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Sample records for network architecture mcna

  1. Information network architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, N. D.

    1985-01-01

    Graphs, charts, diagrams and outlines of information relative to information network architectures for advanced aerospace missions, such as the Space Station, are presented. Local area information networks are considered a likely technology solution. The principle needs for the network are listed.

  2. Mobile networks architecture

    CERN Document Server

    Perez, Andre

    2013-01-01

    This book explains the evolutions of architecture for mobiles and summarizes the different technologies:- 2G: the GSM (Global System for Mobile) network, the GPRS (General Packet Radio Service) network and the EDGE (Enhanced Data for Global Evolution) evolution;- 3G: the UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunications System) network and the HSPA (High Speed Packet Access) evolutions:- HSDPA (High Speed Downlink Packet Access),- HSUPA (High Speed Uplink Packet Access),- HSPA+;- 4G: the EPS (Evolved Packet System) network.The telephone service and data transmission are the

  3. Future Network Architectures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wessing, Henrik; Bozorgebrahimi, Kurosh; Belter, Bartosz

    2015-01-01

    This study identifies key requirements for NRENs towards future network architectures that become apparent as users become more mobile and have increased expectations in terms of availability of data. In addition, cost saving requirements call for federated use of, in particular, the optical...

  4. Quantifying loopy network architectures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni Katifori

    Full Text Available Biology presents many examples of planar distribution and structural networks having dense sets of closed loops. An archetype of this form of network organization is the vasculature of dicotyledonous leaves, which showcases a hierarchically-nested architecture containing closed loops at many different levels. Although a number of approaches have been proposed to measure aspects of the structure of such networks, a robust metric to quantify their hierarchical organization is still lacking. We present an algorithmic framework, the hierarchical loop decomposition, that allows mapping loopy networks to binary trees, preserving in the connectivity of the trees the architecture of the original graph. We apply this framework to investigate computer generated graphs, such as artificial models and optimal distribution networks, as well as natural graphs extracted from digitized images of dicotyledonous leaves and vasculature of rat cerebral neocortex. We calculate various metrics based on the asymmetry, the cumulative size distribution and the Strahler bifurcation ratios of the corresponding trees and discuss the relationship of these quantities to the architectural organization of the original graphs. This algorithmic framework decouples the geometric information (exact location of edges and nodes from the metric topology (connectivity and edge weight and it ultimately allows us to perform a quantitative statistical comparison between predictions of theoretical models and naturally occurring loopy graphs.

  5. Towards a networkArchitecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rüdiger, Bjarne; Tournay, Bruno

    2001-01-01

    Planche, bidrag til DAL-konkurrencen. Hvor industrien har været inspirationen for udviklingen af den moderne arkitektur, er IT det tekniske og æstetiske grundlag for den spirende NetworkArchitecture. Computeren og netværker af computerne er således mere end en metafor for NetworkArchitecture....... NetworkArchitecture består af intelligente byggekomponenter forbundet med hinanden i et netværk og i interaktion med omgivelser....

  6. Architectures for Wireless Sensor Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dulman, S.O.; Havinga, Paul J.M.

    2005-01-01

    Various architectures have been developed for wireless sensor networks. Many of them leave to the programmer important concepts as the way in which the inter-task communication and dynamic reconfigurations are addressed. In this paper we describe the characteristics of a new architecture we proposed

  7. Network architecture as internet governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Musiani

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The architecture of a networked system is its underlying technical and logical structure, including transmission equipment, communication protocols, infrastructure, and connectivity between its components or nodes. This article introduces the idea of network architecture as internet governance, and more specifically, it outlines the dialectic between centralised and distributed architectures, institutions and practices, and how they mutually affect each other. The article argues that network architecture is internet governance in the sense that, by changing the design of the networks subtending internet-based services and the global internet itself, its politics are affected – the balance of rights between users and providers, the capacity of online communities to engage in open and direct interaction, the fair competition between actors of the internet market.

  8. Heterogeneous network architectures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henrik Lehrmann

    2006-01-01

    Future networks will be heterogeneous! Due to the sheer size of networks (e.g., the Internet) upgrades cannot be instantaneous and thus heterogeneity appears. This means that instead of trying to find the olution, networks hould be designed as being heterogeneous. One of the key equirements here...

  9. Network Analysis, Architecture, and Design

    CERN Document Server

    McCabe, James D

    2007-01-01

    Traditionally, networking has had little or no basis in analysis or architectural development, with designers relying on technologies they are most familiar with or being influenced by vendors or consultants. However, the landscape of networking has changed so that network services have now become one of the most important factors to the success of many third generation networks. It has become an important feature of the designer's job to define the problems that exist in his network, choose and analyze several optimization parameters during the analysis process, and then prioritize and evalua

  10. Emerging Mobile Networking Architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    years to address this problem area. Basic concepts began as early a the 1970s with DARPA sponsored "packet radio" research, yet a new flurry of design...routing, MAC , middleware). The appropriate mechanisms are also not orthogonal to the intended application or deployment scenario of the mobile ad hoc...technology that can improve the capability of future mobile architectures Original work dates back to DARPA packet radio work 1970s More recent flurry of

  11. Wireless Computational Networking Architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    2] T. Ho, M. Medard, R. Kotter , D. Karger, M. Effros, J. Shi, and B. Leong, “A Random Linear Network Coding Approach to Multicast,” IEEE...218, January 2008. [10] R. Kotter and F. R. Kschischang, “Coding for Errors and Erasures in Random Network Coding,” IEEE Transactions on...Systems, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, 2011. 6. B. W. Suter and Z. Yan U.S. Patent Pending 13/949,319 Rank Deficient Decoding

  12. Architecture in the network society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2004-01-01

    Under the theme Architecture in the Network Society, participants were invited to focus on the dialog and sharing of knowledge between architects and other disciplines and to reflect on, and propose, new methods in the design process, to enhance and improve the impact of information technology...

  13. Service entity network virtualization architecture and model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xue-Guang; Shou, Guo-Chu; Hu, Yi-Hong; Guo, Zhi-Gang

    2017-07-01

    Communication network can be treated as a complex network carrying a variety of services and service can be treated as a network composed of functional entities. There are growing interests in multiplex service entities where individual entity and link can be used for different services simultaneously. Entities and their relationships constitute a service entity network. In this paper, we introduced a service entity network virtualization architecture including service entity network hierarchical model, service entity network model, service implementation and deployment of service entity networks. Service entity network oriented multiplex planning model were also studied and many of these multiplex models were characterized by a significant multiplex of the links or entities in different service entity network. Service entity networks were mapped onto shared physical resources by dynamic resource allocation controller. The efficiency of the proposed architecture was illustrated in a simulation environment that allows for comparative performance evaluation. The results show that, compared to traditional networking architecture, this architecture has a better performance.

  14. Sensor Network Architectures for Monitoring Underwater Pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Nader; Jawhar, Imad; Al-Jaroodi, Jameela; Zhang, Liren

    2011-01-01

    This paper develops and compares different sensor network architecture designs that can be used for monitoring underwater pipeline infrastructures. These architectures are underwater wired sensor networks, underwater acoustic wireless sensor networks, RF (Radio Frequency) wireless sensor networks, integrated wired/acoustic wireless sensor networks, and integrated wired/RF wireless sensor networks. The paper also discusses the reliability challenges and enhancement approaches for these network architectures. The reliability evaluation, characteristics, advantages, and disadvantages among these architectures are discussed and compared. Three reliability factors are used for the discussion and comparison: the network connectivity, the continuity of power supply for the network, and the physical network security. In addition, the paper also develops and evaluates a hierarchical sensor network framework for underwater pipeline monitoring. PMID:22346669

  15. Data Architecture for Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Ježek

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Fast development of hardware in recent years leads to the high availability of simple sensing devices at minimal cost. As a consequence, there is many of sensor networks nowadays. These networks can continuously produce a large amount of observed data including the location of measurement. Optimal data architecture for such propose is a challenging issue due to its large scale and spatio-temporal nature.  The aim of this paper is to describe data architecture that was used in a particular solution for storage of sensor data. This solution is based on relation data model – concretely PostgreSQL and PostGIS. We will mention out experience from real world projects focused on car monitoring and project targeted on agriculture sensor networks. We will also shortly demonstrate the possibilities of client side API and the potential of other open source libraries that can be used for cartographic visualization (e.g. GeoServer. The main objective is to describe the strength and weakness of usage of relation database system for such propose and to introduce also alternative approaches based on NoSQL concept.

  16. Security Shift in Future Network Architectures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, T.; Schotanus, H.A.; Verkoelen, C.A.A.

    2010-01-01

    In current practice military communication infrastructures are deployed as stand-alone networked information systems. Network-Enabled Capabilities (NEC) and combined military operations lead to new requirements which current communication architectures cannot deliver. This paper informs IT

  17. A node architecture for disaster relief networking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeksema, F.W.; Heskamp, M.; Schiphorst, Roelof; Slump, Cornelis H.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we present node architecture for a personal node in a cognitive ad-hoc disaster relief network. This architecture is motivated from the network system requirements, especially single-hop distance and jamming-resilience requirements. It is shown that the power consumption of current-day

  18. A Security Architecture for Health Information Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Kailar, Rajashekar

    2007-01-01

    Health information network security needs to balance exacting security controls with practicality, and ease of implementation in today’s healthcare enterprise. Recent work on ‘nationwide health information network’ architectures has sought to share highly confidential data over insecure networks such as the Internet. Using basic patterns of health network data flow and trust models to support secure communication between network nodes, we abstract network security requirements to a core set t...

  19. An architecture for human-network interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnenwald, Diane H.

    1990-01-01

    Some of the issues (and their consequences) that arise when human-network interfaces (HNIs) are viewed from the perspective of people who use and develop them are examined. Target attributes of HNI architecture are presented. A high-level architecture model that supports the attributes is discussed...

  20. Microsoft Windows 2000 Network Architecture Guide

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bartock, Paul

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this guide is to inform the reader about the services that are available in the Microsoft Windows 2000 environment and how to integrate these services into their network architecture...

  1. The functional consequences of mutualistic network architecture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M Gómez

    Full Text Available The architecture and properties of many complex networks play a significant role in the functioning of the systems they describe. Recently, complex network theory has been applied to ecological entities, like food webs or mutualistic plant-animal interactions. Unfortunately, we still lack an accurate view of the relationship between the architecture and functioning of ecological networks. In this study we explore this link by building individual-based pollination networks from eight Erysimum mediohispanicum (Brassicaceae populations. In these individual-based networks, each individual plant in a population was considered a node, and was connected by means of undirected links to conspecifics sharing pollinators. The architecture of these unipartite networks was described by means of nestedness, connectivity and transitivity. Network functioning was estimated by quantifying the performance of the population described by each network as the number of per-capita juvenile plants produced per population. We found a consistent relationship between the topology of the networks and their functioning, since variation across populations in the average per-capita production of juvenile plants was positively and significantly related with network nestedness, connectivity and clustering. Subtle changes in the composition of diverse pollinator assemblages can drive major consequences for plant population performance and local persistence through modifications in the structure of the inter-plant pollination networks.

  2. implementation of internet protocol network architecture

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    ABSTRACT. Advances in multimedia technologies and development of overlay networks foster the opportu- nity for creating new value-added services over the current Internet. In this paper, a new service network architecture that supports multiparty multimedia conferencing applications, character- istics of which include ...

  3. Network interconnections: an architectural reference model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Butscher, B.; Lenzini, L.; Morling, R.; Vissers, C.A.; Popescu-Zeletin, R.; van Sinderen, Marten J.; Heger, D.; Krueger, G.; Spaniol, O.; Zorn, W.

    1985-01-01

    One of the major problems in understanding the different approaches in interconnecting networks of different technologies is the lack of reference to a general model. The paper develops the rationales for a reference model of network interconnection and focuses on the architectural implications for

  4. Network architecture functional description and design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stans, L.; Bencoe, M.; Brown, D.; Kelly, S.; Pierson, L.; Schaldach, C.

    1989-05-25

    This report provides a top level functional description and design for the development and implementation of the central network to support the next generation of SNL, Albuquerque supercomputer in a UNIX{reg sign} environment. It describes the network functions and provides an architecture and topology.

  5. Virtualized cognitive network architecture for 5G cellular networks

    KAUST Repository

    Elsawy, Hesham

    2015-07-17

    Cellular networks have preserved an application agnostic and base station (BS) centric architecture1 for decades. Network functionalities (e.g. user association) are decided and performed regardless of the underlying application (e.g. automation, tactile Internet, online gaming, multimedia). Such an ossified architecture imposes several hurdles against achieving the ambitious metrics of next generation cellular systems. This article first highlights the features and drawbacks of such architectural ossification. Then the article proposes a virtualized and cognitive network architecture, wherein network functionalities are implemented via software instances in the cloud, and the underlying architecture can adapt to the application of interest as well as to changes in channels and traffic conditions. The adaptation is done in terms of the network topology by manipulating connectivities and steering traffic via different paths, so as to attain the applications\\' requirements and network design objectives. The article presents cognitive strategies to implement some of the classical network functionalities, along with their related implementation challenges. The article further presents a case study illustrating the performance improvement of the proposed architecture as compared to conventional cellular networks, both in terms of outage probability and handover rate.

  6. Mobile opportunistic networks architectures, protocols and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Denko, Mieso K

    2011-01-01

    Widespread availability of pervasive and mobile devices coupled with recent advances in networking technologies make opportunistic networks one of the most promising communication technologies for a growing number of future mobile applications. Covering the basics as well as advanced concepts, this book introduces state-of-the-art research findings, technologies, tools, and innovations. Prominent researchers from academia and industry report on communication architectures, network algorithms and protocols, emerging applications, experimental studies, simulation tools, implementation test beds,

  7. A security architecture for health information networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kailar, Rajashekar; Muralidhar, Vinod

    2007-10-11

    Health information network security needs to balance exacting security controls with practicality, and ease of implementation in today's healthcare enterprise. Recent work on 'nationwide health information network' architectures has sought to share highly confidential data over insecure networks such as the Internet. Using basic patterns of health network data flow and trust models to support secure communication between network nodes, we abstract network security requirements to a core set to enable secure inter-network data sharing. We propose a minimum set of security controls that can be implemented without needing major new technologies, but yet realize network security and privacy goals of confidentiality, integrity and availability. This framework combines a set of technology mechanisms with environmental controls, and is shown to be sufficient to counter commonly encountered network security threats adequately.

  8. Architecture for Mobile Heterogeneous Multi Domain Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjan Durresi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Multi domain networks can be used in several scenarios including military, enterprize networks, emergency networks and many other cases. In such networks, each domain might be under its own administration. Therefore, the cooperation among domains is conditioned by individual domain policies regarding sharing information, such as network topology, connectivity, mobility, security, various service availability and so on. We propose a new architecture for Heterogeneous Multi Domain (HMD networks, in which one the operations are subject to specific domain policies. We propose a hierarchical architecture, with an infrastructure of gateways at highest-control level that enables policy based interconnection, mobility and other services among domains. Gateways are responsible for translation among different communication protocols, including routing, signalling, and security. Besides the architecture, we discuss in more details the mobility and adaptive capacity of services in HMD. We discuss the HMD scalability and other advantages compared to existing architectural and mobility solutions. Furthermore, we analyze the dynamic availability at the control level of the hierarchy.

  9. Cognitive optical networks: architectures and techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grebeshkov, Alexander Y.

    2017-04-01

    This article analyzes architectures and techniques of the optical networks with taking into account the cognitive methodology based on continuous cycle "Observe-Orient-Plan-Decide-Act-Learn" and the ability of the cognitive systems adjust itself through an adaptive process by responding to new changes in the environment. Cognitive optical network architecture includes cognitive control layer with knowledge base for control of software-configurable devices as reconfigurable optical add-drop multiplexers, flexible optical transceivers, software-defined receivers. Some techniques for cognitive optical networks as flexible-grid technology, broker-oriented technique, machine learning are examined. Software defined optical network and integration of wireless and optical networks with radio over fiber technique and fiber-wireless technique in the context of cognitive technologies are discussed.

  10. Stable architectures for deep neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haber, Eldad; Ruthotto, Lars

    2018-01-01

    Deep neural networks have become invaluable tools for supervised machine learning, e.g. classification of text or images. While often offering superior results over traditional techniques and successfully expressing complicated patterns in data, deep architectures are known to be challenging to design and train such that they generalize well to new data. Critical issues with deep architectures are numerical instabilities in derivative-based learning algorithms commonly called exploding or vanishing gradients. In this paper, we propose new forward propagation techniques inspired by systems of ordinary differential equations (ODE) that overcome this challenge and lead to well-posed learning problems for arbitrarily deep networks. The backbone of our approach is our interpretation of deep learning as a parameter estimation problem of nonlinear dynamical systems. Given this formulation, we analyze stability and well-posedness of deep learning and use this new understanding to develop new network architectures. We relate the exploding and vanishing gradient phenomenon to the stability of the discrete ODE and present several strategies for stabilizing deep learning for very deep networks. While our new architectures restrict the solution space, several numerical experiments show their competitiveness with state-of-the-art networks.

  11. Integrated Network Architecture for NASA's Orion Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhasin, Kul B.; Hayden, Jeffrey L.; Sartwell, Thomas; Miller, Ronald A.; Hudiburg, John J.

    2008-01-01

    NASA is planning a series of short and long duration human and robotic missions to explore the Moon and then Mars. The series of missions will begin with a new crew exploration vehicle (called Orion) that will initially provide crew exchange and cargo supply support to the International Space Station (ISS) and then become a human conveyance for travel to the Moon. The Orion vehicle will be mounted atop the Ares I launch vehicle for a series of pre-launch tests and then launched and inserted into low Earth orbit (LEO) for crew exchange missions to the ISS. The Orion and Ares I comprise the initial vehicles in the Constellation system of systems that later includes Ares V, Earth departure stage, lunar lander, and other lunar surface systems for the lunar exploration missions. These key systems will enable the lunar surface exploration missions to be initiated in 2018. The complexity of the Constellation system of systems and missions will require a communication and navigation infrastructure to provide low and high rate forward and return communication services, tracking services, and ground network services. The infrastructure must provide robust, reliable, safe, sustainable, and autonomous operations at minimum cost while maximizing the exploration capabilities and science return. The infrastructure will be based on a network of networks architecture that will integrate NASA legacy communication, modified elements, and navigation systems. New networks will be added to extend communication, navigation, and timing services for the Moon missions. Internet protocol (IP) and network management systems within the networks will enable interoperability throughout the Constellation system of systems. An integrated network architecture has developed based on the emerging Constellation requirements for Orion missions. The architecture, as presented in this paper, addresses the early Orion missions to the ISS with communication, navigation, and network services over five

  12. MIRAI Architecture for Heterogeneous Network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Gang; Mizuno, Mitsuhiko; Havinga, Paul J.M.

    One of the keywords that describe next-generation wireless communications is "seamless." As part of the e-Japan Plan promoted by the Japanese Government, the Multimedia Integrated Network by Radio Access Innovation project has as its goal the development of new technologies to enable seamless

  13. Architecture for networked electronic patient record systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, H; Matsumura, Y; Kuwata, S; Nakano, H; Sakamoto, N; Yamamoto, R

    2000-11-01

    There have been two major approaches to the development of networked electronic patient record (EPR) architecture. One uses object-oriented methodologies for constructing the model, which include the GEHR project, Synapses, HL7 RIM and so on. The second approach uses document-oriented methodologies, as applied in examples of HL7 PRA. It is practically beneficial to take the advantages of both approaches and to add solution technologies for network security such as PKI. In recognition of the similarity with electronic commerce, a certificate authority as a trusted third party will be organised for establishing networked EPR system. This paper describes a Japanese functional model that has been developed, and proposes a document-object-oriented architecture, which is-compared with other existing models.

  14. An Evolutionary Optimization Framework for Neural Networks and Neuromorphic Architectures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuman, Catherine D [ORNL; Plank, James [University of Tennessee (UT); Disney, Adam [University of Tennessee (UT); Reynolds, John [University of Tennessee (UT)

    2016-01-01

    As new neural network and neuromorphic architectures are being developed, new training methods that operate within the constraints of the new architectures are required. Evolutionary optimization (EO) is a convenient training method for new architectures. In this work, we review a spiking neural network architecture and a neuromorphic architecture, and we describe an EO training framework for these architectures. We present the results of this training framework on four classification data sets and compare those results to other neural network and neuromorphic implementations. We also discuss how this EO framework may be extended to other architectures.

  15. Architecture dependence of actin filament network disassembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gressin, Laurène; Guillotin, Audrey; Guérin, Christophe; Blanchoin, Laurent; Michelot, Alphée

    2015-06-01

    Turnover of actin networks in cells requires the fast disassembly of aging actin structures. While ADF/cofilin and Aip1 have been identified as central players, how their activities are modulated by the architecture of the networks remains unknown. Using our ability to reconstitute a diverse array of cellular actin organizations, we found that ADF/cofilin binding and ADF/cofilin-mediated disassembly both depend on actin geometrical organization. ADF/cofilin decorates strongly and stabilizes actin cables, whereas its weaker interaction to Arp2/3 complex networks is correlated with their dismantling and their reorganization into stable architectures. Cooperation of ADF/cofilin with Aip1 is necessary to trigger the full disassembly of all actin filament networks. Additional experiments performed at the single-molecule level indicate that this cooperation is optimal above a threshold of 23 molecules of ADF/cofilin bound as clusters along an actin filament. Our results indicate that although ADF/cofilin is able to dismantle selectively branched networks through severing and debranching, stochastic disassembly of actin filaments by ADF/cofilin and Aip1 represents an efficient alternative pathway for the full disassembly of all actin networks. Our data support a model in which the binding of ADF/cofilin is required to trigger a structural change of the actin filaments, as a prerequisite for their disassembly by Aip1. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Cloud Radio Access Network architecture. Towards 5G mobile networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Checko, Aleksandra

    Cloud Radio Access Network (C-RAN) is a novel mobile network architecture which can address a number of challenges that mobile operators face while trying to support ever-growing end-users’ needs towards 5th generation of mobile networks (5G). The main idea behind C-RAN is to split the base......, and for the analyzed scenario it can assure synchronization on the nanosecond level, fulfilling mobile network requirements. Furthermore, mechanisms to lower delay and jitter have been identified, namely: source scheduling and preemption. An innovative source scheduling scheme which can minimize jitter has been...

  17. Re-engineering Nascom's network management architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Brian C.; Messent, David

    1994-01-01

    The development of Nascom systems for ground communications began in 1958 with Project Vanguard. The low-speed systems (rates less than 9.6 Kbs) were developed following existing standards; but, there were no comparable standards for high-speed systems. As a result, these systems were developed using custom protocols and custom hardware. Technology has made enormous strides since the ground support systems were implemented. Standards for computer equipment, software, and high-speed communications exist and the performance of current workstations exceeds that of the mainframes used in the development of the ground systems. Nascom is in the process of upgrading its ground support systems and providing additional services. The Message Switching System (MSS), Communications Address Processor (CAP), and Multiplexer/Demultiplexer (MDM) Automated Control System (MACS) are all examples of Nascom systems developed using standards such as, X-windows, Motif, and Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP). Also, the Earth Observing System (EOS) Communications (Ecom) project is stressing standards as an integral part of its network. The move towards standards has produced a reduction in development, maintenance, and interoperability costs, while providing operational quality improvement. The Facility and Resource Manager (FARM) project has been established to integrate the Nascom networks and systems into a common network management architecture. The maximization of standards and implementation of computer automation in the architecture will lead to continued cost reductions and increased operational efficiency. The first step has been to derive overall Nascom requirements and identify the functionality common to all the current management systems. The identification of these common functions will enable the reuse of processes in the management architecture and promote increased use of automation throughout the Nascom network. The MSS, CAP, MACS, and Ecom projects have indicated

  18. Navigation Architecture for a Space Mobile Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, Jennifer E.; Ashman, Benjamin; Gramling, Cheryl; Heckler, Gregory W.; Carpenter, Russell

    2016-01-01

    The Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) Augmentation Service for Satellites (TASS) is a proposed beacon service to provide a global, space based GPS augmentation service based on the NASA Global Differential GPS (GDGPS) System. The TASS signal will be tied to the GPS time system and usable as an additional ranging and Doppler radiometric source. Additionally, it will provide data vital to autonomous navigation in the near Earth regime, including space weather information, TDRS ephemerides, Earth Orientation Parameters (EOP), and forward commanding capability. TASS benefits include enhancing situational awareness, enabling increased autonomy, and providing near real-time command access for user platforms. As NASA Headquarters' Space Communication and Navigation Office (SCaN) begins to move away from a centralized network architecture and towards a Space Mobile Network (SMN) that allows for user initiated services, autonomous navigation will be a key part of such a system. This paper explores how a TASS beacon service enables the Space Mobile Networking paradigm, what a typical user platform would require, and provides an in-depth analysis of several navigation scenarios and operations concepts. This paper provides an overview of the TASS beacon and its role within the SMN and user community. Supporting navigation analysis is presented for two user mission scenarios: an Earth observing spacecraft in low earth orbit (LEO), and a highly elliptical spacecraft in a lunar resonance orbit. These diverse flight scenarios indicate the breadth of applicability of the TASS beacon for upcoming users within the current network architecture and in the SMN.

  19. NATO Human View Architecture and Human Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handley, Holly A. H.; Houston, Nancy P.

    2010-01-01

    The NATO Human View is a system architectural viewpoint that focuses on the human as part of a system. Its purpose is to capture the human requirements and to inform on how the human impacts the system design. The viewpoint contains seven static models that include different aspects of the human element, such as roles, tasks, constraints, training and metrics. It also includes a Human Dynamics component to perform simulations of the human system under design. One of the static models, termed Human Networks, focuses on the human-to-human communication patterns that occur as a result of ad hoc or deliberate team formation, especially teams distributed across space and time. Parameters of human teams that effect system performance can be captured in this model. Human centered aspects of networks, such as differences in operational tempo (sense of urgency), priorities (common goal), and team history (knowledge of the other team members), can be incorporated. The information captured in the Human Network static model can then be included in the Human Dynamics component so that the impact of distributed teams is represented in the simulation. As the NATO militaries transform to a more networked force, the Human View architecture is an important tool that can be used to make recommendations on the proper mix of technological innovations and human interactions.

  20. Probabilistic logic modeling of network reliability for hybrid network architectures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wyss, G.D.; Schriner, H.K.; Gaylor, T.R.

    1996-10-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has found that the reliability and failure modes of current-generation network technologies can be effectively modeled using fault tree-based probabilistic logic modeling (PLM) techniques. We have developed fault tree models that include various hierarchical networking technologies and classes of components interconnected in a wide variety of typical and atypical configurations. In this paper we discuss the types of results that can be obtained from PLMs and why these results are of great practical value to network designers and analysts. After providing some mathematical background, we describe the `plug-and-play` fault tree analysis methodology that we have developed for modeling connectivity and the provision of network services in several current- generation network architectures. Finally, we demonstrate the flexibility of the method by modeling the reliability of a hybrid example network that contains several interconnected ethernet, FDDI, and token ring segments. 11 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  1. A Survey of 5G Network: Architecture and Emerging Technologies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gupta, A; Jha, R. K

    2015-01-01

    .... This paper presents the results of a detailed survey on the fifth generation (5G) cellular network architecture and some of the key emerging technologies that are helpful in improving the architecture and meeting the demands of users...

  2. An interaction switch predicts the nested architecture of mutualistic networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feng; Hui, Cang; Terblanche, John S

    2011-08-01

    Nested architecture is distinctive in plant-animal mutualistic networks. However, to date an integrative and quantitative explanation has been lacking. It is evident that species often switch their interactive partners in real-world mutualistic networks such as pollination and seed-dispersal networks. By incorporating an interaction switch into a novel multi-population model, we show that the nested architecture rapidly emerges from an initially random network. The model allowing interaction switches between partner species produced predictions which fit remarkably well with observations from 81 empirical networks. Thus, the nested architecture in mutualistic networks could be an intrinsic physical structure of dynamic networks and the interaction switch is likely a key ecological process that results in nestedness of real-world networks. Identifying the biological processes responsible for network structures is thus crucial for understanding the architecture of ecological networks. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.

  3. Deep Space Network information system architecture study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beswick, C. A.; Markley, R. W. (Editor); Atkinson, D. J.; Cooper, L. P.; Tausworthe, R. C.; Masline, R. C.; Jenkins, J. S.; Crowe, R. A.; Thomas, J. L.; Stoloff, M. J.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe an architecture for the DSN information system in the years 2000-2010 and to provide guidelines for its evolution during the 1990's. The study scope is defined to be from the front-end areas at the antennas to the end users (spacecraft teams, principal investigators, archival storage systems, and non-NASA partners). The architectural vision provides guidance for major DSN implementation efforts during the next decade. A strong motivation for the study is an expected dramatic improvement in information-systems technologies--i.e., computer processing, automation technology (including knowledge-based systems), networking and data transport, software and hardware engineering, and human-interface technology. The proposed Ground Information System has the following major features: unified architecture from the front-end area to the end user; open-systems standards to achieve interoperability; DSN production of level 0 data; delivery of level 0 data from the Deep Space Communications Complex, if desired; dedicated telemetry processors for each receiver; security against unauthorized access and errors; and highly automated monitor and control.

  4. Establishment of a Spaceport Network Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Wiley J.; Gill, Tracy R.; Mueller, Robert P.; Brink, Jeffrey S.

    2012-01-01

    Since the beginning of the space age, the main actors in space exploration have been governmental agencies, enabling a privileged access to space, but with very restricted and rare missions. The last decade has seen the rise of space tourism, and the founding of ambitious private space mining companies, showing the beginnings of a new exploration era, that is based on a more generalized and regular access to space and which is not limited to the Earth's vicinity. However, the cost of launching sufficient mass into orbit to sustain these inspiring challenges is prohibitive, and the necessary infrastructures to support these missions is still lacking. To provide easy and affordable access into orbital and deep space destinations, there is the need to create a network of spaceports via specific waypoint locations coupled with the use of natural resources, or In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU), to provide a more economical solution. As part of the International Space University Space Studies Program 2012, the international and intercultural team of Operations and Service Infrastructure for Space (OASIS) proposes an interdisciplinary answer to the problem of economical space access and transportation. This paper presents a summary of a detailed report [1] of the different phases of a project for developing a network of spaceports throughout the Solar System in a timeframe of 50 years. The requirements, functions, critical technologies and mission architecture of this network of spaceports are outlined in a roadmap of the important steps and phases. The economic and financial aspects are emphasized in order to allow a sustainable development of the network in a public-private partnership via the formation of an International Spaceport Authority (ISPA). The approach includes engineering, scientific, financial, legal, policy, and societal aspects. Team OASIS intends to provide guidelines to make the development of space transportation via a spaceports logistics network

  5. MSAT signalling and network management architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, Peter; Keelty, J. Malcolm

    1989-01-01

    Spar Aerospace has been active in the design and definition of Mobile Satellite Systems since the mid 1970's. In work sponsored by the Canadian Department of Communications, various payload configurations have evolved. In addressing the payload configuration, the requirements of the mobile user, the service provider and the satellite operator have always been the most important consideration. The current Spar 11 beam satellite design is reviewed, and its capabilities to provide flexibility and potential for network growth within the WARC87 allocations are explored. To enable the full capabilities of the payload to be realized, a large amount of ground based Switching and Network Management infrastructure will be required, when space segment becomes available. Early indications were that a single custom designed Demand Assignment Multiple Access (DAMA) switch should be implemented to provide efficient use of the space segment. As MSAT has evolved into a multiple service concept, supporting many service providers, this architecture should be reviewed. Some possible signalling and Network Management solutions are explored.

  6. WDM-PON Architecture for FTTx Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannone, E.; Franco, P.; Santoni, S.

    Broadband services for residential users in European countries have until now largely relied on xDSL technologies, while FTTx technologies have been mainly exploited in Asia and North America. The increasing bandwidth demand and the growing penetration of new services are pushing the deployment of optical access networks, and major European operators are now announcing FTTx projects. While FTTH is recognized as the target solution to bring broadband services to residential users, the identification of an FTTx evolutionary path able to seamlessly migrate to FTTH is key to enabling a massive deployment, easing the huge investments needed. WDM-PON architecture is an interesting solution that is able to accommodate the strategic need of building a new fiber-based access infrastructure with the possibility of adapting investments to actual demands and evolving to FTTH without requiring further interventions on fiber infrastructures.

  7. A research on the application of software defined networking in satellite network architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Huan; Chen, Jinqiang; Cao, Suzhi; Cui, Dandan; Li, Tong; Su, Yuxing

    2017-10-01

    Software defined network is a new type of network architecture, which decouples control plane and data plane of traditional network, has the feature of flexible configurations and is a direction of the next generation terrestrial Internet development. Satellite network is an important part of the space-ground integrated information network, while the traditional satellite network has the disadvantages of difficult network topology maintenance and slow configuration. The application of SDN technology in satellite network can solve these problems that traditional satellite network faces. At present, the research on the application of SDN technology in satellite network is still in the stage of preliminary study. In this paper, we start with introducing the SDN technology and satellite network architecture. Then we mainly introduce software defined satellite network architecture, as well as the comparison of different software defined satellite network architecture and satellite network virtualization. Finally, the present research status and development trend of SDN technology in satellite network are analyzed.

  8. A hardware implementation of neural network with modified HANNIBAL architecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Bum youb; Chung, Duck Jin [Inha University, Inchon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-03-01

    A digital hardware architecture for artificial neural network with learning capability is described in this paper. It is a modified hardware architecture known as HANNIBAL(Hardware Architecture for Neural Networks Implementing Back propagation Algorithm Learning). For implementing an efficient neural network hardware, we analyzed various type of multiplier which is major function block of neuro-processor cell. With this result, we design a efficient digital neural network hardware using serial/parallel multiplier, and test the operation. We also analyze the hardware efficiency with logic level simulation. (author). 14 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Transformation of legacy network management system to service oriented architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathyan, Jithesh; Shenoy, Krishnananda

    2007-09-01

    Service providers today are facing the challenge of operating and maintaining multiple networks, based on multiple technologies. Network Management System (NMS) solutions are being used to manage these networks. However the NMS is tightly coupled with Element or the Core network components. Hence there are multiple NMS solutions for heterogeneous networks. Current network management solutions are targeted at a variety of independent networks. The wide spread popularity of IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) is a clear indication that all of these independent networks will be integrated into a single IP-based infrastructure referred to as Next Generation Networks (NGN) in the near future. The services, network architectures and traffic pattern in NGN will dramatically differ from the current networks. The heterogeneity and complexity in NGN including concepts like Fixed Mobile Convergence will bring a number of challenges to network management. The high degree of complexity accompanying the network element technology necessitates network management systems (NMS) which can utilize this technology to provide more service interfaces while hiding the inherent complexity. As operators begin to add new networks and expand existing networks to support new technologies and products, the necessity of scalable, flexible and functionally rich NMS systems arises. Another important factor influencing NMS architecture is mergers and acquisitions among the key vendors. Ease of integration is a key impediment in the traditional hierarchical NMS architecture. These requirements trigger the need for an architectural framework that will address the NGNM (Next Generation Network Management) issues seamlessly. This paper presents a unique perspective of bringing service orientated architecture (SOA) to legacy network management systems (NMS). It advocates a staged approach in transforming a legacy NMS to SOA. The architecture at each stage is detailed along with the technical advantages and

  10. Greening radio access networks using distributed base station architectures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kardaras, Georgios; Soler, José; Dittmann, Lars

    2010-01-01

    . However besides this, increasing energy efficiency represents a key factor for reducing operating expenses and deploying cost effective mobile networks. This paper presents how distributed base station architectures can contribute in greening radio access networks. More specifically, the advantages...... energy saving. Different subsystems have to be coordinated real-time and intelligent network nodes supporting complicated functionalities are necessary. Distributed base station architectures are ideal for this purpose mainly because of their high degree of configurability and self...

  11. Advances in network systems architectures, security, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Awad, Ali; Furtak, Janusz; Legierski, Jarosław

    2017-01-01

    This book provides the reader with a comprehensive selection of cutting–edge algorithms, technologies, and applications. The volume offers new insights into a range of fundamentally important topics in network architectures, network security, and network applications. It serves as a reference for researchers and practitioners by featuring research contributions exemplifying research done in the field of network systems. In addition, the book highlights several key topics in both theoretical and practical aspects of networking. These include wireless sensor networks, performance of TCP connections in mobile networks, photonic data transport networks, security policies, credentials management, data encryption for network transmission, risk management, live TV services, and multicore energy harvesting in distributed systems. .

  12. Space Mobile Network: A Near Earth Communication and Navigation Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israel, Dave J.; Heckler, Greg; Menrad, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a Space Mobile Network architecture, the result of a recently completed NASA study exploring architectural concepts to produce a vision for the future Near Earth communications and navigation systems. The Space Mobile Network (SMN) incorporates technologies, such as Disruption Tolerant Networking (DTN) and optical communications, and new operations concepts, such as User Initiated Services, to provide user services analogous to a terrestrial smartphone user. The paper will describe the SMN Architecture, envisioned future operations concepts, opportunities for industry and international collaboration and interoperability, and technology development areas and goals.

  13. Security Aspects of an Enterprise-Wide Network Architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loew, Robert; Stengel, Ingo; Bleimann, Udo; McDonald, Aidan

    1999-01-01

    Presents an overview of two projects that concern local area networks and the common point between networks as they relate to network security. Discusses security architectures based on firewall components, packet filters, application gateways, security-management components, an intranet solution, user registration by Web form, and requests for…

  14. A concrete example of a Personal Network architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, F.T.H. den; Peeters, M.E.

    2006-01-01

    A Personal Network (PN) is created when the various private networks of a single user are always seamlessly interconnected, despite the mobility of the user. To realize this vision we have designed an architecture of a simple, concrete example of such a PN. It consists of just a home network and a

  15. An Architecture for Cooperative Localization in Underwater Acoustic Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-24

    An Architecture for Cooperative Localization in Underwater Acoustic Networks ∗ Jeffrey M. Walls University of Michigan Ann Arbor, Michigan jmwalls...umich.edu Ryan M. Eustice University of Michigan Ann Arbor, Michigan eustice@umich.edu ABSTRACT This paper outlines an architecture for underwater...underwater navigation framework. In this paper, we outline the design, implemen- tation, and deployment of a system architecture for multiple vehicle

  16. Wireless sensor networks architectures and protocols

    CERN Document Server

    Callaway, Jr, Edgar H

    2003-01-01

    Introduction to Wireless Sensor NetworksApplications and MotivationNetwork Performance ObjectivesContributions of this BookOrganization of this BookThe Development of Wireless Sensor NetworksEarly Wireless NetworksWireless Data NetworksWireless Sensor and Related NetworksConclusionThe Physical LayerSome Physical Layer ExamplesA Practical Physical Layer for Wireless Sensor NetworksSimulations and ResultsConclusionThe Data Link LayerMedium Access Control TechniquesThe Mediation DeviceSystem Analysis and SimulationConclusionThe Network LayerSome Network Design ExamplesA Wireless Sensor Network De

  17. The Hi-Ring architecture for datacentre networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galili, Michael; Kamchevska, Valerija; Ding, Yunhong

    2016-01-01

    This paper summarizes recent work on a hierarchical ring-based network architecture (Hi-Ring) for datacentre and short-range applications. The architecture allows leveraging benefits of optical switching technologies while maintaining a high level of connection granularity. We discuss results...

  18. A Reference Architecture for Network-Centric Information Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Renner, Scott; Schaefer, Ronald

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents the "C2 Enterprise Reference Architecture" (C2ERA), which is a new technical concept of operations for building information systems better suited to the Network-Centric Warfare (NCW) environment...

  19. A NOVEL ARCHITECTURE FOR SDN-BASED CELLULAR NETWORK

    OpenAIRE

    Md. Humayun Kabir

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel SDN-based cellular network architecture that will be able to utilize the opportunities of centralized administration of today’s emerging mobile network. Our proposed architecture would not depend on a single controller, rather it divides the whole cellular area into clusters, and each cluster is controlled by a separate controller. A number of controller services are provided on top of each controller to manage all the major functionalities of the...

  20. Designing Networked Energy Infrastructures with Architectural Flexibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melese, Y.G.; Heijnen, P.W.; Stikkelman, R.M.

    2014-01-01

    Development of networked energy infrastructures (like gas pipe networks), generally requires a significant amount of capital investment under resources, market and institutional uncertainties. Several independent suppliers and consumers are to be connected into these networks. However, the actual

  1. Using overlay network architectures for scalable video distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrikakis, Charalampos Z.; Despotopoulos, Yannis; Fafali, Paraskevi; Cha, Jihun; Kim, Kyuheon

    2004-11-01

    Within the last years, the enormous growth of Internet based communication as well as the rapid increase of available processing power has lead to the widespread use of multimedia streaming as a means to convey information. This work aims at providing an open architecture designed to support scalable streaming to a large number of clients using application layer multicast. The architecture is based on media relay nodes that can be deployed transparently to any existing media distribution scheme, which can support media streamed using the RTP and RTSP protocols. The architecture is based on overlay networks at application level, featuring rate adaptation mechanisms for responding to network congestion.

  2. Public Safety Broadband Network Architecture Description

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    through roaming agreements o Clearinghouse IP eXchange o Satellite hub station o VSAT terminals o Transport network (backhaul) o Lawful intercept...Mobile Network VPN Virtual Private Network VQiPS Video Quality in Public Safety VSAT Very Small Aperture Terminal WAN Wide Area Network Wi-Fi

  3. Software architecture for hybrid electrical/optical data center network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehmeri, Victor; Vegas Olmos, Juan José; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents hardware and software architecture based on Software-Defined Networking (SDN) paradigm and OpenFlow/NETCONF protocols for enabling topology management of hybrid electrical/optical switching data center networks. In particular, a development on top of SDN open-source controller...

  4. Architecture for Cognitive Networking within NASAs Future Space Communications Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Gilbert J., III; Eddy, Wesley M.; Johnson, Sandra K.; Barnes, James; Brooks, David

    2016-01-01

    Future space mission concepts and designs pose many networking challenges for command, telemetry, and science data applications with diverse end-to-end data delivery needs. For future end-to-end architecture designs, a key challenge is meeting expected application quality of service requirements for multiple simultaneous mission data flows with options to use diverse onboard local data buses, commercial ground networks, and multiple satellite relay constellations in LEO, MEO, GEO, or even deep space relay links. Effectively utilizing a complex network topology requires orchestration and direction that spans the many discrete, individually addressable computer systems, which cause them to act in concert to achieve the overall network goals. The system must be intelligent enough to not only function under nominal conditions, but also adapt to unexpected situations, and reorganize or adapt to perform roles not originally intended for the system or explicitly programmed. This paper describes architecture features of cognitive networking within the future NASA space communications infrastructure, and interacting with the legacy systems and infrastructure in the meantime. The paper begins by discussing the need for increased automation, including inter-system collaboration. This discussion motivates the features of an architecture including cognitive networking for future missions and relays, interoperating with both existing endpoint-based networking models and emerging information-centric models. From this basis, we discuss progress on a proof-of-concept implementation of this architecture as a cognitive networking on-orbit application on the SCaN Testbed attached to the International Space Station.

  5. Architecture for Cognitive Networking within NASA's Future Space Communications Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Gilbert; Eddy, Wesley M.; Johnson, Sandra K.; Barnes, James; Brooks, David

    2016-01-01

    Future space mission concepts and designs pose many networking challenges for command, telemetry, and science data applications with diverse end-to-end data delivery needs. For future end-to-end architecture designs, a key challenge is meeting expected application quality of service requirements for multiple simultaneous mission data flows with options to use diverse onboard local data buses, commercial ground networks, and multiple satellite relay constellations in LEO, GEO, MEO, or even deep space relay links. Effectively utilizing a complex network topology requires orchestration and direction that spans the many discrete, individually addressable computer systems, which cause them to act in concert to achieve the overall network goals. The system must be intelligent enough to not only function under nominal conditions, but also adapt to unexpected situations, and reorganize or adapt to perform roles not originally intended for the system or explicitly programmed. This paper describes an architecture enabling the development and deployment of cognitive networking capabilities into the envisioned future NASA space communications infrastructure. We begin by discussing the need for increased automation, including inter-system discovery and collaboration. This discussion frames the requirements for an architecture supporting cognitive networking for future missions and relays, including both existing endpoint-based networking models and emerging information-centric models. From this basis, we discuss progress on a proof-of-concept implementation of this architecture, and results of implementation and initial testing of a cognitive networking on-orbit application on the SCaN Testbed attached to the International Space Station.

  6. Designing network on-chip architectures in the nanoscale era

    CERN Document Server

    Flich, Jose

    2010-01-01

    Going beyond isolated research ideas and design experiences, Designing Network On-Chip Architectures in the Nanoscale Era covers the foundations and design methods of network on-chip (NoC) technology. The contributors draw on their own lessons learned to provide strong practical guidance on various design issues.Exploring the design process of the network, the first part of the book focuses on basic aspects of switch architecture and design, topology selection, and routing implementation. In the second part, contributors discuss their experiences in the industry, offering a roadmap to recent p

  7. The architecture of a network level intrusion detection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heady, R.; Luger, G.; Maccabe, A.; Servilla, M. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Computer Science

    1990-08-15

    This paper presents the preliminary architecture of a network level intrusion detection system. The proposed system will monitor base level information in network packets (source, destination, packet size, and time), learning the normal patterns and announcing anomalies as they occur. The goal of this research is to determine the applicability of current intrusion detection technology to the detection of network level intrusions. In particular, the authors are investigating the possibility of using this technology to detect and react to worm programs.

  8. The Distributed Network Processor: a novel off-chip and on-chip interconnection network architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Biagioni, Andrea; Cicero, Francesca Lo; Lonardo, Alessandro; Paolucci, Pier Stanislao; Perra, Mersia; Rossetti, Davide; Sidore, Carlo; Simula, Francesco; Tosoratto, Laura; Vicini, Piero

    2012-01-01

    One of the most demanding challenges for the designers of parallel computing architectures is to deliver an efficient network infrastructure providing low latency, high bandwidth communications while preserving scalability. Besides off-chip communications between processors, recent multi-tile (i.e. multi-core) architectures face the challenge for an efficient on-chip interconnection network between processor's tiles. In this paper, we present a configurable and scalable architecture, based on...

  9. Efficient VLSI Architecture for Training Radial Basis Function Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Zhe-Cheng; Hwang, Wen-Jyi

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a novel VLSI architecture for the training of radial basis function (RBF) networks. The architecture contains the circuits for fuzzy C-means (FCM) and the recursive Least Mean Square (LMS) operations. The FCM circuit is designed for the training of centers in the hidden layer of the RBF network. The recursive LMS circuit is adopted for the training of connecting weights in the output layer. The architecture is implemented by the field programmable gate array (FPGA). It is used as a hardware accelerator in a system on programmable chip (SOPC) for real-time training and classification. Experimental results reveal that the proposed RBF architecture is an effective alternative for applications where fast and efficient RBF training is desired. PMID:23519346

  10. Security Policy for a Generic Space Exploration Communication Network Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivancic, William D.; Sheehe, Charles J.; Vaden, Karl R.

    2016-01-01

    This document is one of three. It describes various security mechanisms and a security policy profile for a generic space-based communication architecture. Two other documents accompany this document- an Operations Concept (OpsCon) and a communication architecture document. The OpsCon should be read first followed by the security policy profile described by this document and then the architecture document. The overall goal is to design a generic space exploration communication network architecture that is affordable, deployable, maintainable, securable, evolvable, reliable, and adaptable. The architecture should also require limited reconfiguration throughout system development and deployment. System deployment includes subsystem development in a factory setting, system integration in a laboratory setting, launch preparation, launch, and deployment and operation in space.

  11. Towards a Security Architecture for Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Plößl, Klaus; Nowey, Thomas; Mletzko, Christian

    2006-01-01

    Vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) have the potential to increase road safety and comfort. Especially because of the road safety functions, there is a strong demand for security in VANETs. After defining three application categories the paper outlines main security and privacy requirements in VANETs. Next, a security architecture for VANETs (SAV) is proposed that strives to satisfy the requirements. To find mechanisms applicable in the architecture a survey of existing mechanisms is given.

  12. Architectural transformations in network services and distributed systems

    CERN Document Server

    Luntovskyy, Andriy

    2017-01-01

    With the given work we decided to help not only the readers but ourselves, as the professionals who actively involved in the networking branch, with understanding the trends that have developed in recent two decades in distributed systems and networks. Important architecture transformations of distributed systems have been examined. The examples of new architectural solutions are discussed. Content Periodization of service development Energy efficiency Architectural transformations in Distributed Systems Clustering and Parallel Computing, performance models Cloud Computing, RAICs, Virtualization, SDN Smart Grid, Internet of Things, Fog Computing Mobile Communication from LTE to 5G, DIDO, SAT-based systems Data Security Guaranteeing Distributed Systems Target Groups Students in EE and IT of universities and (dual) technical high schools Graduated engineers as well as teaching staff About the Authors Andriy Luntovskyy provides classes on networks, mobile communication, software technology, distributed systems, ...

  13. Network architectural conditions for prominent and robust stochastic oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Jaewook; Choi, Jinmyung

    2012-02-01

    Understanding relationship between noisy dynamics and biological network architecture is a fundamentally important question, particularly in order to elucidate how cells encode and process information. We analytically and numerically investigate general network architectural conditions that are necessary to generate stochastic amplified and coherent oscillations. We enumerate all possible topologies of coupled negative feedbacks in the underlying biochemical networks with three components, negative feedback loops, and mass action kinetics. Using the linear noise approximation to analytically obtain the time-dependent solution of the master equation and derive the algebraic expression of power spectra, we find that (a) all networks with coupled negative feedbacks are capable of generating stochastic amplified and coherent oscillations; (b) networks with a single negative feedback are better stochastic amplified and coherent oscillators than those with multiple coupled negative feedbacks; (c) multiple timescale difference among the kinetic rate constants is required for stochastic amplified and coherent oscillations.

  14. Convolutional neural network architectures for predicting DNA–protein binding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Haoyang; Edwards, Matthew D.; Liu, Ge; Gifford, David K.

    2016-01-01

    Motivation: Convolutional neural networks (CNN) have outperformed conventional methods in modeling the sequence specificity of DNA–protein binding. Yet inappropriate CNN architectures can yield poorer performance than simpler models. Thus an in-depth understanding of how to match CNN architecture to a given task is needed to fully harness the power of CNNs for computational biology applications. Results: We present a systematic exploration of CNN architectures for predicting DNA sequence binding using a large compendium of transcription factor datasets. We identify the best-performing architectures by varying CNN width, depth and pooling designs. We find that adding convolutional kernels to a network is important for motif-based tasks. We show the benefits of CNNs in learning rich higher-order sequence features, such as secondary motifs and local sequence context, by comparing network performance on multiple modeling tasks ranging in difficulty. We also demonstrate how careful construction of sequence benchmark datasets, using approaches that control potentially confounding effects like positional or motif strength bias, is critical in making fair comparisons between competing methods. We explore how to establish the sufficiency of training data for these learning tasks, and we have created a flexible cloud-based framework that permits the rapid exploration of alternative neural network architectures for problems in computational biology. Availability and Implementation: All the models analyzed are available at http://cnn.csail.mit.edu. Contact: gifford@mit.edu Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:27307608

  15. Convolutional neural network architectures for predicting DNA-protein binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Haoyang; Edwards, Matthew D; Liu, Ge; Gifford, David K

    2016-06-15

    Convolutional neural networks (CNN) have outperformed conventional methods in modeling the sequence specificity of DNA-protein binding. Yet inappropriate CNN architectures can yield poorer performance than simpler models. Thus an in-depth understanding of how to match CNN architecture to a given task is needed to fully harness the power of CNNs for computational biology applications. We present a systematic exploration of CNN architectures for predicting DNA sequence binding using a large compendium of transcription factor datasets. We identify the best-performing architectures by varying CNN width, depth and pooling designs. We find that adding convolutional kernels to a network is important for motif-based tasks. We show the benefits of CNNs in learning rich higher-order sequence features, such as secondary motifs and local sequence context, by comparing network performance on multiple modeling tasks ranging in difficulty. We also demonstrate how careful construction of sequence benchmark datasets, using approaches that control potentially confounding effects like positional or motif strength bias, is critical in making fair comparisons between competing methods. We explore how to establish the sufficiency of training data for these learning tasks, and we have created a flexible cloud-based framework that permits the rapid exploration of alternative neural network architectures for problems in computational biology. All the models analyzed are available at http://cnn.csail.mit.edu gifford@mit.edu Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  16. Robust quantum network architectures and topologies for entanglement distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Siddhartha; Khatri, Sumeet; Dowling, Jonathan P.

    2018-01-01

    Entanglement distribution is a prerequisite for several important quantum information processing and computing tasks, such as quantum teleportation, quantum key distribution, and distributed quantum computing. In this work, we focus on two-dimensional quantum networks based on optical quantum technologies using dual-rail photonic qubits for the building of a fail-safe quantum internet. We lay out a quantum network architecture for entanglement distribution between distant parties using a Bravais lattice topology, with the technological constraint that quantum repeaters equipped with quantum memories are not easily accessible. We provide a robust protocol for simultaneous entanglement distribution between two distant groups of parties on this network. We also discuss a memory-based quantum network architecture that can be implemented on networks with an arbitrary topology. We examine networks with bow-tie lattice and Archimedean lattice topologies and use percolation theory to quantify the robustness of the networks. In particular, we provide figures of merit on the loss parameter of the optical medium that depend only on the topology of the network and quantify the robustness of the network against intermittent photon loss and intermittent failure of nodes. These figures of merit can be used to compare the robustness of different network topologies in order to determine the best topology in a given real-world scenario, which is critical in the realization of the quantum internet.

  17. Towards blueprints for network architecture, biophysical dynamics and signal transduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombes, Stephen; Doiron, Brent; Josić, Kresimir; Shea-Brown, Eric

    2006-12-15

    We review mathematical aspects of biophysical dynamics, signal transduction and network architecture that have been used to uncover functionally significant relations between the dynamics of single neurons and the networks they compose. We focus on examples that combine insights from these three areas to expand our understanding of systems neuroscience. These range from single neuron coding to models of decision making and electrosensory discrimination by networks and populations and also coincidence detection in pairs of dendrites and dynamics of large networks of excitable dendritic spines. We conclude by describing some of the challenges that lie ahead as the applied mathematics community seeks to provide the tools which will ultimately underpin systems neuroscience.

  18. Architecture Analysis of an FPGA-Based Hopfield Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Angelo de Abreu de Sousa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Interconnections between electronic circuits and neural computation have been a strongly researched topic in the machine learning field in order to approach several practical requirements, including decreasing training and operation times in high performance applications and reducing cost, size, and energy consumption for autonomous or embedded developments. Field programmable gate array (FPGA hardware shows some inherent features typically associated with neural networks, such as, parallel processing, modular executions, and dynamic adaptation, and works on different types of FPGA-based neural networks were presented in recent years. This paper aims to address different aspects of architectural characteristics analysis on a Hopfield Neural Network implemented in FPGA, such as maximum operating frequency and chip-area occupancy according to the network capacity. Also, the FPGA implementation methodology, which does not employ multipliers in the architecture developed for the Hopfield neural model, is presented, in detail.

  19. Management issues in multilayered network architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piergigli, Mauro; Vercelli, Roberto; Zucchinali, A.

    1996-12-01

    The importance of managing networks and services is finally being accepted by both operators/service providers and HW/SW manufacturers. Standards are thus coming for managing solutions based on any new emerging technology. However standards and commercial solutions have different level of completeness and performance depending on the related managed technology. Thus, being real systems often composed of a mix of different technologies, the quality of their overall management is limited by the less mature and effective single technology management system. Today broadband networks can be seen as a layered structure including ATM, SDH and WDM optical layers. While the management of SDH is quite mature and significant results are reached for ATM management, the management of the WDM optical layer is still in its infancy. Therefore the WDM layer management is a critical factor in the development of the overall broadband network management. The paper, after few considerations on general public network management issues, presents some solutions currently under study for the WDM optical layer management. Although the improvement of the weaker single technology management system surely improves the quality of the overall layered network management, this is just one step along the path for optimizing it. The objective is in fact the integration of the single layer management systems into a global one, avoiding duplications and improving efficiency and effectiveness. The paper presents at the end some considerations about this topic that is rapidly getting hot because of the potential economical benefits such as integration can offer.

  20. Internet of Things Heterogeneous Interoperable Network Architecture Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhalerao, Dipashree M.

    2014-01-01

    Internet of Thing‘s (IoT) state of the art deduce that there is no mature Internet of Things architecture available. Thesis contributes an abstract generic IoT system reference architecture development with specifications. Novelties of thesis are proposed solutions and implementations....... It is proved that reduction of data at a source will result in huge vertical scalability and indirectly horizontal also. Second non functional feature contributes in heterogeneous interoperable network architecture for constrained Things. To eliminate increasing number of gateways, Wi-Fi access point...... with Bluetooth, Zigbee (new access point is called as BZ-Fi) is proposed. Co-existence of Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, and Zigbee network technologies results in interference. To reduce the interference, orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) is proposed tobe implemented in Bluetooth and Zigbee. The proposed...

  1. Optimizing Neural Network Architectures Using Generalization Error Estimators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jan

    1994-01-01

    This paper addresses the optimization of neural network architectures. It is suggested to optimize the architecture by selecting the model with minimal estimated averaged generalization error. We consider a least-squares (LS) criterion for estimating neural network models, i.e., the associated...... model weights are estimated by minimizing the LS criterion. The quality of a particular estimated model is measured by the average generalization error. This is defined as the expected squared prediction error on a novel input-output sample averaged over all possible training sets. An essential part...... of the suggested architecture optimization scheme is to calculate an estimate of the average generalization error. We suggest using the GEN-estimator which allows for dealing with nonlinear, incomplete models, i.e., models which are not capable of modeling the underlying nonlinear relationship perfectly. In most...

