show that in comparison to the well-known Wardrop's principles, the application of the BM principle permits considerably greater network inflow rates at which no traffic breakdown occurs and, therefore, free flow remains in the whole network. (fast track communication)

  11. Optimum principle for a vehicular traffic network: minimum probability of congestion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerner, Boris S, E-mail: boris.kerner@daimler.com [Daimler AG, GR/PTF, HPC: G021, 71059 Sindelfingen (Germany)

    2011-03-04

    We introduce an optimum principle for a vehicular traffic network with road bottlenecks. This network breakdown minimization (BM) principle states that the network optimum is reached when link flow rates are assigned in the network in such a way that the probability for spontaneous occurrence of traffic breakdown in at least one of the network bottlenecks during a given observation time reaches the minimum possible value. Based on numerical simulations with a stochastic three-phase traffic flow model, we show that in comparison to the well-known Wardrop's principles, the application of the BM principle permits considerably greater network inflow rates at which no traffic breakdown occurs and, therefore, free flow remains in the whole network. (fast track communication)

  12. On the Use of Machine Learning for Identifying Botnet Network Traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stevanovic, Matija; Pedersen, Jens Myrup

    2016-01-01

    contemporary approaches use machine learning techniques for identifying malicious traffic. This paper presents a survey of contemporary botnet detection methods that rely on machine learning for identifying botnet network traffic. The paper provides a comprehensive overview on the existing scientific work thus...... contributing to the better understanding of capabilities, limitations and opportunities of using machine learning for identifying botnet traffic. Furthermore, the paper outlines possibilities for the future development of machine learning-based botnet detection systems....

  13. Comparison of classical statistical methods and artificial neural network in traffic noise prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nedic, Vladimir; Despotovic, Danijela; Cvetanovic, Slobodan; Despotovic, Milan; Babic, Sasa

    2014-01-01

    Traffic is the main source of noise in urban environments and significantly affects human mental and physical health and labor productivity. Therefore it is very important to model the noise produced by various vehicles. Techniques for traffic noise prediction are mainly based on regression analysis, which generally is not good enough to describe the trends of noise. In this paper the application of artificial neural networks (ANNs) for the prediction of traffic noise is presented. As input variables of the neural network, the proposed structure of the traffic flow and the average speed of the traffic flow are chosen. The output variable of the network is the equivalent noise level in the given time period L eq . Based on these parameters, the network is modeled, trained and tested through a comparative analysis of the calculated values and measured levels of traffic noise using the originally developed user friendly software package. It is shown that the artificial neural networks can be a useful tool for the prediction of noise with sufficient accuracy. In addition, the measured values were also used to calculate equivalent noise level by means of classical methods, and comparative analysis is given. The results clearly show that ANN approach is superior in traffic noise level prediction to any other statistical method. - Highlights: • We proposed an ANN model for prediction of traffic noise. • We developed originally designed user friendly software package. • The results are compared with classical statistical methods. • The results are much better predictive capabilities of ANN model

  14. Detecting Distributed Network Traffic Anomaly with Network-Wide Correlation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zonglin, Li; Guangmin, Hu; Xingmiao, Yao; Dan, Yang

    2008-12-01

    Distributed network traffic anomaly refers to a traffic abnormal behavior involving many links of a network and caused by the same source (e.g., DDoS attack, worm propagation). The anomaly transiting in a single link might be unnoticeable and hard to detect, while the anomalous aggregation from many links can be prevailing, and does more harm to the networks. Aiming at the similar features of distributed traffic anomaly on many links, this paper proposes a network-wide detection method by performing anomalous correlation analysis of traffic signals' instantaneous parameters. In our method, traffic signals' instantaneous parameters are firstly computed, and their network-wide anomalous space is then extracted via traffic prediction. Finally, an anomaly is detected by a global correlation coefficient of anomalous space. Our evaluation using Abilene traffic traces demonstrates the excellent performance of this approach for distributed traffic anomaly detection.

  15. Detecting Distributed Network Traffic Anomaly with Network-Wide Correlation Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Dan

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Distributed network traffic anomaly refers to a traffic abnormal behavior involving many links of a network and caused by the same source (e.g., DDoS attack, worm propagation. The anomaly transiting in a single link might be unnoticeable and hard to detect, while the anomalous aggregation from many links can be prevailing, and does more harm to the networks. Aiming at the similar features of distributed traffic anomaly on many links, this paper proposes a network-wide detection method by performing anomalous correlation analysis of traffic signals' instantaneous parameters. In our method, traffic signals' instantaneous parameters are firstly computed, and their network-wide anomalous space is then extracted via traffic prediction. Finally, an anomaly is detected by a global correlation coefficient of anomalous space. Our evaluation using Abilene traffic traces demonstrates the excellent performance of this approach for distributed traffic anomaly detection.

  16. Robust and Agile System against Fault and Anomaly Traffic in Software Defined Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihui Kim

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The main advantage of software defined networking (SDN is that it allows intelligent control and management of networking though programmability in real time. It enables efficient utilization of network resources through traffic engineering, and offers potential attack defense methods when abnormalities arise. However, previous studies have only identified individual solutions for respective problems, instead of finding a more global solution in real time that is capable of addressing multiple situations in network status. To cover diverse network conditions, this paper presents a comprehensive reactive system for simultaneously monitoring failures, anomalies, and attacks for high availability and reliability. We design three main modules in the SDN controller for a robust and agile defense (RAD system against network anomalies: a traffic analyzer, a traffic engineer, and a rule manager. RAD provides reactive flow rule generation to control traffic while detecting network failures, anomalies, high traffic volume (elephant flows, and attacks. The traffic analyzer identifies elephant flows, traffic anomalies, and attacks based on attack signatures and network monitoring. The traffic engineer module measures network utilization and delay in order to determine the best path for multi-dimensional routing and load balancing under any circumstances. Finally, the rule manager generates and installs a flow rule for the selected best path to control traffic. We implement the proposed RAD system based on Floodlight, an open source project for the SDN controller. We evaluate our system using simulation with and without the aforementioned RAD modules. Experimental results show that our approach is both practical and feasible, and can successfully augment an existing SDN controller in terms of agility, robustness, and efficiency, even in the face of link failures, attacks, and elephant flows.

  17. Learning Traffic as Images: A Deep Convolutional Neural Network for Large-Scale Transportation Network Speed Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolei Ma

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a convolutional neural network (CNN-based method that learns traffic as images and predicts large-scale, network-wide traffic speed with a high accuracy. Spatiotemporal traffic dynamics are converted to images describing the time and space relations of traffic flow via a two-dimensional time-space matrix. A CNN is applied to the image following two consecutive steps: abstract traffic feature extraction and network-wide traffic speed prediction. The effectiveness of the proposed method is evaluated by taking two real-world transportation networks, the second ring road and north-east transportation network in Beijing, as examples, and comparing the method with four prevailing algorithms, namely, ordinary least squares, k-nearest neighbors, artificial neural network, and random forest, and three deep learning architectures, namely, stacked autoencoder, recurrent neural network, and long-short-term memory network. The results show that the proposed method outperforms other algorithms by an average accuracy improvement of 42.91% within an acceptable execution time. The CNN can train the model in a reasonable time and, thus, is suitable for large-scale transportation networks.

  18. Modeling Air Traffic Situation Complexity with a Dynamic Weighted Network Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyong Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to address the flight delays and risks associated with the forecasted increase in air traffic, there is a need to increase the capacity of air traffic management systems. This should be based on objective measurements of traffic situation complexity. In current air traffic complexity research, no simple means is available to integrate airspace and traffic flow characteristics. In this paper, we propose a new approach for the measurement of air traffic situation complexity. This approach considers the effects of both airspace and traffic flow and objectively quantifies air traffic situation complexity. Considering the aircraft, waypoints, and airways as nodes, and the complexity relationships among these nodes as edges, a dynamic weighted network is constructed. Air traffic situation complexity is defined as the sum of the weights of all edges in the network, and the relationships of complexity with some commonly used indices are statistically analyzed. The results indicate that the new complexity index is more accurate than traffic count and reflects the number of trajectory changes as well as the high-risk situations. Additionally, analysis of potential applications reveals that this new index contributes to achieving complexity-based management, which represents an efficient method for increasing airspace system capacity.

  19. A measure theoretic approach to traffic flow optimization on networks

    OpenAIRE

    Cacace, Simone; Camilli, Fabio; De Maio, Raul; Tosin, Andrea

    2018-01-01

    We consider a class of optimal control problems for measure-valued nonlinear transport equations describing traffic flow problems on networks. The objective isto minimise/maximise macroscopic quantities, such as traffic volume or average speed,controlling few agents, for example smart traffic lights and automated cars. The measuretheoretic approach allows to study in a same setting local and nonlocal drivers interactionsand to consider the control variables as additional measures interacting ...

  20. Effects of node buffer and capacity on network traffic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ling Xiang; Ding Jian-Xun; Hu Mao-Bin

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we study the optimization of network traffic by considering the effects of node buffer ability and capacity. Two node buffer settings are considered. The node capacity is considered to be proportional to its buffer ability. The node effects on network traffic systems are studied with the shortest path protocol and an extension of the optimal routing [Phys. Rev. E 74 046106 (2006)]. In the diagrams of flux—density relationships, it is shown that a nodes buffer ability and capacity have profound effects on the network traffic

  1. Fiber fault location utilizing traffic signal in optical network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Tong; Wang, Anbang; Wang, Yuncai; Zhang, Mingjiang; Chang, Xiaoming; Xiong, Lijuan; Hao, Yi

    2013-10-07

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a method for fault location in optical communication network. This method utilizes the traffic signal transmitted across the network as probe signal, and then locates the fault by correlation technique. Compared with conventional techniques, our method has a simple structure and low operation expenditure, because no additional device is used, such as light source, modulator and signal generator. The correlation detection in this method overcomes the tradeoff between spatial resolution and measurement range in pulse ranging technique. Moreover, signal extraction process can improve the location result considerably. Experimental results show that we achieve a spatial resolution of 8 cm and detection range of over 23 km with -8-dBm mean launched power in optical network based on synchronous digital hierarchy protocols.

  2. Monitoring individual traffic flows within the ATLAS TDAQ network

    CERN Document Server

    Sjoen, R; Ciobotaru, M; Batraneanu, S M; Leahu, L; Martin, B; Al-Shabibi, A

    2010-01-01

    The ATLAS data acquisition system consists of four different networks interconnecting up to 2000 processors using up to 200 edge switches and five multi-blade chassis devices. The architecture of the system has been described in [1] and its operational model in [2]. Classical, SNMP-based, network monitoring provides statistics on aggregate traffic, but for performance monitoring and troubleshooting purposes there was an imperative need to identify and quantify single traffic flows. sFlow [3] is an industry standard based on statistical sampling which attempts to provide a solution to this. Due to the size of the ATLAS network, the collection and analysis of the sFlow data from all devices generates a data handling problem of its own. This paper describes how this problem is addressed by making it possible to collect and store data either centrally or distributed according to need. The methods used to present the results in a relevant fashion for system analysts are discussed and we explore the possibilities a...

  3. Monitoring individual traffic flows within the ATLAS TDAQ network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjoen, R; Batraneanu, S M; Leahu, L; Martin, B; Al-Shabibi, A; Stancu, S; Ciobotaru, M

    2010-01-01

    The ATLAS data acquisition system consists of four different networks interconnecting up to 2000 processors using up to 200 edge switches and five multi-blade chassis devices. The architecture of the system has been described in [1] and its operational model in [2]. Classical, SNMP-based, network monitoring provides statistics on aggregate traffic, but for performance monitoring and troubleshooting purposes there was an imperative need to identify and quantify single traffic flows. sFlow [3] is an industry standard based on statistical sampling which attempts to provide a solution to this. Due to the size of the ATLAS network, the collection and analysis of the sFlow data from all devices generates a data handling problem of its own. This paper describes how this problem is addressed by making it possible to collect and store data either centrally or distributed according to need. The methods used to present the results in a relevant fashion for system analysts are discussed and we explore the possibilities and limitations of this diagnostic tool, giving an example of its use in solving system problems that arise during the ATLAS data taking.

  4. Cross-Layer Resource Scheduling for Video Traffic in the Downlink of OFDMA-Based Wireless 4G Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Designing scheduling algorithms at the medium access control (MAC layer relies on a variety of parameters including quality of service (QoS requirements, resource allocation mechanisms, and link qualities from the corresponding layers. In this paper, we present an efficient cross-layer scheduling scheme, namely, Adaptive Token Bank Fair Queuing (ATBFQ algorithm, which is designed for packet scheduling and resource allocation in the downlink of OFDMA-based wireless 4G networks. This algorithm focuses on the mechanisms of efficiency and fairness in multiuser frequency-selective fading environments. We propose an adaptive method for ATBFQ parameter selection which integrates packet scheduling with resource mapping. The performance of the proposed scheme is compared to that of the round-robin (RR and the score-based (SB schedulers. It is observed from simulation results that the proposed scheme with adaptive parameter selection provides enhanced performance in terms of queuing delay, packet dropping rate, and cell-edge user performance, while the total sector throughput remains comparable. We further analyze and compare achieved fairness of the schemes in terms of different fairness indices available in literature.

  5. EFFECTIVE BANDWIDTH FOR SELF-SIMILAR TRAFFIC IN ATM NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linawati Linawati

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new approach to estimate the effective bandwidth for self-similar traffic in ATM network. In this approach we use the tail distribution of queue length based on FBM model. This approach is derived from the inequalities for Mills’ ratio. Then a comparison with Norros and Trinh&Miki schemes are analysed. The results demonstrate reasonable agreement between numerical and simulation results and between all schemes. Their bandwidth estimation tends closer for CLP improvement.

  6. Timing analysis of rate-constrained traffic in TTEthernet using network calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Luxi; Pop, Paul; Li, Qiao

    2017-01-01

    TTEthernet is a deterministic, synchronized and congestion-free network protocol based on the Ethernet standard and compliant with the ARINC 664p7 standard network. It supports safety-critical real-time applications by offering different traffic classes: static time-triggered (TT) traffic, rate-c...... the pessimism of the RC analysis. The proposed analysis is evaluated on several test cases, including realistic applications (e.g., Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle), and compared to related works....

  7. An analysis of network traffic classification for botnet detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stevanovic, Matija; Pedersen, Jens Myrup

    2015-01-01

    Botnets represent one of the most serious threats to the Internet security today. This paper explores how can network traffic classification be used for accurate and efficient identification of botnet network activity at local and enterprise networks. The paper examines the effectiveness...

  8. Developing a New HSR Switching Node (SwitchBox for Improving Traffic Performance in HSR Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Xuan Tien

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available High availability is crucial for industrial Ethernet networks as well as Ethernet-based control systems such as automation networks and substation automation systems (SAS. Since standard Ethernet does not support fault tolerance capability, the high availability of Ethernet networks can be increased by using redundancy protocols. Various redundancy protocols for Ethernet networks have been developed and standardized, such as rapid spanning tree protocol (RSTP, media redundancy protocol (MRP, parallel redundancy protocol (PRP, high-availability seamless redundancy (HSR and others. RSTP and MRP have switchover delay drawbacks. PRP provides zero recovery time, but requires a duplicate network infrastructure. HSR operation is similar to PRP, but HSR uses a single network. However, the standard HSR protocol is mainly applied to ring-based topologies and generates excessively unnecessary redundant traffic in the network. In this paper, we develop a new switching node for the HSR protocol, called SwitchBox, which is used in HSR networks in order to support any network topology and significantly reduce redundant network traffic, including unicast, multicast and broadcast traffic, compared with standard HSR. By using the SwitchBox, HSR not only provides seamless communications with zero switchover time in case of failure, but it is also easily applied to any network topology and significantly reduces unnecessary redundant traffic in HSR networks.

  9. TOWARDS A CLOUD BASED SMART TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT FRAMEWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Rahimi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Traffic big data has brought many opportunities for traffic management applications. However several challenges like heterogeneity, storage, management, processing and analysis of traffic big data may hinder their efficient and real-time applications. All these challenges call for well-adapted distributed framework for smart traffic management that can efficiently handle big traffic data integration, indexing, query processing, mining and analysis. In this paper, we present a novel, distributed, scalable and efficient framework for traffic management applications. The proposed cloud computing based framework can answer technical challenges for efficient and real-time storage, management, process and analyse of traffic big data. For evaluation of the framework, we have used OpenStreetMap (OSM real trajectories and road network on a distributed environment. Our evaluation results indicate that speed of data importing to this framework exceeds 8000 records per second when the size of datasets is near to 5 million. We also evaluate performance of data retrieval in our proposed framework. The data retrieval speed exceeds 15000 records per second when the size of datasets is near to 5 million. We have also evaluated scalability and performance of our proposed framework using parallelisation of a critical pre-analysis in transportation applications. The results show that proposed framework achieves considerable performance and efficiency in traffic management applications.

  10. INTELLIGENT TRAFFIC-SAFETY MIRROR BY USING WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Danišovič

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article is focused on the problematic of traffic safety, dealing with the problem of car intersections with blocked view crossing by a special wireless sensor network (WSN proposed for the traffic monitoring, concretely for vehicle’s detection at places, where it is necessary. Some ultra-low-power TI products were developed due to this reason: microcontroller MSP430F2232, 868MHz RF transceiver CC1101 and LDO voltage regulator TPS7033. The WSN consist of four network nodes supplied with the special safety lightings which serve the function of intelligent traffic safety mirror.

  11. Dynamic traffic grooming with Spectrum Engineering (TG-SE) in flexible grid optical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiaosong; Zhao, Yongli; Zhang, Jiawei; Wang, Jianping; Zhang, Guoying; Chen, Xue; Zhang, Jie

    2015-12-01

    Flexible grid has emerged as an evolutionary technology to satisfy the ever increasing demand for higher spectrum efficiency and operational flexibility. To optimize the spectrum resource utilization, this paper introduces the concept of Spectrum Engineering in flex-grid optical networks. The sliceable optical transponder has been proposed to offload IP traffic to the optical layer and reduce the number of IP router ports and transponders. We discuss the impact of sliceable transponder in traffic grooming and propose several traffic-grooming schemes with Spectrum Engineering (TG-SE). Our results show that there is a tradeoff among different traffic grooming policies, which should be adopted based on the network operator's objectives. The proposed traffic grooming with Spectrum Engineering schemes can reduce OPEX as well as increase spectrum efficiency by efficiently utilizing the bandwidth variability and capability of sliceable optical transponders.

  12. Optimized Sensor Network and Multi-Agent Decision Support for Smart Traffic Light Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Piris, Luis; Rivera, Diego; Fernandez, Susel; Marsa-Maestre, Ivan

    2018-02-02

    One of the biggest challenges in modern societies is to solve vehicular traffic problems. Sensor networks in traffic environments have contributed to improving the decision-making process of Intelligent Transportation Systems. However, one of the limiting factors for the effectiveness of these systems is in the deployment of sensors to provide accurate information about the traffic. Our proposal is using the centrality measurement of a graph as a base to locate the best locations for sensor installation in a traffic network. After integrating these sensors in a simulation scenario, we define a Multi-Agent Systems composed of three types of agents: traffic light management agents, traffic jam detection agents, and agents that control the traffic lights at an intersection. The ultimate goal of these Multi-Agent Systems is to improve the trip duration for vehicles in the network. To validate our solution, we have developed the needed elements for modelling the sensors and agents in the simulation environment. We have carried out experiments using the Simulation of Urban MObility (SUMO) traffic simulator and the Travel and Activity PAtterns Simulation (TAPAS) Cologne traffic scenario. The obtained results show that our proposal allows to reduce the sensor network while still obtaining relevant information to have a global view of the environment. Finally, regarding the Multi-Agent Systems, we have carried out experiments that show that our proposal is able to improve other existing solutions such as conventional traffic light management systems (static or dynamic) in terms of reduction of vehicle trip duration and reduction of the message exchange overhead in the sensor network.

  13. Optimized Sensor Network and Multi-Agent Decision Support for Smart Traffic Light Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Cruz-Piris

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the biggest challenges in modern societies is to solve vehicular traffic problems. Sensor networks in traffic environments have contributed to improving the decision-making process of Intelligent Transportation Systems. However, one of the limiting factors for the effectiveness of these systems is in the deployment of sensors to provide accurate information about the traffic. Our proposal is using the centrality measurement of a graph as a base to locate the best locations for sensor installation in a traffic network. After integrating these sensors in a simulation scenario, we define a Multi-Agent Systems composed of three types of agents: traffic light management agents, traffic jam detection agents, and agents that control the traffic lights at an intersection. The ultimate goal of these Multi-Agent Systems is to improve the trip duration for vehicles in the network. To validate our solution, we have developed the needed elements for modelling the sensors and agents in the simulation environment. We have carried out experiments using the Simulation of Urban MObility (SUMO traffic simulator and the Travel and Activity PAtterns Simulation (TAPAS Cologne traffic scenario. The obtained results show that our proposal allows to reduce the sensor network while still obtaining relevant information to have a global view of the environment. Finally, regarding the Multi-Agent Systems, we have carried out experiments that show that our proposal is able to improve other existing solutions such as conventional traffic light management systems (static or dynamic in terms of reduction of vehicle trip duration and reduction of the message exchange overhead in the sensor network.

  14. Dynamics of TCP traffic over ATM networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanow, Allyn; Floyd, Sally

    1995-05-01

    We investigate the performance of TCP connections over ATM networks without ATM-level congestion control and compare it to the performance of TCP over packet-based networks. For simulations of congested networks, the effective throughput of TCP over ATM can be quite low when cells are dropped at the congested ATM switch. The low throughput is due to wasted bandwidth as the congested link transmits cells from 'corrupted' packets, i.e., packets in which at least one cell is dropped by the switch. We investigate two packet-discard strategies that alleviate the effects of fragmentation. Partial packet discard, in which remaining cells are discarded after one cell has been dropped from a packet, somewhat improves throughput. We introduce early packet discard, a strategy in which the switch drops whole packets prior to buffer overflow. This mechanism prevents fragmentation and restores throughput to maximal levels.

  15. Cooperative Learning for Distributed In-Network Traffic Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, S. B.; Loo, H. R.; Ismail, I.; Andromeda, T.; Marsono, M. N.

    2017-04-01

    Inspired by the concept of autonomic distributed/decentralized network management schemes, we consider the issue of information exchange among distributed network nodes to network performance and promote scalability for in-network monitoring. In this paper, we propose a cooperative learning algorithm for propagation and synchronization of network information among autonomic distributed network nodes for online traffic classification. The results show that network nodes with sharing capability perform better with a higher average accuracy of 89.21% (sharing data) and 88.37% (sharing clusters) compared to 88.06% for nodes without cooperative learning capability. The overall performance indicates that cooperative learning is promising for distributed in-network traffic classification.

  16. Dynamic Power-Saving Method for Wi-Fi Direct Based IoT Networks Considering Variable-Bit-Rate Video Traffic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Meihua; Jung, Ji-Young; Lee, Jung-Ryun

    2016-10-12

    With the arrival of the era of Internet of Things (IoT), Wi-Fi Direct is becoming an emerging wireless technology that allows one to communicate through a direct connection between the mobile devices anytime, anywhere. In Wi-Fi Direct-based IoT networks, all devices are categorized by group of owner (GO) and client. Since portability is emphasized in Wi-Fi Direct devices, it is essential to control the energy consumption of a device very efficiently. In order to avoid unnecessary power consumed by GO, Wi-Fi Direct standard defines two power-saving methods: Opportunistic and Notice of Absence (NoA) power-saving methods. In this paper, we suggest an algorithm to enhance the energy efficiency of Wi-Fi Direct power-saving, considering the characteristics of multimedia video traffic. Proposed algorithm utilizes the statistical distribution for the size of video frames and adjusts the lengths of awake intervals in a beacon interval dynamically. In addition, considering the inter-dependency among video frames, the proposed algorithm ensures that a video frame having high priority is transmitted with higher probability than other frames having low priority. Simulation results show that the proposed method outperforms the traditional NoA method in terms of average delay and energy efficiency.

  17. Dynamic Power-Saving Method for Wi-Fi Direct Based IoT Networks Considering Variable-Bit-Rate Video Traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meihua Jin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available With the arrival of the era of Internet of Things (IoT, Wi-Fi Direct is becoming an emerging wireless technology that allows one to communicate through a direct connection between the mobile devices anytime, anywhere. In Wi-Fi Direct-based IoT networks, all devices are categorized by group of owner (GO and client. Since portability is emphasized in Wi-Fi Direct devices, it is essential to control the energy consumption of a device very efficiently. In order to avoid unnecessary power consumed by GO, Wi-Fi Direct standard defines two power-saving methods: Opportunistic and Notice of Absence (NoA power-saving methods. In this paper, we suggest an algorithm to enhance the energy efficiency of Wi-Fi Direct power-saving, considering the characteristics of multimedia video traffic. Proposed algorithm utilizes the statistical distribution for the size of video frames and adjusts the lengths of awake intervals in a beacon interval dynamically. In addition, considering the inter-dependency among video frames, the proposed algorithm ensures that a video frame having high priority is transmitted with higher probability than other frames having low priority. Simulation results show that the proposed method outperforms the traditional NoA method in terms of average delay and energy efficiency.

  18. Network Characteristics of Video Streaming Traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    Silverlight, Flash, or HTML5 ) used for video streaming. In particular, we identify three different streaming strategies that produce traffic... HTML5 , Flash. 1. INTRODUCTION The popularity of video streaming has considerably increased in the last decade. Indeed, recent studies have shown...applications for mobile devices), and the container (Flash [10], HTML5 [18], Silverlight [4]), on the charac- teristics of the traffic between the

  19. Obtaining Application-based and Content-based Internet Traffic Statistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bujlow, Tomasz; Pedersen, Jens Myrup

    2012-01-01

    Understanding Internet traffic is crucial in order to facilitate academic research and practical network engineering, e.g. when doing traffic classification, prioritization of traffic, creating realistic scenarios and models for Internet traffic development etc. In this paper we demonstrate how...... the Volunteer-Based System for Research on the Internet, developed at Aalborg University, is capable of providing detailed statistics of Internet usage. Since an increasing amount of HTTP traffic has been observed during the last few years, the system also supports creating statistics of different kinds of HTTP...... be useful for studying characteristics of computer network traffic in application-oriented or content-type- oriented way, and is now ready for a larger-scale implementation. The paper is concluded with a discussion about various applications of the system and possibilities of further enhancement....

  20. Adaptive traffic control systems for urban networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radivojević Danilo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive traffic control systems represent complex, but powerful tool for improvement of traffic flow conditions in locations or zones where applied. Many traffic agencies, especially those that have a large number of signalized intersections with high variability of the traffic demand, choose to apply some of the adaptive traffic control systems. However, those systems are manufactured and offered by multiple vendors (companies that are competing for the market share. Due to that fact, besides the information available from the vendors themselves, or the information from different studies conducted on different continents, very limited amount of information is available about the details how those systems are operating. The reason for that is the protecting of the intellectual property from plagiarism. The primary goal of this paper is to make a brief analysis of the functionalities, characteristics, abilities and results of the most recognized, but also less known adaptive traffic control systems to the professional public and other persons with interest in this subject.

  1. Day-to-day evolution of the traffic network with Advanced Traveler Information System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Linghui; Sun Huijun; Wu Jianjun; Zhu Chengjuan

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We develop a dynamical system with Advanced Travelers Information System (ATIS). → We use the dynamical system to study stability of the traffic network with ATIS. → It is found that some periodic attractors appear in some cases. → A road pricing is implemented to alleviate the instability of the traffic network with ATIS. - Abstract: Since the notion of user equilibrium (UE) was proposed by Wardrop , it has become a cornerstone for traffic assignment analysis. But, it is not sufficient to only ask whether equilibrium exists or not; it is equally important to ask whether and how the system can achieve equilibrium. Meanwhile, stability is an important performance in the sense that if equilibrium is unsustainable, both the equilibrium and the trajectory are sensitive to disturbances, even a small perturbation will result in the system evolution away from the equilibrium point. These incentive a growing interest in day-to-day dynamics. In this paper, we develop a dynamical system with Advanced Traveler Information System (ATIS) and study the stability of the network with ATIS. A simple network is used to simulate the model, and the results show that there exist periodic attractors in the traffic network in some cases (for example, the market penetration level of ATIS is 0.25 and traffic demand is 2 unit). It is found that the logit parameter of the dynamical model and the traffic demand can also affect the stability of the traffic network. More periodic attractors appear in the system when the traffic demand is large and the low logit parameter can delay the appearance of periodic attractors. By simulation, it can be concluded that if the range of the periodic attractors' domain of the simple network is known, the road pricing based on the range of the attraction domain is effective to alleviate the instability of the system.

  2. Main concept of local area network protection on the basis of the SAAM 'TRAFFIC'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasil'ev, P.M.; Kryukov, Yu.A.; Kuptsov, S.I.; Ivanov, V.V.; Koren'kov, V.V.

    2002-01-01

    In our previous paper we developed a system for acquisition, analysis and management of the network traffic (SAAM 'Traffic') for a segment of the JINR local area computer network (JINR LAN). In our present work we consider well-known scenarios of attacks on local area networks and propose protection methods based on the SAAM 'Traffic'. Although the system for LAN protection is installed on a router computer, it is not analogous to the firewall scheme and, thus, it does not hinder the performance of distributed network applications. This provides a possibility to apply such an approach to GRID-technologies, where network protection on the firewall basis can not be basically used. (author)

  3. Enhancing traffic capacity of scale-free networks by employing hybrid routing strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhong-Yuan; Ma, Jian-Feng; Jing, Xu

    2015-03-01

    Based on the consideration of easy implementation of new routing strategies on many real complex networks such as the Internet, we propose a hybrid routing mechanism composed of the shortest path routing and the global dynamic routing strategy to improve the network traffic capacity. Under the background of current routing policy and network structure, packets can be sent along the shortest paths or by using source routing information. In this work, a global dynamic source routing strategy is employed as a supplementary routing mechanism to bypass central nodes and increase the delivery capacity utilization of all nodes significantly in the network. The traffic capacity of networked complex systems can be enhanced tens of times at the cost of a little average path lengthening. This hybrid routing method is very useful to network service providers and can be constitutionally supported on several networked complex systems such as the Internet and wireless ad hoc networks.

  4. Optimization of TTEthernet Networks to Support Best-Effort Traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamas-Selicean, Domitian; Pop, Paul

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on the optimization of the TTEthernet communication protocol, which offers three traffic classes: time-triggered (TT), sent according to static schedules, rate-constrained (RC) that has bounded end-to-end latency, and best-effort (BE), the classic Ethernet traffic, with no timing...... guarantees. In our earlier work we have proposed an optimization approach named DOTTS that performs the routing, scheduling and packing / fragmenting of TT and RC messages, such that the TT and RC traffic is schedulable. Although backwards compatibility with classic Ethernet networks is one of TTEthernet...

  5. Delay Bound: Fractal Traffic Passes through Network Servers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Delay analysis plays a role in real-time systems in computer communication networks. This paper gives our results in the aspect of delay analysis of fractal traffic passing through servers. There are three contributions presented in this paper. First, we will explain the reasons why conventional theory of queuing systems ceases in the general sense when arrival traffic is fractal. Then, we will propose a concise method of delay computation for hard real-time systems as shown in this paper. Finally, the delay computation of fractal traffic passing through severs is presented.

  6. Agent Based Individual Traffic guidance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wanscher, Jørgen Bundgaard

    2004-01-01

    can be obtained through cellular phone tracking or GPS systems. This information can then be used to provide individual traffic guidance as opposed to the mass information systems of today -- dynamic roadsigns and trafficradio. The goal is to achieve better usage of road and time. The main topic......When working with traffic planning or guidance it is common practice to view the vehicles as a combined mass. >From this models are employed to specify the vehicle supply and demand for each region. As the models are complex and the calculations are equally demanding the regions and the detail...

  7. Effect of obstacles on formation of traffic jam in a two-dimensional traffic network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakakibara, Takehito; Honda, Yasushi; Horiguchi, Tsuyoshi

    2000-01-01

    We investigate the effect of obstacles on formation of a traffic jam for a traffic flow in a network of city roads. We consider a square lattice of two bonds between two nearest crossings as a network of city roads; we assume that there are three lattice sites in a crossing. We put five decorated sites on each bond between two nearest crossings. A car or an obstacle is assumed to be located on one of these decorated sites or one of the lattice sites. We assume only two types of cars; namely one type of cars move mainly in the positive x direction and change their direction to the positive y direction with a probability and the other type of cars move mainly in the positive y direction and change their direction to the positive x direction with the same probability. One of two lanes is assumed to be used mainly for passing the obstacles or jamming other cars. We set rules for car moving in order to make our traffic-flow model by taking into account all the possible situations. By using numerical simulations, we find that a phase transition from a free-moving phase to a traffic-jam phase is formed more easily for obstacles placed very close to traffic signals in the traffic direction than for those in the other cases.

  8. An implementation of traffic light system using multi-hop Ad hoc networks

    KAUST Repository

    Ansari, Imran Shafique

    2009-08-01

    In ad hoc networks nodes cooperate with each other to form a temporary network without the aid of any centralized administration. No wired base station or infrastructure is supported, and each host communicates via radio packets. Each host must act as a router, since routes are mostly multi-hop, due to the limited power transmission set by government agencies, (e.g. the Federal Communication Commission (FCC), which is 1 Watt in Industrial Scientific and Medical (ISM) band. The natures of wireless mobile ad hoc networks depend on batteries or other fatiguing means for their energy. A limited energy capacity may be the most significant performance constraint. Therefore, radio resource and power management is an important issue of any wireless network. In this paper, a design for traffic light system employing ad hoc networks is proposed. The traffic light system runs automatically based on signals sent through a multi-hop ad hoc network of \\'n\\' number of nodes utilizing the Token Ring protocol, which is efficient for this application from the energy prospective. The experiment consists of a graphical user interface that simulates the traffic lights and laptops (which have wireless network adapters) are used to run the graphical user interface and are responsible for setting up the ad hoc network between them. The traffic light system has been implemented utilizing A Mesh Driver (which allows for more than one wireless device to be connected simultaneously) and Java-based client-server programs. © 2009 IEEE.

  9. A Survey on Urban Traffic Management System Using Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapileswar Nellore

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the number of vehicles has increased exponentially, but the bedrock capacities of roads and transportation systems have not developed in an equivalent way to efficiently cope with the number of vehicles traveling on them. Due to this, road jamming and traffic correlated pollution have increased with the associated adverse societal and financial effect on different markets worldwide. A static control system may block emergency vehicles due to traffic jams. Wireless Sensor networks (WSNs have gained increasing attention in traffic detection and avoiding road congestion. WSNs are very trendy due to their faster transfer of information, easy installation, less maintenance, compactness and for being less expensive compared to other network options. There has been significant research on Traffic Management Systems using WSNs to avoid congestion, ensure priority for emergency vehicles and cut the Average Waiting Time (AWT of vehicles at intersections. In recent decades, researchers have started to monitor real-time traffic using WSNs, RFIDs, ZigBee, VANETs, Bluetooth devices, cameras and infrared signals. This paper presents a survey of current urban traffic management schemes for priority-based signalling, and reducing congestion and the AWT of vehicles. The main objective of this survey is to provide a taxonomy of different traffic management schemes used for avoiding congestion. Existing urban traffic management schemes for the avoidance of congestion and providing priority to emergency vehicles are considered and set the foundation for further research.

  10. Fragmented network subsystem with traffic filtering for microkernel environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Urievna Budkina

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The TCP/IP stack in a microkernel operating system executed in a user space, which requires the development of a distributed network infrastructure within a single software environment. Its functions are the organization of interaction between the components of the stack with different processes, as well as the organization of filtering mechanisms and routing of internal network traffic. Use of architectural approaches applicable in monolithic-modular systems is impossible, because the network stack is not a shareable component of the system. As a consequence, the microkernel environment requires development of special network subsystem. In this work we provide overview of major conceptions of network architectures in microkernel environments. Also, we provide own architecture which supports filtering of internal network traffic. We evaluate the architecture by development of high-performance "key-value" store.

  11. Modelling traffic congestion using queuing networks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    increased recently. In Delhi and Mumbai, Metro Rail Services have been introduced, and at many places a Bus Rapid Transit system has been initiated. Additionally, many flyovers have come up. But, however many roads we may build, we will always fall short of the space needed to accommodate the ever increasing traffic.

  12. Price of anarchy on heterogeneous traffic-flow networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, A; O'Dea, R; Hopcraft, K I

    2016-09-01

    The efficiency of routing traffic through a network, comprising nodes connected by links whose cost of traversal is either fixed or varies in proportion to volume of usage, can be measured by the "price of anarchy." This is the ratio of the cost incurred by agents who act to minimize their individual expenditure to the optimal cost borne by the entire system. As the total traffic load and the network variability-parameterized by the proportion of variable-cost links in the network-changes, the behaviors that the system presents can be understood with the introduction of a network of simpler structure. This is constructed from classes of nonoverlapping paths connecting source to destination nodes that are characterized by the number of variable-cost edges they contain. It is shown that localized peaks in the price of anarchy occur at critical traffic volumes at which it becomes beneficial to exploit ostensibly more expensive paths as the network becomes more congested. Simulation results verifying these findings are presented for the variation of the price of anarchy with the network's size, aspect ratio, variability, and traffic load.

  13. A model of traffic signs recognition with convolutional neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Haihe; Li, Yujian; Zhang, Ting; Huo, Yi; Kuang, Wenqing

    2016-10-01

    In real traffic scenes, the quality of captured images are generally low due to some factors such as lighting conditions, and occlusion on. All of these factors are challengeable for automated recognition algorithms of traffic signs. Deep learning has provided a new way to solve this kind of problems recently. The deep network can automatically learn features from a large number of data samples and obtain an excellent recognition performance. We therefore approach this task of recognition of traffic signs as a general vision problem, with few assumptions related to road signs. We propose a model of Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) and apply the model to the task of traffic signs recognition. The proposed model adopts deep CNN as the supervised learning model, directly takes the collected traffic signs image as the input, alternates the convolutional layer and subsampling layer, and automatically extracts the features for the recognition of the traffic signs images. The proposed model includes an input layer, three convolutional layers, three subsampling layers, a fully-connected layer, and an output layer. To validate the proposed model, the experiments are implemented using the public dataset of China competition of fuzzy image processing. Experimental results show that the proposed model produces a recognition accuracy of 99.01 % on the training dataset, and yield a record of 92% on the preliminary contest within the fourth best.

  14. Traffic Profiling in Wireless Sensor Networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kirykos, Georgios

    2006-01-01

    .... Wireless sensor networks pose unique challenges and limitations to the traditional schemes, which are used in the other wireless networks for security protection, and are due mainly to the increased...

  15. A First Look into SCADA Network Traffic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barbosa, R.R.R.; Sadre, R.; Pras, Aiko

    Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) networks are commonly deployed to aid the operation of critical infrastructures, such as water distribution facilities. These networks provide automated processes that ensure the correct functioning of these infrastructures, in a operation much

  16. Evolving Model for the Complex Traffic and Transportation Network Considering Self-Growth Situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been approved that the scale-free feature exists in various complex networks, such as the internet, the cell or the biological networks. In order to analyze the influence of the self-growth phenomenon during the growth on the structure of traffic and transportation network, we formulated an evolving model. Based on the evolving model, we prove in mathematics that, even that the self-growth situation happened, the traffic and transportation network owns the scale-free feature due to that the node degree follows a power-law distribution. A real traffic and transportation network, China domestic airline network is tested to consolidate our conclusions. We find that the airline network has a node degree distribution equivalent to the power-law of which the estimated scaling parameter is about 3.0. Moreover the standard error of the estimated scaling parameter changes according to the self-growth probability. Our findings could provide useful information for determining the optimal structure or status of the traffic and transportation network.

