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Sample records for nettle-leaved goosefoot chenopodium

  1. Characterization of antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of nettle leaves (Urtica dioica L.

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    Kukrić Zoran Z.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Samples of stinging nettle or common nettle (Urtica dioica L. were collected from the area of Banja Luka. To measure and evaluate the content of chlorophyll (a and b, carotenoids, and soluble proteins, as well as peroxidase activity (POD, EC 1.11.1.7., fresh nettle leaves of different developmental stages were used. Dried nettle leaves were used to obtain ethanol extract. The dry residue of ethanol extract was dissolved in methanol and the obtained solution was used to determine the content of total phenols, flavonoids, flavonols, as well as non-enzymatic antioxidant activity and antimicrobial activity. The non-enzymatic antioxidant activity was determined by different methods: FRAP, DPPH, and ABTS. The results were compared to those of standard substances like vitamin C, BHT, and BHA. Antimicrobial activity was screened by using macrodilution method. The obtained results showed insignificantly higher content of chlorophyll, carotenoids, and proteins in young nettle leaves as well as an increase in the soluble peroxidase activities. Native electrophoresis of the soluble fraction showed the presence of two peroxidase isophorms in the soluble protein fraction of nettle leaves. The total phenolic content in nettle extracts amounted to 208.37 mg GAE/gdw, the content of total flavonoids was 20.29 mg QE/gdw, and the content of total flavonols was 22.83 mg QE/gdw. The antioxidant activity determined by FRAP method was 7.50 mM Fe(II/gdw, whereas the antioxidant activity measured by using DPPH and ABTS methods, with IC50 values, were 31.38 and 23.55 μg mL-1, respectively. These results showed the weak and moderate antioxidant capacity of stinging nettle. Extract of Urtica dioica L. was tested for antibacterial acivity against various Grampositive and Gram-negative bacteria: Bacillus subtilis IP 5832, Lactobacillus plantarum 299v (Lp299v, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Escherichia coli isolated from food and Escherichia coli isolated from urine samples

  2. The genome of Chenopodium quinoa

    KAUST Repository

    Jarvis, David Erwin; Ho, Yung Shwen; Lightfoot, Damien; Schmö ckel, Sandra M.; Li, Bo; Borm, Theo J. A.; Ohyanagi, Hajime; Mineta, Katsuhiko; Michell, Craig; Saber, Noha; Kharbatia, Najeh M.; Rupper, Ryan R.; Sharp, Aaron R.; Dally, Nadine; Boughton, Berin A.; Woo, Yong; Gao, Ge; Schijlen, Elio G. W. M.; Guo, Xiujie; Momin, Afaque Ahmad Imtiyaz; Negrã o, Só nia; Al-Babili, Salim; Gehring, Christoph A; Roessner, Ute; Jung, Christian; Murphy, Kevin; Arold, Stefan T.; Gojobori, Takashi; Linden, C. Gerard van der; Loo, Eibertus N. van; Jellen, Eric N.; Maughan, Peter J.; Tester, Mark A.

    2017-01-01

    Chenopodium quinoa (quinoa) is a highly nutritious grain identified as an important crop to improve world food security. Unfortunately, few resources are available to facilitate its genetic improvement. Here we report the assembly of a high-quality, chromosome-scale reference genome sequence for quinoa, which was produced using single-molecule real-time sequencing in combination with optical, chromosome-contact and genetic maps. We also report the sequencing of two diploids from the ancestral gene pools of quinoa, which enables the identification of sub-genomes in quinoa, and reduced-coverage genome sequences for 22 other samples of the allotetraploid goosefoot complex. The genome sequence facilitated the identification of the transcription factor likely to control the production of anti-nutritional triterpenoid saponins found in quinoa seeds, including a mutation that appears to cause alternative splicing and a premature stop codon in sweet quinoa strains. These genomic resources are an important first step towards the genetic improvement of quinoa.

  3. The genome of Chenopodium quinoa

    KAUST Repository

    Jarvis, David Erwin

    2017-02-08

    Chenopodium quinoa (quinoa) is a highly nutritious grain identified as an important crop to improve world food security. Unfortunately, few resources are available to facilitate its genetic improvement. Here we report the assembly of a high-quality, chromosome-scale reference genome sequence for quinoa, which was produced using single-molecule real-time sequencing in combination with optical, chromosome-contact and genetic maps. We also report the sequencing of two diploids from the ancestral gene pools of quinoa, which enables the identification of sub-genomes in quinoa, and reduced-coverage genome sequences for 22 other samples of the allotetraploid goosefoot complex. The genome sequence facilitated the identification of the transcription factor likely to control the production of anti-nutritional triterpenoid saponins found in quinoa seeds, including a mutation that appears to cause alternative splicing and a premature stop codon in sweet quinoa strains. These genomic resources are an important first step towards the genetic improvement of quinoa.

  4. The genome of Chenopodium quinoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, David E; Ho, Yung Shwen; Lightfoot, Damien J; Schmöckel, Sandra M; Li, Bo; Borm, Theo J A; Ohyanagi, Hajime; Mineta, Katsuhiko; Michell, Craig T; Saber, Noha; Kharbatia, Najeh M; Rupper, Ryan R; Sharp, Aaron R; Dally, Nadine; Boughton, Berin A; Woo, Yong H; Gao, Ge; Schijlen, Elio G W M; Guo, Xiujie; Momin, Afaque A; Negrão, Sónia; Al-Babili, Salim; Gehring, Christoph; Roessner, Ute; Jung, Christian; Murphy, Kevin; Arold, Stefan T; Gojobori, Takashi; Linden, C Gerard van der; van Loo, Eibertus N; Jellen, Eric N; Maughan, Peter J; Tester, Mark

    2017-02-16

    Chenopodium quinoa (quinoa) is a highly nutritious grain identified as an important crop to improve world food security. Unfortunately, few resources are available to facilitate its genetic improvement. Here we report the assembly of a high-quality, chromosome-scale reference genome sequence for quinoa, which was produced using single-molecule real-time sequencing in combination with optical, chromosome-contact and genetic maps. We also report the sequencing of two diploids from the ancestral gene pools of quinoa, which enables the identification of sub-genomes in quinoa, and reduced-coverage genome sequences for 22 other samples of the allotetraploid goosefoot complex. The genome sequence facilitated the identification of the transcription factor likely to control the production of anti-nutritional triterpenoid saponins found in quinoa seeds, including a mutation that appears to cause alternative splicing and a premature stop codon in sweet quinoa strains. These genomic resources are an important first step towards the genetic improvement of quinoa.

  5. The genome of Chenopodium quinoa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jarvis, D.E.; Shwen Ho, Yung; Lightfoot, Damien J.; Schmöckel, Sandra M.; Li, Bo; Borm, T.J.A.; Ohyanagi, Hajime; Mineta, Katsuhiko; Mitchell, Craig T.; Saber, Noha; Kharbatia, Najeh M.; Rupper, Ryan R.; Sharp, Aaron R.; Dally, Nadine; Boughton, Berin A.; Woo, Yong H.; Gao, Ge; Schijlen, E.G.W.M.; Guo, Xiujie; Momin, Afaque A.; Negräo, Sónia; Al-Babili, Salim; Gehring, Christoph; Roessner, Ute; Jung, Christian; Murphy, Kevin; Arold, Stefan T.; Gojobori, Takashi; Linden, van der C.G.; Loo, van E.N.; Jellen, Eric N.; Maughan, Peter J.; Tester, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Chenopodium quinoa (quinoa) is a highly nutritious grain identified as an important crop to improve world food security. Unfortunately, few resources are available to facilitate its genetic improvement. Here we report the assembly of a high-quality, chromosome-scale reference genome sequence for

  6. THE ANALGESIC EFFECTS OF CHENOPODIUM AMBROSIOIDES ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aqueous extract of the leaf of Chenopodium ambrosides, a Nigeria traditional medicinal plant, has been evaluated for its analgesic potential in mice. The analgesic potential of the plant extract was studied using the thermal (hot plate) test. The plant extract was found effective at the dose of 0.4g/kg and 0.8g/kg in elevating ...

  7. Treatment of quinoa (chenopodium quinoa Willd) with Colchicina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gandarillas Santa Cruz, H.

    1984-01-01

    The sample no. 559, coming from the Bank of Germoplasma of Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) of the Experimental Station at Patacamaya, located in the province Aroma of the La Paz department Bolivia, was treated with an aqueous solution of 0.4% of Colchicina. The treatment did not give the expected result, due, probably, to the very special behaviour of the Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) during the process of mitosis

  8. Diferenças entre Chenopodium quinoa e a planta daninha Chenopodium album Differences between Chenopodium quinoa and the weed Chenopodium album

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    C.R. Spehar

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available A experimentação pioneira com Chenopodium quinoa Willd tem demonstrado sua adaptabilidade à produção de grãos no cerrado. Seus frutos, do tipo aquênio, são cilíndricos, achatados e germinam rapidamente na presença de umidade, após a maturação fisiológica. Na fase inicial do seu desenvolvimento, a quinoa pode ser confundida com a planta daninha Chenopodium album, conhecida no Brasil como ançarinha-branca. As diferenças básicas entre as duas espécies se tornam mais visíveis após o florescimento: ramificação profusa, com rácemos axilares e terminais em C. album, em contraste com C. quinoa, na qual as panículas são terminais, à semelhança do sorgo; o pericarpo é claro e contrasta com o preto em C. album. A quinoa BRS Piabiru, primeiro cultivar para o Brasil, apresenta plantas com 190 cm, nas quais a panícula ocupa 45 cm; maturação fisiológica aos 145 dias; resistência ao acamamento; peso de grãos de 2,42 g 1.000-1; rendimento de 2,8 t ha-1; e biomassa total de 6,6 t ha-1. As sementes de C. album são muito pequenas (0,52 g 1.000-1, germinam gradativamente e permanecem no solo por muitos anos, infestando os cultivos. As diferenças no número de cromossomos, impedindo a polinização cruzada entre as duas espécies e as morfológicas, detectadas na experimentação, mostram que estas são distinguíveis e asseguram que a quinoa apresenta características de adaptação ao cultivo comercial, contrapondo-se às características de invasora em C. album.Pioneer experimentation with Chenopodium quinoa Willd has shown its adaptability to grain production in the Brazilian savannah. Its fruits (achene type are cylindrical, flat and germinate quickly in the presence of moisture, after reaching physiological maturity. At its early phase of development, quinoa can be confounded with the weed Chenopodium album, known in Brazil as 'ançarinha- branca'. Their basic differences become more visible after flowering: profuse branching

  9. Hepatoprotective effect of Chenopodium murale in mice

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    Mohammad Saleem

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Discovery of drugs has its roots in medicinal plants that appeal researchers to identify new therapeutical entities from plants. The current study was conducted to determine its hepatoprotective activity. The results showed that aqueous methanolic extract of Chenopodium murale (200 and 500 mg/kg produced significant (p<0.001 decrease in paracetamol induced increased levels of liver enzymes (alanin transaminase, aspartate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase and total bilirubin. These findings were further supported by histopathological investigations by microscope and detection of phytoconstituents having hepatoprotective potential e.g. qurecetin, kaempferol and gallic acid by HPLC. Conclusively aqueous methanolic extract of C. murale possess hepatoprotective activity against paracetamol induced liver damage in mice.

  10. Nysius cymoides (Spinola on Chenopodium quinoa Willd. cultivated in Italy

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    S. Bocchi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. (Family: Amaranthaceae – APG classification is an Andean grain recently introduced on the European market and cultivated in experimental fields. In one of these experimental fields, in San Giorgio Piacentino (Italy, a heavy bug infestation was observed. The species was identified as Nysius cymoides (Spinola (Heteroptera Lygaeidae, a polyphagous species known as a pest of different crops. It occurs in the Mediterranean area from the sea level to the alpine meadows.

  11. Complete Chloroplast Genome Sequences and Comparative Analysis of Chenopodium quinoa and C. album.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Su-Young; Cheon, Kyeong-Sik; Yoo, Ki-Oug; Lee, Hyun-Oh; Cho, Kwang-Soo; Suh, Jong-Taek; Kim, Su-Jeong; Nam, Jeong-Hwan; Sohn, Hwang-Bae; Kim, Yul-Ho

    2017-01-01

    The Chenopodium genus comprises ~150 species, including Chenopodium quinoa and Chenopodium album , two important crops with high nutritional value. To elucidate the phylogenetic relationship between the two species, the complete chloroplast (cp) genomes of these species were obtained by next generation sequencing. We performed comparative analysis of the sequences and, using InDel markers, inferred phylogeny and genetic diversity of the Chenopodium genus. The cp genome is 152,099 bp ( C. quinoa ) and 152,167 bp ( C. album ) long. In total, 119 genes (78 protein-coding, 37 tRNA, and 4 rRNA) were identified. We found 14 ( C. quinoa ) and 15 ( C. album ) tandem repeats (TRs); 14 TRs were present in both species and C. album and C. quinoa each had one species-specific TR. The trnI-GAU intron sequences contained one ( C. quinoa ) or two ( C. album ) copies of TRs (66 bp); the InDel marker was designed based on the copy number variation in TRs. Using the InDel markers, we detected this variation in the TR copy number in four species, Chenopodium hybridum, Chenopodium pumilio, Chenopodium ficifolium , and Chenopodium koraiense , but not in Chenopodium glaucum . A comparison of coding and non-coding regions between C. quinoa and C. album revealed divergent sites. Nucleotide diversity >0.025 was found in 17 regions-14 were located in the large single copy region (LSC), one in the inverted repeats, and two in the small single copy region (SSC). A phylogenetic analysis based on 59 protein-coding genes from 25 taxa resolved Chenopodioideae monophyletic and sister to Betoideae. The complete plastid genome sequences and molecular markers based on divergence hotspot regions in the two Chenopodium taxa will help to resolve the phylogenetic relationships of Chenopodium .

  12. Allelopathy in two species of Chenopodium -inhibition of germination and seedling growth of certain weeds

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    Subhash C. Datta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The activity of washed leaf and inflorescence material of Chenopodium ambrosioides and C. murale, decaying leaves and inflorescences, and field soils collected beneath Chenopodium plants were examined in terms of the inhibition of seed germination and seedling growth of five weeds, viz. Abutilon indicum, Cassia sophera var. purpurea, C. tora, Evolvulus numularius and Tephrosia hamiltonii. The allelopathic pattern varied in each of the two test species and this depended on the type of test matter. However, the germination as well as the root and hypocotyl growth of A. indicum and E. nummularius were more hampered by phytotoxins or inhibitors from Chenopodium than were the other weeds. Since the leaf and inflorescence of Chenopodium formed the source of inhibitors, the respective plant-parts from the two species were chemically analysed and the presence of three terpenes (p-cymene, ascaridole and aritazone from C. ambrosioides and an organic acid (oxalic acid from C. murale were implicated in the allelopathic effect.

  13. A New Acylated Flavonol Glycoside from Chenopodium foliosum

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    Zlatina Kokanova-Nedialkova, , , , , and

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A new acylated flavonol glycoside, namely gomphrenol-3-O-( 5 '''-O-E-feruloyl-β-D-apiofuranosyl-(1→2[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6]-β-D-glucopyranoside (1 was isolated from the aerial parts of Chenopodium foliosum Asch. The structure of 1 was determined by means of spectroscopic methods (1D and 2D NMR, UV, IR, and HRESIMS. Radical scavenging and antioxidant activities of 1 were established using DPPH and ABTS radicals, FRAP assay and inhibition of lipid peroxidation (LP in linoleic acid system by the ferric thiocyanate method. Compound 1 showed low activity (DPPH and ABTS or lack of activity (FRAP and LP. In combination with CCl 4, 1 reduced the damage caused by the hepatotoxic agent and preserved cell viability and GSH level, decreased LDH leakage and reduced lipid damage. Effects were concentration dependent, most visible at the highest concentration (100 µg/m L , and similar to those of silymarin .

  14. Germination of Chenopodium Album in Response to Microwave Plasma Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sera, Bozena; Stranak, Vitezslav; Sery, Michal; Spatenka, Petr; Tichy, Milan

    2008-01-01

    The seeds of Lamb's Quarters (Chenopodium album agg.) were stimulated by low-pressure discharge. The tested seeds were exposed to plasma discharge for different time durations (from 6 minutes to 48 minutes). Germination tests were performed under specified laboratory conditions during seven days in five identical and completely independent experiments. Significant differences between the control and plasma-treated seeds were observed. The treated seeds showed structural changes on the surface of the seat coat. They germinated faster and their sprout accretion on the first day of seed germination was longer. Germination rate for the untreated seeds was 15% while it increased approximately three times (max 55%) for seeds treated by plasma from 12 minutes to 48 minutes.

  15. Assessment of the nutritional composition of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Verena; Du, Juan; Charrondière, U Ruth

    2016-02-15

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is an ancient crop which can play an important role for worldwide food security. The current review aimed at evaluating existing compositional data which were compiled according to international standards. A limited number of data were found that met the dataset quality criteria. In general, high variations in nutrient contents of quinoa were observed per 100g edible portion on fresh weight basis, for example: protein (9.1-15.7g), total fat (4.0-7.6g) and dietary fiber (8.8-14.1g). The variations of nutrient values among different varieties and among different data sources were considerable. The results show the nutritional potential of quinoa but they also demonstrate that more high-quality analytical data of quinoa are needed, especially for minerals and vitamins. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.): composition, chemistry, nutritional, and functional properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abugoch James, Lilian E

    2009-01-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.), which is considered a pseudocereal or pseudograin, has been recognized as a complete food due to its protein quality. It has remarkable nutritional properties; not only from its protein content (15%) but also from its great amino acid balance. It is an important source of minerals and vitamins, and has also been found to contain compounds like polyphenols, phytosterols, and flavonoids with possible nutraceutical benefits. It has some functional (technological) properties like solubility, water-holding capacity (WHC), gelation, emulsifying, and foaming that allow diversified uses. Besides, it has been considered an oil crop, with an interesting proportion of omega-6 and a notable vitamin E content. Quinoa starch has physicochemical properties (such as viscosity, freeze stability) which give it functional properties with novel uses. Quinoa has a high nutritional value and has recently been used as a novel functional food because of all these properties; it is a promising alternative cultivar.

  17. Evaluation of the development and yielding potential of Chenopodium quinoa Willd. under the climatic conditions of Europe. Part Two: Yielding potential of Chenopodium quinoa under different conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Gęsiński

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of Chenopodium quinoa cultivation effects in Poland has been compared with European research results. It was found that the conditions in Europe are favorable to Chenopodium quinoa cultivation. Poland has the mean length of the vegetation period. The maximum value of this trait was found in Sweden. The conditions in Bydgoszcz (Poland are very favorable to the cultivation for green matter and favorable as far as the seed yield is concerned. The most favorable seed yield was recorded in Greece.

  18. Comparative cytogenetic analysis of diploid and hexaploid Chenopodium album Agg

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    Bożena Kolano

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Two cytotypes of Chenopodium album, diploid (2n=2x=18 and hexaploid (2n=6x=54, were analysed using flow cytometry and a FISH experiment. The genome size was indicated as 1.795 pg for the diploid and 3.845 pg for the hexaploid plants which suggested genome downsizing in the evolution of hexaploid cytotype. Double FISH with 25S rDNA and 5S rDNA allowed three to five homologue chromosome pairs to be distinguished depending on the cytotype. The Variation in size and number of rDNA sites between the polyploid C. album and its putative diploid ancestor indicated that rDNA loci underwent rearrangements after polyploidization. Flow cytometry measurements of the relative nuclear DNA content in the somatic tissue of C. album revealed extensive endopolyploidization resulting in tissues comprising a mixture of cells with a different DNA content (from 2C to 32C in varying proportions. The pattern of endopolyploidy was characteristic for the developmental stage of the plant and for the individual organ. Polysomaty was not observed in the embryo tissues however endopolyploidization had taken place in most tested organs of seedlings. The endopolyploidy in diploid and hexaploid C. album was compared to find any relationship between the pattern of polysomaty and polyploidy level in this species. This revealed that polyploid plants showed a decline in the number of endocycles as well as in the frequency of endopolyploidy cells compared to diploid plants.

  19. Antifungal Properties of Chenopodium ambrosioides Essential Oil Against Candida Species

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    Gerard Vilarem

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil of the aerial part (leaves, flowers and stem of Chenopodium ambrosioides was obtained by hydrodistillation and its chemical composition analyzed by GC and GC/MS, which permitted the identification of 14 components, representing 98.8% of the total oil. Major components were α-terpinene (51.3%, p-cymene (23.4% and p-mentha-1,8-diène (15.3%. The antifungal properties of this essential oil were investigated in vitro by the well diffusion and broth microdilution methods. The in vitro antifungal activity was concentration dependent and minimum inhibitory concentration values varied from 0.25 to 2 mg/mL. The in vivo antifungal activity was evaluated on an induced vaginal candidiasis rat model. The in vivo activity of the oil on mice vaginal candidiasis was not dose-dependent. Indeed, all the three tested doses; 0.1%, 1% and 10% led to the recovery of mice from the induced infection after 12 days of treatment. The effect of the essential oil on C. albicans ATCC 1663 fatty acid profile was studied. This oil has a relatively important dose-dependent effect on the fatty acids profile.

  20. Molecular cytogenetic studies in Chenopodium quinoa and Amaranthus caudatus

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    Jolanta Małuszyńska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chenopodium quinoa Wild. and Amaranthus caudatus L., two plant species from South America, have small and numerous chromosomes. Looking for chromosome markers to distinguish pairs of homologous chromosomes double fluorescence staining, in situ hybridization with 45S rDNA and silver staining were applied. Fluorescent in situ hybridization with 45S rDNA has shown two sites of hybridization occurring on one pair of chromosomes in qunion genre (lines PQ-1, PQ-8. The number of RDA loci in Amaranth's caudate L. genre depends on the accession. Kiwicha 3 line has one pair of chromosomes with signals and Kiwicha Molinera cultivar two pairs. All observed rDNA loci were active. After chromomycin/DAPI staining in all cases, except Kiwicha Molinera cultivar, the CMA3 positive bands co-localized with signals of in situ hybridization with rDNA. In Kiwicha Molinera the number of CMA+ bands was higher than the number of 45S rDNA signals after FISH.

  1. Near-Critical Extraction of Pigments and Oleoresin from Stinging Nettle Leaves

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sovová, Helena; Sajfrtová, Marie; Bártlová, Milena; Opletal, L.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 2 (2004), s. 213-224 ISSN 0896-8446 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/01/0550 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4072921 Keywords : Urtica dioica leaves * carbon dioxide * carotenoids Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 2.275, year: 2004

  2. The effect of humic substances on germination and early growth of Lamb's Quarters (Chenopodium album agg.)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šerá, Božena; Novák, František

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 66, č. 3 (2011), s. 470-476 ISSN 0006-3088 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520; CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : Chenopodium album * growth stimulation * humic substance * lignite * seed germination Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.557, year: 2011

  3. Experiments on the extraction and photoconversion of chenopodium chlorophyll protein CP 668

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terpstra, Willemke

    1966-01-01

    1. 1. The amount of extractable, photoconvertible, protein-chlorophyll complex CP 668 from Chenopodium album leaves was found to be very variable, depending on site and day of leaf collection. 2. 2. Photoconversion of CP 668 into a 740-nm absorbing form probably does not occur in intact leaves;

  4. Simulation of Quinoa (Chenopodium Quinoa Willd.) response to soil salinity using the saltmed model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Razzaghi, Fatemeh; Plauborg, Finn; Ahmadi, Seyed Hamid

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is a crop with high tolerance to salinity and drought and its response to varying soil moisture and salinity levels was studied in a field lysimeter experiment. Quinoa (cv. Titicaca) was irrigated with different concentrations of saline water (0, 10, 20, 30 and 40...

  5. Daily profile of melatonin levels in Chenopodium rubrum L. depends on photoperiod

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wolf, Karel; Kolář, Jan; Witters, E.; Dongen, W.; Onckelen, H.; Macháčková, Ivana

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 158, č. 11 (2001), s. 1491-1493 ISSN 0176-1617 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/00/1354 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5038910 Keywords : Chenopodium rubrum * circadian rhythms * melatonin Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.018, year: 2001

  6. Allopolyploid Origin of Chenopodium album s. str. (Chenopodiaceae): A Molecular and Cytogenetic Insight

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krak, Karol; Vít, Petr; Belyayev, Alexander; Douda, Jan; Hreusová, Lucia; Mandák, Bohumil

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 8 (2016), s. 1-22, č. článku e0161063. E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-02290S Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : Chenopodium * allopolyploidy * evolution Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.806, year: 2016

  7. Chromosomal localization of two novel repetitive sequences isolated from the Chenopodium quinoa Willd. genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolano, B; Gardunia, B W; Michalska, M; Bonifacio, A; Fairbanks, D; Maughan, P J; Coleman, C E; Stevens, M R; Jellen, E N; Maluszynska, J

    2011-09-01

    The chromosomal organization of two novel repetitive DNA sequences isolated from the Chenopodium quinoa Willd. genome was analyzed across the genomes of selected Chenopodium species. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis with the repetitive DNA clone 18-24J in the closely related allotetraploids C. quinoa and Chenopodium berlandieri Moq. (2n = 4x = 36) evidenced hybridization signals that were mainly present on 18 chromosomes; however, in the allohexaploid Chenopodium album L. (2n = 6x = 54), cross-hybridization was observed on all of the chromosomes. In situ hybridization with rRNA gene probes indicated that during the evolution of polyploidy, the chenopods lost some of their rDNA loci. Reprobing with rDNA indicated that in the subgenome labeled with 18-24J, one 35S rRNA locus and at least half of the 5S rDNA loci were present. A second analyzed sequence, 12-13P, localized exclusively in pericentromeric regions of each chromosome of C. quinoa and related species. The intensity of the FISH signals differed considerably among chromosomes. The pattern observed on C. quinoa chromosomes after FISH with 12-13P was very similar to GISH results, suggesting that the 12-13P sequence constitutes a major part of the repetitive DNA of C. quinoa.

  8. How genome size variation is linked with evolution within Chenopodium sensu lato

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mandák, Bohumil; Krak, Karol; Vít, Petr; Pavlíková, Zuzana; Lomonosova, M. N.; Habibi, Farzaneh; Lei, Wang; Jellen, E.N.; Douda, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 23, DEC 2016 (2016), s. 18-32 ISSN 1433-8319 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-02290S Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : Chenopodium * genome size evolution * flow cytometry Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 3.123, year: 2016

  9. Study of the elemental composition of Chenopodium Quinoa Willd by fast neutron activation analysis and X ray fluorescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soto Moran, R.L.; Szegedi, S.; Llopiz, J.L.

    1996-01-01

    By means of x-ray fluorescence and fast neutron activation analysis the nitrogen content has been determined in samples of roots, stems, leaf, flowers and grains from Quinua (Chenopodium Quinoa Willd), which was previously treated with fertilizer

  10. Desarrollo de un producto de panadería con harina de quinua (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) / Bakery product development with quinoa flour (Chenopodium quinoa Willd)

    OpenAIRE

    García García, Diana Paola

    2011-01-01

    Para este trabajo, se obtuvo harina de quinua de la variedad Nariño como materia prima en grano (Chenopodium quinoa Willd), para esto se adecuó la materia prima extrayendo las saponinas del grano y posterior secado con aire caliente. Se probó su uso en panificación utilizando mezclas de harina de quinua con harina de trigo, para conocer y aprovechar las ventajas a nivel nutricional de este grano tan poco conocido y comercializado, que puede ser fuente de proteína de calidad, utilizándose en p...

  11. A New Kaempferol Glycoside with Antioxidant Activity from Chenopodium ambrosioides Growing in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Mosad Ahmed Ghareeb; Amal Mohamed Saad; Allia Mahmoud Abdou; Laila Abdel-Ghany Refahy; Wafaa Sabry Ahmed; Wafaa Sabry Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    The current study aimed to identify the chemical constituents of Chenopodium ambrosioides (Linn.), and the assessment of the in vitro antioxidant activity of the different extracts and pure isolates. Methods: The antioxidant activity was estimated via free radical scavenging and Phosphomolybdenum assays. Structure elucidation of pure compounds was achieved via UV, IR, 1H & 13C-NMR, 1H-1H COSY, HMQC, and HMBC, spectroscopy. Bioassay-guided fractionation and isolation of the n-butanol fraction ...

  12. Innovations in Health Value and Functional Food Development of Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.)

    OpenAIRE

    Graf, Brittany L.; Rojas-Silva, Patricio; Rojo, Leonel E.; Delatorre-Herrera, Jose; Baldeón, Manuel E.; Raskin, Ilya

    2015-01-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd., Amaranthaceae) is a grain-like, stress-tolerant food crop that has provided subsistence, nutrition, and medicine for Andean indigenous cultures for thousands of years. Quinoa contains a high content of health-beneficial phytochemicals, including amino acids, fiber, polyunsaturated fatty acids, vitamins, minerals, saponins, phytosterols, phytoecdysteroids, phenolics, betalains, and glycine betaine. Over the past 2 decades, numerous food and nutraceutical prod...

  13. Evaluation of growth and flowering of Chenopodium quinoa Willd. under Polish conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Gęsiński

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The material presented refers to the estimation of growth and the flowering (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. under Polish conditions. The species has been a South-American pseudocereal cultivated in the traditional form in the Andean region for over 5 thousand years. Its advantage, apart from low soil and climate requirements, is that it shows high nutritive value. The Chenopodium quinoa protein is especially valuable with its amino acid composition which is better balanced than that of wheat or maize. It shows a better share of egzogenic aminoacids. Field examinations were carried out in 1999-2001 at the Experiment Station of Cultivar Testing at Chrząstowo. The experiment involved two cultivars from two various growing regions: America and Europe. Analyses were made to include development stages, plant growth dynamics, inflorescences development dynamics, inflorescence habit and flowering. Differences were recorded in the growth and development models of the cultivars researched. The European cultivar had a short compact inflorescence with a short flowering period, reaching 120 cm. American cultivar plants were high (160 cm; they showed a slower continuous growth, loose big-in-size inflorescence, and a long period of flowering. The plants ended their growing season over the flowering stage or seed formation. The adequate growth, the course of flowering and, as a result, a stable yielding of the European cultivar make the group suitable for the cultivation under Polish conditions. This breeding group should also be the parent material for the cultivation of the Polish cultivar of Chenopodium quinoa.

  14. Determinación de la capacidad antioxidante y compuestos fenólicos de cereales andinos: quinua (Chenopodium quinoa), kañiwa (Chenopodium pallidicaule) y kiwicha (Amaranthus caudatus)

    OpenAIRE

    Repo de Carrasco, Ritva; Encina Zelada, Christian Rene

    2008-01-01

    Se realizó la extracción de compuestos hidrofílicos y lipofílicos de cereales andinos, siendo el de mayor contenido en ambos casos la muestra de kañiwa (Chenopodium pallidicaule variedad cupi), siguiendo la de quinua (Chenopodium quinoa ecotipo marrón) y finalmente la kiwicha (Amaranthus caudatus ecotipo negra). Se realizó la determinación del contenido de compuestos fenólicos en quince variedades de quinua, siendo la de mayor contenido la variedad PIQ031046 con 139,94 mg ácido gálico/100 g; ...

  15. Evaluation of the development and yielding potential of Chenopodium quinoa Willd. under the climatic conditions of Europe. Part one: accomodation of Chenopodium quinoa (Willd. to different conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Gęsiński

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on the evaluation of selected varieties of Chenopodium quinoa, their requirements were identified; it was shown which varieties demonstrated the best effects in what conditions. It was found that the best varieties for Europe's conditions were E-DK-4-PQCIP and RU-5-PQCIP. E-DK-4-PQCIP variety showed the best effects under the conditions of cluster II which included e.g. Bydgoszcz (Poland and cluster IV which included Southern European countries (Greece and Italy, while the best effects found in RU-5-PQCIP variety were identified in cluster I which included Sweden. E-DK-4-PQCIP variety in cluster II showed a very high yield of green matter and a mean seed yield, and in cluster IV - a very high seed yield and a high yield of green matter.

  16. Involvement of NFκB in the antirheumatic potential of Chenopodium album L., aerial parts extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Sumit K; Itankar, Prakash R; Verma, Prashant R; Bharne, Ashish P; Kokare, Dadasaheb M

    2014-08-08

    Chenopodium album L. (C. album) is commonly known as Bathua in Hindi (Family: Chenopodiaceae). Traditionally, the plant is used as a laxative, diuretic, sedative and the infusion of the plant is used for the treatment of rheumatism. However, no scientific validation is available on the antirheumatic potential of the plant. In the present investigation, role of NF kappa B (NFκB) in the antiarthritic potential of extracts of aerial parts of Chenopodium album was explored and evaluated. The defatted aerial parts of Chenopodium album were successively extracted with ethylacetate, acetone, methanol and 50% methanol to study their antioxidant capacity followed by antiarthritic potential using Complete Freund׳s adjuvant (CFA) induced arthritis model in rats. The polyphenol, flavonoid and flavanone contents of different extracts were quantified and correlated with their antioxidant capacity, antiarthritic activity and NFκB inhibition potential. The experimental data indicated that the acetone extract of Chenopodium album (ACCA) has shown significant reduction in rat paw edema (80.13%) at dose level of 200 mg/kg per oral in 21 days of this study. On 22nd day, hematological and biochemical parameters were estimated and it was observed that the altered hematological parameters (Hb, RBC, WBC and ESR), biochemical parameters (Serum creatinine, total proteins and acute phase proteins) and loss in body weight in the arthritic rats were significantly brought back to near normal level by the ACCA extract. ACCA extract significantly decreased the NFκB expression in paraventricular nucleus of hypothalamus and this effect is comparable with standard indomethacine in CFA treated rats. The polyphenolic and flavonoid content of different extracts were in the range of 14.56±0.21-42.00±0.2 mg (gallic acid equivalent/g extract) and 2.20±0.003-7.33±0.5 mg (rutin equivalent/g extract) respectively. The antiarthritic activity possessed by ACCA extract can be correlated directly to its

  17. Propiedades nutricionales y antioxidantes de la cañihua (Chenopodium pallidicaule Aellen)

    OpenAIRE

    Bartolo Estrella, Dolly Elisa

    2013-01-01

    El objetivo de esta revisión fue detallar las propiedades nutricionales y antioxidantes de la cañihua (Chenopodium pallidicaule Aellen). La cañihua es uno de los granos andinos menos estudiados y más nutritivos, debido a su contenido y calidad proteica. Esta planta a causa de su crecimiento en condiciones climáticas extremas, como en el altiplano (4000 m.s.n.m.), probablemente ha desarrollado una protección natural contra la oxidación. Los reportes indican que la cañihua tiene una calidad pro...

  18. Toxic effects of carvacrol, caryophyllene oxide, and ascaridole from essential oil of Chenopodium ambrosioides on mitochondria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monzote, Lianet; Stamberg, Werner; Staniek, Katrin; Gille, Lars

    2009-01-01

    Chenopodium ambrosioides have been used for centuries in the Americas as a popular remedy for parasitic diseases. The essential oil of this plant possesses anthelmintic activity and is still used in some regions to treat parasitosis and leishmaniasis. However, the Chenopodium oil caused also some fatalities, leading to its commercial disuse. In this work, we studied the mechanism of toxicity of the essential oil and its major pure ingredients (carvacrol, caryophyllene oxide, and ascaridole, which was synthesized from α-terpinene) with respect to mammalian cells and mitochondria. We observed that all products, but especially caryophyllene oxide, inhibited the mitochondrial electron transport chain. This effect for carvacrol and caryophyllene oxide was mediated via direct complex I inhibition. Without Fe 2+ , ascaridole was less toxic to mammalian mitochondria than other major ingredients. However, evidence on the formation of carbon-centered radicals in the presence of Fe 2+ was obtained by ESR spin-trapping. Furthermore, it was shown that Fe 2+ potentiated the toxicity of ascaridole on oxidative phosphorylation of rat liver mitochondria. The increase of the α-tocopherol quinone/α-tocopherol ratio under these conditions indicated the initiation of lipid peroxidation by Fe 2+ -mediated ascaridole cleavage. Further ESR spin-trapping experiments demonstrated that in addition to Fe 2+ , reduced hemin, but not mitochondrial cytochrome c can activate ascaridole, explaining why ascaridole in peritoneal macrophages from BALB/c mice exhibited a higher toxicity than in isolated mitochondria.

  19. Morphological and molecular characterization of the causal agent of downy mildew on Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Young-Joon; Danielsen, Solveig; Lübeck, Mette; Hong, Seung-Beom; Delhey, Rolf; Shin, Hyeon-Dong

    2010-05-01

    Downy mildew is an economically important and widespread disease in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) growing areas. Although in many studies Peronospora farinosa is most commonly regarded as the causal agent of the disease, identification and classification of the pathogen remain still uncertain due to its taxonomic confusion. Thirty-six Peronospora isolates from quinoa with different geographic origins including Argentina, Bolivia, Denmark, Ecuador, and Peru were morphologically and molecularly compared with Peronospora species from other Chenopodium species. The morphology of three herbarium specimens was similar to that of P. variabilis, which originated from C. album, characterized by flexuous to curved ultimate branchlets and pedicellated conidia. Phylogenetic analysis based on ITS rDNA sequences also placed the quinoa pathogen within the same clade as P. variabilis. Within the ITS rDNA sequences of the quinoa pathogens, two base substitutions were found, which separated the majority of the Danish isolates from isolates from South America, but no sequence difference was found among the isolates from different cultivars of quinoa. The present results indicate that the pathogen responsible for the quinoa downy mildew is identical to Peronospora variabilis and that it should not be lumped with P. farinosa as claimed previously by most studies.

  20. The importance of heat against antinutritional factors from Chenopodium quinoa seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio da Silva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Chenopodium quinoa seeds have high protein content. The nutritional value of quinoa is superior compared with traditional cereals. Its essential amino acid composition is considered next to the ideal, and its quality matches that of milk proteins. In this study, the seed storage proteins from Chenopodium quinoa were extracted, fractionated, partially purified, and characterized. The structural characterization was performed by Tricine-SDS-PAGE and two-dimensional electrophoresis, and it confirmed the presence of proteins of molecular weight of 30 and 7kDa, probably corresponding to lectins and trypsin inhibitors, respectively. The functional characterization of these proteins evidenced their activity as antinutritional factors due to their in vitro digestibility. Quinoa proteins have an excellent amino acid composition with many essential amino acids. In vitro digestibility evaluation indicated that heat-treated samples showed a more complete digestion than the native state samples. Quinoa seeds can be an important cereal in human diet after adequate heat treatment.

  1. In vitro bactericidal activity of Jinghua Weikang Capsule and its individual herb Chenopodium ambrosioides L. against antibiotic-resistant Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Liu, Yu; Zhang, Xue-Zhi; Li, Ning; Cheng, Hong

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the bactericidal effects of Jinghua Weikang Capsule and its major component Chenopodium ambrosioides L. on antibiotic-resistant Helicobacter pylori. Four clinical antibiotic-resistant H. pylori strains were isolated and incubated in liquid medium containing Jinghua Weikang Capsule or Chenopodium ambrosioides L. By means of time-kill curve method, the average colony counts and bactericidal rate were calculated at time points of 0, 4, 8 and 24 h after the incubation and the time-kill curves were charted. Both Jinghua Weikang Capsule and Chenopodium ambrosioides L. at a concentration of 0.64 g/L showed obvious bactericidal effect against antibiotic-resistant H. pylori after 4 h of incubation. Jinghua Weikang Capsule and Chenopodium ambrosioides L. are considered to be active against antibiotic-resistant H. pylori in vitro.

  2. Evaluation of the anthelmintic activity and toxicity of an aqueous extract of Chenopodium ambrosioides in goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele Dias da Silva

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. da Silva G.D., Botura M.B., de Lima H.G., de Oliveira J.V.A., Moreira E.L.T., Santos F.O., de Souza T.S., de Almeida M.A.O. & Batatinha M.J.M. Evaluation of the anthelmintic activity and toxicity of an aqueous extract of Chenopodium ambrosioides in goats. [Avaliação da atividade anti-helmíntica e toxicidade do extrato aquoso de Chenopodium ambrosioides em caprinos.] Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 38(Supl.1:156-162, 2016. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ci- ência Animal nos Trópicos, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Av. Ademar de Barros, 500, Ondina, Salvador, BA 40170-110, Brasil. E-mail: mjmb@ufba.br The objective of this study was to evaluate the anthelmintic activity of an aqueous extract (AE from Chenopodium ambrosioides on goat gastrointestinal nematodes (GINs and its toxic effects. The anthelmintic activity in vitro was investigated using the inhibition of egg hatching assay (EHA, while cytotoxicity on Vero cells was evaluated using the MTT test. In vivo, thirty goats that were naturally infected with GINs were divided into three groups: group I, treated with a daily dose of AE C. ambrosioides (700mg/kg for eight days; group II (positive control, treated with a single dose of levamisole phosphate (6.3mg/kg; and Group III, untreated (negative control. Treatment efficacy was assessed on the basis of egg counts (FEC, faecal cultures and post-mortem worm burden counts. Clinical and laboratory evaluations were performed to detect toxic effects associated with treatment. In the EHA, the EC50 and EC90 corresponded to 1.6 and 1.9mg/mL, respectively. The AE promoted a slight reduction in cell viability in the cytotoxicity test. The AE reduced (p <0.05 the number of infective larvae of the genera Haemonchus and Oesophagostomum. The anthelmintic treatment of goats with AE C.ambrosioides resulted in moderate efficacy against infective larvae, but revealed neither ovicidal nor toxic activity towards adult nematodes. No toxic

  3. Potential for rhizofiltration of uranium using hairy root cultures of Brassica juncea and Chenopodium amaranticolor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eapen, Susan; Suseelan, K.N.; Tivarekar, Suchita; Kotwal, S.A.; Mitra, R.

    2003-01-01

    Hairy root cultures of Brassica juncea and Chenopodium amaranticolor were developed by genetic transformation using Agrobacterium rhizogenes. The stable, transformed root systems demonstrated a high growth rate of 1.5-3. g/g dry weight/day in Murashige and Skoog medium. In the present study, hairy root system was used for removal of uranium from the solution of concentration up to 5000 μM. The results indicated that the hairy roots could remove uranium from the aqueous solution within a short period of incubation. B. juncea could take up 20-23% of uranium from the solution containing up to 5000 μM, when calculated on g/g dry weight basis. C. amaranticolor showed a slow and steady trend in taking up uranium, with 13 uptake from the solution of 5000 μM concentration. Root growth was not affected up to 500 μM of uranium nitrate over a period of 10 days

  4. Chemical and sensory evaluation of dark chocolate with addition of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Andrea B; Brandelli, Adriano; Macedo, Fernanda C; Pieta, Luiza; Klug, Tâmmila V; de Jong, Erna V

    2010-03-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) is a good source of vitamin E containing high quality protein. A dark chocolate with the addition of 12, 16 or 20% quinoa was developed. The protein concentration of the products increased as the percentage of quinoa increased. The product containing 20% quinoa showed only 9% increase in vitamin E, while the quantity of polyphenols decreased from 23.5 to 18 μmol pirocatechin/g. The amount of essential amino acids was improved in samples containing quinoa. Cysteine, tyrosine and methionine increased by 104, 72, 70%, respectively in chocolate containing 20% quinoa. The amino acid pattern was as per WHO standards, which was adequate to human needs. The chocolate with quinoa was approved by 92% of the sensory panel. All the samples showed an index of acceptance above 70%. Quinoa could be used at the levels evaluated in this study adding its potential health benefit to the dark chocolate.

  5. Innovations in Health Value and Functional Food Development of Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Brittany L; Rojas-Silva, Patricio; Rojo, Leonel E; Delatorre-Herrera, Jose; Baldeón, Manuel E; Raskin, Ilya

    2015-07-01

    Quinoa ( Chenopodium quinoa Willd., Amaranthaceae) is a grain-like, stress-tolerant food crop that has provided subsistence, nutrition, and medicine for Andean indigenous cultures for thousands of years. Quinoa contains a high content of health-beneficial phytochemicals, including amino acids, fiber, polyunsaturated fatty acids, vitamins, minerals, saponins, phytosterols, phytoecdysteroids, phenolics, betalains, and glycine betaine. Over the past 2 decades, numerous food and nutraceutical products and processes have been developed from quinoa. Furthermore, 4 clinical studies have demonstrated that quinoa supplementation exerts significant, positive effects on metabolic, cardiovascular, and gastrointestinal health in humans. However, vast challenges and opportunities remain within the scientific, agricultural, and development sectors to optimize quinoa's role in the promotion of global human health and nutrition.

  6. Characterisation of phenolics, betanins and antioxidant activities in seeds of three Chenopodium quinoa Willd. genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yao; Li, Xihong; Zhang, Bing; Chen, Peter X; Liu, Ronghua; Tsao, Rong

    2015-01-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is known for its exceptional nutritional value and potential health benefits. The present study identified the composition of different forms of extractable phenolics and betacyanins of quinoa cultivars in white, red and black, and how they contribute to antioxidant activities. Results showed that at least 23 phenolic compounds were found in either free or conjugated forms (liberated by alkaline and/or acid hydrolysis); the majority of which were phenolic acids, mainly vanillic acid, ferulic acid and their derivatives as well as main flavonoids quercetin, kaempferol and their glycosides. Betacyanins, mainly betanin and isobetanin, were confirmed for the first time to be the pigments of the red and black quinoa seeds, instead of anthocyanins. Darker quinoa seeds had higher phenolic concentration and antioxidant activity. Findings of these phenolics, along with betacyanins in this study add new knowledge to the functional components of quinoa seeds of different cultivar background. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Combined effect of the essential oil from Chenopodium ambrosioides and antileishmanial drugs on promastigotes of Leishmania amazonensis Efeito combinado do óleo de essência de Chenopodium ambrosioides e drogas anti-leishmaniose nos promastigotas de Leishmania amazonensis

    OpenAIRE

    Lianet Monzote; Ana Margarita Montalvo; Ramón Scull; Migdalia Miranda; Juan Abreu

    2007-01-01

    To date, there are no vaccines against Leishmania, and chemotherapy remains the mainstay for the control of leishmaniasis. The drugs of choice used for leishmaniasis therapy are significantly toxic, expensive and with a growing frequency of refractory infections. Because of these limitations, a combination therapy is the better hope. This work demonstrates that the essential oil from Chenopodium ambrosioides shows a synergic activity after incubation in conjunction with pentamidine against pr...

  8. Combined effect of the essential oil from Chenopodium ambrosioides and antileishmanial drugs on promastigotes of Leishmania amazonensis

    OpenAIRE

    Monzote,Lianet; Montalvo,Ana Margarita; Scull,Ramón; Miranda,Migdalia; Abreu,Juan

    2007-01-01

    To date, there are no vaccines against Leishmania, and chemotherapy remains the mainstay for the control of leishmaniasis. The drugs of choice used for leishmaniasis therapy are significantly toxic, expensive and with a growing frequency of refractory infections. Because of these limitations, a combination therapy is the better hope. This work demonstrates that the essential oil from Chenopodium ambrosioides shows a synergic activity after incubation in conjunction with pentamidine against pr...

  9. Benzyladenine-induced inhibition of flowering in Chenopodium rubrum in vitro is not related to the levels of isoprenoid cytokinins

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Blažková, Alena; Macháčková, Ivana; Eder, Josef; Krekule, Jan

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 2 (2001), s. 159-166 ISSN 0167-6903 R&D Projects: GA ČR GV206/96/K188; GA ČR GA206/00/1354 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5038910 Keywords : benzylaminopurine * Chenopodium rubrum * cytokinins Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.761, year: 2001

  10. Identification of Putative Transmembrane Proteins Involved in Salinity Tolerance in Chenopodium quinoa by Integrating Physiological Data, RNAseq, and SNP Analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra M. Schmöckel

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Chenopodium quinoa (quinoa is an emerging crop that produces nutritious grains with the potential to contribute to global food security. Quinoa can also grow on marginal lands, such as soils affected by high salinity. To identify candidate salt tolerance genes in the recently sequenced quinoa genome, we used a multifaceted approach integrating RNAseq analyses with comparative genomics and topology prediction. We identified 219 candidate genes by selecting those that were differentially expressed in response to salinity, were specific to or overrepresented in quinoa relative to other Amaranthaceae species, and had more than one predicted transmembrane domain. To determine whether these genes might underlie variation in salinity tolerance in quinoa and its close relatives, we compared the response to salinity stress in a panel of 21 Chenopodium accessions (14 C. quinoa, 5 C. berlandieri, and 2 C. hircinum. We found large variation in salinity tolerance, with one C. hircinum displaying the highest salinity tolerance. Using genome re-sequencing data from these accessions, we investigated single nucleotide polymorphisms and copy number variation (CNV in the 219 candidate genes in accessions of contrasting salinity tolerance, and identified 15 genes that could contribute to the differences in salinity tolerance of these Chenopodium accessions.

  11. Identification of Putative Transmembrane Proteins Involved in Salinity Tolerance in Chenopodium quinoa by Integrating Physiological Data, RNAseq, and SNP Analyses

    KAUST Repository

    Schmöckel, Sandra M.

    2017-06-21

    Chenopodium quinoa (quinoa) is an emerging crop that produces nutritious grains with the potential to contribute to global food security. Quinoa can also grow on marginal lands, such as soils affected by high salinity. To identify candidate salt tolerance genes in the recently sequenced quinoa genome, we used a multifaceted approach integrating RNAseq analyses with comparative genomics and topology prediction. We identified 219 candidate genes by selecting those that were differentially expressed in response to salinity, were specific to or overrepresented in quinoa relative to other Amaranthaceae species, and had more than one predicted transmembrane domain. To determine whether these genes might underlie variation in salinity tolerance in quinoa and its close relatives, we compared the response to salinity stress in a panel of 21 Chenopodium accessions (14 C. quinoa, 5 C. berlandieri, and 2 C. hircinum). We found large variation in salinity tolerance, with one C. hircinum displaying the highest salinity tolerance. Using genome re-sequencing data from these accessions, we investigated single nucleotide polymorphisms and copy number variation (CNV) in the 219 candidate genes in accessions of contrasting salinity tolerance, and identified 15 genes that could contribute to the differences in salinity tolerance of these Chenopodium accessions.

  12. Identification of Putative Transmembrane Proteins Involved in Salinity Tolerance in Chenopodium quinoa by Integrating Physiological Data, RNAseq, and SNP Analyses

    KAUST Repository

    Schmö ckel, Sandra M.; Lightfoot, Damien; Razali, Rozaimi; Tester, Mark A.; Jarvis, David Erwin

    2017-01-01

    Chenopodium quinoa (quinoa) is an emerging crop that produces nutritious grains with the potential to contribute to global food security. Quinoa can also grow on marginal lands, such as soils affected by high salinity. To identify candidate salt tolerance genes in the recently sequenced quinoa genome, we used a multifaceted approach integrating RNAseq analyses with comparative genomics and topology prediction. We identified 219 candidate genes by selecting those that were differentially expressed in response to salinity, were specific to or overrepresented in quinoa relative to other Amaranthaceae species, and had more than one predicted transmembrane domain. To determine whether these genes might underlie variation in salinity tolerance in quinoa and its close relatives, we compared the response to salinity stress in a panel of 21 Chenopodium accessions (14 C. quinoa, 5 C. berlandieri, and 2 C. hircinum). We found large variation in salinity tolerance, with one C. hircinum displaying the highest salinity tolerance. Using genome re-sequencing data from these accessions, we investigated single nucleotide polymorphisms and copy number variation (CNV) in the 219 candidate genes in accessions of contrasting salinity tolerance, and identified 15 genes that could contribute to the differences in salinity tolerance of these Chenopodium accessions.

  13. Identification of Putative Transmembrane Proteins Involved in Salinity Tolerance in Chenopodium quinoa by Integrating Physiological Data, RNAseq, and SNP Analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmöckel, Sandra M; Lightfoot, Damien J; Razali, Rozaimi; Tester, Mark; Jarvis, David E

    2017-01-01

    Chenopodium quinoa (quinoa) is an emerging crop that produces nutritious grains with the potential to contribute to global food security. Quinoa can also grow on marginal lands, such as soils affected by high salinity. To identify candidate salt tolerance genes in the recently sequenced quinoa genome, we used a multifaceted approach integrating RNAseq analyses with comparative genomics and topology prediction. We identified 219 candidate genes by selecting those that were differentially expressed in response to salinity, were specific to or overrepresented in quinoa relative to other Amaranthaceae species, and had more than one predicted transmembrane domain. To determine whether these genes might underlie variation in salinity tolerance in quinoa and its close relatives, we compared the response to salinity stress in a panel of 21 Chenopodium accessions (14 C. quinoa , 5 C. berlandieri , and 2 C. hircinum ). We found large variation in salinity tolerance, with one C. hircinum displaying the highest salinity tolerance. Using genome re-sequencing data from these accessions, we investigated single nucleotide polymorphisms and copy number variation (CNV) in the 219 candidate genes in accessions of contrasting salinity tolerance, and identified 15 genes that could contribute to the differences in salinity tolerance of these Chenopodium accessions.

  14. Study of the elemental composition of Chenopodium Quinoa Willd by fast neutron activation analysis and X ray fluorescence analysis; Aplicacion del analisis por activacion neutronica y la fluorescencia de rayos X en el estudio de la composicion elemental de Chenopodium Quinoa Willd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soto Moran, R L [Universidad de La Habana, La Habana (Cuba). Facultad de Fisica; Szegedi, S [Kossuth Lajos Tudomanyegyetem, Debrecen (Hungary). Fizikai Kemiai Intezete; Llopiz, J L [Universidad de La Habana, La Habana (Cuba). Instituto de Materiales y Reactivos para la Electronica

    1996-05-01

    By means of x-ray fluorescence and fast neutron activation analysis the nitrogen content has been determined in samples of roots, stems, leaf, flowers and grains from Quinua (Chenopodium Quinoa Willd), which was previously treated with fertilizer.

  15. Study of the Performance of the Organic Extracts of Chenopodium ambrosioides for Ag Nanoparticle Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis M. Carrillo-López

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There are many ways to obtain metal nanoparticles: biological, physical, and chemical ways and combinations of these approaches. Synthesis assisted with plant extracts has been widely documented. However, one issue that is under discussion refers to the metabolites responsible for reduction and stabilization that confine nanoparticle growth and prevent coalescence between nanoparticles in order to avoid agglomeration/precipitation. In this study, Ag nanoparticles were synthesized using organic extracts of Chenopodium ambrosioides with different polarities (hexane, dichloromethane, and methanol. Each extract was phytochemically characterized to identify the nature of the metabolites responsible for nanoparticle formation. With methanol extract, the compounds responsible for reducing and stabilizing silver nanoparticle were associated with the presence of phenolic compounds (flavonoids and tannins, while, with dichloromethane and hexane extracts, the responsible compounds were mainly terpenoids. Large part of the reducing activity of secondary metabolites in C. ambrosioides is closely related to compounds with antioxidant capacity, such as phenolic compounds (flavone glycoside and isorhamnetin, which are the main constituents of the methanol extracts. Otherwise, terpenoids (trans-diol, α-terpineol, monoterpene hydroperoxides, and apiole are the central metabolites present in dichloromethane and hexane extracts.

  16. Effect of gibberellic acid on total antioxidant activity during Chenopodium rubrum L. ontogenesis invitro

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    Mitrović Aleksandra

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Total antioxidant activity (TAA represents the combined ability of diverse antioxidants present in a sample of plant material to scavenge free radicals. Chenopodium rubrum L. sel. 184 is a qualitatively short-day plant; as an early-flowering species, it is a suitable object for studying ontogenesis in vitro. We investigated the effect of GA3 (5 mg/l on TAA during C. rubrum ontogenesis under two different inductive photoperiodic regimes in vitro. Total antioxidant activ­ity does not change in different phases of C. rubrum ontogenesis under the same photoperiodic treatment. Exposure to continuous irradiation caused an increase of TAA in both C. rubrum plants and collected matured seeds. Gibberellic acid stimulated stem elongation, but did not affect leaf development or the number of matured seeds per plant, regardless of photoperiodic treatment; it induced a decrease of TAA in C. rubrum plants regardless of photoperiodic treatment or the phase of development, while it had no effect on TAA of matured seeds.

  17. The effect of seed moisture and temperature on grinding characteristics of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.

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    Hassoon Waleed Hameed

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd is a native food plant of the Andean region of South America. Quinoa seeds have remarkable nutritional properties, not only from its high protein content, but also from its good amino acid balance. The aim of the study was evaluate the influence of quinoa seed moisture content (10, 12, 14, 16 and 18% and temperature (-20, 3, 20 and 40°C, with the initial grain moisture content of 10.5% on grinding process. Especially the particle size distributions and grinding energy indices were determined. The results showed that the increase of seed moisture content from 10 to 16% caused an increase the specific grinding energy from 6.9 to 8.3 kJ·kg-1, beside of this as the moisture increased the average particle also increased. The highest changes were observed in the fraction of coarse particles (above 1.0 mm. Interestingly, the mass fraction of fine particles (below 0.2 mm also increased. Other grinding indices also confirmed an increase the grinding energy requirements with the increase seed moisture content. The temperature of seed has little influence on quinoa grinding process. The highest grinding energy requirements were observed when the frozen seeds were ground.

  18. Analysis of Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of Chenopodium ambrosioides: An Ethnomedicinal Plant

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    Muhammad Ajaib

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial and antioxidant potential of Chenopodium ambrosioides L. was explored. Antimicrobial potential was investigated through zone of inhibition and minimum inhibition concentration whereas antioxidant potential of selected plant was evaluated through different techniques, that is, total phenolic contents, total flavonoids content, DPPH assay, ABTS assay, and metal chelating. It is concluded that both parts showed good to satisfactory antimicrobial and antioxidant results. The maximum antibacterial potential is exhibited by bark macerated in petroleum ether against Bacillus subtilis (33±1.5 mm and maximum antifungal potential exhibited by methanol extracts of fruit against Aspergillus niger (16±1.5 mm. Aqueous extracts failed to show any activity against selected organisms. The minimum (significant MIC value exhibited by fruit extract against Staphylococcus aureus was 0.009±0.02 at 0.7 mg/mL. Aqueous extracts of bark and fruit exhibited maximum antioxidant potential in all assays except DPPH assay. Petroleum ether bark extract showed maximum % DPPH value.

  19. Universally Primed-PCR indicates geographical variation of Peronospora farinosa ex. Chenopodium quinoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielsen, Solveig; Lübeck, Mette

    2010-02-01

    In the Andean region of South America downy mildew, caused by Peronospora farinosa, is the most important disease of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa). Peronospora farinosa, a highly polyphyletic species, occurs on quinoa and wild relatives on all continents. However, very little is known about the geographic diversity of the pathogen. As the interest in quinoa as a novel crop is increasing worldwide, geographical differences in the population structure of the downy mildew pathogen must be taken into consideration in order to design appropriate control strategies under a variety of circumstances. As a step towards understanding the geographic diversity of P. farinosa from quinoa, 40 downy mildew isolates from the Andean highlands and Denmark were characterized using universally primed PCR (UP-PCR). Eight UP-PCR primers were tested. A combined analysis of markers separated the Danish and Andean isolates in two distinct clusters. This study raises new questions about the origin and spread of P. farinosa on quinoa, its geographic diversity and host specificity.

  20. Biological effects of hydrolyzed quinoa extract from seeds of Chenopodium quinoa Willd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneguetti, Quele Adriana; Brenzan, Mislaine Adriana; Batista, Marcia Regina; Bazotte, Roberto Barbosa; Silva, Daniel Rodrigues; Garcia Cortez, Diógenes Aparício

    2011-06-01

    An extract from seeds of Chenopodium quinoa Willd. (quinoa), termed hydrolyzed quinoa (HQ), was obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis from seeds of the quinoa variety BRS-Piabiru. Analysis of the physical and chemical properties of quinoa and HQ showed that the hydrolyzed extract is rich in essential amino acids, particularly those with branched chains (leucine, isoleucine, and valine). In addition, we evaluated the biological effects of HQ, particularly the toxicological potential. For this purpose, male Wistar rats were assigned randomly to four groups: (1) sedentary supplemented group, which received HQ (2,000 mg/kg); (2) sedentary control group, non-supplemented; (3) exercised supplemented group (i.e., rats subjected to aerobic physical exercise that received HQ [2,000 mg/kg]); and (4) exercised control group (i.e., rats subjected to aerobic physical exercise, non-supplemented). After 30 days, all groups were analyzed for levels of serum glucose, cholesterol, triacylglycerol, total protein, albumin, uric acid, and urea and activities of the enzymes alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase. Body weight gain, dietary intake, and lipid deposition were also analyzed. The results showed no hepatic and renal toxicity of HQ. Moreover, decreased food intake, body weight, fat deposition, and blood triacylglycerol level were observed in the supplemented groups (sedentary and exercised supplemented groups). These results suggest a potential use of HQ in human nutrition.

  1. Water deficit stress-induced changes in carbon and nitrogen partitioning in Chenopodium quinoa Willd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bascuñán-Godoy, Luisa; Reguera, Maria; Abdel-Tawab, Yasser M; Blumwald, Eduardo

    2016-03-01

    Water deficit stress followed by re-watering during grain filling resulted in the induction of the ornithine pathway and in changes in Quinoa grain quality. The genetic diversity of Chenopodium quinoa Willd. (Quinoa) is accompanied by an outstanding environmental adaptability and high nutritional properties of the grains. However, little is known about the biochemical and physiological mechanisms associated with the abiotic stress tolerance of Quinoa. Here, we characterized carbon and nitrogen metabolic changes in Quinoa leaves and grains in response to water deficit stress analyzing their impact on the grain quality of two lowland ecotypes (Faro and BO78). Differences in the stress recovery response were found between genotypes including changes in the activity of nitrogen assimilation-associated enzymes that resulted in differences in grain quality. Both genotypes showed a common strategy to overcome water stress including the stress-induced synthesis of reactive oxygen species scavengers and osmolytes. Particularly, water deficit stress induced the stimulation of the ornithine and raffinose pathways. Our results would suggest that the regulation of C- and N partitioning in Quinoa during grain filling could be used for the improvement of the grain quality without altering grain yields.

  2. Antioxidant and anticancer activities of Chenopodium quinoa leaves extracts - in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawlik-Dziki, Urszula; Świeca, Michał; Sułkowski, Maciej; Dziki, Dariusz; Baraniak, Barbara; Czyż, Jarosław

    2013-07-01

    The nutraceutical potential of Chenopodium quinoa Leaves (ChL) was assessed through analyses of their phenolic content, elucidation of the effect of ChL phenolic compounds on cancer cell properties and estimation of their antioxidative activity, bioaccessibility and bioavailability in vitro. Considerable amounts of ferulic, sinapinic and gallic acids, kaempferol, isorhamnetin and rutin were observed in the chemical ChL extract and were linked with its inhibitory effect on prostate cancer cell proliferation, motility and cellular competence for gap junctional communication. Both extracts, chemical and obtained after simulated digestion, exerted an inhibitory effect on lipoxygenase activity, paralleled by their considerable chelating, antioxidative, antiradical and reducing power. These observations indicate that phenolic ChL compounds may exert a chemopreventive and anticarcinogenic effect on oxidative stress and ROS-dependent intracellular signaling via synergic effects. The relatively high potential bioaccessibility and bioavailability of the compounds probably responsible for these effects demonstrates the suitability of ChL for dietary supplementation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Nutrition facts and functional potential of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa willd.), an ancient Andean grain: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega-Gálvez, Antonio; Miranda, Margarita; Vergara, Judith; Uribe, Elsa; Puente, Luis; Martínez, Enrique A

    2010-12-01

    Quinoa, Chenopodium quinoa Willd., is an Amaranthacean, stress-tolerant plant cultivated along the Andes for the last 7000 years, challenging highly different environmental conditions ranging from Bolivia, up to 4.500 m of altitude, to sea level, in Chile. Its grains have higher nutritive value than traditional cereals and it is a promising worldwide cultivar for human consumption and nutrition. The quinoa has been called a pseudo-cereal for botanical reasons but also because of its unusual composition and exceptional balance between oil, protein and fat. The quinoa is an excellent example of 'functional food' that aims at lowering the risk of various diseases. Functional properties are given also by minerals, vitamins, fatty acids and antioxidants that can make a strong contribution to human nutrition, particularly to protect cell membranes, with proven good results in brain neuronal functions. Its minerals work as cofactors in antioxidant enzymes, adding higher value to its rich proteins. Quinoa also contains phytohormones, which offer an advantage over other plant foods for human nutrition. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Development of Betalain Producing Callus Lines from Colored Quinoa Varieties (Chenopodium quinoa Willd).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henarejos-Escudero, Paula; Guadarrama-Flores, Berenice; Guerrero-Rubio, M Alejandra; Gómez-Pando, Luz Rayda; García-Carmona, Francisco; Gandía-Herrero, Fernando

    2018-01-17

    Betalains are water-soluble plant pigments of hydrophilic nature with promising bioactive potential. Among the scarce edible sources of betalains is the grain crop quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd), with violet, red, and yellow grains being colored by these pigments. In this work, callus cultures have been developed from differently colored plant varieties. Stable callus lines exhibited color and pigment production when maintained on Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with the plant growth regulators 6-benzylaminopurine (8.88 μM) and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (6.79 μM) with a reduction of the nitrogen source to 5.91 mM. Pigment analysis by HPLC-DAD and ESI-MS/MS fully describes the content of individual pigments in the cell lines and allows the first report on the pigments present in quinoa seedlings. Phyllocactin and vulgaxanthin I are described as novel pigments in the species and show the potential of C. quinoa culture lines in the production of compounds of nutritional value.

  5. Molecular and cytogenetic evidence for an allotetraploid origin of Chenopodium quinoa and C. berlandieri (Amaranthaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolano, Bozena; McCann, Jamie; Orzechowska, Maja; Siwinska, Dorota; Temsch, Eva; Weiss-Schneeweiss, Hanna

    2016-07-01

    Most of the cultivated chenopods are polyploids, but their origin and evolutionary history are still poorly understood. Phylogenetic analyses of DNA sequences of four plastid regions, nrITS and nuclear 5S rDNA spacer region (NTS) of two tetraploid chenopods (2n=4x=36), Andean C. quinoa and North American C. berlandieri, and their diploid relatives allowed inferences of their origin. The phylogenetic analyses confirmed allotetraploid origin of both tetraploids involving diploids of two different genomic groups (genomes A and B) and suggested that these two might share very similar parentage. The hypotheses on the origin of the two allopolyploid species were further tested using genomic in situ hybridization (GISH). Several diploid Chenopodium species belonging to the two lineages, genome A and B, suggested by phylogenetic analyses, were tested as putative parental taxa. GISH differentiated two sets of parental chromosomes in both tetraploids and further corroborated their allotetraploid origin. Putative diploid parental taxa have been suggested by GISH for C. quinoa and C. berlandieri. Genome sizes of the analyzed allotetraploids fit nearly perfectly the expected additive values of the putative parental taxa. Directional and uniparental loss of rDNA loci of the maternal A-subgenome was revealed for both C. berlandieri and C. quinoa. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Characterisation of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. accessions for the saponin content in Mediterranean environment

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    Giuditta De Santis

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Seeds of the Andean seed crop quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. usually contain saponins in the seed coat. Saponins give a bitter taste sensation and are a serious antinutritional factor, therefore selection of sweet genotypes with a very low saponin content in the seeds is a main breeding goal. The objective of this work was to identify, within germplasm lines of quinoa, previously selected for production and quality traits, superior genotypes low in saponins. For this purpose the total saponin content was determined in seeds of eight lines of quinoa and one variety (cv. Regalona Baer as a control, previously evaluated over a 2-year period in a Southern Italy environment. Significant variation for the saponin content was observed among the evaluated genotypes. The total saponin content ranged from 0.10 to 1.80%, with the Q12 genotype showing the lowest value, suggesting the possibility of selecting genotypes sweet to be used in subsequent genetic improvement programs. Based on these results, in fact, it was possible to identify, among the accessions previously selected, particularly suitable for growing in Mediterranean area, some genotypes with high yields of seed (2.5 tha–1, on average, high protein (17%, on average and fibres (13%, on average and low content in saponins (0.57%, on average.

  7. Ecophysiological Analysis of Drought and Salinity Stress Quinoa (Chenopodium Quinoa Willd.

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    Bosque Sanchez, H.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available We have studied the relative influence of drought and salinity stress, with similar soil water potentials on growth, water relations and photosynthetic rate of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd., testing at the same time certain techniques of stress physiology studies. As treatments, we have imposed two levels of salinity stress (S1 = 3852, 8 mg. V-1 NaCI and S2 = 8051.2 mg. V-1 NaCI and two of levels of drought stress with-0.159 MPa (D1 and -0, 279 MPa (D2 of soil water potentials (f^, and the control (c treatment without stress (65 % of volumetric soil water content, i. e. ¥m = -0.059 MPa. Our results of the greenhouse experiment have shown that quinoa has better relative and absolute growth rate in saline conditions, and the plant have developed adaptations mechanisms to drought through higher water use efficiency and high root/shoot ratio. The stomatal resistance and leaf water potential were higher as higher were the stress conditions. The variable chlorophyll fluoresence to maximal chlorophyll fluorescence-ratio (Fv/Fm and the fluorescence quenching analysis (photochemical : qP and non-photochemical : qN have shown the plants under drought stress are less protected against photoinhibition. Finally the use of Dynamic Diffusion Porometer has limitations for studies of plants species with salt bladders as quinoa.

  8. Piecing together the biogeographic history of Chenopodium vulvaria L. using botanical literature and collections

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    Quentin J. Groom

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study demonstrates the value of legacy literature and historic collections as a source of data on environmental history. Chenopodium vulvaria L. has declined in northern Europe and is of conservation concern in several countries, whereas in other countries outside Europe it has naturalised and is considered an alien weed. In its European range it is considered native in the south, but the northern boundary of its native range is unknown. It is hypothesised that much of its former distribution in northern Europe was the result of repeated introductions from southern Europe and that its decline in northern Europe is the result of habitat change and a reduction in the number of propagules imported to the north. A historical analysis of its ecology and distribution was conducted by mining legacy literature and historical botanical collections. Text analysis of habitat descriptions written on specimens and published in botanical literature covering a period of more than 200 years indicate that the habitat and introduction pathways of C. vulvaria have changed with time. Using the non-European naturalised range in a climate niche model, it is possible to project the range in Europe. By comparing this predicted model with a similar model created from all observations, it is clear that there is a large discrepancy between the realized and predicted distributions. This is discussed together with the social, technological and economic changes that have occurred in northern Europe, with respect to their influence on C. vulvaria.

  9. Potencial terapéutico del aceite esencial de Chenopodium ambrosioides y algunos de sus componentes frente a Leishmania

    OpenAIRE

    Monzote Fidalgo, Lianet

    2010-01-01

    La leishmaniosis es una enfermedad causada por parásitos protozoos del género Leishmania, clasificada por la Organización Mundial de la Salud como una de las infecciones tropicales más importantes. Los fármacos disponibles son tóxicos, costosos y la resistencia parasitaria ha emergido. En las áreas endémicas la población depende fundamentalmente de la medicina natural para el tratamiento de la leishmaniosis. En este trabajo, se evaluó la actividad del aceite esencial extraído de Chenopodium a...

  10. EVALUACIÓN DEL PAICO Chenopodium ambrosioides Y CHOCHO Lupinus mutabilis SWEET COMO ANTIPARASITARIOS GASTROINTESTINALES EN BOVINOS JÓVENES

    OpenAIRE

    Clavijo López, Francisco; Barrera Mosquera, Víctor; Rodríguez Iturralde, Luis; Mosquera Andrade, Jorge; Yánez Ortiz, Iván; Godoy Ortiz, Germán; Grijalva Olmedo, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Las infestaciones parasitarias son una de las principales causas de enfermedades y pérdidas de la productividad en las explotaciones ganaderas en Ecuador, por lo que se hace necesario establecer mecanismos para reducirlas a través del uso de tratamientos alternativos a los químicos. En este estudio se evaluó el suministro del extracto acuoso del paico (Chenopodium ambrosioides) y del extracto fitoquímico de chocho (Lupinus mutábilis Sweet) en el control de parásitos gastrointestinales en bov...

  11. Chenopodium ambrosioides L. Reduces Synovial Inflammation and Pain in Experimental Osteoarthritis.

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    Gustavo P Calado

    Full Text Available The chronicity of osteoarthritis (OA, characterized by pain and inflammation in the joints, is linked to a glutamate receptor, N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA. The use of plant species such as Chenopodium ambrosioides L. (Amaranthaceae as NMDA antagonists offers a promising perspective. This work aims to analyze the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory responses of the crude hydroalcoholic extract (HCE of C. ambrosioides leaves in an experimental OA model. Wistar rats were separated into six groups (n = 24: clean (C, negative control (CTL-, positive control (CTL+, HCE0.5, HCE5 and HCE50. The first group received no intervention. The other groups received an intra-articular injection of sodium monoiodoacetate (MIA (8 mg/kg on day 0. After six hours, they were orally treated with saline, Maxicam plus (meloxicam + chondroitin sulfate and HCE at doses of 0.5 mg/kg, 5 mg/kg and 50 mg/kg, respectively. After three, seven and ten days, clinical evaluations were performed (knee diameter, mechanical allodynia, mechanical hyperalgesia and motor activity. On the tenth day, after euthanasia, synovial fluid and draining lymph node were collected for cellular quantification, and cartilage was collected for histopathological analysis. Finally, molecular docking was performed to evaluate the compatibility of ascaridole, a monoterpene found in HCE, with the NMDA receptor. After the third day, HCE reduced knee edema. HCE5 showed less cellular infiltrate in the cartilage and synovium and lower intensities of allodynia from the third day and of hyperalgesia from the seventh day up to the last treatment day. The HCE5 and HCE50 groups improved in forced walking. In relation to molecular docking, ascaridole showed NMDA receptor binding affinity. C. ambrosioides HCE was effective in the treatment of OA because it reduced synovial inflammation and behavioral changes due to pain. This effect may be related to the antagonistic effect of ascaridole on the NMDA receptor.