  2. MANET: tracing evolution of protein architecture in metabolic networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caetano-Anollés Gustavo

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cellular metabolism can be characterized by networks of enzymatic reactions and transport processes capable of supporting cellular life. Our aim is to find evolutionary patterns and processes embedded in the architecture and function of modern metabolism, using information derived from structural genomics. Description The Molecular Ancestry Network (MANET project traces evolution of protein architecture in biomolecular networks. We describe metabolic MANET, a database that links information in the Structural Classification of Proteins (SCOP, the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG, and phylogenetic reconstructions depicting the evolution of protein fold architecture. Metabolic MANET literally 'paints' the ancestries of enzymes derived from rooted phylogenomic trees directly onto over one hundred metabolic subnetworks, enabling the study of evolutionary patterns at global and local levels. An initial analysis of painted subnetworks reveals widespread enzymatic recruitment and an early origin of amino acid metabolism. Conclusion MANET maps evolutionary relationships directly and globally onto biological networks, and can generate and test hypotheses related to evolution of metabolism. We anticipate its use in the study of other networks, such as signaling and other protein-protein interaction networks.

  3. Hybrid RRM Architecture for Future Wireless Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tragos, Elias; Mihovska, Albena D.; Mino, Emilio

    2007-01-01

    The concept of ubiquitous and scalable system is applied in the IST WINNER II [1] project to deliver optimum performance for different deployment scenarios from local area to wide area wireless networks. The integration of cellular and local area networks in a unique radio system will provide...... a great advantage to final users and operators, compared with the nowadays situation with many disconnected systems and users equipped with different subscriptions, radio interfaces and terminals. To this issue, the IST project WINNER II has defined three system modes suited to local, metropolitan...

  4. Reconfigurable radio systems network architectures and standards

    CERN Document Server

    Iacobucci, Maria Stella

    2013-01-01

    This timely book provides a standards-based view of the development, evolution, techniques and potential future scenarios for the deployment of reconfigurable radio systems.  After an introduction to radiomobile and radio systems deployed in the access network, the book describes cognitive radio concepts and capabilities, which are the basis for reconfigurable radio systems.  The self-organizing network features introduced in 3GPP standards are discussed and IEEE 802.22, the first standard based on cognitive radio, is described. Then the ETSI reconfigurable radio systems functional ar

  5. Implementation of Internet Protocol Network Architecture for Effective ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Implementation of Internet Protocol Network Architecture for Effective bandwidth Allocation in a Multiparty, Multimedia Conferencing. ... as M/G/∞ input processes and divided into several classes, with the constraint that the aggregate effective bandwidth is within the link capacity times a prescribed utilization threshold.

  6. Robust Networking Architecture and Secure Communication Scheme for Heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeal, McKenzie, III.

    2012-01-01

    Current networking architectures and communication protocols used for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) have been designed to be energy efficient, low latency, and long network lifetime. One major issue that must be addressed is the security in data communication. Due to the limited capabilities of low cost and small sized sensor nodes, designing…

  7. Towards Dependable Network-on-Chip Architectures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, C.

    2015-01-01

    The aggressive semiconductor technology scaling provides the means for doubling the amount of transistors on a single chip each and every 18 months. To efficiently utilize these vast chip resources, Multi-Processor Systems on Chip (MPSoCs) integrated with a Network-on-Chip (NoC) communication

  8. A Security Architecture for Personal Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jehangir, A.; Heemstra de Groot, S.M.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Personal Network (PN) is a new concept utilizing pervasive computing to meet the needs of the user. As PNs edge closer towards reality, security becomes an important concern since any vulnerability in the system will limit its practical use. In this paper we introduce a security

  9. The development of brain network architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wierenga, Lara M.; van den Heuvel, Martijn P.; van Dijk, Sarai; Rijks, Yvonne; de Reus, Marcel A.; Durston, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Brain connectivity shows protracted development throughout childhood and adolescence, and, as such, the topology of brain networks changes during this period. The complexity of these changes with development is reflected by regional differences in maturation. This study explored age-related changes

  10. Communication Network Architectures Based on Ethernet Passive Optical Network for Offshore Wind Power Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. Ahmed

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, with large-scale offshore wind power farms (WPFs becoming a reality, more efforts are needed to maintain a reliable communication network for WPF monitoring. Deployment topologies, redundancy, and network availability are the main items to enhance the communication reliability between wind turbines (WTs and control centers. Traditional communication networks for monitoring and control (i.e., supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA systems using switched gigabit Ethernet will not be sufficient for the huge amount of data passing through the network. In this paper, the optical power budget, optical path loss, reliability, and network cost of the proposed Ethernet Passive Optical Network (EPON-based communication network for small-size offshore WPFs have been evaluated for five different network architectures. The proposed network model consists of an optical network unit device (ONU deployed on the WT side for collecting data from different internal networks. All ONUs from different WTs are connected to a central optical line terminal (OLT, placed in the control center. There are no active electronic elements used between the ONUs and the OLT, which reduces the costs and complexity of maintenance and deployment. As fiber access networks without any protection are characterized by poor reliability, three different protection schemes have been configured, explained, and discussed. Considering the cost of network components, the total implementation expense of different architectures with, or without, protection have been calculated and compared. The proposed network model can significantly contribute to the communication network architecture for next generation WPFs.

  11. Mesoscale Architecture Shapes Initiation and Richness of Spontaneous Network Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okujeni, Samora; Kandler, Steffen; Egert, Ulrich

    2017-04-05

    Spontaneous activity in the absence of external input, including propagating waves of activity, is a robust feature of neuronal networks in vivo and in vitro The neurophysiological and anatomical requirements for initiation and persistence of such activity, however, are poorly understood, as is their role in the function of neuronal networks. Computational network studies indicate that clustered connectivity may foster the generation, maintenance, and richness of spontaneous activity. Since this mesoscale architecture cannot be systematically modified in intact tissue, testing these predictions is impracticable in vivo Here, we investigate how the mesoscale structure shapes spontaneous activity in generic networks of rat cortical neurons in vitro In these networks, neurons spontaneously arrange into local clusters with high neurite density and form fasciculating long-range axons. We modified this structure by modulation of protein kinase C, an enzyme regulating neurite growth and cell migration. Inhibition of protein kinase C reduced neuronal aggregation and fasciculation of axons, i.e., promoted uniform architecture. Conversely, activation of protein kinase C promoted aggregation of neurons into clusters, local connectivity, and bundling of long-range axons. Supporting predictions from theory, clustered networks were more spontaneously active and generated diverse activity patterns. Neurons within clusters received stronger synaptic inputs and displayed increased membrane potential fluctuations. Intensified clustering promoted the initiation of synchronous bursting events but entailed incomplete network recruitment. Moderately clustered networks appear optimal for initiation and propagation of diverse patterns of activity. Our findings support a crucial role of the mesoscale architectures in the regulation of spontaneous activity dynamics. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Computational studies predict richer and persisting spatiotemporal patterns of spontaneous activity in

  12. Building and measuring a high performance network architecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, William T.C.; Toole, Timothy; Fisher, Chuck; Dugan, Jon; Wheeler, David; Wing, William R; Nickless, William; Goddard, Gregory; Corbato, Steven; Love, E. Paul; Daspit, Paul; Edwards, Hal; Mercer, Linden; Koester, David; Decina, Basil; Dart, Eli; Paul Reisinger, Paul; Kurihara, Riki; Zekauskas, Matthew J; Plesset, Eric; Wulf, Julie; Luce, Douglas; Rogers, James; Duncan, Rex; Mauth, Jeffery

    2001-04-20

    Once a year, the SC conferences present a unique opportunity to create and build one of the most complex and highest performance networks in the world. At SC2000, large-scale and complex local and wide area networking connections were demonstrated, including large-scale distributed applications running on different architectures. This project was designed to use the unique opportunity presented at SC2000 to create a testbed network environment and then use that network to demonstrate and evaluate high performance computational and communication applications. This testbed was designed to incorporate many interoperable systems and services and was designed for measurement from the very beginning. The end results were key insights into how to use novel, high performance networking technologies and to accumulate measurements that will give insights into the networks of the future.

  13. Network Architecture: lessons from the past, vision for the future

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2004-01-01

    The Architectural Principles of the Internet have dominated the past decade. Orthogonal to the telecommunications industry principles, they dramatically changed the networking landscape because they relied on iconoclastic ideas. First, the Internet end-to-end principle, which stipulates that the network should intervene minimally on the end-to-end traffic, pushing the complexity to the end-systems. Second, the ban of centralized functions: all the Internet techniques (routing, DNS, management) are based on distributed, decentralized mechanisms. Third, the absolute domination of connectionless (stateless) protocols (as with IP, HTTTP). However, when facing new requirements: multimedia traffic, security, Grid applications, these principles appear sometimes as architectural barriers. Multimedia requires QoS guarantees, but stateless systems are not good at QoS. Security requires active, intelligent networks, but dumb routers or plain end-to-end mail systems are insufficient. Grid applications require...

  14. Network architecture in a converged optical + IP network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakim, Walid; Zottmann, Harald

    2012-01-01

    As demands on Provider Networks continue to grow at exponential rates, providers are forced to evaluate how to continue to grow the network while increasing service velocity, enhancing resiliency while decreasing the total cost of ownership (TCO). The bandwidth growth that networks are experiencing is in the form packet based multimedia services such as video, video conferencing, gaming, etc... mixed with Over the Top (OTT) content providers such as Netflix, and the customer's expectations that best effort is not enough you end up with a situation that forces the provider to analyze how to gain more out of the network with less cost. In this paper we will discuss changes in the network that are driving us to a tighter integration between packet and optical layers and how to improve on today's multi - layer inefficiencies to drive down network TCO and provide for a fully integrated and dynamic network that will decrease time to revenue.

  15. Nexus network journal patterns in architecture

    CERN Document Server

    2007-01-01

    This issue is dedicated to various kinds of patterns in architecture. Buthayna Eilouti and Amer Al-Jokhadar address patterns in shape grammars in the ground plans of Mamluk madrasas, religious schools. Giulio Magli goes back further in history, to the age of Greek colonies in Italy before they were conquered by the Romans, to examine patterns in urban design. In Traditional Patterns in Pyrgi of Chios: Mathematics and Community Charoula Stathopoulou examines the geometric patterns that decorate the buildings of the town of Pyrgi, on the Greek island of Chios. Curve Fitting is a study of ways to construct a function so that its graph most closely approximates the pattern given by a set of points. Dirk Huylebrouck’s paper examines how a pattern of points extracted from an arch might be associated to a precise mathematical curve. James Harris looks at the designs of Frank Lloyd Wright and Piet Mondrian to extract the rules of their pattern generation and propose possible applications.

  16. Resting state networks' corticotopy: the dual intertwined rings architecture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salma Mesmoudi

    Full Text Available How does the brain integrate multiple sources of information to support normal sensorimotor and cognitive functions? To investigate this question we present an overall brain architecture (called "the dual intertwined rings architecture" that relates the functional specialization of cortical networks to their spatial distribution over the cerebral cortex (or "corticotopy". Recent results suggest that the resting state networks (RSNs are organized into two large families: 1 a sensorimotor family that includes visual, somatic, and auditory areas and 2 a large association family that comprises parietal, temporal, and frontal regions and also includes the default mode network. We used two large databases of resting state fMRI data, from which we extracted 32 robust RSNs. We estimated: (1 the RSN functional roles by using a projection of the results on task based networks (TBNs as referenced in large databases of fMRI activation studies; and (2 relationship of the RSNs with the Brodmann Areas. In both classifications, the 32 RSNs are organized into a remarkable architecture of two intertwined rings per hemisphere and so four rings linked by homotopic connections. The first ring forms a continuous ensemble and includes visual, somatic, and auditory cortices, with interspersed bimodal cortices (auditory-visual, visual-somatic and auditory-somatic, abbreviated as VSA ring. The second ring integrates distant parietal, temporal and frontal regions (PTF ring through a network of association fiber tracts which closes the ring anatomically and ensures a functional continuity within the ring. The PTF ring relates association cortices specialized in attention, language and working memory, to the networks involved in motivation and biological regulation and rhythms. This "dual intertwined architecture" suggests a dual integrative process: the VSA ring performs fast real-time multimodal integration of sensorimotor information whereas the PTF ring performs multi

  17. Network Architecture, Security Issues, and Hardware Implementation of a Home Area Network for Smart Grid

    OpenAIRE

    Saponara, Sergio; Bacchillone, Tony

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses aims, architecture, and security issues of Smart Grid, taking care of the lesson learned at University of Pisa in research projects on smart energy and grid. A key element of Smart Grid is the energy home area network (HAN), for which an implementation is proposed, dealing with its security aspects and showing some solutions for realizing a wireless network based on ZigBee. Possible hardware-software architectures and implementations using COTS (Commercial Off The Shelf) ...

  18. Hierarchical Communication Network Architectures for Offshore Wind Power Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. Ahmed

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, large-scale wind power farms (WPFs bring new challenges for both electric systems and communication networks. Communication networks are an essential part of WPFs because they provide real-time control and monitoring of wind turbines from a remote location (local control center. However, different wind turbine applications have different requirements in terms of data volume, latency, bandwidth, QoS, etc. This paper proposes a hierarchical communication network architecture that consist of a turbine area network (TAN, farm area network (FAN, and control area network (CAN for offshore WPFs. The two types of offshore WPFs studied are small-scale WPFs close to the grid and medium-scale WPFs far from the grid. The wind turbines are modelled based on the logical nodes (LN concepts of the IEC 61400-25 standard. To keep pace with current developments in wind turbine technology, the network design takes into account the extension of the LNs for both the wind turbine foundation and meteorological measurements. The proposed hierarchical communication network is based on Switched Ethernet. Servers at the control center are used to store and process the data received from the WPF. The network architecture is modelled and evaluated via OPNET. We investigated the end-to-end (ETE delay for different WPF applications. The results are validated by comparing the amount of generated sensing data with that of received traffic at servers. The network performance is evaluated, analyzed and discussed in view of end-to-end (ETE delay for different link bandwidths.

  19. Evolution of network architecture in a granular material under compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, Lia; Puckett, James G; Daniels, Karen E; Bassett, Danielle S

    2016-09-01

    As a granular material is compressed, the particles and forces within the system arrange to form complex and heterogeneous collective structures. Force chains are a prime example of such structures, and are thought to constrain bulk properties such as mechanical stability and acoustic transmission. However, capturing and characterizing the evolving nature of the intrinsic inhomogeneity and mesoscale architecture of granular systems can be challenging. A growing body of work has shown that graph theoretic approaches may provide a useful foundation for tackling these problems. Here, we extend the current approaches by utilizing multilayer networks as a framework for directly quantifying the progression of mesoscale architecture in a compressed granular system. We examine a quasi-two-dimensional aggregate of photoelastic disks, subject to biaxial compressions through a series of small, quasistatic steps. Treating particles as network nodes and interparticle forces as network edges, we construct a multilayer network for the system by linking together the series of static force networks that exist at each strain step. We then extract the inherent mesoscale structure from the system by using a generalization of community detection methods to multilayer networks, and we define quantitative measures to characterize the changes in this structure throughout the compression process. We separately consider the network of normal and tangential forces, and find that they display a different progression throughout compression. To test the sensitivity of the network model to particle properties, we examine whether the method can distinguish a subsystem of low-friction particles within a bath of higher-friction particles. We find that this can be achieved by considering the network of tangential forces, and that the community structure is better able to separate the subsystem than a purely local measure of interparticle forces alone. The results discussed throughout this study

  20. Architecture and dynamics of overlapped RNA regulatory networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapointe, Christopher P; Preston, Melanie A; Wilinski, Daniel; Saunders, Harriet A J; Campbell, Zachary T; Wickens, Marvin

    2017-11-01

    A single protein can bind and regulate many mRNAs. Multiple proteins with similar specificities often bind and control overlapping sets of mRNAs. Yet little is known about the architecture or dynamics of overlapped networks. We focused on three proteins with similar structures and related RNA-binding specificities-Puf3p, Puf4p, and Puf5p of S. cerevisiae Using RNA Tagging, we identified a "super-network" comprised of four subnetworks: Puf3p, Puf4p, and Puf5p subnetworks, and one controlled by both Puf4p and Puf5p. The architecture of individual subnetworks, and thus the super-network, is determined by competition among particular PUF proteins to bind mRNAs, their affinities for binding elements, and the abundances of the proteins. The super-network responds dramatically: The remaining network can either expand or contract. These strikingly opposite outcomes are determined by an interplay between the relative abundance of the RNAs and proteins, and their affinities for one another. The diverse interplay between overlapping RNA-protein networks provides versatile opportunities for regulation and evolution. © 2017 Lapointe et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  1. Stability of ecological communities and the architecture of mutualistic and trophic networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thébault, Elisa; Fontaine, Colin

    2010-08-13

    Research on the relationship between the architecture of ecological networks and community stability has mainly focused on one type of interaction at a time, making difficult any comparison between different network types. We used a theoretical approach to show that the network architecture favoring stability fundamentally differs between trophic and mutualistic networks. A highly connected and nested architecture promotes community stability in mutualistic networks, whereas the stability of trophic networks is enhanced in compartmented and weakly connected architectures. These theoretical predictions are supported by a meta-analysis on the architecture of a large series of real pollination (mutualistic) and herbivory (trophic) networks. We conclude that strong variations in the stability of architectural patterns constrain ecological networks toward different architectures, depending on the type of interaction.

  2. Evolution of network architecture in a granular material under compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassett, Danielle

    As a granular material is compressed, the particles and forces within the system arrange to form complex and heterogeneous collective structures. However, capturing and characterizing the dynamic nature of the intrinsic inhomogeneity and mesoscale architecture of granular systems can be challenging. Here, we utilize multilayer networks as a framework for directly quantifying the evolution of mesoscale architecture in a compressed granular system. We examine a quasi-two-dimensional aggregate of photoelastic disks, subject to biaxial compressions through a series of small, quasistatic steps. Treating particles as network nodes and inter-particle forces as network edges, we construct a multilayer network for the system by linking together the series of static force networks that exist at each strain step. We then extract the inherent mesoscale structure from the system by using a generalization of community detection methods to multilayer networks, and we define quantitative measures to characterize the reconfiguration and evolution of this structure throughout the compression process. To test the sensitivity of the network model to particle properties, we examine whether the method can distinguish a subsystem of low-friction particles within a bath of higher-friction particles. We find that this can be done by considering the network of tangential forces, and that the community structure is better able to separate the subsystem than consideration of the local inter-particle forces alone. The results discussed throughout this study suggest that these novel network science techniques may provide a direct way to compare and classify data from systems under different external conditions or with different physical makeup. National Science Foundation (BCS-1441502, PHY-1554488, and BCS-1631550).

  3. Mesh Network Architecture for Enabling Inter-Spacecraft Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Christopher; Merrill, Garrick

    2017-01-01

    To enable communication between spacecraft operating in a formation or small constellation, a mesh network architecture was developed and tested using a time division multiple access (TDMA) communication scheme. The network is designed to allow for the exchange of telemetry and other data between spacecraft to enable collaboration between small spacecraft. The system uses a peer-to-peer topology with no central router, so that it does not have a single point of failure. The mesh network is dynamically configurable to allow for addition and subtraction of new spacecraft into the communication network. Flight testing was performed using an unmanned aerial system (UAS) formation acting as a spacecraft analogue and providing a stressing environment to prove mesh network performance. The mesh network was primarily devised to provide low latency, high frequency communication but is flexible and can also be configured to provide higher bandwidth for applications desiring high data throughput. The network includes a relay functionality that extends the maximum range between spacecraft in the network by relaying data from node to node. The mesh network control is implemented completely in software making it hardware agnostic, thereby allowing it to function with a wide variety of existing radios and computing platforms..

  4. Shifts in the architecture of the Nationwide Health Information Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenert, Leslie; Sundwall, David; Lenert, Michael Edward

    2012-01-01

    In the midst of a US $30 billion USD investment in the Nationwide Health Information Network (NwHIN) and electronic health records systems, a significant change in the architecture of the NwHIN is taking place. Prior to 2010, the focus of information exchange in the NwHIN was the Regional Health Information Organization (RHIO). Since 2010, the Office of the National Coordinator (ONC) has been sponsoring policies that promote an internet-like architecture that encourages point to-point information exchange and private health information exchange networks. The net effect of these activities is to undercut the limited business model for RHIOs, decreasing the likelihood of their success, while making the NwHIN dependent on nascent technologies for community level functions such as record locator services. These changes may impact the health of patients and communities. Independent, scientifically focused debate is needed on the wisdom of ONC's proposed changes in its strategy for the NwHIN.

  5. A Unified Network Security Architecture for Large, Distributed Networks Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In typical, multi-organizational networking environments, it is difficult to define and maintain a uniform authentication scheme that provides users with easy access...

  6. Fast packet switch architectures for broadband integrated services digital networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobagi, Fouad A.

    1990-01-01

    Background information on networking and switching is provided, and the various architectures that have been considered for fast packet switches are described. The focus is solely on switches designed to be implemented electronically. A set of definitions and a brief description of the functionality required of fast packet switches are given. Three basic types of packet switches are identified: the shared-memory, shared-medium, and space-division types. Each of these is described, and examples are given.

  7. Agent-based Personal Network (PN) service architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Bo; Olesen, Henning

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we proposte a new concept for a centralized agent system as the solution for the PN service architecture, which aims to efficiently control and manage the PN resources and enable the PN based services to run seamlessly over different networks and devices. The working principle......, control procedure and enabling techniques behind the agent based solution are the main focuses of this paper....

  8. Evaluation of Flex-Grid architecture for NREN optical networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turus, Ioan; Kleist, Josva; Fagertun, Anna Manolova

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents an in-depth and structured evaluation of the impact that Flex-Grid technology reveals within current NRENs’ core optical networks. The evaluation is based on simulations performed with OPNET Modeler tool and considers NORDUnet as well as a normalized GEANT core optical network...... all benefits given by the flexible spectrum allocation. GMPLS is considered in our implementation and the simulated scenarios follow the goal of answering the question: Do NRENs benefit from the introduction of Flex-Grid architecture?...

  9. Data center networks topologies, architectures and fault-tolerance characteristics

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Yang; Veeraraghavan, Malathi; Lin, Dong; Hamdi, Mounir

    2013-01-01

    This SpringerBrief presents a survey of data center network designs and topologies and compares several properties in order to highlight their advantages and disadvantages. The brief also explores several routing protocols designed for these topologies and compares the basic algorithms to establish connections, the techniques used to gain better performance, and the mechanisms for fault-tolerance. Readers will be equipped to understand how current research on data center networks enables the design of future architectures that can improve performance and dependability of data centers. This con

  10. Integrated Network Architecture for Sustained Human and Robotic Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noreen, Gary; Cesarone, Robert; Deutsch, Leslie; Edwards, Charles; Soloff, Jason; Ely, Todd; Cook, Brian; Morabito, David; Hemmati, Hamid; Piazolla, Sabino; hide

    2005-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Exploration Systems Enterprise is planning a series of human and robotic missions to the Earth's moon and to Mars. These missions will require communication and navigation services. This paper1 sets forth presumed requirements for such services and concepts for lunar and Mars telecommunications network architectures to satisfy the presumed requirements. The paper suggests that an inexpensive ground network would suffice for missions to the near-side of the moon. A constellation of three Lunar Telecommunications Orbiters connected to an inexpensive ground network could provide continuous redundant links to a polar lunar base and its vicinity. For human and robotic missions to Mars, a pair of areostationary satellites could provide continuous redundant links between Earth and a mid-latitude Mars base in conjunction with the Deep Space Network augmented by large arrays of 12-m antennas on Earth.

  11. A modular architecture for transparent computation in recurrent neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmantini, Giovanni S; Beim Graben, Peter; Desroches, Mathieu; Rodrigues, Serafim

    2017-01-01

    Computation is classically studied in terms of automata, formal languages and algorithms; yet, the relation between neural dynamics and symbolic representations and operations is still unclear in traditional eliminative connectionism. Therefore, we suggest a unique perspective on this central issue, to which we would like to refer as transparent connectionism, by proposing accounts of how symbolic computation can be implemented in neural substrates. In this study we first introduce a new model of dynamics on a symbolic space, the versatile shift, showing that it supports the real-time simulation of a range of automata. We then show that the Gödelization of versatile shifts defines nonlinear dynamical automata, dynamical systems evolving on a vectorial space. Finally, we present a mapping between nonlinear dynamical automata and recurrent artificial neural networks. The mapping defines an architecture characterized by its granular modularity, where data, symbolic operations and their control are not only distinguishable in activation space, but also spatially localizable in the network itself, while maintaining a distributed encoding of symbolic representations. The resulting networks simulate automata in real-time and are programmed directly, in the absence of network training. To discuss the unique characteristics of the architecture and their consequences, we present two examples: (i) the design of a Central Pattern Generator from a finite-state locomotive controller, and (ii) the creation of a network simulating a system of interactive automata that supports the parsing of garden-path sentences as investigated in psycholinguistics experiments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Flexible Interconnection Network for Dynamically and Partially Reconfigurable Architectures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludovic Devaux

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic and partial reconfiguration of FPGAs enables the dynamic placement in reconfigurable zones of the tasks that describe an application. However, the dynamic management of the tasks impacts the communications since tasks are not present in the FPGA during all computation time. So, the task manager should ensure the allocation of each new task and their interconnection which is performed by a flexible interconnection network. In this article, various communication architectures, in particular interconnection networks, are studied. Each architecture is evaluated with respect to its suitability for the paradigm of the dynamic and partial reconfiguration in FPGA implementations. This study leads us to propose the DRAFT network that supports the communication constraints into the context of dynamic reconfiguration. We also present DRAGOON, the automatic generator of networks, which allows to implement and to simulate the DRAFT topology. Finally, DRAFT and the two most popular Networks-on-Chip are implemented in several configurations using DRAGOON, and compared considering real implementation results.

  13. Software Defined Networking (SDN) controlled all optical switching networks with multi-dimensional switching architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yongli; Ji, Yuefeng; Zhang, Jie; Li, Hui; Xiong, Qianjin; Qiu, Shaofeng

    2014-08-01

    Ultrahigh throughout capacity requirement is challenging the current optical switching nodes with the fast development of data center networks. Pbit/s level all optical switching networks need to be deployed soon, which will cause the high complexity of node architecture. How to control the future network and node equipment together will become a new problem. An enhanced Software Defined Networking (eSDN) control architecture is proposed in the paper, which consists of Provider NOX (P-NOX) and Node NOX (N-NOX). With the cooperation of P-NOX and N-NOX, the flexible control of the entire network can be achieved. All optical switching network testbed has been experimentally demonstrated with efficient control of enhanced Software Defined Networking (eSDN). Pbit/s level all optical switching nodes in the testbed are implemented based on multi-dimensional switching architecture, i.e. multi-level and multi-planar. Due to the space and cost limitation, each optical switching node is only equipped with four input line boxes and four output line boxes respectively. Experimental results are given to verify the performance of our proposed control and switching architecture.

  14. The architecture of mutualistic networks minimizes competition and increases biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastolla, Ugo; Fortuna, Miguel A; Pascual-García, Alberto; Ferrera, Antonio; Luque, Bartolo; Bascompte, Jordi

    2009-04-23

    The main theories of biodiversity either neglect species interactions or assume that species interact randomly with each other. However, recent empirical work has revealed that ecological networks are highly structured, and the lack of a theory that takes into account the structure of interactions precludes further assessment of the implications of such network patterns for biodiversity. Here we use a combination of analytical and empirical approaches to quantify the influence of network architecture on the number of coexisting species. As a case study we consider mutualistic networks between plants and their animal pollinators or seed dispersers. These networks have been found to be highly nested, with the more specialist species interacting only with proper subsets of the species that interact with the more generalist. We show that nestedness reduces effective interspecific competition and enhances the number of coexisting species. Furthermore, we show that a nested network will naturally emerge if new species are more likely to enter the community where they have minimal competitive load. Nested networks seem to occur in many biological and social contexts, suggesting that our results are relevant in a wide range of fields.

  15. Cortical network architecture for context processing in primate brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Zenas C; Nagasaka, Yasuo; Fujii, Naotaka

    2015-09-29

    Context is information linked to a situation that can guide behavior. In the brain, context is encoded by sensory processing and can later be retrieved from memory. How context is communicated within the cortical network in sensory and mnemonic forms is unknown due to the lack of methods for high-resolution, brain-wide neuronal recording and analysis. Here, we report the comprehensive architecture of a cortical network for context processing. Using hemisphere-wide, high-density electrocorticography, we measured large-scale neuronal activity from monkeys observing videos of agents interacting in situations with different contexts. We extracted five context-related network structures including a bottom-up network during encoding and, seconds later, cue-dependent retrieval of the same network with the opposite top-down connectivity. These findings show that context is represented in the cortical network as distributed communication structures with dynamic information flows. This study provides a general methodology for recording and analyzing cortical network neuronal communication during cognition.

  16. An open, interoperable, and scalable prehospital information technology network architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landman, Adam B; Rokos, Ivan C; Burns, Kevin; Van Gelder, Carin M; Fisher, Roger M; Dunford, James V; Cone, David C; Bogucki, Sandy

    2011-01-01

    Some of the most intractable challenges in prehospital medicine include response time optimization, inefficiencies at the emergency medical services (EMS)-emergency department (ED) interface, and the ability to correlate field interventions with patient outcomes. Information technology (IT) can address these and other concerns by ensuring that system and patient information is received when and where it is needed, is fully integrated with prior and subsequent patient information, and is securely archived. Some EMS agencies have begun adopting information technologies, such as wireless transmission of 12-lead electrocardiograms, but few agencies have developed a comprehensive plan for management of their prehospital information and integration with other electronic medical records. This perspective article highlights the challenges and limitations of integrating IT elements without a strategic plan, and proposes an open, interoperable, and scalable prehospital information technology (PHIT) architecture. The two core components of this PHIT architecture are 1) routers with broadband network connectivity to share data between ambulance devices and EMS system information services and 2) an electronic patient care report to organize and archive all electronic prehospital data. To successfully implement this comprehensive PHIT architecture, data and technology requirements must be based on best available evidence, and the system must adhere to health data standards as well as privacy and security regulations. Recent federal legislation prioritizing health information technology may position federal agencies to help design and fund PHIT architectures.

  17. SELECTING NEURAL NETWORK ARCHITECTURE FOR INVESTMENT PROFITABILITY PREDICTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijana Zekić-Sušac

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available After production and operations, finance and investments are one of the mostfrequent areas of neural network applications in business. The lack of standardizedparadigms that can determine the efficiency of certain NN architectures in a particularproblem domain is still present. The selection of NN architecture needs to take intoconsideration the type of the problem, the nature of the data in the model, as well as somestrategies based on result comparison. The paper describes previous research in that areaand suggests a forward strategy for selecting best NN algorithm and structure. Since thestrategy includes both parameter-based and variable-based testings, it can be used forselecting NN architectures as well as for extracting models. The backpropagation, radialbasis,modular, LVQ and probabilistic neural network algorithms were used on twoindependent sets: stock market and credit scoring data. The results show that neuralnetworks give better accuracy comparing to multiple regression and logistic regressionmodels. Since it is model-independant, the strategy can be used by researchers andprofessionals in other areas of application.

  18. Communication Network Architectures for Smart-Wind Power Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. Ahmed

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Developments in the wind power industry have enabled a new generation of wind turbines with longer blades, taller towers, higher efficiency, and lower maintenance costs due to the maturity of related technologies. Nevertheless, wind turbines are still blind machines because the control center is responsible for managing and controlling individual wind turbines that are turned on or off according to demand for electricity. In this paper, we propose a communication network architecture for smart-wind power farms (Smart-WPFs. The proposed architecture is designed for wind turbines to communicate directly and share sensing data in order to maximize power generation, WPF availability, and turbine efficiency. We also designed a sensor data frame structure to carry sensing data from different wind turbine parts such as the rotor, transformer, nacelle, etc. The data frame includes a logical node ID (LNID, sensor node ID (SNID, sensor type (ST, and sensor data based on the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC 61400-25 standard. We present an analytical model that describes upstream traffic between the wind turbines and the control center. Using a queueing theory approach, the upstream traffic is evaluated in view of bandwidth utilization and average queuing delay. The performance of the proposed network architectures are evaluated by using analytical and simulation models.

  19. SDN architecture for optical packet and circuit integrated networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furukawa, Hideaki; Miyazawa, Takaya

    2016-02-01

    We have been developing an optical packet and circuit integrated (OPCI) network, which realizes dynamic optical path, high-density packet multiplexing, and flexible wavelength resource allocation. In the OPCI networks, a best-effort service and a QoS-guaranteed service are provided by employing optical packet switching (OPS) and optical circuit switching (OCS) respectively, and users can select these services. Different wavelength resources are assigned for OPS and OCS links, and the amount of their wavelength resources are dynamically changed in accordance with the service usage conditions. To apply OPCI networks into wide-area (core/metro) networks, we have developed an OPCI node with a distributed control mechanism. Moreover, our OPCI node works with a centralized control mechanism as well as a distributed one. It is therefore possible to realize SDN-based OPCI networks, where resource requests and a centralized configuration are carried out. In this paper, we show our SDN architecture for an OPS system that configures mapping tables between IP addresses and optical packet addresses and switching tables according to the requests from multiple users via a web interface. While OpenFlow-based centralized control protocol is coming into widespread use especially for single-administrative, small-area (LAN/data-center) networks. Here, we also show an interworking mechanism between OpenFlow-based networks (OFNs) and the OPCI network for constructing a wide-area network, and a control method of wavelength resource selection to automatically transfer diversified flows from OFNs to the OPCI network.

  20. The architecture of functional interaction networks in the retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganmor, Elad; Segev, Ronen; Schneidman, Elad

    2011-02-23

    Sensory information is represented in the brain by the joint activity of large groups of neurons. Recent studies have shown that, although the number of possible activity patterns and underlying interactions is exponentially large, pairwise-based models give a surprisingly accurate description of neural population activity patterns. We explored the architecture of maximum entropy models of the functional interaction networks underlying the response of large populations of retinal ganglion cells, in adult tiger salamander retina, responding to natural and artificial stimuli. We found that we can further simplify these pairwise models by neglecting weak interaction terms or by relying on a small set of interaction strengths. Comparing network interactions under different visual stimuli, we show the existence of local network motifs in the interaction map of the retina. Our results demonstrate that the underlying interaction map of the retina is sparse and dominated by local overlapping interaction modules.

  1. Disrupted Brain Functional Network Architecture in Chronic Tinnitus Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Chen; Feng, Yuan; Xu, Jin-Jing; Mao, Cun-Nan; Xia, Wenqing; Ren, Jun; Yin, Xindao

    2016-01-01

    Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have demonstrated the disruptions of multiple brain networks in tinnitus patients. Nonetheless, several studies found no differences in network processing between tinnitus patients and healthy controls (HCs). Its neural bases are poorly understood. To identify aberrant brain network architecture involved in chronic tinnitus, we compared the resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI) patterns of tinnitus patients and HCs. Chronic tinnitus patients (n = 24) with normal hearing thresholds and age-, sex-, education- and hearing threshold-matched HCs (n = 22) participated in the current study and underwent the rs-fMRI scanning. We used degree centrality (DC) to investigate functional connectivity (FC) strength of the whole-brain network and Granger causality to analyze effective connectivity in order to explore directional aspects involved in tinnitus. Compared to HCs, we found significantly increased network centrality in bilateral superior frontal gyrus (SFG). Unidirectionally, the left SFG revealed increased effective connectivity to the left middle orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), left posterior lobe of cerebellum (PLC), left postcentral gyrus, and right middle occipital gyrus (MOG) while the right SFG exhibited enhanced effective connectivity to the right supplementary motor area (SMA). In addition, the effective connectivity from the bilateral SFG to the OFC and SMA showed positive correlations with tinnitus distress. Rs-fMRI provides a new and novel method for identifying aberrant brain network architecture. Chronic tinnitus patients have disrupted FC strength and causal connectivity mostly in non-auditory regions, especially the prefrontal cortex (PFC). The current findings will provide a new perspective for understanding the neuropathophysiological mechanisms in chronic tinnitus.

  2. A solution for parallel network architectures applied to network defense appliances and sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naber, Eric C.; Velez, Paul G.; Johal, Amanpreet S.

    2012-06-01

    Network defense has more technologies available for purchase today than ever before. As the number of threats increase, organizations are deploying multiple defense technologies to defend their networks. For instance, an enterprise network boundary often implements multiple network defense appliances, some with overlapping capabilities (e.g., firewalls, IDS/IPS, DNS Defense). These appliances are applied in a serial fashion to create a chain of network processing specifically designed to drop bad traffic from the network. In these architectures, once a packet is dropped by an appliance subsequent appliances do not process it. This introduces significant limitations; (1) Stateful appliances will maintain an internal state which differs from network reality; (2) The network manager cannot determine, or unit test, how each appliance would have treated each packet; (3) The appliance "votes" cannot be combined to achieve higherlevel functionality. To address these limitations, we have developed a novel, backwards-compatible Parallel Architecture for Network Defense Appliances (PANDA). Our approach allows every appliance to process all network traffic and cast a vote to drop or allow each packet. This "crowd-sourcing" approach allows the network designer to take full advantage of each appliance, understand how each appliance is behaving, and achieve new collaborative appliance behavior.

  3. The brain's functional network architecture reveals human motives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Grit; Morishima, Yosuke; Leiberg, Susanne; Sul, Sunhae; Fehr, Ernst

    2016-03-04

    Goal-directed human behaviors are driven by motives. Motives are, however, purely mental constructs that are not directly observable. Here, we show that the brain's functional network architecture captures information that predicts different motives behind the same altruistic act with high accuracy. In contrast, mere activity in these regions contains no information about motives. Empathy-based altruism is primarily characterized by a positive connectivity from the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) to the anterior insula (AI), whereas reciprocity-based altruism additionally invokes strong positive connectivity from the AI to the ACC and even stronger positive connectivity from the AI to the ventral striatum. Moreover, predominantly selfish individuals show distinct functional architectures compared to altruists, and they only increase altruistic behavior in response to empathy inductions, but not reciprocity inductions. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  4. Correlation Between Channel Profile and Plan View Drainage Network Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelef, E.; Hilley, G. E.

    2011-12-01

    This research explores the relationship between the plan-view network and profile geometry of channels using high-resolution digital topography and numerical models. In particular, we study the relations between plan-view morphometrics of the channel network and the mechanics of land-shaping processes as reflected by channel profile concavity. This analysis addresses one of the long-standing questions in geomorphology relating to the mechanistic significance of various plan-view channel network geometry measures. Statistically based studies suggest that Hortonian measures of channel network architecture (e.g. bifurcation ratio, area ratio, and length ratio) describe virtually all possible network geometries, and hence are not diagnostic when evaluating the origins of the geometry of a particular network. Our analyses of high resolution DEMs that capture different channel profile concavities (i.e debris flow vs. fluvial flows), as well as the topography of landscapes produced by process-based numerical models affirms this conclusion and indicates that Hortonian measures, as well as Hack exponent, are insensitive to channel concavity. In contrast, channel frequency (number of channel segments per area) appears to provide a measure that is sensitive to channel concavity. As such, channel frequency appears to discern between landscapes dominated by different land-shaping processes that produce different channel profile concavities. In the context of headword growing networks, the observed relations between concavity and channel frequency can be modeled through the coupled effect of concavity and surface roughness on the competition between headword growing channels. Our results suggest that the plan-view geometry of channel networks does not simply arise from random deflection of channels that once joined, cannot separate, but rather reflects the underlying processes that incise through rock and transport mass through the channel network

  5. Thinking in networks: artistic–architectural responses to ubiquitous information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne Spielmann

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses creative practices that in aesthetical-technical ways intervene into the computer networked communication systems.I am interested in artist practices that use networks in different ways to make us aware about the possibilities to rethink media-cultural environments. I use the example of the Japanese art-architectural group Double Negative Architecture to give an example of creatively thinking in networks.Yvonne Spielmann (Ph.D., Dr. habil. is presently Research Professor and Chair of New Media at The University of the West of Scotland. Her work focuses on inter-relationships between media and culture, technology, art, science and communication, and in particular on Western/European and non-Western/South-East Asian interaction. Milestones of publish research output are four authored monographs and about 90 single authored articles. Her book, “Video, the Reflexive Medium” (published by MIT Press 2008, Japanese edition by Sangen-sha Press 2011 was rewarded the 2009 Lewis Mumford Award for Outstanding Scholarship in the Ecology of Technics. Her most recent book “Hybrid Cultures” was published in German by Suhrkamp Press in 2010, English edition from MIT Press in 2012. Spielmann's work has been published in German and English and has been translated into French, Polish, Croatian, Swedish, Japanese, and Korean. She holds the 2011 Swedish Prize for Swedish–German scientific co-operation.

  6. A Novel Architectural Concept for Enhanced 5G Network Facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chochliouros Ioannis P.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The 5G ESSENCE project’s context is based on the concept of Edge Cloud Computing and Small Cell-as-a-Service (SCaaS -as both have been previously identified in the SESAME 5G-PPP project of phase 1- and further “promotes” their role and/or influences within the related 5G vertical markets. 5G ESSENCE’s core innovation is focused upon the development/provision of a highly flexible and scalable platform, offering benefits to the involved market actors. The present work identifies a variety of challenges to be fulfilled by the 5G ESSENCE, in the scope of an enhanced architectural framework. The proposed technical approach exploits the profits of the centralization of Small Cell functions as scale grows through an edge cloud environment, based on a two-tier architecture with the first distributed tier being for offering low latency services and the second centralized tier being for the provision of high processing power for computing-intensive network applications. This permits decoupling the control and user planes of the Radio Access Network (RAN and achieving the advantages of Cloud-RAN without the enormous fronthaul latency restrictions. The use of end-to-end network slicing mechanisms allows for sharing the related infrastructure among multiple operators/vertical industries and customizing its capabilities on a per-tenant basis, creating a neutral host market and reducing operational costs.

  7. Network architecture underlying maximal separation of neuronal representations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ron A Jortner

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most basic and general tasks faced by all nervous systems is extracting relevant information from the organism’s surrounding world. While physical signals available to sensory systems are often continuous, variable, overlapping and noisy, high-level neuronal representations used for decision-making tend to be discrete, specific, invariant, and highly separable. This study addresses the question of how neuronal specificity is generated. Inspired by experimental findings on network architecture in the olfactory system of the locust, I construct a highly simplified theoretical framework which allows for analytic solution of its key properties. For generalized feed-forward systems, I show that an intermediate range of connectivity values between source- and target-populations leads to a combinatorial explosion of wiring possibilities, resulting in input spaces which are, by their very nature, exquisitely sparsely populated. In particular, connection probability ½, as found in the locust antennal-lobe–mushroom-body circuit, serves to maximize separation of neuronal representations across the target Kenyon-cells, and explains their specific and reliable responses. This analysis yields a function expressing response specificity in terms of lower network-parameters; together with appropriate gain control this leads to a simple neuronal algorithm for generating arbitrarily sparse and selective codes and linking network architecture and neural coding. I suggest a way to easily construct ecologically meaningful representations from this code.

  8. Signalling design and architecture for a proposed mobile satellite network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, T.-Y.; Cheng, U.; Wang, C.

    1990-01-01

    In a frequency-division/demand-assigned multiple-access (FD/DAMA) architecture, each mobile subscriber must make a connection request to the Network Management Center before transmission for either open-end or closed-end services. Open-end services are for voice calls and long file transfer and are processed on a blocked-call-cleared basis. Closed-end services are for transmitting burst data and are processed on a first-come first-served basis. This paper presents the signalling design and architecture for non-voice services of an FD/DAMA mobile satellite network. The connection requests are made through the recently proposed multiple channel collision resolution scheme which provides a significantly higher throughput than the traditional slotted ALOHA scheme. For non-voice services, it is well known that retransmissions are necessary to ensure the delivery of a message in its entirety from the source to destination. Retransmission protocols for open-end and closed-end data transfer are investigated. The signal structure for the proposed network is derived from X-25 standards with appropriate modifications. The packet types and their usages are described in this paper.

  9. SANDS: an architecture for clinical decision support in a National Health Information Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Adam; Sittig, Dean F

    2007-10-11

    A new architecture for clinical decision support called SANDS (Service-oriented Architecture for NHIN Decision Support) is introduced and its performance evaluated. The architecture provides a method for performing clinical decision support across a network, as in a health information exchange. Using the prototype we demonstrated that, first, a number of useful types of decision support can be carried out using our architecture; and, second, that the architecture exhibits desirable reliability and performance characteristics.

  10. Stability of Ecological Communities and the Architecture of Mutualistic and Trophic Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thebault, E.M.C.; Fontaine, C.

    2010-01-01

    Research on the relationship between the architecture of ecological networks and community stability has mainly focused on one type of interaction at a time, making difficult any comparison between different network types. We used a theoretical approach to show that the network architecture favoring

  11. Intelligent Approaches in Improving In-vehicle Network Architecture and Minimizing Power Consumption in Combat Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    1345– 1361, November 2002. [30] L.F. P. Pollo , J. -Porto, ―A Network-oriented Power Management Architecture,‖ Proc. Integrated Network Management...208, Feb. 2007, doi: 10.1109/TCE.2007.339526. [47] L.F. Pollo and J-Porto, ―A Network-oriented Power Management Architecture,‖ Proc. Integrated

  12. Towards A New Opportunistic IoT Network Architecture for Wildlife Monitoring System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ayele, Eyuel Debebe; Meratnia, Nirvana; Havinga, Paul J.M.

    In this paper we introduce an opportunistic dual radio IoT network architecture for wildlife monitoring systems (WMS). Since data processing consumes less energy than transmitting the raw data, the proposed architecture leverages opportunistic mobile networks in a fixed LPWAN IoT network

  13. Use of genetic algorithms for encoding efficient neural network architectures: neurocomputer implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Jason; Dagli, Cihan H.

    1995-04-01

    In this study an attempt is being made to encode the architecture of a neural network in a chromosome string for evolving robust, fast-learning, minimal neural network architectures through genetic algorithms. Various attributes affecting the learning of the network are represented as genes. The performance of the networks is used as the fitness value. Neural network architecture design concepts are initially demonstrated using a backpropagation architecture with the standard data set of Rosenberg and Sejnowski for text to speech conversion on Adaptive Solutions Inc.'s CNAPS Neuro-Computer. The architectures obtained are compared with the one reported in the literature for the standard data set used. The study concludes by providing some insights regarding the architecture encoding for other artificial neural network paradigms.

  14. Architectural approach for quality and safety aware healthcare social networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Diego M; Blobel, Bernd; González, Carolina

    2012-01-01

    Quality of information and privacy and safety issues are frequently identified as main limitations to make most benefit from social media in healthcare. The objective of the paper is to contribute to the analysis of healthcare social networks (SN), and online healthcare social network services (SNS) by proposing a formal architectural analysis of healthcare SN and SNS, considering the complexity of both systems, but stressing on quality, safety and usability aspects. Quality policies are necessary to control the quality of content published by experts and consumers. Privacy and safety policies protect against inappropriate use of information and users responsibility for sharing information. After the policies are established and documented, a proof of concept online SNS supporting primary healthcare promotion is presented in the paper.

  15. Interoperability Architecture for a Paediatric Oncology European Reference Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitzlnader, Michael; Canete Nieto, Adela; Ribelles, Antonio Juan; Brunmair, Barbara; Ladenstein, Ruth; Schreier, Günter

    2016-01-01

    With the Directive 2011/24/EU on patients' rights in cross-border healthcare and the related delegated decisions, the European Commission defined a legal framework on how healthcare shall be organised by European Union (EU) member states (MS) where patients can move beyond the borders of their home country. Among other aspects, Article 12 of the directive is concerned with supporting MS with the development of so called European Reference Networks (ERN), dedicated to the treatment of "patients with a medical condition requiring a particular concentration of expertise in medical domains where expertise is rare". In the "European Expert Paediatric Oncology Reference Network for Diagnostics and Treatment" (ExPO-r-Net) project, the establishment of such an ERN in the domain of Paediatric Oncology is currently piloted. The present paper describes the high level use cases, the main requirements and a corresponding interoperability architecture capable to serve as the necessary IT platform to facilitate cross-border health data exchange.

  16. An architecture for design and planning of mobile television networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Tamayo-Fernández

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Mobile television (TV, made possible by the convergence of media, telecommunications and consumer electronicsindustries, is one of the most hyped new mobile services in several countries [1]. The advertised key features ofmobile TV are personalization, interactivity, and most importantly, the ability to watch TV programming while on thego. The deployment of a mobile TV network consists of several stages that require careful planning. There are available simulation packages for designing wireless technologies, however, for mobile TV there are still planning and simulations concerns that have to be addressed in order to identify its design challenges. This article reviews the main parameters that should be taken into account to support the design and planning of a mobile TV network andproposes an architecture for its implementation.

  17. An architecture for designing fuzzy logic controllers using neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenji, Hamid R.

    1991-01-01

    Described here is an architecture for designing fuzzy controllers through a hierarchical process of control rule acquisition and by using special classes of neural network learning techniques. A new method for learning to refine a fuzzy logic controller is introduced. A reinforcement learning technique is used in conjunction with a multi-layer neural network model of a fuzzy controller. The model learns by updating its prediction of the plant's behavior and is related to the Sutton's Temporal Difference (TD) method. The method proposed here has the advantage of using the control knowledge of an experienced operator and fine-tuning it through the process of learning. The approach is applied to a cart-pole balancing system.

  18. Intrinsic and Task-Evoked Network Architectures of the Human Brain

    OpenAIRE

    Cole, Michael W.; Bassett, Danielle S.; Power, Jonathan D.; Braver, Todd S.; Petersen, Steven E.

    2014-01-01

    Many functional network properties of the human brain have been identified during rest and task states, yet it remains unclear how the two relate. We identified a whole-brain network architecture present across dozens of task states that was highly similar to the resting-state network architecture. The most frequent functional connectivity strengths across tasks closely matched the strengths observed at rest, suggesting this is an “intrinsic”, standard architecture of functional brain organiz...

  19. Sensor network architecture for monitoring turtles on seashore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvajal-Gámez, Blanca E.; Cruz, Victor; Díaz-Casco, Manuel A.; Franco, Andrea; Escobar, Carolina; Colin, Abilene; Carreto-Arellano, Chadwick

    2017-04-01

    In the last decade, advances in information and communication technologies have made it possible to diversify the use of sensor networks in different areas of knowledge (medicine, education, militia, urbanization, protection of the environment, etc.). At present, this type of tools is used to develop applications that allow the identification and monitoring of endangered animals in their natural habitat; however, there are still limitations because some of the devices used alter the behavior of the animals, as in the case of sea turtles. Research and monitoring of sea turtles is of vital importance in identifying possible threats and ensuring their preservation, the behavior of this species (migration, reproduction, and nesting) is highly related to environmental conditions. Because of this, behavioral changes information of this species can be used to monitor global climatic conditions. This work presents the design, development and implementation of an architecture for the monitoring and identification of the sea turtle using sensor networks. This will allow to obtain information for the different investigations with a greater accuracy than the conventional techniques, through non-invasive means for the species and its habitat. The proposed architecture contemplates the use of new technology devices, selfconfigurable, with low energy consumption, interconnection with various communication protocols and sustainable energy supply (solar, wind, etc.).

  20. Analysis of Terminal Server Architectures for Thin Clients in a High Assurance Network

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Balmer, Steven R; Irvine, Cynthia E

    2000-01-01

    This paper examines the architectural and security impact of using commercially available, popular terminal servers to support thin clients within the context of a high assurance multilevel network...

  1. Fiber-wireless convergence in next-generation communication networks systems, architectures, and management

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, Gee-Kung; Ellinas, Georgios

    2017-01-01

    This book investigates new enabling technologies for Fi-Wi convergence. The editors discuss Fi-Wi technologies at the three major network levels involved in the path towards convergence: system level, network architecture level, and network management level. The main topics will be: a. At system level: Radio over Fiber (digitalized vs. analogic, standardization, E-band and beyond) and 5G wireless technologies; b. Network architecture level: NGPON, WDM-PON, BBU Hotelling, Cloud Radio Access Networks (C-RANs), HetNets. c. Network management level: SDN for convergence, Next-generation Point-of-Presence, Wi-Fi LTE Handover, Cooperative MultiPoint. • Addresses the Fi-Wi convergence issues at three different levels, namely at the system level, network architecture level, and network management level • Provides approaches in communication systems, network architecture, and management that are expected to steer the evolution towards fiber-wireless convergence • Contributions from leading experts in the field of...

  2. Firewall Architectures for High-Speed Networks: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Errin W. Fulp

    2007-08-20

    Firewalls are a key component for securing networks that are vital to government agencies and private industry. They enforce a security policy by inspecting and filtering traffic arriving or departing from a secure network. While performing these critical security operations, firewalls must act transparent to legitimate users, with little or no effect on the perceived network performance (QoS). Packets must be inspected and compared against increasingly complex rule sets and tables, which is a time-consuming process. As a result, current firewall systems can introduce significant delays and are unable to maintain QoS guarantees. Furthermore, firewalls are susceptible to Denial of Service (DoS) attacks that merely overload/saturate the firewall with illegitimate traffic. Current firewall technology only offers a short-term solution that is not scalable; therefore, the \\textbf{objective of this DOE project was to develop new firewall optimization techniques and architectures} that meet these important challenges. Firewall optimization concerns decreasing the number of comparisons required per packet, which reduces processing time and delay. This is done by reorganizing policy rules via special sorting techniques that maintain the original policy integrity. This research is important since it applies to current and future firewall systems. Another method for increasing firewall performance is with new firewall designs. The architectures under investigation consist of multiple firewalls that collectively enforce a security policy. Our innovative distributed systems quickly divide traffic across different levels based on perceived threat, allowing traffic to be processed in parallel (beyond current firewall sandwich technology). Traffic deemed safe is transmitted to the secure network, while remaining traffic is forwarded to lower levels for further examination. The result of this divide-and-conquer strategy is lower delays for legitimate traffic, higher throughput

  3. Mobile network architecture of the long-range WindScanner system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vasiljevic, Nikola; Lea, Guillaume; Hansen, Per

    In this report we have presented the network architecture of the long-range WindScanner system that allows utilization of mobile network connections without the use of static public IP addresses. The architecture mitigates the issues of additional fees and contractual obligations that are linked...... to the acquisition of the mobile network connections with static public IP addresses. The architecture consists of a hardware VPN solution based on the network appliances Z1 and MX60 from Cisco Meraki with additional 3G or 4G dongles. With the presented network architecture and appropriate configuration, we fulfill...... the requirements of running the long-range WindScanner system using a mobile network such as 3G. This architecture allows us to have the WindScanners and the master computer in different geographical locations, and in general facilitates deployments of the long-range WindScanner system....

  4. FIGARO ( Future Internet Gateway-based Architecture of Residential Networks ) D5.2: Architecture for service federation in residential networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, F.T.H. den; Hillen, B.A.G.; Tijmes, M.R.

    2011-01-01

    This document defines the preliminary version of the FIGARO architectural solution for federation within residential networks. The architecture is derived from use cases from the domains of e-health, energy management, domotics and social community services and thus supports requirements from each

  5. Architecture of the Florida Power Grid as a Complex Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yan; Gurfinkel, Aleks Jacob; Rikvold, Per Arne

    2014-03-01

    Power grids are the largest engineered systems ever built. Our work presents a simple and self-consistent graph-theoretic analysis of the Florida high-voltage power grid as a technological network embedded in two-dimensional space. We take a new perspective on the mixing patterns of generators and loads in power grids, pointing out that the real grid is usually intermediate between the random mixing and semi-bipartite case (in which generator-generator power transmission lines are disallowed). We propose spatial network models for power grids, which are obtained via a Monte Carlo cooling optimization process. Our results suggest some possible design principles behind the complex architecture of the Florida grid, viz. balancing low construction cost (measured by the total length of transmission lines) and an indispensable redundancy (measured by the clustering coefficient and edge multiplicity) responsible for the robustness of the grid. We also study community structures (modularity) of the real and modeled power-grid networks. Such communities can be electrically separated from each other to limit cascading power failures, a technique known as intentional islanding. Supported by NSF Grant No. DMR-1104829.

  6. Service Oriented Architecture for Wireless Sensor Networks in Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawant, S. A.; Adinarayana, J.; Durbha, S. S.; Tripathy, A. K.; Sudharsan, D.

    2012-08-01

    Rapid advances in Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) for agricultural applications has provided a platform for better decision making for crop planning and management, particularly in precision agriculture aspects. Due to the ever-increasing spread of WSNs there is a need for standards, i.e. a set of specifications and encodings to bring multiple sensor networks on common platform. Distributed sensor systems when brought together can facilitate better decision making in agricultural domain. The Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) through Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) provides guidelines for semantic and syntactic standardization of sensor networks. In this work two distributed sensing systems (Agrisens and FieldServer) were selected to implement OGC SWE standards through a Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) approach. Online interoperable data processing was developed through SWE components such as Sensor Model Language (SensorML) and Sensor Observation Service (SOS). An integrated web client was developed to visualize the sensor observations and measurements that enables the retrieval of crop water resources availability and requirements in a systematic manner for both the sensing devices. Further, the client has also the ability to operate in an interoperable manner with any other OGC standardized WSN systems. The study of WSN systems has shown that there is need to augment the operations / processing capabilities of SOS in order to understand about collected sensor data and implement the modelling services. Also, the very low cost availability of WSN systems in future, it is possible to implement the OGC standardized SWE framework for agricultural applications with open source software tools.

