WorldWideScience

Sample records for network based traffic

  1. Consensus-Based Cooperative Control Based on Pollution Sensing and Traffic Information for Urban Traffic Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artuñedo, Antonio; Del Toro, Raúl M; Haber, Rodolfo E

    2017-04-26

    Nowadays many studies are being conducted to develop solutions for improving the performance of urban traffic networks. One of the main challenges is the necessary cooperation among different entities such as vehicles or infrastructure systems and how to exploit the information available through networks of sensors deployed as infrastructures for smart cities. In this work an algorithm for cooperative control of urban subsystems is proposed to provide a solution for mobility problems in cities. The interconnected traffic lights controller ( TLC ) network adapts traffic lights cycles, based on traffic and air pollution sensory information, in order to improve the performance of urban traffic networks. The presence of air pollution in cities is not only caused by road traffic but there are other pollution sources that contribute to increase or decrease the pollution level. Due to the distributed and heterogeneous nature of the different components involved, a system of systems engineering approach is applied to design a consensus-based control algorithm. The designed control strategy contains a consensus-based component that uses the information shared in the network for reaching a consensus in the state of TLC network components. Discrete event systems specification is applied for modelling and simulation. The proposed solution is assessed by simulation studies with very promising results to deal with simultaneous responses to both pollution levels and traffic flows in urban traffic networks.

  2. Consensus-Based Cooperative Control Based on Pollution Sensing and Traffic Information for Urban Traffic Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Artuñedo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays many studies are being conducted to develop solutions for improving the performance of urban traffic networks. One of the main challenges is the necessary cooperation among different entities such as vehicles or infrastructure systems and how to exploit the information available through networks of sensors deployed as infrastructures for smart cities. In this work an algorithm for cooperative control of urban subsystems is proposed to provide a solution for mobility problems in cities. The interconnected traffic lights controller (TLC network adapts traffic lights cycles, based on traffic and air pollution sensory information, in order to improve the performance of urban traffic networks. The presence of air pollution in cities is not only caused by road traffic but there are other pollution sources that contribute to increase or decrease the pollution level. Due to the distributed and heterogeneous nature of the different components involved, a system of systems engineering approach is applied to design a consensus-based control algorithm. The designed control strategy contains a consensus-based component that uses the information shared in the network for reaching a consensus in the state of TLC network components. Discrete event systems specification is applied for modelling and simulation. The proposed solution is assessed by simulation studies with very promising results to deal with simultaneous responses to both pollution levels and traffic flows in urban traffic networks.

  3. Real-time network traffic classification technique for wireless local area networks based on compressed sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balouchestani, Mohammadreza

    2017-05-01

    Network traffic or data traffic in a Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) is the amount of network packets moving across a wireless network from each wireless node to another wireless node, which provide the load of sampling in a wireless network. WLAN's Network traffic is the main component for network traffic measurement, network traffic control and simulation. Traffic classification technique is an essential tool for improving the Quality of Service (QoS) in different wireless networks in the complex applications such as local area networks, wireless local area networks, wireless personal area networks, wireless metropolitan area networks, and wide area networks. Network traffic classification is also an essential component in the products for QoS control in different wireless network systems and applications. Classifying network traffic in a WLAN allows to see what kinds of traffic we have in each part of the network, organize the various kinds of network traffic in each path into different classes in each path, and generate network traffic matrix in order to Identify and organize network traffic which is an important key for improving the QoS feature. To achieve effective network traffic classification, Real-time Network Traffic Classification (RNTC) algorithm for WLANs based on Compressed Sensing (CS) is presented in this paper. The fundamental goal of this algorithm is to solve difficult wireless network management problems. The proposed architecture allows reducing False Detection Rate (FDR) to 25% and Packet Delay (PD) to 15 %. The proposed architecture is also increased 10 % accuracy of wireless transmission, which provides a good background for establishing high quality wireless local area networks.

  4. A Bayes Theory-Based Modeling Algorithm to End-to-end Network Traffic

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao Hong-hao; Meng Fan-bo; Zhao Si-wen; Zhao Si-hang; Lu Yi

    2016-01-01

    Recently, network traffic has exponentially increasing due to all kind of applications, such as mobile Internet, smart cities, smart transportations, Internet of things, and so on. the end-to-end network traffic becomes more important for traffic engineering. Usually end-to-end traffic estimation is highly difficult. This paper proposes a Bayes theory-based method to model the end-to-end network traffic. Firstly, the end-to-end network traffic is described as a independent identically distrib...

  5. Traffic sign recognition based on deep convolutional neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Shi-hao; Deng, Ji-cai; Zhang, Da-wei; Du, Jing-yuan

    2017-11-01

    Traffic sign recognition (TSR) is an important component of automated driving systems. It is a rather challenging task to design a high-performance classifier for the TSR system. In this paper, we propose a new method for TSR system based on deep convolutional neural network. In order to enhance the expression of the network, a novel structure (dubbed block-layer below) which combines network-in-network and residual connection is designed. Our network has 10 layers with parameters (block-layer seen as a single layer): the first seven are alternate convolutional layers and block-layers, and the remaining three are fully-connected layers. We train our TSR network on the German traffic sign recognition benchmark (GTSRB) dataset. To reduce overfitting, we perform data augmentation on the training images and employ a regularization method named "dropout". The activation function we employ in our network adopts scaled exponential linear units (SELUs), which can induce self-normalizing properties. To speed up the training, we use an efficient GPU to accelerate the convolutional operation. On the test dataset of GTSRB, we achieve the accuracy rate of 99.67%, exceeding the state-of-the-art results.

  6. Urban Traffic Signal System Control Structural Optimization Based on Network Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Advanced urban traffic signal control systems such as SCOOT and SCATS normally coordinate traffic network using multilevel hierarchical control mechanism. In this mechanism, several key intersections will be selected from traffic signal network and the network will be divided into different control subareas. Traditionally, key intersection selection and control subareas division are executed according to dynamic traffic counts and link length between intersections, which largely rely on traffic engineers’ experience. However, it omits important inherent characteristics of traffic network topology. In this paper, we will apply network analysis approach into these two aspects for traffic system control structure optimization. Firstly, the modified C-means clustering algorithm will be proposed to assess the importance of intersections in traffic network and furthermore determine the key intersections based on three indexes instead of merely on traffic counts in traditional methods. Secondly, the improved network community discovery method will be used to give more reasonable evidence in traffic control subarea division. Finally, to test the effectiveness of network analysis approach, a hardware-in-loop simulation environment composed of regional traffic control system, microsimulation software and signal controller hardware, will be built. Both traditional method and proposed approach will be implemented on simulation test bed to evaluate traffic operation performance indexes, for example, travel time, stop times, delay and average vehicle speed. Simulation results show that the proposed network analysis approach can improve the traffic control system operation performance effectively.

  7. Dynamic Traffic Congestion Simulation and Dissipation Control Based on Traffic Flow Theory Model and Neural Network Data Calibration Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic congestion is a common problem in many countries, especially in big cities. At present, China’s urban road traffic accidents occur frequently, the occurrence frequency is high, the accident causes traffic congestion, and accidents cause traffic congestion and vice versa. The occurrence of traffic accidents usually leads to the reduction of road traffic capacity and the formation of traffic bottlenecks, causing the traffic congestion. In this paper, the formation and propagation of traffic congestion are simulated by using the improved medium traffic model, and the control strategy of congestion dissipation is studied. From the point of view of quantitative traffic congestion, the paper provides the fact that the simulation platform of urban traffic integration is constructed, and a feasible data analysis, learning, and parameter calibration method based on RBF neural network is proposed, which is used to determine the corresponding decision support system. The simulation results prove that the control strategy proposed in this paper is effective and feasible. According to the temporal and spatial evolution of the paper, we can see that the network has been improved on the whole.

  8. A NEURAL NETWORK BASED TRAFFIC-AWARE FORWARDING STRATEGY IN NAMED DATA NETWORKING

    OpenAIRE

    Parisa Bazmi; Manijeh Keshtgary

    2016-01-01

    Named Data Networking (NDN) is a new Internet architecture which has been proposed to eliminate TCP/IP Internet architecture restrictions. This architecture is abstracting away the notion of host and working based on naming datagrams. However, one of the major challenges of NDN is supporting QoS-aware forwarding strategy so as to forward Interest packets intelligently over multiple paths based on the current network condition. In this paper, Neural Network (NN) Based Traffic-aware Forwarding ...

  9. A Bayes Theory-Based Modeling Algorithm to End-to-end Network Traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Hong-hao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, network traffic has exponentially increasing due to all kind of applications, such as mobile Internet, smart cities, smart transportations, Internet of things, and so on. the end-to-end network traffic becomes more important for traffic engineering. Usually end-to-end traffic estimation is highly difficult. This paper proposes a Bayes theory-based method to model the end-to-end network traffic. Firstly, the end-to-end network traffic is described as a independent identically distributed normal process. Then the Bases theory is used to characterize the end-to-end network traffic. By calculating the parameters, the model is determined correctly. Simulation results show that our approach is feasible and effective.

  10. Entropy-based heavy tailed distribution transformation and visual analytics for monitoring massive network traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Keesook J.; Hodge, Matthew; Ross, Virginia W.

    2011-06-01

    For monitoring network traffic, there is an enormous cost in collecting, storing, and analyzing network traffic datasets. Data mining based network traffic analysis has a growing interest in the cyber security community, but is computationally expensive for finding correlations between attributes in massive network traffic datasets. To lower the cost and reduce computational complexity, it is desirable to perform feasible statistical processing on effective reduced datasets instead of on the original full datasets. Because of the dynamic behavior of network traffic, traffic traces exhibit mixtures of heavy tailed statistical distributions or overdispersion. Heavy tailed network traffic characterization and visualization are important and essential tasks to measure network performance for the Quality of Services. However, heavy tailed distributions are limited in their ability to characterize real-time network traffic due to the difficulty of parameter estimation. The Entropy-Based Heavy Tailed Distribution Transformation (EHTDT) was developed to convert the heavy tailed distribution into a transformed distribution to find the linear approximation. The EHTDT linearization has the advantage of being amenable to characterize and aggregate overdispersion of network traffic in realtime. Results of applying the EHTDT for innovative visual analytics to real network traffic data are presented.

  11. Network Traffic Prediction Based on Deep Belief Network and Spatiotemporal Compressive Sensing in Wireless Mesh Backbone Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laisen Nie

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless mesh network is prevalent for providing a decentralized access for users and other intelligent devices. Meanwhile, it can be employed as the infrastructure of the last few miles connectivity for various network applications, for example, Internet of Things (IoT and mobile networks. For a wireless mesh backbone network, it has obtained extensive attention because of its large capacity and low cost. Network traffic prediction is important for network planning and routing configurations that are implemented to improve the quality of service for users. This paper proposes a network traffic prediction method based on a deep learning architecture and the Spatiotemporal Compressive Sensing method. The proposed method first adopts discrete wavelet transform to extract the low-pass component of network traffic that describes the long-range dependence of itself. Then, a prediction model is built by learning a deep architecture based on the deep belief network from the extracted low-pass component. Otherwise, for the remaining high-pass component that expresses the gusty and irregular fluctuations of network traffic, the Spatiotemporal Compressive Sensing method is adopted to predict it. Based on the predictors of two components, we can obtain a predictor of network traffic. From the simulation, the proposed prediction method outperforms three existing methods.

  12. Traffic Congestion Evaluation and Signal Control Optimization Based on Wireless Sensor Networks: Model and Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the model and algorithms for traffic flow data monitoring and optimal traffic light control based on wireless sensor networks. Given the scenario that sensor nodes are sparsely deployed along the segments between signalized intersections, an analytical model is built using continuum traffic equation and develops the method to estimate traffic parameter with the scattered sensor data. Based on the traffic data and principle of traffic congestion formation, we introduce the congestion factor which can be used to evaluate the real-time traffic congestion status along the segment and to predict the subcritical state of traffic jams. The result is expected to support the timing phase optimization of traffic light control for the purpose of avoiding traffic congestion before its formation. We simulate the traffic monitoring based on the Mobile Century dataset and analyze the performance of traffic light control on VISSIM platform when congestion factor is introduced into the signal timing optimization model. The simulation result shows that this method can improve the spatial-temporal resolution of traffic data monitoring and evaluate traffic congestion status with high precision. It is helpful to remarkably alleviate urban traffic congestion and decrease the average traffic delays and maximum queue length.

  13. Early Model of Traffic Sign Reminder Based on Neural Network

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    Budi Rahmani

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Recognizing the traffic signs installed on the streets is one of the requirements of driving on the road. Laxity in driving may result in traffic accident. This paper describes a real-time reminder model, by utilizing a camera that can be installed in a car to capture image of traffic signs, and is processed and later to inform the driver. The extracting feature harnessing the morphological elements (strel is used in this paper. Artificial Neural Networks is used to train the system and to produce a final decision. The result shows that the accuracy in detecting and recognizing the ten types of traffic signs in real-time is 80%.

  14. Correlation dimension based nonlinear analysis of network traffics with different application protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jun-Song; Yuan Jing; Li Qiang; Yuan Rui-Xi

    2011-01-01

    This paper uses a correlation dimension based nonlinear analysis approach to analyse the dynamics of network traffics with three different application protocols—HTTP, FTP and SMTP. First, the phase space is reconstructed and the embedding parameters are obtained by the mutual information method. Secondly, the correlation dimensions of three different traffics are calculated and the results of analysis have demonstrated that the dynamics of the three different application protocol traffics is different from each other in nature, i.e. HTTP and FTP traffics are chaotic, furthermore, the former is more complex than the later; on the other hand, SMTP traffic is stochastic. It is shown that correlation dimension approach is an efficient method to understand and to characterize the nonlinear dynamics of HTTP, FTP and SMTP protocol network traffics. This analysis provided insight into and a more accurate understanding of nonlinear dynamics of internet traffics which have a complex mixture of chaotic and stochastic components. (general)

  15. Variable speed limit strategies analysis with mesoscopic traffic flow model based on complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shu-Bin; Cao, Dan-Ni; Dang, Wen-Xiu; Zhang, Lin

    As a new cross-discipline, the complexity science has penetrated into every field of economy and society. With the arrival of big data, the research of the complexity science has reached its summit again. In recent years, it offers a new perspective for traffic control by using complex networks theory. The interaction course of various kinds of information in traffic system forms a huge complex system. A new mesoscopic traffic flow model is improved with variable speed limit (VSL), and the simulation process is designed, which is based on the complex networks theory combined with the proposed model. This paper studies effect of VSL on the dynamic traffic flow, and then analyzes the optimal control strategy of VSL in different network topologies. The conclusion of this research is meaningful to put forward some reasonable transportation plan and develop effective traffic management and control measures to help the department of traffic management.

  16. Next generation network based carrier ethernet test bed for IPTV traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fu, Rong; Berger, Michael Stübert; Zheng, Yu

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a Carrier Ethernet (CE) test bed based on the Next Generation Network (NGN) framework. After the concept of CE carried out by Metro Ethernet Forum (MEF), the carrier-grade Ethernet are obtaining more and more interests and being investigated as the low cost and high performanc...... services of transport network to carry the IPTV traffic. This test bed is approaching to support the research on providing a high performance carrier-grade Ethernet transport network for IPTV traffic....

  17. Understanding structure of urban traffic network based on spatial-temporal correlation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yanfang; Jia, Limin; Qin, Yong; Han, Shixiu; Dong, Honghui

    2017-08-01

    Understanding the structural characteristics of urban traffic network comprehensively can provide references for improving road utilization rate and alleviating traffic congestion. This paper focuses on the spatial-temporal correlations between different pairs of traffic series and proposes a complex network-based method of constructing the urban traffic network. In the network, the nodes represent road segments, and an edge between a pair of nodes is added depending on the result of significance test for the corresponding spatial-temporal correlation. Further, a modified PageRank algorithm, named the geographical weight-based PageRank algorithm (GWPA), is proposed to analyze the spatial distribution of important segments in the road network. Finally, experiments are conducted by using three kinds of traffic series collected from the urban road network in Beijing. Experimental results show that the urban traffic networks constructed by three traffic variables all indicate both small-world and scale-free characteristics. Compared with the results of PageRank algorithm, GWPA is proved to be valid in evaluating the importance of segments and identifying the important segments with small degree.

  18. A NEURAL NETWORK BASED TRAFFIC-AWARE FORWARDING STRATEGY IN NAMED DATA NETWORKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parisa Bazmi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Named Data Networking (NDN is a new Internet architecture which has been proposed to eliminate TCP/IP Internet architecture restrictions. This architecture is abstracting away the notion of host and working based on naming datagrams. However, one of the major challenges of NDN is supporting QoS-aware forwarding strategy so as to forward Interest packets intelligently over multiple paths based on the current network condition. In this paper, Neural Network (NN Based Traffic-aware Forwarding strategy (NNTF is introduced in order to determine an optimal path for Interest forwarding. NN is embedded in NDN routers to select next hop dynamically based on the path overload probability achieved from the NN. This solution is characterized by load balancing and QoS-awareness via monitoring the available path and forwarding data on the traffic-aware shortest path. The performance of NNTF is evaluated using ndnSIM which shows the efficiency of this scheme in terms of network QoS improvementof17.5% and 72% reduction in network delay and packet drop respectively.

  19. Entropy Based Analysis of DNS Query Traffic in the Campus Network

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    Dennis Arturo Ludeña Romaña

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available We carried out the entropy based study on the DNS query traffic from the campus network in a university through January 1st, 2006 to March 31st, 2007. The results are summarized, as follows: (1 The source IP addresses- and query keyword-based entropies change symmetrically in the DNS query traffic from the outside of the campus network when detecting the spam bot activity on the campus network. On the other hand (2, the source IP addresses- and query keywordbased entropies change similarly each other when detecting big DNS query traffic caused by prescanning or distributed denial of service (DDoS attack from the campus network. Therefore, we can detect the spam bot and/or DDoS attack bot by only watching DNS query access traffic.

  20. Real time network traffic monitoring for wireless local area networks based on compressed sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balouchestani, Mohammadreza

    2017-05-01

    A wireless local area network (WLAN) is an important type of wireless networks which connotes different wireless nodes in a local area network. WLANs suffer from important problems such as network load balancing, large amount of energy, and load of sampling. This paper presents a new networking traffic approach based on Compressed Sensing (CS) for improving the quality of WLANs. The proposed architecture allows reducing Data Delay Probability (DDP) to 15%, which is a good record for WLANs. The proposed architecture is increased Data Throughput (DT) to 22 % and Signal to Noise (S/N) ratio to 17 %, which provide a good background for establishing high qualified local area networks. This architecture enables continuous data acquisition and compression of WLAN's signals that are suitable for a variety of other wireless networking applications. At the transmitter side of each wireless node, an analog-CS framework is applied at the sensing step before analog to digital converter in order to generate the compressed version of the input signal. At the receiver side of wireless node, a reconstruction algorithm is applied in order to reconstruct the original signals from the compressed signals with high probability and enough accuracy. The proposed algorithm out-performs existing algorithms by achieving a good level of Quality of Service (QoS). This ability allows reducing 15 % of Bit Error Rate (BER) at each wireless node.

  1. A Wavelet Analysis-Based Dynamic Prediction Algorithm to Network Traffic

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    Meng Fan-Bo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Network traffic is a significantly important parameter for network traffic engineering, while it holds highly dynamic nature in the network. Accordingly, it is difficult and impossible to directly predict traffic amount of end-to-end flows. This paper proposes a new prediction algorithm to network traffic using the wavelet analysis. Firstly, network traffic is converted into the time-frequency domain to capture time-frequency feature of network traffic. Secondly, in different frequency components, we model network traffic in the time-frequency domain. Finally, we build the prediction model about network traffic. At the same time, the corresponding prediction algorithm is presented to attain network traffic prediction. Simulation results indicates that our approach is promising.

  2. Traffic Command Gesture Recognition for Virtual Urban Scenes Based on a Spatiotemporal Convolution Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunyong Ma

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Intelligent recognition of traffic police command gestures increases authenticity and interactivity in virtual urban scenes. To actualize real-time traffic gesture recognition, a novel spatiotemporal convolution neural network (ST-CNN model is presented. We utilized Kinect 2.0 to construct a traffic police command gesture skeleton (TPCGS dataset collected from 10 volunteers. Subsequently, convolution operations on the locational change of each skeletal point were performed to extract temporal features, analyze the relative positions of skeletal points, and extract spatial features. After temporal and spatial features based on the three-dimensional positional information of traffic police skeleton points were extracted, the ST-CNN model classified positional information into eight types of Chinese traffic police gestures. The test accuracy of the ST-CNN model was 96.67%. In addition, a virtual urban traffic scene in which real-time command tests were carried out was set up, and a real-time test accuracy rate of 93.0% was achieved. The proposed ST-CNN model ensured a high level of accuracy and robustness. The ST-CNN model recognized traffic command gestures, and such recognition was found to control vehicles in virtual traffic environments, which enriches the interactive mode of the virtual city scene. Traffic command gesture recognition contributes to smart city construction.

  3. Efficient traffic grooming with dynamic ONU grouping for multiple-OLT-based access network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shizong; Gu, Rentao; Ji, Yuefeng; Wang, Hongxiang

    2015-12-01

    Fast bandwidth growth urges large-scale high-density access scenarios, where the multiple Passive Optical Networking (PON) system clustered deployment can be adopted as an appropriate solution to fulfill the huge bandwidth demands, especially for a future 5G mobile network. However, the lack of interaction between different optical line terminals (OLTs) results in part of the bandwidth resources waste. To increase the bandwidth efficiency, as well as reduce bandwidth pressure at the edge of a network, we propose a centralized flexible PON architecture based on Time- and Wavelength-Division Multiplexing PON (TWDM PON). It can provide flexible affiliation for optical network units (ONUs) and different OLTs to support access network traffic localization. Specifically, a dynamic ONU grouping algorithm (DGA) is provided to obtain the minimal OLT outbound traffic. Simulation results show that DGA obtains an average 25.23% traffic gain increment under different OLT numbers within a small ONU number situation, and the traffic gain will increase dramatically with the increment of the ONU number. As the DGA can be deployed easily as an application running above the centralized control plane, the proposed architecture can be helpful to improve the network efficiency for future traffic-intensive access scenarios.

  4. A Big Network Traffic Data Fusion Approach Based on Fisher and Deep Auto-Encoder

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    Xiaoling Tao

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Data fusion is usually performed prior to classification in order to reduce the input space. These dimensionality reduction techniques help to decline the complexity of the classification model and thus improve the classification performance. The traditional supervised methods demand labeled samples, and the current network traffic data mostly is not labeled. Thereby, better learners will be built by using both labeled and unlabeled data, than using each one alone. In this paper, a novel network traffic data fusion approach based on Fisher and deep auto-encoder (DFA-F-DAE is proposed to reduce the data dimensions and the complexity of computation. The experimental results show that the DFA-F-DAE improves the generalization ability of the three classification algorithms (J48, back propagation neural network (BPNN, and support vector machine (SVM by data dimensionality reduction. We found that the DFA-F-DAE remarkably improves the efficiency of big network traffic classification.

  5. Protocol vulnerability detection based on network traffic analysis and binary reverse engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Shameng; Meng, Qingkun; Feng, Chao; Tang, Chaojing

    2017-01-01

    Network protocol vulnerability detection plays an important role in many domains, including protocol security analysis, application security, and network intrusion detection. In this study, by analyzing the general fuzzing method of network protocols, we propose a novel approach that combines network traffic analysis with the binary reverse engineering method. For network traffic analysis, the block-based protocol description language is introduced to construct test scripts, while the binary reverse engineering method employs the genetic algorithm with a fitness function designed to focus on code coverage. This combination leads to a substantial improvement in fuzz testing for network protocols. We build a prototype system and use it to test several real-world network protocol implementations. The experimental results show that the proposed approach detects vulnerabilities more efficiently and effectively than general fuzzing methods such as SPIKE.

  6. Protocol vulnerability detection based on network traffic analysis and binary reverse engineering.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shameng Wen

    Full Text Available Network protocol vulnerability detection plays an important role in many domains, including protocol security analysis, application security, and network intrusion detection. In this study, by analyzing the general fuzzing method of network protocols, we propose a novel approach that combines network traffic analysis with the binary reverse engineering method. For network traffic analysis, the block-based protocol description language is introduced to construct test scripts, while the binary reverse engineering method employs the genetic algorithm with a fitness function designed to focus on code coverage. This combination leads to a substantial improvement in fuzz testing for network protocols. We build a prototype system and use it to test several real-world network protocol implementations. The experimental results show that the proposed approach detects vulnerabilities more efficiently and effectively than general fuzzing methods such as SPIKE.

  7. Development of a Software Based Firewall System for Computer Network Traffic Control

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    Ikhajamgbe OYAKHILOME

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The connection of an internal network to an external network such as Internet has made it vulnerable to attacks. One class of network attack is unauthorized penetration into network due to the openness of networks. It is possible for hackers to sum access to an internal network, this pose great danger to the network and network resources. Our objective and major concern of network design was to build a secured network, based on software firewall that ensured the integrity and confidentiality of information on the network. We studied several mechanisms to achieve this; one of such mechanism is the implementation of firewall system as a network defence. Our developed firewall has the ability to determine which network traffic should be allowed in or out of the network. Part of our studied work was also channelled towards a comprehensive study of hardware firewall security system with the aim of developing this software based firewall system. Our software firewall goes a long way in protecting an internal network from external unauthorized traffic penetration. We included an anti virus software which is lacking in most firewalls.

  8. A Feature Selection Method for Large-Scale Network Traffic Classification Based on Spark

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    Yong Wang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Currently, with the rapid increasing of data scales in network traffic classifications, how to select traffic features efficiently is becoming a big challenge. Although a number of traditional feature selection methods using the Hadoop-MapReduce framework have been proposed, the execution time was still unsatisfactory with numeral iterative computations during the processing. To address this issue, an efficient feature selection method for network traffic based on a new parallel computing framework called Spark is proposed in this paper. In our approach, the complete feature set is firstly preprocessed based on Fisher score, and a sequential forward search strategy is employed for subsets. The optimal feature subset is then selected using the continuous iterations of the Spark computing framework. The implementation demonstrates that, on the precondition of keeping the classification accuracy, our method reduces the time cost of modeling and classification, and improves the execution efficiency of feature selection significantly.

  9. Efficient IP Traffic over Optical Network Based on Wavelength Translation Switching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jha, Vikas; Kalia, Kartik; Chowdhary, Bhawani Shankar

    2016-01-01

    With the advent of TCP/IP protocol suite the overall era of communication technologies had been redefined. Now, we can’t ignore the presence of huge amount of IP traffic; data, voice or video increasing day by day creating more pressure on existing communicating media and supporting back bone....... With the humongous popularity of Internet the overall traffic on Internet has the same story. Focusing on transmission of IP traffic in an optical network with signals remaining in their optical nature generated at particular wavelength, proposed is the switching of optically generated IP packets through optical...... cross connects based on translation of wavelength when an IP packet is crossing the optical cross connect. Adding the concepts of layer 3 routing protocols along with the wavelength translation scheme, will help in spanning the overall optical network for a larger area....

  10. Traffic Flow Prediction Model for Large-Scale Road Network Based on Cloud Computing

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    Zhaosheng Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To increase the efficiency and precision of large-scale road network traffic flow prediction, a genetic algorithm-support vector machine (GA-SVM model based on cloud computing is proposed in this paper, which is based on the analysis of the characteristics and defects of genetic algorithm and support vector machine. In cloud computing environment, firstly, SVM parameters are optimized by the parallel genetic algorithm, and then this optimized parallel SVM model is used to predict traffic flow. On the basis of the traffic flow data of Haizhu District in Guangzhou City, the proposed model was verified and compared with the serial GA-SVM model and parallel GA-SVM model based on MPI (message passing interface. The results demonstrate that the parallel GA-SVM model based on cloud computing has higher prediction accuracy, shorter running time, and higher speedup.

  11. Self-Adapting Routing Overlay Network for Frequently Changing Application Traffic in Content-Based Publish/Subscribe System

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    Meng Chi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the large-scale distributed simulation area, the topology of the overlay network cannot always rapidly adapt to frequently changing application traffic to reduce the overall traffic cost. In this paper, we propose a self-adapting routing strategy for frequently changing application traffic in content-based publish/subscribe system. The strategy firstly trains the traffic information and then uses this training information to predict the application traffic in the future. Finally, the strategy reconfigures the topology of the overlay network based on this predicting information to reduce the overall traffic cost. A predicting path is also introduced in this paper to reduce the reconfiguration numbers in the process of the reconfigurations. Compared to other strategies, the experimental results show that the strategy proposed in this paper could reduce the overall traffic cost of the publish/subscribe system in less reconfigurations.

  12. Wireless traffic steering for green cellular networks

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Shan; Zhou, Sheng; Niu, Zhisheng; Shen, Xuemin (Sherman)

    2016-01-01

    This book introduces wireless traffic steering as a paradigm to realize green communication in multi-tier heterogeneous cellular networks. By matching network resources and dynamic mobile traffic demand, traffic steering helps to reduce on-grid power consumption with on-demand services provided. This book reviews existing solutions from the perspectives of energy consumption reduction and renewable energy harvesting. Specifically, it explains how traffic steering can improve energy efficiency through intelligent traffic-resource matching. Several promising traffic steering approaches for dynamic network planning and renewable energy demand-supply balancing are discussed. This book presents an energy-aware traffic steering method for networks with energy harvesting, which optimizes the traffic allocated to each cell based on the renewable energy status. Renewable energy demand-supply balancing is a key factor in energy dynamics, aimed at enhancing renewable energy sustainability to reduce on-grid energy consum...

  13. Model for Detection and Classification of DDoS Traffic Based on Artificial Neural Network

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    D. Peraković

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Detection of DDoS (Distributed Denial of Service traffic is of great importance for the availability protection of services and other information and communication resources. The research presented in this paper shows the application of artificial neural networks in the development of detection and classification model for three types of DDoS attacks and legitimate network traffic. Simulation results of developed model showed accuracy of 95.6% in classification of pre-defined classes of traffic.

  14. Decentralized State-Observer-Based Traffic Density Estimation of Large-Scale Urban Freeway Network by Dynamic Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuqi Guo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to estimate traffic densities in a large-scale urban freeway network in an accurate and timely fashion when traffic sensors do not cover the freeway network completely and thus only local measurement data can be utilized, this paper proposes a decentralized state observer approach based on a macroscopic traffic flow model. Firstly, by using the well-known cell transmission model (CTM, the urban freeway network is modeled in the way of distributed systems. Secondly, based on the model, a decentralized observer is designed. With the help of the Lyapunov function and S-procedure theory, the observer gains are computed by using linear matrix inequality (LMI technique. So, the traffic densities of the whole road network can be estimated by the designed observer. Finally, this method is applied to the outer ring of the Beijing’s second ring road and experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness and applicability of the proposed approach.

  15. Spatiotemporal Recurrent Convolutional Networks for Traffic Prediction in Transportation Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Haiyang; Wu, Zhihai; Wang, Shuqin; Wang, Yunpeng; Ma, Xiaolei

    2017-06-26

    Predicting large-scale transportation network traffic has become an important and challenging topic in recent decades. Inspired by the domain knowledge of motion prediction, in which the future motion of an object can be predicted based on previous scenes, we propose a network grid representation method that can retain the fine-scale structure of a transportation network. Network-wide traffic speeds are converted into a series of static images and input into a novel deep architecture, namely, spatiotemporal recurrent convolutional networks (SRCNs), for traffic forecasting. The proposed SRCNs inherit the advantages of deep convolutional neural networks (DCNNs) and long short-term memory (LSTM) neural networks. The spatial dependencies of network-wide traffic can be captured by DCNNs, and the temporal dynamics can be learned by LSTMs. An experiment on a Beijing transportation network with 278 links demonstrates that SRCNs outperform other deep learning-based algorithms in both short-term and long-term traffic prediction.

  16. A method for classification of network traffic based on C5.0 Machine Learning Algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bujlow, Tomasz; Riaz, M. Tahir; Pedersen, Jens Myrup

    2012-01-01

    current network traffic. To overcome the drawbacks of existing methods for traffic classification, usage of C5.0 Machine Learning Algorithm (MLA) was proposed. On the basis of statistical traffic information received from volunteers and C5.0 algorithm we constructed a boosted classifier, which was shown...... and classification, an algorithm for recognizing flow direction and the C5.0 itself. Classified applications include Skype, FTP, torrent, web browser traffic, web radio, interactive gaming and SSH. We performed subsequent tries using different sets of parameters and both training and classification options...

  17. Adaptive EWMA Method Based on Abnormal Network Traffic for LDoS Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Tang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The low-rate denial of service (LDoS attacks reduce network services capabilities by periodically sending high intensity pulse data flows. For their concealed performance, it is more difficult for traditional DoS detection methods to detect LDoS attacks; at the same time the accuracy of the current detection methods for LDoS attacks is relatively low. As the fact that LDoS attacks led to abnormal distribution of the ACK traffic, LDoS attacks can be detected by analyzing the distribution characteristics of ACK traffic. Then traditional EWMA algorithm which can smooth the accidental error while being the same as the exceptional mutation may cause some misjudgment; therefore a new LDoS detection method based on adaptive EWMA (AEWMA algorithm is proposed. The AEWMA algorithm which uses an adaptive weighting function instead of the constant weighting of EWMA algorithm can smooth the accidental error and retain the exceptional mutation. So AEWMA method is more beneficial than EWMA method for analyzing and measuring the abnormal distribution of ACK traffic. The NS2 simulations show that AEWMA method can detect LDoS attacks effectively and has a low false negative rate and a false positive rate. Based on DARPA99 datasets, experiment results show that AEWMA method is more efficient than EWMA method.

  18. Energy Saving Scheme Based On Traffic Forwarding For Optical Fiber Access Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopez, G. Arturo Rodes; Estaran Tolosa, Jose Manuel; Vegas Olmos, Juan José

    2013-01-01

    We report on an energy saving block that regroups and powers off OLTs during low traffic periods, resulting in energy savings up to 87,5% in the central office of optical access networks.......We report on an energy saving block that regroups and powers off OLTs during low traffic periods, resulting in energy savings up to 87,5% in the central office of optical access networks....

  19. Network Analysis of Urban Traffic with Big Bus Data

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Urban traffic analysis is crucial for traffic forecasting systems, urban planning and, more recently, various mobile and network applications. In this paper, we analyse urban traffic with network and statistical methods. Our analysis is based on one big bus dataset containing 45 million bus arrival samples in Helsinki. We mainly address following questions: 1. How can we identify the areas that cause most of the traffic in the city? 2. Why there is a urban traffic? Is bus traffic a key cause ...

  20. Analysis of Roadway Traffic Accidents Based on Rough Sets and Bayesian Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxia Xiong

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper integrates Rough Sets (RS and Bayesian Networks (BN for roadway traffic accident analysis. RS reduction of attributes is first employed to generate the key set of attributes affecting accident outcomes, which are then fed into a BN structure as nodes for BN construction and accident outcome classification. Such RS-based BN framework combines the advantages of RS in knowledge reduction capability and BN in describing interrelationships among different attributes. The framework is demonstrated using the 100-car naturalistic driving data from Virginia Tech Transportation Institute to predict accident type. Comparative evaluation with the baseline BNs shows the RS-based BNs generally have a higher prediction accuracy and lower network complexity while with comparable prediction coverage and receiver operating characteristic curve area, proving that the proposed RS-based BN overall outperforms the BNs with/without traditional feature selection approaches. The proposed RS-based BN indicates the most significant attributes that affect accident types include pre-crash manoeuvre, driver’s attention from forward roadway to centre mirror, number of secondary tasks undertaken, traffic density, and relation to junction, most of which feature pre-crash driver states and driver behaviours that have not been extensively researched in literature, and could give further insight into the nature of traffic accidents.

  1. Implementation of a FPGA-Based Feature Detection and Networking System for Real-time Traffic Monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Jieshi; Schafer, Benjamin Carrion; Ho, Ivan Wang-Hei

    2016-01-01

    With the growing demand of real-time traffic monitoring nowadays, software-based image processing can hardly meet the real-time data processing requirement due to the serial data processing nature. In this paper, the implementation of a hardware-based feature detection and networking system prototype for real-time traffic monitoring as well as data transmission is presented. The hardware architecture of the proposed system is mainly composed of three parts: data collection, feature detection,...

  2. Characterization and Modeling of Network Traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shawky, Ahmed; Bergheim, Hans; Ragnarsson, Olafur

    2011-01-01

    -arrival time, IP addresses, port numbers and transport protocol are the only necessary parameters to model network traffic behaviour. In order to recreate this behaviour, a complex model is needed which is able to recreate traffic behaviour based on a set of statistics calculated from the parameters values...

  3. Performance Evaluation of Hadoop-based Large-scale Network Traffic Analysis Cluster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Ran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As Hadoop has gained popularity in big data era, it is widely used in various fields. The self-design and self-developed large-scale network traffic analysis cluster works well based on Hadoop, with off-line applications running on it to analyze the massive network traffic data. On purpose of scientifically and reasonably evaluating the performance of analysis cluster, we propose a performance evaluation system. Firstly, we set the execution times of three benchmark applications as the benchmark of the performance, and pick 40 metrics of customized statistical resource data. Then we identify the relationship between the resource data and the execution times by a statistic modeling analysis approach, which is composed of principal component analysis and multiple linear regression. After training models by historical data, we can predict the execution times by current resource data. Finally, we evaluate the performance of analysis cluster by the validated predicting of execution times. Experimental results show that the predicted execution times by trained models are within acceptable error range, and the evaluation results of performance are accurate and reliable.

  4. A Space-Time Network-Based Modeling Framework for Dynamic Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Routing in Traffic Incident Monitoring Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jisheng Zhang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available It is essential for transportation management centers to equip and manage a network of fixed and mobile sensors in order to quickly detect traffic incidents and further monitor the related impact areas, especially for high-impact accidents with dramatic traffic congestion propagation. As emerging small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs start to have a more flexible regulation environment, it is critically important to fully explore the potential for of using UAVs for monitoring recurring and non-recurring traffic conditions and special events on transportation networks. This paper presents a space-time network- based modeling framework for integrated fixed and mobile sensor networks, in order to provide a rapid and systematic road traffic monitoring mechanism. By constructing a discretized space-time network to characterize not only the speed for UAVs but also the time-sensitive impact areas of traffic congestion, we formulate the problem as a linear integer programming model to minimize the detection delay cost and operational cost, subject to feasible flying route constraints. A Lagrangian relaxation solution framework is developed to decompose the original complex problem into a series of computationally efficient time-dependent and least cost path finding sub-problems. Several examples are used to demonstrate the results of proposed models in UAVs’ route planning for small and medium-scale networks.

  5. The performance evaluation of a new neural network based traffic management scheme for a satellite communication network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Nirwan; Liu, Dequan

    1991-01-01

    A neural-network-based traffic management scheme for a satellite communication network is described. The scheme consists of two levels of management. The front end of the scheme is a derivation of Kohonen's self-organization model to configure maps for the satellite communication network dynamically. The model consists of three stages. The first stage is the pattern recognition task, in which an exemplar map that best meets the current network requirements is selected. The second stage is the analysis of the discrepancy between the chosen exemplar map and the state of the network, and the adaptive modification of the chosen exemplar map to conform closely to the network requirement (input data pattern) by means of Kohonen's self-organization. On the basis of certain performance criteria, whether a new map is generated to replace the original chosen map is decided in the third stage. A state-dependent routing algorithm, which arranges the incoming call to some proper path, is used to make the network more efficient and to lower the call block rate. Simulation results demonstrate that the scheme, which combines self-organization and the state-dependent routing mechanism, provides better performance in terms of call block rate than schemes that only have either the self-organization mechanism or the routing mechanism.

  6. Comparing detection and disclosure of traffic incidents in social networks: an intelligent approach based on Twitter vs. Waze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastián Vallejos

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, social networks have become  in a  communication  medium widely  used to disseminate any type  of  information. In  particular,  the  shared  information  in  social  networks  usually  includes  a  considerable number of traffic incidents reports of specific cities. In light of this, specialized social networks have emerged for detecting and disseminating traffic incidents, differentiating from generic social networks in which a wide variety of  topics  are  communicated.  In this  context,  Twitter  is  a  case  in  point  of  a  generic  social  network  in  which  its users often share information about traffic incidents, while Waze is a social network specialized in traffic. In this paper we present a comparative study between Waze and an intelligent approach that detects traffic incidents by analyzing publications shared in Twitter. The comparative study was carried out considering Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos  Aires  (CABA,  Argentina,  as  the  region  of  interest.  The results of this work suggest that both social networks should be considered as complementary sources of information. This conclusion is based on the fact that the proportion of mutual detections, i.e. traffic incidents detected by both approaches, was considerably low since it did not exceed 6% of the cases. Moreover, the results do not show that any of the approaches tend to anticipate in time to the other one in the detection of traffic incidents.

  7. The Stability of Multi-modal Traffic Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Linghui; Sun Huijun; Zhu Chengjuan; Jia Bin; Wu Jianjun

    2013-01-01

    There is an explicit and implicit assumption in multimodal traffic equilibrium models, that is, if the equilibrium exists, then it will also occur. The assumption is very idealized; in fact, it may be shown that the quite contrary could happen, because in multimodal traffic network, especially in mixed traffic conditions the interaction among traffic modes is asymmetric and the asymmetric interaction may result in the instability of traffic system. In this paper, to study the stability of multimodal traffic system, we respectively present the travel cost function in mixed traffic conditions and in traffic network with dedicated bus lanes. Based on a day-to-day dynamical model, we study the evolution of daily route choice of travelers in multimodal traffic network using 10000 random initial values for different cases. From the results of simulation, it can be concluded that the asymmetric interaction between the cars and buses in mixed traffic conditions can lead the traffic system to instability when traffic demand is larger. We also study the effect of travelers' perception error on the stability of multimodal traffic network. Although the larger perception error can alleviate the effect of interaction between cars and buses and improve the stability of traffic system in mixed traffic conditions, the traffic system also become instable when the traffic demand is larger than a number. For all cases simulated in this study, with the same parameters, traffic system with dedicated bus lane has better stability for traffic demand than that in mixed traffic conditions. We also find that the network with dedicated bus lane has higher portion of travelers by bus than it of mixed traffic network. So it can be concluded that building dedicated bus lane can improve the stability of traffic system and attract more travelers to choose bus reducing the traffic congestion. (general)

  8. Multivariate correlation analysis technique based on euclidean distance map for network traffic characterization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, Zhiyuan; Jamdagni, Aruna; He, Xiangjian; Nanda, Priyadarsi; Liu, Ren Ping; Qing, Sihan; Susilo, Willy; Wang, Guilin; Liu, Dongmei

    2011-01-01

    The quality of feature has significant impact on the performance of detection techniques used for Denial-of-Service (DoS) attack. The features that fail to provide accurate characterization for network traffic records make the techniques suffer from low accuracy in detection. Although researches

  9. A cost-effective traffic data collection system based on the iDEN mobile telecommunication network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-01

    This report describes a cost-effective data collection system for Caltrans 170 traffic signal : controller. The data collection system is based on TCP/IP communication over existing : low-cost mobile communication networks and Motorola iDEN1 mobile...

  10. An Interference-Aware Traffic-Priority-Based Link Scheduling Algorithm for Interference Mitigation in Multiple Wireless Body Area Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thien T. T. Le

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently, wireless body area networks (WBANs are effectively used for health monitoring services. However, in cases where WBANs are densely deployed, interference among WBANs can cause serious degradation of network performance and reliability. Inter-WBAN interference can be reduced by scheduling the communication links of interfering WBANs. In this paper, we propose an interference-aware traffic-priority-based link scheduling (ITLS algorithm to overcome inter-WBAN interference in densely deployed WBANs. First, we model a network with multiple WBANs as an interference graph where node-level interference and traffic priority are taken into account. Second, we formulate link scheduling for multiple WBANs as an optimization model where the objective is to maximize the throughput of the entire network while ensuring the traffic priority of sensor nodes. Finally, we propose the ITLS algorithm for multiple WBANs on the basis of the optimization model. High spatial reuse is also achieved in the proposed ITLS algorithm. The proposed ITLS achieves high spatial reuse while considering traffic priority, packet length, and the number of interfered sensor nodes. Our simulation results show that the proposed ITLS significantly increases spatial reuse and network throughput with lower delay by mitigating inter-WBAN interference.

  11. Clustering-based classification of road traffic accidents using hierarchical clustering and artificial neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taamneh, Madhar; Taamneh, Salah; Alkheder, Sharaf

    2017-09-01

    Artificial neural networks (ANNs) have been widely used in predicting the severity of road traffic crashes. All available information about previously occurred accidents is typically used for building a single prediction model (i.e., classifier). Too little attention has been paid to the differences between these accidents, leading, in most cases, to build less accurate predictors. Hierarchical clustering is a well-known clustering method that seeks to group data by creating a hierarchy of clusters. Using hierarchical clustering and ANNs, a clustering-based classification approach for predicting the injury severity of road traffic accidents was proposed. About 6000 road accidents occurred over a six-year period from 2008 to 2013 in Abu Dhabi were used throughout this study. In order to reduce the amount of variation in data, hierarchical clustering was applied on the data set to organize it into six different forms, each with different number of clusters (i.e., clusters from 1 to 6). Two ANN models were subsequently built for each cluster of accidents in each generated form. The first model was built and validated using all accidents (training set), whereas only 66% of the accidents were used to build the second model, and the remaining 34% were used to test it (percentage split). Finally, the weighted average accuracy was computed for each type of models in each from of data. The results show that when testing the models using the training set, clustering prior to classification achieves (11%-16%) more accuracy than without using clustering, while the percentage split achieves (2%-5%) more accuracy. The results also suggest that partitioning the accidents into six clusters achieves the best accuracy if both types of models are taken into account.

  12. A Spike Neural Controller for Traffic Load Parameter with Priority-Based Rate in Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Adnan Shiltagh

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks (WMSNs are a type of sensor network that contains sensor nodes equipped with cameras, microphones; therefore the WMSNS are able to produce multimedia data such as video and audio streams, still images, and scalar data from the surrounding environment. Most multimedia applications typically produce huge volumes of data, this leads to congestion. To address this challenge, This paper proposes Modify Spike Neural Network control for Traffic Load Parameter with Exponential Weight of Priority Based Rate Control algorithm (MSNTLP with EWBPRC. The Modify Spike Neural Network controller (MSNC can calculate the appropriate traffic load parameter μ for each parent node and then use in the EWPBRC algorithm to estimate the transmission rate of parent nodes and then assign a suitable transmission rate for each child node. A comparative study between (MSNTLP with EWBPRC and fuzzy logic controller for traffic load parameter with Exponential Weight of Priority Based Rate Control algorithm (FTLP with EWBPRC algorithm shows that the (MSNTLP with EWBPRC is more efficient than (FTLP with EWBPRC algorithm in terms of packet loss, queue delay and throughput. Another comparative study between (MSNTLP with EWBPRC and EWBPRC with fixed traffic load parameter (µ shows that the MSNTLP with EWBPRC is more efficient than EWBPRC with fixed traffic load parameter (µ in terms of packet loss ratio and queue delay. A simulation process is developed and tested using the network simulator _2 (NS2 in a computer having the following properties: windows 7 (64-bit, core i7, RAM 8GB, hard 1TB.

  13. A Two-Stage Fuzzy Logic Control Method of Traffic Signal Based on Traffic Urgency Degree

    OpenAIRE

    Yan Ge

    2014-01-01

    City intersection traffic signal control is an important method to improve the efficiency of road network and alleviate traffic congestion. This paper researches traffic signal fuzzy control method on a single intersection. A two-stage traffic signal control method based on traffic urgency degree is proposed according to two-stage fuzzy inference on single intersection. At the first stage, calculate traffic urgency degree for all red phases using traffic urgency evaluation module and select t...

  14. Traffic Management for Next Generation Transport Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Hao

    required by the next generation transport network to provide Quality-of-Service (QoS) guaranteed video services. Augmenting network capacity and upgrading network nodes indicate long deployment period, replacement of equipment and thus significant cost to the network service providers. This challenge may...... slacken the steps of some network operators towards providing IPTV services. In this dissertation, the topology-based hierarchical scheduling scheme is proposed to tackle the problem addressed. The scheme simplifies the deployment process by placing an intelligent switch with centralized traffic...... management functions at the edge of the network, scheduling traffic on behalf of the other nodes. The topology-based hierarchical scheduling scheme is able to provide outstanding flow isolation due to its centralized scheduling ability, which is essential for providing IPTV services. In order to reduce...

  15. Trajectory Based Traffic Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Benjamin Bjerre; Andersen, Ove; Lewis-Kelham, Edwin

    2013-01-01

    We present the INTRA system for interactive path-based traffic analysis. The analyses are developed in collaboration with traffic researchers and provide novel insights into conditions such as congestion, travel-time, choice of route, and traffic-flow. INTRA supports interactive point-and-click a......We present the INTRA system for interactive path-based traffic analysis. The analyses are developed in collaboration with traffic researchers and provide novel insights into conditions such as congestion, travel-time, choice of route, and traffic-flow. INTRA supports interactive point......-and-click analysis, due to a novel and efficient indexing structure. With the web-site daisy.aau.dk/its/spqdemo/we will demonstrate several analyses, using a very large real-world data set consisting of 1.9 billion GPS records (1.5 million trajectories) recorded from more than 13000 vehicles, and touching most...

  16. Spatiotemporal Recurrent Convolutional Networks for Traffic Prediction in Transportation Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyang Yu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Predicting large-scale transportation network traffic has become an important and challenging topic in recent decades. Inspired by the domain knowledge of motion prediction, in which the future motion of an object can be predicted based on previous scenes, we propose a network grid representation method that can retain the fine-scale structure of a transportation network. Network-wide traffic speeds are converted into a series of static images and input into a novel deep architecture, namely, spatiotemporal recurrent convolutional networks (SRCNs, for traffic forecasting. The proposed SRCNs inherit the advantages of deep convolutional neural networks (DCNNs and long short-term memory (LSTM neural networks. The spatial dependencies of network-wide traffic can be captured by DCNNs, and the temporal dynamics can be learned by LSTMs. An experiment on a Beijing transportation network with 278 links demonstrates that SRCNs outperform other deep learning-based algorithms in both short-term and long-term traffic prediction.

  17. Energy Savings in Cellular Networks Based on Space-Time Structure of Traffic Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jingbo; Wang, Yue; Yuan, Jian; Shan, Xiuming

    Since most of energy consumed by the telecommunication infrastructure is due to the Base Transceiver Station (BTS), switching off BTSs when traffic load is low has been recognized as an effective way of saving energy. In this letter, an energy saving scheme is proposed to minimize the number of active BTSs based on the space-time structure of traffic loads as determined by principal component analysis. Compared to existing methods, our approach models traffic loads more accurately, and has a much smaller input size. As it is implemented in an off-line manner, our scheme also avoids excessive communications and computing overheads. Simulation results show that the proposed method has a comparable performance in energy savings.