  17. Design of Optical Wireless Networks with Fair Traffic Flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Tomaszewski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a method for optimising the wireless optical network that carries elastic packet traffic. The particular focus is on modelling the effect of elastic traffic flows slowing down in response to the decrease of the optical transmission systems’ capacity at bad weather conditions. A mathematical programming model of the network design problem is presented that assumes that the packet rates of elastic traffic flows decrease fairly. While practically any subset of network links can be simultaneously affected by unfavourable transmission conditions, a particular challenge of solving the problem results from a huge number of network states considered in the model. Therefore, how the problem can be solved by generating the most unfavourable network states is presented. Moreover, it is proved that it is entirely sufficient to consider only the states that correspond to the decrease of capacity on a single link. Finally, as the general problem is nonlinear, it is shown that the problem can be transformed to a linear MIP problem and solved effectively when single-path routing of traffic flows is assumed.

  18. Price of anarchy on heterogeneous traffic-flow networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, A.; O'Dea, R.; Hopcraft, K. I.

    2016-09-01

    The efficiency of routing traffic through a network, comprising nodes connected by links whose cost of traversal is either fixed or varies in proportion to volume of usage, can be measured by the "price of anarchy." This is the ratio of the cost incurred by agents who act to minimize their individual expenditure to the optimal cost borne by the entire system. As the total traffic load and the network variability—parameterized by the proportion of variable-cost links in the network—changes, the behaviors that the system presents can be understood with the introduction of a network of simpler structure. This is constructed from classes of nonoverlapping paths connecting source to destination nodes that are characterized by the number of variable-cost edges they contain. It is shown that localized peaks in the price of anarchy occur at critical traffic volumes at which it becomes beneficial to exploit ostensibly more expensive paths as the network becomes more congested. Simulation results verifying these findings are presented for the variation of the price of anarchy with the network's size, aspect ratio, variability, and traffic load.

  19. Discovering urban mobility patterns with PageRank based traffic modeling and prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Minjie; Yang, Su; Sun, Yi; Gao, Jun

    2017-11-01

    Urban transportation system can be viewed as complex network with time-varying traffic flows as links to connect adjacent regions as networked nodes. By computing urban traffic evolution on such temporal complex network with PageRank, it is found that for most regions, there exists a linear relation between the traffic congestion measure at present time and the PageRank value of the last time. Since the PageRank measure of a region does result from the mutual interactions of the whole network, it implies that the traffic state of a local region does not evolve independently but is affected by the evolution of the whole network. As a result, the PageRank values can act as signatures in predicting upcoming traffic congestions. We observe the aforementioned laws experimentally based on the trajectory data of 12000 taxies in Beijing city for one month.

  20. File Detection On Network Traffic Using Approximate Matching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Breitinger

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, Internet technologies changed enormously and allow faster Internet connections, higher data rates and mobile usage. Hence, it is possible to send huge amounts of data / files easily which is often used by insiders or attackers to steal intellectual property. As a consequence, data leakage prevention systems (DLPS have been developed which analyze network traffic and alert in case of a data leak. Although the overall concepts of the detection techniques are known, the systems are mostly closed and commercial.Within this paper we present a new technique for network trac analysis based on approximate matching (a.k.a fuzzy hashing which is very common in digital forensics to correlate similar files. This paper demonstrates how to optimize and apply them on single network packets. Our contribution is a straightforward concept which does not need a comprehensive conguration: hash the file and store the digest in the database. Within our experiments we obtained false positive rates between 10-4 and 10-5 and an algorithm throughput of over 650 Mbit/s.

  1. Resilience of traffic networks: From perturbation to recovery via a dynamic restricted equilibrium model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nogal, Maria; O'Connor, Alan; Caulfield, Brian; Martinez-Pastor, Beatriz

    2016-01-01

    When a disruptive event takes place in a traffic network some important questions arise, such as how stressed the traffic network is, whether the system is able to respond to this stressful situation, or how long the system needs to recover a new equilibrium position after suffering this perturbation. Quantifying these aspects allows the comparison of different systems, to scale the degree of damage, to identify traffic network weaknesses, and to analyse the effect of user knowledge about the traffic network state. The indicator that accounts for performance and recovery pattern under disruptive events is known as resilience. This paper presents a methodology to assess the resilience of a traffic network when a given perturbation occurs, from the beginning of the perturbation to the total system recovery. To consider the dynamic nature of the problem, a new dynamic equilibrium-restricted assignment model is presented to simulate the network performance evolution, which takes into consideration important aspects, such as the cost increment due to the perturbation, the system impedance to alter its previous state and the user stress level. Finally, this methodology is used to evaluate the resilience indices of a real network. - Highlights: • Method to assess the resilience of a traffic network suffering progressive impacts. • It simulates the dynamic response during the perturbation and system recovery. • The resilience index is based on the travel costs and the stress level of users. • It considers the capacity of adaptation of the system to the new situations. • The model evaluates redundancy, adaptability, ability to recover, etc.

  2. Power Consumption Evaluation of Distributed Computing Network Considering Traffic Locality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Yukio; Hasegawa, Go; Murata, Masayuki

    When computing resources are consolidated in a few huge data centers, a massive amount of data is transferred to each data center over a wide area network (WAN). This results in increased power consumption in the WAN. A distributed computing network (DCN), such as a content delivery network, can reduce the traffic from/to the data center, thereby decreasing the power consumed in the WAN. In this paper, we focus on the energy-saving aspect of the DCN and evaluate its effectiveness, especially considering traffic locality, i.e., the amount of traffic related to the geographical vicinity. We first formulate the problem of optimizing the DCN power consumption and describe the DCN in detail. Then, numerical evaluations show that, when there is strong traffic locality and the router has ideal energy proportionality, the system's power consumption is reduced to about 50% of the power consumed in the case where a DCN is not used; moreover, this advantage becomes even larger (up to about 30%) when the data center is located farthest from the center of the network topology.

  3. Energy Saving: Scaling Network Energy Efficiency Faster than Traffic Growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Y.; Blume, O.; Gati, A.; Capone, A.; Wu, C.-E.; Barth, U.; Marzetta, T.; Zhang, H.; Xu, S.

    2013-01-01

    As the mobile traffic is expected to continue its exponential growth in the near future, energy efficiency has gradually become a must criterion for wireless network design. Three fundamental questions need to be answered before the detailed design could be carried out, namely what energy efficiency

  4. Simulation of traffic capacity of inland waterway network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, L.; Mou, J.; Ligteringen, H.

    2013-01-01

    The inland waterborne transportation is viewed as an economic, safe and environmentally friendly alternative to the congested road network. The traffic capacity are the critical indicator of the inland shipping performance. Actually, interacted under the complicated factors, it is challenging to

  5. Rescheduling models for network-wide railway traffic management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kecman, P.; Corman, F.; D'Ariano, A.; Goverde, R.M.P.

    2012-01-01

    In the last decades of railway operations research, microscopic models have been intensively studied to support traffic operators in managing their dispatching areas. However, those models result in long computation times for large and highly utilized networks. The problem of controlling

  6. Traffic Analysis for Real-Time Communication Networks onboard Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiøler, Henrik; Nielsen, Jens Frederik Dalsgaard; Jørgensen, N.

    1998-01-01

    The paper presents a novel method for establishing worst case estimates of queue lenghts and transmission delays in networks of interconnected segments each of ring topology as defined by the ATOMOS project for marine automation. A non probalistic model for describing traffic is introduced as well...

  7. Traffic Analysis for Real-Time Communication Networks onboard Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiøler, Henrik; Nielsen, Jens Frederik Dalsgaard; Jørgensen, N.

    The paper presents a novel method for establishing worst case estimates of queue lenghts and transmission delays in networks of interconnected segments each of ring topology as defined by the ATOMOS project for marine automation. A non probalistic model for describing traffic is introduced as well...

  8. Towards Mining Latent Client Identifiers from Network Traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jain Sakshi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Websites extensively track users via identifiers that uniquely map to client machines or user accounts. Although such tracking has desirable properties like enabling personalization and website analytics, it also raises serious concerns about online user privacy, and can potentially enable illicit surveillance by adversaries who broadly monitor network traffic.

  9. Sensitivity Analysis of Wavelet Neural Network Model for Short-Term Traffic Volume Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinxing Shen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to achieve a more accurate and robust traffic volume prediction model, the sensitivity of wavelet neural network model (WNNM is analyzed in this study. Based on real loop detector data which is provided by traffic police detachment of Maanshan, WNNM is discussed with different numbers of input neurons, different number of hidden neurons, and traffic volume for different time intervals. The test results show that the performance of WNNM depends heavily on network parameters and time interval of traffic volume. In addition, the WNNM with 4 input neurons and 6 hidden neurons is the optimal predictor with more accuracy, stability, and adaptability. At the same time, a much better prediction record will be achieved with the time interval of traffic volume are 15 minutes. In addition, the optimized WNNM is compared with the widely used back-propagation neural network (BPNN. The comparison results indicated that WNNM produce much lower values of MAE, MAPE, and VAPE than BPNN, which proves that WNNM performs better on short-term traffic volume prediction.

  10. ATLAS: a traffic load aware sensor MAC design for collaborative body area sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md Obaidur; Hong, Choong Seon; Lee, Sungwon; Bang, Young-Cheol

    2011-01-01

    In collaborative body sensor networks, namely wireless body area networks (WBANs), each of the physical sensor applications is used to collaboratively monitor the health status of the human body. The applications of WBANs comprise diverse and dynamic traffic loads such as very low-rate periodic monitoring (i.e., observation) data and high-rate traffic including event-triggered bursts. Therefore, in designing a medium access control (MAC) protocol for WBANs, energy conservation should be the primary concern during low-traffic periods, whereas a balance between satisfying high-throughput demand and efficient energy usage is necessary during high-traffic times. In this paper, we design a traffic load-aware innovative MAC solution for WBANs, called ATLAS. The design exploits the superframe structure of the IEEE 802.15.4 standard, and it adaptively uses the contention access period (CAP), contention free period (CFP) and inactive period (IP) of the superframe based on estimated traffic load, by applying a dynamic "wh" (whenever which is required) approach. Unlike earlier work, the proposed MAC design includes load estimation for network load-status awareness and a multi-hop communication pattern in order to prevent energy loss associated with long range transmission. Finally, ATLAS is evaluated through extensive simulations in ns-2 and the results demonstrate the effectiveness of the protocol.

  11. The improved degree of urban road traffic network: A case study of Xiamen, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shiguang; Zheng, Lili; Yu, Dexin

    2017-03-01

    The complex network theory is applied to the study of urban road traffic network topology, and we constructed a new measure to characterize an urban road network. It is inspiring to quantify the interaction more appropriately between nodes in complex networks, especially in the field of traffic. The measure takes into account properties of lanes (e.g. number of lanes, width, traffic direction). As much, it is a more comprehensive measure in comparison to previous network measures. It can be used to grasp the features of urban street network more clearly. We applied this measure to the road network in Xiamen, China. Based on a standard method from statistical physics, we examined in more detail the distribution of this new measure and found that (1) due to the limitation of space geographic attributes, traditional research conclusions acquired by using the original definition of degree to study the primal approach modeled urban street network are not very persuasive; (2) both of the direction of the network connection and the degree's odd or even classifications need to be analyzed specifically; (3) the improved degree distribution presents obvious hierarchy, and hierarchical values conform to the power-law distribution, and correlation of our new measure shows some significant segmentation of the urban road network.

  12. Consistency of Network Traffic Repositories: An Overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lastdrager, E.; Lastdrager, E.E.H.; Pras, Aiko

    2009-01-01

    Traffc repositories with TCP/IP header information are very important for network analysis. Researchers often assume that such repositories reliably represent all traffc that has been flowing over the network; little thoughts are made regarding the consistency of these repositories. Still, for

  13. Modelling traffic congestion using queuing networks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In Delhi and Mumbai, Metro Rail Services have been introduced, and at many places a Bus Rapid ... network of queues where service times and inter-arrival times in all queues of the network are exponentially .... This is the well-known flow-density diagram used widely by transport engineers (Daganzo. 1997). Here we ...

  14. Generic Traffic Descriptors in Managing Service Quality in BISDN/ATM Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Bošnjak

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Traffic models for multiservice broadband networks differsignificantly regarding simple analytic models applicable intelephone traffic and circuit-switch network. The paper presentsa clear analysis of standardised traffic descriptors andquality parameters of the main services in BISDNIATM. Trafficdescriptors have been associated with the basic values andconcepts developed within generic traffic theory. Part systematisationof traffic parameters has been performed as basis for formalisedgeneralised description of parameters and effectivequality management of A TM services.

  15. Traffic volume estimation using network interpolation techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Kriging method is a frequently used interpolation methodology in geography, which enables estimations of unknown values at : certain places with the considerations of distances among locations. When it is used in transportation field, network distanc...

  16. Estimating Urban Traffic Patterns through Probabilistic Interconnectivity of Road Network Junctions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ed Manley

    Full Text Available The emergence of large, fine-grained mobility datasets offers significant opportunities for the development and application of new methodologies for transportation analysis. In this paper, the link between routing behaviour and traffic patterns in urban areas is examined, introducing a method to derive estimates of traffic patterns from a large collection of fine-grained routing data. Using this dataset, the interconnectivity between road network junctions is extracted in the form of a Markov chain. This representation encodes the probability of the successive usage of adjacent road junctions, encoding routes as flows between decision points rather than flows along road segments. This network of functional interactions is then integrated within a modified Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC framework, adapted for the estimation of urban traffic patterns. As part of this approach, the data-derived links between major junctions influence the movement of directed random walks executed across the network to model origin-destination journeys. The simulation process yields estimates of traffic distribution across the road network. The paper presents an implementation of the modified MCMC approach for London, United Kingdom, building an MCMC model based on a dataset of nearly 700000 minicab routes. Validation of the approach clarifies how each element of the MCMC framework contributes to junction prediction performance, and finds promising results in relation to the estimation of junction choice and minicab traffic distribution. The paper concludes by summarising the potential for the development and extension of this approach to the wider urban modelling domain.

  17. Congestion Control and Traffic Scheduling for Collaborative Crowdsourcing in SDN Enabled Mobile Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawei Shen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, a number of crowdsourcing-based mobile applications have been implemented in mobile networks and Internet of Things (IoT, targeted at real-time services and recommendation. The frequent information exchanges and data transmissions in collaborative crowdsourcing are heavily injected into the current communication networks, which poses great challenges for Mobile Wireless Networks (MWN. This paper focuses on the traffic scheduling and load balancing problem in software-defined MWN and designs a hybrid routing forwarding scheme as well as a congestion control algorithm to achieve the feasible solution. The traffic scheduling algorithm first sorts the tasks in an ascending order depending on the amount of tasks and then solves it using a greedy scheme. In the proposed congestion control scheme, the traffic assignment is first transformed into a multiknapsack problem, and then the Artificial Fish Swarm Algorithm (AFSA is utilized to solve this problem. Numerical results on practical network topology reveal that, compared with the traditional schemes, the proposed congestion control and traffic scheduling schemes can achieve load balancing, reduce the probability of network congestion, and improve the network throughput.

  18. Fast Traffic Sign Recognition with a Rotation Invariant Binary Pattern Based Feature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shouyi Yin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Robust and fast traffic sign recognition is very important but difficult for safe driving assistance systems. This study addresses fast and robust traffic sign recognition to enhance driving safety. The proposed method includes three stages. First, a typical Hough transformation is adopted to implement coarse-grained location of the candidate regions of traffic signs. Second, a RIBP (Rotation Invariant Binary Pattern based feature in the affine and Gaussian space is proposed to reduce the time of traffic sign detection and achieve robust traffic sign detection in terms of scale, rotation, and illumination. Third, the techniques of ANN (Artificial Neutral Network based feature dimension reduction and classification are designed to reduce the traffic sign recognition time. Compared with the current work, the experimental results in the public datasets show that this work achieves robustness in traffic sign recognition with comparable recognition accuracy and faster processing speed, including training speed and recognition speed.

  19. Fast traffic sign recognition with a rotation invariant binary pattern based feature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Shouyi; Ouyang, Peng; Liu, Leibo; Guo, Yike; Wei, Shaojun

    2015-01-19

    Robust and fast traffic sign recognition is very important but difficult for safe driving assistance systems. This study addresses fast and robust traffic sign recognition to enhance driving safety. The proposed method includes three stages. First, a typical Hough transformation is adopted to implement coarse-grained location of the candidate regions of traffic signs. Second, a RIBP (Rotation Invariant Binary Pattern) based feature in the affine and Gaussian space is proposed to reduce the time of traffic sign detection and achieve robust traffic sign detection in terms of scale, rotation, and illumination. Third, the techniques of ANN (Artificial Neutral Network) based feature dimension reduction and classification are designed to reduce the traffic sign recognition time. Compared with the current work, the experimental results in the public datasets show that this work achieves robustness in traffic sign recognition with comparable recognition accuracy and faster processing speed, including training speed and recognition speed.

  20. Fuzzy Logic Based Autonomous Traffic Control System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad ABBAS

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to design and implement fuzzy logic based traffic light Control system to solve the traffic congestion issues. In this system four input parameters: Arrival, Queue, Pedestrian and Emergency Vehicle and two output parameters: Extension in Green and Pedestrian Signals are used. Using Fuzzy Rule Base, the system extends or terminates the Green Signal according to the Traffic situation at the junction. On the presence of emergency vehicle, the system decides which signal(s should be red and how much an extension should be given to Green Signal for Emergency Vehicle. The system also monitors the density of people and makes decisions accordingly. In order to verify the proposed design algorithm MATLAB simulation is adopted and results obtained show concurrency to the calculated values according to the Mamdani Model of the Fuzzy Control System.

  1. Integrated coding-aware intra-ONU scheduling for passive optical networks with inter-ONU traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Dai, Shifang; Wu, Weiwei

    2016-12-01

    Recently, with the soaring of traffic among optical network units (ONUs), network coding (NC) is becoming an appealing technique for improving the performance of passive optical networks (PONs) with such inter-ONU traffic. However, in the existed NC-based PONs, NC can only be implemented by buffering inter-ONU traffic at the optical line terminal (OLT) to wait for the establishment of coding condition, such passive uncertain waiting severely limits the effect of NC technique. In this paper, we will study integrated coding-aware intra-ONU scheduling in which the scheduling of inter-ONU traffic within each ONU will be undertaken by the OLT to actively facilitate the forming of coding inter-ONU traffic based on the global inter-ONU traffic distribution, and then the performance of PONs with inter-ONU traffic can be significantly improved. We firstly design two report message patterns and an inter-ONU traffic transmission framework as the basis for the integrated coding-aware intra-ONU scheduling. Three specific scheduling strategies are then proposed for adapting diverse global inter-ONU traffic distributions. The effectiveness of the work is finally evaluated by both theoretical analysis and simulations.

  2. The wireshark field guide analyzing and troubleshooting network traffic

    CERN Document Server

    Shimonski, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The Wireshark Field Guide provides hackers, pen testers, and network administrators with practical guidance on capturing and interactively browsing computer network traffic. Wireshark is the world's foremost network protocol analyzer, with a rich feature set that includes deep inspection of hundreds of protocols, live capture, offline analysis and many other features. The Wireshark Field Guide covers the installation, configuration and use of this powerful multi-platform tool. The book give readers the hands-on skills to be more productive with Wireshark as they drill

  3. Estimation and Control of Networked Distributed Parameter Systems: Application to Traffic Flow

    KAUST Repository

    Canepa, Edward

    2016-11-01

    The management of large-scale transportation infrastructure is becoming a very complex task for the urban areas of this century which are covering bigger geographic spaces and facing the inclusion of connected and self-controlled vehicles. This new system paradigm can leverage many forms of sensing and interaction, including a high-scale mobile sensing approach. To obtain a high penetration sensing system on urban areas more practical and scalable platforms are needed, combined with estimation algorithms suitable to the computational capabilities of these platforms. The purpose of this work was to develop a transportation framework that is able to handle different kinds of sensing data (e.g., connected vehicles, loop detectors) and optimize the traffic state on a defined traffic network. The framework estimates the traffic on road networks modeled by a family of Lighthill-Whitham-Richards equations. Based on an equivalent formulation of the problem using a Hamilton-Jacobi equation and using a semi-analytic formula, I will show that the model constraints resulting from the Hamilton-Jacobi equation are linear, albeit with unknown integer variables. This general framework solve exactly a variety of problems arising in transportation networks: traffic estimation, traffic control (including robust control), cybersecurity and sensor fault detection, or privacy analysis of users in probe-based traffic monitoring systems. This framework is very flexible, fast, and yields exact results. The recent advances in sensors (GPS, inertial measurement units) and microprocessors enable the development low-cost dedicated devices for traffic sensing in cities, 5 which are highly scalable, providing a feasible solution to cover large urban areas. However, one of the main problems to address is the privacy of the users of the transportation system, the framework presented here is a viable option to guarantee the privacy of the users by design.

  4. Predicting Traffic Flow in Local Area Networks by the Largest Lyapunov Exponent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of network traffic are complex and nonlinear, and chaotic behaviors and their prediction, which play an important role in local area networks (LANs, are studied in detail, using the largest Lyapunov exponent. With the introduction of phase space reconstruction based on the time sequence, the high-dimensional traffic is projected onto the low dimension reconstructed phase space, and a reduced dynamic system is obtained from the dynamic system viewpoint. Then, a numerical method for computing the largest Lyapunov exponent of the low-dimensional dynamic system is presented. Further, the longest predictable time, which is related to chaotic behaviors in the system, is studied using the largest Lyapunov exponent, and the Wolf method is used to predict the evolution of the traffic in a local area network by both Dot and Interval predictions, and a reliable result is obtained by the presented method. As the conclusion, the results show that the largest Lyapunov exponent can be used to describe the sensitivity of the trajectory in the reconstructed phase space to the initial values. Moreover, Dot Prediction can effectively predict the flow burst. The numerical simulation also shows that the presented method is feasible and efficient for predicting the complex dynamic behaviors in LAN traffic, especially for congestion and attack in networks, which are the main two complex phenomena behaving as chaos in networks.

  5. Traffic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lichtblau, G.

    2001-01-01

    This chapter deals with passenger and freight traffic, public and private transportation, traffic related environmental impacts, future developments, traffic indicators, regional traffic planning, health costs due to road traffic related air pollution, noise pollution, measures and regulations for traffic control and fuels for traffic. In particular energy consumption, energy efficiency, pollutant emissions ( CO 2 , SO 2 , NO x , HC, CO, N 2 O, NH 3 and particulates) and environmental effects of the different types of traffic and different types of fuels are compared and studied. Legal regulations and measures for an effective traffic control are discussed. (a.n.)

  6. Measurements and Modelling of Base Station Power Consumption under Real Traffic Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Petrovic

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Base stations represent the main contributor to the energy consumption of a mobile cellular network. Since traffic load in mobile networks significantly varies during a working or weekend day, it is important to quantify the influence of these variations on the base station power consumption. Therefore, this paper investigates changes in the instantaneous power consumption of GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications and UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunications System base stations according to their respective traffic load. The real data in terms of the power consumption and traffic load have been obtained from continuous measurements performed on a fully operated base station site. Measurements show the existence of a direct relationship between base station traffic load and power consumption. According to this relationship, we develop a linear power consumption model for base stations of both technologies. This paper also gives an overview of the most important concepts which are being proposed to make cellular networks more energy-efficient.

  7. Wireless Magnetic Sensor Network for Road Traffic Monitoring and Vehicle Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velisavljevic Vladan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Efficiency of transportation of people and goods is playing a vital role in economic growth. A key component for enabling effective planning of transportation networks is the deployment and operation of autonomous monitoring and traffic analysis tools. For that reason, such systems have been developed to register and classify road traffic usage. In this paper, we propose a novel system for road traffic monitoring and classification based on highly energy efficient wireless magnetic sensor networks. We develop novel algorithms for vehicle speed and length estimation and vehicle classification that use multiple magnetic sensors. We also demonstrate that, using such a low-cost system with simplified installation and maintenance compared to current solutions, it is possible to achieve highly accurate estimation and a high rate of positive vehicle classification.

  8. Smart Collection and Storage Method for Network Traffic Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    that implement monitoring may produce many gigabytes of data to store each day. A single Netflix user can generate up to 4.7 GB of network traffic in...just one hour [ Netflix 2014]. In addition, bandwidth utilization per user is increasing rapidly. As organiza- tions increasingly implement various...2014. [ Netflix 2014] Netflix . Manage Bandwidth Usage. https://support.netflix.com/en/node/87 (2014). CMU/SEI-2014-TR-011 | 61 [NISO 2004

  9. Dynamic traffic assignment based trailblazing guide signing for major traffic generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    The placement of guide signs and the display of dynamic massage signs greatly affect drivers : understanding of the network and therefore their route choices. Most existing dynamic traffic assignment : models assume that drivers heading to a Major...

  10. Multi Service Proxy: Mobile Web Traffic Entitlement Point in 4G Core Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalibor Uhlir

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Core part of state-of-the-art mobile networks is composed of several standard elements like GGSN (Gateway General Packet Radio Service Support Node, SGSN (Serving GPRS Support Node, F5 or MSP (Multi Service Proxy. Each node handles network traffic from a slightly different perspective, and with various goals. In this article we will focus only on the MSP, its key features and especially on related security issues. MSP handles all HTTP traffic in the mobile network and therefore it is a suitable point for the implementation of different optimization functions, e.g. to reduce the volume of data generated by YouTube or similar HTTP-based service. This article will introduce basic features and functions of MSP as well as ways of remote access and security mechanisms of this key element in state-of-the-art mobile networks.

  11. A knowledge-based system for controlling automobile traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maravas, Alexander; Stengel, Robert F.

    1994-01-01

    Transportation network capacity variations arising from accidents, roadway maintenance activity, and special events as well as fluctuations in commuters' travel demands complicate traffic management. Artificial intelligence concepts and expert systems can be useful in framing policies for incident detection, congestion anticipation, and optimal traffic management. This paper examines the applicability of intelligent route guidance and control as decision aids for traffic management. Basic requirements for managing traffic are reviewed, concepts for studying traffic flow are introduced, and mathematical models for modeling traffic flow are examined. Measures for quantifying transportation network performance levels are chosen, and surveillance and control strategies are evaluated. It can be concluded that automated decision support holds great promise for aiding the efficient flow of automobile traffic over limited-access roadways, bridges, and tunnels.

  12. Software defined multi-OLT passive optical network for flexible traffic allocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shizong; Gu, Rentao; Ji, Yuefeng; Zhang, Jiawei; Li, Hui

    2016-10-01

    With the rapid growth of 4G mobile network and vehicular network services mobile terminal users have increasing demand on data sharing among different radio remote units (RRUs) and roadside units (RSUs). Meanwhile, commercial video-streaming, video/voice conference applications delivered through peer-to-peer (P2P) technology are still keep on stimulating the sharp increment of bandwidth demand in both business and residential subscribers. However, a significant issue is that, although wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) and orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) technology have been proposed to fulfil the ever-increasing bandwidth demand in access network, the bandwidth of optical fiber is not unlimited due to the restriction of optical component properties and modulation/demodulation technology, and blindly increase the wavelength cannot meet the cost-sensitive characteristic of the access network. In this paper, we propose a software defined multi-OLT PON architecture to support efficient scheduling of access network traffic. By introducing software defined networking technology and wavelength selective switch into TWDM PON system in central office, multiple OLTs can be considered as a bandwidth resource pool and support flexible traffic allocation for optical network units (ONUs). Moreover, under the configuration of the control plane, ONUs have the capability of changing affiliation between different OLTs under different traffic situations, thus the inter-OLT traffic can be localized and the data exchange pressure of the core network can be released. Considering this architecture is designed to be maximum following the TWDM PON specification, the existing optical distribution network (ODN) investment can be saved and conventional EPON/GPON equipment can be compatible with the proposed architecture. What's more, based on this architecture, we propose a dynamic wavelength scheduling algorithm, which can be deployed as an application on control plane

  13. Highway traffic noise prediction based on GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jianghua; Qin, Qiming

    2014-05-01

    Before building a new road, we need to predict the traffic noise generated by vehicles. Traditional traffic noise prediction methods are based on certain locations and they are not only time-consuming, high cost, but also cannot be visualized. Geographical Information System (GIS) can not only solve the problem of manual data processing, but also can get noise values at any point. The paper selected a road segment from Wenxi to Heyang. According to the geographical overview of the study area and the comparison between several models, we combine the JTG B03-2006 model and the HJ2.4-2009 model to predict the traffic noise depending on the circumstances. Finally, we interpolate the noise values at each prediction point and then generate contours of noise. By overlaying the village data on the noise contour layer, we can get the thematic maps. The use of GIS for road traffic noise prediction greatly facilitates the decision-makers because of GIS spatial analysis function and visualization capabilities. We can clearly see the districts where noise are excessive, and thus it becomes convenient to optimize the road line and take noise reduction measures such as installing sound barriers and relocating villages and so on.

  14. Routing strategies in traffic network and phase transition in network ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    dynamic information [5,6]. The advantages of this strategy for delivering data packets on scale-free networks have been demonstrated from two aspects of network capacity and mean packet travel time. The short mean packet travel time is mainly due to the sufficient use of hub nodes. The large network capacity is caused by.

  15. A multiclass vehicular dynamic traffic flow model for main roads and dedicated lanes/roads of multimodal transport network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sossoe, K.S.; Lebacque, J-P.

    2015-01-01

    We present in this paper a model of vehicular traffic flow for a multimodal transportation road network. We introduce the notion of class of vehicles to refer to vehicles of different transport modes. Our model describes the traffic on highways (which may contain several lanes) and network transit for pubic transportation. The model is drafted with Eulerian and Lagrangian coordinates and uses a Logit model to describe the traffic assignment of our multiclass vehicular flow description on shared roads. The paper also discusses traffic streams on dedicated lanes for specific class of vehicles with event-based traffic laws. An Euler-Lagrangian-remap scheme is introduced to numerically approximate the model’s flow equations

  16. Methodology for neural networks prototyping. Application to traffic control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belegan, I.C.

    1998-07-01

    The work described in this report was carried out in the context of the European project ASTORIA (Advanced Simulation Toolbox for Real-World Industrial Application in Passenger Management and Adaptive Control), and concerns the development of an advanced toolbox for complex transportation systems. Our work was focused on the methodology for prototyping a set of neural networks corresponding to specific strategies for traffic control and congestion management. The tool used for prototyping is SNNS (Stuggart Neural Network Simulator), developed at the University of Stuggart, Institute for Parallel and Distributed High Performance Systems, and the real data from the field were provided by ZELT. This report is structured into six parts. The introduction gives some insights about traffic control and its approaches. The second chapter discusses the various control strategies existing. The third chapter is an introduction to the field of neural networks. The data analysis and pre-processing is described in the fourth chapter. In the fifth chapter, the methodology for prototyping the neural networks is presented. Finally, conclusions and further work are presented. (author) 14 refs.

  17. Trunk Reservation in Multi-service Networks with BPP Traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, H.; Zhang, Qi; Iversen, Villy Bæk

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we develop approximate models for trunk reservation in multi-service systems with BPP (Binomial-Poisson-Pascal) multi-rate traffic streams. The approximation is a generalization of previous work by Tran-Gia & Hubner who assumed Poisson arrival processes. It is based on a generalized...

  18. Satellite Network Performance Measurements Using Simulated Multi-User Internet Traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, Hans; Allman, Mark; Griner, Jim; Ostermann, Shawn; Helvey, Eric

    1999-01-01

    As a number of diverse satellite systems (both Low Earth Orbit and Geostationary systems) are being designed and deployed, it becomes increasingly important to be able to test these systems under realistic traffic loads. While software simulations can provide valuable input into the system design process, it is crucial that the physical system be tested so that actual network devices can be employed and tuned. These tests need to utilize traffic patterns that closely mirror the expected user load, without the need to actually deploy an end-user network for the test. In this paper, we present trafgen. trafgen uses statistical information about the characteristics of sampled network traffic to emulate the same type of traffic over the test network. This paper compares sampled terrestrial network traffic with emulated satellite network traffic over the NASA ACTS satellite.

  19. A Novel Architecture for Adaptive Traffic Control in Network on Chip using Code Division Multiple Access Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Fatemeh. Dehghani; Shahram. Darooei

    2016-01-01

    Network on chip has emerged as a long-term and effective method in Multiprocessor System-on-Chip communications in order to overcome the bottleneck in bus based communication architectures. Efficiency and performance of network on chip is so dependent on the architecture and structure of the network. In this paper a new structure and architecture for adaptive traffic control in network on chip using Code Division Multiple Access technique is presented. To solve the problem of synchronous acce...

  20. Interaction of the IoT Traffic Generated by a Smart City Segment with SDN Core Network

    OpenAIRE

    Volkov, Artem; Khakimov, Abdukodir; Muthanna, Ammar; Kirichek, Ruslan; Vladyko, Andrei; Koucheryavy, Andrey

    2017-01-01

    Part 3: Network Design and Planning; International audience; The main purpose of this article is to test IoT management system based on SDN core network, as well as interaction IoT traffic with SDN-switches. To conduct investigation of management system and network infrastructure behavior we carried out several IoT traffic tests, which were generated based on partnership project oneM2M specification. In this work, we considered “Smart city” model for Central district of Saint-Petersburg (Russ...

  1. Effects of traffic generation patterns on the robustness of complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiajing; Zeng, Junwen; Chen, Zhenhao; Tse, Chi K.; Chen, Bokui

    2018-02-01

    Cascading failures in communication networks with heterogeneous node functions are studied in this paper. In such networks, the traffic dynamics are highly dependent on the traffic generation patterns which are in turn determined by the locations of the hosts. The data-packet traffic model is applied to Barabási-Albert scale-free networks to study the cascading failures in such networks and to explore the effects of traffic generation patterns on network robustness. It is found that placing the hosts at high-degree nodes in a network can make the network more robust against both intentional attacks and random failures. It is also shown that the traffic generation pattern plays an important role in network design.

  2. Noise-assisted concurrent multipath traffic distribution in ad hoc networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asvarujanon, Narun; Leibnitz, Kenji; Wakamiya, Naoki; Murata, Masayuki

    2013-01-01

    The concept of biologically inspired networking has been introduced to tackle unpredictable and unstable situations in computer networks, especially in wireless ad hoc networks where network conditions are continuously changing, resulting in the need of robustness and adaptability of control methods. Unfortunately, existing methods often rely heavily on the detailed knowledge of each network component and the preconfigured, that is, fine-tuned, parameters. In this paper, we utilize a new concept, called attractor perturbation (AP), which enables controlling the network performance using only end-to-end information. Based on AP, we propose a concurrent multipath traffic distribution method, which aims at lowering the average end-to-end delay by only adjusting the transmission rate on each path. We demonstrate through simulations that, by utilizing the attractor perturbation relationship, the proposed method achieves a lower average end-to-end delay compared to other methods which do not take fluctuations into account.

  3. Intelligent Traffic Light Based on PLC Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Lin; Zhang, Lijian; Wang, Lingling

    2017-11-01

    The traditional traffic light system with a fixed control mode and single control function is contradicted with the current traffic section. The traditional one has been unable to meet the functional requirements of the existing flexible traffic control system. This paper research and develop an intelligent traffic light called PLC control system. It uses PLC as control core, using a sensor module for receiving real-time information of vehicles, traffic control mode for information to select the traffic lights. Of which control mode is flexible and changeable, and it also set the countdown reminder to improve the effectiveness of traffic lights, which can realize the goal of intelligent traffic diversion, intelligent traffic diversion.

  4. Model establishing and performance analysis of service stratum traffic in the integrated sensing network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Zhiqun; Wang, Ying; Zhang, Xiaolu; Zheng, Yu; Zhao, Xinqun; Sun, Xiaohan

    2017-01-01

    We propose a time-division hybrid-user data flow model scheme based on semi-Markov state-transition algorithm for multiclass business and service in Integrated Sensing Network (ISN). Two typical flow models, visual sense and auditory sense service models, are set up due to the real situation of service stratum traffic, respectively. The experimental system based on the Asynchronous Optical Packet Switching (AOPS) network simulation platform is established for the feasibility of the proposed data flow model. The results show that the proposed models achieve reasonable packet loss rate and delay time in the case of different business and service levels.

  5. Macroscopic Traffic State Estimation: Understanding Traffic Sensing Data-Based Estimation Errors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul B. C. van Erp

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic state estimation is a crucial element in traffic management systems and in providing traffic information to road users. In this article, we evaluate traffic sensing data-based estimation error characteristics in macroscopic traffic state estimation. We consider two types of sensing data, that is, loop-detector data and probe speed data. These data are used to estimate the mean speed in a discrete space-time mesh. We assume that there are no errors in the sensing data. This allows us to study the errors resulting from the differences in characteristics between the sensing data and desired estimate together with the incomplete description of the relation between the two. The aim of the study is to evaluate the dependency of this estimation error on the traffic conditions and sensing data characteristics. For this purpose, we use microscopic traffic simulation, where we compare the estimates with the ground truth using Edie’s definitions. The study exposes a relation between the error distribution characteristics and traffic conditions. Furthermore, we find that it is important to account for the correlation between individual probe data-based estimation errors. Knowledge related to these estimation errors contributes to making better use of the available sensing data in traffic state estimation.

  6. Multiobjective Reinforcement Learning for Traffic Signal Control Using Vehicular Ad Hoc Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houli Duan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new multiobjective control algorithm based on reinforcement learning for urban traffic signal control, named multi-RL. A multiagent structure is used to describe the traffic system. A vehicular ad hoc network is used for the data exchange among agents. A reinforcement learning algorithm is applied to predict the overall value of the optimization objective given vehicles' states. The policy which minimizes the cumulative value of the optimization objective is regarded as the optimal one. In order to make the method adaptive to various traffic conditions, we also introduce a multiobjective control scheme in which the optimization objective is selected adaptively to real-time traffic states. The optimization objectives include the vehicle stops, the average waiting time, and the maximum queue length of the next intersection. In addition, we also accommodate a priority control to the buses and the emergency vehicles through our model. The simulation results indicated that our algorithm could perform more efficiently than traditional traffic light control methods.

  7. A Reputation System for Traffic Safety Event on Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiao-Chien Tsai

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic safety applications on vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs have drawn a lot of attention in recent years with their promising functions on car accident reduction, real-time traffic information support, and enhancement of comfortable driving experience on roadways. However, an inaccurate traffic warning message will impact drivers' decisions, waste drivers' time and fuel in their vehicles, and even invoke serious car accidents. To enable eco-friendly driving VANET environments, that is, to save fuel and time in this context, we proposed an event-based reputation system to prevent the spread of false traffic warning messages. In this system, a dynamic reputation evaluation mechanism is introduced to determine whether an incoming traffic message is significant and trustworthy to the driver. The proposed system is characterized and evaluated through experimental simulations. The simulation results show that, with a proper reputation adaptation mechanism and appropriate threshold settings, our proposed system can effectively prevent false messages spread on various VANET environments.

  8. Mathematical programs with complementarity constraints in traffic and telecommunications networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralph, Daniel

    2008-06-13

    Given a suitably parametrized family of equilibrium models and a higher level criterion by which to measure an equilibrium state, mathematical programs with equilibrium constraints (MPECs) provide a framework for improving or optimizing the equilibrium state. An example is toll design in traffic networks, which attempts to reduce total travel time by choosing which arcs to toll and what toll levels to impose. Here, a Wardrop equilibrium describes the traffic response to each toll design. Communication networks also have a deep literature on equilibrium flows that suggest some MPECs. We focus on mathematical programs with complementarity constraints (MPCCs), a subclass of MPECs for which the lower level equilibrium system can be formulated as a complementarity problem and therefore, importantly, as a nonlinear program (NLP). Although MPECs and MPCCs are typically non-convex, which is a consequence of the upper level objective clashing with the users' objectives in the lower level equilibrium program, the last decade of research has paved the way for finding local solutions of MPCCs via standard NLP techniques.

  9. Comparison between genetic algorithm and self organizing map to detect botnet network traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yugandhara Prabhakar, Shinde; Parganiha, Pratishtha; Madhu Viswanatham, V.; Nirmala, M.