  7. A Novel, Privacy Preserving, Architecture for Online Social Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Wang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The centralized nature of conventional OSNs poses serious risks to the privacy and security of information exchanged between their members. These risks prompted several attempts to create decentralized OSNs, or DOSNs. The basic idea underlying these attempts, is that each member of a social network keeps its data under its own control, instead of surrendering it to a central host, providing access to it to other members according to its own access-control policy. Unfortunately all existing versions of DOSNs have a very serious limitation. Namely, they are unable to subject the membership of a DOSN, and the interaction between its members, to any global policy—which is essential for many social communities. Moreover, the DOSN architecture is unable to support useful capabilities such as narrowcasting and profile based search. This paper describes a novel architecture of decentralized OSNs—called DOSC, for “online social community”. DOSC adopts the decentralization idea underlying DOSNs, but it is able to subject the membership of a DOSC-community, and the interaction between its members, to a wide range of policies, including privacy-preserving narrowcasting and profile-sensitive search.

  8. SPANNER: A Self-Repairing Spiking Neural Network Hardware Architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junxiu; Harkin, Jim; Maguire, Liam P; McDaid, Liam J; Wade, John J

    2017-03-06

    Recent research has shown that a glial cell of astrocyte underpins a self-repair mechanism in the human brain, where spiking neurons provide direct and indirect feedbacks to presynaptic terminals. These feedbacks modulate the synaptic transmission probability of release (PR). When synaptic faults occur, the neuron becomes silent or near silent due to the low PR of synapses; whereby the PRs of remaining healthy synapses are then increased by the indirect feedback from the astrocyte cell. In this paper, a novel hardware architecture of Self-rePAiring spiking Neural NEtwoRk (SPANNER) is proposed, which mimics this self-repairing capability in the human brain. This paper demonstrates that the hardware can self-detect and self-repair synaptic faults without the conventional components for the fault detection and fault repairing. Experimental results show that SPANNER can maintain the system performance with fault densities of up to 40%, and more importantly SPANNER has only a 20% performance degradation when the self-repairing architecture is significantly damaged at a fault density of 80%.

  9. ReNoC: A Network-on-Chip Architecture with Reconfigurable Topology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stensgaard, Mikkel Bystrup; Sparsø, Jens

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a Network-on-Chip (NoC) architecture that enables the network topology to be reconfigured. The architecture thus enables a generalized System-on-Chip (SoC) platform in which the topology can be customized for the application that is currently running on the chip, including long...

  10. Scale-space measures for graph topology link protein network architecture to function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulsman, M.; Dimitrakopoulos, C.; De Ridder, J.

    2014-01-01

    MOTIVATION: The network architecture of physical protein interactions is an important determinant for the molecular functions that are carried out within each cell. To study this relation, the network architecture can be characterized by graph topological characteristics such as shortest paths and

  11. Distributed Prognostics and Health Management with a Wireless Network Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebel, Kai; Saha, Sankalita; Sha, Bhaskar

    2013-01-01

    A heterogeneous set of system components monitored by a varied suite of sensors and a particle-filtering (PF) framework, with the power and the flexibility to adapt to the different diagnostic and prognostic needs, has been developed. Both the diagnostic and prognostic tasks are formulated as a particle-filtering problem in order to explicitly represent and manage uncertainties in state estimation and remaining life estimation. Current state-of-the-art prognostic health management (PHM) systems are mostly centralized in nature, where all the processing is reliant on a single processor. This can lead to a loss in functionality in case of a crash of the central processor or monitor. Furthermore, with increases in the volume of sensor data as well as the complexity of algorithms, traditional centralized systems become for a number of reasons somewhat ungainly for successful deployment, and efficient distributed architectures can be more beneficial. The distributed health management architecture is comprised of a network of smart sensor devices. These devices monitor the health of various subsystems or modules. They perform diagnostics operations and trigger prognostics operations based on user-defined thresholds and rules. The sensor devices, called computing elements (CEs), consist of a sensor, or set of sensors, and a communication device (i.e., a wireless transceiver beside an embedded processing element). The CE runs in either a diagnostic or prognostic operating mode. The diagnostic mode is the default mode where a CE monitors a given subsystem or component through a low-weight diagnostic algorithm. If a CE detects a critical condition during monitoring, it raises a flag. Depending on availability of resources, a networked local cluster of CEs is formed that then carries out prognostics and fault mitigation by efficient distribution of the tasks. It should be noted that the CEs are expected not to suspend their previous tasks in the prognostic mode. When the

  12. Low-Cost Hybrid ROADM Architectures for Scalable C/DWDM Metro Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nooruzzaman, Md; Halima, Elbiaze

    2016-01-01

    CWDM networks have proven to be a promising first-step metro and access network architecture, offering a significant cost advantage over DWDM due to the lower cost of lasers and the filters used in CWDM modules. If demand grows beyond the capacity covered by CWDM channels, DWDM network elements can...... be introduced to merge CWDM and DWDM traffic at the optical layer. This ensures two advantages: reduced initial investment and scalability for deploying DWDM channels in the future. This article presents various ROADM architectures, and explores the novel optical node architecture of hybrid C/DWDM networks......, consisting of CWDM, hybrid C/DWDM, and junction nodes connecting two rings. Evaluation has shown that the hybrid ROADM architecture is superior to other conventional ROADM architectures in terms of scalability and the initial cost of optical nodes and networks....

  13. Network Architecture, Security Issues, and Hardware Implementation of a Home Area Network for Smart Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Saponara

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses aims, architecture, and security issues of Smart Grid, taking care of the lesson learned at University of Pisa in research projects on smart energy and grid. A key element of Smart Grid is the energy home area network (HAN, for which an implementation is proposed, dealing with its security aspects and showing some solutions for realizing a wireless network based on ZigBee. Possible hardware-software architectures and implementations using COTS (Commercial Off The Shelf components are presented for key building blocks of the energy HAN such as smart power meters and plugs and a home smart information box providing energy management policy and supporting user's energy awareness.

  14. An Open Distributed Architecture for Sensor Networks for Risk Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf Denzer

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Sensors provide some of the basic input data for risk management of natural andman-made hazards. Here the word ‘sensors’ covers everything from remote sensingsatellites, providing invaluable images of large regions, through instruments installed on theEarth’s surface to instruments situated in deep boreholes and on the sea floor, providinghighly-detailed point-based information from single sites. Data from such sensors is used inall stages of risk management, from hazard, vulnerability and risk assessment in the preeventphase, information to provide on-site help during the crisis phase through to data toaid in recovery following an event. Because data from sensors play such an important part inimproving understanding of the causes of risk and consequently in its mitigation,considerable investment has been made in the construction and maintenance of highlysophisticatedsensor networks. In spite of the ubiquitous need for information from sensornetworks, the use of such data is hampered in many ways. Firstly, information about thepresence and capabilities of sensor networks operating in a region is difficult to obtain dueto a lack of easily available and usable meta-information. Secondly, once sensor networkshave been identified their data it is often difficult to access due to a lack of interoperability between dissemination and acquisition systems. Thirdly, the transfer and processing ofinformation from sensors is limited, again by incompatibilities between systems. Therefore,the current situation leads to a lack of efficiency and limited use of the available data thathas an important role to play in risk mitigation. In view of this situation, the EuropeanCommission (EC is funding a number of Integrated Projects within the Sixth FrameworkProgramme concerned with improving the accessibility of data and services for riskmanagement. Two of these projects: ‘Open Architecture and Spatial Data

  15. Implementing wireless sensor networks for architectural heritage conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Garrido, M. I.; Aparicio, S.; Fort, R.; Izquierdo, M. A. G.; Anaya, J. J.

    2012-04-01

    Preventive conservation in architectural heritage is one of the most important aims for the development and implementation of new techniques to assess decay, lending to reduce damage before it has occurred and reducing costs in the long term. For that purpose, it is necessary to know all aspects influencing in decay evolution depending on the material under study and its internal and external conditions. Wireless sensor networks are an emerging technology and a minimally invasive technique. The use of these networks facilitates data acquisition and monitoring of a large number of variables that could provoke material damages, such as presence of harmful compounds like salts, dampness, etc. The current project presents different wireless sensors networks (WSN) and sensors used to fulfill the requirements for a complete analysis of main decay agents in a Renaissance church of the 16th century in Madrid (Spain). Current typologies and wireless technologies are studied establishing the most suitable system and the convenience of each one. Firstly, it is very important to consider that microclimate is in close correlation with material deterioration. Therefore a temperature(T) and relative humidity (RH)/moisture network has been developed, using ZigBee wireless communications protocols, and monitoring different points along the church surface. These points are recording RH/T differences depending on the height and the sensor location (inside the material or on the surface). On the other hand, T/RH button sensors have been used, minimizing aesthetical interferences, and concluding which is the most advisable way for monitoring these specific parameters. Due to the fact that microclimate is a complex phenomenon, it is necessary to examine spatial distribution and time evolution at the same time. This work shows both studies since the development expects a long term monitoring. A different wireless network has been deployed to study the effects of pollution caused by other

  16. Overview of the Smart Network Element Architecture and Recent Innovations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perotti, Jose M.; Mata, Carlos T.; Oostdyk, Rebecca L.

    2008-01-01

    In industrial environments, system operators rely on the availability and accuracy of sensors to monitor processes and detect failures of components and/or processes. The sensors must be networked in such a way that their data is reported to a central human interface, where operators are tasked with making real-time decisions based on the state of the sensors and the components that are being monitored. Incorporating health management functions at this central location aids the operator by automating the decision-making process to suggest, and sometimes perform, the action required by current operating conditions. Integrated Systems Health Management (ISHM) aims to incorporate data from many sources, including real-time and historical data and user input, and extract information and knowledge from that data to diagnose failures and predict future failures of the system. By distributing health management processing to lower levels of the architecture, there is less bandwidth required for ISHM, enhanced data fusion, make systems and processes more robust, and improved resolution for the detection and isolation of failures in a system, subsystem, component, or process. The Smart Network Element (SNE) has been developed at NASA Kennedy Space Center to perform intelligent functions at sensors and actuators' level in support of ISHM.

  17. Wireless Sensor Networks for Space Applications: Network Architecture and Protocol Enhancements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Driss BENHADDOU

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The application of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs in time-sensitive space applications, such as astronaut health monitoring and environment-risk monitoring, demands exclusive investigation of network design and protocols for optimized operation in geo-station environments. The continuous monitoring of physiological condition of crew members, spaceflight equipments and habitat during long space missions is of paramount importance to NASA for mitigating performance risks. Continual performance tracking and local response advisory capabilities, within space environments, are crucial to ensure overall mission success. This paper will present challenges and opportunities of wireless sensor networks in space applications, and the investigation of system and protocol design for efficient performance monitoring. We describe a flexible WSN architecture and the required system components for reliable communications. We also investigate crucial network algorithms including link quality adaptation, energy efficiency and quality-of-service that are essential for efficient performance monitoring in geo-station environments.

  18. Security Policy Scheme for an Efficient Security Architecture in Software-Defined Networking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woosik Lee

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to build an efficient security architecture, previous studies have attempted to understand complex system architectures and message flows to detect various attack packets. However, the existing hardware-based single security architecture cannot efficiently handle a complex system structure. To solve this problem, we propose a software-defined networking (SDN policy-based scheme for an efficient security architecture. The proposed scheme considers four policy functions: separating, chaining, merging, and reordering. If SDN network functions virtualization (NFV system managers use these policy functions to deploy a security architecture, they only submit some of the requirement documents to the SDN policy-based architecture. After that, the entire security network can be easily built. This paper presents information about the design of a new policy functions model, and it discusses the performance of this model using theoretical analysis.

  19. Neural network architecture for cognitive navigation in dynamic environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villacorta-Atienza, José Antonio; Makarov, Valeri A

    2013-12-01

    Navigation in time-evolving environments with moving targets and obstacles requires cognitive abilities widely demonstrated by even simplest animals. However, it is a long-standing challenging problem for artificial agents. Cognitive autonomous robots coping with this problem must solve two essential tasks: 1) understand the environment in terms of what may happen and how I can deal with this and 2) learn successful experiences for their further use in an automatic subconscious way. The recently introduced concept of compact internal representation (CIR) provides the ground for both the tasks. CIR is a specific cognitive map that compacts time-evolving situations into static structures containing information necessary for navigation. It belongs to the class of global approaches, i.e., it finds trajectories to a target when they exist but also detects situations when no solution can be found. Here we extend the concept of situations with mobile targets. Then using CIR as a core, we propose a closed-loop neural network architecture consisting of conscious and subconscious pathways for efficient decision-making. The conscious pathway provides solutions to novel situations if the default subconscious pathway fails to guide the agent to a target. Employing experiments with roving robots and numerical simulations, we show that the proposed architecture provides the robot with cognitive abilities and enables reliable and flexible navigation in realistic time-evolving environments. We prove that the subconscious pathway is robust against uncertainty in the sensory information. Thus if a novel situation is similar but not identical to the previous experience (because of, e.g., noisy perception) then the subconscious pathway is able to provide an effective solution.

  20. Quantum perceptron over a field and neural network architecture selection in a quantum computer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Adenilton José; Ludermir, Teresa Bernarda; de Oliveira, Wilson Rosa

    2016-04-01

    In this work, we propose a quantum neural network named quantum perceptron over a field (QPF). Quantum computers are not yet a reality and the models and algorithms proposed in this work cannot be simulated in actual (or classical) computers. QPF is a direct generalization of a classical perceptron and solves some drawbacks found in previous models of quantum perceptrons. We also present a learning algorithm named Superposition based Architecture Learning algorithm (SAL) that optimizes the neural network weights and architectures. SAL searches for the best architecture in a finite set of neural network architectures with linear time over the number of patterns in the training set. SAL is the first learning algorithm to determine neural network architectures in polynomial time. This speedup is obtained by the use of quantum parallelism and a non-linear quantum operator. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. T-SDN architecture for space and ground integrated optical transport network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Kunkun; Hu, Wenjing; Gao, Shenghua; Chang, Chengwu

    2015-11-01

    Integrated optical transport network is the development trend of the future space information backbone network. The space and ground integrated optical transport network(SGIOTN) may contain a variety of equipment and systems. Changing the network or meeting some innovation missions in the network will be an expensive implement. Software Defined Network(SDN) provides a good solution to flexibly adding process logic, timely control states and resources of the whole network, as well as shielding the differences of heterogeneous equipment and so on. According to the characteristics of SGIOTN, we propose an transport SDN architecture for it, with hierarchical control plane and data plane composed of packet networks and optical transport networks.

  2. Multi-layer architecture for realization of network virtualization using MPLS technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghasem Ahmadeyan Mazhin

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Network virtualization (NV increases Internet flexibility by separating policies from mechanisms. This makes developing new applications, managing the Internet, and supporting different applications much easier. In this study, we introduce a multi-layer architecture which combines multi-level multiprotocol label switching (MPLS technology with NV. The proposed architecture combines the high speed advantage of MPLS with the high flexibility of NV. We use MPLS in MPLS technique and encapsulate each MPLS packet within another when it encounters a new virtual network. Our architecture has the potential to improve Internet flexibility and pave the way for deployment and commercialization of NV in next generation networks.

  3. Metabolic network architecture and carbon source determine metabolite production costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waschina, Silvio; D'Souza, Glen; Kost, Christian; Kaleta, Christoph

    2016-06-01

    Metabolism is essential to organismal life, because it provides energy and building block metabolites. Even though it is known that the biosynthesis of metabolites consumes a significant proportion of the resources available to a cell, the factors that determine their production costs remain less well understood. In this context, it is especially unclear how the nutritional environment affects the costs of metabolite production. Here, we use the amino acid metabolism of Escherichia coli as a model to show that the point at which a carbon source enters central metabolic pathways is a major determinant of individual metabolite production costs. Growth rates of auxotrophic genotypes, which in the presence of the required amino acid save biosynthetic costs, were compared to the growth rates that prototrophic cells achieved under the same conditions. The experimental results showed a strong concordance with computationally estimated biosynthetic costs, which allowed us, for the first time, to systematically quantify carbon source-dependent metabolite production costs. Thus, we demonstrate that the nutritional environment in combination with network architecture is an important but hitherto underestimated factor influencing biosynthetic costs and thus microbial growth. Our observations are highly relevant for the optimization of biotechnological processes as well as for understanding the ecology of microorganisms in their natural environments. © 2016 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  4. Predicting Electrocardiogram and Arterial Blood Pressure Waveforms with Different Echo State Network Architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Predicting Electrocardiogram and Arterial Blood Pressure Waveforms with Different Echo State Network Architectures Allan Fong, MS1,3, Ranjeev...the medical staff in Intensive Care Units. The ability to predict electrocardiogram and arterial blood pressure waveforms can potentially help the...type of neural network for mining, understanding, and predicting electrocardiogram and arterial blood pressure waveforms. Several network

  5. The middleware architecture supports heterogeneous network systems for module-based personal robot system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Seongho; Li, Vitaly; Choi, Dong Hee; Jung, Gi Deck; Park, Hong Seong; Ryuh, Youngsun

    2005-12-01

    On developing the personal robot system presently, the internal architecture is every module those occupy separated functions are connected through heterogeneous network system. This module-based architecture supports specialization and division of labor at not only designing but also implementation, as an effect of this architecture, it can reduce developing times and costs for modules. Furthermore, because every module is connected among other modules through network systems, we can get easy integrations and synergy effect to apply advanced mutual functions by co-working some modules. In this architecture, one of the most important technologies is the network middleware that takes charge communications among each modules connected through heterogeneous networks systems. The network middleware acts as the human nerve system inside of personal robot system; it relays, transmits, and translates information appropriately between modules that are similar to human organizations. The network middleware supports various hardware platform, heterogeneous network systems (Ethernet, Wireless LAN, USB, IEEE 1394, CAN, CDMA-SMS, RS-232C). This paper discussed some mechanisms about our network middleware to intercommunication and routing among modules, methods for real-time data communication and fault-tolerant network service. There have designed and implemented a layered network middleware scheme, distributed routing management, network monitoring/notification technology on heterogeneous networks for these goals. The main theme is how to make routing information in our network middleware. Additionally, with this routing information table, we appended some features. Now we are designing, making a new version network middleware (we call 'OO M/W') that can support object-oriented operation, also are updating program sources itself for object-oriented architecture. It is lighter, faster, and can support more operation systems and heterogeneous network systems, but other general

  6. A Deep Generative Adversarial Architecture for Network-Wide Spatial-Temporal Traffic State Estimation

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Yunyi; Cui, Zhiyong; Tian, Yu; Chen, Huimiao; Wang, Yinhai

    2018-01-01

    This study proposes a deep generative adversarial architecture (GAA) for network-wide spatial-temporal traffic state estimation. The GAA is able to combine traffic flow theory with neural networks and thus improve the accuracy of traffic state estimation. It consists of two Long Short-Term Memory Neural Networks (LSTM NNs) which capture correlation in time and space among traffic flow and traffic density. One of the LSTM NNs, called a discriminative network, aims to maximize the probability o...

  7. Enabling Wireless Power Transfer in Cellular Networks: Architecture, Modeling and Deployment

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Kaibin; Lau, Vincent K. N.

    2012-01-01

    Microwave power transfer (MPT) delivers energy wirelessly from stations called power beacons (PBs) to mobile devices by microwave radiation. This provides mobiles practically infinite battery lives and eliminates the need of power cords and chargers. To enable MPT for mobile charging, this paper proposes a new network architecture that overlays an uplink cellular network with randomly deployed PBs for powering mobiles, called a hybrid network. The deployment of the hybrid network under an out...

  8. Modelling intracellular signalling networks using behaviour-based systems and the blackboard architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Perez, Pedro Pablo Gonzalez; Gershenson, Carlos; Garcia, Maura Cardenas; Otero, Jaime Lagunez

    2002-01-01

    This paper proposes to model the intracellular signalling networks using a fusion of behaviour-based systems and the blackboard architecture. In virtue of this fusion, the model developed by us, which has been named Cellulat, allows to take account two essential aspects of the intracellular signalling networks: (1) the cognitive capabilities of certain types of networks' components and (2) the high level of spatial organization of these networks. A simple example of modelling of Ca2+ signalli...

  9. Space Network IP Services (SNIS): An Architecture for Supporting Low Earth Orbiting IP Satellite Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israel, David J.

    2005-01-01

    The NASA Space Network (SN) supports a variety of missions using the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS), which includes ground stations in White Sands, New Mexico and Guam. A Space Network IP Services (SNIS) architecture is being developed to support future users with requirements for end-to-end Internet Protocol (IP) communications. This architecture will support all IP protocols, including Mobile IP, over TDRSS Single Access, Multiple Access, and Demand Access Radio Frequency (RF) links. This paper will describe this architecture and how it can enable Low Earth Orbiting IP satellite missions.

  10. A Novel Architecture for Adaptive Traffic Control in Network on Chip using Code Division Multiple Access Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Fatemeh. Dehghani; Shahram. Darooei

    2016-01-01

    Network on chip has emerged as a long-term and effective method in Multiprocessor System-on-Chip communications in order to overcome the bottleneck in bus based communication architectures. Efficiency and performance of network on chip is so dependent on the architecture and structure of the network. In this paper a new structure and architecture for adaptive traffic control in network on chip using Code Division Multiple Access technique is presented. To solve the problem of synchronous acce...

  11. A neural network architecture for implementation of expert systems for real time monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramamoorthy, P. A.

    1991-01-01

    Since neural networks have the advantages of massive parallelism and simple architecture, they are good tools for implementing real time expert systems. In a rule based expert system, the antecedents of rules are in the conjunctive or disjunctive form. We constructed a multilayer feedforward type network in which neurons represent AND or OR operations of rules. Further, we developed a translator which can automatically map a given rule base into the network. Also, we proposed a new and powerful yet flexible architecture that combines the advantages of both fuzzy expert systems and neural networks. This architecture uses the fuzzy logic concepts to separate input data domains into several smaller and overlapped regions. Rule-based expert systems for time critical applications using neural networks, the automated implementation of rule-based expert systems with neural nets, and fuzzy expert systems vs. neural nets are covered.

  12. Architecture and System Engineering Development Study of Space-Based Satellite Networks for NASA Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivancic, William D.

    2003-01-01

    Traditional NASA missions, both near Earth and deep space, have been stovepipe in nature and point-to-point in architecture. Recently, NASA and others have conceptualized missions that required space-based networking. The notion of networks in space is a drastic shift in thinking and requires entirely new architectures, radio systems (antennas, modems, and media access), and possibly even new protocols. A full system engineering approach for some key mission architectures will occur that considers issues such as the science being performed, stationkeeping, antenna size, contact time, data rates, radio-link power requirements, media access techniques, and appropriate networking and transport protocols. This report highlights preliminary architecture concepts and key technologies that will be investigated.

  13. Evolving Interoperable Network Architectures for NATO Coalition Forces

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sowerbutts, Barry; Sharman, Richard; West, Mark

    2005-01-01

    .... Various factors, such as security, subnetworking, information management and mobility management for NATO requirements are examined in this light and a proposal made for a generic Defence Intranet Architecture (DIA...

  14. RoboSmith: Wireless Networked Architecture for Multiagent Robotic System

    OpenAIRE

    Florin Moldoveanu; Doru Ursutiu; Dan Floroian; Laura Floroian

    2010-01-01

    In this paper is presented an architecture for a flexible mini robot for a multiagent robotic system. In a multiagent system the value of an individual agent is negligible since the goal of the system is essential. Thus, the agents (robots) need to be small, low cost and cooperative. RoboSmith are designed based on these conditions. The proposed architecture divide a robot into functional modules such as locomotion, control, sensors, communication, and actuation. Any mobile robot can be const...

  15. ATLANTIDES: An Architecture for Alert Verification in Network Intrusion Detection Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolzoni, D.; Crispo, Bruno; Etalle, Sandro

    We present an architecture designed for alert verification (i.e., to reduce false positives) in network intrusion-detection systems. Our technique is based on a systematic (and automatic) anomaly-based analysis of the system output, which provides useful context information regarding the network

  16. mCRAN: A radio access network architecture for 5G indoor ccommunications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chandra, Kishor; Cao, Zizheng; Bruintjes, Tom; Prasad, R.V.; Karagiannis, Georgios; Tangdiongga, E.; van den Boom, H.P.A.; Kokkeler, Andre B.J.

    2015-01-01

    Millimeter wave (mmWave) communication is being seen as a disruptive technology for 5G era. In particular, 60GHz frequency band has emerged as a promising candidate for multi-Gbps connectivity in indoor and hotspot areas. In terms of network architecture, cloud radio access network (CRAN) has

  17. Requirements and System Architecture for a Healthcare Wireless Body Area Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Finn Overgaard; Toftegaard, Thomas Skjødeberg

    Wireless body area networks enable new opportunities for personal healthcare monitoring and personal healthcare applications. This paper presents a comprehensive set of requirements and challenges for building a wireless body area network to support diverse user groups and a corresponding set...... of healthcare applications. Based on the identified requirements, the paper presents an architecture for a wireless body area network and describes how this architecture is connected to an existing it-infrastructure supporting healthcare at home. Finally the paper presents our on-going research with development...

  18. Design mobile satellite system architecture as an integral part of the cellular access digital network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, E. S. K.; Marinho, J. A.; Russell, J. E., Sr.

    1988-01-01

    The Cellular Access Digital Network (CADN) is the access vehicle through which cellular technology is brought into the mainstream of the evolving integrated telecommunications network. Beyond the integrated end-to-end digital access and per call network services provisioning of the Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN), the CADN engenders the added capability of mobility freedom via wireless access. One key element of the CADN network architecture is the standard user to network interface that is independent of RF transmission technology. Since the Mobile Satellite System (MSS) is envisioned to not only complement but also enhance the capabilities of the terrestrial cellular telecommunications network, compatibility and interoperability between terrestrial cellular and mobile satellite systems are vitally important to provide an integrated moving telecommunications network of the future. From a network standpoint, there exist very strong commonalities between the terrestrial cellular system and the mobile satellite system. Therefore, the MSS architecture should be designed as an integral part of the CADN. This paper describes the concept of the CADN, the functional architecture of the MSS, and the user-network interface signaling protocols.

  19. SANDS: a service-oriented architecture for clinical decision support in a National Health Information Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Adam; Sittig, Dean F

    2008-12-01

    In this paper, we describe and evaluate a new distributed architecture for clinical decision support called SANDS (Service-oriented Architecture for NHIN Decision Support), which leverages current health information exchange efforts and is based on the principles of a service-oriented architecture. The architecture allows disparate clinical information systems and clinical decision support systems to be seamlessly integrated over a network according to a set of interfaces and protocols described in this paper. The architecture described is fully defined and developed, and six use cases have been developed and tested using a prototype electronic health record which links to one of the existing prototype National Health Information Networks (NHIN): drug interaction checking, syndromic surveillance, diagnostic decision support, inappropriate prescribing in older adults, information at the point of care and a simple personal health record. Some of these use cases utilize existing decision support systems, which are either commercially or freely available at present, and developed outside of the SANDS project, while other use cases are based on decision support systems developed specifically for the project. Open source code for many of these components is available, and an open source reference parser is also available for comparison and testing of other clinical information systems and clinical decision support systems that wish to implement the SANDS architecture. The SANDS architecture for decision support has several significant advantages over other architectures for clinical decision support. The most salient of these are:

  20. Hybrid SDN Architecture for Resource Consolidation in MPLS Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katov, Anton Nikolaev; Mihovska, Albena D.; Prasad, Neeli R.

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a methodology for resource consolidation towards minimizing the power consumption in a large network, with a substantial resource overprovisioning. The focus is on the operation of the core MPLS networks. The proposed approach is based on a software defined networking (SDN...

  1. Comparison of different artificial neural network architectures in modeling of Chlorella sp. flocculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenooz, Alireza Moosavi; Ashtiani, Farzin Zokaee; Ranjbar, Reza; Nikbakht, Fatemeh; Bolouri, Oberon

    2017-07-03

    Biodiesel production from microalgae feedstock should be performed after growth and harvesting of the cells, and the most feasible method for harvesting and dewatering of microalgae is flocculation. Flocculation modeling can be used for evaluation and prediction of its performance under different affective parameters. However, the modeling of flocculation in microalgae is not simple and has not performed yet, under all experimental conditions, mostly due to different behaviors of microalgae cells during the process under different flocculation conditions. In the current study, the modeling of microalgae flocculation is studied with different neural network architectures. Microalgae species, Chlorella sp., was flocculated with ferric chloride under different conditions and then the experimental data modeled using artificial neural network. Neural network architectures of multilayer perceptron (MLP) and radial basis function architectures, failed to predict the targets successfully, though, modeling was effective with ensemble architecture of MLP networks. Comparison between the performances of the ensemble and each individual network explains the ability of the ensemble architecture in microalgae flocculation modeling.

  2. A cluster-based architecture to structure the topology of parallel wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloret, Jaime; Garcia, Miguel; Bri, Diana; Diaz, Juan R

    2009-01-01

    A wireless sensor network is a self-configuring network of mobile nodes connected by wireless links where the nodes have limited capacity and energy. In many cases, the application environment requires the design of an exclusive network topology for a particular case. Cluster-based network developments and proposals in existence have been designed to build a network for just one type of node, where all nodes can communicate with any other nodes in their coverage area. Let us suppose a set of clusters of sensor nodes where each cluster is formed by different types of nodes (e.g., they could be classified by the sensed parameter using different transmitting interfaces, by the node profile or by the type of device: laptops, PDAs, sensor etc.) and exclusive networks, as virtual networks, are needed with the same type of sensed data, or the same type of devices, or even the same type of profiles. In this paper, we propose an algorithm that is able to structure the topology of different wireless sensor networks to coexist in the same environment. It allows control and management of the topology of each network. The architecture operation and the protocol messages will be described. Measurements from a real test-bench will show that the designed protocol has low bandwidth consumption and also demonstrates the viability and the scalability of the proposed architecture. Our ccluster-based algorithm is compared with other algorithms reported in the literature in terms of architecture and protocol measurements.

  3. Reference Architecture for Multi-Layer Software Defined Optical Data Center Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casimer DeCusatis

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available As cloud computing data centers grow larger and networking devices proliferate; many complex issues arise in the network management architecture. We propose a framework for multi-layer; multi-vendor optical network management using open standards-based software defined networking (SDN. Experimental results are demonstrated in a test bed consisting of three data centers interconnected by a 125 km metropolitan area network; running OpenStack with KVM and VMW are components. Use cases include inter-data center connectivity via a packet-optical metropolitan area network; intra-data center connectivity using an optical mesh network; and SDN coordination of networking equipment within and between multiple data centers. We create and demonstrate original software to implement virtual network slicing and affinity policy-as-a-service offerings. Enhancements to synchronous storage backup; cloud exchanges; and Fibre Channel over Ethernet topologies are also discussed.

  4. Network Coding Parallelization Based on Matrix Operations for Multicore Architectures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wunderlich, Simon; Cabrera, Juan; Fitzek, Frank

    2015-01-01

    such as the Raspberry Pi2 with four cores in the order of up to one full magnitude. The speed increase gain is even higher than the number of cores of the Raspberry Pi2 since the newly introduced approach exploits the cache architecture way better than by-the-book matrix operations. Copyright © 2015 by the Institute...

  5. Towards Horizontal Architecture for Autonomic M2M Service Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juhani Latvakoski

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Today, increasing number of industrial application cases rely on the Machine to Machine (M2M services exposed from physical devices. Such M2M services enable interaction of physical world with the core processes of company information systems. However, there are grand challenges related to complexity and “vertical silos” limiting the M2M market scale and interoperability. It is here expected that horizontal approach for the system architecture is required for solving these challenges. Therefore, a set of architectural principles and key enablers for the horizontal architecture have been specified in this work. A selected set of key enablers called as autonomic M2M manager, M2M service capabilities, M2M messaging system, M2M gateways towards energy constrained M2M asset devices and creation of trust to enable end-to-end security for M2M applications have been developed. The developed key enablers have been evaluated separately in different scenarios dealing with smart metering, car sharing and electric bike experiments. The evaluation results shows that the provided architectural principles, and developed key enablers establish a solid ground for future research and seem to enable communication between objects and applications, which are not initially been designed to communicate together. The aim as the next step in this research is to create a combined experimental system to evaluate the system interoperability and performance in a more detailed manner.

  6. Multi-layered Security Approaches for a Modular Open Network Architecture-based Satellite

    OpenAIRE

    Shirley, Brandon; Young, Quinn; Wegner, Peter; Christensen, Jacob; Janicik, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    A growing trend in satellite development includes shortening the development lifecycle for hardware and software, cost reduction, and promoting reuse for future missions. Department of Defense (DoD) acquisition policies mandate system providers use Open Systems Architecture (OSA) where feasible. Modular Open Network Architecture (MONA) is a subset of OSA and paves the way to achieve cost reduction and reuse during a reduced development lifecycle. MONA approaches provide opportunities to enhan...

  7. ARCHITECTURES AND ALGORITHMS FOR COGNITIVE NETWORKS ENABLED BY QUALITATIVE MODELS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balamuralidhar, P.

    2013-01-01

    Complexity of communication networks is ever increasing and getting complicated by their heterogeneity and dynamism. Traditional techniques are facing challenges in network performance management. Cognitive networking is an emerging paradigm to make networks more intelligent, thereby overcoming...... traditional limitations and potentially achieving better performance. The vision is that, networks should be able to monitor themselves, reason upon changes in self and environment, act towards the achievement of specific goals and learn from experience. The concept of a Cognitive Engine (CE) supporting...... cognitive functions, as part of network elements, enabling above said autonomic capabilities is gathering attention. Awareness of the self and the world is an important aspect of the cognitive engine to be autonomic. This is achieved through embedding their models in the engine, but the complexity...

  8. Softwarization of Mobile Network Functions towards Agile and Energy Efficient 5G Architectures: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dlamini Thembelihle

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Future mobile networks (MNs are required to be flexible with minimal infrastructure complexity, unlike current ones that rely on proprietary network elements to offer their services. Moreover, they are expected to make use of renewable energy to decrease their carbon footprint and of virtualization technologies for improved adaptability and flexibility, thus resulting in green and self-organized systems. In this article, we discuss the application of software defined networking (SDN and network function virtualization (NFV technologies towards softwarization of the mobile network functions, taking into account different architectural proposals. In addition, we elaborate on whether mobile edge computing (MEC, a new architectural concept that uses NFV techniques, can enhance communication in 5G cellular networks, reducing latency due to its proximity deployment. Besides discussing existing techniques, expounding their pros and cons and comparing state-of-the-art architectural proposals, we examine the role of machine learning and data mining tools, analyzing their use within fully SDN- and NFV-enabled mobile systems. Finally, we outline the challenges and the open issues related to evolved packet core (EPC and MEC architectures.

  9. Marginally Stable Triangular Recurrent Neural Network Architecture for Time Series Prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivakumar, Seshadri; Sivakumar, Shyamala

    2017-09-25

    This paper introduces a discrete-time recurrent neural network architecture using triangular feedback weight matrices that allows a simplified approach to ensuring network and training stability. The triangular structure of the weight matrices is exploited to readily ensure that the eigenvalues of the feedback weight matrix represented by the block diagonal elements lie on the unit circle in the complex z-plane by updating these weights based on the differential of the angular error variable. Such placement of the eigenvalues together with the extended close interaction between state variables facilitated by the nondiagonal triangular elements, enhances the learning ability of the proposed architecture. Simulation results show that the proposed architecture is highly effective in time-series prediction tasks associated with nonlinear and chaotic dynamic systems with underlying oscillatory modes. This modular architecture with dual upper and lower triangular feedback weight matrices mimics fully recurrent network architectures, while maintaining learning stability with a simplified training process. While training, the block-diagonal weights (hence the eigenvalues) of the dual triangular matrices are constrained to the same values during weight updates aimed at minimizing the possibility of overfitting. The dual triangular architecture also exploits the benefit of parsing the input and selectively applying the parsed inputs to the two subnetworks to facilitate enhanced learning performance.

  10. A Study of Artificial Neural Network Architectures for Othello Evaluation Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binkley, Kevin J.; Seehart, Ken; Hagiwara, Masafumi

    In this study, we use temporal difference learning (TDL) to investigate the ability of 20 different artificial neural network (ANN) architectures to learn othello game board evaluation functions. The ANN evaluation functions are applied to create a strong othello player using only 1-ply search. In addition to comparing many of the ANN architectures seen in the literature, we introduce several new architectures that consider the game board symmetry. Both embedding the game board symmetry into the network architecture through weight sharing and the outright removal of symmetry through symmetry removal are explored. Experiments varying the number of inputs per game board square from one to three, the number of hidden nodes, and number of hidden layers are also performed. We found it advantageous to consider game board symmetry in the form of symmetry by weight sharing; and that an input encoding of three inputs per square outperformed the one input per square encoding that is commonly seen in the literature. Furthermore, architectures with only one hidden layer were strongly outperformed by architectures with multiple hidden layers. A standard weighted-square board heuristic evaluation function from the literature was used to evaluate the quality of the trained ANN othello players. One of the ANN architectures introduced in this study, an ANN implementing weight sharing and consisting of three hidden layers, using only a 1-ply search, outperformed a weighted-square test heuristic player using a 6-ply minimax search.

  11. A Novel Buffer Management Architecture for Epidemic Routing in Delay Tolerant Networks (DTNs)

    KAUST Repository

    Elwhishi, Ahmed

    2010-11-17

    Delay tolerant networks (DTNs) are wireless networks in which an end-to-end path for a given node pair can never exist for an extended period. It has been reported as a viable approach in launching multiple message replicas in order to increase message delivery ratio and reduce message delivery delay. This advantage, nonetheless, is at the expense of taking more buffer space at each node. The combination of custody and replication entails high buffer and bandwidth overhead. This paper investigates a new buffer management architecture for epidemic routing in DTNs, which helps each node to make a decision on which message should be forwarded or dropped. The proposed buffer management architecture is characterized by a suite of novel functional modules, including Summary Vector Exchange Module (SVEM), Networks State Estimation Module (NSEM), and Utility Calculation Module (UCM). Extensive simulation results show that the proposed buffer management architecture can achieve superb performance against its counterparts in terms of delivery ratio and delivery delay.

  12. Time Shared Optical Network (TSON): a novel metro architecture for flexible multi-granular services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zervas, Georgios S; Triay, Joan; Amaya, Norberto; Qin, Yixuan; Cervelló-Pastor, Cristina; Simeonidou, Dimitra

    2011-12-12

    This paper presents the Time Shared Optical Network (TSON) as metro mesh network architecture for guaranteed, statistically-multiplexed services. TSON proposes a flexible and tunable time-wavelength assignment along with one-way tree-based reservation and node architecture. It delivers guaranteed sub-wavelength and multi-granular network services without wavelength conversion, time-slice interchange and optical buffering. Simulation results demonstrate high network utilization, fast service delivery, and low end-to-end delay on a contention-free sub-wavelength optical transport network. In addition, implementation complexity in terms of Layer 2 aggregation, grooming and optical switching has been evaluated. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  13. An architecture including network QoS in scientific workflows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, Z.; Grosso, P.; Koning, R.; van der Ham, J.; de Laat, C.

    2010-01-01

    The quality of the network services has so far rarely been considered in composing and executing scientific workflows. Currently, scientific applications tune the execution quality of workflows neglecting network resources, and by selecting only optimal software services and computing resources. One

  14. Experimental species removals impact the architecture of pollination networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosi, Berry J; Niezgoda, Kyle; Briggs, Heather M

    2017-06-01

    Mutualistic networks are key for the creation and maintenance of biodiversity, yet are threatened by global environmental change. Most simulation models assume that network structure remains static after species losses, despite theoretical and empirical reasons to expect dynamic responses. We assessed the effects of experimental single bumblebee species removals on the structure of entire flower visitation networks. We hypothesized that network structure would change following processes linking interspecific competition with dietary niche breadth. We found that single pollinator species losses impact pollination network structure: resource complementarity decreased, while resource overlap increased. Despite marginally increased connectance, fewer plant species were visited after species removals. These changes may have negative functional impacts, as complementarity is important for maintaining biodiversity-ecological functioning relationships and visitation of rare plant species is critical for maintaining diverse plant communities. © 2017 The Author(s).

  15. Experiments on neural network architectures for fuzzy logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, James M.

    1991-01-01

    The use of fuzzy logic to model and manage uncertainty in a rule-based system places high computational demands on an inference engine. In an earlier paper, the authors introduced a trainable neural network structure for fuzzy logic. These networks can learn and extrapolate complex relationships between possibility distributions for the antecedents and consequents in the rules. Here, the power of these networks is further explored. The insensitivity of the output to noisy input distributions (which are likely if the clauses are generated from real data) is demonstrated as well as the ability of the networks to internalize multiple conjunctive clause and disjunctive clause rules. Since different rules with the same variables can be encoded in a single network, this approach to fuzzy logic inference provides a natural mechanism for rule conflict resolution.

  16. A Combined Network Architecture Using Art2 and Back Propagation for Adaptive Estimation of Dynamic Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Einar Sørheim

    1990-10-01

    Full Text Available A neural network architecture called ART2/BP is proposed. Thc goal has been to construct an artificial neural network that learns incrementally an unknown mapping, and is motivated by the instability found in back propagation (BP networks: after first learning pattern A and then pattern B, a BP network often has completely 'forgotten' pattern A. A network using both supervised and unsupervised training is proposed, consisting of a combination of ART2 and BP. ART2 is used to build and focus a supervised backpropagation network consisting of many small subnetworks each specialized on a particular domain of the input space. The ART2/BP network has the advantage of being able to dynamically expand itself in response to input patterns containing new information. Simulation results show that the ART2/BP network outperforms a classical maximum likelihood method for the estimation of a discrete dynamic and nonlinear transfer function.

  17. An Architectural Concept for Intrusion Tolerance in Air Traffic Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddalon, Jeffrey M.; Miner, Paul S.

    2003-01-01

    The goal of an intrusion tolerant network is to continue to provide predictable and reliable communication in the presence of a limited num ber of compromised network components. The behavior of a compromised network component ranges from a node that no longer responds to a nod e that is under the control of a malicious entity that is actively tr ying to cause other nodes to fail. Most current data communication ne tworks do not include support for tolerating unconstrained misbehavio r of components in the network. However, the fault tolerance communit y has developed protocols that provide both predictable and reliable communication in the presence of the worst possible behavior of a limited number of nodes in the system. One may view a malicious entity in a communication network as a node that has failed and is behaving in an arbitrary manner. NASA/Langley Research Center has developed one such fault-tolerant computing platform called SPIDER (Scalable Proces sor-Independent Design for Electromagnetic Resilience). The protocols and interconnection mechanisms of SPIDER may be adapted to large-sca le, distributed communication networks such as would be required for future Air Traffic Management systems. The predictability and reliabi lity guarantees provided by the SPIDER protocols have been formally v erified. This analysis can be readily adapted to similar network stru ctures.

  18. The Hi-Ring Architecture for Data Center Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamchevska, Valerija; Ding, Yunhong; Berger, Michael Stübert

    2018-01-01

    Optical technologies have long been used for standard telecom applications ranging from long haul to metro and access networks. With the rapid expansion of traffic in data center networks, the deployment of optical technologies for computationally intensive short reach networking has attracted...... greatly be reduced as there is no need to perform operations like electrical demultiplexing of high-speed data streams. Moreover, simultaneous switching of wavelength channels using an optical circuit switch yields energy-efficient operation, which is crucial to data centers....

  19. Context Aware Routing Management Architecture for Airborne Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 IPSec Internet Protocol Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14...encryption standards such as Internet Protocol Security ( IPSec ). Using this technique, red-network traffic is going to be optimized and prioritized

  20. Research on the Architecture of a Basic Reconfigurable Information Communication Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruimin Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The current information network cannot fundamentally meet some urgent requirements, such as providing ubiquitous information services and various types of heterogeneous network, supporting diverse and comprehensive network services, possessing high quality communication effects, ensuring the security and credibility of information interaction, and implementing effective supervisory control. This paper provides the theory system for the basic reconfigurable information communication network based on the analysis of present problems on the Internet and summarizes the root of these problems. It also provides an in-depth discussion about the related technologies and the prime components of the architecture.

  1. Architecture and Applications of Functional Three-Dimensional Graphene Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dey, Ramendra Sundar; Chi, Qijin

    2015-01-01

    building blocksfor the bottom-up architecture of various graphene based nanomaterials. Th eassembly of functionalized GNS into three-dimensional (3D) porous graphenenetworks represents a novel approach. Resulting 3D porous graphene materialsposses unique physicochemical properties such as large surface...... based on the accomplishmentsrecently reported. Th e chapter will include: (1) a brief introduction to grapheneand its nanocomposites, (2) the major methods to assemble 3D porous graphenenetworks, (3) structural characteristics of 3D porous graphene, (4) some typicalexamples of their applications...

  2. TopoGen: A Network Topology Generation Architecture with application to automating simulations of Software Defined Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Laurito, Andres; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Simulation is an important tool to validate the performance impact of control decisions in Software Defined Networks (SDN). Yet, the manual modeling of complex topologies that may change often during a design process can be a tedious error-prone task. We present TopoGen, a general purpose architecture and tool for systematic translation and generation of network topologies. TopoGen can be used to generate network simulation models automatically by querying information available at diverse sources, notably SDN controllers. The DEVS modeling and simulation framework facilitates a systematic translation of structured knowledge about a network topology into a formal modular and hierarchical coupling of preexisting or new models of network entities (physical or logical). TopoGen can be flexibly extended with new parsers and generators to grow its scope of applicability. This permits to design arbitrary workflows of topology transformations. We tested TopoGen in a network engineering project for the ATLAS detector ...

  3. TopoGen: A Network Topology Generation Architecture with application to automating simulations of Software Defined Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Laurito, Andres; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    Simulation is an important tool to validate the performance impact of control decisions in Software Defined Networks (SDN). Yet, the manual modeling of complex topologies that may change often during a design process can be a tedious error-prone task. We present TopoGen, a general purpose architecture and tool for systematic translation and generation of network topologies. TopoGen can be used to generate network simulation models automatically by querying information available at diverse sources, notably SDN controllers. The DEVS modeling and simulation framework facilitates a systematic translation of structured knowledge about a network topology into a formal modular and hierarchical coupling of preexisting or new models of network entities (physical or logical). TopoGen can be flexibly extended with new parsers and generators to grow its scope of applicability. This permits to design arbitrary workflows of topology transformations. We tested TopoGen in a network engineering project for the ATLAS detector ...

  4. The architecture of antagonistic networks: Node degree distribution, compartmentalization and nestedness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savannah Nuwagaba

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Describing complex ecosystems as networks of interacting components has proved fruitful - revealing many distinctive patterns and dynamics of ecological systems. Of these patterns, three have often been brought up in literature, including species degree distribution, compartmentalization and nestedness, due largely to their implications for the functionality and stability of communities. Here, using 61 empirical antagonistic networks, we aim to settle the inconsistency in literature by (i fitting their node degree distributions to five different parametric models and identifying the one fits the best, (ii measuring the levels of nestedness and compartmentalization of these 61 networks and testing their significance using different null models, and (iii exploring how network connectance affects these three network architecture metrics. This research showed that most antagonistic networks do not display power law degree distributions and that resource species are generally uniformly distributed. We also clearly showed that the conclusion of whether a network is significantly compartmentalized or nested depends largely on the null model used.

  5. Genes and networks regulating root anatomy and architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachsman, Guy; Sparks, Erin E; Benfey, Philip N

    2015-10-01

    The root is an excellent model for studying developmental processes that underlie plant anatomy and architecture. Its modular structure, the lack of cell movement and relative accessibility to microscopic visualization facilitate research in a number of areas of plant biology. In this review, we describe several examples that demonstrate how cell type-specific developmental mechanisms determine cell fate and the formation of defined tissues with unique characteristics. In the last 10 yr, advances in genome-wide technologies have led to the sequencing of thousands of plant genomes, transcriptomes and proteomes. In parallel with the development of these high-throughput technologies, biologists have had to establish computational, statistical and bioinformatic tools that can deal with the wealth of data generated by them. These resources provide a foundation for posing more complex questions about molecular interactions, and have led to the discovery of new mechanisms that control phenotypic differences. Here we review several recent studies that shed new light on developmental processes, which are involved in establishing root anatomy and architecture. We highlight the power of combining large-scale experiments with classical techniques to uncover new pathways in root development. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  6. Self-growing neural network architecture using crisp and fuzzy entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cios, Krzysztof J.

    1992-01-01

    The paper briefly describes the self-growing neural network algorithm, CID2, which makes decision trees equivalent to hidden layers of a neural network. The algorithm generates a feedforward architecture using crisp and fuzzy entropy measures. The results of a real-life recognition problem of distinguishing defects in a glass ribbon and of a benchmark problem of differentiating two spirals are shown and discussed.

  7. An Architecture for Coexistence with Multiple Users in Frequency Hopping Cognitive Radio Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    delivered in hardware. The implementation studied in [27] uses sensing bits to quantize a likelihood ratio ( LR ) for determining which nodes have enough...worthwhile information to disseminate through the network. Using LRs is thereby a means for reducing meaningless observation traffic within the network...itself. The architecture itself consists of eight sub-components: database interface, spectrum map parser , map distributor, clustering, map merger

  8. A Novel Airborne Self-organising Architecture for 5G+ Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmadi, Hamed; Katzis, Konstantinos; Shakir, Muhammad Zeeshan

    2017-01-01

    Network Flying Platforms (NFPs) such as unmanned aerial vehicles, unmanned balloons or drones flying at low/medium/high altitude can be employed to enhance network coverage and capacity by deploying a swarm of flying platforms that implement novel radio resource management techniques. In this paper, we propose a novel layered architecture where NFPs, of various types and flying at low/medium/high layers in a swarm of flying platforms, are considered as an integrated part of the future cellula...

  9. A self-organized artificial neural network architecture for sensory integration with applications to letter-phoneme integration

    OpenAIRE

    Jantvik, Tamas; Gustafsson, Lennart; Paplinski, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    The multimodal self-organizing network (MMSON), an artificial neural network architecture carrying out sensory integration, is presented here. The architecture is designed using neurophysiological findings and imaging studies that pertain to sensory integration and consists of interconnected lattices of artificial neurons. In this artificial neural architecture, the degree of recognition of stimuli, that is, the perceived reliability of stimuli in the various subnetworks, is included in the c...

  10. Modeling, analysis and optimization of network-on-chip communication architectures

    CERN Document Server

    Ogras, Umit Y

    2013-01-01

    Traditionally, design space exploration for Systems-on-Chip (SoCs) has focused on the computational aspects of the problem at hand. However, as the number of components on a single chip and their performance continue to increase, the communication architecture plays a major role in the area, performance and energy consumption of the overall system. As a result, a shift from computation-based to communication-based design becomes mandatory. Towards this end, network-on-chip (NoC) communication architectures have emerged recently as a promising alternative to classical bus and point-to-point communication architectures. This book explores outstanding research problems related to modeling, analysis and optimization of NoC communication architectures. More precisely, we present novel design methodologies, software tools and FPGA prototypes to aid the design of application-specific NoCs.

  11. FemtoNode: Reconfigurable and Customizable Architecture for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allgayer, Rodrigo Schmidt; Götz, Marcelo; Pereira, Carlos Eduardo

    With the growth and the development of new applications for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN), sensor nodes are able to handle more complex events that require higher processing performance and hardware flexibility. These new features intend to meet the requirements of various applications, as well as to provide customized platforms that have only the needed resources. WSNs often need a flexible architecture able to adapt to design and environment changes. The use of reconfigurable architectures is an alternative to bring more flexibility and more processing capability for the sensor node. This paper proposes a reconfigurable and customizable sensor node called FemtoNode which has a reconfigurable platform and a wireless module to support applications for WSNs, using an object-oriented language Java as specification language of its architecture. The proposed concepts were validated with a case study of an heterogeneous wireless sensor network composed of sensors nodes based on different platforms, whose results are described in this work.

  12. Habitat loss alters the architecture of plant--pollinator interaction networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiesman, Brian J; Inouye, Brian D

    2013-12-01

    Habitat loss can have a negative effect on the number, abundance, and composition of species in plant-pollinator communities. Although we have a general understanding of the negative consequences of habitat loss for biodiversity, much less is known about the resulting effects on the pattern of interactions in mutualistic networks. Ecological networks formed by mutualistic interactions often exhibit a highly nested architecture with low modularity, especially in comparison with antagonistic networks. These patterns of interaction are thought to confer stability on mutualistic communities. With the growing threat of environmental change, it is important to expand our understanding of the factors that affect biodiversity and the stability of the communities that provide critical ecosystem functions and services. We studied the effects of habitat loss on plant--pollinator network architecture and found that regional habitat loss contributes directly to species loss and indirectly to the reorganization of interspecific interactions in a local community. Networks became more highly connected and more modular with habitat loss. Species richness and abundance were the primary drivers of variation in network architecture, though species compositi n affected modularity. Theory suggests that an increase in modularity with habitat loss will threaten community stability, which may contribute to an extinction debt in communities already affected by habitat loss.

  13. Cluster based architecture and network maintenance protocol for medical priority aware cognitive radio based hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Mamoon, Ishtiak; Muzahidul Islam, A K M; Baharun, Sabariah; Ahmed, Ashir; Komaki, Shozo

    2016-08-01

    Due to the rapid growth of wireless medical devices in near future, wireless healthcare services may face some inescapable issue such as medical spectrum scarcity, electromagnetic interference (EMI), bandwidth constraint, security and finally medical data communication model. To mitigate these issues, cognitive radio (CR) or opportunistic radio network enabled wireless technology is suitable for the upcoming wireless healthcare system. The up-to-date research on CR based healthcare has exposed some developments on EMI and spectrum problems. However, the investigation recommendation on system design and network model for CR enabled hospital is rare. Thus, this research designs a hierarchy based hybrid network architecture and network maintenance protocols for previously proposed CR hospital system, known as CogMed. In the previous study, the detail architecture of CogMed and its maintenance protocols were not present. The proposed architecture includes clustering concepts for cognitive base stations and non-medical devices. Two cluster head (CH selector equations are formulated based on priority of location, device, mobility rate of devices and number of accessible channels. In order to maintain the integrity of the proposed network model, node joining and node leaving protocols are also proposed. Finally, the simulation results show that the proposed network maintenance time is very low for emergency medical devices (average maintenance period 9.5 ms) and the re-clustering effects for different mobility enabled non-medical devices are also balanced.

  14. A multi-tiered architecture for content retrieval in mobile peer-to-peer networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we address content retrieval in Mobile Peer-to-Peer (P2P) Networks. We design a multi-tiered architecture for content : retrieval, where at Tier 1, we design a protocol for content similarity governed by a parameter that trades accu...

  15. A high level architecture for personalized learning in collaborative networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Afsarmanesh, H.; Tanha, J.

    2010-01-01

    In Collaborative Network (CN) environments, creation of collective understanding about both the aimed outcome and the procedure for achieving it by its members is the antecedent to any successful co-working and co-development. While a part of the common CN knowledge is pre-existing to its

  16. Signatures of arithmetic simplicity in metabolic network architecture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William J Riehl

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic networks perform some of the most fundamental functions in living cells, including energy transduction and building block biosynthesis. While these are the best characterized networks in living systems, understanding their evolutionary history and complex wiring constitutes one of the most fascinating open questions in biology, intimately related to the enigma of life's origin itself. Is the evolution of metabolism subject to general principles, beyond the unpredictable accumulation of multiple historical accidents? Here we search for such principles by applying to an artificial chemical universe some of the methodologies developed for the study of genome scale models of cellular metabolism. In particular, we use metabolic flux constraint-based models to exhaustively search for artificial chemistry pathways that can optimally perform an array of elementary metabolic functions. Despite the simplicity of the model employed, we find that the ensuing pathways display a surprisingly rich set of properties, including the existence of autocatalytic cycles and hierarchical modules, the appearance of universally preferable metabolites and reactions, and a logarithmic trend of pathway length as a function of input/output molecule size. Some of these properties can be derived analytically, borrowing methods previously used in cryptography. In addition, by mapping biochemical networks onto a simplified carbon atom reaction backbone, we find that properties similar to those predicted for the artificial chemistry hold also for real metabolic networks. These findings suggest that optimality principles and arithmetic simplicity might lie beneath some aspects of biochemical complexity.

  17. Dynamic Adaptive Neural Network Arrays: A Neuromorphic Architecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Disney, Adam [University of Tennessee (UT); Reynolds, John [University of Tennessee (UT)

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic Adaptive Neural Network Array (DANNA) is a neuromorphic hardware implementation. It differs from most other neuromorphic projects in that it allows for programmability of structure, and it is trained or designed using evolutionary optimization. This paper describes the DANNA structure, how DANNA is trained using evolutionary optimization, and an application of DANNA to a very simple classification task.

  18. Architecture of the rat nephron-arterial network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marsh, Donald J; Postnov, Dmitry D; Rowland, Douglas

    2017-01-01

    Among solid organs the kidney's vascular network stands out because each nephron has 2 distinct capillary structures in series, and because tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF), one of the mechanisms responsible for blood flow autoregulation, is specific to renal tubules. TGF and the myogenic mechanism...

  19. Validation of Bosch' Mobile Communication NetworkArchitecture with SPIN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruys, T.C.; Langerak, Romanus

    This paper discusses validation projects carried out for the Mobile Communication Division of Robert Bosch GmbH. We verified parts of their Mobile Communication Network (MCNet), a communication system which is to be used in infotainment systems of future cars. The protocols of the MCNet have been

  20. Network Architecture of a Packet-switched WDM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dey, D.; Koonen, A.M.J.; Salvador, M.R.