  18. Active Traffic Capture for Network Forensics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaviero, Marco; Granova, Anna; Olivier, Martin

    Network traffic capture is an integral part of network forensics, but current traffic capture techniques are typically passive in nature. Under heavy loads, it is possible for a sniffer to miss packets, which affects the quality of forensic evidence.

  19. Model based monitoring of urban traffic noise : A wireless sensor network design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wessels, P.W.; Basten, T.G.H.; Eerden, F.J.M. van der

    2012-01-01

    A good understanding of the acoustic environment due to traffic in urban areas is very important and can be obtained by long term model based monitoring within large areas. As a result one has a good basis for assessing the effect of mitigating measures and for communication and policy making. A

  20. Predicting Information Flows in Network Traffic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinich, Melvin J.; Molyneux, Robert E.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses information flow in networks and predicting network traffic and describes a study that uses time series analysis on a day's worth of Internet log data. Examines nonlinearity and traffic invariants, and suggests that prediction of network traffic may not be possible with current techniques. (Author/LRW)

  1. Network traffic anomaly prediction using Artificial Neural Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciptaningtyas, Hening Titi; Fatichah, Chastine; Sabila, Altea

    2017-03-01

    As the excessive increase of internet usage, the malicious software (malware) has also increase significantly. Malware is software developed by hacker for illegal purpose(s), such as stealing data and identity, causing computer damage, or denying service to other user[1]. Malware which attack computer or server often triggers network traffic anomaly phenomena. Based on Sophos's report[2], Indonesia is the riskiest country of malware attack and it also has high network traffic anomaly. This research uses Artificial Neural Network (ANN) to predict network traffic anomaly based on malware attack in Indonesia which is recorded by Id-SIRTII/CC (Indonesia Security Incident Response Team on Internet Infrastructure/Coordination Center). The case study is the highest malware attack (SQL injection) which has happened in three consecutive years: 2012, 2013, and 2014[4]. The data series is preprocessed first, then the network traffic anomaly is predicted using Artificial Neural Network and using two weight update algorithms: Gradient Descent and Momentum. Error of prediction is calculated using Mean Squared Error (MSE) [7]. The experimental result shows that MSE for SQL Injection is 0.03856. So, this approach can be used to predict network traffic anomaly.

  2. Ontology-Based Architecture for Intelligent Transportation Systems Using a Traffic Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susel Fernandez

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Intelligent transportation systems are a set of technological solutions used to improve the performance and safety of road transportation. A crucial element for the success of these systems is the exchange of information, not only between vehicles, but also among other components in the road infrastructure through different applications. One of the most important information sources in this kind of systems is sensors. Sensors can be within vehicles or as part of the infrastructure, such as bridges, roads or traffic signs. Sensors can provide information related to weather conditions and traffic situation, which is useful to improve the driving process. To facilitate the exchange of information between the different applications that use sensor data, a common framework of knowledge is needed to allow interoperability. In this paper an ontology-driven architecture to improve the driving environment through a traffic sensor network is proposed. The system performs different tasks automatically to increase driver safety and comfort using the information provided by the sensors.

  3. An analysis of network traffic classification for botnet detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stevanovic, Matija; Pedersen, Jens Myrup

    2015-01-01

    of detecting botnet network traffic using three methods that target protocols widely considered as the main carriers of botnet Command and Control (C&C) and attack traffic, i.e. TCP, UDP and DNS. We propose three traffic classification methods based on capable Random Forests classifier. The proposed methods...

  4. From Goods to Traffic:First Steps Toward an Auction-based Traffic Signal Controller

    OpenAIRE

    Raphael, Jeffery; Maskell, Simon; Sklar, Elizabeth Ida

    2015-01-01

    Traffic congestion is a major issue that plagues many urban road networks large and small. Traffic engineers are now leaning towards Intelligent Traffic Systems as many physical changes to road networks are costly or infeasible. Multi-Agent Systems (MAS) have become a popular paradigm for intelligent solutions to traffic management problems. There are many MAS approaches to traffic management that utilise market mechanisms. In market-based approaches, drivers “pay” to use the roadways. Howeve...

  5. Energy-Saving Mechanism in WDM/TDM-PON Based on Upstream Network Traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Garfias

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the main challenges of Passive Optical Networks (PONs is the resource (bandwidth and wavelength management. Since it has been shown that access networks consume a significant part of the overall energy of the telecom networks, the resource management schemes should also consider energy minimization strategies. To sustain the increased bandwidth demand of emerging applications in the access section of the network, it is expected that next generation optical access networks will adopt the wavelength division/time division multiplexing (WDM/TDM technique to increase PONs capacity. Compared with traditional PONs, the architecture of a WDM/TDM-PON requires more transceivers/receivers, hence they are expected to consume more energy. In this paper, we focus on the energy minimization in WDM/TDM-PONs and we propose an energy-efficient Dynamic Bandwidth and Wavelength Allocation mechanism whose objective is to turn off, whenever possible, the unnecessary upstream traffic receivers at the Optical Line Terminal (OLT. We evaluate our mechanism in different scenarios and show that the proper use of upstream channels leads to relevant energy savings. Our proposed energy-saving mechanism is able to save energy at the OLT while maintaining the introduced penalties in terms of packet delay and cycle time within an acceptable range. We might highlight the benefits of our proposal as a mechanism that maximizes the channel utilization. Detailed implementation of the proposed algorithm is presented, and simulation results are reported to quantify energy savings and effects on network performance on different network scenarios.

  6. Analysis and Classification of Traffic in Wireless Sensor Network

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Beng, Wang W

    2007-01-01

    .... Specifically, this thesis studied the traffic generated by wireless sensor networks by setting up two different commonly used network topologies, namely a direct connection to the base and a daisy...

  7. Virtual network topology reconfiguration based on big data analytics for traffic prediction

    OpenAIRE

    Morales Alcaide, Fernando; Ruiz Ramírez, Marc; Velasco Esteban, Luis Domingo

    2016-01-01

    Big data analytics is applied for IP traffic prediction. When the virtual topology needs to be reconfigured, predicted and current traffic matrices are used to find the optimal topology. Exhaustive simulation results reveal large benefits. Peer Reviewed

  8. Classification and Analysis of Computer Network Traffic

    OpenAIRE

    Bujlow, Tomasz

    2014-01-01

    Traffic monitoring and analysis can be done for multiple different reasons: to investigate the usage of network resources, assess the performance of network applications, adjust Quality of Service (QoS) policies in the network, log the traffic to comply with the law, or create realistic models of traffic for academic purposes. We define the objective of this thesis as finding a way to evaluate the performance of various applications in a high-speed Internet infrastructure. To satisfy the obje...

  9. Machine learning for identifying botnet network traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stevanovic, Matija; Pedersen, Jens Myrup

    2013-01-01

    . Due to promise of non-invasive and resilient detection, botnet detection based on network traffic analysis has drawn a special attention of the research community. Furthermore, many authors have turned their attention to the use of machine learning algorithms as the mean of inferring botnet......-related knowledge from the monitored traffic. This paper presents a review of contemporary botnet detection methods that use machine learning as a tool of identifying botnet-related traffic. The main goal of the paper is to provide a comprehensive overview on the field by summarizing current scientific efforts....... The contribution of the paper is three-fold. First, the paper provides a detailed insight on the existing detection methods by investigating which bot-related heuristic were assumed by the detection systems and how different machine learning techniques were adapted in order to capture botnet-related knowledge...

  10. Traffic Dynamics of Computer Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekete, Attila

    2008-10-01

    Two important aspects of the Internet, namely the properties of its topology and the characteristics of its data traffic, have attracted growing attention of the physics community. My thesis has considered problems of both aspects. First I studied the stochastic behavior of TCP, the primary algorithm governing traffic in the current Internet, in an elementary network scenario consisting of a standalone infinite-sized buffer and an access link. The effect of the fast recovery and fast retransmission (FR/FR) algorithms is also considered. I showed that my model can be extended further to involve the effect of link propagation delay, characteristic of WAN. I continued my thesis with the investigation of finite-sized semi-bottleneck buffers, where packets can be dropped not only at the link, but also at the buffer. I demonstrated that the behavior of the system depends only on a certain combination of the parameters. Moreover, an analytic formula was derived that gives the ratio of packet loss rate at the buffer to the total packet loss rate. This formula makes it possible to treat buffer-losses as if they were link-losses. Finally, I studied computer networks from a structural perspective. I demonstrated through fluid simulations that the distribution of resources, specifically the link bandwidth, has a serious impact on the global performance of the network. Then I analyzed the distribution of edge betweenness in a growing scale-free tree under the condition that a local property, the in-degree of the "younger" node of an arbitrary edge, is known in order to find an optimum distribution of link capacity. The derived formula is exact even for finite-sized networks. I also calculated the conditional expectation of edge betweenness, rescaled for infinite networks.

  11. Role of Distance-Based Routing in Traffic Dynamics on Mobile Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Han-Xin; Wang, Wen-Xu

    2013-06-01

    Despite of intensive investigations on transportation dynamics taking place on complex networks with fixed structures, a deep understanding of networks consisting of mobile nodes is challenging yet, especially the lacking of insight into the effects of routing strategies on transmission efficiency. We introduce a distance-based routing strategy for networks of mobile agents toward enhancing the network throughput and the transmission efficiency. We study the transportation capacity and delivering time of data packets associated with mobility and communication ability. Interestingly, we find that the transportation capacity is optimized at moderate moving speed, which is quite different from random routing strategy. In addition, both continuous and discontinuous transitions from free flow to congestions are observed. Degree distributions are explored in order to explain the enhancement of network throughput and other observations. Our work is valuable toward understanding complex transportation dynamics and designing effective routing protocols.

  12. Routing strategies in traffic network and phase transition in network ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The dynamics of information traffic over scale-free networks has been investigated systematically. A series of routing strategies of data packets have been proposed, including the local routing strategy, the next-nearest-neighbour routing strategy, and the mixed routing strategy based on local static and dynamic information.

  13. Energy-efficient multicast traffic grooming strategy based on light-tree splitting for elastic optical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huanlin; Yin, Yarui; Chen, Yong

    2017-07-01

    In order to address the problem of optimizing the spectrum resources and power consumption in elastic optical networks (EONs), we investigate the potential gains by jointly employing the light-tree splitting and traffic grooming for multicast requests. An energy-efficient multicast traffic grooming strategy based on light-tree splitting (EED-MTGS-LS) is proposed in this paper. Firstly, we design a traffic pre-processing mechanism to decide the multicast requests' routing order, which considers the request's bandwidth requirement and physical hops synthetically. Then, by dividing a light-tree to some sub-light-trees and grooming the request to these sub-light-trees, the light-tree sharing ratios of multicast requests can be improved. What's more, a priority scheduling vector is constructed, which aims to improve the success rate of spectrum assignment for grooming requests. Finally, a grooming strategy is designed to optimize the total power consumption by reducing the use of transponders and IP routers during routing. Simulation results show that the proposed strategy can significantly improve the spectrum utilization and save the power consumption.

  14. Multicast traffic grooming in flexible optical WDM networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Ankitkumar N.; Ji, Philip N.; Jue, Jason P.; Wang, Ting

    2012-12-01

    In Metropolitan Area Networks (MANs), point-to-multipoint applications, such as IPTV, video-on-demand, distance learning, and content distribution, can be efficiently supported through light-tree-based multicastcommunications instead of lightpath-based unicast-communications. The application of multicasting for such traffic is justified by its inherent benefits of reduced control and management overhead and elimination of redundant resource provisioning. Supporting such multicast traffic in Flexible optical WDM (FWDM) networks that can provision light-trees using optimum amount of spectrum within flexible channel spacing leads to higher wavelength and spectral efficiencies compared to the conventional ITU-T fixed grid networks. However, in spite of such flexibility, the residual channel capacity of stranded channels may not be utilized if the network does not offer channels with arbitrary line rates. Additionally, the spectrum allocated to guard bands used to isolate finer granularity channels remains unutilized. These limitations can be addressed by using traffic grooming in which low-rate multicast connections are aggregated and switched over high capacity light-trees. In this paper, we address the multicast traffic grooming problem in FWDM networks, and propose a novel auxiliary graph-based algorithm for the first time. The performance of multicast traffic grooming is evaluated in terms of spectral, cost, and energy efficiencies compared to lightpath-based transparent FWDM networks, lightpathbased traffic grooming-capable FWDM networks, multicast-enabled transparent FWDM networks, and multicast traffic grooming-capable fixed grid networks. Simulation results demonstrate that multicast traffic grooming in FWDM networks not only improves spectral efficiency, but also cost, and energy efficiencies compared to other multicast traffic provisioning approaches of FWDM and fixed grid networks.

  15. A Network Traffic Control Enhancement Approach over Bluetooth Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Son, L.T.; Schiøler, Henrik; Madsen, Ole Brun

    2003-01-01

    This paper analyzes network traffic control issues in Bluetooth data networks as convex optimization problem. We formulate the problem of maximizing of total network flows and minimizing the costs of flows. An adaptive distributed network traffic control scheme is proposed as an approximated solu...... as capacity limitations and flow requirements in the network. Simulation shows that the performance of Bluetooth networks could be improved by applying the adaptive distributed network traffic control scheme...... solution of the stated optimization problem that satisfies quality of service requirements and topologically induced constraints in Bluetooth networks, such as link capacity and node resource limitations. The proposed scheme is decentralized and complies with frequent changes of topology as well......This paper analyzes network traffic control issues in Bluetooth data networks as convex optimization problem. We formulate the problem of maximizing of total network flows and minimizing the costs of flows. An adaptive distributed network traffic control scheme is proposed as an approximated...

  16. Proactive Traffic Information Control in Emergency Evacuation Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengfeng Huang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic demand in emergency evacuation is usually too large to be effectively managed with reactive traffic information control methods. These methods adapt to the road traffic passively by publishing real-time information without consideration of the routing behavior feedback produced by evacuees. Other remedy measures have to be prepared in case of nonrecurring congestion under these methods. To use the network capacity fully to mitigate near-future evacuation traffic congestion, we propose proactive traffic information control (PTIC model. Based on the mechanism between information and routing behavior feedback, this model can change the route choice of evacuees in advance by dissipating strategic traffic information. Generally, the near-future traffic condition is difficult to accurately predict because it is uncertain in evacuation. Assume that the value of traffic information obeys certain distribution within a range, and then real-time traffic information may reflect the most-likely near-future traffic condition. Unlike the real-time information, the proactive traffic information is a selection within the range to achieve a desired level of the road network performance index (total system travel time. In the aspect of the solution algorithm, differential equilibrium decomposed optimization (D-EDO is proposed to compare with other heuristic methods. A field study on a road network around a large stadium is used to validate the PTIC.

  17. Self-Similar Traffic In Wireless Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Jerjomins, R.; Petersons, E.

    2005-01-01

    Many studies have shown that traffic in Ethernet and other wired networks is self-similar. This paper reveals that wireless network traffic is also self-similar and long-range dependant by analyzing big amount of data captured from the wireless router.

  18. Consistency analysis of network traffic repositories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lastdrager, Elmer; Lastdrager, E.E.H.; Pras, Aiko

    Traffic repositories with TCP/IP header information are very important for network analysis. Researchers often assume that such repositories reliably represent all traffic that has been flowing over the network; little thoughts are made regarding the consistency of these repositories. Still, for

  19. Traffic Dynamics on Complex Networks: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengyong Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic dynamics on complex networks are intriguing in recent years due to their practical implications in real communication networks. In this survey, we give a brief review of studies on traffic routing dynamics on complex networks. Strategies for improving transport efficiency, including designing efficient routing strategies and making appropriate adjustments to the underlying network structure, are introduced in this survey. Finally, a few open problems are discussed in this survey.

  20. Analysis of Traffic Engineering capabilities for SDN-based Data Center Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilimon, Artur; Kentis, Angelos Mimidis; Ruepp, Sarah Renée

    2018-01-01

    In the recent years more and more existing services have moved from local execution environments into the cloud. In addition, new cloud-based services are emerging, which are characterized by very stringent delay requirements. This trend puts a stress in the existing monolithic architecture of Data...... techniques focusing on their limitations. Then, it highlights the benefits of incorporating the Software Defined Networking (SDN) paradigm to address these limitations. Furthermore, it illustrates two methodologies and addresses the scalability aspect of DCN-oriented TE, network and service testing...

  1. Power Efficient Service Differentiation Based on Traffic-Aware Survivable Elastic Optical Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turus, Ioan; Fagertun, Anna Manolova; Dittmann, Lars

    2014-01-01

    This study assesses the feasible energy savings whendefining different service classes based on protection schemesincore optical networks.Wepropose a dedicated energy savingstrategy for each of the service classes in order to minimize theoverall power consumption of the network.Four Classes of Se...... while for the proposed approach the difference in power consumption is almost negligible.Moreover, incase of the proposed approach,silver serviceclass can benefit for superior quality of service compared to the gold service class, due to the grooming mechanism.......This study assesses the feasible energy savings whendefining different service classes based on protection schemesincore optical networks.Wepropose a dedicated energy savingstrategy for each of the service classes in order to minimize theoverall power consumption of the network.Four Classes...... the sleep-mode capability of the opto-electronic devices as well as the elastic data-rateadaptation based on symbol-rate and modulation-format re-configurations. The results show that in the baseline approach the power consumption is strongly dependent on the ratio between the different service classes...

  2. Synchronization between Different Networks with Time-Varying Delay and Its Application in Bilayer Coupled Public Traffic Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenju Du

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the dynamic characteristics of urban public traffic network, this paper establishes the conventional bus traffic network and the urban rail traffic network based on the space R modeling method. Then regarding these two networks as the subnetwork, the paper presents a new bilayer coupled public traffic network through the transfer relationship between subway and bus, and this model well reflects the connection between the passengers and bus operating vehicles. Based on the synchronization theory of coupling network with time-varying delay and taking “Lorenz system” as the network node, the paper studies the synchronization of bilayer coupled public traffic network. Finally, numerical results are given to show the impact of public traffic dispatching, delayed departure, the number of public bus stops between bus lines, and the number of transfer stations between two traffic modes on the bilayer coupled public traffic network balance through Matlab simulation.

  3. Scheduling Network Traffic for Grid Purposes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamst, Mette

    This thesis concerns scheduling of network traffic in grid context. Grid computing consists of a number of geographically distributed computers, which work together for solving large problems. The computers are connected through a network. When scheduling job execution in grid computing, data...... transmission has so far not been taken into account. This causes stability problems, because data transmission takes time and thus causes delays to the execution plan. This thesis proposes the integration of job scheduling and network routing. The scientific contribution is based on methods from operations...... research and consists of six papers. The first four considers data transmission in grid context. The last two solves the data transmission problem, where the number of paths per data connection is bounded from above. The thesis shows that it is possible to solve the integrated job scheduling and network...

  4. On traffic modelling in GPRS networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Tatiana Kozlova; Schwefel, Hans-Peter; Prasad, Ramjee

    2005-01-01

    Optimal design and dimensioning of wireless data networks, such as GPRS, requires the knowledge of traffic characteristics of different data services. This paper presents an in-detail analysis of an IP-level traffic measurements taken in an operational GPRS network. The data measurements reported...... here are done at the Gi interface. The aim of this paper is to reveal some key statistics of GPRS data applications and to validate if the existing traffic models can adequately describe traffic volume and inter-arrival time distribution for different services. Additionally, we present a method of user...

  5. Sonification of network traffic flow for monitoring and situational awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Maintaining situational awareness of what is happening within a computer network is challenging, not only because the behaviour happens within machines, but also because data traffic speeds and volumes are beyond human ability to process. Visualisation techniques are widely used to present information about network traffic dynamics. Although they provide operators with an overall view and specific information about particular traffic or attacks on the network, they often still fail to represent the events in an understandable way. Also, because they require visual attention they are not well suited to continuous monitoring scenarios in which network administrators must carry out other tasks. Here we present SoNSTAR (Sonification of Networks for SiTuational AwaReness), a real-time sonification system for monitoring computer networks to support network administrators’ situational awareness. SoNSTAR provides an auditory representation of all the TCP/IP traffic within a network based on the different traffic flows between between network hosts. A user study showed that SoNSTAR raises situational awareness levels by enabling operators to understand network behaviour and with the benefit of lower workload demands (as measured by the NASA TLX method) than visual techniques. SoNSTAR identifies network traffic features by inspecting the status flags of TCP/IP packet headers. Combinations of these features define particular traffic events which are mapped to recorded sounds to generate a soundscape that represents the real-time status of the network traffic environment. The sequence, timing, and loudness of the different sounds allow the network to be monitored and anomalous behaviour to be detected without the need to continuously watch a monitor screen. PMID:29672543

  6. Sonification of network traffic flow for monitoring and situational awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debashi, Mohamed; Vickers, Paul

    2018-01-01

    Maintaining situational awareness of what is happening within a computer network is challenging, not only because the behaviour happens within machines, but also because data traffic speeds and volumes are beyond human ability to process. Visualisation techniques are widely used to present information about network traffic dynamics. Although they provide operators with an overall view and specific information about particular traffic or attacks on the network, they often still fail to represent the events in an understandable way. Also, because they require visual attention they are not well suited to continuous monitoring scenarios in which network administrators must carry out other tasks. Here we present SoNSTAR (Sonification of Networks for SiTuational AwaReness), a real-time sonification system for monitoring computer networks to support network administrators' situational awareness. SoNSTAR provides an auditory representation of all the TCP/IP traffic within a network based on the different traffic flows between between network hosts. A user study showed that SoNSTAR raises situational awareness levels by enabling operators to understand network behaviour and with the benefit of lower workload demands (as measured by the NASA TLX method) than visual techniques. SoNSTAR identifies network traffic features by inspecting the status flags of TCP/IP packet headers. Combinations of these features define particular traffic events which are mapped to recorded sounds to generate a soundscape that represents the real-time status of the network traffic environment. The sequence, timing, and loudness of the different sounds allow the network to be monitored and anomalous behaviour to be detected without the need to continuously watch a monitor screen.

  7. Modeling real time CBTC operation in mixed traffic networks: A simulation-based approach

    OpenAIRE

    De Martinis, Valerio; Toletti, Ambra; Weidmann, Ulrich; Nash, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Vehicle automation and continuous connection with communication networks are the key innovations currently redefining transport systems. Just as autonomous cars are rapidly changing road transport, increasing railway automation will help to maximize the use of infrastructure, increase schedule reliability, improve safety, and increase energy efficiency. However, railway operations are fundamentally different from road-based transport systems and automation must be specifically tailored to rai...

  8. Agent Based Individual Traffic guidance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wanscher, Jørgen Bundgaard

    2004-01-01

    When working with traffic planning or guidance it is common practice to view the vehicles as a combined mass. >From this models are employed to specify the vehicle supply and demand for each region. As the models are complex and the calculations are equally demanding the regions and the detail...... of the road network is aggregated. As a result the calculations reveal only what the mass of vehicles are doing and not what a single vehicle is doing. This is the crucial difference to ABIT (Agent Based Individual Trafficguidance). ABIT is based on the fact that information on the destination of each vehicle...

  9. Energy savings in dynamic and resilient optical networks based on traffic-aware strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turus, Ioan; Fagertun, Anna Manolova; Dittmann, Lars

    2014-01-01

    andconnections. Results show that symbol-rateadaptation provides high savings for unprotected scenarios (37% energy savings w.r.t. unprotected Baseline), while for theprotected scenarios better results are obtained for modulationformat adaptation which includes sleep-mode (57.1% energysavings w.r.t. protected...... Baseline). Moreover, compared to theBaseline scenarios the Mixed adaptation, combining bothsymbol-rate and modulation format, is the most power-efficientstrategy providing 39% energy savings for unprotected scenarioand 70% energy savings for dedicated protection scenario.......An analysis of the energy savingsis presentedwhen taking into account a complete traffic model for a one-yeartime period. Daily and weekly traffic fluctuations as well asyearly traffic growth are considered whenanalyzing the powerconsumption.Low power mode in optoelectronic devices (sleep...

  10. Modeling Network Traffic in Wavelet Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Ma

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This work discovers that although network traffic has the complicated short- and long-range temporal dependence, the corresponding wavelet coefficients are no longer long-range dependent. Therefore, a "short-range" dependent process can be used to model network traffic in the wavelet domain. Both independent and Markov models are investigated. Theoretical analysis shows that the independent wavelet model is sufficiently accurate in terms of the buffer overflow probability for Fractional Gaussian Noise traffic. Any model, which captures additional correlations in the wavelet domain, only improves the performance marginally. The independent wavelet model is then used as a unified approach to model network traffic including VBR MPEG video and Ethernet data. The computational complexity is O(N for developing such wavelet models and generating synthesized traffic of length N, which is among the lowest attained.

  11. New Solutions Based On Wireless Networks For Dynamic Traffic Lights Management: A Comparison Between IEEE 802.15.4 And Bluetooth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collotta Mario

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Wireless Sensor Networks are widely used to detect and exchange information and in recent years they have been increasingly involved in Intelligent Transportation System applications, especially in dynamic management of signalized intersections. In fact, the real-time knowledge of information concerning traffic light junctions represents a valid solution to congestion problems. In this paper, a wireless network architecture, based on IEEE 802.15.4 or Bluetooth, in order to monitor vehicular traffic flows near to traffic lights, is introduced. Moreover, an innovative algorithm is proposed in order to determine dynamically green times and phase sequence of traffic lights, based on measured values of traffic flows. Several simulations compare IEEE 802.15.4 and Bluetooth protocols in order to identify the more suitable communication protocol for ITS applications. Furthermore, in order to confirm the validity of the proposed algorithm for the dynamic management of traffic lights, some case studies have been considered and several simulations have been performed.

  12. Volunteer-Based System for classification of traffic in computer networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bujlow, Tomasz; Balachandran, Kartheepan; Riaz, M. Tahir

    2011-01-01

    To overcome the drawbacks of existing methods for traffic classification (by ports, Deep Packet Inspection, statistical classification) a new system was developed, in which the data are collected from client machines. This paper presents design of the system, implementation, initial runs and obta...

  13. Fixed Point Learning Based Intelligent Traffic Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zongyao, Wang; Cong, Sui; Cheng, Shao

    2017-10-01

    Fixed point learning has become an important tool to analyse large scale distributed system such as urban traffic network. This paper presents a fixed point learning based intelligence traffic network control system. The system applies convergence property of fixed point theorem to optimize the traffic flow density. The intelligence traffic control system achieves maximum road resources usage by averaging traffic flow density among the traffic network. The intelligence traffic network control system is built based on decentralized structure and intelligence cooperation. No central control is needed to manage the system. The proposed system is simple, effective and feasible for practical use. The performance of the system is tested via theoretical proof and simulations. The results demonstrate that the system can effectively solve the traffic congestion problem and increase the vehicles average speed. It also proves that the system is flexible, reliable and feasible for practical use.

  14. Multirate IP traffic transmission in flexible access networks based on optical FFH-CDMA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raddo, Thiago R.; Sanches, Anderson L.; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new IP transmission architecture over optical fast frequency hopping code-division multiple-access (OFFH-CDMA) network capable of supporting multirate transmissions for applications in flexible optical access networks. The proposed network architecture is independent...

  15. A sensor network architecture for urban traffic state estimation with mixed eulerian/lagrangian sensing based on distributed computing

    KAUST Repository

    Canepa, Edward S.; Odat, Enas M.; Dehwah, Ahmad H.; Mousa, Mustafa; Jiang, Jiming; Claudel, Christian G.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a new approach to urban traffic flow sensing using decentralized traffic state estimation. Traffic sensor data is generated both by fixed traffic flow sensor nodes and by probe vehicles equipped with a short range transceiver. The data generated by these sensors is sent to a local coordinator node, that poses the problem of estimating the local state of traffic as a mixed integer linear program (MILP). The resulting optimization program is then solved by the nodes in a distributed manner, using branch-and-bound methods. An optimal amount of noise is then added to the maps before dissemination to a central database. Unlike existing probe-based traffic monitoring systems, this system does not transmit user generated location tracks nor any user presence information to a centralized server, effectively preventing privacy attacks. A simulation of the system performance on computer-generated traffic data shows that the system can be implemented with currently available technology. © 2014 Springer International Publishing Switzerland.

  16. Using OpenSSH to secure mobile LAN network traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luu, Brian B.; Gopaul, Richard D.

    2002-08-01

    Mobile Internet Protocol (IP) Local Area Network (LAN) is a technique, developed by the U.S. Army Research Laboratory, which allows a LAN to be IP mobile when attaching to a foreign IP-based network and using this network as a means to retain connectivity to its home network. In this paper, we describe a technique that uses Open Secure Shell (OpenSSH) software to ensure secure, encrypted transmission of a mobile LAN's network traffic. Whenever a mobile LAN, implemented with Mobile IP LAN, moves to a foreign network, its gateway (router) obtains an IP address from the new network. IP tunnels, using IP encapsulation, are then established from the gateway through the foreign network to a home agent on its home network. These tunnels provide a virtual two-way connection to the home network for the mobile LAN as if the LAN were connected directly to its home network. Hence, when IP mobile, a mobile LAN's tunneled network traffic must traverse one or more foreign networks that may not be trusted. This traffic could be subject to eavesdropping, interception, modification, or redirection by malicious nodes in these foreign networks. To protect network traffic passing through the tunnels, OpenSSH is used as a means of encryption because it prevents surveillance, modification, and redirection of mobile LAN traffic passing across foreign networks. Since the software is found in the public domain, is available for most current operating systems, and is commonly used to provide secure network communications, OpenSSH is the software of choice.

  17. The Effect of Queueing Strategy on Network Traffic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xue-Jun; Guan Xiang-Min; Sun Deng-Feng; Tang Shao-Ting

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, the transportation system has been faced by increasing challenge in congestion and inefficiency, and research in traffic network has become a significant area of interest. In this paper, we introduce a dynamic-information-based (DIB) queueing strategy into network traffic model under the efficient routing strategy. DIB makes a packet with higher priority to be delivered if there are less packets travelling along its path from the current node to the destination. It is found that, compared with the traditional first-in-first-out (FIFO) queueing strategy, DIB can effectively balance the traffic load of the system via delaying packets to be delivered to congested nodes. Although the network capacity has no obvious changes, some other indexes which reflect transportation efficiency are efficiently improved in the congestion state. Besides, extensive simulation results and discussions are provided to explain the phenomena. The results may provide novel insights for research on traffic systems. (condensed matter: structural, mechanical, and thermal properties)

  18. IPTV traffic management using topology-based hierarchical scheduling in Carrier Ethernet transport networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Hao; Yan, Ying; Berger, Michael Stubert

    2009-01-01

    Carrier Ethernet is becoming a favorable access technology for Next Generation Network (NGN). The features of cost-efficiency, operation flexibility and high bandwidth have a great attraction to service providers. However, to achieve these characteristics, Carrier Ethernet needs to have Quality o....... This work has been carried out as a part of the research project HIPT (High quality IP network for IPTV and VoIP) founded by Danish Advanced Technology Foundation....

  19. Understanding the context of network traffic alerts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cappers, B.C.M.; van Wijk, J.J.; Best, D.M.; Staheli, D.; Prigent, N.; Engle, S.; Harrison, L.

    2016-01-01

    For the protection of critical infrastructures against complex virus attacks, automated network traffic analysis and deep packet inspection are unavoidable. However, even with the use of network intrusion detection systems, the number of alerts is still too large to analyze manually. In addition,

  20. Modelling traffic congestion using queuing networks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Flow-density curves; uninterrupted traffic; Jackson networks. ... ness - also suffer from a big handicap vis-a-vis the Indian scenario: most of these models do .... more well-known queuing network models and onsite data, a more exact Road Cell ...

  1. A reliability-based approach of fastest routes planning in dynamic traffic network under emergency management situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Sun

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to establish an available emergency management system, it is important to conduct effective evacuation with reliable and real time optimal route plans. This paper aims at creating a route finding strategy by considering the time dependent factors as well as uncertainties that may be encountered during the emergency management system. To combine dynamic features with the level of reliability in the process of fastest route planning, the speed distribution of typical intercity roads is studied in depth, and the strategy of modifying real time speed to a more reliable value based on speed distribution is proposed. Two algorithms of route planning have been developed to find three optimal routes with the shortest travel time and the reliability of 0.9. In order to validate the new strategy, experimental implementation of the route planning method is conducted based on road speed information acquired by field study. The results show that the proposed strategy might provide more reliable routes in dynamic traffic networks by conservatively treating roads with large speed discretion or with relative extreme real speed value.

  2. SNAPS : semantic network traffic analysis through projection and selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cappers, B.C.M.; van Wijk, J.J.; Harrison, L.; Prigent, N.; Engle, S.; Best, D.; Goodall, J.

    2015-01-01

    Most network traffic analysis applications are designed to discover malicious activity by only relying on high-level flow-based message properties. However, to detect security breaches that are specifically designed to target one network (e.g., Advanced Persistent Threats), deep packet inspection

  3. Traffic Policing in Dynamic Military Networks Using Software Defined Networking

    OpenAIRE

    Skappel, Hans Fredrik

    2016-01-01

    This thesis looks at how Software Defined Networking (SDN) can be used to provide traffic engineering and to police traffic in an Operational Military Network (OMN). SDN is a concept where the control plane is separated from the forwarding plane, and the control plane is capable of controlling forwarding plane elements located on multiple network nodes using the OpenFlow protocol. Specifically, we have discussed the problems in OMNs, and possible SDN approaches to mitigate the challenges. Bas...

  4. Traffic engineering and regenerator placement in GMPLS networks with restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yetginer, Emre; Karasan, Ezhan

    2002-07-01

    In this paper we study regenerator placement and traffic engineering of restorable paths in Generalized Multipro-tocol Label Switching (GMPLS) networks. Regenerators are necessary in optical networks due to transmission impairments. We study a network architecture where there are regenerators at selected nodes and we propose two heuristic algorithms for the regenerator placement problem. Performances of these algorithms in terms of required number of regenerators and computational complexity are evaluated. In this network architecture with sparse regeneration, offline computation of working and restoration paths is studied with bandwidth reservation and path rerouting as the restoration scheme. We study two approaches for selecting working and restoration paths from a set of candidate paths and formulate each method as an Integer Linear Programming (ILP) prob-lem. Traffic uncertainty model is developed in order to compare these methods based on their robustness with respect to changing traffic patterns. Traffic engineering methods are compared based on number of additional demands due to traffic uncertainty that can be carried. Regenerator placement algorithms are also evaluated from a traffic engineering point of view.

  5. Does Bidirectional Traffic Do More Harm Than Good in LoRaWAN Based LPWA Networks?

    OpenAIRE

    Pop, Alexandru-Ioan; Raza, Usman; Kulkarni, Parag; Sooriyabandara, Mahesh

    2017-01-01

    The need for low power, long range and low cost connectivity to meet the requirements of IoT applications has led to the emergence of Low Power Wide Area (LPWA) networking technologies. The promise of these technologies to wirelessly connect massive numbers of geographically dispersed devices at a low cost continues to attract a great deal of attention in the academic and commercial communities. Several rollouts are already underway even though the performance of these technologies is yet to ...

  6. Performance Testing of GPU-Based Approximate Matching Algorithm on Network Traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    downloaded classified files from military networks and leaked them to the anti-secrecy website WikiLeaks [7]. Despite the staggering number of data breach incidents...Insider Threat, 2nd ed. Westford, MA: Pearson Education, 2014, preface xx. [3] An executive’s guide to 2013 data breach trends. (2015, Jan. 9). Open...threats-after-wikileaks-fiasco/65843 [8] L. Park. (2014, Dec. 18). Data breach trends. [Online]. Available: http://www.symantec.com/connect/blogs/ data

  7. Traffic networks as information systems a viability approach

    CERN Document Server

    Aubin, Jean-Pierre

    2017-01-01

    This authored monograph covers a viability to approach to traffic management by advising to vehicles circulated on the network the velocity they should follow for satisfying global traffic conditions;. It presents an investigation of three structural innovations: The objective is to broadcast at each instant and at each position the advised celerity to vehicles, which could be read by auxiliary speedometers or used by cruise control devices. Namely, 1. Construct regulation feedback providing at each time and position advised velocities (celerities) for minimizing congestion or other requirements. 2. Taking into account traffic constraints of different type, the first one being to remain on the roads, to stop at junctions, etc. 3. Use information provided by the probe vehicles equipped with GPS to the traffic regulator; 4. Use other global traffic measures of vehicles provided by different types of sensors; These results are based on convex analysis, intertemporal optimization and viability theory as mathemati...

  8. Competitive Traffic Assignment in Road Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krylatov Alexander Y.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently in-vehicle route guidance and information systems are rapidly developing. Such systems are expected to reduce congestion in an urban traffic area. This social benefit is believed to be reached by imposing the route choices on the network users that lead to the system optimum traffic assignment. However, guidance service could be offered by different competitive business companies. Then route choices of different mutually independent groups of users may reject traffic assignment from the system optimum state. In this paper, a game theoretic approach is shown to be very efficient to formalize competitive traffic assignment problem with various groups of users in the form of non-cooperative network game with the Nash equilibrium search. The relationships between the Wardrop’s system optimum associated with the traffic assignment problem and the Nash equilibrium associated with the competitive traffic assignment problem are investigated. Moreover, some related aspects of the Nash equilibrium and the Wardrop’s user equilibrium assignments are also discussed.

  9. Linking network usage patterns to traffic Gaussianity fit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Oliveira Schmidt, R.; Sadre, R.; Melnikov, Nikolay; Schönwälder, Jürgen; Pras, Aiko

    Gaussian traffic models are widely used in the domain of network traffic modeling. The central assumption is that traffic aggregates are Gaussian distributed. Due to its importance, the Gaussian character of network traffic has been extensively assessed by researchers in the past years. In 2001,

  10. Null Space Based Preemptive Scheduling For Joint URLLC and eMBB Traffic in 5G Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdul-Mawgood Ali Ali Esswie, Ali; Pedersen, Klaus

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a null-space-based preemptive scheduling framework for cross-objective optimization to always guarantee robust URLLC performance, while extracting the maximum possible eMBB capacity. The proposed scheduler perpetually grants incoming URLLC traffic a higher priority for i...

  11. Traffic Adaptive MAC Protocols in Wireless Body Area Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhan Masud

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs, every healthcare application that is based on physical sensors is responsible for monitoring the vital signs data of patient. WBANs applications consist of heterogeneous and dynamic traffic loads. Routine patient’s observation is described as low-load traffic while an alarming situation that is unpredictable by nature is referred to as high-load traffic. This paper offers a thematic review of traffic adaptive Medium Access Control (MAC protocols in WBANs. First, we have categorized them based on their goals, methods, and metrics of evaluation. The Zigbee standard IEEE 802.15.4 and the baseline MAC IEEE 802.15.6 are also reviewed in terms of traffic adaptive approaches. Furthermore, a comparative analysis of the protocols is made and their performances are analyzed in terms of delay, packet delivery ratio (PDR, and energy consumption. The literature shows that no review work has been done on traffic adaptive MAC protocols in WBANs. This review work, therefore, could add enhancement to traffic adaptive MAC protocols and will stimulate a better way of solving the traffic adaptivity problem.

  12. Traffic dynamics on coupled spatial networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Wen-Bo; Zhou, Xing-Lian; Chen, Zhen; Cai, Kai-Quan; Cao, Xian-Bin

    2014-01-01

    With the rapid development of modern traffic, various means of transportation systems make it more convenient and diversified for passengers to travel out. In this paper, we establish a two-layered spatial network model where the low-speed lower layer is a regular lattice and the high-speed upper layer is a scale-free network embedded in the lattice. Passengers will travel along the path with the minimal travel time, and they can transfer from one layer to the other, which will induce extra transfer cost. We extensively investigate the traffic process on these coupled spatial networks and focus on the effect of the parameter α, the speed ratio between two networks. It is found that, as α grows, the network capacity of the coupled networks increases in the early stage and then decreases, indicating that cooperation between the coupled networks will induce the highest network capacity at an optimal α. We then provide an explanation for this non-monotonous dependence from a micro-scope point of view. The travel time reliability is also examined. Both in free-flow state and congestion state, the travel time is linearly related to the Euclidean distance. However, the variance of travel time in the congestion state is remarkably larger than that in the free-flow state, namely, people have to set aside more redundant time in an unreliable traffic system

  13. Classification and Analysis of Computer Network Traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bujlow, Tomasz

    2014-01-01

    various classification modes (decision trees, rulesets, boosting, softening thresholds) regarding the classification accuracy and the time required to create the classifier. We showed how to use our VBS tool to obtain per-flow, per-application, and per-content statistics of traffic in computer networks...

  14. Multimodale trafiknet i GIS (Multimodal Traffic Network in GIS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronbak, Jacob; Brems, Camilla Riff

    1996-01-01

    The report introduces the use of multi-modal traffic networks within a geographical Information System (GIS). The necessary theory of modelling multi-modal traffic network is reviewed and applied to the ARC/INFO GIS by an explorative example.......The report introduces the use of multi-modal traffic networks within a geographical Information System (GIS). The necessary theory of modelling multi-modal traffic network is reviewed and applied to the ARC/INFO GIS by an explorative example....

  15. Research on the Method of Traffic Organization and Optimization Based on Dynamic Traffic Flow Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-bin Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The modern transportation system is becoming sluggish by traffic jams, so much so that it can harm the economic and society in our country. One of the reasons is the surging vehicles day by day. Another reason is the shortage of the traffic supply seriously. But the most important reason is that the traffic organization and optimization hardly met the conditions of modern transport development. In this paper, the practical method of the traffic organization and optimization used in regional area is explored by the dynamic traffic network analysis method. Firstly, the operational states of the regional traffic network are obtained by simulation method based on the self-developed traffic simulation software DynaCHINA, in which the improved traffic flow simulation model was proposed in order to be more suitable for actual domestic urban transport situation. Then the appropriated optimization model and algorithm were proposed according to different optimized content and organization goals, and the traffic simulation processes more suitable to regional optimization were designed exactly. Finally, a regional network in Tai’an city was selected as an example. The simulation results show that the proposed method is effective and feasible. It can provide strong scientific and technological support for the traffic management department.

  16. Networks and their traffic in multiplayer games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Andrés Melo López

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Computer games called multiplayer real-time, or (MCG are at the forefront of the use of the possibilities of the network. Research on this subject have been made for military simulations, virtual reality systems, computer support teamwork, the solutions diverge on the problems posed by MCG. With this in mind, this document provides an overview of the four issues affecting networking at the MCG. First, network resources (bandwidth, latency and computing capacity, together with the technical limits within which the MCG must operate. Second, the distribution concepts include communication architectures (peer-to-peer, client / server, server / network, and data and control architectures (centralized, distributed and reproduced .Thirdly, scalability allows the MCG to adapt to changes in parameterization resources. Finally, security is intended to fend off the traps and vandalism, which are common in online games; to check traffic, particularly these games we decided to take the massively multiplayer game League of Legends, a scene corresponding to a situation of real life in a network of ADSL access network is deployed has been simulated by using NS2 Three variants of TCP, it means SACK TCP, New Reno TCP, and TCP Vegas, have been considered for the cross traffic. The results show that TCP Vegas is able to maintain a constant speed while racing against the game traffic, since it avoids the packet loss and the delays in the tail caused by high peaks, without increasing the size of the sender window. SACK TCP and TCP New Reno, on the other hand, tend to increase continuously the sender window size, which could allow a greater loss of packages and also to cause unwanted delays for the game traffic.

  17. Routing strategies in traffic network and phase transition in network ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    3Department of Electronic Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong ... Routing strategy; network traffic flow; hysteretic loop; phase transition from ... ered from two aspects: modifying the underlying network structure or developing ... capacity corresponds to α = −1 in the case of identical nodes' delivering ability.

  18. Failure cascade in interdependent network with traffic loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Sheng; Wang, Baoqing; Wang, Jianghui; Zhao, Tingdi; Ma, Xiaomin

    2015-01-01

    Complex networks have been widely studied recent years, but most researches focus on the single, non-interacting networks. With the development of modern systems, many infrastructure networks are coupled together and therefore should be modeled as interdependent networks. For interdependent networks, failure of nodes in one network may lead to failure of dependent nodes in the other networks. This may happen recursively and lead to a failure cascade. In the real world, different networks carry different traffic loads. Overload and load redistribution may lead to more nodes’ failure. Considering the dependency between the interdependent networks and the traffic load, a small fraction of fault nodes may lead to complete fragmentation of a system. Based on the robust analysis of interdependent networks, we propose a costless defense strategy to suppress the failure cascade. Our findings highlight the need to consider the load and coupling preference when designing robust interdependent networks. And it is necessary to take actions in the early stage of the failure cascade to decrease the losses caused by the large-scale breakdown of infrastructure networks. (paper)

  19. Uncovering the footprints of malicious traffic in cellular data networks

    OpenAIRE

    Raghuramu, A; Zang, H; Chuah, CN

    2015-01-01

    © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015. In this paper, we present a comprehensive characterization of malicious traffic generated by mobile devices using Deep Packet Inspection (DPI) records and security event logs from a large US based cellular provider network. Our analysis reveals that 0.17% of mobile devices in the cellular network are affected by security threats. This proportion, while small, is orders of magnitude higher than the last reported (in 2013) infection rate of ...

  20. An auxiliary graph based dynamic traffic grooming algorithm in spatial division multiplexing enabled elastic optical networks with multi-core fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yongli; Tian, Rui; Yu, Xiaosong; Zhang, Jiawei; Zhang, Jie

    2017-03-01

    A proper traffic grooming strategy in dynamic optical networks can improve the utilization of bandwidth resources. An auxiliary graph (AG) is designed to solve the traffic grooming problem under a dynamic traffic scenario in spatial division multiplexing enabled elastic optical networks (SDM-EON) with multi-core fibers. Five traffic grooming policies achieved by adjusting the edge weights of an AG are proposed and evaluated through simulation: maximal electrical grooming (MEG), maximal optical grooming (MOG), maximal SDM grooming (MSG), minimize virtual hops (MVH), and minimize physical hops (MPH). Numeric results show that each traffic grooming policy has its own features. Among different traffic grooming policies, an MPH policy can achieve the lowest bandwidth blocking ratio, MEG can save the most transponders, and MSG can obtain the fewest cores for each request.

  1. Traffic measurement for big network data

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Shigang; Xiao, Qingjun

    2017-01-01

    This book presents several compact and fast methods for online traffic measurement of big network data. It describes challenges of online traffic measurement, discusses the state of the field, and provides an overview of the potential solutions to major problems. The authors introduce the problem of per-flow size measurement for big network data and present a fast and scalable counter architecture, called Counter Tree, which leverages a two-dimensional counter sharing scheme to achieve far better memory efficiency and significantly extend estimation range. Unlike traditional approaches to cardinality estimation problems that allocate a separated data structure (called estimator) for each flow, this book takes a different design path by viewing all the flows together as a whole: each flow is allocated with a virtual estimator, and these virtual estimators share a common memory space. A framework of virtual estimators is designed to apply the idea of sharing to an array of cardinality estimation solutions, achi...

  2. Nonlinearity and chaos in wireless network traffic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, Somenath; Ray, Rajdeep; Samanta, Rajkumar; Khondekar, Mofazzal H.; Sanyal, Goutam

    2017-01-01

    The natural complexity of wireless mobile network traffic dynamics has been assessed in this article by tracing the presence of nonlinearity and chaos in the profile of daily peak hour call arrival and daily call drop of a sub-urban local mobile switching centre. The tools like Recurrence Plot and Recurrence Quantification Analysis (RQA) has been used to reveal the probable presence of non-stationarity, nonlinearity and chaosity in the network traffic. Information Entropy (IE) and 0–1 test have been employed to provide the quantitative support to the findings. Both the daily peak hour call arrival profile and the daily call drop profile exhibit non-stationarity, determinism and nonlinearity with the former one being more regular while the later one is chaotic.

  3. Control of Networked Traffic Flow Distribution - A Stochastic Distribution System Perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hong [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Aziz, H M Abdul [ORNL; Young, Stan [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); Patil, Sagar [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)

    2017-10-01

    Networked traffic flow is a common scenario for urban transportation, where the distribution of vehicle queues either at controlled intersections or highway segments reflect the smoothness of the traffic flow in the network. At signalized intersections, the traffic queues are controlled by traffic signal control settings and effective traffic lights control would realize both smooth traffic flow and minimize fuel consumption. Funded by the Energy Efficient Mobility Systems (EEMS) program of the Vehicle Technologies Office of the US Department of Energy, we performed a preliminary investigation on the modelling and control framework in context of urban network of signalized intersections. In specific, we developed a recursive input-output traffic queueing models. The queue formation can be modeled as a stochastic process where the number of vehicles entering each intersection is a random number. Further, we proposed a preliminary B-Spline stochastic model for a one-way single-lane corridor traffic system based on theory of stochastic distribution control.. It has been shown that the developed stochastic model would provide the optimal probability density function (PDF) of the traffic queueing length as a dynamic function of the traffic signal setting parameters. Based upon such a stochastic distribution model, we have proposed a preliminary closed loop framework on stochastic distribution control for the traffic queueing system to make the traffic queueing length PDF follow a target PDF that potentially realizes the smooth traffic flow distribution in a concerned corridor.

  4. Congestion transition in air traffic networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Monechi

    Full Text Available Air Transportation represents a very interesting example of a complex techno-social system whose importance has considerably grown in time and whose management requires a careful understanding of the subtle interplay between technological infrastructure and human behavior. Despite the competition with other transportation systems, a growth of air traffic is still foreseen in Europe for the next years. The increase of traffic load could bring the current Air Traffic Network above its capacity limits so that safety standards and performances might not be guaranteed anymore. Lacking the possibility of a direct investigation of this scenario, we resort to computer simulations in order to quantify the disruptive potential of an increase in traffic load. To this end we model the Air Transportation system as a complex dynamical network of flights controlled by humans who have to solve potentially dangerous conflicts by redirecting aircraft trajectories. The model is driven and validated through historical data of flight schedules in a European national airspace. While correctly reproducing actual statistics of the Air Transportation system, e.g., the distribution of delays, the model allows for theoretical predictions. Upon an increase of the traffic load injected in the system, the model predicts a transition from a phase in which all conflicts can be successfully resolved, to a phase in which many conflicts cannot be resolved anymore. We highlight how the current flight density of the Air Transportation system is well below the transition, provided that controllers make use of a special re-routing procedure. While the congestion transition displays a universal scaling behavior, its threshold depends on the conflict solving strategy adopted. Finally, the generality of the modeling scheme introduced makes it a flexible general tool to simulate and control Air Transportation systems in realistic and synthetic scenarios.