    2017-11-01

    In Cyber Security world the botnet attacks are increasing. To detect botnet is a challenging task. Botnet is a group of computers connected in a coordinated fashion to do malicious activities. Many techniques have been developed and used to detect and prevent botnet traffic and the attacks. In this paper, a comparative study is done on Genetic Algorithm (GA) and Self Organizing Map (SOM) to detect the botnet network traffic. Both are soft computing techniques and used in this paper as data analytics system. GA is based on natural evolution process and SOM is an Artificial Neural Network type, uses unsupervised learning techniques. SOM uses neurons and classifies the data according to the neurons. Sample of KDD99 dataset is used as input to GA and SOM.

  10. Performance Modeling for Heterogeneous Wireless Networks with Multiservice Overflow Traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Qian; Ko, King-Tim; Iversen, Villy Bæk

    2009-01-01

    . Multiservice loss analysis based on multi-dimensional Markov chain becomes intractable in these networks due to intensive computations required. This paper focuses on performance modeling for heterogeneous wireless networks based on a hierarchical overlay infrastructure. A method based on decomposition...

  11. Self-Similarity in Tactical Network Traffic and Tactical Radio Experimentation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brodeen, Ann

    2004-01-01

    Network traffic has been reported to exhibit self-similar properties over time. This behavior has been traced to a number of factors, including file-size distributions and characteristics of current network protocols...

  12. Machine learning for network-based malware detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stevanovic, Matija

    using traffic traces from honeypots and malware testing environments as well as operational ISP networks. Based on the evaluation, the novel detection methods provide accurate and efficient identification of malicious network traffic, thus being promising in the light of operational deployment...

  13. Networked traffic state estimation involving mixed fixed-mobile sensor data using Hamilton-Jacobi equations

    KAUST Repository

    Canepa, Edward S.

    2017-06-19

    Nowadays, traffic management has become a challenge for urban areas, which are covering larger geographic spaces and facing the generation of different kinds of traffic data. This article presents a robust traffic estimation framework for highways modeled by a system of Lighthill Whitham Richards equations that is able to assimilate different sensor data available. We first present an equivalent formulation of the problem using a Hamilton–Jacobi equation. Then, using a semi-analytic formula, we show that the model constraints resulting from the Hamilton–Jacobi equation are linear ones. We then pose the problem of estimating the traffic density given incomplete and inaccurate traffic data as a Mixed Integer Program. We then extend the density estimation framework to highway networks with any available data constraint and modeling junctions. Finally, we present a travel estimation application for a small network using real traffic measurements obtained obtained during Mobile Century traffic experiment, and comparing the results with ground truth data.

  14. The Use of Adaptive Traffic Signal Systems Based on Floating Car Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittorio Astarita

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a simple concept which has not been, up to now, thoroughly explored in scientific research: the use of information coming from the network of Internet connected mobile devices (on vehicles to regulate traffic light systems. Three large-scale changes are going to shape the future of transportation and could lead to the regulation of traffic signal system based on floating car data (FCD: (i the implementation of Internet connected cars with global navigation satellite (GNSS system receivers and the autonomous car revolution; (ii the spreading of mobile cooperative Web 2.0 and the extension to connected vehicles; (iii an increasing need for sustainability of transportation in terms of energy efficiency, traffic safety, and environmental issues. Up to now, the concept of floating car data (FCD has only been extensively used to obtain traffic information and estimate traffic parameters. Traffic lights regulation based on FCD technology has not been fully researched since the implementation requires new ideas and algorithms. This paper intends to provide a seminal insight into the important issue of adaptive traffic light based on FCD by presenting ideas that can be useful to researchers and engineers in the long-term task of developing new algorithms and systems that may revolutionize the way traffic lights are regulated.

  15. Admission Control for Multiservices Traffic in Hierarchical Mobile IPv6 Networks by Using Fuzzy Inference System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Shyr Wu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available CAC (Call Admission Control plays a significant role in providing QoS (Quality of Service in mobile wireless networks. In addition to much research that focuses on modified Mobile IP to get better efficient handover performance, CAC should be introduced to Mobile IP-based network to guarantee the QoS for users. In this paper, we propose a CAC scheme which incorporates multiple traffic types and adjusts the admission threshold dynamically using fuzzy control logic to achieve better usage of resources. The method can provide QoS in Mobile IPv6 networks with few modifications on MAP (Mobility Anchor Point functionality and slight change in BU (Binding Update message formats. According to the simulation results, the proposed scheme presents good performance of voice and video traffic at the expenses of poor performance on data traffic. It is evident that these CAC schemes can reduce the probability of the handoff dropping and the cell overload and limit the probability of the new call blocking.

  16. Integration of Body Sensor Networks and Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks for Traffic Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Muñoz, Angelica; Domingo, Mari Carmen; López-Trinidad, Marco Antonio; Delgado, José Luis

    2016-01-15

    The emergence of Body Sensor Networks (BSNs) constitutes a new and fast growing trend for the development of daily routine applications. However, in the case of heterogeneous BSNs integration with Vehicular ad hoc Networks (VANETs) a large number of difficulties remain, that must be solved, especially when talking about the detection of human state factors that impair the driving of motor vehicles. The main contributions of this investigation are principally three: (1) an exhaustive review of the current mechanisms to detect four basic physiological behavior states (drowsy, drunk, driving under emotional state disorders and distracted driving) that may cause traffic accidents is presented; (2) A middleware architecture is proposed. This architecture can communicate with the car dashboard, emergency services, vehicles belonging to the VANET and road or street facilities. This architecture seeks on the one hand to improve the car driving experience of the driver and on the other hand to extend security mechanisms for the surrounding individuals; and (3) as a proof of concept, an Android real-time attention low level detection application that runs in a next-generation smartphone is developed. The application features mechanisms that allow one to measure the degree of attention of a driver on the base of her/his EEG signals, establish wireless communication links via various standard wireless means, GPRS, Bluetooth and WiFi and issue alarms of critical low driver attention levels.

  17. Integration of Body Sensor Networks and Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks for Traffic Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica Reyes-Muñoz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of Body Sensor Networks (BSNs constitutes a new and fast growing trend for the development of daily routine applications. However, in the case of heterogeneous BSNs integration with Vehicular ad hoc Networks (VANETs a large number of difficulties remain, that must be solved, especially when talking about the detection of human state factors that impair the driving of motor vehicles. The main contributions of this investigation are principally three: (1 an exhaustive review of the current mechanisms to detect four basic physiological behavior states (drowsy, drunk, driving under emotional state disorders and distracted driving that may cause traffic accidents is presented; (2 A middleware architecture is proposed. This architecture can communicate with the car dashboard, emergency services, vehicles belonging to the VANET and road or street facilities. This architecture seeks on the one hand to improve the car driving experience of the driver and on the other hand to extend security mechanisms for the surrounding individuals; and (3 as a proof of concept, an Android real-time attention low level detection application that runs in a next-generation smartphone is developed. The application features mechanisms that allow one to measure the degree of attention of a driver on the base of her/his EEG signals, establish wireless communication links via various standard wireless means, GPRS, Bluetooth and WiFi and issue alarms of critical low driver attention levels.

  18. Integration of Body Sensor Networks and Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks for Traffic Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Muñoz, Angelica; Domingo, Mari Carmen; López-Trinidad, Marco Antonio; Delgado, José Luis

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of Body Sensor Networks (BSNs) constitutes a new and fast growing trend for the development of daily routine applications. However, in the case of heterogeneous BSNs integration with Vehicular ad hoc Networks (VANETs) a large number of difficulties remain, that must be solved, especially when talking about the detection of human state factors that impair the driving of motor vehicles. The main contributions of this investigation are principally three: (1) an exhaustive review of the current mechanisms to detect four basic physiological behavior states (drowsy, drunk, driving under emotional state disorders and distracted driving) that may cause traffic accidents is presented; (2) A middleware architecture is proposed. This architecture can communicate with the car dashboard, emergency services, vehicles belonging to the VANET and road or street facilities. This architecture seeks on the one hand to improve the car driving experience of the driver and on the other hand to extend security mechanisms for the surrounding individuals; and (3) as a proof of concept, an Android real-time attention low level detection application that runs in a next-generation smartphone is developed. The application features mechanisms that allow one to measure the degree of attention of a driver on the base of her/his EEG signals, establish wireless communication links via various standard wireless means, GPRS, Bluetooth and WiFi and issue alarms of critical low driver attention levels. PMID:26784204

  19. Forecasting of Congestion in Traffic Neural Network Modelling Using Duffing Holmes Oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrgole, Anamarija L.; Čelan, Marko; Mesarec, Beno

    2017-10-01

    Forecasting of congestion in traffic with Neural Network is an innovative and new process of identification and detection of chaotic features in time series analysis. With the use of Duffing Holmes Oscillator, we estimate the emergence of traffic flow congestion when the traffic load on a specific section of the road and in a specific time period is close to exceeding the capacity of the road infrastructure. The orientated model is validated in six locations with a specific requirement. The paper points out the issue of importance of traffic flow forecasting and simulations for preventing or rerouting possible short term traffic flow congestions.

  20. Traffic Steering Framework for Mobile-Assisted Resource Management in Heterogeneous Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dogadaev, Anton Konstantinovich; Checko, Aleksandra; Popovska Avramova, Andrijana

    2013-01-01

    -Fi or open access small cells. A provision of desired quality of experience to the end-user is carried out by an operator-configurable monitoring application that is running on a mobile device. A potential to enhance network-centric resource management is provided by delegating traffic steering authorities......With the expected growth of mobile data traffic it is essential to manage the network resources efficiently. In order to undertake this challenge, we propose a framework for network-centric, mobile-assisted resource management, which facilitates traffic offloading from mobile network to Wi...

  1. Impact of Bimodal Traffic on Latency in Optical Burst Switching Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhua Chen

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the impact of bimodal traffic composition on latency in optical burst switching networks. In particular, it studies the performance degradation to short-length packets caused by longer packets, both of which are part of a heterogeneous traffic model. The paper defines a customer satisfaction index for each of the classes of traffic, and a composite satisfaction index. The impact of higher overall utilization of the network as well as that of the ratio of the traffic mix on each of the customer satisfaction indices is specifically addressed.

  2. The Impact of Traffic Prioritization on Deep Space Network Mission Traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Esther; Segui, John; Gao, Jay; Clare, Loren; Abraham, Douglas

    2011-01-01

    A select number of missions supported by NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN) are demanding very high data rates. For example, the Kepler Mission was launched March 7, 2009 and at that time required the highest data rate of any NASA mission, with maximum rates of 4.33 Mb/s being provided via Ka band downlinks. The James Webb Space Telescope will require a maximum 28 Mb/s science downlink data rate also using Ka band links; as of this writing the launch is scheduled for a June 2014 launch. The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, launched June 18, 2009, has demonstrated data rates at 100 Mb/s at lunar-Earth distances using NASA's Near Earth Network (NEN) and K-band. As further advances are made in high data rate space telecommunications, particularly with emerging optical systems, it is expected that large surges in demand on the supporting ground systems will ensue. A performance analysis of the impact of high variance in demand has been conducted using our Multi-mission Advanced Communications Hybrid Environment for Test and Evaluation (MACHETE) simulation tool. A comparison is made regarding the incorporation of Quality of Service (QoS) mechanisms and the resulting ground-to-ground Wide Area Network (WAN) bandwidth necessary to meet latency requirements across different user missions. It is shown that substantial reduction in WAN bandwidth may be realized through QoS techniques when low data rate users with low-latency needs are mixed with high data rate users having delay-tolerant traffic.

  3. Optimized Virtual Machine Placement with Traffic-Aware Balancing in Data Center Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Virtualization has been an efficient method to fully utilize computing resources such as servers. The way of placing virtual machines (VMs among a large pool of servers greatly affects the performance of data center networks (DCNs. As network resources have become a main bottleneck of the performance of DCNs, we concentrate on VM placement with Traffic-Aware Balancing to evenly utilize the links in DCNs. In this paper, we first proposed a Virtual Machine Placement Problem with Traffic-Aware Balancing (VMPPTB and then proved it to be NP-hard and designed a Longest Processing Time Based Placement algorithm (LPTBP algorithm to solve it. To take advantage of the communication locality, we proposed Locality-Aware Virtual Machine Placement Problem with Traffic-Aware Balancing (LVMPPTB, which is a multiobjective optimization problem of simultaneously minimizing the maximum number of VM partitions of requests and minimizing the maximum bandwidth occupancy on uplinks of Top of Rack (ToR switches. We also proved it to be NP-hard and designed a heuristic algorithm (Least-Load First Based Placement algorithm, LLBP algorithm to solve it. Through extensive simulations, the proposed heuristic algorithm is proven to significantly balance the bandwidth occupancy on uplinks of ToR switches, while keeping the number of VM partitions of each request small enough.

  4. Traffic Signal Synchronization in the Saturated High-Density Grid Road Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojian Hu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Most existing traffic signal synchronization strategies do not perform well in the saturated high-density grid road network (HGRN. Traffic congestion often occurs in the saturated HGRN, and the mobility of the network is difficult to restore. In order to alleviate traffic congestion and to improve traffic efficiency in the network, the study proposes a regional traffic signal synchronization strategy, named the long green and long red (LGLR traffic signal synchronization strategy. The essence of the strategy is to control the formation and dissipation of queues and to maximize the efficiency of traffic flows at signalized intersections in the saturated HGRN. With this strategy, the same signal control timing plan is used at all signalized intersections in the HGRN, and the straight phase of the control timing plan has a long green time and a long red time. Therefore, continuous traffic flows can be maintained when vehicles travel, and traffic congestion can be alleviated when vehicles stop. Using the strategy, the LGLR traffic signal synchronization model is developed, with the objective of minimizing the number of stops. Finally, the simulation is executed to analyze the performance of the model by comparing it to other models, and the superiority of the LGLR model is evident in terms of delay, number of stops, queue length, and overall performance in the saturated HGRN.

  5. Traffic Signal Synchronization in the Saturated High-Density Grid Road Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaojian; Lu, Jian; Wang, Wei; Zhirui, Ye

    2015-01-01

    Most existing traffic signal synchronization strategies do not perform well in the saturated high-density grid road network (HGRN). Traffic congestion often occurs in the saturated HGRN, and the mobility of the network is difficult to restore. In order to alleviate traffic congestion and to improve traffic efficiency in the network, the study proposes a regional traffic signal synchronization strategy, named the long green and long red (LGLR) traffic signal synchronization strategy. The essence of the strategy is to control the formation and dissipation of queues and to maximize the efficiency of traffic flows at signalized intersections in the saturated HGRN. With this strategy, the same signal control timing plan is used at all signalized intersections in the HGRN, and the straight phase of the control timing plan has a long green time and a long red time. Therefore, continuous traffic flows can be maintained when vehicles travel, and traffic congestion can be alleviated when vehicles stop. Using the strategy, the LGLR traffic signal synchronization model is developed, with the objective of minimizing the number of stops. Finally, the simulation is executed to analyze the performance of the model by comparing it to other models, and the superiority of the LGLR model is evident in terms of delay, number of stops, queue length, and overall performance in the saturated HGRN. PMID:25663835

  6. A wireless sensor network for urban traffic characterization and trend monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Lozano, J J; Martín-Guzmán, Miguel; Martín-Ávila, Juan; García-Cerezo, A

    2015-10-15

    Sustainable mobility requires a better management of the available infrastructure resources. To achieve this goal, it is necessary to obtain accurate data about road usage, in particular in urban areas. Although a variety of sensor alternates for urban traffic exist, they usually require extensive investments in the form of construction works for installation, processing means, etc. Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) are an alternative to acquire urban traffic data, allowing for flexible, easy deployment. Together with the use of the appropriate sensors, like Bluetooth identification, and associate processing, WSN can provide the means to obtain in real time data like the origin-destination matrix, a key tool for trend monitoring which previously required weeks or months to be completed. This paper presents a system based on WSN designed to characterize urban traffic, particularly traffic trend monitoring through the calculation of the origin-destination matrix in real time by using Bluetooth identification. Additional sensors are also available integrated in different types of nodes. Experiments in real conditions have been performed, both for separate sensors (Bluetooth, ultrasound and laser), and for the whole system, showing the feasibility of this approach.

  7. Calculating Traffic based on Road Sensor Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bisseling, Rob; Gao, Fengnan; Hafkenscheid, Patrick; Idema, Reijer; Jetka, Tomasz; Guerra Ones, Valia; Rata, Debanshu; Sikora, Monika

    2014-01-01

    Road sensors gather a lot of statistical data about traffic. In this paper, we discuss how a measure for the amount of traffic on the roads can be derived from this data, such that the measure is independent of the number and placement of sensors, and the calculations can be performed quickly for

  8. Traffic data collection and anonymous vehicle detection using wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    New traffic sensing devices based on wireless sensing technologies were designed and tested. Such devices encompass a cost-effective, battery-free, and energy self-sustained architecture for real-time traffic measurement over distributed points in a ...

  9. A Practical Method for Multilevel Classification and Accounting of Traffic in Computer Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bujlow, Tomasz; Pedersen, Jens Myrup

    the service provider (as Facebook, YouTube, or Google). Furthermore, Deep Packet Inspection (DPI), which seems to be the most accurate technique, in addition to the extensive needs for resources, often cannot be used by ISPs in their networks due to privacy or legal reasons. Techniques based on Machine......, SSH, and Telnet. Within each application group we identify a number of behaviors -- for example, for HTTP, we selected file transfer, web browsing, web radio, and unknown. Our system built based on the method provides also traffic accounting and it was tested on 2 datasets. The classification results...

  10. Simulation and analysis of traffic flow based on cellular automaton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xianping; Liu, Xia

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, single-lane and two-lane traffic model are established based on cellular automaton. Different values of vehicle arrival rate at the entrance and vehicle departure rate at the exit are set to analyze their effects on density, average speed and traffic flow. If the road exit is unblocked, vehicles can pass through the road smoothly despite of the arrival rate at the entrance. If vehicles enter into the road continuously, the traffic condition is varied with the departure rate at the exit. To avoid traffic jam, reasonable vehicle departure rate should be adopted.

  11. Network traffic intelligence using a low interaction honeypot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyamugudza, Tendai; Rajasekar, Venkatesh; Sen, Prasad; Nirmala, M.; Madhu Viswanatham, V.

    2017-11-01

    Advancements in networking technology have seen more and more devices becoming connected day by day. This has given organizations capacity to extend their networks beyond their boundaries to remote offices and remote employees. However as the network grows security becomes a major challenge since the attack surface also increases. There is need to guard the network against different types of attacks like intrusion and malware through using different tools at different networking levels. This paper describes how network intelligence can be acquired through implementing a low-interaction honeypot which detects and track network intrusion. Honeypot allows an organization to interact and gather information about an attack earlier before it compromises the network. This process is important because it allows the organization to learn about future attacks of the same nature and allows them to develop counter measures. The paper further shows how honeypot-honey net based model for interruption detection system (IDS) can be used to get the best valuable information about the attacker and prevent unexpected harm to the network.

  12. Sliding Window Based Feature Extraction and Traffic Clustering for Green Mobile Cyberphysical Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiao Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Both the densification of small base stations and the diversity of user activities bring huge challenges for today’s heterogeneous networks, either heavy burdens on base stations or serious energy waste. In order to ensure coverage of the network while reducing the total energy consumption, we adopt a green mobile cyberphysical system (MCPS to handle this problem. In this paper, we propose a feature extraction method using sliding window to extract the distribution feature of mobile user equipment (UE, and a case study is presented to demonstrate that the method is efficacious in reserving the clustering distribution feature. Furthermore, we present traffic clustering analysis to categorize collected traffic distribution samples into a limited set of traffic patterns, where the patterns and corresponding optimized control strategies are used to similar traffic distributions for the rapid control of base station state. Experimental results show that the sliding window is more superior in enabling higher UE coverage over the grid method. Besides, the optimized control strategy obtained from the traffic pattern is capable of achieving a high coverage that can well serve over 98% of all mobile UE for similar traffic distributions.

  13. The transportation network rough description for an adaptive traffic control algorithms by means of video detection technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan PIECHA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The contribution discusses a transportation network rough description that corresponds to satisfactory level of an adaptive traffic control algorithms implementation [4], supported by video-detection system. The decision making algorithms have to provide us with not only vehicles’ approach time prediction, at the intersections but also finding possible solution for avoiding critical queues at the intersections. Majority of traditional traffic control systems are based on number of cars recorded by inductive loops, however they do not define any proper occupation states at any traffic lane. The time window indicated for passing the defined number of cars loses the distance gaps visible between the cars on the traffic lane. That is why remarkable part from the defined number of cars will not cross the intersection in the defined green light time. Procedures used for searching an optimal solution using the inductive measurements can, in the majority cases, be undoubtedly noticed as a theoretical analysis only.

  14. GIS-BASED ROUTE FINDING USING ANT COLONY OPTIMIZATION AND URBAN TRAFFIC DATA FROM DIFFERENT SOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Davoodi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays traffic data is obtained from multiple sources including GPS, Video Vehicle Detectors (VVD, Automatic Number Plate Recognition (ANPR, Floating Car Data (FCD, VANETs, etc. All such data can be used for route finding. This paper proposes a model for finding the optimum route based on the integration of traffic data from different sources. Ant Colony Optimization is applied in this paper because the concept of this method (movement of ants in a network is similar to urban road network and movements of cars. The results indicate that this model is capable of incorporating data from different sources, which may even be inconsistent.

  15. Gis-Based Route Finding Using ANT Colony Optimization and Urban Traffic Data from Different Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davoodi, M.; Mesgari, M. S.

    2015-12-01

    Nowadays traffic data is obtained from multiple sources including GPS, Video Vehicle Detectors (VVD), Automatic Number Plate Recognition (ANPR), Floating Car Data (FCD), VANETs, etc. All such data can be used for route finding. This paper proposes a model for finding the optimum route based on the integration of traffic data from different sources. Ant Colony Optimization is applied in this paper because the concept of this method (movement of ants in a network) is similar to urban road network and movements of cars. The results indicate that this model is capable of incorporating data from different sources, which may even be inconsistent.

  16. Optimal traffic control in highway transportation networks using linear programming

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yanning

    2014-06-01

    This article presents a framework for the optimal control of boundary flows on transportation networks. The state of the system is modeled by a first order scalar conservation law (Lighthill-Whitham-Richards PDE). Based on an equivalent formulation of the Hamilton-Jacobi PDE, the problem of controlling the state of the system on a network link in a finite horizon can be posed as a Linear Program. Assuming all intersections in the network are controllable, we show that the optimization approach can be extended to an arbitrary transportation network, preserving linear constraints. Unlike previously investigated transportation network control schemes, this framework leverages the intrinsic properties of the Halmilton-Jacobi equation, and does not require any discretization or boolean variables on the link. Hence this framework is very computational efficient and provides the globally optimal solution. The feasibility of this framework is illustrated by an on-ramp metering control example.

  17. The relationship between traffic volume and road safety on the secondary road network : a literature review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duivenvoorden, K.

    2010-01-01

    On motorways, congestion is a well-known traffic problem. On the secondary road network, the same problem arises when traffic volume increases and the driven speed decreases. At certain times of day, roads get congested and the number of interactions between road users increases. In general, higher

  18. Grid Mapping for Spatial Pattern Analyses of Recurrent Urban Traffic Congestion Based on Taxi GPS Sensing Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Liu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Traffic congestion is one of the most serious problems that impact urban transportation efficiency, especially in big cities. Identifying traffic congestion locations and occurring patterns is a prerequisite for urban transportation managers in order to take proper countermeasures for mitigating traffic congestion. In this study, the historical GPS sensing data of about 12,000 taxi floating cars in Beijing were used for pattern analyses of recurrent traffic congestion based on the grid mapping method. Through the use of ArcGIS software, 2D and 3D maps of the road network congestion were generated for traffic congestion pattern visualization. The study results showed that three types of traffic congestion patterns were identified, namely: point type, stemming from insufficient capacities at the nodes of the road network; line type, caused by high traffic demand or bottleneck issues in the road segments; and region type, resulting from multiple high-demand expressways merging and connecting to each other. The study illustrated that the proposed method would be effective for discovering traffic congestion locations and patterns and helpful for decision makers to take corresponding traffic engineering countermeasures in order to relieve the urban traffic congestion issues.

  19. An Efficient MapReduce-Based Parallel Clustering Algorithm for Distributed Traffic Subarea Division

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawen Xia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic subarea division is vital for traffic system management and traffic network analysis in intelligent transportation systems (ITSs. Since existing methods may not be suitable for big traffic data processing, this paper presents a MapReduce-based Parallel Three-Phase K-Means (Par3PKM algorithm for solving traffic subarea division problem on a widely adopted Hadoop distributed computing platform. Specifically, we first modify the distance metric and initialization strategy of K-Means and then employ a MapReduce paradigm to redesign the optimized K-Means algorithm for parallel clustering of large-scale taxi trajectories. Moreover, we propose a boundary identifying method to connect the borders of clustering results for each cluster. Finally, we divide traffic subarea of Beijing based on real-world trajectory data sets generated by 12,000 taxis in a period of one month using the proposed approach. Experimental evaluation results indicate that when compared with K-Means, Par2PK-Means, and ParCLARA, Par3PKM achieves higher efficiency, more accuracy, and better scalability and can effectively divide traffic subarea with big taxi trajectory data.

  20. High-speed and high-fidelity system and method for collecting network traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigle, Eric H [Los Alamos, NM

    2010-08-24

    A system is provided for the high-speed and high-fidelity collection of network traffic. The system can collect traffic at gigabit-per-second (Gbps) speeds, scale to terabit-per-second (Tbps) speeds, and support additional functions such as real-time network intrusion detection. The present system uses a dedicated operating system for traffic collection to maximize efficiency, scalability, and performance. A scalable infrastructure and apparatus for the present system is provided by splitting the work performed on one host onto multiple hosts. The present system simultaneously addresses the issues of scalability, performance, cost, and adaptability with respect to network monitoring, collection, and other network tasks. In addition to high-speed and high-fidelity network collection, the present system provides a flexible infrastructure to perform virtually any function at high speeds such as real-time network intrusion detection and wide-area network emulation for research purposes.

  1. Smart Traffic Management Protocol Based on VANET architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amilcare Francesco Santamaria

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays one of the hottest theme in wireless environments research is the application of the newest technologies to road safety problems and traffic management exploiting the (VANET architecture. In this work, a novel protocol that aims to achieve a better traffic management is proposed. The overal system is able to reduce traffic level inside the city exploiting inter-communication among vehicles and support infrastructures also known as (V2V and (V2I communications. We design a network protocol called (STMP that takes advantages of IEEE 802.11p standard. On each road several sensors system are placed and they are responsible of monitoring. Gathered data are spread in the network exploiting ad-hoc protocol messages. The increasing knowledge about environment conditions make possible to take preventive actions. Moreover, having a realtime monitoring of the lanes it is possible to reveal roads and city blocks congestions in a shorter time. An external entity to the (VANET is responsible to manage traffic and rearrange traffic along the lanes of the city avoiding huge traffic levels.

  2. Particle-based model for skiing traffic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holleczek, Thomas; Tröster, Gerhard

    2012-05-01

    We develop and investigate a particle-based model for ski slope traffic. Skiers are modeled as particles with a mass that are exposed to social and physical forces, which define the riding behavior of skiers during their descents on ski slopes. We also report position and speed data of 21 skiers recorded with GPS-equipped cell phones on two ski slopes. A comparison of these data with the trajectories resulting from computer simulations of our model shows a good correspondence. A study of the relationship among the density, speed, and flow of skiers reveals that congestion does not occur even with arrival rates of skiers exceeding the maximum ski lift capacity. In a sensitivity analysis, we identify the kinetic friction coefficient of skis on snow, the skier mass, the range of repelling social forces, and the arrival rate of skiers as the crucial parameters influencing the simulation results. Our model allows for the prediction of speed zones and skier densities on ski slopes, which is important in the prevention of skiing accidents.

  3. Particle-based model for skiing traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holleczek, Thomas; Tröster, Gerhard

    2012-05-01

    We develop and investigate a particle-based model for ski slope traffic. Skiers are modeled as particles with a mass that are exposed to social and physical forces, which define the riding behavior of skiers during their descents on ski slopes. We also report position and speed data of 21 skiers recorded with GPS-equipped cell phones on two ski slopes. A comparison of these data with the trajectories resulting from computer simulations of our model shows a good correspondence. A study of the relationship among the density, speed, and flow of skiers reveals that congestion does not occur even with arrival rates of skiers exceeding the maximum ski lift capacity. In a sensitivity analysis, we identify the kinetic friction coefficient of skis on snow, the skier mass, the range of repelling social forces, and the arrival rate of skiers as the crucial parameters influencing the simulation results. Our model allows for the prediction of speed zones and skier densities on ski slopes, which is important in the prevention of skiing accidents.

  4. Local-Area Based Traffic Splitter for Improving Performance Using Subnetting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Meenakshi; Mittal, Mohit Kumar

    2010-11-01

    This document provides an overview of LAN traffic splitter. The tool "Local-Area based Traffic splitter" is based on subnetting techniques. It is basically used for calculating subnets for sub-dividing the LAN. Subnetting an IP Network can be done for a variety of reasons, including organization, use of different physical media (such as Ethernet, FDDI, WAN, etc.), preservation of address space, and security. The most common reason is to control network traffic. There are various techniques for calculating subnets that are considered by this tool. This paper will explore the various features of this tool and will also check the effect of subnetting after implementing it on the LAN. These instructions give you basic guidelines for preparing camera-ready papers for conference proceedings.

  5. An optimal general type-2 fuzzy controller for Urban Traffic Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khooban, Mohammad Hassan; Vafamand, Navid; Liaghat, Alireza

    2017-01-01

    Urban traffic network model is illustrated by state-charts and object-diagram. However, they have limitations to show the behavioral perspective of the Traffic Information flow. Consequently, a state space model is used to calculate the half-value waiting time of vehicles. In this study......, a combination of the general type-2 fuzzy logic sets and the Modified Backtracking Search Algorithm (MBSA) techniques are used in order to control the traffic signal scheduling and phase succession so as to guarantee a smooth flow of traffic with the least wait times and average queue length. The parameters...

  6. Classification of HTTP traffic based on C5.0 Machine Learning Algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bujlow, Tomasz; Riaz, Tahir; Pedersen, Jens Myrup

    2012-01-01

    streaming through third-party plugins, etc. This paper suggests and evaluates two approaches to distinguish various types of HTTP traffic based on the content: distributed among volunteers' machines and centralized running in the core of the network. We also assess the accuracy of the centralized classifier...

  7. An Improved Response Surface Methodology Algorithm with an Application to Traffic Signal Optimization for Urban Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    Prepared ca. 1995. This paper illustrates the use of the simulation-optimization technique of response surface methodology (RSM) in traffic signal optimization of urban networks. It also quantifies the gains of using the common random number (CRN) va...

  8. Spatiotemporal Context Awareness for Urban Traffic Modeling and Prediction: Sparse Representation Based Variable Selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Yang

    Full Text Available Spatial-temporal correlations among the data play an important role in traffic flow prediction. Correspondingly, traffic modeling and prediction based on big data analytics emerges due to the city-scale interactions among traffic flows. A new methodology based on sparse representation is proposed to reveal the spatial-temporal dependencies among traffic flows so as to simplify the correlations among traffic data for the prediction task at a given sensor. Three important findings are observed in the experiments: (1 Only traffic flows immediately prior to the present time affect the formation of current traffic flows, which implies the possibility to reduce the traditional high-order predictors into an 1-order model. (2 The spatial context relevant to a given prediction task is more complex than what is assumed to exist locally and can spread out to the whole city. (3 The spatial context varies with the target sensor undergoing prediction and enlarges with the increment of time lag for prediction. Because the scope of human mobility is subject to travel time, identifying the varying spatial context against time lag is crucial for prediction. Since sparse representation can capture the varying spatial context to adapt to the prediction task, it outperforms the traditional methods the inputs of which are confined as the data from a fixed number of nearby sensors. As the spatial-temporal context for any prediction task is fully detected from the traffic data in an automated manner, where no additional information regarding network topology is needed, it has good scalability to be applicable to large-scale networks.

  9. End-to-End Traffic Flow Modeling of the Integrated SCaN Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, K.-M.; Abraham, D. S.

    2012-05-01

    In this article, we describe the analysis and simulation effort of the end-to-end traffic flow for the Integrated Space Communications and Navigation (SCaN) Network. Using the network traffic derived for the 30-day period of July 2018 from the Space Communications Mission Model (SCMM), we generate the wide-area network (WAN) bandwidths of the ground links for different architecture options of the Integrated SCaN Network. We also develop a new analytical scheme to model the traffic flow and buffering mechanism of a store-and-forward network. It is found that the WAN bandwidth of the Integrated SCaN Network is an important differentiator of different architecture options, as the recurring circuit costs of certain architecture options can be prohibitively high.

  10. A novel interacting multiple model based network intrusion detection scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Ruichi; Venkatasubramanian, Vijay; Leung, Henry

    2006-04-01

    In today's information age, information and network security are of primary importance to any organization. Network intrusion is a serious threat to security of computers and data networks. In internet protocol (IP) based network, intrusions originate in different kinds of packets/messages contained in the open system interconnection (OSI) layer 3 or higher layers. Network intrusion detection and prevention systems observe the layer 3 packets (or layer 4 to 7 messages) to screen for intrusions and security threats. Signature based methods use a pre-existing database that document intrusion patterns as perceived in the layer 3 to 7 protocol traffics and match the incoming traffic for potential intrusion attacks. Alternately, network traffic data can be modeled and any huge anomaly from the established traffic pattern can be detected as network intrusion. The latter method, also known as anomaly based detection is gaining popularity for its versatility in learning new patterns and discovering new attacks. It is apparent that for a reliable performance, an accurate model of the network data needs to be established. In this paper, we illustrate using collected data that network traffic is seldom stationary. We propose the use of multiple models to accurately represent the traffic data. The improvement in reliability of the proposed model is verified by measuring the detection and false alarm rates on several datasets.

  11. Accurate Multisteps Traffic Flow Prediction Based on SVM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Mingheng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate traffic flow prediction is prerequisite and important for realizing intelligent traffic control and guidance, and it is also the objective requirement for intelligent traffic management. Due to the strong nonlinear, stochastic, time-varying characteristics of urban transport system, artificial intelligence methods such as support vector machine (SVM are now receiving more and more attentions in this research field. Compared with the traditional single-step prediction method, the multisteps prediction has the ability that can predict the traffic state trends over a certain period in the future. From the perspective of dynamic decision, it is far important than the current traffic condition obtained. Thus, in this paper, an accurate multi-steps traffic flow prediction model based on SVM was proposed. In which, the input vectors were comprised of actual traffic volume and four different types of input vectors were compared to verify their prediction performance with each other. Finally, the model was verified with actual data in the empirical analysis phase and the test results showed that the proposed SVM model had a good ability for traffic flow prediction and the SVM-HPT model outperformed the other three models for prediction.

  12. Downlink Performance of a Multi-Carrier MIMO System in a Bursty Traffic Cellular Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Hung Tuan; Kovacs, Istvan; Wang, Yuanye

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we analyse the downlink performance of a rank adaptive multiple input multiple output (MIMO) system in a busty traffic cellular network. A LTE-Advanced system with multiple component carriers was selected as a study case. To highlight the advantage of using MIMO techniques, we used...... a single input multiple output (SIMO) system as a baseline for performance comparison. The gain mechanisms of the MIMO system over the SIMO system are investigated and their characteristic at different traffic load conditions are highlighted. The simulation results are used to verified our proposed model...... to predict the performance of the SIMO and MIMO systems in a bursty traffic network....

  13. Traffic Management by Using Admission Control Methods in Multiple Node IMS Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip Chamraz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with Admission Control methods (AC as a possible solution for traffic management in IMS networks (IP Multimedia Subsystem - from the point of view of an efficient redistribution of the available network resources and keeping the parameters of Quality of Service (QoS. The paper specifically aims at the selection of the most appropriate method for the specific type of traffic and traffic management concept using AC methods on multiple nodes. The potential benefit and disadvantage of the used solution is evaluated.

  14. Bandwidth allocation strategy for traffic systems of scale-free network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ling Xiang; Hu MaobBin; Du Wenbo; Jiang Rui; Wu Yonghong; Wu Qingsong

    2010-01-01

    In this Letter, the bandwidth resource allocation strategy is considered for traffic systems of complex networks. With a finite resource of bandwidth, an allocation strategy with preference parameter α is proposed considering the links importance. The performance of bandwidth allocation strategy is studied for the local routing protocol and the shortest path protocol. When important links are slightly favored in the bandwidth allocation, the system can achieve the optimal traffic performance for the two routing protocols. For the shortest path protocol, we also give a method to estimate the network traffic capacity theoretically.

  15. Pattern-based approach for logical traffic isolation forensic modelling

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dlamini, I

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available reusability and flexibility of the LTI model. This model is viewed as a three-tier architecture, which for experimental purposes is composed of the following components: traffic generator, DiffServ network and the sink server. The Mediator pattern is used...

  16. Packet Traffic Dynamics Near Onset of Congestion in Data Communication Network Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawniczak, A. T.; Tang, X.

    2006-05-01

    The dominant technology of data communication networks is the Packet Switching Network (PSN). It is a complex technology organized as various hierarchical layers according to the International Standard Organization (ISO) Open Systems Interconnect (OSI) Reference Model. The Network Layer of the ISO OSI Reference Model is responsible for delivering packets from their sources to their destinations and for dealing with congestion if it arises in a network. Thus, we focus on this layer and present an abstraction of the Network Layer of the ISO OSI Reference Model. Using this abstraction we investigate how onset of traffic congestion is affected for various routing algorithms by changes in network connection topology. We study how aggregate measures of network performance depend on network connection topology and routing. We explore packets traffic spatio-temporal dynamics near the phase transition point from free flow to congestion for various network connection topologies and routing algorithms. We consider static and adaptive routings. We present selected simulation results.

  17. A Knowledge- Based Decision Support Architecture for Advanced Traffic Management

    OpenAIRE

    Ritchie, Stephen G.

    1990-01-01

    Fundamental to the operation of most currently envisioned Intelligent Vehicle-Roadway System (IVRS) projects are advanced systems for surveillance, control and management of integrated freeway and arterial networks. A major concern in the development of such Smart Roads, and the focus of this paper, is the provision of decision support for traffic management center personnel, particularly for addressing nonrecurring congestion in large or complex networks. Decision support for control room st...

  18. Use of agent based simulation for traffic safety assessment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Conradie, Dirk CU

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the development of an agent based Computational Building Simulation (CBS) tool, termed KRONOS that is being used to work on advanced research questions such as traffic safety assessment and user behaviour in buildings...

  19. Agent-Based Collaborative Traffic Flow Management, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose agent-based game-theoretic approaches for simulation of strategies involved in multi-objective collaborative traffic flow management (CTFM). Intelligent...

  20. Smartphone Based Traffic Sign Inventory and Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Road signs are an important part of the infrastructure and are needed to ensure smooth and : safe traffic flow. Faded, occluded, damaged or vandalized signs can confuse or misinform : drivers and lead to unsafe driving behavior. E.g. if a driver is n...

  1. A method for identifying compromised clients based on DNS traffic analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stevanovic, Matija; Pedersen, Jens Myrup; D’Alconzo, Alessandro

    2017-01-01

    based on DNS traffic analysis. The proposed method identifies suspicious agile DNS mappings, i.e., mappings characterized by fast changing domain names or/and IP addresses, often used by malicious services. The approach discovers clients that have queried domains contained within identified suspicious...... domain-to-IP mappings, thus assisting in pinpointing potentially compromised clients within the network. The proposed approach targets compromised clients in large-scale operational networks. We have evaluated the proposed approach using an extensive set of DNS traffic traces from different operational...... ISP networks. The evaluation illustrates a great potential of accurately identifying suspicious domain-to-IP mappings and potentially compromised clients. Furthermore, the achieved performance indicate that the novel detection approach is promising in view of the adoption in operational ISP networks...