  12. Effects of temporally biased watering on the nitrogen response of Chenopodium album

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinugasa, Toshihiko; Hozumi, Yumi

    2017-07-01

    Plant growth responses to an increasing N deposition are stimulated by an increase in annual precipitation, but such a stimulation has not always been found. We hypothesized that the effect of precipitation on plant N responses can change with temporally biased precipitation: a plant N response will be suppressed when precipitation is lower in the late growing period because larger plants are more susceptible to water limitations. We grew Chenopodium album under a high and low N application level with three watering patterns while maintaining the total supplied watering amount during the experimental period: constant watering, low watering in the first period and high watering in the latter period, and high watering in the first period and low watering in the latter period. The watering pattern did not affect plant dry mass under low N conditions. The plant dry mass under high N conditions was reduced by low watering in the first period, but the reduction was fully compensated in the subsequent high watering period by the stimulation of photosynthesis. Low watering following high watering under high N conditions did not suppress plant growth, but partial leaf wilting was observed at the end of the experimental period. Finally, at the end of the experiment, the response of plant dry mass to N was not different among the watering patterns. We concluded that a plant's response to increasing N deposition could be affected by temporally biased precipitation, depending on the scale of the precipitation bias and the ability of the plant to compensate or mitigate growth inhibition due to a water deficit. Precipitation deficits later in the growing period may be more detrimental to plant growth and can reduce plant responses to an increasing N deposition.

  13. Saponin determination, expression analysis and functional characterization of saponin biosynthetic genes in Chenopodium quinoa leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiallos-Jurado, Jennifer; Pollier, Jacob; Moses, Tessa; Arendt, Philipp; Barriga-Medina, Noelia; Morillo, Eduardo; Arahana, Venancio; de Lourdes Torres, Maria; Goossens, Alain; Leon-Reyes, Antonio

    2016-09-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is a highly nutritious pseudocereal with an outstanding protein, vitamin, mineral and nutraceutical content. The leaves, flowers and seed coat of quinoa contain triterpenoid saponins, which impart bitterness to the grain and make them unpalatable without postharvest removal of the saponins. In this study, we quantified saponin content in quinoa leaves from Ecuadorian sweet and bitter genotypes and assessed the expression of saponin biosynthetic genes in leaf samples elicited with methyl jasmonate. We found saponin accumulation in leaves after MeJA treatment in both ecotypes tested. As no reference genes were available to perform qPCR in quinoa, we mined publicly available RNA-Seq data for orthologs of 22 genes known to be stably expressed in Arabidopsis thaliana using geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper algorithms. The quinoa ortholog of At2g28390 (Monensin Sensitivity 1, MON1) was stably expressed and chosen as a suitable reference gene for qPCR analysis. Candidate saponin biosynthesis genes were screened in the quinoa RNA-Seq data and subsequent functional characterization in yeast led to the identification of CqbAS1, CqCYP716A78 and CqCYP716A79. These genes were found to be induced by MeJA, suggesting this phytohormone might also modulate saponin biosynthesis in quinoa leaves. Knowledge of the saponin biosynthesis and its regulation in quinoa may aid the further development of sweet cultivars that do not require postharvest processing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Biological activities of extracts from Chenopodium ambrosioides Lineu and Kielmeyera neglecta Saddi

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    Sousa Zulane

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chenopodium ambrosioides and Kielmeyera neglecta are plants traditionally used in Brazil to treat various infectious diseases. The study of the biological activities of these plants is of great importance for the detection of biologically active compounds. Methods Extracts from these plants were extracted with hexane (Hex, dichloromethane (DCM, ethyl acetate (EtOAc and ethanol (EtOH and assessed for their antimicrobial properties, bioactivity against Artemia salina Leach and antifungal action on the cell wall of Neurospora crassa. Results Extracts from C. ambrosioides (Hex, DCM and EtOH and K. neglecta (EtOAc and EtOH showed high bioactivity against A. salina (LD50 C. ambrosioides Hex and DCM showed specific activity against yeasts, highlighting the activity of hexanic extract against Candida krusei (MIC = 100 μg/mL. By comparing the inhibitory concentration of 50% growth (IC 50% with the growth control, extracts from K. neglecta EtOAc and EtOH have shown activities against multidrug-resistant bacteria (Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 51299 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 43300, with IC 50% of 12.5 μg/mL The assay carried out on N. crassa allowed defining that extracts with antifungal activity do not have action through inhibition of cell wall synthesis. Conclusions Generally speaking, extracts from C. ambrosioides and K. neglecta showed biological activities that have made the search for bioactive substances in these plants more attractive, illustrating the success of their use in the Brazilian folk medicine.

  15. Characterization of Salt Overly Sensitive 1 (SOS1) gene homoeologs in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maughan, P J; Turner, T B; Coleman, C E; Elzinga, D B; Jellen, E N; Morales, J A; Udall, J A; Fairbanks, D J; Bonifacio, A

    2009-07-01

    Salt tolerance is an agronomically important trait that affects plant species around the globe. The Salt Overly Sensitive 1 (SOS1) gene encodes a plasma membrane Na+/H+ antiporter that plays an important role in germination and growth of plants in saline environments. Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is a halophytic, allotetraploid grain crop of the family Amaranthaceae with impressive nutritional content and an increasing worldwide market. Many quinoa varieties have considerable salt tolerance, and research suggests quinoa may utilize novel mechanisms to confer salt tolerance. Here we report the cloning and characterization of two homoeologous SOS1 loci (cqSOS1A and cqSOS1B) from C. quinoa, including full-length cDNA sequences, genomic sequences, relative expression levels, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis, and a phylogenetic analysis of SOS1 genes from 13 plant taxa. The cqSOS1A and cqSOS1B genes each span 23 exons spread over 3477 bp and 3486 bp of coding sequence, respectively. These sequences share a high level of similarity with SOS1 homologs of other species and contain two conserved domains, a Nhap cation-antiporter domain and a cyclic-nucleotide binding domain. Genomic sequence analysis of two BAC clones (98 357 bp and 132 770 bp) containing the homoeologous SOS1 genes suggests possible conservation of synteny across the C. quinoa sub-genomes. This report represents the first molecular characterization of salt-tolerance genes in a halophytic species in the Amaranthaceae as well as the first comparative analysis of coding and non-coding DNA sequences of the two homoeologous genomes of C. quinoa.

  16. Oxidative stress protection and stomatal patterning as components of salinity tolerance mechanism in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabala, Lana; Mackay, Alex; Tian, Yu; Jacobsen, Sven-Erik; Zhou, Daowei; Shabala, Sergey

    2012-09-01

    Two components of salinity stress are a reduction in water availability to plants and the formation of reactive oxygen species. In this work, we have used quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa), a dicotyledonous C3 halophyte species displaying optimal growth at approximately 150 mM NaCl, to study mechanisms by which halophytes cope with the afore-mentioned components of salt stress. The relative contribution of organic and inorganic osmolytes in leaves of different physiological ages (e.g. positions on the stem) was quantified and linked with the osmoprotective function of organic osmolytes. We show that the extent of the oxidative stress (UV-B irradiation) damage to photosynthetic machinery in young leaves is much less when compared with old leaves, and attribute this difference to the difference in the size of the organic osmolyte pool (1.5-fold difference under control conditions; sixfold difference in plants grown at 400 mM NaCl). Consistent with this, salt-grown plants showed higher Fv/Fm values compared with control plants after UV-B exposure. Exogenous application of physiologically relevant concentrations of glycine betaine substantially mitigated oxidative stress damage to PSII, in a dose-dependent manner. We also show that salt-grown plants showed a significant (approximately 30%) reduction in stomatal density observed in all leaves. It is concluded that accumulation of organic osmolytes plays a dual role providing, in addition to osmotic adjustment, protection of photosynthetic machinery against oxidative stress in developing leaves. It is also suggested that salinity-induced reduction in stomatal density represents a fundamental mechanism by which plants optimize water use efficiency under saline conditions. Copyright © Physiologia Plantarum 2012.

  17. Optimization of antioxidant phenolic compounds extraction from quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carciochi, Ramiro Ariel; Manrique, Guillermo Daniel; Dimitrov, Krasimir

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to optimize the extraction conditions of phenolic and flavonoids compounds from quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) seeds using ultrasound assistance technology. A randomized central composite face-centered design was used to evaluate the effect of extraction temperature, ethanol concentration in the solvent, and ultrasound power on the total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC) and antioxidant activity by response surface analysis. Predicted model equations were obtained to describe the experimental data regarding TPC, TFC and antioxidant activity, with significant variation in the linear, quadratic, and interaction effects of the independent variables. Regression analysis showed that more than 88 % of the variability was explained by the models. The best extraction conditions obtained by simultaneous maximization of the responses were: extraction temperature of 60 °C, 80 % ethanol as solvent and non-application of ultrasounds. Under the optimal conditions, the corresponding predicted response values were 103.6 mg GAE/100 g dry weight (dw), 25.0 mg quercetin equiv./100 g dw and 28.6 % DPPH radical scavenging, for TPC, TFC and antioxidant activity, respectively. The experimental values agreed with those predicted within a 95 % confidence level, indicating the suitability of the employed model. HPLC analysis of the obtained extracts confirmed the highest phenolic compound yield in the extract obtained under optimal extraction conditions. Considering the characteristics of the antioxidant-rich extracts obtained, they could be consider for potential application in the food industry, as nutraceutical and functional foods ingredient or well as replacement of synthetic antioxidants.

  18. Nutritional value of quinua (chenopodium quinoa) seeds improved by radioinduced mutagenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De La Cruz, T. E.; Avila R, S.; Garcia R, A.

    2006-01-01

    Quinua (Chenopodium quinoa), a pseudo cereal considered as an alternative crop for areas with marginal agricultural conditions has been subjected since 1990 to a radioinduced mutagenesis programme aiming to obtain lines with low saponin content, good yields and high nutritional value. Seeds obtained from lines grown in M7 generation which exhibited yields averaging 1.5 ton/ha, were analyzed regarding grain quality and nutritive value. Evaluated parameters were diameter and thickness of the seed, weight of 100 seeds and density. Regarding to bromatological analysis, determinations were made of moisture, ash, raw fiber, proteins, oil content and carbohydrates, following the procedures indicated in Official Mexican Norms (NOM). Evaluated genotypes were the varieties Sajama, Barandales and Amarilla de Marangani and the mutant lines 20R110, 94, 20R333, 20R227, 20R342, 20R37 and the advanced line obtained by selection 640304. Mutant genotypes 20R333 and 20R342 exhibited outstanding characteristics regarding to grain quality (diameter 2.0 mm, thickness 1.2mm, weight of 100 seeds 0.42 and 0.22 g respectively and density 710 and 686 grams per liter). In the bromatological analysis the protein content ranged from 11.82 % (genotype 20 R227) to 16.8% in mutant 20R333 while mutant 20R342 exhibited 15.6%. The lipid content was minimum on Barandales and 20R333 both with 3.8%, having the genotype 20R110 the highest value among evaluated genotypes with 4.35%, line 20R342 exhibited 4.2%.. The high percentages of proteins and lipids, found among some analyzed mutants exhibit the feasibility to obtain, through radioinduced mutagenesis, lines with low saponins and high nutritive value

  19. Micellar aggregates of saponins from Chenopodium quinoa: characterization by dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verza, S G; de Resende, P E; Kaiser, S; Quirici, L; Teixeira, H F; Gosmann, G; Ferreira, F; Ortega, G G

    2012-04-01

    Entire seeds of Chenopodium quinoa Willd are a rich protein source and are also well-known for their high saponin content. Due to their amphiphily quinoa saponins are able to form intricate micellar aggregates in aqueous media. In this paper we study the aggregates formed by self-association of these compounds from two quinoa saponin fractions (FQ70 and FQ90) as well as several distinctive nanostructures obtained after their complexation with different ratios of cholesterol (CHOL) and phosphatidylcholine (PC). The FQ70 and FQ90 fractions were obtained by reversed-phase preparative chromatography. The structural features of their resulting aggregates were determined by Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). Novel nanosized spherical vesicles formed by self-association with mean diameter about 100-200 nm were observed in FQ70 aqueous solutions whereas worm-like micelles an approximate width of 20 nm were detected in FQ90 aqueous solutions. Under experimental conditions similar to those reported for the preparation of Quillaja saponaria ISCOM matrices, tubular and ring-like micelles arose from FQ70:CHOL:PC and FQ90:CHOL:PC formulations, respectively. However, under these conditions no cage-like ISCOM matrices were observed. The saponin composition of FQ70 and FQ90 seems to determine the nanosized structures viewed by TEM. Phytolaccagenic acid, predominant in FQ70 and FQ90 fractions, is accountable for the formation of the nanosized vesicles and tubular structures observed by TEM in the aqueous solutions of both samples. Conversely, ring-like micelles observed in FQ90:CHOL:PC complexes can be attributed to the presence of less polar saponins present in FQ90, in particular those derived from oleanolic acid.

  20. The introns in FLOWERING LOCUS T-LIKE (FTL) genes are useful markers for tracking paternity in tetraploid Chenopodium quinoa Willd

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štorchová, Helena; Drabešová, Jana; Cháb, David; Kolář, Jan; Jellen, E.N.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 62, č. 6 (2015), s. 913-925 ISSN 0925-9864 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP506/12/1359 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Ancestry * Chenopodium quinoa * FLOWERING LOCUS T-LIKE (FTL) genes Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.258, year: 2015

  1. Differentiation of photoperiod-induced ABA and soluble sugar responses of two quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa willd.) cultivars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendevis, Mira Arpe; Sun, Yujie; Shabala, Sergey

    2014-01-01

    Adaptation of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) to new regions demands acclimation to day-length, in addition to a host of other abiotic factors. To further elucidate the effects of photoperiod on development of quinoa, two differently adapted cultivars, Achachino (short day) from Bolivia and Ti...

  2. Is hybridization involved in the evolution of the Chenopodium album aggregate? An analysis based on chromosome counts and genome size estimation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mandák, Bohumil; Trávníček, Pavel; Paštová, Ladislava; Kořínková, Dana

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 270, č. 7 (2012), s. 530-540 ISSN 0367-2530 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/09/1126 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : Chenopodium * hybridization * polyploidization Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.716, year: 2012

  3. A darklight transition triggers expression of the floral promoter CrFTL1 and downregulates CONSTANS-like genes in a short-day plant Chenopodium rubrum

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Drabešová, Jana; Cháb, David; Kolář, Jan; Haškovcová, Kateřina; Štorchová, Helena

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 65, č. 8 (2014), s. 2137-2146 ISSN 0022-0957 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA522/05/0300; GA ČR(CZ) GAP506/12/1359 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Chenopodium rubrum * CONSTANS-like * flowering Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 5.526, year: 2014

  4. Effect of extraction pH on heat-induced aggregation, gelation and microstructure of protein isolate from quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiz, Geraldine Avila; Xiao, Wukai; Boekel, van Tiny; Minor, Marcel; Stieger, Markus

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the influence of extraction pH on heat-induced aggregation, gelation and microstructure of suspensions of protein isolates extracted from quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd). Quinoa seed protein was extracted by alkaline treatment at various pH values (pH 8

  5. Ionic and osmotic relations in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) plants grown at various salinity levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariadi, Yuda; Marandon, Karl; Tian, Yu; Jacobsen, Sven-Erik; Shabala, Sergey

    2011-01-01

    Ionic and osmotic relations in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) were studied by exposing plants to six salinity levels (0-500 mM NaCl range) for 70 d. Salt stress was administered either by pre-mixing of the calculated amount of NaCl with the potting mix before seeds were planted or by the gradual increase of NaCl levels in the irrigation water. For both methods, the optimal plant growth and biomass was achieved between 100 mM and 200 mM NaCl, suggesting that quinoa possess a very efficient system to adjust osmotically for abrupt increases in NaCl stress. Up to 95% of osmotic adjustment in old leaves and between 80% and 85% of osmotic adjustment in young leaves was achieved by means of accumulation of inorganic ions (Na(+), K(+), and Cl(-)) at these NaCl levels, whilst the contribution of organic osmolytes was very limited. Consistently higher K(+) and lower Na(+) levels were found in young, as compared with old leaves, for all salinity treatments. The shoot sap K(+) progressively increased with increased salinity in old leaves; this is interpreted as evidence for the important role of free K(+) in leaf osmotic adjustment under saline conditions. A 5-fold increase in salinity level (from 100 mM to 500 mM) resulted in only a 50% increase in the sap Na(+) content, suggesting either a very strict control of xylem Na(+) loading or an efficient Na(+) removal from leaves. A very strong correlation between NaCl-induced K(+) and H(+) fluxes was observed in quinoa root, suggesting that a rapid NaCl-induced activation of H(+)-ATPase is needed to restore otherwise depolarized membrane potential and prevent further K(+) leak from the cytosol. Taken together, this work emphasizes the role of inorganic ions for osmotic adjustment in halophytes and calls for more in-depth studies of the mechanisms of vacuolar Na(+) sequestration, control of Na(+) and K(+) xylem loading, and their transport to the shoot.

  6. Incorporation of uridine-H3 into healthy and tobacco necrosis virus-infected mesophyll cells of Chenopodium amaranticolor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faccioli, G.; Rubies-Autonel, C.

    1975-01-01

    Tritiated uridine was selectively incorporated into the nucleus, nucleolus and cytoplasm of actinomycin D-treated Chenopodium amaranticolor cells locally infected with a strain of tobacco necrosis virus (TNV), 3 days after inoculation. Healthy cells did not show such an incorporation. Chloroplasts, in both types of cells, were free of label. Treatment with pancreatic ribonuclease removed the label completely in the majority of nuclei and nucleoli of infected cells. Since infectivity tests showed that AMD treatment increased virus multiplication by 10-12%, it is conceivable to think that the incorporation observed was due to virus synthesis. Preliminary infectivity experiments also showed that treatment of the cells with cycloheximide inhibited virus multiplication up to 80%, while chloramphenicol increased such multiplication. Our results lead to the conclusion that nucleus, nucleolus and cytoplasm but not chloroplasts are the sites involved in the synthesis of TNV. (orig.) [de

  7. Molecular characterization of endophytic fungi associated with the roots of Chenopodium quinoa inhabiting the Atacama Desert, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Teuber, M; Vilo, C; Bascuñán-Godoy, L

    2017-03-01

    Plant roots can be highly colonized by fungal endophytes. This seems to be of particular importance for the survival of plants inhabiting stressful habitats. This study focused on the Identification of the fungal endophytic community associated with the roots of quinoa plants ( Chenopodium quinoa ) growing near the salt lakes of the Atacama Desert, Chile. One hundred endophytic fungi were isolated from healthy quinoa roots, and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region was sequenced for phylogenetic and taxonomic analysis. The isolates were classified into eleven genera and 21 distinct operational taxonomic units (OTUs). Despite a relatively high diversity of root endophytic fungi associated with quinoa plants, the fungal community was dominated by only the Ascomycota phyla. In addition, the most abundant genera were Penicillium , Phoma and Fusarium , which are common endophytes reported in plant roots. This study shows that roots of C . quinoa harbor a diverse group of endophytic fungi. Potential roles of these fungi in plant host tolerance to stressful conditions are discussed.

  8. Development of active biofilms of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa W.) starch containing gold nanoparticles and evaluation of antimicrobial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagno, Carlos H; Costa, Tania M H; de Menezes, Eliana W; Benvenutti, Edilson V; Hertz, Plinho F; Matte, Carla R; Tosati, Juliano V; Monteiro, Alcilene R; Rios, Alessandro O; Flôres, Simone H

    2015-04-15

    Active biofilms of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa, W.) starch were prepared by incorporating gold nanoparticles stabilised by an ionic silsesquioxane that contains the 1,4-diazoniabicyclo[2.2.2]octane chloride group. The biofilms were characterised and their antimicrobial activity was evaluated against Escherichiacoli and Staphylococcusaureus. The presence of gold nanoparticles produces an improvement in the mechanical, optical and morphological properties, maintaining the thermal and barrier properties unchanged when compared to the standard biofilm. The active biofilms exhibited strong antibacterial activity against food-borne pathogens with inhibition percentages of 99% against E. coli and 98% against S. aureus. These quinoa starch biofilms containing gold nanoparticles are very promising to be used as active food packaging for the maintenance of food safety and extension of the shelf life of packaged foods. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Choline but not its derivative betaine blocks slow vacuolar channels in the halophyte Chenopodium quinoa: implications for salinity stress responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pottosin, Igor; Bonales-Alatorre, Edgar; Shabala, Sergey

    2014-11-03

    Activity of tonoplast slow vacuolar (SV, or TPC1) channels has to be under a tight control, to avoid undesirable leak of cations stored in the vacuole. This is particularly important for salt-grown plants, to ensure efficient vacuolar Na(+) sequestration. In this study we show that choline, a cationic precursor of glycine betaine, efficiently blocks SV channels in leaf and root vacuoles of the two chenopods, Chenopodium quinoa (halophyte) and Beta vulgaris (glycophyte). At the same time, betaine and proline, two major cytosolic organic osmolytes, have no significant effect on SV channel activity. Physiological implications of these findings are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of herbicides on /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ fixation in isolated mesophyll cells from Beta vulgaris (sugar beet) and Chenopodium album

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumann, G; Guenther, G [Paedagogische Hochschule Karl Liebknecht, Potsdam (German Democratic Republic)

    1979-01-01

    10/sup -4/ - 10/sup -6/ molar solutions of herbicides (atrazine, 2,4-D, desmetryne, diallate, diquat, feuron, lenacil, NaTa, paraquat, phenmedipham, prometryne, propham, pyrazone, and simazine) cause similar inhibitory effects on the photosynthetic /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ fixation in isolated mesophyll cells from Chenopodium album and Beta vulgaris. Correlatdion between inhibition and herbicide resistance of the whole plants could be realized for lenacil only.

  11. Characterization and Quantitation of Triterpenoid Saponins in Raw and Sprouted Chenopodium berlandieri spp. (Huauzontle) Grains Subjected to Germination with or without Selenium Stress Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazo-Vélez, Marco A; Guajardo-Flores, Daniel; Mata-Ramírez, Daniel; Gutiérrez-Uribe, Janet A; Serna-Saldivar, Sergio O

    2016-01-01

    Pseudocereal Chenopodium berlandieri spp. (huauzontle) was evaluated to determine saponin composition. Saponins were evaluated in raw and germinated grains subjected to chemical stress induced by sodium selenite. Analysis by liquid chromatography coupled with ELSD detector revealed the presence of 12 saponins, identified according to compounds previously assayed in Chenopodium quinoa. Saponins found at the highest concentrations in raw grains were derived from oleanolic and phytolaccagenic acids. Total saponin concentration significantly decreased in germinated compared to raw grains due to the significant loss of 90.1% and 95.7% of the phytolaccagenic acid without and with chemical selenium stress, respectively. The most abundant saponin in germinated sprouts decreased during normal germination. Interestingly, the concentration of this particular saponin significantly increased during the Se-induced stress germination. Chemical stress with selenium salts proved to change the saponin composition in geminated Chenopodium berlandieri spp. grains, therefore affecting their potential use as ingredient in the food industry. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  12. Insecticide effects of Ruta graveolens, Copaifera langsdorffii and Chenopodium ambrosioides against pests and natural enemies in commercial tomato plantation = Ação inseticida de Ruta graveolens, Copaifera langsdorffii e Chenopodium ambrosioides sobre pragas de tomate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Silva Barbosa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the insecticide effect of watery leaf extracts of Ruta graveolens (Rutaceae, alcoholic leaf extracts of Copaifera langsdorffii (Caesalpinaceae and Chenopodium ambrosioides (Chenopodiaceae in the concentration of 5% under field conditions. The experiment design was randomized blocks with six replications. The parcels treated with plant extracts showed reduction in the population of pests when compared with the controlparcels. The extract elaborated with C. langsdorffii presented greater insecticidal effect under Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae and sum of pests. It was verified that after 24 hours ofspraying, the parcels treated with the extract of C. ambrosioides presented minor numbers of adults of Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae, followed by the parcels treated with extract of R.graveolens. There were smaller numbers of parasitoid eggs of epidopterans Trichogramma sp. (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae and sum of natural enemies (predators + parasitoids in the parcels that had received spraying with extracts from the plants of C. langsdorffii and C. ambrosioides, followed by R. graveolens, compared to the control. There were a smaller number of parasitoids from the family Eulophidae (Hymenoptera attacking caterpillars of T. absoluta in plants treated with R. graveolens, followed by C. langsdorffii and C. ambrosioides than in the control.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito inseticida dos extratos aquosos de folhas de Ruta graveolens (Rutaceae e alcoólicos de folhas de Copaifera langsdorffii (Caesalpinaceae e de folhas de Chenopodium ambrosioides (Chenopodiaceae a 5%. O experimento foi em blocos casualizados com seis repetições. As parcelas tratadas tiveram redução na população de pragas, quando comparadas às parcelas sem nenhum tratamento. O extrato elaborado com C. langsdorffii apresentou maior efeito inseticida em Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae e soma das pragas

  13. Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa reaction to herbicide residue in a Brazilian Savannah soil Reação de quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa a resíduos de herbicida em um solo de cerrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Lorena de Barros Santos

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. cultivation, one of the most promising in double cropping with soybeans or maize, depends on weed control. The objective of this work was to evaluate quinoa reaction to herbicide residue in a savannah soil. Six herbicide treatments, trifluralin, pendimethalin, clomazone, imazaquin, trifluralin + imazaquin and control, were applied, prior to summer cultivation of soybean, in a Dark-Red Latosol (typic Haplustox. Soybean cultivar BR 9 Savana was grown and soil samples were collected at 15, 38, 100, 145 and 206 days after treatment and stored at -5ºC. Bioassays were conducted in greenhouse, using quinoa, cultivar Q18. Imazaquin was the most harmful to quinoa seedlings, up to 206 days after application, followed by clomazone 15-38 days after application; trifluralin and pendimethalin had no residual effect. These results suggest that a broad-base screening should be conducted.O cultivo da quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd., um dos mais promissores em sucessão à soja ou ao milho, depende do controle de plantas daninhas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a reação da quinoa a resíduos de herbicidas num solo de cerrado. Seis tratamentos com herbicidas, trifluralin, pendimethalin, clomazone, imazaquin, trifluralin + imazaquin e testemunha, foram aplicados, antes da semeadura de soja, cultivar BR 9 Savana, em um Latossolo Vermelho-Escuro. Amostras de solo foram coletadas aos 15, 38, 100, 145 e 206 dias após a aplicação e armazenadas sob temperatura de -5ºC. Bioensaios foram conduzidos em casa de vegetação, usando a quinoa, cultivar Q18. Imazaquin mostrou-se o mais prejudicial à quinoa até os 206 dias, seguido por clomazone entre 15 e 38 dias após a aplicação; trifluralin e pendimethalin não mostraram efeito residual. Estes resultados sugerem ampliar a triagem, com a inclusão de novos produtos.

  14. Combined effect of the essential oil from Chenopodium ambrosioides and antileishmanial drugs on promastigotes of Leishmania amazonensis Efeito combinado do óleo de essência de Chenopodium ambrosioides e drogas anti-leishmaniose nos promastigotas de Leishmania amazonensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lianet Monzote

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available To date, there are no vaccines against Leishmania, and chemotherapy remains the mainstay for the control of leishmaniasis. The drugs of choice used for leishmaniasis therapy are significantly toxic, expensive and with a growing frequency of refractory infections. Because of these limitations, a combination therapy is the better hope. This work demonstrates that the essential oil from Chenopodium ambrosioides shows a synergic activity after incubation in conjunction with pentamidine against promastigotes of Leishmania amazonensis. However, an indifferent effect has been found for combinations of meglumine antimoniate or amphotericin B and the essential oil.Até hoje não temos vacina contra a Leishmania e a quimioterapia é a indicação para o controle desta doença. Os remédios que hoje utilizamos são tóxicos e muito caros e além disso o resultado não é sempre o desejado. Por isso, uma terapia de combinação é a melhor opção. Este trabalho mostra que o óleo de essência de C. ambrosioides tem atividade sinérgica junto com a pentamidina sobre os promastigotas de L. amazonensis, diferente do resultado da combinação de antimônio de meglumine e anfotericina B e o óleo de essência.

  15. Djulis (Chenopodium formosanum Koidz. Water Extract and Its Bioactive Components Ameliorate Dermal Damage in UVB-Irradiated Skin Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Han Hong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dermal photoaging is a condition of skin suffering inappropriate ultraviolet (UV exposure and exerts inflammation, tissue alterations, redness, swelling, and uncomfortable feelings. Djulis (Chenopodium formosanum Koidz. is a cereal food and its antioxidant and pigment constituents may provide skin protection from photoaging, but it still lacks proved experiments. In this study, protective effects of djulis extract (CFE on UVB-irradiated skin were explored. The results showed that HaCaT cells with 150 μg/mL CFE treatment had higher survival and less production of interleukin- (IL- 6, matrix metalloprotease- (MMP- 1, and reactive oxygen species (ROS in UVB-irradiated conditions. Subsequently, in animal studies, mice supplemented with CFE (100 mg/kg BW were under UVB irradiation and had thinner epidermis and lower IL-6 levels in skin layer. These data demonstrate that bioactive compounds possessing the potency of antiphotoaging exist in CFE. Following that, we found rutin and chlorogenic acid (10–100 μM could significantly increase cell viability and decrease the production of IL-6 in UVB models. Additionally, djulis pigment-betanin has no effect of increasing cell viability in this study. Our findings suggest CFE can protect skin against UV-induced damage and this protection is mainly from contributions of rutin and chlorogenic acid.

  16. CARACTERIZACIÓN DE LA DIVERSIDAD GENÉTICA DE UNA COLECCIÓN DE QUINUA (Chenopodium quinoa Willd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANA CRUZ MORILLO CORONADO

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Quinua (C. quinoa W. is considered a cereal with excellent nutritional properties, including high protein contein, because it has all amino acids, trace elements and significant amounts of vitamins. In Colombia more accurately in the department of Nariño, Cauca, Cundinamarca y Boyacá currently has had a huge boost due to their agronomic potential and different benefits derived from the production, processing and marketing of its products. Therefore, the objective of this research was to characterize the genetic diversity of a collection of 55 materials quinoa with seven microsatellite markers RAMs. The analysis by the coefficient of Nei-Li at the level of similarity of 0,65 divided the population into four groups according the site origin materials. The value of average heterozygosity was 0,34 which is considered low compared to other studied of genetic diversity in Chenopodium. Molecular Analysis of Variance (AMOVA and Fst demonstrate the existence of genetic variability at the intraspecific level. The parameters of genetic diversity found in this study show that the quinoa materials of the Boyacá governance collection are very homogeneous, however the variability that exists must be exploited in the breeding programs of the species leading to the production of new and better quinoa materials.

  17. Cactodera chenopodiae (Nematoda: Heteroderidae), a new species of cyst nematode parasitizing common lambsquarter (Chenopodium album) in Liaoning, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yaxing; Wang, Dong; Xiao, Dongxue; Pereira, Tiago josÉ; Xuan, Yuanhu; Wang, Yuanyuan; Liu, Xiaoyu; Chen, Lijie; Duan, Yuxi; Zhu, Xiaofeng

    2018-04-11

    A new species of cyst nematode, Cactodera chenopodiae n. sp., parasitizing common lambsquarter, Chenopodium album L., is described from native vegetation in Liaoning, China. Cactodera chenopodiae n. sp. has a circumfenestrate pattern typical of the genus and is morphologically similar to C. cacti Krall Krall, 1978. However, in the new species, females and cysts show a larger L/W ratio whereas second-stage juveniles (J2s) have a longer hyaline region. The new species is also morphologically similar to C. milleri Graney Bird, 1990, but the J2s differ by a larger b ratio and longer tail. Based on DNA sequences of the 28S and ITS rRNA, C. chenopodiae n. sp. comes close to C. estonica Krall Krall, 1978, although it is distinct from the latter with respect to the presence of a punctate eggshell and larger b ratio in the J2s. Although morphometric comparisons with additional Cactodera species show the overlapping of diagnostic morphological characters, our phylogenetic analyses based on both rRNA genes support C. chenopodiae n. sp. as a unique lineage.

  18. Evaluation of Essential Oil and its Three Main Active Ingredients of Chinese Chenopodium Ambrosioides (Family: Chenopodiaceae Against Blattella Germanica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Xiang Zhu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The efficacy of essential oil of Chenopodium ambrosioides flowering aerial parts and its three mainactive ingredients was evaluated against Blattella germanica male adults.Methods: Composition of essential oil was determined by GC-MS. Topical application bioassay was used to evaluatecontact toxicity of essential oil and three main components. Fumigant toxicity of essential oil and its main components was measured using a sealed space method.Results: Twenty-two components were identified in the essential oil and the main components were (Z-ascaridole(29.7%, isoascaridole (13.0%, ρ-cymene (12.7% and piperitone (5.0%. The essential oil and (Z-ascaridole,isoascaridole and -cymene possessed fumigant toxicity against male German cockroaches with LC50 values of 4.13,0.55, 2.07 and 6.92 mg/L air, respectively. Topical application bioassay showed that all the three compounds weretoxic to male German cockroaches and (Z-ascaridole was the strongest with a LD50 value of 22.02 g/adult while the crude oil with a LD50 value of 67.46 g/adult.Conclusion: The essential oil from Chinese C. ambrosioides and its three main active ingredients may be explored as natural potential insecticides in the control of cockroaches.

  19. Germination responses of Cañahua (Chenopodium pallidicaule Aellen) to temperature and sowing depth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodriguez Calle, Juan Pablo; Jacobsen, Sven-Erik; Sørensen, Marten

    2016-01-01

    Cañahua (Chenopodium pallidicaule) is grown in the Altiplano of Bolivia and Peru, between 3810 and 4200 m a.s.l. Rural indigenous households have cultivated the cañahua as a subsistence crop for millennia. The seeds have a high content and quality of protein. We studied the relation between...... the following: (i) temperature and seed germination and (ii) the effect of temperature and sowing depth on seedling emergence of five cultivars and one landrace. Three experiments were conducted as follows: (i) seeds of a cultivar were germinated in Petri dishes at six temperatures (3, 5, 10, 14, 20 and 24 °C...... significantly effect on the germination percentages of the plants (P Seeds germinated at the lowest temperature (3 °C). The estimated base temperature was close to 0 °C. A polynomial function described well the relation between time to 50% germination (t50) and temperature in the interval from 3 to 24...

  20. GC-MS Profiling of Triterpenoid Saponins from 28 Quinoa Varieties (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) Grown in Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Meza, Ilce G; Aluwi, Nicole A; Saunders, Steven R; Ganjyal, Girish M

    2016-11-16

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) contains 2 to 5% saponins in the form of oleanane-type triterpenoid glycosides or sapogenins found in the external layers of the seeds. These saponins confer an undesirable bitter flavor. This study maps the content and profile of glycoside-free sapogenins from 22 quinoa varieties and 6 original breeding lines grown in North America under similar agronomical conditions. Saponins were recovered using a novel extraction protocol and quantified by GC-MS. Oleanolic acid (OA), hederagenin (HD), serjanic acid (SA), and phytolaccagenic acid (PA) were identified by their mass spectra. Total saponin content ranged from 3.81 to 27.1 mg/g among the varieties studied. The most predominant sapogenin was phytolaccagenic acid with 16.72 mg/g followed by hederagenin at 4.22 mg/g representing the ∼70% and 30% of the total sapogenin content. Phytolaccagenic acid and the total sapogenin content had a positive correlation of r 2 = 0.88 (p quinoa in food products. The multivariate analysis showed no correlations between origin of seeds and saponin profile and/or content.

  1. Phytoecdysteroids and flavonoid glycosides among Chilean and commercial sources of Chenopodium quinoa: variation and correlation to physicochemical characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Brittany; Rojo, Leonel E.; Delatorre-Herrera, Jose; Poulev, Alexander; Calfio, Camila; Raskin, Ilya

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Little is known about varietal differences in the content of bioactive phytoecdysteroids (PE) and flavonoid glycosides (FG) from quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.). The aim of this study was to determine the variation in PE and FG content among seventeen distinct quinoa sources and identify correlations to genotypic (highland vs. lowland) and physicochemical characteristics (seed color, 100-seed weight, protein content, oil content). RESULTS PE and FG concentrations exhibited over 4-fold differences across quinoa sources, ranging from 138 ± 11 μg/g to 570 ± 124 μg/g total PE content and 192 ± 24 μg/g to 804 ± 91 μg/g total FG content. Mean FG content was significantly higher in highland Chilean varieties (583.6 ± 148.9 μg/g) versus lowland varieties (228.2 ± 63.1 μg/g) grown under the same environmental conditions (P = 0.0046; t-test). Meanwhile, PE content was positively and significantly correlated with oil content across all quinoa sources (r = 0.707, P = 0.002; Pearson correlation). CONCLUSION FG content may be genotypically regulated in quinoa. PE content may be increased via enhancement of oil content. These findings may open new avenues for the improvement and development of quinoa as a functional food. PMID:25683633

  2. Nutritional improvement of corn pasta-like product with broad bean (Vicia faba) and quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giménez, M A; Drago, S R; Bassett, M N; Lobo, M O; Sammán, N C

    2016-05-15

    In this study, the nutritional quality of pasta-like product (spaghetti-type), made with corn (Zea mays) flour enriched with 30% broad bean (Vicia faba) flour and 20% of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) flour, was determined. Proximate chemical composition and iron, zinc and dietary fiber were determined. A biological assay was performed to assess the protein value using net protein utilization (NPU), true digestibility (TD) and protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS). Iron and zinc availability were estimated by measuring dialyzable mineral fraction (%Da) resulting from in vitro gastrointestinal digestion. Nutritionally improved, gluten-free spaghetti (NIS) showed significantly increased NPU and decreased TD compared with a non-enriched control sample. One NIS-portion supplied 10-20% of recommended fiber daily intake. Addition of quinoa flour had a positive effect on the FeDa% as did broad bean flour on ZnDa%. EDTA increased Fe- and ZnDa% in all NIS-products, but it also impaired sensorial quality. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Physical features, phenolic compounds, betalains and total antioxidant capacity of coloured quinoa seeds (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) from Peruvian Altiplano.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abderrahim, Fatima; Huanatico, Elizabeth; Segura, Roger; Arribas, Silvia; Gonzalez, M Carmen; Condezo-Hoyos, Luis

    2015-09-15

    Physical features, bioactive compounds and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of coloured quinoa varieties (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) from Peruvian Altiplano were studied. Quinoa seeds did not show a pure red colour, but a mixture which corresponded to different fractal colour values (51.0-71.8), and they varied from small to large size. Regarding bioactive compounds, total phenolic (1.23-3.24mg gallic acid equivalents/g) and flavonol contents (0.47-2.55mg quercetin equivalents/g) were highly correlated (r=0.910). Betalains content (0.15-6.10mg/100g) was correlated with L colour parameter (r=-0.569), total phenolics (r=0.703) and flavonols content (r=0.718). Ratio of betaxanthins to betacyanins (0.0-1.41) was negatively correlated with L value (r=-0.744). Whereas, high TAC values (119.8-335.9mmol Trolox equivalents/kg) were negatively correlated with L value (r=-0.779), but positively with betalains (r=0.730), as well as with free (r=0.639), bound (r=0.558) and total phenolic compounds (r=0.676). Unexploited coloured quinoa seeds are proposed as a valuable natural source of phenolics and betalains with high antioxidant capacity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Phytoecdysteroids and flavonoid glycosides among Chilean and commercial sources of Chenopodium quinoa: variation and correlation to physico-chemical characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Brittany L; Rojo, Leonel E; Delatorre-Herrera, Jose; Poulev, Alexander; Calfio, Camila; Raskin, Ilya

    2016-01-30

    Little is known about varietal differences in the content of bioactive phytoecdysteroids (PE) and flavonoid glycosides (FG) from quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.). The aim of this study was to determine the variation in PE and FG content among 17 distinct quinoa sources and identify correlations to genotypic (highland vs. lowland) and physico-chemical characteristics (seed color, 100-seed weight, protein content, oil content). PE and FG concentrations exhibited over four-fold differences across quinoa sources, ranging from 138 ± 11 µg g(-1) to 570 ± 124 µg g(-1) total PE content and 192 ± 24 µg g(-1) to 804 ± 91 µg g(-1) total FG content. Mean FG content was significantly higher in highland Chilean varieties (583.6 ± 148.9 µg g(-1)) versus lowland varieties (228.2 ± 63.1 µg g(-1)) grown under the same environmental conditions (P = 0.0046; t-test). Meanwhile, PE content was positively and significantly correlated with oil content across all quinoa sources (r = 0.707, P = 0.002; Pearson correlation). FG content may be genotypically regulated in quinoa. PE content may be increased via enhancement of oil content. These findings may open new avenues for the improvement and development of quinoa as a functional food. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Chemical characterization, antioxidant, immune-regulating and anticancer activities of a novel bioactive polysaccharide from Chenopodium quinoa seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yichen; Zhang, Jinming; Zou, Liang; Fu, Chaomei; Li, Peng; Zhao, Gang

    2017-06-01

    Chenopodium quinoa, a promising nutraceutical cereal, has attracted increasing research interest, yet its polysaccharides remains to get few systematic studies. In this study, we employed orthogonal experimental design to optimize the ultrasound-assisted extraction process for highest yield of C. quinoa polysaccharides. A novel C. quinoa polysaccharide (CQP) fraction with high content and low molecular weight (8852Da) was subsequently purified by column chromatography, constituted by galacturonic acid and glucose monosaccharides. The purified CQP exhibited significantly antioxidant effect against DPPH + and ABTS + , with even higher efficiency than some other reported polysaccharides. Moreover, CQP could promote the RAW264.7 macrophage proliferation, while suppress the nitri oxide production on inflammatory RAW264.7 macrophage in a dose- and time-dependent manner. In view of the pathological correlation of free radical, inflammation and carcinogenesis, the anticancer effect of CQP was further investigated on human liver cancer SMMC 7721 and breast cancer MCF-7 cells. Interestingly, CQP displayed cytotoxicity against cancer cells, while none proliferation inhibition on normal cells. These results suggest that the bioactive polysaccharide from C. quinoa provided the promising potential as a natural antioxidant, immune-regulating and anticancer candidate for food and even drug application. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Immunoadjuvant activity, toxicity assays, and determination by UPLC/Q-TOF-MS of triterpenic saponins from Chenopodium quinoa seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verza, Simone G; Silveira, Fernando; Cibulski, Samuel; Kaiser, Samuel; Ferreira, Fernando; Gosmann, Grace; Roehe, Paulo M; Ortega, George G

    2012-03-28

    The adjuvant activity of Chenopodium quinoa (quinoa) saponins on the humoral and cellular immune responses of mice subcutaneously immunized with ovalbumin (OVA) was evaluated. Two quinoa saponin fractions were obtained, FQ70 and FQ90, and 10 saponins were determined by UPLC/Q-TOF-MS. Mice were immunized subcutaneously with OVA alone or adjuvanted with Quil A (adjuvant control), FQ70, or FQ90. FQ70 and FQ90 significantly enhanced the amount of anti-OVA-specific antibodies in serum (IgG, IgG1, and IgG2b) in immunized mice. The adjuvant effect of FQ70 was significantly greater than that of FQ90. However, delayed type hypersensitivity responses were higher in mice immunized with OVA adjuvanted with FQ90 than mice treated with FQ70. Concanavalin A (Con A)-, lipopolysaccharide-, and OVA-stimulated splenocyte proliferation were measured, and FQ90 significantly enhanced the Con A-induced splenocyte proliferation. The results suggested that the two quinoa saponin fractions enhanced significantly the production of humoral and cellular immune responses to OVA in mice.

  7. The p19 protein of Grapevine Algerian latent virus is a determinant of systemic infection of Chenopodium quinoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Semin; Cho, Won Kyong; Lee, Hyeok-Geun; Park, Sang-Ho; Sohn, Seong-Han; Kim, Kook-Hyung

    2012-04-01

    A previous study showed that both Grapevine Algerian latent virus (GALV) and Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV) systemically infect Nicotiana benthamiana, but GALV causes systemic infection whereas TBSV causes only local lesions in Chenopodium quinoa (C. quinoa). We recently isolated GALV strain Naju (GALV-N) from Limonium sinense and TBSV strain Sacheon (TBSV-S) from tomato. Both viruses belong to the genus Tombusvirus and have a similar genome organization. To identify determinants of systemic infection of GALV-N in C. quinoa in the current study, we generated infectious clones and capsid protein (CP)-deletion clones for the two viruses and confirmed that CP of GALV-N is required for systemic infection of C. quinoa due to its primary structural role in virus assembly. Through the use of chimeras, we identified a viral factor in addition to CP that contributes to systemic infection by GALV-N. Inactivation of the p19 demonstrated that host-specific activities of p19 are necessary for efficient systemic infection of C. quinoa by GALV-N. Our study is the first report to determine the viral factors required for systemic infection of GALV in C. quinoa. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Nutritional Aspects of Six Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. Ecotypes from three Geographical Areas of Chile Aspectos Nutricionales de Seis Ecotipos de Quínoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. de Tres Zonas Geográficas de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Miranda

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the diversity of the quinoa crop in Chile from a nutritional perspective. Nutritional properties, minerals, vitamins, and saponin content were assessed in seeds of six Chilean quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. ecotypes grown in three main production areas with distinctive climatic and edaphic conditions: Ancovinto and Cancosa in the North-Altiplano or High Plateau, Cáhuil and Faro in the central coastal area, and Regalona and Villarrica in the south of the country. There were significant differences (P La diversidad en el cultivo de la quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. de Chile fue explorada desde una perspectiva nutricional. En este contexto las propiedades nutricionales como también los contenidos de minerales, vitaminas y saponina fueron evaluados en las semillas de seis ecotipos chilenos de quínoa, cultivados en las tres principales zonas de producción con condiciones edafoclimáticas distintas: Ancovinto y Cancosa del altiplano del norte, Cáhuil y Faro de la zona costera central y, Regalona y Villarrica en el sur del país. Hubo diferencias significativas (P < 0.05 en todas las propiedades nutricionales de las semillas de todas las zonas. El ecotipo Villarrica tenia el mayor contenido de proteína (16.10 g 100 g-1 MS y de vitamina E y C (4.644 ± 0.240 y 23.065 ± 1.119 mg 100 g-1 MS, respectivamente. El mayor contenido de vitamina B1 (0.648 ± 0.006 mg 100 g-1 MS y B3 (1.569 ± 0.026 mg 100 g-1 MS fue encontrado en el ecotipo Regalona, y el mayor contenido de vitamina B2 (0.081 ± 0.002 mg 100 g-1 MS en el ecotipo Ancovinto. El K fue el mineral más abundante con un valor de 2325.56 mg 100 g-1 MS en el ecotipo Cancosa. El contenido de saponina fluctuó entre 0.84 g 100 g-1 MS en el ecotipo Villarrica y 3.91 g 100 g-1 MS en el ecotipo Cáhuil. Hubo diferencias significativas entre los ecotipos chilenos de quínoa cultivados bajo diferentes condiciones climáticas. No obstante, las semillas de quinoa de cualquier

  9. Effects of salinity and soil-drying on radiation use efficiency, water productivity and yield of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Razzaghi, Fatemeh; Ahmadi, Seyed Hamid; Jacobsen, Sven-Erik

    2012-01-01

    Drought and salinity reduce crop productivity especially in arid and semi-arid regions, and finding a crop which produces yield under these adverse conditions is therefore very important. Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is such a crop. Hence, a study was conducted in field lysimeters to invest...... matter. Increasing salinity from 20 to 40 dS m-1 did not further decrease the seed number per m2 and seed yield, which shows that quinoa (cv. Titicaca) acclimated to saline conditions when exposed to salinity levels between 20 and 40 dS m-1....

  10. Desenvolvimento de filmes biodegradaveis a partir de derivados do grão de quinoa (Chenopodium quinoia Willdenow) da variedade "Real"

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia Cecilia Araujo Farro

    2008-01-01

    Resumo: O grão de quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa, Willdenow) é um pseudocereal originário da América do Sul Andina, que tem gerado interesse industrial crescente e cultivo diversificado em diversos países de América do Norte e da Europa. Recentemente nos países da América Latina tem-se despertado um interesse comum na busca de tecnologias de desenvolvimento de biomateriais, como uma forma de diminuir a poluição gerada pelos resíduos sintéticos, utilizando os recursos naturais próprios da região. ...

  11. Rentabilidad de la quinua (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) asociada a la implementación del riego tecnificado en el Callejón de Huaylas

    OpenAIRE

    Ramírez Bojórquez, Oscar Horacio

    2016-01-01

    Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina. Escuela de Posgrado. Maestría en Economía Agrícola Esta investigación busca determinar los beneficios económicos que reportara la implementación de un sistema de riego tecnificado asociado al cultivo de la quinua (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) en la zona del Callejón de Huaylas. Aprovechando las ventajas comparativas que presenta el cultivo de la quinua en nuestro medio, en un mercado de precios crecientes, alta demanda en el mercado interno y grandes p...

  12. The Evolution of the FT/TFL1 Genes in Amaranthaceae and Their Expression Patterns in the Course of Vegetative Growth and Flowering in Chenopodium rubrum

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Drabešová, Jana; Černá, Lucie; Mašterová, Helena; Koloušková, Pavla; Potocký, Martin; Štorchová, Helena

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 10 (2016), s. 3065-3076 ISSN 2160-1836 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP506/12/1359; GA ČR GA13-02290S Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : rna-seq data * locus-t * ft homologs * functional evolution * floral initiation * reference genome * arabidopsis * protein * quantification * activation * transcriptome * flowering locus t * TERMINAL FLOWER1 gene family * evolution * flowering * gene rearrangement * Amaranthaceae * Chenopodium rubrum Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.861, year: 2016

  13. Are tyrosine residues involved in the photoconversion of the water-soluble chlorophyll-binding protein of Chenopodium album?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, S; Seki, Y; Uchida, A; Nakayama, K; Satoh, H

    2015-05-01

    Non-photosynthetic and hydrophilic chlorophyll (Chl) proteins, called water-soluble Chl-binding proteins (WSCPs), are distributed in various species of Chenopodiaceae, Amaranthaceae, Polygonaceae and Brassicaceae. Based on their photoconvertibility, WSCPs are categorised into two classes: Class I (photoconvertible) and Class II (non-photoconvertible). Chenopodium album WSCP (CaWSCP; Class I) is able to convert the chlorin skeleton of Chl a into a bacteriochlorin-like skeleton under light in the presence of molecular oxygen. Potassium iodide (KI) is a strong inhibitor of the photoconversion. Because KI attacks tyrosine residues in proteins, tyrosine residues in CaWSCP are considered to be important amino acid residues for the photoconversion. Recently, we identified the gene encoding CaWSCP and found that the mature region of CaWSCP contained four tyrosine residues: Tyr13, Tyr14, Tyr87 and Tyr134. To gain insight into the effect of the tyrosine residues on the photoconversion, we constructed 15 mutant proteins (Y13A, Y14A, Y87A, Y134A, Y13-14A, Y13-87A, Y13-134A, Y14-87A, Y14-134A, Y87-134A, Y13-14-87A, Y13-14-134A, Y13-87-134A, Y14-87-134A and Y13-14-87-134A) using site-directed mutagenesis. Amazingly, all the mutant proteins retained not only chlorophyll-binding activity, but also photoconvertibility. Furthermore, we found that KI strongly inhibited the photoconversion of Y13-14-87-134A. These findings indicated that the four tyrosine residues are not essential for the photoconversion. © 2014 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  14. Simultaneous determination of phenolic acids and flavonoids in Chenopodium formosanum Koidz. (djulis) by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, B Y; Lin, S W; Inbaraj, B Stephen; Chen, B H

    2017-01-05

    A high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection-tandem mass spectrometry method (HPLC-DAD-MS/MS) was developed for simultaneous determination of phenolic acids and flavonoids in djulis (Chenopodium formosanum Koidz.), a traditional Chinese herb reported to possess vital biological activities. A high yield of phenolic acids and flavonoids was attained by employing 50% ethanol in water as the extraction solvent and shaking in a 60°C water bath for 3h. A total of 8 phenolic acids and 14 flavonoids were separated and identified within 55min by using a Poroshell 120 EC-C18 column with detection at 280nm, flow rate at 0.8mL/min, column temperature at 35°C, and a gradient solvent system of 0.1% formic acid in water and acetonitrile. Two internal standards caffeic acid and kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside were used for quantitation of phenolic acids and flavonoids in djulis respectively. The amounts of phenolic acids ranged from 11.5±0.8μg/g (caffeoyl-putrescine-derivative (2)) to 1855.3±16.9μg/g (hydroxylphenylacetic acid pentoside), while the flavonoids ranged from 19.93±2.29μg/g (quercetin-3-O-(coumaryl)-rutinoside-pentoside (1)) to 257.3±2.05μg/g (rutin-O-pentoside (2)). A high recovery (89.68-97.20%) and high reproducibility was obtained for both phenolic acids and flavonoids with the relative standard deviation (RSD) for the latter ranging from 0.09-8.22% (intra-day variability) and 0.80-8.48% (inter-day variability). This method may be applied to determination of both phenolic acids and flavonoids in food products and Chinese herbs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. In vitro antimicrobial and antimycobacterial activity and HPLC-DAD screening of phenolics from Chenopodium ambrosioides L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta S. Jesus

    Full Text Available Abstract The main objective of this study was to demonstrate the antimicrobial potential of the crude extract and fractions of Chenopodium ambrosioides L., popularly known as Santa-Maria herb, against microorganisms of clinical interest by the microdilution technique, and also to show the chromatographic profile of the phenolic compounds in the species. The Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of cardiotonic, anthraquinone, alkaloids, tannins and flavonoids. The analysis by HPLC-DAD revealed the presence of rutin in the crude extract (12.5 ± 0.20 mg/g, ethyl acetate (16.5 ± 0.37 mg/g and n-butanol (8.85 ± 0.11 mg/g, whereas quercetin and chrysin were quantified in chloroform fraction (1.95 ± 0.04 and 1.04 ± 0.01 mg/g, respectively. The most promising results were obtained with the ethyl acetate fraction, which inhibited a greater number of microorganisms and presented the lowest values of MIC against Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis (MIC = 0.42 mg/mL, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MIC = 34.37 mg/mL, Paenibacillus apiarus (MIC = 4.29 mg/mL and Paenibacillus thiaminolyticus (MIC = 4.29 mg/mL. Considering mycobacterial inhibition, the best results were obtained by chloroform fraction against M. tuberculosis, M. smegmatis, and M. avium (MIC ranging from 156.25 to 625 µg/mL. This study proves, in part, that the popular use of C. ambrosioides L. can be an effective and sustainable alternative for the prevention and treatment of diseases caused by various infectious agents.

  16. Oxidative stress and antioxidant responses to increasing concentrations of trivalent chromium in the Andean crop species Chenopodium quinoa Willd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scoccianti, Valeria; Bucchini, Anahi E; Iacobucci, Marta; Ruiz, Karina B; Biondi, Stefania

    2016-11-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd), an ancient Andean seed crop, exhibits exceptional nutritional properties and resistance to abiotic stress. The species' tolerance to heavy metals has, however, not yet been investigated nor its ability to take up and translocate chromium (Cr). This study aimed to investigate the metabolic adjustments occurring upon exposure of quinoa to several concentrations (0.01-5mM) of CrCl3. Young hydroponically grown plants were used to evaluate Cr uptake, growth, oxidative stress, and other biochemical parameters three and/or seven days after treatment. Leaves accumulated the lowest amounts of Cr, while roots and stems accumulated the most at low and at high metal concentrations, respectively. Fresh weight and photosynthetic pigments were reduced only by the higher Cr(III) doses. Substantially increased lipid peroxidation, hydrogen peroxide, and proline levels were observed only with 5mM Cr(III). Except for a significant decrease at day 7 with 5mM Cr(III), total polyphenols and flavonoids maintained control levels in Cr(III)-treated plants, whereas antioxidant activity increased in a dose-dependent manner. Maximum polyamine accumulation was observed in 1mM CrCl3-treated plants. Even though α- and γ-tocopherols also showed enhanced levels only with the 1mM concentration, tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT, EC 2.6.1.5) activity increased under Cr(III) treatment in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Taken together, results suggest that polyamines, tocopherols, and TAT activity could contribute to tolerance to 1mM Cr(III), but not to the highest concentration that, instead, generated oxidative stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Transcriptional Responses of Chilean Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) Under Water Deficit Conditions Uncovers ABA-Independent Expression Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Andrea; Zurita-Silva, Andres; Maldonado, Jonathan; Silva, Herman

    2017-01-01

    HIGHLIGHTS R49 genotype displayed best performance on selected physiological parameters and highest tolerance to drought.R49 drought over-represented transcripts has exhibited 19% of genes (306 contigs) that presented no homology to published databases.Expression pattern for canonical responses to drought such as ABA biosynthesis and other genes induced in response to drought were assessed by qPCR. Global freshwater shortage is one of the biggest challenges of our time, often associated to misuse, increased consumption demands and the effects of climate change, paralleled with the desertification of vast areas. Chenopodium quinoa (Willd.) represents a very promising species, due to both nutritional content and cultivation under water constraint. We characterized drought tolerance of three Chilean genotypes and selected Genotype R49 (Salares ecotype) based upon Relative Water Content (RWC), Electrolyte Leakage (EL) and maximum efficiency of photosystem II (F v /F m ) after drought treatment, when compared to another two genotypes. Exploratory RNA-Seq of R49 was generated by Illumina paired-ends method comparing drought and control irrigation conditions. We obtained 104.8 million reads, with 54 million reads for control condition and 51 million reads for drought condition. Reads were assembled in 150,952 contigs, were 31,523 contigs have a reading frame of at least 300 nucleotides (100 aminoacids). BLAST2GO annotation showed a 15% of genes without homology to NCBI proteins, but increased to 19% (306 contigs) when focused into drought-induced genes. Expression pattern for canonical drought responses such as ABA biosynthesis and other genes induced were assessed by qPCR, suggesting novelty of R49 drought responses.

  18. The antioxidant activity and nitric oxide production of extracts obtained from the leaves of Chenopodium quinoa Willd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsiao-Ling; Lan, Xiang-Zhen; Wu, Yan-Yi; Ou, Yu-Wen; Chen, Tsung Chi; Wu, Wen-Tzu

    2017-12-01

    Most reports have indicated the antioxidant capacity of quinoa seeds. However, the leaves of Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) are usually worthless and little known about their biological activities. In this study, the antioxidant and immunomodulatory potential of the quinoa leaf extracts were explored. The crude leaf extracts of quinoa were extracted using water, 50% ethanol or 95% ethanol as solvent, denoted WQL, 50% EQL and 95% EQL, respectively. The antioxidant activities of quinoa leaf extracts were assessed by the ability of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging and iron chelating. The total phenolic content was determined. Inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) production in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced murine macrophage RAW 264.7 cells was examined to gauge the anti-inflammatory activity. The 95% EQL showed a higher level of total phenolic content (569.5 mg GAE/g extract) and better DPPH scavenging activity. The WQL exhibited a better iron chelating capacity (28.9% at 10 mg/ml). The iron chelating activity of the 95% EQL increased in a concentration-dependent manner, which ranged from 10.9% up to 53.9%. The 50% EQL and 95% EQL significantly inhibited NO production in the LPSstimulated RAW 264.7 cells. We demonstrate that the extracts of quinoa leaves possess the biological activities of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory. Our finding suggests that the leaf extract of quinoa has potential to be utilized for natural health products. © Author(s) 2017. This article is published with open access by China Medical University.

  19. Antioxidant capacity, phenolic and vitamin C contents of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. as affected by sprouting and storage conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maura N. Laus

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidant capacity (AC of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. cv. Real seeds and sprouts obtained after 4 days of seed germination at 20°C and 70% humidity was evaluated using trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC assays, able to highlight reducing activity and peroxyl radical scavenging capacity, respectively; phenolic content (PC was also measured. Both TEAC and ORAC assays revealed a significantly higher (about 2- and 2.8-fold, respectively AC of 4-day-old sprouts compared to seeds; consistently, also PC values of sprouts resulted about 2.6 times higher than seeds. In order to investigate the influence of storage on AC and PC, as well as on vitamin C content (VCC, 4-day-old sprouts were subjected for 7 days at 5°C to three different conditions of controlled atmosphere storage (CAS compared with air. Interestingly, whatever the CAS conditions, storage of quinoa sprouts up to 7 days induced an increase of AC evaluated in terms of reducing activity by TEAC assay. Consistently, an increase of PC and VCC was measured during storage, positively correlated to TEAC values. Moreover, a decrease of peroxyl radical scavenging activity, measured by ORAC, was observed after 7 days of storage, in accordance with a shift of AC towards the reducing activity component. Overall, these findings indicate that sprouting approach using quinoa may provide highly antioxidant-enriched seedlings that may improve nutritional quality of diet or of functional foods. Interestingly, antioxidant properties of quinoa sprouts may be deeply influenced by storage, able to increase reducing activity by increasing phenols and vitamin C.

  20. Methyl jasmonate differentially affects tocopherol content and tyrosine amino transferase activity in cultured cells of Amaranthus caudatus and Chenopodium quinoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antognoni, F; Faudale, M; Poli, F; Biondi, S

    2009-03-01

    Tocopherols are lipid-soluble compounds synthesised exclusively by photosynthetic organisms. In this study, in vitro callus cultures were established from two plants that are naturally rich in tocopherols, Amaranthus caudatus and Chenopodium quinoa, in order to examine whether callus cultures were able to produce these compounds at levels comparable to those observed in planta. In both species, cotyledon explants produced the best callus induction and, once established, callus cultures were grown under two different hormonal treatments to check for effects of growth and to induce chloroplast differentiation in the cells. A rapid differentiation of chloroplasts occurred only in C. quinoa cell aggregates grown in the presence of benzyladenine, leading to the production of a homogeneous green callus. In both species, only alpha-tocopherol was produced by callus cultures, although levels were much lower than in planta, and the production was not influenced by the hormonal conditions. Interestingly, cell cultures of the two species responded in different ways to methyl jasmonate (MJ). In A. caudatus cultures, treatment with 100 mum MJ increased the production of alpha-tocopherol up to fivefold, and the inductive effect was influenced by the hormonal composition of the medium. This increase in alpha-tocopherol was associated with a proportional increase in tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT) activity, one of the key enzymes involved in tocopherol biosynthesis. By contrast, in C. quinoa cultures, elicitation with MJ did not have any effect, neither on tocopherol production, nor on TAT activity. These results are discussed in relation to chloroplast differentiation and the interplay between jasmonates and phytohormones.

  1. Isolation and characterization of reverse transcriptase fragments of LTR retrotransposons from the genome of Chenopodium quinoa (Amaranthaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolano, Bozena; Bednara, Edyta; Weiss-Schneeweiss, Hanna

    2013-10-01

    High heterogeneity was observed among conserved domains of reverse transcriptase ( rt ) isolated from quinoa. Only one Ty1- copia rt was highly amplified. Reverse transcriptase sequences were located predominantly in pericentromeric region of quinoa chromosomes. The heterogeneity, genomic abundance, and chromosomal distribution of reverse transcriptase (rt)-coding fragments of Ty1-copia and Ty3-gypsy long terminal repeat retrotransposons were analyzed in the Chenopodium quinoa genome. Conserved domains of the rt gene were amplified and characterized using degenerate oligonucleotide primer pairs. Sequence analyses indicated that half of Ty1-copia rt (51 %) and 39 % of Ty3-gypsy rt fragments contained intact reading frames. High heterogeneity among rt sequences was observed for both Ty1-copia and Ty3-gypsy rt amplicons, with Ty1-copia more heterogeneous than Ty3-gypsy. Most of the isolated rt fragments were present in quinoa genome in low copy numbers, with only one highly amplified Ty1-copia rt sequence family. The gypsy-like RNase H fragments co-amplified with Ty1-copia-degenerate primers were shown to be highly amplified in the quinoa genome indicating either higher abundance of some gypsy families of which rt domains could not be amplified, or independent evolution of this gypsy-region in quinoa. Both Ty1-copia and Ty3-gypsy retrotransposons were preferentially located in pericentromeric heterochromatin of quinoa chromosomes. Phylogenetic analyses of newly amplified rt fragments together with well-characterized retrotransposon families from other organisms allowed identification of major lineages of retroelements in the genome of quinoa and provided preliminary insight into their evolutionary dynamics.

  2. Evaluating the efficacy of pre- and post-emergence herbicides for controlling Amaranthus retroflexus L. and Chenopodium album L. in potato

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alebrahim, M. T.; Majd, R.; Rashed Mohassel, M. H.

    2012-01-01

    Field studies were conducted from 2008 to 2010 to evaluate the control of Amaranthus retroflexus and Chenopodium album and tolerance of potato (Solanum tuberosum cv. Agria) to ethalfluralin, trifluralin, pendimethalin, rimsulfuron, EPTC and oxadiargyl applied pre-emergence (PRE) and post-emergenc...

  3. Preliminary Studies of the Performance of Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) Genotypes under Irrigated and Rainfed Conditions of Central Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maliro, Moses F A; Guwela, Veronica F; Nyaika, Jacinta; Murphy, Kevin M

    2017-01-01

    The goal of sustainable intensification of agriculture in Malawi has led to the evaluation of innovative, regionally novel or under-utilized crop species. Quinoa ( Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) has the potential to provide a drought tolerant, nutritious alternative to maize. We evaluated 11 diverse varieties of quinoa for their yield and agronomic performance at two locations, Bunda and Bembeke, in Malawi. The varieties originated from Ecuador, Chile and Bolivia in South America; the United States and Canada in North America; and, Denmark in Europe, and were chosen based on their variation in morphological and agronomic traits, and their potential for adaptation to the climate of Malawi. Plant height, panicle length, days to maturity, harvest index, and seed yield were recorded for each variety under irrigation at Bunda and Bembeke, and under rainfed conditions at Bunda. Plant height was significantly influenced by both genotype and environment. There were also significant differences between the two locations for panicle length whereas genotype and genotype × environment (G × E) interaction were not significantly different. Differences were found for genotype and G × E interaction for harvest index. Notably, differences for genotype, environment and G × E were found for grain yield. Seed yield was higher at Bunda (237-3019 kg/ha) than Bembeke (62-692 kg/ha) under irrigated conditions. The highest yielding genotype at Bunda was Titicaca (3019 kg/ha) whereas Multi-Hued was the highest (692 kg/ha) at Bembeke. Strong positive correlations between seed yield and (1) plant height ( r = 0.74), (2) days to maturity ( r = 0.76), and (3) biomass ( r = 0.87) were found under irrigated conditions. The rainfed evaluations at Bunda revealed significant differences in seed yield, plant biomass, and seed size among the genotypes. The highest yielding genotype was Black Seeded (2050 kg/ha) followed by Multi-Hued (1603 kg/ha) and Bio-Bio (1446 kg/ha). Ecuadorian (257 kg/ha) was

  4. Efecto del extracto de paico (chenopodium ambrosioides, en parásitos gastrointestinales de gallos de pelea (gallus domesticus.

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    Paola Rodríguez

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available El uso empírico de las plantas como agentes de salud es ampliamente conocido en múltiplesculturas del mundo, conocimientos que son transmitidos de generación en generación. En la actualidad, las plantas medicinales y sus extractos, son utilizados con fines terapéuticos, instaurándose como una alternativa farmacológica, para diferentes patologías tanto en humanos como en animales. En la etnomedicina de algunas regiones de Latinoamérica, el paico (Chenopodium ambrosioides ha sido empleado en infusión de hojas y flores comocarminativo y digestivo, pero principalmente como antihelmíntico. Por lo tanto, el presenteestudio se realizó con el fin de evaluar el efecto antiparasitario del extracto de esta planta engallos de pelea (Gallus domesticus en un criadero de la ciudad de Tunja-Boyacá, ya que los propietarios de estas aves lo utilizan de manera artesanal como desparasitante natural. Para el trabajo se utilizaron 45 ejemplares, organizados en 3 grupos a los cuales, cada 15días y durante un mes, se les administró, por vía oral, 0,1 ml/ Kg de extracto de paico (grupoT2, 0.5ml/Kg de un medicamento comercial a base de Levamisol-Ivermectina (grupo T3 y0.5ml/ave de agua (grupo T1 control. Se recolectaron muestras de materia fecal con el objeto de determinar la presencia de huevos y/o larvas de parásitos, utilizando la técnica de Formol-Eter. Durante el estudio fueron identificados diferentes especies de ascaridia spp, heterakis gallinarum, eimeria sp, huevos y larvas de trichostrongylus. Posterior a la administracióndel tratamiento con extracto de paico se encontraron huevos de ascaridia galli, heterakis gallinarum, eimeria sp , y al suministrar la última dosis sólo se identificaron huevos de ascaridia galli e eimeria sp , lo que corrobora su efecto antiparasitario.

  5. Antioxidant activity of free and bound compounds in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) seeds in comparison with durum wheat and emmer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laus, Maura N; Gagliardi, Anna; Soccio, Mario; Flagella, Zina; Pastore, Donato

    2012-11-01

    Antioxidant activity (AA) of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) seeds, as well as of durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. ssp. durum Desf.) and of emmer (T. turgidum L. ssp. dicoccum Schübler) grains, was evaluated by studying hydrophilic (H), lipophilic (L), free-soluble (FSP) and insoluble-bound (IBP) phenolic extracts using the new lipoxygenase/4-nitroso-N,N-dimethylaniline (LOX/RNO) method, able to simultaneously detect different antioxidant mechanisms, as well as using the Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) and the Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (TEAC) assays, which measure the scavenging activity against peroxyl and ABTS [2,2'-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate)] radicals, respectively. The species under study were compared with respect to the sum of AA values of H, L and FSP extracts (AA(H+L+FSP)), containing freely solvent-soluble antioxidants, and AA values of IBP extracts (AA(IBP)), representing the phenolic fraction ester-linked to insoluble cell wall polymers. The LOX/RNO and ORAC methods measured in quinoa flour a remarkable AA(H+L+FSP) higher than durum wheat, although lower than emmer; according to the same assays, the IBP component of quinoa resulted less active than the durum wheat and emmer ones. The TEAC protocol also revealed a high AA(H+L+FSP) for quinoa. Interestingly, the ratio AA(H+L+FSP)/AA(H+L+FSP+IBP), as evaluated by the LOX/RNO and ORAC assays, resulted in quinoa higher than that of both durum wheat and emmer, and much higher than durum wheat, according to the TEAC protocol. This may suggest that antioxidants from quinoa seeds may be more readily accessible with respect to that of both the examined wheat species. Quinoa seeds may represent an excellent source of natural antioxidant compounds and, in particular, of the free-soluble antioxidant fraction. These compounds may improve nutritive and health-beneficial properties of quinoa-based gluten-free products, thus expanding interest for quinoa utilization from

  6. Development of novel InDel markers and genetic diversity in Chenopodium quinoa through whole-genome re-sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tifu; Gu, Minfeng; Liu, Yuhe; Lv, Yuanda; Zhou, Ling; Lu, Haiyan; Liang, Shuaiqiang; Bao, Huabin; Zhao, Han

    2017-09-05

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is a balanced nutritional crop, but its breeding improvement has been limited by the lack of information on its genetics and genomics. Therefore, it is necessary to obtain knowledge on genomic variation, population structure, and genetic diversity and to develop novel Insertion/Deletion (InDel) markers for quinoa by whole-genome re-sequencing. We re-sequenced 11 quinoa accessions and obtained a coverage depth between approximately 7× to 23× the quinoa genome. Based on the 1453-megabase (Mb) assembly from the reference accession Riobamba, 8,441,022 filtered bi-allelic single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 842,783 filtered InDels were identified, with an estimated SNP and InDel density of 5.81 and 0.58 per kilobase (kb). From the genomic InDel variations, 85 dimorphic InDel markers were newly developed and validated. Together with the 62 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers reported, a total of 147 markers were used for genotyping the 129 quinoa accessions. Molecular grouping analysis showed classification into two major groups, the Andean highland (composed of the northern and southern highland subgroups) and Chilean coastal, based on combined STRUCTURE, phylogenetic tree and PCA (Principle Component Analysis) analyses. Further analysis of the genetic diversity exhibited a decreasing tendency from the Chilean coast group to the Andean highland group, and the gene flow between subgroups was more frequent than that between the two subgroups and the Chilean coastal group. The majority of the variations (approximately 70%) were found through an analysis of molecular variation (AMOVA) due to the diversity between the groups. This was congruent with the observation of a highly significant F ST value (0.705) between the groups, demonstrating significant genetic differentiation between the Andean highland type of quinoa and the Chilean coastal type. Moreover, a core set of 16 quinoa germplasms that capture all 362 alleles was

  7. Potential use of the facultative halophyte Chenopodium quinoa Willd. as substrate for biogas production cultivated with different concentrations of sodium chloride under hydroponic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcios, Ariel E; Weichgrebe, Dirk; Papenbrock, Jutta

    2016-03-01

    This project analyses the biogas potential of the halophyte Chenopodium quinoa Willd. In a first approach C. quinoa was grown with different concentrations of NaCl (0, 10 and 20 ppt NaCl) and the crop residues were used as substrate for biogas production. In a second approach, C. quinoa was grown with 0, 10, 20 and 30 ppt NaCl under hydroponic conditions and the fresh biomass was used as substrate. The more NaCl is in the culture medium, the higher the sodium, potassium, crude ash and hemicellulose content in the plant tissue whereas the calcium, sulfur, nitrogen and carbon content in the biomass decrease. According to this study, it is possible to produce high yields of methane using biomass of C. quinoa. The highest specific methane yields were obtained using the substrate from the plants cultivated at 10 and 20 ppt NaCl in both experiments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Differential activity of Plasma and Vacuolar Membrane Transporters contributes to Genotypic Differences in Salinity Tolerance in a Halophyte Species, Chenopodium quinoa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonales-Alatorre, Edgar; Pottosin, Igor; Shabala, Lana

    2013-01-01

    quinoa genotypes contrasting in their salinity tolerance. The work is complemented by studies of the kinetics of net ion fluxes across the plasma membrane of quinoa leaf mesophyll tissue. Our results suggest that multiple mechanisms contribute towards genotypic differences in salinity tolerance in quinoa....... These include: (i) a higher rate of Na+ exclusion from leaf mesophyll; (ii) maintenance of low cytosolic Na+ levels; (iii) better K+ retention in the leaf mesophyll; (iv) a high rate of H+ pumping, which increases the ability of mesophyll cells to restore their membrane potential; and (v) the ability to reduce......Halophytes species can be used as a highly convenient model system to reveal key ionic and molecular mechanisms that confer salinity tolerance in plants. Earlier, we reported that quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.), a facultative C3 halophyte species, can efficiently control the activity of slow...