  5. Congestion transition in air traffic networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monechi, Bernardo; Servedio, Vito D P; Loreto, Vittorio

    2015-01-01

    Air Transportation represents a very interesting example of a complex techno-social system whose importance has considerably grown in time and whose management requires a careful understanding of the subtle interplay between technological infrastructure and human behavior. Despite the competition with other transportation systems, a growth of air traffic is still foreseen in Europe for the next years. The increase of traffic load could bring the current Air Traffic Network above its capacity limits so that safety standards and performances might not be guaranteed anymore. Lacking the possibility of a direct investigation of this scenario, we resort to computer simulations in order to quantify the disruptive potential of an increase in traffic load. To this end we model the Air Transportation system as a complex dynamical network of flights controlled by humans who have to solve potentially dangerous conflicts by redirecting aircraft trajectories. The model is driven and validated through historical data of flight schedules in a European national airspace. While correctly reproducing actual statistics of the Air Transportation system, e.g., the distribution of delays, the model allows for theoretical predictions. Upon an increase of the traffic load injected in the system, the model predicts a transition from a phase in which all conflicts can be successfully resolved, to a phase in which many conflicts cannot be resolved anymore. We highlight how the current flight density of the Air Transportation system is well below the transition, provided that controllers make use of a special re-routing procedure. While the congestion transition displays a universal scaling behavior, its threshold depends on the conflict solving strategy adopted. Finally, the generality of the modeling scheme introduced makes it a flexible general tool to simulate and control Air Transportation systems in realistic and synthetic scenarios.

  6. Traffic Route Guidance using Feedback of Predicted Travel Times : Improving Travel Times in the Berlin Traffic Network

    OpenAIRE

    Bergsten, Arvid; Zetterberg, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Traffic congestions constitute a problem in many large cities. Congestions can be handled by reducing the network demand, expanding the infrastructure, or by utilizing the road network more efficiently. This master thesis presents a methodology for route guidance, based on automatic feedback control from the current traffic situation. Through variable direction signs or individual in-car devices, all vehicles with a certain origin and destination (which are both normally intermediate) are gui...

  7. The effects of redundancy and information manipulation on traffic networks

    OpenAIRE

    Özel, Berk; Ozel, Berk

    2014-01-01

    Traffic congestion is one of the most frequently encountered problems in real life. It is not only a scientific concern of scholars, but also an inevitable issue for most of the individuals living in urban areas. Since every driver in traffic networks tries to minimize own journey length, and volume of the traffic prevents coordination between individuals, a cooperative behavior will not be provided spontaneously in order to decrease the total cost of the network and the time spent on traffic...

  8. Radio resource management for mobile traffic offloading in heterogeneous cellular networks

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Yuan; Huang, Jianwei; Shen, Xuemin (Sherman)

    2017-01-01

    This SpringerBrief offers two concrete design examples for traffic offloading. The first is an optimal resource allocation for small-cell based traffic offloading that aims at minimizing mobile users’ data cost. The second is an optimal resource allocation for device-to-device assisted traffic offloading that also minimizes the total energy consumption and cellular link usage (while providing an overview of the challenging issues). Both examples illustrate the importance of proper resource allocation to the success of traffic offloading, show the consequent performance advantages of executing optimal resource allocation, and present the methodologies to achieve the corresponding optimal offloading solution for traffic offloading in heterogeneous cellular networks. The authors also include an overview of heterogeneous cellular networks and explain different traffic offloading paradigms ranging from uplink traffic offloading through small cells to downlink traffic offloading via mobile device-to-device cooper...

  9. Minimal-delay traffic grooming for WDM star networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hongsik; Garg, Nikhil; Choi, Hyeong-Ah

    2003-10-01

    All-optical networks face the challenge of reducing slower opto-electronic conversions by managing assignment of traffic streams to wavelengths in an intelligent manner, while at the same time utilizing bandwidth resources to the maximum. This challenge becomes harder in networks closer to the end users that have insufficient data to saturate single wavelengths as well as traffic streams outnumbering the usable wavelengths, resulting in traffic grooming which requires costly traffic analysis at access nodes. We study the problem of traffic grooming that reduces the need to analyze traffic, for a class of network architecture most used by Metropolitan Area Networks; the star network. The problem being NP-complete, we provide an efficient twice-optimal-bound greedy heuristic for the same, that can be used to intelligently groom traffic at the LANs to reduce latency at the access nodes. Simulation results show that our greedy heuristic achieves a near-optimal solution.

  10. Breakdown in traffic networks fundamentals of transportation science

    CERN Document Server

    Kerner, Boris S

    2017-01-01

    This book offers a detailed investigation of breakdowns in traffic and transportation networks. It shows empirically that transitions from free flow to so-called synchronized flow, initiated by local disturbances at network bottlenecks, display a nucleation-type behavior: while small disturbances in free flow decay, larger ones grow further and lead to breakdowns at the bottlenecks. Further, it discusses in detail the significance of this nucleation effect for traffic and transportation theories, and the consequences this has for future automatic driving, traffic control, dynamic traffic assignment, and optimization in traffic and transportation networks. Starting from a large volume of field traffic data collected from various sources obtained solely through measurements in real world traffic, the author develops his insights, with an emphasis less on reviewing existing methodologies, models and theories, and more on providing a detailed analysis of empirical traffic data and drawing consequences regarding t...

  11. Traffic Rules in Electronic Financial Transactions (EFT Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vedran Batoš

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the traffic rules in the EFT (ElectronicFinancial Transactions networks, based on the implementationof the solution called Gold-Net developed and implementedby Euronet Worldwide Inc. Following the traffic rulesin EFT networks, out of its worldwide experience, Gold-Netevolved a comprehensive and expandable EFT network solutiondesigned to meet an institution's needs today and in the future.It is an ITM (Integrated Transaction Management solution,modular and expandable, and consists of a comprehensiveEFT software modules with ATM and POS driving capabilities.The combination of ATM management and the onlineconnection form the intercept processing control module. Asthe marketplace grows, this solution ensures that an ente1prisemay position itself for future growth and expanded service offerings.

  12. Traffic analysis and signal processing in optical packet switched networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjelde, Tina

    2002-01-01

    /s optical packet switched network exploiting the best of optics and electronics, is used as a thread throughout the thesis. An overview of the DAVID network architecture is given, focussing on the MAN and WAN architecture as well as the MPLS-based network hierarchy. Subsequently, the traffic performance...... of the DAVID core optical packet router, which exploits wavelength conversion and fibre delay-line buffers for contention resolution, is analysed using a numerical model developed for that purpose. The robustness of the shared recirculating loop buffer with respect to´bursty traffic is demonstrated...... the injection of an additional clock signal into the IWC is presented. Results show very good transmission capabilities combined with a high-speed response. It is argued that signal regeneration is an inherent attribute of the IWC employed as a wavelength converter due to the sinusoidal transfer function...

  13. Deep Bidirectional and Unidirectional LSTM Recurrent Neural Network for Network-wide Traffic Speed Prediction

    OpenAIRE

    Cui, Zhiyong; Ke, Ruimin; Wang, Yinhai

    2018-01-01

    Short-term traffic forecasting based on deep learning methods, especially long short-term memory (LSTM) neural networks, has received much attention in recent years. However, the potential of deep learning methods in traffic forecasting has not yet fully been exploited in terms of the depth of the model architecture, the spatial scale of the prediction area, and the predictive power of spatial-temporal data. In this paper, a deep stacked bidirectional and unidirectional LSTM (SBU- LSTM) neura...

  14. Understanding characteristics in multivariate traffic flow time series from complex network structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Ying; Zhang, Shen; Tang, Jinjun; Wang, Xiaofei

    2017-07-01

    Discovering dynamic characteristics in traffic flow is the significant step to design effective traffic managing and controlling strategy for relieving traffic congestion in urban cities. A new method based on complex network theory is proposed to study multivariate traffic flow time series. The data were collected from loop detectors on freeway during a year. In order to construct complex network from original traffic flow, a weighted Froenius norm is adopt to estimate similarity between multivariate time series, and Principal Component Analysis is implemented to determine the weights. We discuss how to select optimal critical threshold for networks at different hour in term of cumulative probability distribution of degree. Furthermore, two statistical properties of networks: normalized network structure entropy and cumulative probability of degree, are utilized to explore hourly variation in traffic flow. The results demonstrate these two statistical quantities express similar pattern to traffic flow parameters with morning and evening peak hours. Accordingly, we detect three traffic states: trough, peak and transitional hours, according to the correlation between two aforementioned properties. The classifying results of states can actually represent hourly fluctuation in traffic flow by analyzing annual average hourly values of traffic volume, occupancy and speed in corresponding hours.

  15. Traffic sharing algorithms for hybrid mobile networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcand, S.; Murthy, K. M. S.; Hafez, R.

    1995-01-01

    In a hybrid (terrestrial + satellite) mobile personal communications networks environment, a large size satellite footprint (supercell) overlays on a large number of smaller size, contiguous terrestrial cells. We assume that the users have either a terrestrial only single mode terminal (SMT) or a terrestrial/satellite dual mode terminal (DMT) and the ratio of DMT to the total terminals is defined gamma. It is assumed that the call assignments to and handovers between terrestrial cells and satellite supercells take place in a dynamic fashion when necessary. The objectives of this paper are twofold, (1) to propose and define a class of traffic sharing algorithms to manage terrestrial and satellite network resources efficiently by handling call handovers dynamically, and (2) to analyze and evaluate the algorithms by maximizing the traffic load handling capability (defined in erl/cell) over a wide range of terminal ratios (gamma) given an acceptable range of blocking probabilities. Two of the algorithms (G & S) in the proposed class perform extremely well for a wide range of gamma.

  16. Performability indicators for the traffic analysis of wide area networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsopelas, Panagiotis; Platis, Agapios

    2003-01-01

    In connecting computing networks, reliability term is strongly related to the availability of connections of Wide Area networks (WANs) or Local Area networks (LANs). In this paper we will examine the network connections activity of a Greek University in order to provide two sources of information: The Quantity of Information Not Delivered (QIND) and the Information Flow Interruption (IFI). These indicators will provide us with the inference of information from observable characteristics of data flow(s), even when the data is encrypted or otherwise not directly available (traffic), which is lost due to failures or upgrades inside this network. The reliability analysis is obtained by collecting the network failures data (duration and frequency) and traffic (total and average) for a specified period of 1 year. It is assumed that the numerical analysis is based on the fact that the lifetime follows and exponential distribution (here as we are working on discrete time the distribution must be the geometric distribution). Hence a Markov chain model seems suitable for modelling the functioning of this system. An algorithm concentrates the results in a transition probability matrix and calculates the reward functions for the QIND/IFI indicators with the use of the power method. Finally, the application part provides an example of how final results can be used to evaluate the observed network

  17. Optimum principle for a vehicular traffic network: minimum probability of congestion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerner, Boris S, E-mail: boris.kerner@daimler.com [Daimler AG, GR/PTF, HPC: G021, 71059 Sindelfingen (Germany)

    2011-03-04

    We introduce an optimum principle for a vehicular traffic network with road bottlenecks. This network breakdown minimization (BM) principle states that the network optimum is reached when link flow rates are assigned in the network in such a way that the probability for spontaneous occurrence of traffic breakdown in at least one of the network bottlenecks during a given observation time reaches the minimum possible value. Based on numerical simulations with a stochastic three-phase traffic flow model, we show that in comparison to the well-known Wardrop's principles, the application of the BM principle permits considerably greater network inflow rates at which no traffic breakdown occurs and, therefore, free flow remains in the whole network. (fast track communication)

  18. Optimum principle for a vehicular traffic network: minimum probability of congestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerner, Boris S

    2011-01-01

    We introduce an optimum principle for a vehicular traffic network with road bottlenecks. This network breakdown minimization (BM) principle states that the network optimum is reached when link flow rates are assigned in the network in such a way that the probability for spontaneous occurrence of traffic breakdown in at least one of the network bottlenecks during a given observation time reaches the minimum possible value. Based on numerical simulations with a stochastic three-phase traffic flow model, we show that in comparison to the well-known Wardrop's principles, the application of the BM principle permits considerably greater network inflow rates at which no traffic breakdown occurs and, therefore, free flow remains in the whole network. (fast track communication)

  19. Research of convolutional neural networks for traffic sign recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Stadalnikas, Kasparas

    2017-01-01

    In this thesis the convolutional neural networks application for traffic sign recognition is analyzed. Thesis describes the basic operations, techniques that are commonly used to apply in the image classification using convolutional neural networks. Also, this paper describes the data sets used for traffic sign recognition, their problems affecting the final training results. The paper reviews most popular existing technologies – frameworks for developing the solution for traffic sign recogni...

  20. An LTE implementation based on a road traffic density model

    OpenAIRE

    Attaullah, Muhammad

    2013-01-01

    The increase in vehicular traffic has created new challenges in determining the behavior of performance of data and safety measures in traffic. Hence, traffic signals on intersection used as cost effective and time saving tools for traffic management in urban areas. But on the other hand the signalized intersections in congested urban areas are the key source of high traffic density and slow traffic. High traffic density causes the slow network traffic data rate between vehicle to vehicle and...

  1. Efficient Algorithms for Network-Wide Road Traffic Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Weg, G.S.

    2017-01-01

    Controlling road traffic networks is a complex problem. One of the difficulties is the coordination of actuators, such as traffic lights, variables speed limits, ramp metering and route guidance, with the aim to improve the network performance over a near-future time horizon. This dissertation

  2. A Wavelet Neural Network Optimal Control Model for Traffic-Flow Prediction in Intelligent Transport Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Darong; Bai, Xing-Rong

    Based on wavelet transform and neural network theory, a traffic-flow prediction model, which was used in optimal control of Intelligent Traffic system, is constructed. First of all, we have extracted the scale coefficient and wavelet coefficient from the online measured raw data of traffic flow via wavelet transform; Secondly, an Artificial Neural Network model of Traffic-flow Prediction was constructed and trained using the coefficient sequences as inputs and raw data as outputs; Simultaneous, we have designed the running principium of the optimal control system of traffic-flow Forecasting model, the network topological structure and the data transmitted model; Finally, a simulated example has shown that the technique is effectively and exactly. The theoretical results indicated that the wavelet neural network prediction model and algorithms have a broad prospect for practical application.

  3. Traffic of indistinguishable particles in complex networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qing-Kuan, Meng; Jian-Yang, Zhu

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we apply a simple walk mechanism to the study of the traffic of many indistinguishable particles in complex networks. The network with particles stands for a particle system, and every vertex in the network stands for a quantum state with the corresponding energy determined by the vertex degree. Although the particles are indistinguishable, the quantum states can be distinguished. When the many indistinguishable particles walk randomly in the system for a long enough time and the system reaches dynamic equilibrium, we find that under different restrictive conditions the particle distributions satisfy different forms, including the Bose–Einstein distribution, the Fermi–Dirac distribution and the non-Fermi distribution (as we temporarily call it). As for the Bose–Einstein distribution, we find that only if the particle density is larger than zero, with increasing particle density, do more and more particles condense in the lowest energy level. While the particle density is very low, the particle distribution transforms from the quantum statistical form to the classically statistical form, i.e., transforms from the Bose distribution or the Fermi distribution to the Boltzmann distribution. The numerical results fit well with the analytical predictions

  4. On the Use of Machine Learning for Identifying Botnet Network Traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stevanovic, Matija; Pedersen, Jens Myrup

    2016-01-01

    contemporary approaches use machine learning techniques for identifying malicious traffic. This paper presents a survey of contemporary botnet detection methods that rely on machine learning for identifying botnet network traffic. The paper provides a comprehensive overview on the existing scientific work thus...... contributing to the better understanding of capabilities, limitations and opportunities of using machine learning for identifying botnet traffic. Furthermore, the paper outlines possibilities for the future development of machine learning-based botnet detection systems....

  5. Comparison of classical statistical methods and artificial neural network in traffic noise prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nedic, Vladimir; Despotovic, Danijela; Cvetanovic, Slobodan; Despotovic, Milan; Babic, Sasa

    2014-01-01

    Traffic is the main source of noise in urban environments and significantly affects human mental and physical health and labor productivity. Therefore it is very important to model the noise produced by various vehicles. Techniques for traffic noise prediction are mainly based on regression analysis, which generally is not good enough to describe the trends of noise. In this paper the application of artificial neural networks (ANNs) for the prediction of traffic noise is presented. As input variables of the neural network, the proposed structure of the traffic flow and the average speed of the traffic flow are chosen. The output variable of the network is the equivalent noise level in the given time period L eq . Based on these parameters, the network is modeled, trained and tested through a comparative analysis of the calculated values and measured levels of traffic noise using the originally developed user friendly software package. It is shown that the artificial neural networks can be a useful tool for the prediction of noise with sufficient accuracy. In addition, the measured values were also used to calculate equivalent noise level by means of classical methods, and comparative analysis is given. The results clearly show that ANN approach is superior in traffic noise level prediction to any other statistical method. - Highlights: • We proposed an ANN model for prediction of traffic noise. • We developed originally designed user friendly software package. • The results are compared with classical statistical methods. • The results are much better predictive capabilities of ANN model

  6. Comparison of classical statistical methods and artificial neural network in traffic noise prediction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nedic, Vladimir, E-mail: vnedic@kg.ac.rs [Faculty of Philology and Arts, University of Kragujevac, Jovana Cvijića bb, 34000 Kragujevac (Serbia); Despotovic, Danijela, E-mail: ddespotovic@kg.ac.rs [Faculty of Economics, University of Kragujevac, Djure Pucara Starog 3, 34000 Kragujevac (Serbia); Cvetanovic, Slobodan, E-mail: slobodan.cvetanovic@eknfak.ni.ac.rs [Faculty of Economics, University of Niš, Trg kralja Aleksandra Ujedinitelja, 18000 Niš (Serbia); Despotovic, Milan, E-mail: mdespotovic@kg.ac.rs [Faculty of Engineering, University of Kragujevac, Sestre Janjic 6, 34000 Kragujevac (Serbia); Babic, Sasa, E-mail: babicsf@yahoo.com [College of Applied Mechanical Engineering, Trstenik (Serbia)

    2014-11-15

    Traffic is the main source of noise in urban environments and significantly affects human mental and physical health and labor productivity. Therefore it is very important to model the noise produced by various vehicles. Techniques for traffic noise prediction are mainly based on regression analysis, which generally is not good enough to describe the trends of noise. In this paper the application of artificial neural networks (ANNs) for the prediction of traffic noise is presented. As input variables of the neural network, the proposed structure of the traffic flow and the average speed of the traffic flow are chosen. The output variable of the network is the equivalent noise level in the given time period L{sub eq}. Based on these parameters, the network is modeled, trained and tested through a comparative analysis of the calculated values and measured levels of traffic noise using the originally developed user friendly software package. It is shown that the artificial neural networks can be a useful tool for the prediction of noise with sufficient accuracy. In addition, the measured values were also used to calculate equivalent noise level by means of classical methods, and comparative analysis is given. The results clearly show that ANN approach is superior in traffic noise level prediction to any other statistical method. - Highlights: • We proposed an ANN model for prediction of traffic noise. • We developed originally designed user friendly software package. • The results are compared with classical statistical methods. • The results are much better predictive capabilities of ANN model.

  7. Detecting Distributed Network Traffic Anomaly with Network-Wide Correlation Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Dan

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Distributed network traffic anomaly refers to a traffic abnormal behavior involving many links of a network and caused by the same source (e.g., DDoS attack, worm propagation. The anomaly transiting in a single link might be unnoticeable and hard to detect, while the anomalous aggregation from many links can be prevailing, and does more harm to the networks. Aiming at the similar features of distributed traffic anomaly on many links, this paper proposes a network-wide detection method by performing anomalous correlation analysis of traffic signals' instantaneous parameters. In our method, traffic signals' instantaneous parameters are firstly computed, and their network-wide anomalous space is then extracted via traffic prediction. Finally, an anomaly is detected by a global correlation coefficient of anomalous space. Our evaluation using Abilene traffic traces demonstrates the excellent performance of this approach for distributed traffic anomaly detection.

  8. Robust and Agile System against Fault and Anomaly Traffic in Software Defined Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihui Kim

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The main advantage of software defined networking (SDN is that it allows intelligent control and management of networking though programmability in real time. It enables efficient utilization of network resources through traffic engineering, and offers potential attack defense methods when abnormalities arise. However, previous studies have only identified individual solutions for respective problems, instead of finding a more global solution in real time that is capable of addressing multiple situations in network status. To cover diverse network conditions, this paper presents a comprehensive reactive system for simultaneously monitoring failures, anomalies, and attacks for high availability and reliability. We design three main modules in the SDN controller for a robust and agile defense (RAD system against network anomalies: a traffic analyzer, a traffic engineer, and a rule manager. RAD provides reactive flow rule generation to control traffic while detecting network failures, anomalies, high traffic volume (elephant flows, and attacks. The traffic analyzer identifies elephant flows, traffic anomalies, and attacks based on attack signatures and network monitoring. The traffic engineer module measures network utilization and delay in order to determine the best path for multi-dimensional routing and load balancing under any circumstances. Finally, the rule manager generates and installs a flow rule for the selected best path to control traffic. We implement the proposed RAD system based on Floodlight, an open source project for the SDN controller. We evaluate our system using simulation with and without the aforementioned RAD modules. Experimental results show that our approach is both practical and feasible, and can successfully augment an existing SDN controller in terms of agility, robustness, and efficiency, even in the face of link failures, attacks, and elephant flows.

  9. Modeling Air Traffic Situation Complexity with a Dynamic Weighted Network Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyong Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to address the flight delays and risks associated with the forecasted increase in air traffic, there is a need to increase the capacity of air traffic management systems. This should be based on objective measurements of traffic situation complexity. In current air traffic complexity research, no simple means is available to integrate airspace and traffic flow characteristics. In this paper, we propose a new approach for the measurement of air traffic situation complexity. This approach considers the effects of both airspace and traffic flow and objectively quantifies air traffic situation complexity. Considering the aircraft, waypoints, and airways as nodes, and the complexity relationships among these nodes as edges, a dynamic weighted network is constructed. Air traffic situation complexity is defined as the sum of the weights of all edges in the network, and the relationships of complexity with some commonly used indices are statistically analyzed. The results indicate that the new complexity index is more accurate than traffic count and reflects the number of trajectory changes as well as the high-risk situations. Additionally, analysis of potential applications reveals that this new index contributes to achieving complexity-based management, which represents an efficient method for increasing airspace system capacity.

  10. Learning Traffic as Images: A Deep Convolutional Neural Network for Large-Scale Transportation Network Speed Prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaolei; Dai, Zhuang; He, Zhengbing; Ma, Jihui; Wang, Yong; Wang, Yunpeng

    2017-04-10

    This paper proposes a convolutional neural network (CNN)-based method that learns traffic as images and predicts large-scale, network-wide traffic speed with a high accuracy. Spatiotemporal traffic dynamics are converted to images describing the time and space relations of traffic flow via a two-dimensional time-space matrix. A CNN is applied to the image following two consecutive steps: abstract traffic feature extraction and network-wide traffic speed prediction. The effectiveness of the proposed method is evaluated by taking two real-world transportation networks, the second ring road and north-east transportation network in Beijing, as examples, and comparing the method with four prevailing algorithms, namely, ordinary least squares, k-nearest neighbors, artificial neural network, and random forest, and three deep learning architectures, namely, stacked autoencoder, recurrent neural network, and long-short-term memory network. The results show that the proposed method outperforms other algorithms by an average accuracy improvement of 42.91% within an acceptable execution time. The CNN can train the model in a reasonable time and, thus, is suitable for large-scale transportation networks.

  11. A measure theoretic approach to traffic flow optimization on networks

    OpenAIRE

    Cacace, Simone; Camilli, Fabio; De Maio, Raul; Tosin, Andrea

    2018-01-01

    We consider a class of optimal control problems for measure-valued nonlinear transport equations describing traffic flow problems on networks. The objective isto minimise/maximise macroscopic quantities, such as traffic volume or average speed,controlling few agents, for example smart traffic lights and automated cars. The measuretheoretic approach allows to study in a same setting local and nonlocal drivers interactionsand to consider the control variables as additional measures interacting ...

  12. Outer Synchronization between Two Coupled Complex Networks and Its Application in Public Traffic Supernetwork

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-ju Du

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a new urban public traffic supernetwork model by using the existing bus network modeling method, consisting of the conventional bus traffic network and the urban rail traffic network. We investigate the synchronization problem of urban public traffic supernetwork model by using the coupled complex network’s outer synchronization theory. Analytical and numerical simulations are given to illustrate the impact of traffic dispatching frequency and traffic lines optimization to the urban public traffic supernetwork balance.

  13. Effects of node buffer and capacity on network traffic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ling Xiang; Ding Jian-Xun; Hu Mao-Bin

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we study the optimization of network traffic by considering the effects of node buffer ability and capacity. Two node buffer settings are considered. The node capacity is considered to be proportional to its buffer ability. The node effects on network traffic systems are studied with the shortest path protocol and an extension of the optimal routing [Phys. Rev. E 74 046106 (2006)]. In the diagrams of flux—density relationships, it is shown that a nodes buffer ability and capacity have profound effects on the network traffic

  14. Cooperative driving in mixed traffic networks - Optimizing for performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calvert, S.C.; Broek, T.H.A. van den; Noort, M. van

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses a cooperative adaptive cruise control application and its effects on the traffic system. In previous work this application has been tested on the road, and traffic simulation has been used to scale up the results of the field test to larger networks and more vehicles. The

  15. Fiber fault location utilizing traffic signal in optical network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Tong; Wang, Anbang; Wang, Yuncai; Zhang, Mingjiang; Chang, Xiaoming; Xiong, Lijuan; Hao, Yi

    2013-10-07

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a method for fault location in optical communication network. This method utilizes the traffic signal transmitted across the network as probe signal, and then locates the fault by correlation technique. Compared with conventional techniques, our method has a simple structure and low operation expenditure, because no additional device is used, such as light source, modulator and signal generator. The correlation detection in this method overcomes the tradeoff between spatial resolution and measurement range in pulse ranging technique. Moreover, signal extraction process can improve the location result considerably. Experimental results show that we achieve a spatial resolution of 8 cm and detection range of over 23 km with -8-dBm mean launched power in optical network based on synchronous digital hierarchy protocols.

  16. Monitoring individual traffic flows within the ATLAS TDAQ network

    CERN Document Server

    Sjoen, R; Ciobotaru, M; Batraneanu, S M; Leahu, L; Martin, B; Al-Shabibi, A

    2010-01-01

    The ATLAS data acquisition system consists of four different networks interconnecting up to 2000 processors using up to 200 edge switches and five multi-blade chassis devices. The architecture of the system has been described in [1] and its operational model in [2]. Classical, SNMP-based, network monitoring provides statistics on aggregate traffic, but for performance monitoring and troubleshooting purposes there was an imperative need to identify and quantify single traffic flows. sFlow [3] is an industry standard based on statistical sampling which attempts to provide a solution to this. Due to the size of the ATLAS network, the collection and analysis of the sFlow data from all devices generates a data handling problem of its own. This paper describes how this problem is addressed by making it possible to collect and store data either centrally or distributed according to need. The methods used to present the results in a relevant fashion for system analysts are discussed and we explore the possibilities a...

  17. Monitoring individual traffic flows within the ATLAS TDAQ network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjoen, R; Batraneanu, S M; Leahu, L; Martin, B; Al-Shabibi, A; Stancu, S; Ciobotaru, M

    2010-01-01

    The ATLAS data acquisition system consists of four different networks interconnecting up to 2000 processors using up to 200 edge switches and five multi-blade chassis devices. The architecture of the system has been described in [1] and its operational model in [2]. Classical, SNMP-based, network monitoring provides statistics on aggregate traffic, but for performance monitoring and troubleshooting purposes there was an imperative need to identify and quantify single traffic flows. sFlow [3] is an industry standard based on statistical sampling which attempts to provide a solution to this. Due to the size of the ATLAS network, the collection and analysis of the sFlow data from all devices generates a data handling problem of its own. This paper describes how this problem is addressed by making it possible to collect and store data either centrally or distributed according to need. The methods used to present the results in a relevant fashion for system analysts are discussed and we explore the possibilities and limitations of this diagnostic tool, giving an example of its use in solving system problems that arise during the ATLAS data taking.

  18. A hierarchical clustering scheme approach to assessment of IP-network traffic using detrended fluctuation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takuma, Takehisa; Masugi, Masao

    2009-03-01

    This paper presents an approach to the assessment of IP-network traffic in terms of the time variation of self-similarity. To get a comprehensive view in analyzing the degree of long-range dependence (LRD) of IP-network traffic, we use a hierarchical clustering scheme, which provides a way to classify high-dimensional data with a tree-like structure. Also, in the LRD-based analysis, we employ detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA), which is applicable to the analysis of long-range power-law correlations or LRD in non-stationary time-series signals. Based on sequential measurements of IP-network traffic at two locations, this paper derives corresponding values for the LRD-related parameter α that reflects the degree of LRD of measured data. In performing the hierarchical clustering scheme, we use three parameters: the α value, average throughput, and the proportion of network traffic that exceeds 80% of network bandwidth for each measured data set. We visually confirm that the traffic data can be classified in accordance with the network traffic properties, resulting in that the combined depiction of the LRD and other factors can give us an effective assessment of network conditions at different times.

  19. Wavelength converter placement in optical networks with dynamic traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buron, Jakob Due; Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Wessing, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    We evaluate the connection provisioning performance of GMPLS-controlled wavelength routed networks under dynamic traffic load and using three different wavelength converter placement heuristics. Results show that a simple uniform placement heuristic matches the performance of complex heuristics...

  20. An Architecture to Manage Incoming Traffic of Inter-Domain Routing Using OpenFlow Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walber José Adriano Silva

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The Border Gateway Protocol (BGP is the current state-of-the-art inter-domain routing between Autonomous Systems (ASes. Although BGP has different mechanisms to manage outbound traffic in an AS domain, it lacks an efficient tool for inbound traffic control from transit ASes such as Internet Service Providers (ISPs. For inter-domain routing, the BGP’s destination-based forwarding paradigm limits the granularity of distributing the network traffic among the multiple paths of the current Internet topology. Thus, this work offered a new architecture to manage incoming traffic in the inter-domain using OpenFlow networks. The architecture explored direct inter-domain communication to exchange control information and the functionalities of the OpenFlow protocol. Based on the achieved results of the size of exchanging messages, the proposed architecture is not only scalable, but also capable of performing load balancing for inbound traffic using different strategies.

  1. Traffic sign recognition with deep convolutional neural networks

    OpenAIRE

    Karamatić, Boris

    2016-01-01

    The problem of detection and recognition of traffic signs is becoming an important problem when it comes to the development of self driving cars and advanced driver assistance systems. In this thesis we will develop a system for detection and recognition of traffic signs. For the problem of detection we will use aggregate channel features and for the problem of recognition we will use a deep convolutional neural network. We will describe how convolutional neural networks work, how they are co...

  2. Behavioral Profiling of Scada Network Traffic Using Machine Learning Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-27

    Acquisition ( SCADA ) System Overview SCADA systems control and monitor processes for water distribution, oil and natural gas pipelines , electrical...the desire for remote control and monitoring of industrial processes. The ability to identify SCADA devices on a mixed traffic network with zero...optimal attribute subset, while maintaining the desired TPR of .99 for SCADA network traffic. The attributes and ML algorithms chosen for

  3. Developing a New HSR Switching Node (SwitchBox for Improving Traffic Performance in HSR Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Xuan Tien

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available High availability is crucial for industrial Ethernet networks as well as Ethernet-based control systems such as automation networks and substation automation systems (SAS. Since standard Ethernet does not support fault tolerance capability, the high availability of Ethernet networks can be increased by using redundancy protocols. Various redundancy protocols for Ethernet networks have been developed and standardized, such as rapid spanning tree protocol (RSTP, media redundancy protocol (MRP, parallel redundancy protocol (PRP, high-availability seamless redundancy (HSR and others. RSTP and MRP have switchover delay drawbacks. PRP provides zero recovery time, but requires a duplicate network infrastructure. HSR operation is similar to PRP, but HSR uses a single network. However, the standard HSR protocol is mainly applied to ring-based topologies and generates excessively unnecessary redundant traffic in the network. In this paper, we develop a new switching node for the HSR protocol, called SwitchBox, which is used in HSR networks in order to support any network topology and significantly reduce redundant network traffic, including unicast, multicast and broadcast traffic, compared with standard HSR. By using the SwitchBox, HSR not only provides seamless communications with zero switchover time in case of failure, but it is also easily applied to any network topology and significantly reduces unnecessary redundant traffic in HSR networks.

  4. Towards a Cloud Based Smart Traffic Management Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, M. M.; Hakimpour, F.

    2017-09-01

    Traffic big data has brought many opportunities for traffic management applications. However several challenges like heterogeneity, storage, management, processing and analysis of traffic big data may hinder their efficient and real-time applications. All these challenges call for well-adapted distributed framework for smart traffic management that can efficiently handle big traffic data integration, indexing, query processing, mining and analysis. In this paper, we present a novel, distributed, scalable and efficient framework for traffic management applications. The proposed cloud computing based framework can answer technical challenges for efficient and real-time storage, management, process and analyse of traffic big data. For evaluation of the framework, we have used OpenStreetMap (OSM) real trajectories and road network on a distributed environment. Our evaluation results indicate that speed of data importing to this framework exceeds 8000 records per second when the size of datasets is near to 5 million. We also evaluate performance of data retrieval in our proposed framework. The data retrieval speed exceeds 15000 records per second when the size of datasets is near to 5 million. We have also evaluated scalability and performance of our proposed framework using parallelisation of a critical pre-analysis in transportation applications. The results show that proposed framework achieves considerable performance and efficiency in traffic management applications.

  5. TOWARDS A CLOUD BASED SMART TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT FRAMEWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Rahimi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Traffic big data has brought many opportunities for traffic management applications. However several challenges like heterogeneity, storage, management, processing and analysis of traffic big data may hinder their efficient and real-time applications. All these challenges call for well-adapted distributed framework for smart traffic management that can efficiently handle big traffic data integration, indexing, query processing, mining and analysis. In this paper, we present a novel, distributed, scalable and efficient framework for traffic management applications. The proposed cloud computing based framework can answer technical challenges for efficient and real-time storage, management, process and analyse of traffic big data. For evaluation of the framework, we have used OpenStreetMap (OSM real trajectories and road network on a distributed environment. Our evaluation results indicate that speed of data importing to this framework exceeds 8000 records per second when the size of datasets is near to 5 million. We also evaluate performance of data retrieval in our proposed framework. The data retrieval speed exceeds 15000 records per second when the size of datasets is near to 5 million. We have also evaluated scalability and performance of our proposed framework using parallelisation of a critical pre-analysis in transportation applications. The results show that proposed framework achieves considerable performance and efficiency in traffic management applications.

  6. Network Traffic Features for Anomaly Detection in Specific Industrial Control System Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matti Mantere

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The deterministic and restricted nature of industrial control system networks sets them apart from more open networks, such as local area networks in office environments. This improves the usability of network security, monitoring approaches that would be less feasible in more open environments. One of such approaches is machine learning based anomaly detection. Without proper customization for the special requirements of the industrial control system network environment, many existing anomaly or misuse detection systems will perform sub-optimally. A machine learning based approach could reduce the amount of manual customization required for different industrial control system networks. In this paper we analyze a possible set of features to be used in a machine learning based anomaly detection system in the real world industrial control system network environment under investigation. The network under investigation is represented by architectural drawing and results derived from network trace analysis. The network trace is captured from a live running industrial process control network and includes both control data and the data flowing between the control network and the office network. We limit the investigation to the IP traffic in the traces.

  7. INTELLIGENT TRAFFIC-SAFETY MIRROR BY USING WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Danišovič

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article is focused on the problematic of traffic safety, dealing with the problem of car intersections with blocked view crossing by a special wireless sensor network (WSN proposed for the traffic monitoring, concretely for vehicle’s detection at places, where it is necessary. Some ultra-low-power TI products were developed due to this reason: microcontroller MSP430F2232, 868MHz RF transceiver CC1101 and LDO voltage regulator TPS7033. The WSN consist of four network nodes supplied with the special safety lightings which serve the function of intelligent traffic safety mirror.

  8. Switching performance of OBS network model under prefetched real traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhenhua; Xu, Du; Lei, Wen

    2005-11-01

    Optical Burst Switching (OBS) [1] is now widely considered as an efficient switching technique in building the next generation optical Internet .So it's very important to precisely evaluate the performance of the OBS network model. The performance of the OBS network model is variable in different condition, but the most important thing is that how it works under real traffic load. In the traditional simulation models, uniform traffics are usually generated by simulation software to imitate the data source of the edge node in the OBS network model, and through which the performance of the OBS network is evaluated. Unfortunately, without being simulated by real traffic, the traditional simulation models have several problems and their results are doubtable. To deal with this problem, we present a new simulation model for analysis and performance evaluation of the OBS network, which uses prefetched IP traffic to be data source of the OBS network model. The prefetched IP traffic can be considered as real IP source of the OBS edge node and the OBS network model has the same clock rate with a real OBS system. So it's easy to conclude that this model is closer to the real OBS system than the traditional ones. The simulation results also indicate that this model is more accurate to evaluate the performance of the OBS network system and the results of this model are closer to the actual situation.

  9. Dynamic traffic grooming with Spectrum Engineering (TG-SE) in flexible grid optical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiaosong; Zhao, Yongli; Zhang, Jiawei; Wang, Jianping; Zhang, Guoying; Chen, Xue; Zhang, Jie

    2015-12-01

    Flexible grid has emerged as an evolutionary technology to satisfy the ever increasing demand for higher spectrum efficiency and operational flexibility. To optimize the spectrum resource utilization, this paper introduces the concept of Spectrum Engineering in flex-grid optical networks. The sliceable optical transponder has been proposed to offload IP traffic to the optical layer and reduce the number of IP router ports and transponders. We discuss the impact of sliceable transponder in traffic grooming and propose several traffic-grooming schemes with Spectrum Engineering (TG-SE). Our results show that there is a tradeoff among different traffic grooming policies, which should be adopted based on the network operator's objectives. The proposed traffic grooming with Spectrum Engineering schemes can reduce OPEX as well as increase spectrum efficiency by efficiently utilizing the bandwidth variability and capability of sliceable optical transponders.

  10. Optimized Sensor Network and Multi-Agent Decision Support for Smart Traffic Light Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Piris, Luis; Rivera, Diego; Fernandez, Susel; Marsa-Maestre, Ivan

    2018-02-02

    One of the biggest challenges in modern societies is to solve vehicular traffic problems. Sensor networks in traffic environments have contributed to improving the decision-making process of Intelligent Transportation Systems. However, one of the limiting factors for the effectiveness of these systems is in the deployment of sensors to provide accurate information about the traffic. Our proposal is using the centrality measurement of a graph as a base to locate the best locations for sensor installation in a traffic network. After integrating these sensors in a simulation scenario, we define a Multi-Agent Systems composed of three types of agents: traffic light management agents, traffic jam detection agents, and agents that control the traffic lights at an intersection. The ultimate goal of these Multi-Agent Systems is to improve the trip duration for vehicles in the network. To validate our solution, we have developed the needed elements for modelling the sensors and agents in the simulation environment. We have carried out experiments using the Simulation of Urban MObility (SUMO) traffic simulator and the Travel and Activity PAtterns Simulation (TAPAS) Cologne traffic scenario. The obtained results show that our proposal allows to reduce the sensor network while still obtaining relevant information to have a global view of the environment. Finally, regarding the Multi-Agent Systems, we have carried out experiments that show that our proposal is able to improve other existing solutions such as conventional traffic light management systems (static or dynamic) in terms of reduction of vehicle trip duration and reduction of the message exchange overhead in the sensor network.

  11. Optimized Sensor Network and Multi-Agent Decision Support for Smart Traffic Light Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Cruz-Piris

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the biggest challenges in modern societies is to solve vehicular traffic problems. Sensor networks in traffic environments have contributed to improving the decision-making process of Intelligent Transportation Systems. However, one of the limiting factors for the effectiveness of these systems is in the deployment of sensors to provide accurate information about the traffic. Our proposal is using the centrality measurement of a graph as a base to locate the best locations for sensor installation in a traffic network. After integrating these sensors in a simulation scenario, we define a Multi-Agent Systems composed of three types of agents: traffic light management agents, traffic jam detection agents, and agents that control the traffic lights at an intersection. The ultimate goal of these Multi-Agent Systems is to improve the trip duration for vehicles in the network. To validate our solution, we have developed the needed elements for modelling the sensors and agents in the simulation environment. We have carried out experiments using the Simulation of Urban MObility (SUMO traffic simulator and the Travel and Activity PAtterns Simulation (TAPAS Cologne traffic scenario. The obtained results show that our proposal allows to reduce the sensor network while still obtaining relevant information to have a global view of the environment. Finally, regarding the Multi-Agent Systems, we have carried out experiments that show that our proposal is able to improve other existing solutions such as conventional traffic light management systems (static or dynamic in terms of reduction of vehicle trip duration and reduction of the message exchange overhead in the sensor network.

  12. A paradox for traffic dynamics in complex networks with ATIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Jianfeng; Gao Ziyou

    2008-01-01

    In this work, we study the statistical properties of traffic (e.g., vehicles) dynamics in complex networks, by introducing advanced transportation information systems (ATIS). The ATIS can provide the information of traffic flow pattern throughout the network and have an obvious effect on path routing strategy for such vehicles equipped with ATIS. The ATIS can be described by the understanding of link cost functions. Different indices such as efficiency and system total cost are discussed in depth. It is found that, for random networks (scale-free networks), the efficiency is effectively improved (decreased) if ATIS is properly equipped; however the system total cost is largely increased (decreased). It indicates that there exists a paradox between the efficiency and system total cost in complex networks. Furthermore, we report the simulation results by considering different kinds of link cost functions, and the paradox is recovered. Finally, we extend our traffic model, and also find the existence of the paradox

  13. Betweenness centrality and its applications from modeling traffic flows to network community detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yihui

    As real-world complex networks are heterogeneous structures, not all their components such as nodes, edges and subgraphs carry the same role or importance in the functions performed by the networks: some elements are more critical than others. Understanding the roles of the components of a network is crucial for understanding the behavior of the network as a whole. One the most basic function of networks is transport; transport of vehicles/people, information, materials, forces, etc., and these quantities are transported along edges between source and destination nodes. For this reason, network path-based importance measures, also called centralities, play a crucial role in the understanding of the transport functions of the network and the network's structural and dynamical behavior in general. In this thesis we study the notion of betweenness centrality, which measures the fraction of lowest-cost (or shortest) paths running through a network component, in particular through a node or an edge. High betweenness centrality nodes/edges are those that will be frequently used by the entities transported through the network and thus they play a key role in the overall transport properties of the network. In the first part of the thesis we present a first-principles based method for traffic prediction using a cost-based generalization of the radiation model (emission/absorbtion model) for human mobility, coupled with a cost-minimizing algorithm for efficient distribution of the mobility fluxes through the network. Using US census and highway traffic data, we show that traffic can efficiently and accurately be computed from a range-limited, network betweenness type calculation. The model based on travel time costs captures the log-normal distribution of the traffic and attains a high Pearson correlation coefficient (0.75) when compared with real traffic. We then focus on studying the extent of changes in traffic flows in the wake of a localized damage or alteration to the

  14. Cooperative Learning for Distributed In-Network Traffic Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, S. B.; Loo, H. R.; Ismail, I.; Andromeda, T.; Marsono, M. N.

    2017-04-01

    Inspired by the concept of autonomic distributed/decentralized network management schemes, we consider the issue of information exchange among distributed network nodes to network performance and promote scalability for in-network monitoring. In this paper, we propose a cooperative learning algorithm for propagation and synchronization of network information among autonomic distributed network nodes for online traffic classification. The results show that network nodes with sharing capability perform better with a higher average accuracy of 89.21% (sharing data) and 88.37% (sharing clusters) compared to 88.06% for nodes without cooperative learning capability. The overall performance indicates that cooperative learning is promising for distributed in-network traffic classification.

  15. Dynamic Power-Saving Method for Wi-Fi Direct Based IoT Networks Considering Variable-Bit-Rate Video Traffic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Meihua; Jung, Ji-Young; Lee, Jung-Ryun

    2016-10-12

    With the arrival of the era of Internet of Things (IoT), Wi-Fi Direct is becoming an emerging wireless technology that allows one to communicate through a direct connection between the mobile devices anytime, anywhere. In Wi-Fi Direct-based IoT networks, all devices are categorized by group of owner (GO) and client. Since portability is emphasized in Wi-Fi Direct devices, it is essential to control the energy consumption of a device very efficiently. In order to avoid unnecessary power consumed by GO, Wi-Fi Direct standard defines two power-saving methods: Opportunistic and Notice of Absence (NoA) power-saving methods. In this paper, we suggest an algorithm to enhance the energy efficiency of Wi-Fi Direct power-saving, considering the characteristics of multimedia video traffic. Proposed algorithm utilizes the statistical distribution for the size of video frames and adjusts the lengths of awake intervals in a beacon interval dynamically. In addition, considering the inter-dependency among video frames, the proposed algorithm ensures that a video frame having high priority is transmitted with higher probability than other frames having low priority. Simulation results show that the proposed method outperforms the traditional NoA method in terms of average delay and energy efficiency.

  16. Adaptive traffic control systems for urban networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radivojević Danilo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive traffic control systems represent complex, but powerful tool for improvement of traffic flow conditions in locations or zones where applied. Many traffic agencies, especially those that have a large number of signalized intersections with high variability of the traffic demand, choose to apply some of the adaptive traffic control systems. However, those systems are manufactured and offered by multiple vendors (companies that are competing for the market share. Due to that fact, besides the information available from the vendors themselves, or the information from different studies conducted on different continents, very limited amount of information is available about the details how those systems are operating. The reason for that is the protecting of the intellectual property from plagiarism. The primary goal of this paper is to make a brief analysis of the functionalities, characteristics, abilities and results of the most recognized, but also less known adaptive traffic control systems to the professional public and other persons with interest in this subject.

  17. Day-to-day evolution of the traffic network with Advanced Traveler Information System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Linghui; Sun Huijun; Wu Jianjun; Zhu Chengjuan

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We develop a dynamical system with Advanced Travelers Information System (ATIS). → We use the dynamical system to study stability of the traffic network with ATIS. → It is found that some periodic attractors appear in some cases. → A road pricing is implemented to alleviate the instability of the traffic network with ATIS. - Abstract: Since the notion of user equilibrium (UE) was proposed by Wardrop , it has become a cornerstone for traffic assignment analysis. But, it is not sufficient to only ask whether equilibrium exists or not; it is equally important to ask whether and how the system can achieve equilibrium. Meanwhile, stability is an important performance in the sense that if equilibrium is unsustainable, both the equilibrium and the trajectory are sensitive to disturbances, even a small perturbation will result in the system evolution away from the equilibrium point. These incentive a growing interest in day-to-day dynamics. In this paper, we develop a dynamical system with Advanced Traveler Information System (ATIS) and study the stability of the network with ATIS. A simple network is used to simulate the model, and the results show that there exist periodic attractors in the traffic network in some cases (for example, the market penetration level of ATIS is 0.25 and traffic demand is 2 unit). It is found that the logit parameter of the dynamical model and the traffic demand can also affect the stability of the traffic network. More periodic attractors appear in the system when the traffic demand is large and the low logit parameter can delay the appearance of periodic attractors. By simulation, it can be concluded that if the range of the periodic attractors' domain of the simple network is known, the road pricing based on the range of the attraction domain is effective to alleviate the instability of the system.

  18. Main concept of local area network protection on the basis of the SAAM 'TRAFFIC'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasil'ev, P.M.; Kryukov, Yu.A.; Kuptsov, S.I.; Ivanov, V.V.; Koren'kov, V.V.

    2002-01-01

    In our previous paper we developed a system for acquisition, analysis and management of the network traffic (SAAM 'Traffic') for a segment of the JINR local area computer network (JINR LAN). In our present work we consider well-known scenarios of attacks on local area networks and propose protection methods based on the SAAM 'Traffic'. Although the system for LAN protection is installed on a router computer, it is not analogous to the firewall scheme and, thus, it does not hinder the performance of distributed network applications. This provides a possibility to apply such an approach to GRID-technologies, where network protection on the firewall basis can not be basically used. (author)

  19. Optimization of TTEthernet Networks to Support Best-Effort Traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamas-Selicean, Domitian; Pop, Paul

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on the optimization of the TTEthernet communication protocol, which offers three traffic classes: time-triggered (TT), sent according to static schedules, rate-constrained (RC) that has bounded end-to-end latency, and best-effort (BE), the classic Ethernet traffic, with no timing...... guarantees. In our earlier work we have proposed an optimization approach named DOTTS that performs the routing, scheduling and packing / fragmenting of TT and RC messages, such that the TT and RC traffic is schedulable. Although backwards compatibility with classic Ethernet networks is one of TTEthernet...

  20. Traffic sign classification with dataset augmentation and convolutional neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Qing; Kurnianggoro, Laksono; Jo, Kang-Hyun

    2018-04-01

    This paper presents a method for traffic sign classification using a convolutional neural network (CNN). In this method, firstly we transfer a color image into grayscale, and then normalize it in the range (-1,1) as the preprocessing step. To increase robustness of classification model, we apply a dataset augmentation algorithm and create new images to train the model. To avoid overfitting, we utilize a dropout module before the last fully connection layer. To assess the performance of the proposed method, the German traffic sign recognition benchmark (GTSRB) dataset is utilized. Experimental results show that the method is effective in classifying traffic signs.

  1. Delay Bound: Fractal Traffic Passes through Network Servers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Delay analysis plays a role in real-time systems in computer communication networks. This paper gives our results in the aspect of delay analysis of fractal traffic passing through servers. There are three contributions presented in this paper. First, we will explain the reasons why conventional theory of queuing systems ceases in the general sense when arrival traffic is fractal. Then, we will propose a concise method of delay computation for hard real-time systems as shown in this paper. Finally, the delay computation of fractal traffic passing through severs is presented.

  2. A Survey on Urban Traffic Management System Using Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nellore, Kapileswar; Hancke, Gerhard P.