  2. Development of traffic light control algorithm in smart municipal network

    OpenAIRE

    Kuzminykh, Ievgeniia

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents smart system that bypasses the normal functioning algorithm of traffic lights, triggers a green light when the lights are red or reset the timer of the traffic lights when they are about to turn red. Different pieces of hardware like microcontroller units, transceivers, resistors, diodes, LEDs, a digital compass and accelerometer will be coupled together and programed to create unified complex intelligent system.

  3. Optimization of TTEthernet Networks to Support Best-Effort Traffic

    OpenAIRE

    Tamas-Selicean, Domitian; Pop, Paul

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on the optimization of the TTEthernet communication protocol, which offers three traffic classes: time-triggered (TT), sent according to static schedules, rate-constrained (RC) that has bounded end-to-end latency, and best-effort (BE), the classic Ethernet traffic, with no timing guarantees. In our earlier work we have proposed an optimization approach named DOTTS that performs the routing, scheduling and packing / fragmenting of TT and RC messages, such that the TT and RC ...

  4. Intelligent traffic lights based on MATLAB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Ying

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, I describes the traffic lights system and it has some. Through analysis, I used MATLAB technology, transformed the camera photographs into digital signals. Than divided the road vehicle is into three methods: very congestion, congestion, a little congestion. Through the MCU programming, solved the different roads have different delay time, and Used this method, saving time and resources, so as to reduce road congestion.

  5. Real-Time Traffic Signal Control for Optimization of Traffic Jam Probability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Cheng-You; Shin, Ji-Sun; Miyazaki, Michio; Lee, Hee-Hyol

    Real-time traffic signal control is an integral part of urban traffic control system. It can control traffic signals online according to variation of traffic flow. In this paper, we propose a new method for the real-time traffic signal control system. The system uses a Cellular Automaton model and a Bayesian Network model to predict probabilistic distributions of standing vehicles, and uses a Particle Swarm Optimization method to calculate optimal traffic signals. A simulation based on real traffic data was carried out to show the effectiveness of the proposed real-time traffic signal control system CAPSOBN using a micro traffic simulator.

  6. mBm-Based Scalings of Traffic Propagated in Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Li

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Scaling phenomena of the Internet traffic gain people's interests, ranging from computer scientists to statisticians. There are two types of scales. One is small-time scaling and the other large-time one. Tools to separately describe them are desired in computer communications, such as performance analysis of network systems. Conventional tools, such as the standard fractional Brownian motion (fBm, or its increment process, or the standard multifractional fBm (mBm indexed by the local Hölder function H(t may not be enough for this purpose. In this paper, we propose to describe the local scaling of traffic by using D(t on a point-by-point basis and to measure the large-time scaling of traffic by using E[H(t] on an interval-by-interval basis, where E implies the expectation operator. Since E[H(t] is a constant within an observation interval while D(t is random in general, they are uncorrelated with each other. Thus, our proposed method can be used to separately characterize the small-time scaling phenomenon and the large one of traffic, providing a new tool to investigate the scaling phenomena of traffic.

  7. Assembly and offset assignment scheme for self-similar traffic in optical burst switched networks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Muwonge, KB

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Scheme for Self- similar Traffic in Optical Burst Switched Networks K. Benon Muwonge, Member, IEEE and H. Anthony Chan, Sr Member, IEEE Department of Electrical... Forward Equivalence Classification (FEC) assembly scheme to efficiently assemble self- similar traffic and a Pareto-offset assignment scheme for offset assignment. Two buffers, a packet buffer and a burst buffer, are implemented at the Label Edge...

  8. Services and traffic policing mechanisms in B-ISDN networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nleya, B.M.

    1995-10-01

    The paper looks at some of the services that will be offered by ATM in future and their general characteristics. The paper then reviews ATM technology and the various traffic and control functions. Finally the performance comparisons of both the static and dynamic rate Leaky Bucket schemes is presented. The conclusions are that the dynamic rate scheme can control several traffic parameters as compared to the static one, but the complexity in its realization might mean higher costs. (author). 3 refs, 13 figs, 2 tabs

  9. Logistic centres in the Hungarian traffic network -A Current Smvey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geza Schubert

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available As Europe's economic integration proceeds, Hungary- situatedin the continent's geometric centre - is called upon to accommodatea huge volume of transit traffic. Congestion on thecountry's highways, already a serious problem, makes it desirableto shift transit freight traffic onto railways. For this purpose,and also to make transportation generally more efficient,the so-called logistic service centres are being established. Theseare expected to play a decisive role in the European freight trafficnetwork. An expeditious extension of their services is urgentlyneeded.

  10. A network centrality measure framework for analyzing urban traffic flow: A case study of Wuhan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shuangming; Zhao, Pengxiang; Cui, Yunfan

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, we propose an improved network centrality measure framework that takes into account both the topological characteristics and the geometric properties of a road network in order to analyze urban traffic flow in relation to different modes: intersection, road, and community, which correspond to point mode, line mode, and area mode respectively. Degree, betweenness, and PageRank centralities are selected as the analysis measures, and GPS-enabled taxi trajectory data is used to evaluate urban traffic flow. The results show that the mean value of the correlation coefficients between the modified degree, the betweenness, and the PageRank centralities and the traffic flow in all periods are higher than the mean value of the correlation coefficients between the conventional degree, the betweenness, the PageRank centralities and the traffic flow at different modes; this indicates that the modified measurements, for analyzing traffic flow, are superior to conventional centrality measurements. This study helps to shed light into the understanding of urban traffic flow in relation to different modes from the perspective of complex networks.

  11. An Algorithm of Traffic Perception of DDoS Attacks against SOA Based on Time United Conditional Entropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuntao Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available DDoS attacks can prevent legitimate users from accessing the service by consuming resource of the target nodes, whose availability of network and service is exposed to a significant threat. Therefore, DDoS traffic perception is the premise and foundation of the whole system security. In this paper the method of DDoS traffic perception for SOA network based on time united conditional entropy was proposed. According to many-to-one relationship mapping between the source IP address and destination IP addresses of DDoS attacks, traffic characteristics of services are analyzed based on conditional entropy. The algorithm is provided with perception ability of DDoS attacks on SOA services by introducing time dimension. Simulation results show that the novel method can realize DDoS traffic perception with analyzing abrupt variation of conditional entropy in time dimension.

  12. Solutions to Improve Road Circulation in the Pitesti City Based on Analysis-Diagnostics of Road Traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vîlcan, A.; Neagu, E.; Badarau Suster, H.; Boroiu, A. A.

    2017-10-01

    Road traffic congestion has become a daily phenomenon in the central area of Pitesti in the peak traffic periods. In order to achieve the mobility plan of Pitesti, an important stage is the diagnostic analysis of the road traffic. For this purpose, the urban road network was formalized through a graph containing the most important 40 intersections and traffic measurements were made at all these intersections and on the main roads connecting the peri-urban area. The data obtained by traffic macrosimulation confirmed the overloading of the street network during peak traffic hours and the analyzes made for various road traffic organization scenarios have shown that there are sustainable solutions for urban mobility only if the road network is fundamentally reconfigured (a belt outside the city and a median ring). Thus, the necessity of realizing the road passage in the Prundu neighbourhood and the finishing of the city belt by realizing the “detour West” of the city is argued. The importance of the work is that it brings scientific arguments for the realization of these road infrastructure projects, integrated in the urban mobility plan, which will base the development strategy of the Pitesti municipality.

  13. Integrated Control of Mixed Traffic Networks using Model Predictive Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Berg, M.

    2010-01-01

    Motivation The growth of our road infrastructure cannot keep up with the growing mobility of people, and the corresponding increase in traffic demand. This results in daily congestion on the freeways. It is an illusion that the problem of congestion can be solved completely within a few years, but

  14. Bandwidth Impacts of Localizing Peer-to-Peer IP Video Traffic in Access and Aggregation Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerpez Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper examines the burgeoning impact of peer-to-peer (P2P traffic IP video traffic. High-quality IPTV or Internet TV has high-bandwidth requirements, and P2P IP video could severely strain broadband networks. A model for the popularity of video titles is given, showing that some titles are very popular and will often be available locally; making localized P2P attractive for video titles. The bandwidth impacts of localizing P2P video to try and keep traffic within a broadband access network area or within a broadband access aggregation network area are examined. Results indicate that such highly localized P2P video can greatly lower core bandwidth usage.

  15. Bandwidth Impacts of Localizing Peer-to-Peer IP Video Traffic in Access and Aggregation Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Kerpez

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the burgeoning impact of peer-to-peer (P2P traffic IP video traffic. High-quality IPTV or Internet TV has high-bandwidth requirements, and P2P IP video could severely strain broadband networks. A model for the popularity of video titles is given, showing that some titles are very popular and will often be available locally; making localized P2P attractive for video titles. The bandwidth impacts of localizing P2P video to try and keep traffic within a broadband access network area or within a broadband access aggregation network area are examined. Results indicate that such highly localized P2P video can greatly lower core bandwidth usage.

  16. Local control of traffic flows in networks: Self-organisation of phase synchronised dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laemmer, Stefan; Donner, Reik [TU Dresden, Andreas-Schubert-Str. 23, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Helbing, Dirk [ETH Zuerich, Universitaetstr. 41, 8092 Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2008-07-01

    The effective control of flows in urban traffic networks is a subject of broad economic interest. During the last years, efforts have been made to develop decentralised control strategies that take only the actual state of present traffic conditions into account. In this contribution, we introduce a permeability model for the local control of conflicting material flows on networks, which incorporates a self-organisation of the flows. The dynamics of our model is studied under different situations, with a special emphasis on the development of a phase synchronised switching behaviour at the nodes of the traffic network. In order to improve the potential applicability of our concept, we discuss how a proper demand anticipation and the definition of a priority function can be used to further optimise the performance of the presented strategy.

  17. Background Traffic-Based Retransmission Algorithm for Multimedia Streaming Transfer over Concurrent Multipaths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanlong Cao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The content-rich multimedia streaming will be the most attractive services in the next-generation networks. With function of distribute data across multipath end-to-end paths based on SCTP's multihoming feature, concurrent multipath transfer SCTP (CMT-SCTP has been regarded as the most promising technology for the efficient multimedia streaming transmission. However, the current researches on CMT-SCTP mainly focus on the algorithms related to the data delivery performance while they seldom consider the background traffic factors. Actually, background traffic of realistic network environments has an important impact on the performance of CMT-SCTP. In this paper, we firstly investigate the effect of background traffic on the performance of CMT-SCTP based on a close realistic simulation topology with reasonable background traffic in NS2, and then based on the localness nature of background flow, a further improved retransmission algorithm, named RTX_CSI, is proposed to reach more benefits in terms of average throughput and achieve high users' experience of quality for multimedia streaming services.

  18. McMAC: Towards a MAC Protocol with Multi-Constrained QoS Provisioning for Diverse Traffic in Wireless Body Area Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Monowar, Muhammad; Hassan, Mohammad; Bajaber, Fuad; Al-Hussein, Musaed; Alamri, Atif

    2012-01-01

    The emergence of heterogeneous applications with diverse requirements for resource-constrained Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs) poses significant challenges for provisioning Quality of Service (QoS) with multi-constraints (delay and reliability) while preserving energy efficiency. To address such challenges, this paper proposes McMAC, a MAC protocol with multi-constrained QoS provisioning for diverse traffic classes in WBANs. McMAC classifies traffic based on their multi-constrained QoS de...

  19. Throughput-Based Traffic Steering in LTE-Advanced HetNet Deployments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimenez, Lucas Chavarria; Kovacs, Istvan Z.; Wigard, Jeroen

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to propose traffic steering solutions that aim at optimizing the end-user throughput. Two different implementations of an active mode throughput-based traffic steering algorithm for Heterogeneous Networks (HetNet) are introduced. One that always forces handover...... of the active users towards the cell offering the highest throughput, and a second scheme that aims at maximizing the systems sum throughput. Results show that the first option brings the best performance at the cost of more than three handovers per user per second for high-load cases. The second option offers...... slightly lower traffic steering gains at a considerably lower cost in terms of number of handovers. The gain in terms of increased average session throughput for the second option equals 32% at low-load, 18% at medium-load, and 7% at high-load conditions. The gain in the fifth percentile user session...

  20. Inside the Mechanics of Network Development: How Competition and Strategy Reorganize European Air Traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Hans

    2006-01-01

    Air transport forms complex networks that can be measured in order to understand its structural characteristics and functional properties. Recent models for network growth (i.e., preferential attachment, etc.) remain stochastic and do not seek to understand other network-specific mechanisms that may account for their development in a more microscopic way. Air traffic is made up of many constituent airlines that are either privately or publicly owned and that operate their own networks. They follow more or less similar business policies each. The way these airline networks organize among themselves into distinct traffic distributions reveals complex interaction among them, which in turn can be aggregated into larger (macro-) traffic distributions. Our approach allows for a more deterministic methodology that will assess the impact of airline strategies on the distinct distributions for air traffic, particularly inside Europe. One key question this paper is seeking to answer is whether there are distinct patterns of preferential attachment for given classes of airline networks to distinct types of European airports. Conclusions about the advancing degree of concentration in this industry and the airline operators that accelerate this process can be drawn.

  1. Reducing Traffic Congestions by Introducing CACC-Vehicles on a Multi-Lane Highway Using Agent-Based Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaout, Georges M.; Bowling, Shannon R.

    2011-01-01

    Traffic congestion is an ongoing problem of great interest to researchers from different areas in academia. With the emerging technology for inter-vehicle communication, vehicles have the ability to exchange information with predecessors by wireless communication. In this paper, we present an agent-based model of traffic congestion and examine the impact of having CACC (Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control) embedded vehicle(s) on a highway system consisting of 4 traffic lanes without overtaking. In our model, CACC vehicles adapt their acceleration/deceleration according to vehicle-to-vehicle inter-communication. We analyze the average speed of the cars, the shockwaves, and the evolution of traffic congestion throughout the lifecycle of the model. The study identifies how CACC vehicles affect the dynamics of traffic flow on a complex network and reduce the oscillatory behavior (stop and go) resulting from the acceleration/deceleration of the vehicles.

  2. Traffic-aware Elastic Optical Networks to leverage Energy Savings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turus, Ioan; Fagertun, Anna Manolova; Dittmann, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Because of the static nature of the deployed optical networks, large energy wastage is experienced today in production networks such as Telecom networks . With power-adaptive optical interfaces and suitable grooming procedures, we propose the design of more energy efficient transport networks......-Europea n COST37 network, for both symbol-rate and modulation format adaptations significant savings are obtained . Mixed adaptation (jointly performing symbol-rate and modulation format adaptations) used together with optical grooming allows up to 4 4 % and 4 7 % power savings in DT17 and COST37 networks...

  3. Traffic dynamics in scale-free networks with limited buffers and decongestion strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Zhixi; Wang Wenxu; Yeung, K.-H.

    2008-01-01

    We studied the information traffic in Barabasi-Albert scale-free networks wherein each node has a finite queue length to store the packets. It is found that in the case of the shortest path routing strategy, the networks undergo a first-order phase transition, i.e. from a free flow state to a full congestion state, with increasing packet generation rate. We also incorporate the random effect (namely random selection of a neighbor to deliver packets) as well as a control method (namely the packet-dropping strategy of the congested nodes after some delay time T) into the routing protocol to test the traffic capacity of the heterogeneous networks. It is shown that there exists an optimal value of T for the networks to achieve the best handling ability, and the presence of an appropriate random effect also contributes to the performance of the networks

  4. Impact of the traffic load on performance of an alternative LTE railway communication network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sniady, Aleksander; Soler, José

    2013-01-01

    obstructing railway operations at big train stations and junctions. Hence, other technologies, such as Long Term Evolution (LTE), need to be considered as an alternative to GSM-R. The goal of this paper is to demonstrate the capacity increase that railways can expect, from the introduction of LTE as internal...... communication infrastructure supporting railway signaling. This work is based on OPNET realistic network simulations, which show the relation between the traffic load (the number of trains transmitting and receiving data in an LTE cell) and the delay performance of the European Train Control System (ETCS......) signaling, which is one of the essential railway communication services. Results of the simulations demonstrate that LTE can solve the urgent capacity problem faced by railways currently deploying GSM-R....

  5. Local and nonlocal information in a traffic network: how important is the horizon?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petri, G.

    2010-01-01

    Recent advances in distributed sensor network technology have changed the landscape of traffic optimization in which small, mobile devices are able to sense local information and communicate in real time with one another. Naive optimization algorithms that operate solely on the local or global level are inherently flawed, as global optimization requires every local sensor to communicate with a centralized base-station, creating prohibitive bandwidth, robustness, and security concerns, while local optimization methods are limited by a near information horizon as they are unable to propagate or react to information beyond their immediate vicinity. This paper investigates an intermediate approach where individual sensors are able to propagate congestion information over a variable distance that is determined in real-time. This strategy consistently out-performs a naive strategy where every car simply takes the shortest path to its destination, but does worse than a simpler optimization algorithm that only incorporates local information. This is most likely because the intermediate solution directs cars along the same alternate path when attempting to free a congested area, thus creating new congestion along the detour. The results suggest that local information might set an upper bound on performance in models of cascading in- formation. Further work is required to confirm this observation and develop an algorithm able to join both local and global information to effectively diffuse traffic around congestion. (author)

  6. An efficient mechanism for dynamic multicast traffic grooming in overlay IP/MPLS over WDM networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiaojun; Xiao, Gaoxi; Cheng, Tee Hiang

    2014-08-01

    This paper proposes an efficient overlay multicast provisioning (OMP) mechanism for dynamic multicast traffic grooming in overlay IP/MPLS over WDM networks. To facilitate request provisioning, OMP jointly utilizes a data learning (DL) scheme on the IP/MPLS layer for logical link cost estimation, and a lightpath fragmentation (LPF) based method on the WDM layer for improving resource sharing in grooming process. Extensive simulations are carried out to evaluate the performance of OMP mechanism under different traffic loads, with either limited or unlimited port resources. Simulation results demonstrate that OMP significantly outperforms the existing methods. To evaluate the respective influences of the DL scheme and the LPF method on OMP performance, provisioning mechanisms only utilizing either the IP/MPLS layer DL scheme or the WDM layer LPF method are also devised. Comparison results show that both DL and LPF methods help improve OMP blocking performance, and contribution from the DL scheme is more significant when the fixed routing and first-fit wavelength assignment (RWA) strategy is adopted on the WDM layer. Effects of a few other factors, including definition of connection cost to be reported by the WDM layer to the IP/MPLS layer and WDM-layer routing method, on OMP performance are also evaluated.

  7. Accurate and fast replication on the generation of fractal network traffic using alternative probability models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Stenio; Kamienski, Carlos; Sadok, Djamel

    2003-08-01

    Synthetic self-similar traffic in computer networks simulation is of imperative significance for the capturing and reproducing of actual Internet data traffic behavior. A universally used procedure for generating self-similar traffic is achieved by aggregating On/Off sources where the active (On) and idle (Off) periods exhibit heavy tailed distributions. This work analyzes the balance between accuracy and computational efficiency in generating self-similar traffic and presents important results that can be useful to parameterize existing heavy tailed distributions such as Pareto, Weibull and Lognormal in a simulation analysis. Our results were obtained through the simulation of various scenarios and were evaluated by estimating the Hurst (H) parameter, which measures the self-similarity level, using several methods.

  8. Study on network traffic forecast model of SVR optimized by GAFSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yuan; Wang, RuiXue

    2016-01-01

    There are some problems, such as low precision, on existing network traffic forecast model. In accordance with these problems, this paper proposed the network traffic forecast model of support vector regression (SVR) algorithm optimized by global artificial fish swarm algorithm (GAFSA). GAFSA constitutes an improvement of artificial fish swarm algorithm, which is a swarm intelligence optimization algorithm with a significant effect of optimization. The optimum training parameters used for SVR could be calculated by optimizing chosen parameters, which would make the forecast more accurate. With the optimum training parameters searched by GAFSA algorithm, a model of network traffic forecast, which greatly solved problems of great errors in SVR improved by others intelligent algorithms, could be built with the forecast result approaching stability and the increased forecast precision. The simulation shows that, compared with other models (e.g. GA-SVR, CPSO-SVR), the forecast results of GAFSA-SVR network traffic forecast model is more stable with the precision improved to more than 89%, which plays an important role on instructing network control behavior and analyzing security situation.

  9. Millifluidics as a simple tool to optimize droplet networks: Case study on drop traffic in a bifurcated loop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, William S.; Vanapalli, Siva A.

    2014-01-01

    We report that modular millifluidic networks are simpler, more cost-effective alternatives to traditional microfluidic networks, and they can be rapidly generated and altered to optimize designs. Droplet traffic can also be studied more conveniently and inexpensively at the millimeter scale, as droplets are readily visible to the naked eye. Bifurcated loops, ladder networks, and parking networks were made using only Tygon® tubing and plastic T-junction fittings and visualized using an iPod® camera. As a case study, droplet traffic experiments through a millifluidic bifurcated loop were conducted, and the periodicity of drop spacing at the outlet was mapped over a wide range of inlet drop spacing. We observed periodic, intermittent, and aperiodic behaviors depending on the inlet drop spacing. The experimentally observed periodic behaviors were in good agreement with numerical simulations based on the simple network model. Our experiments further identified three main sources of intermittency between different periodic and/or aperiodic behaviors: (1) simultaneous entering and exiting events, (2) channel defects, and (3) equal or nearly equal hydrodynamic resistances in both sides of the bifurcated loop. In cases of simultaneous events and/or channel defects, the range of input spacings where intermittent behaviors are observed depends on the degree of inherent variation in input spacing. Finally, using a time scale analysis of syringe pump fluctuations and experiment observation times, we find that in most cases, more consistent results can be generated in experiments conducted at the millimeter scale than those conducted at the micrometer scale. Thus, millifluidic networks offer a simple means to probe collective interactions due to drop traffic and optimize network geometry to engineer passive devices for biological and material analysis. PMID:25553188

  10. Best response game of traffic on road network of non-signalized intersections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Wang; Jia, Ning; Zhong, Shiquan; Li, Liying

    2018-01-01

    This paper studies the traffic flow in a grid road network with non-signalized intersections. The nature of the drivers in the network is simulated such that they play an iterative snowdrift game with other drivers. A cellular automata model is applied to study the characteristics of the traffic flow and the evolution of the behaviour of the drivers during the game. The drivers use best-response as their strategy to update rules. Three major findings are revealed. First, the cooperation rate in simulation experiences staircase-shaped drop as cost to benefit ratio r increases, and cooperation rate can be derived analytically as a function of cost to benefit ratio r. Second, we find that higher cooperation rate corresponds to higher average speed, lower density and higher flow. This reveals that defectors deteriorate the efficiency of traffic on non-signalized intersections. Third, the system experiences more randomness when the density is low because the drivers will not have much opportunity to update strategy when the density is low. These findings help to show how the strategy of drivers in a traffic network evolves and how their interactions influence the overall performance of the traffic system.

  11. Space-time correlation analysis of traffic flow on road network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Fei; Dong, Honghui; Jia, Limin; Tian, Zhao; Sun, Xuan

    2017-02-01

    Space-time correlation analysis has become a basic and critical work in the research on road traffic congestion. It plays an important role in improving traffic management quality. The aim of this research is to examine the space-time correlation of road networks to determine likely requirements for building a suitable space-time traffic model. In this paper, it is carried out using traffic flow data collected on Beijing’s road network. In the framework, the space-time autocorrelation function (ST-ACF) is introduced as global measure, and cross-correlation function (CCF) as local measure to reveal the change mechanism of space-time correlation. Through the use of both measures, the correlation is found to be dynamic and heterogeneous in space and time. The finding of seasonal pattern present in space-time correlation provides a theoretical assumption for traffic forecasting. Besides, combined with Simpson’s rule, the CCF is also applied to finding the critical sections in the road network, and the experiments prove that it is feasible in computability, rationality and practicality.

  12. Possibilistic Clustering Technique-Based Traffic Light Control for Handling Emergency Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    F. Titouna; S. Benferhat; K. Aksa; C. Titouna

    2012-01-01

    A traffic light gives security from traffic congestion,reducing the traffic jam, and organizing the traffic flow. Furthermore,increasing congestion level in public road networks is a growingproblem in many countries. Using Intelligent Transportation Systemsto provide emergency vehicles a green light at intersections canreduce driver confusion, reduce conflicts, and improve emergencyresponse times. Nowadays, the technology of wireless sensornetworks can solve many problems and can offer a good...

  13. A simulation-based dynamic traffic assignment model with combined modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Meng

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a dynamic traffic assignment (DTA model for urban multi-modal transportation network by con­structing a mesoscopic simulation model. Several traffic means such as private car, subway, bus and bicycle are con­sidered in the network. The mesoscopic simulator consists of a mesoscopic supply simulator based on MesoTS model and a time-dependent demand simulator. The mode choice is si­multaneously considered with the route choice based on the improved C-Logit model. The traffic assignment procedure is implemented by a time-dependent shortest path (TDSP al­gorithm in which travellers choose their modes and routes based on a range of choice criteria. The model is particularly suited for appraising a variety of transportation management measures, especially for the application of Intelligent Trans­port Systems (ITS. Five example cases including OD demand level, bus frequency, parking fee, information supply and car ownership rate are designed to test the proposed simulation model through a medium-scale case study in Beijing Chaoy­ang District in China. Computational results illustrate excel­lent performance and the application of the model to analy­sis of urban multi-modal transportation networks.

  14. ENERGY AWARE NETWORK: BAYESIAN BELIEF NETWORKS BASED DECISION MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Kumar Chaudhari

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A Network Management System (NMS plays a very important role in managing an ever-evolving telecommunication network. Generally an NMS monitors & maintains the health of network elements. The growing size of the network warrants extra functionalities from the NMS. An NMS provides all kinds of information about networks which can be used for other purposes apart from monitoring & maintaining networks like improving QoS & saving energy in the network. In this paper, we add another dimension to NMS services, namely, making an NMS energy aware. We propose a Decision Management System (DMS framework which uses a machine learning technique called Bayesian Belief Networks (BBN, to make the NMS energy aware. The DMS is capable of analysing and making control decisions based on network traffic. We factor in the cost of rerouting and power saving per port. Simulations are performed on standard network topologies, namely, ARPANet and IndiaNet. It is found that ~2.5-6.5% power can be saved.

  15. Stochastic Model of Traffic Jam and Traffic Signal Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Ji-Sun; Cui, Cheng-You; Lee, Tae-Hong; Lee, Hee-Hyol

    Traffic signal control is an effective method to solve the traffic jam. and forecasting traffic density has been known as an important part of the Intelligent Transportation System (ITS). The several methods of the traffic signal control are known such as random walk method, Neuron Network method, Bayesian Network method, and so on. In this paper, we propose a new method of a traffic signal control using a predicted distribution of traffic jam based on a Dynamic Bayesian Network model. First, a forecasting model to predict a probabilistic distribution of the traffic jam during each period of traffic lights is built. As the forecasting model, the Dynamic Bayesian Network is used to predict the probabilistic distribution of a density of the traffic jam. According to measurement of two crossing points for each cycle, the inflow and outflow of each direction and the number of standing vehicles at former cycle are obtained. The number of standing vehicle at k-th cycle will be calculated synchronously. Next, the probabilistic distribution of the density of standing vehicle in each cycle will be predicted using the Dynamic Bayesian Network constructed for the traffic jam. And then a control rule to adjust the split and the cycle to increase the probability between a lower limit and ceiling of the standing vehicles is deduced. As the results of the simulation using the actual traffic data of Kitakyushu city, the effectiveness of the method is shown.

  16. Quantification of Road Network Vulnerability and Traffic Impacts to Regional Landslide Hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postance, Benjamin; Hillier, John; Dixon, Neil; Dijkstra, Tom

    2015-04-01

    Slope instability represents a prevalent hazard to transport networks. In the UK regional road networks are frequently disrupted by multiple slope failures triggered during intense precipitation events; primarily due to a degree of regional homogeneity of slope materials, geomorphology and weather conditions. It is of interest to examine how different locations and combinations of slope failure impact road networks, particularly in the context of projected climate change and a 40% increase in UK road demand by 2040. In this study an extensive number (>50 000) of multiple failure event scenarios are simulated within a dynamic micro simulation to assess traffic impacts during peak flow (7 - 10 AM). Possible failure locations are selected within the county of Gloucestershire (3150 km2) using historic failure sites and British Geological Survey GeoSure data. Initial investigations employ a multiple linear regression analyses to consider the severity of traffic impacts, as measured by time, in respect of spatial and topographical network characteristics including connectivity, density and capacity in proximity to failure sites; the network distance between disruptions in multiple failure scenarios is used to consider the effects of spatial clustering. The UK Department of Transport road travel demand and UKCP09 weather projection data to 2080 provide a suitable basis for traffic simulations and probabilistic slope stability assessments. Future work will thus focus on the development of a catastrophe risk model to simulate traffic impacts under various narratives of future travel demand and slope instability under climatic change. The results of this investigation shall contribute to the understanding of road network vulnerabilities and traffic impacts from climate driven slope hazards.

  17. Model-Based Traffic Control for Sustainable Mobility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zegeye, S.K.

    2011-01-01

    Computationally efficient dynamic fuel consumption, emissions, and dispersion of emissions models are developed. Fast and practically feasible model-based controller is proposed. Using the developed models, the controller steers the traffic flow in such a way that a balanced trade-off between the

  18. Improved routing strategies for data traffic in scale-free networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Zhi-Xi; Peng, Gang; Wong, Wing-Ming; Yeung, Kai-Hau

    2008-01-01

    We study the information packet routing process in scale-free networks by mimicking Internet traffic delivery. We incorporate both the global shortest paths information and local degree information of the network in the dynamic process, via two tunable parameters, α and β, to guide the packet routing. We measure the performance of the routing method by both the average transit times of packets and the critical packet generation rate (above which packet aggregation occurs in the network). We found that the routing strategies which integrate ingredients of both global and local topological information of the underlying networks perform much better than the traditional shortest path routing protocol taking into account the global topological information only. Moreover, by doing comparative studies with some related works, we found that the performance of our proposed method shows universal efficiency characteristic against the amount of traffic

  19. Speed-Density Model of Interrupted Traffic Flow Based on Coil Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Yu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As a fundamental traffic diagram, the speed-density relationship can provide a solid foundation for traffic flow analysis and efficient traffic management. Because of the change in modern travel modes, the dramatic increase in the number of vehicles and traffic density, and the impact of traffic signals and other factors, vehicles change velocity frequently, which means that a speed-density model based on uninterrupted traffic flow is not suitable for interrupted traffic flow. Based on the coil data of urban roads in Wuhan, China, a new method which can accurately describe the speed-density relation of interrupted traffic flow is proposed for speed fluctuation characteristics. The model of upper and lower bounds of critical values obtained by fitting the data of the coils on urban roads can accurately and intuitively describe the state of urban road traffic, and the physical meaning of each parameter plays an important role in the prediction and analysis of such traffic.

  20. Road safety and bicycle usage impacts of unbundling vehicular and cycle traffic in Dutch urban networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepers, Paul; Heinen, Eva; Methorst, Rob; Wegman, Fred

    2013-01-01

    Bicycle-motor vehicle crashes are concentrated along distributor roads where cyclists are exposed to greater volumes of high-speed motorists than they would experience on access roads. This study examined the road safety impact of network-level separation of vehicular and cycle traffic in Dutch

  1. A CyberCIEGE Traffic Analysis Extension for Teaching Network Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    TCP Syn Flood Transport Web Server TCP 3-way...transport layer attack which attempts to cause denial of service to a Web server through TCP Syn flooding . By exploiting the three-way handshake of the...identity TCP packets and TCP Syn flooding network attacks. New attack traffic can be produced for the game, and filter criteria suitable for

  2. Energy-minimized design in all-optical networks using unicast/multicast traffic grooming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puche, William S.; Amaya, Ferney O.; Sierra, Javier E.

    2013-09-01

    The increased bandwidth required by applications, tends to raise the amount of optical equipment, for this reason, it is essential to maintain a balance between the wavelength allocation, available capacity and number of optical devices to achieve the lowest power consumption. You could say that we propose a model that minimizes energy consumption, using unicast / multicast traffic grooming in optical networks.

  3. Hyper-Spectral Networking Concept of Operations and Future Air Traffic Management Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Paul; Boisvert, Benjamin

    2017-01-01

    The NASA sponsored Hyper-Spectral Communications and Networking for Air Traffic Management (ATM) (HSCNA) project is conducting research to improve the operational efficiency of the future National Airspace System (NAS) through diverse and secure multi-band, multi-mode, and millimeter-wave (mmWave) wireless links. Worldwide growth of air transportation and the coming of unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) will increase air traffic density and complexity. Safe coordination of aircraft will require more capable technologies for communications, navigation, and surveillance (CNS). The HSCNA project will provide a foundation for technology and operational concepts to accommodate a significantly greater number of networked aircraft. This paper describes two of the HSCNA projects technical challenges. The first technical challenge is to develop a multi-band networking concept of operations (ConOps) for use in multiple phases of flight and all communication link types. This ConOps will integrate the advanced technologies explored by the HSCNA project and future operational concepts into a harmonized vision of future NAS communications and networking. The second technical challenge discussed is to conduct simulations of future ATM operations using multi-bandmulti-mode networking and technologies. Large-scale simulations will assess the impact, compared to todays system, of the new and integrated networks and technologies under future air traffic demand.

  4. Dynamic routing control in heterogeneous tactical networks with multiple traffic priorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fecko, Mariusz A.; Wong, Larry; Kang, Jaewong; Cichocki, Andrzej; Kaul, Vikram; Samtani, Sunil

    2012-05-01

    To efficiently use alternate paths during periods of congestion, we have devised prioritized Dynamic Routing Control Agent (pDRCA) that (1) selects best links to meet the bandwidth and delay requirements of traffic, (2) provides load-balancing and traffic prioritization when multiple topologies are available, and (3) handles changes in link quality and traffic demand, and link outages. pDRCA provides multiplatform load balancing to maximize SATCOM (both P2P and multi-point) and airborne links utilization. It influences link selection by configuring the cost metrics on a router's interface, which does not require any changes to the routing protocol itself. It supports service differentiation of multiple traffic priorities by providing more network resources to the highest priority flows. pDRCA does so by solving an optimization problem to find optimal links weights that increase throughput and decrease E2E delay; avoid congested, low quality, and long delay links; and exploit path diversity in the network. These optimal link weights are sent to the local agents to be configured on individual routers per traffic priority. The pDRCA optimization algorithm has been proven effective in improving application performance. We created a variety of different test scenarios by varying traffic profile and link behavior (stable links, varying capacity, and link outages). In the scenarios where high priority traffic experienced significant loss without pDRCA, the average loss was reduced from 49.5% to 13% and in some cases dropped to 0%. Currently, pDRCA is integrated with an open-source software router and priority queues on Linux as a component of Open Tactical Router (OTR), which is being developed by ONR DTCN program.

  5. An Algorithm of Traffic Perception of DDoS Attacks against SOA Based on Time United Conditional Entropy

    OpenAIRE

    Yuntao Zhao; Hengchi Liu; Yongxin Feng

    2016-01-01

    DDoS attacks can prevent legitimate users from accessing the service by consuming resource of the target nodes, whose availability of network and service is exposed to a significant threat. Therefore, DDoS traffic perception is the premise and foundation of the whole system security. In this paper the method of DDoS traffic perception for SOA network based on time united conditional entropy was proposed. According to many-to-one relationship mapping between the source IP address and destinati...

  6. Swarm-Based Smart City Platform: A Traffic Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo CHAMOSO

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Smart cities are proposed as a medium-term option for all cities. This article aims to propose an architecture that allows cities to provide solutions to interconnect all their elements. The study case focuses in locating and optimized regulation of traffic in cities. However, thanks to the proposed structure and the applied algorithms, the architecture is scalable in size of the sensor network, in functionality or even in the use of resources. A simulation environment that is able to show the operation of the architecture in the same way that a real city would, is presented.

  7. Volunteer-Based System for Research on the Internet Traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bujlow, Tomasz; Balachandran, Kartheepan; Hald, Sara Ligaard

    2012-01-01

    To overcome the drawbacks of existing methods for traffic classification (by ports, Deep Packet Inspection, statistical classification) a new system was developed, in which the data are collected and classified directly by clients installed on machines belonging to volunteers. Our approach combines...... the information obtained from the system sockets, the HTTP content types, and the data transmitted through network interfaces. It allows to group packets into flows and associate them with particular applications or types of service. This paper presents the design of our system, the implementation, the testing...

  8. A wireless computational platform for distributed computing based traffic monitoring involving mixed Eulerian-Lagrangian sensing

    KAUST Repository

    Jiang, Jiming

    2013-06-01

    This paper presents a new wireless platform designed for an integrated traffic monitoring system based on combined Lagrangian (mobile) and Eulerian (fixed) sensing. The sensor platform is built around a 32-bit ARM Cortex M4 micro-controller and a 2.4GHz 802.15.4 ISM compliant radio module, and can be interfaced with fixed traffic sensors, or receive data from vehicle transponders. The platform is specially designed and optimized to be integrated in a solar-powered wireless sensor network in which traffic flow maps are computed by the nodes directly using distributed computing. A MPPT circuitry is proposed to increase the power output of the attached solar panel. A self-recovering unit is designed to increase reliability and allow periodic hard resets, an essential requirement for sensor networks. A radio monitoring circuitry is proposed to monitor incoming and outgoing transmissions, simplifying software debug. An ongoing implementation is briefly discussed, and compared with existing platforms used in wireless sensor networks. © 2013 IEEE.

  9. Game Theoretic, Multi-agent Approach to Network Traffic Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-16

    paradigm classifies the system as a Network Behavior Analysis solution ( NBA ) in the NIST nomenclature [49]. As the network conditions change over time...several subsystems interacting with each other. Most of the subsystems are implemented as one or more agents, and all agents communicate solely by the...SSH PASSWORD KNOWLEDGE ?DSTIP) :effect (MALWARE PROPAGATION ?DSTIP)) Outgoing communication : Duration Protocol Src IP Dst IP Src Port Dst Port Flags

  10. Traffic routing for multicomputer networks with virtual cut-through capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandlur, Dilip D.; Shin, Kang G.

    1992-01-01

    Consideration is given to the problem of selecting routes for interprocess communication in a network with virtual cut-through capability, while balancing the network load and minimizing the number of times that a message gets buffered. An approach is proposed that formulates the route selection problem as a minimization problem with a link cost function that depends upon the traffic through the link. The form of this cost function is derived using the probability of establishing a virtual cut-through route. The route selection problem is shown to be NP-hard, and an algorithm is developed to incrementally reduce the cost by rerouting the traffic. The performance of this algorithm is exemplified by two network topologies: the hypercube and the C-wrapped hexagonal mesh.

  11. A Bio-Inspired Approach to Traffic Network Equilibrium Assignment Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoge; Mahadevan, Sankaran

    2018-04-01

    Finding an equilibrium state of the traffic assignment plays a significant role in the design of transportation networks. We adapt the path finding mathematical model of slime mold Physarum polycephalum to solve the traffic equilibrium assignment problem. We make three contributions in this paper. First, we propose a generalized Physarum model to solve the shortest path problem in directed and asymmetric graphs. Second, we extend it further to resolve the network design problem with multiple source nodes and sink nodes. At last, we demonstrate that the Physarum solver converges to the user-optimized (Wardrop) equilibrium by dynamically updating the costs of links in the network. In addition, convergence of the developed algorithm is proved. Numerical examples are used to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed algorithm. The superiority of the proposed algorithm is demonstrated in comparison with several other algorithms, including the Frank-Wolfe algorithm, conjugate Frank-Wolfe algorithm, biconjugate Frank-Wolfe algorithm, and gradient projection algorithm.

