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Sample records for nettle ecotype weerselo

  1. Phenolic Compounds Analysis of Root, Stalk, and Leaves of Nettle

    OpenAIRE

    Otles, Semih; Yalcin, Buket

    2012-01-01

    Types of nettles (Urtica dioica) were collected from different regions to analyze phenolic compounds in this research. Nettles are specially grown in the coastal part. According to this kind of properties, nettle samples were collected from coastal part of (Mediterranean, Aegean, Black sea, and Marmara) Turkey. Phenolic profile, total phenol compounds, and antioxidant activities of nettle samples were analyzed. Nettles were separated to the part of root, stalk, and leaves. Then, these parts ...

  2. Phenolic Compounds Analysis of Root, Stalk, and Leaves of Nettle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semih Otles

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Types of nettles (Urtica dioica were collected from different regions to analyze phenolic compounds in this research. Nettles are specially grown in the coastal part. According to this kind of properties, nettle samples were collected from coastal part of (Mediterranean, Aegean, Black sea, and Marmara Turkey. Phenolic profile, total phenol compounds, and antioxidant activities of nettle samples were analyzed. Nettles were separated to the part of root, stalk, and leaves. Then, these parts of nettle were analyzed to understand the difference of phenolic compounds and amount of them. Nettle (root, stalk and leaves samples were analyzed by using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography with Diode-Array Detection (HPLC-DAD to qualitative and quantitative determination of the phenolic compounds. Total phenolic components were measured by using Folin-Ciocalteu method. The antioxidant activity was measured by using DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl which is generally used for herbal samples and based on single electron transfer (SET.

  3. Study of stinging nettle (urtica dioica l.) Fibers reinforced green composite materials : a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agus Suryawan, I. G. P.; Suardana, N. P. G.; Suprapta Winaya, I. N.; Budiarsa Suyasa, I. W.; Tirta Nindhia, T. G.

    2017-05-01

    Stinging Nettle (Urtica dioica L., latin) is a wild plant that grows in Indonesia, Asia, and Europe. Nettle in Bali, Indonesia is called as Lateng, Jelatang. Nettle plant has a very strong fiber and high fixed carbon. Nettle plants are covered with fine hairs, especially in the leaves and stems. When it is touched, it will release chemicals, sting and trigger inflammation that causes redness, itching, bumps and irritation to the skin. Nettle plants grow in the wild, regarded as a weed in the agricultural industry, easy to grow and snatch food from the parent plant. The main objective of this paper is to review of the potential nettle fibers and then explain about the potential of local nettle plant in Indonesia. Nettle is a plant group at the end of bast. Its plant fibers taken from the bark, as reinforcement in composite materials. Nettle fibers have three main advantages such as strong, lightweight and low environmental impact.

  4. Model of two infectious diseases in nettle caterpillar population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firdausi, F. Z.; Nuraini, N.

    2016-04-01

    Palm oil is a vital commodity to the economy of Indonesia. The area of oil palm plantations in Indonesia has increased from year to year. However, the effectiveness of palm oil production is reduced by pest infestation. One of the pest which often infests oil palm plantations is nettle caterpillar. The pest control used in this study is biological control, viz. biological agents given to oil palm trees. This paper describes a mathematical model of two infectious diseases in nettle caterpillar population. The two infectious diseases arise due to two biological agents, namely Bacillus thuringiensis bacterium and parasite which usually attack nettle caterpillars. The derivation of the model constructed in this paper is obtained from ordinary differential equations without time delay. The equilibrium points are analyzed. Two of three equilibrium points are stable if the Routh-Hurwitz criteria are fulfilled. In addition, this paper also presents the numerical simulation of the model which has been constructed.

  5. Nettle as a distinct Bronze Age textile plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergfjord, C; Mannering, U; Frei, K M; Gleba, M; Scharff, A B; Skals, I; Heinemeier, J; Nosch, M-L; Holst, B

    2012-01-01

    It is generally assumed that the production of plant fibre textiles in ancient Europe, especially woven textiles for clothing, was closely linked to the development of agriculture through the use of cultivated textile plants (flax, hemp). Here we present a new investigation of the 2800 year old Lusehøj Bronze Age Textile from Voldtofte, Denmark, which challenges this assumption. We show that the textile is made of imported nettle, most probably from the Kärnten-Steiermark region, an area which at the time had an otherwise established flax production. Our results thus suggest that the production of woven plant fibre textiles in Bronze Age Europe was based not only on cultivated textile plants but also on the targeted exploitation of wild plants. The Lusehøj find points to a hitherto unrecognized role of nettle as an important textile plant and suggests the need for a re-evaluation of textile production resource management in prehistoric Europe.

  6. Stinging Nettle: the Bad, the Good, the Unknown

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    Dennis J. Baumgardner

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica is native to most of the United States. It has a characteristic description and distribution in the environment. Physical contact with numerous tiny needlelike hairs present on leaves and stems of this plant may result in a contact urticarial dermatitis due to chemical and mechanical irritation triggered by skin penetration of the hairs. The manifestations are self-limited in humans and may be treated by washing the skin, topical preparations and oral antihistamines. Explanation of the natural history of these encounters to the patient is helpful in reducing the sometimes significant anxiety. Preparations and extracts of stinging nettle have been proposed for treatment of a variety of inflammatory and other disorders including osteoarthritis, benign prostatic hypertrophy, allergic rhinitis and asthma, bleeding problems and diabetes. While in vitro studies have shown that stinging nettle possesses a number of potentially beneficial anti-inflammatory and modulating properties, beneficial effects have often not been confirmed by well-designed clinical trials. Further study, perhaps with novel types of extracts, are needed to determine the clinical utility of this plant in human inflammatory-related conditions and diabetes mellitus.

  7. The distribution of macronutrients, anti-nutrients and essential elements in nettles, Laportea peduncularis susp. peduncularis (River nettle) and Urtica dioica (Stinging nettle).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahlangeni, Nomfundo T; Moodley, Roshila; Jonnalagadda, Sreekantha B

    2016-01-01

    Laportea peduncularis and Urtica dioica, which are popularly known as "Nettles" belong to the plant family Urticaceae and are consumed as green vegetables or used for their medicinal benefit in many countries in Africa, Asia, Europe and America. This study aimed at investigating the effect of cooking on the macronutrient, anti-nutrient and elemental composition of L. peduncularis and U. dioica leaves. The results showed a decrease in the crude fat, ash, carbohydrate and vitamin C content with cooking, but an increase in the vitamin E content. The anti-nutrient content (cyanides, phytates and saponins) increased slightly with cooking, while the oxalate content has decreased. The concentration of essential elements in cooked L. peduncularis leaves were found to be in decreasing order of Ca > Mg > Fe > Mn > Zn > Cu > Cr > Ni > Co. Both raw and cooked leaves of nettles were found to be rich sources of macronutrients and essential elements and may be used as alternatives to commercially available nutrient supplements. Statistical analyses (principal component analysis and correlations) indicated that certain elements taken up by these plants were from common sources. Both positive and negative relationships between nutrients, anti-nutrients and elements were observed in the plant leaves.

  8. Mineral Properties and Dietary Value of Raw and Processed Stinging Nettle (Urtica dioica L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Rutto, Laban K.; Yixiang Xu; Elizabeth Ramirez; Michael Brandt

    2013-01-01

    Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L.) has a long history of usage and is currently receiving attention as a source of fiber and alternative medicine. In many cultures, nettle is also eaten as a leafy vegetable. In this study, we focused on nettle yield (edible portion) and processing effects on nutritive and dietary properties. Actively growing shoots were harvested from field plots and leaves separated from stems. Leaf portions (200 g) were washed and processed by blanching (1 min at 96–98°C) o...

  9. Effect of nettle (Urtica dioica extract on gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity in male rabbits

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    Nadia Abdulkarim Salih

    2015-09-01

    Conclusions: Therefore, it can be assumed that the nephroprotective effect shown by nettle in gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity can reserve intracellular levels of biological pathways and supportively enhance excretion of toxic levels of gentamicin.

  10. The uncertainty of the toxic effect of stings from the Urtica nettle on hunting dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edom, Gillian

    2002-02-01

    This paper questions the effect of the sting from the Urtica species of nettle on hunting dogs, particularly in the US. Research in this area is limited and is reflected in the wide use of a particularly unsound literature reference on the subject. A general account is given of which types of "nettle" plant have a toxic sting, how the mechanism of the sting works, and the toxic substances it contains. The effects experienced by hunting dogs appear to represent a condition other than contact urticaria, which is normall the result of being stung by nettles (Urticas in particular). The possibility is discussed that the signs were caused by another plant, also commonly labelled a nettle, or that possibly they were caused by other than the direct stinging of soft tissues. Further research should be done on the toxic elements in the sting of Urtica chamaedryoides, indicated in some literature as the "guilty" plant.

  11. Effect of ecological surface treatment method on friction strength properties of nettle (urtica dioica) fibre yarns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şansal, S.; Mıstık, S. I.; Fettahov, R.; Ovalı, S.; Duman, M.

    2017-10-01

    Over the last few decades, more attention is given to lignocellulose based fibres as reinforcement material in the polymer composites owing to the environmental pollution caused by the extensive usage of synthetic and inorganic fibres. Developing new natural fibre reinforced composites is the focus of many researches nowadays. They are made from renewable resources and they have less environmental effect in comparison to inorganic fibre reinforced composites. The interest of consumers in eco-friendly natural fibres and textiles has increased in recent years. Unlike inorganic fibres, natural fibres present light weight, high strength/density ratio and are readily available, environmentally friendly and biodegradable. Many different types of natural fibres are exploited for the production of biodegradable polymer composites. The nettle (Urtica dioica L.) is a well-known plant growing on rural sites of Europe, Asia, and North America. Nettle plant contains fibre similar to hemp and flax. However, similar to other natural fibres, nettle fibres are poorly compatible with the thermoplastic matrix of composites, due to their hydrophilic character which reduces mechanical properties of nettle fibre reinforced thermoplastics. In order to improve the fibrematrix adhesion of the natural fibre reinforced composites, surface treatment processes are applied to the lignocellulose fibres. In this study nettle (urtica dioica) fibre yarns were treated with NaOH by using conventional, ultrasonic and microwave energy methods. After treatment processes tensile strength, elongation, friction strength and SEM observations of the nettle fibre yarns were investigated. All treatment processes were improved the tensile strength, elongation and friction strength properties of the nettle fibre yarns. Also higher tensile strength, elongation and friction strength properties were obtained from treated nettle fibre yarns which treated by using microwave energy method.

  12. Treatment of musculoskeletal pain with the sting of the stinging nettle: Urtica dioica

    OpenAIRE

    Randall, Colin F

    2001-01-01

    Introduction The author's interest in the therapeutic potential of the sting of nettles began with the presentation of two patients in his general practice surgery who were self-prescribing nettle sting for their arthritis pain. The publication of these two case reports produced responses from four other doctors about similar cases. Historical and contemporary research An extensive literature and database review produced few references from the medical literature but numero...

  13. Body dimensions of Fulani and Yoruba ecotype chickens under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wing length also changed in the same way from week 7 for females and week 9 for males to favour values recorded for the Yoruba ecotype chickens. All other parameters were higher (p>0.05) for the Fulani ecotype chickens. It was concluded that the Fulani ecotype chicken has potentials to be selected as meat type ...

  14. Drought tolerance of sugar maple ecotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard J. Hauer; Jeffery O. Dawson

    1995-01-01

    Sugar maple declines periodically occur in rural and urban areas. These declines usually follow periods of below-average precipitation leading to the speculation that moisture deficiency is a primary cause of the decline. Sugar maple ecotypes with greater tolerance to drought should have greater longevity and vitality as a result of this tolerance. Sugar maple and...

  15. Transcriptome sequencing of two wild barley (Hordeum spontaneum L.) ecotypes differentially adapted to drought stress reveals ecotype-specific transcripts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedada, Girma; Westerbergh, Anna; Müller, Thomas; Galkin, Eyal; Bdolach, Eyal; Moshelion, Menachem; Fridman, Eyal; Schmid, Karl J

    2014-11-19

    Wild barley is adapted to highly diverse environments throughout its geographical distribution range. Transcriptome sequencing of differentially adapted wild barley ecotypes from contrasting environments contributes to the identification of genes and genetic variation involved in abiotic stress tolerance and adaptation. Two differentially adapted wild barley ecotypes from desert (B1K2) and Mediterranean (B1K30) environments were analyzed for drought stress response under controlled conditions. The desert ecotype lost more water under both irrigation and drought, but exhibited higher relative water content (RWC) and better water use efficiency (WUE) than the coastal ecotype. We sequenced normalized cDNA libraries from drought-stressed leaves of both ecotypes with the 454 platform to identify drought-related transcripts. Over half million reads per ecotype were de novo assembled into 20,439 putative unique transcripts (PUTs) for B1K2, 21,494 for B1K30 and 28,720 for the joint assembly. Over 50% of PUTs of each ecotype were not shared with the other ecotype. Furthermore, 16% (3,245) of B1K2 and 17% (3,674) of B1K30 transcripts did not show orthologous sequence hits in the other wild barley ecotype and cultivated barley, and are candidates of ecotype-specific transcripts. Over 800 unique transcripts from each ecotype homologous to over 30 different stress-related genes were identified. We extracted 1,017 high quality SNPs that differentiated the two ecotypes. The genetic distance between the desert ecotype and cultivated barley was 1.9-fold higher than between the Mediterranean ecotype and cultivated barley. Moreover, the desert ecotype harbored a larger proportion of non-synonymous SNPs than the Mediterranean ecotype suggesting different demographic histories of these ecotypes. The results indicate a strong physiological and genomic differentiation between the desert and Mediterranean wild barley ecotypes and a closer relationship of the Mediterranean to cultivated

  16. Mineral Properties and Dietary Value of Raw and Processed Stinging Nettle (Urtica dioica L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutto, Laban K; Xu, Yixiang; Ramirez, Elizabeth; Brandt, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L.) has a long history of usage and is currently receiving attention as a source of fiber and alternative medicine. In many cultures, nettle is also eaten as a leafy vegetable. In this study, we focused on nettle yield (edible portion) and processing effects on nutritive and dietary properties. Actively growing shoots were harvested from field plots and leaves separated from stems. Leaf portions (200 g) were washed and processed by blanching (1 min at 96-98°C) or cooking (7 min at 98-99°C) with or without salt (5 g·L(-1)). Samples were cooled immediately after cooking and kept in frozen storage before analysis. Proximate composition, mineral, amino acid, and vitamin contents were determined, and nutritive value was estimated based on 100 g serving portions in a 2000 calorie diet. Results show that processed nettle can supply 90%-100% of vitamin A (including vitamin A as β-carotene) and is a good source of dietary calcium, iron, and protein. We recommend fresh or processed nettle as a high-protein, low-calorie source of essential nutrients, minerals, and vitamins particularly in vegetarian, diabetic, or other specialized diets.

  17. Biochemically Investigation of the Effects of Nettle Seed Herbal Mixture on Alcohol Damaged Liver

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    A. ÇELİK

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available It was experimentally investigated in this research how protective Nettle Seed Herbal Mixture is against ethanol which causes oxidative stress in rats and causes toxic effects in the liver with chronic use. 20 4-month-old female Wistar male rats were used in the study. All rats in the study were fed with normal pellet Mouse food during the experiment. 10 week application was done by dividing the rats into four equal groups. Application method is orally drinking method. First group is the control group. The second group is the alcohol group. This group was given 30% ethanol in order to cause chronic alcoholisms. The third group was the alcohol+ Nettle Seed Herbal Mixture group and the rats in this group were given liquid, which was 30% ethanol,+ Nettle Seed Herbal Mixture extract. Fourth group was Nettle Seed Herbal Mixture extract group and the rats in this group were given liquid, which was Nettle Seed Herbal Mixture extract. At the end of ten weeks, within the first 24 hours, blood species were obtained from the animals under anesthesia using appropriate techniques. Serum ALT and AST values of the obtained blood samples were studied by enzymatic methods in "Roche Cobas 6000" device.. Biochemically ALT and AST enzyme values and statistical analysis with SPSS programe were done. No significant difference was found between these four groups at the end of the analysis because p value was bigger than 0,005.

  18. Mineral Properties and Dietary Value of Raw and Processed Stinging Nettle (Urtica dioica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laban K. Rutto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L. has a long history of usage and is currently receiving attention as a source of fiber and alternative medicine. In many cultures, nettle is also eaten as a leafy vegetable. In this study, we focused on nettle yield (edible portion and processing effects on nutritive and dietary properties. Actively growing shoots were harvested from field plots and leaves separated from stems. Leaf portions (200 g were washed and processed by blanching (1 min at 96–98°C or cooking (7 min at 98-99°C with or without salt (5 g·. Samples were cooled immediately after cooking and kept in frozen storage before analysis. Proximate composition, mineral, amino acid, and vitamin contents were determined, and nutritive value was estimated based on 100 g serving portions in a 2000 calorie diet. Results show that processed nettle can supply 90%–100% of vitamin A (including vitamin A as β-carotene and is a good source of dietary calcium, iron, and protein. We recommend fresh or processed nettle as a high-protein, low-calorie source of essential nutrients, minerals, and vitamins particularly in vegetarian, diabetic, or other specialized diets.

  19. Two-stage agglomeration of fine-grained herbal nettle waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obidziński, Sławomir; Joka, Magdalena; Fijoł, Olga

    2017-10-01

    This paper compares the densification work necessary for the pressure agglomeration of fine-grained dusty nettle waste, with the densification work involved in two-stage agglomeration of the same material. In the first stage, the material was pre-densified through coating with a binder material in the form of a 5% potato starch solution, and then subjected to pressure agglomeration. A number of tests were conducted to determine the effect of the moisture content in the nettle waste (15, 18 and 21%), as well as the process temperature (50, 70, 90°C) on the values of densification work and the density of the obtained pellets. For pre-densified pellets from a mixture of nettle waste and a starch solution, the conducted tests determined the effect of pellet particle size (1, 2, and 3 mm) and the process temperature (50, 70, 90°C) on the same values. On the basis of the tests, we concluded that the introduction of a binder material and the use of two-stage agglomeration in nettle waste densification resulted in increased densification work (as compared to the densification of nettle waste alone) and increased pellet density.

  20. Biochemical and hemato-immunological parameters in juvenile beluga (Huso huso) following the diet supplemented with nettle (Urtica dioica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binaii, Mohammad; Ghiasi, Maryam; Farabi, Seyed Mohammad Vahid; Pourgholam, Reza; Fazli, Hasan; Safari, Reza; Alavi, Seyed Eshagh; Taghavi, Mohammad Javad; Bankehsaz, Zahra

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of different dietary nettle (Urtica dioica) levels on biochemical, hematological and immunological parameters in beluga (Huso huso). Fish were divided into 4 groups before being fed for 8 weeks with 0%, 3%, 6% and 12% of nettle. The blood samples were collected on week 4 and 8. The use of nettle did not significantly change the mean cell volume, mean cell haemoglobin, lymphocytes, eosinophils, albumin, glucose, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and lysozyme activity on week 4 and 8. After 4 weeks, the total red blood cell (RBC) and hematocrit (Ht) showed a significant increase in 12% nettle group compared to the 3% nettle and control groups but haemoglobin (Hb) had a significant change in 12% nettle compared to the control. At the same time was not found a significant change in the mean cell haemoglobin concentration (MCHC), total white blood cell (WBC), neutrophils, respiratory burst activity (RB), total immunoglobulin (Ig) and total protein (TP), triglyceride (Tri) and cholesterol (Chol). After 8 weeks, the fish treated with nettle exhibited significantly increase in neutrophil and Hb levels compared to the control and between treatment groups, 12% nettle group shown the highest Hb while RBC and Hct values significantly rose in fish fed by 12% compared to the control. Supplementing 6% and 12% nettle increased the WBC and MCHC compared to the other groups. The group fed 12% showed a highly significant difference in RB, TP and Ig after 8 weeks. However, Tri and Chol were significantly decreased in the juvenile beluga fed by the 6% and 12% nettle diet compared to the other groups. The results suggest that by using this herb there will be an improvement in hemato-biochemical parameters and immune function of juvenile beluga.

  1. Characterization of antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of nettle leaves (Urtica dioica L.

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    Kukrić Zoran Z.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Samples of stinging nettle or common nettle (Urtica dioica L. were collected from the area of Banja Luka. To measure and evaluate the content of chlorophyll (a and b, carotenoids, and soluble proteins, as well as peroxidase activity (POD, EC 1.11.1.7., fresh nettle leaves of different developmental stages were used. Dried nettle leaves were used to obtain ethanol extract. The dry residue of ethanol extract was dissolved in methanol and the obtained solution was used to determine the content of total phenols, flavonoids, flavonols, as well as non-enzymatic antioxidant activity and antimicrobial activity. The non-enzymatic antioxidant activity was determined by different methods: FRAP, DPPH, and ABTS. The results were compared to those of standard substances like vitamin C, BHT, and BHA. Antimicrobial activity was screened by using macrodilution method. The obtained results showed insignificantly higher content of chlorophyll, carotenoids, and proteins in young nettle leaves as well as an increase in the soluble peroxidase activities. Native electrophoresis of the soluble fraction showed the presence of two peroxidase isophorms in the soluble protein fraction of nettle leaves. The total phenolic content in nettle extracts amounted to 208.37 mg GAE/gdw, the content of total flavonoids was 20.29 mg QE/gdw, and the content of total flavonols was 22.83 mg QE/gdw. The antioxidant activity determined by FRAP method was 7.50 mM Fe(II/gdw, whereas the antioxidant activity measured by using DPPH and ABTS methods, with IC50 values, were 31.38 and 23.55 μg mL-1, respectively. These results showed the weak and moderate antioxidant capacity of stinging nettle. Extract of Urtica dioica L. was tested for antibacterial acivity against various Grampositive and Gram-negative bacteria: Bacillus subtilis IP 5832, Lactobacillus plantarum 299v (Lp299v, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Escherichia coli isolated from food and Escherichia coli isolated from urine samples

  2. Immunochromatography and cardiotoxicity of sea nettle (Chrysaora quinquecirrha) polyps and cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, C E; Cargo, D G; Calton, G J; Burnett, J W

    1985-01-01

    The cardiotoxicity and polypeptide content of sea nettle (Chrysaora quinquecirrha) polyps and cysts were studied. Crude polyp preparations were lethal to mice. Both crude polyp and cyst preparations were toxic to embryonic chick cardiocytes. The polyp cardiotoxin factor was purified ten-fold by immunosorbent chromatography using anti-sea nettle or anti-man-o'war (Physalia physalis) monoclonal antibodies. Even though the polyps were incubated at a constant temperature, it appeared that there was an inverse relationship between the presence of proteins of 160,000 and 55,000 mol. wt as winter progressed.

  3. Comparison of nutritional properties of Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) flour with wheat and barley flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Bhaskar Mani; Bajracharya, Alina; Shrestha, Ashok K

    2016-01-01

    Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica. L) is a wild, unique herbaceous perennial flowering plant with Stinging hairs. It has a long history of use as a food sources as a soup or curries, and also used as a fiber as well as a medicinal herb. The current aim was to analyze the composition and bioactive compounds in Nepalese Stinging nettle. Chemical analysis showed the relatively higher level of crude protein (33.8%), crude fiber (9.1%), crude fat (3.6%), total ash (16.2%), carbohydrate (37.4%), and relatively lower energy value (307 kcal/100 g) as compared to wheat and barley flours. Analysis of nettle powder showed significantly higher level of bioactive compounds: phenolic compounds as 129 mg Gallic acid equivalent/g; carotenoid level 3497 μg/g; tannin 0.93 mg/100 g; anti-oxidant activity 66.3 DPPH inhibition (%), as compared to wheat and barley. This study further established that nettle plants as very good source of energy, proteins, high fiber, and a range of health benefitting bioactive compounds.

  4. Morphological features of indigenous chicken ecotype populations of Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ngeno, K.; Waaij, van der E.H.; Kahi, A.K.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    2014-01-01

    This study characterized indigenous chicken (IC) ecotypes morphologically. Five IC ecotypes studied were Kakamega (KK), Siaya (BN), West Pokot (WP), Narok (NR) and Bomet (BM). Data on morphological features were collected from 1 580 chickens and 151 for zoometric measurements. Descriptive

  5. Varied growth response of cogongrass ecotypes to elevated CO2

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    G. Brett Runion

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cogongrass [Imperata cylindrica (L. P. Beauv] is an invasive C4 perennial grass which is listed as one of the top ten worst weeds in the world and is a major problem in the Southeast US. Five cogongrass ecotypes (Florida, Hybrid, Louisiana, Mobile, and North Alabama collected across the Southeast and a red-tip ornamental variety were container grown for six months in open top chambers under ambient and elevated (ambient plus 200 ppm atmospheric CO2. Elevated CO2 increased average dry weight (13% which is typical for grasses. Elevated CO2 increased height growth and both nitrogen and water use efficiencies, but lowered tissue nitrogen concentration; again, these are typical plant responses to elevated CO2. The hybrid ecotype tended to exhibit the greatest growth (followed by Louisiana, North Alabama, and Florida ecotypes while the red-tip and Mobile ecotypes were smallest. Interactions of CO2 with ecotype generally showed that the hybrid, Louisiana, Florida, and/or North Alabama ecotypes showed a positive response to CO2 while the Mobile and red-tip ecotypes did not. Cogongrass is a problematic invasive weed in the southeastern U.S. and some ecotypes may become more so as atmospheric CO2 continues to rise.

  6. Genetic variations between two ecotypes of Egyptian clover by inter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aghomotsegin

    2015-06-10

    Jun 10, 2015 ... Key words: Egyptian clover, molecular marker, Fahl, Gemmiza1, Giza6, Serw1. INTRODUCTION. Among fodder crops, Egyptian clover (Berseem) has high commercial importance and potential value. Egyptian clover is divided into two ecotypes of recovery status after cutting: first ecotype a single cut mower ...

  7. Effect of ecotype on Heamtology of Clarias Gariepinus (Burchell 1822)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study on the possible effect of ecotype on the haematological physiology of the African mud catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822), was investigated by randomly sampling C. gariepinus from three different ecotypes: wild (Oyan lake reservoir), semi-intensive culture system (earthen pond) and from intensive culture ...

  8. Nitrogen enrichment of host plants has mostly beneficial effects on the life-history traits of nettle-feeding butterflies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurze, Susanne; Heinken, Thilo; Fartmann, Thomas

    2017-11-01

    Butterflies rank among the most threatened animal groups throughout Europe. However, current population trends differ among species. The nettle-feeding butterflies Aglais io and Aglais urticae cope successfully with the anthropogenic land-use change. Both species are assumed to be pre-adapted to higher nitrogen contents in their host plant, stinging nettle (Urtica dioica). However, it is currently unknown, whether this pre-adaptation enables both Aglais species to cope successfully or even to benefit from the excessive nitrogen availabilities in nettles growing in modern farmlands. For this reason, this study focused on the response of both Aglais species to unfertilized nettles compared to nettles receiving 150 or 300 kg N ha-1 yr-1 (i.e., common fertilizer quantities of modern-day agriculture). Fertilized nettles were characterized by higher nitrogen concentrations and lower C:N ratios compared to the control group. In both Aglais species, the individuals feeding on fertilized nettles had higher survival rates, shorter larval periods and heavier pupae and, in A. urticae also longer forewings. All these trait shifts are beneficial for the individuals, lowering their risk to die before reproduction and increasing their reproductive potential. These responses agree with the well-accepted nitrogen-limitation hypothesis predicting a positive relationship between the nitrogen content of the diet and the performance of herbivorous insects. Furthermore, our findings suggest that the increasing abundance of both Aglais species may result not only from the increasing spread of nettles into the farmland but also from changes in their quality due to the eutrophication of the landscape during recent decades.

  9. Rapid flow cytometry analysis of antimicrobial properties of nettle powder and cranberry powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattuniemi, Maarit; Korhonen, Johanna; Jaakkola, Mari; Räty, Jarkko; Virtanen, Vesa

    2010-11-01

    Both nettle (Urtica dioica) and cranberry (Vaccinium oxycoccus) are widely known to have good influence on health. The aim of this study was to investigate antimicrobial properties of nettle powder and cranberry powder against Escherichia coli (E. coli) and monitor the growth of the bacteria by a rapid flow cytometry (FCM) method. For FCM measurements samples were stained with fluorescent dyes. The inhibitory effects of plant material on growth of E. coli were estimated by comparing the results of control sample (E. coli) to E. coli samples with plant material. FCM offers both a brilliant tool to investigate the kinetics of the growth of bacterium, since subsamples can be taken from the same liquid medium during the growing period and with fluorescent dyes a rapid method to investigate viability of the bacterium.