    2000-01-01

    We propose a packet-switched WDM slotted ring network with destination release. The total bandwidth of each channel is divided into a fixed number of equal-sized slots. The nodes are equipped with fixed transmitters and tunable receivers. Control information, which is transmitted on a specific

  1. An Architecture for Anonymous Mobile Coupons in a Large Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Bartoli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A mobile coupon (m-coupon can be presented with a smartphone for obtaining a financial discount when purchasing a product or a service. M-coupons are a powerful marketing tool that has enjoyed a huge growth and diffusion, involving tens of millions of people each year. We propose an architecture which may enable significant improvements over current m-coupon technology, in terms of acceptance of potential customers and of marketing actions that become feasible: the customer does not need to install any dedicated app; an m-coupon is not bound to any specific device or customer; an m-coupon may be redeemed at any store in a set of potentially many thousands of stores, without any prior arrangement between customer and store. We are not aware of any proposal with these properties.

  2. Feedback Control Architecture and the Bacterial Chemotaxis Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamadeh, Abdullah; Roberts, Mark A. J.; August, Elias; McSharry, Patrick E.; Maini, Philip K.; Armitage, Judith P.; Papachristodoulou, Antonis

    2011-01-01

    Bacteria move towards favourable and away from toxic environments by changing their swimming pattern. This response is regulated by the chemotaxis signalling pathway, which has an important feature: it uses feedback to ‘reset’ (adapt) the bacterial sensing ability, which allows the bacteria to sense a range of background environmental changes. The role of this feedback has been studied extensively in the simple chemotaxis pathway of Escherichia coli. However it has been recently found that the majority of bacteria have multiple chemotaxis homologues of the E. coli proteins, resulting in more complex pathways. In this paper we investigate the configuration and role of feedback in Rhodobacter sphaeroides, a bacterium containing multiple homologues of the chemotaxis proteins found in E. coli. Multiple proteins could produce different possible feedback configurations, each having different chemotactic performance qualities and levels of robustness to variations and uncertainties in biological parameters and to intracellular noise. We develop four models corresponding to different feedback configurations. Using a series of carefully designed experiments we discriminate between these models and invalidate three of them. When these models are examined in terms of robustness to noise and parametric uncertainties, we find that the non-invalidated model is superior to the others. Moreover, it has a ‘cascade control’ feedback architecture which is used extensively in engineering to improve system performance, including robustness. Given that the majority of bacteria are known to have multiple chemotaxis pathways, in this paper we show that some feedback architectures allow them to have better performance than others. In particular, cascade control may be an important feature in achieving robust functionality in more complex signalling pathways and in improving their performance. PMID:21573199

  3. Feedback control architecture and the bacterial chemotaxis network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamadeh, Abdullah; Roberts, Mark A J; August, Elias; McSharry, Patrick E; Maini, Philip K; Armitage, Judith P; Papachristodoulou, Antonis

    2011-05-01

    Bacteria move towards favourable and away from toxic environments by changing their swimming pattern. This response is regulated by the chemotaxis signalling pathway, which has an important feature: it uses feedback to 'reset' (adapt) the bacterial sensing ability, which allows the bacteria to sense a range of background environmental changes. The role of this feedback has been studied extensively in the simple chemotaxis pathway of Escherichia coli. However it has been recently found that the majority of bacteria have multiple chemotaxis homologues of the E. coli proteins, resulting in more complex pathways. In this paper we investigate the configuration and role of feedback in Rhodobacter sphaeroides, a bacterium containing multiple homologues of the chemotaxis proteins found in E. coli. Multiple proteins could produce different possible feedback configurations, each having different chemotactic performance qualities and levels of robustness to variations and uncertainties in biological parameters and to intracellular noise. We develop four models corresponding to different feedback configurations. Using a series of carefully designed experiments we discriminate between these models and invalidate three of them. When these models are examined in terms of robustness to noise and parametric uncertainties, we find that the non-invalidated model is superior to the others. Moreover, it has a 'cascade control' feedback architecture which is used extensively in engineering to improve system performance, including robustness. Given that the majority of bacteria are known to have multiple chemotaxis pathways, in this paper we show that some feedback architectures allow them to have better performance than others. In particular, cascade control may be an important feature in achieving robust functionality in more complex signalling pathways and in improving their performance.

  4. Feedback control architecture and the bacterial chemotaxis network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Hamadeh

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria move towards favourable and away from toxic environments by changing their swimming pattern. This response is regulated by the chemotaxis signalling pathway, which has an important feature: it uses feedback to 'reset' (adapt the bacterial sensing ability, which allows the bacteria to sense a range of background environmental changes. The role of this feedback has been studied extensively in the simple chemotaxis pathway of Escherichia coli. However it has been recently found that the majority of bacteria have multiple chemotaxis homologues of the E. coli proteins, resulting in more complex pathways. In this paper we investigate the configuration and role of feedback in Rhodobacter sphaeroides, a bacterium containing multiple homologues of the chemotaxis proteins found in E. coli. Multiple proteins could produce different possible feedback configurations, each having different chemotactic performance qualities and levels of robustness to variations and uncertainties in biological parameters and to intracellular noise. We develop four models corresponding to different feedback configurations. Using a series of carefully designed experiments we discriminate between these models and invalidate three of them. When these models are examined in terms of robustness to noise and parametric uncertainties, we find that the non-invalidated model is superior to the others. Moreover, it has a 'cascade control' feedback architecture which is used extensively in engineering to improve system performance, including robustness. Given that the majority of bacteria are known to have multiple chemotaxis pathways, in this paper we show that some feedback architectures allow them to have better performance than others. In particular, cascade control may be an important feature in achieving robust functionality in more complex signalling pathways and in improving their performance.

  5. Toward a Mobility-Driven Architecture for Multimodal Underwater Networking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    interest in the undersea domain, sparked by applications including environmental monitoring, deep-sea exploration and exploitation, and undersea...allow them to gather large volumes of data, ranging from acoustic and environmental measurements to high-resolution imagery and video. Although they...of Partially Observed Dynamical Processes over Networks via Dictionary Learning,” IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing. vol. 62, no. 13 (July), pp

  6. Algorithm-structured computer arrays and networks architectures and processes for images, percepts, models, information

    CERN Document Server

    Uhr, Leonard

    1984-01-01

    Computer Science and Applied Mathematics: Algorithm-Structured Computer Arrays and Networks: Architectures and Processes for Images, Percepts, Models, Information examines the parallel-array, pipeline, and other network multi-computers.This book describes and explores arrays and networks, those built, being designed, or proposed. The problems of developing higher-level languages for systems and designing algorithm, program, data flow, and computer structure are also discussed. This text likewise describes several sequences of successively more general attempts to combine the power of arrays wi

  7. Design and architecture of the Mars relay network planning and analysis framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, K. M.; Lee, C. H.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we describe the design and architecture of the Mars Network planning and analysis framework that supports generation and validation of efficient planning and scheduling strategy. The goals are to minimize the transmitting time, minimize the delaying time, and/or maximize the network throughputs. The proposed framework would require (1) a client-server architecture to support interactive, batch, WEB, and distributed analysis and planning applications for the relay network analysis scheme, (2) a high-fidelity modeling and simulation environment that expresses link capabilities between spacecraft to spacecraft and spacecraft to Earth stations as time-varying resources, and spacecraft activities, link priority, Solar System dynamic events, the laws of orbital mechanics, and other limiting factors as spacecraft power and thermal constraints, (3) an optimization methodology that casts the resource and constraint models into a standard linear and nonlinear constrained optimization problem that lends itself to commercial off-the-shelf (COTS)planning and scheduling algorithms.

  8. Process reveals structure: How a network is traversed mediates expectations about its architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karuza, Elisabeth A; Kahn, Ari E; Thompson-Schill, Sharon L; Bassett, Danielle S

    2017-10-06

    Network science has emerged as a powerful tool through which we can study the higher-order architectural properties of the world around us. How human learners exploit this information remains an essential question. Here, we focus on the temporal constraints that govern such a process. Participants viewed a continuous sequence of images generated by three distinct walks on a modular network. Walks varied along two critical dimensions: their predictability and the density with which they sampled from communities of images. Learners exposed to walks that richly sampled from each community exhibited a sharp increase in processing time upon entry into a new community. This effect was eliminated in a highly regular walk that sampled exhaustively from images in short, successive cycles (i.e., that increasingly minimized uncertainty about the nature of upcoming stimuli). These results demonstrate that temporal organization plays an essential role in learners' sensitivity to the network architecture underlying sensory input.

  9. Hierarchical network architectures of carbon fiber paper supported cobalt oxide nanonet for high-capacity pseudocapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lei; Cheng, Shuang; Ding, Yong; Zhu, Xingbao; Wang, Zhong Lin; Liu, Meilin

    2012-01-11

    We present a high-capacity pseudocapacitor based on a hierarchical network architecture consisting of Co(3)O(4) nanowire network (nanonet) coated on a carbon fiber paper. With this tailored architecture, the electrode shows ideal capacitive behavior (rectangular shape of cyclic voltammograms) and large specific capacitance (1124 F/g) at high charge/discharge rate (25.34 A/g), still retaining ~94% of the capacitance at a much lower rate of 0.25 A/g. The much-improved capacity, rate capability, and cycling stability may be attributed to the unique hierarchical network structures, which improves electron/ion transport, enhances the kinetics of redox reactions, and facilitates facile stress relaxation during cycling. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  10. An Object-Oriented Network-Centric Software Architecture for Physical Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Richard

    1997-08-01

    Recent developments in object-oriented computer languages and infrastructure such as the Internet, Web browsers, and the like provide an opportunity to define a more productive computational environment for scientific programming that is based more closely on the underlying mathematics describing physics than traditional programming languages such as FORTRAN or C++. In this talk I describe an object-oriented software architecture for representing physical problems that includes classes for such common mathematical objects as geometry, boundary conditions, partial differential and integral equations, discretization and numerical solution methods, etc. In practice, a scientific program written using this architecture looks remarkably like the mathematics used to understand the problem, is typically an order of magnitude smaller than traditional FORTRAN or C++ codes, and hence easier to understand, debug, describe, etc. All objects in this architecture are ``network-enabled,'' which means that components of a software solution to a physical problem can be transparently loaded from anywhere on the Internet or other global network. The architecture is expressed as an ``API,'' or application programmers interface specification, with reference embeddings in Java, Python, and C++. A C++ class library for an early version of this API has been implemented for machines ranging from PC's to the IBM SP2, meaning that phidentical codes run on all architectures.

  11. Performance and Challenges of Service-Oriented Architecture for Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshinina, Remah; Elleithy, Khaled

    2017-03-08

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) have become essential components for a variety of environmental, surveillance, military, traffic control, and healthcare applications. These applications face critical challenges such as communication, security, power consumption, data aggregation, heterogeneities of sensor hardware, and Quality of Service (QoS) issues. Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) is a software architecture that can be integrated with WSN applications to address those challenges. The SOA middleware bridges the gap between the high-level requirements of different applications and the hardware constraints of WSNs. This survey explores state-of-the-art approaches based on SOA and Service-Oriented Middleware (SOM) architecture that provide solutions for WSN challenges. The categories of this paper are based on approaches of SOA with and without middleware for WSNs. Additionally, features of SOA and middleware architectures for WSNs are compared to achieve more robust and efficient network performance. Design issues of SOA middleware for WSNs and its characteristics are also highlighted. The paper concludes with future research directions in SOM architecture to meet all requirements of emerging application of WSNs.

  12. Architecture of the parallel hierarchical network for fast image recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timchenko, Leonid; Wójcik, Waldemar; Kokriatskaia, Natalia; Kutaev, Yuriy; Ivasyuk, Igor; Kotyra, Andrzej; Smailova, Saule

    2016-09-01

    Multistage integration of visual information in the brain allows humans to respond quickly to most significant stimuli while maintaining their ability to recognize small details in the image. Implementation of this principle in technical systems can lead to more efficient processing procedures. The multistage approach to image processing includes main types of cortical multistage convergence. The input images are mapped into a flexible hierarchy that reflects complexity of image data. Procedures of the temporal image decomposition and hierarchy formation are described in mathematical expressions. The multistage system highlights spatial regularities, which are passed through a number of transformational levels to generate a coded representation of the image that encapsulates a structure on different hierarchical levels in the image. At each processing stage a single output result is computed to allow a quick response of the system. The result is presented as an activity pattern, which can be compared with previously computed patterns on the basis of the closest match. With regard to the forecasting method, its idea lies in the following. In the results synchronization block, network-processed data arrive to the database where a sample of most correlated data is drawn using service parameters of the parallel-hierarchical network.

  13. A new constructive algorithm for architectural and functional adaptation of artificial neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Monirul; Sattar, Md Abdus; Amin, Md Faijul; Yao, Xin; Murase, Kazuyuki

    2009-12-01

    The generalization ability of artificial neural networks (ANNs) is greatly dependent on their architectures. Constructive algorithms provide an attractive automatic way of determining a near-optimal ANN architecture for a given problem. Several such algorithms have been proposed in the literature and shown their effectiveness. This paper presents a new constructive algorithm (NCA) in automatically determining ANN architectures. Unlike most previous studies on determining ANN architectures, NCA puts emphasis on architectural adaptation and functional adaptation in its architecture determination process. It uses a constructive approach to determine the number of hidden layers in an ANN and of neurons in each hidden layer. To achieve functional adaptation, NCA trains hidden neurons in the ANN by using different training sets that were created by employing a similar concept used in the boosting algorithm. The purpose of using different training sets is to encourage hidden neurons to learn different parts or aspects of the training data so that the ANN can learn the whole training data in a better way. In this paper, the convergence and computational issues of NCA are analytically studied. The computational complexity of NCA is found to be O(W xP(t) xtau), where W is the number of weights in the ANN, P(t) is the number of training examples, and tau is the number of training epochs. This complexity has the same order as what the backpropagation learning algorithm requires for training a fixed ANN architecture. A set of eight classification and two approximation benchmark problems was used to evaluate the performance of NCA. The experimental results show that NCA can produce ANN architectures with fewer hidden neurons and better generalization ability compared to existing constructive and nonconstructive algorithms.

  14. Adaptive Security Architecture based on EC-MQV Algorithm in Personal Network (PN)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mihovska, Albena D.; Prasad, Neeli R.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract — Personal Networks (PNs) have been focused on in order to support the user’s business and private activities without jeopardizing privacy and security of the users and their data. In such a network, it is necessary to produce a proper key agreement method according to the feature...... of the network. One of the features of the network is that the personal devices have deferent capabilities such as computational ability, memory size, transmission power, processing speed and implementation cost. Therefore an adaptive security mechanism should be contrived for such a network of various device...... combinations based on user’s location and device’s capability. The paper proposes new adaptive security architecture with three levels of asymmetric key agreement scheme by using context-aware security manager (CASM) based on elliptic curve cryptosystem (EC-MQV)....

  15. Teledesic Global Wireless Broadband Network: Space Infrastructure Architecture, Design Features and Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, James R.

    1995-01-01

    The Teledesic satellites are a new class of small satellites which demonstrate the important commercial benefits of using technologies developed for other purposes by U.S. National Laboratories. The Teledesic satellite architecture, subsystem design features, and new technologies are described. The new Teledesic satellite manufacturing, integration, and test approaches which use modern high volume production techniques and result in surprisingly low space segment costs are discussed. The constellation control and management features and attendant software architecture features are addressed. After briefly discussing the economic and technological impact on the USA commercial space industries of the space communications revolution and such large constellation projects, the paper concludes with observations on the trend toward future system architectures using networked groups of much smaller satellites.

  16. High-Resolution Laser Scanning Reveals Plant Architectures that Reflect Universal Network Design Principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conn, Adam; Pedmale, Ullas V; Chory, Joanne; Navlakha, Saket

    2017-07-26

    Transport networks serve critical functions in biological and engineered systems, and yet their design requires trade-offs between competing objectives. Due to their sessile lifestyle, plants need to optimize their architecture to efficiently acquire and distribute resources while also minimizing costs in building infrastructure. To understand how plants resolve this design trade-off, we used high-precision three-dimensional laser scanning to map the architectures of tomato, tobacco, or sorghum plants grown in several environmental conditions and through multiple developmental time points, scanning in total 505 architectures from 37 plants. Using a graph-theoretic algorithm that we developed to evaluate design strategies, we find that plant architectures lie along the Pareto front between two simple length-based objectives-minimizing total branch length and minimizing nutrient transport distance-thereby conferring a selective fitness advantage for plant transport processes. The location along the Pareto front can distinguish among species and conditions, suggesting that during evolution, natural selection may employ common network design principles despite different optimization trade-offs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. A Smart Gateway Architecture for Improving Efficiency of Home Network Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Ding

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A smart home gateway plays an important role in the Internet of Things (IoT system that takes responsibility for the connection between the network layer and the ubiquitous sensor network (USN layer. Even though the home network application is developing rapidly, researches on the home gateway based open development architecture are less. This makes it difficult to extend the home network to support new applications, share service, and interoperate with other home network systems. An integrated access gateway (IAGW is proposed in this paper which upward connects with the operator machine-to-machine platform (M2M P/F. In this home network scheme, the gateway provides standard interfaces for supporting various applications in home environments, ranging from on-site configuration to node and service access. In addition, communication management ability is also provided by M2M P/F. A testbed of a simple home network application system that includes the IAGW prototype is created to test its user interaction capabilities. Experimental results show that the proposed gateway provides significant flexibility for users to configure and deploy a home automation network; it can be applied to other monitoring areas and simultaneously supports a multi-ubiquitous sensor network.

  18. Role of graph architecture in controlling dynamical networks with applications to neural systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jason Z.; Soffer, Jonathan M.; Kahn, Ari E.; Vettel, Jean M.; Pasqualetti, Fabio; Bassett, Danielle S.

    2018-01-01

    Networked systems display complex patterns of interactions between components. In physical networks, these interactions often occur along structural connections that link components in a hard-wired connection topology, supporting a variety of system-wide dynamical behaviours such as synchronization. Although descriptions of these behaviours are important, they are only a first step towards understanding and harnessing the relationship between network topology and system behaviour. Here, we use linear network control theory to derive accurate closed-form expressions that relate the connectivity of a subset of structural connections (those linking driver nodes to non-driver nodes) to the minimum energy required to control networked systems. To illustrate the utility of the mathematics, we apply this approach to high-resolution connectomes recently reconstructed from Drosophila, mouse, and human brains. We use these principles to suggest an advantage of the human brain in supporting diverse network dynamics with small energetic costs while remaining robust to perturbations, and to perform clinically accessible targeted manipulation of the brain's control performance by removing single edges in the network. Generally, our results ground the expectation of a control system's behaviour in its network architecture, and directly inspire new directions in network analysis and design via distributed control.

  19. The development of hub architecture in the human functional brain network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Kai; Hallquist, Michael N; Luna, Beatriz

    2013-10-01

    Functional hubs are brain regions that play a crucial role in facilitating communication among parallel, distributed brain networks. The developmental emergence and stability of hubs, however, is not well understood. The current study used measures of network topology drawn from graph theory to investigate the development of functional hubs in 99 participants, 10-20 years of age. We found that hub architecture was evident in late childhood and was stable from adolescence to early adulthood. Connectivity between hub and non-hub ("spoke") regions, however, changed with development. From childhood to adolescence, the strength of connections between frontal hubs and cortical and subcortical spoke regions increased. From adolescence to adulthood, hub-spoke connections with frontal hubs were stable, whereas connectivity between cerebellar hubs and cortical spoke regions increased. Our findings suggest that a developmentally stable functional hub architecture provides the foundation of information flow in the brain, whereas connections between hubs and spokes continue to develop, possibly supporting mature cognitive function.

  20. GEYSERS: a novel architecture for virtualization and co-provisioning of dynamic optical networks and IT services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Escalona, E.; Peng, S.; Nejabati, R.; Simeonidou, D.; García-Espín, J.A.; Ferrer, J.; Figuerola, S.; Landi, G.; Ciulli, N.; Jiménez, J.; Belter, B.; Demchenko, Y.; de Laat, C.; Chen, X.; Yukan, A.; Soudan, S.; Vicat-Blanc, P.; Buysse, J.; de Leenheer, M.; Develder, C.; Tzanakaki, A.; Robinson, P.; Brogle, M.; Bohnert, T.M.

    2011-01-01

    GEYSERS aims at defining an end-to-end network architecture that offers a novel planning, provisioning and operational framework for optical network and IT infrastructure providers and operators. In this framework, physical infrastructure resources (network and IT) are dynamically partitioned to

  1. An integrated architecture for deploying a virtual private medical network over the web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gritzalis, S; Gritzalis, D; Moulinos, C; Iliadis, J

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we describe a pilot architecture aiming at protecting Web-based medical applications through the development of a virtual private medical network. The basic technology, which is utilized by this integrated architecture, is the Trusted Third Party (TTP). In specific, a TTP is used to generate, distribute, and revoke digital certificates to/from medical practitioners and healthcare organizations wishing to communicate in a secure way. Digital certificates and digital signatures are, in particular, used to provide peer and data origin authentication and access control functionalities. We also propose a logical Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) architecture, which is robust, scalable, and based on standards. This architecture aims at supporting large-scale healthcare applications. It supports openness, scalability, flexibility and extensibility, and can be integrated with existing TTP schemes and infrastructures offering transparency and adequate security. Finally, it is demonstrated that the proposed architecture enjoys all desirable usability characteristics, and meets the set of criteria, which constitutes an applicable framework for the development of trusted medical services over the Web.

  2. Brain Network Architecture and Global Intelligence in Children with Focal Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paldino, M J; Golriz, F; Chapieski, M L; Zhang, W; Chu, Z D

    2017-02-01

    The biologic basis for intelligence rests to a large degree on the capacity for efficient integration of information across the cerebral network. We aimed to measure the relationship between network architecture and intelligence in the pediatric, epileptic brain. Patients were retrospectively identified with the following: 1) focal epilepsy; 2) brain MR imaging at 3T, including resting-state functional MR imaging; and 3) full-scale intelligence quotient measured by a pediatric neuropsychologist. The cerebral cortex was parcellated into approximately 700 gray matter network "nodes." The strength of a connection between 2 nodes was defined by the correlation between their blood oxygen level-dependent time-series. We calculated the following topologic properties: clustering coefficient, transitivity, modularity, path length, and global efficiency. A machine learning algorithm was used to measure the independent contribution of each metric to the intelligence quotient after adjusting for all other metrics. Thirty patients met the criteria (4-18 years of age); 20 patients required anesthesia during MR imaging. After we accounted for age and sex, clustering coefficient and path length were independently associated with full-scale intelligence quotient. Neither motion parameters nor general anesthesia was an important variable with regard to accurate intelligence quotient prediction by the machine learning algorithm. A longer history of epilepsy was associated with shorter path lengths (P = .008), consistent with reorganization of the network on the basis of seizures. Considering only patients receiving anesthesia during machine learning did not alter the patterns of network architecture contributing to global intelligence. These findings support the physiologic relevance of imaging-based metrics of network architecture in the pathologic, developing brain. © 2017 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  3. A Robust Dynamic Edge Network Architecture for the Internet-of-Things

    OpenAIRE

    Lorenzo, Beatriz; Garcia-Rois, Juan; Li, Xuanheng; Gonzalez-Castano, Javier; Fang, Yuguang

    2017-01-01

    A massive number of devices are expected to fulfill the missions of sensing, processing and control in cyber-physical Internet-of-Things (IoT) systems with new applications and connectivity requirements. In this context, scarce spectrum resources must accommodate a high traffic volume with stringent requirements of low latency, high reliability and energy efficiency. Conventional centralized network architectures may not be able to fulfill these requirements due to congestion in backhaul link...

  4. Seafloor classification using echo- waveforms: A method employing hybrid neural network architecture

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chakraborty, B.; Mahale, V.; DeSouza, C.; Das, P.

    , neural network architecture, seafloor classification, self-organizing feature map (SOFM). I. INTRODUCTION S EAFLOOR classification and characterization using re- mote high-frequency acoustic system has been recognized as a useful tool (see [1...] and references therein). The seafloor’s characteristics are extremely complicated due to variations of the many parameters at different scales. The parameters include sediment grain size, relief height at the water–sediment inter- face, and variations within...

  5. STOMP: A Software Architecture for the Design and Simulation UAV-Based Sensor Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, E D; Roberts, R S; Hsia, T C S

    2002-10-28

    This paper presents the Simulation, Tactical Operations and Mission Planning (STOMP) software architecture and framework for simulating, controlling and communicating with unmanned air vehicles (UAVs) servicing large distributed sensor networks. STOMP provides hardware-in-the-loop capability enabling real UAVs and sensors to feedback state information, route data and receive command and control requests while interacting with other real or virtual objects thereby enhancing support for simulation of dynamic and complex events.

  6. CRAC: Confidentiality Risk Analysis and IT-Architecture Comparison of Business Networks (extended version)

    OpenAIRE

    Morali, A.; Zambon, Emmanuele; Etalle, Sandro; Wieringa, Roelf J.

    2009-01-01

    The leakage of confidential information (e.g.\\ industrial secrets, patient records and user credentials) is one of the risks that have to be accounted for and mitigated by organizations dealing with confidential data. Unfortunately, assessing confidentiality risk is challenging, particularly in the presence of cross- organization cooperation, like in the case of outsourcing. This is due to the complexity of business networks. This paper presents an IT-architecture based method for assessing a...

  7. Software-Defined Networking Using OpenFlow: Protocols, Applications and Architectural Design Choices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Braun

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We explain the notion of software-defined networking (SDN, whose southbound interface may be implemented by the OpenFlow protocol. We describe the operation of OpenFlow and summarize the features of specification versions 1.0–1.4. We give an overview of existing SDN-based applications grouped by topic areas. Finally, we point out architectural design choices for SDN using OpenFlow and discuss their performance implications.

  8. Lightweight Filter Architecture for Energy Efficient Mobile Vehicle Localization Based on a Distributed Acoustic Sensor Network

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Keonwook

    2013-01-01

    The generic properties of an acoustic signal provide numerous benefits for localization by applying energy-based methods over a deployed wireless sensor network (WSN). However, the signal generated by a stationary target utilizes a significant amount of bandwidth and power in the system without providing further position information. For vehicle localization, this paper proposes a novel proximity velocity vector estimator (PVVE) node architecture in order to capture the energy from a moving v...

  9. Enhanced Stochastic Methodology for Combined Architecture of E-Commerce and Security Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Song-Kyoo Kim

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with network architecture which is a combination of electronic commerce and security systems in the typical Internet ecosystems. The e-commerce model that is typically known as online shopping can be considered as a multichannel queueing system. In the other hand, stochastic security system is designed for improving the reliability and availability of the e-commerce system. The security system in this paper deals with a complex system that consists of main unreliable servers,...

  10. OTN Transport of Baseband Radio Serial Protocols in C-RAN Architecture for Mobile Network Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Checko, Aleksandra; Kardaras, Georgios; Lanzani, Christian Fabio Alessandro

    This white paper presents a proof of concept implementation of digital baseband radio data transport over Optical Transport Network (OTN) compliant to 3GPP Long Term Evolution – Advanced (LTE-A) standard enabling Cloud Radio Access Network (C-RAN) architecture. The transport between the baseband...... module and a remote radio module is compliant to Common Public Radio Interface (CPRI) and to the OBSAI reference point 3 - 01 (RP3-01) interface protocols, respectively. The purpose is to demonstrate that data integrity and clocking performance at the radio node still meets the strict standard...

  11. Argo: A Real-Time Network-on-Chip Architecture With an Efficient GALS Implementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasapaki, Evangelia; Schoeberl, Martin; Sørensen, Rasmus Bo

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present an area-efficient, globally asynchronous, locally synchronous network-on-chip (NoC) architecture for a hard real-time multiprocessor platform. The NoC implements message-passing communication between processor cores. It uses statically scheduled time-division multiplexing...... (TDM) to control the communication over a structure of routers, links, and network interfaces (NIs) to offer real-time guarantees. The area-efficient design is a result of two contributions: 1) asynchronous routers combined with TDM scheduling and 2) a novel NI microarchitecture. Together they result...

  12. Architectural style classification of Mexican historical buildings using deep convolutional neural networks and sparse features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeso, Abraham Montoya; Benois-Pineau, Jenny; Acosta, Alejandro Álvaro Ramirez; Vázquez, Mireya Saraí García

    2017-01-01

    We propose a convolutional neural network to classify images of buildings using sparse features at the network's input in conjunction with primary color pixel values. As a result, a trained neuronal model is obtained to classify Mexican buildings in three classes according to the architectural styles: prehispanic, colonial, and modern with an accuracy of 88.01%. The problem of poor information in a training dataset is faced due to the unequal availability of cultural material. We propose a data augmentation and oversampling method to solve this problem. The results are encouraging and allow for prefiltering of the content in the search tasks.

  13. Fiber-optic subscriber system based on passive optical network architecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitazawa, M.; Yamazaki, M.; Himi, S. (Hitachi, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1994-04-01

    The subscriber line terminal and optical network unit were developed for the fiber-optic subscriber system based on a passive double star (PDS) optical network architecture which allows narrowband ISDN (integrated services digital network) services and video image transmission. Various LSIs were developed to implement the major system functions such as fast bit-synchronization, time division multiple access control, subscriber multiplexing/demultiplexing and 16-channel multiprocessing. For the optical interface module, the wavelength division multiplexing chip was hermetically sealed together with laser diode and photodiode chips by adopting high-silica based optical-waveguide technology to reduce a system dimension. The PDS fiber-optic subscriber system is useful for construction of economic optical subscriber networks because it allows multiple subscribers to share a single optical transmission line and a central equipment unit through a star coupler. 4 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Modeling suggests that gene circuit architecture controls phenotypic variability in a bacterial persistence network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Rachel S; Dunlop, Mary J

    2012-05-20

    Bacterial persistence is a non-inherited bet-hedging mechanism where a subpopulation of cells enters a dormant state, allowing those cells to survive environmental stress such as treatment with antibiotics. Persister cells are not mutants; they are formed by natural stochastic variation in gene expression. Understanding how regulatory architecture influences the level of phenotypic variability can help us explain how the frequency of persistence events can be tuned. We present a model of the regulatory network controlling the HipBA toxin-antitoxin system from Escherichia coli. Using a biologically realistic model we first determine that the persistence phenotype is not the result of bistability within the network. Next, we develop a stochastic model and show that cells can enter persistence due to random fluctuations in transcription, translation, degradation, and complex formation. We then examine alternative gene circuit architectures for controlling hipBA expression and show that networks with more noise (more persisters) and less noise (fewer persisters) are straightforward to achieve. Thus, we propose that the gene circuit architecture can be used to tune the frequency of persistence, a trait that can be selected for by evolution. We develop deterministic and stochastic models describing how the regulation of toxin and antitoxin expression influences phenotypic variation within a population. Persistence events are the result of stochastic fluctuations in toxin levels that cross a threshold, and their frequency is controlled by the regulatory topology governing gene expression.

  15. Modeling suggests that gene circuit architecture controls phenotypic variability in a bacterial persistence network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koh Rachel S

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacterial persistence is a non-inherited bet-hedging mechanism where a subpopulation of cells enters a dormant state, allowing those cells to survive environmental stress such as treatment with antibiotics. Persister cells are not mutants; they are formed by natural stochastic variation in gene expression. Understanding how regulatory architecture influences the level of phenotypic variability can help us explain how the frequency of persistence events can be tuned. Results We present a model of the regulatory network controlling the HipBA toxin-antitoxin system from Escherichia coli. Using a biologically realistic model we first determine that the persistence phenotype is not the result of bistability within the network. Next, we develop a stochastic model and show that cells can enter persistence due to random fluctuations in transcription, translation, degradation, and complex formation. We then examine alternative gene circuit architectures for controlling hipBA expression and show that networks with more noise (more persisters and less noise (fewer persisters are straightforward to achieve. Thus, we propose that the gene circuit architecture can be used to tune the frequency of persistence, a trait that can be selected for by evolution. Conclusions We develop deterministic and stochastic models describing how the regulation of toxin and antitoxin expression influences phenotypic variation within a population. Persistence events are the result of stochastic fluctuations in toxin levels that cross a threshold, and their frequency is controlled by the regulatory topology governing gene expression.

  16. Modeling workplace contact networks: The effects of organizational structure, architecture, and reporting errors on epidemic predictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Gail E; Smieszek, Timo; Sailer, Kerstin

    2015-09-01

    Face-to-face social contacts are potentially important transmission routes for acute respiratory infections, and understanding the contact network can improve our ability to predict, contain, and control epidemics. Although workplaces are important settings for infectious disease transmission, few studies have collected workplace contact data and estimated workplace contact networks. We use contact diaries, architectural distance measures, and institutional structures to estimate social contact networks within a Swiss research institute. Some contact reports were inconsistent, indicating reporting errors. We adjust for this with a latent variable model, jointly estimating the true (unobserved) network of contacts and duration-specific reporting probabilities. We find that contact probability decreases with distance, and that research group membership, role, and shared projects are strongly predictive of contact patterns. Estimated reporting probabilities were low only for 0-5 min contacts. Adjusting for reporting error changed the estimate of the duration distribution, but did not change the estimates of covariate effects and had little effect on epidemic predictions. Our epidemic simulation study indicates that inclusion of network structure based on architectural and organizational structure data can improve the accuracy of epidemic forecasting models.

  17. Impaired brain network architecture in newly diagnosed Parkinson's disease based on graph theoretical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jinping; Chen, Huimin; Cao, Zhentang; Jiang, Ying; Ma, Lingyan; Ma, Huizi; Feng, Tao

    2017-09-14

    Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) has been applied to investigate topographic structure in Parkinson's disease (PD). Alteration of topographic architecture has been inconsistent in PD AIM: To investigate the network profile of PD using graph theoretical analysis. Twenty six newly diagnosed PD and 19 age- and gender- matched healthy controls (HC) were included in our analysis. Small-world profile and topographic profiles (nodal degree, global efficiency, local efficiency, cluster coefficient, shortest path length, betweenness centrality) were measured and compared between groups, with age and gender as covariates. We also performed correlation analysis between topographic features with motor severity measured by UPDRS III. Small-world property was present in PD. Nodal degree, global efficiency, local efficiency and characteristic path length consistently revealed disruptive sensorimotor network, and visual network to a less degree in PD. By contrast, default mode network (DMN) and cerebellum in PD showed higher nodal degree, global efficiency and local efficiency, and lower characteristic path length. Global and local efficiency in the midbrain was higher in PD excluding substantia nigra. PD group also exhibited lower cluster coefficient in the subcortical motor network (thalamus and caudate nucleus). No significant correlation was found between topographic properties and motor severity. PD exhibited disruptive sensorimotor and visual networks in early disease stage. DMN, a certain areas in the cerebellum and midbrain may compensate for disruptive sensorimotor and visual network in PD. Disruptive network architecture may be an early alteration of PD pathophysiology but may not serve as a valid biomarker yet. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. An In-Home Digital Network Architecture for Real-Time and Non-Real-Time Communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, Johan; Jansen, P.G.; Hanssen, F.T.Y.; Hattink, Tjalling

    This paper describes an in-home digital network architecture that supports both realtime and non-real-time communication. The architecture deploys a distributed token mechanism to schedule communication streams and to offer guaranteed quality-ofservice. Essentially, the token mechanism prevents

  19. An In-Home Digital Network Architecture for Real-Time and Non-Real-Time Communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, Johan; Jansen, P.G.; Hanssen, F.T.Y.; Hattink, Tjalling

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes an in-home digital network architecture that supports both real-time and non-real-time communication. The architecture deploys a distributed token mechanism to schedule communication streams and to offer guaranteed quality-ofservice. Essentially, the token mechanism prevents

  20. An In-Home Digital Network Architecture for Real-Time and Non-Real-Time Communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, Johan; Jansen, P.G.; Hanssen, F.T.Y.; Hattink, Tjalling

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes an in-home digital network architecture that supports both realtime and non-real-time communication. The architecture deploys a distributed token mechanism to schedule communication streams and to offer guaranteed quality-ofservice. Essentially, the token mechanism prevents

  1. Network architecture design of an agile sensing system with sandwich wireless sensor nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorvash, S.; Li, X.; Pakzad, S.; Cheng, L.

    2012-04-01

    Wireless sensor network (WSN) is recently emerged as a powerful tool in the structural health monitoring (SHM). Due to the limitations of wireless channel capacity and the heavy data traffic, the control on the network is usually not real time. On the other hand, many SHM applications require quick response when unexpected events, such as earthquake, happen. Realizing the need to have an agile monitoring system, an approach, called sandwich node, was proposed. Sandwich is a design of complex sensor node where two Imote2 nodes are connected with each other to enhance the capabilities of the sensing units. The extra channel and processing power, added into the nodes, enable agile responses of the sensing network, particularly in interrupting the network and altering the undergoing tasks for burst events. This paper presents the design of a testbed for examination of the performance of wireless sandwich nodes in a network. The designed elements of the network are the software architecture of remote and local nodes, and the triggering strategies for coordinating the sensing units. The performance of the designed network is evaluated through its implementation in a monitoring test in the laboratory. For both original Imote2 and the sandwich node, the response time is estimated. The results show that the sandwich node is an efficient solution to the collision issue in existing interrupt approaches and the latency in dense wireless sensor networks.

  2. An Evaluation of Best Effort Traffic Management of Server and Agent-Based Active Network Management (SAAM) Architecture

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ayvat, Birol

    2003-01-01

    The Server and Agent-based Active Network Management (SAAM) architecture was initially designed to work with the next generation Internet where increasingly sophisticated applications will require QoS guarantees...

  3. TUTORIAL: Neural blackboard architectures: the realization of compositionality and systematicity in neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kamps, Marc; van der Velde, Frank

    2006-03-01

    In this paper, we will first introduce the notions of systematicity and combinatorial productivity and we will argue that these notions are essential for human cognition and probably for every agent that needs to be able to deal with novel, unexpected situations in a complex environment. Agents that use compositional representations are faced with the so-called binding problem and the question of how to create neural network architectures that can deal with it is essential for understanding higher level cognition. Moreover, an architecture that can solve this problem is likely to scale better with problem size than other neural network architectures. Then, we will discuss object-based attention. The influence of spatial attention is well known, but there is solid evidence for object-based attention as well. We will discuss experiments that demonstrate object-based attention and will discuss a model that can explain the data of these experiments very well. The model strongly suggests that this mode of attention provides a neural basis for parallel search. Next, we will show a model for binding in visual cortex. This model is based on a so-called neural blackboard architecture, where higher cortical areas act as processors, specialized for specific features of a visual stimulus, and lower visual areas act as a blackboard for communication between these processors. This implies that lower visual areas are involved in more than bottom-up visual processing, something which already was apparent from the large number of recurrent connections from higher to lower visual areas. This model identifies a specific role for these feedback connections. Finally, we will discuss the experimental evidence that exists for this architecture. .

  4. Architecture of the Multi-Modal Organizational Research and Production Heterogeneous Network (MORPHnet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aiken, R.J.; Carlson, R.A.; Foster, I.T. [and others

    1997-01-01

    The research and education (R&E) community requires persistent and scaleable network infrastructure to concurrently support production and research applications as well as network research. In the past, the R&E community has relied on supporting parallel network and end-node infrastructures, which can be very expensive and inefficient for network service managers and application programmers. The grand challenge in networking is to provide support for multiple, concurrent, multi-layer views of the network for the applications and the network researchers, and to satisfy the sometimes conflicting requirements of both while ensuring one type of traffic does not adversely affect the other. Internet and telecommunications service providers will also benefit from a multi-modal infrastructure, which can provide smoother transitions to new technologies and allow for testing of these technologies with real user traffic while they are still in the pre-production mode. The authors proposed approach requires the use of as much of the same network and end system infrastructure as possible to reduce the costs needed to support both classes of activities (i.e., production and research). Breaking the infrastructure into segments and objects (e.g., routers, switches, multiplexors, circuits, paths, etc.) gives the capability to dynamically construct and configure the virtual active networks to address these requirements. These capabilities must be supported at the campus, regional, and wide-area network levels to allow for collaboration by geographically dispersed groups. The Multi-Modal Organizational Research and Production Heterogeneous Network (MORPHnet) described in this report is an initial architecture and framework designed to identify and support the capabilities needed for the proposed combined infrastructure and to address related research issues.

  5. Architecture of basic building blocks in protein and domain structural interaction networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Hyun S; Bhak, Jonghwa; Lee, Kwang H; Lee, Doheon

    2005-04-15

    The structural interaction of proteins and their domains in networks is one of the most basic molecular mechanisms for biological cells. Topological analysis of such networks can provide an understanding of and solutions for predicting properties of proteins and their evolution in terms of domains. A single paradigm for the analysis of interactions at different layers, such as domain and protein layers, is needed. Applying a colored vertex graph model, we integrated two basic interaction layers under a unified model: (1) structural domains and (2) their protein/complex networks. We identified four basic and distinct elements in the model that explains protein interactions at the domain level. We searched for motifs in the networks to detect their topological characteristics using a pruning strategy and a hash table for rapid detection. We obtained the following results: first, compared with a random distribution, a substantial part of the protein interactions could be explained by domain-level structural interaction information. Second, there were distinct kinds of protein interaction patterns classified by specific and distinguishable numbers of domains. The intermolecular domain interaction was the most dominant protein interaction pattern. Third, despite the coverage of the protein interaction information differing among species, the similarity of their networks indicated shared architectures of protein interaction network in living organisms. Remarkably, there were only a few basic architectures in the model (>10 for a 4-node network topology), and we propose that most biological combinations of domains into proteins and complexes can be explained by a small number of key topological motifs. doheon@kaist.ac.kr.

  6. Spatially constrained adaptive rewiring in cortical networks creates spatially modular small world architectures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarman, Nicholas; Trengove, Chris; Steur, Erik; Tyukin, Ivan; van Leeuwen, Cees

    2014-12-01

    A modular small-world topology in functional and anatomical networks of the cortex is eminently suitable as an information processing architecture. This structure was shown in model studies to arise adaptively; it emerges through rewiring of network connections according to patterns of synchrony in ongoing oscillatory neural activity. However, in order to improve the applicability of such models to the cortex, spatial characteristics of cortical connectivity need to be respected, which were previously neglected. For this purpose we consider networks endowed with a metric by embedding them into a physical space. We provide an adaptive rewiring model with a spatial distance function and a corresponding spatially local rewiring bias. The spatially constrained adaptive rewiring principle is able to steer the evolving network topology to small world status, even more consistently so than without spatial constraints. Locally biased adaptive rewiring results in a spatial layout of the connectivity structure, in which topologically segregated modules correspond to spatially segregated regions, and these regions are linked by long-range connections. The principle of locally biased adaptive rewiring, thus, may explain both the topological connectivity structure and spatial distribution of connections between neuronal units in a large-scale cortical architecture.

  7. Level architecture in genetic regulatory networks and the role of microRNAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, J. M.

    2008-03-01

    It is well known that genes that code for proteins regulate the expression of each other through protein-mediated interactions. With the discovery of microRNAs^1 (miRNAs), it has been conjectured that there are many such regulatory miRNAs in the cell that are never transcribed into proteins but are important for regulation and, hence, could explain the nature of the non-coding (or junk) DNA.^2 Furthermore, miRNAs are highly conserved molecules. So, just as genes that code for proteins form regulatory networks, we conjecture that miRNAs form a higher-level regulatory network amongst themselves as mediated by the genes-coding-for-proteins regulatory network to form a complex organism. We investigate this conjecture within the framework of random Boolean networks where the two-level architecture is modelled via two coupled random Boolean networks with one network taking precedence over the other for various input/output values. Aspects of the evolution of the lower-level network will also be addressed. ^1 D. P. Bartel, Cell 116, 281 (2004). ^2 J. S. Mattick, Sci. Amer. 291, 60 (2004).

  8. Source-synchronous networks-on-chip circuit and architectural interconnect modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Mandal, Ayan; Mahapatra, Rabi

    2014-01-01

    This book describes novel methods for network-on-chip (NoC) design, using source-synchronous high-speed resonant clocks.  The authors discuss NoCs from the bottom up, providing circuit level details, before providing architectural simulations. As a result, readers will get a complete picture of how a NoC can be designed and optimized.  Using the methods described in this book, readers are enabled to design NoCs that are 5X better than existing approaches in terms of latency and throughput and can also sustain a significantly greater amount of traffic.   • Describes novel methods for high-speed network-on-chip (NoC) design; • Enables readers to understand NoC design from both circuit and architectural levels; • Provides circuit-level details of the NoC (including clocking, router design), along with a high-speed, resonant clocking style which is used in the NoC; • Includes architectural simulations of the NoC, demonstrating significantly superior performance over the state-of-the-art.

  9. A service-oriented architecture for integrating the modeling and formal verification of genetic regulatory networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Pedro T; Dumas, Estelle; Besson, Bruno; Mateescu, Radu; Page, Michel; Freitas, Ana T; de Jong, Hidde

    2009-12-30

    The study of biological networks has led to the development of increasingly large and detailed models. Computer tools are essential for the simulation of the dynamical behavior of the networks from the model. However, as the size of the models grows, it becomes infeasible to manually verify the predictions against experimental data or identify interesting features in a large number of simulation traces. Formal verification based on temporal logic and model checking provides promising methods to automate and scale the analysis of the models. However, a framework that tightly integrates modeling and simulation tools with model checkers is currently missing, on both the conceptual and the implementational level. We have developed a generic and modular web service, based on a service-oriented architecture, for integrating the modeling and formal verification of genetic regulatory networks. The architecture has been implemented in the context of the qualitative modeling and simulation tool GNA and the model checkers NUSMV and CADP. GNA has been extended with a verification module for the specification and checking of biological properties. The verification module also allows the display and visual inspection of the verification results. The practical use of the proposed web service is illustrated by means of a scenario involving the analysis of a qualitative model of the carbon starvation response in E. coli. The service-oriented architecture allows modelers to define the model and proceed with the specification and formal verification of the biological properties by means of a unified graphical user interface. This guarantees a transparent access to formal verification technology for modelers of genetic regulatory networks.

  10. A service-oriented architecture for integrating the modeling and formal verification of genetic regulatory networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Page Michel

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The study of biological networks has led to the development of increasingly large and detailed models. Computer tools are essential for the simulation of the dynamical behavior of the networks from the model. However, as the size of the models grows, it becomes infeasible to manually verify the predictions against experimental data or identify interesting features in a large number of simulation traces. Formal verification based on temporal logic and model checking provides promising methods to automate and scale the analysis of the models. However, a framework that tightly integrates modeling and simulation tools with model checkers is currently missing, on both the conceptual and the implementational level. Results We have developed a generic and modular web service, based on a service-oriented architecture, for integrating the modeling and formal verification of genetic regulatory networks. The architecture has been implemented in the context of the qualitative modeling and simulation tool GNA and the model checkers NUSMV and CADP. GNA has been extended with a verification module for the specification and checking of biological properties. The verification module also allows the display and visual inspection of the verification results. Conclusions The practical use of the proposed web service is illustrated by means of a scenario involving the analysis of a qualitative model of the carbon starvation response in E. coli. The service-oriented architecture allows modelers to define the model and proceed with the specification and formal verification of the biological properties by means of a unified graphical user interface. This guarantees a transparent access to formal verification technology for modelers of genetic regulatory networks.

  11. A service-oriented architecture for integrating the modeling and formal verification of genetic regulatory networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Background The study of biological networks has led to the development of increasingly large and detailed models. Computer tools are essential for the simulation of the dynamical behavior of the networks from the model. However, as the size of the models grows, it becomes infeasible to manually verify the predictions against experimental data or identify interesting features in a large number of simulation traces. Formal verification based on temporal logic and model checking provides promising methods to automate and scale the analysis of the models. However, a framework that tightly integrates modeling and simulation tools with model checkers is currently missing, on both the conceptual and the implementational level. Results We have developed a generic and modular web service, based on a service-oriented architecture, for integrating the modeling and formal verification of genetic regulatory networks. The architecture has been implemented in the context of the qualitative modeling and simulation tool GNA and the model checkers NUSMV and CADP. GNA has been extended with a verification module for the specification and checking of biological properties. The verification module also allows the display and visual inspection of the verification results. Conclusions The practical use of the proposed web service is illustrated by means of a scenario involving the analysis of a qualitative model of the carbon starvation response in E. coli. The service-oriented architecture allows modelers to define the model and proceed with the specification and formal verification of the biological properties by means of a unified graphical user interface. This guarantees a transparent access to formal verification technology for modelers of genetic regulatory networks. PMID:20042075

  12. A Networked Perspective on the Engineering Design Process: At the Intersection of Process and Organisation Architectures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parraguez, Pedro

    The design process of engineering systems frequently involves hundreds of activities and people over long periods of time and is implemented through complex networks of information exchanges. Such socio-technical complexity makes design processes hard to manage, and as a result, engineering design...... of a networked perspective also has limited the study of the relationships between process complexity and process performance. This thesis argues that to understand and improve design processes, we must look beyond the planned process and unfold the network structure and composition that actually implement...... the process. This combination of process structure—how people and activities are connected—and composition—the functional diversity of the groups participating in the process—is referred to as the actual design process architecture. This thesis reports on research undertaken to develop, apply and test...

  13. Design of Smart Power-Saving Architecture for Network on Chip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trong-Yen Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In network-on-chip (NoC, the data transferring by virtual channels can avoid the issue of data loss and deadlock. Many virtual channels on one input or output port in router are included. However, the router includes five I/O ports, and then the power issue is very important in virtual channels. In this paper, a novel architecture, namely, Smart Power-Saving (SPS, for low power consumption and low area in virtual channels of NoC is proposed. The SPS architecture can accord different environmental factors to dynamically save power and optimization area in NoC. Comparison with related works, the new proposed method reduces 37.31%, 45.79%, and 19.26% on power consumption and reduces 49.4%, 25.5% and 14.4% on area, respectively.

  14. A Web of Things-Based Emerging Sensor Network Architecture for Smart Control Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murad Khan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The Web of Things (WoT plays an important role in the representation of the objects connected to the Internet of Things in a more transparent and effective way. Thus, it enables seamless and ubiquitous web communication between users and the smart things. Considering the importance of WoT, we propose a WoT-based emerging sensor network (WoT-ESN, which collects data from sensors, routes sensor data to the web, and integrate smart things into the web employing a representational state transfer (REST architecture. A smart home scenario is introduced to evaluate the proposed WoT-ESN architecture. The smart home scenario is tested through computer simulation of the energy consumption of various household appliances, device discovery, and response time performance. The simulation results show that the proposed scheme significantly optimizes the energy consumption of the household appliances and the response time of the appliances.

  15. A Web of Things-Based Emerging Sensor Network Architecture for Smart Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Murad; Silva, Bhagya Nathali; Han, Kijun

    2017-01-01

    The Web of Things (WoT) plays an important role in the representation of the objects connected to the Internet of Things in a more transparent and effective way. Thus, it enables seamless and ubiquitous web communication between users and the smart things. Considering the importance of WoT, we propose a WoT-based emerging sensor network (WoT-ESN), which collects data from sensors, routes sensor data to the web, and integrate smart things into the web employing a representational state transfer (REST) architecture. A smart home scenario is introduced to evaluate the proposed WoT-ESN architecture. The smart home scenario is tested through computer simulation of the energy consumption of various household appliances, device discovery, and response time performance. The simulation results show that the proposed scheme significantly optimizes the energy consumption of the household appliances and the response time of the appliances.  PMID:28208787

  16. A Web of Things-Based Emerging Sensor Network Architecture for Smart Control Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Murad; Silva, Bhagya Nathali; Han, Kijun

    2017-02-09

    The Web of Things (WoT) plays an important role in the representation of the objects connected to the Internet of Things in a more transparent and effective way. Thus, it enables seamless and ubiquitous web communication between users and the smart things. Considering the importance of WoT, we propose a WoT-based emerging sensor network (WoT-ESN), which collects data from sensors, routes sensor data to the web, and integrate smart things into the web employing a representational state transfer (REST) architecture. A smart home scenario is introduced to evaluate the proposed WoT-ESN architecture. The smart home scenario is tested through computer simulation of the energy consumption of various household appliances, device discovery, and response time performance. The simulation results show that the proposed scheme significantly optimizes the energy consumption of the household appliances and the response time of the appliances.

  17. Architectures and Design for Next-Generation Hybrid Circuit/Packet Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadrevu, Sree Krishna Chaitanya

    Internet traffic is increasing rapidly at an annual growth rate of 35% with aggregate traffic exceeding several Exabyte's per month. The traffic is also becoming heterogeneous in bandwidth and quality-of-service (QoS) requirements with growing popularity of cloud computing, video-on-demand (VoD), e-science, etc. Hybrid circuit/packet networks which can jointly support circuit and packet services along with the adoption of high-bit-rate transmission systems form an attractive solution to address the traffic growth. 10 Gbps and 40 Gbps transmission systems are widely deployed in telecom backbone networks such as Comcast, AT&T, etc., and network operators are considering migration to 100 Gbps and beyond. This dissertation proposes robust architectures, capacity migration strategies, and novel service frameworks for next-generation hybrid circuit/packet architectures. In this dissertation, we study two types of hybrid circuit/packet networks: a) IP-over-WDM networks, in which the packet (IP) network is overlaid on top of the circuit (optical WDM) network and b) Hybrid networks in which the circuit and packet networks are deployed side by side such as US DoE's ESnet. We investigate techniques to dynamically migrate capacity between the circuit and packet sections by exploiting traffic variations over a day, and our methods show that significant bandwidth savings can be obtained with improved reliability of services. Specifically, we investigate how idle backup circuit capacity can be used to support packet services in IP-over-WDM networks, and similarly, excess capacity in packet network to support circuit services in ESnet. Control schemes that enable our mechanisms are also discussed. In IP-over-WDM networks, with upcoming 100 Gbps and beyond, dedicated protection will induce significant under-utilization of backup resources. We investigate design strategies to loan idle circuit backup capacity to support IP/packet services. However, failure of backup circuits will

  18. Analysis and design of a new network architecture based on SOTDMA in mobile service and its application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Ren, Xiaoming; Liu, Ruheng

    2004-03-01

    Self-organized time division multiple access ( SOTDMA) is an advanced wireless communication technology used in quick automatic networking. Also self-organized network is an equity network, which is provided with selforganized characteristics. First, the paper analyses the technology and characteristics of self-organized network and puts forward network architecture with self-organized model for different environments. Then it discusses the message transport protocol of SOTDMA, further gives a clear description of the functions for each layer in the network architecture. Second, the paper studies the access algorithms of SOTDMA, providing a full flow for the realization of this algorithm. Finally, the paper induces the practical application of this technology, and raises an integrated principle diagram of wireless user terminal networking based on SOTDMA.

  19. Security Analysis of DTN Architecture and Bundle Protocol Specification for Space-Based Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivancic, William D.

    2009-01-01

    A Delay-Tolerant Network (DTN) Architecture (Request for Comment, RFC-4838) and Bundle Protocol Specification, RFC-5050, have been proposed for space and terrestrial networks. Additional security specifications have been provided via the Bundle Security Specification (currently a work in progress as an Internet Research Task Force internet-draft) and, for link-layer protocols applicable to Space networks, the Licklider Transport Protocol Security Extensions. This document provides a security analysis of the current DTN RFCs and proposed security related internet drafts with a focus on space-based communication networks, which is a rather restricted subset of DTN networks. Note, the original focus and motivation of DTN work was for the Interplanetary Internet . This document does not address general store-and-forward network overlays, just the current work being done by the Internet Research Task Force (IRTF) and the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) Space Internetworking Services Area (SIS) - DTN working group under the DTN and Bundle umbrellas. However, much of the analysis is relevant to general store-and-forward overlays.

  20. Seamless interworking architecture for WBAN in heterogeneous wireless networks with QoS guarantees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Pervez; Ullah, Niamat; Ullah, Sana; Kwak, Kyung Sup

    2011-10-01

    The IEEE 802.15.6 standard is a communication standard optimized for low-power and short-range in-body/on-body nodes to serve a variety of medical, consumer electronics and entertainment applications. Providing high mobility with guaranteed Quality of Service (QoS) to a WBAN user in heterogeneous wireless networks is a challenging task. A WBAN uses a Personal Digital Assistant (PDA) to gather data from body sensors and forwards it to a remote server through wide range wireless networks. In this paper, we present a coexistence study of WBAN with Wireless Local Area Networks (WLAN) and Wireless Wide Area Networks (WWANs). The main issue is interworking of WBAN in heterogenous wireless networks including seamless handover, QoS, emergency services, cooperation and security. We propose a Seamless Interworking Architecture (SIA) for WBAN in heterogenous wireless networks based on a cost function. The cost function is based on power consumption and data throughput costs. Our simulation results show that the proposed scheme outperforms typical approaches in terms of throughput, delay and packet loss rate.

  1. Architecture of an antagonistic tree/fungus network: the asymmetric influence of past evolutionary history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacher, Corinne; Piou, Dominique; Desprez-Loustau, Marie-Laure

    2008-03-05

    Compartmentalization and nestedness are common patterns in ecological networks. The aim of this study was to elucidate some of the processes shaping these patterns in a well resolved network of host/pathogen interactions. Based on a long-term (1972-2005) survey of forest health at the regional scale (all French forests; 15 million ha), we uncovered an almost fully connected network of 51 tree taxa and 157 parasitic fungal species. Our analyses revealed that the compartmentalization of the network maps out the ancient evolutionary history of seed plants, but not the ancient evolutionary history of fungal species. The very early divergence of the major fungal phyla may account for this asymmetric influence of past evolutionary history. Unlike compartmentalization, nestedness did not reflect any consistent phylogenetic signal. Instead, it seemed to reflect the ecological features of the current species, such as the relative abundance of tree species and the life-history strategies of fungal pathogens. We discussed how the evolution of host range in fungal species may account for the observed nested patterns. Overall, our analyses emphasized how the current complexity of ecological networks results from the diversification of the species and their interactions over evolutionary times. They confirmed that the current architecture of ecological networks is not only dependent on recent ecological processes.