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, the number of vehicles has increased exponentially, but the bedrock capacities of roads and transportation systems have not developed in an equivalent way to efficiently cope with the number of vehicles traveling on them. Due to this, road jamming and traffic correlated pollution have increased with the associated adverse societal and financial effect on different markets worldwide. A static control system may block emergency vehicles due to traffic jams. Wireless Sensor networks (WSNs) have gained increasing attention in traffic detection and avoiding road congestion. WSNs are very trendy due to their faster transfer of information, easy installation, less maintenance, compactness and for being less expensive compared to other network options. There has been significant research on Traffic Management Systems using WSNs to avoid congestion, ensure priority for emergency vehicles and cut the Average Waiting Time (AWT) of vehicles at intersections. In recent decades, researchers have started to monitor real-time traffic using WSNs, RFIDs, ZigBee, VANETs, Bluetooth devices, cameras and infrared signals. This paper presents a survey of current urban traffic management schemes for priority-based signalling, and reducing congestion and the AWT of vehicles. The main objective of this survey is to provide a taxonomy of different traffic management schemes used for avoiding congestion. Existing urban traffic management schemes for the avoidance of congestion and providing priority to emergency vehicles are considered and set the foundation for further research. PMID:26828489

  3. An implementation of traffic light system using multi-hop Ad hoc networks

    KAUST Repository

    Ansari, Imran Shafique

    2009-08-01

    In ad hoc networks nodes cooperate with each other to form a temporary network without the aid of any centralized administration. No wired base station or infrastructure is supported, and each host communicates via radio packets. Each host must act as a router, since routes are mostly multi-hop, due to the limited power transmission set by government agencies, (e.g. the Federal Communication Commission (FCC), which is 1 Watt in Industrial Scientific and Medical (ISM) band. The natures of wireless mobile ad hoc networks depend on batteries or other fatiguing means for their energy. A limited energy capacity may be the most significant performance constraint. Therefore, radio resource and power management is an important issue of any wireless network. In this paper, a design for traffic light system employing ad hoc networks is proposed. The traffic light system runs automatically based on signals sent through a multi-hop ad hoc network of \\'n\\' number of nodes utilizing the Token Ring protocol, which is efficient for this application from the energy prospective. The experiment consists of a graphical user interface that simulates the traffic lights and laptops (which have wireless network adapters) are used to run the graphical user interface and are responsible for setting up the ad hoc network between them. The traffic light system has been implemented utilizing A Mesh Driver (which allows for more than one wireless device to be connected simultaneously) and Java-based client-server programs. © 2009 IEEE.

  4. Research on the Application of Wireless Network in Collecting Road Traffic Information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Hui-jiang

    2015-01-01

    Due to the characteristics of variability and dispersion in traffic information, to get the reliable real-time traffic information has been a bottleneck in the development of intelligent transportation systems. However, with the development of wireless network technology and mobile Internet, the mobile phones are rapidly developed and more popular, so it is possible to get road traffic information by locating the mobile phones in vehicles. The system structure for the road traffic information collection is designed based on wireless network and mobile phones in vehicles, and the vehicle recognition and its information computation methods are given and discussed. Also the simulation is done for vehicle recognition and computation based on fuzzy cluster analysis method and the results are obtained and analyzed.

  5. Fragmented network subsystem with traffic filtering for microkernel environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Urievna Budkina

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The TCP/IP stack in a microkernel operating system executed in a user space, which requires the development of a distributed network infrastructure within a single software environment. Its functions are the organization of interaction between the components of the stack with different processes, as well as the organization of filtering mechanisms and routing of internal network traffic. Use of architectural approaches applicable in monolithic-modular systems is impossible, because the network stack is not a shareable component of the system. As a consequence, the microkernel environment requires development of special network subsystem. In this work we provide overview of major conceptions of network architectures in microkernel environments. Also, we provide own architecture which supports filtering of internal network traffic. We evaluate the architecture by development of high-performance "key-value" store.

  6. A cyberciege traffic analysis extension for teaching network security

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Xuquan Stanley.; Chua, Kim Yong.

    2011-01-01

    CyberCIEGE is an interactive game simulating realistic scenarios that teaches the players Information Assurance (IA) concepts. The existing game scenarios only provide a high-level abstraction of the networked environment, e.g., nodes do not have Internet protocol (IP) addresses or belong to proper subnets, and there is no packet-level network simulation. This research explored endowing the game with network level traffic analysis, and implementing a game scenario to take advantage of this ne...

  7. Traffic Profiling in Wireless Sensor Networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kirykos, Georgios

    2006-01-01

    .... Wireless sensor networks pose unique challenges and limitations to the traditional schemes, which are used in the other wireless networks for security protection, and are due mainly to the increased...

  8. A First Look into SCADA Network Traffic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barbosa, R.R.R.; Sadre, R.; Pras, Aiko

    Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) networks are commonly deployed to aid the operation of critical infrastructures, such as water distribution facilities. These networks provide automated processes that ensure the correct functioning of these infrastructures, in a operation much

  9. Design Issues for Traffic Management for the ATM UBR + Service for TCP Over Satellite Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Raj

    1999-01-01

    This project was a comprehensive research program for developing techniques for improving the performance of Internet protocols over Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) based satellite networks. Among the service categories provided by ATM networks, the most commonly used category for data traffic is the unspecified bit rate (UBR) service. UBR allows sources to send data into the network without any feedback control. The project resulted in the numerous ATM Forum contributions and papers.

  10. Discovering urban mobility patterns with PageRank based traffic modeling and prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Minjie; Yang, Su; Sun, Yi; Gao, Jun

    2017-11-01

    Urban transportation system can be viewed as complex network with time-varying traffic flows as links to connect adjacent regions as networked nodes. By computing urban traffic evolution on such temporal complex network with PageRank, it is found that for most regions, there exists a linear relation between the traffic congestion measure at present time and the PageRank value of the last time. Since the PageRank measure of a region does result from the mutual interactions of the whole network, it implies that the traffic state of a local region does not evolve independently but is affected by the evolution of the whole network. As a result, the PageRank values can act as signatures in predicting upcoming traffic congestions. We observe the aforementioned laws experimentally based on the trajectory data of 12000 taxies in Beijing city for one month.

  11. A Fair Contention Access Scheme for Low-Priority Traffic in Wireless Body Area Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shagufta Henna

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Recently, wireless body area networks (WBANs have attracted significant consideration in ubiquitous healthcare. A number of medium access control (MAC protocols, primarily derived from the superframe structure of the IEEE 802.15.4, have been proposed in literature. These MAC protocols aim to provide quality of service (QoS by prioritizing different traffic types in WBANs. A contention access period (CAPwith high contention in priority-based MAC protocols can result in higher number of collisions and retransmissions. During CAP, traffic classes with higher priority are dominant over low-priority traffic; this has led to starvation of low-priority traffic, thus adversely affecting WBAN throughput, delay, and energy consumption. Hence, this paper proposes a traffic-adaptive priority-based superframe structure that is able to reduce contention in the CAP period, and provides a fair chance for low-priority traffic. Simulation results in ns-3 demonstrate that the proposed MAC protocol, called traffic- adaptive priority-based MAC (TAP-MAC, achieves low energy consumption, high throughput, and low latency compared to the IEEE 802.15.4 standard, and the most recent priority-based MAC protocol, called priority-based MAC protocol (PA-MAC.

  12. File Detection On Network Traffic Using Approximate Matching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Breitinger

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, Internet technologies changed enormously and allow faster Internet connections, higher data rates and mobile usage. Hence, it is possible to send huge amounts of data / files easily which is often used by insiders or attackers to steal intellectual property. As a consequence, data leakage prevention systems (DLPS have been developed which analyze network traffic and alert in case of a data leak. Although the overall concepts of the detection techniques are known, the systems are mostly closed and commercial.Within this paper we present a new technique for network trac analysis based on approximate matching (a.k.a fuzzy hashing which is very common in digital forensics to correlate similar files. This paper demonstrates how to optimize and apply them on single network packets. Our contribution is a straightforward concept which does not need a comprehensive conguration: hash the file and store the digest in the database. Within our experiments we obtained false positive rates between 10-4 and 10-5 and an algorithm throughput of over 650 Mbit/s.

  13. Adaptive Traffic Signal Control: Deep Reinforcement Learning Algorithm with Experience Replay and Target Network

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Juntao; Shen, Yulong; Liu, Jia; Ito, Minoru; Shiratori, Norio

    2017-01-01

    Adaptive traffic signal control, which adjusts traffic signal timing according to real-time traffic, has been shown to be an effective method to reduce traffic congestion. Available works on adaptive traffic signal control make responsive traffic signal control decisions based on human-crafted features (e.g. vehicle queue length). However, human-crafted features are abstractions of raw traffic data (e.g., position and speed of vehicles), which ignore some useful traffic information and lead t...

  14. Resilience of traffic networks: From perturbation to recovery via a dynamic restricted equilibrium model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nogal, Maria; O'Connor, Alan; Caulfield, Brian; Martinez-Pastor, Beatriz

    2016-01-01

    When a disruptive event takes place in a traffic network some important questions arise, such as how stressed the traffic network is, whether the system is able to respond to this stressful situation, or how long the system needs to recover a new equilibrium position after suffering this perturbation. Quantifying these aspects allows the comparison of different systems, to scale the degree of damage, to identify traffic network weaknesses, and to analyse the effect of user knowledge about the traffic network state. The indicator that accounts for performance and recovery pattern under disruptive events is known as resilience. This paper presents a methodology to assess the resilience of a traffic network when a given perturbation occurs, from the beginning of the perturbation to the total system recovery. To consider the dynamic nature of the problem, a new dynamic equilibrium-restricted assignment model is presented to simulate the network performance evolution, which takes into consideration important aspects, such as the cost increment due to the perturbation, the system impedance to alter its previous state and the user stress level. Finally, this methodology is used to evaluate the resilience indices of a real network. - Highlights: • Method to assess the resilience of a traffic network suffering progressive impacts. • It simulates the dynamic response during the perturbation and system recovery. • The resilience index is based on the travel costs and the stress level of users. • It considers the capacity of adaptation of the system to the new situations. • The model evaluates redundancy, adaptability, ability to recover, etc.

  15. Towards Mining Latent Client Identifiers from Network Traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jain Sakshi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Websites extensively track users via identifiers that uniquely map to client machines or user accounts. Although such tracking has desirable properties like enabling personalization and website analytics, it also raises serious concerns about online user privacy, and can potentially enable illicit surveillance by adversaries who broadly monitor network traffic.

  16. Traffic Analysis for Real-Time Communication Networks onboard Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiøler, Henrik; Nielsen, Jens Frederik Dalsgaard; Jørgensen, N.

    1998-01-01

    The paper presents a novel method for establishing worst case estimates of queue lenghts and transmission delays in networks of interconnected segments each of ring topology as defined by the ATOMOS project for marine automation. A non probalistic model for describing traffic is introduced as well...

  17. Traffic Analysis for Real-Time Communication Networks onboard Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiøler, Henrik; Nielsen, Jens Frederik Dalsgaard; Jørgensen, N.

    The paper presents a novel method for establishing worst case estimates of queue lenghts and transmission delays in networks of interconnected segments each of ring topology as defined by the ATOMOS project for marine automation. A non probalistic model for describing traffic is introduced as well...

  18. Energy Saving: Scaling Network Energy Efficiency Faster than Traffic Growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Y.; Blume, O.; Gati, A.; Capone, A.; Wu, C.-E.; Barth, U.; Marzetta, T.; Zhang, H.; Xu, S.

    2013-01-01

    As the mobile traffic is expected to continue its exponential growth in the near future, energy efficiency has gradually become a must criterion for wireless network design. Three fundamental questions need to be answered before the detailed design could be carried out, namely what energy efficiency

  19. Simulation of traffic capacity of inland waterway network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, L.; Mou, J.; Ligteringen, H.

    2013-01-01

    The inland waterborne transportation is viewed as an economic, safe and environmentally friendly alternative to the congested road network. The traffic capacity are the critical indicator of the inland shipping performance. Actually, interacted under the complicated factors, it is challenging to

  20. Power Consumption Evaluation of Distributed Computing Network Considering Traffic Locality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Yukio; Hasegawa, Go; Murata, Masayuki

    When computing resources are consolidated in a few huge data centers, a massive amount of data is transferred to each data center over a wide area network (WAN). This results in increased power consumption in the WAN. A distributed computing network (DCN), such as a content delivery network, can reduce the traffic from/to the data center, thereby decreasing the power consumed in the WAN. In this paper, we focus on the energy-saving aspect of the DCN and evaluate its effectiveness, especially considering traffic locality, i.e., the amount of traffic related to the geographical vicinity. We first formulate the problem of optimizing the DCN power consumption and describe the DCN in detail. Then, numerical evaluations show that, when there is strong traffic locality and the router has ideal energy proportionality, the system's power consumption is reduced to about 50% of the power consumed in the case where a DCN is not used; moreover, this advantage becomes even larger (up to about 30%) when the data center is located farthest from the center of the network topology.

  1. Traffic-aware Elastic Optical Networks to leverage Energy Savings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turus, Ioan; Fagertun, Anna Manolova; Dittmann, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Because of the static nature of the deployed optical networks, large energy wastage is experienced today in production networks such as Telecom networks . With power-adaptive optical interfaces and suitable grooming procedures, we propose the design of more energy efficient transport networks....... Optical network reconfigurations are performed by GMPLS node controllers according to monitored traffic information. The investigated energy reduction strategies are simulated on two large scale transport networks (DT17 and COST37). The results show that the energy savings obtained by these strategies......-Europea n COST37 network, for both symbol-rate and modulation format adaptations significant savings are obtained . Mixed adaptation (jointly performing symbol-rate and modulation format adaptations) used together with optical grooming allows up to 4 4 % and 4 7 % power savings in DT17 and COST37 networks...

  2. Sensitivity Analysis of Wavelet Neural Network Model for Short-Term Traffic Volume Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinxing Shen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to achieve a more accurate and robust traffic volume prediction model, the sensitivity of wavelet neural network model (WNNM is analyzed in this study. Based on real loop detector data which is provided by traffic police detachment of Maanshan, WNNM is discussed with different numbers of input neurons, different number of hidden neurons, and traffic volume for different time intervals. The test results show that the performance of WNNM depends heavily on network parameters and time interval of traffic volume. In addition, the WNNM with 4 input neurons and 6 hidden neurons is the optimal predictor with more accuracy, stability, and adaptability. At the same time, a much better prediction record will be achieved with the time interval of traffic volume are 15 minutes. In addition, the optimized WNNM is compared with the widely used back-propagation neural network (BPNN. The comparison results indicated that WNNM produce much lower values of MAE, MAPE, and VAPE than BPNN, which proves that WNNM performs better on short-term traffic volume prediction.

  3. From Cellular Attractor Selection to Adaptive Signal Control for Traffic Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Daxin; Zhou, Jianshan; Sheng, Zhengguo; Wang, Yunpeng; Ma, Jianming

    2016-03-14

    The management of varying traffic flows essentially depends on signal controls at intersections. However, design an optimal control that considers the dynamic nature of a traffic network and coordinates all intersections simultaneously in a centralized manner is computationally challenging. Inspired by the stable gene expressions of Escherichia coli in response to environmental changes, we explore the robustness and adaptability performance of signalized intersections by incorporating a biological mechanism in their control policies, specifically, the evolution of each intersection is induced by the dynamics governing an adaptive attractor selection in cells. We employ a mathematical model to capture such biological attractor selection and derive a generic, adaptive and distributed control algorithm which is capable of dynamically adapting signal operations for the entire dynamical traffic network. We show that the proposed scheme based on attractor selection can not only promote the balance of traffic loads on each link of the network but also allows the global network to accommodate dynamical traffic demands. Our work demonstrates the potential of bio-inspired intelligence emerging from cells and provides a deep understanding of adaptive attractor selection-based control formation that is useful to support the designs of adaptive optimization and control in other domains.

  4. The improved degree of urban road traffic network: A case study of Xiamen, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shiguang; Zheng, Lili; Yu, Dexin

    2017-03-01

    The complex network theory is applied to the study of urban road traffic network topology, and we constructed a new measure to characterize an urban road network. It is inspiring to quantify the interaction more appropriately between nodes in complex networks, especially in the field of traffic. The measure takes into account properties of lanes (e.g. number of lanes, width, traffic direction). As much, it is a more comprehensive measure in comparison to previous network measures. It can be used to grasp the features of urban street network more clearly. We applied this measure to the road network in Xiamen, China. Based on a standard method from statistical physics, we examined in more detail the distribution of this new measure and found that (1) due to the limitation of space geographic attributes, traditional research conclusions acquired by using the original definition of degree to study the primal approach modeled urban street network are not very persuasive; (2) both of the direction of the network connection and the degree's odd or even classifications need to be analyzed specifically; (3) the improved degree distribution presents obvious hierarchy, and hierarchical values conform to the power-law distribution, and correlation of our new measure shows some significant segmentation of the urban road network.

  5. Consistency of Network Traffic Repositories: An Overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lastdrager, E.; Lastdrager, E.E.H.; Pras, Aiko

    2009-01-01

    Traffc repositories with TCP/IP header information are very important for network analysis. Researchers often assume that such repositories reliably represent all traffc that has been flowing over the network; little thoughts are made regarding the consistency of these repositories. Still, for

  6. RESEARCH OF ENGINEERING TRAFFIC IN COMPUTER UZ NETWORK USING MPLS TE TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Pakhomovа

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. In railway transport of Ukraine one requires the use of computer networks of different technologies: Ethernet, Token Bus, Token Ring, FDDI and others. In combined computer networks on the railway transport it is necessary to use packet switching technology in multiprotocol networks MPLS (MultiProtocol Label Switching more effectively. They are based on the use of tags. Packet network must transmit different types of traffic with a given quality of service. The purpose of the research is development a methodology for determining the sequence of destination flows for the considered fragment of computer network of UZ. Methodology. When optimizing traffic management in MPLS networks has the important role of technology traffic engineering (Traffic Engineering, TE. The main mechanism of TE in MPLS is the use of unidirectional tunnels (MPLS TE tunnel to specify the path of the specified traffic. The mathematical model of the problem of traffic engineering in computer network of UZ technology MPLS TE was made. Computer UZ network is represented with the directed graph, their vertices are routers of computer network, and each arc simulates communication between nodes. As an optimization criterion serves the minimum value of the maximum utilization of the TE-tunnel. Findings. The six options destination flows were determined; rational sequence of flows was found, at which the maximum utilization of TE-tunnels considered a simplified fragment of a computer UZ network does not exceed 0.5. Originality. The method of solving the problem of traffic engineering in Multiprotocol network UZ technology MPLS TE was proposed; for different classes its own way is laid, depending on the bandwidth and channel loading. Practical value. Ability to determine the values of the maximum coefficient of use of TE-tunnels in computer UZ networks based on developed software model «TraffEng». The input parameters of the model: number of routers, channel capacity, the

  7. Advanced Models and Algorithms for Self-Similar IP Network Traffic Simulation and Performance Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radev, Dimitar; Lokshina, Izabella

    2010-11-01

    The paper examines self-similar (or fractal) properties of real communication network traffic data over a wide range of time scales. These self-similar properties are very different from the properties of traditional models based on Poisson and Markov-modulated Poisson processes. Advanced fractal models of sequentional generators and fixed-length sequence generators, and efficient algorithms that are used to simulate self-similar behavior of IP network traffic data are developed and applied. Numerical examples are provided; and simulation results are obtained and analyzed.

  8. Generic Traffic Descriptors in Managing Service Quality in BISDN/ATM Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Bošnjak

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Traffic models for multiservice broadband networks differsignificantly regarding simple analytic models applicable intelephone traffic and circuit-switch network. The paper presentsa clear analysis of standardised traffic descriptors andquality parameters of the main services in BISDNIATM. Trafficdescriptors have been associated with the basic values andconcepts developed within generic traffic theory. Part systematisationof traffic parameters has been performed as basis for formalisedgeneralised description of parameters and effectivequality management of A TM services.

  9. Fast Traffic Sign Recognition with a Rotation Invariant Binary Pattern Based Feature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shouyi Yin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Robust and fast traffic sign recognition is very important but difficult for safe driving assistance systems. This study addresses fast and robust traffic sign recognition to enhance driving safety. The proposed method includes three stages. First, a typical Hough transformation is adopted to implement coarse-grained location of the candidate regions of traffic signs. Second, a RIBP (Rotation Invariant Binary Pattern based feature in the affine and Gaussian space is proposed to reduce the time of traffic sign detection and achieve robust traffic sign detection in terms of scale, rotation, and illumination. Third, the techniques of ANN (Artificial Neutral Network based feature dimension reduction and classification are designed to reduce the traffic sign recognition time. Compared with the current work, the experimental results in the public datasets show that this work achieves robustness in traffic sign recognition with comparable recognition accuracy and faster processing speed, including training speed and recognition speed.

  10. Estimating Urban Traffic Patterns through Probabilistic Interconnectivity of Road Network Junctions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ed Manley

    Full Text Available The emergence of large, fine-grained mobility datasets offers significant opportunities for the development and application of new methodologies for transportation analysis. In this paper, the link between routing behaviour and traffic patterns in urban areas is examined, introducing a method to derive estimates of traffic patterns from a large collection of fine-grained routing data. Using this dataset, the interconnectivity between road network junctions is extracted in the form of a Markov chain. This representation encodes the probability of the successive usage of adjacent road junctions, encoding routes as flows between decision points rather than flows along road segments. This network of functional interactions is then integrated within a modified Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC framework, adapted for the estimation of urban traffic patterns. As part of this approach, the data-derived links between major junctions influence the movement of directed random walks executed across the network to model origin-destination journeys. The simulation process yields estimates of traffic distribution across the road network. The paper presents an implementation of the modified MCMC approach for London, United Kingdom, building an MCMC model based on a dataset of nearly 700000 minicab routes. Validation of the approach clarifies how each element of the MCMC framework contributes to junction prediction performance, and finds promising results in relation to the estimation of junction choice and minicab traffic distribution. The paper concludes by summarising the potential for the development and extension of this approach to the wider urban modelling domain.

  11. Fuzzy Logic Based Autonomous Traffic Control System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad ABBAS

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to design and implement fuzzy logic based traffic light Control system to solve the traffic congestion issues. In this system four input parameters: Arrival, Queue, Pedestrian and Emergency Vehicle and two output parameters: Extension in Green and Pedestrian Signals are used. Using Fuzzy Rule Base, the system extends or terminates the Green Signal according to the Traffic situation at the junction. On the presence of emergency vehicle, the system decides which signal(s should be red and how much an extension should be given to Green Signal for Emergency Vehicle. The system also monitors the density of people and makes decisions accordingly. In order to verify the proposed design algorithm MATLAB simulation is adopted and results obtained show concurrency to the calculated values according to the Mamdani Model of the Fuzzy Control System.

  12. Algorithm for queueing networks with multi-rate traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Villy Bæk; Ko, King-Tim

    2011-01-01

    the nodes behave as independent nodes. For closed queueing networks with multiple servers in every node and multi-rate services we may apply multidimensional convolution algorithm to aggregate the nodes so that we end up with two nodes, the aggregated node and a single node, for which we can calculate......In this paper we present a new algorithm for evaluating queueing networks with multi-rate traffic. The detailed state space of a node is evaluated by explicit formulæ. We consider reversible nodes with multi-rate traffic and find the state probabilities by taking advantage of local balance. Theory...... of queueing networks in general, presumes that we have product form between the nodes. Otherwise, we have the state space explosion. Even so, the detailed state space of each node may become very large because there is no product form between chains inside a node. A prerequisite for product form...

  13. Algorithm for queueing networks with multi-rate traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Villy Bæk; King-Tim, Ko

    2011-01-01

    the nodes behave as independent nodes. For closed queueing networks with multiple servers in every node and multi-rate services we may apply multidimensional convolutions to aggregate the nodes so that we end up with two nodes, the aggregated node and a single node, for which we can calculate the detailed......In this paper we present a new algorithm for evaluating queueing networks with multi-rate traffic. The detailed state space of a node is evaluated by explicit formulæ. We consider reversible nodes with multi-rate traffic and find the state probabilities by taking advantage of local balance. Theory...... of queueing networks in general presumes that we have product form between the nodes. Other ways we have the state space explosion. Even so the detailed state space of each node may easily become very large because there is no product form between chains inside a node. A prerequisite for product form...

  14. Congestion Control and Traffic Scheduling for Collaborative Crowdsourcing in SDN Enabled Mobile Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawei Shen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, a number of crowdsourcing-based mobile applications have been implemented in mobile networks and Internet of Things (IoT, targeted at real-time services and recommendation. The frequent information exchanges and data transmissions in collaborative crowdsourcing are heavily injected into the current communication networks, which poses great challenges for Mobile Wireless Networks (MWN. This paper focuses on the traffic scheduling and load balancing problem in software-defined MWN and designs a hybrid routing forwarding scheme as well as a congestion control algorithm to achieve the feasible solution. The traffic scheduling algorithm first sorts the tasks in an ascending order depending on the amount of tasks and then solves it using a greedy scheme. In the proposed congestion control scheme, the traffic assignment is first transformed into a multiknapsack problem, and then the Artificial Fish Swarm Algorithm (AFSA is utilized to solve this problem. Numerical results on practical network topology reveal that, compared with the traditional schemes, the proposed congestion control and traffic scheduling schemes can achieve load balancing, reduce the probability of network congestion, and improve the network throughput.

  15. Mobile Phone Based RIMS for Traffic Control a Case Study of Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Angela-Aida Karugila Runyoro; Jesuk Ko

    2015-01-01

    Vehicles saturation in transportation infrastructure causes traffic congestion, accidents, transportation delays and environment pollution. This problem can be resolved with proper management of traffic flow. Existing traffic management systems are challenged on capturing and processing real-time road data from wide area road networks. The main purpose of this study is to address the gap by implementing a mobile phone based Road Information Management System. The proposed...

  16. Decentralized Traffic Management: A Synchronization-Based Intersection Control --- Extended Version

    OpenAIRE

    Tlig , Mohamed; Buffet , Olivier; Simonin , Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Controlling the vehicle traffic in large networks remains an important challenge in urban environments and transportation systems. Autonomous vehicles are today considered as a promising approach to deal with traffic control. In this paper, we propose a synchronization-based intersection control mechanism to allow the autonomous vehicle-agents to cross without stopping, i.e., in order to avoid congestions (delays) and energy loss. We decentralize the problem by managing the traffic of each in...

  17. Fine-granularity inference and estimations to network traffic for SDN.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dingde Jiang

    Full Text Available An end-to-end network traffic matrix is significantly helpful for network management and for Software Defined Networks (SDN. However, the end-to-end network traffic matrix's inferences and estimations are a challenging problem. Moreover, attaining the traffic matrix in high-speed networks for SDN is a prohibitive challenge. This paper investigates how to estimate and recover the end-to-end network traffic matrix in fine time granularity from the sampled traffic traces, which is a hard inverse problem. Different from previous methods, the fractal interpolation is used to reconstruct the finer-granularity network traffic. Then, the cubic spline interpolation method is used to obtain the smooth reconstruction values. To attain an accurate the end-to-end network traffic in fine time granularity, we perform a weighted-geometric-average process for two interpolation results that are obtained. The simulation results show that our approaches are feasible and effective.

  18. Fine-granularity inference and estimations to network traffic for SDN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Dingde; Huo, Liuwei; Li, Ya

    2018-01-01

    An end-to-end network traffic matrix is significantly helpful for network management and for Software Defined Networks (SDN). However, the end-to-end network traffic matrix's inferences and estimations are a challenging problem. Moreover, attaining the traffic matrix in high-speed networks for SDN is a prohibitive challenge. This paper investigates how to estimate and recover the end-to-end network traffic matrix in fine time granularity from the sampled traffic traces, which is a hard inverse problem. Different from previous methods, the fractal interpolation is used to reconstruct the finer-granularity network traffic. Then, the cubic spline interpolation method is used to obtain the smooth reconstruction values. To attain an accurate the end-to-end network traffic in fine time granularity, we perform a weighted-geometric-average process for two interpolation results that are obtained. The simulation results show that our approaches are feasible and effective.

  19. Controlling P2P File-Sharing Networks Traffic

    OpenAIRE

    García Pineda, Miguel; HAMMOUMI, MOHAMMED; Canovas Solbes, Alejandro; Lloret, Jaime

    2011-01-01

    Since the appearance of Peer-To-Peer (P2P) file-sharing networks some time ago, many Internet users have chosen this technology to share and search programs, videos, music, documents, etc. The total number of P2P file-sharing users has been increasing and decreasing in the last decade depending on the creation or end of some well known P2P file-sharing systems. P2P file-sharing networks traffic is currently overloading some data networks and it is a major headache for netw...

  20. The wireshark field guide analyzing and troubleshooting network traffic

    CERN Document Server

    Shimonski, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The Wireshark Field Guide provides hackers, pen testers, and network administrators with practical guidance on capturing and interactively browsing computer network traffic. Wireshark is the world's foremost network protocol analyzer, with a rich feature set that includes deep inspection of hundreds of protocols, live capture, offline analysis and many other features. The Wireshark Field Guide covers the installation, configuration and use of this powerful multi-platform tool. The book give readers the hands-on skills to be more productive with Wireshark as they drill

  1. Evaluation and Simulation of Common Video Conference Traffics in Communication Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad faghani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Multimedia traffics are the basic traffics in data communication networks. Especially Video conferences are the most desirable traffics in huge networks(wired, wireless, …. Traffic modeling can help us to evaluate the real networks. So, in order to have good services in data communication networks which provide multimedia services, QoS will be very important .In this research we tried to have an exact traffic model design and simulation to overcome QoS challenges. Also, we predict bandwidth by Kalman filter in Ethernet networks.

  2. Power supply of Eurotunnel. Optimisation based on traffic and simulation studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marie, Stephane [SNCF, Direction de l' Ingenierie, Saint-Denis (France). Dept. des Installations Fixes de Traction Electrique; Dupont, Jean-Pierre; Findinier, Bertrand; Maquaire, Christian [Eurotunnel, Coquelles (France)

    2010-12-15

    In order to reduce electrical power costs and also to cope with the significant traffic increase, a new study was carried on feeding the tunnel section from the French power station, thus improving and reinforcing the existing network. Based on a design study established by SNCF engineering department, EUROTUNNEL chose a new electrical scheme to cope with the traffic increase and optimise investments. (orig.)

  3. Traffic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lichtblau, G.

    2001-01-01

    This chapter deals with passenger and freight traffic, public and private transportation, traffic related environmental impacts, future developments, traffic indicators, regional traffic planning, health costs due to road traffic related air pollution, noise pollution, measures and regulations for traffic control and fuels for traffic. In particular energy consumption, energy efficiency, pollutant emissions ( CO 2 , SO 2 , NO x , HC, CO, N 2 O, NH 3 and particulates) and environmental effects of the different types of traffic and different types of fuels are compared and studied. Legal regulations and measures for an effective traffic control are discussed. (a.n.)

  4. Estimation and Control of Networked Distributed Parameter Systems: Application to Traffic Flow

    KAUST Repository

    Canepa, Edward

    2016-11-01

    The management of large-scale transportation infrastructure is becoming a very complex task for the urban areas of this century which are covering bigger geographic spaces and facing the inclusion of connected and self-controlled vehicles. This new system paradigm can leverage many forms of sensing and interaction, including a high-scale mobile sensing approach. To obtain a high penetration sensing system on urban areas more practical and scalable platforms are needed, combined with estimation algorithms suitable to the computational capabilities of these platforms. The purpose of this work was to develop a transportation framework that is able to handle different kinds of sensing data (e.g., connected vehicles, loop detectors) and optimize the traffic state on a defined traffic network. The framework estimates the traffic on road networks modeled by a family of Lighthill-Whitham-Richards equations. Based on an equivalent formulation of the problem using a Hamilton-Jacobi equation and using a semi-analytic formula, I will show that the model constraints resulting from the Hamilton-Jacobi equation are linear, albeit with unknown integer variables. This general framework solve exactly a variety of problems arising in transportation networks: traffic estimation, traffic control (including robust control), cybersecurity and sensor fault detection, or privacy analysis of users in probe-based traffic monitoring systems. This framework is very flexible, fast, and yields exact results. The recent advances in sensors (GPS, inertial measurement units) and microprocessors enable the development low-cost dedicated devices for traffic sensing in cities, 5 which are highly scalable, providing a feasible solution to cover large urban areas. However, one of the main problems to address is the privacy of the users of the transportation system, the framework presented here is a viable option to guarantee the privacy of the users by design.

  5. Detecting Target Data in Network Traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    perimeter around a network and create a single point of entry where security policies can be enforced and auditing can be performed [16]. Security...that we used in this thesis. 2.4.1 bulk_extractor Bulk_extractor is a forensic analysis tool designed for directly extracting artifacts of forensic ...educated guess whether or not the file is there. Shields et al. explains that they need other forensics tools to ensure that all forensic evidence is used

  6. Predicting Traffic Flow in Local Area Networks by the Largest Lyapunov Exponent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of network traffic are complex and nonlinear, and chaotic behaviors and their prediction, which play an important role in local area networks (LANs, are studied in detail, using the largest Lyapunov exponent. With the introduction of phase space reconstruction based on the time sequence, the high-dimensional traffic is projected onto the low dimension reconstructed phase space, and a reduced dynamic system is obtained from the dynamic system viewpoint. Then, a numerical method for computing the largest Lyapunov exponent of the low-dimensional dynamic system is presented. Further, the longest predictable time, which is related to chaotic behaviors in the system, is studied using the largest Lyapunov exponent, and the Wolf method is used to predict the evolution of the traffic in a local area network by both Dot and Interval predictions, and a reliable result is obtained by the presented method. As the conclusion, the results show that the largest Lyapunov exponent can be used to describe the sensitivity of the trajectory in the reconstructed phase space to the initial values. Moreover, Dot Prediction can effectively predict the flow burst. The numerical simulation also shows that the presented method is feasible and efficient for predicting the complex dynamic behaviors in LAN traffic, especially for congestion and attack in networks, which are the main two complex phenomena behaving as chaos in networks.

  7. Measurements and modelling of base station power consumption under real traffic loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorincz, Josip; Garma, Tonko; Petrovic, Goran

    2012-01-01

    Base stations represent the main contributor to the energy consumption of a mobile cellular network. Since traffic load in mobile networks significantly varies during a working or weekend day, it is important to quantify the influence of these variations on the base station power consumption. Therefore, this paper investigates changes in the instantaneous power consumption of GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications) and UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunications System) base stations according to their respective traffic load. The real data in terms of the power consumption and traffic load have been obtained from continuous measurements performed on a fully operated base station site. Measurements show the existence of a direct relationship between base station traffic load and power consumption. According to this relationship, we develop a linear power consumption model for base stations of both technologies. This paper also gives an overview of the most important concepts which are being proposed to make cellular networks more energy-efficient.

  8. Measurements and Modelling of Base Station Power Consumption under Real Traffic Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Petrovic

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Base stations represent the main contributor to the energy consumption of a mobile cellular network. Since traffic load in mobile networks significantly varies during a working or weekend day, it is important to quantify the influence of these variations on the base station power consumption. Therefore, this paper investigates changes in the instantaneous power consumption of GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications and UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunications System base stations according to their respective traffic load. The real data in terms of the power consumption and traffic load have been obtained from continuous measurements performed on a fully operated base station site. Measurements show the existence of a direct relationship between base station traffic load and power consumption. According to this relationship, we develop a linear power consumption model for base stations of both technologies. This paper also gives an overview of the most important concepts which are being proposed to make cellular networks more energy-efficient.

  9. Dynamic traffic assignment based trailblazing guide signing for major traffic generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    The placement of guide signs and the display of dynamic massage signs greatly affect drivers : understanding of the network and therefore their route choices. Most existing dynamic traffic assignment : models assume that drivers heading to a Major...

  10. Wireless Magnetic Sensor Network for Road Traffic Monitoring and Vehicle Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velisavljevic Vladan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Efficiency of transportation of people and goods is playing a vital role in economic growth. A key component for enabling effective planning of transportation networks is the deployment and operation of autonomous monitoring and traffic analysis tools. For that reason, such systems have been developed to register and classify road traffic usage. In this paper, we propose a novel system for road traffic monitoring and classification based on highly energy efficient wireless magnetic sensor networks. We develop novel algorithms for vehicle speed and length estimation and vehicle classification that use multiple magnetic sensors. We also demonstrate that, using such a low-cost system with simplified installation and maintenance compared to current solutions, it is possible to achieve highly accurate estimation and a high rate of positive vehicle classification.

  11. CATS-based Air Traffic Controller Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callantine, Todd J.

    2002-01-01

    This report describes intelligent agents that function as air traffic controllers. Each agent controls traffic in a single sector in real time; agents controlling traffic in adjoining sectors can coordinate to manage an arrival flow across a given meter fix. The purpose of this research is threefold. First, it seeks to study the design of agents for controlling complex systems. In particular, it investigates agent planning and reactive control functionality in a dynamic environment in which a variety perceptual and decision making skills play a central role. It examines how heuristic rules can be applied to model planning and decision making skills, rather than attempting to apply optimization methods. Thus, the research attempts to develop intelligent agents that provide an approximation of human air traffic controller behavior that, while not based on an explicit cognitive model, does produce task performance consistent with the way human air traffic controllers operate. Second, this research sought to extend previous research on using the Crew Activity Tracking System (CATS) as the basis for intelligent agents. The agents use a high-level model of air traffic controller activities to structure the control task. To execute an activity in the CATS model, according to the current task context, the agents reference a 'skill library' and 'control rules' that in turn execute the pattern recognition, planning, and decision-making required to perform the activity. Applying the skills enables the agents to modify their representation of the current control situation (i.e., the 'flick' or 'picture'). The updated representation supports the next activity in a cycle of action that, taken as a whole, simulates air traffic controller behavior. A third, practical motivation for this research is to use intelligent agents to support evaluation of new air traffic control (ATC) methods to support new Air Traffic Management (ATM) concepts. Current approaches that use large, human

  12. A knowledge-based system for controlling automobile traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maravas, Alexander; Stengel, Robert F.

    1994-01-01

    Transportation network capacity variations arising from accidents, roadway maintenance activity, and special events as well as fluctuations in commuters' travel demands complicate traffic management. Artificial intelligence concepts and expert systems can be useful in framing policies for incident detection, congestion anticipation, and optimal traffic management. This paper examines the applicability of intelligent route guidance and control as decision aids for traffic management. Basic requirements for managing traffic are reviewed, concepts for studying traffic flow are introduced, and mathematical models for modeling traffic flow are examined. Measures for quantifying transportation network performance levels are chosen, and surveillance and control strategies are evaluated. It can be concluded that automated decision support holds great promise for aiding the efficient flow of automobile traffic over limited-access roadways, bridges, and tunnels.

  13. Forecasting short-term data center network traffic load with convolutional neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordozgoiti, Bruno; Gómez-Canaval, Sandra

    2018-01-01

    Efficient resource management in data centers is of central importance to content service providers as 90 percent of the network traffic is expected to go through them in the coming years. In this context we propose the use of convolutional neural networks (CNNs) to forecast short-term changes in the amount of traffic crossing a data center network. This value is an indicator of virtual machine activity and can be utilized to shape the data center infrastructure accordingly. The behaviour of network traffic at the seconds scale is highly chaotic and therefore traditional time-series-analysis approaches such as ARIMA fail to obtain accurate forecasts. We show that our convolutional neural network approach can exploit the non-linear regularities of network traffic, providing significant improvements with respect to the mean absolute and standard deviation of the data, and outperforming ARIMA by an increasingly significant margin as the forecasting granularity is above the 16-second resolution. In order to increase the accuracy of the forecasting model, we exploit the architecture of the CNNs using multiresolution input distributed among separate channels of the first convolutional layer. We validate our approach with an extensive set of experiments using a data set collected at the core network of an Internet Service Provider over a period of 5 months, totalling 70 days of traffic at the one-second resolution. PMID:29408936

  14. Forecasting short-term data center network traffic load with convolutional neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozo, Alberto; Ordozgoiti, Bruno; Gómez-Canaval, Sandra

    2018-01-01

    Efficient resource management in data centers is of central importance to content service providers as 90 percent of the network traffic is expected to go through them in the coming years. In this context we propose the use of convolutional neural networks (CNNs) to forecast short-term changes in the amount of traffic crossing a data center network. This value is an indicator of virtual machine activity and can be utilized to shape the data center infrastructure accordingly. The behaviour of network traffic at the seconds scale is highly chaotic and therefore traditional time-series-analysis approaches such as ARIMA fail to obtain accurate forecasts. We show that our convolutional neural network approach can exploit the non-linear regularities of network traffic, providing significant improvements with respect to the mean absolute and standard deviation of the data, and outperforming ARIMA by an increasingly significant margin as the forecasting granularity is above the 16-second resolution. In order to increase the accuracy of the forecasting model, we exploit the architecture of the CNNs using multiresolution input distributed among separate channels of the first convolutional layer. We validate our approach with an extensive set of experiments using a data set collected at the core network of an Internet Service Provider over a period of 5 months, totalling 70 days of traffic at the one-second resolution.

  15. Multi Service Proxy: Mobile Web Traffic Entitlement Point in 4G Core Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalibor Uhlir

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Core part of state-of-the-art mobile networks is composed of several standard elements like GGSN (Gateway General Packet Radio Service Support Node, SGSN (Serving GPRS Support Node, F5 or MSP (Multi Service Proxy. Each node handles network traffic from a slightly different perspective, and with various goals. In this article we will focus only on the MSP, its key features and especially on related security issues. MSP handles all HTTP traffic in the mobile network and therefore it is a suitable point for the implementation of different optimization functions, e.g. to reduce the volume of data generated by YouTube or similar HTTP-based service. This article will introduce basic features and functions of MSP as well as ways of remote access and security mechanisms of this key element in state-of-the-art mobile networks.

  16. Network Traffic Monitoring Using Poisson Dynamic Linear Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merl, D. M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2011-05-09

    In this article, we discuss an approach for network forensics using a class of nonstationary Poisson processes with embedded dynamic linear models. As a modeling strategy, the Poisson DLM (PoDLM) provides a very flexible framework for specifying structured effects that may influence the evolution of the underlying Poisson rate parameter, including diurnal and weekly usage patterns. We develop a novel particle learning algorithm for online smoothing and prediction for the PoDLM, and demonstrate the suitability of the approach to real-time deployment settings via a new application to computer network traffic monitoring.

  17. Software defined multi-OLT passive optical network for flexible traffic allocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shizong; Gu, Rentao; Ji, Yuefeng; Zhang, Jiawei; Li, Hui

    2016-10-01

    With the rapid growth of 4G mobile network and vehicular network services mobile terminal users have increasing demand on data sharing among different radio remote units (RRUs) and roadside units (RSUs). Meanwhile, commercial video-streaming, video/voice conference applications delivered through peer-to-peer (P2P) technology are still keep on stimulating the sharp increment of bandwidth demand in both business and residential subscribers. However, a significant issue is that, although wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) and orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) technology have been proposed to fulfil the ever-increasing bandwidth demand in access network, the bandwidth of optical fiber is not unlimited due to the restriction of optical component properties and modulation/demodulation technology, and blindly increase the wavelength cannot meet the cost-sensitive characteristic of the access network. In this paper, we propose a software defined multi-OLT PON architecture to support efficient scheduling of access network traffic. By introducing software defined networking technology and wavelength selective switch into TWDM PON system in central office, multiple OLTs can be considered as a bandwidth resource pool and support flexible traffic allocation for optical network units (ONUs). Moreover, under the configuration of the control plane, ONUs have the capability of changing affiliation between different OLTs under different traffic situations, thus the inter-OLT traffic can be localized and the data exchange pressure of the core network can be released. Considering this architecture is designed to be maximum following the TWDM PON specification, the existing optical distribution network (ODN) investment can be saved and conventional EPON/GPON equipment can be compatible with the proposed architecture. What's more, based on this architecture, we propose a dynamic wavelength scheduling algorithm, which can be deployed as an application on control plane

  18. Highway traffic noise prediction based on GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jianghua; Qin, Qiming

    2014-05-01

    Before building a new road, we need to predict the traffic noise generated by vehicles. Traditional traffic noise prediction methods are based on certain locations and they are not only time-consuming, high cost, but also cannot be visualized. Geographical Information System (GIS) can not only solve the problem of manual data processing, but also can get noise values at any point. The paper selected a road segment from Wenxi to Heyang. According to the geographical overview of the study area and the comparison between several models, we combine the JTG B03-2006 model and the HJ2.4-2009 model to predict the traffic noise depending on the circumstances. Finally, we interpolate the noise values at each prediction point and then generate contours of noise. By overlaying the village data on the noise contour layer, we can get the thematic maps. The use of GIS for road traffic noise prediction greatly facilitates the decision-makers because of GIS spatial analysis function and visualization capabilities. We can clearly see the districts where noise are excessive, and thus it becomes convenient to optimize the road line and take noise reduction measures such as installing sound barriers and relocating villages and so on.

  19. Forecasting of passenger traffic in Moscow metro applying artificial neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, V.V.; Natsional'nyj Issledovatel'skij Yadernyj Univ. MIFI, Moscow; FKU Rostransmodernizatsiya, Moscow

    2016-01-01

    Methods for the forecasting of passenger traffic in Moscow metro have been developed using artificial neural networks. To this end, the factors primarily determining passenger traffic in the subway have been analyzed and selected [ru

  20. Ant colony optimization algorithm for signal coordination of oversaturated traffic networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    Traffic congestion is a daily and growing problem of the modern era in mostly all major cities in the world. : Increasing traffic demand strains the existing transportation system, leading to oversaturated network : conditions, especially at peak hou...

  1. Using mobile probes to inform and measure the effectiveness of traffic control strategies on urban networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Urban traffic congestion is a problem that plagues many cities in the United States. Testing strategies to alleviate this : congestion is especially challenging due to the difficulty of modeling complex urban traffic networks. However, recent work ha...

  2. Traffic Steering Framework for Mobile-Assisted Resource Management in Heterogeneous Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dogadaev, Anton Konstantinovich; Checko, Aleksandra; Popovska Avramova, Andrijana

    2013-01-01

    With the expected growth of mobile data traffic it is essential to manage the network resources efficiently. In order to undertake this challenge, we propose a framework for network-centric, mobile-assisted resource management, which facilitates traffic offloading from mobile network to Wi-Fi...... to the network backbone. What is more, we give an overview of existing standardization activities on offloading the mobile traffic through Wi-Fi....

  3. A multiclass vehicular dynamic traffic flow model for main roads and dedicated lanes/roads of multimodal transport network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sossoe, K.S., E-mail: kwami.sossoe@irt-systemx.fr [TECHNOLOGICAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE SYSTEMX (France); Lebacque, J-P., E-mail: jean-patrick.lebacque@ifsttar.fr [UPE/IFSTTAR-COSYS-GRETTIA (France)

    2015-03-10

    We present in this paper a model of vehicular traffic flow for a multimodal transportation road network. We introduce the notion of class of vehicles to refer to vehicles of different transport modes. Our model describes the traffic on highways (which may contain several lanes) and network transit for pubic transportation. The model is drafted with Eulerian and Lagrangian coordinates and uses a Logit model to describe the traffic assignment of our multiclass vehicular flow description on shared roads. The paper also discusses traffic streams on dedicated lanes for specific class of vehicles with event-based traffic laws. An Euler-Lagrangian-remap scheme is introduced to numerically approximate the model’s flow equations.

  4. Methodology for neural networks prototyping. Application to traffic control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belegan, I.C.

    1998-07-01

    The work described in this report was carried out in the context of the European project ASTORIA (Advanced Simulation Toolbox for Real-World Industrial Application in Passenger Management and Adaptive Control), and concerns the development of an advanced toolbox for complex transportation systems. Our work was focused on the methodology for prototyping a set of neural networks corresponding to specific strategies for traffic control and congestion management. The tool used for prototyping is SNNS (Stuggart Neural Network Simulator), developed at the University of Stuggart, Institute for Parallel and Distributed High Performance Systems, and the real data from the field were provided by ZELT. This report is structured into six parts. The introduction gives some insights about traffic control and its approaches. The second chapter discusses the various control strategies existing. The third chapter is an introduction to the field of neural networks. The data analysis and pre-processing is described in the fourth chapter. In the fifth chapter, the methodology for prototyping the neural networks is presented. Finally, conclusions and further work are presented. (author) 14 refs.

  5. Trunk Reservation in Multi-service Networks with BPP Traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, H.; Zhang, Qi; Iversen, Villy Bæk

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we develop approximate models for trunk reservation in multi-service systems with BPP (Binomial-Poisson-Pascal) multi-rate traffic streams. The approximation is a generalization of previous work by Tran-Gia & Hubner who assumed Poisson arrival processes. It is based on a generalized...

  6. Dynamic segment shared protection for multicast traffic in meshed wavelength-division-multiplexing optical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Luhua; Li, Lemin; Wang, Sheng

    2006-12-01

    We investigate the protection approach for dynamic multicast traffic under shared risk link group (SRLG) constraints in meshed wavelength-division-multiplexing optical networks. We present a shared protection algorithm called dynamic segment shared protection for multicast traffic (DSSPM), which can dynamically adjust the link cost according to the current network state and can establish a primary light-tree as well as corresponding SRLG-disjoint backup segments for a dependable multicast connection. A backup segment can efficiently share the wavelength capacity of its working tree and the common resources of other backup segments based on SRLG-disjoint constraints. The simulation results show that DSSPM not only can protect the multicast sessions against a single-SRLG breakdown, but can make better use of the wavelength resources and also lower the network blocking probability.

  7. Big Data-Driven Based Real-Time Traffic Flow State Identification and Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua-pu Lu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of urban informatization, the era of big data is coming. To satisfy the demand of traffic congestion early warning, this paper studies the method of real-time traffic flow state identification and prediction based on big data-driven theory. Traffic big data holds several characteristics, such as temporal correlation, spatial correlation, historical correlation, and multistate. Traffic flow state quantification, the basis of traffic flow state identification, is achieved by a SAGA-FCM (simulated annealing genetic algorithm based fuzzy c-means based traffic clustering model. Considering simple calculation and predictive accuracy, a bilevel optimization model for regional traffic flow correlation analysis is established to predict traffic flow parameters based on temporal-spatial-historical correlation. A two-stage model for correction coefficients optimization is put forward to simplify the bilevel optimization model. The first stage model is built to calculate the number of temporal-spatial-historical correlation variables. The second stage model is present to calculate basic model formulation of regional traffic flow correlation. A case study based on a real-world road network in Beijing, China, is implemented to test the efficiency and applicability of the proposed modeling and computing methods.

  8. A Unified Monitoring Framework for Energy Consumption and Network Traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florentin Clouet

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Providing experimenters with deep insight about the effects of their experiments is a central feature of testbeds. In this paper, we describe Kwapi, a framework designed in the context of the Grid'5000 testbed, that unifies measurements for both energy consumption and network traffic. Because all measurements are taken at the infrastructure level (using sensors in power and network equipment, using this framework has no dependencies on the experiments themselves. Initially designed for OpenStack infrastructures, the Kwapi framework allows monitoring and reporting of energy consumption of distributed platforms. In this article, we present the extension of Kwapi to network monitoring, and outline how we overcame several challenges: scaling to a testbed the size of Grid'5000 while still providing high-frequency measurements; providing long-term loss-less storage of measurements; handling operational issues when deploying such a tool on a real infrastructure.

  9. Effects of traffic generation patterns on the robustness of complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiajing; Zeng, Junwen; Chen, Zhenhao; Tse, Chi K.; Chen, Bokui

    2018-02-01

    Cascading failures in communication networks with heterogeneous node functions are studied in this paper. In such networks, the traffic dynamics are highly dependent on the traffic generation patterns which are in turn determined by the locations of the hosts. The data-packet traffic model is applied to Barabási-Albert scale-free networks to study the cascading failures in such networks and to explore the effects of traffic generation patterns on network robustness. It is found that placing the hosts at high-degree nodes in a network can make the network more robust against both intentional attacks and random failures. It is also shown that the traffic generation pattern plays an important role in network design.