  10. Developing the technology of mayonnaise sauce with sea urchin caviar, laminaria and nettle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grokhovsky V. A.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Some aspects of consumer demand on mayonnaise production have been found due to marketing researches. The technology of mayonnaise sauce using such valuable ingredients as sea urchin caviar, laminaria and nettle has been scientifically proved and produced. The formula of the new product composition has been developed; the specimens of such mayonnaise sauce have been made; they have been explored during their storage

  11. Chemical Composition and Immuno-Modulatory Effects of Urtica dioica L. (Stinging Nettle) Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francišković, Marina; Gonzalez-Pérez, Raquel; Orčić, Dejan; Sánchez de Medina, Fermín; Martínez-Augustin, Olga; Svirčev, Emilija; Simin, Nataša; Mimica-Dukić, Neda

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this work was to determine the chemical profile of stinging nettle and to provide an insight into the mechanisms by which it ameliorates the immune response. Qualitative and quantitative liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry analyses indicated that phenolic acids (5-O-caffeoylquinic acid as dominant) and flavonol glycosides (rutin, isoquercitrin, and kaempferol 3-O-glucoside) are present in the aerial parts, while lignans (secoisolariciresinol, 9,9'-bisacetyl-neo-olivil and their glucosides) were detected in the root. Herb and root extracts expressed selective inhibition toward cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase branches in human platelets: root extracts were better at inhibiting thromboxane production, while herb extracts were more specific toward inhibition of 12-lipoxygenase pathway. Stinging nettle extracts mildly increased monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and growth-related oncogene release from nonstimulated intestinal epithelial cells, stimulating MyD88/NF-κB/p38 signaling, hence preserving the epithelial integrity and enhancing intestinal steady-state defense. Additionally, root extract reduced lipopolysaccharide-induced monocyte chemoattractant protein-1/growth-related oncogene secretion and cyclooxygenase-2 expression in intestinal epithelial cells, thus showing the potential protective effect against tissue damage caused by inflammation processes. These observations suggest that stinging nettle is an interesting candidate for the development of phytopharmaceuticals or dietary supplements for cotreatment of various inflammatory diseases, particularly inflammatory bowel diseases. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Decomposition of heavy metal contaminated nettles (Urtica dioica L.) in soils subjected to heavy metal pollution by river sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Khalid Saifullah; Joergensen, Rainer Georg

    2006-11-01

    Two incubation experiments were conducted to evaluate differences in the microbial use of non-contaminated and heavy metal contaminated nettle (Urtica dioica L.) shoot residues in three soils subjected to heavy metal pollution (Zn, Pb, Cu, and Cd) by river sediments. The microbial use of shoot residues was monitored by changes in microbial biomass C, biomass N, biomass P, ergosterol, N mineralisation, CO(2) production and O(2) consumption rates. Microbial biomass C, N, and P were estimated by fumigation extraction. In the non-amended soils, the mean microbial biomass C to soil organic C ratio decreased from 2.3% in the low metal soil to 1.1% in the high metal soils. In the 42-d incubation experiment, the addition of 2% nettle residues resulted in markedly increased contents of microbial biomass P (+240%), biomass C (+270%), biomass N (+310%), and ergosterol (+360%). The relative increase in the four microbial properties was similar for the three soils and did not show any clear heavy metal effect. The contents of microbial biomass C, N and P and ergosterol contents declined approximately by 30% during the incubation as in the non-amended soils. The ratios microbial biomass C to N, microbial biomass C to P, and ergosterol to microbial biomass C remained constant at 5.2, 26, and 0.5%, respectively. In the 6-d incubation experiment, the respiratory quotient CO(2)/O(2) increased from 0.74 in the low metal soil to 1.58 in the high metal soil in the non-amended soils. In the treatments amended with 4% nettle residues, the respiratory quotient was constant at 1.13, without any effects of the three soils or the two nettle treatments. Contaminated nettle residues led generally to significantly lower N mineralisation, CO(2) production and O(2) consumption rates than non-contaminated nettle residues. However, the absolute differences were small.

  13. The antioxidant activity of kombucha fermented milk products with stinging nettle and winter savory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitas Jasmina S.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the antioxidant activity of fermented milk products obtained by kombucha fermentation. Two starter cultures were used as follows: starter obtained after kombucha fermentation on sweetened stinging nettle extract; as well as starter obtained after kombucha fermentation on sweetened winter savory extract. The starters were added to milk with 0.8, 1.6 and 2.8% milk fat. Fermentation was carried out at 37, 40 and 43oC and stopped when the pH reached 4.5. Antioxidant activity to hydroxyl and DPPH radicals was monitored using response surface methodology. Kombucha fermented milk products with stinging nettle (KSN and with winter savory (KWS showed the same antioxidant response to hydroxyl and different response to DPPH radicals. Synergetic effect of milk fat and fermentation temperature to antioxidant activity to hydroxyl radicals for both types of kombucha fermented milk products (KSN and KWS was established. Optimum processing conditions in term of antioxidant activity are: milk fat around 2.8% and process temperature around 41 and 43°C for KSN and KWS respectively.

  14. A procedure for identifying textile bast fibres using microscopy: Flax, nettle/ramie, hemp and jute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergfjord, Christian, E-mail: christian.bergfjord@uib.no [Institute for Physics and Technology, University of Bergen, Allegt. 55, 5007 Bergen (Norway); Holst, Bodil, E-mail: bodil.holst@uib.no [Institute for Physics and Technology, University of Bergen, Allegt. 55, 5007 Bergen (Norway)

    2010-08-15

    Identifying and distinguishing between natural textile fibres is an important task in both archaeology and criminology. Wool, silk and cotton fibres can readily be distinguished from the textile bast fibres flax, nettle/ramie, hemp and jute. Distinguishing between the bast fibres is, however, not easily done and methods based on surface characteristics, chemical composition and cross section size and shape are not conclusive. A conclusive method based on X-ray microdiffraction exists, but as the method requires the use of a synchrotron it is not readily available. In this paper we present a simple procedure for identifying the above mentioned textile bast fibres. The procedure is based on measuring the fibrillar orientation with polarised light microscopy and detecting the presence of calcium oxalate crystals (CaC{sub 2}O{sub 4}) in association with the fibres. To demonstrate the procedure, a series of fibre samples of flax, nettle, ramie, hemp and jute were investigated. The results are presented here. An advantage of the procedure is that only a small amount of fibre material is needed.

  15. Data of furfural adsorption on nano zero valent iron (NZVI synthesized from Nettle extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Fazlzadeh

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Among various water and wastewater treatment methods, adsorption techniques are widely used to remove certain classes of pollutants due to its unique features. Thus, the aim of this data article is to synthesize zero valent iron nanoparticles (NZVI from Nettle leaf extract by green synthesis method as an environmentally friendly technique, and to evaluate it's efficiency in the removal of furfural from aqueous solutions. The data of possible adsorption mechanism and isotherm of furfural on the synthesized adsorbent are depicted in this data article. The data acquired showed that the adsorption trend follows the pseudo-second order kinetic model and that the Langmuir isotherm was suitable for correlation of equilibrium data with the maximum adsorption capacity of 454.4 mg/g. The information of initial furfural concentration, pH, adsorbent dosage and contact time effects on the removal efficiency are presented. Considering the findings data, the developed nanoparticle from Nettle leaf extract, as a low cost adsorbent, could be considered as promising adsorbent for furfural and probably similar organic pollutants removal from aqueous solutions.

  16. Evaluation of antioxidant properties, elemental and phenolic contents composition of wild nettle (Urtica dioica L.) from Tunceli in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, N C; Turkoglu, S; Ince, O K; Ince, M

    2013-11-03

    Wild nettle (Urtica dioica L.) types were sampled from different geographical regions in Tunceli (Turkey) to determine their mineral, vitamin, phenolic contents and their antioxidant properties. The total phenol varied from 37.419 ± 0.380 to 19.182 ± 1.00 mg of GAEs g(-1) of dry nettle. The highest radical scavenging effect was observed in Mazgirt parting of the ways 7.5 km with 33.70 ± 0.849 mg mL(-1). The highest reducing power was observed in the nettles from Mazgirt parting of the ways 7.5 km. Among the various macronutrients estimated in the plant samples, potassium was present in the highest quantity followed by calcium and phosphate. Kaempferol and resveratrol were not determined in some nettle samples but rutin levels were determined in all samples. Vitamin A concentrations were ranged between 13.64 ± 1.90 and 5.74 ± 1.00 (mg kg(-1) dry weight). These results show that Urtica dioica L. collected from Tunceli in Turkey could be considered as a natural alternative source for food, pharmacology and medicine sectors.

  17. Circulation of four Anaplasma phagocytophilum ecotypes in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jahfari, S.; Coipan, E.C.; Fonville, M.; Leeuwen, van A.D.; Hengeveld, P.; Heylen, D.; Heyman, P.; Maanen, van C.; Butler, C.M.; Foldvari, G.; Szekeres, S.; Duijvendijk, van L.A.G.; Tack, W.; Rijks, J.M.; Giessen, van der J.; Takken, W.; Wieren, van S.E.; Takumi, K.; Sprong, H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Anaplasma phagocytophilum is the etiological agent of granulocytic anaplasmosis in humans and animals. Wild animals and ticks play key roles in the enzootic cycles of the pathogen. Potential ecotypes of A. phagocytophilum have been characterized genetically, but their host range,

  18. Circulation of four Anaplasma phagocytophilum ecotypes in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jahfari, Setareh; Coipan, E Claudia; Fonville, Manoj; van Leeuwen, Arieke Docters; Hengeveld, Paul; Heylen, Dieter; Heyman, Paul; van Maanen, Cees; Butler, Catherine M; Földvári, Gábor; Szekeres, Sándor; van Duijvendijk, Gilian; Tack, Wesley; Rijks, Jolianne M; van der Giessen, Joke; Takken, Willem; van Wieren, Sipke E; Takumi, Katsuhisa; Sprong, Hein

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Anaplasma phagocytophilum is the etiological agent of granulocytic anaplasmosis in humans and animals. Wild animals and ticks play key roles in the enzootic cycles of the pathogen. Potential ecotypes of A. phagocytophilum have been characterized genetically, but their host range,

  19. Genetic structure among the local chicken ecotypes of Tanzania ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to evaluate the genetic structure of local chicken ecotypes of Tanzania using 20 polymorphic microsatellite DNA markers. A standard PCR was followed by manual genotyping (6% native polyacrylamide gel visualized by silver staining). Phylogenetic analysis of 13 individuals from each of the nine ...

  20. Assessing the genetic diversity of five Tanzanian chicken ecotypes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Charles Moses Lyimo

    2013-12-21

    Dec 21, 2013 ... Animal Science. Abstract. The study aimed to evaluate the genetic diversity of Tanzanian chicken populations through phylogenetic relationship, and to trace the history of Tanzanian indigenous chickens. Five ecotypes of. Tanzanian local chickens (Ching'wekwe, Kuchi, Morogoro-medium, Pemba and ...

  1. Genetic diversity of indigenous chicken ecotypes in Jordan

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2010-10-11

    Oct 11, 2010 ... vation of genetic resources of indigenous chicken ecotypes in Jordan. Key words: Polymorphism, conservation, allele numbers, genetic distance, RAPD markers. INTRODUCTION. DNA diversity is continuously suffering erosion in several fields of animal genetic resources. This is especially true.

  2. Spatial distribution of Rhodopseudomonas palustris ecotypes on a local scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bent, SJ; Gucker, CL; Oda, Y; Forney, LJ

    The number, spatial distribution, and significance of genetically distinguishable ecotypes of prokaryotes in the environment are poorly understood. Oda et al. (Y. Oda, B. Star, L. A. Huisman, J. C. Gottschal, and L. J. Forney, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 69:xxx-xxx, 2003) have shown that

  3. Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activity of Kombucha Beverages Prepared using Banana Peel, Common Nettles and Black Tea Infusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ebrahimi Pure

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Backgrounds and Objective: Kombucha is a several thousand years old traditional fermented beverage originated from East. While black tea infusion is the common substrate for preparing kombucha, other herbal infusions can be applied for this reason too. Common medicinal herbs or even waste herbal materials, like banana peel, could be suitable substrates for preparing kombucha analogues. In this study, kombuchas were fermented using nettles leaf and banana peel infusions. Materials and Methods: Herbal infusions were fermented by kombucha fungi. Folin-Ciocalteu assay was performed to evaluate total phenolic contents; Free radical scavenging activity was evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl. Disk diffusion method was performed to measure inhibitory activity against testing bacteria. All data were statistically analyzed by ANOVA test at significant level of p≤0.05. Results and Conclusion: Black tea contained highest amount of phenolics (530.5 ppm gallic acid equivalent and fermentation decomposed approximately 50% of phenolic contents to 265.5 ppm while phenolic content of nettles infusion and fermented beverage were 173 gAE and 188 gAE respectively and for banana peel, 136.5 gAE and 155 gAE; it indicated increase of phenolic contents due to fermentation that may be cause of protein contents of nettles and banana peel gone under fermentation by lactic acid bacteria. Fermented beverage of three herbs had higher antioxidant potent than infusions. Kombucha from banana peel showed the highest antioxidant activity by inhibiting 94.62% of DPPH. While antioxidant activity of fermented beverages of black tea and nettles leaf were more related to their acetic acid content, it was found that a considerable part of antioxidant activity of banana peel kombucha was due to other acids and phenolics. No antibacterial activity was observed from either of samples. Banana peel, as a waste herbal material, and nettles leaf are good ingredients for being

  4. Effects of Various Doses of Selenite on Stinging Nettle (Urtica dioica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslava Beklova

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of selenium (Se on the growth, accumulation and possible mechanisms of Se transport in certain parts (roots, leaves, stamp and apex of nettle (Urtica dioica L. plants. Se was supplemented by one-shot and two repeated doses to the soil (2.0 and 4.0 mg Se per kg of substrate. Selenium content in roots increased linearly with dose and was significantly higher compared to other plant parts of interest. However, growth of the above-ground parts of plant as well as roots was slightly inhibited with increasing selenium concentration in comparison to the untreated plants. The content of phytochelatin2, a low molecular mass peptide containing a sulfhydryl group, correlated well with the Se content. This suggests a possible stimulation of synthesis of this plant peptide by Se.

  5. Effects of various doses of selenite on stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krystofova, Olga; Adam, Vojtech; Babula, Petr; Zehnalek, Josef; Beklova, Miroslava; Havel, Ladislav; Kizek, Rene

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of selenium (Se) on the growth, accumulation and possible mechanisms of Se transport in certain parts (roots, leaves, stamp and apex) of nettle (Urtica dioica L.) plants. Se was supplemented by one-shot and two repeated doses to the soil (2.0 and 4.0 mg Se per kg of substrate). Selenium content in roots increased linearly with dose and was significantly higher compared to other plant parts of interest. However, growth of the above-ground parts of plant as well as roots was slightly inhibited with increasing selenium concentration in comparison to the untreated plants. The content of phytochelatin2, a low molecular mass peptide containing a sulfhydryl group, correlated well with the Se content. This suggests a possible stimulation of synthesis of this plant peptide by Se.

  6. Distribution and diversity of Prochlorococcus ecotypes in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Shibl, Ahmed A.

    2014-06-19

    Photosynthetic prokaryotes of the genus Prochlorococcus play a major role in global primary production in the world\\'s oligotrophic oceans. A recent study on pelagic bacterioplankton communities in the northern and central Red Sea indicated that the predominant cyanobacterial 16S rRNA gene sequence types were from Prochlorococcus cells belonging to a high-light-adapted ecotype (HL II). In this study, we analyzed microdiversity of Prochlorococcus sp. at multiple depths within and below the euphotic zone in the northern, central, and southern regions of the Red Sea, as well as in surface waters in the same locations, but in a different season. Prochlorococcus dominated the communities in clone libraries of the amplified 16S-23S rRNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. Almost no differences were found between samples from coastal or open-water sites, but a high diversity of Prochlorococcus ecotypes was detected at 100-meter depth in the water column. In addition, an unusual dominance of HL II-related sequences was observed in deeper waters. Our results indicate that the Red Sea harbors diverse Prochlorococcus lineages, but no novel ecotypes, despite its unusual physicochemical properties. © 2014 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Recurrent evolution of life history ecotypes in sockeye salmon: implications for conservation and future evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Chris C; Bickham, John W; John Nelson, R; Foote, Chris J; Patton, John C

    2008-01-01

    We examine the evolutionary history and speculate about the evolutionary future of three basic life history ecotypes that contribute to the biocomplexity of sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka). The ‘recurrent evolution’ (RE) hypothesis claims that the sea/river ecotype is ancestral, a ‘straying’ form with poorly differentiated (meta)population structure, and that highly structured populations of lake-type sockeye and kokanee have evolved repeatedly in parallel adaptive radiations between recurrent glaciations of the Pleistocene Epoch. Basic premises of this hypothesis are consistent with new, independent evidence from recent surveys of genetic variation in mitochondrial and microsatellite DNA: (1) sockeye salmon are most closely related to pink (O. gorbuscha) and chum (O. keta) salmon with sea-type life histories; (2) the sockeye life history ecotypes exist as polyphyletic lineages within large drainages and geographic regions; (3) the sea/river ecotype exhibits less genetic differentiation among populations than the lake or kokanee ecotypes both within and among drainages; and (4) genetic diversity is typically higher in the sea/river ecotype than in the lake and kokanee ecotypes. Anthropogenic modification of estuarine habitat and intensive coastal fisheries have likely reduced and fragmented historic metapopulations of the sea/river ecotype, particularly in southern areas. In contrast, the kokanee ecotype appears to be favoured by marine fisheries and predicted changes in climate. PMID:25567627

  8. Ecotypes as a concept for exploring responses to climate change in fish assemblages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelhard, George H.; Ellis, Jim R.; Payne, Mark

    2011-01-01

    be related to fish ecotypes. Broadly speaking, there were steady increases in abundance of species that were either Lusitanian, small-bodied, or low-/mid-trophic-level ecotypes, and generally declining or only marginally increasing trends of most Boreal, large-bodied, or high-trophic-level ecotypes...... or combinations of them. The post-1989 warm biological regime appears to have favoured pelagic species more than demersal species. These community-level patterns agree with the expected responses of ecotypes to climate change and also with anticipated vulnerability to fishing pressure....

  9. AROMA PROFILE AND ANTIMICROBIAL PROPERTIES OF ALCOHOLIC AND AQUEOUS EXTRACTS FROM ROOT, LEAF AND STALK OF NETTLE (Urtica dioica L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Razzagh Mahmoudi; Kiumars Amini; Omid Fakhri; Mahsa Alem

    2014-01-01

    Medicinal plant can be considered as a great source of new antimicrobial agents due to their enormous therapeutic potential and limited side effects. Nettle (Urtica dioica L.) is a widespread and common medicinal plant widely used in traditional medicine. The present study investigates the antimicrobial potency of alcoholic and aqueous extracts of Urtica dioica on some gram positive and negative bacteria and also a particular type of fungi and analyzes the extracts to find the active ingredie...

  10. Effects of Hydroalcoholic Nettle Extract on Insulin Sensitivity and Some Inflammatory Indicator in type 2 Diabetic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Namazi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Diabetes mellitus is a common disease that almost 1.5 million people in Iran are affected, Regarding to the adverse effects of chemical drugs, the tendency to use medicinal plants, among which nettle was chosen to be studied, is growing. In this research the effect of hydroalcoholic extract of nettle on insulin sensitivity and some inflammatory factors in type II diabetic patients were studied.Materials & Methods: A blind randomized clinical trial on 50 men and women with type 2 diabetes; (mean age: 52.39±13.75 was designed to determine the aforementioned effect. Patients were randomly divided into intervention and control groups who received 100 mg/kg, Nettle extract or placebo respectively three times a day for 8 weeks. Fasting Insulin and some inflammatory factors (Interleukin-6 (IL-6, Tumor Necrosis Factor-α (TNF-α, and hsCRP (High Sensitive C-Reactive Protein levels at the beginning and end of the study were measured. Results: IL-6 and hsCRP showed a significant decrease (P <0.05, TNF-α, insulin sensitivity and hsCRP showed no significant change at the end of the study in the intervention group compared to the control. Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS software version 18 and P <0.05 was considered significant for all measurements. Conclusion: The hydroalcoholic extract of nettle showed significant decrease in IL-6 and hsCRP after 2 months of intervention in patients with type 2 diabetes. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2012;18(4:10-14

  11. Differences in thermal acclimation of chloroplast functioning in two ecotypes of Valonia utricularis (Chlorophyta)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eggert, A.; van Hasselt, P.R; Breeman, Arno

    Chloroplast functioning in two temperature ecotypes of the tropical to warm-temperate green macrophyte Valonia ultricularis was monitored by measuring chlorophyll a fluorescence parameters. One ecotype from the Mediterranean Sea is, with respect to growth and survival, more cold-adapted and

  12. RADseq provides evidence for parallel ecotypic divergence in the autotetraploid Cochlearia officinalis in Northern Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandrud, Marie K; Paun, Ovidiu; Lorenzo, Maria T; Nordal, Inger; Brysting, Anne K

    2017-07-17

    Speciation encompasses a continuum over time from freely interbreeding populations to reproductively isolated species. Along this process, ecotypes - the result of local adaptation - may be on the road to new species. We investigated whether three autotetraploid Cochlearia officinalis ecotypes, adapted to different habitats (beach, estuary, spring), are genetically differentiated and result from parallel ecotypic divergence in two distinct geographical regions. We obtained genetic data from thousands of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from restriction-site associated DNA sequencing (RADseq) and from six microsatellite markers for 12 populations to assess genetic divergence at ecotypic, geographic and population level. The genetic patterns support differentiation among ecotypes as suggested by morphology and ecology. The data fit a scenario where the ancestral beach ecotype has recurrently and polytopically given rise to the estuary and spring ecotypes. Several ecologically-relevant loci with consistent non-random segregating patterns are identified across the recurrent origins, in particular around genes related to salt stress. Despite being ecologically distinct, the Cochlearia ecotypes still represent an early stage in the process of speciation, as reproductive isolation has not (yet) developed. A sequenced annotated genome is needed to specifically target candidate genes underlying local adaptation.

  13. The effects of abscisic acid (ABA) addition on cadmium accumulation of two ecotypes of Solanum photeinocarpum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin; Lin, Lijin; Luo, Li; Liao, Ming'an; Lv, Xiulan; Wang, Zhihui; Liang, Dong; Xia, Hui; Wang, Xun; Lai, Yunsong; Tang, Yi

    2016-03-01

    The study of the effects of exogenous abscisic acid (ABA) addition on cadmium (Cd) accumulation of two ecotypes (mining and farmland) of Solanum photeinocarpum was operated through a pot experiment. The results showed that the biomass and chlorophyll content of the two ecotypes of S. photeinocarpum increased with increasing ABA concentration. Applying exogenous ABA increased Cd content in the two ecotypes of S. photeinocarpum. The maximum Cd contents in shoots of the two ecotypes of S. photeinocarpum were obtained at 20 μmol/L ABA; shoot Cd contents respectively for the mining and farmland ecotypes were 33.92 and 24.71% higher than those for the control. Applying exogenous ABA also increased Cd extraction by the two ecotypes of S. photeinocarpum, and the highest Cd extraction was obtained at 20 μmol/L ABA with 569.42 μg/plant in shoots of the mining ecotype and 520.51 μg/plant in shoots of the farmland ecotype respectively. Therefore, exogenous ABA can be used for enhancing the Cd extraction ability of S. photeinocarpum, and 20 μmol/L ABA was the optimal dose.

  14. Plant fertilization interacts with life history: variation in stoichiometry and performance in nettle-feeding butterflies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélène Audusseau

    Full Text Available Variation in food stoichiometry affects individual performance and population dynamics, but it is also likely that species with different life histories should differ in their sensitivity to food stoichiometry. To address this question, we investigated the ability of the three nettle-feeding butterflies (Aglais urticae, Polygonia c-album, and Aglais io to respond adaptively to induced variation in plant stoichiometry in terms of larval performance. We hypothesized that variation in larval performance between plant fertilization treatments should be functionally linked to species differences in host plant specificity. We found species-specific differences in larval performance between plant fertilization treatments that could not be explained by nutrient limitation. We showed a clear evidence of a positive correlation between food stoichiometry and development time to pupal stage and pupal mass in A. urticae. The other two species showed a more complex response. Our results partly supported our prediction that host plant specificity affects larval sensitivity to food stoichiometry. However, we suggest that most of the differences observed may instead be explained by differences in voltinism (number of generations per year. We believe that the potential of some species to respond adaptively to variation in plant nutrient content needs further attention in the face of increased eutrophication due to nutrient leakage from human activities.

  15. Ameliorative effects of stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) on testosterone-induced prostatic hyperplasia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahata, A; Dixit, V K

    2012-05-01

    The present study investigated the effects of stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L.) (UD) on benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) induced by testosterone. In vitro studies were conducted to assess the 5α-reductase inhibitory potential of UD. Two biochemical markers viz., β-sitosterol and scopoletin, were isolated and characterised in the extracts utilising High-performance thin layer chromatographic, FTIR, NMR and overlain UV spectral studies. Hyperplasia was induced in rats by subcutaneous administration of testosterone (3 mg kg(-1) s.c.) for 28 days in all the groups except the vehicle-treated group. Simultaneous administration of petroleum ether and ethanolic extracts (10, 20 and 50 mg kg(-1) p.o.) and isolated β-sitosterol (10 and 20 mg kg(-1) p.o.) was undertaken. Finasteride was used as a positive control (1 mg kg(-1) p.o.). Measurement of prostate/body weight ratio, weekly urine output and serum testosterone levels, prostate-specific antigen levels (on day 28) and histological examinations carried out on prostates from each group led us to conclude that UD can be used as an effective drug for the management of BPH. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. Plant fertilization interacts with life history: variation in stoichiometry and performance in nettle-feeding butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audusseau, Hélène; Kolb, Gundula; Janz, Niklas

    2015-01-01

    Variation in food stoichiometry affects individual performance and population dynamics, but it is also likely that species with different life histories should differ in their sensitivity to food stoichiometry. To address this question, we investigated the ability of the three nettle-feeding butterflies (Aglais urticae, Polygonia c-album, and Aglais io) to respond adaptively to induced variation in plant stoichiometry in terms of larval performance. We hypothesized that variation in larval performance between plant fertilization treatments should be functionally linked to species differences in host plant specificity. We found species-specific differences in larval performance between plant fertilization treatments that could not be explained by nutrient limitation. We showed a clear evidence of a positive correlation between food stoichiometry and development time to pupal stage and pupal mass in A. urticae. The other two species showed a more complex response. Our results partly supported our prediction that host plant specificity affects larval sensitivity to food stoichiometry. However, we suggest that most of the differences observed may instead be explained by differences in voltinism (number of generations per year). We believe that the potential of some species to respond adaptively to variation in plant nutrient content needs further attention in the face of increased eutrophication due to nutrient leakage from human activities.

  17. Molecular Characterizations of Kenyan Brachiaria Grass Ecotypes with Microsatellite (SSR Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naftali Ondabu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Brachiaria grass is an emerging forage option for livestock production in Kenya. Kenya lies within the center of diversity for Brachiaria species, thus a high genetic variation in natural populations of Brachiaria is expected. Overgrazing and clearing of natural vegetation for crop production and nonagricultural uses and climate change continue to threaten the natural biodiversity. In this study, we collected 79 Brachiaria ecotypes from different parts of Kenya and examined them for genetic variations and their relatedness with 8 commercial varieties. A total of 120 different alleles were detected by 22 markers in the 79 ecotypes. Markers were highly informative in differentiating ecotypes with average diversity and polymorphic information content of 0.623 and 0.583, respectively. Five subpopulations: International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI, Kitui, Kisii, Alupe, and Kiminini differed in sample size, number of alleles, number of private alleles, diversity index, and percentage polymorphic loci. The contribution of within‐the‐individual difference to total genetic variation of Kenyan ecotype population was 81%, and the fixation index (FST = 0.021 and number of migrant per generation (Nm = 11.58 showed low genetic differentiation among the populations. The genetic distance was highest between Alupe and Kisii populations (0.510 and the lowest between ILRI and Kiminini populations (0.307. The unweighted neighborjoining (NJ tree showed test ecotypes grouped into three major clusters: ILRI ecotypes were present in all clusters; Kisii and Alupe ecotypes and improved varieties grouped in clusters I and II; and ecotypes from Kitui and Kiminini grouped in cluster I. This study confirms higher genetic diversity in Kenyan ecotypes than eight commercial varieties (Basilisk, Humidicola, Llanero, Marandú, MG4, Mulato II, Piatá and Xaraés that represent three species and one three‐way cross‐hybrid Mulato II. There is a need for further

  18. The effect of verapamil on the cardiotoxic activity of Portuguese man-o'war (Physalia physalis) and sea nettle (Chrysaora quinquecirrha) venoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, J W; Gean, C J; Calton, G J; Warnick, J E

    1985-01-01

    Verapamil, a calcium antagonist, is effective in delaying death in mice after i.v. challenge with sea nettle (Chrysaora quinquecirrha) or Portuguese man-o'war (Physalia physalis) crude venom. Death caused by these venoms could also be delayed by prior medication of the animals. Continuous EKG monitoring of sea nettle venom-challenged rats demonstrated that a single rapid injection of verapamil might require 4 min to be effective and that up to four repeated injections may be necessary to counteract the venom-induced abnormalities. Verapamil reduced the sea nettle venom-induced positive inotropic effect on isolated guinea pig atrial strips. These data further indicate the effectiveness of verapamil as a therapeutic agent against jellyfish cardiotoxins.