  2. Communication Network Architectures for Smart-House with Renewable Energy Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. Ahmed

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available With the microgrid revolution, each house will have the ability to meet its own energy needs locally from renewable energy sources such as solar or wind. However, real-time data gathering, energy management and control of renewable energy systems will depend mainly on the performance of the communications infrastructure. This paper describes the design of a communication network architecture using both wired and wireless technologies for monitoring and controlling distributed energy systems involving small-scale wind turbines and photovoltaic systems. The proposed communication architecture consists of three layers: device layer, network layer, and application layer. Two scenarios are considered: a smart-house and a smart-building. Various types of sensor nodes and measurement devices are defined to monitor the condition of the renewable energy systems based on the international electrotechnical commission standard. The OPNET Modeler is used for performance evaluation in terms of end-to-end (ETE delay. The network performance is compared in view of ETE delay, reliability and implementation cost for three different technologies: Ethernet-based, WiFi-based, and ZigBee-based.

  3. A Unified Robotic Software Architecture for Service Robotics and Networks of Smart Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westhoff, Daniel; Zhang, Jianwei

    This paper proposes a novel architecture for the programming of multi-modal service robots and networked sensors. The presented software framework eases the development of high-level applications for distributed systems. The software architecture is based upon the Roblet-Technology, which is an exceptionally powerful medium in robotics. The possibility to develop, compile and execute an application on one workstation and distribute parts of a program based on the idea of mobile code is pointed out. Since the Roblet-Technology uses Java the development is independent of the operation system. The framework hides the network communication and therefore greatly improves the programming and testing of applications in service robotics. The concept is evaluated in the context of the service robot TASER of the TAMS Institute at the University of Hamburg. This robot consists of a mobile platform with two manipulators equipped with artificial hands. Several multimodal input and output devices for interaction round off the robot. Networked cameras in the working environment of TASER provide additional information to the robot. The integration of these smart sensors shows the extendability of the proposed concept to general distributed systems.

  4. A FD/DAMA network architecture for the first generation land mobile satellite services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, T.-Y.; Wang, C.; Cheng, U.; Dessouky, K.; Rafferty, W.

    1989-01-01

    A frequency division/demand assigned multiple access (FD/DAMA) network architecture for the first-generation land mobile satellite services is presented. Rationales and technical approaches are described. In this architecture, each mobile subscriber must follow a channel access protocol to make a service request to the network management center before transmission for either open-end or closed-end services. Open-end service requests will be processed on a blocked call cleared basis, while closed-end requests will be processed on a first-come-first-served basis. Two channel access protocols are investigated, namely, a recently proposed multiple channel collision resolution scheme which provides a significantly higher useful throughput, and the traditional slotted Aloha scheme. The number of channels allocated for either open-end or closed-end services can be adaptively changed according to aggregated traffic requests. Both theoretical and simulation results are presented. Theoretical results have been verified by simulation on the JPL network testbed.

  5. An Optimal Path Computation Architecture for the Cloud-Network on Software-Defined Networking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyunhun Cho

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Legacy networks do not open the precise information of the network domain because of scalability, management and commercial reasons, and it is very hard to compute an optimal path to the destination. According to today’s ICT environment change, in order to meet the new network requirements, the concept of software-defined networking (SDN has been developed as a technological alternative to overcome the limitations of the legacy network structure and to introduce innovative concepts. The purpose of this paper is to propose the application that calculates the optimal paths for general data transmission and real-time audio/video transmission, which consist of the major services of the National Research & Education Network (NREN in the SDN environment. The proposed SDN routing computation (SRC application is designed and applied in a multi-domain network for the efficient use of resources, selection of the optimal path between the multi-domains and optimal establishment of end-to-end connections.

  6. A Router Architecture for Connection-Oriented Service Guarantees in the MANGO Clockless Network-on-Chip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Tobias; Sparsø, Jens

    2005-01-01

    On-chip networks for future system-on-chip designs need simple, high performance implementations. In order to promote system-level integrity, guaranteed services (GS) need to be provided. We propose a network-on-chip (NoC) router architecture to support this, and demonstrate with a CMOS standard...

  7. An Energy-Efficient and High-Quality Video Transmission Architecture in Wireless Video-Based Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghdasi, Hadi S.; Abbaspour, Maghsoud; Moghadam, Mohsen Ebrahimi; Samei, Yasaman

    2008-01-01

    Technological progress in the fields of Micro Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) and wireless communications and also the availability of CMOS cameras, microphones and small-scale array sensors, which may ubiquitously capture multimedia content from the field, have fostered the development of low-cost limited resources Wireless Video-based Sensor Networks (WVSN). With regards to the constraints of video-based sensor nodes and wireless sensor networks, a supporting video stream is not easy to implement with the present sensor network protocols. In this paper, a thorough architecture is presented for video transmission over WVSN called Energy-efficient and high-Quality Video transmission Architecture (EQV-Architecture). This architecture influences three layers of communication protocol stack and considers wireless video sensor nodes constraints like limited process and energy resources while video quality is preserved in the receiver side. Application, transport, and network layers are the layers in which the compression protocol, transport protocol, and routing protocol are proposed respectively, also a dropping scheme is presented in network layer. Simulation results over various environments with dissimilar conditions revealed the effectiveness of the architecture in improving the lifetime of the network as well as preserving the video quality. PMID:27873772

  8. An Energy-Efficient and High-Quality Video Transmission Architecture in Wireless Video-Based Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasaman Samei

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Technological progress in the fields of Micro Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS and wireless communications and also the availability of CMOS cameras, microphones and small-scale array sensors, which may ubiquitously capture multimedia content from the field, have fostered the development of low-cost limited resources Wireless Video-based Sensor Networks (WVSN. With regards to the constraints of videobased sensor nodes and wireless sensor networks, a supporting video stream is not easy to implement with the present sensor network protocols. In this paper, a thorough architecture is presented for video transmission over WVSN called Energy-efficient and high-Quality Video transmission Architecture (EQV-Architecture. This architecture influences three layers of communication protocol stack and considers wireless video sensor nodes constraints like limited process and energy resources while video quality is preserved in the receiver side. Application, transport, and network layers are the layers in which the compression protocol, transport protocol, and routing protocol are proposed respectively, also a dropping scheme is presented in network layer. Simulation results over various environments with dissimilar conditions revealed the effectiveness of the architecture in improving the lifetime of the network as well as preserving the video quality.

  9. An Energy-Efficient and High-Quality Video Transmission Architecture in Wireless Video-Based Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghdasi, Hadi S; Abbaspour, Maghsoud; Moghadam, Mohsen Ebrahimi; Samei, Yasaman

    2008-08-04

    Technological progress in the fields of Micro Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) and wireless communications and also the availability of CMOS cameras, microphones and small-scale array sensors, which may ubiquitously capture multimedia content from the field, have fostered the development of low-cost limited resources Wireless Video-based Sensor Networks (WVSN). With regards to the constraints of videobased sensor nodes and wireless sensor networks, a supporting video stream is not easy to implement with the present sensor network protocols. In this paper, a thorough architecture is presented for video transmission over WVSN called Energy-efficient and high-Quality Video transmission Architecture (EQV-Architecture). This architecture influences three layers of communication protocol stack and considers wireless video sensor nodes constraints like limited process and energy resources while video quality is preserved in the receiver side. Application, transport, and network layers are the layers in which the compression protocol, transport protocol, and routing protocol are proposed respectively, also a dropping scheme is presented in network layer. Simulation results over various environments with dissimilar conditions revealed the effectiveness of the architecture in improving the lifetime of the network as well as preserving the video quality.

  10. Space Communications and Navigation (SCaN) Integrated Network Architecture Definition Document (ADD). Volume 1; Executive Summary; Revision 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younes, Badri A.; Schier, James S.

    2010-01-01

    The SCaN Program has defined an integrated network architecture that fully meets the Administrator s mandate to the Program, and will result in a NASA infrastructure capable of providing the needed and enabling communications services to future space missions. The integrated network architecture will increase SCaN operational efficiency and interoperability through standardization, commonality and technology infusion. It will enable NASA missions requiring advanced communication and tracking capabilities such as: a. Optical communication b. Antenna arraying c. Lunar and Mars Relays d. Integrated network management (service management and network control) and integrated service execution e. Enhanced tracking for navigation f. Space internetworking with DTN and IP g. End-to-end security h. Enhanced security services Moreover, the SCaN Program has created an Integrated Network Roadmap that depicts an orchestrated and coherent evolution path toward the target architecture, encompassing all aspects that concern network assets (i.e., operations and maintenance, sustaining engineering, upgrade efforts, and major development). This roadmap identifies major NASA ADPs, and shows dependencies and drivers among the various planned undertakings and timelines. The roadmap is scalable to accommodate timely adjustments in response to Agency needs, goals, objectives and funding. Future challenges to implementing this architecture include balancing user mission needs, technology development, and the availability of funding within NASA s priorities. Strategies for addressing these challenges are to: define a flexible architecture, update the architecture periodically, use ADPs to evaluate options and determine when to make decisions, and to engage the stakeholders in these evaluations. In addition, the SCaN Program will evaluate and respond to mission need dates for technical and operational capabilities to be provided by the SCaN integrated network. In that regard, the architecture

  11. Lunar Relay Satellite Network for Space Exploration: Architecture, Technologies and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhasin, Kul B.; Hackenberg, Anthony W.; Slywczak, Richard A.; Bose, Prasanta; Bergamo, Marcos; Hayden, Jeffrey L.

    2006-01-01

    NASA is planning a series of short and long duration human and robotic missions to explore the Moon and then Mars. A key objective of these missions is to grow, through a series of launches, a system of systems infrastructure with the capability for safe and sustainable autonomous operations at minimum cost while maximizing the exploration capabilities and science return. An incremental implementation process will enable a buildup of the communication, navigation, networking, computing, and informatics architectures to support human exploration missions in the vicinities and on the surfaces of the Moon and Mars. These architectures will support all space and surface nodes, including other orbiters, lander vehicles, humans in spacesuits, robots, rovers, human habitats, and pressurized vehicles. This paper describes the integration of an innovative MAC and networking technology with an equally innovative position-dependent, data routing, network technology. The MAC technology provides the relay spacecraft with the capability to autonomously discover neighbor spacecraft and surface nodes, establish variable-rate links and communicate simultaneously with multiple in-space and surface clients at varying and rapidly changing distances while making optimum use of the available power. The networking technology uses attitude sensors, a time synchronization protocol and occasional orbit-corrections to maintain awareness of its instantaneous position and attitude in space as well as the orbital or surface location of its communication clients. A position-dependent data routing capability is used in the communication relay satellites to handle the movement of data among any of multiple clients (including Earth) that may be simultaneously in view; and if not in view, the relay will temporarily store the data from a client source and download it when the destination client comes into view. The integration of the MAC and data routing networking technologies would enable a relay

  12. On-Board Fiber-Optic Network Architectures for Radar and Avionics Signal Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Mohammad F.; Atiquzzaman, Mohammed; Duncan, Bradley B.; Nguyen, Hung; Kunath, Richard

    2000-01-01

    Continued progress in both civil and military avionics applications is overstressing the capabilities of existing radio-frequency (RF) communication networks based on coaxial cables on board modem aircrafts. Future avionics systems will require high-bandwidth on- board communication links that are lightweight, immune to electromagnetic interference, and highly reliable. Fiber optic communication technology can meet all these challenges in a cost-effective manner. Recently, digital fiber-optic communication systems, where a fiber-optic network acts like a local area network (LAN) for digital data communications, have become a topic of extensive research and development. Although a fiber-optic system can be designed to transport radio-frequency (RF) signals, the digital fiber-optic systems under development today are not capable of transporting microwave and millimeter-wave RF signals used in radar and avionics systems on board an aircraft. Recent advances in fiber optic technology, especially wavelength division multiplexing (WDM), has opened a number of possibilities for designing on-board fiber optic networks, including all-optical networks for radar and avionics RF signal distribution. In this paper, we investigate a number of different novel approaches for fiber-optic transmission of on-board VHF and UHF RF signals using commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) components. The relative merits and demerits of each architecture are discussed, and the suitability of each architecture for particular applications is pointed out. All-optical approaches show better performance than other traditional approaches in terms of signal-to-noise ratio, power consumption, and weight requirements.

  13. Interferon-α acutely impairs whole-brain functional connectivity network architecture - A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dipasquale, Ottavia; Cooper, Ella A; Tibble, Jeremy; Voon, Valerie; Baglio, Francesca; Baselli, Giuseppe; Cercignani, Mara; Harrison, Neil A

    2016-11-01

    Interferon-alpha (IFN-α) is a key mediator of antiviral immune responses used to treat Hepatitis C infection. Though clinically effective, IFN-α rapidly impairs mood, motivation and cognition, effects that can appear indistinguishable from major depression and provide powerful empirical support for the inflammation theory of depression. Though inflammation has been shown to modulate activity within discrete brain regions, how it affects distributed information processing and the architecture of whole brain functional connectivity networks have not previously been investigated. Here we use a graph theoretic analysis of resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rfMRI) to investigate acute effects of systemic interferon-alpha (IFN-α) on whole brain functional connectivity architecture and its relationship to IFN-α-induced mood change. Twenty-two patients with Hepatitis-C infection, initiating IFN-α-based therapy were scanned at baseline and 4h after their first IFN-α dose. The whole brain network was parcellated into 110 cortical and sub-cortical nodes based on the Oxford-Harvard Atlas and effects assessed on higher-level graph metrics, including node degree, betweenness centrality, global and local efficiency. IFN-α was associated with a significant reduction in global network connectivity (node degree) (p=0.033) and efficiency (p=0.013), indicating a global reduction of information transfer among the nodes forming the whole brain network. Effects were similar for highly connected (hub) and non-hub nodes, with no effect on betweenness centrality (p>0.1). At a local level, we identified regions with reduced efficiency of information exchange and a sub-network with decreased functional connectivity after IFN-α. Changes in local and particularly global functional connectivity correlated with associated changes in mood measured on the Profile of Mood States (POMS) questionnaire. IFN-α rapidly induced a profound shift in whole brain network structure

  14. Taking the 'work' out of networking: strategies for smarter, simpler network architecture and administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, C. de

    2003-01-01

    This session will help you tune up your skills and knowledge on the latest advances in network design and management, to keep your agency's data communications running at peak performance, with minimal cost and effort.

  15. Control Architecture for Intentional Island Operation in Distribution Network with High Penetration of Distributed Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yu

    , the feasibility of the application of Artificial Neural Network (ANN) to ICA is studied, in order to improve the computation efficiency for ISR calculation. Finally, the integration of ICA into Dynamic Security Assessment (DSA), the ICA implementation, and the development of ICA are discussed....... amount of DGs. As part of the NextGen project, this project focuses on the system modeling and simulation regarding the control architecture and recommends the development of a communication and information exchange system based on IEC 61850. This thesis starts with the background of this PhD project...

  16. A Novel Hierarchical Semi-centralized Telemedicine Network Architecture Proposition for Bangladesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choudhury, Samiul; Peterson, Carrie Beth; Kyriazakos, Sofoklis

    2011-01-01

    One of the major functions of telemedicine is the prompt delivery of modern healthcare to the remotest areas with reduced cost and efficient use of communication resources. The establishment of a well organized telemedicine system is therefore exigent for the developing countries like Bangladesh...... where there are extreme paucities of efficient healthcare professionals and equipments, specifically in the rural areas. In this paper a novel, hierarchical and semi-centralized telemedicine network architecture has been proposed holisti-cally focusing on the rural underdeveloped areas of Bangladesh...

  17. A remote password authentication scheme for multiserver architecture using neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, L H; Lin, L C; Hwang, M S

    2001-01-01

    Conventional remote password authentication schemes allow a serviceable server to authenticate the legitimacy of a remote login user. However, these schemes are not used for multiserver architecture environments. We present a remote password authentication scheme for multiserver environments. The password authentication system is a pattern classification system based on an artificial neural network. In this scheme, the users only remember user identity and password numbers to log in to various servers. Users can freely choose their password. Furthermore, the system is not required to maintain a verification table and can withstand the replay attack.

  18. Architecture and biological applications of artificial neural networks: a tuberculosis perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darsey, Jerry A; Griffin, William O; Joginipelli, Sravanthi; Melapu, Venkata Kiran

    2015-01-01

    Advancement of science and technology has prompted researchers to develop new intelligent systems that can solve a variety of problems such as pattern recognition, prediction, and optimization. The ability of the human brain to learn in a fashion that tolerates noise and error has attracted many researchers and provided the starting point for the development of artificial neural networks: the intelligent systems. Intelligent systems can acclimatize to the environment or data and can maximize the chances of success or improve the efficiency of a search. Due to massive parallelism with large numbers of interconnected processers and their ability to learn from the data, neural networks can solve a variety of challenging computational problems. Neural networks have the ability to derive meaning from complicated and imprecise data; they are used in detecting patterns, and trends that are too complex for humans, or other computer systems. Solutions to the toughest problems will not be found through one narrow specialization; therefore we need to combine interdisciplinary approaches to discover the solutions to a variety of problems. Many researchers in different disciplines such as medicine, bioinformatics, molecular biology, and pharmacology have successfully applied artificial neural networks. This chapter helps the reader in understanding the basics of artificial neural networks, their applications, and methodology; it also outlines the network learning process and architecture. We present a brief outline of the application of neural networks to medical diagnosis, drug discovery, gene identification, and protein structure prediction. We conclude with a summary of the results from our study on tuberculosis data using neural networks, in diagnosing active tuberculosis, and predicting chronic vs. infiltrative forms of tuberculosis.

  19. A super base station based centralized network architecture for 5G mobile communication systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manli Qian

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available To meet the ever increasing mobile data traffic demand, the mobile operators are deploying a heterogeneous network with multiple access technologies and more and more base stations to increase the network coverage and capacity. However, the base stations are isolated from each other, so different types of radio resources and hardware resources cannot be shared and allocated within the overall network in a cooperative way. The mobile operators are thus facing increasing network operational expenses and a high system power consumption. In this paper, a centralized radio access network architecture, referred to as the super base station (super BS, is proposed, as a possible solution for an energy-efficient fifth-generation (5G mobile system. The super base station decouples the logical functions and physical entities of traditional base stations, so different types of system resources can be horizontally shared and statistically multiplexed among all the virtual base stations throughout the entire system. The system framework and main functionalities of the super BS are described. Some key technologies for system implementation, i.e., the resource pooling, real-time virtualization, adaptive hardware resource allocation are also highlighted.

  20. DReAM: Demand Response Architecture for Multi-level District Heating and Cooling Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharya, Saptarshi; Chandan, Vikas; Arya, Vijay; Kar, Koushik

    2017-05-19

    In this paper, we exploit the inherent hierarchy of heat exchangers in District Heating and Cooling (DHC) networks and propose DReAM, a novel Demand Response (DR) architecture for Multi-level DHC networks. DReAM serves to economize system operation while still respecting comfort requirements of individual consumers. Contrary to many present day DR schemes that work on a consumer level granularity, DReAM works at a level of hierarchy above buildings, i.e. substations that supply heat to a group of buildings. This improves the overall DR scalability and reduce the computational complexity. In the first step of the proposed approach, mathematical models of individual substations and their downstream networks are abstracted into appropriately constructed low-complexity structural forms. In the second step, this abstracted information is employed by the utility to perform DR optimization that determines the optimal heat inflow to individual substations rather than buildings, in order to achieve the targeted objectives across the network. We validate the proposed DReAM framework through experimental results under different scenarios on a test network.

  1. LPI Optimization Framework for Target Tracking in Radar Network Architectures Using Information-Theoretic Criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenguang Shi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Widely distributed radar network architectures can provide significant performance improvement for target detection and localization. For a fixed radar network, the achievable target detection performance may go beyond a predetermined threshold with full transmitted power allocation, which is extremely vulnerable in modern electronic warfare. In this paper, we study the problem of low probability of intercept (LPI design for radar network and propose two novel LPI optimization schemes based on information-theoretic criteria. For a predefined threshold of target detection, Schleher intercept factor is minimized by optimizing transmission power allocation among netted radars in the network. Due to the lack of analytical closed-form expression for receiver operation characteristics (ROC, we employ two information-theoretic criteria, namely, Bhattacharyya distance and J-divergence as the metrics for target detection performance. The resulting nonconvex and nonlinear LPI optimization problems associated with different information-theoretic criteria are cast under a unified framework, and the nonlinear programming based genetic algorithm (NPGA is used to tackle the optimization problems in the framework. Numerical simulations demonstrate that our proposed LPI strategies are effective in enhancing the LPI performance for radar network.

  2. Relations between the geometry of cortical gyrification and white-matter network architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, James A; Robinson, Peter A

    2014-03-01

    A geometrically based network model of cortico-cortical white-matter connectivity is used in combination with diffusion spectrum MRI (DSI) data to show that white-matter cortical network architecture is founded on a homogeneous, isotropic geometric connection principle. No other special information about single connections or groups of connections is required to generate networks very similar to experimental ones. This model provides excellent agreement with experimental DSI frequency distributions of network measures-degree, clustering coefficient, path length, and betweenness centrality. In the model, these distributions are a result of geometrically induced spatial variations in the values of these measures with deep nodes having more hublike properties than superficial nodes. This leads to experimentally testable predictions of corresponding variations in real cortexes. The convoluted geometry of the cortex is also found to introduce weak modularity, similar to the lobe structure of the cortex, with the boundaries between modules having hublike properties. These findings mean that some putative discoveries regarding the structure of white-matter cortical networks are simply artifacts and/or consequences of geometry. This model may help provide insight into diseases associated with differences in gyrification as well as evolutionary development of the cortex.

  3. Adaptive Monitoring and Control Architectures for Power Distribution Grids over Heterogeneous ICT Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Rasmus Løvenstein; Hägerling, Christian; Kurtz, Fabian M.

    2014-01-01

    The expected growth in distributed generation will significantly affect the operation and control of today’s distribution grids. Being confronted with short time power variations of distributed generations, the assurance of a reliable service (grid stability, avoidance of energy losses) and the q......The expected growth in distributed generation will significantly affect the operation and control of today’s distribution grids. Being confronted with short time power variations of distributed generations, the assurance of a reliable service (grid stability, avoidance of energy losses...... to the reliability due to the stochastic behaviour found in such networks. Therefore, key concepts are presented in this paper targeting the support of proper smart grid control in these network environments. An overview on the required Information and Communication Technology (ICT) architecture and its...

  4. AUTHENTICATION ARCHITECTURE USING THRESHOLD CRYPTOGRAPHY IN KERBEROS FOR MOBILE AD HOC NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadj Gharib

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of wireless technologies is gradually increasing and risks related to the use of these technologies are considerable. Due to their dynamically changing topology and open environment without a centralized policy control of a traditional network, a mobile ad hoc network (MANET is vulnerable to the presence of malicious nodes and attacks. The ideal solution to overcome a myriad of security concerns in MANET’s is the use of reliable authentication architecture. In this paper we propose a new key management scheme based on threshold cryptography in kerberos for MANET’s, the proposed scheme uses the elliptic curve cryptography method that consumes fewer resources well adapted to the wireless environment. Our approach shows a strength and effectiveness against attacks.

  5. LIDeA: A Distributed Lightweight Intrusion Detection Architecture for Sensor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giannetsos, Athanasios; Krontiris, Ioannis; Dimitriou, Tassos

    2008-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks are vulnerable to adversaries as they are frequently deployed in open and unattended environments. Preventive mechanisms can be applied to protect them from an assortment of attacks. However, more sophisticated methods, like intrusion detection systems, are needed...... to achieve a more autonomic and complete defense mechanism, even against attacks that have not been anticipated in advance. In this paper, we present a lightweight intrusion detection system, called LIDeA, designed for wireless sensor networks. LIDeA is based on a distributed architecture, in which nodes...... overhear their neighboring nodes and collaborate with each other in order to successfully detect an intrusion. We show how such a system can be implemented in TinyOS, which components and interfaces are needed, and what is the resulting overhead imposed....

  6. Evolution of gene regulatory network architectures: examples of subcircuit conservation and plasticity between classes of echinoderms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinman, Veronica F; Yankura, Kristen A; McCauley, Brenna S

    2009-04-01

    Developmental gene regulatory networks (GRNs) explain how regulatory states are established in particular cells during development and how these states then determine the final form of the embryo. Evolutionary changes to the sequence of the genome will direct reorganization of GRN architectures, which in turn will lead to the alteration of developmental programs. A comparison of GRN architectures must consequently reveal the molecular basis for the evolution of developmental programs among different organisms. This review highlights some of the important findings that have emerged from the most extensive direct comparison of GRN architectures to date. Comparison of the orthologous GRNs for endomesodermal specification in the sea urchin and sea star, provides examples of several discrete, functional GRN subcircuits and shows that they are subject to diverse selective pressures. This demonstrates that different regulatory linkages may be more or less amenable to evolutionary change. One of the more surprising findings from this comparison is that GRN-level functions may be maintained while the factors performing the functions have changed, suggesting that GRNs have a high capacity for compensatory changes involving transcription factor binding to cis regulatory modules.

  7. The architecture of river networks can drive the evolutionary dynamics of aquatic populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomaz, Andréa T; Christie, Mark R; Knowles, L Lacey

    2016-03-01

    It is widely recognized that physical landscapes can shape genetic variation within and between populations. However, it is not well understood how riverscapes, with their complex architectures, affect patterns of neutral genetic diversity. Using a spatially explicit agent-based modeling (ABM) approach, we evaluate the genetic consequences of dendritic river shapes on local population structure. We disentangle the relative contribution of specific river properties to observed patterns of genetic variation by evaluating how different branching architectures and downstream flow regimes affect the genetic structure of populations situated within river networks. Irrespective of the river length, our results illustrate that the extent of river branching, confluence position, and levels of asymmetric downstream migration dictate patterns of genetic variation in riverine populations. Comparisons between simple and highly branched rivers show a 20-fold increase in the overall genetic diversity and a sevenfold increase in the genetic differentiation between local populations. Given that most rivers have complex architectures, these results highlight the importance of incorporating riverscape information into evolutionary models of aquatic species and could help explain why riverine fishes represent a disproportionately large amount of global vertebrate diversity per unit of habitable area. © 2016 The Author(s). Evolution © 2016 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  8. Autonomous, Decentralized Grid Architecture: Prosumer-Based Distributed Autonomous Cyber-Physical Architecture for Ultra-Reliable Green Electricity Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-01-11

    GENI Project: Georgia Tech is developing a decentralized, autonomous, internet-like control architecture and control software system for the electric power grid. Georgia Tech’s new architecture is based on the emerging concept of electricity prosumers—economically motivated actors that can produce, consume, or store electricity. Under Georgia Tech’s architecture, all of the actors in an energy system are empowered to offer associated energy services based on their capabilities. The actors achieve their sustainability, efficiency, reliability, and economic objectives, while contributing to system-wide reliability and efficiency goals. This is in marked contrast to the current one-way, centralized control paradigm.

  9. Experimental demonstration of OpenFlow-enabled media ecosystem architecture for high-end applications over metro and core networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntofon, Okung-Dike; Channegowda, Mayur P; Efstathiou, Nikolaos; Rashidi Fard, Mehdi; Nejabati, Reza; Hunter, David K; Simeonidou, Dimitra

    2013-02-25

    In this paper, a novel Software-Defined Networking (SDN) architecture is proposed for high-end Ultra High Definition (UHD) media applications. UHD media applications require huge amounts of bandwidth that can only be met with high-capacity optical networks. In addition, there are requirements for control frameworks capable of delivering effective application performance with efficient network utilization. A novel SDN-based Controller that tightly integrates application-awareness with network control and management is proposed for such applications. An OpenFlow-enabled test-bed demonstrator is reported with performance evaluations of advanced online and offline media- and network-aware schedulers.

  10. Adaptive Multiclient Network-on-Chip Memory Core: Hardware Architecture, Software Abstraction Layer, and Application Exploration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Göhringer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the hardware architecture and the software abstraction layer of an adaptive multiclient Network-on-Chip (NoC memory core. The memory core supports the flexibility of a heterogeneous FPGA-based runtime adaptive multiprocessor system called RAMPSoC. The processing elements, also called clients, can access the memory core via the Network-on-Chip (NoC. The memory core supports a dynamic mapping of an address space for the different clients as well as different data transfer modes, such as variable burst sizes. Therefore, two main limitations of FPGA-based multiprocessor systems, the restricted on-chip memory resources and that usually only one physical channel to an off-chip memory exists, are leveraged. Furthermore, a software abstraction layer is introduced, which hides the complexity of the memory core architecture and which provides an easy to use interface for the application programmer. Finally, the advantages of the novel memory core in terms of performance, flexibility, and user friendliness are shown using a real-world image processing application.

  11. An efficient architecture for the integration of sensor and actuator networks into the future internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, J.; Klein, A.; Mannweiler, C.; Schotten, H. D.

    2011-08-01

    In the future, sensors will enable a large variety of new services in different domains. Important application areas are service adaptations in fixed and mobile environments, ambient assisted living, home automation, traffic management, as well as management of smart grids. All these applications will share a common property, the usage of networked sensors and actuators. To ensure an efficient deployment of such sensor-actuator networks, concepts and frameworks for managing and distributing sensor data as well as for triggering actuators need to be developed. In this paper, we present an architecture for integrating sensors and actuators into the future Internet. In our concept, all sensors and actuators are connected via gateways to the Internet, that will be used as comprehensive transport medium. Additionally, an entity is needed for registering all sensors and actuators, and managing sensor data requests. We decided to use a hierarchical structure, comparable to the Domain Name Service. This approach realizes a cost-efficient architecture disposing of "plug and play" capabilities and accounting for privacy issues.

  12. Architecture for an integrated real-time air combat and sensor network simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criswell, Evans A.; Rushing, John; Lin, Hong; Graves, Sara

    2007-04-01

    An architecture for an integrated air combat and sensor network simulation is presented. The architecture integrates two components: a parallel real-time sensor fusion and target tracking simulation, and an air combat simulation. By integrating these two simulations, it becomes possible to experiment with scenarios in which one or both sides in a battle have very large numbers of primitive passive sensors, and to assess the likely effects of those sensors on the outcome of the battle. Modern Air Power is a real-time theater-level air combat simulation that is currently being used as a part of the USAF Air and Space Basic Course (ASBC). The simulation includes a variety of scenarios from the Vietnam war to the present day, and also includes several hypothetical future scenarios. Modern Air Power includes a scenario editor, an order of battle editor, and full AI customization features that make it possible to quickly construct scenarios for any conflict of interest. The scenario editor makes it possible to place a wide variety of sensors including both high fidelity sensors such as radars, and primitive passive sensors that provide only very limited information. The parallel real-time sensor network simulation is capable of handling very large numbers of sensors on a computing cluster of modest size. It can fuse information provided by disparate sensors to detect and track targets, and produce target tracks.

  13. Information processing in network architecture of genome controlled signal transduction circuit. A proposed theoretical explanation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Chiranjib; Sarkar, Bimal Kumar; Patel, Pratiksha; Agoramoorthy, Govindasamy

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, Shannon information theory has been applied to elaborate cell signaling. It is proposed that in the cellular network architecture, four components viz. source (DNA), transmitter (mRNA), receiver (protein) and destination (another protein) are involved. The message transmits from source (DNA) to transmitter (mRNA) and then passes through a noisy channel reaching finally the receiver (protein). The protein synthesis process is here considered as the noisy channel. Ultimately, signal is transmitted from receiver to destination (another protein). The genome network architecture elements were compared with genetic alphabet L = {A, C, G, T} with a biophysical model based on the popular Shannon information theory. This study found the channel capacity as maximum for zero error (sigma = 0) and at this condition, transition matrix becomes a unit matrix with rank 4. The transition matrix will be erroneous and finally at sigma = 1 channel capacity will be localized maxima with a value of 0.415 due to the increased value at sigma. On the other hand, minima exists at sigma = 0.75, where all transition probabilities become 0.25 and uncertainty will be maximum resulting in channel capacity with the minima value of zero.

  14. Designing 2D and 3D network-on-chip architectures

    CERN Document Server

    Tatas, Konstantinos; Soudris, Dimitrios; Jantsch, Axel

    2014-01-01

    This book covers key concepts in the design of 2D and 3D Network-on-Chip interconnect.  It highlights design challenges and discusses fundamentals of NoC technology, including architectures, algorithms and tools.  Coverage focuses on topology exploration for both 2D and 3D NoCs, routing algorithms, NoC router design, NoC-based system integration, verification and testing, and NoC reliabilty.  Case studies are used to illuminate new design methodologies.  ·         Describes essential theory, practice and state-of-the-art applications of 2D and 3D Network-on-Chip interconnect; ·         Enables readers to exploit parallelism in processor architecture, with interconnect design that is efficient in terms of energy and performance; ·         Covers topics not available in other books, such as NoC and distributed memory organization, dynamic memory management and abstract data type support in many-core platforms, and distributed hierarchical power management.

  15. Optimization of neural network architecture for classification of radar jamming FM signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Alberto; Mendoza, Ariadna; Flores, Benjamin C.

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate several artificial Neural Network (NN) architectures in order to design a cognitive radar system capable of optimally distinguishing linear Frequency-Modulated (FM) signals from bandlimited Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN). The goal is to create a theoretical framework to determine an optimal NN architecture to achieve a Probability of Detection (PD) of 95% or higher and a Probability of False Alarm (PFA) of 1.5% or lower at 5 dB Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR). Literature research reveals that the frequency-domain power spectral densities characterize a signal more efficiently than its time-domain counterparts. Therefore, the input data is preprocessed by calculating the magnitude square of the Discrete Fourier Transform of the digitally sampled bandlimited AWGN and linear FM signals to populate a matrix containing N number of samples and M number of spectra. This matrix is used as input for the NN, and the spectra are divided as follows: 70% for training, 15% for validation, and 15% for testing. The study begins by experimentally deducing the optimal number of hidden neurons (1-40 neurons), then the optimal number of hidden layers (1-5 layers), and lastly, the most efficient learning algorithm. The training algorithms examined are: Resilient Backpropagation, Scaled Conjugate Gradient, Conjugate Gradient with Powell/Beale Restarts, Polak-Ribiére Conjugate Gradient, and Variable Learning Rate Backpropagation. We determine that an architecture with ten hidden neurons (or higher), one hidden layer, and a Scaled Conjugate Gradient for training algorithm encapsulates an optimal architecture for our application.

  16. A Programmer-Interpreter Neural Network Architecture for Prefrontal Cognitive Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnarumma, Francesco; Prevete, Roberto; Chersi, Fabian; Pezzulo, Giovanni

    2015-09-01

    There is wide consensus that the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is able to exert cognitive control on behavior by biasing processing toward task-relevant information and by modulating response selection. This idea is typically framed in terms of top-down influences within a cortical control hierarchy, where prefrontal-basal ganglia loops gate multiple input-output channels, which in turn can activate or sequence motor primitives expressed in (pre-)motor cortices. Here we advance a new hypothesis, based on the notion of programmability and an interpreter-programmer computational scheme, on how the PFC can flexibly bias the selection of sensorimotor patterns depending on internal goal and task contexts. In this approach, multiple elementary behaviors representing motor primitives are expressed by a single multi-purpose neural network, which is seen as a reusable area of "recycled" neurons (interpreter). The PFC thus acts as a "programmer" that, without modifying the network connectivity, feeds the interpreter networks with specific input parameters encoding the programs (corresponding to network structures) to be interpreted by the (pre-)motor areas. Our architecture is validated in a standard test for executive function: the 1-2-AX task. Our results show that this computational framework provides a robust, scalable and flexible scheme that can be iterated at different hierarchical layers, supporting the realization of multiple goals. We discuss the plausibility of the "programmer-interpreter" scheme to explain the functioning of prefrontal-(pre)motor cortical hierarchies.

  17. RoCoMAR: Robots’ Controllable Mobility Aided Routing and Relay Architecture for Mobile Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seokhoon Yoon

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In a practical deployment, mobile sensor network (MSN suffers from a low performance due to high node mobility, time-varying wireless channel properties, and obstacles between communicating nodes. In order to tackle the problem of low network performance and provide a desired end-to-end data transfer quality, in this paper we propose a novel ad hoc routing and relaying architecture, namely RoCoMAR (Robots’ Controllable Mobility Aided Routing that uses robotic nodes’ controllable mobility. RoCoMAR repeatedly performs link reinforcement process with the objective of maximizing the network throughput, in which the link with the lowest quality on the path is identified and replaced with high quality links by placing a robotic node as a relay at an optimal position. The robotic node resigns as a relay if the objective is achieved or no more gain can be obtained with a new relay. Once placed as a relay, the robotic node performs adaptive link maintenance by adjusting its position according to the movements of regular nodes. The simulation results show that RoCoMAR outperforms existing ad hoc routing protocols for MSN in terms of network throughput and end-to-end delay.

  18. A Distributed Multiagent System Architecture for Body Area Networks Applied to Healthcare Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipe Felisberto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last years the area of health monitoring has grown significantly, attracting the attention of both academia and commercial sectors. At the same time, the availability of new biomedical sensors and suitable network protocols has led to the appearance of a new generation of wireless sensor networks, the so-called wireless body area networks. Nowadays, these networks are routinely used for continuous monitoring of vital parameters, movement, and the surrounding environment of people, but the large volume of data generated in different locations represents a major obstacle for the appropriate design, development, and deployment of more elaborated intelligent systems. In this context, we present an open and distributed architecture based on a multiagent system for recognizing human movements, identifying human postures, and detecting harmful activities. The proposed system evolved from a single node for fall detection to a multisensor hardware solution capable of identifying unhampered falls and analyzing the users’ movement. The experiments carried out contemplate two different scenarios and demonstrate the accuracy of our proposal as a real distributed movement monitoring and accident detection system. Moreover, we also characterize its performance, enabling future analyses and comparisons with similar approaches.

  19. Massively parallel network architectures for automatic recognition of visual speech signals. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sejnowski, T.J.; Goldstein, M.

    1990-01-01

    This research sought to produce a massively-parallel network architecture that could interpret speech signals from video recordings of human talkers. This report summarizes the project's results: (1) A corpus of video recordings from two human speakers was analyzed with image processing techniques and used as the data for this study; (2) We demonstrated that a feed forward network could be trained to categorize vowels from these talkers. The performance was comparable to that of the nearest neighbors techniques and to trained humans on the same data; (3) We developed a novel approach to sensory fusion by training a network to transform from facial images to short-time spectral amplitude envelopes. This information can be used to increase the signal-to-noise ratio and hence the performance of acoustic speech recognition systems in noisy environments; (4) We explored the use of recurrent networks to perform the same mapping for continuous speech. Results of this project demonstrate the feasibility of adding a visual speech recognition component to enhance existing speech recognition systems. Such a combined system could be used in noisy environments, such as cockpits, where improved communication is needed. This demonstration of presymbolic fusion of visual and acoustic speech signals is consistent with our current understanding of human speech perception.

  20. Mapping the structural and functional network architecture of the medial temporal lobe using 7T MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Preya; Bassett, Danielle S; Wisse, Laura E M; Detre, John A; Stein, Joel M; Yushkevich, Paul A; Shinohara, Russell T; Pluta, John B; Valenciano, Elijah; Daffner, Molly; Wolk, David A; Elliott, Mark A; Litt, Brian; Davis, Kathryn A; Das, Sandhitsu R

    2018-02-01

    Medial temporal lobe (MTL) subregions play integral roles in memory function and are differentially affected in various neurological and psychiatric disorders. The ability to structurally and functionally characterize these subregions may be important to understanding MTL physiology and diagnosing diseases involving the MTL. In this study, we characterized network architecture of the MTL in healthy subjects (n = 31) using both resting state functional MRI and MTL-focused T2-weighted structural MRI at 7 tesla. Ten MTL subregions per hemisphere, including hippocampal subfields and cortical regions of the parahippocampal gyrus, were segmented for each subject using a multi-atlas algorithm. Both structural covariance matrices from correlations of subregion volumes across subjects, and functional connectivity matrices from correlations between subregion BOLD time series were generated. We found a moderate structural and strong functional inter-hemispheric symmetry. Several bilateral hippocampal subregions (CA1, dentate gyrus, and subiculum) emerged as functional network hubs. We also observed that the structural and functional networks naturally separated into two modules closely corresponding to (a) bilateral hippocampal formations, and (b) bilateral extra-hippocampal structures. Finally, we found a significant correlation in structural and functional connectivity (r = 0.25). Our findings represent a comprehensive analysis of network topology of the MTL at the subregion level. We share our data, methods, and findings as a reference for imaging methods and disease-based research. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Reveal, A General Reverse Engineering Algorithm for Inference of Genetic Network Architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Shoudan; Fuhrman, Stefanie; Somogyi, Roland

    1998-01-01

    Given the immanent gene expression mapping covering whole genomes during development, health and disease, we seek computational methods to maximize functional inference from such large data sets. Is it possible, in principle, to completely infer a complex regulatory network architecture from input/output patterns of its variables? We investigated this possibility using binary models of genetic networks. Trajectories, or state transition tables of Boolean nets, resemble time series of gene expression. By systematically analyzing the mutual information between input states and output states, one is able to infer the sets of input elements controlling each element or gene in the network. This process is unequivocal and exact for complete state transition tables. We implemented this REVerse Engineering ALgorithm (REVEAL) in a C program, and found the problem to be tractable within the conditions tested so far. For n = 50 (elements) and k = 3 (inputs per element), the analysis of incomplete state transition tables (100 state transition pairs out of a possible 10(exp 15)) reliably produced the original rule and wiring sets. While this study is limited to synchronous Boolean networks, the algorithm is generalizable to include multi-state models, essentially allowing direct application to realistic biological data sets. The ability to adequately solve the inverse problem may enable in-depth analysis of complex dynamic systems in biology and other fields.

  2. A distributed multiagent system architecture for body area networks applied to healthcare monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felisberto, Filipe; Laza, Rosalía; Fdez-Riverola, Florentino; Pereira, António

    2015-01-01

    In the last years the area of health monitoring has grown significantly, attracting the attention of both academia and commercial sectors. At the same time, the availability of new biomedical sensors and suitable network protocols has led to the appearance of a new generation of wireless sensor networks, the so-called wireless body area networks. Nowadays, these networks are routinely used for continuous monitoring of vital parameters, movement, and the surrounding environment of people, but the large volume of data generated in different locations represents a major obstacle for the appropriate design, development, and deployment of more elaborated intelligent systems. In this context, we present an open and distributed architecture based on a multiagent system for recognizing human movements, identifying human postures, and detecting harmful activities. The proposed system evolved from a single node for fall detection to a multisensor hardware solution capable of identifying unhampered falls and analyzing the users' movement. The experiments carried out contemplate two different scenarios and demonstrate the accuracy of our proposal as a real distributed movement monitoring and accident detection system. Moreover, we also characterize its performance, enabling future analyses and comparisons with similar approaches.

  3. Effect of chain rigidity on network architecture and deformation behavior of glassy polymer networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Kyler Reser

    Processing carbon fiber composite laminates creates molecular-level strains in the thermoset matrix upon curing and cooling which can lead to failures such as geometry deformations, micro-cracking, and other issues. It is known strain creation is attributed to the significant volume and physical state changes undergone by the polymer matrix throughout the curing process, though storage and relaxation of cure-induced strains remain poorly understood. This dissertation establishes two approaches to address the issue. The first establishes testing methods to simultaneously measure key volumetric properties of a carbon fiber composite laminate and its polymer matrix. The second approach considers the rigidity of the polymer matrix in regards to strain storage and relaxation mechanisms which ultimately control composite performance throughout manufacturing and use. Through the use of a non-contact, full-field strain measurement technique known as digital image correlation (DIC), we describe and implement useful experiments which quantify matrix and composite parameters necessary for simulation efforts and failure models. The methods are compared to more traditional techniques and show excellent correlation. Further, we established relationships which represent matrix-fiber compatibility in regards to critical processing constraints. The second approach involves a systematic study of epoxy-amine networks which are chemically-similar but differ in chain segment rigidity. Prior research has investigated the isomer effect of glassy polymers, showing sizeable differences in thermal, volumetric, physical, and mechanical properties. This work builds on these themes and shows the apparent isomer effect is rather an effect of chain rigidity. Indeed, it was found that structurally-dissimilar polymer networks exhibit very similar properties as a consequence of their shared average network rigidity. Differences in chain packing, as a consequence of chain rigidity, were shown to

  4. A Neural Network Architecture For Rapid Model Indexing In Computer Vision Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlicki, Ted

    1988-03-01

    Models of objects stored in memory have been shown to be useful for guiding the processing of computer vision systems. A major consideration in such systems, however, is how stored models are initially accessed and indexed by the system. As the number of stored models increases, the time required to search memory for the correct model becomes high. Parallel distributed, connectionist, neural networks' have been shown to have appealing content addressable memory properties. This paper discusses an architecture for efficient storage and reference of model memories stored as stable patterns of activity in a parallel, distributed, connectionist, neural network. The emergent properties of content addressability and resistance to noise are exploited to perform indexing of the appropriate object centered model from image centered primitives. The system consists of three network modules each of which represent information relative to a different frame of reference. The model memory network is a large state space vector where fields in the vector correspond to ordered component objects and relative, object based spatial relationships between the component objects. The component assertion network represents evidence about the existence of object primitives in the input image. It establishes local frames of reference for object primitives relative to the image based frame of reference. The spatial relationship constraint network is an intermediate representation which enables the association between the object based and the image based frames of reference. This intermediate level represents information about possible object orderings and establishes relative spatial relationships from the image based information in the component assertion network below. It is also constrained by the lawful object orderings in the model memory network above. The system design is consistent with current psychological theories of recognition by component. It also seems to support Marr's notions

  5. Programmable on-chip and off-chip network architecture on demand for flexible optical intra-datacenters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rofoee, Bijan Rahimzadeh; Zervas, Georgios; Yan, Yan; Amaya, Norberto; Qin, Yixuan; Simeonidou, Dimitra

    2013-03-11

    The paper presents a novel network architecture on demand approach using on-chip and-off chip implementations, enabling programmable, highly efficient and transparent networking, well suited for intra-datacenter communications. The implemented FPGA-based adaptable line-card with on-chip design along with an architecture on demand (AoD) based off-chip flexible switching node, deliver single chip dual L2-Packet/L1-time shared optical network (TSON) server Network Interface Cards (NIC) interconnected through transparent AoD based switch. It enables hitless adaptation between Ethernet over wavelength switched network (EoWSON), and TSON based sub-wavelength switching, providing flexible bitrates, while meeting strict bandwidth, QoS requirements. The on and off-chip performance results show high throughput (9.86Ethernet, 8.68Gbps TSON), high QoS, as well as hitless switch-over.

  6. Improved Vehicular Information Network Architecture Using Fuzzy Based Named Data NetworkingNDN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanwalpreet Kaur

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Vehicular Ad-hoc System VANETs is really a component with smart transport systems. It has ability to prevent accidents and the road congestion issues on highways but it suffers from the accomplishment and scalability issues. To handle these difficulties from the Inter Vehicular Communication IVC we apply Name Data Networking NDN. All though in NDN the users are only concerned about necessary data and give no attention on the number of locations from where the data is coming. The NDN layout is usually much more worthy for IVC circumstance getting the ordered material labeling design as well as amp64258exible material retrieval. In this report we propose vehicular network dependent on fuzzy membership function which offers the fundamental NDN style to improve support location dependent forwarding content aggregation and distributed mobility management. This paper finally winds up the several boundaries regarding earlier approaches.

  7. Enabling direct connectivity between heterogeneous objects in the internet of things through a network-service-oriented architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Poorter Eli

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In a future internet of things, an increasing number of everyday objects are connected with each other. These objects can be very diverse in terms of the used network protocols and communication technologies, which leads to a wild growth of co-located networking technologies. Unfortunately, current consumer items are not designed to communicate with co-located devices that use different communication technologies. In addition, commercially available internet of things devices, such as sensor nodes, often use vendor-specific propriety network solutions. As a result, communication between these devices is only possible through the use of gateway nodes, resulting in inefficient use of the wireless medium. To remedy this situation, this paper discusses which features are required to integrate such a diverse number of heterogeneous objects into a single internet of things. In addition, the paper introduces the IDRA architecture, which is designed specifically to enable connectivity between heterogeneous resource-constrained objects. The IDRA architecture has the following advantages. (1 IDRA can connect co-located objects directly, without the need for complex translation gateways. (2 The architecture is clean slate, but supports backward compatibility with existing deployments. (3 Due to its low memory footprint, the architecture can be used in resource-constrained objects. Finally, the paper evaluates the performance of the IDRA architecture and discusses the feasibility of introducing IDRA in existing networks.

  8. Architecture of the human interactome defines protein communities and disease networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huttlin, Edward L; Bruckner, Raphael J; Paulo, Joao A; Cannon, Joe R; Ting, Lily; Baltier, Kurt; Colby, Greg; Gebreab, Fana; Gygi, Melanie P; Parzen, Hannah; Szpyt, John; Tam, Stanley; Zarraga, Gabriela; Pontano-Vaites, Laura; Swarup, Sharan; White, Anne E; Schweppe, Devin K; Rad, Ramin; Erickson, Brian K; Obar, Robert A; Guruharsha, K G; Li, Kejie; Artavanis-Tsakonas, Spyros; Gygi, Steven P; Harper, J Wade

    2017-05-25

    The physiology of a cell can be viewed as the product of thousands of proteins acting in concert to shape the cellular response. Coordination is achieved in part through networks of protein-protein interactions that assemble functionally related proteins into complexes, organelles, and signal transduction pathways. Understanding the architecture of the human proteome has the potential to inform cellular, structural, and evolutionary mechanisms and is critical to elucidating how genome variation contributes to disease. Here we present BioPlex 2.0 (Biophysical Interactions of ORFeome-derived complexes), which uses robust affinity purification-mass spectrometry methodology to elucidate protein interaction networks and co-complexes nucleated by more than 25% of protein-coding genes from the human genome, and constitutes, to our knowledge, the largest such network so far. With more than 56,000 candidate interactions, BioPlex 2.0 contains more than 29,000 previously unknown co-associations and provides functional insights into hundreds of poorly characterized proteins while enhancing network-based analyses of domain associations, subcellular localization, and co-complex formation. Unsupervised Markov clustering of interacting proteins identified more than 1,300 protein communities representing diverse cellular activities. Genes essential for cell fitness are enriched within 53 communities representing central cellular functions. Moreover, we identified 442 communities associated with more than 2,000 disease annotations, placing numerous candidate disease genes into a cellular framework. BioPlex 2.0 exceeds previous experimentally derived interaction networks in depth and breadth, and will be a valuable resource for exploring the biology of incompletely characterized proteins and for elucidating larger-scale patterns of proteome organization.

  9. eQTL Networks Reveal Complex Genetic Architecture in the Immature Soybean Seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Tsi Bolon

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The complex network of regulatory factors and interactions involved in transcriptional regulation within the seed is not well understood. To evaluate gene expression regulation in the immature seed, we utilized a genetical genomics approach on a soybean [ (L. Merr.] recombinant inbred line (RIL population and produced a genome-wide expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL dataset. The validity of the dataset was confirmed by mapping the eQTL hotspot for flavonoid biosynthesis-related genes to a region containing repeats of chalcone synthase (CHS genes known to correspond to the soybean inhibitor locus that regulates seed color. We then identified eQTL for genes with seed-specific expression and discovered striking eQTL hotspots at distinct genomic intervals on chromosomes (Chr 20, 7, and 13. The main eQTL hotspot for transcriptional regulation of fatty acid biosynthesis genes also coincided with regulation of oleosin genes. Transcriptional upregulation of genesets from eQTL with opposite allelic effects were also found. Gene–eQTL networks were constructed and candidate regulatory genes were identified from these three key loci specific to seed expression and enriched in genes involved in seed oil accumulation. Our data provides new insight into the complex nature of gene networks in the immature soybean seed and the genetic architecture that contributes to seed development.

  10. Semi-Interpenetrating Polymer Networks with Predefined Architecture for Metal Ion Fluorescence Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyriakos Christodoulou

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The development of new synthetic approaches for the preparation of efficient 3D luminescent chemosensors for transition metal ions receives considerable attention nowadays, owing to the key role of the latter as elements in biological systems and their harmful environmental effects when present in aquatic media. In this work, we describe an easy and versatile synthetic methodology that leads to the generation of nonconjugated 3D luminescent semi-interpenetrating amphiphilic networks (semi-IPN with structure-defined characteristics. More precisely, the synthesis involves the encapsulation of well-defined poly(9-anthrylmethyl methacrylate (pAnMMA (hydrophobic, luminescent linear polymer chains within a covalent poly(2-(dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate (pDMAEMA hydrophilic polymer network, derived via the 1,2-bis-(2-iodoethoxyethane (BIEE-induced crosslinking process of well-defined pDMAEMA linear chains. Characterization of their fluorescence properties demonstrated that these materials act as strong blue emitters when exposed to UV irradiation. This, combined with the presence of the metal-binding tertiary amino functionalities of the pDMAEMA segments, allowed for their applicability as sorbents and fluorescence chemosensors for transition metal ions (Fe3+, Cu2+ in solution via a chelation-enhanced fluorescence-quenching effect promoted within the semi-IPN network architecture. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA-induced metal ion desorption and thus material recyclability has been also demonstrated.

  11. REAL-TIME VIDEO SCALING BASED ON CONVOLUTION NEURAL NETWORK ARCHITECTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Safinaz

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, video super resolution techniques becomes mandatory requirements to get high resolution videos. Many super resolution techniques researched but still video super resolution or scaling is a vital challenge. In this paper, we have presented a real-time video scaling based on convolution neural network architecture to eliminate the blurriness in the images and video frames and to provide better reconstruction quality while scaling of large datasets from lower resolution frames to high resolution frames. We compare our outcomes with multiple exiting algorithms. Our extensive results of proposed technique RemCNN (Reconstruction error minimization Convolution Neural Network shows that our model outperforms the existing technologies such as bicubic, bilinear, MCResNet and provide better reconstructed motioning images and video frames. The experimental results shows that our average PSNR result is 47.80474 considering upscale-2, 41.70209 for upscale-3 and 36.24503 for upscale-4 for Myanmar dataset which is very high in contrast to other existing techniques. This results proves our proposed model real-time video scaling based on convolution neural network architecture’s high efficiency and better performance.

  12. Heterogeneous radio-over-fiber passive access network architecture to mitigate Rayleigh backscattering interferometric beat noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, C H; Chow, C W

    2011-03-28

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a hybrid radio-over-fiber (ROF) wavelength division multiplexed and time division multiplexed passive optical network (WDM-TDM PON) architecture to mitigate Rayleigh backscattering (RB) interferometric beat noises. Here, only a single wavelength is needed at the central office (CO) to generate the downstream baseband data for optical wired application and optical millimeter-wave (mm-wave) signal for wireless application. The upstream signal is produced by remodulating the downstream signal. No optical filter is required at the optical network unit/remote antenna unit (ONU/RAU) to separate the optical wired and optical mm-wave signals. In the proposed network, 10 Gb/s differential phase shift keying (DPSK) signal is used for the downstream optical wired application and 2.5 Gb/s on-off keying (OOK) signal on 20 GHz carrier is used for the optical mm-wave signal. In each ONU, a reflective optical semiconductor amplifier (RSOA) is used to remodulate and produce a 2.5 Gb/s OOK format for upstream traffic. As the back-refection produced by the downstream DPSK signal and the upstream OOK signal is traveling in different fiber path, RB noise at the CO can be completely mitigated.

  13. The probabilistic neural network architecture for high speed classification of remotely sensed imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chettri, Samir R.; Cromp, Robert F.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper we discuss a neural network architecture (the Probabilistic Neural Net or the PNN) that, to the best of our knowledge, has not previously been applied to remotely sensed data. The PNN is a supervised non-parametric classification algorithm as opposed to the Gaussian maximum likelihood classifier (GMLC). The PNN works by fitting a Gaussian kernel to each training point. The width of the Gaussian is controlled by a tuning parameter called the window width. If very small widths are used, the method is equivalent to the nearest neighbor method. For large windows, the PNN behaves like the GMLC. The basic implementation of the PNN requires no training time at all. In this respect it is far better than the commonly used backpropagation neural network which can be shown to take O(N6) time for training where N is the dimensionality of the input vector. In addition the PNN can be implemented in a feed forward mode in hardware. The disadvantage of the PNN is that it requires all the training data to be stored. Some solutions to this problem are discussed in the paper. Finally, we discuss the accuracy of the PNN with respect to the GMLC and the backpropagation neural network (BPNN). The PNN is shown to be better than GMLC and not as good as the BPNN with regards to classification accuracy.

  14. QoS Management and Control for an All-IP WiMAX Network Architecture: Design, Implementation and Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Michael Bohnert

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The IEEE 802.16 standard provides a specification for a fixed and mobile broadband wireless access system, offering high data rate transmission of multimedia services with different Quality-of-Service (QoS requirements through the air interface. The WiMAX Forum, going beyond the air interface, defined an end-to-end WiMAX network architecture, based on an all-IP platform in order to complete the standards required for a commercial rollout of WiMAX as broadband wireless access solution. As the WiMAX network architecture is only a functional specification, this paper focuses on an innovative solution for an end-to-end WiMAX network architecture offering in compliance with the WiMAX Forum specification. To our best knowledge, this is the first WiMAX architecture built by a research consortium globally and was performed within the framework of the European IST project WEIRD (WiMAX Extension to Isolated Research Data networks. One of the principal features of our architecture is support for end-to-end QoS achieved by the integration of resource control in the WiMAX wireless link and the resource management in the wired domains in the network core. In this paper we present the architectural design of these QoS features in the overall WiMAX all-IP framework and their functional as well as performance evaluation. The presented results can safely be considered as unique and timely for any WiMAX system integrator.