  10. Intelligent Traffic Light Based on PLC Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Lin; Zhang, Lijian; Wang, Lingling

    2017-11-01

    The traditional traffic light system with a fixed control mode and single control function is contradicted with the current traffic section. The traditional one has been unable to meet the functional requirements of the existing flexible traffic control system. This paper research and develop an intelligent traffic light called PLC control system. It uses PLC as control core, using a sensor module for receiving real-time information of vehicles, traffic control mode for information to select the traffic lights. Of which control mode is flexible and changeable, and it also set the countdown reminder to improve the effectiveness of traffic lights, which can realize the goal of intelligent traffic diversion, intelligent traffic diversion.

  11. Noise-Assisted Concurrent Multipath Traffic Distribution in Ad Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Masayuki

    2013-01-01

    The concept of biologically inspired networking has been introduced to tackle unpredictable and unstable situations in computer networks, especially in wireless ad hoc networks where network conditions are continuously changing, resulting in the need of robustness and adaptability of control methods. Unfortunately, existing methods often rely heavily on the detailed knowledge of each network component and the preconfigured, that is, fine-tuned, parameters. In this paper, we utilize a new concept, called attractor perturbation (AP), which enables controlling the network performance using only end-to-end information. Based on AP, we propose a concurrent multipath traffic distribution method, which aims at lowering the average end-to-end delay by only adjusting the transmission rate on each path. We demonstrate through simulations that, by utilizing the attractor perturbation relationship, the proposed method achieves a lower average end-to-end delay compared to other methods which do not take fluctuations into account. PMID:24319375

  12. From trees to forest: relational complexity network and workload of air traffic controllers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingyu; Yang, Jiazhong; Wu, Changxu

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a relational complexity (RC) network framework based on RC metric and network theory to model controllers' workload in conflict detection and resolution. We suggest that, at the sector level, air traffic showing a centralised network pattern can provide cognitive benefits in visual search and resolution decision which will in turn result in lower workload. We found that the network centralisation index can account for more variance in predicting perceived workload and task completion time in both a static conflict detection task (Study 1) and a dynamic one (Study 2) in addition to other aircraft-level and pair-level factors. This finding suggests that linear combination of aircraft-level or dyad-level information may not be adequate and the global-pattern-based index is necessary. Theoretical and practical implications of using this framework to improve future workload modelling and management are discussed. We propose a RC network framework to model the workload of air traffic controllers. The effect of network centralisation was examined in both a static conflict detection task and a dynamic one. Network centralisation was predictive of perceived workload and task completion time over and above other control variables.

  13. An Improved Car-Following Model in Vehicle Networking Based on Network Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Y. Kong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vehicle networking is a system to realize information interoperability between vehicles and people, vehicles and roads, vehicles and vehicles, and cars and transport facilities, through the network information exchange, in order to achieve the effective monitoring of the vehicle and traffic flow. Realizing information interoperability between vehicles and vehicles, which can affect the traffic flow, is an important application of network control system (NCS. In this paper, a car-following model using vehicle networking theory is established, based on network control principle. The car-following model, which is an improvement of the traditional traffic model, describes the traffic in vehicle networking condition. The impact that vehicle networking has on the traffic flow is quantitatively assessed in a particular scene of one-way, no lane changing highway. The examples show that the capacity of the road is effectively enhanced by using vehicle networking.

  14. A new traffic control design method for large networks with signalized intersections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leininger, G. G.; Colony, D. C.; Seldner, K.

    1979-01-01

    The paper presents a traffic control design technique for application to large traffic networks with signalized intersections. It is shown that the design method adopts a macroscopic viewpoint to establish a new traffic modelling procedure in which vehicle platoons are subdivided into main stream queues and turning queues. Optimization of the signal splits minimizes queue lengths in the steady state condition and improves traffic flow conditions, from the viewpoint of the traveling public. Finally, an application of the design method to a traffic network with thirty-three signalized intersections is used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed technique.

  15. Multiobjective Reinforcement Learning for Traffic Signal Control Using Vehicular Ad Hoc Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houli Duan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new multiobjective control algorithm based on reinforcement learning for urban traffic signal control, named multi-RL. A multiagent structure is used to describe the traffic system. A vehicular ad hoc network is used for the data exchange among agents. A reinforcement learning algorithm is applied to predict the overall value of the optimization objective given vehicles' states. The policy which minimizes the cumulative value of the optimization objective is regarded as the optimal one. In order to make the method adaptive to various traffic conditions, we also introduce a multiobjective control scheme in which the optimization objective is selected adaptively to real-time traffic states. The optimization objectives include the vehicle stops, the average waiting time, and the maximum queue length of the next intersection. In addition, we also accommodate a priority control to the buses and the emergency vehicles through our model. The simulation results indicated that our algorithm could perform more efficiently than traditional traffic light control methods.

  16. Mathematical programs with complementarity constraints in traffic and telecommunications networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralph, Daniel

    2008-06-13

    Given a suitably parametrized family of equilibrium models and a higher level criterion by which to measure an equilibrium state, mathematical programs with equilibrium constraints (MPECs) provide a framework for improving or optimizing the equilibrium state. An example is toll design in traffic networks, which attempts to reduce total travel time by choosing which arcs to toll and what toll levels to impose. Here, a Wardrop equilibrium describes the traffic response to each toll design. Communication networks also have a deep literature on equilibrium flows that suggest some MPECs. We focus on mathematical programs with complementarity constraints (MPCCs), a subclass of MPECs for which the lower level equilibrium system can be formulated as a complementarity problem and therefore, importantly, as a nonlinear program (NLP). Although MPECs and MPCCs are typically non-convex, which is a consequence of the upper level objective clashing with the users' objectives in the lower level equilibrium program, the last decade of research has paved the way for finding local solutions of MPCCs via standard NLP techniques.

  17. Fermi-Dirac statistics and traffic in complex networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moura, Alessandro P S

    2005-06-01

    We propose an idealized model for traffic in a network, in which many particles move randomly from node to node, following the network's links, and it is assumed that at most one particle can occupy any given node. This is intended to mimic the finite forwarding capacity of nodes in communication networks, thereby allowing the possibility of congestion and jamming phenomena. We show that the particles behave like free fermions, with appropriately defined energy-level structure and temperature. The statistical properties of this system are thus given by the corresponding Fermi-Dirac distribution. We use this to obtain analytical expressions for dynamical quantities of interest, such as the mean occupation of each node and the transport efficiency, for different network topologies and particle densities. We show that the subnetwork of free nodes always fragments into small isolated clusters for a sufficiently large number of particles, implying a communication breakdown at some density for all network topologies. These results are compared to direct simulations.

  18. Comparison between genetic algorithm and self organizing map to detect botnet network traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yugandhara Prabhakar, Shinde; Parganiha, Pratishtha; Madhu Viswanatham, V.; Nirmala, M.

    2017-11-01

    In Cyber Security world the botnet attacks are increasing. To detect botnet is a challenging task. Botnet is a group of computers connected in a coordinated fashion to do malicious activities. Many techniques have been developed and used to detect and prevent botnet traffic and the attacks. In this paper, a comparative study is done on Genetic Algorithm (GA) and Self Organizing Map (SOM) to detect the botnet network traffic. Both are soft computing techniques and used in this paper as data analytics system. GA is based on natural evolution process and SOM is an Artificial Neural Network type, uses unsupervised learning techniques. SOM uses neurons and classifies the data according to the neurons. Sample of KDD99 dataset is used as input to GA and SOM.

  19. A Practical Method for Multilevel Classification and Accounting of Traffic in Computer Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bujlow, Tomasz; Pedersen, Jens Myrup

    Learning Algorithms (MLAs) require good quality training data, which are difficult to obtain. MLAs usually cannot properly deal with other types of traffic, than they are trained to work with -- such traffic is identified as the most probable class, instead of being left unclassified. Another drawback...... Learning Algorithm. Finally, content and service provider levels are identified based on IP addresses. The training data for the statistical classifier and the mappings between the different types of content and the IP addresses are created based on the data collected by Volunteer-Based System, while...... the service provider (as Facebook, YouTube, or Google). Furthermore, Deep Packet Inspection (DPI), which seems to be the most accurate technique, in addition to the extensive needs for resources, often cannot be used by ISPs in their networks due to privacy or legal reasons. Techniques based on Machine...

  20. Feasibility of Optical Packet Switched WDM Networks without Packet Synchronisation Under Bursty Traffic Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjelde, Tina; Hansen, Peter Bukhave; Kloch, Allan

    1999-01-01

    We show that complex packet synchronisation may be avoided in optical packetswitched networks. Detailed traffic analysis demonstrates that packet lossratios of 1e-10 are feasible under bursty traffic conditions for a highcapacity network consisting of asynchronously operated add-drop switch...

  1. Throughput-Based Traffic Steering in LTE-Advanced HetNet Deployments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimenez, Lucas Chavarria; Kovacs, Istvan Z.; Wigard, Jeroen

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to propose traffic steering solutions that aim at optimizing the end-user throughput. Two different implementations of an active mode throughput-based traffic steering algorithm for Heterogeneous Networks (HetNet) are introduced. One that always forces handover of t...... throughput is generally higher, reaching values of 36% and 18% for the medium- and high-load conditions....

  2. The Use of Adaptive Traffic Signal Systems Based on Floating Car Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittorio Astarita

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a simple concept which has not been, up to now, thoroughly explored in scientific research: the use of information coming from the network of Internet connected mobile devices (on vehicles to regulate traffic light systems. Three large-scale changes are going to shape the future of transportation and could lead to the regulation of traffic signal system based on floating car data (FCD: (i the implementation of Internet connected cars with global navigation satellite (GNSS system receivers and the autonomous car revolution; (ii the spreading of mobile cooperative Web 2.0 and the extension to connected vehicles; (iii an increasing need for sustainability of transportation in terms of energy efficiency, traffic safety, and environmental issues. Up to now, the concept of floating car data (FCD has only been extensively used to obtain traffic information and estimate traffic parameters. Traffic lights regulation based on FCD technology has not been fully researched since the implementation requires new ideas and algorithms. This paper intends to provide a seminal insight into the important issue of adaptive traffic light based on FCD by presenting ideas that can be useful to researchers and engineers in the long-term task of developing new algorithms and systems that may revolutionize the way traffic lights are regulated.

  3. Networked traffic state estimation involving mixed fixed-mobile sensor data using Hamilton-Jacobi equations

    KAUST Repository

    Canepa, Edward S.; Claudel, Christian G.

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays, traffic management has become a challenge for urban areas, which are covering larger geographic spaces and facing the generation of different kinds of traffic data. This article presents a robust traffic estimation framework for highways modeled by a system of Lighthill Whitham Richards equations that is able to assimilate different sensor data available. We first present an equivalent formulation of the problem using a Hamilton–Jacobi equation. Then, using a semi-analytic formula, we show that the model constraints resulting from the Hamilton–Jacobi equation are linear ones. We then pose the problem of estimating the traffic density given incomplete and inaccurate traffic data as a Mixed Integer Program. We then extend the density estimation framework to highway networks with any available data constraint and modeling junctions. Finally, we present a travel estimation application for a small network using real traffic measurements obtained obtained during Mobile Century traffic experiment, and comparing the results with ground truth data.

  4. Networked traffic state estimation involving mixed fixed-mobile sensor data using Hamilton-Jacobi equations

    KAUST Repository

    Canepa, Edward S.

    2017-06-19

    Nowadays, traffic management has become a challenge for urban areas, which are covering larger geographic spaces and facing the generation of different kinds of traffic data. This article presents a robust traffic estimation framework for highways modeled by a system of Lighthill Whitham Richards equations that is able to assimilate different sensor data available. We first present an equivalent formulation of the problem using a Hamilton–Jacobi equation. Then, using a semi-analytic formula, we show that the model constraints resulting from the Hamilton–Jacobi equation are linear ones. We then pose the problem of estimating the traffic density given incomplete and inaccurate traffic data as a Mixed Integer Program. We then extend the density estimation framework to highway networks with any available data constraint and modeling junctions. Finally, we present a travel estimation application for a small network using real traffic measurements obtained obtained during Mobile Century traffic experiment, and comparing the results with ground truth data.

  5. Admission Control for Multiservices Traffic in Hierarchical Mobile IPv6 Networks by Using Fuzzy Inference System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Shyr Wu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available CAC (Call Admission Control plays a significant role in providing QoS (Quality of Service in mobile wireless networks. In addition to much research that focuses on modified Mobile IP to get better efficient handover performance, CAC should be introduced to Mobile IP-based network to guarantee the QoS for users. In this paper, we propose a CAC scheme which incorporates multiple traffic types and adjusts the admission threshold dynamically using fuzzy control logic to achieve better usage of resources. The method can provide QoS in Mobile IPv6 networks with few modifications on MAP (Mobility Anchor Point functionality and slight change in BU (Binding Update message formats. According to the simulation results, the proposed scheme presents good performance of voice and video traffic at the expenses of poor performance on data traffic. It is evident that these CAC schemes can reduce the probability of the handoff dropping and the cell overload and limit the probability of the new call blocking.

  6. Nuclear traffic and peloton formation in fungal networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roper, Marcus; Hickey, Patrick; Lewkiewicz, Stephanie; Dressaire, Emilie; Read, Nick

    2013-11-01

    Hyphae, the network of microfluidic pipes that make up a growing fungal cell, must balance their function as conduits for the transport of nuclei with other cellular functions including secretion and growth. Constant flow of nuclei may interfere with the protein traffic that enables other functions to be performed. Live-cell imaging reveals that nuclear flows are anti-congestive; that groups of nuclei flow faster than single nuclei, and that nuclei sweep through the colony in dense clumps. We call these clumps pelotons, after the term used to describe groups of cycle racers slip-streaming off each other. Because of the pelotons, individual hyphae transport nuclei only intermittently, producing long intervals in which hyphae can perform their other functions. Modeling reveals how pelotons are created by interactions between nuclei and the hyphal cytoskeleton, and reveal the control that the fungus enjoys over peloton assembly and timing.

  7. Integration of Body Sensor Networks and Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks for Traffic Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica Reyes-Muñoz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of Body Sensor Networks (BSNs constitutes a new and fast growing trend for the development of daily routine applications. However, in the case of heterogeneous BSNs integration with Vehicular ad hoc Networks (VANETs a large number of difficulties remain, that must be solved, especially when talking about the detection of human state factors that impair the driving of motor vehicles. The main contributions of this investigation are principally three: (1 an exhaustive review of the current mechanisms to detect four basic physiological behavior states (drowsy, drunk, driving under emotional state disorders and distracted driving that may cause traffic accidents is presented; (2 A middleware architecture is proposed. This architecture can communicate with the car dashboard, emergency services, vehicles belonging to the VANET and road or street facilities. This architecture seeks on the one hand to improve the car driving experience of the driver and on the other hand to extend security mechanisms for the surrounding individuals; and (3 as a proof of concept, an Android real-time attention low level detection application that runs in a next-generation smartphone is developed. The application features mechanisms that allow one to measure the degree of attention of a driver on the base of her/his EEG signals, establish wireless communication links via various standard wireless means, GPRS, Bluetooth and WiFi and issue alarms of critical low driver attention levels.

  8. Integration of Body Sensor Networks and Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks for Traffic Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Muñoz, Angelica; Domingo, Mari Carmen; López-Trinidad, Marco Antonio; Delgado, José Luis

    2016-01-15

    The emergence of Body Sensor Networks (BSNs) constitutes a new and fast growing trend for the development of daily routine applications. However, in the case of heterogeneous BSNs integration with Vehicular ad hoc Networks (VANETs) a large number of difficulties remain, that must be solved, especially when talking about the detection of human state factors that impair the driving of motor vehicles. The main contributions of this investigation are principally three: (1) an exhaustive review of the current mechanisms to detect four basic physiological behavior states (drowsy, drunk, driving under emotional state disorders and distracted driving) that may cause traffic accidents is presented; (2) A middleware architecture is proposed. This architecture can communicate with the car dashboard, emergency services, vehicles belonging to the VANET and road or street facilities. This architecture seeks on the one hand to improve the car driving experience of the driver and on the other hand to extend security mechanisms for the surrounding individuals; and (3) as a proof of concept, an Android real-time attention low level detection application that runs in a next-generation smartphone is developed. The application features mechanisms that allow one to measure the degree of attention of a driver on the base of her/his EEG signals, establish wireless communication links via various standard wireless means, GPRS, Bluetooth and WiFi and issue alarms of critical low driver attention levels.

  9. Integration of Body Sensor Networks and Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks for Traffic Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Muñoz, Angelica; Domingo, Mari Carmen; López-Trinidad, Marco Antonio; Delgado, José Luis

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of Body Sensor Networks (BSNs) constitutes a new and fast growing trend for the development of daily routine applications. However, in the case of heterogeneous BSNs integration with Vehicular ad hoc Networks (VANETs) a large number of difficulties remain, that must be solved, especially when talking about the detection of human state factors that impair the driving of motor vehicles. The main contributions of this investigation are principally three: (1) an exhaustive review of the current mechanisms to detect four basic physiological behavior states (drowsy, drunk, driving under emotional state disorders and distracted driving) that may cause traffic accidents is presented; (2) A middleware architecture is proposed. This architecture can communicate with the car dashboard, emergency services, vehicles belonging to the VANET and road or street facilities. This architecture seeks on the one hand to improve the car driving experience of the driver and on the other hand to extend security mechanisms for the surrounding individuals; and (3) as a proof of concept, an Android real-time attention low level detection application that runs in a next-generation smartphone is developed. The application features mechanisms that allow one to measure the degree of attention of a driver on the base of her/his EEG signals, establish wireless communication links via various standard wireless means, GPRS, Bluetooth and WiFi and issue alarms of critical low driver attention levels. PMID:26784204

  10. Impact of Bimodal Traffic on Latency in Optical Burst Switching Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhua Chen

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the impact of bimodal traffic composition on latency in optical burst switching networks. In particular, it studies the performance degradation to short-length packets caused by longer packets, both of which are part of a heterogeneous traffic model. The paper defines a customer satisfaction index for each of the classes of traffic, and a composite satisfaction index. The impact of higher overall utilization of the network as well as that of the ratio of the traffic mix on each of the customer satisfaction indices is specifically addressed.

  11. The Impact of Traffic Prioritization on Deep Space Network Mission Traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Esther; Segui, John; Gao, Jay; Clare, Loren; Abraham, Douglas

    2011-01-01

    A select number of missions supported by NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN) are demanding very high data rates. For example, the Kepler Mission was launched March 7, 2009 and at that time required the highest data rate of any NASA mission, with maximum rates of 4.33 Mb/s being provided via Ka band downlinks. The James Webb Space Telescope will require a maximum 28 Mb/s science downlink data rate also using Ka band links; as of this writing the launch is scheduled for a June 2014 launch. The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, launched June 18, 2009, has demonstrated data rates at 100 Mb/s at lunar-Earth distances using NASA's Near Earth Network (NEN) and K-band. As further advances are made in high data rate space telecommunications, particularly with emerging optical systems, it is expected that large surges in demand on the supporting ground systems will ensue. A performance analysis of the impact of high variance in demand has been conducted using our Multi-mission Advanced Communications Hybrid Environment for Test and Evaluation (MACHETE) simulation tool. A comparison is made regarding the incorporation of Quality of Service (QoS) mechanisms and the resulting ground-to-ground Wide Area Network (WAN) bandwidth necessary to meet latency requirements across different user missions. It is shown that substantial reduction in WAN bandwidth may be realized through QoS techniques when low data rate users with low-latency needs are mixed with high data rate users having delay-tolerant traffic.

  12. Optimized Virtual Machine Placement with Traffic-Aware Balancing in Data Center Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Virtualization has been an efficient method to fully utilize computing resources such as servers. The way of placing virtual machines (VMs among a large pool of servers greatly affects the performance of data center networks (DCNs. As network resources have become a main bottleneck of the performance of DCNs, we concentrate on VM placement with Traffic-Aware Balancing to evenly utilize the links in DCNs. In this paper, we first proposed a Virtual Machine Placement Problem with Traffic-Aware Balancing (VMPPTB and then proved it to be NP-hard and designed a Longest Processing Time Based Placement algorithm (LPTBP algorithm to solve it. To take advantage of the communication locality, we proposed Locality-Aware Virtual Machine Placement Problem with Traffic-Aware Balancing (LVMPPTB, which is a multiobjective optimization problem of simultaneously minimizing the maximum number of VM partitions of requests and minimizing the maximum bandwidth occupancy on uplinks of Top of Rack (ToR switches. We also proved it to be NP-hard and designed a heuristic algorithm (Least-Load First Based Placement algorithm, LLBP algorithm to solve it. Through extensive simulations, the proposed heuristic algorithm is proven to significantly balance the bandwidth occupancy on uplinks of ToR switches, while keeping the number of VM partitions of each request small enough.

  13. Preprint WebVRGIS Based Traffic Analysis and Visualization System

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xiaoming; Lv, Zhihan; Wang, Weixi; Zhang, Baoyun; Hu, Jinxing; Yin, Ling; Feng, Shengzhong

    2015-01-01

    This is the preprint version of our paper on Advances in Engineering Software. With several characteristics, such as large scale, diverse predictability and timeliness, the city traffic data falls in the range of definition of Big Data. A Virtual Reality GIS based traffic analysis and visualization system is proposed as a promising and inspiring approach to manage and develop traffic big data. In addition to the basic GIS interaction functions, the proposed system also includes some intellige...

  14. Traffic signal synchronization in the saturated high-density grid road network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaojian; Lu, Jian; Wang, Wei; Zhirui, Ye

    2015-01-01

    Most existing traffic signal synchronization strategies do not perform well in the saturated high-density grid road network (HGRN). Traffic congestion often occurs in the saturated HGRN, and the mobility of the network is difficult to restore. In order to alleviate traffic congestion and to improve traffic efficiency in the network, the study proposes a regional traffic signal synchronization strategy, named the long green and long red (LGLR) traffic signal synchronization strategy. The essence of the strategy is to control the formation and dissipation of queues and to maximize the efficiency of traffic flows at signalized intersections in the saturated HGRN. With this strategy, the same signal control timing plan is used at all signalized intersections in the HGRN, and the straight phase of the control timing plan has a long green time and a long red time. Therefore, continuous traffic flows can be maintained when vehicles travel, and traffic congestion can be alleviated when vehicles stop. Using the strategy, the LGLR traffic signal synchronization model is developed, with the objective of minimizing the number of stops. Finally, the simulation is executed to analyze the performance of the model by comparing it to other models, and the superiority of the LGLR model is evident in terms of delay, number of stops, queue length, and overall performance in the saturated HGRN.

  15. Calculating Traffic based on Road Sensor Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bisseling, Rob; Gao, Fengnan; Hafkenscheid, Patrick; Idema, Reijer; Jetka, Tomasz; Guerra Ones, Valia; Rata, Debanshu; Sikora, Monika

    2014-01-01

    Road sensors gather a lot of statistical data about traffic. In this paper, we discuss how a measure for the amount of traffic on the roads can be derived from this data, such that the measure is independent of the number and placement of sensors, and the calculations can be performed quickly for

  16. A wireless sensor network for urban traffic characterization and trend monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Lozano, J J; Martín-Guzmán, Miguel; Martín-Ávila, Juan; García-Cerezo, A

    2015-10-15

    Sustainable mobility requires a better management of the available infrastructure resources. To achieve this goal, it is necessary to obtain accurate data about road usage, in particular in urban areas. Although a variety of sensor alternates for urban traffic exist, they usually require extensive investments in the form of construction works for installation, processing means, etc. Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) are an alternative to acquire urban traffic data, allowing for flexible, easy deployment. Together with the use of the appropriate sensors, like Bluetooth identification, and associate processing, WSN can provide the means to obtain in real time data like the origin-destination matrix, a key tool for trend monitoring which previously required weeks or months to be completed. This paper presents a system based on WSN designed to characterize urban traffic, particularly traffic trend monitoring through the calculation of the origin-destination matrix in real time by using Bluetooth identification. Additional sensors are also available integrated in different types of nodes. Experiments in real conditions have been performed, both for separate sensors (Bluetooth, ultrasound and laser), and for the whole system, showing the feasibility of this approach.

  17. Joint QoS and Congestion Control Based on Traffic Prediction in SDN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mahdi Tajiki

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to the various network requirements of applications, quality of service (QoS-aware routing plays an important role in the networks. Recently proposed resource allocation algorithms focus on the current traffic matrix, which is not applicable for dynamic networks. In this paper, we exploit an estimation of flow matrix that gives our scheme the ability to sufficiently reduce the total packet loss and simultaneously raise the network throughput. In this way, we mathematically formulate the QoS-aware resource reallocation in software-defined networking (SDN networks based on the traffic prediction. To solve this optimization problem, two schemes are proposed: (i exact solution; and (ii fast suboptimal one. The proposed schemes are compared with the accuracy perspective. Moreover, the impact of prediction on resource reallocation is discussed. In this regard, it is shown that, compared with the conventional scheme, the proposed scheme decreases the packet loss and increases the throughput significantly.

  18. Network Traffic Forensics on Firefox Mobile OS: Facebook, Twitter and Telegram as Case Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Yusoff, Mohd Najwadi; Dehghantanha, Ali; Mahmod, Ramlan

    2017-01-01

    Development of mobile web-centric OS such as Firefox OS has created new challenges, and opportunities for digital investigators. Network traffic forensic plays an important role in cybercrime investigation to detect subject(s) and object(s) of the crime. In this chapter, we detect and analyze residual network traffic artefacts of Firefox OS in relation to two popular social networking applications (Facebook and Twitter) and one instant messaging application (Telegram). We utilized a Firefox O...

  19. Traffic Speed Data Imputation Method Based on Tensor Completion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Ran

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic speed data plays a key role in Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS; however, missing traffic data would affect the performance of ITS as well as Advanced Traveler Information Systems (ATIS. In this paper, we handle this issue by a novel tensor-based imputation approach. Specifically, tensor pattern is adopted for modeling traffic speed data and then High accurate Low Rank Tensor Completion (HaLRTC, an efficient tensor completion method, is employed to estimate the missing traffic speed data. This proposed method is able to recover missing entries from given entries, which may be noisy, considering severe fluctuation of traffic speed data compared with traffic volume. The proposed method is evaluated on Performance Measurement System (PeMS database, and the experimental results show the superiority of the proposed approach over state-of-the-art baseline approaches.

  20. Traffic speed data imputation method based on tensor completion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, Bin; Tan, Huachun; Feng, Jianshuai; Liu, Ying; Wang, Wuhong

    2015-01-01

    Traffic speed data plays a key role in Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS); however, missing traffic data would affect the performance of ITS as well as Advanced Traveler Information Systems (ATIS). In this paper, we handle this issue by a novel tensor-based imputation approach. Specifically, tensor pattern is adopted for modeling traffic speed data and then High accurate Low Rank Tensor Completion (HaLRTC), an efficient tensor completion method, is employed to estimate the missing traffic speed data. This proposed method is able to recover missing entries from given entries, which may be noisy, considering severe fluctuation of traffic speed data compared with traffic volume. The proposed method is evaluated on Performance Measurement System (PeMS) database, and the experimental results show the superiority of the proposed approach over state-of-the-art baseline approaches.

  1. Abnormal traffic flow data detection based on wavelet analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Qian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In view of the traffic flow data of non-stationary, the abnormal data detection is difficult.proposed basing on the wavelet analysis and least squares method of abnormal traffic flow data detection in this paper.First using wavelet analysis to make the traffic flow data of high frequency and low frequency component and separation, and then, combined with least square method to find abnormal points in the reconstructed signal data.Wavelet analysis and least square method, the simulation results show that using wavelet analysis of abnormal traffic flow data detection, effectively reduce the detection results of misjudgment rate and false negative rate.

  2. Sliding Window Based Feature Extraction and Traffic Clustering for Green Mobile Cyberphysical Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiao Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Both the densification of small base stations and the diversity of user activities bring huge challenges for today’s heterogeneous networks, either heavy burdens on base stations or serious energy waste. In order to ensure coverage of the network while reducing the total energy consumption, we adopt a green mobile cyberphysical system (MCPS to handle this problem. In this paper, we propose a feature extraction method using sliding window to extract the distribution feature of mobile user equipment (UE, and a case study is presented to demonstrate that the method is efficacious in reserving the clustering distribution feature. Furthermore, we present traffic clustering analysis to categorize collected traffic distribution samples into a limited set of traffic patterns, where the patterns and corresponding optimized control strategies are used to similar traffic distributions for the rapid control of base station state. Experimental results show that the sliding window is more superior in enabling higher UE coverage over the grid method. Besides, the optimized control strategy obtained from the traffic pattern is capable of achieving a high coverage that can well serve over 98% of all mobile UE for similar traffic distributions.

  3. Network traffic intelligence using a low interaction honeypot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyamugudza, Tendai; Rajasekar, Venkatesh; Sen, Prasad; Nirmala, M.; Madhu Viswanatham, V.

    2017-11-01

    Advancements in networking technology have seen more and more devices becoming connected day by day. This has given organizations capacity to extend their networks beyond their boundaries to remote offices and remote employees. However as the network grows security becomes a major challenge since the attack surface also increases. There is need to guard the network against different types of attacks like intrusion and malware through using different tools at different networking levels. This paper describes how network intelligence can be acquired through implementing a low-interaction honeypot which detects and track network intrusion. Honeypot allows an organization to interact and gather information about an attack earlier before it compromises the network. This process is important because it allows the organization to learn about future attacks of the same nature and allows them to develop counter measures. The paper further shows how honeypot-honey net based model for interruption detection system (IDS) can be used to get the best valuable information about the attacker and prevent unexpected harm to the network.

  4. GIS-BASED ROUTE FINDING USING ANT COLONY OPTIMIZATION AND URBAN TRAFFIC DATA FROM DIFFERENT SOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Davoodi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays traffic data is obtained from multiple sources including GPS, Video Vehicle Detectors (VVD, Automatic Number Plate Recognition (ANPR, Floating Car Data (FCD, VANETs, etc. All such data can be used for route finding. This paper proposes a model for finding the optimum route based on the integration of traffic data from different sources. Ant Colony Optimization is applied in this paper because the concept of this method (movement of ants in a network is similar to urban road network and movements of cars. The results indicate that this model is capable of incorporating data from different sources, which may even be inconsistent.

  5. Gis-Based Route Finding Using ANT Colony Optimization and Urban Traffic Data from Different Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davoodi, M.; Mesgari, M. S.

    2015-12-01

    Nowadays traffic data is obtained from multiple sources including GPS, Video Vehicle Detectors (VVD), Automatic Number Plate Recognition (ANPR), Floating Car Data (FCD), VANETs, etc. All such data can be used for route finding. This paper proposes a model for finding the optimum route based on the integration of traffic data from different sources. Ant Colony Optimization is applied in this paper because the concept of this method (movement of ants in a network) is similar to urban road network and movements of cars. The results indicate that this model is capable of incorporating data from different sources, which may even be inconsistent.

  6. Optimal traffic control in highway transportation networks using linear programming

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yanning

    2014-06-01

    This article presents a framework for the optimal control of boundary flows on transportation networks. The state of the system is modeled by a first order scalar conservation law (Lighthill-Whitham-Richards PDE). Based on an equivalent formulation of the Hamilton-Jacobi PDE, the problem of controlling the state of the system on a network link in a finite horizon can be posed as a Linear Program. Assuming all intersections in the network are controllable, we show that the optimization approach can be extended to an arbitrary transportation network, preserving linear constraints. Unlike previously investigated transportation network control schemes, this framework leverages the intrinsic properties of the Halmilton-Jacobi equation, and does not require any discretization or boolean variables on the link. Hence this framework is very computational efficient and provides the globally optimal solution. The feasibility of this framework is illustrated by an on-ramp metering control example.

  7. Grid Mapping for Spatial Pattern Analyses of Recurrent Urban Traffic Congestion Based on Taxi GPS Sensing Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Liu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Traffic congestion is one of the most serious problems that impact urban transportation efficiency, especially in big cities. Identifying traffic congestion locations and occurring patterns is a prerequisite for urban transportation managers in order to take proper countermeasures for mitigating traffic congestion. In this study, the historical GPS sensing data of about 12,000 taxi floating cars in Beijing were used for pattern analyses of recurrent traffic congestion based on the grid mapping method. Through the use of ArcGIS software, 2D and 3D maps of the road network congestion were generated for traffic congestion pattern visualization. The study results showed that three types of traffic congestion patterns were identified, namely: point type, stemming from insufficient capacities at the nodes of the road network; line type, caused by high traffic demand or bottleneck issues in the road segments; and region type, resulting from multiple high-demand expressways merging and connecting to each other. The study illustrated that the proposed method would be effective for discovering traffic congestion locations and patterns and helpful for decision makers to take corresponding traffic engineering countermeasures in order to relieve the urban traffic congestion issues.

  8. An Efficient MapReduce-Based Parallel Clustering Algorithm for Distributed Traffic Subarea Division

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawen Xia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic subarea division is vital for traffic system management and traffic network analysis in intelligent transportation systems (ITSs. Since existing methods may not be suitable for big traffic data processing, this paper presents a MapReduce-based Parallel Three-Phase K-Means (Par3PKM algorithm for solving traffic subarea division problem on a widely adopted Hadoop distributed computing platform. Specifically, we first modify the distance metric and initialization strategy of K-Means and then employ a MapReduce paradigm to redesign the optimized K-Means algorithm for parallel clustering of large-scale taxi trajectories. Moreover, we propose a boundary identifying method to connect the borders of clustering results for each cluster. Finally, we divide traffic subarea of Beijing based on real-world trajectory data sets generated by 12,000 taxis in a period of one month using the proposed approach. Experimental evaluation results indicate that when compared with K-Means, Par2PK-Means, and ParCLARA, Par3PKM achieves higher efficiency, more accuracy, and better scalability and can effectively divide traffic subarea with big taxi trajectory data.

  9. Smart Traffic Management Protocol Based on VANET architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amilcare Francesco Santamaria

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays one of the hottest theme in wireless environments research is the application of the newest technologies to road safety problems and traffic management exploiting the (VANET architecture. In this work, a novel protocol that aims to achieve a better traffic management is proposed. The overal system is able to reduce traffic level inside the city exploiting inter-communication among vehicles and support infrastructures also known as (V2V and (V2I communications. We design a network protocol called (STMP that takes advantages of IEEE 802.11p standard. On each road several sensors system are placed and they are responsible of monitoring. Gathered data are spread in the network exploiting ad-hoc protocol messages. The increasing knowledge about environment conditions make possible to take preventive actions. Moreover, having a realtime monitoring of the lanes it is possible to reveal roads and city blocks congestions in a shorter time. An external entity to the (VANET is responsible to manage traffic and rearrange traffic along the lanes of the city avoiding huge traffic levels.

  10. Enhancing the Quality of Service for Real Time Traffic over Optical Burst Switching (OBS Networks with Ensuring the Fairness for Other Traffics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed A Al-Shargabi

    Full Text Available Optical burst switching (OBS networks have been attracting much consideration as a promising approach to build the next generation optical Internet. A solution for enhancing the Quality of Service (QoS for high priority real time traffic over OBS with the fairness among the traffic types is absent in current OBS' QoS schemes. In this paper we present a novel Real Time Quality of Service with Fairness Ratio (RT-QoSFR scheme that can adapt the burst assembly parameters according to the traffic QoS needs in order to enhance the real time traffic QoS requirements and to ensure the fairness for other traffic. The results show that RT-QoSFR scheme is able to fulfill the real time traffic requirements (end to end delay, and loss rate ensuring the fairness for other traffics under various conditions such as the type of real time traffic and traffic load. RT-QoSFR can guarantee that the delay of the real time traffic packets does not exceed the maximum packets transfer delay value. Furthermore, it can reduce the real time traffic packets loss, at the same time guarantee the fairness for non real time traffic packets by determining the ratio of real time traffic inside the burst to be 50-60%, 30-40%, and 10-20% for high, normal, and low traffic loads respectively.

  11. High-speed and high-fidelity system and method for collecting network traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigle, Eric H [Los Alamos, NM

    2010-08-24

    A system is provided for the high-speed and high-fidelity collection of network traffic. The system can collect traffic at gigabit-per-second (Gbps) speeds, scale to terabit-per-second (Tbps) speeds, and support additional functions such as real-time network intrusion detection. The present system uses a dedicated operating system for traffic collection to maximize efficiency, scalability, and performance. A scalable infrastructure and apparatus for the present system is provided by splitting the work performed on one host onto multiple hosts. The present system simultaneously addresses the issues of scalability, performance, cost, and adaptability with respect to network monitoring, collection, and other network tasks. In addition to high-speed and high-fidelity network collection, the present system provides a flexible infrastructure to perform virtually any function at high speeds such as real-time network intrusion detection and wide-area network emulation for research purposes.

  12. Particle-based model for skiing traffic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holleczek, Thomas; Tröster, Gerhard

    2012-05-01

    We develop and investigate a particle-based model for ski slope traffic. Skiers are modeled as particles with a mass that are exposed to social and physical forces, which define the riding behavior of skiers during their descents on ski slopes. We also report position and speed data of 21 skiers recorded with GPS-equipped cell phones on two ski slopes. A comparison of these data with the trajectories resulting from computer simulations of our model shows a good correspondence. A study of the relationship among the density, speed, and flow of skiers reveals that congestion does not occur even with arrival rates of skiers exceeding the maximum ski lift capacity. In a sensitivity analysis, we identify the kinetic friction coefficient of skis on snow, the skier mass, the range of repelling social forces, and the arrival rate of skiers as the crucial parameters influencing the simulation results. Our model allows for the prediction of speed zones and skier densities on ski slopes, which is important in the prevention of skiing accidents.

  13. Effective distance adaptation traffic dispatching in software defined IP over optical network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Zhiwei; Li, Hui; Liu, Yuze; Ji, Yuefeng; Li, Hongfa; Lin, Yi

    2017-10-01

    The rapid growth of IP traffic has contributed to the wide deployment of optical devices (ROADM/OXC, etc.). Meanwhile, with the emergence and application of high-performance network services such as ultra-high video transmission, people are increasingly becoming more and more particular about the quality of service (QoS) of network. However, the pass-band shape of WSSs which is utilized in the ROADM/OXC is not ideal, causing narrowing of spectrum. Spectral narrowing can lead to signal impairment. Therefore, guard-bands need to be inserted between adjacent paths. In order to minimize the bandwidth waste due to guard bands, we propose an effective distance-adaptation traffic dispatching algorithm in IP over optical network based on SDON architecture. We use virtualization technology to set up virtual resources direct links by extracting part of the resources on paths which meet certain specific constraints. We also assign different bandwidth to each IP request based on path length. There is no need for guard-bands between the adjacent paths on the virtual link, which can effectively reduce the number of guard-bands and save the spectrum.

  14. Local-Area Based Traffic Splitter for Improving Performance Using Subnetting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Meenakshi; Mittal, Mohit Kumar

    2010-11-01

    This document provides an overview of LAN traffic splitter. The tool "Local-Area based Traffic splitter" is based on subnetting techniques. It is basically used for calculating subnets for sub-dividing the LAN. Subnetting an IP Network can be done for a variety of reasons, including organization, use of different physical media (such as Ethernet, FDDI, WAN, etc.), preservation of address space, and security. The most common reason is to control network traffic. There are various techniques for calculating subnets that are considered by this tool. This paper will explore the various features of this tool and will also check the effect of subnetting after implementing it on the LAN. These instructions give you basic guidelines for preparing camera-ready papers for conference proceedings.

  15. Study on the Road Traffic Survey System Based on Micro-ferromagnetic Induction Coil Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Tong

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Road traffic information is the basis of road traffic management and control. Due to the special design of the sensor coil and ferromagnetic core, traffic survey system which uses micro ferromagnetic inductive coil vehicle detector, not only has the features of small size, simple installation and little road surface damage, but also has the advantages of output signal strength, simple signal processing circuit and obvious characteristics for output waveform corresponding vehicle feature. Based on the introduction of the sensor working principle, the construction of hardware and signal processing circuit for the traffic survey system is described in detail in the paper. Combined with the characteristics of the sensor output waveform, adaptive nearest neighbor clustering RBF neural network algorithm used to classify the vehicles is proposed and verified by experimental method. The result has a high vehicle classification rate and demonstrates the feasibility of the system.

  16. Classification of HTTP traffic based on C5.0 Machine Learning Algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bujlow, Tomasz; Riaz, Tahir; Pedersen, Jens Myrup

    2012-01-01

    streaming through third-party plugins, etc. This paper suggests and evaluates two approaches to distinguish various types of HTTP traffic based on the content: distributed among volunteers' machines and centralized running in the core of the network. We also assess the accuracy of the centralized classifier...

  17. An optimal general type-2 fuzzy controller for Urban Traffic Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khooban, Mohammad Hassan; Vafamand, Navid; Liaghat, Alireza

    2017-01-01

    Urban traffic network model is illustrated by state-charts and object-diagram. However, they have limitations to show the behavioral perspective of the Traffic Information flow. Consequently, a state space model is used to calculate the half-value waiting time of vehicles. In this study......, a combination of the general type-2 fuzzy logic sets and the Modified Backtracking Search Algorithm (MBSA) techniques are used in order to control the traffic signal scheduling and phase succession so as to guarantee a smooth flow of traffic with the least wait times and average queue length. The parameters...

  18. Minimal-Intrusion Traffic Monitoring And Analysis In Mission-Critical Communication Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Domingo Ajenjo

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available A good knowledge of expected and actual traffic patterns is an essential tool for network planning, design and operation in deployed, mission-critical applications. This paper describes those needs, and explains the Traffic Monitoring and Analysis Platform (TMAP concept, as developed in support of NATO deployed military headquarters Communications and Information Systems. It shows how a TMAP was deployed to a real NATO exercise, to prove the concept and baseline the traffic needs per application, per user community and per time of day. Then, it analyses the obtained results and derives conclusions on how to integrate traffic monitoring and analysis platforms in future deployments.

  19. Distributed Traffic Control for Reduced Fuel Consumption and Travel Time in Transportation Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-01

    Current technology in traffic control is limited to a centralized approach that has not paid appropriate attention to efficiency of fuel consumption and is subject to the scale of transportation networks. This project proposes a transformative approa...

  20. Spatiotemporal Context Awareness for Urban Traffic Modeling and Prediction: Sparse Representation Based Variable Selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Yang

    Full Text Available Spatial-temporal correlations among the data play an important role in traffic flow prediction. Correspondingly, traffic modeling and prediction based on big data analytics emerges due to the city-scale interactions among traffic flows. A new methodology based on sparse representation is proposed to reveal the spatial-temporal dependencies among traffic flows so as to simplify the correlations among traffic data for the prediction task at a given sensor. Three important findings are observed in the experiments: (1 Only traffic flows immediately prior to the present time affect the formation of current traffic flows, which implies the possibility to reduce the traditional high-order predictors into an 1-order model. (2 The spatial context relevant to a given prediction task is more complex than what is assumed to exist locally and can spread out to the whole city. (3 The spatial context varies with the target sensor undergoing prediction and enlarges with the increment of time lag for prediction. Because the scope of human mobility is subject to travel time, identifying the varying spatial context against time lag is crucial for prediction. Since sparse representation can capture the varying spatial context to adapt to the prediction task, it outperforms the traditional methods the inputs of which are confined as the data from a fixed number of nearby sensors. As the spatial-temporal context for any prediction task is fully detected from the traffic data in an automated manner, where no additional information regarding network topology is needed, it has good scalability to be applicable to large-scale networks.

  1. Spatiotemporal Context Awareness for Urban Traffic Modeling and Prediction: Sparse Representation Based Variable Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Su; Shi, Shixiong; Hu, Xiaobing; Wang, Minjie

    2015-01-01

    Spatial-temporal correlations among the data play an important role in traffic flow prediction. Correspondingly, traffic modeling and prediction based on big data analytics emerges due to the city-scale interactions among traffic flows. A new methodology based on sparse representation is proposed to reveal the spatial-temporal dependencies among traffic flows so as to simplify the correlations among traffic data for the prediction task at a given sensor. Three important findings are observed in the experiments: (1) Only traffic flows immediately prior to the present time affect the formation of current traffic flows, which implies the possibility to reduce the traditional high-order predictors into an 1-order model. (2) The spatial context relevant to a given prediction task is more complex than what is assumed to exist locally and can spread out to the whole city. (3) The spatial context varies with the target sensor undergoing prediction and enlarges with the increment of time lag for prediction. Because the scope of human mobility is subject to travel time, identifying the varying spatial context against time lag is crucial for prediction. Since sparse representation can capture the varying spatial context to adapt to the prediction task, it outperforms the traditional methods the inputs of which are confined as the data from a fixed number of nearby sensors. As the spatial-temporal context for any prediction task is fully detected from the traffic data in an automated manner, where no additional information regarding network topology is needed, it has good scalability to be applicable to large-scale networks.

  2. Accurate Multisteps Traffic Flow Prediction Based on SVM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Mingheng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate traffic flow prediction is prerequisite and important for realizing intelligent traffic control and guidance, and it is also the objective requirement for intelligent traffic management. Due to the strong nonlinear, stochastic, time-varying characteristics of urban transport system, artificial intelligence methods such as support vector machine (SVM are now receiving more and more attentions in this research field. Compared with the traditional single-step prediction method, the multisteps prediction has the ability that can predict the traffic state trends over a certain period in the future. From the perspective of dynamic decision, it is far important than the current traffic condition obtained. Thus, in this paper, an accurate multi-steps traffic flow prediction model based on SVM was proposed. In which, the input vectors were comprised of actual traffic volume and four different types of input vectors were compared to verify their prediction performance with each other. Finally, the model was verified with actual data in the empirical analysis phase and the test results showed that the proposed SVM model had a good ability for traffic flow prediction and the SVM-HPT model outperformed the other three models for prediction.

  3. End-to-End Traffic Flow Modeling of the Integrated SCaN Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, K.-M.; Abraham, D. S.

    2012-05-01

    In this article, we describe the analysis and simulation effort of the end-to-end traffic flow for the Integrated Space Communications and Navigation (SCaN) Network. Using the network traffic derived for the 30-day period of July 2018 from the Space Communications Mission Model (SCMM), we generate the wide-area network (WAN) bandwidths of the ground links for different architecture options of the Integrated SCaN Network. We also develop a new analytical scheme to model the traffic flow and buffering mechanism of a store-and-forward network. It is found that the WAN bandwidth of the Integrated SCaN Network is an important differentiator of different architecture options, as the recurring circuit costs of certain architecture options can be prohibitively high.

  4. Pattern-based approach for logical traffic isolation forensic modelling

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dlamini, I

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available reusability and flexibility of the LTI model. This model is viewed as a three-tier architecture, which for experimental purposes is composed of the following components: traffic generator, DiffServ network and the sink server. The Mediator pattern is used...

  5. Using mobile probes to inform and measure the effectiveness of macroscopic traffic control strategies on urban networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Urban traffic congestion is a problem that plagues many cities in the United States. Testing strategies to alleviate this : congestion is especially challenging due to the difficulty of modeling complex urban traffic networks. However, recent work ha...

  6. Traffic Management by Using Admission Control Methods in Multiple Node IMS Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip Chamraz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with Admission Control methods (AC as a possible solution for traffic management in IMS networks (IP Multimedia Subsystem - from the point of view of an efficient redistribution of the available network resources and keeping the parameters of Quality of Service (QoS. The paper specifically aims at the selection of the most appropriate method for the specific type of traffic and traffic management concept using AC methods on multiple nodes. The potential benefit and disadvantage of the used solution is evaluated.

  7. Agent-Based Collaborative Traffic Flow Management, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose agent-based game-theoretic approaches for simulation of strategies involved in multi-objective collaborative traffic flow management (CTFM). Intelligent...

  8. Use of agent based simulation for traffic safety assessment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Conradie, Dirk CU

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the development of an agent based Computational Building Simulation (CBS) tool, termed KRONOS that is being used to work on advanced research questions such as traffic safety assessment and user behaviour in buildings...

  9. Smartphone Based Traffic Sign Inventory and Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Road signs are an important part of the infrastructure and are needed to ensure smooth and : safe traffic flow. Faded, occluded, damaged or vandalized signs can confuse or misinform : drivers and lead to unsafe driving behavior. E.g. if a driver is n...

  10. Traffic simulation based ship collision probability modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goerlandt, Floris, E-mail: floris.goerlandt@tkk.f [Aalto University, School of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Mechanics, Marine Technology, P.O. Box 15300, FI-00076 AALTO, Espoo (Finland); Kujala, Pentti [Aalto University, School of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Mechanics, Marine Technology, P.O. Box 15300, FI-00076 AALTO, Espoo (Finland)

    2011-01-15

    Maritime traffic poses various risks in terms of human, environmental and economic loss. In a risk analysis of ship collisions, it is important to get a reasonable estimate for the probability of such accidents and the consequences they lead to. In this paper, a method is proposed to assess the probability of vessels colliding with each other. The method is capable of determining the expected number of accidents, the locations where and the time when they are most likely to occur, while providing input for models concerned with the expected consequences. At the basis of the collision detection algorithm lays an extensive time domain micro-simulation of vessel traffic in the given area. The Monte Carlo simulation technique is applied to obtain a meaningful prediction of the relevant factors of the collision events. Data obtained through the Automatic Identification System is analyzed in detail to obtain realistic input data for the traffic simulation: traffic routes, the number of vessels on each route, the ship departure times, main dimensions and sailing speed. The results obtained by the proposed method for the studied case of the Gulf of Finland are presented, showing reasonable agreement with registered accident and near-miss data.

  11. Supervised learning from human performance at the computationally hard problem of optimal traffic signal control on a network of junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Box, Simon

    2014-12-01

    Optimal switching of traffic lights on a network of junctions is a computationally intractable problem. In this research, road traffic networks containing signallized junctions are simulated. A computer game interface is used to enable a human 'player' to control the traffic light settings on the junctions within the simulation. A supervised learning approach, based on simple neural network classifiers can be used to capture human player's strategies in the game and thus develop a human-trained machine control (HuTMaC) system that approaches human levels of performance. Experiments conducted within the simulation compare the performance of HuTMaC to two well-established traffic-responsive control systems that are widely deployed in the developed world and also to a temporal difference learning-based control method. In all experiments, HuTMaC outperforms the other control methods in terms of average delay and variance over delay. The conclusion is that these results add weight to the suggestion that HuTMaC may be a viable alternative, or supplemental method, to approximate optimization for some practical engineering control problems where the optimal strategy is computationally intractable.

  12. Machine learning for network-based malware detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stevanovic, Matija

    and based on different, mutually complementary, principles of traffic analysis. The proposed approaches rely on machine learning algorithms (MLAs) for automated and resource-efficient identification of the patterns of malicious network traffic. We evaluated the proposed methods through extensive evaluations...