  19. Immunological responses and disease resistance of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) juveniles following dietary administration of stinging nettle (Urtica dioica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeidi Asl, Mohammad Reza; Adel, Milad; Caipang, Christopher Marlowe A; Dawood, Mahmoud A O

    2017-12-01

    The present study investigated the effects of dietary supplementation of stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) on growth performance, skin mucus, immune response and disease resistance of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed with diets supplemented with U. dioica at 0, 1, 2 and 3%. After 8 weeks of feeding, the addition of U. dioica at 3% level resulted in improved weight gain, specific growth rate and feed conversion ratio significantly when compared to the other groups (P dioica enhanced growth and stimulated fish immunity; thus, enabling the fish to be more resistant against bacterial infections. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The effect of stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) seed oil on experimental colitis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genc, Zeynep; Yarat, Aysen; Tunali-Akbay, Tugba; Sener, Goksel; Cetinel, Sule; Pisiriciler, Rabia; Caliskan-Ak, Esin; Altıntas, Ayhan; Demirci, Betul

    2011-12-01

    This study investigated the effect of Urtica dioica, known as stinging nettle, seed oil (UDO) treatment on colonic tissue and blood parameters of trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis in rats. Experimental colitis was induced with 1 mL of TNBS in 40% ethanol by intracolonic administration with a 8-cm-long cannula with rats under ether anesthesia, assigned to a colitis group and a colitis+UDO group. Rats in the control group were given saline at the same volume by intracolonic administration. UDO (2.5 mL/kg) was given to the colitis+UDO group by oral administration throughout a 3-day interval, 5 minutes later than colitis induction. Saline (2.5 mL/kg) was given to the control and colitis groups at the same volume by oral administration. At the end of the experiment macroscopic lesions were scored, and the degree of oxidant damage was evaluated by colonic total protein, sialic acid, malondialdehyde (MDA), and glutathione levels, collagen content, tissue factor activity, and superoxide dismutase and myeloperoxidase activities. Colonic tissues were also examined by histological and cytological analysis. Pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, and interleukin-6), lactate dehydrogenase activity, and triglyceride and cholesterol levels were analyzed in blood samples. We found that UDO decreased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, lactate dehydrogenase, triglyceride, and cholesterol, which were increased in colitis. UDO administration ameliorated the TNBS-induced disturbances in colonic tissue except for MDA. In conclusion, UDO, through its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant actions, merits consideration as a potential agent in ameliorating colonic inflammation.

  1. Probing the responses of four chicory ecotypes by ethylene accumulation and growth characteristics under drought stress

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    Hossein Sadeghi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Water deficit is the largest limiting abiotic factor in agriculture and will increase in future. Evaluating the drought stress-induced changes in growth parameters as well as the leaves ethylene accumulation of medicinal plants to grow these in arid and semi-arid areas has particular importance. Chicory (Cichorium intybus L. is a famous medicinal herbal plant which grows in most parts of Iran. A factorial greenhouse experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of drought stress [100 (as a control, 80, 60 and 40% of field capacity (FC] on morphophysiological parameters as well as the leaves ethylene accumulation of four chicory ecotypes. The results showed a significant effect of drought on plant height, leaf area, shoot moisture content and total dry matter production of chicory ecotypes which were reduced under drought stress. Under increasing drought level the Siyah Shiraz (Kh ecotype performed better by maintaining more growth characters, thereby leading to more production of dry matter than the other ecotypes. Isfahan ecotype was the most affected by rising tensions and showed more reduction in growth traits. Drought stress also considerably changed leaf ethylene content, that made the leaf ethylene biosynthesis to be significantly higher under severe (60 and 40% FC stress when compared to control (100% FC and was significantly higher in drought-tolerant chicory ecotype (Kh. In general, it can be concluded that (Kh was superior to other ecotypes in terms of growth and leaves ethylene accumulation, and can be suitable for cultivation in arid regions.

  2. Genetic Diversity Analysis of Iranian Jujube Ecotypes (Ziziphus spp. Using RAPD Molecular Marker

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    S Abbasi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill. is a valuable medicinal plant which is important in Iranian traditional medicines. Although the regional plants such as jujube play an important role in our economy, but they are forgotten in research and technology. Considering the economic and medicinal importance of jujube, the first step in breeding programs is determination of the genetic diversity among the individuals. 34 ecotypes of jujube, which have been collected from eight provinces of Iran, were used in this study. The genetic relationships of Iranian jujube ecotypes were analyzed using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD marker. Six out of 15 random decamer primers applied for RAPD analysis, showed an informative polymorphism. According to clustering analysis using UPGMA's methods, the ecotypes were classified into two major groups at the 0.81 level of genetic similarity. The highest value of similarity coefficient (0.92 was detected between Mazandaran and Golestan ecotypes and the most genetic diversity was observed in ecotypes of Khorasan-Jonoubi. The affinity of Khorasan-Jonoubi and Esfahan ecotypes indicated a possible common origin for the variation in these areas. Results indicated that RAPD analysis could be successfully used for the estimation of genetic diversity among Ziziphus ecotypes and it can be useful for further investigations.

  3. Evaluation of Freezing Tolerance of Three Ajowan (Trachyspermum ammi (Linn. Sprague Ecotypes in Controlled Conditions

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    Z Boroumand Rezazadeh

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Ajowan is one of the endemic plants in Khorasan province, and there is a little information on its tolerance to cold stress. In order to study freezing tolerance of ajowan, an experiment was conducted in faculty of agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, based on factorial-completely randomized design with three replications and three ecotypes of ajowan (Neishabour, Birjand and Torbat-e-Heidarieh were imposed on eight freezing temperatures (0 (control, -1.5, -3, -4.5, -6,-7.5, -9 and -10.5 °C. Plants were grown in natural environment till 4-5 leaf stage, then for freezing treatments transferred to thermo-gradient freezer. The cell membrane stability was evaluated by electrolyte leakage index (EL and temperature for killing 50% of samples according to the electrolyte leakage (LT50el was determined. Furthermore, survival percentage, leaf number and dry weight, temperature for killing 50% of samples according to survival (LT50su and reduced dry matter temperature 50 (RDMT50 were determined after three weeks recovery in the glasshouse. Response of ajowan ecotypes for electrolyte leakage was different and birjand ecotype had the lowest %EL, whereas the slope of %EL in mentioned ecotype was lower than two other ecotypes. However there were no significant differences among ajowan ecotypes on LT50su. Decreasing temperature to -7.5 °C reduced survival percentage of Neishabour and Torbat-e-Heidarieh ecotypes to lower than 20 percent, whiles in this temperature Birjand’s survival percentage was about 60 percent. It seems that Birjand ecotype with the lowest electrolyte leakage, the highest survival and dry matter and the lowest LT50su was more tolerant than two other ecotypes.

  4. Effects of Sowing Time on Yield of Black Seed (Nigella sativa L. Ecotypes under Mashhad Conditions

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    F Javadi hedayat abad

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Growth and yield of medicinal plants affected by planting date as an important management factor. In order to study the effects of planting dates on yield and yield components of some black seed (Nigella sativa L. ecotypes, a field experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design as a split-plot with three replications at the Agricultural Research Station of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad during growing season 2009-2010. Four planting dates (24 Feb., 16 Mar., 4 Apr. and 25 Apr. and four black seed ecotypes (Birjand, Gonabad, Neyshabour and Sabzevar were allocated to the main and sub plots, respectively. Results showed that there were significant differences between planting dates for number of follicles per plant, number of seeds per follicles and 1000-seed weight, seed yield, biological yield and harvest index. Maximum numbers of follicles per plant, number of seed per follicles, biological yield and seed yield were observed in first planting date, maximum 1000-seed weight was observed in fourth planting dates and maximum harvest index were recorded in the third planting date. Yield components, seed yield, biological yield and harvest index also were affected by ecotypes and interaction effects of planting dates and black cumin ecotypes. The highest and the lowest of all traits, expect 1000-seed weight were achieved in Gonabad and Neyshabour ecotypes, respectively. The maximum and minimum 1000-seed weights were obtained in Neyshabour and Gonabad ecotypes, respectively. Planting in 24 Feb., 16 Mar. and 4 Apr. have had high seed yield and there was a reduction on seed yield due to delay planting to 25 Apr. Also, Birjand ecotype in the last planting date had the highest seed yield. According to the seed yield, Gonabad and birjand ecotypes were better than from two other ecotypes in range of planting dates.

  5. Phenotypic plasticity in response to the social environment: effects of density and sex ratio on mating behaviour following ecotype divergence.

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    Kristina Karlsson

    Full Text Available The ability to express phenotypically plastic responses to environmental cues might be adaptive in changing environments. We studied phenotypic plasticity in mating behaviour as a response to population density and adult sex ratio in a freshwater isopod (Asellus aquaticus. A. aquaticus has recently diverged into two distinct ecotypes, inhabiting different lake habitats (reed Phragmites australis and stonewort Chara tomentosa, respectively. In field surveys, we found that these habitats differ markedly in isopod population densities and adult sex ratios. These spatially and temporally demographic differences are likely to affect mating behaviour. We performed behavioural experiments using animals from both the ancestral ecotype ("reed" isopods and from the novel ecotype ("stonewort" isopods population. We found that neither ecotype adjusted their behaviour in response to population density. However, the reed ecotype had a higher intrinsic mating propensity across densities. In contrast to the effects of density, we found ecotype differences in plasticity in response to sex ratio. The stonewort ecotype show pronounced phenotypic plasticity in mating propensity to adult sex ratio, whereas the reed ecotype showed a more canalised behaviour with respect to this demographic factor. We suggest that the lower overall mating propensity and the phenotypic plasticity in response to sex ratio have evolved in the novel stonewort ecotype following invasion of the novel habitat. Plasticity in mating behaviour may in turn have effects on the direction and intensity of sexual selection in the stonewort habitat, which may fuel further ecotype divergence.

  6. ABSCISIC ACID EFFECTS ON WATER AND PHOTOSYNTHETIC CHARACTERISTICS OF TWO ECOTYPES OF Atriplex halimus L.

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    Y. Bidai

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to compare the water and photosynthetic characteristics of two xerophilic ecotypes of Atriplex halimus (L.. Seeds collected from two different sites Djelfa and Oran are germinated in controlled greenhouse. After 6 months, the plantlets were treated 21 days with increasing concentrations of abscisic acid (0M, 10-6 M and 10-3 M. The results show that ecotype of Djelfa reduced water loss through transpiration because of high stomatal resistance. Consequently the content of chlorophyll a and b decrease significantly compared to Oran ecotype which show an increase of the osmotic potential and relative water content. Osmotic adjustment to reduce dehydration and maintain a good photosynthesis seems efficient in Oran ecotype.

  7. Lipophilic stinging nettle extracts possess potent anti-inflammatory activity, are not cytotoxic and may be superior to traditional tinctures for treating inflammatory disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Tyler A.; Sohn, Johann; Inman, Wayne D.; Bjeldanes, Leonard F.; Rayburn, Keith

    2012-01-01

    Extracts of four plant portions (roots, stems, leaves and flowers) of Urtica dioica, (the stinging nettle) were prepared using accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) involving water, hexanes, methanol and dichloromethane. The extracts were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic activity in an NF-κB luciferase and MTT assay using macrophage immune (RAW264.7) cells. A standardized commercial ethanol extract of nettle leaves were also evaluated. The methanolic extract of the flowering portions displayed significant anti-inflammatory activity on par with the standard anti-inflammatory agent celastrol (1) but was moderately cytotoxic. Alternatively, the polar extracts (water, methanol, ethanol) of the roots, stems and leaves plant portions displayed moderate to weak anti-inflammatory activity, while the methanol and especially the water soluble extracts exhibited noticeable cytotoxicity. In contrast, the lipophilic dichloromethane extracts of the roots, stems and leaves exhibited potent anti-inflammatory effects ≥ 1 with minimal cytotoxicity to RAW264.7 cells. Collectively these results suggest that using lipophilic extracts of the roots, stems or leaves of stinging nettle may be more effective then traditional tinctures (water, methanol, ethanol) to undergo clinical evaluations for the treatment of inflammatory disorders including arthritis. A chemical investigation into the lipophillic extracts of stinging nettle to identify the bioactive compound(s) responsible for their observed anti-inflammatory activity is further warranted. PMID:23092723

  8. [Effect of red and blue spectrum on photosynthesis physiological characteristics of two ecotypes of Leymus chinensis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chan; Yang, Yun-Fei; Wang, Kun

    2008-07-01

    Photosynthesis physiological characteristics of two ecotypes of Leymus chinensis were studied under different red and blue light excitation by LED red and blue lamp-house. Photosynthesis did not carry on under red and blue light of 50 micromol x m(-2) x s(-1). When red and blue light intensity was increased, photosynthesis rate, stoma limit value and transpiration rate of the two ecotypes of Leymus chinensis were all increased. But photosynthesis rate stopped increasing under red and blue light of 1 150 micromol x m(-2) x s(-1) for grey-green ecotype Leymus chinensis and of 907 micromol x m(-2) x s(-1) for yellow-green ecotype Leymus chinensis, which is known as light saturation. And the effect of blue light on photosynthesis became weaker than red light under higher light intensity. Increasing light intensity can promote plant photosynthesis rate in the range of low light intensity. But when light intensity reaches light saturation, photosynthesis rate does not increases but decreases. Because though light quantum numbers is increasing, the numbers of coloring mater does not change and is saturated. On the other hand, when the light intensity is of light saturation, the stoma limit value was increased and the transpiration rate was decreased in order to reduce water waste. When light intensity reaches the value that plant can bear, the plant will automatically close stoma in order to decrease transpiration and to save water. Plant balances every physiological index and makes sure that physiology damage is the least and production is the greatest. Although grey-green ecotype Leymus chinensis has lower stoma limit and higher water waste, it also has higher photosynthesis rate than yellow-green ecotype Leymus chinensis. And the photosynthesis capability and physiology adaptation of grey-green ecotype Leymus chinensis is greater than that of yellow-green ecotype Leymus chinensis.

  9. Microsatellite based genetic diversity study in indigenous chicken ecotypes of Karnataka

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    B. H. Rudresh

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The current study was the first of its kind taken upon indigenous ecotypes of the Karnataka in order to unravel the diversity details at 20 chicken microsatellite regions. Materials and Methods: 210 indigenous chicken belonging to six districts of Bangalore and Mysore division formed the target sample for the present study. The genomic deoxyribonucleic acid was isolated by phenol chloroform isoamyl alcohol method. A panel of 20 microsatellite regions, including 14 recommended by FAO and six identified from published scientific literature became the targeted chicken genomic region. 27-33 samples were successfully genotyped in each of the six ecotypes through simplex or multiplex polymerase chain reactions, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and silver staining for the selected microsatellite panel. Results: The chickens of Ramanagara and Chamrajnagara were most distant with a Nei’s genetic distance value of 0.22. The chickens of Bangalore rural and Mysore were least distant with a value of 0.056. The Ramanagara and Chamrajnagara pair had Nei’s genetic identity value of 0.802, which is least among all pairs of ecotypes. There were five main nodes from which the six ecotypes evolved on the basis 20 microsatellite markers used in this study. This study indicates that the four ecotypes Ramnagara, Bangalore Rural, Chickaballapura and Mysore are genetically identical due to their common ancestral evolution while, Mandya and Chamrajnagara ecotypes formed a relatively different cluster due to a separate common ancestral chicken population and less number of generations since drifting from bifurcation node. Conclusion: Twenty microsatellite markers based genetic diversity study on six indigenous ecotypes indicated lower genetic distances as well as lower FST values compared to the distinguished breeds reported. There were two main clusters, which differentiated into six ecotypes. They may differentiate into more distinct varieties if bred in

  10. Identification and Selection for Salt Tolerance in Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. Ecotypes via Physiological Traits

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    Hassan MONIRIFAR

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Salt stress is a serious environmental problem throughout the world which may be partially relieved by breeding cultivars that can tolerate salt stress. Plant breeding may provide a relatively cost effective short-term solution to the salinity problem by producing cultivars able to remain productive at low to moderate levels of salinity. Five alfalfa cultivars, �Seyah-Roud�, �Ahar-Hourand�, �Oskou�, �Malekan� and �Sefida-Khan� were assessed for salt tolerance at mature plant stage. A greenhouse screening system was used to evaluate individual alfalfa plants grown in perlit medium, and irrigated with water containing different amounts of NaCl. Three salt levels were achieved by adding 0, 100 and 200 mM NaCl to Hoagland nutrient solution, respectively. Forage yield, sodium and potassium contents and K/Na ratio was determined. Also, leaf samples were analyzed for proline and chlorophyll contents. The ecotypes Seyha-Roud and �Sefida-Khan� had comparatively less sodium contents than �Oskou�, �Ahar-Hourand� and �Malekan� ecotypes, also potassium content increased under saline condition. Forage yield of different alfalfa ecotypes was significantly influenced by the salinity. The ecotypes �Malekan�, Ahar- Hourand and �Oskou� were successful in maintaining forage yield under salinity stress. Sodium contents increased due to salinity in all alfalfa ecotypes however ecotypes �Ahar-Hourand� and �Malekan� maintained the highest leaf Na concentration. They showed higher content of K than other ecotypes but had lower K/Na ratio. It was concluded that, two ecotypes �Malekan� and �Ahar-Hourand� were better.

  11. Natural variation in stomatal responses to environmental changes among Arabidopsis thaliana ecotypes.

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    Sho Takahashi

    Full Text Available Stomata are small pores surrounded by guard cells that regulate gas exchange between plants and the atmosphere. Guard cells integrate multiple environmental signals and control the aperture width to ensure appropriate stomatal function for plant survival. Leaf temperature can be used as an indirect indicator of stomatal conductance to environmental signals. In this study, leaf thermal imaging of 374 Arabidopsis ecotypes was performed to assess their stomatal responses to changes in environmental CO2 concentrations. We identified three ecotypes, Köln (Kl-4, Gabelstein (Ga-0, and Chisdra (Chi-1, that have particularly low responsiveness to changes in CO2 concentrations. We next investigated stomatal responses to other environmental signals in these selected ecotypes, with Col-0 as the reference. The stomatal responses to light were also reduced in the three selected ecotypes when compared with Col-0. In contrast, their stomatal responses to changes in humidity were similar to those of Col-0. Of note, the responses to abscisic acid, a plant hormone involved in the adaptation of plants to reduced water availability, were not entirely consistent with the responses to humidity. This study demonstrates that the stomatal responses to CO2 and light share closely associated signaling mechanisms that are not generally correlated with humidity signaling pathways in these ecotypes. The results might reflect differences between ecotypes in intrinsic response mechanisms to environmental signals.

  12. Replaying Evolution to Test the Cause of Extinction of One Ecotype in an Experimentally Evolved Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Caroline B; Blount, Zachary D; Lenski, Richard E

    2015-01-01

    In a long-term evolution experiment with Escherichia coli, bacteria in one of twelve populations evolved the ability to consume citrate, a previously unexploited resource in a glucose-limited medium. This innovation led to the frequency-dependent coexistence of citrate-consuming (Cit+) and non-consuming (Cit-) ecotypes, with Cit-bacteria persisting on the exogenously supplied glucose as well as other carbon molecules released by the Cit+ bacteria. After more than 10,000 generations of coexistence, however, the Cit-lineage went extinct; cells with the Cit-phenotype dropped to levels below detection, and the Cit-clade could not be detected by molecular assays based on its unique genotype. We hypothesized that this extinction was a deterministic outcome of evolutionary change within the population, specifically the appearance of a more-fit Cit+ ecotype that competitively excluded the Cit-ecotype. We tested this hypothesis by re-evolving the population from a frozen population sample taken within 500 generations of the extinction and from another sample taken several thousand generations earlier, in each case for 500 generations and with 20-fold replication. To our surprise, the Cit-type did not go extinct in any of these replays, and Cit-cells also persisted in a single replicate that was propagated for 2,500 generations. Even more unexpectedly, we showed that the Cit-ecotype could reinvade the Cit+ population after its extinction. Taken together, these results indicate that the extinction of the Cit-ecotype was not a deterministic outcome driven by competitive exclusion by the Cit+ ecotype. The extinction also cannot be explained by demographic stochasticity alone, as the population size of the Cit-ecotype should have been many thousands of cells even during the daily transfer events. Instead, we infer that the extinction must have been caused by a rare chance event in which some aspect of the experimental conditions was inadvertently perturbed.

  13. Replaying Evolution to Test the Cause of Extinction of One Ecotype in an Experimentally Evolved Population.

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    Caroline B Turner

    Full Text Available In a long-term evolution experiment with Escherichia coli, bacteria in one of twelve populations evolved the ability to consume citrate, a previously unexploited resource in a glucose-limited medium. This innovation led to the frequency-dependent coexistence of citrate-consuming (Cit+ and non-consuming (Cit- ecotypes, with Cit-bacteria persisting on the exogenously supplied glucose as well as other carbon molecules released by the Cit+ bacteria. After more than 10,000 generations of coexistence, however, the Cit-lineage went extinct; cells with the Cit-phenotype dropped to levels below detection, and the Cit-clade could not be detected by molecular assays based on its unique genotype. We hypothesized that this extinction was a deterministic outcome of evolutionary change within the population, specifically the appearance of a more-fit Cit+ ecotype that competitively excluded the Cit-ecotype. We tested this hypothesis by re-evolving the population from a frozen population sample taken within 500 generations of the extinction and from another sample taken several thousand generations earlier, in each case for 500 generations and with 20-fold replication. To our surprise, the Cit-type did not go extinct in any of these replays, and Cit-cells also persisted in a single replicate that was propagated for 2,500 generations. Even more unexpectedly, we showed that the Cit-ecotype could reinvade the Cit+ population after its extinction. Taken together, these results indicate that the extinction of the Cit-ecotype was not a deterministic outcome driven by competitive exclusion by the Cit+ ecotype. The extinction also cannot be explained by demographic stochasticity alone, as the population size of the Cit-ecotype should have been many thousands of cells even during the daily transfer events. Instead, we infer that the extinction must have been caused by a rare chance event in which some aspect of the experimental conditions was inadvertently perturbed.

  14. Comparison of seasonal habitat selection between threatened woodland caribou ecotypes in central British Columbia

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    Elena S. Jones

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou in British Columbia have been classified into ecotypes based on differences in use of habitat in winter. Although recovery planning focuses on ecotypes, habitat use and selection varies within ecotypes. Our objectives were to compare habitat use and selection among previously identified woodland caribou herds at the transition zone between northern (Moberly, Quintette, and Kennedy herds and mountain (Parsnip herd ecotypes in central British Columbia. We developed selection models for each herd in spring, calving, summer/fall, early and late winter. Topographic models best predicted selection by most herds in most seasons, but importance of vegetation-cover was highlighted by disproportionate use of specific vegetation-cover types by all caribou herds (e.g., in early winter, 75% of Kennedy locations were in pine-leading stands, 84% of Parsnip locations were in fir and fir-leading stands, and 87 and 96% of locations were in alpine for the Moberly and Quintette herds, respectively. Using a combination of GPS and VHF radio-collar locations, we documented some spatial overlap among herds within the year, but use of vegetation-cover types and selection of elevations, aspects, and vegetation-cover types differed among herds and within ecotypes in all seasons. Habitat use and selection were most similar between the two northern-ecotype herds residing on the eastern side of the Rocky Mountains. This research indicates that habitat use and selection by caribou herds in all seasons is more variable than ecotype classifications suggest and demonstrates the value of undertaking herd-specific mapping of critical habitat for woodland caribou.

  15. Non-symbiotic Bradyrhizobium ecotypes dominate North American forest soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanInsberghe, David; Maas, Kendra R; Cardenas, Erick; Strachan, Cameron R; Hallam, Steven J; Mohn, William W

    2015-11-01

    The genus Bradyrhizobium has served as a model system for studying host-microbe symbiotic interactions and nitrogen fixation due to its importance in agricultural productivity and global nitrogen cycling. In this study, we identify a bacterial group affiliated with this genus that dominates the microbial communities of coniferous forest soils from six distinct ecozones across North America. Representative isolates from this group were obtained and characterized. Using quantitative population genomics, we show that forest soil populations of Bradyrhizobium represent ecotypes incapable of nodulating legume root hairs or fixing atmospheric nitrogen. Instead, these populations appear to be free living and have a greater potential for metabolizing aromatic carbon sources than their close symbiotic relatives. In addition, we identify fine-scaled differentiation between populations inhabiting neighboring soil layers that illustrate how diversity within Bradyrhizobium is structured by habitat similarity. These findings reconcile incongruent observations about this widely studied and important group of bacteria and highlight the value of ecological context to interpretations of microbial diversity and taxonomy. These results further suggest that the influence of this genus likely extends well beyond facilitating agriculture, especially as forest ecosystems are large and integral components of the biosphere. In addition, this study demonstrates how focusing research on economically important microorganisms can bias our understanding of the natural world.

  16. Metabolic and biological profile of autochthonous Vitis vinifera L. ecotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Impei, Stefania; Gismondi, Angelo; Canuti, Lorena; Canini, Antonella

    2015-05-01

    Vitis vinifera L. is a plant species rich in phenolic compounds that are usually associated with the health benefits of wine and grape consumption in the diet. Anthocyanins, catechins, flavonol, phenolic acids and stilbenes are key molecular constituents of the Vitis berries, affecting the quality of grape products. The purpose of this work was to identify the metabolic profiles of 37 genetically certified V. vinifera Latial accessions. In particular, qualitative and quantitative analyses of specific secondary metabolites and total phenolic and tannin contents were performed by LC-MS and spectrophotometric analysis. In addition, since plant molecules are well-known for their free radical scavenging properties, the antioxidant effects of the sample extracts were evaluated through two different antiradical assays: DPPH and FRAP tests. Finally, a preliminary screening of the antiproliferative activity of each specimen on HCT-116 human colorectal cancer cells was conducted. All the results showed a great variety and amount of phenolic compounds in all accessions; moreover, we observed a significant correlation in the extracts between the metabolite concentration and bioactivity. Besides, some samples presented extraordinary biological effects, such as reduction of tumor cell growth not associated with cytotoxicity, supporting their use as possible future adjuvants for cancer therapy. In conclusion, the present research increased the scientific knowledge about Italian autochthonous vine ecotypes in order to valorize them and support their reintroduction in the local economic system.