  15. Development of an ease-of-use remote healthcare system architecture using RFID and networking technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shih-Sung; Hung, Min-Hsiung; Tsai, Chang-Lung; Chou, Li-Ping

    2012-12-01

    The study aims to provide an ease-of-use approach for senior patients to utilize remote healthcare systems. An ease-of-use remote healthcare system (RHS) architecture using RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) and networking technologies is developed. Specifically, the codes in RFID tags are used for authenticating the patients' ID to secure and ease the login process. The patient needs only to take one action, i.e. placing a RFID tag onto the reader, to automatically login and start the RHS and then acquire automatic medical services. An ease-of-use emergency monitoring and reporting mechanism is developed as well to monitor and protect the safety of the senior patients who have to be left alone at home. By just pressing a single button, the RHS can automatically report the patient's emergency information to the clinic side so that the responsible medical personnel can take proper urgent actions for the patient. Besides, Web services technology is used to build the Internet communication scheme of the RHS so that the interoperability and data transmission security between the home server and the clinical server can be enhanced. A prototype RHS is constructed to validate the effectiveness of our designs. Testing results show that the proposed RHS architecture possesses the characteristics of ease to use, simplicity to operate, promptness in login, and no need to preserve identity information. The proposed RHS architecture can effectively increase the willingness of senior patients who act slowly or are unfamiliar with computer operations to use the RHS. The research results can be used as an add-on for developing future remote healthcare systems.

  16. Deep learning architecture for iris recognition based on optimal Gabor filters and deep belief network

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Fei; Han, Ye; Wang, Han; Ji, Jinchao; Liu, Yuanning; Ma, Zhiqiang

    2017-03-01

    Gabor filters are widely utilized to detect iris texture information in several state-of-the-art iris recognition systems. However, the proper Gabor kernels and the generative pattern of iris Gabor features need to be predetermined in application. The traditional empirical Gabor filters and shallow iris encoding ways are incapable of dealing with such complex variations in iris imaging including illumination, aging, deformation, and device variations. Thereby, an adaptive Gabor filter selection strategy and deep learning architecture are presented. We first employ particle swarm optimization approach and its binary version to define a set of data-driven Gabor kernels for fitting the most informative filtering bands, and then capture complex pattern from the optimal Gabor filtered coefficients by a trained deep belief network. A succession of comparative experiments validate that our optimal Gabor filters may produce more distinctive Gabor coefficients and our iris deep representations be more robust and stable than traditional iris Gabor codes. Furthermore, the depth and scales of the deep learning architecture are also discussed.

  17. Historical building monitoring using an energy-efficient scalable wireless sensor network architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capella, Juan V; Perles, Angel; Bonastre, Alberto; Serrano, Juan J

    2011-01-01

    We present a set of novel low power wireless sensor nodes designed for monitoring wooden masterpieces and historical buildings, in order to perform an early detection of pests. Although our previous star-based system configuration has been in operation for more than 13 years, it does not scale well for sensorization of large buildings or when deploying hundreds of nodes. In this paper we demonstrate the feasibility of a cluster-based dynamic-tree hierarchical Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) architecture where realistic assumptions of radio frequency data transmission are applied to cluster construction, and a mix of heterogeneous nodes are used to minimize economic cost of the whole system and maximize power saving of the leaf nodes. Simulation results show that the specialization of a fraction of the nodes by providing better antennas and some energy harvesting techniques can dramatically extend the life of the entire WSN and reduce the cost of the whole system. A demonstration of the proposed architecture with a new routing protocol and applied to termite pest detection has been implemented on a set of new nodes and should last for about 10 years, but it provides better scalability, reliability and deployment properties.

  18. An Improved PMSM Drive Architecture Based on BFO and Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flah Aymen

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an improved robust vector control strategy is designed to drive the Permanent magnet synchronous motor in a wide speed range mode. The designed control method guarantees the precision and robustness of speed regulation performance by using recurrent neural network architecture. The stator current controller parameter tuning problems, which characterize this control strategy, are resolved using a bacterial foraging optimization algorithm to find the optimal parameters of the current controllers used. A field weakening control algorithm generates an adaptive magnetizing current command to achieve the desired high speed mode. The robustness and effectiveness of the global control scheme are verified through computer simulations established under a Matlab-Simulink environment.

  19. Monitoring Architectural Heritage by Wireless Sensors Networks: San Gimignano — A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Mecocci

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a wireless sensor network (WSN used to monitor the health state of architectural heritage in real-time. The WSN has been deployed and tested on the “Rognosa” tower in the medieval village of San Gimignano, Tuscany, Italy. This technology, being non-invasive, mimetic, and long lasting, is particularly well suited for long term monitoring and on-line diagnosis of the conservation state of heritage buildings. The proposed monitoring system comprises radio-equipped nodes linked to suitable sensors capable of monitoring crucial parameters like: temperature, humidity, masonry cracks, pouring rain, and visual light. The access to data is granted by a user interface for remote control. The WSN can autonomously send remote alarms when predefined thresholds are reached.

  20. Monitoring Architectural Heritage by Wireless Sensors Networks: San Gimignano — A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mecocci, Alessandro; Abrardo, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a wireless sensor network (WSN) used to monitor the health state of architectural heritage in real-time. The WSN has been deployed and tested on the “Rognosa” tower in the medieval village of San Gimignano, Tuscany, Italy. This technology, being non-invasive, mimetic, and long lasting, is particularly well suited for long term monitoring and on-line diagnosis of the conservation state of heritage buildings. The proposed monitoring system comprises radio-equipped nodes linked to suitable sensors capable of monitoring crucial parameters like: temperature, humidity, masonry cracks, pouring rain, and visual light. The access to data is granted by a user interface for remote control. The WSN can autonomously send remote alarms when predefined thresholds are reached. PMID:24394600

  1. Data Optical Networking Architecture Using Wavelength-Division Multiplexing Method for Optical Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hung D.

    2008-01-01

    Recently there has been a growth in the number of fiber optical sensors used for health monitoring in the hostile environment of commercial aircraft. Health monitoring to detect the onset of failure in structural systems from such causes as corrosion, stress corrosion cracking, and fatigue is a critical factor in safety as well in aircraft maintenance costs. This report presents an assessment of an analysis model of optical data networking architectures used for monitoring data signals among these optical sensors. Our model is focused on the design concept of the wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) method since most of the optical sensors deployed in the aircraft for health monitoring typically operate in a wide spectrum of optical wavelengths from 710 to 1550 nm.

  2. Monitoring architectural heritage by wireless sensors networks: San Gimignano--a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mecocci, Alessandro; Abrardo, Andrea

    2014-01-03

    This paper describes a wireless sensor network (WSN) used to monitor the health state of architectural heritage in real-time. The WSN has been deployed and tested on the "Rognosa" tower in the medieval village of San Gimignano, Tuscany, Italy. This technology, being non-invasive, mimetic, and long lasting, is particularly well suited for long term monitoring and on-line diagnosis of the conservation state of heritage buildings. The proposed monitoring system comprises radio-equipped nodes linked to suitable sensors capable of monitoring crucial parameters like: temperature, humidity, masonry cracks, pouring rain, and visual light. The access to data is granted by a user interface for remote control. The WSN can autonomously send remote alarms when predefined thresholds are reached.

  3. Widespread alterations in functional brain network architecture in amnestic mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minati, Ludovico; Chan, Dennis; Mastropasqua, Chiara; Serra, Laura; Spanò, Barbara; Marra, Camillo; Caltagirone, Carlo; Cercignani, Mara; Bozzali, Marco

    2014-01-01

    We investigated changes in functional network architecture in amnestic mild cognitive impairment using graph-based analysis of task-free functional magnetic resonance imaging and fine cortical parcellation. Widespread disconnection was observed primarily in cortical hubs known to manifest early Alzheimer's disease pathology, namely precuneus, parietal lobules, supramarginal and angular gyri, and cuneus, with additional involvement of subcortical regions, sensorimotor cortex and insula. The connectivity changes determined using graph-based analysis significantly exceed those detected using independent component analysis both in amplitude and topographical extent, and are largely decoupled from the presence of overt atrophy. This superior ability of graph-based analysis to detect disease-related disconnection highlights its potential use in the determination of biomarkers of early dementia. Graph-based analysis source code is provided as supplementary material.

  4. Architectures engender crises: The emergence of power laws in social networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohmé, Fernando; Larrosa, Juan M. C.

    2016-05-01

    Recent financial crises posed a number of questions. The most salient were related to the cogency of derivatives and other sophisticated hedging instruments. One claim is that all those instruments rely heavily on the assumption that events in the world are guided by normal distributions while, instead, all the evidence shows that they actually follow fat-tailed power laws. Our conjecture is that it is the very financial architecture that engenders extreme events. Not on purpose but just because of its complexity. That is, the system has an internal connection structure that is able to propagate and enhance initially small disturbances. The final outcome ends up not being correlated with its triggering event. To support this claim, we appeal to the intuition drawn from the behavior of social networks. Most of the interesting cases constitute scale-free structures. In particular, we contend, those that arise from strategic decisions of the agents.

  5. A GMPLS/OBS network architecture enabling QoS-aware end-to-end burst transport

    OpenAIRE

    Pedroso, Pedro; Perelló Muntan, Jordi; Spadaro, Salvatore; Careglio, Davide; Solé Pareta, Josep; Klinkowski, Miroslaw

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces a Generalized Multi-Protocol Label Switching (GMPLS)-enabled Optical Burst Switched (OBS) network architecture featuring end-to-end QoS-aware burst transport services. This is achieved by setting up burst Label Switched Paths (LSPs) properly dimensioned to match specific burst drop probability requirements. These burst LSPs are used for specific guaranteed QoS levels, whereas the remaining network capacity can be left for best-effort burst support. Aiming to ensure...

  6. A comprehensive zero-copy architecture for high performance distributed Data Acquisition over advanced network technologies for the CMS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Bauer, Gerry; Branson, James; Bukowiec, Sebastian Czeslaw; Chaze, Olivier; Cittolin, Sergio; Coarasa, J. A; Deldicque, Christian; Dobson, Marc; Dupont, Aymeric; Erhan, Samim; Gigi, Dominique; Glege, Frank; Gomez-Reino, R; Hartl, Christian; Holzner, Andre Georg; Masetti, Lorenzo; Meijers, Franciscus; Meschi, Emilio; Mommsen, Remigius; Nunez-Barranco, C; O'Dell, Vivian; Orsini, Luciano; Paus, Christoph Maria Ernst; Petrucci, Andrea; Pieri, Marco; Polese, Giovanni; Racz, Attila; Raginel, Olivier; Sakulin, Hannes; Sani, Matteo; Schwick, Christoph; Spataru, Andrei Cristian; Stoeckli, Fabian; Sumorok, Konstanty

    2013-01-01

    This paper outlines a software architecture where zero-copy operations are used comprehensively at every processing point from the Application layer to the Physical layer. The proposed architecture is being used during feasibility studies on advanced networking technologies for the CMS experiment at CERN. The design relies on a homogeneous peer-to-peer message passing system, which is built around memory pool caches allowing efficient and deterministic latency handling of messages of any size through the different software layers. In this scheme portable distributed applications can be programmed to process input to output operations by mere pointer arithmetic and DMA operations only. The approach combined with the open fabric protocol stack (OFED) allows one to attain near wire-speed message transfer at application level. The architecture supports full portability of user applications by encapsulating the protocol details and network into modular peer transport services whereas a transparent replacement of t...

  7. Transcriptional profiles of supragranular-enriched genes associate with corticocortical network architecture in the human brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krienen, Fenna M.; Yeo, B. T. Thomas; Ge, Tian; Buckner, Randy L.; Sherwood, Chet C.

    2016-01-01

    The human brain is patterned with disproportionately large, distributed cerebral networks that connect multiple association zones in the frontal, temporal, and parietal lobes. The expansion of the cortical surface, along with the emergence of long-range connectivity networks, may be reflected in changes to the underlying molecular architecture. Using the Allen Institute’s human brain transcriptional atlas, we demonstrate that genes particularly enriched in supragranular layers of the human cerebral cortex relative to mouse distinguish major cortical classes. The topography of transcriptional expression reflects large-scale brain network organization consistent with estimates from functional connectivity MRI and anatomical tracing in nonhuman primates. Microarray expression data for genes preferentially expressed in human upper layers (II/III), but enriched only in lower layers (V/VI) of mouse, were cross-correlated to identify molecular profiles across the cerebral cortex of postmortem human brains (n = 6). Unimodal sensory and motor zones have similar molecular profiles, despite being distributed across the cortical mantle. Sensory/motor profiles were anticorrelated with paralimbic and certain distributed association network profiles. Tests of alternative gene sets did not consistently distinguish sensory and motor regions from paralimbic and association regions: (i) genes enriched in supragranular layers in both humans and mice, (ii) genes cortically enriched in humans relative to nonhuman primates, (iii) genes related to connectivity in rodents, (iv) genes associated with human and mouse connectivity, and (v) 1,454 gene sets curated from known gene ontologies. Molecular innovations of upper cortical layers may be an important component in the evolution of long-range corticocortical projections. PMID:26739559

  8. Transcriptional profiles of supragranular-enriched genes associate with corticocortical network architecture in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krienen, Fenna M; Yeo, B T Thomas; Ge, Tian; Buckner, Randy L; Sherwood, Chet C

    2016-01-26

    The human brain is patterned with disproportionately large, distributed cerebral networks that connect multiple association zones in the frontal, temporal, and parietal lobes. The expansion of the cortical surface, along with the emergence of long-range connectivity networks, may be reflected in changes to the underlying molecular architecture. Using the Allen Institute's human brain transcriptional atlas, we demonstrate that genes particularly enriched in supragranular layers of the human cerebral cortex relative to mouse distinguish major cortical classes. The topography of transcriptional expression reflects large-scale brain network organization consistent with estimates from functional connectivity MRI and anatomical tracing in nonhuman primates. Microarray expression data for genes preferentially expressed in human upper layers (II/III), but enriched only in lower layers (V/VI) of mouse, were cross-correlated to identify molecular profiles across the cerebral cortex of postmortem human brains (n = 6). Unimodal sensory and motor zones have similar molecular profiles, despite being distributed across the cortical mantle. Sensory/motor profiles were anticorrelated with paralimbic and certain distributed association network profiles. Tests of alternative gene sets did not consistently distinguish sensory and motor regions from paralimbic and association regions: (i) genes enriched in supragranular layers in both humans and mice, (ii) genes cortically enriched in humans relative to nonhuman primates, (iii) genes related to connectivity in rodents, (iv) genes associated with human and mouse connectivity, and (v) 1,454 gene sets curated from known gene ontologies. Molecular innovations of upper cortical layers may be an important component in the evolution of long-range corticocortical projections.

  9. An Architecture for Performance Optimization in a Collaborative Knowledge-Based Approach for  Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Ramon Velasco

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Over the past few years, Intelligent Spaces (ISs have received the attention of many Wireless Sensor Network researchers. Recently, several studies have been devoted to identify their common capacities and to set up ISs over these networks. However, little attention has been paid to integrating Fuzzy Rule-Based Systems into collaborative Wireless Sensor Networks for the purpose of implementing ISs. This work presents a distributed architecture proposal for collaborative Fuzzy Rule-Based Systems embedded in Wireless Sensor Networks, which has been designed to optimize the implementation of ISs. This architecture includes the following: (a an optimized design for the inference engine; (b a visual interface; (c a module to reduce the redundancy and complexity of the knowledge bases; (d a module to evaluate the accuracy of the new knowledge base; (e a module to adapt the format of the rules to the structure used by the inference engine; and (f a communications protocol. As a real-world application of this architecture and the proposed methodologies, we show an application to the problem of modeling two plagues of the olive tree: prays (olive moth, Prays oleae Bern. and repilo (caused by the fungus Spilocaea oleagina. The results show that the architecture presented in this paper significantly decreases the consumption of resources (memory, CPU and battery without a substantial decrease in the accuracy of the inferred values.

  10. The TurboLAN project. Phase 1: Protocol choices for high speed local area networks. Phase 2: TurboLAN Intelligent Network Adapter Card, (TINAC) architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhatib, Hasan S.

    1991-01-01

    The hardware and the software architecture of the TurboLAN Intelligent Network Adapter Card (TINAC) are described. A high level as well as detailed treatment of the workings of various components of the TINAC are presented. The TINAC is divided into the following four major functional units: (1) the network access unit (NAU); (2) the buffer management unit; (3) the host interface unit; and (4) the node processor unit.

  11. Role of feedback and network architecture in controlling virulence gene expression in Bordetella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prajapat, Mahendra Kumar; Saini, Supreet

    2013-11-01

    Bordetella is a Gram-negative bacterium responsible for causing whooping cough in a broad range of host organisms. For successful infection, Bordetella controls expression of four distinct classes of genes (referred to as class 1, 2, 3, and 4 genes) at distinct times in the infection cycle. This control is executed by a single two-component system, BvgAS. Interestingly, the transmembrane component of the two-component system, BvgS, consists of three phospho-transfer domains leading to phosphorylation of the response regulator, BvgA. Phosphorylated BvgA then controls expression of virulence genes and also controls bvgAS transcription. In this work, we perform simulations to characterize the role of the network architecture in governing gene expression in Bordetella. Our results show that the wild-type network is locally optimal for controlling the timing of expression of the different classes of genes involved in infection. In addition, the interplay between environmental signals and positive feedback aids the bacterium identify precise conditions for and control expression of virulence genes.

  12. Architecture of a consent management suite and integration into IHE-based regional health information networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The University Hospital Heidelberg is implementing a Regional Health Information Network (RHIN) in the Rhine-Neckar-Region in order to establish a shared-care environment, which is based on established Health IT standards and in particular Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise (IHE). Similar to all other Electronic Health Record (EHR) and Personal Health Record (PHR) approaches the chosen Personal Electronic Health Record (PEHR) architecture relies on the patient's consent in order to share documents and medical data with other care delivery organizations, with the additional requirement that the German legislation explicitly demands a patients' opt-in and does not allow opt-out solutions. This creates two issues: firstly the current IHE consent profile does not address this approach properly and secondly none of the employed intra- and inter-institutional information systems, like almost all systems on the market, offers consent management solutions at all. Hence, the objective of our work is to develop and introduce an extensible architecture for creating, managing and querying patient consents in an IHE-based environment. Methods Based on the features offered by the IHE profile Basic Patient Privacy Consent (BPPC) and literature, the functionalities and components to meet the requirements of a centralized opt-in consent management solution compliant with German legislation have been analyzed. Two services have been developed and integrated into the Heidelberg PEHR. Results The standard-based Consent Management Suite consists of two services. The Consent Management Service is able to receive and store consent documents. It can receive queries concerning a dedicated patient consent, process it and return an answer. It represents a centralized policy enforcement point. The Consent Creator Service allows patients to create their consents electronically. Interfaces to a Master Patient Index (MPI) and a provider index allow to dynamically generate XACML

  13. Architecture of a consent management suite and integration into IHE-based Regional Health Information Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinze, Oliver; Birkle, Markus; Köster, Lennart; Bergh, Björn

    2011-10-04

    The University Hospital Heidelberg is implementing a Regional Health Information Network (RHIN) in the Rhine-Neckar-Region in order to establish a shared-care environment, which is based on established Health IT standards and in particular Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise (IHE). Similar to all other Electronic Health Record (EHR) and Personal Health Record (PHR) approaches the chosen Personal Electronic Health Record (PEHR) architecture relies on the patient's consent in order to share documents and medical data with other care delivery organizations, with the additional requirement that the German legislation explicitly demands a patients' opt-in and does not allow opt-out solutions. This creates two issues: firstly the current IHE consent profile does not address this approach properly and secondly none of the employed intra- and inter-institutional information systems, like almost all systems on the market, offers consent management solutions at all. Hence, the objective of our work is to develop and introduce an extensible architecture for creating, managing and querying patient consents in an IHE-based environment. Based on the features offered by the IHE profile Basic Patient Privacy Consent (BPPC) and literature, the functionalities and components to meet the requirements of a centralized opt-in consent management solution compliant with German legislation have been analyzed. Two services have been developed and integrated into the Heidelberg PEHR. The standard-based Consent Management Suite consists of two services. The Consent Management Service is able to receive and store consent documents. It can receive queries concerning a dedicated patient consent, process it and return an answer. It represents a centralized policy enforcement point. The Consent Creator Service allows patients to create their consents electronically. Interfaces to a Master Patient Index (MPI) and a provider index allow to dynamically generate XACML-based policies which are

  14. Implementation of time synchronized cryogenics control system network architecture for SST-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, Rakesh J., E-mail: rpatel@ipr.res.in; Mahesuria, Gaurang; Panchal, Pradip; Panchal, Rohit; Sonara, Dasarath; Tanna, Vipul; Pradhan, Subrata

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • SST-1 cryogenics sub-systems are 1.3 kW HRL, LN2 distribution system, current feeders system and 80 K booster system. • GUI developed in SCADA and control program developed in PLC for automation of the above sub-systems. • Implemented the cryogenics control system network to communicate all systems to InSQL server. • InSQL server configured for real time centralized process data acquisition from all connected sub-systems control nodes. • Acquired the process parameters coming from different systems at same time stamp. - Abstract: Under the SST-1 mission mandate, the several cryogenic sub-systems have been developed, upgraded and procured in prior to the SST-1 operation. New developments include 80 K Bubble type thermal shields, LN2 distribution system, LN2 booster system and current feeders system (CFS).Graphical User Interface (GUI) program developed in Wonderware SCADA and control logic program developed in Schneider make PLC for the above sub-systems. Industrial SQL server (InSQL) configured for centralized storage of real time process data coming from various control nodes of cryogenics sub-systems. The cryogenics control system network for communicating all cryogenics sub-system control nodes to InSQL server for centralized data storage and time synchronization among cryogenic sub-systems with centralized InSQL server is successfully implemented. Due to implemented time synchronization among sub-systems control nodes, it is possible to analyze the process parameters coming from different sub-systems at same time stamp. This paper describes the overview of implemented cryogenics control system network architecture for real time cryogenic process data monitor, storage and retrieval.

  15. A self-organized artificial neural network architecture for sensory integration with applications to letter-phoneme integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jantvik, Tamas; Gustafsson, Lennart; Papliński, Andrew P

    2011-08-01

    The multimodal self-organizing network (MMSON), an artificial neural network architecture carrying out sensory integration, is presented here. The architecture is designed using neurophysiological findings and imaging studies that pertain to sensory integration and consists of interconnected lattices of artificial neurons. In this artificial neural architecture, the degree of recognition of stimuli, that is, the perceived reliability of stimuli in the various subnetworks, is included in the computation. The MMSON's behavior is compared to aspects of brain function that deal with sensory integration. According to human behavioral studies, integration of signals from sensory receptors of different modalities enhances perception of objects and events and also reduces time to detection. In neocortex, integration takes place in bimodal and multimodal association areas and result, not only in feedback-mediated enhanced unimodal perception and shortened reaction time, but also in robust bimodal or multimodal percepts. Simulation data from the presented artificial neural network architecture show that it replicates these important psychological and neuroscientific characteristics of sensory integration.

  16. An Efficient Radio Access Control Mechanism for Wireless Network-On-Chip Architectures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Palesi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Modern systems-on-chip (SoCs today contain hundreds of cores, and this number is predicted to reach the thousands by the year 2020. As the number of communicating elements increases, there is a need for an efficient, scalable and reliable communication infrastructure. As technology geometries shrink to the deep submicron regime, however, the communication delay and power consumption of global interconnections become the major bottleneck. The network-on-chip (NoC design paradigm, based on a modular packet-switched mechanism, can address many of the on-chip communication issues, such as the performance limitations of long interconnects and integration of large number of cores on a chip. Recently, new communication technologies based on the NoC concept have emerged with the aim of improving the scalability limitations of conventional NoC-based architectures. Among them, wireless NoCs (WiNoCs use the radio medium for reducing the performance and energy penalties of long-range and multi-hop communications. As the radio medium can be accessed by a single transmitter at a time, a radio access control mechanism (RACM is needed. In this paper, we present a novel RACM, which allows one to improve both the performance and energy figures of the WiNoC. Experiments, carried out on both synthetic and real traffic scenarios, have shown the effectiveness of the proposed RACM. On average, a 30% reduction in communication delay and a 25% energy savings have been observed when the proposed RACM is applied to a known WiNoC architecture.

  17. Optimizationof neural network architecture using genetic programming improvesdetection and modeling of gene-gene interactions in studies of humandiseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hahn Lance W

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Appropriate definitionof neural network architecture prior to data analysis is crucialfor successful data mining. This can be challenging when the underlyingmodel of the data is unknown. The goal of this study was to determinewhether optimizing neural network architecture using genetic programmingas a machine learning strategy would improve the ability of neural networksto model and detect nonlinear interactions among genes in studiesof common human diseases. Results Using simulateddata, we show that a genetic programming optimized neural network approachis able to model gene-gene interactions as well as a traditionalback propagation neural network. Furthermore, the genetic programmingoptimized neural network is better than the traditional back propagationneural network approach in terms of predictive ability and powerto detect gene-gene interactions when non-functional polymorphismsare present. Conclusion This study suggeststhat a machine learning strategy for optimizing neural network architecturemay be preferable to traditional trial-and-error approaches forthe identification and characterization of gene-gene interactionsin common, complex human diseases.

  18. Intrinsic architecture underlying the relations among the default, dorsal attention, and frontoparietal control networks of the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spreng, R Nathan; Sepulcre, Jorge; Turner, Gary R; Stevens, W Dale; Schacter, Daniel L

    2013-01-01

    Human cognition is increasingly characterized as an emergent property of interactions among distributed, functionally specialized brain networks. We recently demonstrated that the antagonistic "default" and "dorsal attention" networks--subserving internally and externally directed cognition, respectively--are modulated by a third "frontoparietal control" network that flexibly couples with either network depending on task domain. However, little is known about the intrinsic functional architecture underlying this relationship. We used graph theory to analyze network properties of intrinsic functional connectivity within and between these three large-scale networks. Task-based activation from three independent studies were used to identify reliable brain regions ("nodes") of each network. We then examined pairwise connections ("edges") between nodes, as defined by resting-state functional connectivity MRI. Importantly, we used a novel bootstrap resampling procedure to determine the reliability of graph edges. Furthermore, we examined both full and partial correlations. As predicted, there was a higher degree of integration within each network than between networks. Critically, whereas the default and dorsal attention networks shared little positive connectivity with one another, the frontoparietal control network showed a high degree of between-network interconnectivity with each of these networks. Furthermore, we identified nodes within the frontoparietal control network of three different types--default-aligned, dorsal attention-aligned, and dual-aligned--that we propose play dissociable roles in mediating internetwork communication. The results provide evidence consistent with the idea that the frontoparietal control network plays a pivotal gate-keeping role in goal-directed cognition, mediating the dynamic balance between default and dorsal attention networks.

  19. A CDMA Spotbeam Architecture for the Next Generation Satellite System (NGSS) for the Aeronautical Telecommunications Network (ATN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghavan, Rajesh S.; Shamma, Mohammed A.

    2003-01-01

    This paper will present work being done to model and simulate a CDMA based Mobile Satellite System architecture for providing all or part of the future Air Traffic Management (ATM) services. Such a system, will help in relieving the dependence on ground based networks, if not eliminate it. Additionally such an architecture can be used in parallel or as a supplementary service along with ground based links to help alleviate any capacity bottlenecks, or in areas where such services are difficult to make available such as in oceanic, remote areas outside the jet highways, or in developing countries where ground services are less available.

  20. Analysis of normal human retinal vascular network architecture using multifractal geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ţălu, Ştefan; Stach, Sebastian; Călugăru, Dan Mihai; Lupaşcu, Carmen Alina; Nicoară, Simona Delia

    2017-01-01

    To apply the multifractal analysis method as a quantitative approach to a comprehensive description of the microvascular network architecture of the normal human retina. Fifty volunteers were enrolled in this study in the Ophthalmological Clinic of Cluj-Napoca, Romania, between January 2012 and January 2014. A set of 100 segmented and skeletonised human retinal images, corresponding to normal states of the retina were studied. An automatic unsupervised method for retinal vessel segmentation was applied before multifractal analysis. The multifractal analysis of digital retinal images was made with computer algorithms, applying the standard box-counting method. Statistical analyses were performed using the GraphPad InStat software. The architecture of normal human retinal microvascular network was able to be described using the multifractal geometry. The average of generalized dimensions (Dq ) for q=0, 1, 2, the width of the multifractal spectrum (Δα=αmax - αmin ) and the spectrum arms' heights difference (|Δf|) of the normal images were expressed as mean±standard deviation (SD): for segmented versions, D0 =1.7014±0.0057; D1 =1.6507±0.0058; D2 =1.5772±0.0059; Δα=0.92441±0.0085; |Δf|= 0.1453±0.0051; for skeletonised versions, D0 =1.6303±0.0051; D1 =1.6012±0.0059; D2 =1.5531±0.0058; Δα=0.65032±0.0162; |Δf|= 0.0238±0.0161. The average of generalized dimensions (Dq ) for q=0, 1, 2, the width of the multifractal spectrum (Δα) and the spectrum arms' heights difference (|Δf|) of the segmented versions was slightly greater than the skeletonised versions. The multifractal analysis of fundus photographs may be used as a quantitative parameter for the evaluation of the complex three-dimensional structure of the retinal microvasculature as a potential marker for early detection of topological changes associated with retinal diseases.

  1. Analysis of normal human retinal vascular network architecture using multifractal geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ştefan Ţălu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To apply the multifractal analysis method as a quantitative approach to a comprehensive description of the microvascular network architecture of the normal human retina. METHODS: Fifty volunteers were enrolled in this study in the Ophthalmological Clinic of Cluj-Napoca, Romania, between January 2012 and January 2014. A set of 100 segmented and skeletonised human retinal images, corresponding to normal states of the retina were studied. An automatic unsupervised method for retinal vessel segmentation was applied before multifractal analysis. The multifractal analysis of digital retinal images was made with computer algorithms, applying the standard box-counting method. Statistical analyses were performed using the GraphPad InStat software. RESULTS: The architecture of normal human retinal microvascular network was able to be described using the multifractal geometry. The average of generalized dimensions (Dq for q=0, 1, 2, the width of the multifractal spectrum (Δα=αmax - αmin and the spectrum arms’ heights difference (│Δf│ of the normal images were expressed as mean±standard deviation (SD: for segmented versions, D0=1.7014±0.0057; D1=1.6507±0.0058; D2=1.5772±0.0059; Δα=0.92441±0.0085; │Δf│= 0.1453±0.0051; for skeletonised versions, D0=1.6303±0.0051; D1=1.6012±0.0059; D2=1.5531±0.0058; Δα=0.65032±0.0162; │Δf│= 0.0238±0.0161. The average of generalized dimensions (Dq for q=0, 1, 2, the width of the multifractal spectrum (Δα and the spectrum arms’ heights difference (│Δf│ of the segmented versions was slightly greater than the skeletonised versions. CONCLUSION: The multifractal analysis of fundus photographs may be used as a quantitative parameter for the evaluation of the complex three-dimensional structure of the retinal microvasculature as a potential marker for early detection of topological changes associated with retinal diseases.

  2. Childhood maltreatment is associated with alteration in global network fiber-tract architecture independent of history of depression and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohashi, Kyoko; Anderson, Carl M; Bolger, Elizabeth A; Khan, Alaptagin; McGreenery, Cynthia E; Teicher, Martin H

    2017-04-15

    Childhood maltreatment is a major risk factor for psychopathology. It is also associated with alterations in the network architecture of the brain, which we hypothesized may play a significant role in the development of psychopathology. In this study, we analyzed the global network architecture of physically healthy unmedicated 18-25 year old subjects (n=262) using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) MRI and tractography. Anatomical networks were constructed from fiber streams interconnecting 90 cortical or subcortical regions for subjects with no-to-low (n=122) versus moderate-to-high (n=140) exposure to maltreatment. Graph theory analysis revealed lower degree, strength, global efficiency, and maximum Laplacian spectra, higher pathlength, small-worldness and Laplacian skewness, and less deviation from artificial networks in subjects with moderate-to-high exposure to maltreatment. On balance, local clustering was similar in both groups, but the different clusters were more strongly interconnected in the no-to-low exposure group. History of major depression, anxiety and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder did not have a significant impact on global network measures over and above the effect of maltreatment. Maltreatment is an important factor that needs to be taken into account in studies examining the relationship between network differences and psychopathology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A Survey of System Architecture Requirements for Health Care-Based Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham O. Fapojuwo

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs have emerged as a viable technology for a vast number of applications, including health care applications. To best support these health care applications, WSN technology can be adopted for the design of practical Health Care WSNs (HCWSNs that support the key system architecture requirements of reliable communication, node mobility support, multicast technology, energy efficiency, and the timely delivery of data. Work in the literature mostly focuses on the physical design of the HCWSNs (e.g., wearable sensors, in vivo embedded sensors, et cetera. However, work towards enhancing the communication layers (i.e., routing, medium access control, et cetera to improve HCWSN performance is largely lacking. In this paper, the information gleaned from an extensive literature survey is shared in an effort to fortify the knowledge base for the communication aspect of HCWSNs. We highlight the major currently existing prototype HCWSNs and also provide the details of their routing protocol characteristics. We also explore the current state of the art in medium access control (MAC protocols for WSNs, for the purpose of seeking an energy efficient solution that is robust to mobility and delivers data in a timely fashion. Furthermore, we review a number of reliable transport layer protocols, including a network coding based protocol from the literature, that are potentially suitable for delivering end-to-end reliability of data transmitted in HCWSNs. We identify the advantages and disadvantages of the reviewed MAC, routing, and transport layer protocols as they pertain to the design and implementation of a HCWSN. The findings from this literature survey will serve as a useful foundation for designing a reliable HCWSN and also contribute to the development and evaluation of protocols for improving the performance of future HCWSNs. Open issues that required further investigations are highlighted.

  4. A survey of system architecture requirements for health care-based wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egbogah, Emeka E; Fapojuwo, Abraham O

    2011-01-01

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) have emerged as a viable technology for a vast number of applications, including health care applications. To best support these health care applications, WSN technology can be adopted for the design of practical Health Care WSNs (HCWSNs) that support the key system architecture requirements of reliable communication, node mobility support, multicast technology, energy efficiency, and the timely delivery of data. Work in the literature mostly focuses on the physical design of the HCWSNs (e.g., wearable sensors, in vivo embedded sensors, et cetera). However, work towards enhancing the communication layers (i.e., routing, medium access control, et cetera) to improve HCWSN performance is largely lacking. In this paper, the information gleaned from an extensive literature survey is shared in an effort to fortify the knowledge base for the communication aspect of HCWSNs. We highlight the major currently existing prototype HCWSNs and also provide the details of their routing protocol characteristics. We also explore the current state of the art in medium access control (MAC) protocols for WSNs, for the purpose of seeking an energy efficient solution that is robust to mobility and delivers data in a timely fashion. Furthermore, we review a number of reliable transport layer protocols, including a network coding based protocol from the literature, that are potentially suitable for delivering end-to-end reliability of data transmitted in HCWSNs. We identify the advantages and disadvantages of the reviewed MAC, routing, and transport layer protocols as they pertain to the design and implementation of a HCWSN. The findings from this literature survey will serve as a useful foundation for designing a reliable HCWSN and also contribute to the development and evaluation of protocols for improving the performance of future HCWSNs. Open issues that required further investigations are highlighted.

  5. Deep Convolutional Neural Networks for Computer-Aided Detection: CNN Architectures, Dataset Characteristics and Transfer Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoo-Chang, Shin; Roth, Holger R.; Gao, Mingchen; Lu, Le; Xu, Ziyue; Nogues, Isabella; Yao, Jianhua; Mollura, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Remarkable progress has been made in image recognition, primarily due to the availability of large-scale annotated datasets (i.e. ImageNet) and the revival of deep convolutional neural networks (CNN). CNNs enable learning data-driven, highly representative, layered hierarchical image features from sufficient training data. However, obtaining datasets as comprehensively annotated as ImageNet in the medical imaging domain remains a challenge. There are currently three major techniques that successfully employ CNNs to medical image classification: training the CNN from scratch, using off-the-shelf pre-trained CNN features, and conducting unsupervised CNN pre-training with supervised fine-tuning. Another effective method is transfer learning, i.e., fine-tuning CNN models (supervised) pre-trained from natural image dataset to medical image tasks (although domain transfer between two medical image datasets is also possible). In this paper, we exploit three important, but previously understudied factors of employing deep convolutional neural networks to computer-aided detection problems. We first explore and evaluate different CNN architectures. The studied models contain 5 thousand to 160 million parameters, and vary in numbers of layers. We then evaluate the influence of dataset scale and spatial image context on performance. Finally, we examine when and why transfer learning from pre-trained ImageNet (via fine-tuning) can be useful. We study two specific computeraided detection (CADe) problems, namely thoraco-abdominal lymph node (LN) detection and interstitial lung disease (ILD) classification. We achieve the state-of-the-art performance on the mediastinal LN detection, with 85% sensitivity at 3 false positive per patient, and report the first five-fold cross-validation classification results on predicting axial CT slices with ILD categories. Our extensive empirical evaluation, CNN model analysis and valuable insights can be extended to the design of high performance

  6. Unraveling Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Bacterial Networks on Micropillar Architectures Using Intrinsic Phase-Shift Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Heidi; Halachmi, Sarel; Ben-Dov, Nadav; Nativ, Ofer; Segal, Ester

    2017-06-27

    With global antimicrobial resistance becoming increasingly detrimental to society, improving current clinical antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) is crucial to allow physicians to initiate appropriate antibiotic treatment as early as possible, reducing not only mortality rates but also the emergence of resistant pathogens. In this work, we tackle the main bottlenecks in clinical AST by designing biofunctionalized silicon micropillar arrays to provide both a preferable solid-liquid interface for bacteria networking and a simultaneous transducing element that monitors the response of bacteria when exposed to chosen antibiotics in real time. We harness the intrinsic ability of the micropillar architectures to relay optical phase-shift reflectometric interference spectroscopic measurements (referred to as PRISM) and employ it as a platform for culture-free, label-free phenotypic AST. The responses of E. coli to various concentrations of five clinically relevant antibiotics are optically tracked by PRISM, allowing for the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values to be determined and compared to both standard broth microdilution testing and clinic-based automated AST system readouts. Capture of bacteria within these microtopologies, followed by incubation of the cells with the appropriate antibiotic solution, yields rapid determinations of antibiotic susceptibility. This platform not only provides accurate MIC determinations in a rapid manner (total assay time of 2-3 h versus 8 h with automated AST systems) but can also be employed as an advantageous method to differentiate bacteriostatic and bactericidal antibiotics.

  7. An artificial neural network architecture for non-parametric visual odometry in wireless capsule endoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimas, George; Iakovidis, Dimitris K.; Karargyris, Alexandros; Ciuti, Gastone; Koulaouzidis, Anastasios

    2017-09-01

    Wireless capsule endoscopy is a non-invasive screening procedure of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract performed with an ingestible capsule endoscope (CE) of the size of a large vitamin pill. Such endoscopes are equipped with a usually low-frame-rate color camera which enables the visualization of the GI lumen and the detection of pathologies. The localization of the commercially available CEs is performed in the 3D abdominal space using radio-frequency (RF) triangulation from external sensor arrays, in combination with transit time estimation. State-of-the-art approaches, such as magnetic localization, which have been experimentally proved more accurate than the RF approach, are still at an early stage. Recently, we have demonstrated that CE localization is feasible using solely visual cues and geometric models. However, such approaches depend on camera parameters, many of which are unknown. In this paper the authors propose a novel non-parametric visual odometry (VO) approach to CE localization based on a feed-forward neural network architecture. The effectiveness of this approach in comparison to state-of-the-art geometric VO approaches is validated using a robotic-assisted in vitro experimental setup.

  8. Lightweight filter architecture for energy efficient mobile vehicle localization based on a distributed acoustic sensor network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Keonwook

    2013-08-23

    The generic properties of an acoustic signal provide numerous benefits for localization by applying energy-based methods over a deployed wireless sensor network (WSN). However, the signal generated by a stationary target utilizes a significant amount of bandwidth and power in the system without providing further position information. For vehicle localization, this paper proposes a novel proximity velocity vector estimator (PVVE) node architecture in order to capture the energy from a moving vehicle and reject the signal from motionless automobiles around the WSN node. A cascade structure between analog envelope detector and digital exponential smoothing filter presents the velocity vector-sensitive output with low analog circuit and digital computation complexity. The optimal parameters in the exponential smoothing filter are obtained by analytical and mathematical methods for maximum variation over the vehicle speed. For stationary targets, the derived simulation based on the acoustic field parameters demonstrates that the system significantly reduces the communication requirements with low complexity and can be expected to extend the operation time considerably.

  9. SCinet Architecture: Featured at the International Conference for High Performance Computing,Networking, Storage and Analysis 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyonnais, Marc; Smith, Matt; Mace, Kate P.

    2017-02-06

    SCinet is the purpose-built network that operates during the International Conference for High Performance Computing,Networking, Storage and Analysis (Super Computing or SC). Created each year for the conference, SCinet brings to life a high-capacity network that supports applications and experiments that are a hallmark of the SC conference. The network links the convention center to research and commercial networks around the world. This resource serves as a platform for exhibitors to demonstrate the advanced computing resources of their home institutions and elsewhere by supporting a wide variety of applications. Volunteers from academia, government and industry work together to design and deliver the SCinet infrastructure. Industry vendors and carriers donate millions of dollars in equipment and services needed to build and support the local and wide area networks. Planning begins more than a year in advance of each SC conference and culminates in a high intensity installation in the days leading up to the conference. The SCinet architecture for SC16 illustrates a dramatic increase in participation from the vendor community, particularly those that focus on network equipment. Software-Defined Networking (SDN) and Data Center Networking (DCN) are present in nearly all aspects of the design.

  10. Mobility-Aware Modeling and Analysis of Dense Cellular Networks With $C$ -Plane/ $U$ -Plane Split Architecture

    KAUST Repository

    Ibrahim, Hazem

    2016-09-19

    The unrelenting increase in the population of mobile users and their traffic demands drive cellular network operators to densify their network infrastructure. Network densification shrinks the footprint of base stations (BSs) and reduces the number of users associated with each BS, leading to an improved spatial frequency reuse and spectral efficiency, and thus, higher network capacity. However, the densification gain comes at the expense of higher handover rates and network control overhead. Hence, user’s mobility can diminish or even nullifies the foreseen densification gain. In this context, splitting the control plane ( C -plane) and user plane ( U -plane) is proposed as a potential solution to harvest densification gain with reduced cost in terms of handover rate and network control overhead. In this paper, we use stochastic geometry to develop a tractable mobility-aware model for a two-tier downlink cellular network with ultra-dense small cells and C -plane/ U -plane split architecture. The developed model is then used to quantify the effect of mobility on the foreseen densification gain with and without C -plane/ U -plane split. To this end, we shed light on the handover problem in dense cellular environments, show scenarios where the network fails to support certain mobility profiles, and obtain network design insights.

  11. Resource-aware system architecture model for implementation of quantum aided Byzantine agreement on quantum repeater networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taherkhani, Mohammand Amin; Navi, Keivan; Van Meter, Rodney

    2018-01-01

    Quantum aided Byzantine agreement is an important distributed quantum algorithm with unique features in comparison to classical deterministic and randomized algorithms, requiring only a constant expected number of rounds in addition to giving a higher level of security. In this paper, we analyze details of the high level multi-party algorithm, and propose elements of the design for the quantum architecture and circuits required at each node to run the algorithm on a quantum repeater network (QRN). Our optimization techniques have reduced the quantum circuit depth by 44% and the number of qubits in each node by 20% for a minimum five-node setup compared to the design based on the standard arithmetic circuits. These improvements lead to a quantum system architecture with 160 qubits per node, space-time product (an estimate of the required fidelity) {KQ}≈ 1.3× {10}5 per node and error threshold 1.1× {10}-6 for the total nodes in the network. The evaluation of the designed architecture shows that to execute the algorithm once on the minimum setup, we need to successfully distribute a total of 648 Bell pairs across the network, spread evenly between all pairs of nodes. This framework can be considered a starting point for establishing a road-map for light-weight demonstration of a distributed quantum application on QRNs.

  12. Comb-Type Grafted Hydrogels of PNIPAM and PDMAEMA with Reversed Network-Graft Architectures from Controlled Radical Polymerizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Qi Chen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Dual thermo- and pH-responsive comb-type grafted hydrogels of poly(N,N-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate (PDMAEMA and poly(N-isopropylacrylamide (PNIPAM with reversed network-graft architectures were synthesized by the combination of atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP, reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT polymerization and click chemistry. Two kinds of macro-cross-linkers with two azido groups at one chain-end and different chain length [PNIPAM–(N32 and PDMAEMA–(N32] were prepared with N,N-di(β-azidoethyl 2-halocarboxylamide as the ATRP initiator. Through RAFT copolymerization of DMAEMA or NIPAM with propargyl acrylate (ProA using dibenzyltrithiocarbonate as a chain transfer agent, two network precursors with different content of alkynyl side-groups [P(DMAEMA-co-ProA and P(NIPAM-co-ProA] were obtained. The subsequent azido-alkynyl click reaction of macro-cross-linkers and network precursors led to the formation of the network-graft hydrogels. These dual stimulus-sensitive hydrogels exhibited rapid response, high swelling ratio and reproducible swelling/de-swelling cycles under different temperatures and pH values. The influences of cross-linkage density and network-graft architecture on the properties of the hydrogels were investigated. The release of ceftriaxone sodium from these hydrogels showed both thermal- and pH-dependence, suggesting the feasibility of these hydrogels as thermo- and pH-dependent drug release devices.

  13. A graphical user interface for a method to infer kinetics and network architecture (MIKANA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio A Mourão

    Full Text Available One of the main challenges in the biomedical sciences is the determination of reaction mechanisms that constitute a biochemical pathway. During the last decades, advances have been made in building complex diagrams showing the static interactions of proteins. The challenge for systems biologists is to build realistic models of the dynamical behavior of reactants, intermediates and products. For this purpose, several methods have been recently proposed to deduce the reaction mechanisms or to estimate the kinetic parameters of the elementary reactions that constitute the pathway. One such method is MIKANA: Method to Infer Kinetics And Network Architecture. MIKANA is a computational method to infer both reaction mechanisms and estimate the kinetic parameters of biochemical pathways from time course data. To make it available to the scientific community, we developed a Graphical User Interface (GUI for MIKANA. Among other features, the GUI validates and processes an input time course data, displays the inferred reactions, generates the differential equations for the chemical species in the pathway and plots the prediction curves on top of the input time course data. We also added a new feature to MIKANA that allows the user to exclude a priori known reactions from the inferred mechanism. This addition improves the performance of the method. In this article, we illustrate the GUI for MIKANA with three examples: an irreversible Michaelis-Menten reaction mechanism; the interaction map of chemical species of the muscle glycolytic pathway; and the glycolytic pathway of Lactococcus lactis. We also describe the code and methods in sufficient detail to allow researchers to further develop the code or reproduce the experiments described. The code for MIKANA is open source, free for academic and non-academic use and is available for download (Information S1.

  14. Next-Generation Ground Network Architecture for Communications and Tracking of Interplanetary Smallsats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, K.-M.; Abraham, D.; Arroyo, B.; Basilio, E.; Babuscia, A.; Duncan, C.; Lee, D.; Oudrhiri, K.; Pham, T.; Staehle, R.; Waldherr, S.; Welz, G.; Wyatt, J.; Lanucara, M.; Malphrus, B.; Bellardo, J.; Puig-Suari, J.; Corpino, S.

    2015-08-01

    and operating multiple spacecraft simultaneously, including spectrum coordination. (5) Coordination and collaboration with non-DSN facilities. This article further describes the communications and tracking challenges facing interplanetary smallsats and CubeSats, and the next-generation ground network architecture being evolved to mitigate those challenges.

  15. The Salience Network and Its Functional Architecture in a Perceptual Decision: An Effective Connectivity Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamichhane, Bidhan; Dhamala, Mukesh

    2015-08-01

    The anterior insulae (INSs) are involved in accumulating sensory evidence in perceptual decision-making independent of the motor response, whereas the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) is known to play a role in choosing appropriate behavioral responses. Recent evidence suggests that INSs and dACC are part of the salience network (SN), a key network known to be involved in decision-making and thought to be important for the coordination of behavioral responses. However, how these nodes in the SN contribute to the decision-making process from segregation of stimuli to the generation of an appropriate behavioral response remains unknown. In this study, the authors scanned 33 participants in functional magnetic resonance imaging and asked them to decide whether the presented pairs of audio (a beep of sound) and visual (a flash of light) stimuli were synchronous or asynchronous. Participants reported their perception with a button press. Stimuli were presented in block of eight pairs with a temporal lag (ΔT) between the first (audio) and the second (visual) stimulus in each pair. They used dynamic causal modeling (DCM) and the Bayesian model evidence technique to elucidate the functional architecture between the nodes of SN. Both the synchrony and the asynchrony perception resulted in strong activation in the SN. Most importantly, the DCM analyses demonstrated that the INSs were integrating as well as driving hubs in the SN. The INSs were found to a play an important role in the integration of sensory information; input to the SN is most likely through INSs. Furthermore, significant INSs to dACC intrinsic connectivity established by these task conditions help us conclude that INSs drive the dACC to guide the behavior of choosing the appropriate response. The authors therefore argue that the dACC and INS are part of a system involved in the decision-making process from perception to planning of a motor response, and that this observed functional mechanism might

  16. Do design rules facilitate or complicate architectural innovation in innovation alliance networks?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofman, Erwin; Halman, Johannes I.M.; van Looy, Bart

    2016-01-01

    Architectural innovation is fundamental to the renewal of technological systems. However, it can be a real challenge to organize architectural innovation, all the more so when success hinges upon close collaboration with other firms that are responsible for different subsystems of the end product.

  17. Structural architecture of the social network of a non-human primate (Macaca sylvanus): a study of its topology in La Forêt des Singes, Rocamadour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    For a decade, technological or natural networks have appeared to have a common mathematical architecture. This type of architecture has a node connectivity which follows a power law distribution. This architecture confers to these networks a resistance property to the loss of nodes. Such properties are advantageous for evolutional networks through time. Thus, this architecture can be expected in animal social networks. Another characteristic commonly met concerns the structuration of the network into communities by the mechanism of assortative mixing by vertex degree (i.e. by the number of ties individuals have). Such a structure is a reflection of evolutional mechanisms: the preferential attachment and the triadic closure processes. Using recent analytical techniques on an affiliative social network in a non-human primate species (Macaca sylvanus), we analysed the mathematical architecture and its properties. We demonstrate that in spite of the use of a recent protocol supposed to permit this type of analysis, the type of distribution cannot be clearly determined, encouraging us to carefully interpret the results obtained until then. Nevertheless, we observed interesting properties of the network at an ecological and evolutional level with network resilience that allows a cohesive society to be maintained even when faced with a catastrophe (high predation, epidemic).

  18. SensoTube: A Scalable Hardware Design Architecture for Wireless Sensors and Actuators Networks Nodes in the Agricultural Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piromalis, Dimitrios; Arvanitis, Konstantinos

    2016-01-01

    Wireless Sensor and Actuators Networks (WSANs) constitute one of the most challenging technologies with tremendous socio-economic impact for the next decade. Functionally and energy optimized hardware systems and development tools maybe is the most critical facet of this technology for the achievement of such prospects. Especially, in the area of agriculture, where the hostile operating environment comes to add to the general technological and technical issues, reliable and robust WSAN systems are mandatory. This paper focuses on the hardware design architectures of the WSANs for real-world agricultural applications. It presents the available alternatives in hardware design and identifies their difficulties and problems for real-life implementations. The paper introduces SensoTube, a new WSAN hardware architecture, which is proposed as a solution to the various existing design constraints of WSANs. The establishment of the proposed architecture is based, firstly on an abstraction approach in the functional requirements context, and secondly, on the standardization of the subsystems connectivity, in order to allow for an open, expandable, flexible, reconfigurable, energy optimized, reliable and robust hardware system. The SensoTube implementation reference model together with its encapsulation design and installation are analyzed and presented in details. Furthermore, as a proof of concept, certain use cases have been studied in order to demonstrate the benefits of migrating existing designs based on the available open-source hardware platforms to SensoTube architecture. PMID:27527180

  19. SNAVA-A real-time multi-FPGA multi-model spiking neural network simulation architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sripad, Athul; Sanchez, Giovanny; Zapata, Mireya; Pirrone, Vito; Dorta, Taho; Cambria, Salvatore; Marti, Albert; Krishnamourthy, Karthikeyan; Madrenas, Jordi

    2018-01-01

    Spiking Neural Networks (SNN) for Versatile Applications (SNAVA) simulation platform is a scalable and programmable parallel architecture that supports real-time, large-scale, multi-model SNN computation. This parallel architecture is implemented in modern Field-Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) devices to provide high performance execution and flexibility to support large-scale SNN models. Flexibility is defined in terms of programmability, which allows easy synapse and neuron implementation. This has been achieved by using a special-purpose Processing Elements (PEs) for computing SNNs, and analyzing and customizing the instruction set according to the processing needs to achieve maximum performance with minimum resources. The parallel architecture is interfaced with customized Graphical User Interfaces (GUIs) to configure the SNN's connectivity, to compile the neuron-synapse model and to monitor SNN's activity. Our contribution intends to provide a tool that allows to prototype SNNs faster than on CPU/GPU architectures but significantly cheaper than fabricating a customized neuromorphic chip. This could be potentially valuable to the computational neuroscience and neuromorphic engineering communities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. SensoTube: A Scalable Hardware Design Architecture for Wireless Sensors and Actuators Networks Nodes in the Agricultural Domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piromalis, Dimitrios; Arvanitis, Konstantinos

    2016-08-04

    Wireless Sensor and Actuators Networks (WSANs) constitute one of the most challenging technologies with tremendous socio-economic impact for the next decade. Functionally and energy optimized hardware systems and development tools maybe is the most critical facet of this technology for the achievement of such prospects. Especially, in the area of agriculture, where the hostile operating environment comes to add to the general technological and technical issues, reliable and robust WSAN systems are mandatory. This paper focuses on the hardware design architectures of the WSANs for real-world agricultural applications. It presents the available alternatives in hardware design and identifies their difficulties and problems for real-life implementations. The paper introduces SensoTube, a new WSAN hardware architecture, which is proposed as a solution to the various existing design constraints of WSANs. The establishment of the proposed architecture is based, firstly on an abstraction approach in the functional requirements context, and secondly, on the standardization of the subsystems connectivity, in order to allow for an open, expandable, flexible, reconfigurable, energy optimized, reliable and robust hardware system. The SensoTube implementation reference model together with its encapsulation design and installation are analyzed and presented in details. Furthermore, as a proof of concept, certain use cases have been studied in order to demonstrate the benefits of migrating existing designs based on the available open-source hardware platforms to SensoTube architecture.

  1. An e-consent-based shared EHR system architecture for integrated healthcare networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Joachim; Bott, Oliver J; Pretschner, Dietrich P; Haux, Reinhold

    2007-01-01

    Virtual integration of distributed patient data promises advantages over a consolidated health record, but raises questions mainly about practicability and authorization concepts. Our work aims on specification and development of a virtual shared health record architecture using a patient-centred integration and authorization model. A literature survey summarizes considerations of current architectural approaches. Complemented by a methodical analysis in two regional settings, a formal architecture model was specified and implemented. Results presented in this paper are a survey of architectural approaches for shared health records and an architecture model for a virtual shared EHR, which combines a patient-centred integration policy with provider-oriented document management. An electronic consent system assures, that access to the shared record remains under control of the patient. A corresponding system prototype has been developed and is currently being introduced and evaluated in a regional setting. The proposed architecture is capable of partly replacing message-based communications. Operating highly available provider repositories for the virtual shared EHR requires advanced technology and probably means additional costs for care providers. Acceptance of the proposed architecture depends on transparently embedding document validation and digital signature into the work processes. The paradigm shift from paper-based messaging to a "pull model" needs further evaluation.

  2. Formal Proof of the Dependable Bypassing Routing Algorithm Suitable for Adaptive Networks on Chip QnoC Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayat Daoud

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Approaches for the design of fault tolerant Network-on-Chip (NoC for use in System-on-Chip (SoC reconfigurable technology using Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA technology are challenging, especially in Multiprocessor System-on-Chip (MPSoC design. To achieve this, the use of rigorous formal approaches, based on incremental design and proof theory, has become an essential step in the validation process. The Event-B method is a promising formal approach that can be used to develop, model and prove accurately SoC and MPSoC architectures. This paper proposes a formal verification approach for NoC architecture including the dependability constraints relating to the choice of the path routing of data packets and the strategy imposed for diversion when faulty routers are detected. The formalization process is incremental and validated by correct-by-construction development of the NoC architecture. Using the concepts of graph colouring and B-event formalism, the results obtained have demonstrated its efficiency for determining the bugs, and a solution to ensure a fast and reliable operation of the network when compared to existing similar methods.