  13. Impact of the traffic load on performance of an alternative LTE railway communication network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sniady, Aleksander; Soler, José

    2013-01-01

    communication infrastructure supporting railway signaling. This work is based on OPNET realistic network simulations, which show the relation between the traffic load (the number of trains transmitting and receiving data in an LTE cell) and the delay performance of the European Train Control System (ETCS......Although many countries only now begin to invest in deployment of GSM-Railways (GSM-R) networks, this technology is already obsolete and reveals its significant shortcomings. The most troublesome one is the insufficient number of communication channels offered by GSM-R. This is a major problem...... obstructing railway operations at big train stations and junctions. Hence, other technologies, such as Long Term Evolution (LTE), need to be considered as an alternative to GSM-R. The goal of this paper is to demonstrate the capacity increase that railways can expect, from the introduction of LTE as internal...

  14. Low Cost Wireless Network Camera Sensors for Traffic Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Many freeways and arterials in major cities in Texas are presently equipped with video detection cameras to : collect data and help in traffic/incident management. In this study, carefully controlled experiments determined : the throughput and output...

  15. Development of traffic light control algorithm in smart municipal network

    OpenAIRE

    Kuzminykh, Ievgeniia

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents smart system that bypasses the normal functioning algorithm of traffic lights, triggers a green light when the lights are red or reset the timer of the traffic lights when they are about to turn red. Different pieces of hardware like microcontroller units, transceivers, resistors, diodes, LEDs, a digital compass and accelerometer will be coupled together and programed to create unified complex intelligent system.

  16. Intelligent traffic lights based on MATLAB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Ying

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, I describes the traffic lights system and it has some. Through analysis, I used MATLAB technology, transformed the camera photographs into digital signals. Than divided the road vehicle is into three methods: very congestion, congestion, a little congestion. Through the MCU programming, solved the different roads have different delay time, and Used this method, saving time and resources, so as to reduce road congestion.

  17. Cybersecurity and Network Forensics: Analysis of Malicious Traffic towards a Honeynet with Deep Packet Inspection

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriel Arquelau Pimenta Rodrigues; Robson de Oliveira Albuquerque; Flávio Elias Gomes de Deus; Rafael Timóteo de Sousa Jr.; Gildásio Antônio de Oliveira Júnior; Luis Javier García Villalba; Tai-Hoon Kim

    2017-01-01

    Any network connected to the Internet is subject to cyber attacks. Strong security measures, forensic tools, and investigators contribute together to detect and mitigate those attacks, reducing the damages and enabling reestablishing the network to its normal operation, thus increasing the cybersecurity of the networked environment. This paper addresses the use of a forensic approach with Deep Packet Inspection to detect anomalies in the network traffic. As cyber attacks may occur on any laye...

  18. Assembly and offset assignment scheme for self-similar traffic in optical burst switched networks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Muwonge, KB

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available at the Label Edge Router (LER) to buffer traffic in the electronic domain. Burst assembly and offset assignment schemes are implemented in a complementary manner to improve QoS of an OBS network. The authors show that OBS network performance is directly related...

  19. On Emulation-Based Network Intrusion Detection Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbasi, Ali; Wetzel, Jos; Bokslag, Wouter; Zambon, Emmanuele; Etalle, Sandro

    2014-01-01

    Emulation-based network intrusion detection systems have been devised to detect the presence of shellcode in network traffic by trying to execute (portions of) the network packet payloads in an in- strumented environment and checking the execution traces for signs of shellcode activity.

  20. On emulation-based network intrusion detection systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbasi, A.; Wetzels, J.; Bokslag, W.; Zambon, E.; Etalle, S.; Stavrou, A.; Bos, H.; Portokalidis, G.

    2014-01-01

    Emulation-based network intrusion detection systems have been devised to detect the presence of shellcode in network traffic by trying to execute (portions of) the network packet payloads in an instrumented environment and checking the execution traces for signs of shellcode activity.

  1. Contribution to the Management of Traffic in Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip Chamraz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with Admission control methods (AC in IMS networks (IP multimedia subsystem as one of the elements that help ensure QoS (Quality of service. In the paper we are trying to choose the best AC method for selected IMS network to allow access to the greatest number of users. Of the large number of methods that were tested and considered good we chose two. The paper compares diffusion method and one of the measurement based method, specifically „Simple Sum“. Both methods estimate effective bandwidth to allow access for the greatest number of users/devices and allow them access to prepaid services or multimedia content.

  2. Competition between Local Collisions and Collective Hydrodynamic Feedback Controls Traffic Flows in Microfluidic Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belloul, M.; Engl, W.; Colin, A.; Panizza, P.; Ajdari, A.

    2009-05-01

    By studying the repartition of monodisperse droplets at a simple T junction, we show that the traffic of discrete fluid systems in microfluidic networks results from two competing mechanisms, whose significance is driven by confinement. Traffic is dominated by collisions occurring at the junction for small droplets and by collective hydrodynamic feedback for large ones. For each mechanism, we present simple models in terms of the pertinent dimensionless parameters of the problem.

  3. Traffic-Adaptive and Energy-Efficient Small Cell Networks-Energy, Delay and Throughput

    OpenAIRE

    Nazrul Alam, Mirza

    2016-01-01

    The low power small cell network has emerged as a promising and feasible solution to address the massive wireless traffic resulting from the aggressive growth of wireless applications. It is also estimated that Internet of things (IoT) will consist of around 50 billion physical objects by 2020. As a result, besides capacity enhancement, other challenges, e.g., energy efficiency, dynamic addressing of UL/DL traffic asymmetry, low latency, multi-hop communications, reliability and coverage have...

  4. Logistic centres in the Hungarian traffic network -A Current Smvey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geza Schubert

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available As Europe's economic integration proceeds, Hungary- situatedin the continent's geometric centre - is called upon to accommodatea huge volume of transit traffic. Congestion on thecountry's highways, already a serious problem, makes it desirableto shift transit freight traffic onto railways. For this purpose,and also to make transportation generally more efficient,the so-called logistic service centres are being established. Theseare expected to play a decisive role in the European freight trafficnetwork. An expeditious extension of their services is urgentlyneeded.

  5. Services and traffic policing mechanisms in B-ISDN networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nleya, B.M.

    1995-10-01

    The paper looks at some of the services that will be offered by ATM in future and their general characteristics. The paper then reviews ATM technology and the various traffic and control functions. Finally the performance comparisons of both the static and dynamic rate Leaky Bucket schemes is presented. The conclusions are that the dynamic rate scheme can control several traffic parameters as compared to the static one, but the complexity in its realization might mean higher costs. (author). 3 refs, 13 figs, 2 tabs

  6. A network centrality measure framework for analyzing urban traffic flow: A case study of Wuhan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shuangming; Zhao, Pengxiang; Cui, Yunfan

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, we propose an improved network centrality measure framework that takes into account both the topological characteristics and the geometric properties of a road network in order to analyze urban traffic flow in relation to different modes: intersection, road, and community, which correspond to point mode, line mode, and area mode respectively. Degree, betweenness, and PageRank centralities are selected as the analysis measures, and GPS-enabled taxi trajectory data is used to evaluate urban traffic flow. The results show that the mean value of the correlation coefficients between the modified degree, the betweenness, and the PageRank centralities and the traffic flow in all periods are higher than the mean value of the correlation coefficients between the conventional degree, the betweenness, the PageRank centralities and the traffic flow at different modes; this indicates that the modified measurements, for analyzing traffic flow, are superior to conventional centrality measurements. This study helps to shed light into the understanding of urban traffic flow in relation to different modes from the perspective of complex networks.

  7. An Algorithm of Traffic Perception of DDoS Attacks against SOA Based on Time United Conditional Entropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuntao Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available DDoS attacks can prevent legitimate users from accessing the service by consuming resource of the target nodes, whose availability of network and service is exposed to a significant threat. Therefore, DDoS traffic perception is the premise and foundation of the whole system security. In this paper the method of DDoS traffic perception for SOA network based on time united conditional entropy was proposed. According to many-to-one relationship mapping between the source IP address and destination IP addresses of DDoS attacks, traffic characteristics of services are analyzed based on conditional entropy. The algorithm is provided with perception ability of DDoS attacks on SOA services by introducing time dimension. Simulation results show that the novel method can realize DDoS traffic perception with analyzing abrupt variation of conditional entropy in time dimension.

  8. Solutions to Improve Road Circulation in the Pitesti City Based on Analysis-Diagnostics of Road Traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vîlcan, A.; Neagu, E.; Badarau Suster, H.; Boroiu, A. A.

    2017-10-01

    Road traffic congestion has become a daily phenomenon in the central area of Pitesti in the peak traffic periods. In order to achieve the mobility plan of Pitesti, an important stage is the diagnostic analysis of the road traffic. For this purpose, the urban road network was formalized through a graph containing the most important 40 intersections and traffic measurements were made at all these intersections and on the main roads connecting the peri-urban area. The data obtained by traffic macrosimulation confirmed the overloading of the street network during peak traffic hours and the analyzes made for various road traffic organization scenarios have shown that there are sustainable solutions for urban mobility only if the road network is fundamentally reconfigured (a belt outside the city and a median ring). Thus, the necessity of realizing the road passage in the Prundu neighbourhood and the finishing of the city belt by realizing the “detour West” of the city is argued. The importance of the work is that it brings scientific arguments for the realization of these road infrastructure projects, integrated in the urban mobility plan, which will base the development strategy of the Pitesti municipality.

  9. Communications network traffic data : technical and legal aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, J.C.

    2010-01-01

    Communications traffic data is a legal data concept that can be explained by the example of traditional, non-digital mail: For a letter to be sent by post it must be enclosed in an envelope. On the envelope the name of the addressee, his address and some information about the sender are noted.

  10. Integrated Control of Mixed Traffic Networks using Model Predictive Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Berg, M.

    2010-01-01

    Motivation The growth of our road infrastructure cannot keep up with the growing mobility of people, and the corresponding increase in traffic demand. This results in daily congestion on the freeways. It is an illusion that the problem of congestion can be solved completely within a few years, but

  11. Predicting commuter flows in spatial networks using a radiation model based on temporal ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yihui; Ercsey-Ravasz, Mária; Wang, Pu; González, Marta C.; Toroczkai, Zoltán

    2014-11-01

    Understanding network flows such as commuter traffic in large transportation networks is an ongoing challenge due to the complex nature of the transportation infrastructure and human mobility. Here we show a first-principles based method for traffic prediction using a cost-based generalization of the radiation model for human mobility, coupled with a cost-minimizing algorithm for efficient distribution of the mobility fluxes through the network. Using US census and highway traffic data, we show that traffic can efficiently and accurately be computed from a range-limited, network betweenness type calculation. The model based on travel time costs captures the log-normal distribution of the traffic and attains a high Pearson correlation coefficient (0.75) when compared with real traffic. Because of its principled nature, this method can inform many applications related to human mobility driven flows in spatial networks, ranging from transportation, through urban planning to mitigation of the effects of catastrophic events.

  12. Background Traffic-Based Retransmission Algorithm for Multimedia Streaming Transfer over Concurrent Multipaths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanlong Cao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The content-rich multimedia streaming will be the most attractive services in the next-generation networks. With function of distribute data across multipath end-to-end paths based on SCTP's multihoming feature, concurrent multipath transfer SCTP (CMT-SCTP has been regarded as the most promising technology for the efficient multimedia streaming transmission. However, the current researches on CMT-SCTP mainly focus on the algorithms related to the data delivery performance while they seldom consider the background traffic factors. Actually, background traffic of realistic network environments has an important impact on the performance of CMT-SCTP. In this paper, we firstly investigate the effect of background traffic on the performance of CMT-SCTP based on a close realistic simulation topology with reasonable background traffic in NS2, and then based on the localness nature of background flow, a further improved retransmission algorithm, named RTX_CSI, is proposed to reach more benefits in terms of average throughput and achieve high users' experience of quality for multimedia streaming services.

  13. Bandwidth Impacts of Localizing Peer-to-Peer IP Video Traffic in Access and Aggregation Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerpez Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper examines the burgeoning impact of peer-to-peer (P2P traffic IP video traffic. High-quality IPTV or Internet TV has high-bandwidth requirements, and P2P IP video could severely strain broadband networks. A model for the popularity of video titles is given, showing that some titles are very popular and will often be available locally; making localized P2P attractive for video titles. The bandwidth impacts of localizing P2P video to try and keep traffic within a broadband access network area or within a broadband access aggregation network area are examined. Results indicate that such highly localized P2P video can greatly lower core bandwidth usage.

  14. Bandwidth Impacts of Localizing Peer-to-Peer IP Video Traffic in Access and Aggregation Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Kerpez

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the burgeoning impact of peer-to-peer (P2P traffic IP video traffic. High-quality IPTV or Internet TV has high-bandwidth requirements, and P2P IP video could severely strain broadband networks. A model for the popularity of video titles is given, showing that some titles are very popular and will often be available locally; making localized P2P attractive for video titles. The bandwidth impacts of localizing P2P video to try and keep traffic within a broadband access network area or within a broadband access aggregation network area are examined. Results indicate that such highly localized P2P video can greatly lower core bandwidth usage.

  15. McMAC: Towards a MAC Protocol with Multi-Constrained QoS Provisioning for Diverse Traffic in Wireless Body Area Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Monowar, Muhammad; Hassan, Mohammad; Bajaber, Fuad; Al-Hussein, Musaed; Alamri, Atif

    2012-01-01

    The emergence of heterogeneous applications with diverse requirements for resource-constrained Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs) poses significant challenges for provisioning Quality of Service (QoS) with multi-constraints (delay and reliability) while preserving energy efficiency. To address such challenges, this paper proposes McMAC, a MAC protocol with multi-constrained QoS provisioning for diverse traffic classes in WBANs. McMAC classifies traffic based on their multi-constrained QoS de...

  16. Reducing Traffic Congestions by Introducing CACC-Vehicles on a Multi-Lane Highway Using Agent-Based Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaout, Georges M.; Bowling, Shannon R.

    2011-01-01

    Traffic congestion is an ongoing problem of great interest to researchers from different areas in academia. With the emerging technology for inter-vehicle communication, vehicles have the ability to exchange information with predecessors by wireless communication. In this paper, we present an agent-based model of traffic congestion and examine the impact of having CACC (Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control) embedded vehicle(s) on a highway system consisting of 4 traffic lanes without overtaking. In our model, CACC vehicles adapt their acceleration/deceleration according to vehicle-to-vehicle inter-communication. We analyze the average speed of the cars, the shockwaves, and the evolution of traffic congestion throughout the lifecycle of the model. The study identifies how CACC vehicles affect the dynamics of traffic flow on a complex network and reduce the oscillatory behavior (stop and go) resulting from the acceleration/deceleration of the vehicles.

  17. Inside the Mechanics of Network Development: How Competition and Strategy Reorganize European Air Traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Hans

    2006-01-01

    Air transport forms complex networks that can be measured in order to understand its structural characteristics and functional properties. Recent models for network growth (i.e., preferential attachment, etc.) remain stochastic and do not seek to understand other network-specific mechanisms that may account for their development in a more microscopic way. Air traffic is made up of many constituent airlines that are either privately or publicly owned and that operate their own networks. They follow more or less similar business policies each. The way these airline networks organize among themselves into distinct traffic distributions reveals complex interaction among them, which in turn can be aggregated into larger (macro-) traffic distributions. Our approach allows for a more deterministic methodology that will assess the impact of airline strategies on the distinct distributions for air traffic, particularly inside Europe. One key question this paper is seeking to answer is whether there are distinct patterns of preferential attachment for given classes of airline networks to distinct types of European airports. Conclusions about the advancing degree of concentration in this industry and the airline operators that accelerate this process can be drawn.

  18. Phase dynamics of complex-valued neural networks and its application to traffic signal control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, Ikuko; Iritani, Takeshi; Sakakibara, Kazutoshi; Kuroe, Yasuaki

    2005-01-01

    Complex-valued Hopfield networks which possess the energy function are analyzed. The dynamics of the network with certain forms of an activation function is de-composable into the dynamics of the amplitude and phase of each neuron. Then the phase dynamics is described as a coupled system of phase oscillators with a pair-wise sinusoidal interaction. Therefore its phase synchronization mechanism is useful for the area-wide offset control of the traffic signals. The computer simulations show the effectiveness under the various traffic conditions.

  19. Using Generalized Entropies and OC-SVM with Mahalanobis Kernel for Detection and Classification of Anomalies in Network Traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayro Santiago-Paz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Network anomaly detection and classification is an important open issue in network security. Several approaches and systems based on different mathematical tools have been studied and developed, among them, the Anomaly-Network Intrusion Detection System (A-NIDS, which monitors network traffic and compares it against an established baseline of a “normal” traffic profile. Then, it is necessary to characterize the “normal” Internet traffic. This paper presents an approach for anomaly detection and classification based on Shannon, Rényi and Tsallis entropies of selected features, and the construction of regions from entropy data employing the Mahalanobis distance (MD, and One Class Support Vector Machine (OC-SVM with different kernels (Radial Basis Function (RBF and Mahalanobis Kernel (MK for “normal” and abnormal traffic. Regular and non-regular regions built from “normal” traffic profiles allow anomaly detection, while the classification is performed under the assumption that regions corresponding to the attack classes have been previously characterized. Although this approach allows the use of as many features as required, only four well-known significant features were selected in our case. In order to evaluate our approach, two different data sets were used: one set of real traffic obtained from an Academic Local Area Network (LAN, and the other a subset of the 1998 MIT-DARPA set. For these data sets, a True positive rate up to 99.35%, a True negative rate up to 99.83% and a False negative rate at about 0.16% were yielded. Experimental results show that certain q-values of the generalized entropies and the use of OC-SVM with RBF kernel improve the detection rate in the detection stage, while the novel inclusion of MK kernel in OC-SVM and k-temporal nearest neighbors improve accuracy in classification. In addition, the results show that using the Box-Cox transformation, the Mahalanobis distance yielded high detection rates with

  20. Modelling Altitude Information in Two-Dimensional Traffic Networks for Electric Mobility Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Santos

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Elevation data is important for electric vehicle simulation. However, traffic simulators are often two-dimensional and do not offer the capability of modelling urban networks taking elevation into account. Specifically, SUMO - Simulation of Urban Mobility, a popular microscopic traffic simulator, relies on networks previously modelled with elevation data as to provide this information during simulations. This work tackles the problem of adding elevation data to urban network models - particularly for the case of the Porto urban network, in Portugal. With this goal in mind, a comparison between different altitude information retrieval approaches is made and a simple tool to annotate network models with altitude data is proposed. The work starts by describing the methodological approach followed during research and development, then describing and analysing its main findings. This description includes an in-depth explanation of the proposed tool. Lastly, this work reviews some related work to the subject.

  1. Traffic-Adaptive Proactive Sp ectrum Handoff Strategy for Graded Secondary Users in Cognitive Radio Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Lei; SONG Tiecheng; WU Ming; BAO Xu; GUO Jie; HU Jing

    2015-01-01

    In order to meet diff erent delay require-ments of various communication services in Cognitive ra-dio (CR) networks, Secondary users (SUs) are divided into two classes according to the priority of accessing to spec-trum in this paper. Based on the proactive spectrum hand-off scheme, the Preemptive resume priority (PRP) M/G/1 queueing is used to characterize multiple spectrum hand-off s under two diff erent spectrum handoff strategies. The traffic-adaptive spectrum handoff strategy is proposed for graded SUs so as to minimize the average cumulative hand-off delay. Simulation results not only verify that our theo-retical analysis is valid, but also show that the strategy we proposed can reduce the average cumulative handoff delay evidently. The eff ect of service rate on the proposed spec-trum switching point and the admissible access region are provided.

  2. Local and nonlocal information in a traffic network: how important is the horizon?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petri, G.

    2010-01-01

    Recent advances in distributed sensor network technology have changed the landscape of traffic optimization in which small, mobile devices are able to sense local information and communicate in real time with one another. Naive optimization algorithms that operate solely on the local or global level are inherently flawed, as global optimization requires every local sensor to communicate with a centralized base-station, creating prohibitive bandwidth, robustness, and security concerns, while local optimization methods are limited by a near information horizon as they are unable to propagate or react to information beyond their immediate vicinity. This paper investigates an intermediate approach where individual sensors are able to propagate congestion information over a variable distance that is determined in real-time. This strategy consistently out-performs a naive strategy where every car simply takes the shortest path to its destination, but does worse than a simpler optimization algorithm that only incorporates local information. This is most likely because the intermediate solution directs cars along the same alternate path when attempting to free a congested area, thus creating new congestion along the detour. The results suggest that local information might set an upper bound on performance in models of cascading in- formation. Further work is required to confirm this observation and develop an algorithm able to join both local and global information to effectively diffuse traffic around congestion. (author)

  3. An efficient mechanism for dynamic multicast traffic grooming in overlay IP/MPLS over WDM networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiaojun; Xiao, Gaoxi; Cheng, Tee Hiang

    2014-08-01

    This paper proposes an efficient overlay multicast provisioning (OMP) mechanism for dynamic multicast traffic grooming in overlay IP/MPLS over WDM networks. To facilitate request provisioning, OMP jointly utilizes a data learning (DL) scheme on the IP/MPLS layer for logical link cost estimation, and a lightpath fragmentation (LPF) based method on the WDM layer for improving resource sharing in grooming process. Extensive simulations are carried out to evaluate the performance of OMP mechanism under different traffic loads, with either limited or unlimited port resources. Simulation results demonstrate that OMP significantly outperforms the existing methods. To evaluate the respective influences of the DL scheme and the LPF method on OMP performance, provisioning mechanisms only utilizing either the IP/MPLS layer DL scheme or the WDM layer LPF method are also devised. Comparison results show that both DL and LPF methods help improve OMP blocking performance, and contribution from the DL scheme is more significant when the fixed routing and first-fit wavelength assignment (RWA) strategy is adopted on the WDM layer. Effects of a few other factors, including definition of connection cost to be reported by the WDM layer to the IP/MPLS layer and WDM-layer routing method, on OMP performance are also evaluated.

  4. Communication efficiency and congestion of signal traffic in large-scale brain networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mišić, Bratislav; Sporns, Olaf; McIntosh, Anthony R

    2014-01-01

    The complex connectivity of the cerebral cortex suggests that inter-regional communication is a primary function. Using computational modeling, we show that anatomical connectivity may be a major determinant for global information flow in brain networks. A macaque brain network was implemented as a communication network in which signal units flowed between grey matter nodes along white matter paths. Compared to degree-matched surrogate networks, information flow on the macaque brain network was characterized by higher loss rates, faster transit times and lower throughput, suggesting that neural connectivity may be optimized for speed rather than fidelity. Much of global communication was mediated by a "rich club" of hub regions: a sub-graph comprised of high-degree nodes that are more densely interconnected with each other than predicted by chance. First, macaque communication patterns most closely resembled those observed for a synthetic rich club network, but were less similar to those seen in a synthetic small world network, suggesting that the former is a more fundamental feature of brain network topology. Second, rich club regions attracted the most signal traffic and likewise, connections between rich club regions carried more traffic than connections between non-rich club regions. Third, a number of rich club regions were significantly under-congested, suggesting that macaque connectivity actively shapes information flow, funneling traffic towards some nodes and away from others. Together, our results indicate a critical role of the rich club of hub nodes in dynamic aspects of global brain communication.

  5. Effect and Analysis of Sustainable Cell Rate using MPEG video Traffic in ATM Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakshi Kaushal

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The broadband networks inhibit the capability to carry multiple types of traffic – voice, video and data, but these services need to be controlled according to the traffic contract negotiated at the time of the connection to maintain desired Quality of service. Such control techniques use traffic descriptors to evaluate its performance and effectiveness. In case of Variable Bit Rate (VBR services, Peak Cell Rate (PCR and its Cell Delay Variation Tolerance (CDVTPCR are mandatory descriptors. In addition to these, ATM Forum proposed Sustainable Cell Rate (SCR and its Cell delay variation tolerance (CDVTSCR. In this paper, we evaluated the impact of specific SCR and CDVTSCR values on the Usage Parameter Control (UPC performance in case of measured MPEG traffic for improving the efficiency

  6. Multi-Agent Based Microscopic Simulation Modeling for Urban Traffic Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianyan Kuang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Traffic simulation plays an important role in the evaluation of traffic decisions. The movement of vehicles essentially is the operating process of drivers, in order to reproduce the urban traffic flow from the micro-aspect on computer, this paper establishes an urban traffic flow microscopic simulation system (UTFSim based on multi-agent. The system is seen as an intelligent virtual environment system (IVES, and the four-layer structure of it is built. The road agent, vehicle agent and signal agent are modeled. The concept of driving trajectory which is divided into LDT (Lane Driving Trajectory and VDDT (Vehicle Dynamic Driving Trajectory is introduced. The “Link-Node” road network model is improved. The driving behaviors including free driving, following driving, lane changing, slowing down, vehicle stop, etc. are analyzed. The results of the signal control experiments utilizing the UTFSim developed in the platform of Visual Studio. NET indicates that it plays a good performance and can be used in the evaluation of traffic management and control.

  7. A novel fair active queue management algorithm based on traffic delay jitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xue-Shun; Yu, Shao-Hua; Dai, Jin-You; Luo, Ting

    2009-11-01

    In order to guarantee the quantity of data traffic delivered in the network, congestion control strategy is adopted. According to the study of many active queue management (AQM) algorithms, this paper proposes a novel active queue management algorithm named JFED. JFED can stabilize queue length at a desirable level by adjusting output traffic rate and adopting a reasonable calculation of packet drop probability based on buffer queue length and traffic jitter; and it support burst packet traffic through the packet delay jitter, so that it can traffic flow medium data. JFED impose effective punishment upon non-responsible flow with a full stateless method. To verify the performance of JFED, it is implemented in NS2 and is compared with RED and CHOKe with respect to different performance metrics. Simulation results show that the proposed JFED algorithm outperforms RED and CHOKe in stabilizing instantaneous queue length and in fairness. It is also shown that JFED enables the link capacity to be fully utilized by stabilizing the queue length at a desirable level, while not incurring excessive packet loss ratio.

  8. Traffic-based feedback on the web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizen, Jonathan; Huttenlocher, Daniel; Kleinberg, Jon; Novak, Antal

    2004-04-06

    Usage data at a high-traffic web site can expose information about external events and surges in popularity that may not be accessible solely from analyses of content and link structure. We consider sites that are organized around a set of items available for purchase or download, consider, for example, an e-commerce site or collection of online research papers, and we study a simple indicator of collective user interest in an item, the batting average, defined as the fraction of visits to an item's description that result in an acquisition of that item. We develop a stochastic model for identifying points in time at which an item's batting average experiences significant change. In experiments with usage data from the Internet Archive, we find that such changes often occur in an abrupt, discrete fashion, and that these changes can be closely aligned with events such as the highlighting of an item on the site or the appearance of a link from an active external referrer. In this way, analyzing the dynamics of item popularity at an active web site can help characterize the impact of a range of events taking place both on and off the site.

  9. Study on network traffic forecast model of SVR optimized by GAFSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yuan; Wang, RuiXue

    2016-01-01

    There are some problems, such as low precision, on existing network traffic forecast model. In accordance with these problems, this paper proposed the network traffic forecast model of support vector regression (SVR) algorithm optimized by global artificial fish swarm algorithm (GAFSA). GAFSA constitutes an improvement of artificial fish swarm algorithm, which is a swarm intelligence optimization algorithm with a significant effect of optimization. The optimum training parameters used for SVR could be calculated by optimizing chosen parameters, which would make the forecast more accurate. With the optimum training parameters searched by GAFSA algorithm, a model of network traffic forecast, which greatly solved problems of great errors in SVR improved by others intelligent algorithms, could be built with the forecast result approaching stability and the increased forecast precision. The simulation shows that, compared with other models (e.g. GA-SVR, CPSO-SVR), the forecast results of GAFSA-SVR network traffic forecast model is more stable with the precision improved to more than 89%, which plays an important role on instructing network control behavior and analyzing security situation.

  10. Effects of packet retransmission with finite packet lifetime on traffic capacity in scale-free networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhong-Yuan; Ma, Jian-Feng

    Existing routing strategies such as the global dynamic routing [X. Ling, M. B. Hu, R. Jiang and Q. S. Wu, Phys. Rev. E 81, 016113 (2010)] can achieve very high traffic capacity at the cost of extremely long packet traveling delay. In many real complex networks, especially for real-time applications such as the instant communication software, extremely long packet traveling time is unacceptable. In this work, we propose to assign a finite Time-to-Live (TTL) parameter for each packet. To guarantee every packet to arrive at its destination within its TTL, we assume that a packet is retransmitted by its source once its TTL expires. We employ source routing mechanisms in the traffic model to avoid the routing-flaps induced by the global dynamic routing. We compose extensive simulations to verify our proposed mechanisms. With small TTL, the effects of packet retransmission on network traffic capacity are obvious, and the phase transition from flow free state to congested state occurs. For the purpose of reducing the computation frequency of the routing table, we employ a computing cycle Tc within which the routing table is recomputed once. The simulation results show that the traffic capacity decreases with increasing Tc. Our work provides a good insight into the understanding of effects of packet retransmission with finite packet lifetime on traffic capacity in scale-free networks.

  11. Best response game of traffic on road network of non-signalized intersections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Wang; Jia, Ning; Zhong, Shiquan; Li, Liying

    2018-01-01

    This paper studies the traffic flow in a grid road network with non-signalized intersections. The nature of the drivers in the network is simulated such that they play an iterative snowdrift game with other drivers. A cellular automata model is applied to study the characteristics of the traffic flow and the evolution of the behaviour of the drivers during the game. The drivers use best-response as their strategy to update rules. Three major findings are revealed. First, the cooperation rate in simulation experiences staircase-shaped drop as cost to benefit ratio r increases, and cooperation rate can be derived analytically as a function of cost to benefit ratio r. Second, we find that higher cooperation rate corresponds to higher average speed, lower density and higher flow. This reveals that defectors deteriorate the efficiency of traffic on non-signalized intersections. Third, the system experiences more randomness when the density is low because the drivers will not have much opportunity to update strategy when the density is low. These findings help to show how the strategy of drivers in a traffic network evolves and how their interactions influence the overall performance of the traffic system.

  12. Millifluidics as a simple tool to optimize droplet networks: Case study on drop traffic in a bifurcated loop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, William S.; Vanapalli, Siva A.

    2014-01-01

    We report that modular millifluidic networks are simpler, more cost-effective alternatives to traditional microfluidic networks, and they can be rapidly generated and altered to optimize designs. Droplet traffic can also be studied more conveniently and inexpensively at the millimeter scale, as droplets are readily visible to the naked eye. Bifurcated loops, ladder networks, and parking networks were made using only Tygon® tubing and plastic T-junction fittings and visualized using an iPod® camera. As a case study, droplet traffic experiments through a millifluidic bifurcated loop were conducted, and the periodicity of drop spacing at the outlet was mapped over a wide range of inlet drop spacing. We observed periodic, intermittent, and aperiodic behaviors depending on the inlet drop spacing. The experimentally observed periodic behaviors were in good agreement with numerical simulations based on the simple network model. Our experiments further identified three main sources of intermittency between different periodic and/or aperiodic behaviors: (1) simultaneous entering and exiting events, (2) channel defects, and (3) equal or nearly equal hydrodynamic resistances in both sides of the bifurcated loop. In cases of simultaneous events and/or channel defects, the range of input spacings where intermittent behaviors are observed depends on the degree of inherent variation in input spacing. Finally, using a time scale analysis of syringe pump fluctuations and experiment observation times, we find that in most cases, more consistent results can be generated in experiments conducted at the millimeter scale than those conducted at the micrometer scale. Thus, millifluidic networks offer a simple means to probe collective interactions due to drop traffic and optimize network geometry to engineer passive devices for biological and material analysis. PMID:25553188

  13. Global forward-predicting dynamic routing for traffic concurrency space stereo multi-layer scale-free network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Wei-Hao; Zhou Bin; Liu En-Xiao; Lu Wei-Dang; Zhou Ting

    2015-01-01

    Many real communication networks, such as oceanic monitoring network and land environment observation network, can be described as space stereo multi-layer structure, and the traffic in these networks is concurrent. Understanding how traffic dynamics depend on these real communication networks and finding an effective routing strategy that can fit the circumstance of traffic concurrency and enhance the network performance are necessary. In this light, we propose a traffic model for space stereo multi-layer complex network and introduce two kinds of global forward-predicting dynamic routing strategies, global forward-predicting hybrid minimum queue (HMQ) routing strategy and global forward-predicting hybrid minimum degree and queue (HMDQ) routing strategy, for traffic concurrency space stereo multi-layer scale-free networks. By applying forward-predicting strategy, the proposed routing strategies achieve better performances in traffic concurrency space stereo multi-layer scale-free networks. Compared with the efficient routing strategy and global dynamic routing strategy, HMDQ and HMQ routing strategies can optimize the traffic distribution, alleviate the number of congested packets effectively and reach much higher network capacity. (paper)

  14. A Sarsa(λ)-based control model for real-time traffic light coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaoke; Zhu, Fei; Liu, Quan; Fu, Yuchen; Huang, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Traffic problems often occur due to the traffic demands by the outnumbered vehicles on road. Maximizing traffic flow and minimizing the average waiting time are the goals of intelligent traffic control. Each junction wants to get larger traffic flow. During the course, junctions form a policy of coordination as well as constraints for adjacent junctions to maximize their own interests. A good traffic signal timing policy is helpful to solve the problem. However, as there are so many factors that can affect the traffic control model, it is difficult to find the optimal solution. The disability of traffic light controllers to learn from past experiences caused them to be unable to adaptively fit dynamic changes of traffic flow. Considering dynamic characteristics of the actual traffic environment, reinforcement learning algorithm based traffic control approach can be applied to get optimal scheduling policy. The proposed Sarsa(λ)-based real-time traffic control optimization model can maintain the traffic signal timing policy more effectively. The Sarsa(λ)-based model gains traffic cost of the vehicle, which considers delay time, the number of waiting vehicles, and the integrated saturation from its experiences to learn and determine the optimal actions. The experiment results show an inspiring improvement in traffic control, indicating the proposed model is capable of facilitating real-time dynamic traffic control.

  15. A Sarsa(λ-Based Control Model for Real-Time Traffic Light Coordination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoke Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic problems often occur due to the traffic demands by the outnumbered vehicles on road. Maximizing traffic flow and minimizing the average waiting time are the goals of intelligent traffic control. Each junction wants to get larger traffic flow. During the course, junctions form a policy of coordination as well as constraints for adjacent junctions to maximize their own interests. A good traffic signal timing policy is helpful to solve the problem. However, as there are so many factors that can affect the traffic control model, it is difficult to find the optimal solution. The disability of traffic light controllers to learn from past experiences caused them to be unable to adaptively fit dynamic changes of traffic flow. Considering dynamic characteristics of the actual traffic environment, reinforcement learning algorithm based traffic control approach can be applied to get optimal scheduling policy. The proposed Sarsa(λ-based real-time traffic control optimization model can maintain the traffic signal timing policy more effectively. The Sarsa(λ-based model gains traffic cost of the vehicle, which considers delay time, the number of waiting vehicles, and the integrated saturation from its experiences to learn and determine the optimal actions. The experiment results show an inspiring improvement in traffic control, indicating the proposed model is capable of facilitating real-time dynamic traffic control.

  16. Proportional fair scheduling algorithm based on traffic in satellite communication system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Cheng-Sheng; Sui, Shi-Long; Liu, Chun-ling; Shi, Yu-Xin

    2018-02-01

    In the satellite communication network system, in order to solve the problem of low system capacity and user fairness in multi-user access to satellite communication network in the downlink, combined with the characteristics of user data service, an algorithm study on throughput capacity and user fairness scheduling is proposed - Proportional Fairness Algorithm Based on Traffic(B-PF). The algorithm is improved on the basis of the proportional fairness algorithm in the wireless communication system, taking into account the user channel condition and caching traffic information. The user outgoing traffic is considered as the adjustment factor of the scheduling priority and presents the concept of traffic satisfaction. Firstly,the algorithm calculates the priority of the user according to the scheduling algorithm and dispatches the users with the highest priority. Secondly, when a scheduled user is the business satisfied user, the system dispatches the next priority user. The simulation results show that compared with the PF algorithm, B-PF can improve the system throughput, the business satisfaction and fairness.

  17. Capacity planning of link restorable optical networks under dynamic change of traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Kwok Shing; Cheung, Kwok Wai

    2005-11-01

    Future backbone networks shall require full-survivability and support dynamic changes of traffic demands. The Generalized Survivable Networks (GSN) was proposed to meet these challenges. GSN is fully-survivable under dynamic traffic demand changes, so it offers a practical and guaranteed characterization framework for ASTN / ASON survivable network planning and bandwidth-on-demand resource allocation 4. The basic idea of GSN is to incorporate the non-blocking network concept into the survivable network models. In GSN, each network node must specify its I/O capacity bound which is taken as constraints for any allowable traffic demand matrix. In this paper, we consider the following generic GSN network design problem: Given the I/O bounds of each network node, find a routing scheme (and the corresponding rerouting scheme under failure) and the link capacity assignment (both working and spare) which minimize the cost, such that any traffic matrix consistent with the given I/O bounds can be feasibly routed and it is single-fault tolerant under the link restoration scheme. We first show how the initial, infeasible formal mixed integer programming formulation can be transformed into a more feasible problem using the duality transformation of the linear program. Then we show how the problem can be simplified using the Lagrangian Relaxation approach. Previous work has outlined a two-phase approach for solving this problem where the first phase optimizes the working capacity assignment and the second phase optimizes the spare capacity assignment. In this paper, we present a jointly optimized framework for dimensioning the survivable optical network with the GSN model. Experiment results show that the jointly optimized GSN can bring about on average of 3.8% cost savings when compared with the separate, two-phase approach. Finally, we perform a cost comparison and show that GSN can be deployed with a reasonable cost.

  18. Network-Based Effectiveness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Friman, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    ...) to increase competitive advantage, innovation, and mission effectiveness. Network-based effectiveness occurs due to the influence of various factors such as people, procedures, technology, and organizations...

  19. On Applicability of Network Coding Technique for 6LoWPAN-based Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amanowicz, Marek; Krygier, Jaroslaw

    2018-05-26

    In this paper, the applicability of the network coding technique in 6LoWPAN-based sensor multihop networks is examined. The 6LoWPAN is one of the standards proposed for the Internet of Things architecture. Thus, we can expect the significant growth of traffic in such networks, which can lead to overload and decrease in the sensor network lifetime. The authors propose the inter-session network coding mechanism that can be implemented in resource-limited sensor motes. The solution reduces the overall traffic in the network, and in consequence, the energy consumption is decreased. Used procedures take into account deep header compressions of the native 6LoWPAN packets and the hop-by-hop changes of the header structure. Applied simplifications reduce signaling traffic that is typically occurring in network coding deployments, keeping the solution usefulness for the wireless sensor networks with limited resources. The authors validate the proposed procedures in terms of end-to-end packet delay, packet loss ratio, traffic in the air, total energy consumption, and network lifetime. The solution has been tested in a real wireless sensor network. The results confirm the efficiency of the proposed technique, mostly in delay-tolerant sensor networks.

  20. Improved routing strategies for data traffic in scale-free networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Zhi-Xi; Peng, Gang; Wong, Wing-Ming; Yeung, Kai-Hau

    2008-01-01

    We study the information packet routing process in scale-free networks by mimicking Internet traffic delivery. We incorporate both the global shortest paths information and local degree information of the network in the dynamic process, via two tunable parameters, α and β, to guide the packet routing. We measure the performance of the routing method by both the average transit times of packets and the critical packet generation rate (above which packet aggregation occurs in the network). We found that the routing strategies which integrate ingredients of both global and local topological information of the underlying networks perform much better than the traditional shortest path routing protocol taking into account the global topological information only. Moreover, by doing comparative studies with some related works, we found that the performance of our proposed method shows universal efficiency characteristic against the amount of traffic

  1. Traffic Scheduling in WDM Passive Optical Network with Delay Guarantee

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    WDM passive optical network becomes more favorable as the required bandwidth increases, but currently few media access control algorithms adapted to WDM access network. This paper presented a new scheduling algorithm for bandwidth sharing in WDM passive optical networks, which provides per-flow delay guarantee and supports variable-length packets scheduling. Through theoretical analysis and simulation, the end-to-end delay bound and throughput fairness of the algorithm was demonstrated.

  2. Road safety and bicycle usage impacts of unbundling vehicular and cycle traffic in Dutch urban networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepers, Paul; Heinen, Eva; Methorst, Rob; Wegman, Fred

    2013-01-01

    Bicycle-motor vehicle crashes are concentrated along distributor roads where cyclists are exposed to greater volumes of high-speed motorists than they would experience on access roads. This study examined the road safety impact of network-level separation of vehicular and cycle traffic in Dutch

  3. Road safety and bicycle usage impacts of unbundling vehicular and cycle traffic in Dutch urban networks.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepers, P. Heinen, E. Methorst, R. & Wegman, F.

    2015-01-01

    Bicycle-motor vehicle crashes are concentrated along distributor roads where cyclists are exposed to greater volumes of high-speed motorists than they would experience on access roads. This study examined the road safety impact of network-level separation of vehicular and cycle traffic in Dutch

  4. Dynamic Flow Migration for Delay Constrained Traffic in Software-Defined Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berger, Andre; Gross, James; Danielis, Peter; Dán, György

    2017-01-01

    Various industrial control applications have stringent end-to-end latency requirements in the order of a few milliseconds. Software-defined networking (SDN) is a promising solution in order to meet these stringent requirements under varying traffic patterns, as it enables the flexible management of

  5. Downlink Performance of a Multi-Carrier MIMO System in a Bursty Traffic Cellular Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Hung Tuan; Kovacs, Istvan; Wang, Yuanye

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we analyse the downlink performance of a rank adaptive multiple input multiple output (MIMO) system in a busty traffic cellular network. A LTE-Advanced system with multiple component carriers was selected as a study case. To highlight the advantage of using MIMO techniques, we used ...

  6. Energy-minimized design in all-optical networks using unicast/multicast traffic grooming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puche, William S.; Amaya, Ferney O.; Sierra, Javier E.

    2013-09-01

    The increased bandwidth required by applications, tends to raise the amount of optical equipment, for this reason, it is essential to maintain a balance between the wavelength allocation, available capacity and number of optical devices to achieve the lowest power consumption. You could say that we propose a model that minimizes energy consumption, using unicast / multicast traffic grooming in optical networks.

  7. ENERGY AWARE NETWORK: BAYESIAN BELIEF NETWORKS BASED DECISION MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Kumar Chaudhari

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A Network Management System (NMS plays a very important role in managing an ever-evolving telecommunication network. Generally an NMS monitors & maintains the health of network elements. The growing size of the network warrants extra functionalities from the NMS. An NMS provides all kinds of information about networks which can be used for other purposes apart from monitoring & maintaining networks like improving QoS & saving energy in the network. In this paper, we add another dimension to NMS services, namely, making an NMS energy aware. We propose a Decision Management System (DMS framework which uses a machine learning technique called Bayesian Belief Networks (BBN, to make the NMS energy aware. The DMS is capable of analysing and making control decisions based on network traffic. We factor in the cost of rerouting and power saving per port. Simulations are performed on standard network topologies, namely, ARPANet and IndiaNet. It is found that ~2.5-6.5% power can be saved.

  8. Optimal traffic control in highway transportation networks using linear programming

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yanning; Canepa, Edward S.; Claudel, Christian G.

    2014-01-01

    of the Hamilton-Jacobi PDE, the problem of controlling the state of the system on a network link in a finite horizon can be posed as a Linear Program. Assuming all intersections in the network are controllable, we show that the optimization approach can

  9. Hyper-Spectral Networking Concept of Operations and Future Air Traffic Management Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Paul; Boisvert, Benjamin

    2017-01-01

    The NASA sponsored Hyper-Spectral Communications and Networking for Air Traffic Management (ATM) (HSCNA) project is conducting research to improve the operational efficiency of the future National Airspace System (NAS) through diverse and secure multi-band, multi-mode, and millimeter-wave (mmWave) wireless links. Worldwide growth of air transportation and the coming of unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) will increase air traffic density and complexity. Safe coordination of aircraft will require more capable technologies for communications, navigation, and surveillance (CNS). The HSCNA project will provide a foundation for technology and operational concepts to accommodate a significantly greater number of networked aircraft. This paper describes two of the HSCNA projects technical challenges. The first technical challenge is to develop a multi-band networking concept of operations (ConOps) for use in multiple phases of flight and all communication link types. This ConOps will integrate the advanced technologies explored by the HSCNA project and future operational concepts into a harmonized vision of future NAS communications and networking. The second technical challenge discussed is to conduct simulations of future ATM operations using multi-bandmulti-mode networking and technologies. Large-scale simulations will assess the impact, compared to todays system, of the new and integrated networks and technologies under future air traffic demand.

  10. Swarm-Based Smart City Platform: A Traffic Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo CHAMOSO

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Smart cities are proposed as a medium-term option for all cities. This article aims to propose an architecture that allows cities to provide solutions to interconnect all their elements. The study case focuses in locating and optimized regulation of traffic in cities. However, thanks to the proposed structure and the applied algorithms, the architecture is scalable in size of the sensor network, in functionality or even in the use of resources. A simulation environment that is able to show the operation of the architecture in the same way that a real city would, is presented.

  11. Optimization-based Method for Automated Road Network Extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong, D

    2001-01-01

    Automated road information extraction has significant applicability in transportation. It provides a means for creating, maintaining, and updating transportation network databases that are needed for purposes ranging from traffic management to automated vehicle navigation and guidance. This paper is to review literature on the subject of road extraction and to describe a study of an optimization-based method for automated road network extraction

  12. A wireless computational platform for distributed computing based traffic monitoring involving mixed Eulerian-Lagrangian sensing

    KAUST Repository

    Jiang, Jiming

    2013-06-01

    This paper presents a new wireless platform designed for an integrated traffic monitoring system based on combined Lagrangian (mobile) and Eulerian (fixed) sensing. The sensor platform is built around a 32-bit ARM Cortex M4 micro-controller and a 2.4GHz 802.15.4 ISM compliant radio module, and can be interfaced with fixed traffic sensors, or receive data from vehicle transponders. The platform is specially designed and optimized to be integrated in a solar-powered wireless sensor network in which traffic flow maps are computed by the nodes directly using distributed computing. A MPPT circuitry is proposed to increase the power output of the attached solar panel. A self-recovering unit is designed to increase reliability and allow periodic hard resets, an essential requirement for sensor networks. A radio monitoring circuitry is proposed to monitor incoming and outgoing transmissions, simplifying software debug. An ongoing implementation is briefly discussed, and compared with existing platforms used in wireless sensor networks. © 2013 IEEE.

  13. An efficient strategy for enhancing traffic capacity by removing links in scale-free networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Wei; Chow, Tommy W S

    2010-01-01

    An efficient link-removal strategy, called the variance-of-neighbor-degree-reduction (VNDR) strategy, for enhancing the traffic capacity of scale-free networks is proposed in this paper. The VNDR strategy, which considers the important role of hub nodes, balances the amounts of packets routed from each node to the node's neighbors. Compared against the outcomes of strategies that remove links among hub nodes, our results show that the traffic capacity can be greatly enhanced, especially under the shortest path routing strategy. It is also found that the average transport time is effectively reduced by using the VNDR strategy only under the shortest path routing strategy

  14. Characterization of Background Traffic in Hybrid Network Simulation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lauwens, Ben; Scheers, Bart; Van de Capelle, Antoine

    2006-01-01

    .... Two approaches are common: discrete event simulation and fluid approximation. A discrete event simulation generates a huge amount of events for a full-blown battlefield communication network resulting in a very long runtime...

  15. HOW TRAVEL DEMAND AFFECTS DETECTION OF NON-RECURRENT TRAFFIC CONGESTION ON URBAN ROAD NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Anbaroglu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Occurrence of non-recurrent traffic congestion hinders the economic activity of a city, as travellers could miss appointments or be late for work or important meetings. Similarly, for shippers, unexpected delays may disrupt just-in-time delivery and manufacturing processes, which could lose them payment. Consequently, research on non-recurrent congestion detection on urban road networks has recently gained attention. By analysing large amounts of traffic data collected on a daily basis, traffic operation centres can improve their methods to detect non-recurrent congestion rapidly and then revise their existing plans to mitigate its effects. Space-time clusters of high link journey time estimates correspond to non-recurrent congestion events. Existing research, however, has not considered the effect of travel demand on the effectiveness of non-recurrent congestion detection methods. Therefore, this paper investigates how travel demand affects detection of non-recurrent traffic congestion detection on urban road networks. Travel demand has been classified into three categories as low, normal and high. The experiments are carried out on London’s urban road network, and the results demonstrate the necessity to adjust the relative importance of the component evaluation criteria depending on the travel demand level.

  16. Transit Traffic Analysis Zone Delineating Method Based on Thiessen Polygon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuwei Wang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A green transportation system composed of transit, busses and bicycles could be a significant in alleviating traffic congestion. However, the inaccuracy of current transit ridership forecasting methods is imposing a negative impact on the development of urban transit systems. Traffic Analysis Zone (TAZ delineating is a fundamental and essential step in ridership forecasting, existing delineating method in four-step models have some problems in reflecting the travel characteristics of urban transit. This paper aims to come up with a Transit Traffic Analysis Zone delineation method as supplement of traditional TAZs in transit service analysis. The deficiencies of current TAZ delineating methods were analyzed, and the requirements of Transit Traffic Analysis Zone (TTAZ were summarized. Considering these requirements, Thiessen Polygon was introduced into TTAZ delineating. In order to validate its feasibility, Beijing was then taken as an example to delineate TTAZs, followed by a spatial analysis of office buildings within a TTAZ and transit station departure passengers. Analysis result shows that the TTAZs based on Thiessen polygon could reflect the transit travel characteristic and is of in-depth research value.

  17. Modeling the heterogeneous traffic correlations in urban road systems using traffic-enhanced community detection approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Feng; Liu, Kang; Duan, Yingying; Cheng, Shifen; Du, Fei

    2018-07-01

    A better characterization of the traffic influence among urban roads is crucial for traffic control and traffic forecasting. The existence of spatial heterogeneity imposes great influence on modeling the extent and degree of road traffic correlation, which is usually neglected by the traditional distance based method. In this paper, we propose a traffic-enhanced community detection approach to spatially reveal the traffic correlation in city road networks. First, the road network is modeled as a traffic-enhanced dual graph with the closeness between two road segments determined not only by their topological connection, but also by the traffic correlation between them. Then a flow-based community detection algorithm called Infomap is utilized to identify the road segment clusters. Evaluated by Moran's I, Calinski-Harabaz Index and the traffic interpolation application, we find that compared to the distance based method and the community based method, our proposed traffic-enhanced community based method behaves better in capturing the extent of traffic relevance as both the topological structure of the road network and the traffic correlations among urban roads are considered. It can be used in more traffic-related applications, such as traffic forecasting, traffic control and guidance.