  17. Rapid divergence of ecotypes of an invasive plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Avik; Ray, Rajasri

    2014-01-01

    Invasive species demonstrate rapid evolution within a very short period of time allowing one to understand the underlying mechanism(s). Lantana camara, a highly invasive plant of the tropics and subtropics, has expanded its range and successfully established itself almost throughout India. In order to uncover the processes governing the invasion dynamics, 218 individuals from various locations across India were characterized with six microsatellites. By integrating genetic data with niche modelling, we examined the effect of drift and environmental selection on genetic divergence. We found multiple genetic clusters that were non-randomly distributed across space. Spatial autocorrelation revealed a strong fine-scale structure, i.e. isolation by distance. In addition, we obtained evidence of inhibitory effects of selection on gene flow, i.e. isolation by environmental distance. Perhaps, local adaptation in response to selection is offsetting gene flow and causing the populations to diverge. Niche models suggested that temperature and precipitation play a major role in the observed spatial distribution of this plant. Based on a non-random distribution of clusters, unequal gene flow among them and different bioclimatic niche requirements, we concluded that the emergence of ecotypes represented by two genetic clusters is underway. They may be locally adapted to specific climatic conditions, and perhaps at the very early stages of ecological divergence. PMID:25165061

  18. Preparation, characterization and usage of molecularly imprinted polymer for the isolation of quercetin from hydrolyzed nettle extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaman Ersoy, Şeyda; Tütem, Esma; Sözgen Başkan, Kevser; Apak, Reşat; Nergiz, Cevdet

    2016-04-01

    Quercetin (3,3',4',5,7-pentahydroxyflavone, QC) is a health-beneficial flavonoid, widely occurring in leaves, fruits, and flowers of various plants. In this work aiming isolation, purification and pre-concentration of QC, QC imprinted polymers (QC-MIPs) in different molar ratios {template:monomer:cross-linker (1:4:20, 1:5:30, 1:8:40, 1:10:50)} were prepared thermally through bulk polymerization by using QC as the template molecule, 4-vinylpyridine (4-VP), methacrylic acid (MAA), acrylamide (AA) as the functional monomers, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EDMA) as the cross-linker and 2,2'-azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN) as initiator in the porogens of acetone and tetrahydrofuran. Their recognition and selectivity properties were investigated in solutions containing QC and other similar-structure phenolics by equilibrium binding experiments using different proportions of acetonitrile (ACN)-dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) mixtures and methanol (MeOH) as solvents. The MIP with 1:4:20 molar ratio of QC:4-VP:EDMA was established as the most suitable for recognition of QC. Sorption parameters of the MIP and the NIP (non-imprinted polymer) were calculated by using Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms with QC solutions in ACN:DMSO (98:2, v/v). The mentioned MIP was found to be highly selective for quercetin over other phenolic compounds (rutin, catechin, etc.). Thus, molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction (MISPE) procedures were applied for selective pre-concentration and purification of QC from synthetic mixtures of phenolic compounds and nettle extract, known as a source of official and folk medicine. The results demonstrated the possibility of direct extraction of certain pharmacophoric constituents such as QC and QC derivatives from nettle by MIP separation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Multiple mechanisms of heavy metal tolerance are differentially expressed in ecotypes of Artemisia fragrans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alirzayeva, Esmira; Neumann, Gunter; Horst, Walter; Allahverdiyeva, Yagut; Specht, Andre; Alizade, Valida

    2017-01-01

    Artemisia fragrans is a plant species with ability of growing on heavy metal-polluted soils. Ecotypes of this species naturally growing in polluted areas can accumulate and tolerate different amounts of heavy metals (HM), depending on soil contamination level at their origin. Heavy metal tolerance of various ecotypes collected from contaminated (AP, SP) and non-contaminated (BG) sites was compared by cultivation on a highly HM-contaminated river sediment and a non-contaminated agricultural control soil. Tissue-specific HM distribution was analyzed by laser ablation-inductively-coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy (LA-ICP-MS) and photosynthetic activity by non-invasive monitoring of chlorophyll fluorescence. Plant-mineral analysis did not reveal ecotype-differences in concentrations of Cd, Zn, Cu in shoots of Artemisia plants, suggesting no differential expression of root uptake or root to shoot translocation of HM. There was also no detectable rhizosphere effect on HM concentrations on the contaminated soil. However, despite high soil contaminations, all ecotypes accumulated Zn only in the concentration range of generally reported for normal growth of plants, while Cu and Cd concentrations were close to or even higher than the toxicity level for most plants. As a visible symptom of differences in HM tolerance, only the AP ecotype was able to enter the generative phase to complete its life cycle. Analysis of tissue-specific metal distribution revealed significantly lower concentrations of Cd in the leaf mesophyll of this ecotype, accumulating Cd mainly in the leaf petioles. A similar mesophyll exclusion was detectable also for Cu, although not associated with preferential accumulation in the leaf petioles. However, high mesophyll concentrations of Cd and Cu in the SP and BG ecotypes were associated with disturbances of the photosynthetic activity. The findings demonstrate differential expression of HM exclusion strategies in Artemisia ecotypes and suggest Cd and Cu

  20. Mismatch in the distribution of floral ecotypes and pollinators: insights into the evolution of sexually deceptive orchids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, R D; Bohman, B; Anthony, J M; Krauss, S L; Dixon, K W; Peakall, R

    2015-03-01

    Plants are predicted to show floral adaptation to geographic variation in the most effective pollinator, potentially leading to reproductive isolation and genetic divergence. Many sexually deceptive orchids attract just a single pollinator species, limiting opportunities to experimentally investigate pollinator switching. Here, we investigate Drakaea concolor, which attracts two pollinator species. Using pollinator choice tests, we detected two morphologically similar ecotypes within D. concolor. The common ecotype only attracted Zaspilothynnus gilesi, whereas the rare ecotype also attracted an undescribed species of Pogonothynnus. The rare ecotype occurred at populations nested within the distribution of the common ecotype, with no evidence of ecotypes occurring sympatrically. Surveying for pollinators at over 100 sites revealed that ecotype identity was not correlated with wasp availability, with most orchid populations only attracting the rare Z. gilesi. Using microsatellite markers, genetic differentiation among populations was very low (GST = 0.011) regardless of ecotype, suggestive of frequent gene flow. Taken together, these results may indicate that the ability to attract Pogonothynnus has evolved recently, but this ecotype is yet to spread. The nested distribution of ecotypes, rather than the more typical formation of ecotypes in allopatry, illustrates that in sexually deceptive orchids, pollinator switching could occur throughout a species' range, resulting from multiple potentially suitable but unexploited pollinators occurring in sympatry. This unusual case of sympatric pollinators highlights D. concolor as a promising study system for further understanding the process of pollinator switching from ecological, chemical and genetic perspectives. © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  1. The expanded diversity of methylophilaceae from Lake Washington through cultivation and genomic sequencing of novel ecotypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A C Beck

    Full Text Available We describe five novel Methylophilaceae ecotypes from a single ecological niche in Lake Washington, USA, and compare them to three previously described ecotypes, in terms of their phenotype and genome sequence divergence. Two of the ecotypes appear to represent novel genera within the Methylophilaceae. Genome-based metabolic reconstruction highlights metabolic versatility of Methylophilaceae with respect to methylotrophy and nitrogen metabolism, different ecotypes possessing different combinations of primary substrate oxidation systems (MxaFI-type methanol dehydrogenase versus XoxF-type methanol dehydrogenase; methylamine dehydrogenase versus N-methylglutamate pathway and different potentials for denitrification (assimilatory versus respiratory nitrate reduction. By comparing pairs of closely related genomes, we uncover that site-specific recombination is the main means of genomic evolution and strain divergence, including lateral transfers of genes from both closely- and distantly related taxa. The new ecotypes and the new genomes contribute significantly to our understanding of the extent of genomic and metabolic diversity among organisms of the same family inhabiting the same ecological niche. These organisms also provide novel experimental models for studying the complexity and the function of the microbial communities active in methylotrophy.

  2. Evaluation of Fall Planting Dates of Cumin (Cuminum cyminum L. Ecotypes in Mashhad Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Khorasani

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effects of fall planting dates on yield and yield components of six cumin (Cuminum cyminum L. ecotypes an experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design as a split-plot with three replications during 2007-08 growing season at the Agricultural Research Station of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad. Three planting dates (18 Oct. (first, 8 Nov. (second and 29 Dec. (third and six cumin ecotypes (Torbat heydarieh, Khaf, Sabzevar, Ghaen, Ghoochan and RZ19 were allocated to main and sub plots, respectively. Results showed that the effects of planting dates, ecotypes and interaction effects of planting dates and cumin ecotypes were significant for yield components (winter survival percentage, number of umbel per plant, number of seeds per umbel and 1000-seed weight and seed yield and biological yield. There was a reduction on yield components (number of umbel per plant, number of seeds per umbel and 1000-seed weight, seed yield and biological yield due to delay planting date from 18 Oct. to 29 Dec. The highest winter survival percentage was achieved on the third planting date. The highest and lowest amount for all of the traits, were achieved in Ghaen and RZ19 ecotypes, respectively. According to the useful results and for the deployment of cumin fall planting in other locations of province, continuation of this study to recommended.

  3. Geographic distribution of archaeal ammonia oxidizing ecotypes in the Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva eSintes

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In marine ecosystems, Thaumarchaeota are most likely the major ammonia oxidizers. While ammonia concentrations vary by about two orders of magnitude in the oceanic water column, archaeal ammonia oxidizers (AOA vary by only one order of magnitude from surface to bathypelagic waters. Thus, the question arises whether the key enzyme responsible for ammonia oxidation, ammonia monooxygenase (amo, exhibits different affinities to ammonia along the oceanic water column and consequently, whether there are different ecotypes of AOA present in the oceanic water column. We determined the abundance and phylogeny of archaeal ammonia oxidizers (AOA based on their amoA gene. Two ecotypes of AOA exhibited a distribution pattern reflecting the reported availability of ammonia and the physico-chemical conditions throughout the Atlantic, and from epi- to bathypelagic waters. The distinction between these two ecotypes was not only detectable at the nucleotide level. Consistent changes were also detected at the amino acid level. These changes include substitutions of polar to hydrophobic amino acid, and glycine substitutions that could have an effect on the configuration of the amo protein and thus, on its activity. Although we cannot identify the specific effect, the ratio of non-synonymous to synonymous substitutions (dN/dS between the two ecotypes indicates a strong positive selection between them. Consequently, our results point to a certain degree of environmental selection on these two ecotypes that have led to their niche specialization.

  4. Antifungal activity of nettle (Urtica dioica L.), colocynth (Citrullus colocynthis L. Schrad), oleander (Nerium oleander L.) and konar (Ziziphus spina-christi L.) extracts on plants pathogenic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadizadeh, I; Peivastegan, B; Kolahi, M

    2009-01-01

    Anti-mycotic activity of the ethanol extracts from Nettle (Urtica dioica L.), Colocynth (Citrullus colocynthis L. Schrad), Konar (Ziziphus spina-christi L.) and Oleander (Nerium oleander L.) floral parts were screened in vitro against four important plant pathogenic fungi viz.; Alternaria alternate, Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium solani and Rizoctonia solani using agar dilution bioassay. Extracts showed antifungal activity against all the tested fungi. Among the plants, Nettle and Colocynth were the most effective against A. alternate and R. solani while Oleander possesses the best inhibition on F. oxysporum and F. solani. Konar was the most effective extract by reducing the growth of Rizoctonia solani than other fungi. These results showed that extracts could be considered suitable alternatives to chemical additives for the control of fungal diseases in plants.

  5. The effect of hydro alcoholic nettle (Urtica dioica) extract on oxidative stress in patients with type 2 diabetes: a randomized double-blind clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namazi, N; Tarighat, A; Bahrami, A

    2012-01-15

    Diabetes type 2 is a metabolic disorder that characterized by hyperglycemia and insulin resistance. Hyperglycemia and impairment of oxidant/antioxidant balance, can increase oxidative stress and increase risk of cardiovascular disease. In the present study, Effects of hydro alcoholic extract of Nettle on oxidative stress in type 2 diabetes were evaluated. Fifty patients (27 men, 23 women) with type 2 diabetes patients were studied. They received 100 mg kg(-1) of nettle extract of body weight hydro alcoholic for 8 weeks. At the baseline and end of 8th weeks of intervention blood levels of oxidative stress markers were measured. Data was analyzed by SPSS version 18, p effects on TAC and SOD in patients with type 2 diabetes without no changes in Malondialdehyde (MDA) and Glutathione Peroxides (GPX) after eight weeks intervention.

  6. Agronomic, metabolomic and lipidomic characterisation of Sicilian Origanum vulgare (L.) ecotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttolomondo, Teresa; Martinelli, Federico; Mariotti, Lorenzo; Leto, Claudio; Maggio, Antonella; La Bella, Salvatore

    2016-01-01

    Although Origanum vulgare (L.) has been deeply analysed at phytochemical level, poor knowledge is available regarding non-volatile compounds such as lipids. The aim of this work was to characterise five wild Sicilian Origanum ecotypes from an agronomic, metabolomic and lipidomic perspective. Serradifalco presented higher dry weight and inflorescences/plant than the others while Favara had a significantly higher number of branches per plant and more extensive flowered stratum. Metabolomic analysis, performed with LC-MS-TOF, allowed a preliminary characterisation of the non-volatile metabolome of the five oregano ecotypes Origanum vulgare ssp. hirtum. Twenty-five metabolites were identified belonging to organic acids, amino acids, lysophosphatidylcholines, carnithines, nucleic bases and lysophosphatidylethanolamines. Lipidomic analysis identified 115 polar plant membrane glycerolipid species. Thirteen of them were differentially present in the two chosen ecotypes. The role of these metabolites in plant physiology from a qualitative and pharmacological point of view was discussed.

  7. The molecular dimension of microbial species: 1. Ecological distinctions among, and homogeneity within, putative ecotypes of Synechococcus inhabiting the cyanobacterial mat of Mushroom Spring, Yellowstone National Park

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becraft, Eric D.; Wood, Jason M.; Rusch, Douglas B.

    2015-01-01

    and transcripts over a large number of habitat types in the Mushroom Spring microbial mat. Putative ecological species [putative ecotypes (PEs)], which were predicted by an evolutionary simulation based on the Stable Ecotype Model (Ecotype Simulation), exhibited distinct distributions relative to temperature...

  8. The Effect of Interval Training and Nettle Supplement on Glycemic Control and Blood Pressure in Men WithType 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbar Ghalavand

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Exercise and herbal medicine are therapeutic approaches used to control blood sugar and blood pressure in diabetic patients. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of interval exercise and nettle supplements on blood glucose, and its role on blood pressure control in men with type 2 diabetes. Methods: In this quasi experimental study, 40 men with type 2 diabetes aged 30-50 years old who were qualified based on our inclusion criteria were chosen and randomly divided into 4 groups (interval training [IT], nettle supplement [NS], nettle supplement combined with interval training [IT+NS], and control. Blood pressure (BP and fasting blood glucose (FBS were measured at pre-test and post-test conditions. Paired sample t test and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA were used as statistical tests. Significance level was considered at P ≤ 0.05. Results: Significant differences were detected regarding FBS levels in the three experimental groups in comparison with the control group (P < 0.05. Diastolic BP of the both IT and IT+NS groups was significantly different from the control group (P < 0.05. We also detected a significant difference in the diastolic BP between the IT+NS and the control group. Conclusion: According to our results, aerobic IT and nettle supplementation are effective methods for controlling blood sugar and BP in patients with type 2 diabetes. We also showed that using the combination of the 2 methods was more effective than using the either method alone.

  9. Genome-scale cold stress response regulatory networks in ten Arabidopsis thaliana ecotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Low temperature leads to major crop losses every year. Although several studies have been conducted focusing on diversity of cold tolerance level in multiple phenotypically divergent Arabidopsis thaliana (A. thaliana) ecotypes, genome-scale molecular understanding is still lacking. Results In this study, we report genome-scale transcript response diversity of 10 A. thaliana ecotypes originating from different geographical locations to non-freezing cold stress (10°C). To analyze the transcriptional response diversity, we initially compared transcriptome changes in all 10 ecotypes using Arabidopsis NimbleGen ATH6 microarrays. In total 6061 transcripts were significantly cold regulated (p cold stress regulon genes. Significant numbers of non-synonymous amino acid changes were observed in the coding region of the CBF regulon genes. Considering the limited knowledge about regulatory interactions between transcription factors and their target genes in the model plant A. thaliana, we have adopted a powerful systems genetics approach- Network Component Analysis (NCA) to construct an in-silico transcriptional regulatory network model during response to cold stress. The resulting regulatory network contained 1,275 nodes and 7,720 connections, with 178 transcription factors and 1,331 target genes. Conclusions A. thaliana ecotypes exhibit considerable variation in transcriptome level responses to non-freezing cold stress treatment. Ecotype specific transcripts and related gene ontology (GO) categories were identified to delineate natural variation of cold stress regulated differential gene expression in the model plant A. thaliana. The predicted regulatory network model was able to identify new ecotype specific transcription factors and their regulatory interactions, which might be crucial for their local geographic adaptation to cold temperature. Additionally, since the approach presented here is general, it could be adapted to study networks regulating

  10. Callose plug deposition patterns vary in pollen tubes of Arabidopsis thaliana ecotypes and tomato species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Peng

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pollen grain contains the male gametophyte that extends a pollen tube that grows through female tissues in order to deliver sperm to the embryo sac for double fertilization. Growing pollen tubes form periodic callose plugs that are thought to block off the older parts of the tube and maintain the cytoplasm near the growing tip. The morphology of callose plugs and the patterns of their deposition were previously shown to vary among species, but variation within a species had not been examined. We therefore systematically examined callose plug deposition in Arabidopsis thaliana ecotypes, tested for heritability using reciprocal crosses between ecotypes that had differing deposition patterns, and investigated the relationship between callose plugs and pollen tube growth rate. We also surveyed callose plug deposition patterns in different species of tomato. Results We used in vitro grown pollen tubes of 14 different A. thaliana ecotypes and measured the distance from the pollen grain pore to the first callose plug (termed first interval. This distance varied among Arabidopsis ecotypes and in some cases even within an ecotype. Pollen tubes without a callose plug were shorter than those with a callose plug, and tubes with a callose plug near the grain were, on average, longer than those with the first callose plug farther from the grain. Variations in the first callose plug position were also observed between different species of tomato. Conclusions We showed that the position of the first callose plug varied among Arabidopsis ecotypes and in tomato species, and that callose plug deposition patterns were heritable. These findings lay a foundation for mapping genes that regulate callose plug deposition or that determine pollen tube length or growth rate.

  11. Phytostabilization potential of two ecotypes of Vetiveria zizanioides in cadmium-contaminated soils: greenhouse and field experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phusantisampan, Theerawut; Meeinkuirt, Weeradej; Saengwilai, Patompong; Pichtel, John; Chaiyarat, Rattanawat

    2016-10-01

    Soil contamination by cadmium (Cd) poses a serious environmental and public health concern. Phytoremediation, i.e., the use of plants to remove contaminants from soil, has been proposed for treatment of Cd-contaminated ecosystems. In this study, we demonstrated the potential of Vetiveria zizanioides, commonly known as vetiver, to serve as an effective phytoremediation agent. Two ecotypes, i.e., India and Sri Lanka, were grown in greenhouse pots and in the field. Soils were amended with cow manure, pig manure, bat manure, and an organic fertilizer. Among all amendments, pig manure performed best in both greenhouse and field studies in terms of increasing total V. zizanioides biomass production in both ecotypes. In both greenhouse and in the field, tissue of the Sri Lanka ecotype had higher Cd concentrations than did the India ecotype. In the greenhouse, the presence of Cd did not affect total biomass production or root dry weight. The Sri Lanka ecotype had 2.7 times greater adventitious root numbers and 3.6 times greater Cd accumulation in roots than did the India ecotype. In the field study, the Sri Lanka ecotype offers potential as an excluder species, as it accumulated Cd primarily in roots, with translocation factor values 1 for all experiments except for the pig manure amendment. In addition, the highest Cd concentration in the Sri Lanka ecotype root (71.3 mg kg(-1)) was consistent with highest Cd uptake (10.4 mg plant(-1)) in the cow manure treatment. The India ecotype contained lower root Cd concentrations, and Cd accumulation was slightly higher in shoots compared to roots, with translocation factor (TF) values >1. The India ecotype was therefore not considered as an excluder in the Cd-contaminated soil. With the use of excluder species combined with application of organic amendments, soil contamination by Cd may be treated by alternative remediation methods such as phytostabilization.

  12. The Effect of 8 Weeks of Aerobic Training and Consumption of Hydro-alcoholic Extract of Nettle on Apelin and hs-CRP plasma Levels of Overweight and Obese Women

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    M Madadi Jaberi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and aim: The use of exercise along with herbal supplements is one method proposed for controlling obesity and its complications. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of 8 weeks aerobic training and use of hydro-alcoholic extract of nettle on levels apelin and hs-CRP plasma in overweight and obese women. Methods: The present quasi-experimental study was conducted with blind randomized clinical trial. 46 overweight and obese women (body mass index greater than 25 kilograms per square millimeter two, aged 25-45 years were selected purposefully and randomly divided into four groups of: aerobic training + hydro alcoholic extract of nettle, aerobic exercise + placebo extract of nettle and placebo. The intervention group and placebo received 8 mg of hydro alcoholic extract of nettle 8 ml of water-soluble daily for 8 weeks respectively. Aerobic exercise ergometer for 8 weeks, 3 sessions of 16 to 30 minutes with the intensity of 60-75% heart rate was reserved. In two pre and post-test after 14 hours of fasting at the same conditions, blood samples were collected. The ELISA method was use to assess levels of plasma apelin and hs-CRP d. Data obtained were analyzed using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, ANOVA, t-test and LSD test. Results: The results showed that the levels of hs-CRP were significantly different in comparison among the groups as well as in groups of aerobic exercise + hydro alcoholic extract of nettle, nettle and hydro-alcholic aerobic exercise + placebo significant reduction was observed (p>0.05. Conclusion: It seems that consumption of Nettle extract along with aerobic exercise through Weight loss, body fat percentage and BMI, play an effective role in control of obesity and reducing of inflammatory Apelin markers and hs-CRP in obese women

  13. Population genomics of the killer whale indicates ecotype evolution in sympatry involving both selection and drift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Andre E; Kenny, John G; Chaudhuri, Roy; Hughes, Margaret A; J Welch, Andreanna; Reisinger, Ryan R; de Bruyn, P J Nico; Dahlheim, Marilyn E; Hall, Neil; Hoelzel, A Rus

    2014-11-01

    The evolution of diversity in the marine ecosystem is poorly understood, given the relatively high potential for connectivity, especially for highly mobile species such as whales and dolphins. The killer whale (Orcinus orca) has a worldwide distribution, and individual social groups travel over a wide geographic range. Even so, regional populations have been shown to be genetically differentiated, including among different foraging specialists (ecotypes) in sympatry. Given the strong matrifocal social structure of this species together with strong resource specializations, understanding the process of differentiation will require an understanding of the relative importance of both genetic drift and local adaptation. Here we provide a high-resolution analysis based on nuclear single-nucleotide polymorphic markers and inference about differentiation at both neutral loci and those potentially under selection. We find that all population comparisons, within or among foraging ecotypes, show significant differentiation, including populations in parapatry and sympatry. Loci putatively under selection show a different pattern of structure compared to neutral loci and are associated with gene ontology terms reflecting physiologically relevant functions (e.g. related to digestion). The pattern of differentiation for one ecotype in the North Pacific suggests local adaptation and shows some fixed differences among sympatric ecotypes. We suggest that differential habitat use and resource specializations have promoted sufficient isolation to allow differential evolution at neutral and functional loci, but that the process is recent and dependent on both selection and drift. © 2014 The Authors. Molecular Ecology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Genome-scale cold stress response regulatory networks in ten Arabidopsis thaliana ecotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barah, Pankaj; Jayavelu, Naresh Doni; Rasmussen, Simon

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Low temperature leads to major crop losses every year. Although several studies have been conducted focusing on diversity of cold tolerance level in multiple phenotypically divergent Arabidopsis thaliana (A. thaliana) ecotypes, genome-scale molecular understanding is still lacking. RE...

  15. Mitogenome sequence variation in migratory and stationary ecotypes of North-east Atlantic cod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsen, Bård O; Emblem, Åse; Jørgensen, Tor E; Klingan, Kevin A; Nordeide, Jarle T; Moum, Truls; Johansen, Steinar D

    2014-06-01

    Sequencing of mitochondrial gene fragments from specimens representing a wide range of geographical locations has indicated limited population structuring in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). We recently performed whole genome analysis based on next-generation sequencing of two pooled ecotype samples representing offshore migratory and inshore stationary cod from the North-east Atlantic Ocean. Here we report molecular features and variability of the 16.7kb mitogenome component that was collected from the datasets. These sequences represented more than 25 times coverage of each individual and more than 1100 times coverage of each ecotype sample. We estimated the mitogenome to have evolved 14 times more rapidly than the nuclear genome. Among the 365 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) sites identified, 121 were shared between ecotypes, and 151 and 93 were private within the migratory and stationary cod, respectively. We found 323 SNPs to be located in protein coding genes, of which 29 were non-synonymous. One synonymous site in ND2 was likely to be under positive selection. FST measurements indicated weak differentiation in ND1 and ND2 between ecotypes. We conclude that the Atlantic cod mitogenome and the nuclear genome apparently evolved by distinct evolutionary constraints, and that the reproductive isolation observed from whole genome analysis was not visible in the mtDNA sequences. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Cross-cultural and cross-ecotype production of a killer whale `excitement' call suggests universality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehn, Nicola; Filatova, Olga A.; Durban, John W.; Foote, Andrew D.

    2011-01-01

    Facial and vocal expressions of emotion have been found in a number of social mammal species and are thought to have evolved to aid social communication. There has been much debate about whether such signals are culturally inherited or are truly biologically innate. Evidence for the innateness of such signals can come from cross-cultural studies. Previous studies have identified a vocalisation (the V4 or `excitement' call) associated with high arousal behaviours in a population of killer whales in British Columbia, Canada. In this study, we compared recordings from three different socially and reproductively isolated ecotypes of killer whales, including five vocal clans of one ecotype, each clan having discrete culturally transmitted vocal traditions. The V4 call was found in recordings of each ecotype and each vocal clan. Nine independent observers reproduced our classification of the V4 call from each population with high inter-observer agreement. Our results suggest the V4 call may be universal in Pacific killer whale populations and that transmission of this call is independent of cultural tradition or ecotype. We argue that such universality is more consistent with an innate vocalisation than one acquired through social learning and may be linked to its apparent function of motivational expression.

  17. Population genomics of the killer whale indicates ecotype evolution in sympatry involving both selection and drift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Andre E; Kenny, John G; Chaudhuri, Roy; Hughes, Margaret A; J Welch, Andreanna; Reisinger, Ryan R; de Bruyn, P J Nico; Dahlheim, Marilyn E; Hall, Neil; Hoelzel, A Rus

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of diversity in the marine ecosystem is poorly understood, given the relatively high potential for connectivity, especially for highly mobile species such as whales and dolphins. The killer whale (Orcinus orca) has a worldwide distribution, and individual social groups travel over a wide geographic range. Even so, regional populations have been shown to be genetically differentiated, including among different foraging specialists (ecotypes) in sympatry. Given the strong matrifocal social structure of this species together with strong resource specializations, understanding the process of differentiation will require an understanding of the relative importance of both genetic drift and local adaptation. Here we provide a high-resolution analysis based on nuclear single-nucleotide polymorphic markers and inference about differentiation at both neutral loci and those potentially under selection. We find that all population comparisons, within or among foraging ecotypes, show significant differentiation, including populations in parapatry and sympatry. Loci putatively under selection show a different pattern of structure compared to neutral loci and are associated with gene ontology terms reflecting physiologically relevant functions (e.g. related to digestion). The pattern of differentiation for one ecotype in the North Pacific suggests local adaptation and shows some fixed differences among sympatric ecotypes. We suggest that differential habitat use and resource specializations have promoted sufficient isolation to allow differential evolution at neutral and functional loci, but that the process is recent and dependent on both selection and drift. PMID:25244680

  18. Ecotypes as a concept for exploring responses to climate change in fish assemblage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelhard, G.H.; Ellis, J.R.; Payne, M.R.; Hofstede, ter R.; Pinnegar, J.K.

    2011-01-01

    How do species-rich fish assemblages respond to climate change or to other anthropogenic or environmental drivers? To explore this, a categorization concept is presented whereby species are assigned with respect to six ecotype classifications, according to biogeography, horizontal and vertical

  19. Hybrid Sterility over Tens of Meters Between Ecotypes Adapted to Serpentine and Non-Serpentine Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonie Moyle; Levine Mia; Stanton Maureen; Jessica Wright

    2012-01-01

    The development of hybrid sterility is an important step in the process of speciation, however the role of adaptive evolution in triggering these postzygotic barriers is poorly understood. We show that, in the California endemic plant Collinsia sparsiflora ecotypic adaptation to two distinct soil types is associated with the expression of...

  20. Age And Growth Of An Ecotype Cichlid “Wesafu” In Epe Lagoon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This explain why only 5 of the 150 specimens were of the age 4+, representing only 3.33% of total specimens which raises serious conservation question and the need for domestication and aquaculture of this highly valued fish in Lagos, Nigeria. Keywords: Age and Growth, Ecotype Cichlid, Epe-Lagoon, Nigeria

  1. Seasonal adaptations to day length in ecotypes of Diorhabda spp. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) inform selection of agents against saltcedars (Tamarix spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalin, Peter; Bean, Daniel W; Dudley, Tom L; Carney, Vanessa A; Eberts, Debra; Gardner, Kevin T; Hebertson, Elizabeth; Jones, Erin N; Kazmer, David J; Michels, G J; O'Meara, Scott A; Thompson, David C

    2010-10-01

    Seasonal adaptations to daylength often limit the effective range of insects used in biological control of weeds. The leaf beetle Diorhabda carinulata (Desbrochers) was introduced into North America from Fukang, China (latitude 44° N) to control saltcedars (Tamarix spp.), but failed to establish south of 38° N latitude because of a mismatched critical daylength response for diapause induction. The daylength response caused beetles to enter diapause too early in the season to survive the duration of winter at southern latitudes. Using climate chambers, we characterized the critical daylength response for diapause induction (CDL) in three ecotypes of Diorhabda beetles originating from 36, 38, and 43° N latitudes in Eurasia. In a field experiment, the timing of reproductive diapause and voltinism were compared among ecotypes by rearing the insects on plants in the field. CDL declined with latitude of origin among Diorhabda ecotypes. Moreover, CDL in southern (42° N latitude) ecotypes, however, CDL was relatively insensitive to temperature. The southern ecotypes produced up to four generations when reared on plants in the field at sites south of 38° N, whereas northern ecotypes produced only one or two generations. The study reveals latitudinal variation in how Diorhabda ecotypes respond to daylength for diapause induction and how these responses affect insect voltinism across the introduced range.