  3. Artificial Neural Networks as an Architectural Design Tool-Generating New Detail Forms Based On the Roman Corinthian Order Capital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radziszewski, Kacper

    2017-10-01

    The following paper presents the results of the research in the field of the machine learning, investigating the scope of application of the artificial neural networks algorithms as a tool in architectural design. The computational experiment was held using the backward propagation of errors method of training the artificial neural network, which was trained based on the geometry of the details of the Roman Corinthian order capital. During the experiment, as an input training data set, five local geometry parameters combined has given the best results: Theta, Pi, Rho in spherical coordinate system based on the capital volume centroid, followed by Z value of the Cartesian coordinate system and a distance from vertical planes created based on the capital symmetry. Additionally during the experiment, artificial neural network hidden layers optimal count and structure was found, giving results of the error below 0.2% for the mentioned before input parameters. Once successfully trained artificial network, was able to mimic the details composition on any other geometry type given. Despite of calculating the transformed geometry locally and separately for each of the thousands of surface points, system could create visually attractive and diverse, complex patterns. Designed tool, based on the supervised learning method of machine learning, gives possibility of generating new architectural forms- free of the designer’s imagination bounds. Implementing the infinitely broad computational methods of machine learning, or Artificial Intelligence in general, not only could accelerate and simplify the design process, but give an opportunity to explore never seen before, unpredictable forms or everyday architectural practice solutions.

  4. A Scalable, Timing-Safe, Network-on-Chip Architecture with an Integrated Clock Distribution Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Tobias; Stensgaard, Mikkel Bystrup; Sparsø, Jens

    2007-01-01

    regions concerns the possibility of data corruption caused by metastability. This paper presents an integrated communication and mesochronous clocking strategy, which avoids timing related errors while maintaining a globally synchronous system perspective. The architecture is scalable as timing integrity...

  5. Molecular Design: Network Architecture and Its Impact on the Organization and Mechanics of Peptide-Polyurea Hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matolyak, Lindsay; Keum, Jong; Korley, LaShanda T J

    2016-12-12

    Nature has achieved controlled and tunable mechanics via hierarchical organization driven by physical and covalent interactions. Polymer-peptide hybrids have been designed to mimic natural materials utilizing these architectural strategies, obtaining diverse mechanical properties, stimuli responsiveness, and bioactivity. Here, utilizing a molecular design pathway, peptide-polyurea hybrid networks were synthesized to investigate the role of architecture and structural interplay on peptide hydrogen bonding, assembly, and mechanics. Networks formed from poly(β-benzyl-l-aspartate)-poly(dimethylsiloxane) copolymers covalently cross-linked with a triisocyanate yielded polyurea films with a globular-like morphology and parallel β-sheet secondary structures. The geometrical constraints imposed by the network led to an increase in peptide loading and ∼7x increase in Young's modulus while maintaining extensibility (∼160%). Thus, the interplay of physical and chemical bonds allowed for the modulation of resulting mechanical properties. This investigation provides a framework for the utilization of structural interplay and mechanical tuning in polymer-peptide hybrids, which offers a pathway for the design of future hybrid biomaterial systems.

  6. Dialogic e-learning2learn: creating global digital networks and educational knowledge building architectures across diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, Elsebeth Korsgaard

    2007-01-01

    and intercultural understanding, collaboration, and tolerance to cultural and ethical diversity, and they are mediated through collaborative dialogue and knowledge-building processes between learners. While embedded, empirically, in a networked distance learning context, established through synchronous...... and asynchronous communication technologies, the paper advocates for theory informed pedagogical designs and a teaching-learning methodology, which assumes online collaborative dialogue as the centre of a genuine learning process. Originality/value – The paper complements this plea with a description...... and evaluation of the implementation of the pedagogical architecture into a Danish Master Programme....

  7. CogWnet: A Resource Management Architecture for Cognitive Wireless Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Alqerm, Ismail

    2013-07-01

    With the increasing adoption of wireless communication technologies, there is a need to improve management of existing radio resources. Cognitive radio is a promising technology to improve the utilization of wireless spectrum. Its operating principle is based on building an integrated hardware and software architecture that configures the radio to meet application requirements within the constraints of spectrum policy regulations. However, such an architecture must be able to cope with radio environment heterogeneity. In this paper, we propose a cognitive resource management architecture, called CogWnet, that allocates channels, re-configures radio transmission parameters to meet QoS requirements, ensures reliability, and mitigates interference. The architecture consists of three main layers: Communication Layer, which includes generic interfaces to facilitate the communication between the cognitive architecture and TCP/IP stack layers; Decision-Making Layer, which classifies the stack layers input parameters and runs decision-making optimization algorithms to output optimal transmission parameters; and Policy Layer to enforce policy regulations on the selected part of the spectrum. The efficiency of CogWnet is demonstrated through a testbed implementation and evaluation.

  8. System architecture for ubiquitous live video streaming in university network environment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dludla, AG

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The recent growth of ubiquitous computing brings to the networking discipline new classes of home, campus, and mobile networks. This would enable education service providers to provide services to learners anywhere, anytime and not only through...

  9. Genetic architecture of wood properties based on association analysis and co-expression networks in white spruce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamara, Mebarek; Raherison, Elie; Lenz, Patrick; Beaulieu, Jean; Bousquet, Jean; MacKay, John

    2016-04-01

    Association studies are widely utilized to analyze complex traits but their ability to disclose genetic architectures is often limited by statistical constraints, and functional insights are usually minimal in nonmodel organisms like forest trees. We developed an approach to integrate association mapping results with co-expression networks. We tested single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 2652 candidate genes for statistical associations with wood density, stiffness, microfibril angle and ring width in a population of 1694 white spruce trees (Picea glauca). Associations mapping identified 229-292 genes per wood trait using a statistical significance level of P wood associated genes and several known MYB and NAC regulators were identified as network hubs. The network revealed a link between the gene PgNAC8, wood stiffness and microfibril angle, as well as considerable within-season variation for both genetic control of wood traits and gene expression. Trait associations were distributed throughout the network suggesting complex interactions and pleiotropic effects. Our findings indicate that integration of association mapping and co-expression networks enhances our understanding of complex wood traits. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  10. End-to-End Architecture Modularisation and Slicing for Next Generation Networks

    OpenAIRE

    An, Xueli; Trivisonno, Riccardo; Einsiedler, Hans; von Hugo, Dirk; Haensge, Kay; Huang, Xiaofeng; Shen, Qing; Corujo, Daniel; Mahmood, Kashif; Trossen, Dirk; Liebsch, Marco; Leitao, Filipe; Phan, Cao-Thanh; Klamm, Frederic

    2016-01-01

    The journey towards the deployment of next generation networks has recently accelerated, driven by the joint effort of research and standards organisations. Despite this fact, the overall picture is still unclear as prioritization and understanding on several key concepts are not yet agreed by major vendors and network providers. Network Slicing is one of the central topics of the debate, and it is expected to become the key feature of next generation networks, providing the flexibility requi...

  11. An SDN-based architecture for Network-as-a-Service

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manthena, M.P.V. van; Adrichem, N.L.M.; Broek, C. van den; Kuipers, F.

    2015-01-01

    Network-as-a-Service (NaaS) is a cloud-based service model that offers on-demand network connectivity and the provisioning and management of network services. However, the actual orchestration of dynamically allocating underlying resources to customer requirements is not trivial. In this paper, we

  12. Design of a stateless low-latency router architecture for green software-defined networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saldaña Cercos, Silvia; Ramos, Ramon M.; Eller, Ana C. Ewald

    2015-01-01

    Expanding software defined networking (SDN) to transport networks requires new strategies to deal with the large number of flows that future core networks will have to face. New south-bound protocols within SDN have been proposed to benefit from having control plane detached from the data plane...

  13. Networking K-12 Schools: Architecture Models and Evaluation of Costs and Benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothstein, Russell Isaac

    This thesis examines the cost and benefits of communication networks in K-12 schools using cost analysis of five technology models with increasing levels of connectivity. Data indicate that the cost of the network hardware is only a small fraction of the overall networking costs. PC purchases, initial training, and retrofitting are the largest…

  14. Large-scale brain networks in affective and social neuroscience: towards an integrative functional architecture of the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Lisa Feldman; Satpute, Ajay Bhaskar

    2013-06-01

    Understanding how a human brain creates a human mind ultimately depends on mapping psychological categories and concepts to physical measurements of neural response. Although it has long been assumed that emotional, social, and cognitive phenomena are realized in the operations of separate brain regions or brain networks, we demonstrate that it is possible to understand the body of neuroimaging evidence using a framework that relies on domain general, distributed structure-function mappings. We review current research in affective and social neuroscience and argue that the emerging science of large-scale intrinsic brain networks provides a coherent framework for a domain-general functional architecture of the human brain. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Hybrid Fuzzy Wavelet Neural Networks Architecture Based on Polynomial Neural Networks and Fuzzy Set/Relation Inference-Based Wavelet Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei; Oh, Sung-Kwun; Pedrycz, Witold

    2017-08-11

    This paper presents a hybrid fuzzy wavelet neural network (HFWNN) realized with the aid of polynomial neural networks (PNNs) and fuzzy inference-based wavelet neurons (FIWNs). Two types of FIWNs including fuzzy set inference-based wavelet neurons (FSIWNs) and fuzzy relation inference-based wavelet neurons (FRIWNs) are proposed. In particular, a FIWN without any fuzzy set component (viz., a premise part of fuzzy rule) becomes a wavelet neuron (WN). To alleviate the limitations of the conventional wavelet neural networks or fuzzy wavelet neural networks whose parameters are determined based on a purely random basis, the parameters of wavelet functions standing in FIWNs or WNs are initialized by using the C-Means clustering method. The overall architecture of the HFWNN is similar to the one of the typical PNNs. The main strategies in the design of HFWNN are developed as follows. First, the first layer of the network consists of FIWNs (e.g., FSIWN or FRIWN) that are used to reflect the uncertainty of data, while the second and higher layers consist of WNs, which exhibit a high level of flexibility and realize a linear combination of wavelet functions. Second, the parameters used in the design of the HFWNN are adjusted through genetic optimization. To evaluate the performance of the proposed HFWNN, several publicly available data are considered. Furthermore a thorough comparative analysis is covered.

  16. High-throughput and low-latency 60GHz small-cell network architectures over radio-over-fiber technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleros, N.; Kalfas, G.; Mitsolidou, C.; Vagionas, C.; Tsiokos, D.; Miliou, A.

    2017-01-01

    Future broadband access networks in the 5G framework will need to be bilateral, exploiting both optical and wireless technologies. This paper deals with new approaches and synergies on radio-over-fiber (RoF) technologies and how those can be leveraged to seamlessly converge wireless technology for agility and mobility with passive optical networks (PON)-based backhauling. The proposed convergence paradigm is based upon a holistic network architecture mixing mm-wave wireless access with photonic integration, dynamic capacity allocation and network coding schemes to enable high bandwidth and low-latency fixed and 60GHz wireless personal area communications for gigabit rate per user, proposing and deploying on top a Medium-Transparent MAC (MT-MAC) protocol as a low-latency bandwidth allocation mechanism. We have evaluated alternative network topologies between the central office (CO) and the access point module (APM) for data rates up to 2.5 Gb/s and SC frequencies up to 60 GHz. Optical network coding is demonstrated for SCM-based signaling to enhance bandwidth utilization and facilitate optical-wireless convergence in 5G applications, reporting medium-transparent network coding directly at the physical layer between end-users communicating over a RoF infrastructure. Towards equipping the physical layer with the appropriate agility to support MT-MAC protocols, a monolithic InP-based Remote Antenna Unit optoelectronic PIC interface is shown that ensures control over the optical resource allocation assisting at the same time broadband wireless service. Finally, the MT-MAC protocol is analysed and simulation and analytical theoretical results are presented that are found to be in good agreement confirming latency values lower than 1msec for small- to mid-load conditions.

  17. Designing area optimized application-specific network-on-chip architectures while providing hard QoS guarantees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khawaja, Sajid Gul; Mushtaq, Mian Hamza; Khan, Shoab A; Akram, M Usman; Jamal, Habib Ullah

    2015-01-01

    With the increase of transistors' density, popularity of System on Chip (SoC) has increased exponentially. As a communication module for SoC, Network on Chip (NoC) framework has been adapted as its backbone. In this paper, we propose a methodology for designing area-optimized application specific NoC while providing hard Quality of Service (QoS) guarantees for real time flows. The novelty of the proposed system lies in derivation of a Mixed Integer Linear Programming model which is then used to generate a resource optimal Network on Chip (NoC) topology and architecture while considering traffic and QoS requirements. We also present the micro-architectural design features used for enabling traffic and latency guarantees and discuss how the solution adapts for dynamic variations in the application traffic. The paper highlights the effectiveness of proposed method by generating resource efficient NoC solutions for both industrial and benchmark applications. The area-optimized results are generated in few seconds by proposed technique, without resorting to heuristics, even for an application with 48 traffic flows.

  18. Energy-Efficient Transmissions for Remote Wireless Sensor Networks: An Integrated HAP/Satellite Architecture for Emergency Scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Feihong; Li, Hongjun; Gong, Xiangwu; Liu, Quan; Wang, Jingchao

    2015-09-03

    A typical application scenario of remote wireless sensor networks (WSNs) is identified as an emergency scenario. One of the greatest design challenges for communications in emergency scenarios is energy-efficient transmission, due to scarce electrical energy in large-scale natural and man-made disasters. Integrated high altitude platform (HAP)/satellite networks are expected to optimally meet emergency communication requirements. In this paper, a novel integrated HAP/satellite (IHS) architecture is proposed, and three segments of the architecture are investigated in detail. The concept of link-state advertisement (LSA) is designed in a slow flat Rician fading channel. The LSA is received and processed by the terminal to estimate the link state information, which can significantly reduce the energy consumption at the terminal end. Furthermore, the transmission power requirements of the HAPs and terminals are derived using the gradient descent and differential equation methods. The energy consumption is modeled at both the source and system level. An innovative and adaptive algorithm is given for the energy-efficient path selection. The simulation results validate the effectiveness of the proposed adaptive algorithm. It is shown that the proposed adaptive algorithm can significantly improve energy efficiency when combined with the LSA and the energy consumption estimation.

  19. A Novel QKD-based Secure Edge Router Architecture Design for Burst Confidentiality in Optical Burst Switched Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balamurugan, A. M.; Sivasubramanian, A.

    2014-06-01

    The Optical Burst Switching (OBS) is an emergent result to the technology issue that could achieve a viable network in future. They have the ability to meet the bandwidth requisite of those applications that call for intensive bandwidth. The field of optical transmission has undergone numerous advancements and is still being researched mainly due to the fact that optical data transmission can be done at enormous speeds. The concept of OBS is still far from perfection facing issues in case of security threat. The transfer of optical switching paradigm to optical burst switching faces serious downfall in the fields of burst aggregation, routing, authentication, dispute resolution and quality of service (QoS). This paper proposes a framework based on QKD based secure edge router architecture design to provide burst confidentiality. The QKD protocol offers high level of confidentiality as it is indestructible. The design architecture was implemented in FPGA using diverse models and the results were taken. The results show that the proposed model is suitable for real time secure routing applications of the Optical burst switched networks.

  20. Energy-Efficient Transmissions for Remote Wireless Sensor Networks: An Integrated HAP/Satellite Architecture for Emergency Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feihong Dong

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A typical application scenario of remote wireless sensor networks (WSNs is identified as an emergency scenario. One of the greatest design challenges for communications in emergency scenarios is energy-efficient transmission, due to scarce electrical energy in large-scale natural and man-made disasters. Integrated high altitude platform (HAP/satellite networks are expected to optimally meet emergency communication requirements. In this paper, a novel integrated HAP/satellite (IHS architecture is proposed, and three segments of the architecture are investigated in detail. The concept of link-state advertisement (LSA is designed in a slow flat Rician fading channel. The LSA is received and processed by the terminal to estimate the link state information, which can significantly reduce the energy consumption at the terminal end. Furthermore, the transmission power requirements of the HAPs and terminals are derived using the gradient descent and differential equation methods. The energy consumption is modeled at both the source and system level. An innovative and adaptive algorithm is given for the energy-efficient path selection. The simulation results validate the effectiveness of the proposed adaptive algorithm. It is shown that the proposed adaptive algorithm can significantly improve energy efficiency when combined with the LSA and the energy consumption estimation.

  1. Designing area optimized application-specific network-on-chip architectures while providing hard QoS guarantees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajid Gul Khawaja

    Full Text Available With the increase of transistors' density, popularity of System on Chip (SoC has increased exponentially. As a communication module for SoC, Network on Chip (NoC framework has been adapted as its backbone. In this paper, we propose a methodology for designing area-optimized application specific NoC while providing hard Quality of Service (QoS guarantees for real time flows. The novelty of the proposed system lies in derivation of a Mixed Integer Linear Programming model which is then used to generate a resource optimal Network on Chip (NoC topology and architecture while considering traffic and QoS requirements. We also present the micro-architectural design features used for enabling traffic and latency guarantees and discuss how the solution adapts for dynamic variations in the application traffic. The paper highlights the effectiveness of proposed method by generating resource efficient NoC solutions for both industrial and benchmark applications. The area-optimized results are generated in few seconds by proposed technique, without resorting to heuristics, even for an application with 48 traffic flows.

  2. Matching supply networks to a modular product architecture in the house-building industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofman, Erwin; Voordijk, Johannes T.; Halman, Johannes I.M.

    2009-01-01

    Notions of aligning modular product architectures and buyer-supplier relationships, which have spread widely through other industrial and retail sectors, have largely bypassed the house-building industry. The major question posed in this study is: what types of contractor-supplier relationships are

  3. Impaired topological architecture of brain structural networks in idiopathic Parkinson's disease: a DTI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Changhong; Huang, Biao; Zhang, Ruibin; Ma, Qing; Yang, Wanqun; Wang, Lijuan; Wang, Limin; Xu, Qin; Feng, Jieying; Liu, Liqing; Zhang, Yuhu; Huang, Ruiwang

    2017-02-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is considered as a neurodegenerative disorder of the brain central nervous system. But, to date, few studies adopted the network model to reveal topological changes in brain structural networks in PD patients. Additionally, although the concept of rich club organization has been widely used to study brain networks in various brain disorders, there is no study to report the changed rich club organization of brain networks in PD patients. Thus, we collected diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data from 35 PD patients and 26 healthy controls and adopted deterministic tractography to construct brain structural networks. During the network analysis, we calculated their topological properties, and built the rich club organization of brain structural networks for both subject groups. By comparing the between-group differences in topological properties and rich club organizations, we found that the connectivity strength of the feeder and local connections are lower in PD patients compared to those of the healthy controls. Furthermore, using a network-based statistic (NBS) approach, we identified uniformly significantly decreased connections in two modules, the limbic/paralimbic/subcortical module and the cognitive control/attention module, in patients compared to controls. In addition, for the topological properties of brain network topology in the PD patients, we found statistically increased shortest path length and decreased global efficiency. Statistical comparisons of nodal properties were also widespread in the frontal and parietal regions for the PD patients. These findings may provide useful information to better understand the abnormalities of brain structural networks in PD patients.

  4. Driving and driven architectures of directed small-world human brain functional networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaogan Yan

    Full Text Available Recently, increasing attention has been focused on the investigation of the human brain connectome that describes the patterns of structural and functional connectivity networks of the human brain. Many studies of the human connectome have demonstrated that the brain network follows a small-world topology with an intrinsically cohesive modular structure and includes several network hubs in the medial parietal regions. However, most of these studies have only focused on undirected connections between regions in which the directions of information flow are not taken into account. How the brain regions causally influence each other and how the directed network of human brain is topologically organized remain largely unknown. Here, we applied linear multivariate Granger causality analysis (GCA and graph theoretical approaches to a resting-state functional MRI dataset with a large cohort of young healthy participants (n = 86 to explore connectivity patterns of the population-based whole-brain functional directed network. This directed brain network exhibited prominent small-world properties, which obviously improved previous results of functional MRI studies showing weak small-world properties in the directed brain networks in terms of a kernel-based GCA and individual analysis. This brain network also showed significant modular structures associated with 5 well known subsystems: fronto-parietal, visual, paralimbic/limbic, subcortical and primary systems. Importantly, we identified several driving hubs predominantly located in the components of the attentional network (e.g., the inferior frontal gyrus, supplementary motor area, insula and fusiform gyrus and several driven hubs predominantly located in the components of the default mode network (e.g., the precuneus, posterior cingulate gyrus, medial prefrontal cortex and inferior parietal lobule. Further split-half analyses indicated that our results were highly reproducible between two

  5. On design and evaluation of tapped-delay neural network architectures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svarer, Claus; Hansen, Lars Kai; Larsen, Jan

    1993-01-01

    Pruning and evaluation of tapped-delay neural networks for the sunspot benchmark series are addressed. It is shown that the generalization ability of the networks can be improved by pruning using the optimal brain damage method of Le Cun, Denker and Solla. A stop criterion for the pruning algorithm...

  6. Critical thresholds and dynamical network states in a neural architecture for cognitive tasks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Pieter

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive tasks are represented in a network, in which: - Nodes correspond to cell-assemblies with a critical threshold, which enables explanation of various psychological phenomena, like priming. - Dynamical network states (excitation loops) can propagate in specific, task-dependent ways ranging

  7. Live Migration Downtime Analysis of a VNF Guest for a Proposed Optical FMC Network Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andrus, Bogdan-Mihai; Autenrieth, A.; Pachnicke, S.

    2016-01-01

    Fixed Mobile Convergence (FMC) implies use of a shared optical fronthaul network infrastructure able to carry transparently both fixed and mobile traffic including Wi-Fi, Mobile and fixed Ethernet. Network Function Virtualization (NFV) is a main enabler for FMC using a shared infrastructure...

  8. An Architecture for the Self-management of Lambda-Connections in Hybrid Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fioreze, Tiago; van de Meent, R.; Pras, Aiko

    Hybrid networks are networks capable of switching data at multiple levels (optical and IP packet level) by means of multi-service optical switches. As a result of that, huge flows at the IP-level may be moved to the optical-level, which is faster than the packet-level. Such move could be beneficial

  9. Architecture Design and Experimental Platform Demonstration of Optical Network based on OpenFlow Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Fangyuan; Wang, Honghuan; Yin, Hongxi; Li, Ming; Luo, Shenzi; Wu, Chenguang

    2016-02-01

    With the extensive application of cloud computing and data centres, as well as the constantly emerging services, the big data with the burst characteristic has brought huge challenges to optical networks. Consequently, the software defined optical network (SDON) that combines optical networks with software defined network (SDN), has attracted much attention. In this paper, an OpenFlow-enabled optical node employed in optical cross-connect (OXC) and reconfigurable optical add/drop multiplexer (ROADM), is proposed. An open source OpenFlow controller is extended on routing strategies. In addition, the experiment platform based on OpenFlow protocol for software defined optical network, is designed. The feasibility and availability of the OpenFlow-enabled optical nodes and the extended OpenFlow controller are validated by the connectivity test, protection switching and load balancing experiments in this test platform.

  10. Robust Network Architecture Against Random Threats in WMD Environments: Theoretical Limits and Recovery Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    help us understand how a social environment evolves so that we are able to make predictions about its impact. Moreover, we might even learn how to...Mika, B. Schlkopf, and R. Williamson, “ Regularized principal manifolds,” Journal of Machine Learning Research,, vol. 1, pp. 179–209, June 2001. [74] H...Architecture Against Random Threats in WMD Environments : Theoretical Limits and Recovery Strategies Distribution Statement A. Approved for public

  11. AziSA: An architecture for underground measurement and control networks - 2nd CSIR Biennial Conference

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Stewart, R

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available . Detectors are attached to such sensors, each transducer measuring an aspect of the surrounding environment. In addition to accurate measurements with adequate precision, data integrity requires that both the time and the location of each measurement... this information itself (in which case, this information becomes the responsibility of the parent aggregator). A system developed from the AziSA architecture must be robust, since it is required to continue monitoring potentially hazardous conditions and provide...

  12. Architecture of transcriptional regulatory circuits is knitted over the topology of bio-molecular interaction networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soberano de Oliveira, Ana Paula; Patil, Kiran Raosaheb; Nielsen, Jens

    2008-01-01

    is to use the topology of bio-molecular interaction networks in order to constrain the solution space. Such approaches systematically integrate the existing biological knowledge with the 'omics' data. Results: Here we introduce a hypothesis-driven method that integrates bio-molecular network topology...... Factors, Reporter Proteins and Reporter Complexes, and use this to decipher the logic of regulatory circuits playing a key role in yeast glucose repression and human diabetes. Conclusion: Reporter Features offer the opportunity to identify regulatory hot-spots in bio-molecular interaction networks...

  13. Using elements of game engine architecture to simulate sensor networks for eldercare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godsey, Chad; Skubic, Marjorie

    2009-01-01

    When dealing with a real time sensor network, building test data with a known ground truth is a tedious and cumbersome task. In order to quickly build test data for such a network, a simulation solution is a viable option. Simulation environments have a close relationship with computer game environments, and therefore there is much to be learned from game engine design. In this paper, we present our vision for a simulated in-home sensor network and describe ongoing work on using elements of game engines for building the simulator. Validation results are included to show agreement on motion sensor simulation with the physical environment.

  14. Lithosphere-to-Ionosphere Plug-and-Play Architecture (LION-PNP): Sensor Networking Made Cheap and Easy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darling, N.; Mendez, J. S.; Manes, C.

    2013-12-01

    The lack of rapidly reconfigurable and easily deployable instrumentation packages often results in information loss during unannounced or time-critical geophysical events such as spaceweather flare-ups, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and tsunamis. While increasingly powerful and sensitive sensor technologies have been created in the last years to study our planet, robust, yet simple and cost-effective, mechanical, electrical, and data interfaces between these devices and the user (scientist) have yet to be developed. To address this problem, we present the LIthosphere-to-IOnosphere Plug-aNd-Play architecture (LION-PNP), a complete, low cost integration protocol for space, atmospheric, and terrestrial sensor networks. Similar to the USB plug-and-play protocols created for personal computers, LION-PNP offers geophysicists and space scientists the ability to assemble and operate complex sensor packages by simply 'plugging' devices (magnetometers, seismometers, GPS, spectrometers, etc) into a centralized Command and Data Handling unit (CDH). LION-PNP accomplishes this by inserting a Generic Sensor Interpreter (GSI) between the back-end of a device and the CDH. The GSI allows the CDH to automatically configure a sensor without requiring the user to manually install drivers. Furthermore, LION-PNP supports a number wireless networking protocols, allowing arrays of sensor nodes to be deployed rapidly over an area of interest. Finally, LION is compatible with the Android operating system, allowing the user to rapidly visualize, store and distribute data. In the following work, we report on the development of LION-PNP. To validate our hardware and software interfaces, we flew a small 4-point LION network on a multiple high altitude balloon launch. For this campaign, each node carried an array of sensors, including a magnetometer, temperature and pressure sensors, as well as GPS. The LION plug-and-play system allowed us to compose the network minutes before launch. Once in

  15. Significantly enhanced creep resistance of low volume fraction in-situ TiBw/Ti6Al4V composites by architectured network reinforcements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S; Huang, L J; Geng, L; Scarpa, F; Jiao, Y; Peng, H X

    2017-01-17

    We present a new class of TiBw/Ti6Al4V composites with a network reinforcement architecture that exhibits a significant creep resistance compared to monolithic Ti6Al4V alloys. Creep tests performed at temperatures between 773 K and 923 K and stress range of 100 MPa-300 MPa indicate both a significant improvement of the composites creep resistance due to the network architecture made by the TiB whiskers (TiBw), and a decrease of the steady-state creep rates by augmenting the local volume fractions of TiBw in the network region. The deformation behavior is driven by a diffusion-controlled dislocation climb process. Moreover, the activation energies of these composites are significantly higher than that of Ti6Al4V alloys, indicating a higher creep resistance. The increase of the activation energy can be attributed to the TiBw architecture that severely impedes the movements of dislocation and grain boundary sliding and provides a tailoring of the stress transfer. These micromechanical mechanisms lead to a remarkable improvement of the creep resistance of these networked TiBw/Ti6Al4V composites featuring the special networked architecture.

  16. Significantly enhanced creep resistance of low volume fraction in-situ TiBw/Ti6Al4V composites by architectured network reinforcements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S.; Huang, L. J.; Geng, L.; Scarpa, F.; Jiao, Y.; Peng, H. X.

    2017-01-01

    We present a new class of TiBw/Ti6Al4V composites with a network reinforcement architecture that exhibits a significant creep resistance compared to monolithic Ti6Al4V alloys. Creep tests performed at temperatures between 773 K and 923 K and stress range of 100 MPa-300 MPa indicate both a significant improvement of the composites creep resistance due to the network architecture made by the TiB whiskers (TiBw), and a decrease of the steady-state creep rates by augmenting the local volume fractions of TiBw in the network region. The deformation behavior is driven by a diffusion-controlled dislocation climb process. Moreover, the activation energies of these composites are significantly higher than that of Ti6Al4V alloys, indicating a higher creep resistance. The increase of the activation energy can be attributed to the TiBw architecture that severely impedes the movements of dislocation and grain boundary sliding and provides a tailoring of the stress transfer. These micromechanical mechanisms lead to a remarkable improvement of the creep resistance of these networked TiBw/Ti6Al4V composites featuring the special networked architecture.

  17. The Data Warehouse in Service Oriented Architectures and Network Centric Warfare

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lenahan, Jack

    2005-01-01

    Since Network Centric Warfare (NCW) theory stresses shared understanding, command dispersal, and improved situational awareness does it not follow then, that data availability, mining, and superior analytics must be available at all...

  18. Impaired Long Distance Functional Connectivity and Weighted Network Architecture in Alzheimer's Disease

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liu, Yong; Yu, Chunshui; Zhang, Xinqing; Liu, Jieqiong; Duan, Yunyun; Alexander-Bloch, Aaron F; Liu, Bing; Jiang, Tianzi; Bullmore, Ed

    2014-01-01

    .... We explored abnormal functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) resting-state dynamics, functional connectivity, and weighted functional networks, in a sample of patients with severe AD (N = 18...

  19. Analysis of network architecture reveals phylogenetic constraints on mycorrhizal specificity in the genus Orchis (Orchidaceae)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hans Jacquemyn; Vincent Merckx; Rein Brys; Daniel Tyteca; Bruno P. A. Cammue; Olivier Honnay; Bart Lievens

    2011-01-01

    ... of the mycorrhizal specificity of orchids. Here, we used a network analysis approach to investigate orchid mycorrhizal associations in 16 species of the genus Orchis sampled across 11 different regions in Europe...

  20. Extending Wireless Broadband Network Architectures with Home Gateways, Localization, and Physical Environment Surveillance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelling Kristoffersen, Kåre; Kjærgaard, Mikkel Baun; Chen, Jianjun

    2005-01-01

    is initially demonstrated in a 52 DECT base station installation covering four office buildings of total 4500 m2 . Finally the paper proposes the application of a commercial off-the-shelf wireless broadband network as a sensor network, without any additional hardware, for physical intrusion detection of e...... on the network. Then the extension of a DECT network into determining the location of DECT terminals, aiming at the design of a location based system is described. The location method is based on the received signal strength measurements in the DECT clients communication with the base stations. The localization.......g. an indoor site. It is demonstrated how it can be used for detecting door opening and person passing, in an environment of 243 m2 with three rooms and a corridor, using three low cost access points....

  1. Design of a stateless low-latency router architecture for green software-defined networking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldaña Cercós, Silvia; Ramos, Ramon M.; Ewald Eller, Ana C.; Martinello, Magnos; Ribeiro, Moisés. R. N.; Manolova Fagertun, Anna; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso

    2015-01-01

    Expanding software defined networking (SDN) to transport networks requires new strategies to deal with the large number of flows that future core networks will have to face. New south-bound protocols within SDN have been proposed to benefit from having control plane detached from the data plane offering a cost- and energy-efficient forwarding engine. This paper presents an overview of a new approach named KeyFlow to simultaneously reduce latency, jitter, and power consumption in core network nodes. Results on an emulation platform indicate that round trip time (RTT) can be reduced above 50% compared to the reference protocol OpenFlow, specially when flow tables are densely populated. Jitter reduction has been demonstrated experimentally on a NetFPGA-based platform, and 57.3% power consumption reduction has been achieved.

  2. Mapping, Awareness, and Virtualization Network Administrator Training Tool (MAVNATT) Architecture and Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    exporting, and sharing? 2. What are suitable libraries and application program interfaces (APIs) that can be utilized to create a graphical user...capable of all network monitoring areas and can also perform integrated network discovery with SNMP, LDAP, ICMP, SSH , and other protocols [24], [27], [28...based Mapping Yes (ICMP, SNMP, WMI) Yes (Plugin Dependent) Yes (ICMP, SNMP, WMI, LDAP, SSH ) 24 3. Virtualization Virtualization tools

  3. Automated analysis of information processing, kinetic independence and modular architecture in biochemical networks using MIDIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowsher, Clive G

    2011-02-15

    Understanding the encoding and propagation of information by biochemical reaction networks and the relationship of such information processing properties to modular network structure is of fundamental importance in the study of cell signalling and regulation. However, a rigorous, automated approach for general biochemical networks has not been available, and high-throughput analysis has therefore been out of reach. Modularization Identification by Dynamic Independence Algorithms (MIDIA) is a user-friendly, extensible R package that performs automated analysis of how information is processed by biochemical networks. An important component is the algorithm's ability to identify exact network decompositions based on both the mass action kinetics and informational properties of the network. These modularizations are visualized using a tree structure from which important dynamic conditional independence properties can be directly read. Only partial stoichiometric information needs to be used as input to MIDIA, and neither simulations nor knowledge of rate parameters are required. When applied to a signalling network, for example, the method identifies the routes and species involved in the sequential propagation of information between its multiple inputs and outputs. These routes correspond to the relevant paths in the tree structure and may be further visualized using the Input-Output Path Matrix tool. MIDIA remains computationally feasible for the largest network reconstructions currently available and is straightforward to use with models written in Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML). The package is distributed under the GNU General Public License and is available, together with a link to browsable Supplementary Material, at http://code.google.com/p/midia. Further information is at www.maths.bris.ac.uk/~macgb/Software.html.

  4. System Architecture and Key Technologies for 5G Heterogeneous Cloud Radio Access Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Peng, Mugen; Li, Yong; Zhao, Zhongyuan; Wang, Chonggang

    2014-01-01

    Compared with the fourth generation (4G) cellular systems, the fifth generation wireless communication systems (5G) are anticipated to provide spectral and energy efficiency growth by a factor of at least 10, and the area throughput growth by a factor of at least 25. To achieve these goals, a heterogeneous cloud radio access network (H-CRAN) is presented in this article as the advanced wireless access network paradigm, where cloud computing is used to fulfill the centralized large-scale coope...

  5. WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKSARCHITECTURE, SECURITY REQUIREMENTS, SECURITY THREATS AND ITS COUNTERMEASURES

    OpenAIRE

    Ranjit Panigrahi; Kalpana Sharma; Ghose, M. K.

    2013-01-01

    Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) has a huge range of applications such as battlefield, surveillance, emergency rescue operation and smart home technology etc. Apart from its inherent constraints such as limited memory and energy resources, when deployed in hostile environmental conditions, the sensor nodes are vulnerable to physical capture and other security constraints. These constraints put security as a major challenge for the researchers in the field of computer networking. T...

  6. Network Analysis and Application Control Software based on Client-Server Architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Mohan, Ramya

    2013-01-01

    This paper outlines a comprehensive model to increase system efficiency, preserve network bandwidth, monitor incoming and outgoing packets, ensure the security of confidential files and reduce power wastage in an organization. This model illustrates the use and potential application of a Network Analysis Tool (NAT) in a multi-computer set-up of any scale. The model is designed to run in the background and not hamper any currently executing applications, while using minimum system resources. I...

  7. Novel architectures and operation modes of Distribution Network to increase DG integration

    OpenAIRE

    Hadjsaid, Nouredine; Alvarez-Hérault, Marie-Cécile; Caire, Raphaël; Raison, Bertrand; Descloux, Justine; Bienia, Wojciech

    2010-01-01

    International audience; Nowadays, distribution networks are facing tremendous challenges. Actually, the opening of the energy market, the wish to preserve the environment and the reduction of fossil energy stocks have lead to use more and more distributed, renewable and local energy resources, such as wind and photovoltaic generators. These generating units are mostly connected to the distribution networks. With the increase of the penetration rate of these generation facilities, the traditio...

  8. Research on architecture of intelligent design platform for artificial neural network expert system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Honghong

    2017-09-01

    Based on the review of the development and current situation of CAD technology, the necessity of combination of artificial neural network and expert system, and then present an intelligent design system based on artificial neural network. Moreover, it discussed the feasibility of realization of a design-oriented expert system development tools on the basis of above combination. In addition, knowledge representation strategy and method and the solving process are given in this paper.

  9. Functional network architecture predicts psychologically mediated analgesia related to treatment in chronic knee pain patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashmi, Javeria Ali; Kong, Jian; Spaeth, Rosa; Khan, Sheraz; Kaptchuk, Ted J; Gollub, Randy L

    2014-03-12

    Placebo analgesia is an indicator of how efficiently the brain translates psychological signals conveyed by a treatment procedure into pain relief. It has been demonstrated that functional connectivity between distributed brain regions predicts placebo analgesia in chronic back pain patients. Greater network efficiency in baseline brain networks may allow better information transfer and facilitate adaptive physiological responses to psychological aspects of treatment. Here, we theorized that topological network alignments in resting state scans predict psychologically conditioned analgesic responses to acupuncture treatment in chronic knee osteoarthritis pain patients (n = 45). Analgesia was induced by building positive expectations toward acupuncture treatment with verbal suggestion and heat pain conditioning on a test site of the arm. This procedure induced significantly more analgesia after sham or real acupuncture on the test site than in a control site. The psychologically conditioned analgesia was invariant to sham versus real treatment. Efficiency of information transfer within local networks calculated with graph-theoretic measures (local efficiency and clustering coefficients) significantly predicted conditioned analgesia. Clustering coefficients in regions associated with memory, motivation, and pain modulation were closely involved in predicting analgesia. Moreover, women showed higher clustering coefficients and marginally greater pain reduction than men. Overall, analgesic response to placebo cues can be predicted from a priori resting state data by observing local network topology. Such low-cost synchronizations may represent preparatory resources that facilitate subsequent performance of brain circuits in responding to adaptive environmental cues. This suggests a potential utility of network measures in predicting placebo response for clinical use.

  10. On the performance of a scalable optical switching architecture for flat intercluster data center network with centralized control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Qian; Huang, Shanguo; Zhou, Yu; Guo, Bingli; Zhao, Yongli; Zhang, Min; Zhang, Jie; Gu, Wanyi

    2014-07-01

    Data centers have to sustain the rapid growth of data traffic due to the increasing demand of bandwidth-hungry Internet services. The current fat tree topology causes communication bottlenecks in the server interaction process, resulting in power-hungry O-E-O conversions that limit the minimum latency and the power efficiency of these systems. As a result, recent efforts have advocated that all optical data center networks (DCNs) have the capability to adapt to traffic requirements on demand. We present the design, implementation, and evaluation of a cascaded microelectromechanical systems switches-based DCN architecture which dynamically changes its topology and link capacities, thereby achieving unprecedented flexibility to adapt to dynamic traffic patterns. We analyze it under a data center traffic model to determine its suitability for this type of environment. The proposed architecture can be scaled to 3300 input/output ports by available experimental components with low blocking probability and latency. The blocking probability and latency are about 0.03 and 72 ms at a moderate traffic load for 32 input/output ports based on our numerical results, which are much smaller than the results for 4 input/output ports which are 0.13 and 235 ms, respectively.

  11. Network Function Virtualization (NFV) based architecture to address connectivity, interoperability and manageability challenges in Internet of Things (IoT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haseeb, Shariq; Hashim, Aisha Hassan A.; Khalifa, Othman O.; Faris Ismail, Ahmad

    2017-11-01

    IoT aims to interconnect sensors and actuators built into devices (also known as Things) in order for them to share data and control each other to improve existing processes for making people’s life better. IoT aims to connect between all physical devices like fridges, cars, utilities, buildings and cities so that they can take advantage of small pieces of information collected by each one of these devices and derive more complex decisions. However, these devices are heterogeneous in nature because of various vendor support, connectivity options and protocol suit. Heterogeneity of such devices makes it difficult for them to leverage on each other’s capabilities in the traditional IoT architecture. This paper highlights the effects of heterogeneity challenges on connectivity, interoperability, management in greater details. It also surveys some of the existing solutions adopted in the core network to solve the challenges of massive IoT deployments. Finally, the paper proposes a new architecture based on NFV to address the problems.

  12. Homogeneous and Heterogeneous MPSoC Architectures with Network-On-Chip Connectivity for Low-Power and Real-Time Multimedia Signal Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Saponara

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Two multiprocessor system-on-chip (MPSoC architectures are proposed and compared in the paper with reference to audio and video processing applications. One architecture exploits a homogeneous topology; it consists of 8 identical tiles, each made of a 32-bit RISC core enhanced by a 64-bit DSP coprocessor with local memory. The other MPSoC architecture exploits a heterogeneous-tile topology with on-chip distributed memory resources; the tiles act as application specific processors supporting a different class of algorithms. In both architectures, the multiple tiles are interconnected by a network-on-chip (NoC infrastructure, through network interfaces and routers, which allows parallel operations of the multiple tiles. The functional performances and the implementation complexity of the NoC-based MPSoC architectures are assessed by synthesis results in submicron CMOS technology. Among the large set of supported algorithms, two case studies are considered: the real-time implementation of an H.264/MPEG AVC video codec and of a low-distortion digital audio amplifier. The heterogeneous architecture ensures a higher power efficiency and a smaller area occupation and is more suited for low-power multimedia processing, such as in mobile devices. The homogeneous scheme allows for a higher flexibility and easier system scalability and is more suited for general-purpose DSP tasks in power-supplied devices.

  13. Impaired long distance functional connectivity and weighted network architecture in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong; Yu, Chunshui; Zhang, Xinqing; Liu, Jieqiong; Duan, Yunyun; Alexander-Bloch, Aaron F; Liu, Bing; Jiang, Tianzi; Bullmore, Ed

    2014-06-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is increasingly recognized as a disconnection syndrome, which leads to cognitive impairment due to the disruption of functional activity across large networks or systems of interconnected brain regions. We explored abnormal functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) resting-state dynamics, functional connectivity, and weighted functional networks, in a sample of patients with severe AD (N = 18) and age-matched healthy volunteers (N = 21). We found that patients had reduced amplitude and regional homogeneity of low-frequency fMRI oscillations, and reduced the strength of functional connectivity, in several regions previously described as components of the default mode network, for example, medial posterior parietal cortex and dorsal medial prefrontal cortex. In patients with severe AD, functional connectivity was particularly attenuated between regions that were separated by a greater physical distance; and loss of long distance connectivity was associated with less efficient global and nodal network topology. This profile of functional abnormality in severe AD was consistent with the results of a comparable analysis of data on 2 additional groups of patients with mild AD (N = 17) and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI; N = 18). A greater degree of cognitive impairment, measured by the mini-mental state examination across all patient groups, was correlated with greater attenuation of functional connectivity, particularly over long connection distances, for example, between anterior and posterior components of the default mode network, and greater reduction of global and nodal network efficiency. These results indicate that neurodegenerative disruption of fMRI oscillations and connectivity in AD affects long-distance connections to hub nodes, with the consequent loss of network efficiency. This profile was evident also to a lesser degree in the patients with less severe cognitive impairment, indicating that the potential of resting

  14. Early adverse life events are associated with altered brain network architecture in a sex- dependent manner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arpana Gupta, PhD

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Early adverse life events (EALs increase the risk for chronic medical and psychiatric disorders by altering early neurodevelopment. The aim of this study was to examine associations between EALs and network properties of core brain regions in the emotion regulation and salience networks, and to test the influence of sex on these associations. Methods: Resting-state functional and diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging were obtained in healthy individuals (61 men, 63 women. Functional and anatomical network properties of centrality and segregation were calculated for the core regions of the two networks using graph theory. Moderator analyses were applied to test hypotheses. Results: The type of adversity experienced influences brain wiring differently, as higher general EALs were associated with decreased functional and anatomical centrality in salience and emotion regulation regions, while physical and emotional EALs were associated with increased anatomical centrality and segregation in emotion regulation regions. Sex moderated the associations between EALs and measures of centrality; with decreased centrality of salience and emotion regulation regions with increased general EALs in females, and increased centrality in salience regions with higher physical and emotional EALs in males. Increased segregation of salience regions was associated with increased general EALs in males. Centrality of the amygdala was associated with physical symptoms, and segregation of salience regions was correlated with higher somatization in men only. Conclusions: Emotion regulation and salience regions are susceptible to topological brain restructuring associated with EALs. The male and female brains appear to be differently affected by specific types of EALs. Keywords: Early adverse traumatic life events, Centrality, Segregation, Network metrics, Moderating effects of sex, Emotion regulation network, Salience network

  15. Deep architecture neural network-based real-time image processing for image-guided radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Shinichiro

    2017-08-01

    To develop real-time image processing for image-guided radiotherapy, we evaluated several neural network models for use with different imaging modalities, including X-ray fluoroscopic image denoising. Setup images of prostate cancer patients were acquired with two oblique X-ray fluoroscopic units. Two types of residual network were designed: a convolutional autoencoder (rCAE) and a convolutional neural network (rCNN). We changed the convolutional kernel size and number of convolutional layers for both networks, and the number of pooling and upsampling layers for rCAE. The ground-truth image was applied to the contrast-limited adaptive histogram equalization (CLAHE) method of image processing. Network models were trained to keep the quality of the output image close to that of the ground-truth image from the input image without image processing. For image denoising evaluation, noisy input images were used for the training. More than 6 convolutional layers with convolutional kernels >5×5 improved image quality. However, this did not allow real-time imaging. After applying a pair of pooling and upsampling layers to both networks, rCAEs with >3 convolutions each and rCNNs with >12 convolutions with a pair of pooling and upsampling layers achieved real-time processing at 30 frames per second (fps) with acceptable image quality. Use of our suggested network achieved real-time image processing for contrast enhancement and image denoising by the use of a conventional modern personal computer. Copyright © 2017 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Convolutional neural network based deep-learning architecture for prostate cancer detection on multiparametric magnetic resonance images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsehay, Yohannes K.; Lay, Nathan S.; Roth, Holger R.; Wang, Xiaosong; Kwak, Jin Tae; Turkbey, Baris I.; Pinto, Peter A.; Wood, Brad J.; Summers, Ronald M.

    2017-03-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second most common cause of cancer related deaths in men. Multiparametric MRI (mpMRI) is the most accurate imaging method for PCa detection; however, it requires the expertise of experienced radiologists leading to inconsistency across readers of varying experience. To increase inter-reader agreement and sensitivity, we developed a computer-aided detection (CAD) system that can automatically detect lesions on mpMRI that readers can use as a reference. We investigated a convolutional neural network based deep-learing (DCNN) architecture to find an improved solution for PCa detection on mpMRI. We adopted a network architecture from a state-of-the-art edge detector that takes an image as an input and produces an image probability map. Two-fold cross validation along with a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis and free-response ROC (FROC) were used to determine our deep-learning based prostate-CAD's (CADDL) performance. The efficacy was compared to an existing prostate CAD system that is based on hand-crafted features, which was evaluated on the same test-set. CADDL had an 86% detection rate at 20% false-positive rate while the top-down learning CAD had 80% detection rate at the same false-positive rate, which translated to 94% and 85% detection rate at 10 false-positives per patient on the FROC. A CNN based CAD is able to detect cancerous lesions on mpMRI of the prostate with results comparable to an existing prostate-CAD showing potential for further development.

  17. Modelling and Forecasting Cruise Tourism Demand to İzmir by Different Artificial Neural Network Architectures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Cuhadar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cruise ports emerged as an important sector for the economy of Turkey bordered on three sides by water. Forecasting cruise tourism demand ensures better planning, efficient preparation at the destination and it is the basis for elaboration of future plans. In the recent years, new techniques such as; artificial neural networks were employed for developing of the predictive models to estimate tourism demand. In this study, it is aimed to determine the forecasting method that provides the best performance when compared the forecast accuracy of Multi-layer Perceptron (MLP, Radial Basis Function (RBF and Generalized Regression neural network (GRNN to estimate the monthly inbound cruise tourism demand to İzmir via the method giving best results. We used the total number of foreign cruise tourist arrivals as a measure of inbound cruise tourism demand and monthly cruise tourist arrivals to İzmir Cruise Port in the period of January 2005 ‐December 2013 were utilized to appropriate model. Experimental results showed that radial basis function (RBF neural network outperforms multi-layer perceptron (MLP and the generalised regression neural networks (GRNN in terms of forecasting accuracy. By the means of the obtained RBF neural network model, it has been forecasted the monthly inbound cruise tourism demand to İzmir for the year 2014.

  18. Sex differences in the influence of body mass index on anatomical architecture of brain networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, A; Mayer, E A; Hamadani, K; Bhatt, R; Fling, C; Alaverdyan, M; Torgerson, C; Ashe-McNalley, C; Van Horn, J D; Naliboff, B; Tillisch, K; Sanmiguel, C P; Labus, J S

    2017-08-01

    The brain has a central role in regulating ingestive behavior in obesity. Analogous to addiction behaviors, an imbalance in the processing of rewarding and salient stimuli results in maladaptive eating behaviors that override homeostatic needs. We performed network analysis based on graph theory to examine the association between body mass index (BMI) and network measures of integrity, information flow and global communication (centrality) in reward, salience and sensorimotor regions and to identify sex-related differences in these parameters. Structural and diffusion tensor imaging were obtained in a sample of 124 individuals (61 males and 63 females). Graph theory was applied to calculate anatomical network properties (centrality) for regions of the reward, salience and sensorimotor networks. General linear models with linear contrasts were performed to test for BMI and sex-related differences in measures of centrality, while controlling for age. In both males and females, individuals with high BMI (obese and overweight) had greater anatomical centrality (greater connectivity) of reward (putamen) and salience (anterior insula) network regions. Sex differences were observed both in individuals with normal and elevated BMI. In individuals with high BMI, females compared to males showed greater centrality in reward (amygdala, hippocampus and nucleus accumbens) and salience (anterior mid-cingulate cortex) regions, while males compared to females had greater centrality in reward (putamen) and sensorimotor (posterior insula) regions. In individuals with increased BMI, reward, salience and sensorimotor network regions are susceptible to topological restructuring in a sex-related manner. These findings highlight the influence of these regions on integrative processing of food-related stimuli and increased ingestive behavior in obesity, or in the influence of hedonic ingestion on brain topological restructuring. The observed sex differences emphasize the importance of

  19. Bottom-Up Abstract Modelling of Optical Networks-on-Chip: From Physical to Architectural Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Parini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a bottom-up abstraction procedure based on the design-flow FDTD + SystemC suitable for the modelling of optical Networks-on-Chip. In this procedure, a complex network is decomposed into elementary switching elements whose input-output behavior is described by means of scattering parameters models. The parameters of each elementary block are then determined through 2D-FDTD simulation, and the resulting analytical models are exported within functional blocks in SystemC environment. The inherent modularity and scalability of the S-matrix formalism are preserved inside SystemC, thus allowing the incremental composition and successive characterization of complex topologies typically out of reach for full-vectorial electromagnetic simulators. The consistency of the outlined approach is verified, in the first instance, by performing a SystemC analysis of a four-input, four-output ports switch and making a comparison with the results of 2D-FDTD simulations of the same device. Finally, a further complex network encompassing 160 microrings is investigated, the losses over each routing path are calculated, and the minimum amount of power needed to guarantee an assigned BER is determined. This work is a basic step in the direction of an automatic technology-aware network-level simulation framework capable of assembling complex optical switching fabrics, while at the same time assessing the practical feasibility and effectiveness at the physical/technological level.

  20. Fixed latency on-chip interconnect for hardware spiking neural network architectures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pande, Sandeep; Morgan, Fearghal; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria; Bruintjes, Tom; Rutgers, J.H.; Cawley, Seamus; Harkin, Jim; McDaid, Liam

    Information in a Spiking Neural Network (SNN) is encoded as the relative timing between spikes. Distortion in spike timings can impact the accuracy of SNN operation by modifying the precise firing time of neurons within the SNN. Maintaining the integrity of spike timings is crucial for reliable

  1. Micro-grid platform based on NODE.JS architecture, implemented in electrical network instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duque, M.; Cando, E.; Aguinaga, A.; Llulluna, F.; Jara, N.; Moreno, T.

    2016-05-01

    In this document, I propose a theory about the impact of systems based on microgrids in non-industrialized countries that have the goal to improve energy exploitation through alternatives methods of a clean and renewable energy generation and the creation of the app to manage the behavior of the micro-grids based on the NodeJS, Django and IOJS technologies. The micro-grids allow the optimal way to manage energy flow by electric injection directly in electric network small urban's cells in a low cost and available way. In difference from conventional systems, micro-grids can communicate between them to carry energy to places that have higher demand in accurate moments. This system does not require energy storage, so, costs are lower than conventional systems like fuel cells, solar panels or else; even though micro-grids are independent systems, they are not isolated. The impact that this analysis will generate, is the improvement of the electrical network without having greater control than an intelligent network (SMART-GRID); this leads to move to a 20% increase in energy use in a specified network; that suggest there are others sources of energy generation; but for today's needs, we need to standardize methods and remain in place to support all future technologies and the best option are the Smart Grids and Micro-Grids.

  2. Inter-Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks: From the Ground Truth to Algorithm Design and Testbed Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, Eugenio

    2011-01-01

    Many of the devices we interact with on a daily basis are currently equipped with wireless connectivity. Soon this will be extended to the vehicles we drive/ride every day. Wirelessly connected vehicles will form a new kind of network that will enable a wide set of innovative applications ranging from enhanced safety to entertainment. To…

  3. Low surface energy rubber materials : relationship between network architecture and tack of silicone rubbers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mikrut, M.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this work was to investigate the relationship between different factors characterizing the network structure on the tackiness of silicone rubber (PDMS). A custom tack testing device was constructed, based on the existing Tel-Tak principle. The experimental work involved testing the

  4. Architecture of transcriptional regulatory circuits is knitted over the topology of bio-molecular interaction networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nielsen Jens

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Uncovering the operating principles underlying cellular processes by using 'omics' data is often a difficult task due to the high-dimensionality of the solution space that spans all interactions among the bio-molecules under consideration. A rational way to overcome this problem is to use the topology of bio-molecular interaction networks in order to constrain the solution space. Such approaches systematically integrate the existing biological knowledge with the 'omics' data. Results Here we introduce a hypothesis-driven method that integrates bio-molecular network topology with transcriptome data, thereby allowing the identification of key biological features (Reporter Features around which transcriptional changes are significantly concentrated. We have combined transcriptome data with different biological networks in order to identify Reporter Gene Ontologies, Reporter Transcription Factors, Reporter Proteins and Reporter Complexes, and use this to decipher the logic of regulatory circuits playing a key role in yeast glucose repression and human diabetes. Conclusion Reporter Features offer the opportunity to identify regulatory hot-spots in bio-molecular interaction networks that are significantly affected between or across conditions. Results of the Reporter Feature analysis not only provide a snapshot of the transcriptional regulatory program but also are biologically easy to interpret and provide a powerful way to generate new hypotheses. Our Reporter Features analyses of yeast glucose repression and human diabetes data brings hints towards the understanding of the principles of transcriptional regulation controlling these two important and potentially closely related systems.

  5. Matrix stiffness modulates formation and activity of neuronal networks of controlled architectures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantoine, Joséphine; Grevesse, Thomas; Villers, Agnès; Delhaye, Geoffrey; Mestdagh, Camille; Versaevel, Marie; Mohammed, Danahe; Bruyère, Céline; Alaimo, Laura; Lacour, Stéphanie P; Ris, Laurence; Gabriele, Sylvain

    2016-05-01

    The ability to construct easily in vitro networks of primary neurons organized with imposed topologies is required for neural tissue engineering as well as for the development of neuronal interfaces with desirable characteristics. However, accumulating evidence suggests that the mechanical properties of the culture matrix can modulate important neuronal functions such as growth, extension, branching and activity. Here we designed robust and reproducible laminin-polylysine grid micropatterns on cell culture substrates that have similar biochemical properties but a 100-fold difference in Young's modulus to investigate the role of the matrix rigidity on the formation and activity of cortical neuronal networks. We found that cell bodies of primary cortical neurons gradually accumulate in circular islands, whereas axonal extensions spread on linear tracks to connect circular islands. Our findings indicate that migration of cortical neurons is enhanced on soft substrates, leading to a faster formation of neuronal networks. Furthermore, the pre-synaptic density was two times higher on stiff substrates and consistently the number of action potentials and miniature synaptic currents was enhanced on stiff substrates. Taken together, our results provide compelling evidence to indicate that matrix stiffness is a key parameter to modulate the growth dynamics, synaptic density and electrophysiological activity of cortical neuronal networks, thus providing useful information on scaffold design for neural tissue engineering. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Architectural and Mobility Management Designs in Internet-Based Infrastructure Wireless Mesh Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Weiyi

    2011-01-01

    Wireless mesh networks (WMNs) have recently emerged to be a cost-effective solution to support large-scale wireless Internet access. They have numerous applications, such as broadband Internet access, building automation, and intelligent transportation systems. One research challenge for Internet-based WMNs is to design efficient mobility…

  7. The origin of modern metabolic networks inferred from phylogenomic analysis of protein architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caetano-Anollés, Gustavo; Kim, Hee Shin; Mittenthal, Jay E

    2007-05-29

    Metabolism represents a complex collection of enzymatic reactions and transport processes that convert metabolites into molecules capable of supporting cellular life. Here we explore the origins and evolution of modern metabolism. Using phylogenomic information linked to the structure of metabolic enzymes, we sort out recruitment processes and discover that most enzymatic activities were associated with the nine most ancient and widely distributed protein fold architectures. An analysis of newly discovered functions showed enzymatic diversification occurred early, during the onset of the modern protein world. Most importantly, phylogenetic reconstruction exercises and other evidence suggest strongly that metabolism originated in enzymes with the P-loop hydrolase fold in nucleotide metabolism, probably in pathways linked to the purine metabolic subnetwork. Consequently, the first enzymatic takeover of an ancient biochemistry or prebiotic chemistry was related to the synthesis of nucleotides for the RNA world.