  18. Traffic routing for multicomputer networks with virtual cut-through capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandlur, Dilip D.; Shin, Kang G.

    1992-01-01

    Consideration is given to the problem of selecting routes for interprocess communication in a network with virtual cut-through capability, while balancing the network load and minimizing the number of times that a message gets buffered. An approach is proposed that formulates the route selection problem as a minimization problem with a link cost function that depends upon the traffic through the link. The form of this cost function is derived using the probability of establishing a virtual cut-through route. The route selection problem is shown to be NP-hard, and an algorithm is developed to incrementally reduce the cost by rerouting the traffic. The performance of this algorithm is exemplified by two network topologies: the hypercube and the C-wrapped hexagonal mesh.

  19. A Bio-Inspired Approach to Traffic Network Equilibrium Assignment Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoge; Mahadevan, Sankaran

    2018-04-01

    Finding an equilibrium state of the traffic assignment plays a significant role in the design of transportation networks. We adapt the path finding mathematical model of slime mold Physarum polycephalum to solve the traffic equilibrium assignment problem. We make three contributions in this paper. First, we propose a generalized Physarum model to solve the shortest path problem in directed and asymmetric graphs. Second, we extend it further to resolve the network design problem with multiple source nodes and sink nodes. At last, we demonstrate that the Physarum solver converges to the user-optimized (Wardrop) equilibrium by dynamically updating the costs of links in the network. In addition, convergence of the developed algorithm is proved. Numerical examples are used to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed algorithm. The superiority of the proposed algorithm is demonstrated in comparison with several other algorithms, including the Frank-Wolfe algorithm, conjugate Frank-Wolfe algorithm, biconjugate Frank-Wolfe algorithm, and gradient projection algorithm.

  20. Anticipation of Traffic Demands to Guarantee QoS in IP/Optical Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Pinart

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Traffic in the Internet backbone is expected to grow above a few Tbit/s in 2020. To cope with this, operators are moving to IP/optical network architectures, where IP is the convergence layer for all services. On the other hand, the quality of service (QoS requirements of future applications encompasses the individualization of services and the assurance of stricter quality parameters such as latency, jitter or capacity. In other words, future optical networks will not only transport more IP data, but they will also have to offer differentiated QoS requirements to services. Finally, some emerging applications, e.g., grid computing, need greater flexibility in the usage of network resources, which involves establishing and releasing connections as if they were virtualized resources controlled by other elements or layers. In this context, traffic-driven lightpath provisioning and service-plane approaches arise as very interesting candidate solutions to solve the main challenges described above. This work reviews the concepts of service-oriented and self-managed networks and relates them to propose an integrated approach to assure QoS by offering flow-aware networking in the sense that traffic demands will be anticipated in a suitable way, lightpaths will be established taking into account QoS information (i.e., impairments and complex services will be decomposed into optical connections so that the above techniques can be employed to assure QoS for any service.

  1. Automatic Railway Traffic Object Detection System Using Feature Fusion Refine Neural Network under Shunting Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Ye

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Many accidents happen under shunting mode when the speed of a train is below 45 km/h. In this mode, train attendants observe the railway condition ahead using the traditional manual method and tell the observation results to the driver in order to avoid danger. To address this problem, an automatic object detection system based on convolutional neural network (CNN is proposed to detect objects ahead in shunting mode, which is called Feature Fusion Refine neural network (FR-Net. It consists of three connected modules, i.e., the depthwise-pointwise convolution, the coarse detection module, and the object detection module. Depth-wise-pointwise convolutions are used to improve the detection in real time. The coarse detection module coarsely refine the locations and sizes of prior anchors to provide better initialization for the subsequent module and also reduces search space for the classification, whereas the object detection module aims to regress accurate object locations and predict the class labels for the prior anchors. The experimental results on the railway traffic dataset show that FR-Net achieves 0.8953 mAP with 72.3 FPS performance on a machine with a GeForce GTX1080Ti with the input size of 320 × 320 pixels. The results imply that FR-Net takes a good tradeoff both on effectiveness and real time performance. The proposed method can meet the needs of practical application in shunting mode.

  2. Joint Content Placement and Traffic Management for Cloud Mobile Video Distribution over Software-Defined Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhenghuan Zhang; Xiaofeng Jiang; Hongsheng Xi

    2016-01-01

    To cope with the rapid growth of mobile video,video providers have leveraged cloud technologies to deploy their mobile video service system for more cost-effective and scalable performance.The emergence of Software-Defined Networking (SDN) provides a promising solution to manage the underlying network.In this paper,we introduce an SDN-enabled cloud mobile video distribution architecture and propose a joint video placement,request dispatching and traffic management mechanism to improve user experience and reduce the system operational cost.We use a utility function to capture the two aspects of user experience:the level of satisfaction and average latency,and formulate the joint optimization problem as a mixed integer programming problem.We develop an optimal algorithm based on dual decomposition and prove its optimality.We conduct simulations to evaluate the performance of our algorithm and the results show that our strategy can effectively cut down the total cost and guarantee user experience.

  3. Heterogeneous Cellular Networks with Spatio-Temporal Traffic: Delay Analysis and Scheduling

    OpenAIRE

    Zhong, Yi; Quek, Tony Q. S.; Ge, Xiaohu

    2016-01-01

    Emergence of new types of services has led to various traffic and diverse delay requirements in fifth generation (5G) wireless networks. Meeting diverse delay requirements is one of the most critical goals for the design of 5G wireless networks. Though the delay of point-to-point communications has been well investigated, the delay of multi-point to multi-point communications has not been thoroughly studied since it is a complicated function of all links in the network. In this work, we propo...

  4. Optimal Traffic Allocation for Multi-Stream Aggregation in Heterogeneous Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Popovska Avramova, Andrijana; Iversen, Villy Bæk

    2015-01-01

    nature of radio access networks are considered as important factors for performance improvement by multi-stream aggregation. Therefore, in our model, the networks are represented by different queueing systems in order to indicate networks with opposite quality of service provisioning, capacity and delay...... variations. Furthermore, services with different traffic characteristics in terms of quality of service requirements are considered. The simulation results show the advantages of our scheme with respect to efficient increase in data rate and delay performance compared to traditional schemes....

  5. Pattern Recognition and Classification of Fatal Traffic Accidents in Israel A Neural Network Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prato, Carlo Giacomo; Gitelman, Victoria; Bekhor, Shlomo

    2011-01-01

    on 1,793 fatal traffic accidents occurred during the period between 2003 and 2006 and applies Kohonen and feed-forward back-propagation neural networks with the objective of extracting from the data typical patterns and relevant factors. Kohonen neural networks reveal five compelling accident patterns....... Feed-forward back-propagation neural networks indicate that sociodemographic characteristics of drivers and victims, accident location, and period of the day are extremely relevant factors. Accident patterns suggest that countermeasures are necessary for identified problems concerning mainly vulnerable...

  6. A network traffic reduction method for cooperative positioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Das, Kallol; Wymeersch, Henk

    Cooperative positioning is suitable for applications where conventional positioning fails due to lack of connectivity with a sufficient number of reference nodes. In a dense network, as the number of cooperating devices increases, the number of packet exchanges also increases proportionally. This

  7. Best Practices Handbook: Traffic Engineering in Range Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Cisco ) .................................................................................................. 4-7 4.4.2 Vendor 2 (Brocade...by Cisco Systems for collecting OAM information. NetFlow functions similarly to sFlow, using packet sampling technology embedded in switches and...transport and entry to the network core. In the merchant market this function is typically designated by the following products:  Aggregation Switch

  8. Statistical Traffic Anomaly Detection in Time-Varying Communication Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    PLs can be generated using tad and (7). Otherwise, the network is periodic according to feature a, and a family of candidate PLs can be generated...using tad , t a p, and (8). In addition, in case that some prior knowledge of td and tp is available, the family of candidate PLs can include the PLs

  9. Statistical Traffic Anomaly Detection in Time Varying Communication Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    PLs can be generated using tad and (7). Otherwise, the network is periodic according to feature a, and a family of candidate PLs can be generated...using tad , t a p, and (8). In addition, in case that some prior knowledge of td and tp is available, the family of candidate PLs can include the PLs

  10. A latency analysis for M2M and OG-like traffic patterns in different HSPA core network configurations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Popović

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present an analysis intended to reveal possible impacts of core network features on latency for modelled M2M and Online Gaming traffic. Simulations were performed in a live 3G/HSPA network. Test traffic simulating multiplayer real-time games and M2M applications was generated on 10 mobile phones in parallel, sending data to a remote server. APNs with different combinations of hardware and features (proxy server, different GGSNs and firewalls, usage of Service Awareness feature were chosen. The traffic was recorded on the Gn interface in the mobile core. The goal of experiments was to evaluate any eventually significant variation of average recorded RTTs in the core part of mobile network that would clearly indicate either the impact of used APN on delay for a specific traffic pattern, or selectivity of the APN towards different traffic patterns.

  11. Time-based collision risk modeling for air traffic management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Alan E.

    Since the emergence of commercial aviation in the early part of last century, economic forces have driven a steadily increasing demand for air transportation. Increasing density of aircraft operating in a finite volume of airspace is accompanied by a corresponding increase in the risk of collision, and in response to a growing number of incidents and accidents involving collisions between aircraft, governments worldwide have developed air traffic control systems and procedures to mitigate this risk. The objective of any collision risk management system is to project conflicts and provide operators with sufficient opportunity to recognize potential collisions and take necessary actions to avoid them. It is therefore the assertion of this research that the currency of collision risk management is time. Future Air Traffic Management Systems are being designed around the foundational principle of four dimensional trajectory based operations, a method that replaces legacy first-come, first-served sequencing priorities with time-based reservations throughout the airspace system. This research will demonstrate that if aircraft are to be sequenced in four dimensions, they must also be separated in four dimensions. In order to separate aircraft in four dimensions, time must emerge as the primary tool by which air traffic is managed. A functional relationship exists between the time-based performance of aircraft, the interval between aircraft scheduled to cross some three dimensional point in space, and the risk of collision. This research models that relationship and presents two key findings. First, a method is developed by which the ability of an aircraft to meet a required time of arrival may be expressed as a robust standard for both industry and operations. Second, a method by which airspace system capacity may be increased while maintaining an acceptable level of collision risk is presented and demonstrated for the purpose of formulating recommendations for procedures

  12. Adaptive traffic signal control with actor-critic methods in a real-world traffic network with different traffic disruption events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aslani, Mohammad; Mesgari, Mohammad Saadi; Wiering, Marco

    2017-01-01

    The transportation demand is rapidly growing in metropolises, resulting in chronic traffic con-gestions in dense downtown areas. Adaptive traffic signal control as the principle part of in-telligent transportation systems has a primary role to effectively reduce traffic congestion by making a

  13. Network-Based Effectiveness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Friman, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    ... (extended from Leavitt, 1965). This text identifies aspects of network-based effectiveness that can benefit from a better understanding of leadership and management development of people, procedures, technology, and organizations...

  14. Influence of Intra-cell Traffic on the Output Power of Base Station in GSM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mileusnic

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we analyze the influence of intracell traffic in a GSM cell on the base station output power. It is proved that intracell traffic increases this power. If offered traffic is small, the increase of output power is equal to the part of intracell traffic. When the offered traffic and, as the result, call loss increase, the increase of output power becomes less. The results of calculation are verified by the computer simulation of traffic process in the GSM cell. The calculation and the simulation consider the uniform distribution of mobile users in the cell, but the conclusions are of a general nature.

  15. Multiagent Based Information Dissemination in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.S. Manvi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Vehicular Ad hoc Networks (VANETs are a compelling application of ad hoc networks, because of the potential to access specific context information (e.g. traffic conditions, service updates, route planning and deliver multimedia services (Voice over IP, in-car entertainment, instant messaging, etc.. This paper proposes an agent based information dissemination model for VANETs. A two-tier agent architecture is employed comprising of the following: 1 'lightweight', network-facing, mobile agents; 2 'heavyweight', application-facing, norm-aware agents. The limitations of VANETs lead us to consider a hybrid wireless network architecture that includes Wireless LAN/Cellular and ad hoc networking for analyzing the proposed model. The proposed model provides flexibility, adaptability and maintainability for traffic information dissemination in VANETs as well as supports robust and agile network management. The proposed model has been simulated in various network scenarios to evaluate the effectiveness of the approach.

  16. Road Network Vulnerability Analysis Based on Improved Ant Colony Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunpeng Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an improved ant colony algorithm-based approach to assess the vulnerability of a road network and identify the critical infrastructures. This approach improves computational efficiency and allows for its applications in large-scale road networks. This research involves defining the vulnerability conception, modeling the traffic utility index and the vulnerability of the road network, and identifying the critical infrastructures of the road network. We apply the approach to a simple test road network and a real road network to verify the methodology. The results show that vulnerability is directly related to traffic demand and increases significantly when the demand approaches capacity. The proposed approach reduces the computational burden and may be applied in large-scale road network analysis. It can be used as a decision-supporting tool for identifying critical infrastructures in transportation planning and management.

  17. Strategic Air Traffic Planning Using Eulerian Route Based Modeling and Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bombelli, Alessandro

    Due to a soaring air travel growth in the last decades, air traffic management has become increasingly challenging. As a consequence, planning tools are being devised to help human decision-makers achieve a better management of air traffic. Planning tools are divided into two categories, strategic and tactical. Strategic planning generally addresses a larger planning domain and is performed days to hours in advance. Tactical planning is more localized and is performed hours to minutes in advance. An aggregate route model for strategic air traffic flow management is presented. It is an Eulerian model, describing the flow between cells of unidirectional point-to-point routes. Aggregate routes are created from flight trajectory data based on similarity measures. Spatial similarity is determined using the Frechet distance. The aggregate routes approximate actual well-traveled traffic patterns. By specifying the model resolution, an appropriate balance between model accuracy and model dimension can be achieved. For a particular planning horizon, during which weather is expected to restrict the flow, a procedure for designing airborne reroutes and augmenting the traffic flow model is developed. The dynamics of the traffic flow on the resulting network take the form of a discrete-time, linear time-invariant system. The traffic flow controls are ground holding, pre-departure rerouting and airborne rerouting. Strategic planning--determining how the controls should be used to modify the future traffic flow when local capacity violations are anticipated--is posed as an integer programming problem of minimizing a weighted sum of flight delays subject to control and capacity constraints. Several tests indicate the effectiveness of the modeling and strategic planning approach. In the final, most challenging, test, strategic planning is demonstrated for the six western-most Centers of the 22-Center national airspace. The planning time horizon is four hours long, and there is

  18. Traffic Dimensioning and Performance Modeling of 4G LTE Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Ye

    2011-01-01

    Rapid changes in mobile techniques have always been evolutionary, and the deployment of 4G Long Term Evolution (LTE) networks will be the same. It will be another transition from Third Generation (3G) to Fourth Generation (4G) over a period of several years, as is the case still with the transition from Second Generation (2G) to 3G. As a result,…

  19. Road traffic noise prediction model for heterogeneous traffic based on ASJ-RTN Model 2008 with consideration of horn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hustim, M.; Arifin, Z.; Aly, S. H.; Ramli, M. I.; Zakaria, R.; Liputo, A.

    2018-04-01

    This research aimed to predict the noise produced by the traffic in the road network in Makassar City using ASJ-RTN Model 2008 by calculating the horn sound. Observations were taken at 37 survey points on road side. The observations were conducted at 06.00 - 18.00 and 06.00 - 21.00 which research objects were motorcycle (MC), light vehicle (LV) and heavy vehicle (HV). The observed data were traffic volume, vehicle speed, number of horn and traffic noise using Sound Level Meter Tenmars TM-103. The research result indicates that prediction noise model by calculating the horn sound produces the average noise level value of 78.5 dB having the Pearson’s correlation and RMSE of 0.95 and 0.87. Therefore, ASJ-RTN Model 2008 prediction model by calculating the horn sound is said to be sufficiently good for predicting noise level.

  20. Android-based E-Traffic law enforcement system in Surakarta City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yulianto, Budi; Setiono

    2018-03-01

    The urban advancement is always overpowered by the increasing number of vehicles as the need for movement of people and goods. This can lead to traffic problems if there is no effort on the implementation of traffic management and engineering, and traffic law enforcement. In this case, the Government of Surakarta City has implemented various policies and regulations related to traffic management and engineering in order to run traffic in an orderly, safe and comfortable manner according to the applicable law. However, conditions in the field shows that traffic violations still occurred frequently due to the weakness of traffic law enforcement in terms of human resources and the system. In this connection, a tool is needed to support traffic law enforcement, especially in relation to the reporting system of traffic violations. This study aims to develop an Android-based traffic violations reporting application (E-Traffic Law Enforcement) as part of the traffic law enforcement system in Surakarta City. The Android-apps records the location and time of the traffic violations incident along with the visual evidence of the infringement. This information will be connected to the database system to detect offenders and to do the traffic law enforcement process.

  1. Integration of a network aware traffic generation device into a computer network emulation platform

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Von Solms, S

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Flexible, open source network emulation tools can provide network researchers with significant benefits regarding network behaviour and performance. The evaluation of these networks can benefit greatly from the integration of realistic, network...

  2. Improved GIS-based Methods for Traffic Noise Impact Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Otto Anker; Bloch, Karsten Sand

    1996-01-01

    When vector-based GIS-packages are used for traffic noise impact assessments, the buffer-technique is usually employed for the study: 1. For each road segment buffer-zones representing different noise-intervals are generated, 2. The buffers from all road segments are smoothed together, and 3....... The number of buildings within the buffers are enumerated. This technique provides an inaccurate assessment of the noise diffusion since it does not correct for buildings barrier and reflection to noise. The paper presents the results from a research project where the traditional noise buffer technique...... was compared with a new method which includes these corrections. Both methods follow the Common Nordic Noise Calculation Model, although the traditional buffer technique ignores parts of the model. The basis for the work was a digital map of roads and building polygons, combined with a traffic- and road...

  3. Study on the Reduced Traffic Congestion Method Based on Dynamic Guidance Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shu-Bin; Wang, Guang-Min; Wang, Tao; Ren, Hua-Ling; Zhang, Lin

    2018-05-01

    This paper studies how to generate the reasonable information of travelers’ decision in real network. This problem is very complex because the travelers’ decision is constrained by different human behavior. The network conditions can be predicted by using the advanced dynamic OD (Origin-Destination, OD) estimation techniques. Based on the improved mesoscopic traffic model, the predictable dynamic traffic guidance information can be obtained accurately. A consistency algorithm is designed to investigate the travelers’ decision by simulating the dynamic response to guidance information. The simulation results show that the proposed method can provide the best guidance information. Further, a case study is conducted to verify the theoretical results and to draw managerial insights into the potential of dynamic guidance strategy in improving traffic performance. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. 71471104, 71771019, 71571109, and 71471167; The University Science and Technology Program Funding Projects of Shandong Province under Grant No. J17KA211; The Project of Public Security Department of Shandong Province under Grant No. GATHT2015-236; The Major Social and Livelihood Special Project of Jinan under Grant No. 20150905

  4. Resilient Disaster Network Based on Software Defined Cognitive Wireless Network Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goshi Sato

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to temporally recover the information network infrastructure in disaster areas from the Great East Japan Earthquake in 2011, various wireless network technologies such as satellite IP network, 3G, and Wi-Fi were effectively used. However, since those wireless networks are individually introduced and installed but not totally integrated, some of networks were congested due to the sudden network traffic generation and unbalanced traffic distribution, and eventually the total network could not effectively function. In this paper, we propose a disaster resilient network which integrates various wireless networks into a cognitive wireless network that users can use as an access network to the Internet at the serious disaster occurrence. We designed and developed the disaster resilient network based on software defined network (SDN technology to automatically select the best network link and route among the possible access networks to the Internet by periodically monitoring their network states and evaluate those using extended AHP method. In order to verify the usefulness of our proposed system, a prototype system is constructed and its performance is evaluated.

  5. Trafficability Analysis at Traffic Crossing and Parameters Optimization Based on Particle Swarm Optimization Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin He

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In city traffic, it is important to improve transportation efficiency and the spacing of platoon should be shortened when crossing the street. The best method to deal with this problem is automatic control of vehicles. In this paper, a mathematical model is established for the platoon’s longitudinal movement. A systematic analysis of longitudinal control law is presented for the platoon of vehicles. However, the parameter calibration for the platoon model is relatively difficult because the platoon model is complex and the parameters are coupled with each other. In this paper, the particle swarm optimization method is introduced to effectively optimize the parameters of platoon. The proposed method effectively finds the optimal parameters based on simulations and makes the spacing of platoon shorter.

  6. Game theoretic analysis of congestion, safety and security networks, air traffic and emergency departments

    CERN Document Server

    Zhuang, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Maximizing reader insights into the roles of intelligent agents in networks, air traffic and emergency departments, this volume focuses on congestion in systems where safety and security are at stake, devoting special attention to applying game theoretic analysis of congestion to: protocols in wired and wireless networks; power generation, air transportation and emergency department overcrowding. Reviewing exhaustively the key recent research into the interactions between game theory, excessive crowding, and safety and security elements, this book establishes a new research angle by illustrating linkages between the different research approaches and serves to lay the foundations for subsequent analysis. Congestion (excessive crowding) is defined in this work as all kinds of flows; e.g., road/sea/air traffic, people, data, information, water, electricity, and organisms. Analyzing systems where congestion occurs – which may be in parallel, series, interlinked, or interdependent, with flows one way or both way...

  7. Traffic Management for Emergency Vehicle Priority Based on Visual Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapileswar Nellore

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Vehicular traffic is endlessly increasing everywhere in the world and can cause terrible traffic congestion at intersections. Most of the traffic lights today feature a fixed green light sequence, therefore the green light sequence is determined without taking the presence of the emergency vehicles into account. Therefore, emergency vehicles such as ambulances, police cars, fire engines, etc. stuck in a traffic jam and delayed in reaching their destination can lead to loss of property and valuable lives. This paper presents an approach to schedule emergency vehicles in traffic. The approach combines the measurement of the distance between the emergency vehicle and an intersection using visual sensing methods, vehicle counting and time sensitive alert transmission within the sensor network. The distance between the emergency vehicle and the intersection is calculated for comparison using Euclidean distance, Manhattan distance and Canberra distance techniques. The experimental results have shown that the Euclidean distance outperforms other distance measurement techniques. Along with visual sensing techniques to collect emergency vehicle information, it is very important to have a Medium Access Control (MAC protocol to deliver the emergency vehicle information to the Traffic Management Center (TMC with less delay. Then only the emergency vehicle is quickly served and can reach the destination in time. In this paper, we have also investigated the MAC layer in WSNs to prioritize the emergency vehicle data and to reduce the transmission delay for emergency messages. We have modified the medium access procedure used in standard IEEE 802.11p with PE-MAC protocol, which is a new back off selection and contention window adjustment scheme to achieve low broadcast delay for emergency messages. A VANET model for the UTMS is developed and simulated in NS-2. The performance of the standard IEEE 802.11p and the proposed PE-MAC is analysed in detail. The NS-2

  8. Traffic Management for Emergency Vehicle Priority Based on Visual Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nellore, Kapileswar; Hancke, Gerhard P

    2016-11-10

    Vehicular traffic is endlessly increasing everywhere in the world and can cause terrible traffic congestion at intersections. Most of the traffic lights today feature a fixed green light sequence, therefore the green light sequence is determined without taking the presence of the emergency vehicles into account. Therefore, emergency vehicles such as ambulances, police cars, fire engines, etc. stuck in a traffic jam and delayed in reaching their destination can lead to loss of property and valuable lives. This paper presents an approach to schedule emergency vehicles in traffic. The approach combines the measurement of the distance between the emergency vehicle and an intersection using visual sensing methods, vehicle counting and time sensitive alert transmission within the sensor network. The distance between the emergency vehicle and the intersection is calculated for comparison using Euclidean distance, Manhattan distance and Canberra distance techniques. The experimental results have shown that the Euclidean distance outperforms other distance measurement techniques. Along with visual sensing techniques to collect emergency vehicle information, it is very important to have a Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol to deliver the emergency vehicle information to the Traffic Management Center (TMC) with less delay. Then only the emergency vehicle is quickly served and can reach the destination in time. In this paper, we have also investigated the MAC layer in WSNs to prioritize the emergency vehicle data and to reduce the transmission delay for emergency messages. We have modified the medium access procedure used in standard IEEE 802.11p with PE-MAC protocol, which is a new back off selection and contention window adjustment scheme to achieve low broadcast delay for emergency messages. A VANET model for the UTMS is developed and simulated in NS-2. The performance of the standard IEEE 802.11p and the proposed PE-MAC is analysed in detail. The NS-2 simulation results

  9. Smart Collection and Storage Method for Network Traffic Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    to the root of an incident or under- stand what goes on in a network may mean looking at data from weeks, months, or even years ago, as has been the...KB 1.01% 69.42 TB 694.20 TB 6,941.99 TB SuSE 6.3 .pcap 51,706 KB 1.01% 104.03 TB 1,040.27 TB 10,402.68 TB HP-UX nettl .trc0 53,391 KB 1.04% 451.13

  10. Property relationships of the physical infrastructure and the traffic flow networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ta; Zou, Sheng-Rong; He, Da-Ren

    2010-03-01

    We studied both empirically and analytically the correlation between the degrees or the clustering coefficients, respectively, of the networks in the physical infrastructure and the traffic flow layers in three Chinese transportation systems. The systems are bus transportation systems in Beijing and Hangzhou, and the railway system in the mainland. It is found that the correlation between the degrees obey a linear function; while the correlation between the clustering coefficients obey a power law. A possible dynamic explanation on the rules is presented.

  11. Monitor Network Traffic with Packet Capture (pcap) on an Android Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    administrative privileges . Under the current design Android development requirement, an Android Graphical User Interface (GUI) application cannot directly...build an Android application to monitor network traffic using open source packet capture (pcap) libraries. 15. SUBJECT TERMS ELIDe, Android , pcap 16...Building Application with Native Codes 5 8.1 Calling Native Codes Using JNI 5 8.2 Calling Native Codes from an Android Application 8 9. Retrieve Live

  12. Testing Application (End-to-End Performance of Networks With EFT Traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlatko Lipovac

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies how end-to-end application peiformance(of Electronic Financial Transaction traffic, in particulardepends on the actual protocol stacks, operating systemsand network transmission rates. With this respect, the respectivesimulation tests of peiformance of TCP and UDP protocolsrunning on various operating systems, ranging from Windows,Sun Solmis, to Linux have been implemented, and thedifferences in peiformance addressed focusing on throughputand response time.

  13. Value of Information for Optimal Adaptive Routing in Stochastic Time-Dependent Traffic Networks: Algorithms and Computational Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-25

    Real-time information is important for travelers' routing decisions in uncertain networks by enabling online adaptation to revealed traffic conditions. Usually there are spatial and/or temporal limitations in traveler information. In this research, a...

  14. GIS-based methods for establishing the datafoundation for traffic models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Otto Anker

    1997-01-01

    Traffic models demand large amounts of data - some of which are: Traffic network topology, traffic network data, zone-data and trip matrices. GIS is a natural tool for handling most of these data as it can ease the work process and improve the quality control. However, traffic models demand a com......-plex topology not very well covered by the traditional GIS-topology. The paper describes a number of applications where ARC/INFO and ArcView have been used to automate the process of building a traffic network topology. The methodology has been used on a number of full-scale models, from medium sized urban...... areas to metropolitan areas (Copenhagen, Denmark and Bandung, Indonesia). The paper covers key subjects in the work process which has been eased considerably by using AML and Avenue scripts or by using the information from ARC/INFO in external applications:· Semi-automatic procedures for attaching zones...

  15. SmartCop: Enabling Smart Traffic Violations Ticketing in Vehicular Named Data Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Hassan Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, various applications for Vehicular Ad hoc Networks (VANETs have been proposed and smart traffic violation ticketing is one of them. On the other hand, the new Information-Centric Networking (ICN architectures have emerged and been investigated into VANETs, such as Vehicular Named Data Networking (VNDN. However, the existing applications in VANETs are not suitable for VNDN paradigm due to the dependency on a “named content” instead of a current “host-centric” approach. Thus, we need to design the emerging and new architectures for VNDN applications. In this paper, we propose a smart traffic violation ticketing (TVT system for VNDN, named as SmartCop, that enables a cop vehicle (CV to issue tickets for traffic violation(s to the offender(s autonomously, once they are in the transmission range of that CV. The ticket issuing delay, messaging cost, and percentage of violations detected for varying number of vehicles, violators, CVs, and vehicles speeds are estimated through simulations. In addition, we provide a road map of future research directions for enabling safe driving experience in future cars aided with VNDN technology.

  16. Green provisioning of the traffic partition grooming in robust, reconfigurable and heterogeneous optical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Weigang; Yu, Yao; Song, Qingyang; Gong, Xiaoxue

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, various high-speed network architectures have been widespread deployed. Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing (DWDM) has gained favor as a terabit solution. The optical circuit switching has also been provided for "sub-rate" aggregation. Such that, the granular types of demands tend to be diverse and must be evaluated. However, current dedicated optical networks do not offer sufficient flexibility to satisfy the requirements of demands with such wide range of granularities. The traffic grooming becomes a power-efficient one only when it does not utilize the aggregation of Coarse-Granularity (CG) demands. The waveband switching merely provides port-cost-effective connections for CG demands regardless of fine-granularity ones. Consequently, in this paper, we devise a heterogeneous grooming method called traffic partition grooming. It combines the power efficiency advantage of the traffic grooming under fine-granularity environment and the port savings advantage of the waveband switching under coarse-granularity environment to provide green provisioning. In addition, the optical virtual topology self-reconfigures along with various optimization objectives variation and has the robustness to determine the pre-unknown information. This paper is also the first work on investigating the issue of Robust, Reconfigurable and Heterogeneous Optical Networking (R2HON). The effective green provisioning and OPEX savings of our R2HON have been demonstrated by numerical simulations.

  17. Analysis on the Correlation of Traffic Flow in Hainan Province Based on Baidu Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Caixia; Shi, Chun

    2018-03-01

    Internet search data records user’s search attention and consumer demand, providing necessary database for the Hainan traffic flow model. Based on Baidu Index, with Hainan traffic flow as example, this paper conduct both qualitative and quantitative analysis on the relationship between search keyword from Baidu Index and actual Hainan tourist traffic flow, and build multiple regression model by SPSS.

  18. A cellular automata model for traffic flow based on kinetics theory, vehicles capabilities and driver reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán, H. A.; Lárraga, M. E.; Alvarez-Icaza, L.; Carvajal, J.

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, a reliable cellular automata model oriented to faithfully reproduce deceleration and acceleration according to realistic reactions of drivers, when vehicles with different deceleration capabilities are considered is presented. The model focuses on describing complex traffic phenomena by coding in its rules the basic mechanisms of drivers behavior, vehicles capabilities and kinetics, while preserving simplicity. In particular, vehiclés kinetics is based on uniform accelerated motion, rather than in impulsive accelerated motion as in most existing CA models. Thus, the proposed model calculates in an analytic way three safe preserving distances to determine the best action a follower vehicle can take under a worst case scenario. Besides, the prediction analysis guarantees that under the proper assumptions, collision between vehicles may not happen at any future time. Simulations results indicate that all interactions of heterogeneous vehicles (i.e., car-truck, truck-car, car-car and truck-truck) are properly reproduced by the model. In addition, the model overcomes one of the major limitations of CA models for traffic modeling: the inability to perform smooth approach to slower or stopped vehicles. Moreover, the model is also capable of reproducing most empirical findings including the backward speed of the downstream front of the traffic jam, and different congested traffic patterns induced by a system with open boundary conditions with an on-ramp. Like most CA models, integer values are used to make the model run faster, which makes the proposed model suitable for real time traffic simulation of large networks.

  19. Information Technology Systems Vulnerabilities Detecting based on Network’s Traffic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Anatolevich Melnikov

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes traffic analysis procedure that is very effective and sometimes single countermeasure on counteracting of network attacks and information leakage channels (hidden control channels. Traffic analysis envisages certain measures to control the security of the Russian Federation information technology infrastructure and, most importantly, to establish the reasons of the occurred and predictable computer incidents.

  20. A QoS Framework with Traffic Request in Wireless Mesh Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Bo; Huang, Hejiao

    In this paper, we consider major issues in ensuring greater Quality-of-Service (QoS) in Wireless Mesh Networks (WMNs), specifically with regard to reliability and delay. To this end, we use traffic request to record QoS requirements of data flows. In order to achieve required QoS for all data flows efficiently and with high portability, we develop Network State Update Algorithm. All assumptions, definitions, and algorithms are made exclusively with WMNs in mind, guaranteeing the portability of our framework to various environments in WMNs. The simulation results in proof that our framework is correct.

  1. Models for discrete-time self-similar vector processes with application to network traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seungsin; Rao, Raghuveer M.; Narasimha, Rajesh

    2003-07-01

    The paper defines self-similarity for vector processes by employing the discrete-time continuous-dilation operation which has successfully been used previously by the authors to define 1-D discrete-time stochastic self-similar processes. To define self-similarity of vector processes, it is required to consider the cross-correlation functions between different 1-D processes as well as the autocorrelation function of each constituent 1-D process in it. System models to synthesize self-similar vector processes are constructed based on the definition. With these systems, it is possible to generate self-similar vector processes from white noise inputs. An important aspect of the proposed models is that they can be used to synthesize various types of self-similar vector processes by choosing proper parameters. Additionally, the paper presents evidence of vector self-similarity in two-channel wireless LAN data and applies the aforementioned systems to simulate the corresponding network traffic traces.

  2. The Detection of Emerging Trends Using Wikipedia Traffic Data and Context Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kämpf, Mirko; Tessenow, Eric; Kenett, Dror Y.; Kantelhardt, Jan W.

    2015-01-01

    Can online media predict new and emerging trends, since there is a relationship between trends in society and their representation in online systems? While several recent studies have used Google Trends as the leading online information source to answer corresponding research questions, we focus on the online encyclopedia Wikipedia often used for deeper topical reading. Wikipedia grants open access to all traffic data and provides lots of additional (semantic) information in a context network besides single keywords. Specifically, we suggest and study context-normalized and time-dependent measures for a topic’s importance based on page-view time series of Wikipedia articles in different languages and articles related to them by internal links. As an example, we present a study of the recently emerging Big Data market with a focus on the Hadoop ecosystem, and compare the capabilities of Wikipedia versus Google in predicting its popularity and life cycles. To support further applications, we have developed an open web platform to share results of Wikipedia analytics, providing context-rich and language-independent relevance measures for emerging trends. PMID:26720074

  3. Evaluating the Influence of Road Lighting on Traffic Safety at Accesses Using An Artificial Neural Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yueru; Ye, Zhirui; Wang, Yuan; Wang, Chao; Sun, Cuicui

    2018-05-18

    This paper focuses on the effect of road lighting on road safety at accesses and tries to quantitatively analyze the relationship between road lighting and road safety. An Artificial Neural Network (ANN) was applied in this study. This method is one of the most popular machine-learning methods in recent years and does not require any pre-defined assumptions. This method was applied using field data collected from ten road segments in Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, China. The results show that the impact of road lighting on road safety at accesses is significant. In addition, road lighting has greater influence when vehicle speeds are higher or the number of lanes is larger. A threshold illuminance was also found in this paper, and the results show that the safety level at accesses will become stable when reaching this value. The improvement of illuminance can decrease the speed variation among vehicles and improve the safety level. In addition, high-grade roads need better illuminance at accesses. A threshold value can also be obtained based on related variables and used to develop scientific guidelines for traffic management organizations.

  4. The Detection of Emerging Trends Using Wikipedia Traffic Data and Context Networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirko Kämpf

    Full Text Available Can online media predict new and emerging trends, since there is a relationship between trends in society and their representation in online systems? While several recent studies have used Google Trends as the leading online information source to answer corresponding research questions, we focus on the online encyclopedia Wikipedia often used for deeper topical reading. Wikipedia grants open access to all traffic data and provides lots of additional (semantic information in a context network besides single keywords. Specifically, we suggest and study context-normalized and time-dependent measures for a topic's importance based on page-view time series of Wikipedia articles in different languages and articles related to them by internal links. As an example, we present a study of the recently emerging Big Data market with a focus on the Hadoop ecosystem, and compare the capabilities of Wikipedia versus Google in predicting its popularity and life cycles. To support further applications, we have developed an open web platform to share results of Wikipedia analytics, providing context-rich and language-independent relevance measures for emerging trends.

  5. The Detection of Emerging Trends Using Wikipedia Traffic Data and Context Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kämpf, Mirko; Tessenow, Eric; Kenett, Dror Y; Kantelhardt, Jan W

    2015-01-01

    Can online media predict new and emerging trends, since there is a relationship between trends in society and their representation in online systems? While several recent studies have used Google Trends as the leading online information source to answer corresponding research questions, we focus on the online encyclopedia Wikipedia often used for deeper topical reading. Wikipedia grants open access to all traffic data and provides lots of additional (semantic) information in a context network besides single keywords. Specifically, we suggest and study context-normalized and time-dependent measures for a topic's importance based on page-view time series of Wikipedia articles in different languages and articles related to them by internal links. As an example, we present a study of the recently emerging Big Data market with a focus on the Hadoop ecosystem, and compare the capabilities of Wikipedia versus Google in predicting its popularity and life cycles. To support further applications, we have developed an open web platform to share results of Wikipedia analytics, providing context-rich and language-independent relevance measures for emerging trends.

  6. The Road Traffic Injuries Research Network: a decade of research capacity strengthening in low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyder, Adnan A; Norton, Robyn; Pérez-Núñez, Ricardo; Mojarro-Iñiguez, Francisco R; Peden, Margie; Kobusingye, Olive

    2016-02-27

    Road traffic crashes have been an increasing threat to the wellbeing of road users worldwide; an unacceptably high number of people die or become disabled from them. While high-income countries have successfully implemented effective interventions to help reduce the burden of road traffic injuries (RTIs) in their countries, low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) have not yet achieved similar results. Both scientific research and capacity development have proven to be useful for preventing RTIs in high-income countries. In 1999, a group of leading researchers from different countries decided to join efforts to help promote research on RTIs and develop the capacity of professionals from LMICs. This translated into the creation of the Road Traffic Injuries Research Network (RTIRN) - a partnership of over 1,100 road safety professionals from 114 countries collaborating to facilitate reductions in the burden of RTIs in LMICs by identifying and promoting effective, evidenced-based interventions and supporting research capacity building in road safety research in LMICs. This article presents the work that RTIRN has done over more than a decade, including production of a dozen scientific papers, support of nearly 100 researchers, training of nearly 1,000 people and 35 scholarships granted to researchers from LMICs to attend world conferences, as well as lessons learnt and future challenges to maximize its work.

  7. An Ad-Hoc Opportunistic Dissemination Protocol for Smartphone-based Participatory Traffic Monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Türkes, Okan; Seraj, Fatjon; Scholten, Johan; Meratnia, Nirvana; Havinga, Paul J.M.

    2015-01-01

    This study introduces an ad-hoc opportunistic data dissemination protocol, called VADISS, that facilitates participatory traffic monitoring applications with smartphones. As a ubiquitous alternative to existing vehicular networking methods, VADISS uses the default WiFi interfaces universally adopted

  8. Traffic Accident Propagation Properties and Control Measures for Urban Links Based on Cellular Automata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian-sheng Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of urban transport and the sharp increase in vehicle population, traffic accidents form one of the most important causes of urban traffic congestion other than the imbalance between traffic supply and demand. Traffic congestion causes severe problems, such as environment contamination and energy dissipation. Therefore, it would be useful to analyze the congestion propagation characteristics after traffic accidents. Numerical analysis and computer simulation were two of the typical methods used at present to study the traffic congestion propagation properties. The latter was more widespread as it is more consistent with the actual traffic flow and more visual than the former. In this paper, an improved cellular automata (CA model was presented to analyze traffic congestion propagation properties and to evaluate control strategies. In order to apply them to urban traffic flow simulation, the CA models have been improved and expanded on. Computer simulations were built for congestion not only extending to the upstream intersection, but also the upstream intersection and the entire road network, respectively. Congestion propagation characteristics after road traffic accidents were obtained, and controls of different severities and durations were analyzed. The results provide the theoretical foundation and practical means for the control of congestion.

  9. Deep Neural Network for Structural Prediction and Lane Detection in Traffic Scene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Mei, Xue; Prokhorov, Danil; Tao, Dacheng

    2017-03-01

    Hierarchical neural networks have been shown to be effective in learning representative image features and recognizing object classes. However, most existing networks combine the low/middle level cues for classification without accounting for any spatial structures. For applications such as understanding a scene, how the visual cues are spatially distributed in an image becomes essential for successful analysis. This paper extends the framework of deep neural networks by accounting for the structural cues in the visual signals. In particular, two kinds of neural networks have been proposed. First, we develop a multitask deep convolutional network, which simultaneously detects the presence of the target and the geometric attributes (location and orientation) of the target with respect to the region of interest. Second, a recurrent neuron layer is adopted for structured visual detection. The recurrent neurons can deal with the spatial distribution of visible cues belonging to an object whose shape or structure is difficult to explicitly define. Both the networks are demonstrated by the practical task of detecting lane boundaries in traffic scenes. The multitask convolutional neural network provides auxiliary geometric information to help the subsequent modeling of the given lane structures. The recurrent neural network automatically detects lane boundaries, including those areas containing no marks, without any explicit prior knowledge or secondary modeling.

  10. Early Obstacle Detection and Avoidance for All to All Traffic Pattern in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huc, Florian; Jarry, Aubin; Leone, Pierre; Moraru, Luminita; Nikoletseas, Sotiris; Rolim, Jose

    This paper deals with early obstacles recognition in wireless sensor networks under various traffic patterns. In the presence of obstacles, the efficiency of routing algorithms is increased by voluntarily avoiding some regions in the vicinity of obstacles, areas which we call dead-ends. In this paper, we first propose a fast convergent routing algorithm with proactive dead-end detection together with a formal definition and description of dead-ends. Secondly, we present a generalization of this algorithm which improves performances in all to many and all to all traffic patterns. In a third part we prove that this algorithm produces paths that are optimal up to a constant factor of 2π + 1. In a fourth part we consider the reactive version of the algorithm which is an extension of a previously known early obstacle detection algorithm. Finally we give experimental results to illustrate the efficiency of our algorithms in different scenarios.

  11. DECISION WITH ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS IN DISCRETE EVENT SIMULATION MODELS ON A TRAFFIC SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Gonçalves Dutra da Silva

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This work aims to demonstrate the use of a mechanism to be applied in the development of the discrete-event simulation models that perform decision operations through the implementation of an artificial neural network. Actions that involve complex operations performed by a human agent in a process, for example, are often modeled in simplified form with the usual mechanisms of simulation software. Therefore, it was chosen a traffic system controlled by a traffic officer with a flow of vehicles and pedestrians to demonstrate the proposed solution. From a module built in simulation software itself, it was possible to connect the algorithm for intelligent decision to the simulation model. The results showed that the model elaborated responded as expected when it was submitted to actions, which required different decisions to maintain the operation of the system with changes in the flow of people and vehicles.

  12. An efficient statistical-based approach for road traffic congestion monitoring

    KAUST Repository

    Abdelhafid, Zeroual

    2017-12-14

    In this paper, we propose an effective approach which has to detect traffic congestion. The detection strategy is based on the combinational use of piecewise switched linear traffic (PWSL) model with exponentially-weighted moving average (EWMA) chart. PWSL model describes traffic flow dynamics. Then, PWSL residuals are used as the input of EWMA chart to detect traffic congestions. The evaluation results of the developed approach using data from a portion of the I210-W highway in Califorina showed the efficiency of the PWSL-EWMA approach in in detecting traffic congestions.

  13. An efficient statistical-based approach for road traffic congestion monitoring

    KAUST Repository

    Abdelhafid, Zeroual; Harrou, Fouzi; Sun, Ying

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an effective approach which has to detect traffic congestion. The detection strategy is based on the combinational use of piecewise switched linear traffic (PWSL) model with exponentially-weighted moving average (EWMA) chart. PWSL model describes traffic flow dynamics. Then, PWSL residuals are used as the input of EWMA chart to detect traffic congestions. The evaluation results of the developed approach using data from a portion of the I210-W highway in Califorina showed the efficiency of the PWSL-EWMA approach in in detecting traffic congestions.

  14. Performance Evaluation of IEEE 802.11ah Networks With High-Throughput Bidirectional Traffic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šljivo, Amina; Kerkhove, Dwight; Tian, Le; Famaey, Jeroen; Munteanu, Adrian; Moerman, Ingrid; Hoebeke, Jeroen; De Poorter, Eli

    2018-01-23

    So far, existing sub-GHz wireless communication technologies focused on low-bandwidth, long-range communication with large numbers of constrained devices. Although these characteristics are fine for many Internet of Things (IoT) applications, more demanding application requirements could not be met and legacy Internet technologies such as Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) could not be used. This has changed with the advent of the new IEEE 802.11ah Wi-Fi standard, which is much more suitable for reliable bidirectional communication and high-throughput applications over a wide area (up to 1 km). The standard offers great possibilities for network performance optimization through a number of physical- and link-layer configurable features. However, given that the optimal configuration parameters depend on traffic patterns, the standard does not dictate how to determine them. Such a large number of configuration options can lead to sub-optimal or even incorrect configurations. Therefore, we investigated how two key mechanisms, Restricted Access Window (RAW) grouping and Traffic Indication Map (TIM) segmentation, influence scalability, throughput, latency and energy efficiency in the presence of bidirectional TCP/IP traffic. We considered both high-throughput video streaming traffic and large-scale reliable sensing traffic and investigated TCP behavior in both scenarios when the link layer introduces long delays. This article presents the relations between attainable throughput per station and attainable number of stations, as well as the influence of RAW, TIM and TCP parameters on both. We found that up to 20 continuously streaming IP-cameras can be reliably connected via IEEE 802.11ah with a maximum average data rate of 160 kbps, whereas 10 IP-cameras can achieve average data rates of up to 255 kbps over 200 m. Up to 6960 stations transmitting every 60 s can be connected over 1 km with no lost packets. The presented results enable the fine tuning

  15. Mathematical Models by Quality of Service Driven Routing in Networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gelenbe, E

    2005-01-01

    Very large networks with varying topologies, unreliable components, and highly time varying traffic, are not amenable to traditional techniques of analysis based on traffic engineering and simulations...

  16. Mathematical Models for Quality of Service Driven Routing in Networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gelenbe, E

    2005-01-01

    Very large networks with varying topologies, unreliable components, and highly time varying traffic, are not amenable to traditional techniques of analysis based on traffic engineering and simulations...

  17. Real-Time Corrected Traffic Correlation Model for Traffic Flow Forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua-pu Lu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the problems of short-term traffic flow forecasting. The main goal is to put forward traffic correlation model and real-time correction algorithm for traffic flow forecasting. Traffic correlation model is established based on the temporal-spatial-historical correlation characteristic of traffic big data. In order to simplify the traffic correlation model, this paper presents correction coefficients optimization algorithm. Considering multistate characteristic of traffic big data, a dynamic part is added to traffic correlation model. Real-time correction algorithm based on Fuzzy Neural Network is presented to overcome the nonlinear mapping problems. A case study based on a real-world road network in Beijing, China, is implemented to test the efficiency and applicability of the proposed modeling methods.

  18. Network-Aware DHT-Based P2P Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayçal, Marguerite; Serhrouchni, Ahmed

    P2P networks lay over existing IP networks and infrastructure. This chapter investigates the relation between both layers, details the motivations for network awareness in P2P systems, and elucidates the requirements P2P systems have to meet for efficient network awareness. Since new P2P systems are mostly based on DHTs, we also present and analyse DHT-based architectures. And after a brief presentation of different existing network-awareness solutions, the chapter goes on effective cooperation between P2P traffic and network providers' business agreements, and introduces emerging DHT-based P2P systems that are network aware through a semantic defined for resource sharing. These new systems ensure also a certain context-awareness. So, they are analyzed and compared before an open end on prospects of network awareness in P2P systems.

  19. A Network Traffic Generator Model for Fast Network-on-Chip Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahadevan, Shankar; Angiolini, Frederico; Storgaard, Michael

    2005-01-01

    For Systems-on-Chip (SoCs) development, a predominant part of the design time is the simulation time. Performance evaluation and design space exploration of such systems in bit- and cycle-true fashion is becoming prohibitive. We propose a traffic generation (TG) model that provides a fast...

  20. 77 FR 3544 - Meeting and Webinar on the Active Traffic and Demand Management and Intelligent Network Flow...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-24

    ... Intelligent Network Flow Optimization Operational Concepts; Notice of Public Meeting AGENCY: Research and... Demand Management (ADTM) and Intelligent Network Flow Optimization (INFLO) operational concepts. The ADTM... infrastructure. The vision for ATDM research is to allow transportation agencies to increase traffic flow...

  1. Combination Adaptive Traffic Algorithm and Coordinated Sleeping in Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Udin Harun Al Rasyid

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor network (WSN uses a battery as its primary power source, so that WSN will be limited to battery power for long operations. The WSN should be able to save the energy consumption in order to operate in a long time.WSN has the potential to be the future of wireless communications solutions. WSN are small but has a variety of functions that can help human life. WSN has the wide variety of sensors and can communicate quickly making it easier for people to obtain information accurately and quickly. In this study, we combine adaptive traffic algorithms and coordinated sleeping as power‐efficient WSN solution. We compared the performance of our proposed ideas combination adaptive traffic and coordinated sleeping algorithm with non‐adaptive scheme. From the simulation results, our proposed idea has good‐quality data transmission and more efficient in energy consumption, but it has higher delay than that of non‐adaptive scheme. Keywords:WSN,adaptive traffic,coordinated sleeping,beacon order,superframe order.

  2. Alternative method of highway traffic safety analysis for developing countries using delphi technique and Bayesian network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbakwe, Anthony C; Saka, Anthony A; Choi, Keechoo; Lee, Young-Jae

    2016-08-01

    Highway traffic accidents all over the world result in more than 1.3 million fatalities annually. An alarming number of these fatalities occurs in developing countries. There are many risk factors that are associated with frequent accidents, heavy loss of lives, and property damage in developing countries. Unfortunately, poor record keeping practices are very difficult obstacle to overcome in striving to obtain a near accurate casualty and safety data. In light of the fact that there are numerous accident causes, any attempts to curb the escalating death and injury rates in developing countries must include the identification of the primary accident causes. This paper, therefore, seeks to show that the Delphi Technique is a suitable alternative method that can be exploited in generating highway traffic accident data through which the major accident causes can be identified. In order to authenticate the technique used, Korea, a country that underwent similar problems when it was in its early stages of development in addition to the availability of excellent highway safety records in its database, is chosen and utilized for this purpose. Validation of the methodology confirms the technique is suitable for application in developing countries. Furthermore, the Delphi Technique, in combination with the Bayesian Network Model, is utilized in modeling highway traffic accidents and forecasting accident rates in the countries of research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Towards an agent based traffic regulation and recommendation system for the on-road air quality control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadiq, Abderrahmane; El Fazziki, Abdelaziz; Ouarzazi, Jamal; Sadgal, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an integrated and adaptive problem-solving approach to control the on-road air quality by modeling the road infrastructure, managing traffic based on pollution level and generating recommendations for road users. The aim is to reduce vehicle emissions in the most polluted road segments and optimizing the pollution levels. For this we propose the use of historical and real time pollution records and contextual data to calculate the air quality index on road networks and generate recommendations for reassigning traffic flow in order to improve the on-road air quality. The resulting air quality indexes are used in the system's traffic network generation, which the cartography is represented by a weighted graph. The weights evolve according to the pollution indexes and path properties and the graph is therefore dynamic. Furthermore, the systems use the available pollution data and meteorological records in order to predict the on-road pollutant levels by using an artificial neural network based prediction model. The proposed approach combines the benefits of multi-agent systems, Big data technology, machine learning tools and the available data sources. For the shortest path searching in the road network, we use the Dijkstra algorithm over Hadoop MapReduce framework. The use Hadoop framework in the data retrieve and analysis process has significantly improved the performance of the proposed system. Also, the agent technology allowed proposing a suitable solution in terms of robustness and agility.