  12. Anticipation of Traffic Demands to Guarantee QoS in IP/Optical Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Pinart

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Traffic in the Internet backbone is expected to grow above a few Tbit/s in 2020. To cope with this, operators are moving to IP/optical network architectures, where IP is the convergence layer for all services. On the other hand, the quality of service (QoS requirements of future applications encompasses the individualization of services and the assurance of stricter quality parameters such as latency, jitter or capacity. In other words, future optical networks will not only transport more IP data, but they will also have to offer differentiated QoS requirements to services. Finally, some emerging applications, e.g., grid computing, need greater flexibility in the usage of network resources, which involves establishing and releasing connections as if they were virtualized resources controlled by other elements or layers. In this context, traffic-driven lightpath provisioning and service-plane approaches arise as very interesting candidate solutions to solve the main challenges described above. This work reviews the concepts of service-oriented and self-managed networks and relates them to propose an integrated approach to assure QoS by offering flow-aware networking in the sense that traffic demands will be anticipated in a suitable way, lightpaths will be established taking into account QoS information (i.e., impairments and complex services will be decomposed into optical connections so that the above techniques can be employed to assure QoS for any service.

  13. Transit Traffic Analysis Zone Delineating Method Based on Thiessen Polygon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuwei Wang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A green transportation system composed of transit, busses and bicycles could be a significant in alleviating traffic congestion. However, the inaccuracy of current transit ridership forecasting methods is imposing a negative impact on the development of urban transit systems. Traffic Analysis Zone (TAZ delineating is a fundamental and essential step in ridership forecasting, existing delineating method in four-step models have some problems in reflecting the travel characteristics of urban transit. This paper aims to come up with a Transit Traffic Analysis Zone delineation method as supplement of traditional TAZs in transit service analysis. The deficiencies of current TAZ delineating methods were analyzed, and the requirements of Transit Traffic Analysis Zone (TTAZ were summarized. Considering these requirements, Thiessen Polygon was introduced into TTAZ delineating. In order to validate its feasibility, Beijing was then taken as an example to delineate TTAZs, followed by a spatial analysis of office buildings within a TTAZ and transit station departure passengers. Analysis result shows that the TTAZs based on Thiessen polygon could reflect the transit travel characteristic and is of in-depth research value.

  14. Network-Based Effectiveness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Friman, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    ... (extended from Leavitt, 1965). This text identifies aspects of network-based effectiveness that can benefit from a better understanding of leadership and management development of people, procedures, technology, and organizations...

  15. An Implementation of Traffic Monitoring for UNIX Network Performance Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-03-01

    plttsr->network-node~network-node~plttsr); new_node,_recjpltlsr->trafflc_info nr-rewremc..plttsr, * new-node_rec~plutsr->next;=NULL; if (head- nodej -ec...plttsr); free(new nodejrec~plttsr); free(cur _node__rec..plttsr); displayjlong-term-statisticsý-report(head_node-rec-dltsr.tail- nodej -ec~dltsr) long~ern...NULL) head- nodej - ec..pltutrrnew node-rec-plttrrn tail-node-re4cplttri-new node-rec-plttrr else tail-node-rec-plttr->next=new node_rec-plttrrn 265

  16. Automated Video-Based Traffic Count Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this effort has been to develop techniques that could be applied to the : detection and tracking of vehicles in overhead footage of intersections. To that end we : have developed and published techniques for vehicle tracking based on dete...

  17. Automated Generation of Traffic Incident Response Plan Based on Case-Based Reasoning and Bayesian Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongfeng Ma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic incident response plan, specifying response agencies and their responsibilities, can guide responders to take actions effectively and timely after traffic incidents. With a reasonable and feasible traffic incident response plan, related agencies will save many losses, such as humans and wealth. In this paper, how to generate traffic incident response plan automatically and specially was solved. Firstly, a well-known and approved method, Case-Based Reasoning (CBR, was introduced. Based on CBR, a detailed case representation and R5-cycle of CBR were developed. To enhance the efficiency of case retrieval, which was an important procedure, Bayesian Theory was introduced. To measure the performance of the proposed method, 23 traffic incidents caused by traffic crashes were selected and three indicators, Precision P, Recall R, and Indicator F, were used. Results showed that 20 of 23 cases could be retrieved effectively and accurately. The method is practicable and accurate to generate traffic incident response plans. The method will promote the intelligent generation and management of traffic incident response plans and also make Traffic Incident Management more scientific and effective.

  18. A network traffic reduction method for cooperative positioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Das, Kallol; Wymeersch, Henk

    Cooperative positioning is suitable for applications where conventional positioning fails due to lack of connectivity with a sufficient number of reference nodes. In a dense network, as the number of cooperating devices increases, the number of packet exchanges also increases proportionally. This

  19. Multiagent Based Information Dissemination in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.S. Manvi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Vehicular Ad hoc Networks (VANETs are a compelling application of ad hoc networks, because of the potential to access specific context information (e.g. traffic conditions, service updates, route planning and deliver multimedia services (Voice over IP, in-car entertainment, instant messaging, etc.. This paper proposes an agent based information dissemination model for VANETs. A two-tier agent architecture is employed comprising of the following: 1 'lightweight', network-facing, mobile agents; 2 'heavyweight', application-facing, norm-aware agents. The limitations of VANETs lead us to consider a hybrid wireless network architecture that includes Wireless LAN/Cellular and ad hoc networking for analyzing the proposed model. The proposed model provides flexibility, adaptability and maintainability for traffic information dissemination in VANETs as well as supports robust and agile network management. The proposed model has been simulated in various network scenarios to evaluate the effectiveness of the approach.

  20. Road Network Vulnerability Analysis Based on Improved Ant Colony Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunpeng Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an improved ant colony algorithm-based approach to assess the vulnerability of a road network and identify the critical infrastructures. This approach improves computational efficiency and allows for its applications in large-scale road networks. This research involves defining the vulnerability conception, modeling the traffic utility index and the vulnerability of the road network, and identifying the critical infrastructures of the road network. We apply the approach to a simple test road network and a real road network to verify the methodology. The results show that vulnerability is directly related to traffic demand and increases significantly when the demand approaches capacity. The proposed approach reduces the computational burden and may be applied in large-scale road network analysis. It can be used as a decision-supporting tool for identifying critical infrastructures in transportation planning and management.

  1. A latency analysis for M2M and OG-like traffic patterns in different HSPA core network configurations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Popović

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present an analysis intended to reveal possible impacts of core network features on latency for modelled M2M and Online Gaming traffic. Simulations were performed in a live 3G/HSPA network. Test traffic simulating multiplayer real-time games and M2M applications was generated on 10 mobile phones in parallel, sending data to a remote server. APNs with different combinations of hardware and features (proxy server, different GGSNs and firewalls, usage of Service Awareness feature were chosen. The traffic was recorded on the Gn interface in the mobile core. The goal of experiments was to evaluate any eventually significant variation of average recorded RTTs in the core part of mobile network that would clearly indicate either the impact of used APN on delay for a specific traffic pattern, or selectivity of the APN towards different traffic patterns.

  2. Improvement of Traffic Movement for Roads Network in Al-Kadhimiya City Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Qadir Ismael

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Numerous regions in the city of Baghdad experience the congestion and traffic problems. Due to the religious and economic significance, Al-Kadhimiya city (inside the metropolitan range of Baghdad was chosen as study area. The data gathering stage was separated into two branches: the questionnaire method which is utilized to estimate the traffic volumes for the chosen roads and field data collection method which included video recording and manual counting for the volumes entering the selected signal intersections. The stage of analysis and evaluation for the seventeen urban roads, one highway, and three intersections was performed by HCS-2000 software.The presented work plots a system for assessing the level of service for roads network within the study region. Moreover, several improvement alternatives were proposed to overcome the traffic movement operations issues. This work shows that traffic facilities currently undergoing serious degradation causing a traffic jam. Therefore, the implementation of some remedial action is necessary to improve the level of service for these facilities.

  3. ATM interface design issues for IP traffic over ATM/ADSL access networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buschmann, Jonathan E.; Pampolini, Matteo

    1999-01-01

    The combination of ATM and ADSL is fast becoming an attractive alternative for Internet access for home and small business. ADSL modems allow the use of the existing copper plant at speeds much higher than those afforded by traditional modem technologies. The use of ATM both enables the long-sought goal of an ATM end-to-end network, and allows, through the use of QOS guarantees, efficient use of the limited upstream bandwidth of ADSL. Although the client- server model, which typified classical Internet traffic and newer multimedia IP services, fits well an asymmetric network model, performance can be greatly impacted unless the interactions between ADSL, ATM, and Internet protocols are well understood an taken into account in the design of ATM interfaces. In this paper we investigate the potential limitations on performance in IP/ATM/ADSL networks and explain how, in our ATM interface designs, we have ameliorated these problems and optimized the use of IP services over such networks. We discuss the importance of 'traffic shaping', heretofore afforded little importance for IP traffic, and the impact of latency and asymmetric bandwidth of ADSL, on both traditional and multimedia IP services, in our implementations.

  4. Adaptive traffic signal control with actor-critic methods in a real-world traffic network with different traffic disruption events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aslani, Mohammad; Mesgari, Mohammad Saadi; Wiering, Marco

    2017-01-01

    The transportation demand is rapidly growing in metropolises, resulting in chronic traffic con-gestions in dense downtown areas. Adaptive traffic signal control as the principle part of in-telligent transportation systems has a primary role to effectively reduce traffic congestion by making a

  5. Traffic Dimensioning and Performance Modeling of 4G LTE Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Ye

    2011-01-01

    Rapid changes in mobile techniques have always been evolutionary, and the deployment of 4G Long Term Evolution (LTE) networks will be the same. It will be another transition from Third Generation (3G) to Fourth Generation (4G) over a period of several years, as is the case still with the transition from Second Generation (2G) to 3G. As a result,…

  6. Influence of Intra-cell Traffic on the Output Power of Base Station in GSM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mileusnic

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we analyze the influence of intracell traffic in a GSM cell on the base station output power. It is proved that intracell traffic increases this power. If offered traffic is small, the increase of output power is equal to the part of intracell traffic. When the offered traffic and, as the result, call loss increase, the increase of output power becomes less. The results of calculation are verified by the computer simulation of traffic process in the GSM cell. The calculation and the simulation consider the uniform distribution of mobile users in the cell, but the conclusions are of a general nature.

  7. A Belief-Based Model of Air Traffic Controllers Performing Separation Assurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, S.J.

    2009-01-01

    A model of an air traffic controller performing a separation assurance task was produced. The model was designed to be simple to use and deploy in a simulator, but still provide realistic behavior. The model is based upon an evaluation of the safety function of the controller for separation assurance, and utilizes fast and frugal heuristics and belief networks to establish a knowledge set for the controller model. Based on this knowledge set, the controller acts to keep aircraft separated. Validation results are provided to demonstrate the model s performance.

  8. Improved GIS-based Methods for Traffic Noise Impact Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Otto Anker; Bloch, Karsten Sand

    1996-01-01

    When vector-based GIS-packages are used for traffic noise impact assessments, the buffer-technique is usually employed for the study: 1. For each road segment buffer-zones representing different noise-intervals are generated, 2. The buffers from all road segments are smoothed together, and 3....... The number of buildings within the buffers are enumerated. This technique provides an inaccurate assessment of the noise diffusion since it does not correct for buildings barrier and reflection to noise. The paper presents the results from a research project where the traditional noise buffer technique...... was compared with a new method which includes these corrections. Both methods follow the Common Nordic Noise Calculation Model, although the traditional buffer technique ignores parts of the model. The basis for the work was a digital map of roads and building polygons, combined with a traffic- and road...

  9. Game theoretic analysis of congestion, safety and security networks, air traffic and emergency departments

    CERN Document Server

    Zhuang, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Maximizing reader insights into the roles of intelligent agents in networks, air traffic and emergency departments, this volume focuses on congestion in systems where safety and security are at stake, devoting special attention to applying game theoretic analysis of congestion to: protocols in wired and wireless networks; power generation, air transportation and emergency department overcrowding. Reviewing exhaustively the key recent research into the interactions between game theory, excessive crowding, and safety and security elements, this book establishes a new research angle by illustrating linkages between the different research approaches and serves to lay the foundations for subsequent analysis. Congestion (excessive crowding) is defined in this work as all kinds of flows; e.g., road/sea/air traffic, people, data, information, water, electricity, and organisms. Analyzing systems where congestion occurs – which may be in parallel, series, interlinked, or interdependent, with flows one way or both way...

  10. Android-based E-Traffic law enforcement system in Surakarta City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yulianto, Budi; Setiono

    2018-03-01

    The urban advancement is always overpowered by the increasing number of vehicles as the need for movement of people and goods. This can lead to traffic problems if there is no effort on the implementation of traffic management and engineering, and traffic law enforcement. In this case, the Government of Surakarta City has implemented various policies and regulations related to traffic management and engineering in order to run traffic in an orderly, safe and comfortable manner according to the applicable law. However, conditions in the field shows that traffic violations still occurred frequently due to the weakness of traffic law enforcement in terms of human resources and the system. In this connection, a tool is needed to support traffic law enforcement, especially in relation to the reporting system of traffic violations. This study aims to develop an Android-based traffic violations reporting application (E-Traffic Law Enforcement) as part of the traffic law enforcement system in Surakarta City. The Android-apps records the location and time of the traffic violations incident along with the visual evidence of the infringement. This information will be connected to the database system to detect offenders and to do the traffic law enforcement process.

  11. MIMO Lyapunov Theory-Based RBF Neural Classifier for Traffic Sign Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    King Hann Lim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lyapunov theory-based radial basis function neural network (RBFNN is developed for traffic sign recognition in this paper to perform multiple inputs multiple outputs (MIMO classification. Multidimensional input is inserted into RBF nodes and these nodes are linked with multiple weights. An iterative weight adaptation scheme is hence designed with regards to the Lyapunov stability theory to obtain a set of optimum weights. In the design, the Lyapunov function has to be well selected to construct an energy space with a single global minimum. Weight gain is formed later to obey the Lyapunov stability theory. Detail analysis and discussion on the proposed classifier’s properties are included in the paper. The performance comparisons between the proposed classifier and some existing conventional techniques are evaluated using traffic sign patterns. Simulation results reveal that our proposed system achieved better performance with lower number of training iterations.

  12. Highly accurate moving object detection in variable bit rate video-based traffic monitoring systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shih-Chia; Chen, Bo-Hao

    2013-12-01

    Automated motion detection, which segments moving objects from video streams, is the key technology of intelligent transportation systems for traffic management. Traffic surveillance systems use video communication over real-world networks with limited bandwidth, which frequently suffers because of either network congestion or unstable bandwidth. Evidence supporting these problems abounds in publications about wireless video communication. Thus, to effectively perform the arduous task of motion detection over a network with unstable bandwidth, a process by which bit-rate is allocated to match the available network bandwidth is necessitated. This process is accomplished by the rate control scheme. This paper presents a new motion detection approach that is based on the cerebellar-model-articulation-controller (CMAC) through artificial neural networks to completely and accurately detect moving objects in both high and low bit-rate video streams. The proposed approach is consisted of a probabilistic background generation (PBG) module and a moving object detection (MOD) module. To ensure that the properties of variable bit-rate video streams are accommodated, the proposed PBG module effectively produces a probabilistic background model through an unsupervised learning process over variable bit-rate video streams. Next, the MOD module, which is based on the CMAC network, completely and accurately detects moving objects in both low and high bit-rate video streams by implementing two procedures: 1) a block selection procedure and 2) an object detection procedure. The detection results show that our proposed approach is capable of performing with higher efficacy when compared with the results produced by other state-of-the-art approaches in variable bit-rate video streams over real-world limited bandwidth networks. Both qualitative and quantitative evaluations support this claim; for instance, the proposed approach achieves Similarity and F1 accuracy rates that are 76

  13. Monitor Network Traffic with Packet Capture (pcap) on an Android Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    ARL-TN-0650 ● SEP 2015 US Army Research Laboratory Monitor Network Traffic with Packet Capture (pcap) on an Android Device by...Capture (pcap) on an Android Device by Ken F Yu Computational and Information Sciences Directorate, ARL Approved for...on an Android Device 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Ken F Yu 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e

  14. Property relationships of the physical infrastructure and the traffic flow networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ta; Zou, Sheng-Rong; He, Da-Ren

    2010-03-01

    We studied both empirically and analytically the correlation between the degrees or the clustering coefficients, respectively, of the networks in the physical infrastructure and the traffic flow layers in three Chinese transportation systems. The systems are bus transportation systems in Beijing and Hangzhou, and the railway system in the mainland. It is found that the correlation between the degrees obey a linear function; while the correlation between the clustering coefficients obey a power law. A possible dynamic explanation on the rules is presented.

  15. Trafficability Analysis at Traffic Crossing and Parameters Optimization Based on Particle Swarm Optimization Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin He

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In city traffic, it is important to improve transportation efficiency and the spacing of platoon should be shortened when crossing the street. The best method to deal with this problem is automatic control of vehicles. In this paper, a mathematical model is established for the platoon’s longitudinal movement. A systematic analysis of longitudinal control law is presented for the platoon of vehicles. However, the parameter calibration for the platoon model is relatively difficult because the platoon model is complex and the parameters are coupled with each other. In this paper, the particle swarm optimization method is introduced to effectively optimize the parameters of platoon. The proposed method effectively finds the optimal parameters based on simulations and makes the spacing of platoon shorter.

  16. Traffic Management for Emergency Vehicle Priority Based on Visual Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapileswar Nellore

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Vehicular traffic is endlessly increasing everywhere in the world and can cause terrible traffic congestion at intersections. Most of the traffic lights today feature a fixed green light sequence, therefore the green light sequence is determined without taking the presence of the emergency vehicles into account. Therefore, emergency vehicles such as ambulances, police cars, fire engines, etc. stuck in a traffic jam and delayed in reaching their destination can lead to loss of property and valuable lives. This paper presents an approach to schedule emergency vehicles in traffic. The approach combines the measurement of the distance between the emergency vehicle and an intersection using visual sensing methods, vehicle counting and time sensitive alert transmission within the sensor network. The distance between the emergency vehicle and the intersection is calculated for comparison using Euclidean distance, Manhattan distance and Canberra distance techniques. The experimental results have shown that the Euclidean distance outperforms other distance measurement techniques. Along with visual sensing techniques to collect emergency vehicle information, it is very important to have a Medium Access Control (MAC protocol to deliver the emergency vehicle information to the Traffic Management Center (TMC with less delay. Then only the emergency vehicle is quickly served and can reach the destination in time. In this paper, we have also investigated the MAC layer in WSNs to prioritize the emergency vehicle data and to reduce the transmission delay for emergency messages. We have modified the medium access procedure used in standard IEEE 802.11p with PE-MAC protocol, which is a new back off selection and contention window adjustment scheme to achieve low broadcast delay for emergency messages. A VANET model for the UTMS is developed and simulated in NS-2. The performance of the standard IEEE 802.11p and the proposed PE-MAC is analysed in detail. The NS-2

  17. Traffic Management for Emergency Vehicle Priority Based on Visual Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nellore, Kapileswar; Hancke, Gerhard P

    2016-11-10

    Vehicular traffic is endlessly increasing everywhere in the world and can cause terrible traffic congestion at intersections. Most of the traffic lights today feature a fixed green light sequence, therefore the green light sequence is determined without taking the presence of the emergency vehicles into account. Therefore, emergency vehicles such as ambulances, police cars, fire engines, etc. stuck in a traffic jam and delayed in reaching their destination can lead to loss of property and valuable lives. This paper presents an approach to schedule emergency vehicles in traffic. The approach combines the measurement of the distance between the emergency vehicle and an intersection using visual sensing methods, vehicle counting and time sensitive alert transmission within the sensor network. The distance between the emergency vehicle and the intersection is calculated for comparison using Euclidean distance, Manhattan distance and Canberra distance techniques. The experimental results have shown that the Euclidean distance outperforms other distance measurement techniques. Along with visual sensing techniques to collect emergency vehicle information, it is very important to have a Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol to deliver the emergency vehicle information to the Traffic Management Center (TMC) with less delay. Then only the emergency vehicle is quickly served and can reach the destination in time. In this paper, we have also investigated the MAC layer in WSNs to prioritize the emergency vehicle data and to reduce the transmission delay for emergency messages. We have modified the medium access procedure used in standard IEEE 802.11p with PE-MAC protocol, which is a new back off selection and contention window adjustment scheme to achieve low broadcast delay for emergency messages. A VANET model for the UTMS is developed and simulated in NS-2. The performance of the standard IEEE 802.11p and the proposed PE-MAC is analysed in detail. The NS-2 simulation results

  18. Value of Information for Optimal Adaptive Routing in Stochastic Time-Dependent Traffic Networks: Algorithms and Computational Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-25

    Real-time information is important for travelers' routing decisions in uncertain networks by enabling online adaptation to revealed traffic conditions. Usually there are spatial and/or temporal limitations in traveler information. In this research, a...

  19. A Performance Analysis of Management Information Due to Data Traffic Provisioning in a SONET/SDH Communications Network

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tay, Yeong K

    2005-01-01

    .... The network was injected with HTTP and FTP traffic generated by the Spirent Smartbits system installed with TeraMetrics Gigabit Ethernet modules and load calibration configured by the Spirent Avalanche software...

  20. SmartCop: Enabling Smart Traffic Violations Ticketing in Vehicular Named Data Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Hassan Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, various applications for Vehicular Ad hoc Networks (VANETs have been proposed and smart traffic violation ticketing is one of them. On the other hand, the new Information-Centric Networking (ICN architectures have emerged and been investigated into VANETs, such as Vehicular Named Data Networking (VNDN. However, the existing applications in VANETs are not suitable for VNDN paradigm due to the dependency on a “named content” instead of a current “host-centric” approach. Thus, we need to design the emerging and new architectures for VNDN applications. In this paper, we propose a smart traffic violation ticketing (TVT system for VNDN, named as SmartCop, that enables a cop vehicle (CV to issue tickets for traffic violation(s to the offender(s autonomously, once they are in the transmission range of that CV. The ticket issuing delay, messaging cost, and percentage of violations detected for varying number of vehicles, violators, CVs, and vehicles speeds are estimated through simulations. In addition, we provide a road map of future research directions for enabling safe driving experience in future cars aided with VNDN technology.

  1. Green provisioning of the traffic partition grooming in robust, reconfigurable and heterogeneous optical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Weigang; Yu, Yao; Song, Qingyang; Gong, Xiaoxue

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, various high-speed network architectures have been widespread deployed. Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing (DWDM) has gained favor as a terabit solution. The optical circuit switching has also been provided for "sub-rate" aggregation. Such that, the granular types of demands tend to be diverse and must be evaluated. However, current dedicated optical networks do not offer sufficient flexibility to satisfy the requirements of demands with such wide range of granularities. The traffic grooming becomes a power-efficient one only when it does not utilize the aggregation of Coarse-Granularity (CG) demands. The waveband switching merely provides port-cost-effective connections for CG demands regardless of fine-granularity ones. Consequently, in this paper, we devise a heterogeneous grooming method called traffic partition grooming. It combines the power efficiency advantage of the traffic grooming under fine-granularity environment and the port savings advantage of the waveband switching under coarse-granularity environment to provide green provisioning. In addition, the optical virtual topology self-reconfigures along with various optimization objectives variation and has the robustness to determine the pre-unknown information. This paper is also the first work on investigating the issue of Robust, Reconfigurable and Heterogeneous Optical Networking (R2HON). The effective green provisioning and OPEX savings of our R2HON have been demonstrated by numerical simulations.

  2. Analysis on the Correlation of Traffic Flow in Hainan Province Based on Baidu Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Caixia; Shi, Chun

    2018-03-01

    Internet search data records user’s search attention and consumer demand, providing necessary database for the Hainan traffic flow model. Based on Baidu Index, with Hainan traffic flow as example, this paper conduct both qualitative and quantitative analysis on the relationship between search keyword from Baidu Index and actual Hainan tourist traffic flow, and build multiple regression model by SPSS.

  3. A cellular automata model for traffic flow based on kinetics theory, vehicles capabilities and driver reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán, H. A.; Lárraga, M. E.; Alvarez-Icaza, L.; Carvajal, J.

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, a reliable cellular automata model oriented to faithfully reproduce deceleration and acceleration according to realistic reactions of drivers, when vehicles with different deceleration capabilities are considered is presented. The model focuses on describing complex traffic phenomena by coding in its rules the basic mechanisms of drivers behavior, vehicles capabilities and kinetics, while preserving simplicity. In particular, vehiclés kinetics is based on uniform accelerated motion, rather than in impulsive accelerated motion as in most existing CA models. Thus, the proposed model calculates in an analytic way three safe preserving distances to determine the best action a follower vehicle can take under a worst case scenario. Besides, the prediction analysis guarantees that under the proper assumptions, collision between vehicles may not happen at any future time. Simulations results indicate that all interactions of heterogeneous vehicles (i.e., car-truck, truck-car, car-car and truck-truck) are properly reproduced by the model. In addition, the model overcomes one of the major limitations of CA models for traffic modeling: the inability to perform smooth approach to slower or stopped vehicles. Moreover, the model is also capable of reproducing most empirical findings including the backward speed of the downstream front of the traffic jam, and different congested traffic patterns induced by a system with open boundary conditions with an on-ramp. Like most CA models, integer values are used to make the model run faster, which makes the proposed model suitable for real time traffic simulation of large networks.

  4. TRAFFIC SIGN DETECTION BASED ON BIOLOGICALLY VISUAL MECHANISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Hu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available TSR (Traffic sign recognition is an important problem in ITS (intelligent traffic system, which is being paid more and more attention for realizing drivers assisting system and unmanned vehicle etc. TSR consists of two steps: detection and recognition, and this paper describe a new traffic sign detection method. The design principle of the traffic sign is comply with the visual attention mechanism of human, so we propose a method using visual attention mechanism to detect traffic sign ,which is reasonable. In our method, the whole scene will firstly be analyzed by visual attention model to acquire the area where traffic signs might be placed. And then, these candidate areas will be analyzed according to the shape characteristics of the traffic sign to detect traffic signs. In traffic sign detection experiments, the result shows the proposed method is effectively and robust than other existing saliency detection method.

  5. The Detection of Emerging Trends Using Wikipedia Traffic Data and Context Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kämpf, Mirko; Tessenow, Eric; Kenett, Dror Y; Kantelhardt, Jan W

    2015-01-01

    Can online media predict new and emerging trends, since there is a relationship between trends in society and their representation in online systems? While several recent studies have used Google Trends as the leading online information source to answer corresponding research questions, we focus on the online encyclopedia Wikipedia often used for deeper topical reading. Wikipedia grants open access to all traffic data and provides lots of additional (semantic) information in a context network besides single keywords. Specifically, we suggest and study context-normalized and time-dependent measures for a topic's importance based on page-view time series of Wikipedia articles in different languages and articles related to them by internal links. As an example, we present a study of the recently emerging Big Data market with a focus on the Hadoop ecosystem, and compare the capabilities of Wikipedia versus Google in predicting its popularity and life cycles. To support further applications, we have developed an open web platform to share results of Wikipedia analytics, providing context-rich and language-independent relevance measures for emerging trends.

  6. The Detection of Emerging Trends Using Wikipedia Traffic Data and Context Networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirko Kämpf

    Full Text Available Can online media predict new and emerging trends, since there is a relationship between trends in society and their representation in online systems? While several recent studies have used Google Trends as the leading online information source to answer corresponding research questions, we focus on the online encyclopedia Wikipedia often used for deeper topical reading. Wikipedia grants open access to all traffic data and provides lots of additional (semantic information in a context network besides single keywords. Specifically, we suggest and study context-normalized and time-dependent measures for a topic's importance based on page-view time series of Wikipedia articles in different languages and articles related to them by internal links. As an example, we present a study of the recently emerging Big Data market with a focus on the Hadoop ecosystem, and compare the capabilities of Wikipedia versus Google in predicting its popularity and life cycles. To support further applications, we have developed an open web platform to share results of Wikipedia analytics, providing context-rich and language-independent relevance measures for emerging trends.

  7. The Road Traffic Injuries Research Network: a decade of research capacity strengthening in low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyder, Adnan A; Norton, Robyn; Pérez-Núñez, Ricardo; Mojarro-Iñiguez, Francisco R; Peden, Margie; Kobusingye, Olive

    2016-02-27

    Road traffic crashes have been an increasing threat to the wellbeing of road users worldwide; an unacceptably high number of people die or become disabled from them. While high-income countries have successfully implemented effective interventions to help reduce the burden of road traffic injuries (RTIs) in their countries, low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) have not yet achieved similar results. Both scientific research and capacity development have proven to be useful for preventing RTIs in high-income countries. In 1999, a group of leading researchers from different countries decided to join efforts to help promote research on RTIs and develop the capacity of professionals from LMICs. This translated into the creation of the Road Traffic Injuries Research Network (RTIRN) - a partnership of over 1,100 road safety professionals from 114 countries collaborating to facilitate reductions in the burden of RTIs in LMICs by identifying and promoting effective, evidenced-based interventions and supporting research capacity building in road safety research in LMICs. This article presents the work that RTIRN has done over more than a decade, including production of a dozen scientific papers, support of nearly 100 researchers, training of nearly 1,000 people and 35 scholarships granted to researchers from LMICs to attend world conferences, as well as lessons learnt and future challenges to maximize its work.

  8. An Ad-Hoc Opportunistic Dissemination Protocol for Smartphone-based Participatory Traffic Monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Türkes, Okan; Seraj, Fatjon; Scholten, Johan; Meratnia, Nirvana; Havinga, Paul J.M.

    2015-01-01

    This study introduces an ad-hoc opportunistic data dissemination protocol, called VADISS, that facilitates participatory traffic monitoring applications with smartphones. As a ubiquitous alternative to existing vehicular networking methods, VADISS uses the default WiFi interfaces universally adopted

  9. Traffic analysis and signal processing in optical packet switched networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjelde, Tina

    2002-01-01

    for interferometric wavelength conversion are discussed and the performance of the IWC is analysed experimentally based on the all-active Mach Zehnder and Michelson interferometer. Wavelength independence over the entire C-band is verified and wavelength conversion at up to 40 Gbit/s using the differential control...

  10. The Efficiency of Constraint Based Routing in MPLS Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Medvecky

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the simulation results and evaluates the efficiency of constraint base routing algorithms used in MPLS network from the point of their usability in Next Generation Networks. The efficiency of constraint based routing is evaluated according following criteria: optimal path selection, routing priority of traffic flows selected for constraint routing and bandwidth allocation by MAM or RDM bandwidth constraints models.

  11. ATLAS: A Traffic Load Aware Sensor MAC Design for Collaborative Body Area Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Cheol Bang

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In collaborative body sensor networks, namely wireless body area networks(WBANs, each of the physical sensor applications is used to collaboratively monitor thehealth status of the human body. The applications of WBANs comprise diverse and dynamictraffic loads such as very low-rate periodic monitoring (i.e., observation data and high-ratetraffic including event-triggered bursts. Therefore, in designing a medium access control(MAC protocol for WBANs, energy conservation should be the primary concern duringlow-traffic periods, whereas a balance between satisfying high-throughput demand andefficient energy usage is necessary during high-traffic times. In this paper, we design atraffic load-aware innovative MAC solution for WBANs, called ATLAS. The design exploitsthe superframe structure of the IEEE 802.15.4 standard, and it adaptively uses the contentionaccess period (CAP, contention free period (CFP and inactive period (IP of the superframebased on estimated traffic load, by applying a dynamic “wh” (whenever which is requiredapproach. Unlike earlier work, the proposed MAC design includes load estimation fornetwork load-status awareness and a multi-hop communication pattern in order to preventenergy loss associated with long range transmission. Finally, ATLAS is evaluated throughextensive simulations in ns-2 and the results demonstrate the effectiveness of the protocol.

  12. DECISION WITH ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS IN DISCRETE EVENT SIMULATION MODELS ON A TRAFFIC SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Gonçalves Dutra da Silva

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This work aims to demonstrate the use of a mechanism to be applied in the development of the discrete-event simulation models that perform decision operations through the implementation of an artificial neural network. Actions that involve complex operations performed by a human agent in a process, for example, are often modeled in simplified form with the usual mechanisms of simulation software. Therefore, it was chosen a traffic system controlled by a traffic officer with a flow of vehicles and pedestrians to demonstrate the proposed solution. From a module built in simulation software itself, it was possible to connect the algorithm for intelligent decision to the simulation model. The results showed that the model elaborated responded as expected when it was submitted to actions, which required different decisions to maintain the operation of the system with changes in the flow of people and vehicles.

  13. Mathematical Models by Quality of Service Driven Routing in Networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gelenbe, E

    2005-01-01

    Very large networks with varying topologies, unreliable components, and highly time varying traffic, are not amenable to traditional techniques of analysis based on traffic engineering and simulations...

  14. Mathematical Models for Quality of Service Driven Routing in Networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gelenbe, E

    2005-01-01

    Very large networks with varying topologies, unreliable components, and highly time varying traffic, are not amenable to traditional techniques of analysis based on traffic engineering and simulations...

  15. Traffic Accident Propagation Properties and Control Measures for Urban Links Based on Cellular Automata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian-sheng Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of urban transport and the sharp increase in vehicle population, traffic accidents form one of the most important causes of urban traffic congestion other than the imbalance between traffic supply and demand. Traffic congestion causes severe problems, such as environment contamination and energy dissipation. Therefore, it would be useful to analyze the congestion propagation characteristics after traffic accidents. Numerical analysis and computer simulation were two of the typical methods used at present to study the traffic congestion propagation properties. The latter was more widespread as it is more consistent with the actual traffic flow and more visual than the former. In this paper, an improved cellular automata (CA model was presented to analyze traffic congestion propagation properties and to evaluate control strategies. In order to apply them to urban traffic flow simulation, the CA models have been improved and expanded on. Computer simulations were built for congestion not only extending to the upstream intersection, but also the upstream intersection and the entire road network, respectively. Congestion propagation characteristics after road traffic accidents were obtained, and controls of different severities and durations were analyzed. The results provide the theoretical foundation and practical means for the control of congestion.

  16. Performance Evaluation of IEEE 802.11ah Networks With High-Throughput Bidirectional Traffic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šljivo, Amina; Kerkhove, Dwight; Tian, Le; Famaey, Jeroen; Munteanu, Adrian; Moerman, Ingrid; Hoebeke, Jeroen; De Poorter, Eli

    2018-01-23

    So far, existing sub-GHz wireless communication technologies focused on low-bandwidth, long-range communication with large numbers of constrained devices. Although these characteristics are fine for many Internet of Things (IoT) applications, more demanding application requirements could not be met and legacy Internet technologies such as Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) could not be used. This has changed with the advent of the new IEEE 802.11ah Wi-Fi standard, which is much more suitable for reliable bidirectional communication and high-throughput applications over a wide area (up to 1 km). The standard offers great possibilities for network performance optimization through a number of physical- and link-layer configurable features. However, given that the optimal configuration parameters depend on traffic patterns, the standard does not dictate how to determine them. Such a large number of configuration options can lead to sub-optimal or even incorrect configurations. Therefore, we investigated how two key mechanisms, Restricted Access Window (RAW) grouping and Traffic Indication Map (TIM) segmentation, influence scalability, throughput, latency and energy efficiency in the presence of bidirectional TCP/IP traffic. We considered both high-throughput video streaming traffic and large-scale reliable sensing traffic and investigated TCP behavior in both scenarios when the link layer introduces long delays. This article presents the relations between attainable throughput per station and attainable number of stations, as well as the influence of RAW, TIM and TCP parameters on both. We found that up to 20 continuously streaming IP-cameras can be reliably connected via IEEE 802.11ah with a maximum average data rate of 160 kbps, whereas 10 IP-cameras can achieve average data rates of up to 255 kbps over 200 m. Up to 6960 stations transmitting every 60 s can be connected over 1 km with no lost packets. The presented results enable the fine tuning

  17. An efficient statistical-based approach for road traffic congestion monitoring

    KAUST Repository

    Abdelhafid, Zeroual

    2017-12-14

    In this paper, we propose an effective approach which has to detect traffic congestion. The detection strategy is based on the combinational use of piecewise switched linear traffic (PWSL) model with exponentially-weighted moving average (EWMA) chart. PWSL model describes traffic flow dynamics. Then, PWSL residuals are used as the input of EWMA chart to detect traffic congestions. The evaluation results of the developed approach using data from a portion of the I210-W highway in Califorina showed the efficiency of the PWSL-EWMA approach in in detecting traffic congestions.

  18. Real-Time Corrected Traffic Correlation Model for Traffic Flow Forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua-pu Lu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the problems of short-term traffic flow forecasting. The main goal is to put forward traffic correlation model and real-time correction algorithm for traffic flow forecasting. Traffic correlation model is established based on the temporal-spatial-historical correlation characteristic of traffic big data. In order to simplify the traffic correlation model, this paper presents correction coefficients optimization algorithm. Considering multistate characteristic of traffic big data, a dynamic part is added to traffic correlation model. Real-time correction algorithm based on Fuzzy Neural Network is presented to overcome the nonlinear mapping problems. A case study based on a real-world road network in Beijing, China, is implemented to test the efficiency and applicability of the proposed modeling methods.

  19. A Network Traffic Generator Model for Fast Network-on-Chip Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahadevan, Shankar; Angiolini, Frederico; Storgaard, Michael

    2005-01-01

    For Systems-on-Chip (SoCs) development, a predominant part of the design time is the simulation time. Performance evaluation and design space exploration of such systems in bit- and cycle-true fashion is becoming prohibitive. We propose a traffic generation (TG) model that provides a fast...

  20. 77 FR 3544 - Meeting and Webinar on the Active Traffic and Demand Management and Intelligent Network Flow...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-24

    ... Intelligent Network Flow Optimization Operational Concepts; Notice of Public Meeting AGENCY: Research and... Demand Management (ADTM) and Intelligent Network Flow Optimization (INFLO) operational concepts. The ADTM... infrastructure. The vision for ATDM research is to allow transportation agencies to increase traffic flow...

  1. Combination Adaptive Traffic Algorithm and Coordinated Sleeping in Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Udin Harun Al Rasyid

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor network (WSN uses a battery as its primary power source, so that WSN will be limited to battery power for long operations. The WSN should be able to save the energy consumption in order to operate in a long time.WSN has the potential to be the future of wireless communications solutions. WSN are small but has a variety of functions that can help human life. WSN has the wide variety of sensors and can communicate quickly making it easier for people to obtain information accurately and quickly. In this study, we combine adaptive traffic algorithms and coordinated sleeping as power‐efficient WSN solution. We compared the performance of our proposed ideas combination adaptive traffic and coordinated sleeping algorithm with non‐adaptive scheme. From the simulation results, our proposed idea has good‐quality data transmission and more efficient in energy consumption, but it has higher delay than that of non‐adaptive scheme. Keywords:WSN,adaptive traffic,coordinated sleeping,beacon order,superframe order.

  2. Towards an agent based traffic regulation and recommendation system for the on-road air quality control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadiq, Abderrahmane; El Fazziki, Abdelaziz; Ouarzazi, Jamal; Sadgal, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an integrated and adaptive problem-solving approach to control the on-road air quality by modeling the road infrastructure, managing traffic based on pollution level and generating recommendations for road users. The aim is to reduce vehicle emissions in the most polluted road segments and optimizing the pollution levels. For this we propose the use of historical and real time pollution records and contextual data to calculate the air quality index on road networks and generate recommendations for reassigning traffic flow in order to improve the on-road air quality. The resulting air quality indexes are used in the system's traffic network generation, which the cartography is represented by a weighted graph. The weights evolve according to the pollution indexes and path properties and the graph is therefore dynamic. Furthermore, the systems use the available pollution data and meteorological records in order to predict the on-road pollutant levels by using an artificial neural network based prediction model. The proposed approach combines the benefits of multi-agent systems, Big data technology, machine learning tools and the available data sources. For the shortest path searching in the road network, we use the Dijkstra algorithm over Hadoop MapReduce framework. The use Hadoop framework in the data retrieve and analysis process has significantly improved the performance of the proposed system. Also, the agent technology allowed proposing a suitable solution in terms of robustness and agility.