  2. Evaluation of yield and agronomic traits of cumin (Cuminum cyminum L. ecotypes in different sowing dates at Kerman region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ghanbari

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effects of different sowing dates on yield potential of cumin ecotypes and to appoint the best sowing dates of cumin at Kerman, the present experiment was performed base on RCBD with split plot arrangement and 3 replications during growing season of 2011-2012. Different sowing dates (25th December, 9th January, 24th January, 8th February and 23th February as main plot, and different cumin ecotypes (Semnan, Fars, Yazd, Golestan, Khorasan Razavi, Khorasan Shomali, Khorasan Jonoubi, Isfahan and Kerman were used as sub plot. Effects of sowing dates were significant on all traits except number of umbel per plant. Most of the measured characteristics such as 1000-seed weight, biological, seed and straw yields and harvest index were significant among the different ecotypes. The interaction effects of sowing dates and different ecotypes were also significant on all traits except 1000-seed weight. Change in rank interaction was seen for some of the traits. According to the results, Kerman ecotype in 23rd February showed significantly the best performance in yield than other ecotypes, so considering to better response of Kerman ecotype to Kerman region, further scientific study for introducing to the farmers can be recommended in South East of Iran.

  3. AROMA PROFILE AND ANTIMICROBIAL PROPERTIES OF ALCOHOLIC AND AQUEOUS EXTRACTS FROM ROOT, LEAF AND STALK OF NETTLE (Urtica dioica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razzagh Mahmoudi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plant can be considered as a great source of new antimicrobial agents due to their enormous therapeutic potential and limited side effects. Nettle (Urtica dioica L. is a widespread and common medicinal plant widely used in traditional medicine. The present study investigates the antimicrobial potency of alcoholic and aqueous extracts of Urtica dioica on some gram positive and negative bacteria and also a particular type of fungi and analyzes the extracts to find the active ingredients by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS method. Results from disc diffusion assay indicated that water extract of root, leaf and stalk had the highest antimicrobial activity respectively and caused significant inhibition zones in P. vulgaris, L. monocytogenes and K. pneumoniae cultures. Antimicrobial efficacy of ethanol extracts was higher in root extract which caused high growth inhibition zones in P. vulgaris, K. pneumoniae and S. aureus cultures. MBC and MIC experiments of the ethanol extract illustrated that the most powerful antimicrobial effect was related to the stem organ extract on K. pnuomonae and S. aureus bacteria. Highest level of antibacterial effects in root can be due to its higher concentration of contents compared to other organs. Based on these results it can be suggested that Urtica dioica and its water and ethanol extracts have noticeable antimicrobial effects against gram negative, positive and Candida albicans fungi that may be applicable as a prophylactic or therpeutic antimicrobial agent in both human and animals.

  4. Purification and characterization of polyphenol oxidase from nettle (Urtica dioica L.) and inhibitory effects of some chemicals on enzyme activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güllçin, Ilhami; Küfrevioğlu, O Irfan; Oktay, Münir

    2005-06-01

    Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) of nettle (Urtica dioica L.) was extracted and purified through (NH4)2SO4 precipitation, dialysis, and CM-Sephadex ion-exchange chromatography and was used for its characterization. The PPO showed activity to catechol, 4-methylcatechol, L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA), L-tyrosine, p-cresol, pyrogallol, catechin and trans-cinnamic acid. For each of these eight substrates, optimum conditions such as pH and temperature were determined and L-tyrosine was found to be one of the most suitable substrates. Optimum pH and temperature were found at pH 4.5 and 30 degrees C respectively and Km and Vmax values were 7.90 x 10(-4) M, and 11290 EU/mL for with L-tyrosine as substrate. The inhibitory effect of several inhibitors, L-cysteine chloride, sodium azide, sodium cyanide, benzoic acid, salicylic acid, L-ascorbic acid, glutathione, thiourea, sodium diethyl dithiocarbamate, beta-mercaptoethanol and sodium metabisulfite were tested. The most effective was found to be sodium diethyl dithiocarbamate which acted as a competitive inhibitor with a Ki value of 1.79 x 10(-9)M. In addition one isoenzyme of PPO was detected by native polacrylamide slab gel electrophoresis.

  5. Investigating the extent of parallelism in morphological and genomic divergence among lake trout ecotypes in Lake Superior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perreault-Payette, Alysse; Muir, Andrew M; Goetz, Frederick; Perrier, Charles; Normandeau, Eric; Sirois, Pascal; Bernatchez, Louis

    2017-03-01

    Understanding the emergence of species through the process of ecological speciation is a central question in evolutionary biology which also has implications for conservation and management. Lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) is renowned for the occurrence of different ecotypes linked to resource and habitat use throughout North America. We aimed to unravel the fine genetic structure of the four lake trout ecotypes in Lake Superior. A total of 486 individuals from four sites were genotyped at 6822 filtered SNPs using RADseq technology. Our results revealed different extent of morphological and genetic differentiation within the different sites. Overall, genetic differentiation was weak but significant and was on average three times higher between sites (mean FST  = 0.016) than between ecotypes within sites (mean FST  = 0.005) indicating higher level of gene flow or a more recent shared ancestor between ecotypes within each site than between populations of the same ecotype. Evidence of divergent selection was also found between ecotypes and/or in association with morphological variation. Outlier loci found in genes related to lipid metabolism and visual acuity were of particular interest in this context of ecotypic divergence. However, we did not find clear indication of parallelism at the genomic level, despite the presence of phenotypic parallelism among some ecotypes from different sampling sites. Overall, the occurrence of different levels of both genomic and phenotypic differentiation between ecotypes within each site with several differentiated loci linked to relevant biological functions supports the presence of a continuum of divergence in lake trout. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Investigating the effects of using Nettle (Urtica dioica , Menta pulagum (Oreganum valgare and Zizaphora (Thymyus valgaris medicinal plants on performance, carcass quality, blood biochemical parameters and blood cells of broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Heydari

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of using Nettle,Menta pulagum and ‌‌Zizaphora medicinal plants on performance, carcass quality, blood biochemical parameters and blood cells of broilers. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design with 288 broilers (Ross-308 in 8 treatments and 3 replicates (with 12 birds in each replicate from 1 to 42 days and included: 1 control group without using any medicinal plants, 2 1.5% of ‌‌Nettle, 3 1.5% of Menta pulagum, 4 1.5% of Zizaphora, 5 1.5% of Nettle and Menta pulagum, 6 1.5% of  Nettle and Zizaphora, 7 1.5% of Menta pulagum and ‌‌Zizaphora, 8 1.5% of Nettle,Menta pulagum and ‌‌Zizaphora. The results showed that using these medicinal plants and their mixtures had significant effects on performance, carcass traits and blood biochemical parameters of broilers (p

  7. Adaptive responses reveal contemporary and future ecotypes in a desert shrub

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Bryce A.; Kitchen, Stanley G.; Pendleton, Rosemary L.; Pendleton, Burton K.; Germino, Matthew J.; Rehfeldt, Gerald E.; Meyer, Susan E.

    2014-01-01

    Interacting threats to ecosystem function, including climate change, wildfire, and invasive species necessitate native plant restoration in desert ecosystems. However, native plant restoration efforts often remain unguided by ecological genetic information. Given that many ecosystems are in flux from climate change, restoration plans need to account for both contemporary and future climates when choosing seed sources. In this study we analyze vegetative responses, including mortality, growth, and carbon isotope ratios in two blackbrush (Coleogyne ramosissima) common gardens that included 26 populations from a range-wide collection. This shrub occupies ecotones between the warm and cold deserts of Mojave and Colorado Plateau ecoregions in western North America. The variation observed in the vegetative responses of blackbrush populations was principally explained by grouping populations by ecoregions and by regression with site-specific climate variables. Aridity weighted by winter minimum temperatures best explained vegetative responses; Colorado Plateau sites were usually colder and drier than Mojave sites. The relationship between climate and vegetative response was mapped within the boundaries of the species–climate space projected for the contemporary climate and for the decade surrounding 2060. The mapped ecological genetic pattern showed that genetic variation could be classified into cool-adapted and warm-adapted ecotypes, with populations often separated by steep clines. These transitions are predicted to occur in both the Mojave Desert and Colorado Plateau ecoregions. While under contemporary conditions the warm-adapted ecotype occupies the majority of climate space, climate projections predict that the cool-adapted ecotype could prevail as the dominant ecotype as the climate space of blackbrush expands into higher elevations and latitudes. This study provides the framework for delineating climate change-responsive seed transfer guidelines, which are

  8. Evaluation of Freeze Tolerance in Lancelot Plantain (Plantago lanceolata L. Ecotypes under Controlled Conditions

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    M. Janalizadeh

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Lancelot Plantain (Ribwort, narrow-leaf or English plantain is a deep-rooted, short-lived perennial herb from Plantaginaceae family which has been used for various medicinal purposes for centuries, especially in Europe and only more recently has been proposed as a forage plant. The leaf of plantain is highly palatable for grazing animals, providing mineral-rich forage. Recently two productive upright cultivars of plantain have been bred and introduced, Grasslands Lancelot and the more erect winter active Ceres Tonic. Plantain grows moderately in winter but its main growth periods beings in spring and autumn with opportunistic summer growth. Although it reveals suitable winter survival in natural conditions, but there is not a lot of information about cold tolerance of this plant. So it is important to recognize the freeze tolerance of narrow leaf plantain for successful planting and utilization in cold regions such as Mashhad in Khorasan Razavi Province (Northeast of Iran. Determining LT50 point or critical temperature for survival of plant is the most reliable and simple method for evaluating cold tolerance of plants. Another reliable method for freeze tolerance of plants is estimation of temperature at which 50 % of dry matter reduces (RDMT50. This experiment was carried out to evaluate freeze tolerance of five ecotypes of Lancelot plantain according to the LT50su and RDMT50 indices. Materials and Methods In order to evaluate freeze tolerance of Lancelot plantain, a factorial experiment based on completely randomized design with three replications was carried out under controlled conditions at college of agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad. Five ecotypes of Lancelot plantain (Bojnourd, Kalat, Mashhad, Ghayen and Birjand after three months growth and hardening in natural environment were transferred to a Thermo gradient freezer on January 20th, 2012 and exposed to eight freezing temperatures (Zero, -3, -6, -9, -12, -15, -18

  9. The response of Hordeum spontaneum desert ecotype to drought and excessive light intensity is characterized by induction of O2 dependent photochemical activity and anthocyanin accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppel, Amir; Keren, Nir; Salomon, Eitan; Volis, Sergei; Rachmilevitch, Shimon

    2013-03-01

    The goal of the current research was to study the role of anthocyanin accumulation, O(2)-related photochemical processes and non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) in the response of desert and Mediterranean plants to drought and excessive light. Plants of Hordeum spontaneum were collected from Mediterranean and desert environments and were subjected to terminal drought for 25 days and then measured for PSII yield at 2 and 21% O(2), NPQ, net carbon assimilation, stomatal conductance, leaf relative water content (LRWC), anthocyanin concentration and leaf absorbance. Under terminal drought, LRWC, carbon assimilation and stomatal conductance decreased similarly and significantly in both the Mediterranean and the desert ecotypes. Anthocyanin accumulated more in the desert ecotype than in the Mediterranean ecotype. NPQ increased more in the Mediterranean ecotype as compared with the desert ecotype. PSII yield decreased significantly in the Mediterranean ecotype under drought and was much lower than in the desert ecotype under drought. The relatively high PSII yield under drought in the desert ecotype was O(2) dependent. The response of the H. spontaneum ecotype from a desert environment to drought stress was characterized by anthocyanin accumulation and induction of O(2) dependent photochemical activity, while the response of the Mediterranean ecotype was based on a higher induction of NPQ. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Novel RAD sequence data reveal a lack of genomic divergence between dietary ecotypes in a landlocked salmonid population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limborg, Morten T.; Larson, Wesley; Shedd, Kyle; Seeb, Lisa W.; Seeb, James E.

    2017-01-01

    Preservation of heritable ecological diversity within species and populations is a key challenge for managing natural resources and wild populations. Salmonid fish are iconic and socio-economically important species for commercial, aquaculture, and recreational fisheries across the globe. Many salmonids are known to exhibit ecological divergence within species, including distinct feeding ecotypes within the same lakes. Here we used 5559 SNPs, derived from RAD sequencing, to perform population genetic comparisons between two dietary ecotypes of sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) in Jo-Jo Lake, Alaska (USA). We tested the standing hypothesis that these two ecotypes are currently diverging as a result of adaptation to distinct dietary niches; results support earlier conclusions of a single panmictic population. The RAD sequence data revealed 40 new SNPs not previously detected in the species, and our sequence data can be used in future studies of ecotypic diversity in salmonid species.

  11. Qualitative and quantitative comparison of essential oil of different ecotypes of Teucrium polium grown in Lorestan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ali Mohammadian

    2012-07-01

    Conclusion: The results showed that four species of Teucrium were predominant in Lorestan province including: Teucrium orientale, Teucrium polium, Teucrium melissoides, Teucrium stocksianum. Also the results showed that Kharramabad ecotype was higher in oil yield (0.6% and number of essential compounds. The main compounds extracted in Kharramabad were: cavacrol,bicyclogermacrene, -pinene, -caryophyllene, farnesene-cis-b. So Khorramabad ecotype is suggested as a priority for production.

  12. Multigene phylogeny of the scyphozoan jellyfish family Pelagiidae reveals that the common U.S. Atlantic sea nettle comprises two distinct species (Chrysaora quinquecirrha and C. chesapeakei).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayha, Keith M; Collins, Allen G; Gaffney, Patrick M

    2017-01-01

    Species of the scyphozoan family Pelagiidae (e.g., Pelagia noctiluca, Chrysaora quinquecirrha) are well-known for impacting fisheries, aquaculture, and tourism, especially for the painful sting they can inflict on swimmers. However, historical taxonomic uncertainty at the genus (e.g., new genus Mawia) and species levels hinders progress in studying their biology and evolutionary adaptations that make them nuisance species, as well as ability to understand and/or mitigate their ecological and economic impacts. We collected nuclear (28S rDNA) and mitochondrial (cytochrome c oxidase I and 16S rDNA) sequence data from individuals of all four pelagiid genera, including 11 of 13 currently recognized species of Chrysaora. To examine species boundaries in the U.S. Atlantic sea nettle Chrysaora quinquecirrha, specimens were included from its entire range along the U.S. Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico coasts, with representatives also examined morphologically (macromorphology and cnidome). Phylogenetic analyses show that the genus Chrysaora is paraphyletic with respect to other pelagiid genera. In combined analyses, Mawia, sampled from the coast of Senegal, is most closely related to Sanderia malayensis, and Pelagia forms a close relationship to a clade of Pacific Chrysaora species (Chrysaora achlyos, Chrysaora colorata, Chrysaora fuscescens, and Chrysaora melanaster). Chrysaora quinquecirrha is polyphyletic, with one clade from the U.S. coastal Atlantic and another in U.S. Atlantic estuaries and Gulf of Mexico. These genetic differences are reflected in morphology, e.g., tentacle and lappet number, oral arm length, and nematocyst dimensions. Caribbean sea nettles (Jamaica and Panama) are genetically similar to the U.S. Atlantic estuaries and Gulf of Mexico clade of Chrysaora quinquecirrha. Our phylogenetic hypothesis for Pelagiidae contradicts current generic definitions, revealing major disagreements between DNA-based and morphology-based phylogenies. A paraphyletic Chrysaora

  13. Does stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) have an effect on bone formation in the expanded inter-premaxillary suture?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irgin, Celal; Çörekçi, Bayram; Ozan, Fatih; Halicioğlu, Koray; Toptaş, Orçun; Birinci Yildirim, Arzu; Türker, Arzu; Yilmaz, Fahri

    2016-09-01

    To determine whether systemically given stinging nettle (SN) has an effect on bone formation in response to expansion of the rat inter-premaxillary suture. A total of 28 male Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into 4 equal groups: control (C), only expansion (OE), SN extract given only during the expansion and retention periods (SN group; a total of 17days), and SN extract given during the nursery phase before expansion (a period of 40days) and during the expansion and retention periods (N+SN group; a total of 57days). After the 5-day expansion period was completed, the rats in the OE, SN, and N+SN groups underwent 12days of mechanical retention, after which they were sacrificed, and their premaxilla were dissected and fixed. A histologic evaluation was done to determine the number of osteoblasts, osteoclasts, and capillaries, as well as the number and intensity of inflammatory cells and new bone formation. Statistically significant differences were found between the groups in all histologic parameters except the ratio of intensities of inflammatory cells. New bone formation and the number of capillaries were significantly higher in the SN groups than in the other groups. The statistical analysis also showed that the numbers of osteoblasts, osteoclasts, and capillaries were highest in the N+SN group. Systemic administration of SN may be effective in accelerating new bone formation and reducing inflammation in the maxillary expansion procedure. It may also be beneficial in preventing relapse after the expansion procedure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of Pb toxicity on the growth and physiology of two ecotypes of Elsholtzia argyi and its alleviation by Zn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Ejazul; Liu, Dan; Li, Tingqiang; Yang, Xiaoe; Jin, Xiaofen; Khan, Muhammad Athar; Mahmood, Qaisar; Hayat, Yousaf; Imtiaz, Muhammad

    2011-08-01

    Hydroponics experiments were conducted to underpin the nature of interactions between Zn, an essential micronutrient and Pb, a nonessential element on plant growth and root morphology, as well as antioxidant adaptation in mined ecotype (ME) and nonmined ecotype (NME) of Elsholtzia argyi. Plants were exposed to 50 μM Pb having normal Zn (0.5 μM), and two other treatments of the same Pb with low (0.05 μM) and high (20 μM) Zn, respectively for 12 days. Application of Pb with normal Zn caused adverse effects on the overall growth and antioxidant capacity of both ecotypes, however; effects were more pronounced in NME. The addition of high Zn along with Pb improved the growth and antioxidant capacity of both the ecotypes, while low Zn failed to show significant changes in NME plants; however slightly aggravated the Pb toxicity in the plants of ME. Zinc antagonized Pb concentrations in root and stem of both ecotypes and leaf of ME, while no significant differences were noted in Pb concentrations of NME leaf. It is suggested that in E. argyi, mechanisms of Pb and Zn uptake and translocation as well as their interactions within the plant cell may be different for both ecotypes and need to be further investigated. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Understanding the Spatially Variable Effects of Climate Change on Rice Yield for Three Ecotypes in Bangladesh, 1981–2010

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    Iffat Ara

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate change will impact on rice food security in many parts of the world, including Bangladesh. Little attention has been given to understanding the impact of climate on rice yield for three main ecotypes (Aus, Aman, and Boro in different areas of the country. The aim of this paper was to analyse the spatiotemporal dynamics of rice yield and climatic variables and the spatially variable climate effects on rice yield for these ecotypes in Bangladesh during 1981–2010 by employing linear mixed models and generalized linear models. The results demonstrated the substantial spatiotemporal variations of rice yield for all ecotypes across the country. Rice yield for ecotypes was more susceptible to temperature changes than rainfall effects. Modelling of a 1°C temperature increase in the country showed strong regional differences in rice yield for these ecotypes. The study concludes that future temperature changes are likely to change regional rice yield for all ecotypes and hence impact food security. The results have important consequences for food security by indicating the need for appropriate region-specific adaptation measures to reduce rice yield variability in the future. The results show the need to consider spatial differences for policy development to improve food security in Bangladesh.

  16. Genome-culture coevolution promotes rapid divergence of killer whale ecotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foote, Andrew D; Vijay, Nagarjun; Ávila-Arcos, María C; Baird, Robin W; Durban, John W; Fumagalli, Matteo; Gibbs, Richard A; Hanson, M Bradley; Korneliussen, Thorfinn S; Martin, Michael D; Robertson, Kelly M; Sousa, Vitor C; Vieira, Filipe G; Vinař, Tomáš; Wade, Paul; Worley, Kim C; Excoffier, Laurent; Morin, Phillip A; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Wolf, Jochen B W

    2016-05-31

    Analysing population genomic data from killer whale ecotypes, which we estimate have globally radiated within less than 250,000 years, we show that genetic structuring including the segregation of potentially functional alleles is associated with socially inherited ecological niche. Reconstruction of ancestral demographic history revealed bottlenecks during founder events, likely promoting ecological divergence and genetic drift resulting in a wide range of genome-wide differentiation between pairs of allopatric and sympatric ecotypes. Functional enrichment analyses provided evidence for regional genomic divergence associated with habitat, dietary preferences and post-zygotic reproductive isolation. Our findings are consistent with expansion of small founder groups into novel niches by an initial plastic behavioural response, perpetuated by social learning imposing an altered natural selection regime. The study constitutes an important step towards an understanding of the complex interaction between demographic history, culture, ecological adaptation and evolution at the genomic level.

  17. Medicago truncatula ecotypes A17 and R108 differed in their response to iron deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gen; Wang, Baolan; Tian, Qiuying; Wang, Tianzuo; Zhang, Wen-Hao

    2014-05-01

    Medicago truncatula Gaertn is a model legume species with a wide genetic diversity. To evaluate the responses of the two M. truncatula ecotypes, the effect of Fe deficiency on ecotype A17 and ecotype R108, which have been widely used in physiological and molecular studies, was investigated. A greater reduction in shoot Fe concentration of R108 plants than that of A17 plants was observed under Fe-deficient conditions. Exposure to Fe-deficient medium led to a greater increase in ferric chelate reductase (FCR) activity in roots of A17 than those of R108 plants, while expression of genes encoding FCR in roots of A17 and R108 plants was similarly up-regulated by Fe deficiency. Exposure of A17 plants to Fe-deficient medium evoked an ethylene evolution from roots, while the same treatment had no effect on ethylene evolution from R108 roots. There was a significant increase in expression of MtIRT encoding a Fe transporter in A17, but not in R108 plants, upon exposure to Fe-deficient medium. Transcripts of MtFRD3 that is responsible for loading of iron chelator citrate into xylem were up-regulated by Fe deficiency in A17, but not in R108 plants. These results suggest that M. truncatula ecotypes A17 and R108 differed in their response and adaptation to Fe deficiency, and that ethylene may play an important role in regulation of greater tolerance of A17 plant to Fe deficiency. These findings provide important clues for further elucidation of molecular mechanism by which legume plants respond and adapt to low soil Fe availability. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Antioxidant Capacity In Vitro and In Vivo of Various Ecotypes of Mexican Plum (Spondias purpurea L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa-Hernández, Juan Manuel; Mendoza-Cardoso, Gabriela; Mendoza-Espinoza, José Alberto; Vela-Hinojosa, Cristián; Díaz de León-Sánchez, Fernando; Rivera-Cabrera, Fernando; Alia-Tejacal, Irán; Pérez-Flores, Laura J

    2017-11-01

    Spondias purpurea L. is a fruit native to Mexico, however, it is found as far away as Brazil. It possesses a high commercial potential owing to its sensorial and nutritional qualities and its low cost of production. There exists a variety of ecotypes that have not been characterized and their adequate selection process, according to their strongest functional characteristics, will allow the establishment of improvement programs for this genetic resource. The object of this study was the chemical characterization and the determination of the in vitro and in vivo antioxidant capacity of 7 Spondias purpurea L. ecotypes. Differences were observed in the antioxidant capacity and the content of functional compounds among all the ecotypes analyzed. A high total phenolic content and a low flavonoid and carotenoid content were found, both in the epicarp and in the pulp. In each ecotype, the hydrophilic phase presented up to 40 times greater antioxidant capacity compared to the lipophilic phase. The hydrophilic phase of the epicarp of "Costeña Tierra Colorada" had the greatest antioxidant capacity and highest total phenolic content, whereas "Jocote" presented the lowest antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content. A positive correlation was observed between phenol levels and the antioxidant capacity in the epicarp. Regarding antioxidant activity in vivo, it was observed that in all analyzed concentrations of hydrophilic extracts of the epicarp of "Costeña Tierra Colorada" and in the highest "Jocote" concentrations, they provided thermo-protection against heat stress as well as a general well-being to the worm as evidenced by their high mobility. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  19. Ecotype dependent expression and alternative splicing of epithiospecifier protein (ESP) in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissen, R; Hyldbakk, E; Wang, C-W V; Sørmo, C G; Rossiter, J T; Bones, A M

    2012-03-01

    Epithiospecifier protein (ESP) is responsible for diverting glucosinolate hydrolysis from the generation of isothiocyanates to that of epithionitriles or nitriles, and thereby negatively affects the ability of the plant to defend itself against certain insects. Despite this important role of ESP, little is known about its expression in plant tissues and the regulation thereof. We therefore investigated ESP expression by qPCR and Western blot in different organs during the growth cycle of the two Arabidopsis thaliana ecotypes Col-0 and Mt-0. Besides the fact that ESP transcript and protein levels were revealed to be much higher in Mt-0 than in Col-0 in all cases, our qPCR results also indicated that ESP expression is regulated differently in the two A. thaliana ecotypes. No ESP protein was detected by Western blot in any organ or developmental stage for Col-0. During the assays an alternative splice variant of ESP was identified in Col-0, but not Mt-0, leading to a mis-spliced transcript which could explain the low expression levels of ESP in the former ecotype. Analysis of genomic sequences containing the ESP splice sites, of ESP protein level and ESP activity from seven A. thaliana ecotypes showed a positive correlation between the presence of a non-canonical 5' splice site for ESP and the absence of detectable ESP protein levels and ESP activity. When analysing the expression of both transcript variants in Col-0 after treatment with methyl jasmonate, a condition known to "induce ESP", it was indeed the alternative splice variant that was preferentially induced.

  20. Scaling-up permafrost thermal measurements in western Alaska using an ecotype approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. L. Cable

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Permafrost temperatures are increasing in Alaska due to climate change and in some cases permafrost is thawing and degrading. In areas where degradation has already occurred the effects can be dramatic, resulting in changing ecosystems, carbon release, and damage to infrastructure. However, in many areas we lack baseline data, such as subsurface temperatures, needed to assess future changes and potential risk areas. Besides climate, the physical properties of the vegetation cover and subsurface material have a major influence on the thermal state of permafrost. These properties are often directly related to the type of ecosystem overlaying permafrost. In this paper we demonstrate that classifying the landscape into general ecotypes is an effective way to scale up permafrost thermal data collected from field monitoring sites. Additionally, we find that within some ecotypes the absence of a moss layer is indicative of the absence of near-surface permafrost. As a proof of concept, we used the ground temperature data collected from the field sites to recode an ecotype land cover map into a map of mean annual ground temperature ranges at 1 m depth based on analysis and clustering of observed thermal regimes. The map should be useful for decision making with respect to land use and understanding how the landscape might change under future climate scenarios.

  1. Diversity of Ralstonia solanacearum in French Guiana expands knowledge of the "emerging ecotype".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deberdt, P; Guyot, J; Coranson-Beaudu, R; Launay, J; Noreskal, M; Rivière, P; Vigné, F; Laplace, D; Lebreton, L; Wicker, E

    2014-06-01

    Although bacterial wilt remains a major plant disease throughout South America and the Caribbean, the diversity of prevalent Ralstonia solanacearum populations is largely unknown. The genetic and phenotypic diversity of R. solanacearum strains in French Guiana was assessed using diagnostic polymerase chain reactions and sequence-based (egl and mutS) genotyping on a 239-strain collection sampled on the families Solanaceae and Cucurbitaceae, revealing an unexpectedly high diversity. Strains were distributed within phylotypes I (46.9%), IIA (26.8%), and IIB (26.3%), with one new endoglucanase sequence type (egl ST) found within each group. Phylotype IIB strains consisted mostly (97%) of strains with the emerging ecotype (IIB/sequevar 4NPB). Host range of IIB/4NPB strains from French Guiana matched the original emerging reference strain from Martinique. They were virulent on cucumber; virulent and highly aggressive on tomato, including the resistant reference Hawaii 7996; and only controlled by eggplant SM6 and Surya accessions. The emerging ecotype IIB/4NPB is fully established in French Guiana in both cultivated fields and uncultivated forest, rendering the hypothesis of introduction via ornamental or banana cuttings unlikely. Thus, this ecotype may have originated from the Amazonian region and spread throughout the Caribbean region.

  2. Trans-oceanic genomic divergence of Atlantic cod ecotypes is associated with large inversions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, P R; Star, B; Pampoulie, C; Bradbury, I R; Bentzen, P; Hutchings, J A; Jentoft, S; Jakobsen, K S

    2017-12-01

    Chromosomal rearrangements such as inversions can play a crucial role in maintaining polymorphism underlying complex traits and contribute to the process of speciation. In Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua), inversions of several megabases have been identified that dominate genomic differentiation between migratory and nonmigratory ecotypes in the Northeast Atlantic. Here, we show that the same genomic regions display elevated divergence and contribute to ecotype divergence in the Northwest Atlantic as well. The occurrence of these inversions on both sides of the Atlantic Ocean reveals a common evolutionary origin, predating the >100 000-year-old trans-Atlantic separation of Atlantic cod. The long-term persistence of these inversions indicates that they are maintained by selection, possibly facilitated by coevolution of genes underlying complex traits. Our data suggest that migratory behaviour is derived from more stationary, ancestral ecotypes. Overall, we identify several large genomic regions-each containing hundreds of genes-likely involved in the maintenance of genomic divergence in Atlantic cod on both sides of the Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Counteracting selective regimes and host preference evolution in ecotypes of two species of walking-sticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval, C P; Nosil, P

    2005-11-01

    The evolution of ecological specialization has been a central topic in ecology because specialized adaptations to divergent environments can result in reproductive isolation and facilitate speciation. However, the order in which different aspects of habitat adaptation and habitat preference evolve is unclear. Timema walking-stick insects feed and mate on the host plants on which they rest. Previous studies of T. cristinae ecotypes have documented divergent, host-specific selection from visual predators and the evolution of divergent host and mate preferences between populations using different host-plant species (Ceanothus or Adenostoma). Here we present new data that show that T. podura, a nonsister species of T. cristinae, has also formed ecotypes on these host genera and that in both species these ecotypes exhibit adaptive divergence in color-pattern and host preference. Color-pattern morphs exhibit survival trade-offs on different hosts due to differential predation. In contrast, fecundity trade-offs on different hosts do not occur in either species. Thus, host preference in both species has evolved before divergent physiological adaptation but in concert with morphological adaptations. Our results shed light onto which traits are involved in the initial stages of ecological specialization and ecologically based reproductive isolation.