  8. New Architecture of Optical Interconnect for High-Speed Optical Computerized Data Networks (Nonlinear Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Sayed A. El-Badawy

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Although research into the use of optics in computers has increased in the last and current decades, the fact remains that electronics is still superior to optics in almost every way. Research into the use of optics at this stage mirrors the research into electronics after the 2nd World War. The advantages of using fiber optics over wiring are the same as the argument for using optics over electronics in computers. Even through totally optical computers are now a reality, computers that combine both electronics and optics, electro-optic hybrids, have been in use for some time. In the present paper, architecture of optical interconnect is built up on the bases of four Vertical-Cavity Surface- Emitting Laser Diodes (VCSELD and two optical links where thermal effects of both the diodes and the links are included. Nonlinear relations are correlated to investigate the power-current and the voltage-current dependences of the four devices. The good performance (high speed of the interconnect is deeply and parametrically investigated under wide ranges of the affecting parameters. The high speed performance is processed through three different effects, namely the device 3-dB bandwidth, the link dispersion characteristics, and the transmitted bit rate (soliton. Eight combinations are investigated; each possesses its own characteristics. The best architecture is the one composed of VCSELD that operates at 850 nm and the silica fiber whatever the operating set of causes. This combination possesses the largest device 3-dB bandwidth, the largest link bandwidth and the largest soliton transmitted bit rate. The increase of the ambient temperature reduces the high-speed performance of the interconnect

  9. Prototyping a Web-of-Energy Architecture for Smart Integration of Sensor Networks in Smart Grids Domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero, Víctor; Vernet, David; Zaballos, Agustín; Corral, Guiomar

    2018-01-30

    Sensor networks and the Internet of Things have driven the evolution of traditional electric power distribution networks towards a new paradigm referred to as Smart Grid. However, the different elements that compose the Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) layer of a Smart Grid are usually conceived as isolated systems that typically result in rigid hardware architectures which are hard to interoperate, manage, and to adapt to new situations. If the Smart Grid paradigm has to be presented as a solution to the demand for distributed and intelligent energy management system, it is necessary to deploy innovative IT infrastructures to support these smart functions. One of the main issues of Smart Grids is the heterogeneity of communication protocols used by the smart sensor devices that integrate them. The use of the concept of the Web of Things is proposed in this work to tackle this problem. More specifically, the implementation of a Smart Grid's Web of Things, coined as the Web of Energy is introduced. The purpose of this paper is to propose the usage of Web of Energy by means of the Actor Model paradigm to address the latent deployment and management limitations of Smart Grids. Smart Grid designers can use the Actor Model as a design model for an infrastructure that supports the intelligent functions demanded and is capable of grouping and converting the heterogeneity of traditional infrastructures into the homogeneity feature of the Web of Things. Conducted experimentations endorse the feasibility of this solution and encourage practitioners to point their efforts in this direction.

  10. Altered functional network architecture in orbitofronto-striato-thalamic circuit of unmedicated patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Wi Hoon; Yücel, Murat; Yun, Je-Yeon; Yoon, Youngwoo B; Cho, Kang Ik K; Parkes, Linden; Kim, Sung Nyun; Kwon, Jun Soo

    2017-01-01

    Dysfunction of corticostriatal loops has been proposed to underlie certain cognitive and behavioral problems associated with various neuropsychiatric disorders, such as obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) characterized by repetitive, unwanted thoughts, and behaviors. Although functional abnormalities in the loops involving the orbitofronto-striato-thalamic (OFST) circuitry in patients with OCD have been reported, our understanding of a link between disruptions in the architecture of the intrinsic functional network of the OFST circuit and their symptoms remain incomplete. Using resting-state functional MRI in conjunction with unsupervised clustering and multilevel functional connectivity (FC) techniques, FC of the OFST network and its topological organization in 61 OCD patients versus 61 matched controls were characterized. Patients exhibited disruptions in small-world properties of the OFST circuit, which indicates an imbalance between functional integration and segregation. Patients also showed decreased FC between the central orbitofrontal cortex and dorsomedial striatum but increased FC between the medial thalamus and striatal areas. Using one of the largest samples of unmedicated OCD patients to date, our findings provide evidence supporting the OFST dysconnection hypothesis in OCD as a basic pathophysiological mechanism underlying the disorder, showing the disruption of FC between specific cortical, striatal, and thalamic clusters and aberrant topological patterns of the OFST circuit. Hum Brain Mapp 38:109-119, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Hardware and Software Co-design: An Architecture Proposal for a Network-on-Chip Switch based on Bufferless Data Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ortega-Cisneros

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of on chip networks as interconnection media for systems implemented in FPGAs is limited by the amount of logical resources necessary to deploy the network in the target device, and the time necessary to adjust the network parameters to achieve the performance goal for the system. In this paper we present a switch architecture, with data flow control based on circuit switching and aimed for on-chip networks with a Spidergon topology, which seeks to reduce the area occupied without severely affecting the overall network performance. As a result, we obtained a switch that requires only 114 slices in its most economic version on a Virtex 4-device. We also provide a performance profile, obtained by subjecting a network formed by these switches to different synthetic workloads within a simulator. This simulator was developed as part of the design flow of the switch, and it proves to be an essential tool for the test and validation process.

  12. Architecture of WiFi Based Broadcast Network for Rural Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jumshed Akhtar

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Digital divide is a reality in developing nations. Most of the technological advancements are available only in urban areas and rural community is still deprived of communication technology even in 21 st century. To ensure the availability of Internet, TV (Television and other high data-rate services to the rural community; use of high power ISM (Industrial, Scientific and Medical band broadcast should be of interest. The aim of this research work is to design a WiFi based broadcast network that provides broadband access to remote areas and to study the propagation characteristics of this network in a typical rural community in the plains of Pakistan. This paper uses extensive measurements in indoor and outdoor environments of village ?Lower Kot Ratta? to develop a WiFi broadband broadcast propagation model for rural areas of Pakistan. The proposed model is simple, flexible and more suitable for rural areas as compared to existing models

  13. Micro-Computer Network Architecture for Range Instrumentation Applications - Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-18

    alternate covariance based approach, and (7), respectively, as indicated. Andrisani /Gau [7], appears to overcome the numerical concerns present in the...Willsky et al approach. Remark: We avoid detail here, but note that for However, Andrisani and Gau only address the filtering satellite applications one...interest. [7) D. Andrisani and C.F. Gau, "Multistage linear 111-2 The methodology lends itself to networking estimation using partitioning," IEEE

  14. A QoS-Driven Self-Adaptive Architecture For Wireless Sensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Jemal, Ahmed; Ben Halima, Riadh

    2013-01-01

    6 pages; International audience; Recently, Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) have become increasingly used to perform distributed sensing and convey useful information. These kinds of environments are complex, heterogeneous and often affected by unpredictable behavior and poor management. This fostered considerable research on designs and techniques that enhance these systems with an adaptation behavior. In this paper, we focus on the self-adaptation branch of the research and give an overview o...

  15. The Method of Building a Network of Online Showcases on the Basis of the MVC Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pursky Oleg I.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A method to build a network of online showcases that support a large number of customer orders and visits, which meets the current performance standards and the reliability of Internet solutions in the sphere electronic commerce, has been developed. The method involves the creation of a typical showcase and the implementation for the information management system of a showcases network of an own database operating on the data from the central management information system with the two-way data replication. A mechanism for «cloning» the online showcases, which are part of the network, and their quick integration with the business processes of enterprise and a management system based on a typical showcase, has been proposed. The development of typical online showcases is implemented on the basis of MVC concept (Model-View-Controller, the ASP.NET MVC Framework Technology, and the visual templates of web pages, thus ensuring that the algorithms for the behavior of objects are independent of both the objects themselves and their visual representation. This enhances the development of e-commerce projects significantly, speeds up the implementation process, and provides a high degree of flexibility and functionality of the online showcases.

  16. Network-level architecture and the evolutionary potential of underground metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notebaart, Richard A; Szappanos, Balázs; Kintses, Bálint; Pál, Ferenc; Györkei, Ádám; Bogos, Balázs; Lázár, Viktória; Spohn, Réka; Csörgő, Bálint; Wagner, Allon; Ruppin, Eytan; Pál, Csaba; Papp, Balázs

    2014-08-12

    A central unresolved issue in evolutionary biology is how metabolic innovations emerge. Low-level enzymatic side activities are frequent and can potentially be recruited for new biochemical functions. However, the role of such underground reactions in adaptation toward novel environments has remained largely unknown and out of reach of computational predictions, not least because these issues demand analyses at the level of the entire metabolic network. Here, we provide a comprehensive computational model of the underground metabolism in Escherichia coli. Most underground reactions are not isolated and 45% of them can be fully wired into the existing network and form novel pathways that produce key precursors for cell growth. This observation allowed us to conduct an integrated genome-wide in silico and experimental survey to characterize the evolutionary potential of E. coli to adapt to hundreds of nutrient conditions. We revealed that underground reactions allow growth in new environments when their activity is increased. We estimate that at least ∼20% of the underground reactions that can be connected to the existing network confer a fitness advantage under specific environments. Moreover, our results demonstrate that the genetic basis of evolutionary adaptations via underground metabolism is computationally predictable. The approach used here has potential for various application areas from bioengineering to medical genetics.

  17. A Digital Architecture for a Network-Based Learning Health System: Integrating Chronic Care Management, Quality Improvement, and Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsolo, Keith; Margolis, Peter A; Forrest, Christopher B; Colletti, Richard B; Hutton, John J

    2015-01-01

    We collaborated with the ImproveCareNow Network to create a proof-of-concept architecture for a network-based Learning Health System. This collaboration involved transitioning an existing registry to one that is linked to the electronic health record (EHR), enabling a "data in once" strategy. We sought to automate a series of reports that support care improvement while also demonstrating the use of observational registry data for comparative effectiveness research. We worked with three leading EHR vendors to create EHR-based data collection forms. We automated many of ImproveCareNow's analytic reports and developed an application for storing protected health information and tracking patient consent. Finally, we deployed a cohort identification tool to support feasibility studies and hypothesis generation. There is ongoing uptake of the system. To date, 31 centers have adopted the EHR-based forms and 21 centers are uploading data to the registry. Usage of the automated reports remains high and investigators have used the cohort identification tools to respond to several clinical trial requests. The current process for creating EHR-based data collection forms requires groups to work individually with each vendor. A vendor-agnostic model would allow for more rapid uptake. We believe that interfacing network-based registries with the EHR would allow them to serve as a source of decision support. Additional standards are needed in order for this vision to be achieved, however. We have successfully implemented a proof-of-concept Learning Health System while providing a foundation on which others can build. We have also highlighted opportunities where sponsors could help accelerate progress.

  18. Sensing Models and Sensor Network Architectures for Transport Infrastructure Monitoring in Smart Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonis, Ingo

    2015-04-01

    Transport infrastructure monitoring and analysis is one of the focus areas in the context of smart cities. With the growing number of people moving into densely populated urban metro areas, precise tracking of moving people and goods is the basis for profound decision-making and future planning. With the goal of defining optimal extensions and modifications to existing transport infrastructures, multi-modal transport has to be monitored and analysed. This process is performed on the basis of sensor networks that combine a variety of sensor models, types, and deployments within the area of interest. Multi-generation networks, consisting of a number of sensor types and versions, are causing further challenges for the integration and processing of sensor observations. These challenges are not getting any smaller with the development of the Internet of Things, which brings promising opportunities, but is currently stuck in a type of protocol war between big industry players from both the hardware and network infrastructure domain. In this paper, we will highlight how the OGC suite of standards, with the Sensor Web standards developed by the Sensor Web Enablement Initiative together with the latest developments by the Sensor Web for Internet of Things community can be applied to the monitoring and improvement of transport infrastructures. Sensor Web standards have been applied in the past to pure technical domains, but need to be broadened now in order to meet new challenges. Only cross domain approaches will allow to develop satisfying transport infrastructure approaches that take into account requirements coming form a variety of sectors such as tourism, administration, transport industry, emergency services, or private people. The goal is the development of interoperable components that can be easily integrated within data infrastructures and follow well defined information models to allow robust processing.

  19. Architecture of the rat nephron-arterial network: analysis with micro-computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Donald J; Postnov, Dmitry D; Rowland, Douglas J; Wexler, Anthony S; Sosnovtseva, Olga V; Holstein-Rathlou, Niels-Henrik

    2017-08-01

    Among solid organs, the kidney's vascular network stands out, because each nephron has two distinct capillary structures in series and because tubuloglomerular feedback, one of the mechanisms responsible for blood flow autoregulation, is specific to renal tubules. Tubuloglomerular feedback and the myogenic mechanism, acting jointly, autoregulate single-nephron blood flow. Each generates a self-sustained periodic oscillation and an oscillating electrical signal that propagates upstream along arterioles. Similar electrical signals from other nephrons interact, allowing nephron synchronization. Experimental measurements show synchronization over fields of a few nephrons; simulations based on a simplified network structure that could obscure complex interactions predict more widespread synchronization. To permit more realistic simulations, we made a cast of blood vessels in a rat kidney, performed micro-computed tomography at 2.5-μm resolution, and recorded three-dimensional coordinates of arteries, afferent arterioles, and glomeruli. Nonterminal branches of arcuate arteries form treelike structures requiring two to six bifurcations to reach terminal branches at the tree tops. Terminal arterial structures were either paired branches at the tops of the arterial trees, from which 52.6% of all afferent arterioles originated, or unpaired arteries not at the tree tops, yielding the other 22.9%; the other 24.5% originated directly from nonterminal arteries. Afferent arterioles near the corticomedullary boundary were longer than those farther away, suggesting that juxtamedullary nephrons have longer afferent arterioles. The distance separating origins of pairs of afferent arterioles varied randomly. The results suggest an irregular-network tree structure with vascular nodes, where arteriolar activity and local blood pressure interact. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  20. Enhanced Situational Awareness and Decision Support for Operators of Future Distributed Power Network Architectures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zaher, Ammar S. A. E.; Catterson, V. M.; Syed, M. H.

    2016-01-01

    . The control room visualisation and decision support functionality for aiding the operator in restoring the frequency to its target value will be considered. The analysis takes place within the Web-ofCells framework, adopted to deal with power system control through a web of subsystems, called cells, which......This paper describes scenarios proposed for a control room decision support system aimed at future power network operators. The purpose is to consider the requirements of the future control room from the perspective of the operator under the conditions of a significant frequency excursion incident...

  1. Exploring Network-Centric Information Architectures for Unmanned Systems Control and Data Dissemination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    payload including sensor and networking devices. The Sig Manufacturing Rascal 110, as shown in Fig. 7, is the airframe used. The plane has a 2.8m span...uses a 26cc gas engine, and has an all up weight of about 10kg, including 1500cc gas which provides a 1.5 to 2 hour flight time. The Rascal can be...ample cabin room for the autopilot and the desired computing hardware and sensors. Figure 7. Sig Rascal 110 research aircraft. The Piccolo Plus autopilot

  2. Business architecture for inter-organisational innovation networks: A case study comparison from South Africa and Germany

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gous, H

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available , business concepts and underlying system logic. The Zachman framework for enterprise architecture provides an approach to structuring the business architecture of enterprises in a way that allows such comparisons to be drawn. This paper describes...

  3. PICNIC Architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saranummi, Niilo

    2005-01-01

    The PICNIC architecture aims at supporting inter-enterprise integration and the facilitation of collaboration between healthcare organisations. The concept of a Regional Health Economy (RHE) is introduced to illustrate the varying nature of inter-enterprise collaboration between healthcare organisations collaborating in providing health services to citizens and patients in a regional setting. The PICNIC architecture comprises a number of PICNIC IT Services, the interfaces between them and presents a way to assemble these into a functioning Regional Health Care Network meeting the needs and concerns of its stakeholders. The PICNIC architecture is presented through a number of views relevant to different stakeholder groups. The stakeholders of the first view are national and regional health authorities and policy makers. The view describes how the architecture enables the implementation of national and regional health policies, strategies and organisational structures. The stakeholders of the second view, the service viewpoint, are the care providers, health professionals, patients and citizens. The view describes how the architecture supports and enables regional care delivery and process management including continuity of care (shared care) and citizen-centred health services. The stakeholders of the third view, the engineering view, are those that design, build and implement the RHCN. The view comprises four sub views: software engineering, IT services engineering, security and data. The proposed architecture is founded into the main stream of how distributed computing environments are evolving. The architecture is realised using the web services approach. A number of well established technology platforms and generic standards exist that can be used to implement the software components. The software components that are specified in PICNIC are implemented in Open Source.

  4. Tuneable drug-loading capability of chitosan hydrogels with varied network architectures

    CERN Document Server

    Tronci, Giuseppe; Russell, Stephen J; Wood, David J; Akashi, Mitsuru

    2013-01-01

    Advanced bioactive systems with defined macroscopic properties and spatio-temporal sequestration of extracellular biomacromolecules are highly desirable for next generation therapeutics. Here, chitosan hydrogels were prepared with neutral or negatively-charged crosslinkers in order to promote selective electrostatic complexation with charged drugs. Chitosan (CT) was functionalised with varied dicarboxylic acids, such as tartaric acid (TA), poly(ethylene glycol) bis(carboxymethyl) ether (PEG), 1.4-Phenylenediacetic acid (4Ph) and 5-Sulfoisophthalic acid monosodium salt (PhS), whereby PhS was hypothesised to act as a simple mimetic of heparin. ATR FT-IR showed the presence of C=O amide I, N-H amide II and C=O ester bands, providing evidence of covalent network formation. The crosslinker content was reversely quantified by 1H-NMR on partially-degraded network oligomers, so that 18 mol% PhS was exemplarily determined. Swellability, compressability, material morphology, and drug-loading capability were successfull...

  5. Detection of neuron membranes in electron microscopy images using a serial neural network architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurrus, Elizabeth; Paiva, Antonio R C; Watanabe, Shigeki; Anderson, James R; Jones, Bryan W; Whitaker, Ross T; Jorgensen, Erik M; Marc, Robert E; Tasdizen, Tolga

    2010-12-01

    Study of nervous systems via the connectome, the map of connectivities of all neurons in that system, is a challenging problem in neuroscience. Towards this goal, neurobiologists are acquiring large electron microscopy datasets. However, the shear volume of these datasets renders manual analysis infeasible. Hence, automated image analysis methods are required for reconstructing the connectome from these very large image collections. Segmentation of neurons in these images, an essential step of the reconstruction pipeline, is challenging because of noise, anisotropic shapes and brightness, and the presence of confounding structures. The method described in this paper uses a series of artificial neural networks (ANNs) in a framework combined with a feature vector that is composed of image intensities sampled over a stencil neighborhood. Several ANNs are applied in series allowing each ANN to use the classification context provided by the previous network to improve detection accuracy. We develop the method of serial ANNs and show that the learned context does improve detection over traditional ANNs. We also demonstrate advantages over previous membrane detection methods. The results are a significant step towards an automated system for the reconstruction of the connectome. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Evolvability of feed-forward loop architecture biases its abundance in transcription networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widder Stefanie

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transcription networks define the core of the regulatory machinery of cellular life and are largely responsible for information processing and decision making. At the small scale, interaction motifs have been characterized based on their abundance and some seemingly general patterns have been described. In particular, the abundance of different feed-forward loop motifs in gene regulatory networks displays systematic biases towards some particular topologies, which are much more common than others. The causative process of this pattern is still matter of debate. Results We analyzed the entire motif-function landscape of the feed-forward loop using the formalism developed in a previous work. We evaluated the probabilities to implement possible functions for each motif and found that the kurtosis of these distributions correlate well with the natural abundance pattern. Kurtosis is a standard measure for the peakedness of probability distributions. Furthermore, we examined the functional robustness of the motifs facing mutational pressure in silico and observed that the abundance pattern is biased by the degree of their evolvability. Conclusions The natural abundance pattern of the feed-forward loop can be reconstructed concerning its intrinsic plasticity. Intrinsic plasticity is associated to each motif in terms of its capacity of implementing a repertoire of possible functions and it is directly linked to the motif's evolvability. Since evolvability is defined as the potential phenotypic variation of the motif upon mutation, the link plausibly explains the abundance pattern.

  7. Evolvability of feed-forward loop architecture biases its abundance in transcription networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widder, Stefanie; Solé, Ricard; Macía, Javier

    2012-01-19

    Transcription networks define the core of the regulatory machinery of cellular life and are largely responsible for information processing and decision making. At the small scale, interaction motifs have been characterized based on their abundance and some seemingly general patterns have been described. In particular, the abundance of different feed-forward loop motifs in gene regulatory networks displays systematic biases towards some particular topologies, which are much more common than others. The causative process of this pattern is still matter of debate. We analyzed the entire motif-function landscape of the feed-forward loop using the formalism developed in a previous work. We evaluated the probabilities to implement possible functions for each motif and found that the kurtosis of these distributions correlate well with the natural abundance pattern. Kurtosis is a standard measure for the peakedness of probability distributions. Furthermore, we examined the functional robustness of the motifs facing mutational pressure in silico and observed that the abundance pattern is biased by the degree of their evolvability. The natural abundance pattern of the feed-forward loop can be reconstructed concerning its intrinsic plasticity. Intrinsic plasticity is associated to each motif in terms of its capacity of implementing a repertoire of possible functions and it is directly linked to the motif's evolvability. Since evolvability is defined as the potential phenotypic variation of the motif upon mutation, the link plausibly explains the abundance pattern.

  8. How optimal stimuli for sensory neurons are constrained by network architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiMattina, Christopher; Zhang, Kechen

    2008-03-01

    Identifying the optimal stimuli for a sensory neuron is often a difficult process involving trial and error. By analyzing the relationship between stimuli and responses in feedforward and stable recurrent neural network models, we find that the stimulus yielding the maximum firing rate response always lies on the topological boundary of the collection of all allowable stimuli, provided that individual neurons have increasing input-output relations or gain functions and that the synaptic connections are convergent between layers with nondegenerate weight matrices. This result suggests that in neurophysiological experiments under these conditions, only stimuli on the boundary need to be tested in order to maximize the response, thereby potentially reducing the number of trials needed for finding the most effective stimuli. Even when the gain functions allow firing rate cutoff or saturation, a peak still cannot exist in the stimulus-response relation in the sense that moving away from the optimum stimulus always reduces the response. We further demonstrate that the condition for nondegenerate synaptic connections also implies that proper stimuli can independently perturb the activities of all neurons in the same layer. One example of this type of manipulation is changing the activity of a single neuron in a given processing layer while keeping that of all others constant. Such stimulus perturbations might help experimentally isolate the interactions of selected neurons within a network.

  9. CPU architecture for a fast and energy-saving calculation of convolution neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoll, Florian J.; Grelcke, Michael; Czymmek, Vitali; Holtorf, Tim; Hussmann, Stephan

    2017-06-01

    One of the most difficult problem in the use of artificial neural networks is the computational capacity. Although large search engine companies own specially developed hardware to provide the necessary computing power, for the conventional user only remains the state of the art method, which is the use of a graphic processing unit (GPU) as a computational basis. Although these processors are well suited for large matrix computations, they need massive energy. Therefore a new processor on the basis of a field programmable gate array (FPGA) has been developed and is optimized for the application of deep learning. This processor is presented in this paper. The processor can be adapted for a particular application (in this paper to an organic farming application). The power consumption is only a fraction of a GPU application and should therefore be well suited for energy-saving applications.

  10. River network architecture, genetic effective size and distributional patterns predict differences in genetic structure across species in a dryland stream fish community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilger, Tyler J; Gido, Keith B; Propst, David L; Whitney, James E; Turner, Thomas F

    2017-05-01

    Dendritic ecological network (DEN) architecture can be a strong predictor of spatial genetic patterns in theoretical and simulation studies. Yet, interspecific differences in dispersal capabilities and distribution within the network may equally affect species' genetic structuring. We characterized patterns of genetic variation from up to ten microsatellite loci for nine numerically dominant members of the upper Gila River fish community, New Mexico, USA. Using comparative landscape genetics, we evaluated the role of network architecture for structuring populations within species (pairwise F ST ) while explicitly accounting for intraspecific demographic influences on effective population size (N e ). Five species exhibited patterns of connectivity and/or genetic diversity gradients that were predicted by network structure. These species were generally considered to be small-bodied or habitat specialists. Spatial variation of N e was a strong predictor of pairwise F ST for two species, suggesting patterns of connectivity may also be influenced by genetic drift independent of network properties. Finally, two study species exhibited genetic patterns that were unexplained by network properties and appeared to be related to nonequilibrium processes. Properties of DENs shape community-wide genetic structure but effects are modified by intrinsic traits and nonequilibrium processes. Further theoretical development of the DEN framework should account for such cases. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Prototyping a Web-of-Energy Architecture for Smart Integration of Sensor Networks in Smart Grids Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Caballero

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Sensor networks and the Internet of Things have driven the evolution of traditional electric power distribution networks towards a new paradigm referred to as Smart Grid. However, the different elements that compose the Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs layer of a Smart Grid are usually conceived as isolated systems that typically result in rigid hardware architectures which are hard to interoperate, manage, and to adapt to new situations. If the Smart Grid paradigm has to be presented as a solution to the demand for distributed and intelligent energy management system, it is necessary to deploy innovative IT infrastructures to support these smart functions. One of the main issues of Smart Grids is the heterogeneity of communication protocols used by the smart sensor devices that integrate them. The use of the concept of the Web of Things is proposed in this work to tackle this problem. More specifically, the implementation of a Smart Grid’s Web of Things, coined as the Web of Energy is introduced. The purpose of this paper is to propose the usage of Web of Energy by means of the Actor Model paradigm to address the latent deployment and management limitations of Smart Grids. Smart Grid designers can use the Actor Model as a design model for an infrastructure that supports the intelligent functions demanded and is capable of grouping and converting the heterogeneity of traditional infrastructures into the homogeneity feature of the Web of Things. Conducted experimentations endorse the feasibility of this solution and encourage practitioners to point their efforts in this direction.

  12. NEBULAS a high performance data-driven event-building architecture based on an asynchronous self-routing packet-switching network

    CERN Document Server

    Christiansen, J; Letheren, M F; Marchioro, A; Tenhunen, H; Nummela, A; Nurmi, J; Gomes, P; Mandjavidze, I D; CERN. Geneva. Detector Research and Development Committee

    1992-01-01

    We propose a new approach to event building in future high rate experiments such as those at the LHC. We use a real-time, hierarchical event filtering paradigm based on pipelined triggering and data buffering at level 1, followed by farms of several hundreds of independent processors operating at level 2 and level 3. In view of the uncertainty in the rates and event sizes expected after the first level trigger in LHC experiments, it is important that data acquisition architectures can be open- endedly scaled to handle higher global bandwidths and accommodate more processors. We propose to apply the principle of self-routing packet-switching networks (currently under industrial development for telecommunications and multi-processor applications) to event building. We plan to implement a conceptually simple, distributed, asynchronous, data-driven, scalable, bottleneck-free architecture. An important feature of the architecture is that it can satisfy the data acquisition system's performance requirements using o...

  13. A New Cellular Architecture for Information Retrieval from Sensor Networks through Embedded Service and Security Protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahzad, Aamir; Landry, René; Lee, Malrey; Xiong, Naixue; Lee, Jongho; Lee, Changhoon

    2016-06-14

    Substantial changes have occurred in the Information Technology (IT) sectors and with these changes, the demand for remote access to field sensor information has increased. This allows visualization, monitoring, and control through various electronic devices, such as laptops, tablets, i-Pads, PCs, and cellular phones. The smart phone is considered as a more reliable, faster and efficient device to access and monitor industrial systems and their corresponding information interfaces anywhere and anytime. This study describes the deployment of a protocol whereby industrial system information can be securely accessed by cellular phones via a Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA) server. To achieve the study goals, proprietary protocol interconnectivity with non-proprietary protocols and the usage of interconnectivity services are considered in detail. They support the visualization of the SCADA system information, and the related operations through smart phones. The intelligent sensors are configured and designated to process real information via cellular phones by employing information exchange services between the proprietary protocol and non-proprietary protocols. SCADA cellular access raises the issue of security flaws. For these challenges, a cryptography-based security method is considered and deployed, and it could be considered as a part of a proprietary protocol. Subsequently, transmission flows from the smart phones through a cellular network.

  14. QoS Supported IPTV Service Architecture over Hybrid-Tree-Based Explicit Routed Multicast Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Chao Wen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid advance in multimedia streaming and multicast transport technology, current IP multicast protocols, especially PIM-SM, become the major channel delivery mechanism for IPTV system over Internet. The goals for IPTV service are to provide two-way interactive services for viewers to select popular program channel with high quality for watching during fast channel surfing period. However, existing IP multicast protocol cannot meet above QoS requirements for IPTV applications between media server and subscribers. Therefore, we propose a cooperative scheme of hybrid-tree based on explicit routed multicast, called as HT-ERM to combine the advantages of shared tree and source tree for QoS-supported IPTV service. To increase network utilization, the constrained shortest path first (CSPF routing algorithm is designed for construction of hybrid tree to deliver the high-quality video stream over watching channel and standard quality over surfing channel. Furthermore, the Resource Reservation Protocol- Traffic Engineering (RSVP-TE is used as signaling mechanism to set up QoS path for multicast channel admission control. Our simulation results demonstrated that the proposed HT-ERM scheme outperforms other multicast QoS-based delivery scheme in terms of channel switching delay, resource utilization, and blocking ratio for IPTV service.

  15. Comparison of Artificial Neural Network Architecture in Solving Ordinary Differential Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susmita Mall

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the solution of Ordinary Differential Equations (ODEs with initial conditions using Regression Based Algorithm (RBA and compares the results with arbitrary- and regression-based initial weights for different numbers of nodes in hidden layer. Here, we have used feed forward neural network and error back propagation method for minimizing the error function and for the modification of the parameters (weights and biases. Initial weights are taken as combination of random as well as by the proposed regression based model. We present the method for solving a variety of problems and the results are compared. Here, the number of nodes in hidden layer has been fixed according to the degree of polynomial in the regression fitting. For this, the input and output data are fitted first with various degree polynomials using regression analysis and the coefficients involved are taken as initial weights to start with the neural training. Fixing of the hidden nodes depends upon the degree of the polynomial. For the example problems, the analytical results have been compared with neural results with arbitrary and regression based weights with four, five, and six nodes in hidden layer and are found to be in good agreement.

  16. A New Cellular Architecture for Information Retrieval from Sensor Networks through Embedded Service and Security Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aamir Shahzad

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Substantial changes have occurred in the Information Technology (IT sectors and with these changes, the demand for remote access to field sensor information has increased. This allows visualization, monitoring, and control through various electronic devices, such as laptops, tablets, i-Pads, PCs, and cellular phones. The smart phone is considered as a more reliable, faster and efficient device to access and monitor industrial systems and their corresponding information interfaces anywhere and anytime. This study describes the deployment of a protocol whereby industrial system information can be securely accessed by cellular phones via a Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA server. To achieve the study goals, proprietary protocol interconnectivity with non-proprietary protocols and the usage of interconnectivity services are considered in detail. They support the visualization of the SCADA system information, and the related operations through smart phones. The intelligent sensors are configured and designated to process real information via cellular phones by employing information exchange services between the proprietary protocol and non-proprietary protocols. SCADA cellular access raises the issue of security flaws. For these challenges, a cryptography-based security method is considered and deployed, and it could be considered as a part of a proprietary protocol. Subsequently, transmission flows from the smart phones through a cellular network.

  17. BrainSegNet: a convolutional neural network architecture for automated segmentation of human brain structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Raghav; Majumdar, Aabhas; Sivaswamy, Jayanthi

    2017-04-01

    Automated segmentation of cortical and noncortical human brain structures has been hitherto approached using nonrigid registration followed by label fusion. We propose an alternative approach for this using a convolutional neural network (CNN) which classifies a voxel into one of many structures. Four different kinds of two-dimensional and three-dimensional intensity patches are extracted for each voxel, providing local and global (context) information to the CNN. The proposed approach is evaluated on five different publicly available datasets which differ in the number of labels per volume. The obtained mean Dice coefficient varied according to the number of labels, for example, it is [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] for datasets with the least (32) and the most (134) number of labels, respectively. These figures are marginally better or on par with those obtained with the current state-of-the-art methods on nearly all datasets, at a reduced computational time. The consistently good performance of the proposed method across datasets and no requirement for registration make it attractive for many applications where reduced computational time is necessary.

  18. Unravelling the architecture and dynamics of tropane alkaloid biosynthesis pathways using metabolite correlation networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thi-Kieu-Oanh; Jamali, Arash; Lanoue, Arnaud; Gontier, Eric; Dauwe, Rebecca

    2015-08-01

    The tropane alkaloid spectrum in Solanaceae is highly variable within and between species. Little is known about the topology and the coordination of the biosynthetic pathways leading to the variety of tropine and pseudotropine derived esters in the alkaloid spectrum, or about the metabolic dynamics induced by tropane alkaloid biosynthesis stimulating conditions. A good understanding of the metabolism, including all ramifications, is however necessary for the development of strategies to increase the abundance of pharmacologically interesting compounds such as hyoscyamine and scopolamine. The present study explores the tropane alkaloid metabolic pathways in an untargeted approach involving a correlation-based network analysis. Using GC-MS metabolite profiling, the variation and co-variation among tropane alkaloids and primary metabolites was monitored in 60 Datura innoxia Mill. individuals, of which half were exposed to tropane alkaloid biosynthesis stimulating conditions by co-culture with Agrobacterium rhizogenes. Considerable variation was evident in the relative proportions of the tropane alkaloids. Remodeling of the tropane alkaloid spectrum under co-culture with A. rhizogenes involved a specific and strong increase of hyoscyamine production and revealed that the accumulation of hyoscyamine, 3-tigloyloxy-6,7-epoxytropane, and 3-methylbutyryloxytropane was controlled independently of the majority of tropane alkaloids. Based on correlations between metabolites, we propose a biosynthetic origin of hygrine, the order of esterification of certain di-oxygenated tropanes, and that the rate of acetoxylation contributes to control of hyoscyamine production. Overall, this study shows that the biosynthesis of tropane alkaloids may be far more complex and finely controlled than previously expected. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. High-Performance Electrochemical Catalysts Based on Three-Dimensional Porous Architecture with Conductive Interconnected Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong; Wang, Jie; Liu, Zi-En; Yang, Xiangdong; Hu, Xiaoxia; Deng, Jinqi; Yang, Nianjun; Wan, Qijin; Yuan, Quan

    2016-10-26

    The electrochemical applications of traditional carbon nanomaterials such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphene (G) powders are significantly impeded by their poor three-dimensional (3D) conductivity and lack of hierarchical porous structure. Here, we have constructed a 3D highly conductive CNTs networks and further combined it with mesoporous carbon (mC) for the creation of a core-shell structured (CNT@mC) composite sponge that featured 3D conductivity and hierarchical porous structure. In the composite sponge, interconnected CNTs efficiently eliminates the contact resistance and the hierarchical pores significantly facilitate the mass transport. The electron transfer rates, electroactive surface area and catalytic activity of the CNT@mC composite sponge based catalysts were tested in the direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) and electrochemical sensors. In DMFCs, the Pd nanoparticles deposited CNT@mC showed significantly improved catalytic activity and methanol oxidization current. As for amperometric sensing of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs), CNT@mC-based catalyst gave a liner range from 10 nM to 1 mM for bisphenol A (BPA) detection and showed great promise for simultaneous detection of multiple EDCs. BPA recovery from environmental water further indicated the potential practical applications of the sensor for BPA detection. Finally, the electrochemical performance of CNT@mC were also investigated in impedimetric sensors. Good selectivity was obtained in impedimetric sensing of BPA and the detection limit was measured to be 0.3 nM. This study highlighted the exceptional electrochemical properties of the CNT@mC composite sponge enabled by its 3D conductivity and hierarchical porous structure. The strategy described may further pave a way for the creation of novel functional materials through integrating multiple superior properties into a single nanostructure for future clean energy technologies and environmental monitoring systems.

  20. Deep learning for pharmacovigilance: recurrent neural network architectures for labeling adverse drug reactions in Twitter posts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocos, Anne; Fiks, Alexander G; Masino, Aaron J

    2017-07-01

    Social media is an important pharmacovigilance data source for adverse drug reaction (ADR) identification. Human review of social media data is infeasible due to data quantity, thus natural language processing techniques are necessary. Social media includes informal vocabulary and irregular grammar, which challenge natural language processing methods. Our objective is to develop a scalable, deep-learning approach that exceeds state-of-the-art ADR detection performance in social media. We developed a recurrent neural network (RNN) model that labels words in an input sequence with ADR membership tags. The only input features are word-embedding vectors, which can be formed through task-independent pretraining or during ADR detection training. Our best-performing RNN model used pretrained word embeddings created from a large, non-domain-specific Twitter dataset. It achieved an approximate match F-measure of 0.755 for ADR identification on the dataset, compared to 0.631 for a baseline lexicon system and 0.65 for the state-of-the-art conditional random field model. Feature analysis indicated that semantic information in pretrained word embeddings boosted sensitivity and, combined with contextual awareness captured in the RNN, precision. Our model required no task-specific feature engineering, suggesting generalizability to additional sequence-labeling tasks. Learning curve analysis showed that our model reached optimal performance with fewer training examples than the other models. ADR detection performance in social media is significantly improved by using a contextually aware model and word embeddings formed from large, unlabeled datasets. The approach reduces manual data-labeling requirements and is scalable to large social media datasets.

  1. Architectural Engineering of Nanowire Network Fine Pattern for 30 μm Wide Flexible Quantum Dot Light-Emitting Diode Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yunsheng; Ding, Ke; Wu, Zhicong; Chen, Hongting; Li, Wenbo; Zhao, Sheng; Zhang, Yanli; Wang, Lei; Zhou, Jun; Hu, Bin

    2016-11-22

    Replacing rigid metal oxides with flexible alternatives as a next-generation transparent conductor is important for flexible optoelectronic devices. Recently, nanowire networks have emerged as a new type of transparent conductor and have attracted wide attention because of their all-solution-based process manufacturing and excellent flexibility. However, the intrinsic percolation characteristics of the network determine that its fine pattern behavior is very different from that of continuous films, which is a critical issue for their practical application in high-resolution devices. Herein, a simple optimization approach is proposed to address this issue through the architectural engineering of the nanowire network. The aligned and random silver nanowire networks are fabricated and compared in theory and experimentally. Remarkably, network performance can be notably improved with an aligned structure, which is helpful for external quantum efficiency and the luminance of quantum dot light-emitting diodes (QLEDs) when the network is applied as the bottom-transparent electrode. More importantly, the advantage introduced by network alignment is also of benefit to fine pattern performance, even when the pattern width is narrowed to 30 μm, which leads to improved luminescent properties and lower failure rates in fine QLED strip applications. This paradigm illuminates a strategy to optimize nanowire network based transparent conductors and can promote their practical application in high-definition flexible optoelectronic devices.

  2. Sensing and Measurement Architecture for Grid Modernization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taft, Jeffrey D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); De Martini, Paul [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States)

    2016-02-01

    This paper addresses architecture for grid sensor networks, with primary emphasis on distribution grids. It describes a forward-looking view of sensor network architecture for advanced distribution grids, and discusses key regulatory, financial, and planning issues.

  3. EEG characteristics in "eyes-open" versus "eyes-closed" conditions: Small-world network architecture in healthy aging and age-related brain degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miraglia, Francesca; Vecchio, Fabrizio; Bramanti, Placido; Rossini, Paolo Maria

    2016-02-01

    Applying graph theory, we investigated how cortical sources small worldness (SW) of resting EEG in eyes-closed/open (EC/EO) differs in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) subjects with respect to normal elderly (Nold). EEG was recorded in 30 Nold, 30 aMCI, and 30 AD during EC and EO. Undirected and weighted cortical brain network was built to evaluate graph core measures. eLORETA lagged linear connectivity was used to weight the network. In Nold, in EO condition, the brain network is characterized by more SW (higher SW) in alpha bands and less SW (lower SW) in beta2 and gamma bands. In aMCI, SW has the same trend, except for delta and theta bands where the network shows less small worldness. AD shows a similar trend of Nold, but with less fluctuations between EO/EC conditions. Furthermore, in both conditions, aMCI SW architecture presents midway properties between AD and Nold. At low frequencies (delta e theta bands) in EC, aMCI group presents network's architecture similar to Nold, while in EO aMCI, SW is superimposable to AD ones. In resting state condition, aMCI small-world architecture presents midway topological properties between AD subjects and healthy controls, confirming the hypothesis that aMCI is an intermediate step along the disease progression. We proposed the application of graph theory to EEG in reactivity to EO in order to find a marker of diagnosis that - in association with other techniques of neuroimaging - could be sensitive to the progression of MCI or conversion into AD. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. An orthogonal wavelet division multiple-access processor architecture for LTE-advanced wireless/radio-over-fiber systems over heterogeneous networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahapatra, Chinmaya; Leung, Victor CM; Stouraitis, Thanos

    2014-12-01

    The increase in internet traffic, number of users, and availability of mobile devices poses a challenge to wireless technologies. In long-term evolution (LTE) advanced system, heterogeneous networks (HetNet) using centralized coordinated multipoint (CoMP) transmitting radio over optical fibers (LTE A-ROF) have provided a feasible way of satisfying user demands. In this paper, an orthogonal wavelet division multiple-access (OWDMA) processor architecture is proposed, which is shown to be better suited to LTE advanced systems as compared to orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA) as in LTE systems 3GPP rel.8 (3GPP, http://www.3gpp.org/DynaReport/36300.htm). ROF systems are a viable alternative to satisfy large data demands; hence, the performance in ROF systems is also evaluated. To validate the architecture, the circuit is designed and synthesized on a Xilinx vertex-6 field-programmable gate array (FPGA). The synthesis results show that the circuit performs with a clock period as short as 7.036 ns (i.e., a maximum clock frequency of 142.13 MHz) for transform size of 512. A pipelined version of the architecture reduces the power consumption by approximately 89%. We compare our architecture with similar available architectures for resource utilization and timing and provide performance comparison with OFDMA systems for various quality metrics of communication systems. The OWDMA architecture is found to perform better than OFDMA for bit error rate (BER) performance versus signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in wireless channel as well as ROF media. It also gives higher throughput and mitigates the bad effect of peak-to-average-power ratio (PAPR).

  5. Architecture of a corporate system to aid the scheduling of a oil derivatives transport in a pipeline network; Arquitetura de um sistema corporativo para auxilio a programacao do transporte de derivados de petroleo em redes dutoviarias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lara, Guilherme R.; Polli, Helton L.; Esser, Eduardo M.; Lueders, Ricardo; Neves Junior, Flavio; Magatao, Leandro; Stebel, Sergio L. [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Ribas, Paulo C. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)

    2008-07-01

    This paper addresses the development and the architecture of a corporative package to aid the operational decision-making of the scheduling activities in a real-world pipeline network for oil derivatives. The system was developed based on a service-oriented architecture, allowing the development of Web applications to define the network scheduling, as well as graphic display of the movements. The solution of the scheduling is generated by an optimization block as a service of this application. However, this paper emphasizes the description of the architecture and its functionalities, which was defined with the help of experienced programmers. (author)

  6. Architecture on Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Karen

    2016-01-01

    This paper will discuss the challenges faced by architectural education today. It takes as its starting point the double commitment of any school of architecture: on the one hand the task of preserving the particular knowledge that belongs to the discipline of architecture, and on the other hand...... the obligation to prepare students to perform in a profession that is largely defined by forces outside that discipline. It will be proposed that the autonomy of architecture can be understood as a unique kind of information: as architecture’s self-reliance or knowledge-about itself. A knowledge...... that is not scientific or academic but is more like a latent body of data that we find embedded in existing works of architecture. This information, it is argued, is not limited by the historical context of the work. It can be thought of as a virtual capacity – a reservoir of spatial configurations that can...

  7. Architecture and Robust Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-18

    in Saccharomyces cerevisiae . Biophys Chem 94(1-2):121-63 (2001). [75] A. Goldbeter. Biochemical Oscillations and Cellular Rhythms. Cambridge...indicates when the media is switched. A portion of the cells exhibited fluctuating transient before settling into a higher NADH level. The period of...k has a similar effect, so our experiments also aim for conditions that might give low k, including growth in ethanol and amino acid starvation

  8. NEBULAS A High Performance Data-Driven Event-Building Architecture based on an Asynchronous Self-Routing Packet-Switching Network

    CERN Multimedia

    Costa, M; Letheren, M; Djidi, K; Gustafsson, L; Lazraq, T; Minerskjold, M; Tenhunen, H; Manabe, A; Nomachi, M; Watase, Y

    2002-01-01

    RD31 : The project is evaluating a new approach to event building for level-two and level-three processor farms at high rate experiments. It is based on the use of commercial switching fabrics to replace the traditional bus-based architectures used in most previous data acquisition sytems. Switching fabrics permit the construction of parallel, expandable, hardware-driven event builders that can deliver higher aggregate throughput than the bus-based architectures. A standard industrial switching fabric technology is being evaluated. It is based on Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) packet-switching network technology. Commercial, expandable ATM switching fabrics and processor interfaces, now being developed for the future Broadband ISDN infrastructure, could form the basis of an implementation. The goals of the project are to demonstrate the viability of this approach, to evaluate the trade-offs involved in make versus buy options, to study the interfacing of the physics frontend data buffers to such a fabric, a...

  9. A Double Helix Architecture of Knowledge Discovery System Based Data Grid and Knowledge Grid for Multimedia Communication Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Jing, He; Wuyi, Yue; yong, Shi

    2005-01-01

    Knowledge Discovery in data resource managed in Grid is a challenging research and a development issue. Grid is a computation and management infrastructure that transforms science, business, health and society. This paper presents a double helix architecture of Knowledge Discovery based on both Data Grid and Knowledge Grid. This architecture utilizes the cooperating mechanism of the data nodes in Data Grid and the knowledge nodes in Knowledge Grid. By combining with an implementation for mult...

  10. Architectural slicing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Bærbak; Hansen, Klaus Marius

    2013-01-01

    Architectural prototyping is a widely used practice, con- cerned with taking architectural decisions through experiments with light- weight implementations. However, many architectural decisions are only taken when systems are already (partially) implemented. This is prob- lematic in the context...... a system and a slicing criterion, architectural slicing produces an architectural prototype that contain the elements in the architecture that are dependent on the ele- ments in the slicing criterion. Furthermore, we present an initial design and implementation of an architectural slicer for Java....

  11. Incentive and Architecture of Multi-Band Enabled Small Cell and UE for Up-/Down-Link and Control-/User-Plane Splitting for 5G Mobile Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Rony Kumer; Aswakul, Chaodit

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, a multi-band enabled femtocell base station (FCBS) and user equipment (UE) architecture is proposed in a multi-tier network that consists of small cells, including femtocells and picocells deployed over the coverage of a macrocell for splitting uplink and downlink (UL/DL) as well as control-plane and user-plane (C-/U-plane) for 5G mobile networks. Since splitting is performed at the same FCBS, we define this architecture as the same base station based split architecture (SBSA). For multiple bands, we consider co-channel (CC) microwave and different frequency (DF) 60 GHz millimeter wave (mmWave) bands for FCBSs and UEs with respect to the microwave band used by their over-laid macrocell base station. All femtocells are assumed to be deployed in a 3-dimensional multi-storage building. For CC microwave band, cross-tier CC interference of femtocells with macrocell is avoided using almost blank subframe based enhanced inter-cell interference coordination techniques. The co-existence of CC microwave and DF mmWave bands for SBSA on the same FCBS and UE is first studied to show their performance disparities in terms of system capacity and spectral efficiency in order to provide incentives for employing multiple bands at the same FCBS and UE and identify a suitable band for routing decoupled UL/DL or C-/U-plane traffic. We then present a number of disruptive architectural design alternatives of multi-band enabled SBSA for 5G mobile networks for UL/DL and C-/U-plane splitting, including a disruptive and complete splitting of UL/DL and C-/U-plane as well as a combined UL/DL and C-/U-plane splitting, by exploiting dual connectivity on CC microwave and DF mmWave bands. The outperformances of SBSA in terms of system level capacity, average spectral efficiency, energy efficiency, and control-plane overhead traffic capacity in comparison with different base stations based split architecture (DBSA) are shown. Finally, a number of technical and business perspectives

  12. A Model of Trusted Connection Architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang Xun; Wang Zhihao; Zhi Yong; Yuan Hui

    2017-01-01

    According to that traditional trusted network connection architecture (TNC) has limitations on dynamic network environment and the user behavior support, we develop TCA to propose a trusted connection architecture supporting behavior measurement (TCA-SBM), besides, the structure diagram of network architecture is given. Through introducing user behavior measure elements, TCA-SBM can conduct measurement on the whole network in time dimension periodically, and refine the measurement on network ...

  13. Functional architecture and global properties of the Corynebacterium glutamicum regulatory network: Novel insights from a dataset with a high genomic coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freyre-González, Julio A; Tauch, Andreas

    2017-09-10

    Corynebacterium glutamicum is a Gram-positive, anaerobic, rod-shaped soil bacterium able to grow on a diversity of carbon sources like sugars and organic acids. It is a biotechnological relevant organism because of its highly efficient ability to biosynthesize amino acids, such as l-glutamic acid and l-lysine. Here, we reconstructed the most complete C. glutamicum regulatory network to date and comprehensively analyzed its global organizational properties, systems-level features and functional architecture. Our analyses show the tremendous power of Abasy Atlas to study the functional organization of regulatory networks. We created two models of the C. glutamicum regulatory network: all-evidences (containing both weak and strong supported interactions, genomic coverage=73%) and strongly-supported (only accounting for strongly supported evidences, genomic coverage=71%). Using state-of-the-art methodologies, we prove that power-law behaviors truly govern the connectivity and clustering coefficient distributions. We found a non-previously reported circuit motif that we named complex feed-forward motif. We highlighted the importance of feedback loops for the functional architecture, beyond whether they are statistically over-represented or not in the network. We show that the previously reported top-down approach is inadequate to infer the hierarchy governing a regulatory network because feedback bridges different hierarchical layers, and the top-down approach disregards the presence of intermodular genes shaping the integration layer. Our findings all together further support a diamond-shaped, three-layered hierarchy exhibiting some feedback between processing and coordination layers, which is shaped by four classes of systems-level elements: global regulators, locally autonomous modules, basal machinery and intermodular genes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Load forecasting using different architectures of neural networks with the assistance of the MATLAB toolboxes; Previsao de cargas eletricas utilizando diferentes arquiteturas de redes neurais artificiais com o auxilio das toolboxes do MATLAB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nose Filho, Kenji; Araujo, Klayton A.M.; Maeda, Jorge L.Y.; Lotufo, Anna Diva P. [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Ilha Solteira, SP (Brazil)], Emails: kenjinose@yahoo.com.br, klayton_ama@hotmail.com, jorge-maeda@hotmail.com, annadiva@dee.feis.unesp.br

    2009-07-01

    This paper presents a development and implementation of a program to electrical load forecasting with data from a Brazilian electrical company, using four different architectures of neural networks of the MATLAB toolboxes: multilayer backpropagation gradient descendent with momentum, multilayer backpropagation Levenberg-Marquardt, adaptive network based fuzzy inference system and general regression neural network. The program presented a satisfactory performance, guaranteeing very good results. (author)

  15. 3D Networked Tin Oxide/Graphene Aerogel with a Hierarchically Porous Architecture for High-Rate Performance Sodium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xiuqiang; Chen, Shuangqiang; Sun, Bing; Wang, Chengyin; Wang, Guoxiu

    2015-09-07

    Low-cost and sustainable sodium-ion batteries are regarded as a promising technology for large-scale energy storage and conversion. The development of high-rate anode materials is highly desirable for sodium-ion batteries. The optimization of mass transport and electron transfer is crucial in the discovery of electrode materials with good high-rate performances. Herein, we report the synthesis of 3 D interconnected SnO2 /graphene aerogels with a hierarchically porous structure as anode materials for sodium-ion batteries. The unique 3 D architecture was prepared by a facile in situ process, during which cross-linked 3 D conductive graphene networks with macro-/meso-sized hierarchical pores were formed and SnO2 nanoparticles were dispersed uniformly on the graphene surface simultaneously. Such a 3 D functional architecture not only facilitates the electrode-electrolyte interaction but also provides an efficient electron pathway within the graphene networks. When applied as anode materials in sodium-ion batteries, the as-prepared SnO2 /graphene aerogel exhibited high reversible capacity, improved cycling performance compared to SnO2 , and promising high-rate capability. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Dialogic e-Learning2learn: Creating Global Digital Networks and Educational Knowledge Building Architectures across Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, Elsebeth Korsgaard

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to address the challenge and potential of online higher and continuing education, of fostering and promoting, in a global perspective across time and space, democratic values working for a better world. Design/methodology/approach: The paper presents a generalized dialogic learning architecture of networked…

  17. An Internet of Things Generic Reference Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhalerao, Dipashree M.; Riaz, Tahir; Madsen, Ole Brun

    2013-01-01

    , and keeping track of all these things for monitoring and controlling some information. IoT architecture is studied from software architecture, overall system architecture and network architecture point of view. Paper puts forward the requirements of software architecture along with, its component...... and deployment diagram, process and interface diagram at abstract level. Paper proposes the abstract generic IoT reference and concrete abstract generic IoT reference architectures. Network architecture is also put up as a state of the art. Paper shortly gives overviews of protocols used for IoT. Some...

  18. An Information Theoretic Framework and Self-organizing Agent- based Sensor Network Architecture for Power Plant Condition Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loparo, Kenneth; Kolacinski, Richard; Threeanaew, Wanchat; Agharazi, Hanieh

    2017-01-30

    A central goal of the work was to enable both the extraction of all relevant information from sensor data, and the application of information gained from appropriate processing and fusion at the system level to operational control and decision-making at various levels of the control hierarchy through: 1. Exploiting the deep connection between information theory and the thermodynamic formalism, 2. Deployment using distributed intelligent agents with testing and validation in a hardware-in-the loop simulation environment. Enterprise architectures are the organizing logic for key business processes and IT infrastructure and, while the generality of current definitions provides sufficient flexibility, the current architecture frameworks do not inherently provide the appropriate structure. Of particular concern is that existing architecture frameworks often do not make a distinction between ``data'' and ``information.'' This work defines an enterprise architecture for health and condition monitoring of power plant equipment and further provides the appropriate foundation for addressing shortcomings in current architecture definition frameworks through the discovery of the information connectivity between the elements of a power generation plant. That is, to identify the correlative structure between available observations streams using informational measures. The principle focus here is on the implementation and testing of an emergent, agent-based, algorithm based on the foraging behavior of ants for eliciting this structure and on measures for characterizing differences between communication topologies. The elicitation algorithms are applied to data streams produced by a detailed numerical simulation of Alstom’s 1000 MW ultra-super-critical boiler and steam plant. The elicitation algorithm and topology characterization can be based on different informational metrics for detecting connectivity, e.g. mutual information and linear correlation.

  19. A PROPOSED NOVEL ARCHITECTURE OF EC CONTROL SYSTEM USING IEEE 802.11n NETWORK AT ITER-INDIA GYROTRON TEST FACILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Mandge

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available IEEE 802.11 Wi-Fi networks are increasingly becoming popular for its use in industrial applications. With the availability of recent amendments to IEEE 802.11 series of standards, particularly IEEE 802.11n, the adoption of Wi-Fi networks for process automation is gaining more focus and importance. The installation of Wireless networks naturally provides reduction in cable and its maintenance related costs, provides increased flexibility and mobility to enhance performance of industrial control system. The IEEE 802.11n supports parameterization that can be set for particular industrial applications and hence it has addressed to the aspects of timeliness and criticality to some extent. This paper proposes the use of IEEE 802.11n network to interconnect field instruments with Siemens PLC controller in harsh EMI/EMC environment. An application example is shown where the alternate control system architecture is developed in which non-critical and non-safety signals are communicated over Wi-Fi. While, for critical and safety signals, traditional hardwired signals methods can be implemented.

  20. Dynamic brain architectures in local brain activity and functional network efficiency associate with efficient reading in bilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Gangyi; Chen, Hsuan-Chih; Zhu, Zude; He, Yong; Wang, Suiping

    2015-10-01

    The human brain is organized as a dynamic network, in which both regional brain activity and inter-regional connectivity support high-level cognitive processes, such as reading. However, it is still largely unknown how the functional brain network organizes to enable fast and effortless reading processing in the native language (L1) but not in a non-proficient second language (L2), and whether the mechanisms underlying local activity are associated with connectivity dynamics in large-scale brain networks. In the present study, we combined activation-based and multivariate graph-theory analysis with functional magnetic resonance imaging data to address these questions. Chinese-English unbalanced bilinguals read narratives for comprehension in Chinese (L1) and in English (L2). Compared with L2, reading in L1 evoked greater brain activation and recruited a more globally efficient but less clustered network organization. Regions with both increased network efficiency and enhanced brain activation in L1 reading were mostly located in the fronto-temporal reading-related network (RN), whereas regions with decreased global network efficiency, increased clustering, and more deactivation in L2 reading were identified in the default mode network (DMN). Moreover, functional network efficiency was closely associated with local brain activation, and such associations were also modulated by reading efficiency in the two languages. Our results demonstrate that an economical and integrative brain network topology is associated with efficient reading, and further reveal a dynamic association between network efficiency and local activation for both RN and DMN. These findings underscore the importance of considering interregional connectivity when interpreting local BOLD signal changes in bilingual reading. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.