  3. Visualizing Network Traffic to Understand the Performance of Massively Parallel Simulations

    KAUST Repository

    Landge, A. G.

    2012-12-01

    The performance of massively parallel applications is often heavily impacted by the cost of communication among compute nodes. However, determining how to best use the network is a formidable task, made challenging by the ever increasing size and complexity of modern supercomputers. This paper applies visualization techniques to aid parallel application developers in understanding the network activity by enabling a detailed exploration of the flow of packets through the hardware interconnect. In order to visualize this large and complex data, we employ two linked views of the hardware network. The first is a 2D view, that represents the network structure as one of several simplified planar projections. This view is designed to allow a user to easily identify trends and patterns in the network traffic. The second is a 3D view that augments the 2D view by preserving the physical network topology and providing a context that is familiar to the application developers. Using the massively parallel multi-physics code pF3D as a case study, we demonstrate that our tool provides valuable insight that we use to explain and optimize pF3D-s performance on an IBM Blue Gene/P system. © 1995-2012 IEEE.

  4. Integration of a network aware traffic generation device into a computer network emulation platform

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Von Solms, S

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available offer a repeatable, controllable environment that can easily be modified, but lacks realism through the use of simplified and approximated models (Wei & Mirkovic, 2006). The natural trade-off between these two extremes is network emulation... platforms. Network emulation platforms offer an acceptable amount of realism and hardware requirements, as well as multiple virtual network devices that can easily be reconfigured expanded. Therefore network emulation is an attractive and cost...

  5. Cybersecurity and Network Forensics: Analysis of Malicious Traffic towards a Honeynet with Deep Packet Inspection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Arquelau Pimenta Rodrigues

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Any network connected to the Internet is subject to cyber attacks. Strong security measures, forensic tools, and investigators contribute together to detect and mitigate those attacks, reducing the damages and enabling reestablishing the network to its normal operation, thus increasing the cybersecurity of the networked environment. This paper addresses the use of a forensic approach with Deep Packet Inspection to detect anomalies in the network traffic. As cyber attacks may occur on any layer of the TCP/IP networking model, Deep Packet Inspection is an effective way to reveal suspicious content in the headers or the payloads in any packet processing layer, excepting of course situations where the payload is encrypted. Although being efficient, this technique still faces big challenges. The contributions of this paper rely on the association of Deep Packet Inspection with forensics analysis to evaluate different attacks towards a Honeynet operating in a network laboratory at the University of Brasilia. In this perspective, this work could identify and map the content and behavior of attacks such as the Mirai botnet and brute-force attacks targeting various different network services. Obtained results demonstrate the behavior of automated attacks (such as worms and bots and non-automated attacks (brute-force conducted with different tools. The data collected and analyzed is then used to generate statistics of used usernames and passwords, IP and services distribution, among other elements. This paper also discusses the importance of network forensics and Chain of Custody procedures to conduct investigations and shows the effectiveness of the mentioned techniques in evaluating different attacks in networks.

  6. TRAFFIC SIMULATION FOR MIXED TRAFFIC SYSTEMS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EGETE

    2012-05-04

    2002). Description of a microscopic traffic model of an urban district and the analysis and problem solving traffic congestion based on actual data is its objective. There suggested models for a vehicular traffic flow based on partial ...

  7. Towards automated incident handling: how to select an appropriate response against a network-based attack?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ossenbühl, Sven; Steinberger, Jessica; Baier, Harald

    2015-01-01

    The increasing amount of network-based attacks evolved to one of the top concerns responsible for network infrastructure and service outages. In order to counteract these threats, computer networks are monitored to detect malicious traffic and initiate suitable reactions. However, initiating a

  8. Whitelists Based Multiple Filtering Techniques in SCADA Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DongHo Kang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Internet of Things (IoT consists of several tiny devices connected together to form a collaborative computing environment. Recently IoT technologies begin to merge with supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA sensor networks to more efficiently gather and analyze real-time data from sensors in industrial environments. But SCADA sensor networks are becoming more and more vulnerable to cyber-attacks due to increased connectivity. To safely adopt IoT technologies in the SCADA environments, it is important to improve the security of SCADA sensor networks. In this paper we propose a multiple filtering technique based on whitelists to detect illegitimate packets. Our proposed system detects the traffic of network and application protocol attacks with a set of whitelists collected from normal traffic.

  9. COLLABORATIVE NETWORK SECURITY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM BASED ON ASSOCIATION MINING RULE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisha Mariam Varughese

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Security is one of the major challenges in open network. There are so many types of attacks which follow fixed patterns or frequently change their patterns. It is difficult to find the malicious attack which does not have any fixed patterns. The Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS attacks like Botnets are used to slow down the system performance. To address such problems Collaborative Network Security Management System (CNSMS is proposed along with the association mining rule. CNSMS system is consists of collaborative Unified Threat Management (UTM, cloud based security centre and traffic prober. The traffic prober captures the internet traffic and given to the collaborative UTM. Traffic is analysed by the Collaborative UTM, to determine whether it contains any malicious attack or not. If any security event occurs, it will reports to the cloud based security centre. The security centre generates security rules based on association mining rule and distributes to the network. The cloud based security centre is used to store the huge amount of tragic, their logs and the security rule generated. The feedback is evaluated and the invalid rules are eliminated to improve the system efficiency.

  10. Short-term traffic flow forecasting based on feature selection with mutual information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Zhengwu; Tu, Chuan

    2017-05-01

    Traffic flow forecasting is related to many traffic variables, and how to select appropriate traffic variable combination is very important to traffic flow forecasting, which can reduce the cost of calculation and improve the forecasting precision. In this paper, a feature selection technique with mutual information is proposed for this purpose. Firstly, the mutual information is used to evaluate the relevance and redundancy of variables, and feature selection is used to select the relevant variables and filter out the redundancy between the selected variables. Secondly, BP neural network is used as the forecasting engine. Finally, a numerical example of traffic flow data from Pems is used to verify the forecasting performance of the proposed method, the results indicate that the proposed method can effectively reduce the cost of calculation and also improve the model forecasting precision.

  11. Road traffic management based on self-load-balancing approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnane Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic congestion is one of the most challenging problems for nowadays cities. Several contributions mainly based on V2V (Vehicle-to-Vehicle communication have been published, but most of them have never been applied due to their communication related problems and costs. In this article, a novel cost-effective approach is introduced inspired by social life of insects where direct (V2V communication does not exist anymore. Vehicles are equipped with devices that perform simple tasks, but their interactions with the environment through RSUs (Road Side Units allow the creation of an intelligence which notifies drivers about congested road segments to avoid them. We call this emerging behavior self-load balancing. Description of the fundamentals of this approach and its performance are detailed in this work.

  12. An approach of traffic signal control based on NLRSQP algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yuan-Yang; Hu, Yu

    2017-11-01

    This paper presents a linear program model with linear complementarity constraints (LPLCC) to solve traffic signal optimization problem. The objective function of the model is to obtain the minimization of total queue length with weight factors at the end of each cycle. Then, a combination algorithm based on the nonlinear least regression and sequence quadratic program (NLRSQP) is proposed, by which the local optimal solution can be obtained. Furthermore, four numerical experiments are proposed to study how to set the initial solution of the algorithm that can get a better local optimal solution more quickly. In particular, the results of numerical experiments show that: The model is effective for different arrival rates and weight factors; and the lower bound of the initial solution is, the better optimal solution can be obtained.

  13. Reliable Path Selection Problem in Uncertain Traffic Network after Natural Disaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available After natural disaster, especially for large-scale disasters and affected areas, vast relief materials are often needed. In the meantime, the traffic networks are always of uncertainty because of the disaster. In this paper, we assume that the edges in the network are either connected or blocked, and the connection probability of each edge is known. In order to ensure the arrival of these supplies at the affected areas, it is important to select a reliable path. A reliable path selection model is formulated, and two algorithms for solving this model are presented. Then, adjustable reliable path selection model is proposed when the edge of the selected reliable path is broken. And the corresponding algorithms are shown to be efficient both theoretically and numerically.

  14. Energy-Saving Traffic Scheduling in Hybrid Software Defined Wireless Rechargeable Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yunkai; Ma, Xiaohui; Yang, Ning; Chen, Yijin

    2017-09-15

    Software Defined Wireless Rechargeable Sensor Networks (SDWRSNs) are an inexorable trend for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), including Wireless Rechargeable Sensor Network (WRSNs). However, the traditional network devices cannot be completely substituted in the short term. Hybrid SDWRSNs, where software defined devices and traditional devices coexist, will last for a long time. Hybrid SDWRSNs bring new challenges as well as opportunities for energy saving issues, which is still a key problem considering that the wireless chargers are also exhaustible, especially in some rigid environment out of the main supply. Numerous energy saving schemes for WSNs, or even some works for WRSNs, are no longer suitable for the new features of hybrid SDWRSNs. To solve this problem, this paper puts forward an Energy-saving Traffic Scheduling (ETS) algorithm. The ETS algorithm adequately considers the new characters in hybrid SDWRSNs, and takes advantage of the Software Defined Networking (SDN) controller's direct control ability on SDN nodes and indirect control ability on normal nodes. The simulation results show that, comparing with traditional Minimum Transmission Energy (MTE) protocol, ETS can substantially improve the energy efficiency in hybrid SDWRSNs for up to 20-40% while ensuring feasible data delay.

  15. A Method Based on Dial's Algorithm for Multi-time Dynamic Traffic Assignment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongjie Kuang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to static traffic assignment has poor performance in reflecting actual case and dynamic traffic assignment may incurs excessive compute cost, method of multi-time dynamic traffic assignment combining static and dynamic traffic assignment balances factors of precision and cost effectively. A method based on Dial's logit algorithm is proposed in the article to solve the dynamic stochastic user equilibrium problem in dynamic traffic assignment. Before that, a fitting function that can proximately reflect overloaded traffic condition of link is proposed and used to give corresponding model. Numerical example is given to illustrate heuristic procedure of method and to compare results with one of same example solved by other literature's algorithm. Results show that method based on Dial's algorithm is preferable to algorithm from others.

  16. Experimental performance evaluation of software defined networking (SDN) based data communication networks for large scale flexi-grid optical networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yongli; He, Ruiying; Chen, Haoran; Zhang, Jie; Ji, Yuefeng; Zheng, Haomian; Lin, Yi; Wang, Xinbo

    2014-04-21

    Software defined networking (SDN) has become the focus in the current information and communication technology area because of its flexibility and programmability. It has been introduced into various network scenarios, such as datacenter networks, carrier networks, and wireless networks. Optical transport network is also regarded as an important application scenario for SDN, which is adopted as the enabling technology of data communication networks (DCN) instead of general multi-protocol label switching (GMPLS). However, the practical performance of SDN based DCN for large scale optical networks, which is very important for the technology selection in the future optical network deployment, has not been evaluated up to now. In this paper we have built a large scale flexi-grid optical network testbed with 1000 virtual optical transport nodes to evaluate the performance of SDN based DCN, including network scalability, DCN bandwidth limitation, and restoration time. A series of network performance parameters including blocking probability, bandwidth utilization, average lightpath provisioning time, and failure restoration time have been demonstrated under various network environments, such as with different traffic loads and different DCN bandwidths. The demonstration in this work can be taken as a proof for the future network deployment.

  17. Deep neural network for traffic sign recognition systems: An analysis of spatial transformers and stochastic optimisation methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcos-García, Álvaro; Álvarez-García, Juan A; Soria-Morillo, Luis M

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents a Deep Learning approach for traffic sign recognition systems. Several classification experiments are conducted over publicly available traffic sign datasets from Germany and Belgium using a Deep Neural Network which comprises Convolutional layers and Spatial Transformer Networks. Such trials are built to measure the impact of diverse factors with the end goal of designing a Convolutional Neural Network that can improve the state-of-the-art of traffic sign classification task. First, different adaptive and non-adaptive stochastic gradient descent optimisation algorithms such as SGD, SGD-Nesterov, RMSprop and Adam are evaluated. Subsequently, multiple combinations of Spatial Transformer Networks placed at distinct positions within the main neural network are analysed. The recognition rate of the proposed Convolutional Neural Network reports an accuracy of 99.71% in the German Traffic Sign Recognition Benchmark, outperforming previous state-of-the-art methods and also being more efficient in terms of memory requirements. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Cyber-Threat Assessment for the Air Traffic Management System: A Network Controls Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Sandip; Sridhar, Banavar

    2016-01-01

    Air transportation networks are being disrupted with increasing frequency by failures in their cyber- (computing, communication, control) systems. Whether these cyber- failures arise due to deliberate attacks or incidental errors, they can have far-reaching impact on the performance of the air traffic control and management systems. For instance, a computer failure in the Washington DC Air Route Traffic Control Center (ZDC) on August 15, 2015, caused nearly complete closure of the Centers airspace for several hours. This closure had a propagative impact across the United States National Airspace System, causing changed congestion patterns and requiring placement of a suite of traffic management initiatives to address the capacity reduction and congestion. A snapshot of traffic on that day clearly shows the closure of the ZDC airspace and the resulting congestion at its boundary, which required augmented traffic management at multiple locations. Cyber- events also have important ramifications for private stakeholders, particularly the airlines. During the last few months, computer-system issues have caused several airlines fleets to be grounded for significant periods of time: these include United Airlines (twice), LOT Polish Airlines, and American Airlines. Delays and regional stoppages due to cyber- events are even more common, and may have myriad causes (e.g., failure of the Department of Homeland Security systems needed for security check of passengers, see [3]). The growing frequency of cyber- disruptions in the air transportation system reflects a much broader trend in the modern society: cyber- failures and threats are becoming increasingly pervasive, varied, and impactful. In consequence, an intense effort is underway to develop secure and resilient cyber- systems that can protect against, detect, and remove threats, see e.g. and its many citations. The outcomes of this wide effort on cyber- security are applicable to the air transportation infrastructure

  19. Traffic Sign Recognition System based on Cambridge Correlator Image Comparator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Turan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Paper presents basic information about application of Optical Correlator (OC, specifically Cambridge Correlator, in system to recognize of traffic sign. Traffic Sign Recognition System consists of three main blocks, Preprocessing, Optical Correlator and Traffic Sign Identification. The Region of Interest (ROI is defined and chosen in preprocessing block and then goes to Optical Correlator, where is compared with database of Traffic Sign. Output of Optical Correlation is correlation plane, which consist of highly localized intensities, know as correlation peaks. The intensity of spots provides a measure of similarity and position of spots, how images (traffic signs are relatively aligned in the input scene. Several experiments have been done with proposed system and results and conclusion are discussed.

  20. A State-of-the-Art Review of the Sensor Location, Flow Observability, Estimation, and Prediction Problems in Traffic Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Castillo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A state-of-the-art review of flow observability, estimation, and prediction problems in traffic networks is performed. Since mathematical optimization provides a general framework for all of them, an integrated approach is used to perform the analysis of these problems and consider them as different optimization problems whose data, variables, constraints, and objective functions are the main elements that characterize the problems proposed by different authors. For example, counted, scanned or “a priori” data are the most common data sources; conservation laws, flow nonnegativity, link capacity, flow definition, observation, flow propagation, and specific model requirements form the most common constraints; and least squares, likelihood, possible relative error, mean absolute relative error, and so forth constitute the bases for the objective functions or metrics. The high number of possible combinations of these elements justifies the existence of a wide collection of methods for analyzing static and dynamic situations.

  1. Intelligent Traffic Quantification System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Anita; Bhanja, Urmila; Mahapatra, Sudipta

    2017-08-01

    Currently, city traffic monitoring and controlling is a big issue in almost all cities worldwide. Vehicular ad-hoc Network (VANET) technique is an efficient tool to minimize this problem. Usually, different types of on board sensors are installed in vehicles to generate messages characterized by different vehicle parameters. In this work, an intelligent system based on fuzzy clustering technique is developed to reduce the number of individual messages by extracting important features from the messages of a vehicle. Therefore, the proposed fuzzy clustering technique reduces the traffic load of the network. The technique also reduces congestion and quantifies congestion.

  2. A GPS-based Real-time Road Traffic Monitoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanti, Kamal Kumar

    In recent years, monitoring systems are astonishingly inclined towards ever more automatic; reliably interconnected, distributed and autonomous operation. Specifically, the measurement, logging, data processing and interpretation activities may be carried out by separate units at different locations in near real-time. The recent evolution of mobile communication devices and communication technologies has fostered a growing interest in the GIS & GPS-based location-aware systems and services. This paper describes a real-time road traffic monitoring system based on integrated mobile field devices (GPS/GSM/IOs) working in tandem with advanced GIS-based application software providing on-the-fly authentications for real-time monitoring and security enhancement. The described system is developed as a fully automated, continuous, real-time monitoring system that employs GPS sensors and Ethernet and/or serial port communication techniques are used to transfer data between GPS receivers at target points and a central processing computer. The data can be processed locally or remotely based on the requirements of client’s satisfaction. Due to the modular architecture of the system, other sensor types may be supported with minimal effort. Data on the distributed network & measurements are transmitted via cellular SIM cards to a Control Unit, which provides for post-processing and network management. The Control Unit may be remotely accessed via an Internet connection. The new system will not only provide more consistent data about the road traffic conditions but also will provide methods for integrating with other Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS). For communication between the mobile device and central monitoring service GSM technology is used. The resulting system is characterized by autonomy, reliability and a high degree of automation.

  3. VoIP attacks detection engine based on neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safarik, Jakub; Slachta, Jiri

    2015-05-01

    The security is crucial for any system nowadays, especially communications. One of the most successful protocols in the field of communication over IP networks is Session Initiation Protocol. It is an open-source project used by different kinds of applications, both open-source and proprietary. High penetration and text-based principle made SIP number one target in IP telephony infrastructure, so security of SIP server is essential. To keep up with hackers and to detect potential malicious attacks, security administrator needs to monitor and evaluate SIP traffic in the network. But monitoring and following evaluation could easily overwhelm the security administrator in networks, typically in networks with a number of SIP servers, users and logically or geographically separated networks. The proposed solution lies in automatic attack detection systems. The article covers detection of VoIP attacks through a distributed network of nodes. Then the gathered data analyze aggregation server with artificial neural network. Artificial neural network means multilayer perceptron network trained with a set of collected attacks. Attack data could also be preprocessed and verified with a self-organizing map. The source data is detected by distributed network of detection nodes. Each node contains a honeypot application and traffic monitoring mechanism. Aggregation of data from each node creates an input for neural networks. The automatic classification on a centralized server with low false positive detection reduce the cost of attack detection resources. The detection system uses modular design for easy deployment in final infrastructure. The centralized server collects and process detected traffic. It also maintains all detection nodes.

  4. Market driven network neutrality and the fallacies of internet traffic quality regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Knieps, Günter

    2011-01-01

    In the U.S. paying for priority arrangements between Internet access service providers and Internet application providers to favor some traffic over other traf-fic is considered unreasonable discrimination. In Europe the focus is on mini-mum traffic quality requirements. It can be shown that neither market power nor universal service arguments can justify traffic quality regulation. In particular, heterogeneous demand for traffic quality for delay sensitive versus delay insen-sitive applicati...

  5. Traffic conflict assessment for non-lane-based movements of motorcycles under congested conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Xuan Nguyen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Traffic conflict under congested conditions is one of the main safety issues of motorcycle traffic in developing countries. Unlike cars, motorcycles often display non-lane-based movements such as swerving or oblique following of a lead vehicle when traffic becomes congested. Very few studies have quantitatively evaluated the effects of such non-lane-based movements on traffic conflict. Therefore, in this study we aim to develop an integrated model to assess the traffic conflict of motorcycles under congested conditions. The proposed model includes a concept of safety space to describe the non-lane-based movements unique to motorcycles, new features developed for traffic conflict assessment such as parameters of acceleration and deceleration, and the conditions for choosing a lead vehicle. Calibration data were extracted from video clips taken at two road segments in Ho Chi Minh City. A simulation based on the model was developed to verify the dynamic non-lane-based movements of motorcycles. Subsequently, the assessment of traffic conflict was validated by calculating the probability of sudden braking at each time interval according to the change in the density of motorcycle flow. Our findings underscore the fact that higher flow density may lead to conflicts associated with a greater probability of sudden breaking. Three types of motorcycle traffic conflicts were confirmed, and the proportions of each type were calculated and discussed.

  6. Predicting Free Flow Speed and Crash Risk of Bicycle Traffic Flow Using Artificial Neural Network Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Xu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Free flow speed is a fundamental measure of traffic performance and has been found to affect the severity of crash risk. However, the previous studies lack analysis and modelling of impact factors on bicycles’ free flow speed. The main focus of this study is to develop multilayer back propagation artificial neural network (BPANN models for the prediction of free flow speed and crash risk on the separated bicycle path. Four different models with considering different combinations of input variables (e.g., path width, traffic condition, bicycle type, and cyclists’ characteristics were developed. 459 field data samples were collected from eleven bicycle paths in Hangzhou, China, and 70% of total samples were used for training, 15% for validation, and 15% for testing. The results show that considering the input variables of bicycle types and characteristics of cyclists will effectively improve the accuracy of the prediction models. Meanwhile, the parameters of bicycle types have more significant effect on predicting free flow speed of bicycle compared to those of cyclists’ characteristics. The findings could contribute for evaluation, planning, and management of bicycle safety.

  7. Policy based traffic light control – Balancing weights of user groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vreeswijk, Jacob Dirk; Wismans, Luc Johannes Josephus; Tutert, Bas

    2013-01-01

    On the basis of policy-based target groups, we developed a prioritization strategy for traffic streams and applied it with the adaptive urban traffic control (UTC) ImFlow. Our main aim was to gain understanding of the possibilities of a policy driven prioritization in an urban context. We conclude

  8. Network-Based Management Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckner, Allen L.

    Network-based management procedures serve as valuable aids in organizational management, achievement of objectives, problem solving, and decisionmaking. Network techniques especially applicable to educational management systems are the program evaluation and review technique (PERT) and the critical path method (CPM). Other network charting…

  9. Shadow-Based Vehicle Detection in Urban Traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Ibarra-Arenado

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Vehicle detection is a fundamental task in Forward Collision Avoiding Systems (FACS. Generally, vision-based vehicle detection methods consist of two stages: hypotheses generation and hypotheses verification. In this paper, we focus on the former, presenting a feature-based method for on-road vehicle detection in urban traffic. Hypotheses for vehicle candidates are generated according to the shadow under the vehicles by comparing pixel properties across the vertical intensity gradients caused by shadows on the road, and followed by intensity thresholding and morphological discrimination. Unlike methods that identify the shadow under a vehicle as a road region with intensity smaller than a coarse lower bound of the intensity for road, the thresholding strategy we propose determines a coarse upper bound of the intensity for shadow which reduces false positives rates. The experimental results are promising in terms of detection performance and robustness in day time under different weather conditions and cluttered scenarios to enable validation for the first stage of a complete FACS.

  10. An Imputation Method for Missing Traffic Data Based on FCM Optimized by PSO-SVR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Shang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Missing traffic data are inevitable due to detector failure or communication failure. Currently, most of imputation methods estimated the missing traffic values by using spatial-temporal information as much as possible. However, it ignores an important fact that spatial-temporal information of the traffic missing data is often incomplete and unavailable. Moreover, most of the existing methods are verified by traffic data from freeway, and their applicability to urban road data needs to be further verified. In this paper, a hybrid method for missing traffic data imputation is proposed using FCM optimized by a combination of PSO algorithm and SVR. In this method, FCM is the basic algorithm and the parameters of FCM are optimized. Firstly, the patterns of missing traffic data are analyzed and the representation of missing traffic data is given using matrix-based data structure. Then, traffic data from urban expressway and urban arterial road are used to analyze spatial-temporal correlation of the traffic data for the determination of the proposed method input. Finally, numerical experiment is designed from three perspectives to test the performance of the proposed method. The experimental results demonstrate that the novel method not only has high imputation precision, but also exhibits good robustness.

  11. Modelling Traffic Flows Using Graph Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana Musyt

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available An intensive increase in road transport, particularly individual, in recent years has led to such consequences as increased time spent on travel, the number of forced stops, traffic accidents, the occurrence of traffic jams on the road network, reducing traffic speed and a deteriorated urban road network in cities. The most effective method for solving these problems is the use of graph theory, the main characteristics of which is reliability, durability and accessibility of a free as well as loaded network. Based on their analysis the methods for network optimization are proposed.Article in Russian

  12. McMAC: Towards a MAC Protocol with Multi-Constrained QoS Provisioning for Diverse Traffic in Wireless Body Area Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Mostafa Monowar

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of heterogeneous applications with diverse requirements forresource-constrained Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs poses significant challengesfor provisioning Quality of Service (QoS with multi-constraints (delay and reliability whilepreserving energy efficiency. To address such challenges, this paper proposes McMAC,a MAC protocol with multi-constrained QoS provisioning for diverse traffic classes inWBANs. McMAC classifies traffic based on their multi-constrained QoS demands andintroduces a novel superframe structure based on the "transmit-whenever-appropriate"principle, which allows diverse periods for diverse traffic classes according to their respectiveQoS requirements. Furthermore, a novel emergency packet handling mechanism is proposedto ensure packet delivery with the least possible delay and the highest reliability. McMACis also modeled analytically, and extensive simulations were performed to evaluate itsperformance. The results reveal that McMAC achieves the desired delay and reliabilityguarantee according to the requirements of a particular traffic class while achieving energyefficiency.

  13. McMAC: towards a MAC protocol with multi-constrained QoS provisioning for diverse traffic in Wireless Body Area Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monowar, Muhammad Mostafa; Hassan, Mohammad Mehedi; Bajaber, Fuad; Al-Hussein, Musaed; Alamri, Atif

    2012-11-12

    The emergence of heterogeneous applications with diverse requirements for resource-constrained Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs) poses significant challenges for provisioning Quality of Service (QoS) with multi-constraints (delay and reliability) while preserving energy efficiency. To address such challenges, this paper proposes McMAC,a MAC protocol with multi-constrained QoS provisioning for diverse traffic classes in WBANs. McMAC classifies traffic based on their multi-constrained QoS demands and introduces a novel superframe structure based on the "transmit-whenever-appropriate"principle, which allows diverse periods for diverse traffic classes according to their respective QoS requirements. Furthermore, a novel emergency packet handling mechanism is proposedto ensure packet delivery with the least possible delay and the highest reliability. McMAC is also modeled analytically, and extensive simulations were performed to evaluate its performance. The results reveal that McMAC achieves the desired delay and reliability guarantee according to the requirements of a particular traffic class while achieving energy efficiency.

  14. Epidemic metapopulation model with traffic routing in scale-free networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Wei; Chen, Shengyong

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a model incorporating both the traffic routing dynamics and the virus prevalence dynamics. In this model, each packet may be isolated from the network on its transporting path, which means that the packet cannot be successfully delivered to its destination. In contrast, a successful transport means that a packet can be delivered from source to destination without being isolated. The effects of model parameters on the delivery success rate and the delivery failure rate are intensively studied and analyzed. Several routing strategies are performed for our model. Results show that the shortest path routing strategy is the most effective for enhancing the delivery success rate, especially when each packet is only allowed to be delivered to the neighbor with the lowest degree along the shortest path. We also find that, by minimizing the sum of the nodes' degree along the transporting path, we can also obtain a satisfactory delivery success rate

  15. Hybrid Electromagnetism-Like Algorithm for Dynamic Supply Chain Network Design under Traffic Congestion and Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javid Jouzdani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With the constantly increasing pressure of the competitive environment, supply chain (SC decision makers are forced to consider several aspects of business climate. More specifically, they should take into account the endogenous features (e.g., available means of transportation, and the variety of products and exogenous criteria (e.g., the environmental uncertainty, and transportation system conditions. In this paper, a mixed integer nonlinear programming (MINLP model for dynamic design of a supply chain network is proposed. In this model, multiple products and multiple transportation modes, the time value of money, traffic congestion, and both supply-side and demand-side uncertainties are considered. Due to the complexity of such models, conventional solution methods are not applicable; therefore, two hybrid Electromagnetism-Like Algorithms (EMA are designed and discussed for tackling the problem. The numerical results show the applicability of the proposed model and the capabilities of the solution approaches to the MINLP problem.

  16. a Numerical Investigation of the Jamming Transition in Traffic Flow on Diluted Planar Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achler, Gabriele; Barra, Adriano

    In order to develop a toy model for car's traffic in cities, in this paper we analyze, by means of numerical simulations, the transition among fluid regimes and a congested jammed phase of the flow of kinetically constrained hard spheres in planar random networks similar to urban roads. In order to explore as timescales as possible, at a microscopic level we implement an event driven dynamics as the infinite time limit of a class of already existing model (Follow the Leader) on an Erdos-Renyi two-dimensional graph, the crossroads being accounted by standard Kirchoff density conservations. We define a dynamical order parameter as the ratio among the moving spheres versus the total number and by varying two control parameters (density of the spheres and coordination number of the network) we study the phase transition. At a mesoscopic level it respects an, again suitable, adapted version of the Lighthill-Whitham model, which belongs to the fluid-dynamical approach to the problem. At a macroscopic level, the model seems to display a continuous transition from a fluid phase to a jammed phase when varying the density of the spheres (the amount of cars in a city-like scenario) and a discontinuous jump when varying the connectivity of the underlying network.

  17. Priority-Based Resource Allocation for Downlink OFDMA Systems Supporting RT and NRT Traffics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Hua; Dittmann, Lars

    2008-01-01

    Efficient radio resource management is essential in Quality-of-Service (QoS) provisioning for wireless communication networks. In this paper, we propose a novel priority-based packet scheduling algorithm for downlink OFDMA systems. The proposed algorithm is designed to support heterogeneous...... applications consisting of both real-time (RT) and non-real-time (NRT) traffics with the objective to increase the spectrum efficiency while satisfying diverse QoS requirements. It tightly couples the subchannel allocation and packet scheduling together through an integrated cross-layer approach in which each...... show that the proposed algorithm can significantly improve the system performance in terms of high spectral efficiency and low outage probability compared to conventional packet scheduling algorithms, thus is very suitable for the downlink of current OFDMA systems....

  18. Cooperative and Adaptive Network Coding for Gradient Based Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks with Multiple Sinks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Migabo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite its low computational cost, the Gradient Based Routing (GBR broadcast of interest messages in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs causes significant packets duplications and unnecessary packets transmissions. This results in energy wastage, traffic load imbalance, high network traffic, and low throughput. Thanks to the emergence of fast and powerful processors, the development of efficient network coding strategies is expected to enable efficient packets aggregations and reduce packets retransmissions. For multiple sinks WSNs, the challenge consists of efficiently selecting a suitable network coding scheme. This article proposes a Cooperative and Adaptive Network Coding for GBR (CoAdNC-GBR technique which considers the network density as dynamically defined by the average number of neighbouring nodes, to efficiently aggregate interest messages. The aggregation is performed by means of linear combinations of random coefficients of a finite Galois Field of variable size GF(2S at each node and the decoding is performed by means of Gaussian elimination. The obtained results reveal that, by exploiting the cooperation of the multiple sinks, the CoAdNC-GBR not only improves the transmission reliability of links and lowers the number of transmissions and the propagation latency, but also enhances the energy efficiency of the network when compared to the GBR-network coding (GBR-NC techniques.

  19. Characterizing contract-based multiagent resource allocation in networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Bo; Lesser, Victor

    2010-06-01

    We consider a multiagent resource allocation problem where individual users intend to route traffic by requesting the help of entities across a network, and a cost is incurred at each network node that depends on the amount of traffic to be routed. We propose to study contract-based network resource allocation. In our model, users and nodes in the network make contracts before nodes route traffic for the users. The problem is an interesting self-interested negotiation problem because it requires the complete assembly of a set of distinct resources, and there are multiple combinations of distinct resources that could satisfy the goal of negotiation. First, we characterize the network allocation problem and show that finding optimal allocations is NP-complete and is inapproximable. We take both Nash equilibrium and pairwise Nash equilibrium as the solution concepts to characterize the equilibrium allocations. We find that, for any resource allocation game, Nash equilibrium and pairwise Nash equilibrium always exist. In addition, socially optimal allocations are always supported by Nash equilibrium and pairwise Nash equilibrium. We introduce best-response dynamics in which each agent takes a myopic best-response strategy and interacts with each other to dynamically form contracts. We analyze the convergence of the dynamics in some special cases. We also experimentally study the convergence rate of the dynamics and how efficient the evolved allocation is as compared with the optimal allocation in a variety of environments.

  20. Multicasting based optical inverse multiplexing in elastic optical network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Bingli; Xu, Yingying; Zhu, Paikun; Zhong, Yucheng; Chen, Yuanxiang; Li, Juhao; Chen, Zhangyuan; He, Yongqi

    2014-06-16

    Optical multicasting based inverse multiplexing (IM) is introduced in spectrum allocation of elastic optical network to resolve the spectrum fragmentation problem, where superchannels could be split and fit into several discrete spectrum blocks in the intermediate node. We experimentally demonstrate it with a 1-to-7 optical superchannel multicasting module and selecting/coupling components. Also, simulation results show that, comparing with several emerging spectrum defragmentation solutions (e.g., spectrum conversion, split spectrum), IM could reduce blocking performance significantly but without adding too much system complexity as split spectrum. On the other hand, service fairness for traffic with different granularity of these schemes is investigated for the first time and it shows that IM performs better than spectrum conversion and almost as well as split spectrum, especially for smaller size traffic under light traffic intensity.

  1. Output power distributions of mobile radio base stations based on network measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colombi, D; Thors, B; Persson, T; Törnevik, C; Wirén, N; Larsson, L-E

    2013-01-01

    In this work output power distributions of mobile radio base stations have been analyzed for 2G and 3G telecommunication systems. The approach is based on measurements in selected networks using performance surveillance tools part of the network Operational Support System (OSS). For the 3G network considered, direct measurements of output power levels were possible, while for the 2G networks, output power levels were estimated from measurements of traffic volumes. Both voice and data services were included in the investigation. Measurements were conducted for large geographical areas, to ensure good overall statistics, as well as for smaller areas to investigate the impact of different environments. For high traffic hours, the 90th percentile of the averaged output power was found to be below 65% and 45% of the available output power for the 2G and 3G systems, respectively.

  2. Construction of road network vulnerability evaluation index based on general travel cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Jun-qiang; Zhai, Jing; Li, Qian-wen; Zhao, Lin

    2018-03-01

    With the development of China's economy and the continuous improvement of her urban road network, the vulnerability of the urban road network has attracted increasing attention. Based on general travel cost, this work constructs the vulnerability evaluation index for the urban road network, and evaluates the vulnerability of the urban road network from the perspective of user generalised travel cost. Firstly, the generalised travel cost model is constructed based on vehicle cost, travel time, and traveller comfort. Then, the network efficiency index is selected as an evaluation index of vulnerability: the network efficiency index is composed of the traffic volume and the generalised travel cost, which are obtained from the equilibrium state of the network. In addition, the research analyses the influence of traffic capacity decrease, road section attribute value, and location of road section, on vulnerability. Finally, the vulnerability index is used to analyse the local area network of Harbin and verify its applicability.

  3. A Study of Video Teleconferencing Traffic on a TCP/IP Network

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carvey, Harlan

    1997-01-01

    ... of traffic generated by a video teleconferencing application. This information is useful in formulating accurate models to support the various classes of traffic that will dominate the broadband ISDN (B-ISDN or ATM...

  4. Traffic data collection and anonymous vehicle detection using wireless sensor networks : research summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Problem: : Most Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) applications require distributed : acquisition of various traffic metrics such as traffic speed, volume, and density. : The existing measurement technologies, such as inductive loops, infrared, ...

  5. Ubiquitous Emergency Medical Service System Based on Wireless Biosensors, Traffic Information, and Wireless Communication Technologies: Development and Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan-Hsu Tan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a new ubiquitous emergency medical service system (UEMS that consists of a ubiquitous tele-diagnosis interface and a traffic guiding subsystem. The UEMS addresses unresolved issues of emergency medical services by managing the sensor wires for eliminating inconvenience for both patients and paramedics in an ambulance, providing ubiquitous accessibility of patients’ biosignals in remote areas where the ambulance cannot arrive directly, and offering availability of real-time traffic information which can make the ambulance reach the destination within the shortest time. In the proposed system, patient’s biosignals and real-time video, acquired by wireless biosensors and a webcam, can be simultaneously transmitted to an emergency room for pre-hospital treatment via WiMax/3.5 G networks. Performances of WiMax and 3.5 G, in terms of initialization time, data rate, and average end-to-end delay are evaluated and compared. A driver can choose the route of the shortest time among the suggested routes by Google Maps after inspecting the current traffic conditions based on real-time CCTV camera streams and traffic information. The destination address can be inputted vocally for easiness and safety in driving. A series of field test results validates the feasibility of the proposed system for application in real-life scenarios.

  6. Ubiquitous Emergency Medical Service System Based on Wireless Biosensors, Traffic Information, and Wireless Communication Technologies: Development and Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Tan-Hsu; Gochoo, Munkhjargal; Chen, Yung-Fu; Hu, Jin-Jia; Chiang, John Y; Chang, Ching-Su; Lee, Ming-Huei; Hsu, Yung-Nian; Hsu, Jiin-Chyr

    2017-01-21

    This study presents a new ubiquitous emergency medical service system (UEMS) that consists of a ubiquitous tele-diagnosis interface and a traffic guiding subsystem. The UEMS addresses unresolved issues of emergency medical services by managing the sensor wires for eliminating inconvenience for both patients and paramedics in an ambulance, providing ubiquitous accessibility of patients' biosignals in remote areas where the ambulance cannot arrive directly, and offering availability of real-time traffic information which can make the ambulance reach the destination within the shortest time. In the proposed system, patient's biosignals and real-time video, acquired by wireless biosensors and a webcam, can be simultaneously transmitted to an emergency room for pre-hospital treatment via WiMax/3.5 G networks. Performances of WiMax and 3.5 G, in terms of initialization time, data rate, and average end-to-end delay are evaluated and compared. A driver can choose the route of the shortest time among the suggested routes by Google Maps after inspecting the current traffic conditions based on real-time CCTV camera streams and traffic information. The destination address can be inputted vocally for easiness and safety in driving. A series of field test results validates the feasibility of the proposed system for application in real-life scenarios.

  7. Supporting Security against SYN Flooding Attack in Distributed DoS Via Measuring IPFIX-Based Traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alipour, H.; Kia, M. Kashefi; Esmaeili, M.

    Distributed denial-of-service attacks on public servers after 2000 have become a serious problem. In the distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) attacks often seen recently, multiple distributed nodes concurrently attack a single server. To assure that network services will not be interrupted, faster and more effective defense mechanisms is needed to protect against malicious traffic, especially SYN floods. One problem in detecting SYN flood traffic is that server nodes or firewalls cannot distinguish the SYN packets of normal TCP connections from those of a SYN flood attack. Our method, FDFIX, relies on the use of monitoring and measurement techniques to evaluate the impact of DoS attacks. It uses flow based measurements. Capturing flow information is very important for detecting DoS and also other kinds of attacks. Flow monitoring allows detecting suspicious traffics and in the next step can analyze attacking flows and the results can be used for defense methods. Our method provides required information for many mechanisms that use traffic measurement as their input.

  8. Dynamic aggregation of traffic flows in SDN Applied to backhaul networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kentis, Angelos Mimidis; Caba, Cosmin Marius; Soler, José

    2016-01-01

    A challenge in the adoption of the OpenFlow (OF)-based SDN paradigm is related to the limited number of OF rules supported by the network devices. The technology used to implement the OF rules is TCAM, which is expensive and power demanding. Due to this, the network devices are either very costly...