  4. Scaling-up permafrost thermal measurements in western Alaska using an ecotype approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cable, William L.; Romanovsky, Vladimir E.; Torre Jorgenson, M.

    2016-10-01

    Permafrost temperatures are increasing in Alaska due to climate change and in some cases permafrost is thawing and degrading. In areas where degradation has already occurred the effects can be dramatic, resulting in changing ecosystems, carbon release, and damage to infrastructure. However, in many areas we lack baseline data, such as subsurface temperatures, needed to assess future changes and potential risk areas. Besides climate, the physical properties of the vegetation cover and subsurface material have a major influence on the thermal state of permafrost. These properties are often directly related to the type of ecosystem overlaying permafrost. In this paper we demonstrate that classifying the landscape into general ecotypes is an effective way to scale up permafrost thermal data collected from field monitoring sites. Additionally, we find that within some ecotypes the absence of a moss layer is indicative of the absence of near-surface permafrost. As a proof of concept, we used the ground temperature data collected from the field sites to recode an ecotype land cover map into a map of mean annual ground temperature ranges at 1 m depth based on analysis and clustering of observed thermal regimes. The map should be useful for decision making with respect to land use and understanding how the landscape might change under future climate scenarios.

  5. The molecular dimension of microbial species: 1. Ecological distinctions among, and homogeneity within, putative ecotypes of Synechococcus inhabiting the cyanobacterial mat of Mushroom Spring, Yellowstone National Park

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    Eric Daniel Becraft

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on the Stable Ecotype Model, evolution leads to the divergence of ecologically distinct populations (e.g., with different niches and/or behaviors of ecologically interchangeable membership. In this study, pyrosequencing was used to provide deep sequence coverage of Synechococcus psaA genes and transcripts over a large number of habitat types in the Mushroom Spring microbial mat. Putative ecological species (putative ecotypes, which were predicted by an evolutionary simulation based on the Stable Ecotype Model (Ecotype Simulation, exhibited distinct distributions relative to temperature-defined positions in the effluent channel and vertical position in the upper 1 mm-thick mat layer. Importantly, in most cases variants predicted to belong to the same putative ecotype formed unique clusters relative to temperature and depth in the mat in canonical correspondence analysis, supporting the hypothesis that while the putative ecotypes are ecologically distinct, the members of each ecotype are ecologically homogeneous. Putative ecotypes responded differently to experimental perturbations of temperature and light, but the genetic variation within each putative ecotype was maintained as the relative abundances of putative ecotypes changed, further indicating that each population responded as a set of ecologically interchangeable individuals. Compared to putative ecotypes that predominate deeper within the mat photic zone, the timing of transcript abundances for selected genes differed for putative ecotypes that predominate in microenvironments closer to upper surface of the mat with spatiotemporal differences in light and O2 concentration. All of these findings are consistent with the hypotheses that Synechococcus species in hot spring mats are sets of ecologically interchangeable individuals that are differently adapted, that these adaptations control their distributions, and that the resulting distributions constrain the activities of the species

  6. Evaluating Ecotypes as a means of Scaling-up Permafrost Thermal Measurements in Western Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cable, William; Romanovsky, Vladimir

    2015-04-01

    In many regions, permafrost temperatures are increasing due to climate change and in some cases permafrost is thawing and degrading. In areas where degradation has already occurred the effects can be dramatic, resulting in changing ecosystems, carbon release, and damage to infrastructure. Yet in many areas we lack baseline data, such as subsurface temperatures, needed to assess future changes and potential risk areas. Besides climate, the physical properties of the vegetation cover and subsurface material have a major influence on the thermal state of permafrost. These properties are often directly related to the type of ecosystem overlaying permafrost. Thus, classifying the landscape into general ecotypes might be an effective way to scale up permafrost thermal data. To evaluate using ecotypes as a way of scaling-up permafrost thermal data within a region we selected an area in Western Alaska, the Selawik National Wildlife Refuge, which is on the boundary between continuous and discontinuous permafrost. This region was selected because previously an ecological land classification had been conducted and a very high-resolution ecotype map was generated. Using this information we selected 18 spatially distributed sites covering the most abundant ecotypes, where we are collecting low vertical resolution soil temperature data to a depth of 1.5 meters at most sites. At three additional core sites, we are collecting air temperature, snow depth, and high vertical resolution soil temperature to a depth of 3 meters. The sites were installed in the summers of 2011 and 2012; consequently, we have at least two years of data from all sites. Mean monthly and mean annual air temperature and snow depth for all three core sites are similar within the 2012-2014 period. Additionally, the average air temperature and snow depth from our three cores sites compares well with that of a nearby meteorological station for which long-term data is available. During the study period snow depth

  7. Modeling the accumulation of As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in grasses (Agrotis sp. and Poa sp. and stinging nettle (Urtica dioica on selected sites taking into account soil physico-chemical properties

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    Boshoff M. C.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The effect of soil properties on the accumulation of metals in two vegetation types was evaluated at 10 sites with a wide variation in soil physicochemical properties pH, organic carbon, clay percentage , total soil metal concentration and exchangeable soil metal content. Accumulation modeling was conducted for grasses (Agrostis sp. and Poa sp. and stinging nettle (Urtica dioica.

  8. Modeling the accumulation of As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in grasses (Agrotis sp. and Poa sp. and stinging nettle (Urtica dioica on selected sites taking into account soil physico-chemical properties

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    Boshoff M.C.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of soil properties on the accumulation of metals in two vegetation types was evaluated at 10 sites with a wide variation in soil physicochemical properties pH, organic carbon, clay percentage , total soil metal concentration and exchangeable soil metal content. Accumulation modeling was conducted for grasses (Agrostis sp. and Poa sp. and stinging nettle (Urtica dioica.

  9. Moderate Drought Stress Induces Increased Foliar Dimethylsulphoniopropionate (DMSP Concentration and Isoprene Emission in Two Contrasting Ecotypes of Arundo donax

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    Matthew Haworth

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The function of dimethylsulphoniopropionate (DMSP in plants is unclear. It has been proposed as an antioxidant, osmolyte and overflow for excess energy under stress conditions. The formation of DMSP is part of the methionine (MET pathway that is involved in plant stress responses. We used a new analytical approach to accurately quantify the changes in DMSP concentration that occurred in two ecotypes of the biomass crop Arundo donax subject to moderate drought stress under field conditions. The ecotypes of A. donax were from a hot semi-arid habitat in Morocco and a warm-humid environment in Central Italy. The Moroccan ecotype showed more pronounced reductions in photosynthesis, stomatal conductance and photochemical electron transport than the Italian ecotype. An increase in isoprene emission occurred in both ecotypes alongside enhanced foliar concentrations of DMSP, indicative of a protective function of these two metabolites in the amelioration of the deleterious effects of excess energy and oxidative stress. This is consistent with the modification of carbon within the methyl-erythritol and MET pathways responsible for increased synthesis of isoprene and DMSP under moderate drought. The results of this study indicate that DMSP is an important adaptive component of the stress response regulated via the MET pathway in A. donax. DMSP is likely a multifunctional molecule playing a number of roles in the response of A. donax to reduced water availability.

  10. Oxidative stability of the meat of broilers supplemented with rosemary leaves, rosehip fruits, chokeberry pomace, and entire nettle, and effects on performance and meat quality.

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    Loetscher, Y; Kreuzer, M; Messikommer, R E

    2013-11-01

    Prevention of lipid oxidation needs special attention because a high proportion of fatty acids in broiler meat are unsaturated. A feeding experiment was conducted to evaluate the antioxidant effect of dietary addition of rosemary, chokeberry pomace, rosehip, or nettle in comparison with vitamin E. Male Ross PM3 broilers caged in groups of 6 (4 replicated cages per treatment) were fed a balanced diet supplemented with 25 g/kg of herbal additive, 200 IU of α-tocopheryl acetate/kg, or without supplementation from d 7 to 35. Intake, performance, and with the help of excreta samples, apparent fiber digestibility, ME content, and metabolizability of nitrogen and energy were recorded per cage. Feed was analyzed for total phenols and tocopherols. In each bird (n = 24 per treatment), carcass weight and relative organ weights were recorded, and skin and liver color were assessed. Abdominal fat was analyzed for induction time (h) of lipid oxidation (Rancimat). Breast meat was analyzed for total tocopherol content (mg/kg) and development of TBA reactive substances (TBARS; μg of MDA/kg) over 9 d of storage. Data were subjected to ANOVA considering treatment and, where applicable, storage time. Rosemary supplementation reduced oxidation (TBARS d 9: 201; induction time: 2.48) and elevated tocopherol content (5.72) of the meat compared with control (470, 1.87, and 3.53, respectively). Rosemary-treated birds had a slightly lower carcass weight and a reduced nitrogen and energy metabolizability. Rosehip addition numerically decreased TBARS (319) and enhanced carcass weight (1.71 kg) compared with rosemary-treated birds (1.54 kg). Only a trend in antioxidant activity could be ascribed to chokeberry pomace, although dietary phenolic content was highest. Nettle did not improve oxidative stability (TBARS: 506; induction time: 1.91), although tocopherol content was elevated (6.51). Nettle treatment strongly intensified skin yellowness (b* of 20.6) compared with the control treatment

  11. Ecotypic differences in the phenology of the tundra speciesEriophorum vaginatumreflect sites of origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Thomas C; Tang, Jianwu; Clark, Mahalia B; Moody, Michael M; Fetcher, Ned

    2017-11-01

    Eriophorum vaginatum is a tussock-forming sedge that contributes significantly to the structure and primary productivity of moist acidic tussock tundra. Locally adapted populations (ecotypes) have been identified across the geographical distribution of E. vaginatum ; however, little is known about how their growth and phenology differ over the course of a growing season. The growing season is short in the Arctic and therefore exerts a strong selection pressure on tundra species. This raises the hypothesis that the phenology of arctic species may be poorly adapted if the timing and length of the growing season change. Mature E. vaginatum tussocks from across a latitudinal gradient (65-70°N) were transplanted into a common garden at a central location (Toolik Lake, 68°38'N, 149°36'W) where half were warmed using open-top chambers. Over two growing seasons (2015 and 2016), leaf length was measured weekly to track growth rates, timing of senescence, and biomass accumulation. Growth rates were similar across ecotypes and between years and were not affected by warming. However, southern populations accumulated significantly more biomass, largely because they started to senesce later. In 2016, peak biomass and senescence of most populations occurred later than in 2015, probably induced by colder weather at the beginning of the growing season in 2016, which caused a delayed start to growth. The finish was delayed as well. Differences in phenology between populations were largely retained between years, suggesting that the amount of time that these ecotypes grow has been selected by the length of the growing seasons at their respective home sites. As potential growing seasons lengthen, E. vaginatum may be unable to respond appropriately as a result of genetic control and may have reduced fitness in the rapidly warming Arctic tundra.

  12. Heart rate and ventilation in Antarctic fishes are largely determined by ecotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, H; Davison, W; Fraser, K P P; Peck, L S; Egginton, S

    2009-02-01

    Extrinsic neural and humoral influences on heart rate (fH) and ventilation frequency (fV) were examined following varying periods of post-surgical recovery in eight related Antarctic fish species inhabiting an array of inshore niches. Resting fH after recovery from handling was lower than previous reports, and the novel measurement of routine fH in free-swimming Dissostichus mawsoni (6.14 beats min(-1), bpm) is the lowest recorded for any fish. The extent of cardio-depressive cholinergic (vagal) tonus explained the large range of fH among species and varied with behavioural repertoire, being lower in the more active species, apart from Notothenia coriiceps. Adrenergic tonus was low compared with cholinergic tonus, with the exception of Trematomus newnesi. Hence, high cardiac cholinergic tonus may be a genotypic trait of the notothenioids that diverged with ecotype. Power spectral analysis showed that the vagal influence produced comparable spectra among species of similar morphology and ecotype. Removal of autonomic tonus resulted in a remarkably similar intrinsic fH between species. Simultaneous measurements of cardio-respiratory variables and oxygen consumption (M(O(2))) were made in the benthic Trematomus bernacchii and cryopelagic Pagothenia borchgrevinki. The slopes of the relationship between fH and M(O(2)) were similar. Trematomus bernacchii, however, had a higher M(O(2)) for a given fH than P. borchgrevinki, and P. borchgrevinki required a two-fold larger range in fH to reach a similar maximum M(O(2)), suggesting that there is a difference in cardiovascular fitness between the two species. Overall, the data suggest that cardio-respiratory control in Antarctic nototheniids is largely determined by activity levels associated with a given ecotype.

  13. Ecotype variability in growth and secondary metabolite profile in Moringa oleifera: impact of sulfur and water availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Förster, Nadja; Ulrichs, Christian; Schreiner, Monika; Arndt, Nick; Schmidt, Reinhard; Mewis, Inga

    2015-03-25

    Moringa oleifera is widely cultivated in plantations in the tropics and subtropics. Previous cultivation studies with M. oleifera focused primarily only on leaf yield. In the present study, the content of potentially health-promoting secondary metabolites (glucosinolates, phenolic acids, and flavonoids) were also investigated. Six different ecotypes were grown under similar environmental conditions to identify phenotypic differences that can be traced back to the genotype. The ecotypes TOT4880 (origin USA) and TOT7267 (origin India) were identified as having the best growth performance and highest secondary metabolite production, making them an ideal health-promoting food crop. Furthermore, optimal cultivation conditions-exemplarily on sulfur fertilization and water availability-for achieving high leaf and secondary metabolite yields were investigated for M. oleifera. In general, plant biomass and height decreased under water deficiency compared to normal cultivation conditions, whereas the glucosinolate content increased. The effects depended to a great extent on the ecotype.

  14. Comparison of proteomic and metabolomic profiles of two contrasting ecotypes of sweetpotato (Ipomoea batata L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekhar, Shubhendu; Mishra, Divya; Gayali, Saurabh; Buragohain, Alak Kumar; Chakraborty, Subhra; Chakraborty, Niranjan

    2016-06-30

    Sweetpotato has long been acknowledged as a significant contributor of global caloric needs, which continues to be of remarkable economic value. It is an important staple and emergency food in many countries and its annual world production hovers to about 130 million tons. The tubers act as sink and compete for the available photoassimilates eventually leading to the acquisition of nutrients and phytochemicals. Differential display of genes or gene-products, and metabolites causes differences in nutritive value of closely related ecotypes. To better understand the molecular basis for differential nutrient availability and phytochemicals, and exploit the natural genetic variation(s), we aimed at developing proteometabolic profiles of two contrasting ecotypes of sweetpotato. Proteomic analyses led to the identification of 1541 and 1201 proteins in orange fleshed and white fleshed sweetpotato ecotypes, respectively, presumably associated with binding, followed by catalytic, transferase, hydrolase, kinase and transporter activities. Furthermore, metabolome profiling revealed 148 and 126 metabolites in cv. OFSP and WFSP, respectively. This study would provide a basis for future comparative proteometabolomic efforts for sweetpotato, in particular and tuber crops in general. The results would expand our understanding of the proteome as well as metabolome and give new insights into how ecotype-specific traits are developed. Sweetpotato, the potato of the tropics, is the seventh most important crop worldwide in terms of production for food and additional industrial resources. Over 95% of the global sweet potato is produced in developing countries where it is considered as emergency food. It is also a vegetable, a snack food and confectionery item in most countries. It greatly contributes as a phytochemical source of nutrition and can produce more edible energy per hectare per day than wheat or rice. The adaptability to a wide range of agroecological conditions with least

  15. Multigene phylogeny of the scyphozoan jellyfish family Pelagiidae reveals that the common U.S. Atlantic sea nettle comprises two distinct species (Chrysaora quinquecirrha and C. chesapeakei

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    Keith M. Bayha

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Species of the scyphozoan family Pelagiidae (e.g., Pelagia noctiluca, Chrysaora quinquecirrha are well-known for impacting fisheries, aquaculture, and tourism, especially for the painful sting they can inflict on swimmers. However, historical taxonomic uncertainty at the genus (e.g., new genus Mawia and species levels hinders progress in studying their biology and evolutionary adaptations that make them nuisance species, as well as ability to understand and/or mitigate their ecological and economic impacts. Methods We collected nuclear (28S rDNA and mitochondrial (cytochrome c oxidase I and 16S rDNA sequence data from individuals of all four pelagiid genera, including 11 of 13 currently recognized species of Chrysaora. To examine species boundaries in the U.S. Atlantic sea nettle Chrysaora quinquecirrha, specimens were included from its entire range along the U.S. Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico coasts, with representatives also examined morphologically (macromorphology and cnidome. Results Phylogenetic analyses show that the genus Chrysaora is paraphyletic with respect to other pelagiid genera. In combined analyses, Mawia, sampled from the coast of Senegal, is most closely related to Sanderia malayensis, and Pelagia forms a close relationship to a clade of Pacific Chrysaora species (Chrysaora achlyos, Chrysaora colorata, Chrysaora fuscescens, and Chrysaora melanaster. Chrysaora quinquecirrha is polyphyletic, with one clade from the U.S. coastal Atlantic and another in U.S. Atlantic estuaries and Gulf of Mexico. These genetic differences are reflected in morphology, e.g., tentacle and lappet number, oral arm length, and nematocyst dimensions. Caribbean sea nettles (Jamaica and Panama are genetically similar to the U.S. Atlantic estuaries and Gulf of Mexico clade of Chrysaora quinquecirrha. Discussion Our phylogenetic hypothesis for Pelagiidae contradicts current generic definitions, revealing major disagreements between DNA-based and

  16. Multigene phylogeny of the scyphozoan jellyfish family Pelagiidae reveals that the common U.S. Atlantic sea nettle comprises two distinct species (Chrysaora quinquecirrha and C. chesapeakei)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffney, Patrick M.

    2017-01-01

    Background Species of the scyphozoan family Pelagiidae (e.g., Pelagia noctiluca, Chrysaora quinquecirrha) are well-known for impacting fisheries, aquaculture, and tourism, especially for the painful sting they can inflict on swimmers. However, historical taxonomic uncertainty at the genus (e.g., new genus Mawia) and species levels hinders progress in studying their biology and evolutionary adaptations that make them nuisance species, as well as ability to understand and/or mitigate their ecological and economic impacts. Methods We collected nuclear (28S rDNA) and mitochondrial (cytochrome c oxidase I and 16S rDNA) sequence data from individuals of all four pelagiid genera, including 11 of 13 currently recognized species of Chrysaora. To examine species boundaries in the U.S. Atlantic sea nettle Chrysaora quinquecirrha, specimens were included from its entire range along the U.S. Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico coasts, with representatives also examined morphologically (macromorphology and cnidome). Results Phylogenetic analyses show that the genus Chrysaora is paraphyletic with respect to other pelagiid genera. In combined analyses, Mawia, sampled from the coast of Senegal, is most closely related to Sanderia malayensis, and Pelagia forms a close relationship to a clade of Pacific Chrysaora species (Chrysaora achlyos, Chrysaora colorata, Chrysaora fuscescens, and Chrysaora melanaster). Chrysaora quinquecirrha is polyphyletic, with one clade from the U.S. coastal Atlantic and another in U.S. Atlantic estuaries and Gulf of Mexico. These genetic differences are reflected in morphology, e.g., tentacle and lappet number, oral arm length, and nematocyst dimensions. Caribbean sea nettles (Jamaica and Panama) are genetically similar to the U.S. Atlantic estuaries and Gulf of Mexico clade of Chrysaora quinquecirrha. Discussion Our phylogenetic hypothesis for Pelagiidae contradicts current generic definitions, revealing major disagreements between DNA-based and morphology

  17. Problems with the claim of ecotype and taxon status of the wolf in the Great Lakes region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Matthew A.; Mech, L. David

    2009-01-01

    Koblmuller et al. (2009) analysed molecular genetic data of the wolf in the Great Lakes (GL) region of the USA and concluded that the animal was a unique ecotype of grey wolf and that genetic data supported the population as a discrete wolf taxon. However, some of the literature that the researchers used to support their position actually did not, and additional confusion arises from indefinite use of terminology. Herein, we discuss the problems with designation of a wolf population as a taxon or ecotype without proper definition and assessment of criteria.

  18. Establishment of an Indirect Genetic Transformation Method for Arabidopsis thaliana ecotype Bangladesh

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    Bulbul AHMED

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Arabidopsis thaliana is a small flowering plant belonging to the Brassicaceae family, which is adopted as a model plant for genetic research. Agrobacterium tumifaciensmediated transformation method for A. thaliana ecotype Bangladesh was established. Leaf discs of A. thaliana were incubated with A. tumefaciens strain LBA4404 containing chimeric nos. nptII. nos and intron-GUS genes. Following inoculation and co-cultivation, leaf discs were cultured on selection medium containing 50 mg/l kanamycin + 50 mg/l cefotaxime + 1.5 mg/l NAA and kanamycin resistant shoots were induced from the leaf discs after two weeks. Shoot regeneration was achieved after transferring the tissues onto fresh medium of the same combination. Finally, the shoots were rooted on MS medium containing 50 mg/l kanamycin. Incorporation and expression of the transgenes were confirmed by PCR analysis. Using this protocol, transgenic A. thaliana plants can be obtained and indicates that genomic transformation in higher plants is possible through insertion of desired gene. Although Agrobacterium mediated genetic transformation is established for A. thaliana, this study was the conducted to transform A. thaliana ecotype Bangladesh.

  19. Ecophysiological and morphological responses to shade and drought in two contrasting ecotypes of Prunus serotina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, M D; Kloeppel, B D; Kubiske, M E

    1992-06-01

    Photosynthesis (A), water relations and stomatal reactivity during drought, and leaf morphology were evaluated on 2-year-old, sun- and shade-grown Prunus serotina Ehrh. seedlings of a mesic Pennsylvania seed source and a more xeric Wisconsin source. Wisconsin plants maintained higher A and leaf conductance (g(wv)) than Pennsylvania plants during the entire drought under sun conditions, and during the mid stages of drought under shade conditions. Compared to shade plants, sun plants of both sources exhibited a more rapid decrease in A or % A(max) with decreasing leaf water potential (Psi). Tissue water relations parameters were generally not significantly different between seed sources. However, osmotic potentials were lower in sun than shade plants under well-watered conditions. Following drought, shade plants, but not sun plants, exhibited significant osmotic adjustment. Sun leaves had greater thickness, specific mass, area and stomatal density and lower guard cell length than shade leaves in one or both sources. Wisconsin sun leaves were seemingly more xerophytic with greater thickness, specific mass, and guard cell length than Pennsylvania sun leaves. No source differences in leaf structure were exhibited in shade plants. Stomatal reactivity to sun-shade cycles was similar between ecotypes. However, well-watered and droughted plants differed in stomatal reactivity within and between multiple sun-shade cycles. The observed ecotypic and phenotypic variations in ecophysiology and morphology are consistent with the ability of Prunus serotina to survive in greatly contrasting environments.

  20. MULTIPLEX POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION FOR GENOTYPING OF Arabidopsis thaliana ECOTYPES USING SSLP MARKERS

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    Zimina O. V.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the work was, using the database «The Arabidopsis Information Resource» TAIR, to select 12 SSLP-markers distributed along the Arabidopsis chromosomes and chromosome arms, to optimize the conditions of amplification of each fragment and for simultaneous amplification of several fragments. For identification of A. thaliana ecotypes and their hybrid, the SSLP sequences were used. These DNA markers are highly polymorphic in Arabidopsis and easy to use. Using this database, the primers were selected for 12 SSLP-markers distributed along all chromosomes and their arms. A. thaliana ecotypes Columbia and Landsberg erecta were used. The experiments revealed that two-stage PCR using two annealing temperatures of primers in each cycle allows efficient amplification of all the fragments considered. The conditions for carrying out two multiplex PCR, each of which allows the two fragments were amplified and a single multiplex PCR allowing three markers for amplification were defined. The developed system of DNA markers can be used to study the behavior and inheritance of each chromosome of maternal and paternal genomes of Arabidopsis hybrids and enables quick and efficient genetic analysis.

  1. Ecotype evolution in Glossina palpalis subspecies, major vectors of sleeping sickness.

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    Thierry De Meeûs

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The role of environmental factors in driving adaptive trajectories of living organisms is still being debated. This is even more important to understand when dealing with important neglected diseases and their vectors.In this paper, we analysed genetic divergence, computed from seven microsatellite loci, of 614 tsetse flies (Glossina palpalis gambiensis and Glossina palpalis palpalis, major vectors of animal and human trypanosomes from 28 sites of West and Central Africa. We found that the two subspecies are so divergent that they deserve the species status. Controlling for geographic and time distances that separate these samples, which have a significant effect, we found that G. p. gambiensis from different landscapes (Niayes of Senegal, savannah and coastal environments were significantly genetically different and thus represent different ecotypes or subspecies. We also confirm that G. p. palpalis from Ivory Coast, Cameroon and DRC are strongly divergent.These results provide an opportunity to examine whether new tsetse fly ecotypes might display different behaviour, dispersal patterns, host preferences and vectorial capacities. This work also urges a revision of taxonomic status of Glossina palpalis subspecies and highlights again how fast ecological divergence can be, especially in host-parasite-vector systems.

  2. Three chromosomal rearrangements promote genomic divergence between migratory and stationary ecotypes of Atlantic cod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Paul R; Star, Bastiaan; Pampoulie, Christophe; Sodeland, Marte; Barth, Julia M I; Knutsen, Halvor; Jakobsen, Kjetill S; Jentoft, Sissel

    2016-03-17

    Identification of genome-wide patterns of divergence provides insight on how genomes are influenced by selection and can reveal the potential for local adaptation in spatially structured populations. In Atlantic cod - historically a major marine resource - Northeast-Arctic- and Norwegian coastal cod are recognized by fundamental differences in migratory and non-migratory behavior, respectively. However, the genomic architecture underlying such behavioral ecotypes is unclear. Here, we have analyzed more than 8.000 polymorphic SNPs distributed throughout all 23 linkage groups and show that loci putatively under selection are localized within three distinct genomic regions, each of several megabases long, covering approximately 4% of the Atlantic cod genome. These regions likely represent genomic inversions. The frequency of these distinct regions differ markedly between the ecotypes, spawning in the vicinity of each other, which contrasts with the low level of divergence in the rest of the genome. The observed patterns strongly suggest that these chromosomal rearrangements are instrumental in local adaptation and separation of Atlantic cod populations, leaving footprints of large genomic regions under selection. Our findings demonstrate the power of using genomic information in further understanding the population dynamics and defining management units in one of the world's most economically important marine resources.

  3. Differential contributions of archaeal ammonia oxidizer ecotypes to nitrification in coastal surface waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jason M; Casciotti, Karen L; Chavez, Francisco P; Francis, Christopher A

    2014-08-01

    The occurrence of nitrification in the oceanic water column has implications extending from local effects on the structure and activity of phytoplankton communities to broader impacts on the speciation of nitrogenous nutrients and production of nitrous oxide. The ammonia-oxidizing archaea, responsible for carrying out the majority of nitrification in the sea, are present in the marine water column as two taxonomically distinct groups. Water column group A (WCA) organisms are detected at all depths, whereas Water column group B (WCB) are present primarily below the photic zone. An open question in marine biogeochemistry is whether the taxonomic definition of WCA and WCB organisms and their observed distributions correspond to distinct ecological and biogeochemical niches. We used the natural gradients in physicochemical and biological properties that upwelling establishes in surface waters to study their roles in nitrification, and how their activity--ascertained from quantification of ecotype-specific ammonia monooxygenase (amoA) genes and transcripts--varies in response to environmental fluctuations. Our results indicate a role for both ecotypes in nitrification in Monterey Bay surface waters. However, their respective contributions vary, due to their different sensitivities to surface water conditions. WCA organisms exhibited a remarkably consistent level of activity and their contribution to nitrification appears to be related to community size. WCB activity was less consistent and primarily constrained to colder, high nutrient and low chlorophyll waters. Overall, the results of our characterization yielded a strong, potentially predictive, relationship between archaeal amoA gene abundance and the rate of nitrification.