  9. Effect of quinoa seeds (Chenopodium quinoa) in diet on some biochemical parameters and essential elements in blood of high fructose-fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paśko, Paweł; Zagrodzki, Paweł; Bartoń, Henryk; Chłopicka, Joanna; Gorinstein, Shela

    2010-12-01

    The effect of Chenopodium quinoa seeds on lipid profile, glucose level, protein metabolism and selected essential elements (Na, K, Ca, Mg) level was determined in high-fructose fed male Wistar rats. Fructose decreased significantly LDL [42%, pquinoa indicated, that these seeds effectively reduced serum total cholesterol [26%, pQuinoa seeds also significantly reduced the level of glucose [10%, pquinoa seeds were added into the diet the decrease of HDL level was inhibited. Quinoa seeds did not prevent any adverse effect of increasing triglyceride level caused by fructose. It was shown in this study that quinoa seeds can reduce most of the adverse effects exerted by fructose on lipid profile and glucose level.

  10. Effect of aqueous extracts of selected medicinal plants on germination of windgrass [Apera spica-venti (L. P. Beauv.] and lambsquarters (Chenopodium album L. seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Synowiec

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to determine the effect of aqueous extracts of medicinal plants (Matricaria chamomilla, Hypericum perforatum, Achillea millefolium, and Urtica dioica containing allelopathic compounds on seed germination in lambsquarters (Chenopodium album and herbicide-resistant windgrass (Apera spica-venti. A Petri-dish experiment was carried out, in which the effects of five concentrations of aqueous extracts on the germination of weeds were assessed for 10 consecutive days. It was found that the dynamics of seed germination are closely related to the type and concentration of aqueous extract of medicinal plants. The 8% U. dioica aqueous extract posed the strongest inhibitory effect, limiting the germination of both lambsquarters and windgrass. Additionally, weed germination was delayed by 12–72 h in the presence of extracts, compared with the control. Summing up, the aqueous extracts of medicinal plants, especially their higher concentrations, pose a desirable inhibiting effect against the germination of lambsquarters and herbicide-resistant windgrass seeds.

  11. Eficácia de Chenopodium ambrosioides (erva-de-santa-maria no controle de endoparasitos de Coturnix japônica (codorna japonesa

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    Gilmar F. Vita

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Resumo:O objetivo foi testar in vitro e in vivo a eficácia da planta medicinal Chenopodium ambrosioidesLinnaeus, 1786 (erva-de-santa-maria, nas formas fitoterápica e homeopática, como meios alternativos para o controle de endoparasitos de Coturnix japonica Temminck & Schlegel, 1849 (codorna japonesa, um sério problema que afeta a criação e desempenho de aves domésticas, ocasionando morte quando muito intenso, retardo de crescimento, redução de índice de conversão alimentar e aumento na suscetibilidade às doenças infecciosas. As metodologias utilizadas foram preconizadas por Coles et al. (1992, creditada pela World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (WAAVP. A pesquisa evidenciou a presença dos gêneros Ascaridiae Eimeria. O ensaio in vitro demonstrou alta taxa de redução na inibição de eclosão de ovos de Ascaridiasp. (100,00% e significativa taxa de redução na destruição de oocistos de Eimeriasp. (47,06%. O ensaio in vivodemonstrou alta taxa de redução na contagem de ovos de Ascaridiasp. nas fezes (100,00% e expressiva taxa de redução na contagem de oocistos de Eimeriasp. nas fezes (60,33%. Chenopodium ambrosioides mostrou em certos momentos superioridade frente ao produto tradicional (Thiabendazole/Mebendazole e índices superiores aos preconizados pelo Ministério da Agricultura do Brasil e Organização Mundial da Saúde como indicativos de eficácia.

  12. Evaluation agriculture morphological and analysis of yield components in twelve cañahua agreements (Chenopodium pallidicaule Aellen

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    Mayta-Mamani Adelio

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In the present investigation, they were carried out the analysis descriptive statistic, variance analysis, comparison of stockings of Duncan, multiple correlation and analysis of path coefficient, this I finish to determine the direct and indirect effects, in cañahua (Chenopodium pallidicaule Aellen. The study behaved at random under the design of blocks with four repetitions and twelve treatments (cañahua agreements, during the campaign agricultural 2009 and 2010. The results show, the grain production on the average general of 7.67 grain/plant, with a coefficient of variability of 23.1%, and with better yields they were the agreements 455, 222, ILLPA-INIA and CUPI, achieved to produce 12.28 grain/plant on the average, 10.58 grain/plant, 10.29 grain/plant and 10.16 grain/plant, respectively. Through the path analysis, selection approaches the components of yields were identified. In the agreement 455, the coefficient of determination of the system plants dear it reached 36.5%, and main yield components were constituted, number of branches, vegetable covering and height of the plant, with an association degree and direct effect of r=0.505 P=0.327, r=0.446 P=0.168 and r=0.417 P=0.196, respectively. In the agreement 222, the characters morphological that influence in the yield this explained in 40.5%, and as better yield component the number of branches has been constituted (r=0.462 (P=0.261, vegetable covering (r=0.514 (P=0.271 and height of the plant (r=0.383 (P=0.047. In the agreement ILLPA-INIA, it has been determined as better yield component, the number of branches (r=0.514 (P=0.318 and diameter of the shaft (r=0.479 (P=0.524, these characters in its group justify that the system plants defined total it was 44.7% of the direct influence. Agreement CUPI, in this cultivation the characters that influenced in the grain yield are implied in 36.4% and with better characters morphological that have been able to influence in a direct way they are

  13. Effect of salt stress and seed priming methods on emergence and seedling characteristics of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.

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    Masoumeh Salehi

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available ]Introduction The main limiting factor for food security in Iran and world is water qualitative and quantitative. Agriculture sector is the main consumer of water and more vulnerable section from water crisis. In order to improve food security calorie requirement of growing population should be provided from nonsaline water resources. Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa is diploeid, allotetraploied, C3 and facultative halophyte from Amaranthace family and categorized in pseudo cereal group. This plant has cultivated 5000 years in Ands, and the highest cultivated area is in Bolivia near salt flats. This plant can grow successfully in different countries such as, Europe countries, USA, Canada, Africa, Morocco, Pakistan and India. Protein content is between 13.81-21.9% and flour is gluten free and provides all essential amino acid of human. Because of high potential of quinoa for providing human calories and high salt and drought tolerance it could be considered for saline and marginal area. Quinoa was selected for cultivation with saline water because of salt tolerance and economic production with saline water which are not use for conventional crop. The main problem of quinoa is emergence and stand establishment with saline water. The aim of this study is evaluation of salinity stress on plant emergence and priming effect of emergence improvement under saline condition. Materials and methods In order to evaluate salinity stress on emergence and establishment of quinoa an experiment was conducted based on CRD design with 5 levels of salinity (0, 4, 8, 12 and 16 dS/m with four replication in soil and cocopit. Emergence recorded daily and finally plant height and dry weight was measured. Two piece and modified discount function model was fitted to emergence percent. In order to improve emergence under saline condition an experiment was conducted with three treatments (Gibberlic acid (10 ppm, H2O and Ascorbic acid (3 ppm and four levels of salinity (0, 4 and

  14. Host Status of Seven Weed Species and Their Effects on Ditylenchus destructor Infestation of Peanut

    OpenAIRE

    De Waele, D.; Jordaan, Elizabeth M.; Basson, Selmaré

    1990-01-01

    The host suitability to Ditylenchus destructor of seven common weed species in peanut (Arachis hypogaea) fields in South Africa was determined. Based on the number of nematodes per root unit, white goosefoot (Chenopodium album), feathertop chloris (Chloris virgata), purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus), jimson weed (Datura stramonium), goose grass (Eleusine indica), khaki weed (Tagetes minuta), and cocklebur (Xanthium strumarium) were poor hosts. Ditylenchus destructor survived on all weed spec...

  15. Purificação e propriedades do vírus do mosaico do quenopódio Purification and properties of chenopodium mosaic virus

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    Darcy M. Silva

    1958-01-01

    Full Text Available O vírus do mosaico do quenopódio foi purificado por meio de centrifugações alternadas de baixa e alta velocidade, complementadas pelo tratamento com clorofórmio e álcool amílico. Foram obtidas preparações altamente ativas, que apresentaram as reações características das proteínas e um espectro de absorção da luz ultravioleta igual ao das nucleoproteínas, e que não apresentavam o fenômeno de anisotropia de fluxo. O sedimento dessas preparações purificadas, obtido na ultracentrífuga, retomado em um pequeno volume de solução de sulfato de amônio 0,2 saturada e guardado a 4°C, produz um grande número de microcristais. As partículas que compõem as preparações examinadas ao microscópio são de aspecto e dimensões bastante uniformes; são "esféricas" e de cerca de 30 milimicros de diâmetro. O material purificado se assemelha ao vírus do mosaico "southern bean", quanto ao aspecto dos cristais, mas os testes de hospedeiros e sorológicos indicaram tratar-se de dois vírus perfeitamente distintos.The Chenopodium mosaic virus was purified by means of alternated low and high speed centrifugations combined with chloroform N-amyl alcohol treatment. Such preparations have a high activity, give positive tests for protein and its ultra-violet absorption spectrum is that of a nucleoprotein solution. They do not show the phenomenon of anisotropy of flow. When examined in the electron microscope they showed to be constituted of "spherical" particles of uniform size having an approximate diameter of 30 mμ.. If a pellet of the purified virus is resuspended in a small volume of 0,2 saturated (NH42 SO4 solution and kept at 4°C for several hours, masses of roughly rhombic crystals are formed. As far as the size of particles and the form of crystals are concerned, the Chenopodium mosaic virus resembles the southern bean mosaic virus. They differ, however, in their host range and are not related serologically.

  16. Selection of mutants of Chenopodium quinoa Willd. in the generation M2, quantification of saponins on the Islunga and Barandales varieties adapted to the Toluca Valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez V, S.O.

    1996-01-01

    The saponins and total lipids was measured in the variants of Barandales and Isluga of Chenopodium quinoa Willd and the mutants of both variants in the M 2 lineage. These two variants were gamma radiated at different levels: 0, 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, 350, 400 and 500 Gy in the M1 generation. At the same time the mutants with favorable agronomic characteristics were selected. The samples were growth on the field (cultivated) and the seeds were recovered (harvested), measuring the emergence agronomic variables, plant height, density and seed yield. Lipids totals and saponins were measured in the seeds. The samples of radiated seeds with gamma-ray at different levels, were dried and grinded until to obtain a powder. The lipids was extracted with diethyl-ether, and in this solution was measured the total lipid content. The saponins were extracted in a later step, concentrated and precipitated. After the precipitation step the sapogenins were hydrolized and extracted with methyl alcohol. The extracts were centifugated and the solid material was dried and weighted. Finally, the measurement of the oleanolic acid was carried out by high pressure liquid chromatography. One conversion factor permits to relate this acid with the total saponin content. (Author)

  17. Effects of Different Densities of Cotton (Gossypium Hirsutum and Common Lambsquarter (Chenopodium Album on Some Cotton Growth Characteristics in Birjand Condition

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    M. Velayati

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Weeds are problematic plants in agroecosystems as a competitor for crops. In order to evaluate effects of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum and common lambsquarter (Chenopodium album densities on some crop growth indices, a study was conducted during 2006 in Experimental Station of Faculty of Agriculture, The University of Birjand as factorial experiment based on complete randomized block design with four replications. Three densities of cotton (6, 9 and 12 Pl.m-2 and four weed densities (0, 6, 9 and 12 Pl.m-2 were used to provide different weed interference levels. Indeed, three plots in each replication were intended to cultivation of lambsquarter alone at 6, 9 or 12 Pl.m-2. Results showed that crop growth rate (CGR of cotton was influenced by weed density, and its relative growth rate (RGR and net assimilation rate (NAR indicated a declining trend as weed density increased. Dry matter accumulation of cotton also was affected negatively by weed densities, as interference of lambsquarter at 6, 9 and 12 Pl.m-2 resulted to 35, 42 and 48 percent dry matter reduction, respectively, than weed-free treatment. Increasing of cotton density could partly compensate for negative impact of weed attendance on cotton growth. Thus, it seems higher plant densities can be used as a managing tool against weeds in cotton fields to avoid reduction of yield. Keywords: Cotton, Density, Weed, competition, Growth analysis

  18. Effect of domestic processing on total and extractable calcium and zinc content of bathua (Chenopodium album) and fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, S K; Sehgal, S

    1999-01-01

    Bathua (Chenopodium album) and fenugreek (Trigonellafoenum graecum) stored in polyethylene bags and without packaging for 24 or 48 hours in a refrigerator at 5 or 30 degrees C in polyethylene bags. The fresh leaves were also dried (oven and sun); blanched (5, 10 or 15 min) and cooked in an open pan and a pressure cooker. The processed leaves were analyzed for total and extractable calcium and zinc content. The Ca and Zn content of these leaves varied from 970 to 2230 and 10.50 to 12.30 mg/100 g DM and the percentage HCl-extractability was 80.34 to 83.04 and 82.43 to 83.90, respectively. Non significant effects of drying and storage were observed on total Ca and Zn content and HCl-extractability while blanching and cooking resulted in significant improvement of HCl-extractability of these two minerals. Thus, cooking and blanching are good ways to improve the HCl-extractability of Ca and Zn.

  19. Semillas de quinua (Chenopodium quinoa Willdenow: composición química y procesamiento. Aspectos relacionados con otras áreas

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    Carlos Alberto Padrón Pereira

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Quinua (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. es un cultivo con alto potencial para contribuir con la seguridad alimentaria en todas las regiones del mundo. El cultivo posee notable capacidad de adaptación a diferentes regiones agroecológicas y gradiente altitudinal. Aunque los principales países productores son Perú, Bolivia y Ecuador, la producción de quinoa se está expandiendo a otros continentes y actualmente se cultiva en varios países. En Venezuela no se cultiva. La semilla de quinua es reconocida como nutritiva gracias a la cantidad y calidad de su contenido de proteína, especialmente por su alto contenido en lisina, como también en hierro, potasio, vitaminas B2, B5 y E, entre otros constituyentes. Quinoa tiene una variedad de usos en la industria procesadora de alimentos. En este trabajo se compiló información de la literatura que fue revisada, con el propósito de aportar una visión general sobre la composición química y el procesamiento de semillas de quinua. Nuevas investigaciones han reafirmado la cantidad, calidad de sus componentes químicos y nuevos fitoquímicos se han descubierto. Existe considerable desarrollo e innovación tecnológica que ha dado valor agregado a la quinua.

  20. EFECTO DE LA EXTRUSIÓN SOBRE LAS CARACTERÍSTICAS FÍSICO-QUÍMICAS DE HARINA DE QUINUA (Chenopodium quinoa Willd

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    CLAUDIA LORENA CERÓN FERNANDEZ

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa WILLD is a pseudocereal produced for many years in Andean regions and allows different transformations taking advantage of their nutritional qualities becoming it a food agribusiness alternative. Objective of this study was to observe physical and chemical changes from two quinoa flour varieties (Blanca dulce de Jericó and Tunkahuan during extrusion process and determine conditions (flour moisture, temperature and screw speed that allow obtain an extruded similar to precooked functional properties. Water absorption index (IAA, water solubility index (ISA and swelling power (PH was response variables. Two flour extrusion at 105°C degrees, 150 rpm screw speed and 25 to 30% moisture improved functional properties (IAA increased from 1,81 g gel/g D.M to 4,22 g gel/g D.M in Tunkahuan extruded quinoa flour and 2,00 g gel/g to 4,27 g gel MS/MS g flour in Blanca dulce de Jericó but nutriotional properties decreased as digestibility except for a carbohydrate content increase.

  1. Evaluation of In Vivo Acaricidal Effect of Soap Containing Essential Oil of Chenopodium ambrosioides Leaves on Rhipicephalus lunulatus in the Western Highland of Cameroon

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    Marc K. Kouam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A study on the acaricidal properties of foam soap containing the essential oil of Chenopodium ambrosioides leaves was carried out on Rhipicephalus lunulatus. Four doses (0.03, 0.06, 0.09, and 0.12 µL of essential oil per gram of soap and a control (soap without essential oil with four replications for each treatment were used for in vitro trial. Each replication consisted of 10 ticks in a Petri dish with filter paper impregnated with the foam soap on the bottom. Following in vitro trials, three doses (0.06, 0.09, and 0.12 µL/g and the control in two replications were selected for in vivo test based on mortality rate recorded from the in vitro trial. Each replication was made up of 10 goats naturally infested with ticks. Results show that soap containing essential oil is toxic to R. lunulatus. The in vivo mortality rate in the control on day 8 was 22.69% whereas the highest dose (0.12 µL/g killed 96.29% of the ticks on day 8. The LD50 of the foam soap containing essential oil was 0.037 and 0.059 µL/g on day 2 in the laboratory and on the farm, respectively. This indicates the potentially high efficiency of this medicated soap on this parasite.

  2. Do invasive alien plants really threaten river bank vegetation? A case study based on plant communities typical for Chenopodium ficifolium—An indicator of large river valleys

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    Nowak, Arkadiusz; Rola, Kaja

    2018-01-01

    Riparian zones are very rich in species but subjected to strong anthropogenic changes and extremely prone to alien plant invasions, which are considered to be a serious threat to biodiversity. Our aim was to determine the spatial distribution of Chenopodium ficifolium, a species demonstrating strong confinement to large river valleys in Central Europe and an indicator of annual pioneer nitrophilous vegetation developing on river banks, which are considered to be of importance to the European Community. Additionally, the habitat preferences of the species were analysed. Differences in the richness and abundance of species diagnostic for riverside habitats, as well as the contribution of resident and invasive alien species in vegetation plots along three rivers differing in terms of size and anthropogenic impact were also examined. Finally, the effect of invaders on the phytocoenoses typical for C. ficifolium was assessed. The frequency of C. ficifolium clearly decreased with an increasing distance from the river. Among natural habitats, the species mostly preferred the banks of large rivers. The vegetation plots developing on the banks of the three studied rivers differed in total species richness, the number and cover of resident, diagnostic and invasive alien species, as well as in species composition. Our research indicates that abiotic and anthropogenic factors are the most significant drivers of species richness and plant cover of riverbank vegetation, and invasive alien plants affect this type of vegetation to a small extent. PMID:29543919

  3. Do invasive alien plants really threaten river bank vegetation? A case study based on plant communities typical for Chenopodium ficifolium-An indicator of large river valleys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobis, Agnieszka; Nowak, Arkadiusz; Rola, Kaja

    2018-01-01

    Riparian zones are very rich in species but subjected to strong anthropogenic changes and extremely prone to alien plant invasions, which are considered to be a serious threat to biodiversity. Our aim was to determine the spatial distribution of Chenopodium ficifolium, a species demonstrating strong confinement to large river valleys in Central Europe and an indicator of annual pioneer nitrophilous vegetation developing on river banks, which are considered to be of importance to the European Community. Additionally, the habitat preferences of the species were analysed. Differences in the richness and abundance of species diagnostic for riverside habitats, as well as the contribution of resident and invasive alien species in vegetation plots along three rivers differing in terms of size and anthropogenic impact were also examined. Finally, the effect of invaders on the phytocoenoses typical for C. ficifolium was assessed. The frequency of C. ficifolium clearly decreased with an increasing distance from the river. Among natural habitats, the species mostly preferred the banks of large rivers. The vegetation plots developing on the banks of the three studied rivers differed in total species richness, the number and cover of resident, diagnostic and invasive alien species, as well as in species composition. Our research indicates that abiotic and anthropogenic factors are the most significant drivers of species richness and plant cover of riverbank vegetation, and invasive alien plants affect this type of vegetation to a small extent.

  4. Nutritional and sensory characteristics of gluten-free quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd)-based cookies development using an experimental mixture design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Isabelle L; de Souza, Evandro Leite; Felex, Suênia Samara Santos; Madruga, Marta Suely; Yamashita, Fábio; Magnani, Marciane

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a gluten-free formulation of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.)-based cookies using experimental design of mixture to optimize a ternary mixture of quinoa flour, quinoa flakes and corn starch for parameters of colour, specific volume and hardness. Nutritional and sensory aspects of the optimized formulation were also assessed. Corn starch had a positive effect on the lightness of the cookies, but increased amounts of quinoa flour and quinoa flakes in the mixture resulted in darker product. Quinoa flour showed a negative effect on the specific volume, producing less bulky cookies, and quinoa flour and quinoa flakes had a positive synergistic effect on the hardness of the cookies. According the results and considering the desirability profile for colour, hardness and specific volume in gluten-free cookies, the optimized formulation contains 30 % quinoa flour, 25 % quinoa flakes and 45 % corn starch. The quinoa-based cookie obtained was characterized as a product rich in dietary fibre, a good source of essential amino acids, linolenic acid and minerals, with good sensory acceptability. These findings reports for the first time the application of quinoa processed as flour and flakes in mixture with corn starch as an alternative ingredient for formulations of gluten-free cookies-type biscuits.

  5. Characterization of the genome of a phylogenetically distinct tospovirus and its interactions with the local lesion-induced host Chenopodium quinoa by whole-transcriptome analyses.

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    Chou, Wan-Chen; Lin, Shih-Shun; Yeh, Shyi-Dong; Li, Siang-Ling; Peng, Ying-Che; Fan, Ya-Hsu; Chen, Tsung-Chi

    2017-01-01

    Chenopodium quinoa is a natural local lesion host of numerous plant viruses, including tospoviruses (family Bunyaviridae). Groundnut chlorotic fan-spot tospovirus (GCFSV) has been shown to consistently induce local lesions on the leaves of C. quinoa 4 days post-inoculation (dpi). To reveal the whole genome of GCFSV and its interactions with C. quinoa, RNA-seq was performed to determine the transcriptome profiles of C. quinoa leaves. The high-throughput reads from infected C. quinoa leaves were used to identify the whole genome sequence of GCFSV and its single nucleotide polymorphisms. Our results indicated that GCFSV is a phylogenetically distinct tospovirus. Moreover, 27,170 coding and 29,563 non-coding sequences of C. quinoa were identified through de novo assembly, mixing reads from mock and infected samples. Several key genes involved in the modulation of hypersensitive response (HR) were identified. The expression levels of 4,893 deduced complete genes annotated using the Arabidopsis genome indicated that several HR-related orthologues of pathogenesis-related proteins, transcription factors, mitogen-activated protein kinases, and defense proteins were significantly expressed in leaves that formed local lesions. Here, we also provide new insights into the replication progression of a tospovirus and the molecular regulation of the C. quinoa response to virus infection.

  6. Draft genome sequence of an inbred line of Chenopodium quinoa, an allotetraploid crop with great environmental adaptability and outstanding nutritional properties.

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    Yasui, Yasuo; Hirakawa, Hideki; Oikawa, Tetsuo; Toyoshima, Masami; Matsuzaki, Chiaki; Ueno, Mariko; Mizuno, Nobuyuki; Nagatoshi, Yukari; Imamura, Tomohiro; Miyago, Manami; Tanaka, Kojiro; Mise, Kazuyuki; Tanaka, Tsutomu; Mizukoshi, Hiroharu; Mori, Masashi; Fujita, Yasunari

    2016-12-01

    Chenopodium quinoa Willd. (quinoa) originated from the Andean region of South America, and is a pseudocereal crop of the Amaranthaceae family. Quinoa is emerging as an important crop with the potential to contribute to food security worldwide and is considered to be an optimal food source for astronauts, due to its outstanding nutritional profile and ability to tolerate stressful environments. Furthermore, plant pathologists use quinoa as a representative diagnostic host to identify virus species. However, molecular analysis of quinoa is limited by its genetic heterogeneity due to outcrossing and its genome complexity derived from allotetraploidy. To overcome these obstacles, we established the inbred and standard quinoa accession Kd that enables rigorous molecular analysis, and presented the draft genome sequence of Kd, using an optimized combination of high-throughput next generation sequencing on the Illumina Hiseq 2500 and PacBio RS II sequencers. The de novo genome assembly contained 25 k scaffolds consisting of 1 Gbp with N50 length of 86 kbp. Based on these data, we constructed the free-access Quinoa Genome DataBase (QGDB). Thus, these findings provide insights into the mechanisms underlying agronomically important traits of quinoa and the effect of allotetraploidy on genome evolution. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Kazusa DNA Research Institute.

  7. Genome-Wide Characterization of Heat-Shock Protein 70s from Chenopodium quinoa and Expression Analyses of Cqhsp70s in Response to Drought Stress.

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    Liu, Jianxia; Wang, Runmei; Liu, Wenying; Zhang, Hongli; Guo, Yaodong; Wen, Riyu

    2018-01-23

    Heat-shock proteins (HSPs) are ubiquitous proteins with important roles in response to biotic and abiotic stress. The 70-kDa heat-shock genes ( Hsp70s ) encode a group of conserved chaperone proteins that play central roles in cellular networks of molecular chaperones and folding catalysts across all the studied organisms including bacteria, plants and animals. Several Hsp70s involved in drought tolerance have been well characterized in various plants, whereas no research on Chenopodium quinoa HSPs has been completed. Here, we analyzed the genome of C. quinoa and identified sixteen Hsp70 members in quinoa genome. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the independent origination of those Hsp70 members, with eight paralogous pairs comprising the Hsp70 family in quinoa. While the gene structure and motif analysis showed high conservation of those paralogous pairs, the synteny analysis of those paralogous pairs provided evidence for expansion coming from the polyploidy event. With several subcellular localization signals detected in CqHSP70 protein paralogous pairs, some of the paralogous proteins lost the localization information, indicating the diversity of both subcellular localizations and potential functionalities of those HSP70s. Further gene expression analyses revealed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analysis illustrated the significant variations of Cqhsp70s in response to drought stress. In conclusion, the sixteen Cqhsp70 s undergo lineage-specific expansions and might play important and varied roles in response to drought stress.

  8. Differential Activity of Plasma and Vacuolar Membrane Transporters Contributes to Genotypic Differences in Salinity Tolerance in a Halophyte Species, Chenopodium quinoa

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    Edgar Bonales-Alatorre

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Halophytes species can be used as a highly convenient model system to reveal key ionic and molecular mechanisms that confer salinity tolerance in plants. Earlier, we reported that quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd., a facultative C3 halophyte species, can efficiently control the activity of slow (SV and fast (FV tonoplast channels to match specific growth conditions by ensuring that most of accumulated Na+ is safely locked in the vacuole (Bonales-Alatorre et al. (2013 Plant Physiology. This work extends these finding by comparing the properties of tonoplast FV and SV channels in two quinoa genotypes contrasting in their salinity tolerance. The work is complemented by studies of the kinetics of net ion fluxes across the plasma membrane of quinoa leaf mesophyll tissue. Our results suggest that multiple mechanisms contribute towards genotypic differences in salinity tolerance in quinoa. These include: (i a higher rate of Na+ exclusion from leaf mesophyll; (ii maintenance of low cytosolic Na+ levels; (iii better K+ retention in the leaf mesophyll; (iv a high rate of H+ pumping, which increases the ability of mesophyll cells to restore their membrane potential; and (v the ability to reduce the activity of SV and FV channels under saline conditions. These mechanisms appear to be highly orchestrated, thus enabling the remarkable overall salinity tolerance of quinoa species.

  9. Effect of extraction pH on heat-induced aggregation, gelation and microstructure of protein isolate from quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Geraldine Avila; Xiao, Wukai; van Boekel, Martinus; Minor, Marcel; Stieger, Markus

    2016-10-15

    The aim of this study was to determine the influence of extraction pH on heat-induced aggregation, gelation and microstructure of suspensions of protein isolates extracted from quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd). Quinoa seed protein was extracted by alkaline treatment at various pH values (pH 8 (E8), 9 (E9), 10 (E10) and 11 (E11)), followed by acid precipitation. The obtained protein isolates were freeze dried. The protein isolates E8 and E9 resulted in a lower protein yield as well as less protein denaturation. These isolates also had a higher protein purity, more protein bands at higher molecular weights, and a higher protein solubility in the pH range of 3-4.5, compared to the isolates E10 and E11. Heating the 10%w/w protein isolate suspensions E8 and E9 led to increased aggregation, and semi-solid gels with a dense microstructure were formed. The isolate suspensions E10 and E11, on the other hand, aggregated less, did not form self-supporting gels and had loose particle arrangements. We conclude that extraction pH plays an important role in determining the functionality of quinoa protein isolates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Differential activity of plasma and vacuolar membrane transporters contributes to genotypic differences in salinity tolerance in a Halophyte Species, Chenopodium quinoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonales-Alatorre, Edgar; Pottosin, Igor; Shabala, Lana; Chen, Zhong-Hua; Zeng, Fanrong; Jacobsen, Sven-Erik; Shabala, Sergey

    2013-04-29

    Halophytes species can be used as a highly convenient model system to reveal key ionic and molecular mechanisms that confer salinity tolerance in plants. Earlier, we reported that quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.), a facultative C3 halophyte species, can efficiently control the activity of slow (SV) and fast (FV) tonoplast channels to match specific growth conditions by ensuring that most of accumulated Na+ is safely locked in the vacuole (Bonales-Alatorre et al. (2013) Plant Physiology). This work extends these finding by comparing the properties of tonoplast FV and SV channels in two quinoa genotypes contrasting in their salinity tolerance. The work is complemented by studies of the kinetics of net ion fluxes across the plasma membrane of quinoa leaf mesophyll tissue. Our results suggest that multiple mechanisms contribute towards genotypic differences in salinity tolerance in quinoa. These include: (i) a higher rate of Na+ exclusion from leaf mesophyll; (ii) maintenance of low cytosolic Na+ levels; (iii) better K+ retention in the leaf mesophyll; (iv) a high rate of H+ pumping, which increases the ability of mesophyll cells to restore their membrane potential; and (v) the ability to reduce the activity of SV and FV channels under saline conditions. These mechanisms appear to be highly orchestrated, thus enabling the remarkable overall salinity tolerance of quinoa species.

  11. Anti-inflammatory activity of saponins from quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) seeds in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages cells.

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    Yao, Yang; Yang, Xiushi; Shi, Zhenxing; Ren, Guixing

    2014-05-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is a pseudocereal from South Americas that has received increased interest around the world because it is a good source of different nutrients and rich in saponins. However, the saponins in quinoa seeds planted in China were poorly known. We obtained 4 quinoa saponin fractions, Q30, Q50, Q70, and Q90, and 11 saponins were determined by HPLC-MS. Q50 possessed 8 individual saponins and had the highest content of saponins. We further evaluated the anti-inflammatory activity on RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cells of the 4 fractions. The 4 fractions not only dose-dependently decreased the production of inflammatory mediators NO but also inhibited the release of inflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 in lipopolysaccharide-induced RAW264.7 cells. These results suggest that quinoa saponins may be used as functional food components for prevention and treatment of inflammation. Our findings demonstrate that saponins from the quinoa have the potential to anti-inflammation by suppressing the release of inflammatory cytokines. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  12. Influence of pH on the /sup 14/C-labelling pattern after photosynthesis of suspended leaf slices and isolated mesophyll cells from chenopodium album in NaH/sup 14/CO/sub 3/

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    Baumann, G; Guenther, G [Paedagogische Hochschule Karl Liebknecht, Potsdam (German Democratic Republic). Sektion Chemie/Biologie

    1983-01-01

    Photosynthetic fixation of /sup 14/C from solutions of NaH/sup 14/CO/sub 3/ (at constant concentrations of free CO/sub 2/) by suspended leaf slices or isolated mesophyll cells from Chenopodium album is increased with increasing pH. Above all, the incorporation of radioactivity into amino acids and malate is stimulated. A direct uptake of HCO/sub 3/ ions and its fixation by PEP carboxylase is suggested. Isolated mesophyll cells showed at pH 7.3 a higher rate of photosynthesis than at pH 5.0.

  13. In Vitro Bioactivity of Methanolic Extracts from Amphipterygium adstringens (Schltdl.) Schiede ex Standl., Chenopodium ambrosioides L., Cirsium mexicanum DC., Eryngium carlinae F. Delaroche, and Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth. Used in Traditional Medicine in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Knauth, Peter; Acevedo-Hernández, Gustavo J.; Cano, M. Eduardo; Gutiérrez-Lomelí, Melesio; López, Zaira

    2018-01-01

    Seven out of eight methanolic extracts from five plants native to Mexico were inactive against ten bacterial strains of clinical interest. The fruit extract of Chenopodium ambrosioides inhibited the bacteria Enterococcus faecalis (MIC = 4375 μg/ml), Escherichia coli (MIC = 1094 μg/ml), and Salmonella typhimurium (MIC = 137 μg/ml). The fruit extract of C. ambrosioides was with CC50 = 45 μg/ml most cytotoxic against the cell-line Caco-2, followed by the leaf extract from Pithecellobium dulce (C...

  14. Construction of a Recombinant Allergen-Producing Probiotic Bacterial Strain: Introduction of a New Line for a Live Oral Vaccine Against Chenopodium album Pollen Allergy

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    Leila Roozbeh Nasiraie

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: During the last two decades, significant advances have been made in the fields of lactococcal genetics and protein expression. Lactococcus lactis (L. lactis is an effective vector for protein expression and can be used as an antigen delivery system. Hence, L. lactis is an ideal candidate for mucosal immunotherapy. Profilin (Che a 2, the major allergen in Chenopodium album, is one of the most important causes of allergic diseases in desert and semi-desert areas, especially in Iran, Saudi Arabia, and Kuwait that was cloned and expressed in L. lactis for the first time. Methods: To construct L. lactis that expressed Che a 2, a DNA sequence was cloned and used to transform bacteria. Expression of Che a 2 was analyzed via monitoring of related RNA and protein. Hydrophobicity, adherence to HT-29 cells, antibiotic resistance, resistance to gastrointestinal contents, pH, and bile salt in recombinant and native L. lactis were evaluated. Results: Immunoblot analyses demonstrated that recombinant Che a 2 is expressed as a 32 kDa dimeric protein immunological studies showed it can bind human IgE. Both native and recombinant bacteria were sensitive to low pH and simulated gastric conditions. Bacterial survival was reduced 80-100% after 2 h of exposure to pH 1.5-2. Both native and recombinant bacteria were able to grow in 0.3 and 2% bile salts. After incubation of recombinant L. lactis in simulated gastric and intestinal juices for one and two hours, respectively, cell survival was reduced by 100%. Adhesion capability in both strains was minimal and there were no significant differences in any of our tests between native and recombinant bacteria. Conclusion: Successfully recombinant L. lactis with capability of expression Che a 2 was produced and revealed it is sensitive to gastrointestinal contents.

  15. Potential role of meflquine (antimalarial drug and methanol extract of Chenopodium ambrosioides and Sesbania sesban in mice infected with Schistosoma mansoni

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    Mohamed Abdel-Wahab El-Emam

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To elucidate the efficacy of mefloquine and methanol extract of the plants Chenopodium ambrosioides (C. ambrosioides and Sesbania sesban (S. sesban as a combined therapy for the treatment of Schistosoma mansoni (S. mansoni infected mice, and study the parasitological, biochemical and histological parameters of treated mice. Methods: Two groups of male Swiss Albino mice were infected with S. mansoni cercariae. The first group untreated served as control. The second group was orally treated with a single dose (200 mg/kg of mefloquine 3 weeks post infection, then subsequently divided into 2 subgroups; the first orally retreated with the plant extracts 1 000 mg/kg of S. sesban followed by 1 250 mg/kg of C. ambrosioides with an 1 h interval, for 2 successive days. The second sub-group was re-treated with the same (dose and method plant extracts after 7 weeks post infection. Results: The results showed that S. mansoni infected mice treated with mefloquine and the plants’ extracts 3 weeks post infection significantly (P < 0.01 reduced the worm burden/ mouse by 95.5% and the few worms recovered from sacrificed mice in this treatment failed to lay ova. Moreover, no worms were recovered from infected mice treated with mefloquine (3 weeks post infection and re-treated by the plant’s extracts at 7 weeks post infection. Also, treatment of infected mice with mefloquine followed by the plants’ extracts either at 3 or 7 weeks post infection ameliorated the activities of the serum enzymes alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkline phosphatase and acid phosphatase as well as the hepatic granulomatous lesions compared to infected untreated group. Conclusions: It is concluded that successive treatment of S. mansoni infected mice with mefloquine and methanol extract of the plants C. ambrosioides and S. sesban could be a promising device in the strategy of schistosomiasis control.

  16. Bocadito con alto contenido proteico: un extruido a partir de quinua (Chenopodium quinoa Willd., tarwi (Lupinus mutabilis Sweet y camote (Ipomoea batatas L.

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    Katherine Pérez Ramos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available La presente investigación tuvo como objetivo la elaboración de un bocadito extruido de elevado tenor proteico, a partir de quinua ( Chenopodium quinoa Willd., tarwi ( Lupinus mutabilis Sweet y fécula de camote ( Ipomoea batatas L.. Para su formulación se aplicó el método de diseño de mezclas usando la herramienta computacional - estadíst ica Design Expert® versión 7.0, siendo las variables independientes las harinas de quinua, tarwi y fécula de camote; y las variables dependientes el contenido de proteína, índice de expansión, densidad aparente y dureza de los extruidos. La formulación ópt ima se determinó aplicando la prueba de deseabilidad basada en los modelos de regresión ajustado, dicha formulación se obtuvo maximizando el contenido de proteína e índice de expansión; y minimizando la dureza y densidad aparente de los extruidos. La formu lación óptima tuvo un porcentaje de quinua, tarwi y fécula de camote de 57%, 26% y 17 % respectivamente. El análisis fisicoquímico de la fórmula óptima dio como resultado 20,16% de proteína, 2,19 de índice de expansión, 0,220 g/cm 3 densidad aparente y 9,31 N de dureza. La calidad proteica de la formulación óptima fue determinada mediante los ensayos de digestibilidad verdadera y valor biológico verdadero en ratas, obteniéndose 83,5% y 62,9% respectivamente.

  17. Determinación de características físicas en semillas de quinua (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. mediante procesamiento digital de imágenes

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    Percy Arapa Carcasi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Las propiedades físicas de las semillas influencian parámetros de trabajo en los equipos y son esenciales para el diseño de estos y de instalaciones para la recolección, cosecha, transporte, separación, secado, aireación, almacenamiento y procesamiento. En la determinación de propiedades físicas algunas dependen o se originan de las dimensiones ortogonales. Los granos o semillas de quinua (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. se caracterizan por su pequeño tamaño. El propósito de este trabajo fue determinar características físicas en semillas de quinua mediante procesamiento digital de imágenes. Se usaron computadoras, cámaras digitales y un escáner. Se utilizaron dos muestras de quinua procesada. Con la primera muestra se ensayaron los programas PHOTO-PAINT, Photoshop, Paint, SmartGrain y GrainScan para comparación. Con Photoshop se determinó el color en porción de granos y de harina. Con la segunda muestra se midieron dimensiones con PHOTO-PAINT, que no ofreció diferencias con Photoshop y Paint, para la determinación de las características físicas. Hubo diferencias estadísticas significativas (p 0,05 entre los programas (PHOTO-PAINT, SmartGrain y GrainScan. Los valores de las coordenadas colorimétricas en la muestra de semillas de quinua fueron L* 70, a* 8 y b* 44 y en la harina L* 71, a* 3 y b* 34. La segunda muestra presentó valores promedios de largo 2,3638; ancho 2,0129 y espesor 1,0605 mm.

  18. Elevated genetic diversity in an F2:6 population of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa developed through an inter-ecotype cross

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    Ouafae Benlhabib

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa is a seed crop of the Andean highlands and Araucanian coastal regions of South America that has recently expanded in use and production beyond its native range. This is largely due its superb nutritional value, consisting of protein that is rich in essential amino acids along with vitamins and minerals. Quinoa also presents a remarkable degree of tolerance to saline conditions, drought, and frost. The present study involved 72 F2:6 recombinant inbred lines (RIL and parents developed through hybridization between highland (0654 and coastal (NL-6 germplasm groups. The purpose was to characterize the quinoa germplasm developed, to assess the discriminating potential of 21 agro-morpho phenological traits, and to evaluate the extent of genetic variability recovered through selfing. A vast amount of genetic variation was detected among the 72 lines evaluated for quantitative and qualitative traits. Impressive transgressive segregation was measured for seed yield (22.42 g/plant, while plant height and maturity had higher heritabilities (73 and 89%, respectively. Other notable characters segregating in the population included panicle and stem color, panicle form, and resistance to downy mildew. In the Principal Component analysis, the first axis explained 74% of the total variation and was correlated to plant height, panicle size, stem diameter, biomass, mildew reaction, maturation, and seed yield; those traits are relevant discriminatory characters. Yield correlated positively with panicle length and biomass. UPGMA based cluster analysis identified three groups: one consisting of late, mildew-resistant, high yielding lines; one having semi-late lines with intermediate yield and mildew susceptibility; and a third cluster consisting of early to semi-late accessions with low yield and mildew susceptibility. This study highlighted the extended diversity regenerated among the 72 accessions and helped to identify potentially

  19. Low-temperature effect on enzyme activities involved in sucrose-starch partitioning in salt-stressed and salt-acclimated cotyledons of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Mariana; Hilal, Mirna; González, Juan A; Prado, Fernando E

    2009-04-01

    The effect of low temperature on growth, sucrose-starch partitioning and related enzymes in salt-stressed and salt-acclimated cotyledons of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) was studied. The growth of cotyledons and growing axes in seedlings grown at 25/20 degrees C (light/dark) and shifted to 5/5 degrees C was lower than in those only growing at 25/20 degrees C (unstressed). However, there were no significant differences between low-temperature control and salt-treated seedlings. The higher activities of sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS, EC 2.4.1.14) and soluble acid invertase (acid INV, EC 3.2.1.25) were observed in salt-stressed cotyledons; however, the highest acid INV activity was observed in unstressed cotyledons. ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (ADP-GPPase, EC 2.7.7.27) was higher in unstressed cotyledons than in stressed ones. However, between 0 and 4days the highest value was observed in salt-stressed cotyledons. The lowest value of ADP-GPPase was observed in salt-acclimated cotyledons. Low temperature also affected sucrose synthase (SuSy, EC 2.4.1.13) activity in salt-treated cotyledons. Sucrose and glucose were higher in salt-stressed cotyledons, but fructose was essentially higher in low-temperature control. Starch was higher in low-temperature control; however, the highest content was observed at 0day in salt-acclimated cotyledons. Results demonstrated that low temperature induces different responses on sucrose-starch partitioning in salt-stressed and salt-acclimated cotyledons. Data also suggest that in salt-treated cotyledons source-sink relations (SSR) are changed in order to supply soluble sugars and proline for the osmotic adjustment. Relationships between starch formation and SuSy activity are also discussed.

  20. Ricinosomes provide an early indicator of suspensor and endosperm cells destined to die during late seed development in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Fernández, M P; Maldonado, S

    2013-11-01

    In mature quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) seeds, the lasting endosperm forms a micropylar cone covering the radicle. The suspensor cells lie within the centre of the cone. During the final stage of seed development, the cells of the lasting endosperm accumulate protein and lipids while the rest are crushed and disintegrated. Both the suspensor and endosperm die progressively from the innermost layers surrounding the embryo and extending towards the nucellar tissue. Ricinosomes are endoplasmic reticulum-derived organelles that accumulate both the pro-form and the mature form of cysteine endopeptidase (Cys-EP), first identified in castor bean (Ricinus communis) endosperm during germination. This study sought to identify associations between the presence of ricinosomes and programmed cell death (PCD) hallmarks in suspensor and endosperm cells predestined to die during quinoa seed development. A structural study using light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy was performed. To detect the presence of Cys-EP, both western blot and in situ immunolocalization assays were carried out using anti-R. communis Cys-EP antibody. A TUNEL assay was used to determine DNA fragmentation. Except for the one or two cell layers that constitute the lasting endosperm in the mature seed, ricinosomes were found in suspensor and endosperm cells. These cells were also the site of morphological abnormalities, including misshapen and fragmented nuclei, vesiculation of the cytosol, vacuole collapse and cell wall disorganization. It is proposed that, in suspensor and endosperm cells, the early detection of Cys-EP in ricinosomes predicts the occurrence of PCD during late seed development.

  1. Variation in salinity tolerance of four lowland genotypes of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) as assessed by growth, physiological traits, and sodium transporter gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Carrasco, Karina; Antognoni, Fabiana; Coulibaly, Amadou Konotie; Lizardi, Susana; Covarrubias, Adriana; Martínez, Enrique A; Molina-Montenegro, Marco A; Biondi, Stefania; Zurita-Silva, Andrés

    2011-11-01

    Chenopodium quinoa (Willd.) is an Andean plant showing a remarkable tolerance to abiotic stresses. In Chile, quinoa populations display a high degree of genetic distancing, and variable tolerance to salinity. To investigate which tolerance mechanisms might account for these differences, four genotypes from coastal central and southern regions were compared for their growth, physiological, and molecular responses to NaCl at seedling stage. Seeds were sown on agar plates supplemented with 0, 150 or 300mM NaCl. Germination was significantly reduced by NaCl only in accession BO78. Shoot length was reduced by 150mM NaCl in three out of four genotypes, and by over 60% at 300mM (except BO78 which remained more similar to controls). Root length was hardly affected or even enhanced at 150mM in all four genotypes, but inhibited, especially in BO78, by 300mM NaCl. Thus, the root/shoot ratio was differentially affected by salt, with the highest values in PRJ, and the lowest in BO78. Biomass was also less affected in PRJ than in the other accessions, the genotype with the highest increment in proline concentration upon salt treatment. Free putrescine declined dramatically in all genotypes under 300mM NaCl; however (spermidine+spermine)/putrescine ratios were higher in PRJ than BO78. Quantitative RT-PCR analyses of two sodium transporter genes, CqSOS1 and CqNHX, revealed that their expression was differentially induced at the shoot and root level, and between genotypes, by 300mM NaCl. Expression data are discussed in relation to the degree of salt tolerance in the different accessions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Elevated Genetic Diversity in an F2:6 Population of Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) Developed through an Inter-ecotype Cross.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benlhabib, Ouafae; Boujartani, Noura; Maughan, Peter J; Jacobsen, Sven E; Jellen, Eric N

    2016-01-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) is a seed crop of the Andean highlands and Araucanian coastal regions of South America that has recently expanded in use and production beyond its native range. This is largely due to its superb nutritional value, consisting of protein that is rich in essential amino acids along with vitamins and minerals. Quinoa also presents a remarkable degree of tolerance to saline conditions, drought, and frost. The present study involved 72 F2:6 recombinant-inbred lines and parents developed through hybridization between highland (0654) and coastal (NL-6) germplasm groups. The purpose was to characterize the quinoa germplasm developed, to assess the discriminating potential of 21 agro-morpho-phenological traits, and to evaluate the extent of genetic variability recovered through selfing. A vast amount of genetic variation was detected among the 72 lines evaluated for quantitative and qualitative traits. Impressive transgressive segregation was measured for seed yield (22.42 g/plant), while plant height and maturity had higher heritabilities (73 and 89%, respectively). Other notable characters segregating in the population included panicle and stem color, panicle form, and resistance to downy mildew. In the Principal Component analysis, the first axis explained 74% of the total variation and was correlated to plant height, panicle size, stem diameter, biomass, mildew reaction, maturation, and seed yield; those traits are relevant discriminatory characters. Yield correlated positively with panicle length and biomass. Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean-based cluster analysis identified three groups: one consisting of late, mildew-resistant, high-yielding lines; one having semi-late lines with intermediate yield and mildew susceptibility; and a third cluster consisting of early to semi-late accessions with low yield and mildew susceptibility. This study highlighted the extended diversity regenerated among the 72 accessions and helped to

  3. Eficácia de Chenopodium ambrosioides (erva-de-santa-maria no controle de endoparasitos de Gallus gallus (galinha caipira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmar F. Vita

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A pesquisa foi desenvolvida no Laboratório de Zoologia da Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro e Setor de Parasitologia Animal da Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro, estado do Rio de Janeiro, no período de 2011 a 2012. O objetivo foi testar in vitro e in vivo a eficácia da planta medicinal Chenopodium ambrosioides Linnaeus, 1786 (erva-de-santa-maria, nas formas fitoterápica e homeopática, como meios alternativos para o controle de endoparasitos de Gallus gallus Linnaeus, 1758 (galinha caipira, um sério problema que afeta a criação e desempenho de aves domésticas, ocasionando morte quando muito intenso, retardo de crescimento, redução do índice de conversão alimentar e aumento na suscetibilidade às doenças infecciosas. As metodologias utilizadas foram preconizadas por Coles et al. (1992, creditada pela World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (WAAVP. O ensaio in vitro demonstrou alta taxa de redução na inibição de eclosão de ovos (97,18%, e o ensaio in vivo, elevada taxa na redução da contagem de ovos nas fezes (91,67%. A pesquisa evidenciou a presença dos gêneros Ascaridia (35,00%, Capillaria (30,00%, Heterakis (25,00% e Strongyloides (10,00%. C. ambrosioides mostrou em certos momentos superioridade frente ao produto tradicional (Thiabendazole/Mebendazole e índices superiores aos preconizados pelo Ministério da Agricultura do Brasil e Organização Mundial da Saúde como indicativos de eficácia.

  4. Resistance to Plum pox virus strain C in Arabidopsis thaliana and Chenopodium foetidum involves genome-linked viral protein and other viral determinants and might depend on compatibility with host translation initiation factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, María; Martínez-Turiño, Sandra; García, Juan Antonio

    2014-11-01

    Research performed on model herbaceous hosts has been useful to unravel the molecular mechanisms that control viral infections. The most common Plum pox virus (PPV) strains are able to infect Nicotiana species as well as Chenopodium and Arabidopsis species. However, isolates belonging to strain C (PPV-C) that have been adapted to Nicotiana spp. are not infectious either in Chenopodium foetidum or in Arabidopsis thaliana. In order to determine the mechanism underlying this interesting host-specific behavior, we have constructed chimerical clones derived from Nicotiana-adapted PPV isolates from the D and C strains, which differ in their capacity to infect A. thaliana and C. foetidum. With this approach, we have identified the nuclear inclusion a protein (VPg+Pro) as the major pathogenicity determinant that conditions resistance in the presence of additional secondary determinants, different for each host. Genome-linked viral protein (VPg) mutations similar to those involved in the breakdown of eIF4E-mediated resistance to other potyviruses allow some PPV chimeras to infect A. thaliana. These results point to defective interactions between a translation initiation factor and the viral VPg as the most probable cause of host-specific incompatibility, in which other viral factors also participate, and suggest that complex interactions between multiple viral proteins and translation initiation factors not only define resistance to potyviruses in particular varieties of susceptible hosts but also contribute to establish nonhost resistance.

  5. Selection of mutants of Chenopodium quinoa Willd. in the generation M{sub 2}, quantification of saponins on the Islunga and Barandales varieties adapted to the Toluca Valley; Seleccion de mutantes de Chenopodium quinoa Willd. en la generacion M{sub 2}, cuantificacion de saponinas en las variedades Isluga y Barandales adaptadas al Valle de Toluca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez V, S O

    1997-12-31

    The saponins and total lipids was measured in the variants of Barandales and Isluga of Chenopodium quinoa Willd and the mutants of both variants in the M{sub 2} lineage. These two variants were gamma radiated at different levels: 0, 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, 350, 400 and 500 Gy in the M1 generation. At the same time the mutants with favorable agronomic characteristics were selected. The samples were growth on the field (cultivated) and the seeds were recovered (harvested), measuring the emergence agronomic variables, plant height, density and seed yield. Lipids totals and saponins were measured in the seeds. The samples of radiated seeds with gamma-ray at different levels, were dried and grinded until to obtain a powder. The lipids was extracted with diethyl-ether, and in this solution was measured the total lipid content. The saponins were extracted in a later step, concentrated and precipitated. After the precipitation step the sapogenins were hydrolized and extracted with methyl alcohol. The extracts were centifugated and the solid material was dried and weighted. Finally, the measurement of the oleanolic acid was carried out by high pressure liquid chromatography. One conversion factor permits to relate this acid with the total saponin content. (Author).

  6. Influence of natural and synthetic vitamin C (ascorbic acid) on primary and secondary metabolites and associated metabolism in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) plants under water deficit regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Aniqa; Akram, Nudrat Aisha; Ashraf, Muhammad

    2018-02-01

    Phytoextracts are being widely used these days as a source of bioactive compounds for mitigating the harmful effects of abiotic stresses including drought stress. In this study, it was assessed how far foliar applied pure synthetic ascorbic acid (AsA) or natural sweet orange juice (OJ) enriched with AsA could mitigate the drought stress induced adverse effects on growth and some key metabolic processes in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.; cultivar V 9 ) plants. Two weeks old quinoa seedlings were subjected to varying irrigation regimes as control [100% field capacity (FC)] and drought stress (60% FC, 40% FC and 20% FC). After one month of water deficit treatments, various levels of ascorbic acid (150 mg L -1 AsA or 25% OJ) besides control [distilled water (DW) and no spray (NS)] were applied as a foliar spray. After 15 days of AsA application, different physio-biochemical attributes were measured. The results showed that water deficit markedly decreased plant growth, relative water content (RWC), photosynthetic rate, total carotenoids (CAR) and total flavonoids, while it increased relative membrane permeability (RMP), intrinsic AsA content, hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ), malondialdehyde (MDA), glycinebetaine (GB), total phenolics, total soluble proteins (TSP), total free amino acids, activities of key antioxidant enzymes [superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD)], total soluble sugars (TSS), reducing (RS) and non-reducing sugars (NRS). Most obvious results of most of these parameters were observed at 40% and 20% FC. Foliar-applied pure 150 mg L -1 AsA and 25% OJ were found to be very effective in improving plant growth, RMP, photosynthetic rate, CAR, proline, AsA, MDA, GB, TSP, free amino acids, SOD, POD, TSS, RS, NRS and total flavonoids. It was noticed that 25% OJ enriched with AsA and other essential nutrients and biomolecules was as efficient as 150 mg L -1 AsA in reducing the adverse effects of drought stress on quinoa plants. So, it was concluded

  7. Rapid regulation of the plasma membrane H⁺-ATPase activity is essential to salinity tolerance in two halophyte species, Atriplex lentiformis and Chenopodium quinoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Jayakumar; Rodrigo-Moreno, Ana; Lai, Diwen; Xie, Yanjie; Shen, Wenbiao; Shabala, Sergey

    2015-02-01

    The activity of H(+)-ATPase is essential for energizing the plasma membrane. It provides the driving force for potassium retention and uptake through voltage-gated channels and for Na(+) exclusion via Na(+)/H(+) exchangers. Both of these traits are central to plant salinity tolerance; however, whether the increased activity of H(+)-ATPase is a constitutive trait in halophyte species and whether this activity is upregulated at either the transcriptional or post-translation level remain disputed. The kinetics of salt-induced net H(+), Na(+) and K(+) fluxes, membrane potential and AHA1/2/3 expression changes in the roots of two halophyte species, Atriplex lentiformis (saltbush) and Chenopodium quinoa (quinoa), were compared with data obtained from Arabidopsis thaliana roots. Intrinsic (steady-state) membrane potential values were more negative in A. lentiformis and C. quinoa compared with arabidopsis (-144 ± 3·3, -138 ± 5·4 and -128 ± 3·3 mV, respectively). Treatment with 100 mm NaCl depolarized the root plasma membrane, an effect that was much stronger in arabidopsis. The extent of plasma membrane depolarization positively correlated with NaCl-induced stimulation of vanadate-sensitive H(+) efflux, Na(+) efflux and K(+) retention in roots (quinoa > saltbush > arabidopsis). NaCl-induced stimulation of H(+) efflux was most pronounced in the root elongation zone. In contrast, H(+)-ATPase AHA transcript levels were much higher in arabidopsis compared with quinoa plants, and 100 mm NaCl treatment led to a further 3-fold increase in AHA1 and AHA2 transcripts in arabidopsis but not in quinoa. Enhanced salinity tolerance in the halophyte species studied here is not related to the constitutively higher AHA transcript levels in the root epidermis, but to the plant's ability to rapidly upregulate plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase upon salinity treatment. This is necessary for assisting plants to maintain highly negative membrane potential values and to

  8. Rapid regulation of the plasma membrane H+-ATPase activity is essential to salinity tolerance in two halophyte species, Atriplex lentiformis and Chenopodium quinoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Jayakumar; Rodrigo-Moreno, Ana; Lai, Diwen; Xie, Yanjie; Shen, Wenbiao; Shabala, Sergey

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims The activity of H+-ATPase is essential for energizing the plasma membrane. It provides the driving force for potassium retention and uptake through voltage-gated channels and for Na+ exclusion via Na+/H+ exchangers. Both of these traits are central to plant salinity tolerance; however, whether the increased activity of H+-ATPase is a constitutive trait in halophyte species and whether this activity is upregulated at either the transcriptional or post-translation level remain disputed. Methods The kinetics of salt-induced net H+, Na+ and K+ fluxes, membrane potential and AHA1/2/3 expression changes in the roots of two halophyte species, Atriplex lentiformis (saltbush) and Chenopodium quinoa (quinoa), were compared with data obtained from Arabidopsis thaliana roots. Key Results Intrinsic (steady-state) membrane potential values were more negative in A. lentiformis and C. quinoa compared with arabidopsis (−144 ± 3·3, −138 ± 5·4 and −128 ± 3·3 mV, respectively). Treatment with 100 mm NaCl depolarized the root plasma membrane, an effect that was much stronger in arabidopsis. The extent of plasma membrane depolarization positively correlated with NaCl-induced stimulation of vanadate-sensitive H+ efflux, Na+ efflux and K+ retention in roots (quinoa > saltbush > arabidopsis). NaCl-induced stimulation of H+ efflux was most pronounced in the root elongation zone. In contrast, H+-ATPase AHA transcript levels were much higher in arabidopsis compared with quinoa plants, and 100 mm NaCl treatment led to a further 3-fold increase in AHA1 and AHA2 transcripts in arabidopsis but not in quinoa. Conclusions Enhanced salinity tolerance in the halophyte species studied here is not related to the constitutively higher AHA transcript levels in the root epidermis, but to the plant’s ability to rapidly upregulate plasma membrane H+-ATPase upon salinity treatment. This is necessary for assisting plants to maintain highly negative

  9. 7 CFR 201.56-1 - Goosefoot family, Chenopodiaceae, and Carpetweed family, Aizoaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Germination Tests in the Administration... seed: Beet, Swiss chard, fourwing saltbush, spinach, New Zealand spinach, and forage kochia. (a) General description. (1) Germination habit: Epigeal dicot. (2) Food reserves: Leaf-like cotyledons and...

  10. Preference of Quinoa Moth: Eurysacca Melanocampta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae for Two Varieties of Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. in Olfactometry Assays Preferencia de la Polilla de la Quinua: Eurysacca melanocampta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae por dos Variedades de Quinua (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. en Ensayos de Olfatometría

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan  F Costa

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Insects are attracted to plants by visual and olfactory cues. The quinoa moth, Eurysacca melanocampta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae, is the main insect pest of the quinoa crop, Chenopodium quinoa Willd. (Chenopodiales: Chenopodiaceae, in the southern Peruvian Andes, causing grain yield losses. The aim of this study was to investigate the behavioural response of adult quinoa moths to olfactory stimuli. Specifically, the objectives of this study were: 1 to determine the capacity of E. melanocampta adults of searching for quinoa plants using plant olfactory cues; 2 to determine the preference of E. melanocampta females for the odours derived from two varieties of quinoa: Amarilla de Marangani and Blanca de Junín; and 3 to assess the attraction of male quinoa moths to E. melanocampta females and the host plant in olfactometric bioassays. Adults preferred quinoa plant odour sources in choice tests when distilled water was used as a control (P La atracción de insectos hacia las plantas es causada tanto por estímulos visuales como olfativos. La polilla de la quinua, Eurysacca melanocampta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae, es la principal plaga en el cultivo de quinua, Chenopodium quinoa Willd. (Chenopodiales: Chenopodiaceae, en los Andes del sur peruano causando pérdidas en la producción de granos. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar las respuestas conductuales frente a estímulos olfativos de adultos de la polilla de la quinua. Específicamente, los objetivos del estudio fueron: 1 estudiar la capacidad de búsqueda de plantas de quinua de los adultos de E. melanocampta utilizando plantas como estímulos olfativos; 2 determinar la preferencia de hembras de E. melanocampta por olores derivados de plantas de dos variedades de quinua: Amarilla de Marangani y Blanca de Junín; y 3 estudiar la atracción de los machos hacia hembras de E. melanocampta y hacia las plantas hospederas en bioensayos de olfatometría. Los adultos eligieron fuentes

  11. Efecto del germinado y extrusión sobre el contenido de aminoácidos de la cañihua (Chenopodium pallidicaule Aellen) y Elaboración de Donas

    OpenAIRE

    Huanatico Suarez, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    El presente trabajo de investigación se realizó con el objetivo de evaluar el efecto del germinado y extrusión sobre los aminoácidos de la cañihua (Chenopodium pallidicaule Aellen) de la variedad cupi y su elaboración de donas; estudio que se efectuó en tres fases, germinación, cocción-extrusión y elaboración de donas. Se planteó tres tratamientos para la germinación 48, 72 y 96 horas a 20°C, resultando el tiempo ideal 96 horas con 17,7% de contenido proteico. En cuanto a sus aminoácidos esen...

  12. Cuticular uptake of xenobiotics into living plants. Part 2: influence of the xenobiotic dose on the uptake of bentazone, epoxiconazole and pyraclostrobin, applied in the presence of various surfactants, into Chenopodium album, Sinapis alba and Triticum aestivum leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, W Alison; Zabkiewicz, Jerzy A; Liu, Zhiqian

    2006-07-01

    This study has determined the uptake of three pesticides, applied as commercial or model formulations in the presence of a wide range of surfactants, into the leaves of three plant species (bentazone into Chenopodium album L. and Sinapis alba L., epoxiconazole and pyraclostrobin into Triticum aestivum L.). The results have confirmed previous findings that the initial dose (nmol mm(-2)) of xenobiotic applied to plant foliage is a strong, positive determinant of uptake. This held true for all the pesticide formulations studied, although surfactant concentration was found to have an effect. The lower surfactant concentrations studied showed an inferior relationship between the amount of xenobiotic applied and uptake. High molecular mass surfactants also produced much lower uptake than expected from the dose uptake equations in specific situations.

  13. Breeding quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zurita-Silva, Andrés; Fuentes, Francisco; Zamora, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    scale. In the Andes, quinoa has until recently been marginally grown by small-scale Andean farmers, leading to minor interest in the crop from urban consumers and the industry. Quinoa breeding programs were not initiated until the 1960s in the Andes, and elsewhere from the 1970s onwards. New molecular...... tools available for the existing quinoa breeding programs, which are critically examined in this review, will enable us to tackle the limitations of allotetraploidy and genetic specificities. The recent progress, together with the declaration of "The International Year of the Quinoa" by the Food...

  14. Fitoterapia Mbyá-Guaraní en el control de las parasitosis intestinales. Un estudio exploratorio con Chenopodium ambrosioides L. var. anthelminticum en cinco comunidades de Misiones, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Navone

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available En las comunidades Mbyá-Guaraní, el conocimiento local de las especies vegetales que habitan el “monte” se pone de manifi esto en el desarrollo de distintas actividades tales como su empleo medicinal en las parasitosis y dolencias asociadas. El objetivo de esta contribución fue evaluar la eficacia deChenopodium ambrosioidesL. var.anthelminticum(Ka´aré en el control de las enteroparasitosis. El estudio fue realizado durante septiembre de 1998 y abril de 1999 en las comunidades de Marangatú (MA, Ñamandú (ÑA, El Pocito (PO, Tabay (TB y Takuapí (TA del Departamento Libertador General San Martín, Misiones, Argentina. La muestra incluyó 148 personas que fueron agrupadas por sexo e intervalos etáreos. El tratamiento fitoterapéutico consistió en la administración de tintura de Ka´aré (maceración en alcohol etílico al 70%. El análisis coproparasitológico se realizó mediante examen directo y la técnica de enriquecimiento por flotación (Füllerbon previo y posterior al tratamiento con el Ka´aré. Los resultados indicaron altos porcentajes de individuos parasitados previo al tratamiento (PRET que fluctuaron entre 73.5% y 91.7%. Entre los protozoosEntamoeba colifue la especie más prevalente con porcentajes entre 18.4% y 37.5%.Hymenolepis nanaentre los cestodes presentó prevalencias entre 4.2% y 20.8%. Entre los nemátodosAncylostoma duodenale/Necator americanus(Ancylostomideos fue la más frecuente y su prevalencia fluctuó entre 55.1% y 83.3%.Trichuris trichiurasólo fue observado en ÑA y con una prevalencia muy baja (3.8%. El porcentaje de monoparasitismo fue mayor en ÑA (56.5%, el de biparasitismo en MA y TA (44.4%, mientras que el de poliparasitismo en TB (36.8%. En la evaluación postratamiento (POST la prevalencia total de parasitosis descendió respecto del pretratamiento (79.7% vs 68.9% (X2 Yates = 4.57; p E. coli(30.8%-0.0% y Ancylostomídeos (52.0%-11.5%. Así, en ÑA los Ancylostomídeos mostraron diferencias

  15. The Effect of PSII Inhibitors on Kautsky Curve and Chlorophyll Fluorescence in Common Lambsquarters (Chenopodium album L. and Common Purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Chitband

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Desmedipham + phenmedipham + ethofumesate, phenylcarbamates + benzofuranyl alkanesulfonate herbicides, is widely used for post-emergence broad-leaved weed control in sugar beet. Chloridazon, a pyridazinone herbicide, is used as a pre- and post- emergence herbicide in sugar beet. Desmedipham, phenmedipham and chloridazon, are photosystem II (PSII inhibitors, their translocation via xylem are slow, mostly absorbed not only by roots, but also by foliage. Their mode of action is through the blocking of electron transfer between the primary and secondary quinones (QA and QB of PSII by binding to the QB-binding site and accepting electrons from QA in the chloroplasts. Measures of changes to the chlorophyll fluorescence induction curve (Kautsky curve, is a rapid, non-invasive and simple method for monitoring the physiological status of the photosynthetic apparatus in the plant. There are three phases found on the O, J, I and P steps. These phases primarily point out photochemical events relevant to PSII. The three phases are described as follows: at the O-J phase complete reduction of the primary electron acceptor QA of PSII takes place from 50 μs to 2 ms, the J-I phase corresponds to electron transfer from QA to QB happens between 2 to 30 ms and the I-P phase corresponds to the release of fluorescence quenching by the oxidized plastoquinone pool taking place within 30-500 ms. Materials and Methods: In order to determine how exposure affects the fluorescence induction curve (Kautsky curve and its parameters, two dose-response experiments carried out for chlorophyll fluorescence measuring. The treatments involved desmedipham + phenmedipham + ethofumesate at 0, 51.38, 102.75, 205.5, 308.25, 411, 616.5 and 822 g a.i. ha-1 and chloridazon at 0, 81.25, 162.5, 325, 650, 1300, 1950 and 2600 g a.i. ha-1 on common lambsquarters (Chenopodium album L. and common purslane (Portulaca oleracea L. at the research glasshouse of Agricultural Faculty of

  16. In Vitro Bioactivity of Methanolic Extracts from Amphipterygium adstringens (Schltdl.) Schiede ex Standl., Chenopodium ambrosioides L., Cirsium mexicanum DC., Eryngium carlinae F. Delaroche, and Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth. Used in Traditional Medicine in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knauth, Peter; Acevedo-Hernández, Gustavo J; Cano, M Eduardo; Gutiérrez-Lomelí, Melesio; López, Zaira

    2018-01-01

    Seven out of eight methanolic extracts from five plants native to Mexico were inactive against ten bacterial strains of clinical interest. The fruit extract of Chenopodium ambrosioides inhibited the bacteria Enterococcus faecalis (MIC = 4375  μ g/ml), Escherichia coli (MIC = 1094  μ g/ml), and Salmonella typhimurium (MIC = 137  μ g/ml). The fruit extract of C. ambrosioides was with CC 50 = 45  μ g/ml most cytotoxic against the cell-line Caco-2, followed by the leaf extract from Pithecellobium dulce (CC 50 = 126  μ g/ml); interestingly, leaves of C. ambrosioides (CC 50 = 563  μ g/ml) and bark of P. dulce (CC 50 = 347  μ g/ml) extracts were much less cytotoxic. We describe for the first time the cytotoxic effect from extracts of the aerial parts and the flowers of Cirsium mexicanum (CC 50 = 323  μ g/ml and CC 50 = 250  μ g/ml, resp.). Phytochemical analysis demonstrated for both extracts high tannin and saponin and low flavonoid content, while terpenoids were found in the flowers. For the first time we report a cytotoxicological study on an extract of Eryngium carlinae (CC 50 = 356  μ g/ml) and likewise the bark extract from Amphipterygium adstringens (CC 50 = 342  μ g/ml). In conclusion the fruit extract of C. ambrosioides is a potential candidate for further biological studies.

  17. In Vitro Bioactivity of Methanolic Extracts from Amphipterygium adstringens (Schltdl. Schiede ex Standl., Chenopodium ambrosioides L., Cirsium mexicanum DC., Eryngium carlinae F. Delaroche, and Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb. Benth. Used in Traditional Medicine in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Knauth

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Seven out of eight methanolic extracts from five plants native to Mexico were inactive against ten bacterial strains of clinical interest. The fruit extract of Chenopodium ambrosioides inhibited the bacteria Enterococcus faecalis (MIC = 4375 μg/ml, Escherichia coli (MIC = 1094 μg/ml, and Salmonella typhimurium (MIC = 137 μg/ml. The fruit extract of C. ambrosioides was with CC50 = 45 μg/ml most cytotoxic against the cell-line Caco-2, followed by the leaf extract from Pithecellobium dulce (CC50 = 126 μg/ml; interestingly, leaves of C. ambrosioides (CC50 = 563 μg/ml and bark of P. dulce (CC50 = 347 μg/ml extracts were much less cytotoxic. We describe for the first time the cytotoxic effect from extracts of the aerial parts and the flowers of Cirsium mexicanum (CC50 = 323 μg/ml and CC50 = 250 μg/ml, resp.. Phytochemical analysis demonstrated for both extracts high tannin and saponin and low flavonoid content, while terpenoids were found in the flowers. For the first time we report a cytotoxicological study on an extract of Eryngium carlinae (CC50 = 356 μg/ml and likewise the bark extract from Amphipterygium adstringens (CC50 = 342 μg/ml. In conclusion the fruit extract of C. ambrosioides is a potential candidate for further biological studies.

  18. Actividad de la fitasa y comparación en la composición química, contenido de ácido fítico en cuatro variedades de quinua (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Rosero

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Quinua (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. es una planta que ha sido cultivada en las regiones andinas de Bolivia, Perú, Ecuador y Colombia. Su importancia se debe al alto contenido de proteínas y de aminoácidos esenciales en su grano. El objetivo principal en la investigación fue encontrar la relación entre el ácido fítico y la actividad de la fítasa en las variedades de quinua Nariño procedente de Colombia (QC, quinua Anapquis (QBA y quinua -IICA 020 Oruro (QB procedentes de Bolivia, y quinua Huancavelica de Perú (QP. Se encontraron diferencias significativas en las proporciones de proteína, grasa, fibra y ceniza entre las cuatro variedades. El análisis de los aminoácidos esenciales mostró que las variedades de quinua tienen altas concentraciones de arginina, leucina, fenilalanina y lisina, y tirosina como aminoácidos semi-esenciales. La fracción de grasa presentó concentraciones altas de ácido oleico, linoleico, a-linolénico y ácido palmítico. Las variedades presentaron altos contenidos de P y Ca. El ácido fítico en QC (19.64% fue significativamente más bajo que en las otras variedades. En la variedad QC (1052 FTU/kg se encontraron altas proporciones de actividad de la fítasa. Se encontró relación significativa y negativa (r = -0.89 entre la actividad de la fítasa y el ácido fítico en todas las variedades.

  19. QUINOA (CHENOPODIUM QUINOA WILLD: DIGESTIBILIDADE IN VITRO, DESENVOLVIMENTO E ANÁLISE SENSORIAL DE PREPARAÇÕES DESTINADAS A PACIENTES CELÍACOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. I. A. CASTRO

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available

    A quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd é um pseudocereal isento de glúten, oriundo dos Andes, onde tem sido cultivado há milhares de anos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi desenvolver e avaliar sensorialmente algumas preparações contendo quinoa em grãos, flocos e farinha, destinadas ao paciente celíaco, e determinar a digestibilidade in vitro de sua proteína, submetida ou não ao tratamento térmico. As amostras foram avaliadas sensorialmente através de um teste de aceitação utilizando a escala hedônica nominal de 9 pontos. O método utilizado na análise da digestibilidade protéica in vitro foi o da queda de pH após 10 minutos, com a adição das enzimas tripsina e pancreatina às amostras de quinoa, tratadas e não tratadas termicamente. Das sete preparações testadas, seis foram bem aceitas, já que apresentaram um Índice de Aceitabilidade maior que 70%. Os flocos e grãos de quinoa, após serem testados termicamente, tiveram sua digestibilidade otimizada. Portanto, a quinoa e seus derivados podem ser considerados uma boa opção para a alimentação dos indivíduos portadores da doença celíaca.