  9. Application of Artificial Neural Networks and Singular-Spectral Analysis in Forecasting the Daily Traffic in the Moscow Metro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Victor; Osetrov, Evgenii

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, we investigate the possibility of applying various approaches to solving the problem of medium-term forecasting of daily passenger traffic volumes in the Moscow metro (MM): 1) on the basis of artificial neural networks (ANN); 2) using the singular-spectral analysis implemented in the package "Caterpillar"-SSA; 3) sharing the ANN and the "Caterpillar"-SSA approach. We demonstrate that the developed methods and algorithms allow us to conduct medium-term forecasting of passenger traffic in the MM with reasonable accuracy.

  10. Multi-agent control of traffic networks : Algorithm and case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katwijk, R.T. van; Schutter, B. de; Hellendoorn, J.

    2009-01-01

    As more and more traffic control instruments are installed, the probability increases that conflicts will arise or that coordination opportunities are lost when various traffic control measures are applied in the same area. Traffic control instruments can thus no longer be considered separately, but

  11. Spoofing cyber attack detection in probe-based traffic monitoring systems using mixed integer linear programming

    KAUST Repository

    Canepa, Edward S.

    2013-09-01

    Traffic sensing systems rely more and more on user generated (insecure) data, which can pose a security risk whenever the data is used for traffic flow control. In this article, we propose a new formulation for detecting malicious data injection in traffic flow monitoring systems by using the underlying traffic flow model. The state of traffic is modeled by the Lighthill- Whitham-Richards traffic flow model, which is a first order scalar conservation law with concave flux function. Given a set of traffic flow data generated by multiple sensors of different types, we show that the constraints resulting from this partial differential equation are mixed integer linear inequalities for a specific decision variable. We use this fact to pose the problem of detecting spoofing cyber attacks in probe-based traffic flow information systems as mixed integer linear feasibility problem. The resulting framework can be used to detect spoofing attacks in real time, or to evaluate the worst-case effects of an attack offliine. A numerical implementation is performed on a cyber attack scenario involving experimental data from the Mobile Century experiment and the Mobile Millennium system currently operational in Northern California. © American Institute of Mathematical Sciences.

  12. Spoofing cyber attack detection in probe-based traffic monitoring systems using mixed integer linear programming

    KAUST Repository

    Canepa, Edward S.

    2013-01-01

    Traffic sensing systems rely more and more on user generated (insecure) data, which can pose a security risk whenever the data is used for traffic flow control. In this article, we propose a new formulation for detecting malicious data injection in traffic flow monitoring systems by using the underlying traffic flow model. The state of traffic is modeled by the Lighthill-Whitham- Richards traffic flow model, which is a first order scalar conservation law with concave flux function. Given a set of traffic flow data, we show that the constraints resulting from this partial differential equation are mixed integer linear inequalities for some decision variable. We use this fact to pose the problem of detecting spoofing cyber-attacks in probe-based traffic flow information systems as mixed integer linear feasibility problem. The resulting framework can be used to detect spoofing attacks in real time, or to evaluate the worst-case effects of an attack offline. A numerical implementation is performed on a cyber-attack scenario involving experimental data from the Mobile Century experiment and the Mobile Millennium system currently operational in Northern California. © 2013 IEEE.

  13. RAIL TRAFFIC VOLUME ESTIMATION BASED ON WORLD DEVELOPMENT INDICATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luka Lazarević

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available European transport policy, defined in the White Paper, supports shift from road to rail and waterborne transport. The hypothesis of the paper is that changes in the economic environment influence rail traffic volume. Therefore, a model for prediction of rail traffic volume applied in different economic contexts could be a valuable tool for the transport planners. The model was built using common Machine Learning techniques that learn from the past experience. In the model preparation, world development indicators defined by the World Bank were used as input parameters.

  14. CROSS LAYERED HYBRID TRANSPORT LAYER PROTOCOL APPROACH TO ENHANCE NETWORK UTILISATION FOR VIDEO TRAFFIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matilda.S

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Video data transfer is the major traffic in today’s Internet. With the emerging need for anytime anywhere communication, applications transmitting video is gaining momentum. Real Time Protocol is the primary standard for transfer of video data, as; it requires timely delivery and can tolerate loss of packets. Streaming is the method used for delivering video content from the source server to the user. But this has many drawbacks: a It sends only the amount of data equivalent to the streaming encoded rate to the client irrespective of the available bandwidth in the path. Hence the links are underutilized; b It utilizes the link for the entire period of transfer and hence the link is not available to service other new clients. Thus as the number of clients increases, the network performance decreases. In this work, the advantages and disadvantages of the combination of different protocols in the application layer and transport layer are analyzed. The significant characteristics of each of these protocols are utilized and a combination of protocols for improving the network performance is arrived at, while retaining the QoS of video transmission.

  15. Sinc-function based Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Per Printz

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe a neural network (SNN), that is based on Shannons ideas of reconstruction of a real continuous function from its samples. The basic function, used in this network, is the Sinc-function. Two learning algorithms are described. A simple one called IM-learning......The purpose of this paper is to describe a neural network (SNN), that is based on Shannons ideas of reconstruction of a real continuous function from its samples. The basic function, used in this network, is the Sinc-function. Two learning algorithms are described. A simple one called IM...

  16. A Multicast Sparse-Grooming Algorithm Based on Network Coding in WDM Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shengfeng; Peng, Han; Sui, Meng; Liu, Huanlin

    2015-03-01

    To improve the limited number of wavelength utilization and decrease the traffic blocking probability in sparse-grooming wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) networks, a multicast sparse-grooming algorithm based on network coding (MCSA-NC) is put forward to solve the routing problem for dynamic multicast requests in this paper. In the proposed algorithm, a traffic partition strategy, that the coarse-granularity multicast request with grooming capability on the source node is split into several fine-granularity multicast requests, is designed so as to increase the probability for traffic grooming successfully in MCSA-NC. Besides considering that multiple destinations should receive the data from source of the multicast request at the same time, the traditional transmission mechanism is improved by constructing edge-disjoint paths for each split multicast request. Moreover, in order to reduce the number of wavelengths required and further decrease the traffic blocking probability, a light-tree reconfiguration mechanism is presented in the MCSA-NC, which can select a minimal cost light tree from the established edge-disjoint paths for a new multicast request.

  17. Cloud networking understanding cloud-based data center networks

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Gary

    2014-01-01

    Cloud Networking: Understanding Cloud-Based Data Center Networks explains the evolution of established networking technologies into distributed, cloud-based networks. Starting with an overview of cloud technologies, the book explains how cloud data center networks leverage distributed systems for network virtualization, storage networking, and software-defined networking. The author offers insider perspective to key components that make a cloud network possible such as switch fabric technology and data center networking standards. The final chapters look ahead to developments in architectures

  18. Application of Real-Time Automated Traffic Incident Response Plan Management System: A Web Structure for the Regional Highway Network in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongfeng Ma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic incidents, caused by various factors, may lead to heavy traffic delay and be harmful to traffic capacity of downstream sections. Traffic incident management (TIM systems have been developed widely to respond to traffic incidents intelligently and reduce the losses. Traffic incident response plans, as an important component of TIM, can effectively guide responders as to what and how to do in traffic incidents. In the paper, a real-time automated traffic incident response plan management system was developed, which could generate and manage traffic incident response plans timely and automatically. A web application structure and a physical structure were designed to implement and show these functions. A standard framework of data storage was also developed to save information about traffic incidents and generated response plans. Furthermore, a conformation survey and case-based reasoning (CBR were introduced to identify traffic incident and generate traffic incident response plans automatically, respectively. Twenty-three traffic crash-related incidents were selected and three indicators were used to measure the system performance. Results showed that 20 of 23 cases could be retrieved effectively and accurately. The system is practicable to generate traffic incident response plans and has been implemented in China.

  19. Feasibility of a Networked Air Traffic Infrastructure Validation Environment for Advanced NextGen Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, Michael J.; Gibson, Alec K.; Dennis, Noah E.; Underwood, Matthew C.; Miller,Lana B.; Ballin, Mark G.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract-Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) applications reliant upon aircraft data links such as Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) offer a sweeping modernization of the National Airspace System (NAS), but the aviation stakeholder community has not yet established a positive business case for equipage and message content standards remain in flux. It is necessary to transition promising Air Traffic Management (ATM) Concepts of Operations (ConOps) from simulation environments to full-scale flight tests in order to validate user benefits and solidify message standards. However, flight tests are prohibitively expensive and message standards for Commercial-off-the-Shelf (COTS) systems cannot support many advanced ConOps. It is therefore proposed to simulate future aircraft surveillance and communications equipage and employ an existing commercial data link to exchange data during dedicated flight tests. This capability, referred to as the Networked Air Traffic Infrastructure Validation Environment (NATIVE), would emulate aircraft data links such as ADS-B using in-flight Internet and easily-installed test equipment. By utilizing low-cost equipment that is easy to install and certify for testing, advanced ATM ConOps can be validated, message content standards can be solidified, and new standards can be established through full-scale flight trials without necessary or expensive equipage or extensive flight test preparation. This paper presents results of a feasibility study of the NATIVE concept. To determine requirements, six NATIVE design configurations were developed for two NASA ConOps that rely on ADS-B. The performance characteristics of three existing in-flight Internet services were investigated to determine whether performance is adequate to support the concept. Next, a study of requisite hardware and software was conducted to examine whether and how the NATIVE concept might be realized. Finally, to determine a business case

  20. Intelligent vehicle based traffic monitoring – exploring application in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Labuschagne, FJJ

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper details the anticipated benefits of an intelligent vehicle based traffic monitoring approach holds. The approach utilises advanced technology with the potential to reduce crashes and includes the monitor of vehicle speeds and flows...

  1. Quality of Service Model on Data Link Layer for Mission Critical Traffic on IEEE 802.11g Networks in Infrastructure Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald B. Fuenmayor-Rivadeneira

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a synthesized review as state of the art of the study of QoS for mission-critical traffic in wireless local area networks that use the IEEE 802.11g protocol. This is to highlight previous research for their contribution will constitute a reference to guide a proposed new approach to ensuring the quality of service for this type of traffic using the above protocol. The review is based on academic and business items made during the current five years. As a result of this review it is evident that there have been many efforts to address the issue but there are still gaps in the characterization of mission-critical traffic and ensuring quality of service for the same, due the new applications and the large host of WiFi networks in business and government, which has led to increased demand for access channels and, therefore, a challenge to the progress already known, such as IEEE 802.1q.

  2. Adaptive Automation Based on Air Traffic Controller Decision-Making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    IJtsma (Student TU Delft), Martijn; Borst, C.; Mercado Velasco, G.A.; Mulder, M.; van Paassen, M.M.; Tsang, P.S.; Vidulich, M.A.

    2017-01-01

    Through smart scheduling and triggering of automation support, adaptive automation has the potential to balance air traffic controller workload. The challenge in the design of adaptive automation systems is to decide how and when the automation should provide support. This paper describes the design

  3. Intelligent Control in Automation Based on Wireless Traffic Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurt Derr; Milos Manic

    2007-08-01

    Wireless technology is a central component of many factory automation infrastructures in both the commercial and government sectors, providing connectivity among various components in industrial realms (distributed sensors, machines, mobile process controllers). However wireless technologies provide more threats to computer security than wired environments. The advantageous features of Bluetooth technology resulted in Bluetooth units shipments climbing to five million per week at the end of 2005 [1, 2]. This is why the real-time interpretation and understanding of Bluetooth traffic behavior is critical in both maintaining the integrity of computer systems and increasing the efficient use of this technology in control type applications. Although neuro-fuzzy approaches have been applied to wireless 802.11 behavior analysis in the past, a significantly different Bluetooth protocol framework has not been extensively explored using this technology. This paper presents a new neurofuzzy traffic analysis algorithm of this still new territory of Bluetooth traffic. Further enhancements of this algorithm are presented along with the comparison against the traditional, numerical approach. Through test examples, interesting Bluetooth traffic behavior characteristics were captured, and the comparative elegance of this computationally inexpensive approach was demonstrated. This analysis can be used to provide directions for future development and use of this prevailing technology in various control type applications, as well as making the use of it more secure.

  4. Intelligent Control in Automation Based on Wireless Traffic Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurt Derr; Milos Manic

    2007-09-01

    Wireless technology is a central component of many factory automation infrastructures in both the commercial and government sectors, providing connectivity among various components in industrial realms (distributed sensors, machines, mobile process controllers). However wireless technologies provide more threats to computer security than wired environments. The advantageous features of Bluetooth technology resulted in Bluetooth units shipments climbing to five million per week at the end of 2005 [1, 2]. This is why the real-time interpretation and understanding of Bluetooth traffic behavior is critical in both maintaining the integrity of computer systems and increasing the efficient use of this technology in control type applications. Although neuro-fuzzy approaches have been applied to wireless 802.11 behavior analysis in the past, a significantly different Bluetooth protocol framework has not been extensively explored using this technology. This paper presents a new neurofuzzy traffic analysis algorithm of this still new territory of Bluetooth traffic. Further enhancements of this algorithm are presented along with the comparison against the traditional, numerical approach. Through test examples, interesting Bluetooth traffic behavior characteristics were captured, and the comparative elegance of this computationally inexpensive approach was demonstrated. This analysis can be used to provide directions for future development and use of this prevailing technology in various control type applications, as well as making the use of it more secure.

  5. Improved Road-Network-Flow Control Strategy Based on Macroscopic Fundamental Diagrams and Queuing Length in Connected-Vehicle Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohui Lin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Connected-vehicles network provides opportunities and conditions for improving traffic signal control, and macroscopic fundamental diagrams (MFD can control the road network at the macrolevel effectively. This paper integrated proposed real-time access to the number of mobile vehicles and the maximum road queuing length in the Connected-vehicles network. Moreover, when implementing a simple control strategy to limit the boundary flow of a road network based on MFD, we determined whether the maximum queuing length of each boundary section exceeds the road-safety queuing length in real-time calculations and timely adjusted the road-network influx rate to avoid the overflow phenomenon in the boundary section. We established a road-network microtraffic simulation model in VISSIM software taking a district as the experimental area, determined MFD of the region based on the number of mobile vehicles, and weighted traffic volume of the road network. When the road network was tending to saturate, we implemented a simple control strategy and our algorithm limits the boundary flow. Finally, we compared the traffic signal control indicators with three strategies: (1 no control strategy, (2 boundary control, and (3 boundary control with limiting queue strategy. The results show that our proposed algorithm is better than the other two.

  6. Efficient graph-based dynamic load-balancing for parallel large-scale agent-based traffic simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, Y.; Cai, W.; Aydt, H.; Lees, M.; Tolk, A.; Diallo, S.Y.; Ryzhov, I.O.; Yilmaz, L.; Buckley, S.; Miller, J.A.

    2014-01-01

    One of the issues of parallelizing large-scale agent-based traffic simulations is partitioning and load-balancing. Traffic simulations are dynamic applications where the distribution of workload in the spatial domain constantly changes. Dynamic load-balancing at run-time has shown better efficiency

  7. Energy efficiency analysis for flexible-grid OFDM-based optical networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vizcaíno, Jorge López; Ye, Yabin; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso

    2012-01-01

    As the Internet traffic grows, the energy efficiency gains more attention as a design factor for the planning and operation of telecommunication networks. This paper is devoted to the study of energy efficiency in optical transport networks, comparing the performance of an innovative flexible......-aware heuristic algorithms are proposed for the resource allocation both in static (offline) and dynamic (online) scenarios with time-varying demands for the Elastic-bandwidth OFDM-based network and the WDM networks (with SLR and MLR). The energy efficiency performance of the two network technologies under...... different traffic load conditions have been demonstrated for different network sizes through simulations based on the proposed algorithms. The results in energy efficiency and network blocking highlight the benefits of the bandwidth elasticity and the flexibility of selecting different modulation formats...

  8. A Novel Multisensor Traffic State Assessment System Based on Incomplete Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiliang Zeng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel multisensor system with incomplete data is presented for traffic state assessment. The system comprises probe vehicle detection sensors, fixed detection sensors, and traffic state assessment algorithm. First of all, the validity checking of the traffic flow data is taken as preprocessing of this method. And then a new method based on the history data information is proposed to fuse and recover the incomplete data. According to the characteristics of space complementary of data based on the probe vehicle detector and fixed detector, a fusion model of space matching is presented to estimate the mean travel speed of the road. Finally, the traffic flow data include flow, speed and, occupancy rate, which are detected between Beijing Deshengmen bridge and Drum Tower bridge, are fused to assess the traffic state of the road by using the fusion decision model of rough sets and cloud. The accuracy of experiment result can reach more than 98%, and the result is in accordance with the actual road traffic state. This system is effective to assess traffic state, and it is suitable for the urban intelligent transportation system.

  9. A novel multisensor traffic state assessment system based on incomplete data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yiliang; Lan, Jinhui; Ran, Bin; Jiang, Yaoliang

    2014-01-01

    A novel multisensor system with incomplete data is presented for traffic state assessment. The system comprises probe vehicle detection sensors, fixed detection sensors, and traffic state assessment algorithm. First of all, the validity checking of the traffic flow data is taken as preprocessing of this method. And then a new method based on the history data information is proposed to fuse and recover the incomplete data. According to the characteristics of space complementary of data based on the probe vehicle detector and fixed detector, a fusion model of space matching is presented to estimate the mean travel speed of the road. Finally, the traffic flow data include flow, speed and, occupancy rate, which are detected between Beijing Deshengmen bridge and Drum Tower bridge, are fused to assess the traffic state of the road by using the fusion decision model of rough sets and cloud. The accuracy of experiment result can reach more than 98%, and the result is in accordance with the actual road traffic state. This system is effective to assess traffic state, and it is suitable for the urban intelligent transportation system.

  10. Density-Based Statistical Clustering: Enabling Sidefire Ultrasonic Traffic Sensing in Smart Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volker Lücken

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic routing is a central challenge in the context of urban areas, with a direct impact on personal mobility, traffic congestion, and air pollution. In the last decade, the possibilities for traffic flow control have improved together with the corresponding management systems. However, the lack of real-time traffic flow information with a city-wide coverage is a major limiting factor for an optimum operation. Smart City concepts seek to tackle these challenges in the future by combining sensing, communications, distributed information, and actuation. This paper presents an integrated approach that combines smart street lamps with traffic sensing technology. More specifically, infrastructure-based ultrasonic sensors, which are deployed together with a street light system, are used for multilane traffic participant detection and classification. Application of these sensors in time-varying reflective environments posed an unresolved problem for many ultrasonic sensing solutions in the past and therefore widely limited the dissemination of this technology. We present a solution using an algorithmic approach that combines statistical standardization with clustering techniques from the field of unsupervised learning. By using a multilevel communication concept, centralized and decentralized traffic information fusion is possible. The evaluation is based on results from automotive test track measurements and several European real-world installations.

  11. A new smart traffic monitoring method using embedded cement-based piezoelectric sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Jinrui; Lu, Youyuan; Lu, Zeyu; Liu, Chao; Sun, Guoxing; Li, Zongjin

    2015-01-01

    Cement-based piezoelectric composites are employed as the sensing elements of a new smart traffic monitoring system. The piezoelectricity of the cement-based piezoelectric sensors enables powerful and accurate real-time detection of the pressure induced by the traffic flow. To describe the mechanical-electrical conversion mechanism between traffic flow and the electrical output of the embedded piezoelectric sensors, a mathematical model is established based on Duhamel’s integral, the constitutive law and the charge-leakage characteristics of the piezoelectric composite. Laboratory tests show that the voltage magnitude of the sensor is linearly proportional to the applied pressure, which ensures the reliability of the cement-based piezoelectric sensors for traffic monitoring. A series of on-site road tests by a 10 tonne truck and a 6.8 tonne van show that vehicle weight-in-motion can be predicted based on the mechanical-electrical model by taking into account the vehicle speed and the charge-leakage property of the piezoelectric sensor. In the speed range from 20 km h −1 to 70 km h −1 , the error of the repeated weigh-in-motion measurements of the 6.8 tonne van is less than 1 tonne. The results indicate that the embedded cement-based piezoelectric sensors and associated measurement setup have good capability of smart traffic monitoring, such as traffic flow detection, vehicle speed detection and weigh-in-motion measurement. (paper)

  12. GENETIC ALGORITHM BASED CONCEPT DESIGN TO OPTIMIZE NETWORK LOAD BALANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Jain

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Multiconstraints optimal network load balancing is an NP-hard problem and it is an important part of traffic engineering. In this research we balance the network load using classical method (brute force approach and dynamic programming is used but result shows the limitation of this method but at a certain level we recognized that the optimization of balanced network load with increased number of nodes and demands is intractable using the classical method because the solution set increases exponentially. In such case the optimization techniques like evolutionary techniques can employ for optimizing network load balance. In this paper we analyzed proposed classical algorithm and evolutionary based genetic approach is devise as well as proposed in this paper for optimizing the balance network load.

  13. Temporal-Spatial Analysis of Traffic Congestion Based on Modified CTM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenglong Chu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A modified cell transmission model (CTM is proposed to depict the temporal-spatial evolution of traffic congestion on urban freeways. Specifically, drivers’ adaptive behaviors and the corresponding influence on traffic flows are emphasized. Two piecewise linear regression models are proposed to describe the relationship of flow and density (occupancy. Several types of cellular connections are designed to depict urban rapid roads with on/off-ramps and junctions. Based on the data collected on freeway of Queen Elizabeth, Ontario, Canada, we show that the new model provides a relatively higher accuracy of temporal-spatial evolution of traffic congestions.

  14. Knowledge-based driver assistance systems traffic situation description and situation feature relevance

    CERN Document Server

    Huelsen, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The comprehension of a traffic situation plays a major role in driving a vehicle. Interpretable information forms a basis for future projection, decision making and action performing, such as navigating, maneuvering and driving control. Michael Huelsen provides an ontology-based generic traffic situation description capable of supplying various advanced driver assistance systems with relevant information about the current traffic situation of a vehicle and its environment. These systems are enabled to perform reasonable actions and approach visionary goals such as injury and accident free driv

  15. Actual situation analyses of rat-run traffic on community streets based on car probe data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakuragi, Yuki; Matsuo, Kojiro; Sugiki, Nao

    2017-10-01

    Lowering of so-called "rat-run" traffic on community streets has been one of significant challenges for improving the living environment of neighborhood. However, it has been difficult to quantitatively grasp the actual situation of rat-run traffic by the traditional surveys such as point observations. This study aims to develop a method for extracting rat-run traffic based on car probe data. In addition, based on the extracted rat-run traffic in Toyohashi city, Japan, we try to analyze the actual situation such as time and location distribution of the rat-run traffic. As a result, in Toyohashi city, the rate of using rat-run route increases in peak time period. Focusing on the location distribution of rat-run traffic, in addition, they pass through a variety of community streets. There is no great inter-district bias of the route frequently used as rat-run traffic. Next, we focused on some trips passing through a heavily used route as rat-run traffic. As a result, we found the possibility that they habitually use the route as rat-run because their trips had some commonalities. We also found that they tend to use the rat-run route due to shorter distance than using the alternative highway route, and that the travel speeds were faster than using the alternative highway route. In conclusions, we confirmed that the proposed method can quantitatively grasp the actual situation and the phenomenal tendencies of the rat-run traffic.

  16. Drawing for Traffic Marking Using Bidirectional Gradient-Based Detection with MMS LIDAR Intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, G.; Takeda, H.; Nakamura, K.

    2016-06-01

    Recently, the development of autonomous cars is accelerating on the integration of highly advanced artificial intelligence, which increases demand for a digital map with high accuracy. In particular, traffic markings are required to be precisely digitized since automatic driving utilizes them for position detection. To draw traffic markings, we benefit from Mobile Mapping Systems (MMS) equipped with high-density Laser imaging Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) scanners, which produces large amount of data efficiently with XYZ coordination along with reflectance intensity. Digitizing this data, on the other hand, conventionally has been dependent on human operation, which thus suffers from human errors, subjectivity errors, and low reproductivity. We have tackled this problem by means of automatic extraction of traffic marking, which partially accomplished to draw several traffic markings (G. Takahashi et al., 2014). The key idea of the method was extracting lines using the Hough transform strategically focused on changes in local reflection intensity along scan lines. However, it failed to extract traffic markings properly in a densely marked area, especially when local changing points are close each other. In this paper, we propose a bidirectional gradient-based detection method where local changing points are labelled with plus or minus group. Given that each label corresponds to the boundary between traffic markings and background, we can identify traffic markings explicitly, meaning traffic lines are differentiated correctly by the proposed method. As such, our automated method, a highly accurate and non-human-operator-dependent method using bidirectional gradient-based algorithm, can successfully extract traffic lines composed of complex shapes such as a cross walk, resulting in minimizing cost and obtaining highly accurate results.

  17. DRAWING FOR TRAFFIC MARKING USING BIDIRECTIONAL GRADIENT-BASED DETECTION WITH MMS LIDAR INTENSITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Takahashi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the development of autonomous cars is accelerating on the integration of highly advanced artificial intelligence, which increases demand for a digital map with high accuracy. In particular, traffic markings are required to be precisely digitized since automatic driving utilizes them for position detection. To draw traffic markings, we benefit from Mobile Mapping Systems (MMS equipped with high-density Laser imaging Detection and Ranging (LiDAR scanners, which produces large amount of data efficiently with XYZ coordination along with reflectance intensity. Digitizing this data, on the other hand, conventionally has been dependent on human operation, which thus suffers from human errors, subjectivity errors, and low reproductivity. We have tackled this problem by means of automatic extraction of traffic marking, which partially accomplished to draw several traffic markings (G. Takahashi et al., 2014. The key idea of the method was extracting lines using the Hough transform strategically focused on changes in local reflection intensity along scan lines. However, it failed to extract traffic markings properly in a densely marked area, especially when local changing points are close each other. In this paper, we propose a bidirectional gradient-based detection method where local changing points are labelled with plus or minus group. Given that each label corresponds to the boundary between traffic markings and background, we can identify traffic markings explicitly, meaning traffic lines are differentiated correctly by the proposed method. As such, our automated method, a highly accurate and non-human-operator-dependent method using bidirectional gradient-based algorithm, can successfully extract traffic lines composed of complex shapes such as a cross walk, resulting in minimizing cost and obtaining highly accurate results.

  18. A TDMA based media access control protocol for wireless ad hoc networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qi; Tang, Biyu

    2013-03-01

    This paper presents a novel Time Division Multiplex Access (TDMA) based Media Access Control (MAC) protocol of wireless Ad Hoc network. To achieve collision free transmission, time slots in a MAC frame are cataloged into three types, that is access slot, control slot and traffic slot. Nodes in the network access to the network in the access slot, and an exclusive control is allocated subsequently. Data packets are transmission by dynamic schedule the traffic slots. Throughput and transmission delay are also analyzed by simulation experiment. The proposed protocol is capable of providing collision free transmission and achieves high throughput.

  19. Energy Efficient Wireless Sensor Network Modelling Based on Complex Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao, Lin; Wu, Fahui; Yang, Dingcheng; Zhang, Tiankui; Zhu, Xiaoya

    2016-01-01

    The power consumption and energy efficiency of wireless sensor network are the significant problems in Internet of Things network. In this paper, we consider the network topology optimization based on complex network theory to solve the energy efficiency problem of WSN. We propose the energy efficient model of WSN according to the basic principle of small world from complex networks. Small world network has clustering features that are similar to that of the rules of the network but also has ...

  20. Flexible Tube-Based Network Control, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Innovation Laboratory, Inc. builds a control system which controls the topology of an air traffic flow network and the network flow properties which enables Air...

  1. Traffic Multiresolution Modeling and Consistency Analysis of Urban Expressway Based on Asynchronous Integration Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liyan Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper studies multiresolution traffic flow simulation model of urban expressway. Firstly, compared with two-level hybrid model, three-level multiresolution hybrid model has been chosen. Then, multiresolution simulation framework and integration strategies are introduced. Thirdly, the paper proposes an urban expressway multiresolution traffic simulation model by asynchronous integration strategy based on Set Theory, which includes three submodels: macromodel, mesomodel, and micromodel. After that, the applicable conditions and derivation process of the three submodels are discussed in detail. In addition, in order to simulate and evaluate the multiresolution model, “simple simulation scenario” of North-South Elevated Expressway in Shanghai has been established. The simulation results showed the following. (1 Volume-density relationships of three submodels are unanimous with detector data. (2 When traffic density is high, macromodel has a high precision and smaller error and the dispersion of results is smaller. Compared with macromodel, simulation accuracies of micromodel and mesomodel are lower but errors are bigger. (3 Multiresolution model can simulate characteristics of traffic flow, capture traffic wave, and keep the consistency of traffic state transition. Finally, the results showed that the novel multiresolution model can have higher simulation accuracy and it is feasible and effective in the real traffic simulation scenario.

  2. A Multi-Agent Traffic Control Model Based on Distributed System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian WU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available With the development of urbanization construction, urban travel has become a quite thorny and imminent problem. Some previous researches on the large urban traffic systems easily change into NPC problems. We purpose a multi-agent inductive control model based on the distributed approach. To describe the real traffic scene, this model designs four different types of intelligent agents, i.e. we regard each lane, route, intersection and traffic region as different types of intelligent agents. Each agent can achieve the real-time traffic data from its neighbor agents, and decision-making agents establish real-time traffic signal plans through the communication between local agents and their neighbor agents. To evaluate the traffic system, this paper takes the average delay, the stopped time and the average speed as performance parameters. Finally, the distributed multi-agent is simulated on the VISSIM simulation platform, the simulation results show that the multi-agent system is more effective than the adaptive control system in solving the traffic congestion.

  3. Real-time traffic sign recognition based on a general purpose GPU and deep-learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Kwangyong; Hong, Yongwon; Choi, Yeongwoo; Byun, Hyeran

    2017-01-01

    We present a General Purpose Graphics Processing Unit (GPGPU) based real-time traffic sign detection and recognition method that is robust against illumination changes. There have been many approaches to traffic sign recognition in various research fields; however, previous approaches faced several limitations when under low illumination or wide variance of light conditions. To overcome these drawbacks and improve processing speeds, we propose a method that 1) is robust against illumination changes, 2) uses GPGPU-based real-time traffic sign detection, and 3) performs region detecting and recognition using a hierarchical model. This method produces stable results in low illumination environments. Both detection and hierarchical recognition are performed in real-time, and the proposed method achieves 0.97 F1-score on our collective dataset, which uses the Vienna convention traffic rules (Germany and South Korea).

  4. Two-hybrid-based systems: powerful tools for investigation of membrane traffic machineries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stasi, Mariangela; De Luca, Maria; Bucci, Cecilia

    2015-05-20

    Protein-protein interactions regulate biological processes and are fundamental for cell functions. Recently, efforts have been made to define interactomes, which are maps of protein-protein interactions that are useful for understanding biological pathways and networks and for investigating how perturbations of these networks lead to diseases. Therefore, interactomes are becoming fundamental for establishing the molecular basis of human diseases and contributing to the discovery of effective therapies. Interactomes are constructed based on experimental data present in the literature and computational predictions of interactions. Several biochemical, genetic and biotechnological techniques have been used in the past to identify protein-protein interactions. The yeast two-hybrid system has beyond doubt represented a revolution in the field, being a versatile tool and allowing the immediate identification of the interacting proteins and isolation of the cDNA coding for the interacting peptide after in vivo screening. Recently, variants of the yeast two-hybrid assay have been developed, including high-throughput systems that promote the rapidly growing field of proteomics. In this review we will focus on the role of this technique in the discovery of Rab interacting proteins, highlighting the importance of high-throughput two-hybrid screening as a tool to study the complexity of membrane traffic machineries. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Crash Prediction and Risk Evaluation Based on Traffic Analysis Zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuiping Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic safety evaluation for traffic analysis zones (TAZs plays an important role in transportation safety planning and long-range transportation plan development. This paper aims to present a comprehensive analysis of zonal safety evaluation. First, several criteria are proposed to measure the crash risk at zonal level. Then these criteria are integrated into one measure-average hazard index (AHI, which is used to identify unsafe zones. In addition, the study develops a negative binomial regression model to statistically estimate significant factors for the unsafe zones. The model results indicate that the zonal crash frequency can be associated with several social-economic, demographic, and transportation system factors. The impact of these significant factors on zonal crash is also discussed. The finding of this study suggests that safety evaluation and estimation might benefit engineers and decision makers in identifying high crash locations for potential safety improvements.

  6. Structuration of the overall volume of transport operations at handling of the inbound waggon traffic of metallurgical enterprise with one railway siding connecting to the external network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ганна Вікторовна Маслак

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the operation analysis of a metallurgical enterprise transport system with one railway siding connected to the external network. Three functional modules were determined: transport complex for incoming wagon traffic processing, transport-and-handling complex for raw materials unloading, transport-and-handling complex for finished products shipment. For each of the complexes basic functions were determined: the first module distributes empty and loaded waggons between the freight railway stations within the enterprise; the second module provides timely supply of production shops with required volumes of raw materials; the third module enables timely supply of production shops with railway rolling stock for finished products shipment. Structuration of overall volume of transport operations has been conducted for each of the complexes within the transport system of the metallurgical enterprise, basic technological operations have been determined, and causes for time waste have been found out. Overall volume of transport operations per day has been determined, it comprising planned transport operations and extra transport operations as well. As a result of the research it has been determined, that maximum volume of extra transport operations occur at the transport complex for incoming wagon traffic processing. Its operation is based on time norms which not always fit the dynamics of external network operation, as well as production shops operation. Furthermore, this module is a connecting link making the dynamics of external waggon traffic, the internal dynamics of the enterprise, and the dynamics of production shops compatible. As a consequence, considerable extra time waste occurs when waggon traffic goes through this module

  7. POLLING AND DUAL-LEVEL TRAFFIC ANALYSIS FOR IMPROVED DOS DETECTION IN IEEE 802.21 NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nygil Alex Vadakkan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The IEEE 802.21 standard was developed for communication of devices in a heterogeneous environment which included greater support for handoffs. This paper focuses on the denial of service (DoS vulnerabilities faced by such Media Independent Handover (MIH networks & various effective countermeasures that can be deployed to prevent their impact on such heterogeneous networks. The use of polling mechanism coupled with real time as well as offline traffic analysis can keep a good number of attacks at bay. The use of offline traffic analysis is to use the model and compare it with a lighter model and see if any of the excluded features in the lighter model have had suspicious variations which could be a varied form of DoS attack or an attack that is completely new. The countermeasures that have been developed also allows for the increase in efficiency of data transfer as well as higher rates of success in handoffs.

  8. A novel downlink scheduling strategy for traffic communication system based on TD-LTE technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ting; Zhao, Xiangmo; Gao, Tao; Zhang, Licheng

    2016-01-01

    There are many existing classical scheduling algorithms which can obtain better system throughput and user equality, however, they are not designed for traffic transportation environment, which cannot consider whether the transmission performance of various information flows could meet comprehensive requirements of traffic safety and delay tolerance. This paper proposes a novel downlink scheduling strategy for traffic communication system based on TD-LTE technology, which can perform two classification mappings for various information flows in the eNodeB: firstly, associate every information flow packet with traffic safety importance weight according to its relevance to the traffic safety; secondly, associate every traffic information flow with service type importance weight according to its quality of service (QoS) requirements. Once the connection is established, at every scheduling moment, scheduler would decide the scheduling order of all buffers' head of line packets periodically according to the instant value of scheduling importance weight function, which calculated by the proposed algorithm. From different scenario simulations, it can be verified that the proposed algorithm can provide superior differentiated transmission service and reliable QoS guarantee to information flows with different traffic safety levels and service types, which is more suitable for traffic transportation environment compared with the existing popularity PF algorithm. With the limited wireless resource, information flow closed related to traffic safety will always obtain priority scheduling right timely, which can help the passengers' journey more safe. Moreover, the proposed algorithm cannot only obtain good flow throughput and user fairness which are almost equal to those of the PF algorithm without significant differences, but also provide better realtime transmission guarantee to realtime information flow.

  9. A Visual Analytics Approach for Extracting Spatio-Temporal Urban Mobility Information from Mobile Network Traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Euro Beinat

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a visual analytics approach for deriving spatio-temporal patterns of collective human mobility from a vast mobile network traffic data set. More than 88 million movements between pairs of radio cells—so-called handovers—served as a proxy for more than two months of mobility within four urban test areas in Northern Italy. In contrast to previous work, our approach relies entirely on visualization and mapping techniques, implemented in several software applications. We purposefully avoid statistical or probabilistic modeling and, nonetheless, reveal characteristic and exceptional mobility patterns. The results show, for example, surprising similarities and symmetries amongst the total mobility and people flows between the test areas. Moreover, the exceptional patterns detected can be associated to real-world events such as soccer matches. We conclude that the visual analytics approach presented can shed new light on large-scale collective urban mobility behavior and thus helps to better understand the “pulse” of dynamic urban systems.

  10. Restoration of motion-blurred image based on border deformation detection: a traffic sign restoration model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiliang Zeng

    Full Text Available Due to the rapid development of motor vehicle Driver Assistance Systems (DAS, the safety problems associated with automatic driving have become a hot issue in Intelligent Transportation. The traffic sign is one of the most important tools used to reinforce traffic rules. However, traffic sign image degradation based on computer vision is unavoidable during the vehicle movement process. In order to quickly and accurately recognize traffic signs in motion-blurred images in DAS, a new image restoration algorithm based on border deformation detection in the spatial domain is proposed in this paper. The border of a traffic sign is extracted using color information, and then the width of the border is measured in all directions. According to the width measured and the corresponding direction, both the motion direction and scale of the image can be confirmed, and this information can be used to restore the motion-blurred image. Finally, a gray mean grads (GMG ratio is presented to evaluate the image restoration quality. Compared to the traditional restoration approach which is based on the blind deconvolution method and Lucy-Richardson method, our method can greatly restore motion blurred images and improve the correct recognition rate. Our experiments show that the proposed method is able to restore traffic sign information accurately and efficiently.

  11. Network-based functional enrichment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poirel Christopher L

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many methods have been developed to infer and reason about molecular interaction networks. These approaches often yield networks with hundreds or thousands of nodes and up to an order of magnitude more edges. It is often desirable to summarize the biological information in such networks. A very common approach is to use gene function enrichment analysis for this task. A major drawback of this method is that it ignores information about the edges in the network being analyzed, i.e., it treats the network simply as a set of genes. In this paper, we introduce a novel method for functional enrichment that explicitly takes network interactions into account. Results Our approach naturally generalizes Fisher’s exact test, a gene set-based technique. Given a function of interest, we compute the subgraph of the network induced by genes annotated to this function. We use the sequence of sizes of the connected components of this sub-network to estimate its connectivity. We estimate the statistical significance of the connectivity empirically by a permutation test. We present three applications of our method: i determine which functions are enriched in a given network, ii given a network and an interesting sub-network of genes within that network, determine which functions are enriched in the sub-network, and iii given two networks, determine the functions for which the connectivity improves when we merge the second network into the first. Through these applications, we show that our approach is a natural alternative to network clustering algorithms. Conclusions We presented a novel approach to functional enrichment that takes into account the pairwise relationships among genes annotated by a particular function. Each of the three applications discovers highly relevant functions. We used our methods to study biological data from three different organisms. Our results demonstrate the wide applicability of our methods. Our algorithms are

  12. Pattern Recognition and Classification of Fatal Traffic Accidents in Israel A Neural Network Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prato, Carlo Giacomo; Gitelman, Victoria; Bekhor, Shlomo

    2011-01-01

    This article provides a broad picture of fatal traffic accidents in Israel to answer an increasing need of addressing compelling problems, designing preventive measures, and targeting specific population groups with the objective of reducing the number of traffic fatalities. The analysis focuses ...

  13. A Space Operations Network Alternative: Using Globally Connected Research and Education Networks for Space-Based Science Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, Robert N.