  4. Genetic Variation for Grain Yield and Related Traits in Temperate Red Rice (Oryza sativa L. Ecotypes

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    Gulzar Singh SANGHERA

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out in Kashmir (India to assess the genetic variability for grain yield and component traits among 14 red rice ecotypes from temperate region (locally known as Zag for its coloured kernels and correlation and path coefficients were also studied for fifteen agro-morphological characters. Genotypic and phenotypic coefficients of variation were high for grain yield, secondary branches per panicle and panicle weight; moderate for grain number per panicle, grain length:breadth (L:B ratio and panicle density. High heritability accompanied by high to moderate genetic advance for panicle density, days to 50% flowering, plant height, grain number indicated the predominance of additive gene action for the expression of these characters. Grain yield was found to be positively and significantly correlated with number of tiller per plant, panicle density m-2 and number of grain per panicle at both genotypic and phenotypic levels indicating the importance of these characters for yield improvement in this material. The results of genotypic path analysis revealed that panicle density had the highest positive direct effect followed by plant height and days to flower. The overall results indicated that selection favouring higher panicle density, test weight and panicle weight and medium plant height with a reasonable balance for moderate grain number would help to achieve higher grain yield in this population of red rice ecotypes.

  5. Experimental evidence for reduced hybrid viability between dwarf and normal ecotypes of lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis Mitchill)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernatchez, L.

    1998-01-01

    Forces driving the evolution of reproductive isolation among natural populations, as well as the mechanisms involved to maintain it, are still poorly understood. Because sympatric fish ecotypes mainly differ in phenotypic traits associated with occupying distinct trophic niches, it is generally believed that reproductive isolation is mainly driven by ecological divergent selection, excluding genome incompatibility as a basis for postmating isolation. We did cross experiments between dwarf and normal ecotypes of lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis Mitchill) originating from distinct glacial refugia to test the hypothesis that their geographical isolation during the Pleistocene may have led to sufficient genetic divergence for the development of reproductive isolation between them before their secondary contact. Similar fertilization success in pure and hybrid crosses indicated the absence of gametic incompatibility between the two ecotypes. In contrast, daily embryonic mortality rates were 2.4–4.7 times higher in reciprocal hybrid crosses compared to pure crosses, which supports our working hypothesis. These results, along with previous morphological and population genetic studies, indicate that both genetic and ecological mechanisms may jointly act to promote speciation among northern freshwater fish ecotypes.

  6. Comparative mapping of seed dormancy loci between tropical and temperate ecotypes of weedy rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genotypic variation for seed dormancy (SD) in a species contributes to plant adaptation and weed persistence in agroecosystems. This research aimed to address the similarity of SD genes between distinct ecotypes using weedy rice as a model system. Quantitative trait locus mapping identified a total ...

  7. Lead tolerance and physiological adaptation mechanism in roots of accumulating and non-accumulating ecotypes of Sedum alfredii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Huagang; Gupta, D K; Tian, Shengke; Yang, Xiao-e; Li, Tingxuan

    2012-06-01

    Lead (Pb) accumulation in soils affects plants primarily through their root systems. The aim of this study was to investigate early symptoms of the loss of membrane integrity and lipid peroxidation in root tissues and physiological adaptation mechanism to Pb in accumulating ecotypes (AE) and non-accumulating ecotypes (NAE) of Sedum alfredii under Pb stress in hydroponics. Histochemical in situ analyses, fluorescence imaging, and normal physiological analysis were used in this study. Pb accumulation in roots of both AE and NAE increased linearly with increasing Pb levels (0-200 μM), and a significant difference between both ecotypes was noted. Both loss of plasma membrane integrity and lipid peroxidation in root tissues became serious with increasing Pb levels, maximum tolerable Pb level was 25 and 100 μM for NAE and AE, respectively. Pb supplied at a toxic level caused a burst of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in root cells in both ecotypes. However, the root cells of AE had inherently higher activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), guaiacol peroxidase (POD), and lipoxygenase (LOX) in control plants, and the induction response of these antioxidant enzymes occurred at lower Pb level in AE than NAE. AE plants maintained higher ascorbic acid and H(2)O(2) concentrations in root cells than NAE when exposed to different Pb levels, and Pb induced more increase in dehydroascorbate (DHA), catalase (CAT), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) in AE than NAE roots. Results indicate that histochemical in situ analyses of root cell death and lipid peroxidation under Pb short-term stress was sensitive, reliable, and fast. Higher tolerance in roots of accumulating ecotype under Pb stress did depend on effective free oxygen scavenging by making complex function of both constitutively higher activities and sensitive induction of key antioxidant enzymes in root cells of S. alfredii.

  8. Identification of metalliferous ecotypes of Cistus ladanifer L. using RAPD markers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quintela-Sabaris, C.; Fraga, M.I. [Dept. of Botany, Univ. of Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Kidd, P.S. [Dept. of Soil Science and Chemical Agronomy, Univ. of Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

    2005-04-01

    The genetic diversity of Cistus ladanifer ssp. ladanifer (Cistaceae) growing on ultramafic and non-ultramafic (basic and schists) soils in the NE of Portugal was studied in order to identify molecular markers that could distinguish the metal-tolerant ecotypes of this species. Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were used in order to estimate genetic variation and differences between populations. The RAPD dataset was analysed by means of a cluster analysis and an analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA). Our results indicate a significant partitioning of molecular variance between ultramafic and non-ultramafic populations of Cistus ladanifer, although the highest percentage of this variance was found at the intra-population level. Mantel's test showed no relationship between inter-population genetic and geographic distances. A series of RAPD bands that could be related to heavy metal tolerance were observed. The identification of such markers will enable the use of Cistus ladanifer in phytoremediation procedures. (orig.)

  9. Identification of metalliferous ecotypes of Cistus ladanifer L. using RAPD markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintela-Sabarís, Celestino; Kidd, Petra S; Fraga, María Isabel

    2005-01-01

    The genetic diversity of Cistus ladanifer ssp. ladanifer (Cistaceae) growing on ultramafic and non-ultramafic (basic and schists) soils in the NE of Portugal was studied in order to identify molecular markers that could distinguish the metal-tolerant ecotypes of this species. Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were used in order to estimate genetic variation and differences between populations. The RAPD dataset was analysed by means of a cluster analysis and an analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA). Our results indicate a significant partitioning of molecular variance between ultramafic and non-ultramafic populations of Cistus ladanifer, although the highest percentage of this variance was found at the intra-population level. Mantel's test showed no relationship between inter-population genetic and geographic distances. A series of RAPD bands that could be related to heavy metal tolerance were observed. The identification of such markers will enable the use of Cistus ladanifer in phytoremediation procedures.

  10. Differential control of seed primary dormancy in Arabidopsis ecotypes by the transcription factor SPATULA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaistij, Fabián E.; Gan, Yinbo; Penfield, Steven; Gilday, Alison D.; Dave, Anuja; He, Zhesi; Josse, Eve-Marie; Choi, Giltsu; Halliday, Karen J.; Graham, Ian A.

    2013-01-01

    Freshly matured seeds exhibit primary dormancy, which prevents germination until environmental conditions are favorable. The establishment of dormancy occurs during seed development and involves both genetic and environmental factors that impact on the ratio of two antagonistic phytohormones: abscisic acid (ABA), which promotes dormancy, and gibberellic acid, which promotes germination. Although our understanding of dormancy breakage in mature seeds is well advanced, relatively little is known about the mechanisms involved in establishing dormancy during seed maturation. We previously showed that the SPATULA (SPT) transcription factor plays a key role in regulating seed germination. Here we investigate its role during seed development and find that, surprisingly, it has opposite roles in setting dormancy in Landsberg erecta and Columbia Arabidopsis ecotypes. We also find that SPT regulates expression of five transcription factor encoding genes: ABA-INSENSITIVE4 (ABI4) and ABI5, which mediate ABA signaling; REPRESSOR-OF-GA (RGA) and RGA-LIKE3 involved in gibberellic acid signaling; and MOTHER-OF-FT-AND-TFL1 (MFT) that we show here promotes Arabidopsis seed dormancy. Although ABI4, RGA, and MFT are repressed by SPT, ABI5 and RGL3 are induced. Furthermore, we show that RGA, MFT, and ABI5 are direct targets of SPT in vivo. We present a model in which SPT drives two antagonistic “dormancy-repressing” and “dormancy-promoting” routes that operate simultaneously in freshly matured seeds. Each of these routes has different impacts and this in turn explains the opposite effect of SPT on seed dormancy of the two ecotypes analyzed here. PMID:23754415

  11. Defense Responses in Two Ecotypes of Lotus japonicus against Non-Pathogenic Pseudomonas syringae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordenave, Cesar D.; Escaray, Francisco J.; Menendez, Ana B.; Serna, Eva; Carrasco, Pedro; Ruiz, Oscar A.; Gárriz, Andrés

    2013-01-01

    Lotus japonicus is a model legume broadly used to study many important processes as nitrogen fixing nodule formation and adaptation to salt stress. However, no studies on the defense responses occurring in this species against invading microorganisms have been carried out at the present. Understanding how this model plant protects itself against pathogens will certainly help to develop more tolerant cultivars in economically important Lotus species as well as in other legumes. In order to uncover the most important defense mechanisms activated upon bacterial attack, we explored in this work the main responses occurring in the phenotypically contrasting ecotypes MG-20 and Gifu B-129 of L. japonicus after inoculation with Pseudomonas syringae DC3000 pv. tomato. Our analysis demonstrated that this bacterial strain is unable to cause disease in these accessions, even though the defense mechanisms triggered in these ecotypes might differ. Thus, disease tolerance in MG-20 was characterized by bacterial multiplication, chlorosis and desiccation at the infiltrated tissues. In turn, Gifu B-129 plants did not show any symptom at all and were completely successful in restricting bacterial growth. We performed a microarray based analysis of these responses and determined the regulation of several genes that could play important roles in plant defense. Interestingly, we were also able to identify a set of defense genes with a relative high expression in Gifu B-129 plants under non-stress conditions, what could explain its higher tolerance. The participation of these genes in plant defense is discussed. Our results position the L. japonicus-P. syringae interaction as a interesting model to study defense mechanisms in legume species. PMID:24349460

  12. Parallelism in gene transcription among sympatric lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis Mitchill) ecotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derome, N; Duchesne, P; Bernatchez, L

    2006-04-01

    Abstract We tested the hypothesis that phenotypic parallelism between dwarf and normal whitefish ecotypes (Coregonus clupeaformis, Salmonidae) is accompanied by parallelism in gene transcription. The most striking phenotypic differences between these forms implied energetic metabolism and swimming activity. Therefore, we predicted that genes showing parallel expression should mainly belong to functional groups associated with these phenotypes. Transcriptome profiles were obtained from white muscle by using a 3557 cDNA gene microarray developed for the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). A total of 1181 genes expressed in both lake populations hybridized on the array. Significant differential expression between ecotypes was detected for 134 (11.3%) and 195 (16.5%) gene clones in Cliff Lake and Indian Pond, respectively. Fifty-one genes (4.3%) showed parallel differential expression between lakes, among which 35 were expressed in opposite directions. Sixteen genes (1.35%) showed true parallelism of transcription, which mainly belonged to energetic metabolism and regulation of muscle contraction functional groups. Variance in expression was significantly reduced for these genes compared to those not showing directionality in parallelism of expression. Candidate genes associated with parallelism in swimming activity and energetic metabolism based on their level and variance in expression were identified. These results add to the growing evidence that parallel phenotypic evolution also involves parallelism at both the genotypic and regulatory level, which may at least partly be associated with genetic constraints. It also provides further evidence for the determinant role of divergent natural selection in driving phenotypic divergence, and perhaps reproductive isolation, in the adaptive radiation of lake whitefish. This study adds to a nascent field employing microarrays as powerful tools for investigating the evolutionary processes of adaptive divergence among natural

  13. Comparative transcriptome profiling of upland (VS16) and lowland (AP13) ecotypes of switchgrass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayyappan, Vasudevan; Saha, Malay C; Thimmapuram, Jyothi; Sripathi, Venkateswara R; Bhide, Ketaki P; Fiedler, Elizabeth; Hayford, Rita K; Kalavacharla, Venu Kal

    2017-01-01

    Transcriptomes of two switchgrass genotypes representing the upland and lowland ecotypes will be key tools in switchgrass genome annotation and biotic and abiotic stress functional genomics. Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is an important bioenergy feedstock for cellulosic ethanol production. We report genome-wide transcriptome profiling of two contrasting tetraploid switchgrass genotypes, VS16 and AP13, representing the upland and lowland ecotypes, respectively. A total of 268 million Illumina short reads (50 nt) were generated, of which, 133 million were obtained in AP13 and the rest 135 million in VS16. More than 90% of these reads were mapped to the switchgrass reference genome (V1.1). We identified 6619 and 5369 differentially expressed genes in VS16 and AP13, respectively. Gene ontology and KEGG pathway analysis identified key genes that regulate important pathways including C4 photosynthesis, photorespiration and phenylpropanoid metabolism. A series of genes (33) involved in photosynthetic pathway were up-regulated in AP13 but only two genes showed higher expression in VS16. We identified three dicarboxylate transporter homologs that were highly expressed in AP13. Additionally, genes that mediate drought, heat, and salinity tolerance were also identified. Vesicular transport proteins, syntaxin and signal recognition particles were seen to be up-regulated in VS16. Analyses of selected genes involved in biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, plant-pathogen interaction, membrane transporters, heat, drought and salinity stress responses confirmed significant variation in the relative expression reflected in RNA-Seq data between VS16 and AP13 genotypes. The phenylpropanoid pathway genes identified here are potential targets for biofuel conversion.

  14. Salares versus coastal ecotypes of quinoa: Salinity responses in Chilean landraces from contrasting habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Karina B; Aloisi, Iris; Del Duca, Stefano; Canelo, Valentina; Torrigiani, Patrizia; Silva, Herman; Biondi, Stefania

    2016-04-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is a highly salt-tolerant species subdivided into five ecotypes and exhibiting broad intra-specific differences in tolerance levels. In a greenhouse study, Chilean landraces belonging either to the salares (R49) or coastal lowlands (VI-1, Villarrica) ecotype with contrasting agro-ecological origins were investigated for their responses to high salinity. The effects of two levels of salinity, 100 (T1) and 300 (T2) mM NaCl, on plant growth and on some physiological parameters were measured. Leaf and root Na(+) accumulation differed among landraces. T2 reduced growth and seed yield in all landraces with maximum inhibition relative to controls in R49. Salinity negatively affected chlorophyll and total polyphenol content (TPC) in VI-1 and Villarrica but not R49. Germination on saline or control media of seeds harvested from plants treated or not with NaCl was sometimes different; the best performing landrace was R49 insofar as 45-65% of seeds germinated on 500 mM NaCl-containing medium. In all landraces, average seedling root length declined strongly with increasing NaCl concentration, but roots of R49 were significantly longer than those of VI-1 and Villarrica up to 300 mM NaCl. Salt caused increases in seed TPC relative to controls, but radical scavenging capacity was higher only in seeds from T2 plants of R49. Total SDS-extractable seed proteins were resolved into distinct bands (10-70 kDa) with some evident differences between landraces. Salt-induced changes in protein patterns were landrace-specific. The responses to salinity of the salares landrace are discussed in relation to its better adaptation to an extreme environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Association between minor loading vein architecture and light- and CO2-saturated rates of photosynthetic oxygen evolution among Arabidopsis thaliana ecotypes from different latitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher M Cohu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Through microscopic analysis of veins and assessment of light- and CO2-saturated rates of photosynthetic oxygen evolution, we investigated the relationship between minor loading vein anatomy and photosynthesis of mature leaves in three ecotypes of Arabidopsis thaliana grown under four different combinations of temperature and photon flux density (PFD. All three ecotypes exhibited greater numbers and cross-sectional area of phloem cells as well as higher photosynthesis rates in response to higher PFD and especially lower temperature. The Swedish ecotype exhibited the strongest response to these conditions, the Italian ecotype the weakest response, and the Col-0 ecotype exhibited an intermediate response. Among all three ecotypes, strong linear relationships were found between light- and CO2-saturated rates of photosynthetic oxygen evolution and the number and area of either sieve elements or of companion and phloem parenchyma cells in foliar minor loading veins, with the Swedish ecotype showing the highest number of cells in minor loading veins (and largest minor veins coupled with unprecedented high rates of photosynthesis. Linear, albeit less significant, relationships were also observed between number and cross-sectional area of tracheids per minor loading vein versus light- and CO2-saturated rates of photosynthetic oxygen evolution. We suggest that sugar distribution infrastructure in the phloem is co-regulated with other features that set the upper limit for photosynthesis. The apparent genetic differences among Arabidopsis ecotypes should allow for future identification of the gene(s involved in augmenting sugar-loading and -transporting phloem cells and maximal rates of photosynthesis.

  16. Evaluation of the Impacts of Fall Sowing Dates on Different Ecotypes of Cumin (Cuminum cyminum, Apiaceae L. Productivity in Northeast of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad NEZAMI

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Locally adapted plants can be considered as an alternative to commercial crops for cultivation in harsh environments within semi-arid regions. Nowadays, exploring these plants industrial benefits has motivated many farmers around the world to extend their cultivation. However, agronomic characters of these forgotten plants are still unknown. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of fall sowing dates on yield and yield components of different Cumin (Cuminum cyminum L., Apiaceae ecotypes in the semi-arid region of Khorasan Iran. An experiment of two years duration was performed using a split-plot randomized complete block design, employing sowing dates as main-plot factor, and cumin ecotypes as sub-plot factor in three replicates. Three levels of sowing dates included the following: mid October, mid November and mid December. Additonally, sub-plot treatments consisted of four local ecotypes of cumin from different regions of the Khorasan province (Gayen, Torbat, Sabzevar and Khaf. The plants survival percentage in field conditions, number of umbels m-2, number of seeds per umbel, thousand seed weight, biological, and seed yield were measured in this experiment. The results showed that all study parameters were influenced by different sowing dates except thousand seed weight. The third sowing date resulted in the highest biological (110 g m-2 and 94 g m-2 in 2006 and 2007 and seed yield (50 g m-2 and 55 g m-2 in 2006 and 2007. There was a significant positive correlation between average minimum temperature and biological yield of cumin across all ecotypes and years. The results showed significant difference in productivity of different ecotypes of cumin from various parts of northeast of Iran. The Gayen and Khaf ecotypes showed the highest plant survival percentage, biological and seed yield across study ecotypes under the third sowing date. In conclusion, delayed fall sowing date and appropriate cumin ecotypes are able to

  17. Effect of novel bioactive edible coatings based on jujube gum and nettle oil-loaded nanoemulsions on the shelf-life of Beluga sturgeon fillets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharibzahedi, Seyed Mohammad Taghi; Mohammadnabi, Sara

    2017-02-01

    Effect of jujube gum (JG; 4, 8 and 12% wt)-based nanoemulsions (NEs) containing nettle essential oil (NEO; 2, 3.5 and 5% wt) as new edible coatings was investigated to preserve Beluga sturgeon fillets (BSFs) during 15 day-refrigerated storage at 4°C. Physical (weight loss, cooking loss, color and texture), chemical (pH, FFA, PV, TBARS and TVB-N), microbiological (total and psychrotrophic bacterial counts), and sensorial characteristics of BSFs were kinetically analyzed. Preliminary studies showed that the NEs formulated with NEO lower than 5% at all JG concentrations were able to form stable coating solutions owing to the highest short-term stability (>90%) and entrapment efficiency (94.4-98.3%). Edible NE coating formulated with 12% JG and 3.5% NEO as a novel antimicrobial and antioxidant biomaterial exhibited the lowest weight and cooking losses, pH changes, textural and color deterioration, lipid oxidation and microbial growth in BSFs refrigerated over a period of 15days (P<0.05). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. MORPHOLOGICAL VARIATION OF THE ECOTYPES OF Echinochloa crus-galli var crus-galli (L. Beauv (Barnyard grass: Poaceae IN MALAYSIA and INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUHAIMI NAPIS

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Greenhouse experiments were conducted to examine the morphological traits of barnyard grass ecotypes from diverse geographic origin. Seeds (caryops is were collected from 17 locations of rice fields throughout Malaysia (11 states and Indonesia (six provinces and were grown in pots each containing 10 kg of paddy field soil. The experiments were arranged using completely randomized design (CRD with five replicates. Mean separation was calculated using Duncan multiple range test at 5% probability level. Unweighted pair-group method of arithmetic averages (UPGMA was performed to determine the individual relationship within ecotype s of barnyard grass. Twelve morphological traits such as culm, panicle, leaf, and spikelet traits were measured. The growth characters such as emer gence date, heading time, and growth duration were also evaluated. The average of emergence date, heading time, and growth duration of barnyard grass collected from Perils, Kedah, Penang, and Johor were relatively earlier th an other ecotypes. Six groups were classi fied based on the cluster analysis of Malaysian ecotypes of barnyard grass. Principal component indicated that group six was found to be highly variable compared to others. While three groups were identified in Indonesian ecotypes of barnyard grass. Group one was observed to be highly variable. Results demonstr ated that morphological variation among ecotypes of barnyard grass showing differences between the two regions illustrate the role of geographic variation.

  19. Experimental evidence for reduced hybrid viability between dwarf and normal ecotypes of lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis Mitchill)

    OpenAIRE

    Bernatchez, L.

    1998-01-01

    Forces driving the evolution of reproductive isolation among natural populations, as well as the mechanisms involved to maintain it, are still poorly understood. Because sympatric fish ecotypes mainly differ in phenotypic traits associated with occupying distinct trophic niches, it is generally believed that reproductive isolation is mainly driven by ecological divergent selection, excluding genome incompatibility as a basis for postmating isolation. We did cross experiments between dwarf and...

  20. A Proteome Translocation Response to Complex Desert Stress Environments in Perennial Phragmites Sympatric Ecotypes with Contrasting Water Availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Chen, Xiaodan; Shi, Lu; Wang, Chuanjing; Fu, Bing; Qiu, Tianhang; Cui, Suxia

    2017-01-01

    After a long-term adaptation to desert environment, the perennial aquatic plant Phragmites communis has evolved a desert-dune ecotype. The desert-dune ecotype (DR) of Phragmites communis showed significant differences in water activity and protein distribution compared to its sympatric swamp ecotype (SR). Many proteins that were located in the soluble fraction of SR translocated to the insoluble fraction of DR, suggesting that membrane-associated proteins were greatly reinforced in DR. The unknown phenomenon in plant stress physiology was defined as a proteome translocation response. Quantitative 2D-DIGE technology highlighted these 'bound' proteins in DR. Fifty-eight kinds of proteins were identified as candidates of the translocated proteome in Phragmites. The majority were chloroplast proteins. Unexpectedly, Rubisco was the most abundant protein sequestered by DR. Rubisco activase, various chaperons and 2-cysteine peroxiredoxin were major components in the translocation response. Conformational change was assumed to be the main reason for the Rubisco translocation due to no primary sequence difference between DR and SR. The addition of reductant in extraction process partially reversed the translocation response, implying that intracellular redox status plays a role in the translocation response of the proteome. The finding emphasizes the realistic significance of the membrane-association of biomolecule for plant long-term adaptation to complex stress conditions.

  1. Acquisition of freezing tolerance in Arabidopsis and two contrasting ecotypes of the extremophile Eutrema salsugineum (Thellungiella salsuginea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanal, Nityananda; Moffatt, Barbara A; Gray, Gordon R

    2015-05-15

    Eutrema salsugineum (Thellungiella salsuginea) is an extremophile, a close relative of Arabidopsis, but possessing much higher constitutive levels of tolerance to abiotic stress. This study aimed to characterize the freezing tolerance of Arabidopsis (Columbia ecotype) and two ecotypes of Eutrema (Yukon and Shandong) isolated from contrasting geographical locations. Under our growth conditions, maximal freezing tolerance was observed after two- and three-weeks of cold acclimation for Arabidopsis and Eutrema, respectively. The ecotypes of Eutrema and Arabidopsis do not differ in their constitutive level of freezing tolerance or short-term cold acclimation capacity. However Eutrema remarkably outperforms Arabidopsis in long-term acclimation capacity suggesting a wider phenotypic plasticity for the trait of freezing tolerance. The combination of drought treatment and one-week of cold acclimation was more effective than long-term cold acclimation in achieving maximum levels of freezing tolerance in Eutrema, but not Arabidopsis. Furthermore, it was demonstrated growth conditions, particularly irradiance, are determinates of the level of freezing tolerance attained during cold acclimation suggesting a role for photosynthetic processes in adaptive stress responses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. A comparison of the functional traits of common reed (Phragmites australis in northern China: aquatic vs. terrestrial ecotypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liping Li

    Full Text Available Common reed (Phragmites australis (Cav. Trin. ex Steud. is distributed widely throughout the world with various ecotypes. This research compares the functional traits and biomass allocation patterns of two contrasting reed ecotypes. Twelve pairs of aquatic and terrestrial reed samples were collected in northern China. Significant differences in functional traits between the two reed ecotypes were observed, while biomass allocation patterns of reed organs did not differ significantly except for at the root. The dry matter content (DMC in the whole of the reed plant, leaf, root, and rhizome was higher; while the specific leaf area (SLA and specific root length (SRL were lower in terrestrial versus aquatic reed. The biomass allocation in organs of the two forms of reed was isometric, only root in the terrestrial habitat increased faster with an increase in the whole plant biomass. It can be affirmed that aquatic and terrestrial reed that adapt to different environments generally has distinct leaf and root functional traits but isometric biomass allocation patterns. This suggests different resource acquisition strategies: (1 aquatic reed grows faster with high SLA and SRL and is more responsive to the environment, while (2 terrestrial reed with high DMC grows slower and is less responsive to the adverse environment (e.g. dry soil conditions.

  3. Predator faunas past and present: quantifying the influence of waterborne cues in divergent ecotypes of the isopod Asellus aquaticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Sanna; Karlsson Green, Kristina; Pettersson, Lars B

    2013-11-01

    Waterborne chemical cues are an important source of information for many aquatic organisms, in particular when assessing the current risk of predation. The ability to use chemical cues to detect and respond to potential predators before an actual encounter can improve prey chances of survival. We investigated predator recognition and the impact of chemical cues on predator avoidance in the freshwater isopod Asellus aquaticus. This isopod has recently colonised a novel habitat and diverged into two distinct ecotypes, which encounter different predator communities. Using laboratory-based choice experiments, we have quantified behavioural responses to chemical cues from predators typical of the two predator communities (larval dragonflies in the ancestral habitat, perch in the newly colonised habitat) in wild-caught and lab-reared Asellus of the two ecotypes. Individuals with prior experience of predators showed strong predator avoidance to cues from both predator types. Both ecotypes showed similar antipredator responses, but sexes differed in terms of threat-sensitive responses with males avoiding areas containing predator cues to a larger extent than females. Overall, chemical cues from fish elicited stronger predator avoidance than cues from larval dragonflies. Our results indicate that in these isopods, prior exposure to predators is needed to develop antipredator behaviour based on waterborne cues. Furthermore, the results emphasise the need to analyse predator avoidance in relation to waterborne cues in a sex-specific context, because of potential differences between males and females in terms of vulnerability and life history strategies.

  4. Identification of ecotype-specific marker genes for categorization of beer-spoiling Lactobacillus brevis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behr, Jürgen; Geissler, Andreas J; Preissler, Patrick; Ehrenreich, Armin; Angelov, Angel; Vogel, Rudi F

    2015-10-01

    The tolerance to hop compounds, which is mainly associated with inhibition of bacterial growth in beer, is a multi-factorial trait. Any approaches to predict the physiological differences between beer-spoiling and non-spoiling strains on the basis of a single marker gene are limited. We identified ecotype-specific genes related to the ability to grow in Pilsner beer via comparative genome sequencing. The genome sequences of four different strains of Lactobacillus brevis were compared, including newly established genomes of two highly hop tolerant beer isolates, one strain isolated from faeces and one published genome of a silage isolate. Gene fragments exclusively occurring in beer-spoiling strains as well as sequences only occurring in non-spoiling strains were identified. Comparative genomic arrays were established and hybridized with a set of L. brevis strains, which are characterized by their ability to spoil beer. As result, a set of 33 and 4 oligonucleotide probes could be established specifically detecting beer-spoilers and non-spoilers, respectively. The detection of more than one of these marker sequences according to a genetic barcode enables scoring of L. brevis for their beer-spoiling potential and can thus assist in risk evaluation in brewing industry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Induction of cell death by graphene in Arabidopsis thaliana (Columbia ecotype) T87 cell suspensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Begum, Parvin, E-mail: parvinchy@ees.hokudai.ac.jp; Fugetsu, Bunshi

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: • This study was set up to explore potential influence of graphene on T87 cells. • Fragmented nuclei, membrane damage, mitochondrial dysfunction were observed. • ROS increased, ROS are key mediators in the cell death signaling pathway. • Translocation of graphene into cells and an endocytosis-like structure was observed. • Graphene entering into the cells by endocytosis. -- Abstract: The toxicity of graphene on suspensions of Arabidopsis thaliana (Columbia ecotype) T87 cells was investigated by examining the morphology, mitochondrial dysfunction, reactive oxygen species generation (ROS), and translocation of graphene as the toxicological endpoints. The cells were grown in Jouanneau and Péaud-Lenoel (JPL) media and exposed to graphene at concentrations 0–80 mg/L. Morphological changes were observed by scanning electron microscope and the adverse effects such as fragmented nuclei, membrane damage, mitochondrial dysfunction was observed with fluorescence microscopy by staining with Hoechst 33342/propidium iodide and succinate dehydrogenase (mitochondrial bioenergetic enzyme). Analysis of intracellular ROS by 2′,7′-dichlorofluorescein diacetate demonstrated that graphene induced a 3.3-fold increase in ROS, suggesting that ROS are key mediators in the cell death signaling pathway. Transmission electron microscopy verified the translocation of graphene into cells and an endocytosis-like structure was observed which suggested graphene entering into the cells by endocytosis. In conclusion, our results show that graphene induced cell death in T87 cells through mitochondrial damage mediated by ROS.