  20. Simultaneous determination of phenolic compounds and saponins in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) by a liquid chromatography-diode array detection-electrospray ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Caravaca, Ana María; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto; Caboni, Maria Fiorenza

    2011-10-26

    A new liquid chromatography methodology coupled to a diode array detector and a time-of-flight mass spectrometer has been developed for the simultaneous determination of phenolic compounds and saponins in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd). This method has allowed the simultaneous determination of these two families of compounds with the same analytical method for the first time. A fused-core column C18 has been used, and the analysis has been performed in less than 27 min. Both chromatographic and electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry parameters have been optimized to improve the sensitivity and to maximize the number of compounds detected. A validation of the method has also been carried out, and free and bound polar fractions of quinoa have been studied. Twenty-five compounds have been tentatively identified and quantified in the free polar fraction, while five compounds have been tentatively identified and quantified in the bound polar fraction. It is important to highlight that 1-O-galloyl-β-D-glucoside, acacetin, protocatechuic acid 4-O-glucoside, penstebioside, ethyl-m-digallate, (epi)-gallocatechin, and canthoside have been tentatively identified for the first time in quinoa. Free phenolic compounds have been found to be in the range of 2.746-3.803 g/kg of quinoa, while bound phenolic compounds were present in a concentration that varies from 0.139 and 0.164 g/kg. Indeed, saponins have been found to be in a concentration that ranged from 5.6 to 7.5% of the total composition of whole quinoa flour.

  1. Morphological and physiological responses of two varieties of a highland species (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) growing under near-ambient and strongly reduced solar UV-B in a lowland location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Juan A; Rosa, Mariana; Parrado, María F; Hilal, Mirna; Prado, Fernando E

    2009-08-03

    Morphological and physiological responses of seedlings to different solar UV-B irradiances were evaluated in two varieties of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.), a crop species from Andean region of South America. Cristalina and Chucapaca varieties were grown at 1965m a.s.l in a glasshouse under natural light conditions for 18 days, and then transferred to outdoors under near-ambient (+UV-B) and strongly reduced (-UV-B) solar UV-B radiation. Exposition to -UV-B increased cotyledon area and seedling height in Cristalina variety whereas leaf number decreased compared to +UV-B. By contrast Chucapaca variety was not affected by UV-B treatments. Seedling fresh weight (FW), root length and leaf thickness did not show significant differences between +UV-B and -UV-B treatments. Mesophyll tissue was slightly affected by solar UV-B reduction. Chlorophyll content was differentially affected by UV-B treatments. Under +UV-B the highest value was observed in Cristalina variety, while in Chucapaca it was observed under -UV-B treatment. Chlorophyll content was slightly higher in leaves than in cotyledons, but there was no difference in the distribution pattern. Chlorophyll a/b ratio and carotenoid content did not show significant differences between UV-B treatments. Leaf UVB-absorbing compounds showed significant differences between UV-B treatments in Chucapaca only, while there were no significant differences in Cristalina variety. UVB-absorbing compounds of cotyledons did not show significant differences between +UV-B and -UV-B treatments. Sucrose, glucose and fructose showed different distribution patterns in cotyledons and leaves of the two varieties under near-ambient and strongly reduced UV-B. Results demonstrated that varieties of quinoa exhibit different morphological and physiological responses to changes in solar UV-B irradiance, but these responses cannot be used to predict the sensitivity to solar UV-B during a short-term exposition. Also, this study can be useful to

  2. Host Status of Seven Weed Species and Their Effects on Ditylenchus destructor Infestation of Peanut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Waele, D; Jordaan, E M; Basson, S

    1990-07-01

    The host suitability to Ditylenchus destructor of seven common weed species in peanut (Arachis hypogaea) fields in South Africa was determined. Based on the number of nematodes per root unit, white goosefoot (Chenopodium album), feathertop chloris (Chloris virgata), purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus), jimson weed (Datura stramonium), goose grass (Eleusine indica), khaki weed (Tagetes minuta), and cocklebur (Xanthium strumarium) were poor hosts. Ditylenchus destructor survived on all weed species; population densities increased in peanut hulls and caused severe damage to seeds of peanut grown after weeds. Roots of purple nutsedge left in the soil suppressed populations of D. destructor and root and pod development in peanut grown after the weed. However, nematode populations in peanut hulls and seeds were not suppressed. Some weed species, especially purple nutsedge which is common in peanut fields, can be used to indicate the presence of D. destructor in the absence of peanut.

  3. Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. versus soja (Glycine max [L.] Merr. en la nutrición humana: revisión sobre las características agroecológicas, de composición y tecnológicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Maria Chito Trujillo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available El diseño de alimentos funcionales a partir de productos vegetales muy estudiados como la soja (Glycine max [L.] Merr. y la potencialización de productos ancestrales como la quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. son estrategias factibles para contrarrestar la desnutrición mundial. El objetivo de la presente revisión es describir las características agroecológicas, de composición, nutricionales y tecnológicas de estas dos especies vegetales diferentes (leguminosa y pseudocereal, basado en las publicaciones previas. Se realizó una revisión en bases de datos (Scopus, Web of Science, Scielo y se complementó con una búsqueda manual en Google Scholar y páginas web de instituciones acreditadas. Los estudios incluidos (n=117 en esta revisión muestran que la soja se adapta mejor a altitudes bajas (~1.000 m s. n. m., mientras que la quinoa lo hace en un rango de mayores altitudes (500-4.000 m s. n. m. con mayor tolerancia a heladas. Ambas son fuente de una alta calidad proteica por suplir los requerimientos de aminoácidos esenciales sugeridos para niños y adultos sin diferencias significativas (p>0,05, particularmente triptófano y lisina y por los altos porcentajes de digestibilidad (>70%. Sus concentraciones bajas de prolaminas y aceptables de Fe, Zn, Ca, daidzeína y genisteína los convierten en productos de interés para la industria alimentaria.

  4. Genetic improvement of the quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa willd) by mutagenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez A, M.

    1992-02-01

    As a continuation of the obtained advances of the AB173 project, where its had the studies about germination of the quinoa seed in laboratory and in field emergency, of four varieties (Sierra Blanca, Isluga, Barandales and Lipez) treated with 10 gamma radiation doses of Co, in this report the results are presented obtained on the response of the doses in three variables of agronomic importance: 1) height of the plant, 2) population's density and 3) grain yield. At the end one carries out a regression analysis in each one of the varieties, in the emergency variables in field, population's density and grain yield. The obtained results reveal, in general form that the four varieties respond in different form, as much among them as before those different radiation dose. (Author)

  5. Effects of Malathion Dust and Mexican Tea Powder ( Chenopodium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The experiment was conducted in the laboratory at the Bako Agricultural Research Center, from January to July 2013. Combinations of different rates of Malathion and Mexican tea powder were evaluated against the maize weevil in no choice situations. The treatments were laid out in a randomized complete design with ...

  6. Cytotoxicity of Essential Oil of Chenopodium ambrosioides L against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hoechst33258 staining and DNA ladder indicate that the essential oil induced apoptosis. SOD vitality ... Whole plant of C. ambrosioides was collected from Chengdu in ..... The role of free radicals in toxicity and disease. Journal of basic and ...

  7. Herbicidal effects of aqueous extracts of three Chenopodium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-04-07

    Apr 7, 2011 ... root extract of Sorghum halepense stimulated seedling shoot length of Parthenium hysterophorus. Similar effects of the aqueous extracts of Inula grantioides Boiss. and. Capsicum annuum L. on seedling growth of test species have also been demonstrated against various test species by Shaukat et al.

  8. Anticancer Effects of Chenopodium ambrosiodes L. Essential Oil on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the most effective compound of C. ambrosioides essential oil for the induction ... shrub, and its whole plant is rich in essential oils ... μl/well at 37 oC in a 5 % CO2 atmosphere for 20 ..... Olive-oil consumption and health:.

  9. Characterization of diferuloylated pectic polysaccharides from quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa WILLD.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wefers, Daniel; Gmeiner, Bianca M; Tyl, Catrin E; Bunzel, Mirko

    2015-08-01

    In plants belonging to the order of Caryophyllales, pectic neutral side chains can be substituted with ferulic acid. The ability of ferulic acid to form intra- and/or intermolecular polysaccharide cross-links by dimerization was shown by the isolation and characterization of diferulic acid oligosaccharides from monocotyledonous plants. In this study, two diferulic acid oligosaccharides were isolated from the enzymatic hydrolyzate of seeds of the dicotyledonous pseudocereal quinoa by gel permeation chromatography and preparative HPLC and unambiguously identified by LC-MS(2) and 1D/2D NMR spectroscopy. The isolated oligosaccharides are comprised of 5-5- and 8-O-4-diferulic acid linked to the O2-position of the nonreducing residue of two (1→5)-linked arabinobioses. To get insight into the structure and the degree of phenolic acid substitution of the diferuloylated polysaccharides, polymeric sugar composition, glycosidic linkages, and polysaccharide-bound monomeric phenolic acids and diferulic acids were analyzed. This study demonstrates that diferulic acids are involved into intramolecular and/or intermolecular cross-linking of arabinan chains and may have a major impact on cell wall architecture of quinoa and other dicotyledonous plants of the order of Caryophyllales. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Variability of traits quinoa introduced genotypes (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dražić Slobodan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed variability and influence of investigated factors on grain yield of quinoa during three year period (2009, 2010, 2011. The experiment was conducted at two locations (Nova Pazova and Surduk, using two introduced genotypes of quinoa: KVL 37 and KVL 52. We detected that location and genotype had important impact. Grain yield varied according to years of study (1224 kg/ha to 1671 kg/ha. Results of regression and correlation analysis indicate on variation of the impact of plant height and number of plants per meter on the grain yield. Correlation coefficients were generally low and didn't show as significant. This indicates that these studies included small number of properties that can affect grain yield. In further work with this introduced species, more properties should be included.

  11. Genome size stability across Eurasian Chenopodium species (Amaranthaceae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vít, Petr; Krak, Karol; Trávníček, Pavel; Douda, Jan; Lomonosova, M. N.; Mandák, Bohumil

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 182, č. 3 (2016), s. 637-649 ISSN 0024-4074 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-02290S Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : hybridization * CHenopodiaceae * polyploidy Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.277, year: 2016

  12. BIOFILMS BASED ON CANIHUA FLOUR (Chenopodium Pallidicaule: DESIGN AND CHARACTERIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lady M. Salas-Valero

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to (1 produce and characterize the flour obtained from two varieties of canihua, cupi and illpa-inia, and (2 evaluate the ability of these flours to form biofilms. The flours produced contain proteins, starches, lipids, organic substances containing phenol groups, and high percentages of unsaturated fatty acids. Films produced from the illpa variety presented lower water vapor permeability and larger Young’s modulus values than the films formed from the cupi variety. Both films were yellowish and displayed a high light blocking ability (as compared with polyethylene films, which can be attributed to the presence of phenolic compounds. Furthermore, they showed lesser solubility and water permeability than other polysaccharide films, which may be the result of the higher protein (12%–13.8% and lipid (11% contents in canihua flours, as well as the formation of a larger number of S–S bonds. On the other hand, these films presented a single vitreous transition temperature at low temperatures (< 0 °C, crystallization of the A and Vh types, and an additional diffraction peak at 2 = 7.5º, ascribed to the presence of essential fatty acids in canihua flour. Canihua flour can form films with adequate properties and shows promise for potential applications in food packaging, because it acts as a good barrier to incident ultraviolet light.

  13. Genetic improvement of the quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa willd) by mutagenesis; Mejoramiento genetico de la quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa willd) por mutagenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez A, M

    1992-02-15

    As a continuation of the obtained advances of the AB173 project, where its had the studies about germination of the quinoa seed in laboratory and in field emergency, of four varieties (Sierra Blanca, Isluga, Barandales and Lipez) treated with 10 gamma radiation doses of Co, in this report the results are presented obtained on the response of the doses in three variables of agronomic importance: 1) height of the plant, 2) population's density and 3) grain yield. At the end one carries out a regression analysis in each one of the varieties, in the emergency variables in field, population's density and grain yield. The obtained results reveal, in general form that the four varieties respond in different form, as much among them as before those different radiation dose. (Author)

  14. Evaluation of quality of quinua seed (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) improved by mutagenesis; Evaluacion de calidad de semilla de quinua (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) mejorada por mutagenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avila R, S.; Reyes G, A. [UAEM, Facultad de Quimica, 50120 Toluca, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Cruz T, E. De la [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    It was carried out the physical and bromatological characterization of the seed of quinua of the varieties Sajama Barandales and Amarilla de Marangani; mutant lines 20R{sub 1}10, 94, 20R{sub 3}33, 20R{sub 2}27, 20R{sub 3}42 and 20R{sub 3}7 as well as of the advanced line obtained by conventional improvement 640304. The evaluated variables were seed size (diameter and thickness in mm), weight in grams of 100 seeds and density in grams by liter, finding that the genotype 20R{sub 3}33 present excellent characteristics respect with these variables. In the bromatological analysis it was determined the percentage of humidity, ashy, raw fiber, ethereal extract, proteins and carbohydrates, highlighting that the genotypes 20R{sub 3}33, 20R{sub 3}42 and witness present good values of protein content (16.8%, 15.57% and 15.9% respectively), overcoming to the cereals (corn, wheat and rice). (Author)

  15. Use of a Whole-Cell Biosensor and Flow Cytometry to Detect AHL Production by an Indigenous Soil Community During Decomposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burmølle, Mette; Hansen, Lars Hestbjerg; Sørensen, Søren Johannes

    2005-01-01

    originating from Vibrio fischeri. This resulted in a whole-cell biosensor, responding to the presence of AHL compounds. The biosensor was introduced to compost soil microcosms amended with nettle leaves. After 3 days of incubation, cells were extracted and analyzed by flow cytometry. All microcosms contained...

  16. Tickle with a feather

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dip a handful of fresh stinging nettle leaves in water, pound in a mortar, squeeze in a wringing cloth, and squirt the liquid up the nostril with a small syringe. Does a member of your family suffer from knock-knees? Well, Mr Beeton has a recorded testimony from a satisfied correspondent who was once badly knock-kneed and ...

  17. Cover crops influence soil microorganisms and phytoextraction of copper from a moderately contaminated vineyard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackie, K A; Schmidt, H P; Müller, T; Kandeler, E

    2014-12-01

    We investigated the ability of summer (Avena sativa [oat], Trifolium incarnatum [crimson clover], Chenopodium [goosefoot]) and winter (Vicia villosa [hairy vetch], Secale Cereale L. [Rye], Brassica napus L. partim [rape]) cover crops, including a mixed species treatment, to extract copper from an organic vineyard soil in situ and the microbial communities that may support it. Clover had the highest copper content (14.3mgCukg(-1) DM). However, it was the amount of total biomass production that determined which species was most effective at overall copper removal per hectare. The winter crop rye produced significantly higher amounts of biomass (3532kgDMha(-1)) and, therefore, removed significantly higher amounts of copper (14,920mgCuha(-1)), despite less accumulation of copper in plant shoots. The maximum annual removal rate, a summation of best performing summer and winter crops, would be 0.033kgCuha(-1)y(-1). Due to this low annual extraction efficiency, which is less than the 6kgCuha(-1)y(-1) permitted for application, phytoextraction cannot be recommended as a general method of copper extraction from vineyards. Copper concentration did not influence aboveground or belowground properties, as indicated by sampling at two distances from the grapevine row with different soil copper concentrations. Soil microorganisms may have become tolerant to the copper levels at this site. Microbial biomass and soil enzyme activities (arylsulfatase and phosphatase) were instead driven by seasonal fluxes of resource pools. Gram+ bacteria were associated with high soil moisture, while fungi seemed to be driven by extractable carbon, which was linked to high plant biomass. There was no microbial group associated with the increased phytoextraction of copper. Moreover, treatment did not influence the abundance, activity or community structure of soil microorganisms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Responses of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) to salinity and temperature regimes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adolf, Verena Isabelle

    on salt affected soils in the Mediterranean region, it is necessary to evaluate whether these cultivars are also able to thrive under warmer temperatures. Temperatures of the Bolivian highland and Morocco were simulated in climate chambers to evaluate the performance of a very salt tolerant Bolivian...

  19. Evaluation of quality of quinua seed (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) improved by mutagenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avila R, S.; Reyes G, A.; Cruz T, E. De la

    2004-01-01

    It was carried out the physical and bromatological characterization of the seed of quinua of the varieties Sajama Barandales and Amarilla de Marangani; mutant lines 20R 1 10, 94, 20R 3 33, 20R 2 27, 20R 3 42 and 20R 3 7 as well as of the advanced line obtained by conventional improvement 640304. The evaluated variables were seed size (diameter and thickness in mm), weight in grams of 100 seeds and density in grams by liter, finding that the genotype 20R 3 33 present excellent characteristics respect with these variables. In the bromatological analysis it was determined the percentage of humidity, ashy, raw fiber, ethereal extract, proteins and carbohydrates, highlighting that the genotypes 20R 3 33, 20R 3 42 and witness present good values of protein content (16.8%, 15.57% and 15.9% respectively), overcoming to the cereals (corn, wheat and rice). (Author)

  20. Sensitivity of two quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) varieties to progressive drought stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Yujie; Liu, Fulai; Bendevis, Mira Arpe

    2014-01-01

    Quinoa (ChenopodiumquinoaWilld.) is a highly nutritious Andean seed crop which shows great potential to grow under a range of hostile environments. The objective of this study was to investigate the differences of drought tolerance of a Bolivian (Achachino) and a Danish (Titicaca) variety...... increased CS for stomatal conductance, CT for transpiration and CLfor leaf water potential. Achachino showed significantly lower CT and CL when compared with Titicaca, implying that transpiration and leaf water potential were less affected under mild drought conditions in the Bolivian variety. CS...... in Achachino was significantly higher than CL and CT, which indicated that stomatal conductance declined before transpiration and leaf water potential were reduced. Such difference was found in Titicaca where reduction of leaf area had more effect on transpiration than stomatal closure. Slower growth rate...

  1. Study of some physicochemical and functional properties of quinoa (chenopodium quinoa willd) protein isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abugoch, Lilian E; Romero, Nalda; Tapia, Cristián A; Silva, Jorge; Rivera, Mónica

    2008-06-25

    The amino acid composition and the physicochemical and functional properties of quinoa protein isolates were evaluated. Protein isolates were prepared from quinoa seed by alkaline solubilization (at pH 9, called Q9, and at pH 11, called Q11) followed by isoelectric precipitation and spray drying. Q9 and Q11 had high levels of essential amino acids, with high levels of lysine. Both isolates showed similar patterns in native/SDS-PAGE and SEM. The pH effect on fluorescence measurements showed decreasing fluorescence intensity and a shift in the maximum of emission of both isolates. Q9 showed an endotherm with a denaturation temperature of 98.1 degrees C and a denaturation enthalpy of 12.7 J/g, while Q11 showed no endotherm. The protein solubility of Q11 was lower than that of Q9 at pH above 5.0 but similar at the pH range 3.0-4.0. The water holding capacity (WHC) was similar in both isolates and was not affected by pH. The water imbibing capacity (WIC) was double for Q11 (3.5 mL of water/g isolate). Analysis of DSC, fluorescence, and solubility data suggests that there is apparently denaturation due to pH. Some differences were found that could be attributed to the extreme pH treatments in protein isolates and the nature of quinoa proteins. Q9 and Q11 can be used as a valuable source of nutrition for infants and children. Q9 may be used as an ingredient in nutritive beverages, and Q11 may be used as an ingredient in sauces, sausages, and soups.

  2. Elemental Characterization of minerals in Chenopodium quinoa grains by the X-ray fluorescence technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olivera de Lescano, Paula; Nieto Aco, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    In order to characterize by the technique of X-ray fluorescence energy dispersive quinoa grain for human consumption, 8 samples of different trademarks of quinoa, which are distributed in the local market were analyzed; together one reference materials certified by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) was analyzed. The results show the presence of elements such as K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Rb and Sr, the same as compared to data reported in various studies in neighboring countries like Ecuador, Chile and Bolivia. (authors).

  3. Protective Antioxidant Enzyme Activities are Affected by Drought in Quinoa (Chenopodium Quinoa Willd)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fghire, Rachid; Ali, Oudou Issa; Anaya, Fatima

    2013-01-01

    Changes in water availability are responsible for a variety of biochemical stress responses in plant organisms. Stress induced by this factor may be associated with enhanced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generations, which cause oxidative damage. In the present study we investigated the activities...... increased in all treatments. These results suggest that antioxidant enzymes play important roles in reducing oxidative stress in quinoa plant exposed to drought stress....... of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), polyphenoloxydase (PPO), peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT), measured at flowering in quinoa, subjected to varying levels of drought stress. Drought levels were 100, 50 and 33% of evapotranspiration (ETc), and rainfed. Compared to full water supply (100%ETc...

  4. APROVEITAMENTO, COMPOSIÇÃO NUTRICIONAL E ANTINUTRICIONAL DA FARINHA DE QUINOA (CHENOPODIUM QUINOA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane de Oliveira LOPES

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available

    A quinoa é um pseudocereal originário dos Andes, cultivado há milênios e amplamente distribuído ao mundo. No Brasil, foi introduzido na década de 90 e, através de modifi cações genéticas, desenvolveu-se a variedade BRS Piabiru, adaptada para cultivos em solos brasileiros. Nutricionalmente, destaca-se em relação a muitos cereais, como o trigo, o milho e a cevada, por apresentar qualidade protéica comparável à caseína do leite e pela ausência de proteínas formadoras de glúten. Além disso, possui elevado teor de lisina, vitaminas (como tiamina, ribofl avina, niacina e piridoxina e minerais (como magnésio, zinco, cobre, ferro manganês e potássio. É essencial a realização de estudos dos nutrientes e antinutrientes da quinoa, de utilizá-la no preparo e desenvolvimento de receitas isentas de glúten. Diante disso, o presente estudo objetivou elaborar uma farinha de quinoa (FQ, caracterizar a sua composição nutricional e antinutricional, além de aproveitá-la na formulação de bolinhos fritos e avaliar sua aceitabilidade. Para a obtenção da farinha, os grãos de quinoa foram secos em estufa com circulação de ar forçada a 60-65oC, triturados e peneirados. A FQ foi submetida às avaliações da composição centesimal, de alguns minerais (potássio, cálcio, ferro e zinco e antinutricional (nitrato, ácido oxálico e inibidor de tripsina, sendo ainda formuladas e avaliadas a aceitabilidade de três preparações de bolinhos fritos com diferentes adições de FQ em escala hedônica de 5 pontos. Observou-se que a FQ destacou-se em proteínas, fi bras, cinzas, potássio, ferro, cálcio e zinco. Os valores (mg/100g dos antinutrientes encontrados na FQ foram de 63,26 para o nitrato, 380 para o ácido oxálico e 2,11UTI/mg para inibidor de tripsina, sendo considerados teores menores aos de outros alimentos vegetais comumente utilizados na alimentação humana. O bolinho de formulação com 12,61% de FQ apresentou a maior aceitação dos julgadores, seguido das formulações com 17,79% e 22,40%. Conclui-se que a FQ destacou-se na maioria dos nutrientes avaliados, apresentando nutrientes à alimentação humana. Os antinutrientes avaliados foram baixos, não apresentando, portanto, riscos à nutrição e à saúde humana. A FQ constitui matéria-prima para a elaboração de bolinhos fritos, sendo bem aceitos pelos julgadores.

  5. Root - shoot - signaling in Chenopodium rubrum L. as studied by 15O labeled water uptake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohya, T.; Hayashi, Y.; Tanoi, K.; Rai, H.; Nakanishi, T.M.; Suzuki, K.; Albrechtova, J.T.P.; Wagner, E.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: It has been demonstrated with C. rubrum that the different organ systems are transmitting surface action potentials which might be the basis for systemic signal transduction. Shoot tip respectively root generated action potentials travel along the stem axis. Shoot tip generated action potentials arriving at the basis can be reflected and travel upwards. The radioactive labeling technique was established at the NIRS in Inage, Japan. About 2 GBq of 15 O labeled Hoagland's solution was supplied to the plant root or cut stem in a phytotron at 25 o C with 45 % of relative humidity and continuous light. By cutting the shoot apical bud and the apices of main side branches the uptake of 15 O labeled water was inhibited in plants with intact roots but not in plants with roots cut. Because of the short half-life of 15 O (2 min), experiments could be repeated in hourly intervals. Cutting the apex probably limits root water uptake via a hydraulic-electrochemical signal. The results are discussed with respect to the significance of a continuous communication between the root system and the shoot apical meristem(s) in the adaptation of plants to their environment. (author)

  6. Characterization of betalains, saponins and antioxidant power in differently colored quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escribano, Josefa; Cabanes, Juana; Jiménez-Atiénzar, Mercedes; Ibañez-Tremolada, Martha; Gómez-Pando, Luz Rayda; García-Carmona, Francisco; Gandía-Herrero, Fernando

    2017-11-01

    Quinoa was the traditional grain crop used by the prehispanic civilizations in America. Grains are white, black, yellow, and red-violet and plants are cultivated in vast areas of Peru, Bolivia and Ecuador. The recent description of the betacyanin pigment betanin in red-violet varieties is here further analyzed detecting the presence of amaranthin not previously identified in quinoa grains. Yellow-orange grains are characterized for the first time and up to four different betaxanthins are found to be responsible for this coloration. The native fluorescence of the identified betaxanthins makes the surface of the yellow quinoa grains glow with green fluorescent light. The presence of betalains is correlated with high antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities measured under the FRAP, ABTS and ORAC assays in grain extracts of 29 Peruvian varieties. TEAC equivalence is as high as 44.1 and 47.4mmol Trolox/kg for the yellow and red-violet varieties analyzed respectively. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Physiological effects of short acute UVB treatments in Chenopodium quinoa Willd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huarancca Reyes, Thais; Scartazza, Andrea; Castagna, Antonella; Cosio, Eric G; Ranieri, Annamaria; Guglielminetti, Lorenzo

    2018-01-10

    Increased ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation due to global change can affect plant growth and metabolism. Here, we evaluated the capacity of quinoa to resist under short acute UVB irradiation. Quinoa was daily exposed for 30 or 60 min to 1.69 W m -2 UVB. The results showed that 30 min exposure in 9 d-course did not cause severe alterations on photosynthetic pigments and flavonoids, but a significant increase of antioxidant capacity was observed. Otherwise, 60 min UVB in 5 d-course reduced almost all these parameters except for an increase in the de-epoxidation of xanthophyll cycle pigments and led to the death of the plants. Further studies of gas exchange and fluorescence measurements showed that 30 min UVB dramatically decrease stomatal conductance, probably associated to reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Inhibition of photosynthetic electron transport was also observed, which could be a response to reduce ROS. Otherwise, irreversible damage to the photosynthetic apparatus was found with 60 min UVB probably due to severe ROS overproduction that decompensates the redox balance inducing UVB non-specific signaling. Moreover, 60 min UVB compromised Rubisco carboxylase activity and photosynthetic electron transport. Overall, these data suggest that quinoa modulates different response mechanisms depending on the UVB irradiation dosage.

  8. Responses of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. seeds stored under different germination temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andressa Strenske

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this experiment, we assessed the germination and vigor of quinoa seeds packed in paper bags and stored at room temperature for 36, 85, 119, 146, 177 and 270 days. The seeds were harvested under experimental conditions in Marechal Candido Rondon, Paraná, during the 2012/13 growing seasons. Four replicates of 100 seeds each were established for each storage time, and the seeds were evaluated, on paper, based on the BOD under the following experimental temperature conditions: alternating temperatures of 20 and 30°C and a constant temperature of 25°C. The seeds from both treatments were subject to seven-hour photoperiods and 25°C under continuous darkness. The germinated seeds were counted daily for eight days after sowing, and we evaluated the percentages of normal and abnormal seedlings and the germination index. The experimental design was completely randomized using a split-plot design. Increasing the storage time decreased the percentage of germinated seeds and seed vigor due to the increased number of abnormal seedlings. Over the 430-day study period, quinoa seed germination completely declined under the experimental conditions. The final number of germinating seeds should be evaluated 7 days after the beginning of the germination test.

  9. [Effect of quinua (Chenopodium quinoa)consumption as a coadjuvant in nutritional intervention in prediabetic subjects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abellán Ruiz, María Salud; Barnuevo Espinosa, María Dolores; García Santamaría, Carlos; Contreras Fernández, Carlos Javier; Aldeguer García, Miriam; Soto Méndez, Fulgencio; Guillén Guillén, Isabel; Luque Rubia, Antonio Jesús; Quinde Ràzuri, Francisco Javier; Martínez Garrido, Antonio; López Román, Francisco Javier

    2017-10-24

    Quinoa is a pseudocereal containing low glycemic index carbohydrates, dietary fiber, high biological value protein, phytosterols, and n-3 and n-6 fatty acids, which has generated interest in prediabetes nutritional interventions. This randomized (2:1), placebo-controlled, double-blind study evaluated the effects of processed quinoa on body mass index (BMI), glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and the satiation and fullness (complete) degree in prediabetic patients. Thirty patients were randomized (2:1) in two study arms: Kuska Active product (processed quinoa) and placebo (maltodextrin), with an intake period of 28 days. BMI, HbA1c and FPG were determined before starting treatment and at 28-day intake. Satiety and fullness sensation were just assessed by visual analog scale (VAS) at the day 28. ANOVA was performed for repeated measures with two factors to study (within-subject factor: time; intersubject factor: product consumed) to demonstrate the effectiveness of processed quinoa on the study variables. Twenty-nine patients (placebo, n = 10; quinoa, n = 19) completed the study, and the quinoa group shows a significant decrease in BMI (p quinoa intake during 28 days decreases BMI and HbA1c levels, maintains FPG levels, and incr eases the satiation and fullness (complete) degree in prediabetic patients.

  10. Gastrointestinal effects of eating quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) in celiac patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zevallos, Victor F; Herencia, L Irene; Chang, Fuju; Donnelly, Suzanne; Ellis, H Julia; Ciclitira, Paul J

    2014-02-01

    Celiac disease is an enteropathy triggered by dietary gluten found in wheat, rye, and barley. Treatment involves a strict gluten-free diet (GFD). Quinoa is a highly nutritive plant from the Andes that has been recommended as part of a GFD. However, in-vitro data suggested that quinoa prolamins can stimulate innate and adaptive immune responses in celiac patients. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the in-vivo effects of eating quinoa in adult celiac patients. Nineteen treated celiac patients consumed 50 g of quinoa every day for 6 weeks as part of their usual GFD. We evaluated diet, serology, and gastrointestinal parameters. Furthermore, we carried out detail histological assessment of 10 patients before and after eating quinoa. Gastrointestinal parameters were normal. The ratio of villus height to crypt depth improved from slightly below normal values (2.8:1) to normal levels (3:1), surface-enterocyte cell height improved from 28.76 to 29.77 μm and the number of intra-epithelial lymphocytes per 100 enterocytes decreased from 30.3 to 29.7. Median values for all the blood tests remained within normal ranges, although total cholesterol (n=19) decreased from 4.6 to 4.3 mmol/l, low-density lipoprotein decreased from 2.46 to 2.45 mmol/l, high-density lipoprotein decreased from 1.8 to 1.68 mmol/l and triglycerides decreased from 0.80 to 0.79 mmol/l. Addition of quinoa to the GFD of celiac patients was well tolerated and did not exacerbate the condition. There was a positive trend toward improved histological and serological parameters, particularly a mild hypocholesterolemic effect. Overall, this is the first clinical data suggesting that daily 50 g of quinoa for 6 weeks can be safely tolerated by celiac patients. However, further studies are needed to determine the long-term effects of quinoa consumption.

  11. Antioxidant and immunoregulatory activity of polysaccharides from quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yang; Shi, Zhenxing; Ren, Guixing

    2014-10-23

    The water-extractable (QWP) and the alkali-extractable (QAP) polysaccharides from quinoa (named QWP and QAP, respectively) and their four polysaccharide sub-fractions (QWP-1, QWP-2, QAP-1 and QAP-2), were isolated and purified by anion-exchange and gel filtration chromatography. QWP-1 and QWP-2 were composed of Rha, Ara, Gal and GalA. QAP-1 and QAP-2 were composed of Rha, Ara, Man, Gal and GalA. Antioxidant and immunoregulatory activities of the polysaccharides were evaluated. The results showed that QWP-1, QWP-2, QAP-1 and QAP-2 had significant antioxidant and immunoregulatory activities. The results suggest that QWP-1, QWP-2, QAP-1 and QAP-2 could be used as potential antioxidants and immunomodulators.

  12. Characterization of the acetohydroxyacid synthase multigene family in the tetraploide plant Chenopodium quinoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Mestanza

    2015-11-01

    Conclusions: The presence of multiple copies of the gene AHAS shows that gene duplication is a common feature in polyploid species during evolution. In addition, to our knowledge, this is the first report of the interaction of sub-genomes in quinoa.

  13. Phenotypic flexibility in exotic quinoa (chenopodium quinoa willd.) germplasm for seedling vigor and viability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munir, H.; Basra, S.M.A.; Cheema, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    Exotic quinoa genotypes were evaluated for seedling vigor, viability, heritability, and genotypic and phenotypic variations under lab. conditions. A total of 25 genotypes of quinoa underwent comparison. Distinct demarcation among these genotypes was observed for final germination percentage, mean germination time, time to 50% germination, germination index, root/shoot length and root:shoot ratio. Viable, vigorous genotypes and poorly performing genotypes were identified and grouped from the available exotic germplasm. This selection was made on the assumption that resistance to climatic adversities and better sustainability under poor storage conditions are issues of immense importance in post harvest handling of quinoa seed. For selection of vigorous quinoa genotypes, final germination percentage (more than 90%) and root (more than 3.5 cm) or shoot lengths (more than 4.0 cm) presented themselves as important associated traits, in addition to germination index (22 to 33) and seedling survival percentage (between 90-100%). However, final germination percentage and root length were demonstrated to be reliable and environment-proof traits for the crop. Exotic quinoa genotypes were evaluated for seedling vigor, viability, heritability, and genotypic and phenotypic variations under lab. conditions. A total of 25 genotypes of quinoa underwent comparison. Distinct demarcation among these genotypes was observed for final germination percentage, mean germination time, time to 50% germination, germination index, root/shoot length and root:shoot ratio. Viable, vigorous genotypes and poorly performing genotypes were identified and grouped from the available exotic germplasm. This selection was made on the assumption that resistance to climatic adversities and better sustainability under poor storage conditions are issues of immense importance in post harvest handling of quinoa seed. For selection of vigorous quinoa genotypes, final germination percentage (more than 90%) and root (more than 3.5 cm) or shoot lengths (more than 4.0 cm) presented themselves as important associated traits, in addition to germination index (22 to 33) and seedling survival percentage (between 90-100%). However, final germination percentage and root length were demonstrated to be reliable and environment-proof traits for the crop. (author)

  14. Influence of pearling process on phenolic and saponin content in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Caravaca, Ana Maria; Iafelice, Giovanna; Verardo, Vito; Marconi, Emanuele; Caboni, Maria Fiorenza

    2014-08-15

    The aim of this work was to obtain sweet quinoa seeds by a pearling process. Thus, two different pearling degrees (20% and 30%) were tested. Moreover, the effect of pearling process on saponins and phenolic content in quinoa were evaluated. To this end, GC-MS methodology was used to identify and quantify the saponins and reversed phase-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to DAD and mass spectrometer detectors was applied to study the phenolic composition. As expected, whole quinoa had the highest saponins and phenolics contents. An abrasion degree of 30% was necessary to obtain sweet quinoa (with a total saponin content lower than 110 mg/100 g). Obviously, this process caused a decrease of 21.5% and 35.2% of free and bound phenolic compounds, respectively. However, this decrease was lower if compared with other cereals. Thus, pearling process is a promising sustainable method to obtain sweet quinoa with a "green" approach. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Variable activation of immune response by quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) prolamins in celiac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zevallos, Victor F; Ellis, H Julia; Suligoj, Tanja; Herencia, L Irene; Ciclitira, Paul J

    2012-08-01

    Celiac disease is an enteropathy triggered by dietary gluten found in wheat, barley, and rye. The current treatment is a strict gluten-free diet. Quinoa is a highly nutritive plant from the Andes, with low concentrations of prolamins, that has been recommended as part of a gluten-free diet; however, few experimental data support this recommendation. We aimed to determine the amount of celiac-toxic prolamin epitopes in quinoa cultivars from different regions of the Andes and the ability of these epitopes to activate immune responses in patients with celiac disease. The concentration of celiac-toxic epitopes was measured by using murine monoclonal antibodies against gliadin and high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits. Immune response was assessed by proliferation assays of celiac small intestinal T cells/interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and production of IFN-γ/IL-15 after organ culture of celiac duodenal biopsy samples. Fifteen quinoa cultivars were tested: 4 cultivars had quantifiable concentrations of celiac-toxic epitopes, but they were below the maximum permitted for a gluten-free food. Cultivars Ayacuchana and Pasankalla stimulated T cell lines at levels similar to those for gliadin and caused secretion of cytokines from cultured biopsy samples at levels comparable with those for gliadin. Most quinoa cultivars do not possess quantifiable amounts of celiac-toxic epitopes. However, 2 cultivars had celiac-toxic epitopes that could activate the adaptive and innate immune responses in some patients with celiac disease. These findings require further investigation in the form of in vivo studies, because quinoa is an important source of nutrients for patients with celiac disease.

  16. Detection and subcellular localization of dehydrin-like proteins in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carjuzaa, P; Castellión, M; Distéfano, A J; del Vas, M; Maldonado, S

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the dehydrin content in mature embryos of two quinoa cultivars, Sajama and Baer La Unión. Cultivar Sajama grows at 3600-4000 m altitude and is adapted to the very arid conditions characteristic of the salty soils of the Bolivian Altiplano, with less than 250 mm of annual rain and a minimum temperature of -1 degrees C. Cultivar Baer La Unión grows at sea-level regions of central Chile and is adapted to more humid conditions (800 to 1500 mm of annual rain), fertile soils, and temperatures above 5 degrees C. Western blot analysis of embryo tissues from plants growing under controlled greenhouse conditions clearly revealed the presence of several dehydrin bands (at molecular masses of approximately 30, 32, 50, and 55 kDa), which were common to both cultivars, although the amount of the 30 and 32 kDa bands differed. Nevertheless, when grains originated from their respective natural environments, three extra bands (at molecular masses of approximately 34, 38, and 40 kDa), which were hardly visible in Sajama, and another weak band (at a molecular mass of approximately 28 kDa) were evident in Baer La Unión. In situ immunolocalization microscopy detected dehydrin-like proteins in all axis and cotyledon tissues. At the subcellular level, dehydrins were detected in the plasma membrane, cytoplasm and nucleus. In the cytoplasm, dehydrins were found associated with mitochondria, rough endoplasmic reticulum cisternae, and proplastid membranes. The presence of dehydrins was also recognized in the matrix of protein bodies. In the nucleus, dehydrins were associated with the euchromatin. Upon examining dehydrin composition and subcellular localization in two quinoa cultivars belonging to highly contrasting environments, we conclude that most dehydrins detected here were constitutive components of the quinoa seed developmental program, but some of them (specially the 34, 38, and 40 kDa bands) may reflect quantitative molecular differences associated with the adaptation of both cultivars to contrasting environmental conditions.

  17. Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) Seeds Cultivated in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin Hwa; Lee, Yun Jin; Kim, Yeon Ho; Yoon, Ki Sun

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of quinoa cultivated in Korea and to compare it with imported quinoa from the USA and Peru. The highest amount of total flavonoid contents (TFC) with 20.91 mg quercetin equivalents/100 g was measured in quinoa seed extract cultivated in Korea, while the total phenolic contents (TPC) were significantly higher in quinoa from the USA (16.28 mg gallic acid equivalents/100 g). In addition, quinoa extracts cultivated in Korea displayed a superior antioxidant ability in both, ferric reducing antioxidant power and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl values. There was a high correlation between TFC and antioxidant activity and a low correlation between TPC and antioxidant activity. The antimicrobial activity of the quinoa extracts was determined using a disc diffusion assay and optical density method. In both assays, the quinoa seed extracts did not have strong antimicrobial activity against foodborne bacteria, including Staphylococcus aureus , Listeria monocytogenes , Bacillus cereus , Escherichia coli , Salmonella Typhimurium, and Campylobacter jejuni .

  18. Potentially synbiotic fermented beverage with aqueous extracts of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) and soy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, F; Rossi, E A; Gomes, R G; Sivieri, K

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a potentially synbiotic beverage fermented with Lactobacillus casei LC-1 based on aqueous extracts of soy and quinoa with added fructooligosaccharides (FOS). Five formulations with differing proportions of soy and quinoa extracts were tested. The viability of the microorganism, the pH, and the acidity of all formulations were monitored until the 28th day of storage at 5 ℃. The chemical composition of the extracts and beverages and the rheological and sensory properties of the final products were analyzed. Although an increase in acidity and a decrease in pH were observed during the 28 days of storage, the viability of the probiotic microorganism was maintained at 10(8) CFU·mL(-1) in all formulated beverages throughout the storage period. An increase in viscosity and consistency in the formulations with higher concentrations of quinoa (F1 and F2) was observed. Formulation F4 (70% soy and 30% quinoa extracts) showed the least hysteresis. Formulations F4 and F5 (100% soy extract) had the best sensory acceptance while F4 resulted in the highest intention to purchase from a group of 80 volunteers. For chemical composition, F3 (50% soy and 50% quinoa extracts) and F4 showed the best results compared to similar fermented beverages. The formulation F4 was considered the best beverage overall. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. Photoperiod Adaptation of Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendevis, Mira Arpe

    of drought are the major constraints on agricultural productivity. However, quinoa originates from the Andean region and the majority of available cultivars are facultative short day plants and exhibit severely reduced, or completely disrupted, seed production under day lengths longer than 12 hours...... day length responses in contrasting cultivars. Throughout this study, separate controlled environment experiments, involving contrasting cultivars, were employed to evaluate yield performance and compare leaf level physiological responses to changes in day length and the influence of different light...

  20. 75 FR 39450 - Terpene Constituents of the Extract of Chenopodium ambrosioides

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-09

    ..., spices, and other foods and beverages. These three terpene constituents are found naturally in food... ingestion, dermal contact, and inhalation through consumption of foods and beverages, as well as through... toxicity. Acute toxicity studies, submitted to support the registration of the end-use product (EP...

  1. Biochar reduces copper toxicity in Chenopodium quinoa Willd. In a sandy soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buss, Wolfram; Kammann, Claudia; Koyro, Hans-Werner

    2012-01-01

    Mining, smelting, land applications of sewage sludge, the use of fungicides containing copper (Cu), and other human activities have led to widespread soil enrichment and contamination with Cu and potentially toxic conditions. Biochar (BC) can adsorb several substances, ranging from herbicides to plant-inhibiting allelochemicals. However, the range of potential beneficial effects on early-stage plant growth with regard to heavy metal toxicity is largely unexplored. We investigated the ameliorating properties of a forestry-residue BC under Cu toxicity conditions on early plant growth. Young quinoa plants () were grown in the greenhouse in the presence of 0, 2, and 4% BC application (w/w) added to a sandy soil with 0, 50, or 200 μg g Cu supplied. The plants without BC showed severe stress symptoms and reduced growth shortly after Cu application of 50 μg g and died at 200 μg Cu g. Increasing BC concentrations in the growth medium significantly increased the plant performance without Cu toxicity or under Cu stress. At the 4% BC application rate, the plants with 200 μg g Cu almost reached the same biomass as in the control treatment. In the presence of BC, less Cu entered the plant tissues, which had reduced Cu concentrations in the order roots, shoots, leaves. The amelioration effect also was reflected in the plant-soil system CO gas exchange, which showed clear signs of improvement with BC presence. The most likely ameliorating mechanisms were adsorption of Cu to negatively charged BC surfaces and an improvement of the water supply. Overall, BC seems to be a beneficial amendment with the potential to ameliorate Cu toxicity in sandy soils. Further research with a broad spectrum of different soil types, BCs, and crop plants is required. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  2. Antioxidant and Immunoregulatory Activity of Polysaccharides from Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yao

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The water-extractable (QWP and the alkali-extractable (QAP polysaccharides from quinoa (named QWP and QAP, respectively and their four polysaccharide sub-fractions (QWP-1, QWP-2, QAP-1 and QAP-2, were isolated and purified by anion-exchange and gel filtration chromatography. QWP-1 and QWP-2 were composed of Rha, Ara, Gal and GalA. QAP-1 and QAP-2 were composed of Rha, Ara, Man, Gal and GalA. Antioxidant and immunoregulatory activities of the polysaccharides were evaluated. The results showed that QWP-1, QWP-2, QAP-1 and QAP-2 had significant antioxidant and immunoregulatory activities. The results suggest that QWP-1, QWP-2, QAP-1 and QAP-2 could be used as potential antioxidants and immunomodulators.

  3. Dispersal of Beauveria bassiana by the activity of nettle insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyling, Nicolai V; Pell, Judith K; Eilenberg, Jørgen

    2006-10-01

    Recent studies have shown that the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana occurs naturally on the phylloplanes of several plants, including nettles. Insects could, by their activity, be contributing to this inoculum by dispersing it from other sites. The potential of nettle aphids Microlophium carnosum and their predator Anthocoris nemorum to disperse conidia of B. bassiana from soil to nettles and from sporulating cadavers in the nettle canopy was investigated in laboratory experiments. In petri dish assays, aphids showed potential to distribute B. bassiana from soil to nettle leaves. Predators dispersed inoculum from both soil and cadavers to nettle leaves in petri dishes. In microcosms, aphids did not disperse B. bassiana from the soil or from cadavers confined in the canopy, but A. nemorum were able to transfer inoculum from soil into the nettle canopy and to distribute conidia from cryptic cadavers. In some instances, infections were initiated in aphids and predators as a consequence of dispersal.

  4. Use of cereal bars with quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa W. to reduce risk factors related to cardiovascular diseases Consumo de barras de cereais com quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa W. para reduzir fatores de risco de doenças cardiovasculares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Maria Vasques Farinazzi-Machado

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Quinoa is considered a pseudocereal with proteins of high biological value, carbohydrates of low glycemic index, phytosteroids, and omega-3 and 6 fatty acids that bring benefits to the human health. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of quinoa on the biochemical and anthropometric profile and blood pressure in humans, parameters for measuring risk of cardiovascular diseases. Twenty-two 18 to 45-year-old students were treated daily for 30 days with quinoa in the form of a cereal bar. Blood samples were collected before and after 30 days of treatment to determine glycemic and biochemical profile of the group. The results indicated that quinoa had beneficial effects on part of the population studied since the levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, and LDL-c showed reduction. It can be concluded that the use of quinoa in diet can be considered beneficial in the prevention and treatment of risk factors related to cardiovascular diseases that are among the leading causes of death in today's globalized world. However, further studies are needed to prove the benefits observed.A quinoa é considerada um pseudocereal com proteínas de alto valor biológico, carboidratos de baixo índice glicêmico, fitosteróis e ácidos graxos ômega 3 e 6. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar os efeitos da quinoa no perfil bioquímico e antropométrico e pressão arterial em humanos, parâmetros dos fatores de risco para doenças cardiovasculares. Vinte e dois estudantes com 18 a 45 anos de idade foram tratados diariamente, por 30 dias, com quinoa sob a forma de barra de cereal. As amostras de sangue foram coletadas antes e após os 30 dias do tratamento para determinar o perfil glicêmico e bioquímico do grupo. Os resultados mostraram efeitos positivos do uso da quinoa já que se observou redução significativa nos valores de colesterol total, triglicerídeos e LDL-c. Conclui-se que o uso da quinoa na alimentação pode ser considerado benéfico na prevenção e tratamento de fatores de risco de doenças cardiovasculares que estão entre a principais causas de morte no mundo globalizado, embora sejam necessários mais estudos para comprovação dos benefícios observados.

  5. Caracterización morfo agronómica de diecinueve cultivares de quinua (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. en la sabana de Bogotá Morpho-agronornic characterization of nineteen cultivars of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. under Bogota's savanna conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torres M. Juner

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Con el propósito de proveer información acerca de la variabilidad genética y la adaptación en la Sabana de Bogotá de la colección de quinua correspondiente a la Prueba Americana y Europea de Quinua, se estudiaron 19 cultivares mediante la evaluación 49 características morfológicas y agronómicas. El ensayo se realizó en el Centro Agropecuario «Marengo» de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia, ubicado en Mosquera (Cundinamarca. El análisis estadístico, mediante componentes principales para 35 de las variables evaluadas mostró que los ocho primeros componentes
    explican el 88.12% de la variación total. Estos componentes
    estuvieron asociados a 18 variables manifestando la diversidad entre los genotipos. Además, éstos se usaron para construir un dendograma que, calculado a partir de la distancia euclidiana, mostró la existencia de nueve grupos en los cuales se distinguieron claramente los materiales americanos de los europeos. Agronómicamente se destacaron los cultivares E-DK-4 y G-205- 95, procedentes de Dinamarca, principalmente por su precocidad, alto rendimiento en grano, alto rendimiento en biomasa y
    por su porte bajo.
    Nineteen cultivars of «American and European Quinoa Test» were used in this assay. Forty-nine morphological and agronomic characteristics were evaluated at Research Center «Marengo» of National University of Colombia, located at Mosquera (Cundinamarca. The main objective ofthis experiment was to study the genetic variability of quinoa cultivars from American and European countries. The statistical analysis was carried out with 35 out of 49 variables. The first eight components explained the 88,12% of total variation and were constituted by 18 variables. Using this information a dendogram was constructed. Nine groups
    were identified. Cultivars from American countries were separated from European's ones. The bcst cultivars were E-DK-4 and G-205-95 from Denmark. These presented high grain yield, high level of biomass, precocity and low height plant.

  6. Elemental Characterization of minerals in Chenopodium quinoa grains by the X-ray fluorescence technique; Caracterizacion elemental en granos de quinua (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) mediante la tecnica de fluorescencia de rayos X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olivera de Lescano, Paula, E-mail: polivera@ipen.gob.pe [Direccion de Investigacion y Desarrollo, Instituto Peruano de Energia Nuclear, Av. Jose Saco km 12.5, Carabayllo, Lima (Peru); Nieto Aco, Daniel [E.P.A. de Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de Ingenieria, Av. Tupac Amaru 210, Lima (Peru)

    2014-07-01

    In order to characterize by the technique of X-ray fluorescence energy dispersive quinoa grain for human consumption, 8 samples of different trademarks of quinoa, which are distributed in the local market were analyzed; together one reference materials certified by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) was analyzed. The results show the presence of elements such as K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Rb and Sr, the same as compared to data reported in various studies in neighboring countries like Ecuador, Chile and Bolivia. (authors).

  7. Organic quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa L.) production in Peru: Environmental hotspots and food security considerations using Life Cycle Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancino-Espinoza, Eduardo; Vázquez-Rowe, Ian; Quispe, Isabel

    2018-05-08

    Quinoa is a plant that is cultivated in the Andean highlands across Peru and Bolivia. It is increasingly popular due to its high nutritive value and protein content. In particular, the cultivation of organic quinoa has grown substantially in recent years since it is the most demanded type of quinoa in the foreign market. Nevertheless, despite the interest that quinoa has generated in terms of its nutritional properties, little is known regarding the environmental profile of its production and processing. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to analyze the environmental impacts that are linked to the production and distribution of organic quinoa to the main export destinations through the application of the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology. An attributional LCA perspective was conducted including data from approximately 55 ha of land used for quinoa production in the regions of Huancavelica and Ayacucho, in southern-central Peru. IPCC, 2013 and ReCiPe 2008 were the two assessment methods selected to estimate the environmental impact results using the SimaPro 8.3 software. Results, which were calculated for one 500 g package of organic quinoa, showed that GHG emissions are in the upper range of other organic agricultural products. However, when compared to other high protein content food products, especially those from animal origin, considerably low environmental impacts are obtained. For instance, if 20% of the average annual beef consumption in Peru is substituted by organic quinoa, each Peruvian would mitigate 31 kg CO 2 eq/year in their diet. Moreover, when the edible protein energy return on investment (i.e., ep-EROI) is computed, a ratio of 0.38 is obtained, in the higher range of protein rich food products. However, future research should delve into the environmental and food policy implications of agricultural land expansion to produce an increasing amount of quinoa for a growing global demand. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Characterisation of fatty acid, carotenoid, tocopherol/tocotrienol compositions and antioxidant activities in seeds of three Chenopodium quinoa Willd. genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yao; Li, Xihong; Chen, Peter X; Zhang, Bing; Hernandez, Marta; Zhang, Hua; Marcone, Massimo F; Liu, Ronghua; Tsao, Rong

    2015-05-01

    Composition of fatty acids, tocopherols, tocotrienols, and carotenoids, and their contribution to antioxidant activities were investigated in seeds of three coloured quinoa cultivars (white, red and black). The major components and individual compounds were significantly different, and their concentrations were higher in darker seeds (p tocopherol content ranged from 37.49 to 59.82 μg/g and mainly consisted of γ-tocopherol. Trace amount of α- and β-tocotrienols was also found. Black quinoa had the highest vitamin E followed by red and white quinoas. Carotenoids, mainly trans-lutein (84.7-85.6%) and zeaxanthin were confirmed for the first time in quinoa seeds, and the concentration was also the highest in black seeds. The antioxidant activities of lipophilic extracts were positively correlated with polyunsaturated fatty acids, total carotenoids and total tocopherols. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Water relations and transpiration of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) under salinity and soil drying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Razzaghi, Fatemeh; Ahmadi, Seyed Hamid; Adolf, Verena Isabelle

    2011-01-01

    water potential (Wl), shoot and root abscisic acid concentration ([ABA]) and transpiration rate were measured in full irrigation (FI; around 95 % of water holding capacity (WHC)) and progressive drought (PD) treatments using the irrigation water with five salinity levels (0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 dS m)1...

  10. Quality assessments of untreated and washed quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) seeds based on histlogical and foaming capacity investigations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raamsdonk, van L.W.D.; Pinckaers, V.G.Z.; Ossenkoppele, J.S.; Houben, R.; Lotgering, M.; Groot, M.J.

    2010-01-01

    Quinoa seed has a high nutritional value, but has a coating of bitter-tasting saponins, making it unpalatable. Therefore the seeds are usually processed in order to remove the naturally occurring saponins from the seeds. To investigate the impact of processing, untreated and washed seeds of the

  11. Agronomical and nutritional evaluation of quinoa seeds (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) as an ingredient in bread formulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stikic, Radmila; Glamoclija, Djordje; Demin, Mirjana

    2012-01-01

    Quinoa is an Andean seed crop of many potential uses. In 2009 a field trial was carried out to explore the potential for quinoa growing in climatic conditions of South Eastern Europe. Even under rainfed conditions, without fertilization, a seed yield as high as 1.721 t ha-1 was obtained. Seed qua...... in bread was increased by around 2%. Sensory characteristics of breads were excellent also at the 20% supplementation level. The study of bread supplemented with quinoa seeds could enable the development of a range of new baking products with enhanced nutritional value....... had higher contents of most essential amino acids, especially lysine, than wheat flour. Dehulled quinoa seeds, devoid of saponins, were included into wheat bread formulations, with up to 20%, which resulted in a positive effect on the rheological characteristics of dough. Furthermore, protein content...

  12. Survey of History Utilization on Metribuzin Efficiency to Control Commonlamb’squarters (Chenopodium album in Different Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. Mofidi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Potato is a cool-season vegetable that ranks with wheat and rice as one of the most important staple crops in the human diet around the world. Weed control is important in potato production management, because without doing it potato harvest would not be cost- effective. Metribuzin (4-amino-6-tert butyl-3-methylthio-1, 2, 4-triazin-5-one, a triazine, is used as a selective herbicides for control of annuals grasses and broadleaf weeds inpotato. Its herbicide efficiency and its relatively low toxicity are such that it is widely used around the world. Replacing metribuzin with other herbicide that have the greatest effect on weed control in potato seems unlikely. The persistence of metribuzin in soil is defined as the period or extension of time in which it remains active. Knowing the case of herbicides is particularly important because, on one hand, it determines the period of time in which weeds can be controlled, and on the other, it is related to the later phytotoxic effects which can damage the subsequent crops. In order to understand about affiance of this herbicide in potato fields, researches on metribuzin toxicity in common lamb’squarters in soils with different utilizations are essential. Material and Methods: This experiment was conducted to study the effect of soil characteristics and utilization history of metribuzin on its efficiency to common lamb’squarters control as a factorial on the base of randomized complete blocks design with three replications in green house of Institue of Plant Protection in 2012. First factor was soil type in six levels (Hamedan with 15 years and without utilization history, Jiroft with 15 years and without utilization history, Isfahan with 2 years utilization history and Mashhad with 3 years utilization history and second factor was concentration of metribuzin in six levels (included 0, 100, 300, 700 and 1000 g ai h-1. Soil samples were collected from 0-15 cm depth. Before cultivating, the pots with mentioned soils were treated with metribuzin. Each sample was thoroughly mixed to allow a homogeneous distribution. Non-sprayed samples were used as controls. Common lamb’squarters seeds were planted in pots and the soil in each pot was watered as mist. After emergence, the seedlings were thinned to two per pot. Harvesting weeds were done four weeks after sowing. Then, dry weight and the length of shoot and root were measured. All data were subjected to analysis of variance and means were compared at the 5% level of significance. The classical bioassay, often used to quantify the amount of herbicide in soil, employs a single “standard” dose-response curve. This standard curve show the plant response to different herbicide concentrations and report information of different concepts related to herbicide efficacy, such as selectivity, tolerance and resistance. A typical dose-response curve is sigmoid in shape. One example of such a curve is the loglogistic curve. The data were expressed as a percentage of the untreated control and dose- response curves were drawn. Results: According to results, more common lamb’squarters was controlled due to increase of herbicide dose. But the effects of metribuzin residue were decreased by increase of amounts of clay, organic matter and utilization history. The amount of herbicide required to reduce the growth of weed by 50% (GR₅₀ when compared with the control was determined for each soil. In the soils with higher organic matter GR₅₀ were increased. The highest and lowest damage to common lamb’squarters was observed in soils of Jiroft without utilization history and Hamedan with 15 years utilization history, respectively So in the soil with long utilization history of metribuzin, common lamb’squarters control was greatly reduced due to the presence of microorganisms adapted to the herbicide and use of it to supply energy. The breakdown of herbicides by soil organisms known as microbes accounts for a large portion of herbicide degradation in soil. Certain bacteria, fungi, and algae use herbicide as a food source. Microbes are herbicide-specific and their population in the soil is related to the amount of herbicide can lead to increased microbe populations and a shorter duration of effective weed control. Organic matter provides excellent habitat for microbes. The adsorption degree of this herbicide is positively correlated with organic matter content and negatively with their persistence. In these situations for controlling this weed higher concentration of metribuzin must be used.

  13. Effects of nitrogen availability and spore concentration on the biocontrol activity of Ascochyta caulina in common lambsquarters (Chenopodium album)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghorbani, R.; Scheepens, P.C.; Zweerde, van der W.; Leifert, C.; McDonald, A.J.S.; Seel, W.

    2002-01-01

    Common lambsquarters is an annual weed of many important crops. Ascochyta caulina is a plant pathogenic fungus that causes necrotic lesions on the leaves and stems of common lambsquarters. The objective of the present study was to estimate the effect of plant N supply on the biocontrol activity of

  14. Quinoa from Valley (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.: Valuable source of genetic resistance to powdery mildew(Peronospora farinosa Willd.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Julio

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to identify quinoa resistant cultivars to powdery mildew (Peronospora farinosa of high yield and large grain size, 36 cultivars were evaluated under two different fungicide applications and a control in the Valle Bajo from Cochabamba. We determined the realtive Area under Develop Progress Curve of Peronosporafarinosa (AUDPCPF relative, the yield and another eleven quantitative variables. The results showed that cultivars 01Tardía, 08Tardía, 12Tardía, 04Tardía, 11Tardía 10Tardía, 19Tardía y 18Tardía were susceptible and the cultivars H172, A26, A03, A16, A22, A14 and H171 were resistant. The cultivars A40, H177, A26, H172, A25, A1 y H176 showed yields from 3.4 to 6.34 t ha-1. The cultivars 15 Tardía, 03 Tardía, 14 Tardía, H173, H171, A25, H176 and H172 with chemical control strategy and the tricobalreacted favorably against powdery mildew, which was associated with levels of resistance in each cultivar. Finally, there was a high significant negative correlation between the variables AUDPCPF relative and physiological maturity, plant length, panicle length, stem diameter, panicle diameter and weight of 100 seeds. This showed that when the attack of mildewis severe, also affects the grains yield.

  15. Physicochemical analysis of frankfurter type sausages made with red tilapia fillet waste (Oreochromis sp and quinoa flour (Chenopodium quinoa W.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Igor Hleap Zapata

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In Colombia, the production of red tilapia (Oreochromis sp has shown important development in recent years. It is a hydro-biological resource that generates fish fillet waste that can be used in the manufacture of fish products. The aim of this research was to analyze the influence of quinoa flour on the physicochemical properties, texture and oxidative stability during storage and sale of Frankfurter sausages made with red tilapia fillet waste when adding two concentrations of quinoa flour, 10 g/kg and 20 g/kg, and a control treatment with no quinoa flour. The sausages were vacuum packed and stored under refrigeration (2 °C ± 2 °C. The proximate chemical composition, pH, CIElab coordinates, lipid oxidation, water holding capacity, water binding ability and cooking yield were determined, along with an instrumental texture analysis for each of the sausages prepared. The addition of quinoa flour at a concentration of 10 g/kg presented the best water holding capacity, water binding ability, lighter coloration and cooking yield, as compared to the control sausage. By contrast, the sausages with 20 g/kg were harder and required greater effort to cut than the control (p < 0.05. The addition of quinoa flour increased fat oxidation after 6 days of monitoring. The addition of 10 g/kg of quinoa flour was the best concentration for the production of sausages made with red tilapia fillet waste, which represents a new alternative for hydro-biological-origin foodstuffs.

  16. Ionic and osmotic relations in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) plants grown at various salinity level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hariadi, Yuda; Marandon, Karl; Tian, Yu

    2011-01-01

    or by the gradual increase of NaCl levels in the irrigation water. For both methods, the optimal plant growth and biomass was achieved between 100 mM and 200 mM NaCl, suggesting that quinoa possess a very efficient system to adjust osmotically for abrupt increases in NaCl stress. Up to 95% of osmotic adjustment......Cl-induced activation of H+-ATPase is needed to restore otherwise depolarized membrane potential and prevent further K+ leak from the cytosol. Taken together, this work emphasizes the role of inorganic ions for osmotic adjustment in halophytes and calls for more in-depth studies of the mechanisms of vacuolar Na...

  17. Determination of heat-set gelation capacity of a quinoa protein isolate (Chenopodium quinoa) by dynamic oscillatory rheological analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaspchak, Elaine; Oliveira, Marco Aurelio Schüler de; Simas, Fernanda Fogagnoli; Franco, Célia Regina Cavicchiolo; Silveira, Joana Léa Meira; Mafra, Marcos Rogério; Igarashi-Mafra, Luciana

    2017-10-01

    This work aimed to study the influence of pH (3.5 and 7.0) and CaCl 2 and MgCl 2 addition on heat-set gelation of a quinoa protein isolate at 10% and 15% (w/w). The protein isolate obtained was composed mainly of 11S globulin as was observed by electrophoresis and mass spectrometry analysis. Heat-set gelation occurred at both pH values studied. Nevertheless, the gels formed at pH 3.5 were more viscoelastic and denser than those formed at pH 7.0, that was coarser and presented syneresis. The CaCl 2 and MgCl 2 addition increased the gel strength during rheological analysis at pH 3.5, possibly due to the formation of fiber-like connections in the gel network. At pH 7.0, the divalent salts resulted in weaker gels formed by agglomerates, suggesting a neutralization of the protein surface charges. The differences in quinoa protein gelation were attributed to solubility, and the flexibility of proteins secondary structure at the pH studied. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Heat-denaturation and aggregation of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) globulins as affected by the pH value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäkinen, Outi E; Zannini, Emanuele; Koehler, Peter; Arendt, Elke K

    2016-04-01

    The influence of heating (100 °C; 0-15 min) on the relative molecular mass, protein unfolding and secondary structure of quinoa globulins was studied at pH 6.5 (low solubility), 8.5 and 10.5 (high solubility). The patterns of denaturation and aggregation varied with pH. Heating triggered the disruption of the disulfide bonds connecting the acidic and basic chains of the chenopodin subunits at pH 8.5 and 10.5, but not at pH 6.5. Large aggregates unable to enter a 4% SDS-PAGE gel were formed at pH 6.5 and 8.5, which became soluble under reducing conditions. Heating at pH 10.5 lead to a rapid dissociation of the native chenopodin and to the disruption of the subunits, but no SDS-insoluble aggregates were formed. No major changes in secondary structure occurred during a 15 min heating, but an increase in hydrophobicity indicated unfolding of the tertiary structure in all samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Biochemical and immunochemical evidences supporting the inclusion of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) as a gluten-free ingredient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñas, Elena; Uberti, Francesca; di Lorenzo, Chiara; Ballabio, Cinzia; Brandolini, Andrea; Restani, Patrizia

    2014-12-01

    To date, the only acceptable therapeutic approach for celiac disease (CD) is a strict elimination from the diet of gluten-containing foods, but this diet does not always guarantee an adequate nutritional intake. Pseudocereals are receiving considerable attention as interesting alternatives for the formulation of gluten-free products, and quinoa grains arise as nutritive substitutes of conventional cereals. The aim of this study was the characterization of different quinoa samples corresponding to 11 quinoa varieties, using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS-PAGE) and immunoblotting techniques to assess their suitability for celiac subjects. Some of these varieties were grown in Italy to assess if the reproduction in a new habitat can guarantee the retention of the "safe" protein pattern. None of the quinoa varieties studied presented protein bands with electrophoretic mobility comparable with those of wheat gliadins, the toxic protein for celiac subjects. All the quinoa samples showed a low binding affinity for both specific anti-gliadin antibodies and IgAs from celiac subjects, confirming that quinoa can be considered as a safe ingredient for celiac patients. However, reliable varieties should be previously selected since the immuno cross-reactivity with anti-gliadin antibodies can vary significantly.

  20. In vitro chemopreventive properties of peptides released from quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) protein under simulated gastrointestinal digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilcacundo, Rubén; Miralles, Beatriz; Carrillo, Wilman; Hernández-Ledesma, Blanca

    2018-03-01

    Because of the continuous and direct interaction between the digestive tract and foods, dietary compounds represent an interesting source of chemopreventive agents for gastrointestinal health. In this study, the influence of a standardized static in vitro gastrointestinal digestion model on the release of peptides with chemopreventive potential from quinoa protein was investigated. Gastroduodenal digests and fractions collected by ultrafiltration were evaluated for their in plate oxygen radical absorbance capacity and in vitro colon cancer cell viability inhibitory activity. Highest effects were observed in the digests obtained during the intestinal phase, with fraction containing peptides 5kDa showing the greatest anti-cancer effects. Seventeen potential bioactive peptides derived from quinoa proteins have been identified. These proteins might be utilized as new ingredients in the development of functional foods or nutraceuticals with the aim of reducing oxidative stress-associated diseases, including cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Isolation and characterization of the betalain biosynthesis gene involved in hypocotyl pigmentation of the allotetraploid Chenopodium quinoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imamura, Tomohiro; Takagi, Hiroki; Miyazato, Akio; Ohki, Shinya; Mizukoshi, Hiroharu; Mori, Masashi

    2018-02-05

    In quinoa seedlings, the pigment betalain accumulates in the hypocotyl. To isolate the genes involved in betalain biosynthesis in the hypocotyl, we performed ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) mutagenesis on the CQ127 variety of quinoa seedlings. While putative amaranthin and celosianin II primarily accumulate in the hypocotyls, this process produced a green hypocotyl mutant (ghy). This MutMap+ method using the quinoa draft genome revealed that the causative gene of the mutant is CqCYP76AD1-1. Our results indicated that the expression of CqCYP76AD1-1 was light-dependent. In addition, the transient expression of CqCYP76AD1-1 in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves resulted in the accumulation of betanin but not isobetanin, and the presence of a polymorphism in CqCYP76A1-2 in the CQ127 variety was shown to have resulted in its loss of function. These findings suggested that CqCYP76AD1-1 is involved in betalain biosynthesis during the hypocotyl pigmentation process in quinoa. To our knowledge, CqCYP76AD1-1 is the first quinoa gene identified by EMS mutagenesis using a draft gene sequence. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. A Hybrid Dry and Aqueous Fractionation Method to Obtain Protein-Rich Fractions from Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avila Ruiz, Geraldine; Arts, Anke; Minor, Marcel; Schutyser, Maarten

    2016-01-01

    Combination of dry and aqueous fractionation is investigated to obtain protein-rich fractions from quinoa in a milder and more sustainable way compared to conventional wet fractionation. Dry fractionation of quinoa involved milling and subsequent air classification, generating a protein-enriched

  3. Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa W.) and amaranth (Amaranthus caudatus L.) provide dietary fibres high in pectic substances and xyloglucans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamothe, Lisa M; Srichuwong, Sathaporn; Reuhs, Bradley L; Hamaker, Bruce R

    2015-01-15

    Dietary fibre of quinoa and amaranth was analysed for its insoluble and soluble fibre content, composition, and structure. Total dietary fibre content was 10% for quinoa and 11% for amaranth. For both pseudocereals, 78% of its dietary fibre was insoluble. Insoluble fibre (IDF) from quinoa and amaranth was mainly composed of galacturonic acid, arabinose, galactose, xylose and glucose. Linkage analysis indicated that IDF was composed of homogalacturonans and rhamnogalacturonan-I with arabinan side-chains (∼55-60%), as well as highly branched xyloglucans (∼30%) and cellulose. For both pseudocereals, 22% of total dietary fibre was soluble; a higher proportion than that found in wheat and maize (∼15%). The soluble fibre (SDF) was composed of glucose, galacturonic acid and arabinose; for amaranth, xylose was also a major constituent. Xyloglucans made up ∼40-60% of the SDF and arabinose-rich pectic polysaccharides represented ∼34-55%. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. AVALIAÇÃO SENSORIAL DE IOGURTE À BASE DE PITAIA (HYLOCEREUS UNDATUS, ENRIQUECIDO COM QUINOA (CHENOPODIUM QUINOA E SUCRALOSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Thiago Matos Carvalho Santana

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O mercado para alimentos que visam determinado benefício à saúde tem se mostrado promissor, aliado a esse fato é crescente o número de estudos na área de alimentos derivados do leite, como o iogurte, produto de alto valor biológico, com propriedades benéficas a saúde e de fácil comercialização. O iogurte se adicionado de polpa de pitaia (Hylocereus undatus, fruta exótica de potencial sensorial e pouco explorada, tende a ser um produto de fácil aceitação pelos consumidores, adicionalmente é possível aumentar seu valor nutricional adicionando quinoa, cereal de elevado teor protéico e conteúdos significativos em ácidos graxos, e não obstante a utilização da sucralose que é considerado um edulcorante sem restrições de uso, torna o produto ainda mais atrativo. Nesse sentido, o presente estudo objetivou avaliar sensorialmente iogurtes acrescidos de polpa de pitaia em diferentes concentrações e verificar qual foi a de maior aceitação. Foram feitas as análises microbiológicas de coliformes a 30ºC, 45ºC e presença de Salmonella sp. para verificar a qualidade do produto. O modelo adotado para a análise sensorial foi o teste de ordenação de preferência, para comparação do iogurte em suas diferentes concentrações de polpa. As análises microbiológicas encontradas para os iogurtes nas concentrações de 20%, 30% e 40% de polpa foram satisfatórias de acordo com a legislação vigente para esse tipo de produto. Os resultados obtidos para o teste sensorial apontaram à preferência do consumidor a amostra com maior concentração de polpa de pitaia (40%.

  5. Digestibility of Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) Protein Concentrate and Its Potential to Inhibit Lipid Peroxidation in the Zebrafish Larvae Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilcacundo, R; Barrio, D; Carpio, C; García-Ruiz, A; Rúales, J; Hernández-Ledesma, B; Carrillo, W

    2017-09-01

    Quinoa protein concentrate (QPC) was extracted and digested under in vitro gastrointestinal conditions. The protein content of QPC was in the range between 52.40 and 65.01% depending on the assay used. Quinoa proteins were almost completely hydrolyzed by pepsin at pH of 1.2, 2.0, and 3.2. At high pH, only partial hydrolysis was observed. During the duodenal phase, no intact proteins were visible, indicating their susceptibility to the in vitro simulated digestive conditions. Zebrafish larvae model was used to evaluate the in vivo ability of gastrointestinal digests to inhibit lipid peroxidation. Gastric digestion at pH 1.2 showed the highest lipid peroxidation inhibition percentage (75.15%). The lipid peroxidation activity increased after the duodenal phase. The digest obtained at the end of the digestive process showed an inhibition percentage of 82.10%, comparable to that showed when using BHT as positive control (87.13%).