    2006-01-01

    Earth based networking in support of various space agency projects has been based on leased service/circuits which has a high associated cost. This cost is almost always taken from the science side resulting in less science. This is a proposal to use Research and Education Networks (RENs) worldwide to support space flight operations in general and space-based science operations in particular. The RENs were developed to support scientific and educational endeavors. They do not provide support for general Internet traffic. The connectivity and performance of the research and education networks is superb. The connectivity at Layer 3 (IP) virtually encompasses the globe. Most third world countries and all developed countries have their own research and education networks, which are connected globally. Performance of the RENs especially in the developed countries is exceptional. Bandwidth capacity currently exists and future expansion promises that this capacity will continue. REN performance statistics has always exceeded minimum requirements for spaceflight support. Research and Education networks are more loosely managed than a corporate network but are highly managed when compared to the commodity Internet. Management of RENs on an international level is accomplished by the International Network Operations Center at Indiana University at Indianapolis. With few exceptions, each regional and national REN has its own network ops center. The acceptable use policies (AUP), although differing by country, allows any scientific program or project the use of their networks. Once in compliance with the first RENs AUP, all others will accept that specific traffic including regional and transoceanic networks. RENs can support spaceflight related scientific programs and projects. Getting the science to the researcher is obviously key to any scientific project. RENs provide a pathway to virtually any college or university in the world, as well as many governmental institutes and

  14. Pricing and distributed QoS control for elastic network traffic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Hans Leo; Mandjes, M.R.H.; Núñez-Queija, Rudesindo

    2007-01-01

    We study a processor-sharing model in which users choose between a high- and a low-priority service, based on their utility functions and prices charged by the service provider. The latter aims at revenue maximization. The model is motivated by file transmissions in data networks with distributed

  15. Rotating-Disk-Based Hybridized Electromagnetic-Triboelectric Nanogenerator for Sustainably Powering Wireless Traffic Volume Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Binbin; Chen, Jun; Jin, Long; Deng, Weili; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Haitao; Zhu, Minhao; Yang, Weiqing; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2016-06-28

    Wireless traffic volume detectors play a critical role for measuring the traffic-flow in a real-time for current Intelligent Traffic System. However, as a battery-operated electronic device, regularly replacing battery remains a great challenge, especially in the remote area and wide distribution. Here, we report a self-powered active wireless traffic volume sensor by using a rotating-disk-based hybridized nanogenerator of triboelectric nanogenerator and electromagnetic generator as the sustainable power source. Operated at a rotating rate of 1000 rpm, the device delivered an output power of 17.5 mW, corresponding to a volume power density of 55.7 W/m(3) (Pd = P/V, see Supporting Information for detailed calculation) at a loading resistance of 700 Ω. The hybridized nanogenerator was demonstrated to effectively harvest energy from wind generated by a moving vehicle through the tunnel. And the delivered power is capable of triggering a counter via a wireless transmitter for real-time monitoring the traffic volume in the tunnel. This study further expands the applications of triboelectric nanogenerators for high-performance ambient mechanical energy harvesting and as sustainable power sources for driving wireless traffic volume sensors.

  16. Burden of road traffic injuries in Nepal: results of a countrywide population-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepal, Sarthak; Gupta, Shailvi; Wong, Evan G; Gurung, Susant; Swaroop, Mamta; Kushner, Adam L; Nwomeh, Benedict C

    2015-04-27

    Road traffic injury has emerged as a leading cause of mortality, contributing to 2·1% of deaths globally and is predicted to be the third highest contributor to the global burden of mortality by 2020. This major public health problem disproportionately affects low-income and middle-income countries, where such incidents are too often underreported. Our study aims to explore the epidemiology of road traffic injurys in Nepal at a population level via a countrywide study. The Surgeons OverSeas Assessment of Surgical Need (SOSAS) tool, a cluster randomised, cross-sectional nationwide survey, was conducted in Nepal between May 25, and June 12, 2014. Two-stage cluster sampling was performed: 15 of 75 districts were chosen randomly proportional to population; within each district, after stratification for urban and rural, and three clusters were randomly chosen. Questions were structured anatomically and designed around a representative spectrum of surgical conditions. Road traffic injury-related results were reported. 1350 households and 2695 individuals were surveyed with a response rate of 97%. 75 road traffic injuries were reported in 72 individuals (2·67% [95% CI 2·10-3·35] of the study population), with a mean age of 33·2 years (SD 1·85). The most commonly affected age group was 30-44 years, with females showing significantly lower odds of sustaining a road traffic injury than men (crude odds ratio 0·29 [95% CI 0·16-0·52]). Road traffic injuries composed 19·8% of the injuries reported. Motorcycle crashes were the most common road traffic injuries (48·0%), followed by car, truck, or bus crashes (26·7%), and pedestrian or bicycle crashes (25·3%). The extremity was the most common anatomic site injured (74·7%). Of the 80 deaths reported in the previous year, 7·5% (n=6) were due to road traffic injuries. This study provides the epidemiology of road traffic injuries at a population-based level in the first countrywide surgical needs assessment in Nepal

  17. Developing a virtualised testbed environment in preparation for testing of network based attacks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Heerden, RP

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available traffic volumes were pseudo randomised to represent differing temporal patterns. By building a virtualised network with simulated traffic we were able to test IDS' and other network attack detection sensors in a much more realistic environment before...

  18. Research on Congestion Pricing in Multimode Traffic considering Delay and Emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongna Dai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid development of urbanization and automation has resulted in serious urban traffic congestion and air pollution problems in many Chinese cities recently. As a traffic demand management strategy, congestion pricing is acknowledged to be effective in alleviating the traffic congestion and improving the efficiency of traffic system. This paper proposes an urban traffic congestion pricing model based on the consideration of transportation network efficiency and environment effects. First, the congestion pricing problem under multimode (i.e., car mode and bus mode urban traffic network condition is investigated. Second, a traffic congestion pricing model based on bilevel programming is formulated for a dual-mode urban transportation network, in which the delay and emission of vehicles are considered. Third, an improved mathematical algorithm combining successive average method with the genetic algorithm is proposed to solve the bilevel programming problem. Finally, a numerical experiment based on a hypothetical network is performed to validate the proposed congestion pricing model and algorithm.

  19. SURFmap: A Network Monitoring Tool Based on the Google Maps API

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstede, R.J.; Hofstede, R. J.; Fioreze, Tiago

    2009-01-01

    Network monitoring allows network managers to get a better insight in the network traffic transiting in a managed network. In order to make the tasks of a network manager easier, many network monitoring tools are made available for a wide range of purposes (e.g., traffic accounting, performance

  20. Road Traffic Congestion Management Based on a Search-Allocation Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raiyn Jamal

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a new scheme for road traffic management in smart cities, aimed at reducing road traffic congestion. The scheme is based on a combination of searching, updating, and allocation techniques (SUA. An SUA approach is proposed to reduce the processing time for forecasting the conditions of all road sections in real-time, which is typically considerable and complex. It searches for the shortest route based on historical observations, then computes travel time forecasts based on vehicular location in real-time. Using updated information, which includes travel time forecasts and accident forecasts, the vehicle is allocated the appropriate section. The novelty of the SUA scheme lies in its updating of vehicles in every time to reduce traffic congestion. Furthermore, the SUA approach supports autonomy and management by self-regulation, which recommends its use in smart cities that support internet of things (IoT technologies.

  1. Data mining tools for the support of traffic signal timing plan development in arterial networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-05-01

    Intelligent transportation systems (ITS) include large numbers of traffic sensors that collect enormous quantities of data. The data provided by ITS is necessary for advanced forms of control; however, basic forms of control, primarily time-of-day (T...

  2. Traffic Congestion Detection System through Connected Vehicles and Big Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas-Benítez, Néstor; Aquino-Santos, Raúl; Magaña-Espinoza, Pedro; Aguilar-Velazco, José; Edwards-Block, Arthur; Medina Cass, Aldo

    2016-04-28

    This article discusses the simulation and evaluation of a traffic congestion detection system which combines inter-vehicular communications, fixed roadside infrastructure and infrastructure-to-infrastructure connectivity and big data. The system discussed in this article permits drivers to identify traffic congestion and change their routes accordingly, thus reducing the total emissions of CO₂ and decreasing travel time. This system monitors, processes and stores large amounts of data, which can detect traffic congestion in a precise way by means of a series of algorithms that reduces localized vehicular emission by rerouting vehicles. To simulate and evaluate the proposed system, a big data cluster was developed based on Cassandra, which was used in tandem with the OMNeT++ discreet event network simulator, coupled with the SUMO (Simulation of Urban MObility) traffic simulator and the Veins vehicular network framework. The results validate the efficiency of the traffic detection system and its positive impact in detecting, reporting and rerouting traffic when traffic events occur.

  3. Hybrid scheduling mechanisms for Next-generation Passive Optical Networks based on network coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jijun; Bai, Wei; Liu, Xin; Feng, Nan; Maier, Martin

    2014-10-01

    Network coding (NC) integrated into Passive Optical Networks (PONs) is regarded as a promising solution to achieve higher throughput and energy efficiency. To efficiently support multimedia traffic under this new transmission mode, novel NC-based hybrid scheduling mechanisms for Next-generation PONs (NG-PONs) including energy management, time slot management, resource allocation, and Quality-of-Service (QoS) scheduling are proposed in this paper. First, we design an energy-saving scheme that is based on Bidirectional Centric Scheduling (BCS) to reduce the energy consumption of both the Optical Line Terminal (OLT) and Optical Network Units (ONUs). Next, we propose an intra-ONU scheduling and an inter-ONU scheduling scheme, which takes NC into account to support service differentiation and QoS assurance. The presented simulation results show that BCS achieves higher energy efficiency under low traffic loads, clearly outperforming the alternative NC-based Upstream Centric Scheduling (UCS) scheme. Furthermore, BCS is shown to provide better QoS assurance.

  4. A safety assessment methodology applied to CNS/ATM-based air traffic control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vismari, Lucio Flavio, E-mail: lucio.vismari@usp.b [Safety Analysis Group (GAS), School of Engineering at University of Sao Paulo (Poli-USP), Av. Prof. Luciano Gualberto, Trav.3, n.158, Predio da Engenharia de Eletricidade, Sala C2-32, CEP 05508-900, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Batista Camargo Junior, Joao, E-mail: joaocamargo@usp.b [Safety Analysis Group (GAS), School of Engineering at University of Sao Paulo (Poli-USP), Av. Prof. Luciano Gualberto, Trav.3, n.158, Predio da Engenharia de Eletricidade, Sala C2-32, CEP 05508-900, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2011-07-15

    In the last decades, the air traffic system has been changing to adapt itself to new social demands, mainly the safe growth of worldwide traffic capacity. Those changes are ruled by the Communication, Navigation, Surveillance/Air Traffic Management (CNS/ATM) paradigm , based on digital communication technologies (mainly satellites) as a way of improving communication, surveillance, navigation and air traffic management services. However, CNS/ATM poses new challenges and needs, mainly related to the safety assessment process. In face of these new challenges, and considering the main characteristics of the CNS/ATM, a methodology is proposed at this work by combining 'absolute' and 'relative' safety assessment methods adopted by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) in ICAO Doc.9689 , using Fluid Stochastic Petri Nets (FSPN) as the modeling formalism, and compares the safety metrics estimated from the simulation of both the proposed (in analysis) and the legacy system models. To demonstrate its usefulness, the proposed methodology was applied to the 'Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcasting' (ADS-B) based air traffic control system. As conclusions, the proposed methodology assured to assess CNS/ATM system safety properties, in which FSPN formalism provides important modeling capabilities, and discrete event simulation allowing the estimation of the desired safety metric.

  5. A safety assessment methodology applied to CNS/ATM-based air traffic control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vismari, Lucio Flavio; Batista Camargo Junior, Joao

    2011-01-01

    In the last decades, the air traffic system has been changing to adapt itself to new social demands, mainly the safe growth of worldwide traffic capacity. Those changes are ruled by the Communication, Navigation, Surveillance/Air Traffic Management (CNS/ATM) paradigm , based on digital communication technologies (mainly satellites) as a way of improving communication, surveillance, navigation and air traffic management services. However, CNS/ATM poses new challenges and needs, mainly related to the safety assessment process. In face of these new challenges, and considering the main characteristics of the CNS/ATM, a methodology is proposed at this work by combining 'absolute' and 'relative' safety assessment methods adopted by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) in ICAO Doc.9689 , using Fluid Stochastic Petri Nets (FSPN) as the modeling formalism, and compares the safety metrics estimated from the simulation of both the proposed (in analysis) and the legacy system models. To demonstrate its usefulness, the proposed methodology was applied to the 'Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcasting' (ADS-B) based air traffic control system. As conclusions, the proposed methodology assured to assess CNS/ATM system safety properties, in which FSPN formalism provides important modeling capabilities, and discrete event simulation allowing the estimation of the desired safety metric.

  6. An Embedded Fuzzy Logic Based Application for Density Traffic Control System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajao Lukman Adewale

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The control of density traffic at cross junction road usually manned by human efforts or implementation of automatic traffic light system. This system seem and proves to be inefficient with some challenges. The major constraints of this traffic control are as a result of the inability of most traffic control systems to assign appropriate waiting time for vehicles based on the lane density. Also with little or no consideration for pedestrians, emergency and security agents priorities. In view of this, an intelligent density traffic control system using  (fuzzy logic which is capable of providing priority to the road users based on the density and emergency situations was developed and presented in this paper. This system will obtain the approximate amount of vehicle and presence of pedestrians respectfully on each lane with help of Infrared Sensors (IR and siren detection system for emergency and security road users. The working principle of this system depending on the logic inputs rules given into the processing unit by the (sensors, S1 and S2 which helps the system to generates a timing sequence that best suit the number of vehicles and pedestrians available on the lane at point in time.

  7. Network Anomaly Detection Based on Wavelet Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali A. Ghorbani

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Signal processing techniques have been applied recently for analyzing and detecting network anomalies due to their potential to find novel or unknown intrusions. In this paper, we propose a new network signal modelling technique for detecting network anomalies, combining the wavelet approximation and system identification theory. In order to characterize network traffic behaviors, we present fifteen features and use them as the input signals in our system. We then evaluate our approach with the 1999 DARPA intrusion detection dataset and conduct a comprehensive analysis of the intrusions in the dataset. Evaluation results show that the approach achieves high-detection rates in terms of both attack instances and attack types. Furthermore, we conduct a full day's evaluation in a real large-scale WiFi ISP network where five attack types are successfully detected from over 30 millions flows.

  8. Nonlinear relative-proportion-based route adjustment process for day-to-day traffic dynamics: modeling, equilibrium and stability analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wenlong; Ma, Shoufeng; Tian, Junfang; Li, Geng

    2016-11-01

    Travelers' route adjustment behaviors in a congested road traffic network are acknowledged as a dynamic game process between them. Existing Proportional-Switch Adjustment Process (PSAP) models have been extensively investigated to characterize travelers' route choice behaviors; PSAP has concise structure and intuitive behavior rule. Unfortunately most of which have some limitations, i.e., the flow over adjustment problem for the discrete PSAP model, the absolute cost differences route adjustment problem, etc. This paper proposes a relative-Proportion-based Route Adjustment Process (rePRAP) maintains the advantages of PSAP and overcomes these limitations. The rePRAP describes the situation that travelers on higher cost route switch to those with lower cost at the rate that is unilaterally depended on the relative cost differences between higher cost route and its alternatives. It is verified to be consistent with the principle of the rational behavior adjustment process. The equivalence among user equilibrium, stationary path flow pattern and stationary link flow pattern is established, which can be applied to judge whether a given network traffic flow has reached UE or not by detecting the stationary or non-stationary state of link flow pattern. The stability theorem is proved by the Lyapunov function approach. A simple example is tested to demonstrate the effectiveness of the rePRAP model.

  9. Comprehensive Parameter Sweep for Learning-based Detector on Traffic Lights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Morten Bornø; Philipsen, Mark Philip; Trivedi, Mohan M.

    2016-01-01

    Determining the optimal parameters for a given detection algorithm is not straightforward and what ends up as the final values is mostly based on experience and heuristics. In this paper we investigate the influence of three basic parameters in the widely used Aggregate Channel Features (ACF......) object detector applied for traffic light detec- tion. Additionally, we perform an exhaustive search for the optimal pa- rameters for the night time data from the LISA Traffic Light Dataset. The optimized detector reaches an Area-Under-Curve of 66.63 % on cal- culated precision-recall curve....

  10. Predictive control strategies for energy saving of hybrid electric vehicles based on traffic light information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaijiang YU

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available As the conventional control method for hybrid electric vehicle doesn’t consider the effect of known traffic light information on the vehicle energy management, this paper proposes a model predictive control intelligent optimization strategies based on traffic light information for hybrid electric vehicles. By building the simplified model of the hybrid electric vehicle and adopting the continuation/generalized minimum residual method, the model prediction problem is solved. The simulation is conducted by using MATLAB/Simulink platform. The simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed model of the traffic light information, and that the proposed model predictive control method can improve fuel economy and the real-time control performance significantly. The research conclusions show that the proposed control strategy can achieve optimal control of the vehicle trajectory, significantly improving fuel economy of the vehicle, and meet the system requirements for the real-time optimal control.

  11. Development and Evaluation of a Control System for Regional Traffic Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John L. McLin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic congestion is a worsening problem in metropolitan areas which will require integrated regional traffic control systems to improve traffic conditions. This paper presents a regional traffic control system which can detect incident conditions and provide integrated traffic management during nonrecurrent congestion events. The system combines advanced artificial intelligence techniques with a traffic performance model based on HCM equations. Preliminary evaluation of the control system using traffic microsimulation demonstrates that it has the potential to improve system conditions during traffic incidents. In addition, several enhancements were identified which will make the system more robust in a real traffic control setting. An assessment of the control system elements indicates that there are no substantial technical barriers in implementing this system in a large traffic network.

  12. Environmental impact of electric motorcycles: Evidence from traffic noise assessment by a building-based data mining technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, N; Zhou, X; Zhou, Y

    2016-06-01

    This study provided new evidence on the potential adoption of electric motorcycle (EM) as a cleaner alternative to gasoline-powered motorcycle. The effects of EM on human exposure to traffic noise were assessed in different urban areas with different traffic scenarios. The assessment was carried out by a developed building-based model system that took into account the contribution of motorcycle traffic. The results indicated that the EM could be an appealing solution to reduce the risk of human exposure to excessive high traffic noise in a motorcycle city. Particularly, in a historical urban area in which the total traffic volume was lower and motorcycle traffic was dominant, the proportion of noise levels meeting the standard of 70 dB(A) increased significantly from 12.2% to 41.9% when 100% of gasoline motorcycles in the real traffic scenario were replaced by EMs. On the other hand, in a modern urban area in which the total traffic volume was higher and traffic noise levels at majority of sites were higher than 75 dB(A), the proportion of noise levels above 75 dB(A) decreased significantly from 82.6% to 59.9%. Nevertheless, the effect of EM on improving the traffic noise compliance rate in the modern urban area was not significant and other policies or measures need to be sought. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Study on the energy-efficient scheme based on the interconnection of optical-network-units for next generation optical access network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Yunxin; Jiang, Ning; Qiu, Kun; Xue, Chenpeng

    2014-12-01

    An energy-efficient scheme based on the interconnection of optical network unit (ONU) is introduced, which can significantly reduce the energy consumption of the low-traffic operation. The energy consumption model for the ONU-interconnected optical access network (OAN) based on the electronic switch (ES) technology is established, and the energy efficiency of the proposed scheme is analyzed and compared with that of the OAN using optical switch (OS). The simulation results demonstrate that the ONU-interconnected scheme can efficiently reduce the energy consumption of OAN, and it shows a good energy consumption performance under daily traffic model.

  14. A two-stage flow-based intrusion detection model for next-generation networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umer, Muhammad Fahad; Sher, Muhammad; Bi, Yaxin

    2018-01-01

    The next-generation network provides state-of-the-art access-independent services over converged mobile and fixed networks. Security in the converged network environment is a major challenge. Traditional packet and protocol-based intrusion detection techniques cannot be used in next-generation networks due to slow throughput, low accuracy and their inability to inspect encrypted payload. An alternative solution for protection of next-generation networks is to use network flow records for detection of malicious activity in the network traffic. The network flow records are independent of access networks and user applications. In this paper, we propose a two-stage flow-based intrusion detection system for next-generation networks. The first stage uses an enhanced unsupervised one-class support vector machine which separates malicious flows from normal network traffic. The second stage uses a self-organizing map which automatically groups malicious flows into different alert clusters. We validated the proposed approach on two flow-based datasets and obtained promising results.

  15. A Task-Based Language Teaching Approach to the Police Traffic Stop

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Stephen P.

    2014-01-01

    One possible hurdle to implementing the Task-Based Language Teaching (TBLT) approach is uncertainty about how to turn target tasks into materials that can be used in the classroom. This article discusses the steps taken to create materials for one target task (communicating with a police officer during a traffic stop) in a manner that provides a…

  16. Data-driven Travel Demand Modelling and Agent-based Traffic Simulation in Amsterdam Urban Area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melnikov, V.R.; Krzhizhanovskaya, V.V.; Lees, M.H.; Boukhanovsky, A.V.

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this project is the development of a large-scale agent-based traffic simulation system for Amsterdam urban area, validated on sensor data and adjusted for decision support in critical situations and for policy making in sustainable city development, emission control and electric car

  17. Host Event Based Network Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonathan Chugg

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of INL’s research on this project is to demonstrate the feasibility of a host event based network monitoring tool and the effects on host performance. Current host based network monitoring tools work on polling which can miss activity if it occurs between polls. Instead of polling, a tool could be developed that makes use of event APIs in the operating system to receive asynchronous notifications of network activity. Analysis and logging of these events will allow the tool to construct the complete real-time and historical network configuration of the host while the tool is running. This research focused on three major operating systems commonly used by SCADA systems: Linux, WindowsXP, and Windows7. Windows 7 offers two paths that have minimal impact on the system and should be seriously considered. First is the new Windows Event Logging API, and, second, Windows 7 offers the ALE API within WFP. Any future work should focus on these methods.

  18. Analyzing the Influence of Mobile Phone Use of Drivers on Traffic Flow Based on an Improved Cellular Automaton Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Xiao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aimed to analyze the influence of drivers’ behavior of phone use while driving on traffic flow, including both traffic efficiency and traffic safety. An improved cellular automaton model was proposed to simulate traffic flow with distracted drivers based on the Nagel-Schreckenberg model. The driving characters of drivers using a phone were first discussed and a value representing the probability to use a phone while driving was put into the CA model. Simulation results showed that traffic flow rate was significantly reduced if some drivers used a phone compared to no phone use. The flow rate and velocity decreased as the proportion of drivers using a phone increased. While, under low density, the risk of traffic decreased first and then increased as the distracted drivers increased, the distracted behavior of drivers, like using a phone, could reduce the flow rate by 5 percent according to the simulation.

  19. A Comparison of Traffic Operations among Beijing and Several International Megacities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanzhou Yang

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available High-Efficient traffic system is very important for economy and society of cities. Previous studies on the traffic comparison mostly took a city as a whole, but ignored the differences among areas inside the city. But in fact, the traffic congestion in different areas with a city is mostly different. Taking typical mega cities like Beijing, London, New York, and Tokyo as objects, this paper makes cross-comparison in the traffic operation and performance based on intelligent algorithm. Transportation infrastructure and travel demand data are discussed and unbalanced transport system is found in Beijing because of the conflict between too much traffic demand and defect road networks. From the aspects of traffic load, operational efficiency and safety, indexes including traffic v/c ratio, average vehicle speed and accident rate are selected to assess the performance of road traffic. It is concluded that road networks of Beijing have the worst performance compared with other three mega-cities and the primary reasons are the inappropriate distribution of utilization rate among the freeways, arterials, and local streets, and the high traffic concentration in urban area. So, several measures are recommended to improve the operation efficiency of traffic in Beijing especially for the green intelligent traffic system. Keywords: Traffic operation; Operational efficiency; Intelligent traffic system (ITS; Traffic load; traffic safety; Intelligent algorithm.

  20. Traffic characterization and modeling of wavelet-based VBR encoded video

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu Kuo; Jabbari, B. [George Mason Univ., Fairfax, VA (United States); Zafar, S. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Mathematics and Computer Science Div.

    1997-07-01

    Wavelet-based video codecs provide a hierarchical structure for the encoded data, which can cater to a wide variety of applications such as multimedia systems. The characteristics of such an encoder and its output, however, have not been well examined. In this paper, the authors investigate the output characteristics of a wavelet-based video codec and develop a composite model to capture the traffic behavior of its output video data. Wavelet decomposition transforms the input video in a hierarchical structure with a number of subimages at different resolutions and scales. the top-level wavelet in this structure contains most of the signal energy. They first describe the characteristics of traffic generated by each subimage and the effect of dropping various subimages at the encoder on the signal-to-noise ratio at the receiver. They then develop an N-state Markov model to describe the traffic behavior of the top wavelet. The behavior of the remaining wavelets are then obtained through estimation, based on the correlations between these subimages at the same level of resolution and those wavelets located at an immediate higher level. In this paper, a three-state Markov model is developed. The resulting traffic behavior described by various statistical properties, such as moments and correlations, etc., is then utilized to validate their model.

  1. An empirical model to predict road dust emissions based on pavement and traffic characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padoan, Elio; Ajmone-Marsan, Franco; Querol, Xavier; Amato, Fulvio

    2017-11-08

    The relative impact of non-exhaust sources (i.e. road dust, tire wear, road wear and brake wear particles) on urban air quality is increasing. Among them, road dust resuspension has generally the highest impact on PM concentrations but its spatio-temporal variability has been rarely studied and modeled. Some recent studies attempted to observe and describe the time-variability but, as it is driven by traffic and meteorology, uncertainty remains on the seasonality of emissions. The knowledge gap on spatial variability is much wider, as several factors have been pointed out as responsible for road dust build-up: pavement characteristics, traffic intensity and speed, fleet composition, proximity to traffic lights, but also the presence of external sources. However, no parameterization is available as a function of these variables. We investigated mobile road dust smaller than 10 μm (MF10) in two cities with different climatic and traffic conditions (Barcelona and Turin), to explore MF10 seasonal variability and the relationship between MF10 and site characteristics (pavement macrotexture, traffic intensity and proximity to braking zone). Moreover, we provide the first estimates of emission factors in the Po Valley both in summer and winter conditions. Our results showed a good inverse relationship between MF10 and macro-texture, traffic intensity and distance from the nearest braking zone. We also found a clear seasonal effect of road dust emissions, with higher emission in summer, likely due to the lower pavement moisture. These results allowed building a simple empirical mode, predicting maximal dust loadings and, consequently, emission potential, based on the aforementioned data. This model will need to be scaled for meteorological effect, using methods accounting for weather and pavement moisture. This can significantly improve bottom-up emission inventory for spatial allocation of emissions and air quality management, to select those roads with higher emissions

  2. Traffic planning for non-homogeneous traffic

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2.3c Data summary The summarization of the density data based on videotape obser- vations is in table 1 which shows average, 30-second, sampled densities. Using the non- homogeneous traffic continuity equation of (2), the resultant traffic concentrations appear in table 2. Comparing the traffic concentrations in table 1 to ...

  3. Traffic-Aware Channel Allocation and Routing in Multichannel, Multi-Radio Wireless Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    25]. The authors of [26] have estimated that the packet sizes for video traffic may be Weibull or exponentially distributed, depending on the codec ... codec type VoIP packets for 50 seconds. The tool generates approximately 100 byte VoIP packets every 20 ms. The same D-ITG tool is used for generating

  4. A real-time traffic scheduling algorithm in CDMA packet networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zan, Lei; Heijenk, Geert; El Zarki, Magda; Gong, K.; Niu, Z.

    2003-01-01

    The demands for multimedia and packet data services over wireless devices have increased over the past few years. The direct impact on performance makes scheduling for real-time traffic important. This paper presents a novel scheduling algorithm called fair channel-dependent scheduling which

  5. Development of Railway traffic and the network of sidings in the Ostrava region

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zapletalová, Jana

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 2 (2006), s. 60-68 ISSN 1210-8812 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IBS3086005 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : railway traffic * coal mining * Ostrava region * Czech Republic Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography

  6. Heavy-traffic analysis of a multiple-phase network with discriminatory processor sharing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.M. Verloop (Maaike); U. Ayesta (Urtzi); R. Núñez Queija (Rudesindo)

    2009-01-01

    htmlabstractWe analyze a generalization of the Discriminatory Processor Sharing (DPS) queue in a heavy-traffic setting. Customers present in the system are served simultaneously at rates controlled by a vector of weights. We assume that customers have phase-type distributed service requirements and

  7. Mobile Phone Data from GSM Networks for Traffic Parameter and Urban Spatial Pattern Assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenbruggen, J.G.M.; Borzacchiello, M.T.; Nijkamp, P.; Scholten, H.J.

    2013-01-01

    The use of wireless location technology and mobile phone data appears to offer a broad range of new opportunities for sophisticated applications in traffic management and monitoring, particularly in the field of incident management. Indeed, due to the high market penetration of mobile phones, it

  8. A Piecewise Deterministic Markov Toy Model for Traffic/Maintenance and Associated Hamilton–Jacobi Integrodifferential Systems on Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goreac, Dan, E-mail: Dan.Goreac@u-pem.fr; Kobylanski, Magdalena, E-mail: Magdalena.Kobylanski@u-pem.fr; Martinez, Miguel, E-mail: Miguel.Martinez@u-pem.fr [Université Paris-Est, LAMA (UMR 8050), UPEMLV, UPEC, CNRS (France)

    2016-10-15

    We study optimal control problems in infinite horizon whxen the dynamics belong to a specific class of piecewise deterministic Markov processes constrained to star-shaped networks (corresponding to a toy traffic model). We adapt the results in Soner (SIAM J Control Optim 24(6):1110–1122, 1986) to prove the regularity of the value function and the dynamic programming principle. Extending the networks and Krylov’s “shaking the coefficients” method, we prove that the value function can be seen as the solution to a linearized optimization problem set on a convenient set of probability measures. The approach relies entirely on viscosity arguments. As a by-product, the dual formulation guarantees that the value function is the pointwise supremum over regular subsolutions of the associated Hamilton–Jacobi integrodifferential system. This ensures that the value function satisfies Perron’s preconization for the (unique) candidate to viscosity solution.

  9. System and Method for Network Bandwidth, Buffers and Timing Management Using Hybrid Scheduling of Traffic with Different Priorities and Guarantees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varadarajan, Srivatsan (Inventor); Hall, Brendan (Inventor); Smithgall, William Todd (Inventor); Bonk, Ted (Inventor); DeLay, Benjamin F. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    Systems and methods for network bandwidth, buffers and timing management using hybrid scheduling of traffic with different priorities and guarantees are provided. In certain embodiments, a method of managing network scheduling and configuration comprises, for each transmitting end station, reserving one exclusive buffer for each virtual link to be transmitted from the transmitting end station; for each receiving end station, reserving exclusive buffers for each virtual link to be received at the receiving end station; and for each switch, reserving a exclusive buffer for each virtual link to be received at an input port of the switch. The method further comprises determining if each respective transmitting end station, receiving end station, and switch has sufficient capability to support the reserved buffers; and reporting buffer infeasibility if each respective transmitting end station, receiving end station, and switch does not have sufficient capability to support the reserved buffers.

  10. Note on Studying Change Point of LRD Traffic Based on Li's Detection of DDoS Flood Attacking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengmin Xia

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Distributed denial-of-service (DDoS flood attacks remain great threats to the Internet. To ensure network usability and reliability, accurate detection of these attacks is critical. Based on Li's work on DDoS flood attack detection, we propose a DDoS detection method by monitoring the Hurst variation of long-range dependant traffic. Specifically, we use an autoregressive system to estimate the Hurst parameter of normal traffic. If the actual Hurst parameter varies significantly from the estimation, we assume that DDoS attack happens. Meanwhile, we propose two methods to determine the change point of Hurst parameter that indicates the occurrence of DDoS attacks. The detection rate associated with one method and false alarm rate for the other method are also derived. The test results on DARPA intrusion detection evaluation data show that the proposed approaches can achieve better detection performance than some well-known self-similarity-based detection methods.

  11. Heuristic algorithms for joint optimization of unicast and anycast traffic in elastic optical network–based large–scale computing systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markowski Marcin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years elastic optical networks have been perceived as a prospective choice for future optical networks due to better adjustment and utilization of optical resources than is the case with traditional wavelength division multiplexing networks. In the paper we investigate the elastic architecture as the communication network for distributed data centers. We address the problems of optimization of routing and spectrum assignment for large-scale computing systems based on an elastic optical architecture; particularly, we concentrate on anycast user to data center traffic optimization. We assume that computational resources of data centers are limited. For this offline problems we formulate the integer linear programming model and propose a few heuristics, including a meta-heuristic algorithm based on a tabu search method. We report computational results, presenting the quality of approximate solutions and efficiency of the proposed heuristics, and we also analyze and compare some data center allocation scenarios.

  12. Traffic and trend analysis of local- and wide-area networks for a distributed PACS implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gac, Robert J., Jr.; Harding, Douglas, Jr.; Weiser, John C.; Chacko, Anna K.; Radvany, Martin; Romlein, John R.

    2000-05-01

    Inductive Modeling Techniques (IMT) in a stand alone, distributed Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS) or telemedicine environment can be utilized to monitor SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol) enabled devices such as network switches, servers or workstations. A comprehensive approach using IMT is presented across the stages of the PACS lifecycle: Pre-PACS, Implementation, and Clinical Use. At each stage of the cycle, the results of IMT can be utilized to assist in assessing and forecasting future system loading. This loading represents a clinical trend analysis equating to the clinical workflow and delivery of services. Specific attention is directed to an understanding and thorough depiction of IMT methodology, focusing on the use of SNMP, the Management Information Base (MIB), and the data stream output that is mapped and placed in an object-oriented database and made available for web-based, real time, in-depth viewing and/or analysis. A thorough description of these outputs is presented, spotlighting potential report applications such as system failures; existing system, CPU, workstation, server and LAN/WAN link utilization; packet rates; application isolation; notification of system alarms; fault isolation; high/low bandwidth users; and data transfer rates. These types of data are increasingly required for programming LAN/WAN upgrades as digital imaging and PACS are implemented.

  13. A Simulation Based Analysis of The Impact of IEEE 802.15.4 MAC Parameters on the Performance Under Different Traffic Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Rohm

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available IEEE 802.15.4, a MAC/PHY protocol for low power and low data rate wireless networks, is emerging as the popular choice for various monitoring and control applications. Depending on the application, the traffic load on an IEEE 802.15.4 network may vary over a wide range. The performance of the protocol, measured in terms of the packet loss probability and the packet latency, depends upon the prevailing traffic load among the nodes competing for channel access, the level of interference from the hidden nodes and the configuration of IEEE 802.15.4 MAC parameters. In this paper, we analyze via simulations the impact of different configurable MAC parameters on the performance of beaconless IEEE 802.15.4 networks under different traffic loads and under different levels of interference from the hidden nodes. Based on this analysis, we suggest the values of IEEE 802.15.4 MAC parameters that results in a good tradeoff between the packet loss probability and the packet latency under different conditions.

  14. Performance analysis of ATM multiplexer with Bernoulli traffic sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiang Shu-Yin

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study the simplified models of the ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode multiplexer network with Bernoulli random traffic sources. Based on the model, the performance measures are analyzed by the different output service schemes.

  15. Anomaly based intrusion detection for a biometric identification system using neural networks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mgabile, T

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available detection technique that analyses the fingerprint biometric network traffic for evidence of intrusion. The neural network algorithm that imitates the way a human brain works is used in this study to classify normal traffic and learn the correct traffic...

  16. Space-based Networking Technology Developments in the Interplanetary Network Directorate Information Technology Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clare, Loren; Clement, B.; Gao, J.; Hutcherson, J.; Jennings, E.

    2006-01-01

    Described recent development of communications protocols, services, and associated tools targeted to reduce risk, reduce cost and increase efficiency of IND infrastructure and supported mission operations. Space-based networking technologies developed were: a) Provide differentiated quality of service (QoS) that will give precedence to traffic that users have selected as having the greatest importance and/or time-criticality; b) Improve the total value of information to users through the use of QoS prioritization techniques; c) Increase operational flexibility and improve command-response turnaround; d) Enable new class of networked and collaborative science missions; e) Simplify applications interfaces to communications services; and f) Reduce risk and cost from a common object model and automated scheduling and communications protocols. Technologies are described in three general areas: communications scheduling, middleware, and protocols. Additionally developed simulation environment, which provides comprehensive, quantitative understanding of the technologies performance within overall, evolving architecture, as well as ability to refine & optimize specific components.

  17. Large graph visualization of millions of connections in the CERN control system network traffic: analysis and design of routing and firewall rules with a new approach

    CERN Document Server

    Gallerani, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The CERN Technical Network (TN) TN was intended to be a network for accelerator and infrastructure operations. However, today, more than 60 million IP packets are routed every hour between the General Purpose Network (GPN) and the TN, involving more than 6000 different hosts. In order to improve the security of the accelerator control system, it is fundamental to understand the network traffic between the two networks and to define new appropriate routing and firewall rules without impacting operations. The complexity and huge size of the infrastructure and the number of protocols and services involved, have discouraged for years any attempt to understand and control the network traffic between the GPN and the TN. In this paper, we show a new way to solve the problem graphically. Combining the network traffic analysis with the use of large graph visualization algorithms we produced usable 2D large color topology maps of the network identifying the inter-relations of the control system machines and s...

  18. Measurement of traffic network vulnerability for Mississippi coastal region : final research report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-15

    Natural disasters such as a hurricane can cause great damages to the transportation networks and significantly affect the evacuation trip operations. An accurate understanding and measurement of the network vulnerability can enhance the evacuees p...

  19. Knowledge-Based Network Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chuan-lin; Hung, Chaw-Kwei; Stedry, Steven P.; McClure, James P.; Yeh, Show-Way

    1988-03-01

    An expert system is being implemented for enhancing operability of the Ground Communication Facility (GCF) of Jet Propulsion Laboratory's (JPL) Deep Space Network (DSN). The DSN is a tracking network for all of JPL's spacecraft plus a subset of spacecrafts launched by other NASA centers. A GCF upgrade task is set to replace the current GCF aging system with new, modern equipments which are capable of using knowledge-based monitor and control approach. The expert system, implemented in terms of KEE and SUN workstation, is used for performing network fault management, configuration management, and performance management in real-time. Monitor data are collected from each processor and DSCC's in every five seconds. In addition to serving as input parameters of the expert system, extracted management information is used to update a management information database. For the monitor and control purpose, software of each processor is divided into layers following the OSI standard. Each layer is modeled as a finite state machine. A System Management Application Process (SMAP) is implemented at application layer, which coordinates layer managers of the same processor and communicates with peer SMAPs of other processors. The expert system will be tuned by augmenting the production rules as the operation is going on, and its performance will be measured.

  20. Dynamic QoS Provisioning for Ethernet-based Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelopoulos, J.; Kanonakis, K.; Leligou, H. C.; Orfanoudakis, Th.; Katsigiannis, M.

    2008-11-01

    The evolution towards packet-based access networks and the importance of quality of experience brings the need for access networks that support the offer of a wide range of multimedia services not currently available to the desired extent. Legacy networks based on circuit switching used explicit signalling that travelled to all nodes along the path to book resources before the launce of the media stream. This approach does not scale well and is not in line with the philosophy of packet networks. Still, the need to reserve resources in advance remains since real-time services have limited if any means of adjusting their rates to the prevailing network conditions and to preserve customer satisfaction the traditional preventive approach that needs accurate estimates of resource needs for the duration of the session is the only option. The paper describes a possible CAC solution based on measuring flows and enriches the network with implicit admission control (without obviating explicit control if available) and can manage resource allocation to protect quality-demanding services from degradation. The basis is a flow measurement system, which will estimate the traffic load produced by the flow and activate admission control. However, because in most cases these initial indication may well be misleading, it will be cross checked against a database of previously recorded flows per customer interface which can provide long term data on the flows leaving only a few cases that have to be corrected on the fly. The overall product is a self-learning autonomic system that supports QoS in the access network for services that do not communicate with the network layer such as, for example, peer-to-peer real-time multimedia applications.