  4. Visualizing Network Traffic to Understand the Performance of Massively Parallel Simulations

    KAUST Repository

    Landge, A. G.

    2012-12-01

    The performance of massively parallel applications is often heavily impacted by the cost of communication among compute nodes. However, determining how to best use the network is a formidable task, made challenging by the ever increasing size and complexity of modern supercomputers. This paper applies visualization techniques to aid parallel application developers in understanding the network activity by enabling a detailed exploration of the flow of packets through the hardware interconnect. In order to visualize this large and complex data, we employ two linked views of the hardware network. The first is a 2D view, that represents the network structure as one of several simplified planar projections. This view is designed to allow a user to easily identify trends and patterns in the network traffic. The second is a 3D view that augments the 2D view by preserving the physical network topology and providing a context that is familiar to the application developers. Using the massively parallel multi-physics code pF3D as a case study, we demonstrate that our tool provides valuable insight that we use to explain and optimize pF3D-s performance on an IBM Blue Gene/P system. © 1995-2012 IEEE.

  5. Expanding the Use of Time-Based Metering: Multi-Center Traffic Management Advisor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Steven J.; Farley, Todd; Hoang, Ty

    2005-01-01

    Time-based metering is an efficient air traffic management alternative to the more common practice of distance-based metering (or "miles-in-trail spacing"). Despite having demonstrated significant operational benefit to airspace users and service providers, time-based metering is used in the United States for arrivals to just nine airports and is not used at all for non-arrival traffic flows. The Multi-Center Traffic Management Advisor promises to bring time-based metering into the mainstream of air traffic management techniques. Not constrained to operate solely on arrival traffic, Multi-Center Traffic Management Advisor is flexible enough to work in highly congested or heavily partitioned airspace for any and all traffic flows in a region. This broader and more general application of time-based metering is expected to bring the operational benefits of time-based metering to a much wider pool of beneficiaries than is possible with existing technology. It also promises to facilitate more collaborative traffic management on a regional basis. This paper focuses on the operational concept of the Multi-Center Traffic Management Advisor, touching also on its system architecture, field test results, and prospects for near-term deployment to the United States National Airspace System.

  6. Cybersecurity and Network Forensics: Analysis of Malicious Traffic towards a Honeynet with Deep Packet Inspection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Arquelau Pimenta Rodrigues

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Any network connected to the Internet is subject to cyber attacks. Strong security measures, forensic tools, and investigators contribute together to detect and mitigate those attacks, reducing the damages and enabling reestablishing the network to its normal operation, thus increasing the cybersecurity of the networked environment. This paper addresses the use of a forensic approach with Deep Packet Inspection to detect anomalies in the network traffic. As cyber attacks may occur on any layer of the TCP/IP networking model, Deep Packet Inspection is an effective way to reveal suspicious content in the headers or the payloads in any packet processing layer, excepting of course situations where the payload is encrypted. Although being efficient, this technique still faces big challenges. The contributions of this paper rely on the association of Deep Packet Inspection with forensics analysis to evaluate different attacks towards a Honeynet operating in a network laboratory at the University of Brasilia. In this perspective, this work could identify and map the content and behavior of attacks such as the Mirai botnet and brute-force attacks targeting various different network services. Obtained results demonstrate the behavior of automated attacks (such as worms and bots and non-automated attacks (brute-force conducted with different tools. The data collected and analyzed is then used to generate statistics of used usernames and passwords, IP and services distribution, among other elements. This paper also discusses the importance of network forensics and Chain of Custody procedures to conduct investigations and shows the effectiveness of the mentioned techniques in evaluating different attacks in networks.

  7. Towards an agent based traffic regulation and recommendation system for the on-road air quality control

    OpenAIRE

    Sadiq, Abderrahmane; El Fazziki, Abdelaziz; Ouarzazi, Jamal; Sadgal, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an integrated and adaptive problem-solving approach to control the on-road air quality by modeling the road infrastructure, managing traffic based on pollution level and generating recommendations for road users. The aim is to reduce vehicle emissions in the most polluted road segments and optimizing the pollution levels. For this we propose the use of historical and real time pollution records and contextual data to calculate the air quality index on road networks and gen...

  8. Research on Analysis Method of Traffic Congestion Mechanism Based on Improved Cell Transmission Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongzhao Dong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To analyze the spreading regularity of the initial traffic congestion, the improved cell transmission model (CTM is proposed to describe the evolution mechanism of traffic congestion in regional road grid. Ordinary cells and oriented cells are applied to render the crowd roads and their adjacent roads. Therefore the traffic flow could be simulated by these cells. Resorting to the proposed model, the duration of the initial traffic congestion could be predicted and the subsequent secondary congestion could be located. Accordingly, the spatial diffusion of traffic congestion could be estimated. At last, taking a road network region of Hangzhou city as an example, the simulation experiment is implemented to verify the proposed method by PARAMICS software. The result shows that the method could predict the duration of the initial congestion and estimate its spatial diffusion accurately.

  9. Road traffic management based on self-load-balancing approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnane Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic congestion is one of the most challenging problems for nowadays cities. Several contributions mainly based on V2V (Vehicle-to-Vehicle communication have been published, but most of them have never been applied due to their communication related problems and costs. In this article, a novel cost-effective approach is introduced inspired by social life of insects where direct (V2V communication does not exist anymore. Vehicles are equipped with devices that perform simple tasks, but their interactions with the environment through RSUs (Road Side Units allow the creation of an intelligence which notifies drivers about congested road segments to avoid them. We call this emerging behavior self-load balancing. Description of the fundamentals of this approach and its performance are detailed in this work.

  10. An approach of traffic signal control based on NLRSQP algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yuan-Yang; Hu, Yu

    2017-11-01

    This paper presents a linear program model with linear complementarity constraints (LPLCC) to solve traffic signal optimization problem. The objective function of the model is to obtain the minimization of total queue length with weight factors at the end of each cycle. Then, a combination algorithm based on the nonlinear least regression and sequence quadratic program (NLRSQP) is proposed, by which the local optimal solution can be obtained. Furthermore, four numerical experiments are proposed to study how to set the initial solution of the algorithm that can get a better local optimal solution more quickly. In particular, the results of numerical experiments show that: The model is effective for different arrival rates and weight factors; and the lower bound of the initial solution is, the better optimal solution can be obtained.

  11. Analysis of Malicious Traffic in Modbus/TCP Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Tiago H.; Batista, Aguinaldo B.; Medeiros, João Paulo S.; Filho, José Macedo F.; Brito, Agostinho M.; Pires, Paulo S. Motta

    This paper presents the results of our analysis about the influence of Information Technology (IT) malicious traffic on an IP-based automation environment. We utilized a traffic generator, called MACE (Malicious trAffic Composition Environment), to inject malicious traffic in a Modbus/TCP communication system and a sniffer to capture and analyze network traffic. The realized tests show that malicious traffic represents a serious risk to critical information infrastructures. We show that this kind of traffic can increase latency of Modbus/TCP communication and that, in some cases, can put Modbus/TCP devices out of communication.

  12. A Method Based on Dial's Algorithm for Multi-time Dynamic Traffic Assignment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongjie Kuang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to static traffic assignment has poor performance in reflecting actual case and dynamic traffic assignment may incurs excessive compute cost, method of multi-time dynamic traffic assignment combining static and dynamic traffic assignment balances factors of precision and cost effectively. A method based on Dial's logit algorithm is proposed in the article to solve the dynamic stochastic user equilibrium problem in dynamic traffic assignment. Before that, a fitting function that can proximately reflect overloaded traffic condition of link is proposed and used to give corresponding model. Numerical example is given to illustrate heuristic procedure of method and to compare results with one of same example solved by other literature's algorithm. Results show that method based on Dial's algorithm is preferable to algorithm from others.

  13. Reliable Path Selection Problem in Uncertain Traffic Network after Natural Disaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available After natural disaster, especially for large-scale disasters and affected areas, vast relief materials are often needed. In the meantime, the traffic networks are always of uncertainty because of the disaster. In this paper, we assume that the edges in the network are either connected or blocked, and the connection probability of each edge is known. In order to ensure the arrival of these supplies at the affected areas, it is important to select a reliable path. A reliable path selection model is formulated, and two algorithms for solving this model are presented. Then, adjustable reliable path selection model is proposed when the edge of the selected reliable path is broken. And the corresponding algorithms are shown to be efficient both theoretically and numerically.

  14. Energy-Saving Traffic Scheduling in Hybrid Software Defined Wireless Rechargeable Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yunkai; Ma, Xiaohui; Yang, Ning; Chen, Yijin

    2017-09-15

    Software Defined Wireless Rechargeable Sensor Networks (SDWRSNs) are an inexorable trend for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), including Wireless Rechargeable Sensor Network (WRSNs). However, the traditional network devices cannot be completely substituted in the short term. Hybrid SDWRSNs, where software defined devices and traditional devices coexist, will last for a long time. Hybrid SDWRSNs bring new challenges as well as opportunities for energy saving issues, which is still a key problem considering that the wireless chargers are also exhaustible, especially in some rigid environment out of the main supply. Numerous energy saving schemes for WSNs, or even some works for WRSNs, are no longer suitable for the new features of hybrid SDWRSNs. To solve this problem, this paper puts forward an Energy-saving Traffic Scheduling (ETS) algorithm. The ETS algorithm adequately considers the new characters in hybrid SDWRSNs, and takes advantage of the Software Defined Networking (SDN) controller's direct control ability on SDN nodes and indirect control ability on normal nodes. The simulation results show that, comparing with traditional Minimum Transmission Energy (MTE) protocol, ETS can substantially improve the energy efficiency in hybrid SDWRSNs for up to 20-40% while ensuring feasible data delay.

  15. Energy-Saving Traffic Scheduling in Hybrid Software Defined Wireless Rechargeable Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunkai Wei

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Software Defined Wireless Rechargeable Sensor Networks (SDWRSNs are an inexorable trend for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs, including Wireless Rechargeable Sensor Network (WRSNs. However, the traditional network devices cannot be completely substituted in the short term. Hybrid SDWRSNs, where software defined devices and traditional devices coexist, will last for a long time. Hybrid SDWRSNs bring new challenges as well as opportunities for energy saving issues, which is still a key problem considering that the wireless chargers are also exhaustible, especially in some rigid environment out of the main supply. Numerous energy saving schemes for WSNs, or even some works for WRSNs, are no longer suitable for the new features of hybrid SDWRSNs. To solve this problem, this paper puts forward an Energy-saving Traffic Scheduling (ETS algorithm. The ETS algorithm adequately considers the new characters in hybrid SDWRSNs, and takes advantage of the Software Defined Networking (SDN controller’s direct control ability on SDN nodes and indirect control ability on normal nodes. The simulation results show that, comparing with traditional Minimum Transmission Energy (MTE protocol, ETS can substantially improve the energy efficiency in hybrid SDWRSNs for up to 20–40% while ensuring feasible data delay.

  16. Whitelists Based Multiple Filtering Techniques in SCADA Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DongHo Kang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Internet of Things (IoT consists of several tiny devices connected together to form a collaborative computing environment. Recently IoT technologies begin to merge with supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA sensor networks to more efficiently gather and analyze real-time data from sensors in industrial environments. But SCADA sensor networks are becoming more and more vulnerable to cyber-attacks due to increased connectivity. To safely adopt IoT technologies in the SCADA environments, it is important to improve the security of SCADA sensor networks. In this paper we propose a multiple filtering technique based on whitelists to detect illegitimate packets. Our proposed system detects the traffic of network and application protocol attacks with a set of whitelists collected from normal traffic.

  17. Road traffic noise and registry based use of sleep medication.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evandt, Jorunn; Oftedal, Bente; Krog, Norun Hjertager; Skurtveit, Svetlana; Nafstad, Per; Schwarze, Per E; Skovlund, Eva; Houthuijs, Danny; Aasvang, Gunn Marit

    2017-01-01

    Road traffic noise has been associated with adverse health effects including sleep disturbances. Use of sleep medication as an indicator of sleeping problems has rarely been explored in studies of the effects of traffic noise. Furthermore, using registry data on sleep medications provides an

  18. Noise emission corrections at intersections based on microscopic traffic simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coensel, B.de; Vanhove, F.; Logghe, S.; Wilmink, I.; Botteldooren, D.

    2006-01-01

    One of the goals of the European IMAGINE project, is to formulate strategies to improve traffic modelling for application in noise mapping. It is well known that the specific deceleration and acceleration dynamics of traffic at junctions can influence local noise emission. However, macroscopic

  19. COLLABORATIVE NETWORK SECURITY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM BASED ON ASSOCIATION MINING RULE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisha Mariam Varughese

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Security is one of the major challenges in open network. There are so many types of attacks which follow fixed patterns or frequently change their patterns. It is difficult to find the malicious attack which does not have any fixed patterns. The Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS attacks like Botnets are used to slow down the system performance. To address such problems Collaborative Network Security Management System (CNSMS is proposed along with the association mining rule. CNSMS system is consists of collaborative Unified Threat Management (UTM, cloud based security centre and traffic prober. The traffic prober captures the internet traffic and given to the collaborative UTM. Traffic is analysed by the Collaborative UTM, to determine whether it contains any malicious attack or not. If any security event occurs, it will reports to the cloud based security centre. The security centre generates security rules based on association mining rule and distributes to the network. The cloud based security centre is used to store the huge amount of tragic, their logs and the security rule generated. The feedback is evaluated and the invalid rules are eliminated to improve the system efficiency.

  20. Deep neural network for traffic sign recognition systems: An analysis of spatial transformers and stochastic optimisation methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcos-García, Álvaro; Álvarez-García, Juan A; Soria-Morillo, Luis M

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents a Deep Learning approach for traffic sign recognition systems. Several classification experiments are conducted over publicly available traffic sign datasets from Germany and Belgium using a Deep Neural Network which comprises Convolutional layers and Spatial Transformer Networks. Such trials are built to measure the impact of diverse factors with the end goal of designing a Convolutional Neural Network that can improve the state-of-the-art of traffic sign classification task. First, different adaptive and non-adaptive stochastic gradient descent optimisation algorithms such as SGD, SGD-Nesterov, RMSprop and Adam are evaluated. Subsequently, multiple combinations of Spatial Transformer Networks placed at distinct positions within the main neural network are analysed. The recognition rate of the proposed Convolutional Neural Network reports an accuracy of 99.71% in the German Traffic Sign Recognition Benchmark, outperforming previous state-of-the-art methods and also being more efficient in terms of memory requirements. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Cyber-Threat Assessment for the Air Traffic Management System: A Network Controls Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Sandip; Sridhar, Banavar

    2016-01-01

    Air transportation networks are being disrupted with increasing frequency by failures in their cyber- (computing, communication, control) systems. Whether these cyber- failures arise due to deliberate attacks or incidental errors, they can have far-reaching impact on the performance of the air traffic control and management systems. For instance, a computer failure in the Washington DC Air Route Traffic Control Center (ZDC) on August 15, 2015, caused nearly complete closure of the Centers airspace for several hours. This closure had a propagative impact across the United States National Airspace System, causing changed congestion patterns and requiring placement of a suite of traffic management initiatives to address the capacity reduction and congestion. A snapshot of traffic on that day clearly shows the closure of the ZDC airspace and the resulting congestion at its boundary, which required augmented traffic management at multiple locations. Cyber- events also have important ramifications for private stakeholders, particularly the airlines. During the last few months, computer-system issues have caused several airlines fleets to be grounded for significant periods of time: these include United Airlines (twice), LOT Polish Airlines, and American Airlines. Delays and regional stoppages due to cyber- events are even more common, and may have myriad causes (e.g., failure of the Department of Homeland Security systems needed for security check of passengers, see [3]). The growing frequency of cyber- disruptions in the air transportation system reflects a much broader trend in the modern society: cyber- failures and threats are becoming increasingly pervasive, varied, and impactful. In consequence, an intense effort is underway to develop secure and resilient cyber- systems that can protect against, detect, and remove threats, see e.g. and its many citations. The outcomes of this wide effort on cyber- security are applicable to the air transportation infrastructure

  2. Experimental performance evaluation of software defined networking (SDN) based data communication networks for large scale flexi-grid optical networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yongli; He, Ruiying; Chen, Haoran; Zhang, Jie; Ji, Yuefeng; Zheng, Haomian; Lin, Yi; Wang, Xinbo

    2014-04-21

    Software defined networking (SDN) has become the focus in the current information and communication technology area because of its flexibility and programmability. It has been introduced into various network scenarios, such as datacenter networks, carrier networks, and wireless networks. Optical transport network is also regarded as an important application scenario for SDN, which is adopted as the enabling technology of data communication networks (DCN) instead of general multi-protocol label switching (GMPLS). However, the practical performance of SDN based DCN for large scale optical networks, which is very important for the technology selection in the future optical network deployment, has not been evaluated up to now. In this paper we have built a large scale flexi-grid optical network testbed with 1000 virtual optical transport nodes to evaluate the performance of SDN based DCN, including network scalability, DCN bandwidth limitation, and restoration time. A series of network performance parameters including blocking probability, bandwidth utilization, average lightpath provisioning time, and failure restoration time have been demonstrated under various network environments, such as with different traffic loads and different DCN bandwidths. The demonstration in this work can be taken as a proof for the future network deployment.

  3. Intelligent Traffic Quantification System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Anita; Bhanja, Urmila; Mahapatra, Sudipta

    2017-08-01

    Currently, city traffic monitoring and controlling is a big issue in almost all cities worldwide. Vehicular ad-hoc Network (VANET) technique is an efficient tool to minimize this problem. Usually, different types of on board sensors are installed in vehicles to generate messages characterized by different vehicle parameters. In this work, an intelligent system based on fuzzy clustering technique is developed to reduce the number of individual messages by extracting important features from the messages of a vehicle. Therefore, the proposed fuzzy clustering technique reduces the traffic load of the network. The technique also reduces congestion and quantifies congestion.

  4. A State-of-the-Art Review of the Sensor Location, Flow Observability, Estimation, and Prediction Problems in Traffic Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Castillo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A state-of-the-art review of flow observability, estimation, and prediction problems in traffic networks is performed. Since mathematical optimization provides a general framework for all of them, an integrated approach is used to perform the analysis of these problems and consider them as different optimization problems whose data, variables, constraints, and objective functions are the main elements that characterize the problems proposed by different authors. For example, counted, scanned or “a priori” data are the most common data sources; conservation laws, flow nonnegativity, link capacity, flow definition, observation, flow propagation, and specific model requirements form the most common constraints; and least squares, likelihood, possible relative error, mean absolute relative error, and so forth constitute the bases for the objective functions or metrics. The high number of possible combinations of these elements justifies the existence of a wide collection of methods for analyzing static and dynamic situations.

  5. A GPS-based Real-time Road Traffic Monitoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanti, Kamal Kumar

    In recent years, monitoring systems are astonishingly inclined towards ever more automatic; reliably interconnected, distributed and autonomous operation. Specifically, the measurement, logging, data processing and interpretation activities may be carried out by separate units at different locations in near real-time. The recent evolution of mobile communication devices and communication technologies has fostered a growing interest in the GIS & GPS-based location-aware systems and services. This paper describes a real-time road traffic monitoring system based on integrated mobile field devices (GPS/GSM/IOs) working in tandem with advanced GIS-based application software providing on-the-fly authentications for real-time monitoring and security enhancement. The described system is developed as a fully automated, continuous, real-time monitoring system that employs GPS sensors and Ethernet and/or serial port communication techniques are used to transfer data between GPS receivers at target points and a central processing computer. The data can be processed locally or remotely based on the requirements of client’s satisfaction. Due to the modular architecture of the system, other sensor types may be supported with minimal effort. Data on the distributed network & measurements are transmitted via cellular SIM cards to a Control Unit, which provides for post-processing and network management. The Control Unit may be remotely accessed via an Internet connection. The new system will not only provide more consistent data about the road traffic conditions but also will provide methods for integrating with other Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS). For communication between the mobile device and central monitoring service GSM technology is used. The resulting system is characterized by autonomy, reliability and a high degree of automation.

  6. Traffic conflict assessment for non-lane-based movements of motorcycles under congested conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Xuan Nguyen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Traffic conflict under congested conditions is one of the main safety issues of motorcycle traffic in developing countries. Unlike cars, motorcycles often display non-lane-based movements such as swerving or oblique following of a lead vehicle when traffic becomes congested. Very few studies have quantitatively evaluated the effects of such non-lane-based movements on traffic conflict. Therefore, in this study we aim to develop an integrated model to assess the traffic conflict of motorcycles under congested conditions. The proposed model includes a concept of safety space to describe the non-lane-based movements unique to motorcycles, new features developed for traffic conflict assessment such as parameters of acceleration and deceleration, and the conditions for choosing a lead vehicle. Calibration data were extracted from video clips taken at two road segments in Ho Chi Minh City. A simulation based on the model was developed to verify the dynamic non-lane-based movements of motorcycles. Subsequently, the assessment of traffic conflict was validated by calculating the probability of sudden braking at each time interval according to the change in the density of motorcycle flow. Our findings underscore the fact that higher flow density may lead to conflicts associated with a greater probability of sudden breaking. Three types of motorcycle traffic conflicts were confirmed, and the proportions of each type were calculated and discussed.

  7. Detection of Botnet Command and Control Traffic by the Multistage Trust Evaluation of Destination Identifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter Burghouwt

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Network-based detection of botnet Command and Control communication is a difficult task if the traffic has a relatively low volume and if popular protocols, such as HTTP, are used to resemble normal traffic. We present a new network-based detection approach that is capable of detecting this type of Command and Control traffic in an enterprise network by estimating the trustworthiness of the traffic destinations. If the destination identifier of a traffic flow origins directly from: human input, prior traffic from a trusted destination, or a defined set of legitimate applications, the destination is trusted and its associated traffic is classified as normal. Advantages of this approach are: the ability of zero day malicious traffic detection, low exposure to malware by passive host-external traffic monitoring, and the applicability for real-time filtering. Experimental evaluation demonstrates successful detection of diverse types of Command and Control Traffic.

  8. Context-based object-of-interest detection for a generic traffic surveillance analysis system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bao, X.; Javanbakhti, S.; Zinger, S.; Wijnhoven, R.G.J.; With, de P.H.N.

    2014-01-01

    We present a new traffic surveillance video analysis system, focusing on building a framework with robust and generic techniques, based on both scene understanding and moving object-of-interest detection. Since traffic surveillance is widely applied, we want to design a single system that can be

  9. Shadow-Based Vehicle Detection in Urban Traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Ibarra-Arenado

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Vehicle detection is a fundamental task in Forward Collision Avoiding Systems (FACS. Generally, vision-based vehicle detection methods consist of two stages: hypotheses generation and hypotheses verification. In this paper, we focus on the former, presenting a feature-based method for on-road vehicle detection in urban traffic. Hypotheses for vehicle candidates are generated according to the shadow under the vehicles by comparing pixel properties across the vertical intensity gradients caused by shadows on the road, and followed by intensity thresholding and morphological discrimination. Unlike methods that identify the shadow under a vehicle as a road region with intensity smaller than a coarse lower bound of the intensity for road, the thresholding strategy we propose determines a coarse upper bound of the intensity for shadow which reduces false positives rates. The experimental results are promising in terms of detection performance and robustness in day time under different weather conditions and cluttered scenarios to enable validation for the first stage of a complete FACS.

  10. Developing a Web-Based Advisory Expert System for Implementing Traffic Calming Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Falamarzi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lack of traffic safety has become a serious issue in residential areas. In this paper, a web-based advisory expert system for the purpose of applying traffic calming strategies on residential streets is described because there currently lacks a structured framework for the implementation of such strategies. Developing an expert system can assist and advise engineers for dealing with traffic safety problems. This expert system is developed to fill the gap between the traffic safety experts and people who seek to employ traffic calming strategies including decision makers, engineers, and students. In order to build the expert system, examining sources related to traffic calming studies as well as interviewing with domain experts have been carried out. The system includes above 150 rules and 200 images for different types of measures. The system has three main functions including classifying traffic calming measures, prioritizing traffic calming strategies, and presenting solutions for different traffic safety problems. Verifying, validating processes, and comparing the system with similar works have shown that the system is consistent and acceptable for practical uses. Finally, some recommendations for improving the system are presented.

  11. Effective traffic management based on bounded rationality and indifference bands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vreeswijk, Jacob Dirk; Bie, Jing; van Berkum, Eric C.; van Arem, Bart

    2013-01-01

    Constrained cognitive abilities cause imperfections in drivers' choice behaviour and appear largely systematic and predictable. This study introduces the concept of 'effective control space' to build upon this knowledge as an opportunity to increase the effectiveness of Dynamic Traffic Management

  12. Accurate Traffic Flow Prediction in Heterogeneous Vehicular Networks in an Intelligent Transport System Using a Supervised Non-Parametric Classifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesham El-Sayed

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Heterogeneous vehicular networks (HETVNETs evolve from vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs, which allow vehicles to always be connected so as to obtain safety services within intelligent transportation systems (ITSs. The services and data provided by HETVNETs should be neither interrupted nor delayed. Therefore, Quality of Service (QoS improvement of HETVNETs is one of the topics attracting the attention of researchers and the manufacturing community. Several methodologies and frameworks have been devised by researchers to address QoS-prediction service issues. In this paper, to improve QoS, we evaluate various traffic characteristics of HETVNETs and propose a new supervised learning model to capture knowledge on all possible traffic patterns. This model is a refinement of support vector machine (SVM kernels with a radial basis function (RBF. The proposed model produces better results than SVMs, and outperforms other prediction methods used in a traffic context, as it has lower computational complexity and higher prediction accuracy.

  13. Predicting Free Flow Speed and Crash Risk of Bicycle Traffic Flow Using Artificial Neural Network Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Xu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Free flow speed is a fundamental measure of traffic performance and has been found to affect the severity of crash risk. However, the previous studies lack analysis and modelling of impact factors on bicycles’ free flow speed. The main focus of this study is to develop multilayer back propagation artificial neural network (BPANN models for the prediction of free flow speed and crash risk on the separated bicycle path. Four different models with considering different combinations of input variables (e.g., path width, traffic condition, bicycle type, and cyclists’ characteristics were developed. 459 field data samples were collected from eleven bicycle paths in Hangzhou, China, and 70% of total samples were used for training, 15% for validation, and 15% for testing. The results show that considering the input variables of bicycle types and characteristics of cyclists will effectively improve the accuracy of the prediction models. Meanwhile, the parameters of bicycle types have more significant effect on predicting free flow speed of bicycle compared to those of cyclists’ characteristics. The findings could contribute for evaluation, planning, and management of bicycle safety.

  14. VoIP attacks detection engine based on neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safarik, Jakub; Slachta, Jiri

    2015-05-01

    The security is crucial for any system nowadays, especially communications. One of the most successful protocols in the field of communication over IP networks is Session Initiation Protocol. It is an open-source project used by different kinds of applications, both open-source and proprietary. High penetration and text-based principle made SIP number one target in IP telephony infrastructure, so security of SIP server is essential. To keep up with hackers and to detect potential malicious attacks, security administrator needs to monitor and evaluate SIP traffic in the network. But monitoring and following evaluation could easily overwhelm the security administrator in networks, typically in networks with a number of SIP servers, users and logically or geographically separated networks. The proposed solution lies in automatic attack detection systems. The article covers detection of VoIP attacks through a distributed network of nodes. Then the gathered data analyze aggregation server with artificial neural network. Artificial neural network means multilayer perceptron network trained with a set of collected attacks. Attack data could also be preprocessed and verified with a self-organizing map. The source data is detected by distributed network of detection nodes. Each node contains a honeypot application and traffic monitoring mechanism. Aggregation of data from each node creates an input for neural networks. The automatic classification on a centralized server with low false positive detection reduce the cost of attack detection resources. The detection system uses modular design for easy deployment in final infrastructure. The centralized server collects and process detected traffic. It also maintains all detection nodes.

  15. Obtaining Application-based and Content-based Internet Traffic Statistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bujlow, Tomasz; Pedersen, Jens Myrup

    2012-01-01

    the Volunteer-Based System for Research on the Internet, developed at Aalborg University, is capable of providing detailed statistics of Internet usage. Since an increasing amount of HTTP traffic has been observed during the last few years, the system also supports creating statistics of different kinds of HTTP...... traffic, like audio, video, file transfers, etc. All statistics can be obtained for individual users of the system, for groups of users, or for all users altogether. This paper presents results with real data collected from a limited number of real users over six months. We demonstrate that the system can...

  16. ADAPTIVE GOSSIP BASED PROTOCOL FOR ENERGY EFFICIENT MOBILE ADHOC NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Rajeswari

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In Gossip Sleep Protocol, network performance is enhanced based on energy resource. But energy conservation is achieved with the reduced throughput. In this paper, it has been proposed a new Protocol for Mobile Ad hoc Network to achieve reliability with energy conservation. Based on the probability (p values, the value of sleep nodes is fixed initially. The probability value can be adaptively adjusted by Remote Activated Switch during the transmission process. The adaptiveness of gossiping probability is determined by the Packet Delivery Ratio. For performance comparison, we have taken Routing overhead, Packet Delivery Ratio, Number of dropped packets and Energy consumption with the increasing number of forwarding nodes. We used UDP based traffic models to analyze the performance of this protocol. We analyzed TCP based traffic models for average end to end delay. We have used the NS-2 simulator.

  17. McMAC: Towards a MAC Protocol with Multi-Constrained QoS Provisioning for Diverse Traffic in Wireless Body Area Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Mostafa Monowar

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of heterogeneous applications with diverse requirements forresource-constrained Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs poses significant challengesfor provisioning Quality of Service (QoS with multi-constraints (delay and reliability whilepreserving energy efficiency. To address such challenges, this paper proposes McMAC,a MAC protocol with multi-constrained QoS provisioning for diverse traffic classes inWBANs. McMAC classifies traffic based on their multi-constrained QoS demands andintroduces a novel superframe structure based on the "transmit-whenever-appropriate"principle, which allows diverse periods for diverse traffic classes according to their respectiveQoS requirements. Furthermore, a novel emergency packet handling mechanism is proposedto ensure packet delivery with the least possible delay and the highest reliability. McMACis also modeled analytically, and extensive simulations were performed to evaluate itsperformance. The results reveal that McMAC achieves the desired delay and reliabilityguarantee according to the requirements of a particular traffic class while achieving energyefficiency.

  18. McMAC: towards a MAC protocol with multi-constrained QoS provisioning for diverse traffic in Wireless Body Area Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monowar, Muhammad Mostafa; Hassan, Mohammad Mehedi; Bajaber, Fuad; Al-Hussein, Musaed; Alamri, Atif

    2012-11-12

    The emergence of heterogeneous applications with diverse requirements for resource-constrained Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs) poses significant challenges for provisioning Quality of Service (QoS) with multi-constraints (delay and reliability) while preserving energy efficiency. To address such challenges, this paper proposes McMAC,a MAC protocol with multi-constrained QoS provisioning for diverse traffic classes in WBANs. McMAC classifies traffic based on their multi-constrained QoS demands and introduces a novel superframe structure based on the "transmit-whenever-appropriate"principle, which allows diverse periods for diverse traffic classes according to their respective QoS requirements. Furthermore, a novel emergency packet handling mechanism is proposedto ensure packet delivery with the least possible delay and the highest reliability. McMAC is also modeled analytically, and extensive simulations were performed to evaluate its performance. The results reveal that McMAC achieves the desired delay and reliability guarantee according to the requirements of a particular traffic class while achieving energy efficiency.

  19. Reducing traffic in DHT-based discovery protocols for dynamic resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlini, Emanuele; Coppola, Massimo; Laforenza, Domenico; Ricci, Laura

    Existing peer-to-peer approaches for resource location based on distributed hash tables focus mainly on optimizing lookup query resolution. The underlying assumption is that the arrival ratio of lookup queries is higher than the ratio of resource publication operations. We propose a set of optimization strategies to reduce the network traffic generated by the data publication and update process when resources have dynamic-valued attributes. We aim at reducing the publication overhead of supporting multi-attribute range queries. We develop a model predicting the bandwidth reduction, and we assign proper values to the model variables on the basis of real data measurements. We further validate these results by a set of simulations. Our experiments are designed to reproduce the typical behaviour of the resulting scheme within large distributed resource location system, like the resource location service of the XtreemOS Grid-enabled Operating System.

  20. On-Chip SDM Switching for Unicast, Multicast and Traffic Grooming in Data Center Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamchevska, Valerija; Ding, Yunhong; Dalgaard, Kjeld

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports on the use of a novel photonic integrated circuit that facilitates multicast and grooming in an optical data center architecture. The circuit allows for on-chip spatial multiplexing and demultiplexing as well as fiber core switching. Using this device, we experimentally verify...... that multicast and/or grooming can be successfully performed along the full range of output ports, for different group size and different power ratio. Moreover, we experimentally demonstrate SDM transmission and 5 Tbit/s switching using the on-chip fiber switch with integrated fan-in/fan-out devices and achieve...... errorfree performance (BER≤10-9) for a network scenario including simultaneous unicast/multicast switching and traffic grooming....

  1. Hybrid Electromagnetism-Like Algorithm for Dynamic Supply Chain Network Design under Traffic Congestion and Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javid Jouzdani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With the constantly increasing pressure of the competitive environment, supply chain (SC decision makers are forced to consider several aspects of business climate. More specifically, they should take into account the endogenous features (e.g., available means of transportation, and the variety of products and exogenous criteria (e.g., the environmental uncertainty, and transportation system conditions. In this paper, a mixed integer nonlinear programming (MINLP model for dynamic design of a supply chain network is proposed. In this model, multiple products and multiple transportation modes, the time value of money, traffic congestion, and both supply-side and demand-side uncertainties are considered. Due to the complexity of such models, conventional solution methods are not applicable; therefore, two hybrid Electromagnetism-Like Algorithms (EMA are designed and discussed for tackling the problem. The numerical results show the applicability of the proposed model and the capabilities of the solution approaches to the MINLP problem.

  2. Epidemic metapopulation model with traffic routing in scale-free networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Wei; Chen, Shengyong

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a model incorporating both the traffic routing dynamics and the virus prevalence dynamics. In this model, each packet may be isolated from the network on its transporting path, which means that the packet cannot be successfully delivered to its destination. In contrast, a successful transport means that a packet can be delivered from source to destination without being isolated. The effects of model parameters on the delivery success rate and the delivery failure rate are intensively studied and analyzed. Several routing strategies are performed for our model. Results show that the shortest path routing strategy is the most effective for enhancing the delivery success rate, especially when each packet is only allowed to be delivered to the neighbor with the lowest degree along the shortest path. We also find that, by minimizing the sum of the nodes' degree along the transporting path, we can also obtain a satisfactory delivery success rate

  3. On the Impact of Zero-padding in Network Coding Efficiency with Internet Traffic and Video Traces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taghouti, Maroua; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani; Pedersen, Morten Videbæk

    2016-01-01

    Random Linear Network Coding (RLNC) theoretical results typically assume that packets have equal sizes while in reality, data traffic presents a random packet size distribution. Conventional wisdom considers zero-padding of original packets as a viable alternative, but its effect can reduce the e...

  4. Online Traffic Condition Evaluation Method for Connected Vehicles Based on Multisource Data Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pang-wei Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the development of connected vehicle (CV and Vehicle to X (V2X communication, more traffic data is being collected from the road network. In order to predict future traffic condition from connected vehicles’ data in real-time, we present an online traffic condition evaluation model utilizing V2X communication. This model employs the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP and the multilevel fuzzy set theory to fuse multiple sources of information for prediction. First, the contemporary vehicle data from the On Board Diagnostic (OBD is fused with the static road data in the Road Side Unit (RSU. Then, the real-time traffic evaluation scores are calculated using the variable membership model. The real data collected by OBU in field test demonstrates the feasibility of the evaluation model. Compared with traditional evaluation systems, the proposed model can handle more types of data but demands less data transfer.

  5. A Spatiotemporal Multi-View-Based Learning Method for Short-Term Traffic Forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shifen Cheng

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Short-term traffic forecasting plays an important part in intelligent transportation systems. Spatiotemporal k-nearest neighbor models (ST-KNNs have been widely adopted for short-term traffic forecasting in which spatiotemporal matrices are constructed to describe traffic conditions. The performance of the models is closely related to the spatial dependencies, the temporal dependencies, and the interaction of spatiotemporal dependencies. However, these models use distance functions and correlation coefficients to identify spatial neighbors and measure the temporal interaction by only considering the temporal closeness of traffic, which result in existing ST-KNNs that cannot fully reflect the essential features of road traffic. This study proposes an improved spatiotemporal k-nearest neighbor model for short-term traffic forecasting by utilizing a multi-view learning algorithm named MVL-STKNN that fully considers the spatiotemporal dependencies of traffic data. First, the spatial neighbors for each road segment are automatically determined using cross-correlation under different temporal dependencies. Three spatiotemporal views are built on the constructed spatiotemporal closeness, periodic, and trend matrices to represent spatially heterogeneous traffic states. Second, a spatiotemporal weighting matrix is introduced into the ST-KNN model to recognize similar traffic patterns in the three spatiotemporal views. Finally, the results of traffic pattern recognition under these three spatiotemporal views are aggregated by using a neural network algorithm to describe the interaction of spatiotemporal dependencies. Extensive experiments were conducted using real vehicular-speed datasets collected on city roads and expressways. In comparison with baseline methods, the results show that the MVL-STKNN model greatly improves short-term traffic forecasting by lowering the mean absolute percentage error between 28.24% and 46.86% for the city road dataset and

  6. Cooperative and Adaptive Network Coding for Gradient Based Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks with Multiple Sinks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Migabo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite its low computational cost, the Gradient Based Routing (GBR broadcast of interest messages in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs causes significant packets duplications and unnecessary packets transmissions. This results in energy wastage, traffic load imbalance, high network traffic, and low throughput. Thanks to the emergence of fast and powerful processors, the development of efficient network coding strategies is expected to enable efficient packets aggregations and reduce packets retransmissions. For multiple sinks WSNs, the challenge consists of efficiently selecting a suitable network coding scheme. This article proposes a Cooperative and Adaptive Network Coding for GBR (CoAdNC-GBR technique which considers the network density as dynamically defined by the average number of neighbouring nodes, to efficiently aggregate interest messages. The aggregation is performed by means of linear combinations of random coefficients of a finite Galois Field of variable size GF(2S at each node and the decoding is performed by means of Gaussian elimination. The obtained results reveal that, by exploiting the cooperation of the multiple sinks, the CoAdNC-GBR not only improves the transmission reliability of links and lowers the number of transmissions and the propagation latency, but also enhances the energy efficiency of the network when compared to the GBR-network coding (GBR-NC techniques.

  7. Ubiquitous Emergency Medical Service System Based on Wireless Biosensors, Traffic Information, and Wireless Communication Technologies: Development and Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan-Hsu Tan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a new ubiquitous emergency medical service system (UEMS that consists of a ubiquitous tele-diagnosis interface and a traffic guiding subsystem. The UEMS addresses unresolved issues of emergency medical services by managing the sensor wires for eliminating inconvenience for both patients and paramedics in an ambulance, providing ubiquitous accessibility of patients’ biosignals in remote areas where the ambulance cannot arrive directly, and offering availability of real-time traffic information which can make the ambulance reach the destination within the shortest time. In the proposed system, patient’s biosignals and real-time video, acquired by wireless biosensors and a webcam, can be simultaneously transmitted to an emergency room for pre-hospital treatment via WiMax/3.5 G networks. Performances of WiMax and 3.5 G, in terms of initialization time, data rate, and average end-to-end delay are evaluated and compared. A driver can choose the route of the shortest time among the suggested routes by Google Maps after inspecting the current traffic conditions based on real-time CCTV camera streams and traffic information. The destination address can be inputted vocally for easiness and safety in driving. A series of field test results validates the feasibility of the proposed system for application in real-life scenarios.

  8. Characterizing contract-based multiagent resource allocation in networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Bo; Lesser, Victor

    2010-06-01

    We consider a multiagent resource allocation problem where individual users intend to route traffic by requesting the help of entities across a network, and a cost is incurred at each network node that depends on the amount of traffic to be routed. We propose to study contract-based network resource allocation. In our model, users and nodes in the network make contracts before nodes route traffic for the users. The problem is an interesting self-interested negotiation problem because it requires the complete assembly of a set of distinct resources, and there are multiple combinations of distinct resources that could satisfy the goal of negotiation. First, we characterize the network allocation problem and show that finding optimal allocations is NP-complete and is inapproximable. We take both Nash equilibrium and pairwise Nash equilibrium as the solution concepts to characterize the equilibrium allocations. We find that, for any resource allocation game, Nash equilibrium and pairwise Nash equilibrium always exist. In addition, socially optimal allocations are always supported by Nash equilibrium and pairwise Nash equilibrium. We introduce best-response dynamics in which each agent takes a myopic best-response strategy and interacts with each other to dynamically form contracts. We analyze the convergence of the dynamics in some special cases. We also experimentally study the convergence rate of the dynamics and how efficient the evolved allocation is as compared with the optimal allocation in a variety of environments.

  9. Traffic data collection and anonymous vehicle detection using wireless sensor networks : research summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Problem: : Most Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) applications require distributed : acquisition of various traffic metrics such as traffic speed, volume, and density. : The existing measurement technologies, such as inductive loops, infrared, ...

  10. Multicasting based optical inverse multiplexing in elastic optical network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Bingli; Xu, Yingying; Zhu, Paikun; Zhong, Yucheng; Chen, Yuanxiang; Li, Juhao; Chen, Zhangyuan; He, Yongqi

    2014-06-16

    Optical multicasting based inverse multiplexing (IM) is introduced in spectrum allocation of elastic optical network to resolve the spectrum fragmentation problem, where superchannels could be split and fit into several discrete spectrum blocks in the intermediate node. We experimentally demonstrate it with a 1-to-7 optical superchannel multicasting module and selecting/coupling components. Also, simulation results show that, comparing with several emerging spectrum defragmentation solutions (e.g., spectrum conversion, split spectrum), IM could reduce blocking performance significantly but without adding too much system complexity as split spectrum. On the other hand, service fairness for traffic with different granularity of these schemes is investigated for the first time and it shows that IM performs better than spectrum conversion and almost as well as split spectrum, especially for smaller size traffic under light traffic intensity.

  11. SNMS: an intelligent transportation system network architecture based on WSN and P2P network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Li; LIU Yuan-an; TANG Bi-hua

    2007-01-01

    With the development of city road networks, the question of how to obtain information about the roads is becoming more and more important. In this article, sensor network with mobile station (SNMS), a novel two-tiered intelligent transportation system (ITS) network architecture based on wireless sensor network (WSN) and peer-to-peer (P2P) network, is proposed to provide significant traffic information about the road and thereby, assist travelers to take optimum decisions when they are driving. A detailed explanation with regard to the strategy of each level as well as the design of two main components in the network, sensor unit (SU) and mobile station (MS), is presented. Finally, a representative scenario is described to display the operation of the system.

  12. Output power distributions of mobile radio base stations based on network measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colombi, D; Thors, B; Persson, T; Törnevik, C; Wirén, N; Larsson, L-E

    2013-01-01

    In this work output power distributions of mobile radio base stations have been analyzed for 2G and 3G telecommunication systems. The approach is based on measurements in selected networks using performance surveillance tools part of the network Operational Support System (OSS). For the 3G network considered, direct measurements of output power levels were possible, while for the 2G networks, output power levels were estimated from measurements of traffic volumes. Both voice and data services were included in the investigation. Measurements were conducted for large geographical areas, to ensure good overall statistics, as well as for smaller areas to investigate the impact of different environments. For high traffic hours, the 90th percentile of the averaged output power was found to be below 65% and 45% of the available output power for the 2G and 3G systems, respectively.

  13. Output power distributions of mobile radio base stations based on network measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombi, D.; Thors, B.; Persson, T.; Wirén, N.; Larsson, L.-E.; Törnevik, C.

    2013-04-01

    In this work output power distributions of mobile radio base stations have been analyzed for 2G and 3G telecommunication systems. The approach is based on measurements in selected networks using performance surveillance tools part of the network Operational Support System (OSS). For the 3G network considered, direct measurements of output power levels were possible, while for the 2G networks, output power levels were estimated from measurements of traffic volumes. Both voice and data services were included in the investigation. Measurements were conducted for large geographical areas, to ensure good overall statistics, as well as for smaller areas to investigate the impact of different environments. For high traffic hours, the 90th percentile of the averaged output power was found to be below 65% and 45% of the available output power for the 2G and 3G systems, respectively.

  14. Spoofing cyber attack detection in probe-based traffic monitoring systems using mixed integer linear programming

    KAUST Repository

    Canepa, Edward S.

    2013-01-01

    Traffic sensing systems rely more and more on user generated (insecure) data, which can pose a security risk whenever the data is used for traffic flow control. In this article, we propose a new formulation for detecting malicious data injection in traffic flow monitoring systems by using the underlying traffic flow model. The state of traffic is modeled by the Lighthill-Whitham- Richards traffic flow model, which is a first order scalar conservation law with concave flux function. Given a set of traffic flow data, we show that the constraints resulting from this partial differential equation are mixed integer linear inequalities for some decision variable. We use this fact to pose the problem of detecting spoofing cyber-attacks in probe-based traffic flow information systems as mixed integer linear feasibility problem. The resulting framework can be used to detect spoofing attacks in real time, or to evaluate the worst-case effects of an attack offline. A numerical implementation is performed on a cyber-attack scenario involving experimental data from the Mobile Century experiment and the Mobile Millennium system currently operational in Northern California. © 2013 IEEE.

  15. Spoofing cyber attack detection in probe-based traffic monitoring systems using mixed integer linear programming

    KAUST Repository

    Canepa, Edward S.

    2013-09-01

    Traffic sensing systems rely more and more on user generated (insecure) data, which can pose a security risk whenever the data is used for traffic flow control. In this article, we propose a new formulation for detecting malicious data injection in traffic flow monitoring systems by using the underlying traffic flow model. The state of traffic is modeled by the Lighthill- Whitham-Richards traffic flow model, which is a first order scalar conservation law with concave flux function. Given a set of traffic flow data generated by multiple sensors of different types, we show that the constraints resulting from this partial differential equation are mixed integer linear inequalities for a specific decision variable. We use this fact to pose the problem of detecting spoofing cyber attacks in probe-based traffic flow information systems as mixed integer linear feasibility problem. The resulting framework can be used to detect spoofing attacks in real time, or to evaluate the worst-case effects of an attack offliine. A numerical implementation is performed on a cyber attack scenario involving experimental data from the Mobile Century experiment and the Mobile Millennium system currently operational in Northern California. © American Institute of Mathematical Sciences.

  16. Construction of road network vulnerability evaluation index based on general travel cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Jun-qiang; Zhai, Jing; Li, Qian-wen; Zhao, Lin

    2018-03-01

    With the development of China's economy and the continuous improvement of her urban road network, the vulnerability of the urban road network has attracted increasing attention. Based on general travel cost, this work constructs the vulnerability evaluation index for the urban road network, and evaluates the vulnerability of the urban road network from the perspective of user generalised travel cost. Firstly, the generalised travel cost model is constructed based on vehicle cost, travel time, and traveller comfort. Then, the network efficiency index is selected as an evaluation index of vulnerability: the network efficiency index is composed of the traffic volume and the generalised travel cost, which are obtained from the equilibrium state of the network. In addition, the research analyses the influence of traffic capacity decrease, road section attribute value, and location of road section, on vulnerability. Finally, the vulnerability index is used to analyse the local area network of Harbin and verify its applicability.

  17. Timing analysis of rate-constrained traffic in TTEthernet using network calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Luxi; Pop, Paul; Li, Qiao

    2017-01-01

    calculus (NC) to determine the worst-case end-to-end delays of RC traffic in TTEthernet. The main contribution of this paper is capturing the effects of all the integration policies on the latency bounds of RC traffic using NC, and the consideration of relative frame offsets of TT traffic to reduce...

  18. RAIL TRAFFIC VOLUME ESTIMATION BASED ON WORLD DEVELOPMENT INDICATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luka Lazarević

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available European transport policy, defined in the White Paper, supports shift from road to rail and waterborne transport. The hypothesis of the paper is that changes in the economic environment influence rail traffic volume. Therefore, a model for prediction of rail traffic volume applied in different economic contexts could be a valuable tool for the transport planners. The model was built using common Machine Learning techniques that learn from the past experience. In the model preparation, world development indicators defined by the World Bank were used as input parameters.

  19. A wireless computational platform for distributed computing based traffic monitoring involving mixed Eulerian-Lagrangian sensing

    KAUST Repository

    Jiang, Jiming; Claudel, Christian G.

    2013-01-01

    .4GHz 802.15.4 ISM compliant radio module, and can be interfaced with fixed traffic sensors, or receive data from vehicle transponders. The platform is specially designed and optimized to be integrated in a solar-powered wireless sensor network in which

  20. STUDY ON SUPPORTING FOR DRAWING UP THE BCP FOR URBAN EXPRESSWAY NETWORK USING BY TRAFFIC SIMULATION SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamawaki, Masashi; Shiraki, Wataru; Inomo, Hitoshi; Yasuda, Keiichi

    The urban expressway network is an important infrastructure to execute a disaster restoration. Therefore, it is necessary to draw up the BCP (Business Continuity Plan) to enable securing of road user's safety and restoration of facilities, etc. It is important that each urban expressway manager execute decision and improvement of effective BCP countermeasures when disaster occurs by assuming various disaster situations. Then, in this study, we develop the traffic simulation system that can reproduce various disaster situations and traffic actions, and examine some methods supporting for drawing up the BCP for an urban expressway network. For disaster outside assumption such as tsunami generated by a huge earthquake, we examine some approaches securing safety of users and cars on the Hanshin Expressway Network as well as on general roads. And, we aim to propose a tsunami countermeasure not considered in the current urban expressway BCP.