  6. Phenolic compounds and saponins in quinoa samples (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) grown under different saline and nonsaline irrigation regimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Caravaca, Ana María; Iafelice, Giovanna; Lavini, Antonella; Pulvento, Cataldo; Caboni, Maria Fiorenza; Marconi, Emanuele

    2012-05-09

    Quinoa is a pseudocereal from South America that has received increased interest around the world because it is a good source of different nutrients and rich in antioxidant compounds. Thus, this study has focused on the effects of different agronomic variables, such as irrigation and salinity, on the phenolic and saponin profiles of quinoa. It was observed that irrigation with 25% of full water restitution, with and without the addition of salt, was associated with increases in free phenolic compounds of 23.16 and 26.27%, respectively. In contrast, bound phenolic compounds were not affected by environmental stresses. Saponins decreased if samples were exposed to drought and saline regimens. In situations of severe water deficit, the saponins content decreased 45%, and 50% when a salt stress was added. The results suggest that irrigation and salinity may regulate the production of bioactive compounds in quinoa, influencing its nutritional and industrial values.

  7. ELABORACIÓN DE PASTAS ALIMENTICIAS ENRIQUECIDAS A PARTIR DE HARINA DE QUINUA (Chenopodium quinoa wild. Y ZANAHORIA (Daucus carota ELABORACAO DE PASTA ALIMENTICIA ENRIQUECIDA A PARTIR DE FARINHA DE QUINUA (Chenopodium quinoa wild. E CENOURA (Daucus carota PRODUCTION OF FOOD PASTAS ENRICHED FROM QUINUA's (Chenopodium quinoa wild. FLOUR AND CARROT (Daucus carota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M ASTAÍZA

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available La pasta de sémola es un alimento de consumo masivo, pero el valor biológico de su proteína es bajo, dada la deficiencia de Usina en la proteína del trigo. Al complementar la sémola con harina de quinua y zanahoria, se mejora la calidad de la proteína por ser la quinua muy rica en Usina y se incrementa el contenido de fibra soluble y vitamina A con la adición de zanahoria. Este estudio se desarrolló en dos etapas; en la Etapa I se elaboraron y analizaron pastas enriquecidas con harina integral de quinua, con niveles de sustitución del 30%, 40% y50% en la Etapa II, se sustituyó con zanahoria un 15% de la fase líquida de la formulación que en la fase I presentó mejor calidad. En las dos etapas se evaluó calidad de cocción, composición química y calidad sensorial de las pastas. La sustitución de la sémola por un 30% de harina de quinua, al igual que la inclusión de zanahoria en la formulación, permitió la obtención de un producto de mayor calidad nutricional y de excelente aceptación por el consumidor. Se logró un incremento significativo en la concentración de proteína y fibra, acompañado de una disminución en el contenido de carbohidratos; igualmente, mejoró el cómputo químico de las pastas pasando de 55.2% en las pastas control a 72.4 en las pastas enriquecidas con quinua. La calidad de cocción fue inferior en las pastas enriquecidas; sin embargo, las propiedades tecnológicas de las pastas se mantienen dentro de los rangos adecuados para su preparaciónAs pastas de sêmola de trigo é um alimento de consumo massivo, mas o valor biológico da sua proteína é baixo devido à; sua deficiencia em Usina. Ao complementar a sêmola com farinha de quinua e cenoura, não só se melhora a qualidade da proteína por complementaridade de aminoácidos entre a proteína do trigo e os aminoácidos da proteína de quinua, pseudo cereal muito rico em Usina, senão que também se incrementa o conteúdo de fibra e vitamina A com a cenoura. Este estudo se desenvolve em duas fases; na fase I elaboraram-se e analisaram-se pastas enriquecidas com farinha de quinua, com níveis de substituição do 30%, 40% e 50% na fase sólida da formulação; e urna fase II, na qual se substituiu com cenoura um 15% da fase líquida da formulação que na fase um apresentou melhor qualidade culinaria e sensorial. Avaliou-se a qualidade culinaria e as características químicas das pastas assim como a aceitabilidade e qualidade sensorial com consumidores de cinco bairros da cidade de Popayán. A complementaridade com farinha de quinua e cenoura, gerou incremento significativo no tempo de cocção e diminuição do incremento em peso e da porcentagem da agua absorvida com relação às pastas controle; as perdas de sólidos por cocção foram menores do que ñas pastas substituidas com relação ás pastas controle. No âmbito do consumidoras pastas substituidas com farinha de quinua e com cenoura tiveram excelente aceitação. A porcentagem de proteína e fibra quantificadas ñas pastas enriquecidas foi significativamente superior ao controle. No computo químico indicou melhor qualidade da proteína ñas pastas enriquecidas. Por tanto se concluí que é a tecnológica, nutricional e socialmente factível a complementação da sêmola de trigo com quina e cenoura na elaboração de pastas. Este estudo mereceu o apoio financeiro do fundo empreendedor para seu escalamento ao nivel semi-industrialThe pasta ofsemolina is a food ofmassive consumption, but the biológical value ofits protein is low, the deficiency is given by the lysine in the protein of the wheat. To complemented the Semolina with quinua and carrot flour, the quality of the protein is improved because the quinua is high in lysine and there is increased the content of soluble fiber and A vitamin bythe addition of carrot. This study is developed in two stages; in the First Stage it was elaborated and was analyzed the pastas enriched with quinua flour, with levels of substitution of 30%, 40% and 50% in the Second Stage, it was replaced with carrot 15% of the liquid phase of the formulation that in the First phase was better in quality there was evaluated the quality of boiling, chemical composition and sensory quality of the pastas. The substitution of the Semolina for 30% of quinua flour, as the incorporation of carrot in the formulation, allowed the high nutritional quality pasta, with excellent acceptance by the consumer it was achieved a significant increase in the concentration of protein and fiber, it was decreased the content of carbohydrates, it as improved the chemical calculation and the technological properties and it was kept inside the suitable ranges; all of it concluded that complementation of the semolina with quinua and carrot, in the elaboration of pastas, improves the nutritional quality of these and it is technologically feasible.

  8. Avaliação de biofertilizantes, extratos vegetais e diferentes substâncias alternativas no manejo de tripes em cebola em sistema orgânico Evaluation of biofertilizers, plant extracts, and some alternative substances to manage onion thrips in organic agriculture system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo A.S. Gonçalves

    2004-09-01

    biofertilizer at 50%, aerobic liquid biofertilizer at 5%, manganese sulfate at 1%, hydroalcoholic extract of propolis at 0,2%, macerate of herbs at 2% and 4%, tobacco extract (Nicotiana tabacum 2 L ha-1 + neutral detergent at 1%, and no spray. In 1997, the treatments were: macerate of herbs 5% and 10%; sulfur waterable powder 0,25% + propolis hydroalcoholic extract 0,2% + extract of fern (Pteridium aquilinum 3%; anaerobic liquid biofertilizer 50%; extract of wormseed goosefoot (Chenopodium ambrosioides 10%; aerobic liquid biofertilizer 5%; extract of Ateleia glazioviana 0,5%; extract of fern (Pteridium aquilinum 10%; extract of chinaberry (Melia zedarach 10%; extract of camomile (Matricaria chamomilla 5%; and control without spray. The products were applied using a CO2 sprayer with constant pressure. The different treatments did not cause significant reduction in the thrips population nor any increase in yield in comparison to control treatment, without spray.

  9. Citotoxicidade de plantas com indicativo etnográfico para a desinfecção de água Cytotoxicity of plants as an ethnographic indicator for water disinfection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. Gonçalves

    2009-01-01

    disinfectants which, combined with organic residues, result in trihalomethane (potentially oncogenic. The aim of this work was to evaluate the cytotoxicity of five plant extracts, capable of promoting water disinfection, against six cell lines: Vero (ATCC CCl81 African green monkey cells; MDBK (ATCC CCL 24 Martin Darby Bonne kidney cells; MDCK (ATCC CCL 34 Canis familiaris kidney cells; CRFK (ATCC CCL 94 Felix catus kidney cells; PK 15 (ATCC CCL 33 Sus scrofa kidney cells; RK13 (ATCC CCL 37 Oryctolagus cuniculus kidney cells, as well as to evaluate the most sensitive cell cultures for the toxicity test of plant extracts. The most toxic extract was that of white goosefoot (Chenopodium album against all tested cells. California arrowhead (Sagittaria montevidensis extract had median toxicity and extracts of "erva baleeira" (Cordia curassavica, miracle leaf (Bryophyllum pinnatum [Kurz] and colombian waxweed (Cuphea carthagenensis [Jacq.] J.F. Macbride were the least toxic. This finding was statistically significant (p=0.99 when the plant extracts were compared regarding the concentrations and the studied cells. The most sensitive cells were VERO (monkey kidney and CRFK (feline kidney compared to the others (MDBK, MDCK, PK 15, RK 13, with significant difference (p=0.99. In conclusion, plant extracts must be evaluated as to their toxicity before being used as health resources and some cells are more effective than others in the detection of cytopathogenic effects.

  10. Fungal population in soils producing quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd, under different management systems in the community Kerecaya Municipality of Salinas de Garci Mendoza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paco-Pérez Victor

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The Kerecaya community (3700-4000 msnm of the municipality of Salinas of Garci Mendoza of the south altiplano of Bolivia, in spite of your climatics risks. The plots of quinoa present lower organic matter to 0.93%, humidity of the smaller earth to 12.9%, temperature of the earth for under 8.5 oC and pH lower to 8.0. The population of funguses in three types it has studied of earths that went: without farm (without entropic intervention, traditional and mechanized. The humid samples of the earth were gathered to a depth of 6 to 25 cm at random in zig-zag, these to be prosecuted by means of the method of seriate dilution and inoculated in plates with 0.5 mL and it is evaluated the colonies for UFC´s/g of earth, the genre of Penicilli-um spp., with major population of 65.1%, followed for Aspergillus spp., with 24,1% and Trichoderma spp., with minor great quality of 13,8% and the population average in UFC´s/g of earth it went of 1035.4 in with-out farm (without entropic intervention, 959.7 in traditional and 868.2 in the mechanized and the major population was presented in the month of February 1572.8 UFC/g of earth.

  11. Effect of home processing and storage on ascorbic acid and beta-carotene content of Bathua (Chenopodium album) and fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, S K; Sehgal, S

    1997-01-01

    The present investigation was conducted to study the effect of selected processing and storage methods on the concentration of ascorbic acid and beta-carotene in Bathua and fenugreek leaves. Methods included storage of leaves with or without polythene bags for 24 and 48 h in a refrigerator at 5 degrees C; at 30 degrees C in polythene bags; drying (sun and oven); blanching (5, 10, 15 min); open pan and pressure cooking. Ascorbic acid content of fresh leaves was 220.97 to 377.65 mg and beta-carotene content was 19.00 to 24.64 mg/100 g, DW. The percent loss of ascorbic acid ranged from 2.03 to 8.77 and 45.15 to 66.9 while lower losses (0.0 to 1.75 and 1.63 to 2.84) of beta-carotene were observed in leaves stored in the refrigerator and at 30 degrees C, respectively. A markedly greater reduction in ascorbic acid and beta-carotene was observed in dried, blanched and cooked leaves. The study data suggest that storage of leaves in refrigeration, drying in oven, blanching for a short time and cooking in a pressure cooker results in better retention of these two vitamins.

  12. Inhibition of the essential oil from Chenopodium ambrosioides L. and α-terpinene on the NorA efflux-pump of Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Morais Oliveira-Tintino, Cícera Datiane; Tintino, Saulo Relison; Limaverde, Paulo W; Figueredo, Fernando G; Campina, Fábia F; da Cunha, Francisco A B; da Costa, Roger H S; Pereira, Pedro Silvino; Lima, Luciene F; de Matos, Yedda M L S; Coutinho, Henrique Douglas Melo; Siqueira-Júnior, José P; Balbino, Valdir Q; da Silva, Teresinha Gonçalves

    2018-10-01

    This study was carried out to test the essential oil from C. ambrosioides leaves and its main constituent, α-Terpinene, in an antibacterial activity assay. As well, it was evaluated ability reduce resistance to norfloxacin and ethidium bromide was compared the Staphylococcus aureus 1199B whith 1199 wild type strain. The MIC of the C. ambrosioides essential oil and α-Terpinene were determined by microdilution method. The MIC of the essential oil and α-Terpinene presented a value ≥ 1024 μg/mL. However, when associated with antibacterials, the essential oil from C. ambrosioides leaves significantly reduced the MIC of antibiotics and ethidium bromide, characterizing an efflux pump inhibition. The C. ambrosioides essential oil, despite having no direct antibacterial activity against the S. aureus 1199B strain, showed a potentiating action when associated with antibacterial agents, this being attributed to an inhibition of efflux pumps. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Elevated genetic diversity in an F2:6 population of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) developed through an inter-ecotype cross

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benlhabib, Ouafae; Boujartani, Noura; Maughan, Peter J

    2016-01-01

    for quantitative and qualitative traits. Impressive transgressive segregation was measured for seed yield (22.42 g/plant), while plant height and maturity had higher heritabilities (73 and 89%, respectively). Other notable characters segregating in the population included panicle and stem color, panicle form......, and resistance to downy mildew. In the Principal Component analysis, the first axis explained 74% of the total variation and was correlated to plant height, panicle size, stem diameter, biomass, mildew reaction, maturation, and seed yield; those traits are relevant discriminatory characters. Yield correlated...

  14. Ethno-Ecological and Agronomic Contributions toward the Knowledge, Conservation and Use of Cañahua (Chenopodium pallidicaule Aellen) and Ahipa (Pachyrhizus ahipa (Wedd.) Parodi) in Bolivia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodriguez Calle, Juan Pablo

    decades ago – showed that many producers are abandoning the cultivation of the ahipa and have replaced it by other marketable crops, i.e. mainly cash crop. If the farmers who still cultivate ‒ and thereby conserve the ahipa ‒ are to be encouraged in their efforts, they should receive a support...... communities still cultivate a wide range of diverse crop resources, but faced with reduced demands this agro-biodiversity is in danger of becoming significantly reduced. The overall aim of this PhD thesis was to contribute to the conservation and use of cañahua and ahipa by records of ethno...... from urban markets due to lack of economic incentive to the ahipa growers. A framework is proposed for the enhancing of local capacity building among small farmers, mainly focussed on women and farmer associations....

  15. Use of sourdough made with quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) flour and autochthonous selected lactic acid bacteria for enhancing the nutritional, textural and sensory features of white bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe; Lorusso, Anna; Montemurro, Marco; Gobbetti, Marco

    2016-06-01

    Lactic acid bacteria were isolated and identified from quinoa flour, spontaneously fermented quinoa dough, and type I quinoa sourdough. Strains were further selected based on acidification and proteolytic activities. Selected Lactobacillus plantarum T6B10 and Lactobacillus rossiae T0A16 were used as mixed starter to get quinoa sourdough. Compared to non-fermented flour, organic acids, free amino acids, soluble fibers, total phenols, phytase and antioxidant activities, and in vitro protein digestibility markedly increased during fermentation. A wheat bread was made using 20% (w/w) of quinoa sourdough, and compared to baker's yeast wheat breads manufactured with or without quinoa flour. The use of quinoa sourdough improved the chemical, textural, and sensory features of wheat bread, showing better performances compared to the use of quinoa flour. Protein digestibility and quality, and the rate of starch hydrolysis were also nutritional features that markedly improved using quinoa sourdough as an ingredient. This study exploited the potential of quinoa flour through sourdough fermentation. A number of advantages encouraged the manufacture of novel and healthy leavened baked goods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The combined effect of deficit irrigation by treated wastewater and organic amendment on quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hirich, Abdelaziz; Choukr-Allah, Redouane; Jacobsen, Sven-Erik

    2014-01-01

    One of the most important factors that limits crop production is the availability of water. Deficit irrigation is the most important irrigation strategy to increase water use efficiency and crop water productivity. Organic amendment combined with deficit irrigation can be practical solution to co...

  17. Physical-chemical characterization of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd., amaranth (Amaranthus caudatus L., and chia (Salvia hispanica L. flours and seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Lucía Torres Vargas

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Quinoa, amaranth, and chia flours have considerable amounts of protein, starch, dietary fiber, lipids, minerals, vitamins, and bioactive components, which provide in them exceptional properties for human nutrition. The aim of this research was the physical-chemical characterization of quinoa, amaranth, and chia flours and seeds through proximal, optical, functional, thermal, and structural analyses. From the results obtained during the proximal analysis, considerable proportions were determined of protein and fiber for the three flours, with the highest values in chia flour at 28.56% and 39.8%, respectively. These results were corroborated by optical microscopy analysis performed on longitudinal cuts in the three types of seeds. Thermal parameters indicated that the three flours presented irreversible thermal degradation processes and glass transition change for amaranth and chia flours at temperatures above 100ºC. Structural characterization of the flours via FTIR have allowed detecting differences in protein and lipid characteristic absorption bands. Diffraction patterns of type A starch were identified for quinoa and amaranth flours, while the chia flour had two crystalline peaks corresponding to calcium and magnesium. Scanning electron microscopy images showed starch aggregates in the quinoa flour, a complex structure composed of spherical proteins that surround the starches in amaranth flour and fibrous structures and spherical proteins in chia flour.

  18. Effect of pre-treatment on in vitro gastric digestion of quinoa protein (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) obtained by wet and dry fractionation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opazo-Navarrete, M; Schutyser, M A I; Boom, R M; Janssen, A E M

    2018-02-01

    Quinoa protein was isolated from quinoa seeds using wet fractionation that resulted in a protein isolate (QPI) with a high protein purity of 87.1% (w/dw) and a protein yield of around 54%, and a dry fractionation method delivered a quinoa protein concentrate (QPC) with a purity of 27.8% (w/dw) and yield of around 47%. The dry fractionation process only involves milling and sieving and keeps the protein in its natural, native state. The aim was to study the in vitro gastric digestibility of both protein. Attention was paid to thermal pre-treatment of QPI and QPC. QPC showed significantly higher (p < .05) digestibility than QPI samples. The results were interpreted with a simple double exponential model. The fraction of easily digested protein in QPC is higher than for QPI. The better digestibility of the QPC was explained by the prevention of the formation of large aggregates during pre-heating of the protein.

  19. Identification and quantification of even and odd chained 5-n alkylresorcinols, branched chain-alkylresorcinols and methylalkylresorcinols in Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Alastair B; Svelander, Cecilia; Karlsson, Göran; Savolainen, Otto I

    2017-04-01

    Quinoa is a pseudocereal grown in the Andean region of South America that is of increasing interest worldwide as an alternative staple food. We have detected a complex mixture of both odd- and even-alkyl chain alkylresorcinols (AR), branched-chain alkylresorcinols (bcAR) and methylalkylresorcinols (mAR) in ethyl acetate extracts of quinoa. We quantified the content of AR in 17 commercial samples of quinoa, and found that the mean±SD content of AR was 58±16μg/g, bcAR was 182±52μg/g, and mAR was 136±40μg/g. AR from quinoa could also be detected in plasma after eating quinoa, indicating that some of these unique AR could be used as biomarkers of quinoa intake in humans. Further work is required to understand the role of these ARs in the quinoa plant and whether any of the novel ARs may be of particular interest in human nutrition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of different types of processing on the total phenolic compound content, antioxidant capacity, and saponin content of Chenopodium quinoa Willd grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickel, Júlia; Spanier, Luciana Pio; Botelho, Fabiana Torma; Gularte, Márcia Arocha; Helbig, Elizabete

    2016-10-15

    The effects of five processing forms on the content of phenolic compounds, antioxidant capacity, and saponin content in quinoa grains were evaluated. The processes included washing, washing followed by hydration, cooking (with or without pressure), and toasting. The highest content of phenolic compounds was obtained after cooking under pressure; however, these compounds also increased with grain washing. The toasting process caused the greatest loss. The antioxidant capacity of the grains was similarly affected by the processing techniques. According to the amount of saponins, the grains were classified as bitter. Washing caused a reduction in these compounds, but the levels remained unchanged after cooking (with and without) pressure and toasting; however, they significantly increased after hydration. Cooking, especially with pressure, had greater effects than the other processes, and potentiated the functional properties of quinoa grains. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of pre-treatment on in vitro gastric digestion of quinoa protein (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) obtained by wet and dry fractionation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Opazo-Navarrete, M.; Schutyser, M.A.I.; Boom, R.M.; Janssen, A.E.M.

    2018-01-01

    Quinoa protein was isolated from quinoa seeds using wet fractionation that resulted in a protein isolate (QPI) with a high protein purity of 87.1% (w/dw) and a protein yield of around 54%, and a dry fractionation method delivered a quinoa protein concentrate (QPC) with a purity of 27.8% (w/dw)

  2. Detection of lunasin in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) and the in vitro evaluation of its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Guixing; Zhu, Yingying; Shi, Zhenxing; Li, Jianhui

    2017-09-01

    Lunasin is a novel cancer-preventive peptide that has been detected in various plants. However, the presence and bioactivity of lunasin in quinoa have not been demonstrated. Lunasin was detected in quinoa using ultrahigh-pressure liquid chromatography-electrosparay ionization-mass spectrometry. The content in 15 quinoa samples ranged from 1.01 × 10 -3 g kg -1 dry seed to 4.89 × 10 -3 g kg -1 dry seed. Significant differences (P quinoa (QLP) exhibited a weak DPPH radical scavenging activity (no IC 50 value), but a strong ABTS + radical scavenging activity (IC 50 value, 1.45 g L -1 ) and oxygen radical scavenging activity (40.06 µmol L -1 Trolox equivalents/g QLP when the concentration was 3.20 g L -1 ). In addition, QLP inhibited the production of nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 on lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages by up to 44.77%, 39.81% and 33.50%, respectively, at a concentration of 0.40 g L -1 . Taken together, these findings indicate that lunasin presents in quinoa and is bioactive, which strengthens the recommendations for the development of quinoa-based functional foods. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Evaluación de 16 genotipos de quinua dulce (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. en el municipio de Iles, Nariño (Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delgado P. Adriana I.

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available

    Debido a su alto potencial agrícola y nutritivo, el interés por la quinua se ha incrementado en los últimos años, convirtiéndola en alternativa de diversificación para la región andina. Sin embargo, se han detectado necesidades limitantes, así como buenas posibilidades de mejoramiento genético, aún escasamente exploradas. En la presente investigación, llevada a cabo en la vereda San Francisco del municipio de Iles, Nariño, se evaluaron 16 líneas de quinua dulce. Una parte de ellas fueron selecciones provenientes de los genotipos SL47, Piartal y Tunkahuan. El resto consistió en cuatro testigos comerciales (SL47, Piartal, Tunkahuan y Blanca de Jericó. El estudio fue conducido bajo un diseño de bloques al azar con cuatro repeticiones, a través del cual se evaluaron algunos componentes de rendimiento (altura de la planta, longitud de panoja, peso de 1.000 granos, y rendimiento, la reacción al mildeo velloso y las características fenológicas. Posteriormente todas las variables fueron sometidas a análisis de varianza, prueba de Tukey (5% y evaluación del grado de asociación por medio del análisis de correlaciones de Pearson. Los resultados mostraron la precocidad del grupo SL47 (128,75 a 135 días a madurez fisiológica. Al comparar las líneas con sus testigos, se observa que el grupo Tunkahuan (S20, S39, S44 obtuvo ganancia genética en rendimiento (2.635,25 a 2.699,83 kg ha-1. El análisis de correlación mostró que hay asociación significativa entre las variables altura de la planta y longitud de panoja (0,739 por una parte, y por otra entre rendimiento y peso de 1.000 granos (0,647. SL47 testigo alcanzó el mayor índice de selección (0,960, mostrándose superior a las demás líneas.

  4. Characterisation of nutrient profile of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa), amaranth (Amaranthus caudatus), and purple corn (Zea mays L.) consumed in the North of Argentina: proximates, minerals and trace elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Ana Cláudia; Mota, Carla; Coelho, Inês; Gueifão, Sandra; Santos, Mariana; Matos, Ana Sofia; Gimenez, Alejandra; Lobo, Manuel; Samman, Norma; Castanheira, Isabel

    2014-04-01

    Quinoa, amaranth and purple corn are Andean cereals largely consumed in North of Argentina. Nutrient analysis with the purpose of inclusion in the Argentinean FCDB and e-search EuroFIR has become urgent matter. In this work proximate and mineral profile of Andean cereals cultivated in the North of Argentina were determined and compared with rice. Proximate analysis showed that Andean cereals have similar profile but significantly higher (pquinoa content could contribute up to 55% of consumers DRI. Andean cereals and rice are poor sources of potassium. To guarantee the interchange of data among users and producers of FCDB component values were obtained in compliance with EuroFIR guidelines for compilation process. Present work provides necessary information to FCDB users who wish to have access to food reference analytical parameters. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Interrelationships among seed yield, total protein and amino acid composition of ten quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) cultivars from two different agroecological regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Juan A; Konishi, Yotaro; Bruno, Marcela; Valoy, Mariana; Prado, Fernando E

    2012-04-01

    Quinoa is a good source of protein and can be used as a nutritional ingredient in food products. This study analyses how much growing region and/or seasonal climate might affect grain yield and nutritional quality of quinoa seeds. Seeds of ten quinoa cultivars from the Andean highlands (Bolivia/Argentina site) and Argentinean Northwest (Encalilla site) were analysed for seed yield, protein content and amino acid composition. Grain yields of five cultivars growing at Encalilla were higher, and four were lower, compared with data from the Bolivia/Argentina site. Protein contents ranged from 91.5 to 155.3 and from 96.2 to 154.6 g kg(-1) dry mass for Encalilla and Bolivia/Argentina seeds respectively, while essential amino acid concentrations ranged from 179.9 to 357.2 and from 233.7 to 374.5 g kg(-1) protein respectively. Significant positive correlations were found between the content of essential amino acids and protein percentage. It appears that there are clear variations in seed yield, total protein content and amino acid composition among cultivars from the two sites. Essential amino acid composition was more affected than grain yield and protein level. The study revealed that both environmental and climatic factors influence the nutritional composition of quinoa cultivars growing in different agroecological regions. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Extraction of Glucuronoarabinoxylan from Quinoa Stalks (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) and Evaluation of Xylooligosaccharides Produced by GH10 and GH11 Xylanases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas-Veizaga, Daniel Martin; Villagomez, Rodrigo; Linares-Pastén, Javier A; Carrasco, Cristhian; Álvarez, María Teresa; Adlercreutz, Patrick; Nordberg Karlsson, Eva

    2017-10-04

    Byproducts from quinoa are not yet well explored sources of hemicellulose or products thereof. In this work, xylan from milled quinoa stalks was retrieved to 66% recovery by akaline extraction using 0.5 M NaOH at 80 °C, followed by ethanol precipitation. The isolated polymer eluted as a single peak in size-exclusion chromatography with a molecular weight of >700 kDa. Analysis by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) combined with acid hydrolysis to monomers showed that the polymer was built of a backbone of β(1 → 4)-linked xylose residues that were substituted by 4-O-methylglucuronic acids, arabinose, and galactose in an approximate molar ratio of 114:23:5:1. NMR analysis also indicated the presence of α(1 → 5)-linked arabinose substituents in dimeric or oligomeric forms. The main xylooligosaccharides (XOs) produced after hydrolysis of the extracted glucuronoarabinoxylan polymer by thermostable glycoside hydrolases (GHs) from families 10 and 11 were xylobiose and xylotriose, followed by peaks of putative substituted XOs. Quantification of the unsubstituted XOs using standards showed that the highest yield from the soluble glucuronoarabinoxylan fraction was 1.26 g/100 g of xylan fraction, only slightly higher than the yield (1.00 g/100 g of xylan fraction) from the insoluble fraction (p 0.05). This study shows that quinoa stalks represent a novel source of glucuronoarabinoxylan, with a substituent structure that allowed for limited production of XOs by GH10 or GH11 enzymes.

  7. El papel del tamano de semilla de quinua (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) en el crecimiento y desarrollo de las plantas frente a diferentes profundidades de siembra

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez Calle, J.P.

    2005-01-01

    El trabajo de experimentación se realizó en predios de la Estación Experimental de Choquenaira, geográficamente ubicada a LS 16º41'38", LO 68º17'13" y a una altitud de 3854 msnm. Se consideraron como objetivos del experimento: determinar las diferencias existentes en los primeros estadios de la planta con respecto a los diferentes tamaños de granos de quinua de la variedad Surumi combinados a distintas profundidades de siembra y las consecuencias en el rendimiento final. (Résumé d'auteur)...

  8. An experimental study on drying kinetics of some herbal leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaya, Ahmet; Aydin, Orhan

    2009-01-01

    In this study, thin-layer drying characteristics of some herbal leaves, mainly nettle and mint leaves, are investigated experimentally in a convective drier. Effects of the drying air parameters including temperature, velocity and relative humidity on the total drying time are determined. Initially, sorption isotherms of the dried leaves are determined for different temperatures and equilibrium relative humidity (e.r.h.). Experiments are conducted for air temperatures at 35, 45 and 55 deg. C, velocities at 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6 m/s and, relative humidity values at 40%, 55% and 70%. In the ranges that covered, the values of the moisture diffusivity D eff are obtained between 1.744 x 10 -9 and 4.992 x 10 -9 m 2 /s for nettle leaves and 1.975 x 10 -9 and 6.172 x 10 -9 m 2 /s for mint leaves from the Fick's diffusion model. Using D eff , the value of E a is determined assuming the Arrhenius-type temperature relationship, which varies from 79.873 to 109.003 kJ/mol for nettle leaves and 66.873 to 71.987 kJ/mol for mint leaves

  9. An experimental study on drying kinetics of some herbal leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaya, Ahmet; Aydin, Orhan [Karadeniz Technical University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey)

    2009-01-15

    In this study, thin-layer drying characteristics of some herbal leaves, mainly nettle and mint leaves, are investigated experimentally in a convective drier. Effects of the drying air parameters including temperature, velocity and relative humidity on the total drying time are determined. Initially, sorption isotherms of the dried leaves are determined for different temperatures and equilibrium relative humidity (e.r.h.). Experiments are conducted for air temperatures at 35, 45 and 55 C, velocities at 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6 m/s and, relative humidity values at 40%, 55% and 70%. In the ranges that covered, the values of the moisture diffusivity D{sub eff} are obtained between 1.744 x 10{sup -9} and 4.992 x 10{sup -9} m{sup 2}/s for nettle leaves and 1.975 x 10{sup -9} and 6.172 x 10{sup -9} m{sup 2}/s for mint leaves from the Fick's diffusion model. Using D{sub eff}, the value of E{sub a} is determined assuming the Arrhenius-type temperature relationship, which varies from 79.873 to 109.003 kJ/mol for nettle leaves and 66.873 to 71.987 kJ/mol for mint leaves. (author)

  10. Improved glycemic control in patients with advanced type 2 diabetes mellitus taking Urtica dioica leaf extract: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kianbakht, Saeed; Khalighi-Sigaroodi, Farahnaz; Dabaghian, Fataneh Hashem

    2013-01-01

    Advanced type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) needing insulin therapy is common. Most conventional anti-hyperglycemic drugs have limited efficacies and significant side effects, so that better anti-hyperglycemic agents are needed. Urtica dioica L. (nettle) leaves have insulin secretagogue, PPARgamma agonistic, and alpha-glucosidase inhibitory effects. Moreover, nettle leaves are used in traditional medicine as an anti-hyperglycemic agent to treat diabetes mellitus. Thus, efficacy and safety of nettle in the treatment of patients with advanced type 2 diabetes mellitus needing insulin were studied. In this randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial, we evaluated the effects of taking nettle leaf extract (one 500 mg capsule every 8 hours for 3 months) combined with the conventional oral anti-hyperglycemic drugs on the blood levels of fasting glucose, postprandial glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), creatinine and liver enzymes SGOT and SGPT, and systolic and diastolic blood pressures in 46 patients and compared with the placebo group (n = 46). At the endpoint, the extract lowered the blood levels of fasting glucose, 2 hours postprandial glucose, and HbA1c significantly (p 0.05) compared with placebo. Nettle may safely improve glycemic control in type 2 diabetic patients needing insulin therapy.

  11. Utilização de farinha de soja (Glycine max e de quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa no preparo de macarrão caseiro sem glúten
    Using of soy bean (Glycine max and quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa fl our to make homemade pasta without gluten

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. KIRINUS

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available

    Sabendo da reduzida disponibilidade de produtos específi cos e indispensáveis para a melhoria da qualidade de vida de pacientes celíacos, este trabalho teve como objetivo elaborar dois tipos de massa para macarrão caseiro como alternativa alimentar para indivíduos que apresentam restrição ao consumo de glúten. Os macarrões foram elaborados por meio das seguintes etapas: homogeneização parcial, hidratação, amassamento e moldagem da massa, seccionamento em macarrão tipo talharim e cozimento em água e sal. Para realização da análise sensorial, participaram 40 provadores não treinados e não portadores de doença celíaca, os quais receberam três amostras de macarrão de farinha de trigo, macarrão de soja e macarrão de quinoa. A massa elaborada com farinha de soja foi mais bem aceita do que a elaborada com farinha de quinoa, podendo então ser sugerida como alternativa para a não privação de alimentos à base de glúten. Com o presente estudo, pôde-se concluir que existe a viabilidade de elaboração de macarrão caseiro do tipo talharim com farinha de soja ou de quinoa. Contudo, a massa elaborada com farinha de soja sugere características sensoriais mais promissoras.

  12. EVALUACIÓN DEL EFECTO NUTRICIONAL DE QUINUA (Chenopodium quinoa willdenow CON DIFERENTES NIVELES DE INCLUSIÓN EN DIETAS PARA POLLOS DE ENGORDE NUTRITIONAL EFFECT EVALUATION OF QUINOA (Chenopodium quinoa willdenow WITH DIFFERENT LEVELS OF INCLUSION IN DIETS FOR BROILER CHICKENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARI L MOSQUERA

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Se utilizaron 128 pollos machos Ross 308, de un día de edad para evaluar el efecto de distintos niveles de inclusión de quinua, implementando un diseño completamente al azar, con cuatro tratamientos (T0 concentrado comercial; T1 5% de quinua; T2 15% de quinua y T3 con 25% de quinua, cuatro repeticiones por tratamiento y 8 aves por repetición, con el fin de determinar el comportamiento entre las variables consumo de alimento, ganancia de peso, conversión alimenticia, eficiencia alimenticia y rendimiento en canal, en las etapas de iniciación y finalización. A los datos de las variables obtenidas se aplicó un análisis de varianza y prueba de comparación múltiple Duncan. Se observaron diferencias significativas (p128 male chickens Ross 308 were used, of a day of age to evaluate the effect of different levels of inclusion from quinoa, for which a design completely at random was implemented, with four treatments (T0 commercial concentrate; T1 5% of quinoa; T2 15% of quinoa and T3 with 25% of quinoa, four repetitions by treatment and 8 birds by repetition, with the purpose to determine the behavior between variable food intake, weight gain, feed conversion, nutritional efficiency, and yields carcass, in the stages of initiation and conclusion. The results were put under an analysis of variance and a test of multiple comparison Duncan. Significant differences (p<0.05 for the variables of food intake, feed conversion and nutritional efficiency at the initiation stage were observed; and also, significant differences for the indicators of feed conversion, nutritional efficiency and yields carcass, in the stage of conclusion were observed; on the other hand, differences for the variable weight gain in the two productive stages were not observed. From the economic point of view, the treatment with 5% of inclusion of quinoa represents the greater yield being a 116% superior to the treatment control, obtaining productive yields similar to the obtained ones with a commercial concentrated but a lower cost. In general terms, quinoa contributes an important level of nutrients that allows to generate an acceptable productive behavior in broiler chickens.

  13. Bioaccumulative and conchological assessment of heavy metal transfer in a soil-plant-snail food chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nica Dragos V

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Copper (Cu, zinc (Zn, cadmium (Cd, and lead (Pb can pose serious threats to environmental health because they tend to bioaccumulate in terrestrial ecosystems. We investigated under field conditions the transfer of these heavy metals in a soil-plant-snail food chain in Banat area, Romania. The main goal of this paper was to assess the Roman snail (Helix pomatia usefulness in environmental monitoring as bioindicator of heavy metal accumulation. Eight sampling sites, selected by different history of heavy metal (HM exposure, were chosen to be sampled for soil, nettle leaves, and newly matured snails. This study also aimed to identify the putative effects of HM accumulation in the environment on phenotypic variability in selected shell features, which included shell height (SH, relative shell height (RSH, and whorl number (WN. Results Significantly higher amounts of HMs were accumulated in snail hepatopancreas and not in foot. Cu, Zn, and Cd have biomagnified in the snail body, particularly in the hepatopancreas. In contrast, Pb decreased when going up into the food chain. Zn, Cd, and Pb correlated highly with each other at all levels of the investigated food chain. Zn and Pb exhibited an effective soil–plant transfer, whereas in the snail body only foot Cu concentration was correlated with that in soil. There were significant differences among sampling sites for WN, SH, and RSH when compared with reference snails. WN was strongly correlated with Cd and Pb concentrations in nettle leaves but not with Cu and Zn. SH was independent of HM concentrations in soil, snail hepatopancreas, and foot. However, SH correlated negatively with nettle leaves concentrations for each HM except Cu. In contrast, RSH correlated significantly only with Pb concentration in hepatopancreas. Conclusions The snail hepatopancreas accumulates high amounts of HMs, and therefore, this organ can function as a reliable biomarker for tracking HM bioavailability

  14. Cultural Resource Investigations in the L’Anguille River Basin, Lee, St. Francis, Cross and Poinsett Counties, Arkansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    curves included goosefoot (1 to 12%), grass (1 to 5%), marsh elder, ragweed (1 to 7%), ragwort (about 1%), and sedge (1 to 5%). Only unicorn plant...Proboscidea louisiana, 4%) and nettle (Urtica, 1%) were restricted exclusively in their microfossil occurrence to this zone at Hood Lake. Unicorn plant...remain very productive. The large agribusiness firms present today evolved from the small five acre subsistence based corn patches of the pioneer settlers

  15. VALOR NUTRICIO Y CONTENIDO DE SAPONINAS EN GERMINADOS DE HUAUZONTLE (Chenopodium nuttalliae Saff., CALABACITA (Cucurbita pepo L., CANOLA (Brassica napus L. Y AMARANTO (Amaranthus leucocarpus S. Watson syn. hypochondriacus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Barrón-Yánez

    2009-01-01

    (Brassica napus L. y amaranto (Amaranthus leucocarpus S. Watson syn. hypochondriacus L.. Se realizó un análisis proximal y la cuantificación de saponinas en semillas y germinados de las cuatro especies. El contenido de proteína fue más alto en los germinados de canola que en las semillas, pero en huauzontle, calabacita y amaranto no varió. El contenido de lípidos en las semillas de canola, huauzontle y amaranto disminuyó en sus germinados, pero se incrementó en calabacita. El contenido de saponinas en los germinados fue de 2,873.23 en huauzontle, 155.40 en calabacita, 429.81 en canola, y 491.45 mg 100·g-1 de peso seco en amaranto. El contenido de saponinas en semillas fue de 5280.57, 0.00, 35.77 y 42.84 mg 100·g-1 en peso seco, respectivamente. Los niveles del contenido de saponinas en semillas y germinados para las cuatro especies estudiadas no representan toxicidad para humanos. El valor nutricio fue mejor en el germinado de canola que en el de huauzontle, calabaza y amaranto. El sabor de los germinados de huauzontle y amaranto fue mejor que en los de canola y calabacita.

  16. PROCESAMIENTO POST-COSECHA DE GRANOS DE QUINOA (CHENOPODIUM QUINOA, CHENOPODIACEAE EN EL PERÍODO PREHISPÁNICO TARDÍO EN EL NORTE DE LÍPEZ (POTOSÍ, BOLIVIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Laura López

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A partir del estudio etnoarqueológico del tratamiento post-cosecha de granos de quinoa entre los habitantes del altiplano de Lípez (Potosí, Bolivia, se describen algunos rasgos diagnósticos de cada actividad y forma de procesamiento observables en los granos desecados. El potencial de estas observaciones para investigar las antiguas prácticas de procesamiento y consumo de este pseudocereal es ilustrado mediante el análisis de granos recuperados en cuatro sitios arqueológicos cercanos al Salar de Uyuni. Las quinoas examinadas se encontraban en distintas etapas de procesamiento; algunas no habían sido aún desaponificadas, por lo que inferimos que habían sido almacenadas inmediatamente después de la cosecha, mientras que otras muestras exhibían rastros de desaponificación comparables a los observados en contextos actuales, sugiriendo su preparación para distintos modos de consumo.

  17. La ventaja competitiva en el estudio de factibilidad de industrialización de las bebidas nutri-refrescantes a base de quinua (Chenopodium quinoa) para preescolares, Riobamba 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Vallejo Chávez, Luz Maribel

    2016-01-01

    La investigación muestra la relación de estrategias competitivas genéricas aplicadas en el proceso de elaboración del estudio de factibilidad de industrialización de bebidas de quinua para preescolares en el Cantón Riobamba 2015, la investigación de tipo aplicada, método cuantitativo- cualitativo, diseño descriptivo y casuística, de dos fases: primero el desarrollo de estudio de factibilidad que incluyó la aplicación de estrategias competitivas en cada estudio del proyecto, el...

  18. Extratos aquosos de inhame (Dioscorea rotundataPoirr. e de mastruz (Chenopodium ambrosioides L. no desenvolvimento da lagarta-do-cartucho-do-milho Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith, 1797

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.C.P TRINDADE

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO:Estudou-se o efeito de extratos aquosos de inhame (0; 5; 10; e 20% p/p e de mastruz (0; 2; 4; 6; 8 e 10% p/p na biologia da lagarta-do-cartucho. Secções de folhas de milho foram mergulhadas por 30 segundos em soluções de cada concentração; após a secagem, colocou-se em cada secção uma lagarta recém-eclodida. Foram avaliadas a viabilidade e a duração das fases larval e pupal, peso e comprimento das lagartas e pupas. Em relação ao extrato de inhame, a concentração de 20% causou maior influência na fase larval, sendo a viabilidade reduzida para 12%, com duração de 7 dias, diferindo da testemunha com 17 dias. O extrato da mesma planta a 10% causou 48% de mortalidade. Em todas as concentrações esse extrato também afetou a fase de pupa; na testemunha, 85% das pupas foram viáveis, enquanto nos demais tratamentos a viabilidade não excedeu a 25%. Para o peso e comprimento das lagartas, os resultados não foram significativos. Para o mastruz, o extrato a 20% causou influência na fase larval com baixa viabilidade e mortalidade logo nos primeiros seis dias de avaliação. Outras concentrações de mastruz não deferiram entre si nas fases larval e pupal. Verificou-se que a alimentação das lagartas com folhas tratadas com mastruz diminuiu o peso das pupas.

  19. Sixty-Five Years of Searching for the Signals That Trigger Flowering

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Macháčková, Ivana; Krekule, Jan

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 4 (2002), s. 451-459 ISSN 1021-4437 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/00/1354; GA MŠk LN00A081 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5038910 Keywords : Chenopodium rubrum * Chenopodium murale * flowering control Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.102, year: 2002

  20. Twenty-three years of vegetation change in a fly-ash leachate impacted meadow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlovic, Noel B.; Leicht-Young, Stacey A.; Wilcox, Douglas; Hiebert, Ron; Murphy, Marilyn K.; Mason, Daniel; Frohnapple, Krystal

    2009-01-01

    1. Blag Slough, located in Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore, has received leachates from nearby fly-ash ponds for 13 years (1967-1980). We have monitored vegetation and sediment of Blag Slough since 1982, two years after the sealing of the fly-ash ponds and one year after the substrate was first exposed. The pH of the soil has increased one order of magnitude from 3.0 to 4.0 over the 23 years (1982-2005). If the pH further increases the solubility of many heavy metals will decrease, except for arsenic. We provide evidence that boron and zinc were bioaccumulating in the leaves of woody plants in 1984. The ratio of leaf concentration and soil concentration of aluminum suggests this element was not bioaccumulating in woody plants in 1984. 2. Soil concentrations of iron, aluminum, arsenic, and strontium were higher nearest the fly-ash ponds in 2005. The southwest corner of Blag Slough and middle position of transect X had the highest elevated levels of these metals and correlated with the occurrence of mixed spikerush association (dominated by Eleocharis olivacea). 3. Only a few exotic species occurred in the Blag Slough. Common reed (Phragmites australis) was among such species that occurred in three large clones. Other exotic species included dandelion (Taraxacum officinale), mullein (Verbascum thapsis), Jerusalem oak goosefoot (Chenopodium botrys), and sheep sorrel (Rumex acetosella). Ruderal species have occurred including thistle (Cirsium spp.), fire weed (Erechtites hieracifolium), and horseweed (Conyza canadensis). While occasional cattail (Typha) have been sampled and mapped in Blag Slough they have never persisted for very long. 4. Species richness leveled off between 1991 and 2005, except for Transect X that had a peak in 1986-7. After an extreme rainfall event in August 18, 1990, Transect V had an average water depth of 0.70 cm, W had 7.1 cm, and X had 26.90 cm. Richness in Transect X declined to a low level in 1990 and 1991 after the extreme flooding event

  1. Can Urtica dioica supplementation attenuate mercury intoxication in Wistar rats?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wafa Siouda

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The objective of this study was to investigate the possible protective role of nettle Urtica dioica (UD against Hg-induced toxicity. Materials and Methods: A total of 28 rats were equally divided into four groups: the control, the Hg (0.8 g HgCl2/kg in the diet, the UD (1.5 ml UD/rat by gavage, and the Hg+UD group. HgCl2 was daily dissolved in distilled water and immediately mixed with the standard diet. A solution of daily infused fresh nettle leaves in boiling water (16 g in 25 ml was obtained and then it was administrated by gavage. Biochemical and reproductive markers, in addition to glutathione (GSH level (liver, kidney and testis and the histological profiles (testis and epididymis were evaluated after 1 month exposure. Results: Compared to the control, the levels of glucose, triglycerides, urea, creatinine, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP were significantly raised in the Hg group. In the latter group, the concentrations of Mg, Fe, and Ca were significantly decreased. Besides, Hg+UD group has only showed raised AST activity and reduced Mg level. Concerning the fertility markers, Hg has provoked a significant decrease in the spermatozoa’s concentration and motility and in plasma testosterone level as well. Furthermore, hepatic, renal and testicular GSH concentrations have declined significantly in the Hg treated rat compared to the control. A remarkable enhancement of the GSH level was observed in all organs of the UD group. The histological examinations of the Hg group have revealed marked testicular degeneration of the most seminiferous tubules, and showed few sperms in the lumen of epididymis ducts. However, the Hg+UD rats have demonstrated an improved histological structure with the presence of important numbers of sperms in the lumen. In addition, a clear stabilization of organized seminiferous tubules and an increased sperms’ numbers were noted in the UD

  2. Can Urtica dioica supplementation attenuate mercury intoxication in Wistar rats?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siouda, Wafa; Abdennour, Cherif

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the possible protective role of nettle Urtica dioica (UD) against Hg-induced toxicity. A total of 28 rats were equally divided into four groups: the control, the Hg (0.8 g HgCl2/kg in the diet), the UD (1.5 ml UD/rat by gavage), and the Hg+UD group. HgCl2 was daily dissolved in distilled water and immediately mixed with the standard diet. A solution of daily infused fresh nettle leaves in boiling water (16 g in 25 ml) was obtained and then it was administrated by gavage. Biochemical and reproductive markers, in addition to glutathione (GSH) level (liver, kidney and testis) and the histological profiles (testis and epididymis) were evaluated after 1 month exposure. Compared to the control, the levels of glucose, triglycerides, urea, creatinine, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were significantly raised in the Hg group. In the latter group, the concentrations of Mg, Fe, and Ca were significantly decreased. Besides, Hg+UD group has only showed raised AST activity and reduced Mg level. Concerning the fertility markers, Hg has provoked a significant decrease in the spermatozoa's concentration and motility and in plasma testosterone level as well. Furthermore, hepatic, renal and testicular GSH concentrations have declined significantly in the Hg treated rat compared to the control. A remarkable enhancement of the GSH level was observed in all organs of the UD group. The histological examinations of the Hg group have revealed marked testicular degeneration of the most seminiferous tubules, and showed few sperms in the lumen of epididymis ducts. However, the Hg+UD rats have demonstrated an improved histological structure with the presence of important numbers of sperms in the lumen. In addition, a clear stabilization of organized seminiferous tubules and an increased sperms' numbers were noted in the UD supplemented rats. Nettle leaves have not only played a clear

  3. Tibitondwa et al., Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med., (2018) 15 (2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jude

    2018-02-23

    Feb 23, 2018 ... Group 2, the negative control received 2 ml of an olive oil and normal ... Conclusion: The total crude extract of Chenopodium opulifolium exhibits ... The mixture was then filtered with Whatman No.1 filter paper using a Buchner.

  4. Evaluation of allelopathic impact of aqueous extract of root and aerial root of Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) miers on some weed plants

    OpenAIRE

    K. M. Abdul RAOOF; M. Badruzzaman SIDDIQUI

    2012-01-01

    The present laboratory experimental study was conducted to evaluate the allelopathic potential of Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers on seed germination and seedling growth of weed plants (Chenopodium album L. Chenopodium murale L., Cassia tora L. and Cassia sophera L.). Root and aerial root aqueous extracts of Tinospora at 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0% concentrations were applied to determine their effect on seed germination and seedling growth of test plants under laboratory conditions. Germinati...

  5. Advances in the use of mutation induction for genetic improvement of barley and native grains in Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero Loli, M.; Luz Gomez, P.; Jorge Jimenez, D.; Agripina Roldan, Ch.

    2001-01-01

    Barley seeds of two varieties were treated with several doses of gamma rays and sodium azide. Seeds of a quinoa (Chenopodium) variety were treated with three doses of gamma rays. Yield trials were conducted also for doubled haploid lines of barley derived from earlier mutagenic treatments. Some promising new barley mutant lines were identified in the yield trials. The results from the Chenopodium trials facilitate the determination of the optimum dose of gamma rays for the PRQ-22 variety. (author)

  6. Lipophilic stinging nettle extracts possess potent anti-inflammatory activity, are not cytotoxic and may be superior to traditional tinctures for treating inflammatory disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Tyler A; Sohn, Johann; Inman, Wayne D; Bjeldanes, Leonard F; Rayburn, Keith

    2013-01-15

    Extracts of four plant portions (roots, stems, leaves and flowers) of Urtica dioica (the stinging nettle) were prepared using accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) involving water, hexanes, methanol and dichloromethane. The extracts were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic activities in an NF-κB luciferase and MTT assay using macrophage immune (RAW264.7) cells. A standardized commercial ethanol extract of nettle leaves was also evaluated. The methanolic extract of the flowering portions displayed significant anti-inflammatory activity on par with a standard compound celastrol (1) but were moderately cytotoxic. Alternatively, the polar extracts (water, methanol, ethanol) of the roots, stems and leaves displayed moderate to weak anti-inflammatory activity, while the methanol and especially the water soluble extracts exhibited noticeable cytotoxicity. In contrast, the lipophilic dichloromethane extracts of the roots, stems and leaves exhibited potent anti-inflammatory effects greater than or equal to 1 with minimal cytotoxicity to RAW264.7 cells. Collectively these results suggest that using lipophilic extracts of stinging nettle may be more effective than traditional tinctures (water, methanol, ethanol) in clinical evaluations for the treatment of inflammatory disorders especially arthritis. A chemical investigation into the lipophilic extracts of stinging nettle to identify the bioactive compound(s) responsible for their observed anti-inflammatory activity is further warranted. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  7. Antibacterial and Antiadhesive Activities of Extracts from Edible Plants against Soft Drink Spoilage by Asaia spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antolak, Hubert; Czyzowska, Agata; Kregiel, Dorota

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the antibacterial and antiadhesive activities of ethanol extracts from five edible plant parts: cinnamon bark ( Cinnamomum zeylanicum ), licorice root ( Glycyrrhiza radix ), nettle leaves ( Urtica dioica ), green tea leaves ( Camellia sinensis ), and elderberry flowers ( Sambucus nigra ). The chemical constituents of the extracts were identified using high-performance liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography plus mass spectrometry. Six strains of Asaia lannensis and Asaia bogorensis bacteria isolated from spoiled commercial fruit-flavored noncarbonated mineral water were used. Bacterial adhesion to polystyrene as an attachment substrate in culture media supplemented with 10% plant extract was evaluated using luminometric measurement of the ATP extracted from adhered cells. The viability of the adhered and planktonic cells was assessed using the plate count method, and the relative adhesion coefficient was calculated. All tested crude extracts contained flavonols (kaempferol, quercetin, and their derivatives), flavanols (catechin and derivatives), flavanones (glabrol, licorice glycoside A, and liquiritin), and phenolic acids (gallic, quinic, chlorogenic, neochlorogenic, caffeic, coumaric, and ferulic). The culture medium with 10% elderberry extract provided the least favorable environment for all tested bacterial strains. Extracts from green tea, cinnamon, and licorice also had significant inhibitory effects on the adhesion of the tested bacterial strains. This research suggests that the addition of selected edible plant extracts could improve the microbial stability of noncarbonated soft drinks.

  8. In vitro bioaccessibility, transepithelial transport and antioxidant activity of Urtica dioica L. phenolic compounds in nettle based food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonetti, Gianpiero; Tedeschi, Paola; Meca, Giuseppe; Bertelli, Davide; Mañes, Jordi; Brandolini, Vincenzo; Maietti, Annalisa

    2016-10-12

    Nettle (Urtica dioica L.) is a well-known plant with a wide historical background use of stems, roots and leaves. Nettle leaves are an excellent source of phenolic compounds, principally 3-caffeoylquinic acid (3-CQA), caffeoylmalic acid (CMA) and rutin. The aim of this work was to evaluate the bioaccessibility (BAC), the bioavailability (BAV) and the antioxidant activity of nettle phenolic compounds present in foods and supplements. The BAC of nettle phenolics was evaluated with an in vitro dynamic digestion of real food matrices: the type of food matrix and chemical characteristic affected the kinetics of release and solubilization, with the highest BAC after duodenal digestion. A study of duodenal trans epithelial transport evidenced low bioavailability of native forms of 3-CQA, CMA and rutin. Simulation of colonic metabolism confirmed that phenolic compounds are fermented by gut microflora, confirming the need for further investigations on the impact of phenolic compounds at the large intestine level. Photochemiluminescence assay of the simulated digestion fluids demonstrated that ingestion of Urtica based foods contributes to create an antioxidant environment against superoxide anion radicals in the entire gastrointestinal tract (GIT).

  9. [INFLUENCE OF MEDICINAL PLANT EXTRACTS ON THE FUNCTIONS AND ANTIOXIDANT PROTECTION OF ERYTHROCYTES IN RATS WITH EXPERIMENTAL DIABETES MELLITUS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vengerovskii, A I; Yakimova, T V; Nasanova, O N

    2016-01-01

    Experiments on rats with diabetes mellitus model induced by streptosotocin and high (30%) fat diet showed that the daily treatment with aqueous extracts of great nettle leaves (100 mg/kg) and common burdock roots (25 mg/kg) for a period of 10 days led to a decrease in the glycemic index and triglyceride level and produced protective action on erythrocytes both in animals kept on a fat-rich diet and on the background of a low-caloric ration. Both medicinal plant extracts were comparable with reference drug metformin in reducing the concentration of glycosylated hemoglobin (by 12-31%) and ectoglobular hemoglobin (1.7-1.8 times, p <0.05), decreasing the content of malonic dialdehyde in erythrocytes (1.3 times, p < 0.05), and increasing erythrocyte deformability (1.3-1.4 times, p < 0.05) and activity of their antioxidant enzymes glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, glutathione-S-transferase, catalase, and supe- roxide dismutase (1.2-2.6 times, p < 0.05). A diet with usual (8%) fat content improved the metabolic indices to a lower degree (on the average by 13-21%, p < 0.05) than did the proposed phytotherapy.

  10. Food-chain transfer of cadmium and zinc from contaminated Urtica dioica to Helix aspersa and Lumbricus terrestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinnett, Danielle E; Hodson, Mark E; Hutchings, Tony R

    2009-08-01

    The present study examines the potential of Urtica dioica as an ecologically relevant species for use in ecotoxicological testing. It is prevalent in degraded ecosystems and is a food source for invertebrates. Urtica dioica grown in hydroponic solutions containing from less than 0.003 to 5.7 mg Cd/L or from 0.02 to 41.9 mg Zn/L accumulated metals resulting in leaf tissue concentrations in the range of 0.10 to 24.9 mg Cd/kg or 22.5 to 2,772.0 mg Zn/kg. No toxicological effects were apparent except at the highest concentrations tested, suggesting that this species may be an important pathway for transfer of metals to primary plant consumers. Helix aspersa and Lumbricus terrestris were fed the Cd- and Zn-rich leaves of U. dioica for six and four weeks, respectively. Cadmium and Zn body load increased with increasing metal concentration in the leaves (p nettle leaves with concentrations of approximately 23 mg Cd/kg and 3,400 mg Zn/kg. Models demonstrate that L. terrestris Cd tissue concentrations (r2 = 0.74, p < 0.001) and H. aspersa Zn tissue concentrations (r(2) = 0.69, p < 0.001) can be estimated from concentrations of Cd and Zn within the leaves of U. dioica and suggest that reasonably reproducible results can be obtained using these species for ecotoxicological testing.

  11. Lipophilic stinging nettle extracts possess potent anti-inflammatory activity, are not cytotoxic and may be superior to traditional tinctures for treating inflammatory disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Tyler A.; Sohn, Johann; Inman, Wayne D.; Bjeldanes, Leonard F.; Rayburn, Keith

    2012-01-01

    Extracts of four plant portions (roots, stems, leaves and flowers) of Urtica dioica, (the stinging nettle) were prepared using accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) involving water, hexanes, methanol and dichloromethane. The extracts were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic activity in an NF-κB luciferase and MTT assay using macrophage immune (RAW264.7) cells. A standardized commercial ethanol extract of nettle leaves were also evaluated. The methanolic extract of the flowering portions displayed significant anti-inflammatory activity on par with the standard anti-inflammatory agent celastrol (1) but was moderately cytotoxic. Alternatively, the polar extracts (water, methanol, ethanol) of the roots, stems and leaves plant portions displayed moderate to weak anti-inflammatory activity, while the methanol and especially the water soluble extracts exhibited noticeable cytotoxicity. In contrast, the lipophilic dichloromethane extracts of the roots, stems and leaves exhibited potent anti-inflammatory effects ≥ 1 with minimal cytotoxicity to RAW264.7 cells. Collectively these results suggest that using lipophilic extracts of the roots, stems or leaves of stinging nettle may be more effective then traditional tinctures (water, methanol, ethanol) to undergo clinical evaluations for the treatment of inflammatory disorders including arthritis. A chemical investigation into the lipophillic extracts of stinging nettle to identify the bioactive compound(s) responsible for their observed anti-inflammatory activity is further warranted. PMID:23092723

  12. Non-polar lipids characterization of Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) seed by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with flame ionization/mass spectrometry detection and non-aqueous reversed-phase liquid chromatography with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanali, Chiara; Beccaria, Marco; Salivo, Simona; Tranchida, Peter; Tripodo, Giusy; Farnetti, Sara; Dugo, Laura; Dugo, Paola; Mondello, Luigi

    2015-07-08

    A chemical characterization of major lipid components, namely, triacylglycerols, fatty acids and the unsaponifiable fraction, in a Quinoa seed lipids sample is reported. To tackle such a task, non-aqueous reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry detection was employed. The latter was interfaced with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization for the analysis of triacylglycerols. The main triacylglycerols (>10%) were represented by OLP, OOL and OLL (P = palmitoyl, O = oleoyl, L = linoleoyl); the latter was present in the oil sample at the highest percentage (18.1%). Furthermore, fatty acid methyl esters were evaluated by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection. 89% of the total fatty acids was represented by unsaturated fatty acid methyl esters with the greatest percentage represented by linoleic and oleic acids accounting for approximately 48 and 28%, respectively. An extensive characterization of the unsaponifiable fraction of Quinoa seed lipids was performed for the first time, by using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with dual mass spectrometry/flame ionization detection. Overall, 66 compounds of the unsaponifiable fraction were tentatively identified, many constituents of which (particularly sterols) were confirmed by using gas chromatography with high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Flavonoids distribution in selected medicinal plants of Margalla Hills and surroundings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.M.; Qureshi, R.A.; Shinwari, Z.K.

    2012-01-01

    The present studies comprise the distribution of important flavonoids amongst the selected 13 medicinal plants viz., Woodfordia fruticosa, Adhatoda vasica, Chenopodium ambrosoides, Viburnum cotinifolium, Euphorbia hirta, Vitex negundo, Peganum harmala, Broussonetia papyrifera, Taraxacum officinale, Urtica dioica, Verbascum thapsus, Caryopteris grata and Mimosa rubicaulis collected from Margalla Hills for their authentication. Kaemferol was only detected in Verbascum thapsus. Myrcetin was detected in Woodfordia fruticosa, Viburnum cotinifolium, Euphorbia hirta, Vitex negundo and Broussonetia papyrifera. Catechin was detected in Woodfordia fruticosa , Chenopodium ambrosoides and Caryopteris grata. Vitexin was found absent in all the plants under study except Adhatoda vasica, Chenopodium ambrosoides and Peganum harmala. Orientin was detected in Woodfordia fruticosa, Adhatoda vasica, Viburnum cotinifolium, Euphorbia hirta, Vitex negundo, Peganum harmala, Urtica dioica and Caryopteris grata. Rutin and Kaempferol-7-neohesperoside were detected only in Broussonetia papyrifera. Quercitin was detected in Euphorbia hirta, Verbascum thapsus, Caryopteris grata and Mimosa rubicaulis. Luteolin was common among all the species. (author)

  14. Spatial distribution and changes in occurrence of some weed species in the orchard in AES Felin near Lublin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Lipecki

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available From 1993 to 1997 a study of spatial distribution of most important weeds in apple orchard herbicide strips was performed. This study was continued in 1998, once the trees were cut down. As the time progressed, Epilobium adenocaulon Hausskn., Chenopodium album L., Polygonum aviculare L. and Atriplex patulum L. showed an increase in their occurrence. An opposite tendency was found with Erigeron canadensis L., Convolvulus arvensis L. and Taraxacum fficinale Web. Some species grew in patches (Convolvulus arvensis L., Chenopodium album L., Atriplex patulum L., while the others appeared sporadically throughout the orchard. In 1998, the decrease of occurrence of Epilobium Haussk. was observed. Simultaneously, this was coupled with an increase of occurrence of Taraxacum officinale Web., Erigeron caanadensis L. and Chenopodium album L. The predominating species in 1998 was Cerastium vulgatum L., followed by Lolium perenne L., Poa annua L. and Bromus mollis L.

  15. Adjustment of Weed Hoeing to Narrowly Spaced Cereals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jannis Machleb

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Weed hoeing can be successfully performed in wide row crops, such as sugar beet, maize, soybean and wide spaced cereals. However, little experience is available for hoeing in narrow cereal row spaces below 200 mm. Yet, mechanical weed control can pose an alternative to herbicide applications by reducing the herbicide resistant populations present in the field. In this experiment, it was investigated whether hoeing is feasible in cereals with 150 and 125 mm row spacings. The trial was set up at two locations (Ihinger Hof and Kleinhohenheim in southwest Germany. Three different conventional hoeing sweeps, a goosefoot sweep, a no-till sweep and a down-cut side knife were adjusted to the small row widths, and hoeing was performed once with a tractor and a standard hoeing frame which was guided by a second human operator. The average grain yield, crop and weed biomass, and weed control efficacy of each treatment were recorded. The goosefoot and no-till sweep were tested at driving speeds of 4 and 6 km·h−1. The down-cut side knife was applied at 4 km·h−1. The results indicate that hoeing caused no yield decrease in comparison to a conventional herbicide application or manual weeding. The highest yield with a mechanical treatment was recorded for the no-till sweeps at both trial locations. Hoeing was performed successfully in narrowly spaced cereals of 150 and 125 mm, and the weed control efficacy of the mechanical treatments ranged from 50.9% at Kleinhohenheim to 89.1% at Ihinger Hof. Future experiments are going to focus on more distinct driving speeds ranging from 2 to 10 km·h−1 and performing more than one pass with the hoe. Additionally, combining the mechanical weeding tools with a camera-steered hoeing frame could increase accuracy, allow for higher working speeds and substitute the second human operator guiding the hoe.

  16. Plants as biomarkers for monitoring heavy metal contaminants on landfill sites using sequential extraction and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrophotometry (ICP-AES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, A P; Coudert, M; Barker, J

    2000-12-01

    There have been a number of studies investigating metal uptake in plants on contaminated landfill sites, but little on their role as biomarkers to identify metal mobility for continuous monitoring purposes. Vegetation can be used as a biomonitor of site pollution, by identifying the mobilisation of heavy metals and by providing an understanding of their bioavailability. Plants selected were the common nettle (Uritica Dioica), bramble (Rubus Fruticosa) and sycamore (Acer Pseudoplatanus). A study of the soil fractionation was made to investigate the soil properties that are likely to influence metal mobility and a correlation exercise was undertaken to investigate if variations in concentration of metals in vegetation can reflect variations in concentration of the metals in soil. The soil was digested using aqua regia in a microwave closed vessel. The vegetation was digested using both microwave and a hydrogen peroxide-nitric acid mixture, refluxed on a heating block and a comparison made. The certified reference materials (CRMs) used were Standard Reference Material (SRM) 1547, peach leaves for vegetation (NIST) and for soil CRM 143R, sewage sludge-amended soil (BCR). The relative standard deviations (RSDs) were 2-6% for the analyses. Our findings show evidence of phytoextraction by some plants, (especially bramble and nettle), with certain plants, (sycamore) exhibiting signs of phytostabilisation. The evidence suggests that there is a degree of selectivity in metal uptake and partitioning within the plant compartments. It was also possible to correlate mobility phases of certain metals (Pb, Cu and Zn) using the soil and plant record. Zn and Cu exhibited the greatest potential to migrate from the roots to the leaves, with Pb found principally in the roots of ground vegetation. Our results suggest that analysis of bramble leaves, nettle leaves and roots can be used to monitor the mobility of Pb in the soil with nettle, bramble and sycamore leaves to monitor Cu and Zn.

  17. A novel exploratory chemometric approach to environmental monitorring by combining block clustering with Partial Least Square (PLS) analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Given the serious threats posed to terrestrial ecosystems by industrial contamination, environmental monitoring is a standard procedure used for assessing the current status of an environment or trends in environmental parameters. Measurement of metal concentrations at different trophic levels followed by their statistical analysis using exploratory multivariate methods can provide meaningful information on the status of environmental quality. In this context, the present paper proposes a novel chemometric approach to standard statistical methods by combining the Block clustering with Partial least square (PLS) analysis to investigate the accumulation patterns of metals in anthropized terrestrial ecosystems. The present study focused on copper, zinc, manganese, iron, cobalt, cadmium, nickel, and lead transfer along a soil-plant-snai food chain, and the hepatopancreas of the Roman snail (Helix pomatia) was used as a biological end-point of metal accumulation. Results Block clustering deliniates between the areas exposed to industrial and vehicular contamination. The toxic metals have similar distributions in the nettle leaves and snail hepatopancreas. PLS analysis showed that (1) zinc and copper concentrations at the lower trophic levels are the most important latent factors that contribute to metal accumulation in land snails; (2) cadmium and lead are the main determinants of pollution pattern in areas exposed to industrial contamination; (3) at the sites located near roads lead is the most threatfull metal for terrestrial ecosystems. Conclusion There were three major benefits by applying block clustering with PLS for processing the obtained data: firstly, it helped in grouping sites depending on the type of contamination. Secondly, it was valuable for identifying the latent factors that contribute the most to metal accumulation in land snails. Finally, it optimized the number and type of data that are best for monitoring the status of metallic

  18. A novel exploratory chemometric approach to environmental monitorring by combining block clustering with Partial Least Square (PLS) analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nica, Dragos V; Bordean, Despina Maria; Pet, Ioan; Pet, Elena; Alda, Simion; Gergen, Iosif

    2013-08-30

    Given the serious threats posed to terrestrial ecosystems by industrial contamination, environmental monitoring is a standard procedure used for assessing the current status of an environment or trends in environmental parameters. Measurement of metal concentrations at different trophic levels followed by their statistical analysis using exploratory multivariate methods can provide meaningful information on the status of environmental quality. In this context, the present paper proposes a novel chemometric approach to standard statistical methods by combining the Block clustering with Partial least square (PLS) analysis to investigate the accumulation patterns of metals in anthropized terrestrial ecosystems. The present study focused on copper, zinc, manganese, iron, cobalt, cadmium, nickel, and lead transfer along a soil-plant-snai food chain, and the hepatopancreas of the Roman snail (Helix pomatia) was used as a biological end-point of metal accumulation. Block clustering deliniates between the areas exposed to industrial and vehicular contamination. The toxic metals have similar distributions in the nettle leaves and snail hepatopancreas. PLS analysis showed that (1) zinc and copper concentrations at the lower trophic levels are the most important latent factors that contribute to metal accumulation in land snails; (2) cadmium and lead are the main determinants of pollution pattern in areas exposed to industrial contamination; (3) at the sites located near roads lead is the most threatfull metal for terrestrial ecosystems. There were three major benefits by applying block clustering with PLS for processing the obtained data: firstly, it helped in grouping sites depending on the type of contamination. Secondly, it was valuable for identifying the latent factors that contribute the most to metal accumulation in land snails. Finally, it optimized the number and type of data that are best for monitoring the status of metallic contamination in terrestrial ecosystems

  19. A comparative study on the aphrodisiac activity of food plants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Any substance that increases erectile function, sexual performance and enjoyment is considered an aphrodisiac. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of food plants Mondia whitei, Chenopodium album, Cucurbita pepo and Sclerocarya birrea extracts at a fixed dose of 200mg/kg body weight on ...

  20. Aspects of participatory plant breeding for quinoa in marginal areas of Ecuador

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McElhinny, E.; Peralta, E.; Mazon, N.; Danial, D.L.; Thiele, G.; Lindhout, P.

    2007-01-01

    Field trials were carried out in Ecuador with two indigenous communities, Ninín Cachipata and La Esperanza, to determine farmers¿ preferences for quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) cultivars and to improve PPB processes. More women than men participated, reflecting that quinoa, a primarily

  1. Modulation of photosystem II chlorophyll fluorescence by electrogenic events generated by photosystem I

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulychev, A.A.; Vredenberg, W.J.

    2001-01-01

    In an attempt to uncover electric field interactions between PS I and PS II during their functioning, fluorescence induction curves were measured on hydroxylamine-treated thylakoids of Chenopodium album under conditions ensuring low and high levels of photogenerated membrane potentials. In parallel

  2. Towards Sustainable Production of Protein-Rich Foods: Appraisal of Eight Crops for Western Europe. Part II: Analysis of the Technological Aspects of the Production Chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swaving Dijkstra, D.; Linnemann, A.R.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.

    2003-01-01

    Increased production of plant protein is required to support the production of protein-rich foods which can replace meat in the human diet to reduce the strain that intensive animal husbandry poses on the environment. The suitability of lupin (Lupinus spp.), pea (Pisum sativum), quinoa (Chenopodium

  3. An investigation to enhance understanding of the stimulation of weed seedling emergence by soil disturbance

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schutte, B.J.; Tomasek, B. J.; Davis, A.; Andersson, L.; Benoit, D.L.; Cirujeda, A.; Dekker, J.; Forcella, F.; Gonzalez-Andujar, J.L.; Graziani, F.; Murdoch, A.J.; Neve, P.; Rasmussen, I.A.; Šerá, Božena; Salonen, J.; Tei, F.; Tørresen, K.S.; Urbano, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 1 (2014), s. 1-12 ISSN 0043-1737 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : tillage * seedbank management * stale seedbed * genotype–environment interactions * seed germination * Chenopodium album Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.687, year: 2014

  4. Development, characterization and cross-amplification of 16 microsatellite primers for Atriplex tatarica (Amaranthaceae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kondrysová, E.; Krak, Karol; Mandák, Bohumil

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 11 (2017), s. 1-5, č. článku 1700094. ISSN 2168-0450 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : Amaranthaceae * Atriplex * Chenopodium Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 1.492, year: 2016

  5. Influence of seed density and aggregation on post-dispersal weed seed predation in cereal fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marino, P.C.; Westerman, P.R.; Pinkert, C.; Werf, van der W.

    2005-01-01

    The importance of density dependence, aggregation and background density of seeds on intensity of seed predation in cereal fields were examined in central Netherlands. Four sequential 1-week trials were conducted from 9 July to 8 August 2001 and lamb's quarters (Chenopodium album) was used as the

  6. Phoma heteromorphospora nom. nov

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aa, van der H.A.; Kesteren, van H.A.

    1980-01-01

    Van der Aa & van Kesteren (1979) redescribed a Phoma species commonly occurring on species of Chenopodium in Europe, as Phoma variospora v. d. Aa & v. Kest. After the appearance of this publication, in November 1979, descriptions of some new species of Phoma came to their attention amongst which was

  7. Characterization of the alterations of the chlorophyll a fluorescence induction curve after addition of Photosystem II inhibiting herbicides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiraki, M.; Rensen, van J.J.S.; Vredenberg, W.J.; Wakabayashi, K.

    2003-01-01

    The effects of Photosystem II inhibiting herbicides, 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea (diuron), atrazine and two novel 2-benzylamino-1,3,5-triazine compounds, on photosynthetic oxygen evolution and chlorophyll a fluorescence induction were measured in thylakoids isolated from Chenopodium

  8. Increasing weed flora in Danish beet, pea and winter barley fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Christian; Stryhn, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    .g. Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medik, Cirsium arvense (L. Scop.), Galium aparine L., Fallopia convolvulus (L.) Á. Löwe, Tripleurospermum inodorum (L.) Sch. Bip.) have been favoured. Some weeds have declined in some crops but increased in other crops (e.g. Chenopodium album L., Geranium pusillum L.), while...

  9. Adjuvants for single droplet application of glyphosate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiassen, Solvejg Kopp; Kudsk, Per; Lund, Ivar

    2016-01-01

    Retention and biological activity of droplets of glyphosate deposited onto plant leaves using a Drop on Demand inkjet printer application system, was examined on pot-grown Brassica napus, Solanum nigrum, Chenopodium album, Silene noctiflora and Echinocloa crus-galli plants. Retention was measured...

  10. Effect of irrigation, intercrop and cultivar on agronomic and nutritional characteristics of quinoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    A field experiment was conducted to determine the effect of three irrigation regimes and three intercrop treatments on emergence, plant height, seed yield, protein and mineral concentration of two quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) varieties. The experiment was carried out using a strip plot, randomized co...

  11. Pasting and rheological properties of quinoa-oat composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinoa (Chenopodium, quinoa) flour, known for its essential amino acids, was composited with oat products containing ß-glucan known for lowering blood cholesterol and preventing heart disease. Quinoa-oat composites were developed and evaluated for their pasting and rheological properties by a Rapid ...

  12. Denaturation and in Vitro Gastric Digestion of Heat-Treated Quinoa Protein Isolates Obtained at Various Extraction pH

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiz, Geraldine Avila; Opazo-Navarrete, Mauricio; Meurs, Marlon; Minor, Marcel; Sala, Guido; Boekel, van Tiny; Stieger, Markus; Janssen, Anja E.M.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the influence of heat processing on denaturation and digestibility properties of protein isolates obtained from sweet quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) at various extraction pH values (8, 9, 10 and 11). Pretreatment of suspensions of protein isolates at 60,

  13. Quinoa cultivation in western North America: lessons learned and the path forward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) is a relatively new crop to farmers in North America; however recent interest in domestic cultivation of quinoa has skyrocketed due to a rapid, worldwide increase in demand for this nutritious and delicious Andean crop. Researchers at five western U.S. universities ...

  14. Quinoa seed quality response to sodium chloride and sodium sulfate salinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinoa (Chenopodium Quinoa Willd.) is a pseudocereal which has high protein content, but also provides high quality protein. The essential amino acids are balanced; protein efficiency ratio and true protein digestibility are comparable to those of casein, which considered as a good protein resource....

  15. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U05093-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available T304 cqseed Chenopodium quinoa cDNA clone S02... 48 2e-06 3 ( GN101825 ) Sequence 6606 from Patent WO2009037...PvM16_D10 Pistacia male and female panicles Pista... 44 2e-06 2 ( CN782208 ) ES00

  16. Heeft de teelt van quinoa een toekomst in België? : Interview met Ruud Timmer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cillen, L.; Timmer, R.D.

    2014-01-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) is een gewas dat al eeuwenlang in Zuid-Amerika wordt geteeld en gegeten en tegenwoordig aan populariteit wint bij de Europese consument. Maar is het mogelijk om dit gewas ook in België te telen? We vroegen aan Ruud Timmer, onderzoeker aan de Universiteit van Wageningen,

  17. Research on the influence of air pollution on cultivated crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeevaart, A J; Spierings, F H.F.G.; Van Raay, A; Wolting, H G; Mooi, J

    1971-01-01

    Fumigations with peroxyacetylnitrate (PAN) were conducted with Poa annua and Chenopodium murale. With white flowering petunias growing in cities, more information was gathered about the spread of ethylene originating from the exhaust gases of automobiles. In spring, spinach was injured over vast areas, probably by ozone air pollution. In the autumn, the very susceptible plant species, Poa annua and Chenopodium murale, growing in the urbanized and industrialized area in the neighbourhood of Rotterdam, showed the typical leaf injury caused by PAN. Investigations are started on plant injury occurring near bio-industries, probably caused by NH/sub 3/ or closely related gases. Around two aluminium factories in the Netherlands air pollution by HF is controlled. In the Netherlands common species of trees and shrubs were fumigated with SO/sub 2/ under field conditions to investigate their susceptibility to SO/sub 2/ gas and their recovery capacity.

  18. Organic parasite control for poultry and rabbits in British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Plants used for treating endo- and ectoparasites of rabbits and poultry in British Columbia included Arctium lappa (burdock), Artemisia sp. (wormwood), Chenopodium album (lambsquarters) and C. ambrosioides (epazote), Cirsium arvense (Canada thistle), Juniperus spp. (juniper), Mentha piperita (peppermint), Nicotiana sp. (tobacco), Papaver somniferum (opium poppy), Rubus spp. (blackberry and raspberry relatives), Symphytum officinale (comfrey), Taraxacum officinale (common dandelion), Thuja plicata (western redcedar) and Urtica dioica (stinging nettle). PMID:21756341

  19. Organic parasite control for poultry and rabbits in British Columbia, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turner Nancy

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Plants used for treating endo- and ectoparasites of rabbits and poultry in British Columbia included Arctium lappa (burdock, Artemisia sp. (wormwood, Chenopodium album (lambsquarters and C. ambrosioides (epazote, Cirsium arvense (Canada thistle, Juniperus spp. (juniper, Mentha piperita (peppermint, Nicotiana sp. (tobacco, Papaver somniferum (opium poppy, Rubus spp. (blackberry and raspberry relatives, Symphytum officinale (comfrey, Taraxacum officinale (common dandelion, Thuja plicata (western redcedar and Urtica dioica (stinging nettle.

  20. Archaeological Investigations of the Little Cypress Bayou Site (3CT50) Crittenden County, Arkansas. Volume 2 - Appendices

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    RESULTS OF ANALYSES The analyses resulted in the identification of some 37 plant genus or species. Table 111-1 presents a complete listing of the...scientific and common names for all identified specimens. Certain of the materials could not be identified to either the genus or species level; these are...Chenopodium sp. Chenopod Crataegus sp. Hawthorn Curcurbita sp. Pumpkin or Squash Diospyros virginiana Persimmon Fabaceae Bean Family Fraxinus pennsylvanica

  1. Isotherms and isosteric heat of sorption of two varieties of Peruvian quinoa

    OpenAIRE

    Augusto Pumacahua-Ramos; José Antonio Gomez Vieira; Javier Telis-Romero; Harvey Alexander Villa-Vélez; Jose Francisco Lopes Filho

    2016-01-01

    The isosteric heats of sorption of two varieties of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoaWilld.) grain were determined by the static gravimetric method at four temperatures (40, 50, 60 and 70 °C) andin relative humidity environments provided by six saturated salt solutions. Six mathematical equations were used to model the experimental data: GAB, Oswin, Henderson, Peleg, Smith and Halsey. The isosteric heat of sorption was determined using the parameters ...

  2. Isotherms and isosteric heat of sorption of two varieties of Peruvian quinoa

    OpenAIRE

    Pumacahua-Ramos, Augusto; Gomez Vieira, José Antonio; Telis- Romero, Javier; Villa-Vélez, Harvey Alexander; Lopes Filho, Jose Francisco

    2016-01-01

    The isosteric heats of sorption of two varieties of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) grain were determined by the static gravimetric method at four temperatures (40, 50, 60 and 70 °C) and in relative humidity environments provided by six saturated salt solutions. Six mathematical equations were used to model the experimental data:  GAB, Oswin, Henderson, Peleg, Smith and Halsey. The isosteric heat of sorption was determined using the parameters of the GAB model. All the equations were shown...

  3. Developmental Peculiarities and Seed-Borne Endophytes in Quinoa: Omnipresent, Robust Bacilli Contribute to Plant Fitness

    OpenAIRE

    Pitzschke, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Among potential climate change-adapted crops for future agriculture, quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa), a facultative halophyte plant with exceptional nutritional properties, stands out as a prime candidate. This work examined how quinoa deals with extreme situations during seed rehydration. A seed-borne microbiome was discovered and its potential role in early development and stress resistance investigated.Methods involved germination and drought exposure assays, histochemical detection of reactiv...

  4. The Crow Creek Site (39BF11) Massacre: A Preliminary Report,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-02-01

    samples investi- gated were collected from the fortification ditch. Choke-cherry ( Prunus virginiana L.) and what is believed to be wolfberry (Symphori...below Vegetable Material: Prunus virginiana L. Choke-cherry Ambrosia sp. Ragweed cf. Symphoricarpos occidentalis Hook. Wolfberry Chenopodium sp...1 Sample from Bone Bed B - Upper Level 7B: Prunus virginiana L. Choke-cherry - 10 pits, 5 half pits, and 10 fragments Ambrosia sp. Ragweed - 3 Rumex

  5. Changes in weed infestations on plantations of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. subsp. vulgaris cultivated on black soil near Wrocław in 1989–1995 and 2006–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Domaradzki

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Field studies were carried out in 1989–1995 and 2006–2012 on plantations of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. subsp. vulgaris. During this period, 542 phytosociological relevés were made using the Braun-Blanquet method. In total, 46 weed species were found. In 1989–1995, the occurrence of 36 segetal species was reported. The highest cover indices were determined for Chenopodium album and Amaranthus retroflexus. Galium aparine, Echinochloa crus-galli, and Elymus repens were the dominant species, as well. Analysis of the frequency of occurrence revealed one constant species (Chenopodium album, two frequent species (Amaranthus retroflexus and Galium aparine, and two medium-frequent species (Echinochloa crus-galli and Matricaria maritima ssp. inodora. In 2006–2012, the occurrence of 40 weed species on the sugar beet plantations was recorded. The plantations were clearly dominated by Chenopodium album, accompanied by Polygonum persicaria and Polygonum lapathifolium ssp. lapathifolium. Other dominant species comprised Setaria viridis, Galinsoga parviflora, Brassica napus ssp. napus, and Fallopia convolvulus. The Chenopodium album was a constant component of the sugar beet plantations. In turn, no frequent species were observed and six medium-frequent species were found (Setaria viridis, Galinsoga parviflora, Brassica napus ssp. napus, Echinochloa crus-galli, Amaranthus retroflexus, and Capsella bursa-pastoris. Noteworthy, the presence of previously unreported species, e.g., Abutilon theophrasti, Hyoscyamus niger, or Artemisia vulgaris, was revealed. These species are rare components in sugar beet crops. A reverse phenomenon, i.e., the disappearance of some species such as Euphorbia helioscopia, Malva neglecta, Rumex acetosella, Sinapis arvensis, or Sisymbrium officinale, was also observed.

  6. Allelopathic effects of Sonchus oleraceus L. on the germination and seedling growth of crop and weed species

    OpenAIRE

    Gomaa,Nasr Hassan; Hassan,Mahmoud Omar; Fahmy,Gamal Mohammad; González,Luís; Hammouda,Ola; Atteya,Atteya Mostafa

    2014-01-01

    We assessed the allelopathic effects of the aqueous extract of Sonchus oleraceus dry shoots on the germination and seedling growth of Trifolium alexandrinum, three weed species (Brassica nigra, Chenopodium murale and Melilotus indicus) and S. oleraceus itself. We assayed four different concentrations of the aqueous extract (w v-1): 1%, 2%, 3% and 4%. To determine whether the effects of the extract were attributable to the presence of allelopathic compounds, its osmotic potential or both, we p...

  7. Cytotoxic effect of Argentine medicinal plant extracts on human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffa, M J; Ferraro, G; Wagner, M L; Calcagno, M L; Campos, R H; Cavallaro, L

    2002-03-01

    Methanolic extracts from Achyrocline satureioides (Dc.) Lam, Aristolochia macroura Gomez, Lithraea molleoides (Vell.) Engl., Schinus molle L., unlike those from Celtis spinosa Spreng, Chenopodium ambrosioides L., Petiveria alliacea L., and Plantago major L. showed cytotoxic activity against a human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line, Hep G2. Schinus molle L. was the most active (IC50=50+/-7 microg/ml). These results call for further studies of these extracts.

  8. Příprava těstovin s různým podílem merlíkové mouky a jejich kvalitativní hodnocení

    OpenAIRE

    BIGASOVÁ, Věra

    2014-01-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) is a very nutritionally valuable crop with versatility. The aim of this work was a practical experiment to test the possibility of pasta production with different proportions of quinoa flour and evaluate their selected qualitative properties. The thesis includes also photos of pasta production and the results of questionnaires summarizing the views of consumers on pasta containing quinoa flour. We can advise to use of quinoa flour up to 30% share for the production...

  9. Determination of potassium concentration in organic samples by means of x-ray fluorescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soto Moran, R.L.; Szgedi, S.

    1993-01-01

    By means of x-ray fluorescence analysis and the inner standard method using KH 2 PO 4 as the added chemical compound, potassium concentration of roots, stems , leaf, flowers and grains from Quinua (Chenopodium Quinoa Willd). which was previously treated with a nitrogen ed fertilizers has been determined taking into account the increasing effect the average atomic number due to used standard. Experimental errors are lower than 10 %

  10. Sporulation of four arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi isolates inside dead seed cavities and glass capillaries

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rydlová, Jana; Batkhuugyin, Enkhtuya; Vosátka, Miroslav

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 36, - (2004), s. 269-284 ISSN 0334-5114 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK6005114; GA ČR GA526/99/P032; GA MŠk OC 838.10 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6005908 Keywords : Chenopodium album seeds * Glomus * indigenous AMF isolates Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.682, year: 2004

  11. Observations on the development of plants

    OpenAIRE

    A. Listowski; A. Jaśmianowicz; M. Iwanejko

    2015-01-01

    The influence of light intensity and daylength on four short-day species of Chenopodium was analysed. The following species were tested: Ch. ficifolium, Ch. glaucum, Ch. rubrum and Ch. hybridum. Under short day, generative initiation was accelerated, the abundance of flowering, and growth and leaf differentiation processes were reduced. Under light of low intensity, the rhythm of development of the plants growing under long day is similar to that under short day. The development of axillary b...

  12. Do Tillage Methods Affect Germination and Species Similarity of Soil Weed Seeds Bank?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahgholi Hassan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cultural practices such as tillage used for crop production influence the composition of the weed seed bank in the soil. In order to investigate the effects of different tillage methods on seed bank properties, species diversity and similarity, two laboratory and greenhouse experiments were carried out as randomized complete block design with four replications in 2011. Treatments included: once tillage per year (T1, twice tillage per year (T2, more than twice tillage (T3 and no tillage (T4. Laboratory results showed that the T3 and T4 treatments had the highest and the lowest observed seeds numbers, respectively. Between the laboratory observed weed seeds, the maximum weed seed numbers were Echinochloa crus-galli and Amaranthus retroflexus in the T3 treatment, while Chenopodium album, Polygonum aviculare and Cuscuta campestris had the highest seed numbers in the T2 treatment. At the greenhouse study, Chenopodium album, Amaranthus retroflexus and Hordeum morinum in the T2 treatment were dominant species. The highest diversity was observed in the T2 treatment, and Chenopodium album and Echinochloa crus-galli were dominant species in the T2 and T3 treatments. Maximum species similarity index was achieved from the T1 and T3 treatments. Thereby this study concluded that increasing of tillage number could affect the similarity index of weed seeds and subsequently alters the weed community composition.

  13. Effect of conservation tillage and peat application on weed infestation on a clay soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. VANHALA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Amendment of soil with peat is an attempt to avoid crop yield variation in the transition to conservation tillage, as it improves seedbed conditions and crop growth in drought-sensitive clay soils. Weed infestations were compared in 1999-2000 between the original and peat-amended clay (Typic Cryaquept, very fine, illitic or mixed under different autumn tillage systems in an oats-barley rotation. In a field experiment, sphagnum peat (H = 4 had been spread (0.02 m 3 m -2 on the soil surface in August 1995. Tillage treatments included mouldboard ploughing (to 20 cm and stubble cultivations of different working depths (8 or 15 cm and intensity (once or twice. Weed biomass and density were assessed by an area of 1 m 2 per field plot in August 1999-2000 and June 2000. The 1999 season was dry, but soil moisture conditions were more favourable in 2000. Peat application tended to increase the number of volunteer oats and Chenopodium album in 1999, while decreasing Galium spurium biomass. Ploughing significantly increased the abundance of Chenopodium album and Lamium purpureum in barley (Hordeum vulgare in 1999. Weed infestation was much lower in 2000, and tillage effect on Chenopodium album was minor in oats (Avena sativa. Growth of Lamium purpureum and Fumaria officinalis was stimulated in ploughed soils both years. Intensity and working depth of stubble cultivation had no significant effect on weeds.;

  14. Fagopyrum esculentum Alters Its Root Exudation after Amaranthus retroflexus Recognition and Suppresses Weed Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gfeller, Aurélie; Glauser, Gaétan; Etter, Clément; Signarbieux, Constant; Wirth, Judith

    2018-01-01

    Weed control by crops through growth suppressive root exudates is a promising alternative to herbicides. Buckwheat ( Fagopyrum esculentum ) is known for its weed suppression and redroot pigweed ( Amaranthus retroflexus ) control is probably partly due to allelopathic root exudates. This work studies whether other weeds are also suppressed by buckwheat and if the presence of weeds is necessary to induce growth repression. Buckwheat and different weeds were co-cultivated in soil, separating roots by a mesh allowing to study effects due to diffusion. Buckwheat suppressed growth of pigweed, goosefoot and barnyard grass by 53, 42, and 77% respectively without physical root interactions, probably through allelopathic compounds. Root exudates were obtained from sand cultures of buckwheat (BK), pigweed (P), and a buckwheat/pigweed mixed culture (BK-P). BK-P root exudates inhibited pigweed root growth by 49%. Characterization of root exudates by UHPLC-HRMS and principal component analysis revealed that BK and BK-P had a different metabolic profile suggesting that buckwheat changes its root exudation in the presence of pigweed indicating heterospecific recognition. Among the 15 different markers, which were more abundant in BK-P, tryptophan was identified and four others were tentatively identified. Our findings might contribute to the selection of crops with weed suppressive effects.

  15. WEED SURVEYING OF PHACELIA (PHACELIA TANACETIFOLIA L.) AND EVALUATING THE EFFICIENCY OF THE WEED CONTROL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horváth, E; Szabó, R

    2014-01-01

    The experiment was set up in an area of 9 ha that was split into 4 plots: in plot 1 the row spacing was 12 cm and the seeding rate was 10 kg; in plot 2 the row spacing was 24 cm and the seeding rate was 10 kg; in plot 3 the row spacing was 24 cm and the seeding rate was 8 kg; in plot 4 the row spacing was 12 cm and the seeding rate was 8 kg. After the weed surveying, the total weed coverage was established as follows: in plot 1 the total weed coverage was 11.34%, in plot 2 it was 12.3%, in plot 3 it was 18%, and in plot 4 the total weed coverage was 15%. Based on the weed survey, on the test area the following dicotyledon weeds belonging to the T4 Raunkiaer plant life-form category occupied the highest percentage: heal-all, black-bindweed, goosefoot. The proportion of the perennial dicotyledons: field bindweed (G3), tuberous pea (G1), white campion (H3) was negligible. In all four cases the weed control was executed using the same herbicide in the same doses and with regard to the weed species it showed the same level of efficiency. The smaller row spacing and higher seeding rate has a beneficial effect on the weed suppressing capacity of the crop, the crop's weed suppressing capacity is better and the development of the weeds becomes worse.

  16. Evaluating sampling strategy for DNA barcoding study of coastal and inland halo-tolerant Poaceae and Chenopodiaceae: A case study for increased sample size.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng-Cheng Yao

    Full Text Available Environmental conditions in coastal salt marsh habitats have led to the development of specialist genetic adaptations. We evaluated six DNA barcode loci of the 53 species of Poaceae and 15 species of Chenopodiaceae from China's coastal salt marsh area and inland area. Our results indicate that the optimum DNA barcode was ITS for coastal salt-tolerant Poaceae and matK for the Chenopodiaceae. Sampling strategies for ten common species of Poaceae and Chenopodiaceae were analyzed according to optimum barcode. We found that by increasing the number of samples collected from the coastal salt marsh area on the basis of inland samples, the number of haplotypes of Arundinella hirta, Digitaria ciliaris, Eleusine indica, Imperata cylindrica, Setaria viridis, and Chenopodium glaucum increased, with a principal coordinate plot clearly showing increased distribution points. The results of a Mann-Whitney test showed that for Digitaria ciliaris, Eleusine indica, Imperata cylindrica, and Setaria viridis, the distribution of intraspecific genetic distances was significantly different when samples from the coastal salt marsh area were included (P < 0.01. These results suggest that increasing the sample size in specialist habitats can improve measurements of intraspecific genetic diversity, and will have a positive effect on the application of the DNA barcodes in widely distributed species. The results of random sampling showed that when sample size reached 11 for Chloris virgata, Chenopodium glaucum, and Dysphania ambrosioides, 13 for Setaria viridis, and 15 for Eleusine indica, Imperata cylindrica and Chenopodium album, average intraspecific distance tended to reach stability. These results indicate that the sample size for DNA barcode of globally distributed species should be increased to 11-15.

  17. Application of the techniques of Multivariate analysis in the characterization of germplasm of Quinua; Aplicacion de tecnicas de Analisis multivariado en la caracterizacion de germoplasma de Quinua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia A, J.M.; Torres de la Cruz, E. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail: jmga@nuclear.inin.mx

    2004-07-01

    Its were evaluated 20 lines of Chenopodium quinoa respect characters of agronomical interest finding that nine lines overcame the witness highlighting the lines: 20R1-41, 20R1-10, 20R2-27 that presented near yield to 1.5 ton/ha. The multivariate analysis of main components generated a dendrogram in that is appreciated that at an Euclidean distance of 0.75 its were formed seven groups according to its morphological characteristics and of yield, it highlights the formation of two big groups at a distance of 1.125, that they separate according to the radiation dose (200 and 250 Gy). (Author)

  18. AGRONOMIC PERFORMANCE AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR QUINOA (BRS SYETETUBA CROP IN THE BRAZILIAN SAVANNAH DESEMPENHO AGRONÔMICO E RECOMENDAÇÕES PARA CULTIVO DE QUINOA (BRS SYETETUBA NO CERRADO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Lorena de Barros Santos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd., native to the South American Andes, has been adapted for cultivation in Brazil, via progeny selection. Originating from the Q4 population, from Ecuadorian valleys, Q4.5 has shown outstanding performance. During the trials, it was standardized for agronomic traits and named BRS Syetetuba. In the summer and winter, it reached 2.3 t ha-1 and 7.5 t ha-1, respectively for grain and biomass yield, in 120 days, from emergence to maturity. These results were higher than those reached by the BRS Piabiru and Kancolla check cultivars. The grains are saponin-free and have a mean weight of 2.9 g 1000-1. The results reveal that the BRS Syetetuba meets the desirable characteristics for commercial yield in Brazil.

    KEY-WORDS: Chenopodium quinoa; grain weight; biomass; plant height.A Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd., originária dos Andes, tem sido adaptada ao cultivo no Brasil, via seleção de progênies. Entre as progênies avaliadas, tem-se destacado a Q4.5, proveniente da população Q4, originária dos vales equatorianos. O genótipo foi uniformizado em suas características agronômicas, recebendo o nome de BRS Syetetuba. Em experimentos de verão e entressafra, apresentou rendimentos de 2,3 t ha-1 de grãos e 7,5 t ha-1 de biomassa total, em 120 dias, da emergência à maturação. Estes resultados superaram aqueles alcançados pelas cultivares padrões BRS Piabiru e Kancolla. Os grãos são livres de saponina e têm peso médio de 2,9 g 1000-1. Os resultados indicam que a BRS Syetetuba reúne características favoráveis para desencadear a produção comercial de quinoa no Brasil.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Chenopodium quinoa; peso de grãos; biomassa; altura de planta.

  19. Análisis estadístico exploratorio de dos tipos de secado de quinua

    OpenAIRE

    Mena Reinoso, Angel Patricio

    2015-01-01

    El presente trabajo “Análisis Estadístico Exploratorio de dos Tipos de Secado de Quinua” permite realizar una validación estadística del tipo de secador que posea una alta eficiencia, rendimiento en el secado de este tipo de cereal (Chenopodium quinoa Willd). Para el efecto se empleó el secador de bandejas y un secador solar tipo invernadero, el experimento se llevó a cabo con tres tipos de muestras, una con cascara y las otras escarificadas. La quinua fue sometida a un secado ...

  20. Desenvolvimento de um chocolate meio amargo com maior percentual de proteína

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Bordin Schumacher

    2008-01-01

    O chocolate tem apresentado crescente consumo, boa digestibilidade devido a sua composição e tem sido amplamente estudado por suas propriedades antioxidantes. Por outro lado, este alimento possui altos percentuais de carboidratos e gordura e baixo conteúdo de proteínas. Neste contexto, foram desenvolvidas formulações de chocolate meio amargo com objetivo de aumentar o valor protéico deste produto. Para isto foi utilizado o pseudocereal quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Wild) como adição ao chocolate...

  1. Application of the techniques of Multivariate analysis in the characterization of germplasm of Quinua

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia A, J.M.; Torres de la Cruz, E.

    2004-01-01

    Its were evaluated 20 lines of Chenopodium quinoa respect characters of agronomical interest finding that nine lines overcame the witness highlighting the lines: 20R1-41, 20R1-10, 20R2-27 that presented near yield to 1.5 ton/ha. The multivariate analysis of main components generated a dendrogram in that is appreciated that at an Euclidean distance of 0.75 its were formed seven groups according to its morphological characteristics and of yield, it highlights the formation of two big groups at a distance of 1.125, that they separate according to the radiation dose (200 and 250 Gy). (Author)

  2. Feasibility of Using Phytoextraction to Remediate a Compost-Based Soil Contaminated with Cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisien, Michele A; Rutter, Allison; Zeeb, Barbara A

    2015-01-01

    Greenhouse and in-situ field experiments were used to determine the potential for phytoextraction to remediate soil contaminated with Cd from municipal solid waste (MSW) and sewage sludge (SS) compost application at a Peterborough (Canada) site. For the greenhouse experiment, one native (Chenopodium album) and three naturalized (Poa compressa, Brassica juncea, Helianthus annuus) plant species were planted in soil containing no detectable Cd (phytoextraction is therefore not feasible at this site. Though low Cd bioavailability has negative implications for Cd phytoextraction from MSW/SS compost-based soils, it may limit receptor exposure to Cd sufficiently to eliminate the potential for risk at this site.

  3. Effect of simplified tillage and mineral fertilization on weed infestation of potato growing on loess soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karol Bujak

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the paper effect of limitation of postharvest measure to single cultivating or disking of soil and mineral fertilization level on number, air-dry matter and botanical composition of weeds in the potato-field is presented. Simplifield postharvest measure was increasing insignificantly and more intensive fertilization was limiting the weed infestation of potato-field. Decteasing of weeds number increasing fertilization was ststistically significant. Dominating species of weeds in the potato-field were Capsella bursa-pastoris, Poa annua, Viola arvensis, Chenopodium album, Elymus repens i Equisetum arvense.

  4. Rural Women organized around the Cultivation of Quinoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yenny Paola Oyola Carvajal

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Rural women have always participated in the reproductive and productive spheres of family systems. Today they are continuously participating in organizational spaces beyond the household, where they play a determinant role in the welfare of their family members by generating income that increases the possibility of the household’s economic sustainability. The article illustrates this phenomenon through the experience of a group of women from the municipality of Soracá (Boyacá, Colombia, who have started to cultivate quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.

  5. Molecular identification and biological characterization of a new potyvirus in lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciuffo, Marina; Mammella, Marco; Vallino, Marta; Caciagli, Piero; Turina, Massimo

    2016-09-01

    A potyvirus causing necrosis and leaf distortion on lettuce was found in the Lazio region of Italy. Host range analysis showed its ability to infect only Chenopodium quinoa and C. amaranticolor in addition to some lettuce cultivars. The virus could be transmitted by aphids of the species Myzus persicae. The complete 9829-nt genome was characterized. BLAST analysis of sequence of the complete encoded polyprotein showed that the most closely related virus is asparagus virus 1, with 52 % amino acid sequence identity. These results suggest that this virus should be considered a member of a new species in the genus Potyvirus.

  6. Uptake of more important mineral components by common field weeds on loess soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leszek Malicki

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We have determined the contents of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Na, Fe, Cu, Mn and Zn in winter wheat, spring barley, sugar beets and winter rape, as well as in the most common weed species infesting these crops. It was established that the percentage of mineral components in the dry matter of the majority of weeds is higher than in that of the cultivated plants. The most dangerous weed species competing with plants for the investigated nutrients were: Chenopodium album, Cirsium arvense, Convolvulus arvensis, Polygonum convolvulus, Sonchus arvensis and Stellaria media.

  7. Desarrollo de producto sobre la base de harinas de cereales y leguminosa para niños celíacos entre 6 y 24 meses; II: Propiedades de las mezclas

    OpenAIRE

    Cerezal Mezquita, P.; Urtuvia Gatica, V.; Ramírez Quintanilla, V.; Arcos Zavala, R.

    2011-01-01

    Las formulaciones alimenticias de alto contenido proteico, aportado por una mezcla de harinas a partir de dos cultivos andinos, quinua (Chenopodium quinua Willd) y lupino (Lupi-nus albus L), con dos cereales tradicionales maíz (Zea mays L.) y arroz (Oryza sativa L.), conllevaron a la preparación de una 'mezcla dulce' para la elaboración de queques y otra "mezcla postre" saborizada con plátano, que puede ser preparada con agua o con leche, constituyeron una buena alternativa como suplemento al...

  8. Desarrollo de producto sobre la base de harinas de cereales y leguminosa para niños celíacos entre 6 y 24 meses; I: Formulación y aceptabilidad

    OpenAIRE

    Cerezal Mezquita, P.; Urtuvia Gatica, V.; Ramírez Quintanilla, V.; Romero Palacios, N.; Arcos Zavala, R.

    2011-01-01

    La revalorización de los cultivos andinos, quinua (Chenopodium quinua Willd) y lupino (Lupinus albus L), para ser utilizados en mezclas alimenticias, con cereales tradicionales como maíz (Zea mays L.) y arroz (Oryza sativa L.), originan mezclas sin gluten que constituyen una buena alternativa para la alimentación de niños menores de 24 meses que sufren la enfermedad celíaca, ya que mejoran la calidad de la proteína, por compensación de los aminoácidos esenciales, e incide en la diversificació...

  9. Genotoxicity study of an experimental beverage made with quinua, kiwicha and kañiwa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francia D.P. Huaman

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Genotoxic evaluation is an important step for a product that is aimed for human consumption. A beverage composed of pseudocereals with highly nutritious elements like quinua (Chenopodium quinoa Willd., kiwicha (Amaranthus caudatus L. and kañiwa (Chenopodium pallidicaule Aellen was prepared to reduce lipid contents in a group of volunteers. The objective of the present study is to evaluate the genotoxic potential of an experimental beverage using two in vitro tests that have been validated by international agencies. For the Ames test, two strains of Salmonella typhimurium (TA98 and TA100 with and without microsomal fraction (S9 were used. Four doses of the beverage were tested and also a possible protective effect (same four doses of beverage added to plates with mutagens. Cultures of binucleated lymphocytes and five doses of the beverage were used for the micronucleus test. Both Ames and the micronucleus tests showed the beverage has not genotoxic effect in all tested doses. However, in evaluating the possible protective effect of the beverage, it would be evident that on the contrary, the mutagenic effect of mutagens used for each strain is enhanced. These results suggest that additional tests should be performed to check the genotoxic potential of this beverage before consumption.

  10. Evaluation of allelopathic impact of aqueous extract of root and aerial root of Tinospora cordifolia (Willd. miers on some weed plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. Abdul RAOOF

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The present laboratory experimental study was conducted to evaluate the allelopathic potential of Tinospora cordifolia (Willd. Miers on seed germination and seedling growth of weed plants (Chenopodium album L. Chenopodium murale L., Cassia tora L. and Cassia sophera L.. Root and aerial root aqueous extracts of Tinospora at 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0% concentrations were applied to determine their effect on seed germination and seedling growth of test plants under laboratory conditions. Germination was observed for 15 days after that the root length and shoot length was measured. Dry weight was measured after oven drying the seedlings. The aqueous extracts from root and aerial root had inhibitory effect on seed germination of test plants. Aqueous extracts from root and aerial root significantly inhibited not only germination and seedling growth but also reduced dry weight of the seedlings. Root length, shoot length of weed species decreased progressively when plants were exposed to increasing concentration (0.5, 1, 2 and 4%. Aqueous extract of aerial root shows the least inhibition. The pH of aqueous extracts of different parts of T. cordifolia does not show any major change when the concentration increases.

  11. The potential role of biotechnology and induced mutations in plant breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubluo, A.; Brunner, I.; Palomino, G.; Rodriguez Garay, B.

    2001-01-01

    Although conventional techniques including mutation induction have increased the productivity of crops, the application of biotechnological tools such as tissue culture and molecular markers can speed up crop improvement. Through the application of in vitro culture techniques in Mammilaria san-angelensis, an ornamental cactus severely endangered, we proved through flow cytometry, genetic uniformity in massive in vitro derived plantlets and after irradiation we were able to regenerate it up to M1V4 generation. Solid mutants are expected if somatic embryos are treated with mutagenic agents due to its unicellular origin. Somatic embryogenesis was successfully achieved in Agave tequilana and after irradiation of embryogenic callus cultures, survivors were challenged with pathogenic crude bacterial extracts allowing the selection of resistant or tolerant individuals. Specially important are studies on neglected crops due to the interruption of its domestication and they are locally important for indigenous people as marginal crops. The trend now is to combine biotechnology and induced mutations to overcome problems with this highly promising crops. Chenopodium quinoa exhibits a strong constraint as food due to the undesirable production of saponins. The mutation induction strategy has enabled the reduction of this compounds in M5 generation, but further research is needed to overcome productivity and adaptability problems. Here the use of molecular markers (RAPDS) and flow cytometry techniques acquire relevance in the study of related species such as Chenopodium berlandieri in order to design an inter-specific breeding programme among selected mutants and outstanding local races to combine productivity, adaptability and grain quality

  12. Новые данные по числам хромосом некоторых сосудистых растений из Израиля и России

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. N. Lomonosova

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Приведены числа хромосом для 10 видов из семейств Amaranthaceae s. str., Asteraceae, Caryophyllaceae, Chenopodiaceae и Frankeniaceae. Для Atriplex intracontinentalis Sukhor. (2n = 18, Corispermum filifolium C.A. Meyer ex Becker (2n = 18 и Frankenia tuvinica Lomon. (2n = 20 числа хромосом не были известны ранее. Впервые на материале из Израиля указаны числа хромосом для Amaranthus albus L. (2n = 32, Dyssodia tenuiloba (DC R.B. Rob. (2n = 24, Lactuca viminea (L. J. et C. Presl (2n = 18, Tragopogon coelesyriacus Boiss. (2n = 12, Chenopodium opulifolium Schrad. ex W.D.J. Koch et Ziz (2n = 54 и Chenopodium missouriense Aellen (2n = 54.

  13. [The in vitro action of plants on Vibrio cholerae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara, J M; Chumpitaz, J; Valencia, E

    1994-01-01

    Natural products of several plants, according to the geographic location, are used by Peruvian people in the popular treatment of diarrhea, with good success. When cholerae cases appeared in Peru, we were interested to know the "in vitro" effect against Vibrio cholerae 01, of these useful plants to treat diarrhea. The following plants were tested: Cichorium intybus, Althaea officinalis, Psorela glandulosa, Geranium maculatum, Punica granatum, Malus sativa, Cydonia oblonga, Chenopodium ambrosoides, Krameria triandria, Tea chinensis, Daucus carota, Persea gratissima, Psidium guayaba and Lippia dulcis. Decoction or infusion of the plants were used in the "in vitro" experiments. The following plants showed no "in vitro" effect against V. cholerae: Cichorium intybus, Althaea officinalis, Psorela glandulosa, Geranium maculatum, Chenopodium ambrosoides, Krameria triandria, Psidium guayaba, Lippia dulcis and Daucus carota. Decoction of Malus sativa and Cydenia oblonga showed bactericidal effect for their acidity and stone avocado (Persea gratissima) a late bactericidal effect. Tea infusión and the decoction of Punica granatum peel, showed the best bactericidal effect and we suggest to use them as to stop cholera spreading.

  14. Plants used in the treatment of leishmanial ulcers due to Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis in an endemic area of Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio França

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper records the plants used in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis (L(Vb among the rural population of a cocoa- producing coastal area of Bahia state, Brazil. An enquiry conducted among a hundred patients identified 49 plant species used to treat skin ulceration caused by this Leishmania species. The principal plants used are caju-branco (Anacardium occidentale - Anacardiaceae, used by 65% of the population, folha-fogo (Clidemia hirta - Melastomataceae 39%, alfavaca-grossa (Plectranthus amboinicus - Lamiaceae 33%, mastruz (Chenopodium ambrosioides - Chenopodiaceae 31%, erva-de-santa-maria (Solatium americanum - Solanaceae (25% and transagem (Plantago major - Plantaginaceae. 2%.Este trabalho relata as plantas usadas no tratamento da leishmaniose cutânea, causada por Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis (L(Vb, na população rural da faixa litorânea produtora de cacau do estado da Bahia, Brasil. Um inquérito realizado entre 100 pacientes, identificou 49 espécies de plantas usadas para tratar úlceras de pele causadas por esta espécie de Leishmânia. As principais plantas usadas foram o cajueiro-branco (Anacardium occidentale - Anacardiaceae usado por 65% da população, a folha-fogo (Clidemia hirta - Melastomataceae 39%, a alfavaca-grossa (Plectranthus amboinicus - Lamiaceae 33%, o mastruz (Chenopodium ambrosioides - henopodiaceae 31%, a erva-de-santa-maria (Solanum americanum - Solanaceae 25% e a transagem (Plantago major - Plantaginaceae 2%.

  15. The influence of intercrop plants and the date of their ploughing-in on weed infestation of root chicory (Cichorium intybus L. var. sativum (Bisch. Janch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzena Błażewicz-Woźniak

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The field experiment was carried out in 2006-2008 in the Felin Experimental Farm (University of Life Sciences in Lublin on podzolic soil developed from dusty medium loam. Root chicory (Cichorium intybus L. var. sativum (Bisch. Janch. cv. Polanowicka was involved in the experiment. The experimental factors were 3 species of intercrop plants: common vetch (Vicia sativa, phacelia (Phacelia tanacetifolia, oat (Avena sativa and 2 dates of ploughing-in: pre-winter and spring. In total, 26 taxons characteristic for vegetable plantations were identified in chicory weed infestation. Monocarpic species dominated, among which Senecio vulgaris, Chenopodium album, Lamium amplexicaule, Galinsoga ciliata, and Capsella bursa-pastoris were predominant. The date of ploughing-in did not significantly affect the status and size of weed infestation of chicory plots. Short-lived species occurred after pre-winter ploughing-in, while perennial - after spring ploughing-in. The application of intercrops significantly reduced chicory weed infestation as compared to the cultivation with no intercrop. The ploughing-in of Avena sativa biomass appeared to be the most efficient. The intercrop plants reduced the occurrence of Senecio vulgaris and Capsella bursa-pastoris which were the most numerous in the treatment without intercrops. Biomass of Vicia sativa favored the growth of Chenopodium album and Lamium amplexicaule. The secondary weed infestation did not depend on agrotechnical factors applied during the experiment.

  16. Evaluating sampling strategy for DNA barcoding study of coastal and inland halo-tolerant Poaceae and Chenopodiaceae: A case study for increased sample size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Peng-Cheng; Gao, Hai-Yan; Wei, Ya-Nan; Zhang, Jian-Hang; Chen, Xiao-Yong; Li, Hong-Qing

    2017-01-01

    Environmental conditions in coastal salt marsh habitats have led to the development of specialist genetic adaptations. We evaluated six DNA barcode loci of the 53 species of Poaceae and 15 species of Chenopodiaceae from China's coastal salt marsh area and inland area. Our results indicate that the optimum DNA barcode was ITS for coastal salt-tolerant Poaceae and matK for the Chenopodiaceae. Sampling strategies for ten common species of Poaceae and Chenopodiaceae were analyzed according to optimum barcode. We found that by increasing the number of samples collected from the coastal salt marsh area on the basis of inland samples, the number of haplotypes of Arundinella hirta, Digitaria ciliaris, Eleusine indica, Imperata cylindrica, Setaria viridis, and Chenopodium glaucum increased, with a principal coordinate plot clearly showing increased distribution points. The results of a Mann-Whitney test showed that for Digitaria ciliaris, Eleusine indica, Imperata cylindrica, and Setaria viridis, the distribution of intraspecific genetic distances was significantly different when samples from the coastal salt marsh area were included (P Imperata cylindrica and Chenopodium album, average intraspecific distance tended to reach stability. These results indicate that the sample size for DNA barcode of globally distributed species should be increased to 11-15.

  17. A high-quality genome assembly of quinoa provides insights into the molecular basis of salt bladder-based salinity tolerance and the exceptional nutritional value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Changsong; Chen, Aojun; Xiao, Lihong; Muller, Heike M; Ache, Peter; Haberer, Georg; Zhang, Meiling; Jia, Wei; Deng, Ping; Huang, Ru; Lang, Daniel; Li, Feng; Zhan, Dongliang; Wu, Xiangyun; Zhang, Hui; Bohm, Jennifer; Liu, Renyi; Shabala, Sergey; Hedrich, Rainer; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Zhang, Heng

    2017-01-01

    Chenopodium quinoa is a halophytic pseudocereal crop that is being cultivated in an ever-growing number of countries. Because quinoa is highly resistant to multiple abiotic stresses and its seed has a better nutritional value than any other major cereals, it is regarded as a future crop to ensure global food security. We generated a high-quality genome draft using an inbred line of the quinoa cultivar Real. The quinoa genome experienced one recent genome duplication about 4.3 million years ago, likely reflecting the genome fusion of two Chenopodium parents, in addition to the γ paleohexaploidization reported for most eudicots. The genome is highly repetitive (64.5% repeat content) and contains 54 438 protein-coding genes and 192 microRNA genes, with more than 99.3% having orthologous genes from glycophylic species. Stress tolerance in quinoa is associated with the expansion of genes involved in ion and nutrient transport, ABA homeostasis and signaling, and enhanced basal-level ABA responses. Epidermal salt bladder cells exhibit similar characteristics as trichomes, with a significantly higher expression of genes related to energy import and ABA biosynthesis compared with the leaf lamina. The quinoa genome sequence provides insights into its exceptional nutritional value and the evolution of halophytes, enabling the identification of genes involved in salinity tolerance, and providing the basis for molecular breeding in quinoa. PMID:28994416

  18. Weed flora in organically grown spring cereals in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. SALONEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The weed flora in organically grown spring cereals was investigated in southern and central Finland in 1997-1999 with the primary purpose of determining the species composition and the level of weed infestation. Altogether 165 fields were surveyed in the middle of the growing season. A total of 126 weed species were found, of which 42 exceeded the frequency level of 10%. The most frequent weed species were Chenopodium album, Stellaria media, Galeopsis spp. and Viola arvensis. Elymus repens was the most frequent grass species. The average density of weeds was 469 plants m-2 (median 395, and the air-dry biomass was 678 kg ha-1 (median 567 which accounted for 17% of the total biomass of the crop stand. Infestation by Chenopodium album and the perennial species Elymus repens, Cirsium arvense and Sonchus arvensis is of major concern. Weed control strategies should include direct control measures to overcome weed problems related to the conversion period from conventional to organic growing.

  19. Response of plants to high concentrations of uranium stress and the screening of remediation plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Yongjin; Luo Xuegang; Zeng Feng; Jiang Shijie

    2013-01-01

    Studies of the resistance and accumulation ability of different plant species to uranium (U) has important influence on the bioremediation of U contaminated soil. The resistance and enrichment ability of high concentrations of U (500 mg · kg"-"1 soil) in fourteen plant species were investigated and evaluated in this study in order to screen remediation plants for governance soil U contamination. The results showed that: (1) high concentrations of U stress had different effects on the emergence and survival of the different plants. The seed emergence of Hibiscus esculentus was reduced by 2/3, but the seed emergence of Gynura cusimbua (D. Don) S. Moore, Chenopodium album L. and Phaseolus vulgaris var. humilis Alef were not reduced. Under the contaminated soil, all the sesamum indicum died within a month after the emergence and the survival number of Amaranth and Iresine herbstii 'Aureo-reticulata' reduced by about 80%. But the survival number of Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart.) Griseb., Chenopodium album L. and Phaseolus vulgaris var. humilis Alef were not influenced. (2) The biomass of the plants would be reduced by 8-99% in the uranium-contaminated soil. The anti-stress ability of Phaseolus vulgaris var. humilis Alef was the strongest in the fourteen plants, and Cucurbita pepo L., Sorghumbicolor (L.) Moench, Ipomoea aquatica Forsk, Helianthus annuus, Chenopodium album L. and Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart.) Griseb. showed some the anti-stress ability. (3) Significant differences were found in the capacity of plants to absorb uranium between under high-uranium contaminated soil and under the non-uranium contaminated soil were. The plants with higher uranium content in thenon-contaminated soil were Gomphrena globosa, and Cucurbita pepo L., which were 2.249 mg · kg"-"1 DW and 1.620 mg · kg"-"1 DW, respectively. But the plants with higher uranium content in the high uranium contaminated soil were Cichorium intybus L., Amaranth and Ipomoea aquatica Forsk, which

  20. Conservation and improvement of native pseudo cereals of Mexico; Conservacion y mejoramiento de pseudocereales nativos de Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia A, J.M.; Cruz T, E. [ININ, Departamento de Biologia, 52750 La Marquesa, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Mapes S, C. [Instituto de Biologia, UNAM, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Laguna C, A. [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Toluca (Mexico)

    2007-07-01

    With the purpose of preserving the genetic resources of the local races of pseudo cereals 'red Chia' (Chenopodium berlandieri subspecies nuttalliae), Chia blanca or alegria and Chia negra (belonging to Amaranths hypochondriacus), its were carried out exploration, characterization in situ, collects and conservation activities in the Opopeo and Santa Maria Huiramangaro communities, Michoacan. Field journeys were made and collections were carried out. The morphological typification and of physical and bromatologic characters of the seed were carried out. Parcels for the In situ conservation and the collections have also settled down in two towns of the Toluca Valley for multiplication and ex situ characterization. Seed has been redistributed among the in study area producers to foment the interest of the cultivation. (Author)

  1. Mosquito repellent activity of essential oils of aromatic plants growing in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillij, Y G; Gleiser, R M; Zygadlo, J A

    2008-05-01

    Mosquitoes are important vectors of diseases and nuisance pests. Repellents minimize contact with mosquitoes. Repellents based on essential oils (EO) are being developed as an alternative to DEET (N,N-diethyl-m-methylbenzamide), an effective compound that has disadvantages including toxic reactions, and damage to plastic and synthetic fabric. This work evaluated the repellency against Aedes aegypti of EO from aromatic plants that grow in Argentina: Acantholippia seriphioides, Achyrocline satureioides, Aloysia citriodora, Anemia tomentosa, Baccharis spartioides, Chenopodium ambrosioides, Eucalyptus saligna, Hyptis mutabilis, Minthostachys mollis, Rosmarinus officinalis, Tagetes minuta and Tagetes pusilla. Most EO were effective. Variations depending on geographic origin of the plant were detected. At a 90% EO concentration, A. satureoides and T. pusilla were the least repellent. At concentrations of 12.5% B. spartioides, R. officinalis and A. citriodora showed the longest repellency times. Comparisons of the principal components of each EO suggest that limonene and camphor were the main components responsible for the repellent effects.

  2. Biological nitrogen fixation in common bean and faba bean using N-15 methodology and two reference crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvache, Marcelo.

    1989-01-01

    A field was conducted on a Typic ustropepts soil located at 'La Tola', the experimental campus of the Agricultural Sciences Faculty at Tumbaco, Ecuador. The objectives were to quantify faba bean (Vicia faba) and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) biological nitrogen fixation, using quinoa (chenopodium quinoa) and maize (Zea mays) as reference crops. The average values were 80 and 70 per cent for faba bean and 42 and 14 per cent for common bean, respectively. It was assumed that nitrogen use eficiency was the same for fixing crops but observed that a crop with high nitrogen use efficiency overestimates legume biological nitrogen fixation. Results suggests that greater caution is needed when selecting reference crops for legumes with nitrogen fixation

  3. The 'Big bang' in the Early Iron Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medović Aleksandar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Early Iron Age granaries of Tell Gradina upon Bosut exploded in a fire inferno in the 8th century B.C. The result of this catastrophe is 2-5 cm thick layer with mixed carbonized seeds and fruits. Recently, eight samples were taken from Gradina's profile for archaeobotanical analysis. The goal was to obtain basic information on land use and on major crops and weeds of that period. The most abundant were cereals, followed by millets, pulses and oil/fibre plants. The dominant cereals were einkorn (Triticum monococcum and hulled barley (Hordeum vulgare vulgare. Broomcorn millet (Panicum miliaceum was also very important. Pulses were represented with six and oil/fibre plants with three species. Among weeds and ruderals, most common are rye brome (Bromus secalinus, fat hen (Chenopodium album, darnel ryegrass (Lolium temulentum, hairy crabgrass (Digitaria sanguinalis and corncockle (Agrostemma githago.

  4. Solanum americanum: reservoir for Potato virus Y and Cucumber mosaic virus in sweet pepper crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Fecury Moura

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Weeds can act as important reservoirs for viruses. Solanum americanum (Black nightshade is a common weed in Brazil and samples showing mosaic were collected from sweet pepper crops to verify the presence of viruses. One sample showed mixed infection between Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV and Potato virus Y (PVY and one sample showed simple infection by PVY. Both virus species were transmitted by plant extract and caused mosaic in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum cv. Santa Clara, sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum cv. Magda, Nicotiana benthamiana and N. tabaccum TNN, and local lesions on Chenopodium quinoa, C. murale and C. amaranticolor. The coat protein sequences for CMV and PVY found in S. americanum are phylogenetically more related to isolates from tomato. We conclude that S. americanum can act as a reservoir for different viruses during and between sweet pepper crop seasons.

  5. Differences in root uptake of radiocaesium by 30 plant taxa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broadley, M R; Willey, N J [University of the West of England, Bristol (United Kingdom). Faculty of Applied Sciences

    1998-12-31

    The concentration of Cs was measured in the shoots of 30 taxa of plants after exposing the roots for 6 h to 0.1 {mu}g radiolabelled Cs g{sup -1} soil. There were maximum differences between Chenopodium quinoa and Koeleria macrantha of 20-fold in Cs concentration and 100-fold in total Cs accumulated. There was a weak relationship between Rb(K) and Cs concentration across the 30 taxa, but a strong relationship within the Gramineae and Chenopodiaceae. Taxa in the Chenopodiaceae discriminated approximately nine times less between Rb and Cs during uptake than did those in the Gramineae. The lowest Cs concentrations occurred in slow growing Gramineae and the highest in fast growing Chenopodiaceae. If radiocaesium uptake by the Chenopodiaceae during chronic exposures shows similar patterns to those reported here after acute exposure, then the food contamination implications and the potential for phytoremediation of radiocaesium contaminated soils using plants in this family may be worth investigating. (author).

  6. Quinoa's potential in the Mediterranean region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lavini, A.; Pulvento, C.; d'Andria, R.

    2014-01-01

    Willd.), which was grown in field trials in several Mediterranean countries, to study the effects of drought and salinity on yield and other characters. Drought stress during the vegetative growth stage leads to deep root development, and without stress conditions for the rest of the growing season...... allowed the plant to be able to optimize its photosynthesis and carbon translocation. Stress during seed filling recorded the lowest yields. The influence of organic matter on yield was more important under deficit irrigation than under full irrigation. The interaction between relative water content......The climate of Mediterranean region will become drier and hotter, with increased problems of soil salinity. A possible alternative to minimize the effects of climate change is to introduce species with better tolerance to salt and drought stresses. One of the options is quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa...

  7. Cloning and bioinformatics analysis of PDC genes from Hylocereus undatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yunli; Luo, Xian; Lu, Han; Shen, Yu; Yuan, Lei; Luo, Lan

    2018-04-01

    The cDNA of PDC1 and PDC2 were amplified from the seedling of Hylocereus undatus `Guangming 2' by the technique of RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends). The PDC1 and PDC2 had a length of 1191bp and 2046 bp, and an open reading frame that encoded a protein of 351 and 604 amino acids, respectively. PDC1 was similar to PDC2 in motif and domain, which indicated that the two protein was relatively conserved to some extent. The 3D structure prediction showed that both of the two proteins of PDC1 and PDC2 were homotetramers. Amino acid sequence comparisons suggested that PDC1 had high identity with Chenopodium quinoa PDC1 (88% identity), PDC2 had high identity with Beta vulgaris PDC2 (84% identity).

  8. Use of Medical Plants in Schools Communities from Sinop, Mato Grosso.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. M. Urtado

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This study was conducted in Sinop, Mato Grosso, on two school communities. It was applied semi-structured questionnaires with questions focused on socioeconomic and the use of medicinal plants. It has as finality proved the effective use of medicinal plants on the everyday and a levy of the most used plant. The general profile of the respondents has shown that the women detain the major part of the knowledge, and that pass this uses to the future generations and friends, and find these plants on specialty stores, backyards, supermarket, root stores, bush and fairs. The plants that were found more frequently was (Ruta graveolens L., Babosa (Aloe vera L., Erva-Cidreira (Lippia alba Mill., Erva-Santa-Maria (Chenopodium ambrosioides L., Boldo (Plectranthus amboinicus Spreng., Hortel(Menta x vilosa Huds. e Terramicina (Alternanthera dentata Moench..Keywords: medical plants, Sinop, school.

  9. First Report of Cucumber mosaic virus Isolated from Sambungai (Gynura procumbens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    June Kwon

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In March 2016, an isolate of Cucumber mosaic virus (named Gyp-CMV was isolated from the Sambungai (Gynura procumbens showing the symptoms of mosaic and chlorosis. The isolate Gyp-CMV was characterized by disease reactions in several indicator plants, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism, and sequence analysis of movement protein (3a and coat protein (CP genes. Tobacco, tomato, pepper, ground cherry, and lambsquarters (Chenopodium quinoa and C. amaranticolor appeared typical CMV symptoms, but zucchini and cucumber were not infected. Phylogenetic analysis of the 3a and CP gene indicated that Gyp-CMV belongs to the CMV subgroup II. Sequence identities of the Gyp-CMV 3a and CP genes showed 99.3% and 100% to that of Hnt-CMV at amino acid level. To our knowledge, this is the first report of CMV infection in Gynura procumbens.

  10. VEGETATIVE COMPATIBILITY OF Fusarium oxysporum ISOLATED FROM WEEDS IN EASTERN CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Ilić

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Different formae speciales of Fusarium oxysporum are the main causal agent of Fusarium wilts. In 2008 and 2009 we collected F. oxysporum samples from symptomless Abutilon theophrasti, Xanthium strumarium, Chenopodium album, Matricaria perforata, Ambrosia artemisiifolia, Polygonum lapathifolium, Sonchus arvensis, Amaranthus blitoides, Amaranthus retroflexus, Datura stramonium, Sorghum halepense and Hibiscus trionum. Only 16 out of 41 isolates of F. oxysporum yielded nit mutants. The frequency of nit3 mutants was higher (43% than the frequency of nit1 (35% and NitM (22% mutants. Two vegetative compatibility groups (VCGs of F. oxysporum were determined in the complementation tests. These results stress out the problem with isolation of nit mutants and show a high genetic diversity of F. oxysporum isolated from weeds.

  11. Improving abiotic stress tolerance of quinoa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Aizheng

    Global food security faces the challenges of rapid population growth and shortage of water resources. Drought, heat waves and soil salinity are becoming more frequent and extreme due to climatic changes in many regions of the world, and resulting in yield reduction of many crops. It is hypothesized...... that quinoa has the potential to grow under a range of abiotic stresses, tolerating levels regarded as stresses in other crop species. Therefore cultivation of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) could be an alternative option in such regions. Even though quinoa is more tolerant to abiotic stress than most...... other crops, its productivity declines under severe drought, high salt conditions and harsh climate conditions. Different management approaches including water-saving irrigation methods (such as deficit irrigation, DI and alternate root-zone drying irrigation, ARD), inoculating crop seeds with plant...

  12. Genotypic difference in salinity tolerance in quinoa is determined by differential control of xylem Na+ loading and stomatal density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shabala, Sergey; Hariadi, Yuda; Jacobsen, Sven-Erik

    2013-01-01

    old seedlings. Six weeks after the treatment commenced, leaf sap Na and K content and osmolality, stomatal density, chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics, and xylem sap Na and K composition were measured. Responses to salinity differed greatly among the varieties. All cultivars had substantially...... increased K+ concentrations in the leaf sap, but the most tolerant cultivars had lower xylem Na+ content at the time of sampling. Most tolerant cultivars had lowest leaf sap osmolality. All varieties reduced stomata density when grown under saline conditions. All varieties clustered into two groups...... to the xylem, and reduced stomata density are important physiological traits contributing to genotypic differences in salinity tolerance in quinoa, a halophyte species from Chenopodium family....

  13. A systematic review of the effects of Iranian pharmaceutical plant extracts on Giardia lamblia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajar Ziaei Hezarjaribi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to provide a systematic review regarding anti-Giardia effect of different Iranian plant extracts used in vivo and in vitro on cysts and trophozoites. Many reports indicated that most of plant extracts used as anti-Giardia were obtained from Liliaceae, Apiaceae, Asteraceae, and Myrtaceae. These extracts included different fractions such as aqueous, alcoholic and chloroform extracts as well as Soxhlet extraction of juice or essence. The findings of this review showed that hydroalcoholic extract of asafoetida, Chenopodium botrys, and chloroformic extract of feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium have the maximum effect (100% efficacy on in vitro application against Giardia. However, the highest in vivo effect of 100% therapeutic significance was recorded for the extract of Allium sativum at 80 mg/mL concentration. Given the plant species richness of Iran in terms of herbal medicines with fewer side effects, it can be a good alternative to chemical drugs used to treat giardiasis.

  14. Isolation of bioactive allelochemicals from sunflower (variety Suncross-42) through fractionation-guided bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjum, Tehmina; Bajwa, Rukhsana

    2010-11-01

    Plants are rich source of biologically active allelochemicals. However, natural product discovery is not an easy task. Many problems encountered during this laborious practice can be overcome through the modification of preliminary trials. Bioassay-directed isolation of active plant compounds can increase efficiency by eliminating many of the problems encountered. This strategy avoids unnecessary compounds, concentrating on potential components and thus reducing the cost and time required. In this study, a crude aqueous extract of sunflower leaves was fractionated through high performance liquid chromatography. The isolated fractions were checked against Chenopodium album and Rumex dentatus. The fraction found active against two selected weeds was re-fractionated, and the active components were checked for their composition. Thin layer chromatography isolated a range of phenolics, whereas the presence of bioactive terpenoids was confirmed through mass spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

  15. [Development of a high content protein beverage from Chilean mesquite, lupine and quinoa for the diet of pre-schoolers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerezal Mezquita, P; Acosta Barrientos, E; Rojas Valdivia, G; Romero Palacios, N; Arcos Zavala, R

    2012-01-01

    This research was aimed at developing a high content protein beverage from the mixture of liquid extracts of a pseudocereal, quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) and two legumes: mesquite (Prosopis chilensis (Mol.) Stunz) and lupine (Lupinus albus L.), native from the Andean highlands of the Chilean northern macro-zone, flavored with raspberry pulp, to help in the feeding of children between 2 and 5 years of lower socioeconomic status with nutritional deficiencies. The formulation was defined by linear programming, its composition was determined by proximate analysis and physical, microbiological and sensory acceptance tests were performed. After 90 days of storage time, the beverage got a protein content of 1.36%, being tryptophan the limiting amino acid; for its part, the chromaticity coordinates of CIEL*a*b* color space showed no statistical significant differences (p < 0.05) maintaining the "dark pink" tonality, the viscosity and the sensory evaluation were acceptable for drinking.

  16. The floristic changes on excluded from agricultural production field after single Roundup spraying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Jabłoński

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of experiment conducting on the field, weedy by Agropyron repens (L. P. B. was established what is the degree of elimination of Agropyron repens plants from experimental plots by single Roundup spraying. The changes of the species composition on the fields with different clover-grass mixtures or with Phacelia tanacaetifolia Benth. were studied as well. The stand tables have been made in the first year of the conducting experiment, to determination the density of weeds, after different agricultural practices. It has been found the great elimination of Agropyron repens (L. P. B. plants after Roundup spraying and the great density of Echinochloa crus-galli (L. P. B. plants. It has been found the great density of Chenopodium album L. at VII treatment and Galinsoga parviflora Cav. at III, V, VII and VIII treatments as well (Table I.

  17. Susceptibility of peach GF 305 seedlings and selected herbaceous plants to plum pox virus isolates from western Slovakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasa, M; Matisová, J; Hricovský, I; Kúdela, O

    1997-12-01

    The susceptibility of peach GF 305 seedlings and herbaceous plants to five plum pox virus (PPV) isolates from orchards of western Slovakia was investigated. PPV was isolated from diseased plum, apricot and peach trees, and transmitted by chip-budding to peach GF 305. The herbaceous plants were infected by mechanical inoculation. The transmission was analysed by symptomatology and double sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA). Infected peaches developed leaf distortion, tissue clearing along the veins and small chlorotic spots (isolate BOR-3). With exception of BOR-3, the PPV isolates transmitted from peach caused local chlorotic spots on Chenopodium foetidum. The character of symptoms changed when a sap from PPV-infected Nicotiana benthamiana was used as virus inoculum. From N. benthamiana, the PPV isolates could be transmitted to Pisum sativum, cv. Colmo (light green mosaic), N. clevelandii and N. clevelandii x N. glutinosa hybrid (latent infection or chlorotic spots).

  18. Conservation and improvement of native pseudo cereals of Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia A, J.M.; Cruz T, E.; Mapes S, C.; Laguna C, A.

    2007-01-01

    With the purpose of preserving the genetic resources of the local races of pseudo cereals 'red Chia' (Chenopodium berlandieri subspecies nuttalliae), Chia blanca or alegria and Chia negra (belonging to Amaranths hypochondriacus), its were carried out exploration, characterization in situ, collects and conservation activities in the Opopeo and Santa Maria Huiramangaro communities, Michoacan. Field journeys were made and collections were carried out. The morphological typification and of physical and bromatologic characters of the seed were carried out. Parcels for the In situ conservation and the collections have also settled down in two towns of the Toluca Valley for multiplication and ex situ characterization. Seed has been redistributed among the in study area producers to foment the interest of the cultivation. (Author)

  19. NEW CONTRIBUTION TO THE STUDY OF ALIEN FLORA IN ROMANIA

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    SÎRBU CULIŢĂ

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a number of seventeen alien plant species are presented, one of them being now for the first time reported in Romania (Sedum sarmentosum Bunge. Some species are mentioned for the first time in the flora of Moldavia (Aster novae-angliae L., Cenchrus incertus M. A. Curtis, Chenopodium pumilio R. Br., Fraxinus americana L., Lindernia dubia (L. Pennell, Petunia × atkinsiana D. Don, Solidago gigantea Aiton, Tagetes erecta L. or Transylvania (Kochia sieversiana (Pallas C. A. Mey., and some are reported from new localities (seven species. For each species, there are presented general data on the geographical origin, its distribution in Europe and worldwide, as well as its invasion history and current distribution in Romania. Some of these species manifest a remarkable spreading tendency, expanding their invasion area in Romania. Voucher specimens were deposited in the Herbarium of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Iaşi (IASI.

  20. In vitro synthesis of biologically active transcripts of tomato black ring virus satellite RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greif, C; Hemmer, O; Demangeat, G; Fritsch, C

    1990-04-01

    Synthetic transcripts of tomato black ring virus satellite RNA (TBRV satRNA), isolate L, were prepared from cDNA cloned in the Bluescribe transcription vector. Transcripts with 49 (T49L) or two (T2GL) extra nucleotides at their 5' ends and 42 extra nucleotides at their 3' ends were able to induce, but to different extents, the synthesis in vitro of the satRNA-encoded 48K protein. However, when inoculated into Chenopodium quinoa together with TBRV L genomic RNAs, only T2GL was biologically active, in the presence or absence of a 5' cap analogue in the transcription reactions. Analysis of the 5' and 3' termini of the satRNA isolated from plants showed that nonviral extensions were not maintained in the transcript progeny.

  1. Weed Hosts of Meloidogyne arenaria and M. incognita Common in Tobacco Fields in South Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedford, E C; Fortnum, B A

    1988-10-01

    Thirty-two weed species common in South Carolina and one cultivar of tobacco were evaluated as hosts of Meloidogyne arenaria race 2 and M. incognita race 3 in the greenhouse. Egg mass production and galling differed (P Eleusine indica, Sorghum halepense, Setaria viridis, Digitaria sanguinalis, and Datura stramonium were poor hosts for M. arenaria. Amaranthus palmeri, Amaranthus hybridus, Chenopodium album, Euphorbia maculata, Setaria lutescens, Vicia villosa, Sida spinosa, Rumex crispus, and Portulaca oleracea were moderate hosts and Ipomoea hederacea var. integriuscula, Xanthium strumarium, Cyperus esculentus, Cynodon dactylon, Paspalum notatum, Eleusine indica, Setaria viridis, and Rumex acetosella were poor hosts for M. incognita. None of the above were good hosts for M. incognita. Tobacco 'PD4' supported large numbers of both nematode species.

  2. Cutting weeds with a CO2 laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heisel, T.; Schou, Jørgen; Christensen, S.

    2001-01-01

    Stems of Chenopodium album. and Sinapis arvensis. and leaves of Lolium perenne. were cut with a CO2 laser or with a pair of scissors. Treatments were carried out on greenhouse-grown pot plants at three different growth stages and at two heights. Plant dry matter was measured 2 to 5 weeks after...... treatment. The relationship between dry weight and laser energy was analysed using a non-linear dose-response regression model. The regression parameters differed significantly between the weed species. At all growth stages and heights S. arvensis was more difficult to cut with a CO2 laser than C. album....... When stems were cut below the meristems, 0.9 and 2.3 J mm(-1) of CO2 laser energy dose was sufficient to reduce by 90% the biomass of C. album and S. arvensis respectively. Regrowth appeared when dicotyledonous plant stems were cut above meristems, indicating that it is important to cut close...

  3. Quinoa seed coats as an expanding and sustainable source of bioactive compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruiz, Karina B.; Khakimov, Bekzod; Engelsen, Søren Balling

    2017-01-01

    Saponins (SAPs) are a diverse family of plant secondary metabolites and due to their biological activities, SAPs can be utilised as biopesticides and as therapeutic compounds. Given their widespread industrial use, a search for alternative sources of SAPs is a priority. Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa...... Willd) is a valuable food source that is gaining importance worldwide for its nutritional and nutraceutical properties. SAPs from quinoa seed coats could represent a new sustainable source to obtain these compounds in high quantities due to the increasing production and worldwide expansion of the crop....... This research aims to characterise saponins of seed coat waste products from six different quinoa varieties for their potential use as a saponin source. Gas chromatography (GC)- and Liquid chromatography (LC)- with mass spectrometry (MS) were applied for qualitative and relative quantitative analysis...

  4. Acaricidal activities of some essential oils and their monoterpenoidal constituents against house dust mite, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Acari: Pyroglyphidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, El-Zemity; Hussien, Rezk; Saher, Farok; Ahmed, Zaitoon

    2006-12-01

    The acaricidal activities of fourteen essential oils and fourteen of their major monoterpenoids were tested against house dust mites Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus. Five concentrations were used over two different time intervals 24 and 48 h under laboratory conditions. In general, it was noticed that the acaricidal effect based on LC(50) of either essential oils or monoterpenoids against the mite was time dependant. The LC(50) values were decreased by increasing of exposure time. Clove, matrecary, chenopodium, rosemary, eucalyptus and caraway oils were shown to have high activity. As for the monoterpenoids, cinnamaldehyde and chlorothymol were found to be the most effective followed by citronellol. This study suggests the use of the essential oils and their major constituents as ecofriendly biodegradable agents for the control of house dust mite, D. pteronyssinus.

  5. Optical parameters of leaves of seven weed species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gausman, H. W.; Menges, R. M.; Richardson, A. J.; Walter, H.; Rodriguez, R. R.; Tamez, S. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    The absorption coefficient (k), infinite reflectance (R), and scattering coefficient (s) were tabulated for five wavelengths and analyzed for statistical differences for seven weed species. The wavelengths were: 0.55-micrometer, 0.65-micrometers, 0.85-micrometer, 1.65-micrometers, and 2.20-micrometer. The R of common lambsquarters (Chenopodium album L.), Johnsongrass (Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers.), and annual sowthistle (Sonchus oleraceus L.) leaves at the 0.85-micrometer wavelength were significantly (p=0.05) higher than for sunflower (Heliantus annus L.), ragweed parthenium (Parthenium hysterophorus L.), or London rocket (Sisymbrium irio L.). Annual sowthistle had the largest k value, and Plamer amaranth (Amaranthus palmer S. Wats.) had the smallest k value at the 0.65 approximately chlorophyll absorption wavelength. In general, john-songress, ragweed parthenium, or London rocket had the largest s values among the five wavelengths, wereas annual sowthistle and plamar amaranth were usually lowest.

  6. The study of distribution characteristics of vascular and naturalized plants in Dokdo, South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su-Young Jung

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to investigate the distribution of vascular plants and the characteristics of naturalized plants in Dokdo Island, South Korea. The survey was conducted a total of 5 times from June 2012 to September 2013. The number of plants confirmed in this study was 60 taxa in total: 29 families, 49 genera, 55 species, 2 subspecies and 3 varieties. To classify them by regional groups, 53 taxa were confirmed in the Dongdo and 38 taxa were confirmed in the Seodo. Among them, the distribution of Stellaria neglecta Weihe and Puccinellia nipponica Ohwi was first discovered in this study. The naturalized plants distributed in Dokdo was 7 taxa: Chenopodium album L., Sonchus asper (L. Hill, Sonchus oleraceus L., Ipomoea purpurea Roth, Brassica juncea (L. Czern., etc. Overall, concerns over the naturalized plants in Dokdo are high regardless of the scale of their distribution and the appearance frequency.

  7. Identifikasi Molekuler Tobacco mosaic virus pada Anggrek di Sleman, Yogyakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soesamto Somowiyarjo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Tobamovirus is a group of virus with a wide host range, including orchid plant which considered as an economically important plant. This research aimed to identify Tobamovirus infecting orchids. Virus isolates were collected from orchid nursery in Sleman, Yogyakarta. Plant extract from orchid showing necrotic flex symptom was inoculated to indicator plants Chenopodium amaranticolor. Chlorotic local lesion symptoms occurred within 3 days after inoculation. RNA total from symptomatic C. amaranticolor was extracted by using a commercial kit. cDNA was synthesized using oligo d(T primer. Amplification of cDNA using partial movement protein specific primers TMV-1F and TMV-2R was successfully amplified the amplicon with size ± 422 bp. The nucleotide sequences of this amplicon  showed highest DNA homology (98% with Tobacco mosaic virus Yongren-2 isolat from China.

  8. Differences in root uptake of radiocaesium by 30 plant taxa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broadley, M.R.; Willey, N.J.

    1997-01-01

    The concentration of Cs was measured in the shoots of 30 taxa of plants after exposing the roots for 6 h to 0.1 μg radiolabelled Cs g -1 soil. There were maximum differences between Chenopodium quinoa and Koeleria macrantha of 20-fold in Cs concentration and 100-fold in total Cs accumulated. There was a weak relationship between Rb(K) and Cs concentration across the 30 taxa, but a strong relationship within the Gramineae and Chenopodiaceae. Taxa in the Chenopodiaceae discriminated approximately nine times less between Rb and Cs during uptake than did those in the Gramineae. The lowest Cs concentrations occurred in slow growing Gramineae and the highest in fast growing Chenopodiaceae. If radiocaesium uptake by the Chenopodiaceae during chronic exposures shows similar patterns to those reported here after acute exposure, then the food contamination implications and the potential for phytoremediation of radiocaesium contaminated soils using plants in this family may be worth investigating. (author)

  9. Manutenção da infectividade de Tymovírus em extratos de plantas Maintenance of infectivity of Tymovirus in plant extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Mércia Barradas

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available Quatro isolados do vírus do mosaico da berinjela (EMV - "eggplant mosaic virus" - grupo tymovírus foram armazenados a partir de extratos foliares de hospedeiras com sintomas sistêmicos. Os virus EMV-Al (isolado de Abelia, EMV-Sc (isolado da Escócia, -ts (estirpe-padrão e VNBT (vírus da necrose branca do tomateiro, que induzem sintomas em Chenopodium amaranticolor, C. murale, C. quinoa (Família Chenopodiaceae Datura stramonium, Lycopersicon esculentum e Nicotiana glutinosa (Solanaceae, foram conservados em extratos destas plantas, à temperatura ambiente, em geladeira e em congelador. A infectividade dos vírus, em diferentes períodos de armazenamento, foi testada em plantas de datura e glutinosa, para se determinar a longevidade in vitro. Constatou-se que, quando guardados em baixas temperaturas,os extratos preservam por mais tempo a infectividade dos vírus. No caso de datura e glutinosa, por exemplo, resultados positivos foram obtidos até 413 e 282 dias de armazenamento, respectivamente, em congelador. Entretanto, com relação às espécies de Chenopodium testadas, mesmo alguns extratos recém-preparados conduziram a resultados negativos, confirmando a presença de inibidores de infecção viral nestas plantas. Das três espécies, é sugerida a utilização apenas de C.quinoa para o preparo de extratos visando preservar estes vírus e, assim mesmo, por um período relativamente curto (entre 53 e 80 dias. A avaliação geral dos resultados mostra que, para os tymovírus estudados neste trabalho, é possível conservar a infectividade através da técnica de armazenamento de extratos foliares de plantas sistemicamente infectadas.Four isolates of EMV (eggplant mosaic virus - tymovirus group were preserved in crude extracts from systemically-infected plants. EMV-Al (Abelia strain, EMV-Sc (Scottish strain, EMV-ts (type-strain and TWNV (tomato white necrosis virus which induce symptoms in Chenopodium amaranticolor, C. murale, C. quinoa

  10. Quinoa: Nutritional, functional, and antinutritional aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filho, Antonio Manoel Maradini; Pirozi, Mônica Ribeiro; Borges, João Tomaz Da Silva; Pinheiro Sant'Ana, Helena Maria; Chaves, José Benício Paes; Coimbra, Jane Sélia Dos Reis

    2017-05-24

    We have prepared a review of the physical-chemical composition and the functional and anti-nutritional properties of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.). It is a plant of the Chenopodiaceae family, originally from the Andean regions, adaptable to different types of soils and climatic conditions. Its composition has attracted the attention of scientific community for its high nutritional value, being rich in proteins, lipids, fibers, vitamins, and minerals, with an extraordinary balance of essential amino acids. It is also gluten-free, a characteristic that enables its use by celiac patients. In spite of all these attributes, quinoa is not widely used by consumers due to the high cost of imported grain and little knowledge of its benefits. More studies are required to increase knowledge about this "pseudo-cereal" to demonstrate its functional and nutritional benefits and to study its anti-nutritional effects, since it presents high commercial value and excellent nutritional quality.

  11. Antiphytoviral Activity of Sesquiterpene-Rich Essential Oils from Four Croatian Teucrium Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franko Burčul

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare the essential oil profiles of four Croatian Teucrium species (Lamiaceae, as determined by GC and GC/MS, with their antiphytoviral efficiency. A phytochemical analysis showed that T. polium, T. flavum, T. montanum and T. chamaedrys are characterized by similar essential oil compositions. The investigated oils are characterized by a high proportion of the sesquiterpene hydrocarbons β-caryophyllene (7.1–52.0% and germacrene D (8.7–17.0%. Other important components were β-pinene from T. montanum and α-pinene from T. flavum. The investigated essential oils were proved to reduce lesion number in the local host Chenopodium quinoa Willd. infected with Cucumber Mosaic Virus (CMV, with reductions of 41.4%, 22.9%, 44.3% and 25.7%, respectively.

  12. Characterization of a new potyvirus causing mosaic and flower variegation in Catharanthus roseus in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Conceição Maciel

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Catharanthus roseus is a perennial, evergreen herb in the family Apocynaceae, which is used as ornamental and for popular medicine to treat a wide assortment of human diseases. This paper describes a new potyvirus found causing mosaic symptom, foliar malformation and flower variegation in C. roseus. Of 28 test-plants inoculated mechanically with this potyvirus, only C. roseus and Nicotiana benthamiana developed systemic mosaic, whereas Chenopodium amaranticolor and C. quinoa exhibited chlorotic local lesions. The virus was transmitted by Aphis gossypii and Myzus nicotianae. When the nucleotide sequence of the CP gene (768nt was compared with other members of the Potyviridae family, the highest identities varied from 67 to 76 %. For the 3' UTR (286nt, identities varied from 16.8 to 28.6 %. The name Catharanthus mosaic virus (CatMV is proposed for this new potyvirus.

  13. Impact of use of treated wastewater for irrigation on soil and quinoa crop in South of Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Youssfi, Lahcen; Choukr-Allah, Redouane; Zaafrani, Mina; Hirich, Aziz; Fahmi, Hasna; Abdelatif, Rami; Laajaj, Khadija; El Omari, Halima

    2015-04-01

    This work was conducted at the experimental station of the IAV Hassan II-CHA-Agadir in southwest Morocco between 2010 and 2012. It aimed the assessment of the effects of use of treated wastewater on soil properties and agronomic parameters by adopting crop rotation introducing quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) as a new crop under semi-arid climate. Biomass production, yield, nutrient accumulation in leaves and the level of electrical conductivity and soil nitrate are the evaluated parameters during three growing seasons. Results show that quinoa has a performing behavior when it is preceded by fabae bean in term of water use efficiency; in addition, the recorded level of salt accumulation in the soil was the lowest in comparison with that of the combinations bean>quinoa and fallow>quinoa. Concerning growth and yield, it was found that growing quinoa after chickpea was more beneficial in terms of biomass productivity and yield. Keywords: Quinoa, soil, treated wastewater semi-arid

  14. Generation of an Infectious Clone of a New Korean Isolate of Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus Driven by Dual 35S and T7 Promoters in a Versatile Binary Vector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ik-Hyun Kim

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The full-length sequence of a new isolate of Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV from Korea was divergent, but most closely related to the Japanese isolate A4, at 84% nucleotide identity. The full-length cDNA of the Korean isolate of ACLSV was cloned into a binary vector downstream of the bacteriophage T7 RNA promoter and the Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter. Chenopodium quinoa was successfully infected using in vitro transcripts synthesized using the T7 promoter, detected at 20 days post inoculation (dpi, but did not produce obvious symptoms. Nicotiana occidentalis and C. quinoa were inoculated through agroinfiltration. At 32 dpi the infection rate was evaluated; no C. quinoa plants were infected by agroinfiltration, but infection of N. occidentalis was obtained.

  15. Bunias orientalis L. as a natural overwintering host OF Turnip mosaic virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Kobyłko

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A virus was isolated, using mechanical inoculation, from hill mustard (Bunias orientalis L. plants exhibiting yellow mottling and blistering on leaves, which were frequently accompanied by asymmetric leaf narrowing. It systemically infected certain plants from the family Brassicaceae (Brassica rapa, Bunias orientalis, Hesperis matronalis, Sinapis alba as well as Cleome spinosa and Nicotiana clevelandii, and locally Atriplex hortensis, Chenopodium quinoa, Ch. amaranticolor, N. tabacum. In the sap, it maintained infectivity for 3-4 days and lost it after heating for 10 min. at a temperature of 55 - 60oC or when diluted with water at 10-3. Virus particles were thread- like with a length of 675 - 710 nm. Based on an analysis of biological properties of the pathogen, serological response, particle morphology and data from field observations, it was identified as an isolate of Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV, and hill mustard was recognised as a natural overwintering host for this pathogen.

  16. Phytochemicals in quinoa and amaranth grains and their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and potential health beneficial effects: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yao; Tsao, Rong

    2017-07-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) and amaranth (Amaranthus cruentus L.) are pseudocereal grains rich in both macronutrients and micronutrients including vitamins and minerals. The proteins are particularly of high nutritional quality due to the outstanding balance of essential amino acids. However, recent research strongly suggests that nonessential nutrients such as phytochemicals of quinoa and amaranth may also have potential health beneficial effects. This review focuses on the phytochemical composition of quinoa and amaranth seeds, the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of hydrophilic (e.g. phenolics, betacyanins) and lipophilic (e.g. fatty acids, tocopherols, and carotenoids) nutrients, and how these contribute to the potential health benefits, especially in lowering the risk of the oxidative stress related diseases e.g. cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and obesity. The gap between current knowledge and future research needs have also been identified. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Differences in root uptake of radiocaesium by 30 plant taxa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broadley, M.R.; Willey, N.J. [University of the West of England, Bristol (United Kingdom). Faculty of Applied Sciences

    1997-12-31

    The concentration of Cs was measured in the shoots of 30 taxa of plants after exposing the roots for 6 h to 0.1 {mu}g radiolabelled Cs g{sup -1} soil. There were maximum differences between Chenopodium quinoa and Koeleria macrantha of 20-fold in Cs concentration and 100-fold in total Cs accumulated. There was a weak relationship between Rb(K) and Cs concentration across the 30 taxa, but a strong relationship within the Gramineae and Chenopodiaceae. Taxa in the Chenopodiaceae discriminated approximately nine times less between Rb and Cs during uptake than did those in the Gramineae. The lowest Cs concentrations occurred in slow growing Gramineae and the highest in fast growing Chenopodiaceae. If radiocaesium uptake by the Chenopodiaceae during chronic exposures shows similar patterns to those reported here after acute exposure, then the food contamination implications and the potential for phytoremediation of radiocaesium contaminated soils using plants in this family may be worth investigating. (author).

  18. Packaging and structural phenotype of brome mosaic virus capsid protein with altered N-terminal β-hexamer structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wispelaere, Melissanne de; Chaturvedi, Sonali; Wilkens, Stephan; Rao, A.L.N.

    2011-01-01

    The first 45 amino acid region of brome mosaic virus (BMV) capsid protein (CP) contains RNA binding and structural domains that are implicated in the assembly of infectious virions. One such important structural domain encompassing amino acids 28 QPVIV 32 , highly conserved between BMV and cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV), exhibits a β-hexamer structure. In this study we report that alteration of the β-hexamer structure by mutating 28 QPVIV 32 to 28 AAAAA 32 had no effect either on symptom phenotype, local and systemic movement in Chenopodium quinoa and RNA profile of in vivo assembled virions. However, sensitivity to RNase and assembly phenotypes distinguished virions assembled with CP subunits having β-hexamer from those of wild type. A comparison of 3-D models obtained by cryo electron microscopy revealed overall similar structural features for wild type and mutant virions, with small but significant differences near the 3-fold axes of symmetry.

  19. Detection of Minerals in Green Leafy Vegetables Using Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, P.; Kumar, R.; Raib, A. Kumar

    2016-11-01

    The distribution of minerals in different green leafy vegetables, such as spinach, chenopodium, chickpea, mustard, and fenugreek, was calculated using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). LIBS can provide an easy, reliable, efficient, low-cost, and in situ chemical analysis with a reasonable precision. In situ LIBS spectra in the range 200-500 nm were carried out using fresh leaves and leaves in the pellet form. As the spectra suggest, magnesium and calcium are present in each vegetable; however, the amount of them varies. It is observed that the amount of iron is maximal in spinach. The nutrition value of the plants was analyzed, and it was revealed that they are low in calories and fat and high in protein, fiber, iron, calcium, and phytochemicals.

  20. Observations on the development of plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Listowski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of light intensity and daylength on four short-day species of Chenopodium was analysed. The following species were tested: Ch. ficifolium, Ch. glaucum, Ch. rubrum and Ch. hybridum. Under short day, generative initiation was accelerated, the abundance of flowering, and growth and leaf differentiation processes were reduced. Under light of low intensity, the rhythm of development of the plants growing under long day is similar to that under short day. The development of axillary buds indicates a decrease in the intensity of vegetative differentiation and elongation growth, with an enhancement of the generative tonus; the buds in the axils of the highest growing leaves form directly inflorescences without preceding leaf differentiation. Inversion of the shape of leaves on lateral shoots was noted.

  1. PATHOGENICITY OF FUSARIUM SPP. ISOLATED FROM WEEDS AND PLANT DEBRIS IN EASTERN CROATIA TO WHEAT AND MAIZE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Ilić

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Pathogenicity of thirty isolates representing 14 Fusarium species isolated from weeds and plant debris in eastern Croatia was investigated in the laboratory. Pathogenicity tests were performed on wheat and maize seedlings. The most pathogenic Fusarium spp. was F. graminearum isolated from Amaranthus retroflexus, Abutilon theophrasti and Chenopodium album. There was a noticeable inter- and intraspecies variability in pathogenicity towards wheat and maize. Isolates of F. solani from Sonchus arvensis and F. verticillioides from C. album were highly pathogenic to wheat seedlings and apathogenic to maize seedlings. Isolates of F. venenatum were very pathogenic to wheat and maize being the first report about pathogenicity of this species. This experiment proves that weeds and plant debris can serve as alternate hosts and source of inoculum of plant pathogens.

  2. Simulation of Soil Nitrogen Content Effect on Weed Seedling Emergence Pattern in Moldavian Balm (Dracocephalum moldavica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afsaneh Moradian

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The soil nitrogen content with impact on weed seed dormancy breaking can change their seedling emergence pattern. A trial was carried out in 2014 to predict seedling emergence of Xanthium strumarium, Chenopodium album, Echinocloa cruss-galli,  Amaranthus retroflexus andConvolvulus arvensis,  and to evaluate the impact of soil nitrogen content (Control with 0.07% nitrogen, adding 50 and 100 kg N.ha-1 on seedling emergence pattern in Moldavian balm. The experimental design was randomized complete block design. Weed seedlings were counted and removed on a weekly basis throughout the season. The data were converted to percent of cumulative emergence and percentage of cumulative emergence values was compared with thermal time using Gompertz modified functions. The all species showed different emergence patterns and thermal time required for the onset of emergence. The results also showed that the emergence patterns of Chenopodium and Convolvulus  not affected by nitrogen treatments. However, soil nitrogen content significantly changed emergence patterns of A. retroflexus, E. cruss-galli and X. strumarium. According to our model, A. retroflexus, E. cruss-galli and X. strumarium emergence, respectively, started at 237, 96 and 63 TT with 50 kg additional nitrogen.ha-1, while the respective value in control were 340, 117 and 135, respectively. Due to influence of soil nitrogen on emergence pattern of A. retroflexus, E. cruss-galli and X. strumarium, soil nitrogen content should be considered as an important parameter in the modeling of these weed seedling emergence.

  3. Análise de imagem para determinação do teor de saponina em quinoa Image analysis to determinate the saponin content in quinoa

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    Luiz Augusto Copati Souza

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Um grupo de sementes lavadas e 35 acessos de quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd foram avaliados pelo método de coluna de espuma e sua coloração foi decomposta pelo modelo RGB (R, vermelho; G, verde; B, azul com o objetivo de avaliar a influência do teor de saponina na cor do grão. Sementes amarelas apresentaram alto teor de saponina. Houve correlação negativa (p£0,05 entre o teste de coluna de espuma e as bandas R (r = -0,751, G (r = -0,660 e B (r = -0,594. Estabeleceram-se quatro grupos de similaridade. Foram considerados amargos os acessos do grupo 4 (sementes amarelas e doces os acessos do grupo 1 (sementes brancas. A dispersão observada representa provável diferença na freqüência gênica, refletida pela cor e teor de saponina.A group of washed seeds and thirty five genotypes of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa, Willd were screened by soap column method and were classified by RGB Color Model (R, red; G, green; B, blue with the objective to determine the influence of the saponin content in the grain color. Yellow seeds presented high levels of saponin. There was negative correlation (p£0.05 among soap column method and bands R (r = -0.751, G (r = -0.660 and B (r = -0.594. Four groups were fixed. Tests confirmed the access of group 4 as bitter (yellow seeds and the access of group 1 as sweet (white seeds. The dispersion represents probable difference in gene frequency, reflected by the color and rate of saponin.

  4. Atividade antifúngica de extratos de plantas a Colletotrichum gloeosporioides = Antifungal activity of plant extracts to Colletotrichum gloeosporioides

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    Mercia Ikarugi Bomfim Celoto

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito fungitóxico de extratos vegetais sobre o crescimento micelial e a germinação de esporos de Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Os extratos foram obtidos a partir de plantas secas e moídas, utilizando-se água e etanol como meio extrator. Foram utilizadas 22 espécies de plantas para a obtençãodos extratos. Os extratos foram avaliados por meio da incorporação de 20% do extrato em meio BDA, antes ou após a autoclavagem do mesmo. Determinou-se a percentagem de inibição do crescimento micelial (PIC. Utilizando-se extrato na proporção de 50% e suspensão de esporos, determinou-se a percentagem de inibição da germinação de esporos (PIG. Verificou-se que os extratos hidroetanólicos proporcionaram maior PIC de C. gloeosporioides, enquanto maior PIG foi obtido com os extratos aquosos. Extratos não autoclavados foram mais eficientes na redução do crescimento micelial de C. gloeosporioides que os extratos autoclavados. Os extratos aquoso e hidroetanólico de melão-de-são-caetano e extrato hidroetanólico de eucalipto proporcionaram maiores PIC. Os extratos aquosos deLuffa acutangula, Eucalyptus citriodora, Chenopodium ambrosioides e Bauhinia, e os extratos hidroetanólicos de Ruta graveolens, Eucalyptus citriodora, Zingiber officinale e Chenopodiumambrosioides inibiram mais de 90% da germinação de esporos.The present work aimed to evaluate the effect fungitoxic of plant extracts on the mycelial growth and on the spores germination of C. gloeosporioides. The plant extracts were obtained starting from dried ground plants, using water and ethilic alcohol as extractor. Twenty-two plant species were used to obtain the extracts. The extracts were tested by means of the incorporation of 20% (v/v in PDA medium, before or after sterilization. The percentage ofinhibition of the mycelial growth (PIM was determined. Extract in the proportion of 50% was added to a spore suspension used to

  5. ESTUDIOS DE ISÓTOPOS ESTABLES EN HUERTAS FAMILIARES ACTUALES DE LA QUEBRADA DE HUMAHUACA (JUJUY, ARGENTINA. SU POTENCIAL APORTE A LOS ESTUDIOS PALEODIETARIOS DEL NOROESTE ARGENTINO / Stable isotope studies on current home gardens of the Quebrada de ...

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    Violeta A. Killian Galván

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Presentamos una propuesta metodológica para la generación de marcos de referencia en los estudios paleodietarios, mediante el análisis de la composición isotópica del carbono y el nitrógeno (?13C y ?15N en arqueología. En particular, nos centraremos en cómo influyen algunas prácticas de cultivo en los valores isotópicos de las plantas procedentes de huertas familiares (siendo las especies escogidas Zea mays, Solanum tuberosum, Oxalis tuberosa, Ullucus tuberosus, Chenopodium quinoa y Opuntia ficus-indica, esta última como especie silvestre del área. La metodología propuesta consiste en: el relevamiento de información entre productores locales, la caracterización del suelo en cuanto a sus propiedades químicas (pH, conductividad eléctrica, carbono orgánico y nitratos y la medición isotópica de los vegetales muestreados. A partir de los resultados obtenidos, podemos afirmar que al menos en entornos semiáridos, como es el caso de Quebrada de Humahuaca, la disponibilidad de nutrientes en el suelo repercute en los valores ?15N de Zea mays. Si bien no hay una relación lineal entre las variables propuestas y los resultados isotópicos obtenidos, se registró un rango más amplio de valores cuando la calidad del suelo fue menor. AbstractWe present a methodological proposal for the construction of a frame of reference in paleodietary research through the analysis of Carbon and Nitrogen stable isotopes (?13C y ?15N in archaeology. In particular, we focus on the effect of certain harvest practices in the isotopic values of plants from family farms (the species chosen being Zea mays, Solanum tuberosum, Amaranthus caudatus, Chenopodium quinoa and Opuntia ficus-indica, this last as a wild plant from the area. The methodology consist in: collection of information among local producers, soil characterization in terms of their chemical properties (Ph, electrical conductivity, organic carbon and nitrate and analysis of isotopic values from

  6. Medicinal plant extracts on the control of Diabrotica speciosa (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae Extratos de plantas medicinais no controle de Diabrotica speciosa (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae

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    F.S. Barbosa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the insecticidal effect of aqueous, alcoholic, and oil extracts from leaves of eight medicinal plants against Diabrotica speciosa prepared at five concentrations. The extracts that used commercial soybean oil as solvent showed the highest D. speciosa mortality due to the solvent itself, regardless of the used plants and their concentrations. Thus, commercial soybean oil was discarded as solvent since at these volumes it would cause serious phytotoxicity problems. After 24 hours of exposure of the pest to the extracts, the highest D. speciosa mortality values were observed for Copaifera langsdorfii and Chenopodium ambrosioides extracts, both in 5% alcohol, and Artemisia verlotorum, in 10% water. However, in the last mortality assessment (48 h, C. langsdorfii extract in 5% alcohol showed higher mortality of this pest, followed by C. ambrosioides extract in 5% alcohol, compared to the remaining plants.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito inseticida de extratos aquosos, alcoólicos e oleosos de folhas de oito plantas medicinais contra Diabrotica speciosa preparadas em cinco concentrações. Os extratos que utilizaram óleo de soja comercial como solvente apresentaram as maiores mortalidades de D. speciosa em função do próprio óleo, independentemente das plantas utilizadas em suas concentrações. Sendo assim, o óleo de soja comercial foi descartado como solvente, pois nestes volumes acarretaria sérios problemas de fitotoxidade. Após 24 horas de exposição da praga aos extratos, os maiores valores de mortalidade de D. speciosa foram observados nos extratos de Copaifera Langsdorfii e de Chenopodium ambrosioides, ambos em álcool 5%, e de Artemisia verlotorum, em água 10%. Entretanto, na última avaliação de mortalidade (48 h, o extrato de C. langsdorfii em álcool a 5% apresentou maior mortalidade dessa praga, seguida pelo extrato alcoólico a 5% de C. ambrosioides comparada às demais plantas.

  7. Cambios en la vegetacion de un campo abandonado despues de un cultivo de trigo Vegetation changes in a field abandoned after a wheat crop

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    Silvia Irene Boccanelli

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available La vegetación prístina de los campos altos del sur de Santa Fe (Argentina son distintos tipos de flechillares caracterizados por la abundancia de varias especies del género Stipa. Cuando un campo agrícola se abandona suele revertir a las comunidades prístinas. El objeto de este trabajo es analizar los diez primeros años de la sucesión secundaria de un campo sometido a agricultura durante largo tiempo que se abandonó después de un cultivo de trigo (Triticum aestivum. En el primer año aparece trigo acompañado de malezas anuales (Chenopodium album y Portulaca oleracea; después del primer año una parcela fue colonizada por Baccharis salicifolia y las otras por Carduus acanthoides, Cerastium glomeratum, Ammi majus, etc. Los últimos años constituyen una etapa en la que disminuye la diversidad y se establece una fuerte dominancia de Baccharis salicifolia o Carduus acanthoides. El Sorgo de Alepo (Sorghum halepense aparece en las etapas tempranas y perdura durante todo el período con valores altos de abundancia. Aún, prácticamente no han aparecido especies de los flechillares, por lo tanto se concluye que no ha transcurrido suficiente tiempo para que se regenere el flechillar, o porque sus especies no se encuentran en los bancos de semillas o en las proximidades.The natural vegetation of well drained fields of Southern Santa Fe (Argentina are a different kind of communities characterized by the abundance of several species of Stipa. When agricultural lands are abandoned, they are often recolonized by the original vegetation. The object of this paper is to analize the first ten years of secondary succession on a field under a long time of agriculture abandoned after a wheat crop. On the first year, wheat with annual weeds (Chenopodium album and Portulaca oleracea appeared. After the first year, one plot was colonized by Baccharis salicifolia and the others by Carduus acanthoides, Cerastium glomeratum, Ammi majus, etc. The last years

  8. Identificação botânica e química de espécies vegetais de uso popular no Rio Grande do Norte, Brasil Botanical and chemical identification of plant species of popular use in Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil

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    J. Félix-Silva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Plantas medicinais são utilizadas mundialmente como uma das principais formas de cuidado primário de saúde. No entanto, a literatura indica que muitas espécies podem apresentar composição química variável, toxicidade ou difícil identificação. O objetivo do presente estudo foi obter critérios úteis para o controle de qualidade farmacognóstico das principais espécies vegetais de uso popular no estado do Rio Grande do Norte, utilizando metodologias de análise botânica (morfodiagnose macro e microscópica e química (triagem fitoquímica e cromatografia em camada delgada, evitando assim adulterações ou uso inadequado dessas plantas medicinais no estado. No total, sete espécies foram analisadas Acmella oleracea, Chenopodium ambrosioides, Lippia alba, Mentha piperita, Ocimum gratissimum, Peumus boldus e Rosmarinus officinalis. Diversos marcadores botânicos e fitoquímicos foram identificados, contribuindo dessa forma para a correta identificação destas espécies de plantas medicinais importantes no estado do Rio Grande do Norte.Medicinal plants are worldwide used as one of the main forms of primary healthcare. However, the literature indicates that many species may have variable chemical composition, toxicity, or even difficult identification. The aim of this study was to obtain useful criteria for pharmacognostic quality control of the main plant species of popular use in the state of Rio Grande do Norte, using methods of botanical (macro and microscopic morphodiagnosis and chemical (phytochemical screening and thin-layer chromatography analysis, thus preventing adulteration or inappropriate use of these medicinal plants in the state. In total, seven species were analyzed Acmella oleracea, Chenopodium ambrosioides, Lippia alba, Mentha piperita, Ocimum gratissimum, Peumus boldus and Rosmarinus officinalis. Several botanical and phytochemical markers were identified, thereby contributing to the correct identification of these

  9. Banco de semillas en ambientes de las sierras de Azul (Buenos Aires, Argentina con distinta intensidad de disturbios Seed bank in environments of the Azul sierras (Buenos Aires, Argentina with different disturbance intensities

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    F. Gianaccini

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A fin de evaluar el impacto de la agricultura sobre la flora potencial de pastizales serranos en el Partido de Azul (Buenos Aires, Argentina, se comparó el banco de semillas en los 20 cm superficiales del suelo entre dos sectores adyacentes en las primeras estribaciones serranas. Uno de ellos está sometido a agricultura permanente y el otro conserva un pastizal natural bajo pastoreo y quemas no programados. Este último sector presentó en promedio una densidad de 70.000 sem m-2 contra 36.720 sem m-2 en el primero. La representación de semillas de especies nativas se redujo notablemente en el ambiente agrícola. Stipa caudata con 31360 sem m-2 resultó la especie más abundante en el pastizal. En el ambiente de cultivo, su densidad se redujo a 9940 sem m-2 y fue superada por Chenopodium album con 10560 sem m-2. La similitud en la composición del banco fue de 55% en términos cualitativos y 27% en términos cuantitativos. Estos resultados evidencian que, en el área de estudio, el reemplazo del pastizal natural por agricultura reduce notoriamente las reservas de semillas y modifica la composición cualitativa y cuantitativa del banco con una elevada pérdida en la proporción de especies nativas.In order to evaluate the impact of agriculture on the potential flora of grasslands of the sierras of Azul (Buenos Aires Province, Argentina, the soil seed bank in the top 20 cm from two adjacent areas on the first foothill spurs were compared. One is submitted to continuous agriculture. The other area has grasslands under grazing and non programmed burning. The latter showed a mean density of 70.000 seeds m-2 against a mean density of 36.720 seeds m-2 in the first area. The proportional representation of native species seeds decreased strongly in the agricultural environment. The most abundant species in the grasslands was Stipa caudata (31.360 seeds m-2. In the agricultural environment, its density decreased to 9940 seeds m-2. It was surpassed by

  10. Detection of three Allexivirus species infecting garlic in Brazil Detecção de três espécies de Allexivirus que infectam o alho no Brasil

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    Péricles de Albuquerque Melo Filho

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Garlic viruses often occur in mixed infections under field conditions. In this study, garlic samples collected in three geographical areas of Brazil were tested by Dot-ELISA for the detection of allexiviruses using monoclonal specific antibodies to detect Garlic virus A (GarV-A, Garlic virus B (GarV-B, Garlic virus C (GarV-C and a polyclonal antiserum able to detect the three virus species mentioned plus Garlic virus D (GarV-D. The detected viruses were biologically isolated by successive passages through Chenopodium quinoa. Reverse Transcriptase Polimerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR was performed using primers designed from specific regions of the coat protein genes of Japanese allexiviruses available in the Genetic Bank of National Center of Biotechnology Information (NCBI. By these procedures, individual garlic virus genomes were isolated and sequenced. The nucleotide and amino acid sequence analysis and the one with serological data revealed the presence of three distinct allexiviruses GarV-C, GarV-D and a recently described allexivirus, named Garlic mite-borne filamentous virus (GarMbFV, in Brazil.Infecções virais em alho são normalmente causadas por um complexo viral. Neste estudo, um complexo viral de alho, coletado em campo, em três regiões geográficas, foi testado com anti-soros monoclonais específicos para Garlic virus A (GarV-A, Garlic virus B (GarV-B, Garlic virus C (GarV-C e um anti-soro policlonal capaz de detectar os três vírus mencionados e Garlic virus D (GarV-D. Procedeu-se à amplificação por transcriptase reversa-reação em cadeia da polimerase (RT-PCR usando oligonucleotídeos sintetizados a partir de regiões específicas de genes de proteínas capsidiais de allexivirus japoneses e disponíveis no GeneBank (National Center of Biotechnology Information - NCBI. Por esse procedimento, vírus individuais foram isolados e seqüenciados. Os vírus detectados foram biologicamente isolados por meio de sucessivas inocula

  11. Quinoa BRS Piabiru: alternativa para diversificar os sistemas de produção de grãos Quinoa BRS Piabiru: alternative for diversification of cropping systems

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    Carlos Roberto Spehar

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available A diversificação da agricultura possibilita implementar a renda, reduzir custos, disponibilizar nutrientes, proteger o solo, reduzir impacto ambiental negativo e ofertar alimentos. A quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd., uma Chenopodiaceae originária dos Andes, destaca-se por tolerância à seca, elevada qualidade da proteína, baixo colesterol, ausência de glúten (útil a pacientes celíacos, e uso na alimentação animal. A espécie apresenta diversidade, com ciclo variável entre 80 e 150 dias no Brasil central. Os frutos, do tipo aquênio, são pequenos, achatados e sem dormência. BRS Piabiru, primeira recomendação de quinoa ao cultivo no Brasil, originou-se da linhagem EC 3, selecionada em uma população procedente de Quito, Equador. Após dois anos de ensaios, foi uniformizada em suas características agronômicas a partir de 1998. Em sucessão à soja (safrinha e na entressafra, sob irrigação, apresentou produção média de 2,8 t/ha de grãos, com 145 dias da emergência à maturação. Constitui um potencial componente do sistema plantio direto.Diversification of production systems contributes to improve income, to reduce costs, to improve nutrient availability, to protect the soil, to reduce negative environmental impact, and, to provide raw material. The Andean crop quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd., a Chenopodiaceae, presents outstanding characteristics of drought tolerance, high quality of kernel protein, low cholesterol content, absence of gluten (suitable to celiac patients, utilisation as animal feed. The species presents variability, with days from emergence to maturity varying between 80 to 150, under savannah conditions. The fruit, achene type, is small and flat in shape, without dormancy. The BRS Piabiru, the first recommended quinoa for cropping system in Brazil, was a selection of breeding line EC 3, originating from a plant population of Quito, Ecuador. After being tested for two years in variety trials, in Central

  12. Diversity of segetal weeds in pea (Pisum sativum L. depending on crops chosen for a crop rotation system

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    Marta K. Kostrzewska

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study, lasting from 1999 to 2006, was conducted at the Research Station in Tomaszkowo, which belongs to the University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn. The experiment was set up on brown rusty soil classified as good rye complex 5 in the Polish soil valuation system. The analysis comprised weeds in fields sown with pea cultivated in two four-field crop rotation systems with a different first crop: A. potato – spring barley – pea – spring barley; B. mixture of spring barley with pea – spring barley – pea – spring barley. Every year, at the 2–3 true leaf stage of pea, the species composition and density of individual weed species were determined; in addition, before harvesting the main crop, the dry matter of weeds was weighed. The results were used to analyze the constancy of weed taxa, species diversity, and the evenness and dominance indices, to determine the relationships between all biological indicators analyzed and weather conditions, and to calculate the indices of similarity, in terms of species composition, density and biomass of weeds, between the crop rotations compared. The species richness, density and biomass of weeds in fields with field pea were not differentiated by the choice of the initial crop in a given rotation system. In the spring, the total number of identified taxa was 28 and it increased to 36 before the harvest of pea plants. Chenopodium album and Echinochloa crus-galli were the most numerous. Chenopodium album, Echinochloa crus-galli, Sonchus arvensis, Fallopia convolvulus and Viola arvensis were constant in all treatments, regardless of what the first crop in rotation was or when the observations were made. The species diversity and the evenness and species dominance indices varied significantly between years and dates of observations. Species diversity calculated on the basis of the density of weed species was higher in the rotation with a mixture of cereals and legumes, while that calculated on

  13. Palynostratigraphical correlation of the excavated Miocene lignite seams of the Yataǧan basin (Muǧla Province, south-western Turkey)

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    Bouchal, Johannes Martin; Grímsson, Friðgeir; Denk, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    The excavated main lignite seams and overlying lacustrine sediments of the opencast mines Eskihisar, Salihpaşalar, and Tı naz, Muǧla Province, south-western Turkey were investigated using a high taxonomic resolution palynological approach. The Eskihisar section comprises 47m and 56 samples of which 30 were usable for palynological analysis. The Tı naz section comprises 75 m and 29 samples of which 15 were usable for palynological analysis. Finally, the Salihpaşalar section comprises 25 m and 26 samples of which 16 were usable for palynological analysis. The age of the palynological sections is middle to late Miocene based on radiometric dating and vertebrate fossils. In order to investigate dispersed pollen and spores and their botanical affinities a combined light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy approach was used. The rich palynoflora comprises: seven types of algal cysts (Botryococcus, Zygnemataceae), seventeen spore types belonging to Lycopsida (club mosses), Marsileaceae (water-clover), Osmundaceae, Pteridaceae (brake), and Polypodiaceae; 14 types of gymnosperm pollen belonging to Ephedraceae (Mormon tea), Cupressaceae, Pinaceae (Cathaya, cedar, hemlock, pine, spruce); five types of monocotyledone pollen belonging to Poaceae (grasses, common reed), and Typhaceae (bulrush, bur-reed); ca 90 dicotyledone pollen types belonging to Altingiaceae (sweet gum), Amaranthaceae (goosefoot), Anacardiaceae (sumac family), Apiaceae (parsley family), Aquifoliaceae (holly), Asteraceae (sunflower family), Betulaceae (alder, birch, hazel, hophornbeam, hornbeam), Campanulaceae (bellflower family), Cannabaceae (hackberries), Caprifoliaceae (honeysuckle, teasel family), Caryophyllaceae (pink family), Ericaceae (heather family), Eucommiaceae, Euphorbiaceae (spurge family), Fabaceae (bean family), Fagaceae (beech, oak), Geraniaceae (storkbills), Juglandaceae (hickory, walnut, wingnut), Lamiaceae (bagflower), Linaceae (flax), Lythraceae (waterwillow), Malvaceae

  14. Bioplaguicidas de origen vegetal en Costa Rica.

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    Jaime García

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo cita los nombres, ordenados por su principal acción plaguicida, de poco más de un centenar de plantas con algún tipo de potencial bioplaguicida en Costa Rica. Posteriormente se presenta la situación de la oferta y la demanda actual de estos productos, destacando las principales limitaciones que experimenta su desarrollo comercial, así como el potencial que posee el país en esta materia, basado en su extraordinaria biodiversidad. Además, se hace mención de las entidades involucradas en esta temática. Finalmente se hacen algunas consideraciones adicionales relacionadas con la toxicidad de estos productos y sobre la importancia de los conocimientos etnobotánicos en esta materia. Entre las especies de plantas que más se mencionan en la bibliografía consultada están Allium sativum, Annona reticulata, Azadirachta indica, Capsicum frutescens, Chenopodium Ambrosiodes, Gliricidia sepium, Quassia amara y Ryania speciosa. Se resalta el hecho de que hasta la fecha, tanto su uso artesanal como su desarrollo comercial son mínimos, en relación con el potencial existente en el país. Con excepción de dos productos, los pocos bioplaguicidas de origen vegetal que se comercializan son importados.

  15. Using chemometric techniques to characterize gluten-free cookies containing the whole flour of a new quinoa cultivar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pagamunici, Lilian M.; Gohara, Aline K.; Souza, Aloisio H.P.; Batiston, Weliton P.; Gomes, Sandra T.M.; Visentainer, Jesui V.; Matsushita, Makoto

    2014-01-01

    Celiac disease is defined as intolerance to the gluten proteins present in certain cereals used to prepare foodstuffs. We developed and performed physico-chemical, sensory, and nutritional assessments of three formulations of gluten-free cookies containing Linum usitatissimum L. and different levels of whole Chenopodium quinoa BRS Piabiru flour. No gluten was detected in the prepared cookie formulations. The crude protein and total lipid contents ranged from 85.58 to 97.55 and 121.69 to 166.19 g per kg of sample, respectively. The polyunsaturated/saturated and n-6:n-3 fatty acid ratios ranged from 0.85:1 to 0.92:1 and 3.08:1 to 4.38:1, respectively. Formulation C had the best alpha-linolenic acid content, lipid fraction nutritional indices and mineral content per portion, with excellent sensory characteristics. Multivariate analysis highlighted the effect of the concentration of quinoa on the nutritional and sensory qualities of the product. (author)

  16. Quinoa starch granules as stabilizing particles for production of Pickering emulsions.

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    Rayner, Marilyn; Sjöö, Malin; Timgren, Anna; Dejmek, Petr

    2012-01-01

    Intact starch granules isolated from quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) were used to stabilize emulsion drops in so-called Pickering emulsions. Miglyol 812 was used as dispersed phase and a phosphate buffer (pH7) with different salt (NaCl) concentrations was used as the continuous phase. The starch granules were hydrophobically modified to different degrees by octenyl succinic anhydride (OSA) or by dry heat treatment at 120 degrees C in order to study the effect on the resulting emulsion drop size. The degree of OSA-modification had a low to moderate impact on drop size. The highest level of modification (4.66%) showed the largest mean drop size, and lowest amount of free starch, which could be an effect of a higher degree of aggregation of the starch granules and, thereby, also the emulsion drops stabilized by them. The heat treated starch granules had a poor stabilizing ability and only the starch heated for the longest time (150 min at 120 degrees C) had a better emulsifying capacity than the un-modified native starch granules. The effect of salt concentration was rather limited. However, an increased concentration of salt slightly increased the mean drop size and the elastic modulus.

  17. Potential for phytoextraction of PCBs from contaminated soils using weeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ficko, Sarah A; Rutter, Allison; Zeeb, Barbara A

    2010-07-15

    A comprehensive investigation of the potential of twenty-seven different species of weeds to phytoextract polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from contaminated soil was conducted at two field sites (Etobicoke and Lindsay) in southern Ontario, Canada. Soil concentrations were 31 microg/g and 4.7 microg/g at each site respectively. All species accumulated PCBs in their root and shoot tissues. Mean shoot concentrations at the two sites ranged from 0.42 microg/g for Chenopodium album to 35 microg/g for Vicia cracca (dry weight). Bioaccumulation factors (BAF=[PCB](plant tissue)/[PCB](mean soil)) at the two sites ranged from 0.08 for Cirsium vulgare to 1.1 for V. cracca. Maximum shoot extractions were 420 microg for Solidago canadensis at the Etobicoke site, and 120 microg for Chrysanthemum leucanthemum at the Lindsay site. When plant density was taken into account with a theoretical density value, seventeen species appeared to be able to extract a similar or greater quantity of PCBs into the shoot tissue than pumpkins (Curcurbita pepo ssp. pepo) which are known PCB accumulators. Therefore, some of these weed species are promising candidates for future phytoremediation studies. Crown Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. [Distribution pattern of riparian invasive plants in Luanhe Basin, North China and its relationship with environment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Ying; He, Ping; Xu, Jie; Jia, Jiao

    2017-06-18

    In this study, the invasive plant species from the riparian vegetation in 56 sampling sites of Luanhe Basin were identified, and the correlations between their composition, spatial distribution and environmental factors were explored. In the basin, a total of 26 invasive species were registered, which belonged to 19 genera and 12 families, and 73.1% of them were annual plants. Asteraceae and Amaranthaceae were the two dominant families with the most invasive species, attributing to 50% of the total invasive species. Amaranthus retroflexus, Bidens frondosa and Chenopodium serotinum appeared with the highest frequencies. The number of invasive species and the invasive intensity at each site were significantly negatively correlated with the altitude. The distribution of invasive plants was significantly influenced by the intensity of human activities. The invasive plants were mainly distributed in the plain area, shallow mountainous area with many reservoirs, and the mountainous area with developed tourism around Chengde City, meanwhile, only few species with broad ecological amplitude existed in the plateau area. In general, species with higher invasive grades were mainly distributed in low and medium altitude areas below 400 m. Except for A. retroflexus, no high-grade invasive plants were discovered in high altitude area so far.

  19. Two roles of thylakoid lipids in modifying the activity of herbicides which inhibit photosystem II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupatt, C.C. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Thylakoid lipids may modify the activity of herbicides which inhibit electron transport at the Q/sub B/ protein of photosystem II in two ways: (1) lipids can act as a hydrophobic barrier to a binding site localized close to the loculus of the membrane, and (2) changes in lipid composition can reduce the ability of inhibitors to block electron transport, possibly due to a change in the conformation of the Q/sub B/ protein. The herbicide binding site was localized close to the locular side of the thylakoid membrane by determining the activity of a number of substituted phenylurea and s-triazine herbicides in inverted and non-inverted thylakoids. Quantitative structure-activity relationship analysis showed that inversion of thylakoids reduced the requirement of molecular lipophilicity deemed necessary for phenylurea activity in non-inverted membranes, whereas s-triazines exhibited no differences in the lipophilicity requirement in thylakoid membranes of either orientation. The binding affinity of 14 C-diuron was reduced in bicarbonate-depleted thylakoids relative to reconstituted or control membranes, as is the case with atrazine binding. These observations support a model of the herbicide binding site containing both common and herbicide family specific binding domains. Thylakoids isolated either from detached lambs quarters (Chenopodium album L.) leaves, treated with SAN 6706, or from soybean (Glycine max L.), with norflurazon or pyrazon applied preemergence, exhibited decreased susceptibility to atrazine. The ability of lipid-modifying treatments to decrease the atrazine susceptibility of field-grown soybeans was also investigated

  20. Aktivitas Antivirus Beberapa Ekstrak Tanaman terhadap Bean Common Mosaic Virus strain Black Eye Cowpea (BCMV-BIC pada Kacang Panjang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Asmira Damayanti

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Antivirus actitivity of several plant extracts against Bean common mosaic virus strain Black eye cowpea (BCMV-BlC on Yard long bean.  Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV is an important virus on yard long bean and it is difficult to control. One of control effort way by utilizing antiviral substances of plant origin. The research was done to select and test the effectiveness of plant extracts in suppressing BCMV infection on yard long bean. Twenty two plant extracts were selected by (1 spraying the crude extract to Chenopodium amaranticolor leaves, then plant inoculated by BCMV 1 hour after spraying, and (2 mixturing the crude extract with sap containing BCMV, then inoculated mechanically to C. amaranticolor.  Local necrotic lesion  number and inhibition percentage are measured. All plant extract treatments were able to reduce Necrotic lokal lesion  formation significantly  compared to untreatment control. Further, fifteen plant extracts were selected to test their effectiveness in controlling BCMV on yard long bean in green house trial. The results showed that except geranium and red ginger treatment, other extract treatments were able to reduce significantly the disease incidence and severity, symptoms, and  BCMV titer, respectively. Among tested extracts, Bougainvillea spectabilis, Mirabilis jalapa, and Celosia cristata are the most effective crude extracts in suppressing BCMV infection.

  1. Flowers of Çoruh Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramazan Çakmakçı

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Coruh valley has an important biological diversity in term of plants, flora-fauna, wildlife and ecosystems. These regions contain the landraces, wild and weedy relatives, other wild, herbaceous and flowering trees, herbaceous flowering plants, medicinal and aromatic and flowering and ornamental shrubs plants species which are especially economically important plant for floriculture, eco-tourism, botanical tourism and nature tourism. Many important medicinal and aromatic and ornamental plants species are found in this region and naturally grow. It is considered that Acantholimon, Achillea, Alkanna, Allium, Amygdalus, Angelica, Anemone, Anthemis, Arabis, Arctium, Artemisia, Asparagus, Asperula, Astragalus, Calamintha, Calendula, Calutea, Campanula, Capparis, Cardamine, Centaurea, Cephalanthera, Cephalaria, Chelidonium, Chenopodium, Chysanthemum, Colchicum, Consolida, Coriandrum, Cornus, Coronilla, Cerasus, Cotoneaster, Crataegus, Crocus, Cyclamen, Dactylorhiza, Digitalis, Dianthus, Draba, Echinops, Equisetum, Ferula, Filipendula, Fritillaria, Fumaria, Gagea, Galanthus, Galium, Genista, Gentiana, Geranium, Geum, Gladiolus, Glychirrza, Helichrysum, Hesperis, Hypericum, İnula, İris, Isatis, Juniperus, Lilium, Linaria, Linum, lysimachia, Malus, Malva, Marrubium, Melissa, Mentha, Micromeria, Morina, Muscari, Mysotis, Narcissus, Neotchichatchewia, Nepeta, Onobrychis, Orchis, Ornithogalum, Origanum, Paeonia, Papaver, Pedicularis, Peganum, Phelypaea, Platanthera, Plantago, Pilosella, Pelargonium, Potentilla, Polygonum, Polygala, Primula, Punica, Prunus, Pyrus, Ranunculus, Rhamnus, Rhododendron, Rhus, Rosa, Rubia, Rubus, Rumex, Salvia, Sambucus, Satureja, Scilla, Scorzonera, Scutellaria, Sedum, Sempervivum, Sideritis, Sophora, Sorbus, Stachys, Tanecetum, Teucrium, Thymus, Trigonella, Tulipa, Tussilago, Uechtriitzia, Vaccinium, Verbascum, Verbena, Veronica, Viburnum and Ziziphora species commonly found in the region may be may be evaluated economically.

  2. Plant growth improvement mediated by nitrate capture in co-composted biochar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammann, Claudia I.; Schmidt, Hans-Peter; Messerschmidt, Nicole; Linsel, Sebastian; Steffens, Diedrich; Müller, Christoph; Koyro, Hans-Werner; Conte, Pellegrino; Stephen, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Soil amendment with pyrogenic carbon (biochar) is discussed as strategy to improve soil fertility to enable economic plus environmental benefits. In temperate soils, however, the use of pure biochar mostly has moderately-negative to -positive yield effects. Here we demonstrate that co-composting considerably promoted biochars’ positive effects, largely by nitrate (nutrient) capture and delivery. In a full-factorial growth study with Chenopodium quinoa, biomass yield increased up to 305% in a sandy-poor soil amended with 2% (w/w) co-composted biochar (BCcomp). Conversely, addition of 2% (w/w) untreated biochar (BCpure) decreased the biomass to 60% of the control. Growth-promoting (BCcomp) as well as growth-reducing (BCpure) effects were more pronounced at lower nutrient-supply levels. Electro-ultra filtration and sequential biochar-particle washing revealed that co-composted biochar was nutrient-enriched, particularly with the anions nitrate and phosphate. The captured nitrate in BCcomp was (1) only partly detectable with standard methods, (2) largely protected against leaching, (3) partly plant-available, and (4) did not stimulate N2O emissions. We hypothesize that surface ageing plus non-conventional ion-water bonding in micro- and nano-pores promoted nitrate capture in biochar particles. Amending (N-rich) bio-waste with biochar may enhance its agronomic value and reduce nutrient losses from bio-wastes and agricultural soils. PMID:26057083

  3. Plant growth improvement mediated by nitrate capture in co-composted biochar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammann, Claudia I.; Schmidt, Hans-Peter; Messerschmidt, Nicole; Linsel, Sebastian; Steffens, Diedrich; Müller, Christoph; Koyro, Hans-Werner; Conte, Pellegrino; Stephen, Joseph

    2015-06-01

    Soil amendment with pyrogenic carbon (biochar) is discussed as strategy to improve soil fertility to enable economic plus environmental benefits. In temperate soils, however, the use of pure biochar mostly has moderately-negative to -positive yield effects. Here we demonstrate that co-composting considerably promoted biochars’ positive effects, largely by nitrate (nutrient) capture and delivery. In a full-factorial growth study with Chenopodium quinoa, biomass yield increased up to 305% in a sandy-poor soil amended with 2% (w/w) co-composted biochar (BCcomp). Conversely, addition of 2% (w/w) untreated biochar (BCpure) decreased the biomass to 60% of the control. Growth-promoting (BCcomp) as well as growth-reducing (BCpure) effects were more pronounced at lower nutrient-supply levels. Electro-ultra filtration and sequential biochar-particle washing revealed that co-composted biochar was nutrient-enriched, particularly with the anions nitrate and phosphate. The captured nitrate in BCcomp was (1) only partly detectable with standard methods, (2) largely protected against leaching, (3) partly plant-available, and (4) did not stimulate N2O emissions. We hypothesize that surface ageing plus non-conventional ion-water bonding in micro- and nano-pores promoted nitrate capture in biochar particles. Amending (N-rich) bio-waste with biochar may enhance its agronomic value and reduce nutrient losses from bio-wastes and agricultural soils.

  4. Coming Together to Toast and Feed the Dead in the Cotahuasi Valley of Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Jay Mayer

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available There has been little discussion on the macrobotanical remains from Andean Middle Horizon sites. In this article, we present macrobotanical data from archaeological excavations at Tenahaha, a small mortuary center in the Cotahuasi Valley of Peru. While the people who attended Tenahaha may not have definitively been Wari, evidence suggests that they were likely influenced by the Wari. Our analysis revealed new insights into site use and the distribution of botanical staples during the Andean past. People used plants differently across time and how people chose to utilize plant resources from their environment provides insights into cultural practices. The local plant staples of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa and maize (Zea mays were found in high densities in concentrated areas of the site. In addition, local plants such as Echinocactus (Echinocactus sp., tubers (e.g., Solanum sp., and the Peruvian peppertree (Schinus molle were recovered in abundance. These remains provide insights into past public ceremonies and how the inhabitants used different areas of the site. The occurrence of sprouted maize and the fruit of peppertree in certain areas of the site seems to indicate ritual and/or ceremonial use of chicha during the Middle Horizon (AD 600–1050. The analysis of these macrobotanical remains provides a glimpse into the importance placed on bringing people together to commemorate the dead by Ancient Andean Peoples.

  5. Medicinal Plants from North and Central America and the Caribbean Considered Toxic for Humans: The Other Side of the Coin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Castro, Angel Josabad; Domínguez, Fabiola; Ruiz-Padilla, Alan Joel; Campos-Xolalpa, Nimsi; Zapata-Morales, Juan Ramón; Carranza-Alvarez, Candy; Maldonado-Miranda, Juan Jose

    2017-01-01

    The consumption of medicinal plants has notably increased over the past two decades. People consider herbal products as safe because of their natural origin, without taking into consideration whether these plants contain a toxic principle. This represents a serious health problem. A bibliographic search was carried out using published scientific material on native plants from Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean, which describe the ethnobotanical and toxicological information of medicinal plants empirically considered to be toxic. A total of 216 medicinal plants belonging to 77 families have been reported as toxic. Of these plants, 76 had been studied, and 140 plants lacked studies regarding their toxicological effects. The toxicity of 16 plants species has been reported in clinical cases, particularly in children. From these plants, deaths have been reported with the consumption of Chenopodium ambrosioides , Argemone mexicana , and Thevetia peruviana . In most of the cases, the principle of the plant responsible for the toxicity is unknown. There is limited information about the toxicity of medicinal plants used in Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean. More toxicological studies are necessary to contribute information about the safe use of the medicinal plants cited in this review.

  6. Biosynthesized Silver Nanoparticles Used in Preservative Solutions for Chrysanthemum cv. Puma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis M. Carrillo-López

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of pulse solutions containing antimicrobials has been reported, but more research is necessary. To increase vase life and to study their effect on opening inflorescences, silver nanoparticles were used in vase solutions for cv. Puma Chrysanthemum stems. The nanoparticles were synthesized biologically using Chenopodium ambrosioides L. applied at concentrations of 0.01, 0.05, 0.1, 0.5, 1, and 5 mM and compared with a control. Treatments were replicated five times. The stems were cut to 50 cm and observed until the end of their vase life. Low concentrations of silver nanoparticles promoted inflorescence opening and leaf yellowing, while the control leaves remained green, but there was a lower degree of inflorescence opening. High concentrations of silver nanoparticles (0.5, 1, and 5 mM caused senescence due to low water uptake through the stems. Statistical differences in inflorescence opening and diameter, bacterial growth (CFU mL−1 in vase solutions, fresh weight, water uptake, and vase life were found among treatments. Longer vase life and less weight loss were observed in the stems exposed to low concentrations of silver nanoparticles. Low concentrations of silver nanoparticles promoted inflorescence opening and increased vase life of Chrysanthemum cv. Puma.

  7. Bioinformatics Evaluation of Plant Chlorophyllase, the Key Enzyme in Chlorophyll Degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Sharafi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Chlorophyllase catalyzes the hydrolysis of chlorophylls to chlorophyllide and phytol. Recently, several applications including removal of chlorophylls from vegetable oils, use in laundry detergents and production of chlorophyllides have been described for chlorophyllase. However, there is little information about the biochemical characteristics of chlorophyllases.Material and Methods: 35 chlorophyllase protein sequences were obtained from the National Centre for Biotechnology Information database. All of the sequences were analyzed using bioinformatics tools for their conserved domain, phylogenetic relationships and biochemical characteristics.Results and Conclusion: The overall domain architecture of chlorophyllases consisted of the esterases/lipases superfamily domain over their full length and the alpha/beta hydrolase family domain over the middle part of their sequences. Plant chlorophyllases could be classified into 4 clades. Molecular weight and pI of the chlorophyllases ranged 32.65-37.77 kDa and 4.80-8.97, respectively. The most stable chlorophyllase is probably obtained from Malus domestica. Chlorophyllases form Solanum pennellii, Triticum aestivum, Triticum urartu, Arabidopsis lyrata, Pachira macrocarpa, Prunus mume and Malus domestica were predicted to be soluble upon overexpression in Escherichia coli, Beta vulgaris and Chenopodium album chlorophyllases were predicted to form no disulfide bond. Chlorophyllases from Jatropha curcas, Amborella trichopod, Setaria italica, Piper betle, Triticum urartu and Arabidopsis thaliana were predicted to be in non-N-glycosylated form.Conflict of interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.

  8. Anaerobic co-digestion of aquatic flora and quinoa with manures from Bolivian Altiplano

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, Rene; Liden, Gunnar

    2008-01-01

    Quinoa stalk (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) from agricultural crop residue, totora (Schoenoplectus tatora) and o-macrophytes (aquatic flora) from Lake Titicaca (on the Bolivian Altiplano) were studied in a wet anaerobic co-digestion process together with manure from llama, cow and sheep. Anaerobic semi-continuous experiments were performed in (10) 2-l reactors at a temperature of 25 deg. C with 30 days of hydraulic retention time (HRT) and an organic loading rate (OLR) of 1.8 kg VS m -3 d -1 . Totora was found to be the best co-substrate. In mixture ratios of 1:1 (VS basis), it increased the biogas productivity by 130% for llama manure, 60% for cow manure, and 40% for sheep manure. It was possible to use up to 58% (VS basis) of totora in the substrate. Higher concentrations (including pure totora) could not be digested, as that caused acidification problems similar to those caused by other lignocellulosic materials. When quinoa and o-macrophytes were used as co-substrates, the increase in biogas productivity was slightly less. However, these co-substrates did not cause any operational problems. An additional advantage of quinoa and o-macrophytes was that they could be used in any proportion (even in pure form) without causing any destabilization problems in the anaerobic digestion process

  9. Physiological and photosynthetic response of quinoa to drought stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachid Fghire

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Water shortage is a critical problem touching plant growth and yield in semi-arid areas, for instance the Mediterranean región. For this reason was studied the physiological basis of drought tolerance of a new, drought tolerant crop quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. tested in Morocco in two successive seasons, subject to four irrigation treatments (100, 50, and 33%ETc, and rainfed. The chlorophyll a fluorescence transients were analyzed by the JIP-test to transíate stress-induced damage in these transients to changes in biophysical parameter's allowing quantification of the energy flow through the photosynthetic apparatus. Drought stress induced a significant decrease in the maximum quantum yield of primary photochemistry (Φpo = Fv/Fm, and the quantum yield of electron transport (Φeo. The amount of active Photosystem II (PSII reaction centers (RC per excited cross section (RC/CS also decreased when exposed to the highest drought stress. The effective antenna size of active RCs (ABS/RC increased and the effective dissipation per active reaction centers (DIo/RC increased by increasing drought stress during the growth season in comparison to the control. However the performance index (PI, was a very sensitive indicator of the physiological status of plants. Leaf area index, leaf water potential and stomatal conductance decreased as the drought increased. These results indicate that, in quinoa leaf, JIP-test can be used as a sensitive method for measuring drought stress effects.

  10. Pollen grains in quaternary sediments from the Campos Basin, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Core BU-91-GL-05

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Gonçalves de Freitas

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Here, we describe pollen grains extracted from a Pleistocene-Holocene sediment core (BU-91-GL-05; 22°48'45"S; 41°54'13"W taken from the Albacora Slope (22°48'45"S; 41°54'13"W, located in the Campos Basin of the northern region of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The analysis resulted in the identification and morphological description of 46 types of pollen: one of a gymnosperm genus (Podocarpus; and 45 of angiosperm taxa across 27 families-one family of monocotyledons (Poaceae and 26 families (30 types of dicotyledons. The most common angiosperm families were Amaranthaceae (Chenopodium, Amaranthus and Gomphrena; Fabaceae (Fabaceae type, Bauhinia, Inga and Canavalia; Malpighiaceae (Tetrapteris, Heteropteris and Peixotoa; Malvaceae (Sida, Abutilon, Hibiscus and Pseudobombax; Rubiaceae (Faramea, Borreria and Psychotria; Asteraceae (Eupatorium and tribe Vernonieae; Bignoniaceae (Bignoniaceae type, Adenocalymma and Tabebuia; and Onagraceae (Fuchsia and Ludwigia. The palynoflora in this study are associated with dense montane and submontane Atlantic Forest, semideciduous forest and restinga (coastal woodland, all of which are present in the state of Rio de Janeiro. Palynological analysis can provide important data about paleovegetation and paleoclimatic changes in the studied area during the Quaternary, specifically in the last 145,000 years.

  11. Hibiscus latent Fort Pierce virus in Brazil and synthesis of its biologically active full-length cDNA clone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ruimin; Niu, Shengniao; Dai, Weifang; Kitajima, Elliot; Wong, Sek-Man

    2016-10-01

    A Brazilian isolate of Hibiscus latent Fort Pierce virus (HLFPV-BR) was firstly found in a hibiscus plant in Limeira, SP, Brazil. RACE PCR was carried out to obtain the full-length sequences of HLFPV-BR which is 6453 nucleotides and has more than 99.15 % of complete genomic RNA nucleotide sequence identity with that of HLFPV Japanese isolate. The genomic structure of HLFPV-BR is similar to other tobamoviruses. It includes a 5' untranslated region (UTR), followed by open reading frames encoding for a 128-kDa protein and a 188-kDa readthrough protein, a 38-kDa movement protein, 18-kDa coat protein, and a 3' UTR. Interestingly, the unique feature of poly(A) tract is also found within its 3'-UTR. Furthermore, from the total RNA extracted from the local lesions of HLFPV-BR-infected Chenopodium quinoa leaves, a biologically active, full-length cDNA clone encompassing the genome of HLFPV-BR was amplified and placed adjacent to a T7 RNA polymerase promoter. The capped in vitro transcripts from the cloned cDNA were infectious when mechanically inoculated into C. quinoa and Nicotiana benthamiana plants. This is the first report of the presence of an isolate of HLFPV in Brazil and the successful synthesis of a biologically active HLFPV-BR full-length cDNA clone.

  12. Surfactant-induced deposit structures in relation to the biological efficacy of glyphosate on easy- and difficult-to-wet weed species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, Thorsten; Hunsche, Mauricio; Noga, Georg

    2009-08-01

    Typical active ingredient (AI) residue patterns are formed during droplet drying on plant surfaces owing to the interaction of spray solution characteristics and leaf micromorphology. Currently, comparatively little is known about the influence of AI deposit patterns within a spray droplet residue area on the penetration and biological efficacy of glyphosate. A scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis has been used to characterise residue patterns and to quantify the area ultimately covered by glyphosate within the droplet spread area. The easy-to-wet weed species Stellaria media L. and Viola arvensis L., as well as the difficult-to-wet Chenopodium album L. and Setaria viridis L., differing in their surface micromorphology, have been used. Rapeseed oil ethoxylates (RSO 5 or RSO 60) were added to glyphosate solutions to provide different droplet spread areas. Addition of RSO 5 enhanced droplet spread area more than RSO 60, and both caused distinct glyphosate residue patterns. The biological efficacy of treatment solutions showed no significant correlation with the area ultimately covered by glyphosate. The results have implications on herbicide uptake models. This study shows that droplet spread area does not correspond to the area ultimately covered by glyphosate, and that the latter does not affect glyphosate phytotoxicity.

  13. The nutritional quality of an infant food from quinoa and its effect on the plasma level of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) in undernourished children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruales, Jenny; de Grijalva, Yolanda; Lopez-Jaramillo, Patricio; Nair, Baboo M

    2002-03-01

    An infant food product was manufactured by drum drying a pre-cooked slurry of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa, Willd) flour. The chemical composition shows that the product is a potential source of valuable nutrients, like protein (16%), vitamin E (19 mg/kg), thiamine (0.7 mg/100 g), iron (70 mg/kg), zinc (48 mg/kg) and magnesium (1.8 g/kg), all the values expressed on dry basis, to pre-school children (of 5 years of age). The animal feeding experiments with rats showed a net protein utilisation (NPU) of 68, digestibility (TD) 95 and biological value (BV) 71. The level of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) in the plasma of the children who consumed a supplementary portion of 2 x 100 g of the above infant food product showed an increase after a period of 15 days, while the plasma level of IGF-1 in the children of the control group as well as the reference group did not show any significant increase.

  14. Tests for Transmission of Prunus Necrotic Ringspot and Two Nepoviruses by Criconemella xenoplax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, W Q; Barnett, O W; Westcott, S W; Scott, S W

    1990-10-01

    In two of three trials, detectable color reactions in ELISA for Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) were observed for Criconemella xenoplax handpicked from the root zone of infected peach trees. Criconemella xenoplax (500/pot) handpicked from root zones of peach trees infected with PNRSV failed to transmit the virus to cucumber or peach seedlings. The nematode also failed to transmit tomato ringspot (TomRSV) or tobacco ringspot viruses between cucumbers, although Xiphinema americanum transmitted TomRSV under the same conditions. Plants of peach, cucumber, Chenopodium quinoa, and Catharanthus roseus were not infected by PNRSV when grown in soil containing C. xenoplax collected from root zones of PNRSV-infected trees. Shirofugen cherry scions budded on Mazzard cherry seedling rootstocks remained symptomless when transplanted into root zones of PNRSV-infected trees. Virus transmission was not detected by ELISA when C. xenoplax individuals were observed to feed on cucumber root explants that were infected with PNRSV and subsequently fed on roots of Prunus besseyi in agar cultures. Even if virus transmission by C. xenoplax occurs via contamination rather than by a specific mechanism, it must be rare.

  15. Application of the nuclear energy in the improvement of native pseudo cereals of Mexico; Aplicacion de la energia nuclear en el mejoramiento de pseudocereales nativos de Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De la Cruz T, E., E-mail: eulogio.delacruz@inin.gob.m [ININ, Departamento de Biologia, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2010-07-01

    Mexico is a diverse country that contains to 10% of the flora and fauna of the world, is also a place of domestication of diverse cultivations like the corn, the bean, the pumpkin, the vanilla, the cocoa and the avocado that constitute some samples of the vast contribution from our nation to the agriculture. Two species highlight inside the cultivations that Mexico contributed to the world and that at the present time they take place in small cultivated surfaces by means of traditional methods: the amaranth (Amaranths hypochondria cus) and the huauzontle (Chenopodium berlanideri sbp. nuttalliae). Both sub-utilized species the amaranth and the huauzontle possess a high nutritious value in accordance with the foods classification established by the FAO, and given its tolerance to adverse conditions is considered like an alternative to contribute to reduce the malnutrition in marginal agricultural areas. At the present time their improvement is searched with respect to some characteristics as: reduction of the fall of the seed in field; great seed size; cob (spike) big and compact and of smaller height, with what they would become more productive and more handling. To achieve these diverse stages are proposed that include the morphological characterization of the species, the study of the available phyto genetics resources, the characterization with regard to the nutritional components and until the cytogenetics and molecular characterization; all these aspects are essential to structure a strategy of genetic improvement for radio induced mutagenesis. (Author)

  16. Diffusive and Metabolic Constraints to Photosynthesis in Quinoa during Drought and Salt Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilek Killi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. has been proposed as a hardy alternative to traditional grain crops in areas with warm-to-hot climates that are likely to experience increased drought and salt stress in the future. We characterised the diffusive and metabolic limitations to photosynthesis in quinoa exposed to drought and salt stress in isolation and combination. Drought-induced pronounced stomatal and mesophyll limitations to CO2 transport, but quinoa retained photosynthetic capacity and photosystem II (PSII performance. Saline water (300 mmol NaCl-equivalent to 60% of the salinity of sea-water supplied in identical volumes to the irrigation received by the control and drought treatments induced similar reductions in stomatal and mesophyll conductance, but also reduced carboxylation of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase, regeneration of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate, increased non-photochemical dissipation of energy as heat and impaired PSII electron transport. This suggests that ion toxicity reduced PN via interference with photosynthetic enzymes and degradation of pigment–protein complexes within the thylakoid membranes. The results of this study demonstrate that the photosynthetic physiology of quinoa is resistant to the effects of drought, but quinoa may not be a suitable crop for areas subject to strong salt stress or irrigation with a concentration of saline water equivalent to a 300 mmol NaCl solution.

  17. Evaluation of quinua lines obtained trough mutagenesis and conventional methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De la Cruz, E.; Garcia, J. M; Gonzalez, J.; Brunner, I.; Rubluo, A.; Guadarrama, S

    2001-01-01

    Chenopodium quinoa is an ancient crop that due to its hardiness, nutritive value, and ability to strive under marginal conditions is considered as a crop for modern times, considering the current demands of highly nutritive products obtained through sustainable agricultural practices. The research on quinua began in Mexico in the early eighties, considering it as an alternative crop to peasants living in impoverished regions, characterised by marginal soils. Research institutions such as the Instituto de Investigacion Agricola del Estado de Mexico (ICAMEX), Colegio de Postgraduados and Universidad Autonoma Chapingo, began to evaluate varieties from South-America and eventually established a breeding programme on quinua. One goal of the quinua research programme in Mexico is the reduction of saponin content, so a mutation breeding approach was designed in the early nineties being the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ) involved. In the 1999-2000 period, field trials of low saponin putative mutants obtained through irradiation of Barandales variety were performed, including also elite lines supplied by the National Germplasm Bank (NGB) at Chapingo, Mexico. The results from this trials indicate that the low saponin content character in the putative mutants remains in the M5 generation. Also eleven early maturing lines were detected. Climatic conditions prevalent in that period exhibited the resistance of quinua to spring frosts, furthermore, the evaluation of advanced lines from the (NGB) showed high variability regarding to morphological, agronomic and seed quality characters which Hill allow us to advance in the search for superior quinua lines

  18. Fumigant activity of plant essential oils and components from horseradish (Armoracia rusticana), anise (Pimpinella anisum) and garlic (Allium sativum) oils against Lycoriella ingenua (Diptera: Sciaridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ii-Kwon; Choi, Kwang-Sik; Kim, Do-Hyung; Choi, In-Ho; Kim, Lee-Sun; Bak, Won-Chull; Choi, Joon-Weon; Shin, Sang-Chul

    2006-08-01

    Plant essential oils from 40 plant species were tested for their insecticidal activities against larvae of Lycoriella ingénue (Dufour) using a fumigation bioassay. Good insecticidal activity against larvae of L. ingenua was achieved with essential oils of Chenopodium ambrosioides L., Eucalyptus globulus Labill, Eucalyptus smithii RT Baker, horseradish, anise and garlic at 10 and 5 microL L(-1) air. Horseradish, anise and garlic oils showed the most potent insecticidal activities among the plant essential oils. At 1.25 microL L(-1), horseradish, anise and garlic oils caused 100, 93.3 and 13.3% mortality, but at 0.625 microL L(-1) air this decreased to 3.3, 0 and 0% respectively. Analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry led to the identification of one major compound from horseradish, and three each from anise and garlic oils. These seven compounds and m-anisaldehyde and o-anisaldehyde, two positional isomers of p-anisaldehyde, were tested individually for their insecticidal activities against larvae of L. ingenua. Allyl isothiocyanate was the most toxic, followed by trans-anethole, diallyl disulfide and p-anisaldehyde with LC(50) values of 0.15, 0.20, 0.87 and 1.47 microL L(-1) respectively.

  19. Characterization of Apricot pseudo-chlorotic leaf spot virus, A Novel Trichovirus Isolated from Stone Fruit Trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberti, D; Marais, A; Svanella-Dumas, L; Dulucq, M J; Alioto, D; Ragozzino, A; Rodoni, B; Candresse, T

    2005-04-01

    ABSTRACT A trichovirus closely related to Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV) was detected in symptomatic apricot and Japanese plum from Italy. The Sus2 isolate of this agent cross-reacted with anti-ACLSV polyclonal reagents but was not detected by broad-specificity anti- ACLSV monoclonal antibodies. It had particles with typical trichovirus morphology but, contrary to ACLSV, was unable to infect Chenopodium quinoa and C. amaranticolor. The sequence of its genome (7,494 nucleotides [nt], missing only approximately 30 to 40 nt of the 5' terminal sequence) and the partial sequence of another isolate were determined. The new virus has a genomic organization similar to that of ACLSV, with three open reading frames coding for a replication-associated protein (RNA-dependent RNA polymerase), a movement protein, and a capsid protein, respectively. However, it had only approximately 65 to 67% nucleotide identity with sequenced isolates of ACLSV. The differences in serology, host range, genome sequence, and phylogenetic reconstructions for all viral proteins support the idea that this agent should be considered a new virus, for which the name Apricot pseudo-chlorotic leaf spot virus (APCLSV) is proposed. APCLSV shows substantial sequence variability and has been recovered from various Prunus sources coming from seven countries, an indication that it is likely to have a wide geographical distribution.

  20. Trophic relations of Opatrum sabulosum (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae with leaves of cultivated and uncultivated species of herbaceous plants under laboratory conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Brygadyrenko

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We carried out a quantitative assessment of the consumption of herbaceous plants by Opatrum sabulosum (Linnaeus, 1761 – a highly significant agricultural pest species. We researched the feeding preferences of this pest species with respect to 33 uncultivated and 22 cultivated plant species. This species of darkling beetle feeds on many uncultivated plant species, including those with hairy leaves and bitter milky sap, such as Scabiosa ucrainca (5.21 mg/specimen/24 hours, Euphorbia virgata (3.45, Solanum nigrum (3.32, Centauria scabiosa (2.47, Lamium album (2.41, Aristolochia clematitis (1.76, Chenopodium album (1.73, Arctium lappa (1.51, Asperula odorata (1.20. A high rate of leaf consumption is also characteristic for cultivated species, for example, Perilla nankinensis (5.05 mg/specimen/24 hours, Lycopersicon esculentum (3.75, Tropaeolum majus (3.29, Nicotiana tabacum (2.66, Rumex acetosa (1.96, Beta vulgaris (1.27. O. sabulosum is capable of feeding on plants which are poisonous to cattle. This species of darkling beetle consumes 95.5% of the cultivated and 48.5% of the uncultivated herbaceous plants researched.

  1. Determination of optimal doses of radiation for the plant breeding of pseudo cereals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez J, J.; Gomez P, L.

    2005-01-01

    With the purpose of promoting the use of the radiations for the plant breeding of pseudo cereals, it was determined a simple and economic method that allows the quick selection of radiation dose that induce in the vegetable organisms the changes wanted. For it it was work with quinua seeds (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) an Andean pseudo cereal that, due to their nutritious and physiologic characteristics it is considered by the FAO like one of the foods of the future and for the NASA like an organism that is good to remove the carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and at the same time, to generate food, oxygen and water for the crew during the space missions of long duration and that it has already improved by means of the radiation application. The proposed method consists on the evaluation, of the embryonic structures (radicule, hypocotyl and cotyledons) in the irradiated seeds as well as of the development of root, primary shaft and true leaves in the plants. The changes in the growth, form, number and color of the structures as well as the time of appearance of each one, allow to predict the morphological changes and inclusive some physiologic ones that will have the mature organisms, so that in only three weeks it is possible to select the doses more appropriate. (Author)

  2. Comparative study of radio sensibility between local breeds native of Mexico pseudo cereals; Estudio comparativo de radiosensibilidad entre razas locales de pseudocereales nativos de Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno G, A.

    2014-07-01

    Having in mind the objective of assessing the gamma radiation effect in two species of pseudo cereals, April 2012 to August 2013 in the National Institute of Nuclear Research Dr. Nabor Carrillo Flores, seeds from different collections of Amaranthus hypochondria cus and Chenopodium berlandieri nuttalliae, were subjected to different doses of irradiation (from 0 to 450 Gy, within an interval of 50 Gy) that were compared with a control of (0 Gy). For amaranth, the collection A1 showed the best feedback among 0 and 300 Gy in the 15 studied variables, the one that stood out was the 200 Gy doses in seed weight per plant (SWP) with 1.33 g. Huauzontle H3 to 50 Gy showed the best results for weight and seed diameter. High doses (from 300 to 450 Gy) showed higher percentage of mortality in spite of the fact that in some cases germination was stimulated. It is advisable for future studies about these pseudo cereals doses among 50 and 250 Gy. (Author)

  3. Antileishmanial Activity of Medicinal Plants Used in Endemic Areas in Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Cavalcanti De Queiroz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the leishmanicidal activity of five species of plants used in folk medicine in endemic areas of the state of Alagoas, Brazil. Data were collected in the cities of Colonia Leopoldina, Novo Lino, and União dos Palmares, Alagoas state, from patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis (Leishmania amazonensis who use medicinal plants to treat this disease. Plants extracts were tested at a concentration of 1–100 μg/mL in all experiments, except in an assay to evaluate activity against amastigotes, when 10 μg/mL was used. All plants extracts did not show deleterious activity to the host cell evidenced by LDH assay at 100, 10, and 1 μg/mL after 48 h of incubation. The plants extracts Hyptis pectinata (L. Poit, Aloe vera L., Ruta graveolens L., Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen, and Chenopodium ambrosioides L. exhibited direct activity against extracellular forms at 100 μg/mL; these extracts inhibited growth by 81.9%, 82.9%, 74.4%, 88.7%, and 87.4%, respectively, when compared with promastigotes. The plants extracts H. pectinata, A. vera, and R. graveolens also significantly diminished the number of amastigotes at 10 μg/mL, inhibiting growth by 85.0%, 40.4%, 94.2%, and 97.4%, respectively, when compared with control. Based on these data, we conclude that the five plants exhibited considerable leishmanicidal activity.

  4. Studies on the Effect of Type and Solarization Period on Germination Percentage of Four Weed Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Rostam

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In order to study the effects of soil solarization on weed control, an experiment with factorial arrangement in a randomized complete block design with four replications was conducted in a fallow farm in Daregaz in 2008. Factors included solarization duration (0, 2, 4 and 6 weeks and soil moisture content (dry and moist. Soil seed bank was sampled (in two depth, 0-10 and 10-20 cm prior to the experiment and immediately after applying treatments, and germination percentage of weed species were determined. Results of this study showed that seed germination percentage in 10 cm soil depth was influenced by soil moisture and solarization and their interactions, while in 20 cm soil depth only solarization period affected the weed seed germination. Germination percentage in moist soil was less than that in dry soil. Seed germination percentage declined more by increasing solarization duration, so that the greatest decline was obtained after 6 weeks solarization. Solarization decreased germination percentage in moist soil more than that in dry soil. Overall, the results of this experiment indicated that solarization of moist soil for 6 weeks was the most effective treatment in controlling common lambsquatres (Chenopodium album, common purslane (Portulaca oleracea, redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus, and wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis, while solarization of dry soil for 2 weeks was the least effective treatment for weed control. Keywords: Solarization, Soil moisture, Seed bank

  5. Occurence, spread and possibilities of invasive weeds control in sugar beet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinović Branko I.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Floristically rich and diverse weed comunity of sugar beet is in our country represented by 150 weed species. They are not all equaly significant in weediness of this crop. Only a limited number of them participate in weed comunity composition. These are: Abuthilon theophrasti Medic., Ambrosia artemisiifolia L., Amaranthus retroflexus L., Chenopodium album L., Cirsium arvense (L Scop., Convolvulus arvensis L., Cynodon dactylon (L Pers. Digitaria sanguinalis (L Scop., Hibiscus trionum L., Rubus caesius L. Echinochloa crus-gall L., Polygonum aviculare L., P. lapathifolium L., P. persicaria L., Setaria glauca (L P. B., S. viridis (L P. B., Solanum nigrum L. and Sorghum halepense (L Pers. In shooting period up to 4-8 weeks upon emergence, sugar beet is under the haviest harmfull inluence of weeds, especially invasive ones such as: Abuthilon theophrasti Medic. Ambrosia artemisiifolia L., Cirsium arvense (L Scop., Iva xanthifolia L. Sorghum halepense (L Pers. and Xanthium strumarium L. Sugar beet growing requires intensive cultural practices, i.e. basic and additional tillage and cultivation. Due to the widening of weed problems, frequent herbicide use in several applications is needed in the longer time period.

  6. Medicinal Plants from North and Central America and the Caribbean Considered Toxic for Humans: The Other Side of the Coin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Padilla, Alan Joel; Campos-Xolalpa, Nimsi; Carranza-Alvarez, Candy; Maldonado-Miranda, Juan Jose

    2017-01-01

    The consumption of medicinal plants has notably increased over the past two decades. People consider herbal products as safe because of their natural origin, without taking into consideration whether these plants contain a toxic principle. This represents a serious health problem. A bibliographic search was carried out using published scientific material on native plants from Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean, which describe the ethnobotanical and toxicological information of medicinal plants empirically considered to be toxic. A total of 216 medicinal plants belonging to 77 families have been reported as toxic. Of these plants, 76 had been studied, and 140 plants lacked studies regarding their toxicological effects. The toxicity of 16 plants species has been reported in clinical cases, particularly in children. From these plants, deaths have been reported with the consumption of Chenopodium ambrosioides, Argemone mexicana, and Thevetia peruviana. In most of the cases, the principle of the plant responsible for the toxicity is unknown. There is limited information about the toxicity of medicinal plants used in Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean. More toxicological studies are necessary to contribute information about the safe use of the medicinal plants cited in this review. PMID:29234446

  7. Application of the nuclear energy in the improvement of native pseudo cereals of Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De la Cruz T, E.

    2010-01-01

    Mexico is a diverse country that contains to 10% of the flora and fauna of the world, is also a place of domestication of diverse cultivations like the corn, the bean, the pumpkin, the vanilla, the cocoa and the avocado that constitute some samples of the vast contribution from our nation to the agriculture. Two species highlight inside the cultivations that Mexico contributed to the world and that at the present time they take place in small cultivated surfaces by means of traditional methods: the amaranth (Amaranths hypochondria cus) and the huauzontle (Chenopodium berlanideri sbp. nuttalliae). Both sub-utilized species the amaranth and the huauzontle possess a high nutritious value in accordance with the foods classification established by the FAO, and given its tolerance to adverse conditions is considered like an alternative to contribute to reduce the malnutrition in marginal agricultural areas. At the present time their improvement is searched with respect to some characteristics as: reduction of the fall of the seed in field; great seed size; cob (spike) big and compact and of smaller height, with what they would become more productive and more handling. To achieve these diverse stages are proposed that include the morphological characterization of the species, the study of the available phyto genetics resources, the characterization with regard to the nutritional components and until the cytogenetics and molecular characterization; all these aspects are essential to structure a strategy of genetic improvement for radio induced mutagenesis. (Author)

  8. [Product development on the basis of cereal and leguminous flours to coeliac disease in children between 6-24 months; I: formulation and acceptability].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerezal Mezquita, P; Urtuvia Gatica, V; Ramírez Quintanilla, V; Romero Palacios, N; Arcos Zavala, R

    2011-01-01

    The revaluation of the Andean cultivations, quinua (Chenopodium quinua Willd) and lupin (Lupinus albus L.), to be used in nutritional mixtures, with traditional cereals like corn (Zea mays L.) and rice (Oryza sativa L.), originate mixtures without gluten which constitute a good alternative for the nutrition of children under 24 months that suffer from celiac disease, since they improve the quality of the protein, by essential amino acids compensation, and also impacts in the product's diversification strategy. In the present work, the percentage composition of each flour in the mixture was determined by means of Linear Programming by means of the Solver form from the Excel spreadsheet. Prolamines were determined in the quinua and lupin flours by the ELISA test and the HPLC technique was used in both products obtained called "sweet mix" and "dessert mix", to define the quantity of amino acids with the purpose of providing around the 15% of the proteins required in the day. The flour mixtures selected as optimum, sweet mix, suitable for the preparation of sweet pancakes, as well as for the dessert mix, that by addition of water or milk produce a semi solid dessert, were evaluated after three months of storage, being acceptable their microbiological, bromatological and sensorial requirements, corroborating the results with the good acceptance of the products, prepared from the formulated mixtures, by the children of two Day Care centers of the City of Antofagasta-Chile.

  9. Antimicrobial activity of Northwestern Mexican plants against Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles-Zepeda, Ramón E; Velázquez-Contreras, Carlos A; Garibay-Escobar, Adriana; Gálvez-Ruiz, Juan C; Ruiz-Bustos, Eduardo

    2011-10-01

    Helicobacter pylori is the major etiologic agent of such gastric disorders as chronic active gastritis and gastric carcinoma. Over the past few years, the appearance of antibiotic-resistant bacteria has led to the development of better treatments, such as the use of natural products. This study evaluated the anti-H. pylori activity of 17 Mexican plants used mainly in the northwestern part of Mexico (Sonora) for the empirical treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. The anti-H. pylori activity of methanolic extracts of the plants was determined by using the broth microdilution method. The 50% minimum inhibitory concentrations ranged from less than 200 to 400 μg/mL for Castella tortuosa, Amphipterygium adstringens, Ibervillea sonorae, Pscalium decompositum, Krameria erecta, Selaginella lepidophylla, Pimpinella anisum, Marrubium vulgare, Ambrosia confertiflora, and Couterea latiflora and were greater than 800 μg/mL for Byophyllum pinnatum, Tecoma stans linnaeus, Kohleria deppena, Jatropha cuneata, Chenopodium ambrosoides, and Taxodium macronatum. Only Equisetum gigantum showed no activity against H. pylori. This study suggests the important role that these plants may have in the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders caused by H. pylori. The findings set the groundwork for further characterization and elucidation of the active compounds responsible for such activity.

  10. Bioactivity Evaluation of Plant Extracts Used in Indigenous Medicine against the Snail, Biomphalaria glabrata, and the Larvae of Aedes aegypti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edilson Alves dos Santos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This investigation examined the molluscicidal and larvicidal activity of eight plants that are used in the traditional medicine of the Pankararé indigenous people in the Raso da Catarina region, Bahia state, Brazil. The tested plants were chosen based on the results of previous studies. Only those plants that were used either as insect repellents or to treat intestinal parasitic infections were included in the study. Crude extracts (CEs of these plants were tested for their larvicidal activity (against Aedes aegypti larvae in the fourth instar and molluscicidal activity (against the snail Biomphalaria glabrata. The plant species Scoparia dulcis and Helicteres velutina exhibited the best larvicidal activities (LC50 83.426 mg/L and LC50 138.896 mg/L, resp., and Poincianella pyramidalis, Chenopodium ambrosoides, and Mimosa tenuiflora presented the best molluscicidal activities (LC50 0.94 mg/L, LC50 13.51 mg/L, and LC50 20.22 mg/L, resp.. As we used crude extracts as the tested materials, further study is warranted to isolate and purify the most active compounds.

  11. MaisTer® Power: a Terbuthylazin free new solution to control monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous weeds in maize.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wegener, Martin

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available MaisTer® power is a combination of the well-known active ingredients Foramsulfuron (31,5 g/L, Iodosulfuron (1,04 g/L and the new developed ai Thiencarbazone-methyl (10,0 g/L and the new safener Cyprosulfamide (15,0 g/L. All three active ingredients belong to the group of the ALS inhibitors. The product can be applied with a dose rate of 1,5 L/ha or 1,0 L/ha. Foramsulfuron and Iodosulfuron will be taken up via the leaves of the plants whereas Thiencarbazone-methyl can penetrate the plants via the roots and the leaves. By using a dose rate of 1,5 L/ha a very good residual activity against new flushes of grass or broadleaf weeds will be observed. All relevant grass and broadleaf weeds in maize will be controlled after the application of MaisTer power including Polygonum species. If a dose rate of 1,0 L/ha is used it could make sense to add a tank mix partner like Aspect to complete the spectrum against some weeds like Chenopodium album or Polygonum convolvulus.

  12. Effect of nitrogen and water availability of three soil types on yield, radiation use efficiency and evapotranspiration in field-grown quinoa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Razzaghi, Fatemeh; Plauborg, Finn; Jacobsen, Sven-Erik

    2012-01-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is believed to be tolerant to abiotic stress including salinity, drought and poor soil quality. To investigate the effect of soil type and soil-drying during the seed-filling phase on N-uptake, yield and water use, a Danish-bred cultivar (cv. Titicaca) was grown...... in field lysimeters with sand, sandy loam and sandy clay loam soil. Despite application of the same amount of nitrogen (120 kg N ha−1) to all plots, there were large differences in crop nitrogen-uptake for sandy clay loam (134 kg ha−1), sandy loam (102 kg ha−1) and sand (77 kg ha−1) under full irrigation....... This lead to higher interception of photosynthetic active radiation and higher seed yield on sandy clay loam (3.3 Mg ha−1) and sandy loam (3.0 Mg ha−1) than on sand (2.3 Mg ha−1). The soil with higher clay content had also the highest transpiration, crop evapotranspiration and yield due to the higher uptake...

  13. Isotherms and isosteric heat of sorption of two varieties of Peruvian quinoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Pumacahua-Ramos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The isosteric heats of sorption of two varieties of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoaWilld. grain were determined by the static gravimetric method at four temperatures (40, 50, 60 and 70 °C andin relative humidity environments provided by six saturated salt solutions. Six mathematical equations were used to model the experimental data: GAB, Oswin, Henderson, Peleg, Smith and Halsey. The isosteric heat of sorption was determined using the parameters of the GAB model. All the equations were shown to be appropriate by the coefficients of determination (R2 and the mean absolute error (MA%E. The influence of temperature was observed because the adsorption of water by the grains was lower at highertemperatures. The equilibrium moisture contents for security of storage, for long periods of time at water activity lower than 0.65, were 12 -13%. The effect of temperature on the parameters of the GAB model was analysed using the exponential Arrhenius equation. The isosteric heats of sorption were determined by applying the Clausius-Clapeyron equation as a function of humidity. The isosteric heat at 5% moisture for grains of the Blanca de Juli variety was 3663 kJ/kg and for the Pasankalla variety it was 3393 kJ/kg. The experimental data for isosteric heat as a function of humidity were satisfactorily modelled using three mathematical equations.

  14. Non-experimental validation of ethnoveterinary plants and indigenous knowledge used for backyard pigs and chickens in Trinidad and Tobago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lans, C; Georges, K; Brown, G

    2007-06-01

    This paper presents the findings of an exploratory study on ethnoveterinary medicines used for backyard pigs and backyard chickens in Trinidad and Tobago. Research data was collected from 1995 to September 2000. Six plants are used for backyard pigs. Crushed leaves of immortelle (Erythrina pallida, E. micropteryx) are used to remove dead piglets from the uterus. Leaf decoctions of bois canôt (Cecropia peltata) and bamboo (Bambusa vulgaris) are used for labour pains or leaves are fed as a postpartum cleanser. Boiled green papaya fruit (Carica papaya) is fed to pigs to induce milk let-down. The leaves and flowers of male papaya plants (Carica papaya) are fed to deworm pigs. Sour orange juice (Citrus aurantium) is given to pigs to produce lean meat, and coffee grounds are used for scours. Eyebright and plantain leaves (Plantago major) are used for eye injuries of backyard chickens. Worm grass (Chenopodium ambrosioides) and cotton bush (Gossypium species) are used as anthelmintics. Aloe gel (Aloe vera) is used for internal injuries and the yellow sap from the cut Aloe vera leaf or the juice of Citrus limonia is used to purge the birds. A literature review revealed few toxicity concerns and the potential usefulness of the plants.

  15. Nutrient uptake and biomass accumulation for eleven different field crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. HAKALA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Oil hemp (Cannabis sativa L., quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd., false flax (Camelina sativa (L. Crantz, caraway (Carum carvi L., dyer’s woad (Isatis tinctoria L., nettle (Urtica dioica L., reed canary grass (RCG (Phalaris arundinacea L., buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench, linseed (Linum usitatissimum L., timothy (Phleum pratense L. and barley (Hordeum vulgare L. were grown under uniform conditions in pots containing well fertilised loam soil. Dry matter (DM accumulation was measured repeatedly, and contents of minerals N, P, K, Ca and Mg at maturity. Annual crops accumulated above-ground biomass faster than perennials, while perennials had higher DM accumulation rates below ground. Seeds had high concentrations of N and P, while green biomass had high concentrations of K and Ca. Stems and roots had low concentrations of minerals. Concentrations of K and P were high in quinoa and caraway, and that of P in buckwheat. Hemp and nettle had high Ca concentrations, and quinoa had high Mg concentration. N and P were efficiently harvested with seed, Ca and K with the whole biomass. Perennials could prevent soil erosion and add carbon to the soil in the long term, while annuals compete better with weeds and prevent erosion during early growth. Nutrient balances in a field could be modified and nutrient leaching reduced by careful selection of the crop and management practices.;

  16. Hıyarda (Cucumis sativus L. yabancı ot çıkış zamanın tahminine yönelik araştırmalar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nihat Tursun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available İstatistiki modellerin geliştirilmesi için hıyar bitkisinde on bir önemli yabancı otun çıkış zamanın belirlenmesinde modellemeler yapılmıştır. Hıyar deneme arazisinde bulunan önemli yabancı otlar çıkış zamanlarına göre gruplara ayrılmıştır. Bu yabancı otlardan; Amaranthus retroflexus, Chenopodium album, Heliotropium europaeum, Polygonum aviculare ve Solanum nigrum erken, Convolvulus arvensis, Cyperus rotundus, Cynodon dactylon, Portulaca oleracea ve Sorghum halepense bütün vejetasyon boyunca ve Tribulus terrestris ise geç çimlenen yabancı ot türü olarak belirlenmiştir. Farklı doğrusal olmayan büyüme eğrileri (Chapman-Richard, Weibull, logistic, Gompertz ve cubic spline farklı yabancı ot türleri ve yıllar için çıkış yüzdeleri verileri esas alınarak uyarlanmıştır. Cubic splin model birçok yabancı ot türü için en iyi model olarak saptanmıştır.

  17. Effect of Germination and Fermentation Process on the Antioxidant Compounds of Quinoa Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carciochi, Ramiro Ariel; Galván-D'Alessandro, Leandro; Vandendriessche, Pierre; Chollet, Sylvie

    2016-12-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) seed has gained a great interest in the last years, mainly due to its nutritional properties and its content of antioxidant substances with health-promoting properties in humans. In this work, the effect of germination time and fermentation on the levels of antioxidant compounds (ascorbic acid, tocopherol isomers and phenolic compounds) and antioxidant activity of quinoa seeds was evaluated. Fermentation was carried out naturally by the microorganisms present in the seeds or by inoculation with two Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains (used for baking and brewing). Ascorbic acid and total tocopherols were significantly increased (p ≤ 0.05) after 72 h of germination process in comparison with raw quinoa seeds, whilst fermentation caused a decrease in both types of compounds. Phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity were improved using both bioprocesses, being this effect more noticeable for germination process (101 % of increase after three days of germination). Germination and fermentation proved to be desirable procedures for producing enriched ingredients with health-promoting antioxidant compounds in a natural way.

  18. Impact of solid waste burning air pollution on some physio-anatomical characteristics of some plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laghari, S.K.; Zaidi, M.A.

    2015-01-01

    Present study evaluated the effect of solid waste burning pollution on carbohydrate, stomata and chlorophyll contents of seven different plant species. Leaf samples of Artemisia maritima L., Fraxinus excelsior L., Amaranthus viridis L., Cynodon dactylon L., Chenopodium album L., Robinia pseudoacacia L., and Sophora mollis (Royle) Baker, growing in the (1m, 500m and 1000m distance) vicinity of burning points at residential colony, University of Baluchistan Quetta were collected. Results revealed that the carbohydrate, chlorophyll a and b and total chlorophyll contents in the leaves of selected plant species were found to be significantly low at 1m distance, but as the distance from the source of pollution increased (500m and 1000m) these contents increased accordingly. Generally the percentage of completely and partially clogged stomata was found higher near the pollution source (1m distance). The percentage of open stomata in all investigated plant species was noticed lower near the pollution source (1m distance), while with the increase of distance (500m-1000m) the percentage of open stomata increased accordingly. As regard to carbohydrate and chlorophyll contents, the Artemisia maritima L., were found most sensitive to air pollution in all four directions at 1m distances as compared to the other species. While plant species, Cynodon dactylon L. showed more resistant to air pollution effect as regard to carbohydrate contents and high percentage of open stomata at 1m distances with respect to other species. (author)

  19. Predominant airborne pollen in a district of Beirut, Lebanon for the period extending from March 2004 to August 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahal, E.A.; Halas, Y.; Zaytoun, G.; Abdelnoor, A.M.; Zeitoun, F.

    2007-01-01

    Pollen grains rank high among causative agents of hay fever, allergic rhinitis,allegro-conjunctivitis, and asthma. Data on aerial pollen types, concentrations and patterns in Lebanon is lacking. Hence, we undertook the pioneering task of identifying and enumerating atmospheric pollen types in Beirut, the Lebanese capital, for the period extending from March 2004 to August 2004. Our aim was to shed some light on the prevalent sorts of airborne pollen in the city for subsequent studies attempting to assess associations between pollen types and allergic disease varieties. For this purpose, a VPPS 2000 Sampler (Lanzoni, Bologna, Italy) was employed. The daily average number of pollen detected for the span of the study was 41.32 pollen grains/m3 of air. The ten most commonly encountered pollen types were Cupressus, Pinus, Quercus, Parietaria, Fraxinus, Urtica, Buxus, Brassica, Syringa, and Chenopodium.Levels of the majority of pollen types peaked in April; however, March had the highest daily average record mostly enforced by immense bouts of Cupressus pollen. A pollen-monitoring network is in demand in Lebanon. Identification of airborne pollens in Lebanon would allow allergists to include them in a panel of potential allergens used in tests aimed at determining causative allergens in their patients. (author)

  20. Retention of nutrients in green leafy vegetables on dehydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sheetal; Gowri, B S; Lakshmi, A Jyothi; Prakash, Jamuna

    2013-10-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the influence of dehydration on nutrient composition of Amaranthus gangeticus, Chenopodium album, Centella asiatica, Amaranthus tricolor and Trigonella foenum graecum. The green leafy vegetables (GLV) were steam blanched for 5 min after pretreatment and dried in an oven at 60 °C for 10-12 h. The fresh and dehydrated samples were analyzed for selected proximate constituents, vitamins, minerals, antinutrients and dialyzable minerals. Dehydration seems to have little effect on the proximate, mineral and antinutrient content of the GLV. Among the vitamins, retention of ascorbic acid was 1-14%, thiamine 22-71%, total carotene 49-73% and β-carotene 20-69% respectively, of their initial content. Dialyzable iron and calcium in the fresh vegetables ranged between 0.21-3.5 mg and 15.36-81.33 mg/100 g respectively, which reduced to 0.05-0.53 mg and 6.94-58.15 mg/100 g on dehydration. Dehydration seems to be the simplest convenient technology for preserving these sources of micronutrients, especially when they are abundantly available. Irrespective of the losses of vitamins that take place during dehydration, dehydrated GLV are a concentrated natural source of micronutrients and they can be used in product formulations. Value addition of traditional products with dehydrated GLV can be advocated as a feasible food-based approach to combat micronutrient malnutrition.

  1. Comparing heavy metals accumulation potential in natural vegetation and soil adjoining wastewater canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aurangzeb, N.; Irshad, M.; Hussain, F.; Mahmood, Q.

    2011-01-01

    Heavy metal (HM) pollution of waters, soils and vegetation is a major ecological problem that needs to be investigated. The present study involved the collection of soil samples and natural vegetations (Tribilas terristris, Lepia nodiflora, Amaranthus viridis, Heliotropium euoropeum, Coronopis didymus, Cynodon ductylon, Chenopodium murale and Eclipta alba) from the vicinity of wastewater canal and subsequent analysis for their HM concentrations. Results showed that HM concentrations varied within the species of vegetation and type of metal analyzed. The order of vegetation for metal concentrations was A. viridis > E. alba > H. euoropeum > L. nodiflora > C. murale > C. didymus > C. ductylon > T. terristris. Metals prevailed in plants in the decreasing order of Fe > Mn > Zn > Pb > Cr > Cu > Cd, irrespective of the vegetation. Metal prevalence in soils was in the order of Fe > Mn > Cd > Cr > Pb > Zn > Cu. Samples near canal were found with higher level of Mn, Pb and Zn as compared to soil away from canal water. Distant sampling gave higher accumulation of Cd, Cr, Cu and Fe as compared to the soil nearby wastewater. The analyzed species of HM in the soils and plants may indicate the variability of their composition in wastewater. (author)

  2. Bioactivity Evaluation of Plant Extracts Used in Indigenous Medicine against the Snail, Biomphalaria glabrata, and the Larvae of Aedes aegypti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Edilson Alves; de Carvalho, Cenira M; Costa, Ana L S; Conceição, Adilva S; Moura, Flávia de B Prado; Santana, Antônio Euzébio Goulart

    2012-01-01

    This investigation examined the molluscicidal and larvicidal activity of eight plants that are used in the traditional medicine of the Pankararé indigenous people in the Raso da Catarina region, Bahia state, Brazil. The tested plants were chosen based on the results of previous studies. Only those plants that were used either as insect repellents or to treat intestinal parasitic infections were included in the study. Crude extracts (CEs) of these plants were tested for their larvicidal activity (against Aedes aegypti larvae in the fourth instar) and molluscicidal activity (against the snail Biomphalaria glabrata). The plant species Scoparia dulcis and Helicteres velutina exhibited the best larvicidal activities (LC(50) 83.426 mg/L and LC(50) 138.896 mg/L, resp.), and Poincianella pyramidalis, Chenopodium ambrosoides, and Mimosa tenuiflora presented the best molluscicidal activities (LC(50) 0.94 mg/L, LC(50) 13.51 mg/L, and LC(50) 20.22 mg/L, resp.). As we used crude extracts as the tested materials, further study is warranted to isolate and purify the most active compounds.

  3. Phytoaccumulation of Heavy Metals in Natural Vegetation at the Municipal Wastewater Site in Abbottabad, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irshad, Muhammad; Ruqia, Bibi; Hussain, Zahid

    2015-01-01

    Heavy metal accumulation in crops and soils from wastewater irrigation poses a significant threat to the human health. A study was carried out to investigate the removal potential of heavy metals (HM) by native plant species, namely Cannabis sativa L., Chenopodium album L., Datura stramonium L., Sonchus asper L., Amaranthus viridus L., Oenothera rosea (LHer), Xanthium stramonium L., Polygonum macalosa L., Nasturtium officinale L. and Conyza canadensis L. growing at the municipal wastewater site in Abbottabad city, Pakistan. The HM concentrations varied among plants depending on the species. Metal concentrations across species varied in the order iron (Fe) > zinc (Zn) > chromium (Cr) > nickel (Ni) > cadmium (Cd). Majority of the species accumulated more HM in roots than shoots. Among species, the concentrations (both in roots and shoots) were in the order C. sativa > C. album > X. stramonium > C. canadensis > A. viridus > N. officinale > P. macalosa > D. stramonium > S. asper > O. rosea. No species was identified as a hyperaccumulator. All species exhibited a translocation factor (TF) less than 1. Species like C. sativa, C. album and X. stramonium gave higher (> 1) biological concentration factor (BCF) and biological accumulation coefficient (BAC) especially for Fe, Cr and Cd than other species. Higher accumulation of heavy metals in these plant species signifies the general application of these species for phytostabilization and phytoextraction of HM from polluted soils.

  4. Findings on the phytoextraction and phytostabilization of soils contaminated with heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheraghi, M; Lorestani, B; Khorasani, N; Yousefi, N; Karami, M

    2011-12-01

    As a result of human activities such as mining, metal pollution has become one of the most serious environmental problems today. Phytoremediation, an emerging cost-effective, non-intrusive, and aesthetically pleasing technology that uses the remarkable ability of plants to concentrate elements can be potentially used to remediate metal-contaminated sites. The aim of this work was to assess the extent of metal accumulation by plants found in a mining area in Hamedan province with the ultimate goal of finding suitable plants for phytoextraction and phytostabilization (two processes of phytoremediation). To this purpose, shoots and roots of the 12 plant species and the associated soil samples were collected and analyzed by measurement of total concentrations of some elements (Fe, Mn, Zn, and Cu) using atomic absorption spectrophotometer and then biological absorption coefficient, bioconcentration factor, and translocation factor parameters calculated for each element. Our results showed that none of the plants were suitable for phytoextraction and phytostabilization of Fe, Zn, and Cu, while Chenopodium botrys, Stipa barbata, Cousinia bijarensis, Scariola orientalis, Chondrila juncea, and Verbascum speciosum, with a high biological absorption coefficient for Mn, were suitable for phytoextraction of Mn, and C. bijarensis, C. juncea, V. speciosum, S. orientalis, C. botrys, and S. barbata, with a high bioconcentration factor and low translocation factor for Mn, had the potential for the phytostabilization of this element.

  5. Flavonoid glycosides from leaves and straw of Oryza sativa and their effects of cytotoxicity on a macrophage cell line and allelopathic on weed germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ill-Min Chung

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Five new flavonoids namely, 5-hydroxy-6-isoprenyl-7,4′-dimethoxyflavonol-3-O-β-d-arabinofuranoside (1, 5,7-dihydroxy-4′-methoxyflavone-7-O-β-d-arabinopyranosyl-2′′-n-decan-1′′′-oate (2, 3-butanoyl-5,6,8-trihydroxy-7,4′-dimethoxyflavonol--5-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (3, 7, 4′-dimethoxy-5-hydroxyflavone-5-O-α-d-arabinopyranosyl-(2′′ → 1′′′-O-α-d-arabinopyranoside (4, and 5,6-dihydroxy-7, 4′-dimethoxyflavone-5-O-α-d-glucopyranoside (5, together with two known compounds, were isolated from the methanol extract of Oryza sativa leaves and straw. Their structures of new compounds were elucidated by 1D and 2D NMR spectral methods, viz: COSY, HMBC and HSQC aided by mass techniques and IR spectroscopy. The cytotoxicity of these compounds (1–7 were assessed by using (RAW 264.7 mouse macrophages cell line, and allelopathic effects of compounds (1–7 on the germination characteristics of barnyardgrass (Echinochloa oryzicola and pigweed (Chenopodium album L. were also evaluated. The compounds 1, 6 and 7 showed cytotoxicity and compounds 1–7 exhibited significant inhibitory activity on the seed germination of two weed species.

  6. Characterization of viruses associated with garlic plants propagated from different reproductive tissues from Italy and other geographic regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo PARRANO

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Garlic is an important crop cultivated worldwide and several different viruses have been associated with propagative material. Garlic is propagated from bulbs and/or from vegetative topsets of the inflorescences known as bulbils. The effects of the geographic origin and the type of the propagative material on the phylogenetic relationships and genetic variability of the coat protein genes of four allium viruses are presented here. Onion yellow dwarf virus (OYDV, Leek yellow stripe virus (LYSV, Garlic virus X (GVX, and Garlic common latent virus (GCLV were detected in single and mixed infections in plants grown either from bulbils and/or bulbs originating from Italy, China, Argentina, and the U.S.A. OYDV and LYSV fell into five and three well supported clades respectively whereas isolates of GVX and GCLV all clustered into one well-supported clade each. Some of the OYDV and LYSV clades presented evidence of host tissue selection while some phylogenetic structuring based on the geographic origin or host was also observed for some virus clades. Unique haplotypes and novel coat protein amino acid sequence patterns were identified for all viruses. An OYDV coat protein amino acid signature unique to Chenopodium quinoa, an uncommon host of the virus, was of particular interest. The type of propagative material affected the population dynamics of all of the viruses. The virus populations in plants propagated from bulbs were more diverse than in plants propagated from bulbils.

  7. Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants marketed in the municipality of Uruará, Pará, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinaldo Lucas Cajaiba

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to perform an ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants marketed by the population of the municipality of Uruará, Pará, and its main districts. The respondents mentioned 63 species distributed in 36 botanical families. The most representative families were Lamiaceae, Asteraceae, Fabaceae and Rutaceae. The species with the highest Use Value were capim cidreira (Cymbopogon citratus, UV = 0.90, mastruz (Chenopodium ambrosioides, UV = 0.83 and hortelã (Mentha sp., UV = 0.79, while capim cidreira (Cymbopogon citratus and picão (Bidens pilosa had a higher indicator value, and were indicated as a tranquilizer/painkiller and for treating kidney disease, respectively. Among the main disorders treated with medicinal plants, diseases of the digestive system, infections/inflammations, colds and respiratory system diseases were the most cited. There was no significant difference between the number of species mentioned and the number of individuals per family or the distance of households to the urban zone. There was also no difference between the number of species mentioned and education level. Most medicinal plants marketed in the municipality are herbs, leaves are the most used parts and the most common form of preparation is tea.

  8. Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants marketed in the municipality of Uruará, Pará, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinaldo Lucas Cajaiba

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2016v29n1p115 The present study aimed to perform an ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants marketed by the population of the municipality of Uruará, Pará, and its main districts. The respondents mentioned 63 species distributed in 36 botanical families. The most representative families were Lamiaceae, Asteraceae, Fabaceae and Rutaceae. The species with the highest Use Value were capim cidreira (Cymbopogon citratus, UV = 0.90, mastruz (Chenopodium ambrosioides, UV = 0.83 and hortelã (Mentha sp., UV = 0.79, while capim cidreira (Cymbopogon citratus and picão (Bidens pilosa had a higher indicator value, and were indicated as a tranquilizer/painkiller and for treating kidney disease, respectively. Among the main disorders treated with medicinal plants, diseases of the digestive system, infections/inflammations, colds and respiratory system diseases were the most cited. There was no significant difference between the number of species mentioned and the number of individuals per family or the distance of households to the urban zone. There was also no difference between the number of species mentioned and education level. Most medicinal plants marketed in the municipality are herbs, leaves are the most used parts and the most common form of preparation is tea.

  9. The weed species composition in a reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea L. plantation for energy purposes depending on its age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz R. Sekutowski

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present experiment, carried out in nine production fields of reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea grown for energy purposes, evaluated the effect of plantation age on the occurrence and species composition of weeds. The selected plantations were divided into 3 groups that were conventionally called “young” (1–2 years old, “middle-aged” (3–5 years old, and “older” plantations (6–8 years old. Regardless of plantation age, altogether 43 species were found in the experimental fields. Moreover, 6 species were common for all the plantations and were found in them regardless of plantation age. The least species, only 18, were found on the “young” plantations, almost twice more on the “older” ones (30 species, whereas the largest spectrum of species was found in the “middle-aged” plantations (33 species. In the “young” plantations, annual weeds were the most common, with the highest constancy and coverage index found for Chenopodium album, Matricaria maritima ssp. inodora and Echinochloa crus-galli. The greatest variation in species was found in the “middle-aged” plantations. However, only 4 species achieved the highest constancy and coverage index: Matricaria maritima ssp. inodora, Cirsium arvense, Poa trivialis and Taraxacum officinale. Furthermore, perennial weeds were found to be dominant in the “older” plantations. Within this group, Poa trivialis, Taraxacum officinale, Urtica dioica, Plantago maior, and Cirsium arvense had the highest constancy and coverage index.

  10. A New Method for in Situ Measurement of Bt-Maize Pollen Deposition on Host-Plant Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolph Vögel

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Maize is wind pollinated and produces huge amounts of pollen. In consequence, the Cry toxins expressed in the pollen of Bt maize will be dispersed by wind in the surrounding vegetation leading to exposure of non-target organisms (NTO. NTO like lepidopteran larvae may be affected by the uptake of Bt-pollen deposited on their host plants. Although some information is available to estimate pollen deposition on host plants, recorded data are based on indirect measurements such as shaking or washing off pollen, or removing pollen with adhesive tapes. These methods often lack precision and they do not include the necessary information such as the spatial and temporal variation of pollen deposition on the leaves. Here, we present a new method for recording in situ the amount and the distribution of Bt-maize pollen deposited on host plant leaves. The method is based on the use of a mobile digital microscope (Dino-Lite Pro, including DinoCapture software, which can be used in combination with a notebook in the field. The method was evaluated during experiments in 2008 to 2010. Maize pollen could be correctly identified and pollen deposition as well as the spatial heterogeneity of maize pollen deposition was recorded on maize and different lepidopteran host plants (Centaurea scabiosa, Chenopodium album, Rumex spp., Succina pratensis and Urtica dioica growing adjacent to maize fields.

  11. Ação de Inseticidas Botânicos sobre a Preferência Alimentar e sobre Posturas de Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae em Milho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Mazzonetto

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho objetivou comparar o efeito de diferentes extratos de origem vegetal na preferência alimentar e na postura da lagarta do cartucho Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith em folhas de milho. Extratos aquosos a 10% p/v de Chenopodium ambrosioides (Linnaeus (Erva de Santa Maria, Corymbia citriodora (Hill & Johnson (Eucalipto Cheiroso, Chrysanthemum leucanthemum (Linnaeus (Crisântemo e Azadirachta indica (A. Juss (Nim foram aplicados em discos de folhas de milho e oferecidos às lagartas em testes com e sem chance de escolha. A atratividade das lagartas pelos discos com os extratos não diferiu da testemunha no teste com chance de escolha, porém os extratos de Nim e Crisântemo apresentaram efeito fagodeterrente a S. frugiperda. Nos testes sem chance de escolha, o tratamento que mais repeliu as lagartas foi utilizando extrato de Nim, representando possível alternativa para o controle das lagartas desta espécie. Nenhum dos extratos aquosos das espécies vegetais testadas apresentou efeito ovicida.

  12. Techniques Used in the Application of a {sup 14}C-Labelled Herbicide; Tecnicas Utilizadas en la Aplicacion de un Herbicida Marcado con {sup 14}C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, J. J.; Ghelfi, R. A.; Brenzoni, E. O. [Facultad de Agronomia y Veterinaria (Centro de Radiobiologia) Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    1966-05-15

    The butylic ester of 2.4-D-2{sup 14}C was used to apply the herbicide in the chemical form adopted for field spraying. Esterification of the acid was carried out in the Labelled Molecules Division of the National Atomic Energy Commission's Department of Scientific Research. For purposes of the experiment the ester was prepared in the form of two emulsions of different concentrations ('concentrated' and 'dilute'), the first being based on the average amount used in field application in Argentina. The remaining components of the emulsions, i.e. the emulsifier and the solvent, were these normally used in Argentina, since in this country the import of herbicides based on 2,4-D is not permitted. The tests were carried out on specimens of quinoa (Chenopodium spp.), Datura ferox and Cyperus (Cyperus rotundus), kept in greenhouses. The duration of the treatment was three days in all cases except in that of Cyperus, where it was twelve days. The distribution of the radioisotope in the plants following application of the labelled substance was always limited, as was shown by the autoradiographs. All the doses used proved to be suitable for obtaining autoradiographs, including the lowest dose, containing 0.118 {mu}Ci of activity in the least of the volumes used (10 A). Quantitative determination of the percentage of the dose (amount of radioactivity) localized in a quinoa plant gave a figure of 16.3%. (author)

  13. Defective RNA particles derived from Tomato black ring virus genome interfere with the replication of parental virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasiów-Jaroszewska, Beata; Minicka, Julia; Zarzyńska-Nowak, Aleksandra; Budzyńska, Daria; Elena, Santiago F

    2018-05-02

    Tomato black ring virus (TBRV) is the only member of the Nepovirus genus that is known to form defective RNA particles (D RNAs) during replication. Here, de novo generation of D RNAs was observed during prolonged passages of TBRV isolates originated from Solanum lycopersicum and Lactuca sativa in Chenopodium quinoa plants. D RNAs of about 500 nt derived by a single deletion in the RNA1 molecule and contained a portion of the 5' untranslated region and viral replicase, and almost the entire 3' non-coding region. Short regions of sequence complementarity were found at the 5' and 3' junction borders, which can facilitate formation of the D RNAs. Moreover, in this study we analyzed the effects of D RNAs on TBRV replication and symptoms development of infected plants. C. quinoa, S. lycopersicum, Nicotiana tabacum, and L. sativa were infected with the original TBRV isolates (TBRV-D RNA) and those containing additional D RNA particles (TBRV + D RNA). The viral accumulation in particular hosts was measured up to 28 days post inoculation by RT-qPCR. Statistical analyses revealed that D RNAs interfere with TBRV replication and thus should be referred to as defective interfering particles. The magnitude of the interference effect depends on the interplay between TBRV isolate and host species. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Construction of Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated tomato black ring virus infectious cDNA clones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarzyńska-Nowak, Aleksandra; Ferriol, Inmaculada; Falk, Bryce W; Borodynko-Filas, Natasza; Hasiów-Jaroszewska, Beata

    2017-02-15

    Tomato black ring virus (TBRV, genus Nepovirus) infects a wide range of economically important plants such as tomato, potato, tobacco and cucumber. Here, a successful construction of infectious full-length cDNA clones of the TBRV genomic RNAs (RNA1 and RNA2) is reported for the first time. The engineered constructs consisting of PCR-amplified DNAs were cloned into binary vector pJL89 immediately downstream of a double cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter, and upstream of the hepatitis delta virus (HDV) ribozyme and nopaline synthase terminator (NOS). The symptoms induced on plants agroinoculated with both constructs were indistinguishable from those caused by the wild-type virus. The infectivity of obtained clones was verified by reinoculation to Nicotiana tabacum cv. Xanthi, Chenopodium quinoa and Cucumis sativus. The presence of viral particles and RNA was confirmed by electron microscopy and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, respectively. Constructed full-length infectious cDNA clones will serve as an excellent tool to study virus-host-vector interactions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Efficient replication of the in vitro transcripts from cloned cDNA of tomato black ring virus satellite RNA requires the 48K satellite RNA-encoded protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmer, O; Oncino, C; Fritsch, C

    1993-06-01

    Tomato black ring virus isolate L supports the multiplication of a large satellite RNA of 1376 nt which has no common features with the two genomic RNAs except for the terminal motif 5' VPg UUGAAAA and a 3' poly(A) tail. The TBRV sat-RNA contains an ORF for a protein of 48K which is translated both in vitro and in vivo. To determine the function of the 48K protein we have studied the effect of different mutations introduced in the ORF of the cDNA clone on the capacity of transcripts to multiply in Chenopodium quinoa plants or protoplasts when inoculated along with the genomic RNAs. Transcripts in which nucleotides have been substituted within the 5' proximal region of the ORF multiplied poorly even when the modification conserved the 48K protein sequence, suggesting that this portion of the ORF contains cis-acting RNA sequences. Transcripts with alterations in the internal region of the ORF retained their multiplication capacity provided the mutation did not destroy the ORF or modify the length of the protein expressed. The absence of multiplication in plants of transcripts unable to express the 48K protein and their inability to replicate in protoplasts suggest strongly that the sat-RNA translation product itself is implicated in the replication of sat-RNA.

  16. Plant species used in giardiasis treatment: ethnopharmacology and in vitro evaluation of anti-Giardia activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa do A. Neiva

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compile the traditional knowledge about plants used for the treatment of giardiasis, and also to carry out experimental research to evaluate the anti-Giardia activity of five species.To reach this objective, 398 interviews were performed using a previously prepared questionnaire, followed by an in vitro evaluation of giardicidal potential of hydroalcoholic leaf extracts of Anacardium occidentale L., Chenopodium ambrosioides L., Passiflora edulis Sims, Psidium guajava L., and Stachytarpheta cayennensis(Rich. Vahl. Among the interviewed people, 55.53% reported the use of plants to treat diarrhea, the most severe symptom of giardiasis. The results indicated 36 species used by this population for these problems. The use of leaves (72.50% of a single plant (64.25% collected from backyards and gardens (44.34% and prepared by decoction were predominant. The majority of the interviewees (85.52% attributed their cure to the use of plants. In the experimental tests, all extracts inhibited the growth of Giardia lambliatrophozoites in different intensities: A. occidentale and P. guajava extracts elicited a moderate activity (250 ≤ IC50 ≤ 500 μg/ml, C. ambrosioides and S. cayennensis extracts evoked a high activity (100 ≤ IC50 ≤ 250 μg/ml, and P. edulis extract showed very high activity (IC50≤ 100 μg/ml. This study shows that an ethnopharmacological approach is useful in the selection of plant materials with potential giardicidal activity.

  17. Traditional Herbal Management of Sickle Cell Anemia: Lessons from Nigeria

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    Sunday J. Ameh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Patients in West Africa where sickle cell anemia (SCA is endemic have for ages been treated with natural products, especially herbs, as, is still the case in rural communities. Objective. In this paper we look closely at some of these herbs to see if there are any lessons to be learnt or clues to be found for optimizing the treatments based on them, as had been done in the case of NIPRISAN, which was developed from herbs in Nigeria based on Yoruba Medicine. Methods. Select publications on SCA, its molecular biology and pathology, and actual and experimental cases of herbal treatment were perused in search of molecular clues that can be linked to chemical constituents of the herbs involved. Results. The study revealed that during the last 2-3 decades, much progress was made in several aspects of SCA pharmacology, especially the approval of hydroxyurea. As for SCA herbalism, this paper revealed that antisickling herbs abound in West Africa and that the most promising may yet be found. Three new antisickling herbs (Entandrophragma utile, Chenopodium ambrosioides, and Petiveria alliacea were reported in May 2011. At NIPRD, where NIPRISAN was developed, three other recipes are currently awaiting development. Conclusion. The study raised the hope that the search in the Tropics for more effective herbal recipes for managing sickle cell anaemia will be more fruitful with time and effort.

  18. Trypanocidal and cytotoxic activities of essential oils from medicinal plants of Northeast of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Andrezza Raposo; Aires, Juliana Ramos de Albuquerque; Higino, Taciana Mirely Maciel; de Medeiros, Maria das Graças Freire; Citó, Antonia Maria das Graças Lopes; Lopes, José Arimatéia Dantas; de Figueiredo, Regina Celia Bressan Queiroz

    2012-10-01

    Chagas disease, caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, is an important cause of mortality and morbidity in Latin America. There are no vaccines available, the chemotherapy used to treat this illness has serious side effects and its efficacy on the chronic phase of disease is still a matter of debate. In a search for alternative treatment for Chagas disease, essential oils extracted from traditional medicinal plants Lippia sidoides, Lippia origanoides, Chenopodium ambrosioides, Ocimum gratissimum, Justicia pectorales and Vitex agnus-castus were investigated in vitro for trypanocidal and cytotoxic activities. Essential Oils were extracted by hydrodistillation and submitted to chemical analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The concentration of essential oils necessary to inhibit 50% of the epimastigotes or amastigotes growth (IC(50)) and to kill 50% of trypomastigote forms (LC(50)) was estimated. The most prevalent chemical constituents of these essential oils were monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. All essential oils tested demonstrated an inhibitory effect on the parasite growth and survival. L. sidoides and L. origanoides essential oils were the most effective against trypomastigote and amastigote forms respectively. No significant cytotoxic effects were observed in mouse peritoneal macrophages incubated with essential oils which were more selective against the parasites than mammalian cells. Taken together, our results point towards the use of these essential oils as potential chemotherapeutic agent against T. cruzi. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Toxic metal tolerance in native plant species grown in a vanadium mining area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aihemaiti, Aikelaimu; Jiang, Jianguo; Li, De'an; Li, Tianran; Zhang, Wenjie; Ding, Xutong

    2017-12-01

    Vanadium (V) has been extensively mined in China and caused soil pollution in mining area. It has toxic effects on plants, animals and humans, posing potential health risks to communities that farm and graze cattle adjacent to the mining area. To evaluate in situ phytoremediation potentials of native plants, V, chromium, copper and zinc concentrations in roots and shoots were measured and the bioaccumulation (BAF) and translocation (TF) efficiencies were calculated. The results showed that Setaria viridis accumulated greater than 1000 mg kg -1 V in its shoots and exhibited TF > 1 for V, Cr, Zn and BAF > 1 for Cu. The V accumulation amount in the roots of Kochia scoparia also surpassed 1000 mg kg -1 and showed TF > 1 for Zn. Chenopodium album had BAF > 1 for V and Zn and Daucus carota showed TF > 1 for Cu. Eleusine indica presented strong tolerance and high metal accumulations. S. viridis is practical for in situ phytoextractions of V, Cr and Zn and phytostabilisation of Cu in V mining area. Other species had low potential use as phytoremediation plant at multi-metal polluted sites, but showed relatively strong resistance to V, Cr, Cu and Zn toxicity, can be used to vegetate the contaminated soils and stabilise toxic metals in V mining area.

  20. Fruiting phenology of some weed species in sowing of chosen cultivar plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Wesołowski

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, the percentage shares of the phases of fruiting and diaspore shedding of some weed species during fodder beet, spring wheat and faba bean harvest are presented. The results of the study were gathered in the years 2000-2003 on river alluvial soil made from light loam. The experimental scheme included mechanical and chemical control of the cultivated plants. On weed-free objects treated with herbicides, the following herbicides were used: fodder beet - Buracyl 80 WP (lenacyl 80% in dose 1 kg.ha-1; spring wheat - Chwastox Turbo 340 SL (MCPA + dicamba in dose 2l.ha-1; faba-bean - Afalon (linuron 50% in dose 1,5 kg.ha-1. Phenological observations were carried out at 10-day intervals beginning from the day of sowing the cultivated plant. It was proven that weeds had the most favourable conditions of fruiting and seed shedding in fodder beet and faba bean. Fruiting and shedding of most weed species were limited by herbicides, as well as cold years. The following weed species: fodder beet without herbicides - Lamium amplexicaule, Chenopodium polyspermum, Anagallis arvensis i Echinochloa crus-galli; fodder beet with herbicides - Convolvulus arvensis, Lamium purpureum i Echinochloa crus-galli; spring wheat without herbicides - Capsella bursa-pastoris i Fallopia convolvulus; spring wheat with herbicides - Avena fatua; faba been without herbicides - Galium aparine, Anagallis arvensis i Convolvulus arvensis; faba been with herbicides - Galium aparine, shed diaspores in the greatest degree.

  1. Medicinal Plants from North and Central America and the Caribbean Considered Toxic for Humans: The Other Side of the Coin

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    Angel Josabad Alonso-Castro

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of medicinal plants has notably increased over the past two decades. People consider herbal products as safe because of their natural origin, without taking into consideration whether these plants contain a toxic principle. This represents a serious health problem. A bibliographic search was carried out using published scientific material on native plants from Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean, which describe the ethnobotanical and toxicological information of medicinal plants empirically considered to be toxic. A total of 216 medicinal plants belonging to 77 families have been reported as toxic. Of these plants, 76 had been studied, and 140 plants lacked studies regarding their toxicological effects. The toxicity of 16 plants species has been reported in clinical cases, particularly in children. From these plants, deaths have been reported with the consumption of Chenopodium ambrosioides, Argemone mexicana, and Thevetia peruviana. In most of the cases, the principle of the plant responsible for the toxicity is unknown. There is limited information about the toxicity of medicinal plants used in Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean. More toxicological studies are necessary to contribute information about the safe use of the medicinal plants cited in this review.

  2. Vascular plants of Mt. Dosolsan in the Demilitarized Zone Civilian Control Line

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    Jong Bin An

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed at identifying the distribution of vascular plants growing at Mt. Dosolsan in Yanggu-gun, Gangwon-do. Field surveys were conducted for each season from March 2014 to November 2016. The flora of study area is found to consist of 516 taxa, 91 families, 296 genus, 455 species, four subspecies, 50 varieties, and seven forma. Rare plants were found to be of 31 taxa. Among them, rare plant species consisted of critically endangered species (CR degree: 2 (Lilium dauricum Ker Gawl., Cypripedium macranthos Sw., endangered species (EN degree: 5 (Loranthus tanakae Franch. & Sav. etc., vulnerable species (VU degree: 7 (Dryopteris laeta (Kom. C.Chr. etc., and least concerned (LC degree: 17 (Botrychium virginianum (L. Sw. etc.. In all the surveyed areas, a total of 20 taxa (Pseudostellaria setulosa Ohwi etc. were found to be endemic to Korea. The floristic special plants found in the surveyed areas were two taxa of grade V, 24 taxa of grade IV, and 31 taxa of grade III. The naturalized plants were identified as 15 taxa and included Chenopodium album L., Lotus corniculatus L., Robinia pseudoacacia L. etc.

  3. Analysis of heavy metals in selected medicinal plants from Dir, Swat and Peshawar districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, I.; Khattak, M.R.; Khan, F.A.; Rehman, I.; Khan, F.U.

    2011-01-01

    Essential and non-essential heavy metals like Manganese, Zinc, Iron, Nickel, Copper, Chromium, Lead and Cadmium were analyzed quantitatively in selected medicinal plants including, Acorus calamus, Artemisia annua, Chenopodium foliosum, Cupressus arizonica, Euphorbia helioscopia L, Lepidium sativum, Nerium oleander, Ranunculus mariculatus , Tecoma stans, Urtica dioica by using atomic absorption spectrometry. The main purpose of this study was to quantify essential and non-essential heavy metals in selected herbs, which are extensively used in the preparation of herbal products and standardized extracts. The high conc. of iron, Mn was found in Nerium oleander 26.52 mg/kg, 94.40 mg/kg. Zn in Lepidium sativum 77.00 mg/kg and high conc. of K 94600 and Na 400 mg/kg was found in Tecoma stans. The concentration of other heavy metals particularly Cu, Ni and Pb were also found in higher conc. in the selected herbs. The main purpose of the present study was to evaluate the contents of toxic metals and their concentration level which may have adverse effect on human health, besides providing a scientific data. (author)

  4. Effects of carbaryl-bran bait on trap catch and seed predation by ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielding, Dennis J; DeFoliart, Linda S; Hagerty, Aaron M

    2013-04-01

    Carbaryl-bran bait is effective against grasshoppers without many impacts on nontarget organisms, but ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) may be susceptible to these baits. Carabids are beneficial in agricultural settings as predators of insect pests and weed seeds. Carabid species and their consumption of weed seeds have not been previously studied in agricultural settings in Alaska. This study examined the effect of grasshopper bran bait on carabid activity-density, as measured by pitfall trap catches, and subsequent predation by invertebrates of seeds of three species of weed. Data were collected in fallow fields in agricultural landscape in the interior of Alaska, near Delta Junction, in 2008 and 2010. Bait applications reduced ground beetle activity-density by over half in each of 2 yr of bait applications. Seed predation was generally low overall (1-10%/wk) and not strongly affected by the bait application, but predation of lambsquarters (Chenopodium album L.) seed was lower on treated plots in 1 yr (340 seeds recovered versus 317 seeds, on treated versus untreated plots, respectively). Predation of dandelion (Taraxacum officinale G. H. Weber ex Wiggers) seeds was correlated with ground beetle activity-density in 1 yr, and predation of dragonhead mint (Dracocephalum parvifolium Nutt.) seed in the other year. We conclude that applications of carbaryl-bran bait for control of grasshoppers will have only a small, temporary effect on weed seed populations in high-latitude agricultural ecosystems.

  5. Lucerne transient streak virus; a Recently Detected Virus Infecting Alfafa (Medicago sativa in Central Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Raza

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A survey was conducted to determine the status of Lucerne transient streak virus (LTSV in three high-yielding alfalfa regions in central Saudi Arabia (Riyadh, Qassim, and Hail during 2014. Three hundred and eight symptomatic alfalfa, and seven Sonchus oleraceus samples were collected. DAS-ELISA indicated that 59 of these samples were positive to LTSV. Two isolates of LTSV from each region were selected for molecular studies. RT-PCR confirmed the presence of LTSV in the selected samples using a specific primer pair. Percentage identity and homology tree comparisons revealed that all Saudi isolates were more closely related to each other but also closely related to the Canadian isolate-JQ782213 (97.1–97.6% and the New Zealand isolate-U31286 (95.8–97.1%. Comparing Saudi isolates of LTSV with ten other sobemoviruses based on the coat protein gene sequences confirmed the distant relationship between them. Eleven out of fourteen plant species used in host range study were positive to LTSV. This is the first time to document that Trifolium alexandrinum, Nicotiana occidentalis, Chenopodium glaucum, and Lathyrus sativus are new host plant species for LTSV and that N. occidentalis being a good propagative host for it.

  6. Allelopathic effects of Sonchus oleraceus L. on the germination and seedling growth of crop and weed species

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    Nasr Hassan Gomaa

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We assessed the allelopathic effects of the aqueous extract of Sonchus oleraceus dry shoots on the germination and seedling growth of Trifolium alexandrinum, three weed species (Brassica nigra, Chenopodium murale and Melilotus indicus and S. oleraceus itself. We assayed four different concentrations of the aqueous extract (w v-1: 1%, 2%, 3% and 4%. To determine whether the effects of the extract were attributable to the presence of allelopathic compounds, its osmotic potential or both, we prepared concentrations of polyethylene glycol (PEG with osmotic potentials equivalent to those of the aqueous extract. All concentrations of the plant extract completely inhibited the germination and seedling growth of C. murale. The lowest concentration of the plant extract partially inhibited germination and seedling growth of B. nigra, M. indicus and S. oleraceus, whereas the higher concentrations inhibited those parameters completely. The germination of T. alexandrinum was not affected by the aqueous extract at 1% or 2%. In general, the aqueous extracts were more effective in inhibiting seed germination and seedling growth than were the PEG solutions. Phytochemical analyses revealed that phenols and alkaloids were the most abundant compounds in S. oleraceus dry matter. Our results suggest that the aqueous extract of S. oleraceus has an allelopathic effect on some weeds, and its usefulness as a bioherbicide therefore merits further study.

  7. Effect of Cultural Practices in Night on Weed Density and Weed Dry Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.H Rashed Mohasel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In order to evaluate the response of weed seeds to light, two experiments, at two different locations were conducted at Ferdowsi university of Mashhad in 2009. At the first experiment, field was ploughed in day and night. Weed density was evaluated 70 d after plough, with 1×1 quadrate. At the second experiment, at night treatment, ploughing, potato planting and weeding with cultivator were done at night. Weed sampling was done twice at 43 and 130 days after planting with 1×1 quadrate and weeds were identified and counted. Result showed pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L., sowthistle (Sonchus oleraceus L., crabgrass (Digitaria sanguinalis (L. scop, jimsonweed (Datura stramonium L. and mallow (Hibiscus trionum L. did not observed at night plough, in contrast, night plough has no significance influence on common lambsquarters (Chenopodium album L., and black nightshade (Solanum nigrum L.. Only common lambsquarters had similar appearance in two treatments, indicating insusceptibility of this weed to time of plough. Interestingly, at the second experiment, result was very similar. Potato yield was higher at night treatment, but not significant. This research showed that some cultural practice like plough, planting and weeding with cultivator in night can reduce weed density and weed dry matter. Keywords: Germination, Time of plough, Sustainable weeds management, Light

  8. The impact of different soil tillage on weed infestation of spring barley in conditions of dryer climatic areas Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Winkler

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of soil tillage on weeds in spring barley was observed on the field trial. The field trial was established in very warm and dry climatic region (experimental field station in Žabčice, Mendel University of Agriculture and Forestry Brno, Czech Republic. In the experiment there was used 7-strip crop rotation and three variants of soil tillage: conventional tillage (CT, minimum tillage (MT, when soil is shallow loosened and no tillage (NT what means direct sowing without any soil tillage. The weed infestation was evaluated by counting method before herbicide application. Analysis of va­rian­ce (ANOVA and then LSD methods, DCA (Detrended Correspondence Analysis and CCA (Canonical Correspondence Analysis were used for evaluation of results. The obtained results showed, that different soil tillage did not statistically influenced weed infestation in spring barley. The number of weed species depended on the depth of soil tillage, the variant of minimum tillage had lower number of weed species. These species were more common on the variant of conventional tillage: Chenopodium album, Silene noctiflora, Sinapis arvensis, Veronica polita. The variant of minimum tillage was more suitable for these species: Cirsium arvense, Convolvulus arvensis, Amaranthus sp., Galium aparine. On the variant of direct so­wing there appeared mainly these species: Sonchus oleraceus, Lactuca serriola, Tripleurospermum inodorum.

  9. Lucerne transient streak virus; a Recently Detected Virus Infecting Alfafa (Medicago sativa) in Central Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raza, Ahmed; Al-Shahwan, Ibrahim M; Abdalla, Omer A; Al-Saleh, Mohammed A; Amer, Mahmoud A

    2017-02-01

    A survey was conducted to determine the status of Lucerne transient streak virus (LTSV) in three high-yielding alfalfa regions in central Saudi Arabia (Riyadh, Qassim, and Hail) during 2014. Three hundred and eight symptomatic alfalfa, and seven Sonchus oleraceus samples were collected. DAS-ELISA indicated that 59 of these samples were positive to LTSV. Two isolates of LTSV from each region were selected for molecular studies. RT-PCR confirmed the presence of LTSV in the selected samples using a specific primer pair. Percentage identity and homology tree comparisons revealed that all Saudi isolates were more closely related to each other but also closely related to the Canadian isolate-JQ782213 (97.1-97.6%) and the New Zealand isolate-U31286 (95.8-97.1%). Comparing Saudi isolates of LTSV with ten other sobemoviruses based on the coat protein gene sequences confirmed the distant relationship between them. Eleven out of fourteen plant species used in host range study were positive to LTSV. This is the first time to document that Trifolium alexandrinum , Nicotiana occidentalis , Chenopodium glaucum , and Lathyrus sativus are new host plant species for LTSV and that N. occidentalis being a good propagative host for it.

  10. Phytoextract-induced developmental deformities in malaria vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Preeti; Mohan, Lalit; Srivastava, C N

    2006-09-01

    Larvicidal potential of petroleum ether (Pee), carbon tetrachloride (Cte) and methanol extract (Mee) of Artemisia annua, Chenopodium album and Sonchus oleraceus was observed against malaria vector, Anopheles stephensi Liston. The Pee of A. annua with LC50 16.85 ppm after 24 h and 11.45 ppm after 48 h of treatment was found most effective, followed by Cte of A. annua and Ch. album, Pee of Ch. album and Mee of A. annua. However, no significant larvicidal activity was observed in Mee of Ch. album and all the three extracts of S. oleraceous. The Pee of A. annua was further investigated for its effect on the metamorphosis and the development of the malaria vector. It influenced the early life cycle of An. stephensi by reducing the percentage of hatching, larval, pupal and adult emergence and also lengthening the larval and pupal periods. The growth index was also reduced significantly. As the extract has remarkable effect on the metamorphosis and high larvicidal potential, it could, therefore, be used as an effective biocontrol agent against the highly nuisant malaria vector.

  11. Las plantas medicinales en el control de nemátodos gastrointestinales en cabras: potencial de las plantas que crecen en la región de Coquimbo, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. MOYA

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar o potencial de plantas que crecem na região de Coquimbo, no controle de nematódeos gastrintestinais em caprinos. Nós usamos uma abordagem não-experimental para validar a eficácia potencial das plantas medicinais como anti-helmínticos. Esta validação foi realizada com base em uma revisão da extensa literatura consultada a respeito de plantas medicinais. Determinou-se o um potencial de eficácia das plantas, da consistência das informações sobre o uso tradicional, os compostos presentes e farmacologia. Analisamos também os dados dos potenciais efeitos adversos que impedem seu uso em animais. Antecedentes apoiam a um alto potencial da eficácia como anti-helmíntico para se três espécies de plantas que crescem na região de Coquimbo: Allium sativum L., Artemisia absinthium L. e Chenopodium ambrosioides L. Os possíveis efeitos secundários do consumo de plantas medicinais ou seus derivados devem ser avaliadas em testes de campo antes de serem utilizados nas em escala produtiva.

  12. Zinc Regime in the Sewage Sludge-Soil-Plant System of a City Waste Water Treatment Pond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lacatusu Radu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The sewage sludge from wastewater treatment plant of Iasi, a city with 300,000 inhabitants, for domestic and industrial origin, was stored in a mud pond arranged on an area of 18,920 m2. Chemical analyzes of the sludge showed that, of all the chemical elements determined, only Zn is found at pollutant level (5739 mg∙kg-1, i.e. almost 30 times more than the maximum allowable limit for Zn in soil and 45 times more than the Zn content of the soil on which the mud pond has been set. Over time, the content of Zn in the mud pond, but also from soil to which it has been placed, has become upper the normal content of the surrounding soil up to a depth of 260 cm. On the other hand, the vegetation installed on sewage sludge in the process of mineralization, composed predominantly of Phragmites, Rumex, Chenopodium, and Aster species had accumulated in roots, stems and leaves Zn quantities equivalent to 1463 mg Kg-1, 3988 mg Kg-1, 1463 mg Kg-1, respectively, 1120 mg∙Kg-1. The plants in question represents the natural means of phytoremediation, and sewage sludge as such may constitute a fertilizer material for soils in the area, on which Zn deficiency in maize has been recorded. In addition, the ash resulted from the incineration of plants loaded with zinc may constitute, in its turn, a good material for fertilizing of the soils that are deficient in zinc.

  13. Baseline data on wild flora of crop field boundaries in the agro-ecosystem of pothwar plateau, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarwar, M.; Hussain, I.; Anwar, M.; Ashraf, N.; Mirza, S.N.

    2017-01-01

    Wild flora along crop field boundaries in farmlands not only increases habitat heterogeneity but also serves multiple beneficial functions. We collected baseline data on wild flora bordering the crop fields of Pothwar plateau. Overall we selected four study sites including two sites of wheat-maize/millet and two of wheat-groundnut cropping system. We recorded 51 species of plants including 12 species of trees, 14 species of shrubs and 25 species of grasses/herbs. Two tree species namely Acacia modesta and Zizyphus mauritiana and two shrub species namely Calotropis procera and Ziziphus nummularia were common indicating their widespread presence in the area. Among herbs/grasses Abutilon indicum, Amaranthus spp., Cyperus rotundus and Erogrostis poroles were common at sites with wheat-maize/millet cropping pattern while Chenopodium album, Datura stramonium and Tribulus terrestris were common at sites with wheat-groundnut cropping system. The tree and shrub densities did not differ significantly among the study sites. Wheat-groundnut cropping system had higher populations/diversity/species of shrubs as compared to wheat-maize/millet cropping system. Density of grasses/herbs significantly differed across the study sites but there was no association of herb/grass density with cropping practice. (author)

  14. Structural and mutational analyses of cis-acting sequences in the 5'-untranslated region of satellite RNA of bamboo mosaic potexvirus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annamalai, Padmanaban; Hsu, Y.-H.; Liu, Y.-P.; Tsai, C.-H.; Lin, N.-S.

    2003-01-01

    The satellite RNA of Bamboo mosaic virus (satBaMV) contains on open reading frame for a 20-kDa protein that is flanked by a 5'-untranslated region (UTR) of 159 nucleotides (nt) and a 3'-UTR of 129 nt. A secondary structure was predicted for the 5'-UTR of satBaMV RNA, which folds into a large stem-loop (LSL) and a small stem-loop. Enzymatic probing confirmed the existence of LSL (nt 8-138) in the 5'-UTR. The essential cis-acting sequences in the 5'-UTR required for satBaMV RNA replication were determined by deletion and substitution mutagenesis. Their replication efficiencies were analyzed in Nicotiana benthamiana protoplasts and Chenopodium quinoa plants coinoculated with helper BaMV RNA. All deletion mutants abolished the replication of satBaMV RNA, whereas mutations introduced in most of the loop regions and stems showed either no replication or a decreased replication efficiency. Mutations that affected the positive-strand satBaMV RNA accumulation also affected the accumulation of negative-strand RNA; however, the accumulation of genomic and subgenomic RNAs of BaMV were not affected. Moreover, covariation analyses of natural satBaMV variants provide substantial evidence that the secondary structure in the 5'-UTR of satBaMV is necessary for efficient replication

  15. The impact of stubble crop on spring barley weed infestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Wrzesińska

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The condition and degree of weed infestation were determined in a spring barely crop grown in a short-term monoculture after mulching the soil with plants grown as a stubble crop (the control treatment without cover crop – lacy phacelia, white mustard, sunflower. The field experiment was carried out in 2010–2013 on good rye soil complex using a split-block design in four replications. The obtained results (the mean from all years of the experiment showed that the stubble crop, especially sunflower, reduced the diversity of weed species without causing at the same time changes in weed species dominance. In all the control treatments of the experiment, Chenopodium album and Fallopia convolvulus were the dominant species. The degree of spring barley weed infestation depended on the species grown in the cover crop. White mustard and lacy phacelia slightly increased the number of weeds but their fresh matter significantly increased. However, the sunflower cover crop significantly increased the number of weeds without any substantial differentiation of their fresh mass.

  16. [Product development on the basis of cereal and leguminous flours to coeliac disease in children aged 6-24 months; II: properties of the mixtures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerezal Mezquita, P; Urtuvia Gatica, V; Ramírez Quintanilla, V; Arcos Zavala, R

    2011-01-01

    The nutritional formulations of high protein content, provided by a flour mixture from two Andean cultures, quinua (Chenopodium quinua Willd) and lupino (Lupinus albus L), with two traditional cereals, maize (Zea mays L.) and rice (Oryza sativa L.), entailed to the preparation of a "sweet mixture" for the elaboration of "queques" and another "dessert mixture" flavoured with banana, that can be prepared with water or milk, constituted a good alternative as food supplement for the nutrition of children aged 6-24 months who suffer from celiac disease, since they contribute to the quality improvement of the protein, by essential amino acids compensation, they are of low cost and allow an increase in availability of products for gluten-intolerant children. Some physical, chemical, rheological, mechanical and fluidity properties, as well as the color of these mixtures for a period of conservation of 90 days were evaluated. At the end of the storage, the sweet mixture turned out to be of "little flow" and the dessert mixture changed from "little flow" to "easy flow". Viscosity for the dessert mixture, with its two types of dilutions, water and milk, presented a behavior of pseudoplastic fluid. It was possible to guess that the time of shelf life of the mixtures would be of 9 months before achieving the rancidity limit (10 mEq of oxigen/kg of fat, which would disqualify the product for consumption). The CIEL*a*b* color coordinates did not show significant differences keeping the colour in "a beige" tonality.

  17. Lima Ekstrak Tumbuhan untuk Menekan Infeksi Bean common mosaic virus pada Tanaman Kacang Panjang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lulu Kurnianingsih

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV is one of major virus infecting legumes and is difficult to manage. Utilization of plant extracts as systemic resistance inducer against virus is needed to study. The aim of the research is to evaluate the potency of five leaf extracts, i.e. from pagoda flower, spiny amaranth, four o’clock flower, Chenopodium amaranticolor, and herba andrographitis against BCMV. The effectiveness of leaf extracts were tested by spraying yard long bean leaves. Plants treated by spine spinach shown varied symptoms, while other treatments showed mild mosaic up to symptomless. The highest to lowest of disease incidence was showed by crude leaf extract of spine spinach (70%, four o’clock (10%, herba andrographitis (10%, while C. amaranticolor and pagoda are still uninfected. These results had positive correlation to disease severity and virus inhibition. Four of five tested leaf extracts, except spine spinach, showed their potency as systemic resistance inducer against BCMV.  Key words: BCMV, plant extract, yard long bean

  18. Antifungal and Herbicidal Effects of Fruit Essential Oils of Four Myrtus communis Genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordali, Saban; Usanmaz, Ayse; Cakir, Ahmet; Komaki, Amanmohammad; Ercisli, Sezai

    2016-01-01

    The chemical composition of the essential oils isolated by hydrodistillation from the fruits of four selected Myrtus communis L. genotypes from Turkey was characterized by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. 1,8-Cineole (29.20-31.40%), linalool (15.67-19.13%), α-terpineol (8.40-18.43%), α-pinene (6.04-20.71%), and geranyl acetate (3.98-7.54%) were found to be the major constituents of the fruit essential oils of all M. communis genotypes investigated. The oils were characterized by high amounts of oxygenated monoterpenes, representing 73.02-83.83% of the total oil compositions. The results of the fungal growth inhibition assays showed that the oils inhibited the growth of 19 phytopathogenic fungi. However, their antifungal activity was generally lower than that of the commercial pesticide benomyl. The herbicidal effects of the oils on the seed germination and seedling growth of Amaranthus retroflexus L., Chenopodium album L., Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop., Lactuca serriola L., and Rumex crispus L. were also determined. The oils completely or partly inhibited the seed germinations and seedling growths of the plants. The findings of the present study suggest that the M. communis essential oils might have potential to be used as natural herbicides as well as fungicides. Copyright © 2016 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  19. Antifungal, phytotoxic and insecticidal properties of essential oil isolated from Turkish Origanum acutidens and its three components, carvacrol, thymol and p-cymene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordali, Saban; Cakir, Ahmet; Ozer, Hakan; Cakmakci, Ramazan; Kesdek, Memis; Mete, Ebru

    2008-12-01

    The chemical composition of essential oil isolated by hydrodistillation from the aerial parts of Origanum acutidens was analyzed by GC-MS. Carvacrol (87.0%), p-cymene (2.0%), linalool acetate (1.7%), borneol (1.6%) and beta-caryophyllene (1.3%) were found to be as main constituents. Antifungal, phytotoxic and insecticidal activities of the oil and its aromatic monoterpene constituents, carvacrol, p-cymene and thymol were also determined. The antifungal assays showed that O. acutidens oil, carvacrol and thymol completely inhibited mycelial growth of 17 phytopathogenic fungi and their antifungal effects were higher than commercial fungicide, benomyl. However, p-cymene possessed lower antifungal activity. The oil, carvacrol and thymol completely inhibited the seed germination and seedling growth of Amaranthus retroflexus, Chenopodium album and Rumex crispus and also showed a potent phytotoxic effect against these plants. However, p-cymene did not show any phytotoxic effect. Furthermore, O. acutidens oil showed 68.3% and 36.7% mortality against Sitophilus granarius and Tribolium confusum adults, respectively. The findings of the present study suggest that antifungal and herbicidal properties of the oil can be attributed to its major component, carvacrol, and these agents have a potential to be used as fungicide, herbicide as well as insecticide.

  20. Biological and Molecular Variability of Alfalfa mosaic virus Affecting Alfalfa Crop in Riyadh Region

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    Mohammed A. AL-Saleh

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2011–2012, sixty nine samples were collected from alfalfa plants showing viral infection symptoms in Riyadh region. Mechanical inoculation with sap prepared from two collected samples out of twenty five possitive for Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV by ELISA were produced systemic mosaic on Vigna unguiculata and Nicotiana tabacum, local lesion on Chenopodium amaranticolor and C. quinoa. Vicia faba indicator plants that induce mosaic and mottle with AMV-Sagir isolate and no infection with AMV-Wadi aldawasser isolate. Approximately 700-bp was formed by RT-PCR using AMV coat protein specific primer. Samples from infected alfalfa gave positive results, while healthy plant gave negative result using dot blot hybridization assay. The nucleotide sequences of the Saudi isolates were compared with corresponding viral nucleotide sequences reported in GenBank. The obtained results showed that the AMV from Australia, Brazil, Puglia and China had the highest similarity with AMV-Sajer isolate. While, the AMV from Spain and New Zealaland had the lowest similarity with AMV-Sajer and Wadi aldawasser isolates. The data obtained in this study has been deposited in the GenBank under the accession numbers KC434083 and KC434084 for AMV-Sajer and AMV- Wadialdawasser respectively. This is the first report regarding the gnetic make up of AMV in Saudi Arabia.