  6. Genomic divergence between the migratory and stationary ecotypes of Atlantic cod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsen, Bård O; Klingan, Kevin; Emblem, Åse; Jørgensen, Tor E; Jueterbock, Alexander; Furmanek, Tomasz; Hoarau, Galice; Johansen, Steinar D; Nordeide, Jarle T; Moum, Truls

    2013-10-01

    Atlantic cod displays a range of phenotypic and genotypic variations, which includes the differentiation into coastal stationary and offshore migratory types of cod that co-occur in several parts of its distribution range and are often sympatric on the spawning grounds. Differentiation of these ecotypes may involve both historical separation and adaptation to ecologically distinct environments, the genetic basis of which is now beginning to be unravelled. Genomic analyses based on recent sequencing advances are able to document genomic divergence in more detail and may facilitate the exploration of causes and consequences of genome-wide patterns. We examined genomic divergence between the stationary and migratory types of cod in the Northeast Atlantic, using next-generation sequencing of pooled DNA from each of two population samples. Sequence data was mapped to the published cod genome sequence, arranged in more than 6000 scaffolds (611 Mb). We identified 25 divergent scaffolds (26 Mb) with a higher than average gene density, against a backdrop of overall moderate genomic differentiation. Previous findings of localized genomic divergence in three linkage groups were confirmed, including a large (15 Mb) genomic region, which seems to be uniquely involved in the divergence of migratory and stationary cod. The results of the pooled sequencing approach support and extend recent findings based on single-nucleotide polymorphism markers and suggest a high degree of reproductive isolation between stationary and migratory cod in the North-east Atlantic. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Cytotoxic and Apoptotic Activities of Prunus spinosa Trigno Ecotype Extract on Human Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Meschini

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to demonstrate that a natural compound, not-toxic to normal cells, has cytotoxic and sensitizing effects on carcinoma cells, with the final goal of combining it with chemotherapeutic drugs to reduce the overall dose. Prunus spinosa Trigno ecotype (PsT drupe extract with a nutraceutical activator complex (NAC made of amino acids, vitamins and mineral salt blends, has shown in vitro anticancer activity. The cytotoxic effect of (PsT + NAC® has been evaluated on human cancer cells, with an initial screening with colorectal, uterine cervical, and bronchoalveolar cells, and a subsequent focus on colon carcinoma cells HCT116 and SW480. The viability reduction of HCT116 and SW480 after treatment with (PsT 10 mg/mL + NAC® was about 40% (p < 0.05, compared to control cells. The cell’s survival reduction was ineffective when the drug vehicle (NAC was replaced with a phosphate buffer saline (PBS or physiological solution (PS. The flow cytometry evaluation of cancer cells’ mitochondrial membrane potential showed an increase of 20% depolarized mitochondria. Cell cycle analysis showed a sub G1 (Gap 1 phase peak appearance (HCT116: 35.1%; SW480: 11.6%, indicating apoptotic cell death induction that was confirmed by Annexin V assay (HCT116: 86%; SW480: 96%. Normal cells were not altered by (PsT + NAC® treatments.

  8. Identifying Differences in Abiotic Stress Gene Networks between Lowland and Upland Ecotypes of Switchgrass (DE-SC0008338)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Childs, Kevin [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Buell, Robin [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Zhao, Bingyu [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Zhang, Xunzhong [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    2016-11-10

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) is a warm-season C4 grass that is a target lignocellulosic biofuel species for use in the United States due to its local adaption capabilities and high biomass accumulation. Two ecotypes of switchgrass have been described. Members of the lowland ecotype are taller, have narrower leaf blades and generate more biomass compared to individuals from the upland ecotype. Additionally, lowland plants are generally found in the southern United States while upland switchgrass is more typically present in the northern United States. These differences are important as it is envisioned that switchgrass for biofuel production will typically be grown on marginal lands in the northern United States to supplement and diversify farmers' traditional crop incomes. While lowland switchgrass is more productive, it has poor winter survivability in northern latitudes where upland switchgrass is expected to be grown for biofuel use. Abiotic stresses likely to be encountered by switchgrass include drought and salinity. Despite initially being described as preferring wetter environments, members of the lowland ecotype have been characterized as being more drought tolerant than plants of the upland ecotype. Nonetheless, direct trials have indicated that variation for drought tolerance exists in both ecotypes, but prior to this project, only a relatively small number of switchgrass lines had been tested for drought responses. Similarly, switchgrass cultivars have not been widely tested for salt tolerance, but a few studies have shown that even mild salt stress can inhibit growth. The effects of drought and salt stress on plant growth are complex. Both drought and salinity affect the osmotic potential of plant cells and negatively affect plant growth due to reduced water potential and reduced photosynthesis that results from lower stomatal conductance of CO2. Plants respond to drought and salt stress by activating genes that directly attempt to

  9. Stinging Nettle (Urtica dioica L. Attenuates FFA Induced Ceramide Accumulation in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes in an Adiponectin Dependent Manner.

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    Diana N Obanda

    Full Text Available Excess dietary lipids result in the accumulation of lipid metabolites including ceramides that can attenuate insulin signaling. There is evidence that a botanical extract of Urtica dioica L. (stinging nettle improves insulin action, yet the precise mechanism(s are not known. Hence, we examined the effects of Urtica dioica L. (UT on adipocytes.We investigated the effects of an ethanolic extract of UT on free fatty acid (palmitic acid induced inhibition of insulin-stimulated Akt serine phosphorylation and modulation of ceramidase expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Adipocytes were exposed to excess FFAs in the presence or absence of UT. Effects on adiponectin expression, ceramidase expression, ceramidase activity, ceramide accumulation and insulin signaling were determined.As expected, FFAs reduced adiponectin expression and increased the expression of ceramidase enzymes but not their activity. FFA also induced the accumulation of ceramides and reduced insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of Akt in adipocytes. The effects of FFA were partially reversed by UT. UT enhanced adiponectin expression and ceramidase activity in the presence of excess FFAs. UT abated ceramide accumulation and increased insulin sensitivity via enhanced Akt phosphorylation. A siRNA knockdown of adiponectin expression prevented UT from exerting positive effects on ceramidase activity but not Akt phosphorylation.In adipocytes, the ability of UT to antagonize the negative effects of FFA by modulating ceramidase activity and ceramide accumulation is dependent on the presence of adiponectin. However, the ability of UT to enhance Akt phosphorylation is independent of adiponectin expression. These studies demonstrate direct effects of UT on adipocytes and suggest this botanical extract is metabolically beneficial.

  10. Stinging Nettle (Urtica dioica L.) Attenuates FFA Induced Ceramide Accumulation in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes in an Adiponectin Dependent Manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obanda, Diana N; Zhao, Peng; Richard, Allison J; Ribnicky, David; Cefalu, William T; Stephens, Jacqueline M

    2016-01-01

    Excess dietary lipids result in the accumulation of lipid metabolites including ceramides that can attenuate insulin signaling. There is evidence that a botanical extract of Urtica dioica L. (stinging nettle) improves insulin action, yet the precise mechanism(s) are not known. Hence, we examined the effects of Urtica dioica L. (UT) on adipocytes. We investigated the effects of an ethanolic extract of UT on free fatty acid (palmitic acid) induced inhibition of insulin-stimulated Akt serine phosphorylation and modulation of ceramidase expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Adipocytes were exposed to excess FFAs in the presence or absence of UT. Effects on adiponectin expression, ceramidase expression, ceramidase activity, ceramide accumulation and insulin signaling were determined. As expected, FFAs reduced adiponectin expression and increased the expression of ceramidase enzymes but not their activity. FFA also induced the accumulation of ceramides and reduced insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of Akt in adipocytes. The effects of FFA were partially reversed by UT. UT enhanced adiponectin expression and ceramidase activity in the presence of excess FFAs. UT abated ceramide accumulation and increased insulin sensitivity via enhanced Akt phosphorylation. A siRNA knockdown of adiponectin expression prevented UT from exerting positive effects on ceramidase activity but not Akt phosphorylation. In adipocytes, the ability of UT to antagonize the negative effects of FFA by modulating ceramidase activity and ceramide accumulation is dependent on the presence of adiponectin. However, the ability of UT to enhance Akt phosphorylation is independent of adiponectin expression. These studies demonstrate direct effects of UT on adipocytes and suggest this botanical extract is metabolically beneficial.

  11. Investigating genomic and phenotypic parallelism between piscivorous and planktivorous lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) ecotypes by means of RADseq and morphometrics analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernatchez, S; Laporte, M; Perrier, C; Sirois, P; Bernatchez, L

    2016-10-01

    Repeated adaptive ecological diversification has commonly been reported in fish and has often been associated with trophic niche diversity. The main goal of this study was to investigate the extent of parallelism in the genomic and phenotypic divergence between piscivorous and planktivorous lake trout ecotypes from Laurentian Shield lakes, Canada. This was achieved by documenting the extent of morphological differentiation using geometric morphometrics and linear measurements as well as the pattern of genomic divergence by means of RADseq genotyping (3925 filtered SNPs) in 12 lakes. Our results indicate that the two ecotypes evolved distinct body shape and several linear measurements in parallel. Neutral genetic differentiation was pronounced between all isolated populations (Mean FST  = 0.433), indicating no or very limited migration and pronounced genetic drift. Significant genetic differentiation also suggested partial reproductive isolation between ecotypes in the two lakes where they are found in sympatry. Combining different outlier detection methods, we identified 48 SNPs putatively under divergent selection between ecotypes, among which 10 could be annotated and related to functions such as developmental processes and ionic regulation. Finally, our results indicate that parallel morphological divergence is accompanied by both parallel and nonparallel genomic divergence, which is associated with the use of different trophic niches between ecotypes. The results are also discussed in the context of management and conservation of this highly exploited species throughout northern North America. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Response of chaparral shrubs to below-freezing temperatures: acclimation, ecotypes, seedlings vs. adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boorse, G C; Ewers, F W; Davis, S D

    1998-09-01

    Leaf death due to freezing was examined for four, co-occurring species of chaparral shrubs from the Santa Monica Mountains of southern California, Rhus laurina (= Malosma laurina), R. ovata, Ceanothus megacarpus, and C. spinosus. Measurements were made on seedlings vs. adults for all species, and for Rhus spp. in winter vs. summer, and at a warm vs. a cold site. We used four methods to determine the temperature for 50% change in activity or cell death (LT(50)) of leaves: (1) electrical conductivity (electrolyte leakage into a bathing solution), (2) photosynthetic fluorescent capacity (Fv/Fm), (3) percentage of palisade mesophyll cells stained by fluorescein diacetate vital stain, and (4) visual score of leaf color (Munsell color chart). In all four species seedlings were found to be more sensitive to freezing temperatures than were adults by 1°-3°C. For adults the LT(50) ranged from -5°C for Rhus laurina in the summer to -16°C for Rhus ovata in the winter. The LT(50) of R. ovata located at a colder inland site was 4C lower than R. ovata at the warmer coastal site just 4 km apart, suggesting ecotypic differences between R. ovata at the two sites. Both R. laurina and R. ovata underwent significant winter hardening. At the cold site, R. ovata acclimated by 6°C on average, while R. laurina acclimated by only 3°C. These results were consistent with species distributions and with field observations of differential shoot dieback between these two congeneric species after a natural freeze-thaw event in the Santa Monica Mountains.

  13. Ecotypic variation in recruitment of reintroduced bighorn sheep: implications for translocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedmann, Brett P.; Sargeant, Glen A.

    2014-01-01

    European settlement led to extirpation of native Audubon's bighorn sheep (formerly Ovis canadensis auduboni) from North Dakota during the early 20th century. The North Dakota Game and Fish Department subsequently introduced California bighorn sheep (formerly O. c. californiana) that were indigenous to the Williams Lake region of British Columbia, Canada, and Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (O. c. canadensis) that were indigenous to the Sun River region of Montana. Although California bighorn sheep are no longer recognized as a distinct subspecies, they are smaller and adapted to a milder climate than either the native bighorn sheep of North Dakota or introduced bighorn sheep from Montana. Because reintroductions still play a key role in the management of bighorn sheep and because local adaptation may have substantial demographic consequences, we evaluated causes of variation in recruitment of bighorn sheep reintroduced in North Dakota. During 2006–2011, Montana stock recruited 0.54 juveniles/adult female (n = 113), whereas British Columbia stock recruited 0.24 juveniles/adult female (n = 562). Our most plausible mixed-effects logistic regression model (53% of model weight) attributed variation in recruitment to differences between source populations (odds ratio = 4.5; 90% CI = 1.5, 15.3). Greater recruitment of Montana stock (fitted mean = 0.56 juveniles/adult female; 90% CI = 0.41, 0.70) contributed to a net gain in abundance (r = 0.15), whereas abundance of British Columbia stock declined (fitted mean = 0.24 juveniles/adult female; 90% CI = 0.09, 0.41; r = − 0.04). Translocations have been the primary tool used to augment and restore populations of wild sheep but often have failed to achieve objectives. Our results show that ecotypic differences among source stocks may have long-term implications for recruitment and demographic performance of reintroduced populations.

  14. Field Trials Reveal Ecotype-Specific Responses to Mycorrhizal Inoculation in Rice.

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    Abdala Gamby Diedhiou

    Full Text Available The overuse of agricultural chemicals such as fertilizer and pesticides aimed at increasing crop yield results in environmental damage, particularly in the Sahelian zone where soils are fragile. Crop inoculation with beneficial soil microbes appears as a good alternative for reducing agricultural chemical needs, especially for small farmers. This, however, requires selecting optimal combinations of crop varieties and beneficial microbes tested in field conditions. In this study, we investigated the response of rice plants to inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF and plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB under screenhouse and field conditions in two consecutive seasons in Senegal. Evaluation of single and mixed inoculations with AMF and PGPB was conducted on rice (Oryza sativa variety Sahel 202, on sterile soil under screenhouse conditions. We observed that inoculated plants, especially plants treated with AMF, grew taller, matured earlier and had higher grain yield than the non-inoculated plants. Mixed inoculation trials with two AMF strains were then conducted under irrigated field conditions with four O. sativa varieties, two O. glaberrima varieties and two interspecific NERICA varieties, belonging to 3 ecotypes (upland, irrigated, and rainfed lowland. We observed that the upland varieties had the best responses to inoculation, especially with regards to grain yield, harvest index and spikelet fertility. These results show the potential of using AMF to improve rice production with less chemical fertilizers and present new opportunities for the genetic improvement in rice to transfer the ability of forming beneficial rice-microbe associations into high yielding varieties in order to increase further rice yield potentials.

  15. Two adjacent inversions maintain genomic differentiation between migratory and stationary ecotypes of Atlantic cod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirubakaran, Tina Graceline; Grove, Harald; Kent, Matthew P; Sandve, Simen R; Baranski, Matthew; Nome, Torfinn; De Rosa, Maria Cristina; Righino, Benedetta; Johansen, Torild; Otterå, Håkon; Sonesson, Anna; Lien, Sigbjørn; Andersen, Øivind

    2016-05-01

    Atlantic cod is composed of multiple migratory and stationary populations widely distributed in the North Atlantic Ocean. The Northeast Arctic cod (NEAC) population in the Barents Sea undertakes annual spawning migrations to the northern Norwegian coast. Although spawning occurs sympatrically with the stationary Norwegian coastal cod (NCC), phenotypic and genetic differences between NEAC and NCC are maintained. In this study, we resolve the enigma by revealing the mechanisms underlying these differences. Extended linkage disequilibrium (LD) and population divergence were demonstrated in a 17.4-Mb region on linkage group 1 (LG1) based on genotypes of 494 SNPs from 192 parents of farmed families of NEAC, NCC or NEACxNCC crosses. Linkage analyses revealed two adjacent inversions within this region that repress meiotic recombination in NEACxNCC crosses. We identified a NEAC-specific haplotype consisting of 186 SNPs that was fixed in NEAC sampled from the Barents Sea, but segregating under Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in eight NCC stocks. Comparative genomic analyses determine the NEAC configuration of the inversions to be the derived state and date it to ~1.6-2.0 Mya. The haplotype block harbours 763 genes, including candidates regulating swim bladder pressure, haem synthesis and skeletal muscle organization conferring adaptation to long-distance migrations and vertical movements down to large depths. Our results suggest that the migratory ecotype experiences strong directional selection for the two adjacent inversions on LG1. Despite interbreeding between NEAC and NCC, the inversions are maintaining genetic differentiation, and we hypothesize the co-occurrence of multiple adaptive alleles forming a 'supergene' in the NEAC population. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Salt tolerance of a wild ecotype of vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides L.) in southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wan-Gou; Liu, Jin-Xiang; Yao, Mei-Ling; Ma, Qi-Fu

    2016-12-01

    Vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides L.) is widely used in more than 120 countries for land management (e.g. rehabilitation of saline lands). A wild ecotype of vetiver grass was found in southern China in the 1950s, but little is known about its adaptability to saline stress. For the purpose of understanding its tolerance to salinity as well as corresponding tolerance mechanisms, in a greenhouse with natural lighting, seedlings were grown in culture solutions and subjected to a range of NaCl concentrations for 18 days. Compared to no NaCl treatment, 200 mM NaCl significantly reduced leaf water potential, leaf water content, leaf elongation rate, leaf photosynthetic rate and plant relative growth rate and increased leaf malondialdehyde (MDA) content, but the parameters showed only slight reduction at 150 mM NaCl. In addition, salinity caused an increase in the activity of antioxidant enzymes in leaves. Moreover, increasing NaCl levels significantly increased Na+ but decreased K+ concentrations in both roots and leaves. The leaves had higher K+ concentrations at all NaCl levels, but lower Na+ concentrations compared to the roots, thereby maintaining higher K+/Na+ ratio in leaves. Our results showed that the salinity threshold of this wild vetiver grass is about 100 mM NaCl, i.e. highly tolerant to salt stress. This wild vetiver grass has a high ability to exclude Na+ and retain K+ in its leaves, which is a critical strategy for salt tolerance.

  17. Analyses of methylomes of upland and lowland switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) ecotypes using MeDIP-seq and BS-seq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dworkin, Mollee; Xie, Shaojun; Saha, Malay; Thimmapuram, Jyothi; Kalavacharla, Venu Kal

    2017-11-07

    Switchgrass is a crop with many desirable traits for bioenergy production. Plant genomes have high DNA methylation levels throughout genes and transposable elements and DNA methylation is known to play a role in silencing transposable elements. Here we analyzed methylomes in two switchgrass genotypes AP13 and VS16. AP13 is derived from a lowland ecotype and VS16, typically considered drought-tolerant, is derived from an upland ecotype, both genotypes are tetraploid (2n = 4× = 36). Methylated DNA immunoprecipitation-sequencing (MeDIP-seq) and bisulfite-sequencing (BS-seq) were used to profile DNA methylation in genomic features of AP13 and VS16. The methylation patterns in genes and transposable elements were similar to other plants, however, overall CHH methylation levels were comparatively low. Differentially methylated regions (DMRs) were assessed and a total of 1777 CG-DMRs, 573 CHG-DMRs, and 3 CHH-DMRs were detected between the two genotypes. TEs and their flanking regions were higher than that of genic regions. Different types of TEs had different methylation patterns, but the two LTRs (Copia and Gypsy) were similarly methylated, while LINEs and DNA transposons typically had different methylation patterns. MeDIP-seq data was compared to BS-seq data and most of the peaks generated by MeDIP-seq were confirmed to be highly methylated by BS-seq. DNA methylation in switchgrass genotypes obtained from the two ecotypes were found similar. Collinear gene pairs in two subgenomes (A and B) were not significantly differentially methylated. Both BS-seq and MeDIP-seq methodologies were found effective. Methylation levels were highest at CG and least in CHH. Increased DNA methylation was seen in TEs compared to genic regions. Exploitation of TE methylations can be a viable option in future crop improvement.

  18. The effect of hydro alcoholic Nettle (Urtica dioica) extracts on insulin sensitivity and some inflammatory indicators in patients with type 2 diabetes: a randomized double-blind control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namazi, N; Esfanjani, A T; Heshmati, J; Bahrami, A

    2011-08-01

    Type 2 diabetes is a metabolic disorder that is strongly associated with cardiovascular risk. Inflammation is a potential risk factor for cardiovascular disease. In this study, hydro alcoholic extract of Nettle (Urtica dioica) on insulin sensitivity and some inflammatory indicators in type 2 diabetic patients were studied. A randomized double-blind clinical trial on 50 men and women with type 2 diabetes was done for 8 weeks. Patients were adjusted by age, sex and duration of diabetes, then randomly divided into two groups, an intervention and control group. They received, 100 mg kg-1nettle extract or placebo in three portions a day for 8 weeks. Interleukin 6 (IL-6), Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), High Sensitive C-Reactive protein (hs-CRP) and Fasting Insulin concentration were measured. Insulin Sensitivity was calculated, at the beginning and the end of the study. The data were analyzed by SPSS version 18, peffects on IL-6 and hs-CRP in patients with type 2 diabetes after eight weeks intervention.

  19. Which plant trait explains the variations in relative growth rate and its response to elevated carbon dioxide concentration among Arabidopsis thaliana ecotypes derived from a variety of habitats?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguchi, Riichi; Ozaki, Hiroshi; Hanada, Kousuke; Hikosaka, Kouki

    2016-03-01

    Elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration ([CO2]) enhances plant growth, but this enhancement varies considerably. It is still uncertain which plant traits are quantitatively related to the variation in plant growth. To identify the traits responsible, we developed a growth analysis model that included primary parameters associated with morphology, nitrogen (N) use, and leaf and root activities. We analysed the vegetative growth of 44 ecotypes of Arabidopsis thaliana L. grown at ambient and elevated [CO2] (800 μmol mol(-1)). The 44 ecotypes were selected such that they were derived from various altitudes and latitudes. Relative growth rate (RGR; growth rate per unit plant mass) and its response to [CO2] varied by 1.5- and 1.7-fold among ecotypes, respectively. The variation in RGR at both [CO2]s was mainly explained by the variation in leaf N productivity (LNP; growth rate per leaf N),which was strongly related to photosynthetic N use efficiency (PNUE). The variation in the response of RGR to [CO2] was also explained by the variation in the response of LNP to [CO2]. Genomic analyses indicated that there was no phylogenetic constraint on inter-ecotype variation in the CO2 response of RGR or LNP. We conclude that the significant variation in plant growth and its response to [CO2] among ecotypes reflects the variation in N use for photosynthesis among ecotypes, and that the response of PNUE to CO2 is an important target for predicting and/or breeding plants that have high growth rates at elevated [CO2].

  20. Changes in carbohydrate content and membrane stability of two ecotypes of Calamagrostis arundinacea growing at different elevations in the drawdown zone of the Three Gorges Reservoir.

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    Shutong Lei

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Three Gorges project has caused many ecosystem problems. Ecological restoration using readily-available plants is an effective way of mitigating environmental impacts. Two perennial submergence-tolerant ecotypes of Calamagrostis arundinacea were planted in an experimental field in the drawdown zone. Responses of the two plant ecotypes to flooding stress in the drawdown zone were unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Carbohydrate content and membrane stability, two key factors for survival of plants under flooding stress, of two ecotypes (designated "dwarf" and "green" of C. arundinacea growing at different elevations of the drawdown zone were investigated. Live stems (LS and dead stems (DS of the two plant ecotypes at eight elevations (175, 170, 162, 160, 158, 155, 152 m and 149 m were sampled. Contents of soluble sugar, starch and malondialdehyde (MDA, as well as plasma membrane permeability of live stems were measured. The lowest elevations for survival of dwarf and green C. arundinacea were 160 m and 158 m, respectively. Soluble sugar content of live stems of both ecotypes decreased with elevation, with amounts from an elevation of 170 m being lower than from an elevation of 175 m. MDA content and plasma membrane permeability in live stems of green C. arundinacea did not increase with the decrease in elevation, while these measures in dwarf C. arundinacea from an elevation of 162 m were significantly higher than from an elevation of 175 m. CONCLUSIONS: Carbohydrate content, especially soluble sugar content, in both ecotypes was more sensitive to flooding stress than membrane stability. Green C. arundinacea had a higher tolerance to submergence than dwarf C. arundinacea, and thus green C. arundinacea can be planted at lower elevations than dwarf C. arundinacea.

  1. Morphological and physiological divergences within Quercus ilex support the existence of different ecotypes depending on climatic dryness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peguero-Pina, José Javier; Sancho-Knapik, Domingo; Barrón, Eduardo; Camarero, Julio Jesús; Vilagrosa, Alberto; Gil-Pelegrín, Eustaquio

    2014-08-01

    Several studies show apparently contradictory findings about the functional convergence within the Mediterranean woody flora. In this context, this study evaluates the variability of functional traits within holm oak (Quercus ilex) to elucidate whether provenances corresponding to different morphotypes represent different ecotypes locally adapted to the prevaling stress levels. Several morphological and physiological traits were measured at leaf and shoot levels in 9-year-old seedlings of seven Q. ilex provenances including all recognized morphotypes. Plants were grown in a common garden for 9 years under the same environmental conditions to avoid possible biases due to site-specific characteristics. Leaf morphometry clearly separates holm oak provenances into 'ilex' (more elongated leaves with low vein density) and 'rotundifolia' (short and rounded leaves with high vein density) morphotypes. Moreover, these morphotypes represent two consistent and very contrasting functional types in response to dry climates, mainly in terms of leaf area, major vein density, leaf specific conductivity, resistance to drought-induced cavitation and turgor loss point. The 'ilex' and 'rotundifolia' morphotypes correspond to different ecotypes as inferred from their contrasting functional traits. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that the combined use of morphological and physiological traits has provided support for the concept of these two holm oak morphotypes being regarded as two different species. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Nontargeted biomonitoring of halogenated organic compounds in two ecotypes of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) from the Southern California Bight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaul, Nellie J; Dodder, Nathan G; Aluwihare, Lihini I; Mackintosh, Susan A; Maruya, Keith A; Chivers, Susan J; Danil, Kerri; Weller, David W; Hoh, Eunha

    2015-02-03

    Targeted environmental monitoring reveals contamination by known chemicals, but may exclude potentially pervasive but unknown compounds. Marine mammals are sentinels of persistent and bioaccumulative contaminants due to their longevity and high trophic position. Using nontargeted analysis, we constructed a mass spectral library of 327 persistent and bioaccumulative compounds identified in blubber from two ecotypes of common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) sampled in the Southern California Bight. This library of halogenated organic compounds (HOCs) consisted of 180 anthropogenic contaminants, 41 natural products, 4 with mixed sources, 8 with unknown sources, and 94 with partial structural characterization and unknown sources. The abundance of compounds whose structures could not be fully elucidated highlights the prevalence of undiscovered HOCs accumulating in marine food webs. Eighty-six percent of the identified compounds are not currently monitored, including 133 known anthropogenic chemicals. Compounds related to dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) were the most abundant. Natural products were, in some cases, detected at abundances similar to anthropogenic compounds. The profile of naturally occurring HOCs differed between ecotypes, suggesting more abundant offshore sources of these compounds. This nontargeted analytical framework provided a comprehensive list of HOCs that may be characteristic of the region, and its application within monitoring surveys may suggest new chemicals for evaluation.

  3. Identification of the essential oils composition from four ecotypes of Mentha longifolia (L. Huds. growing wild in Isfahan province, Iran

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    REZA ABEDI

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Mentha longifolia L., commonly known as wild mint, belongs to family Lamiaceae. The aim of this study was to identify the chemical composition of essential oil extracted from four ecotypes of Mentha longifolia L. grown wild (Shahreza, Chadegan, Isfahan, and Falavarjan in Isfahan province (Central Iran. The essential oil was extracted by a Clevenger approach and analyzed using GC/MS. In the aerial parts of the plant were identified 26, 30, 22 and 25 compounds for Shahreza, Chadegan, Isfahan and Falavarjan ecotypes, respectively. The major constituents of the essential oil from the aerial parts of M. longifolia in Shahreza province were piperitenone oxide (26.71%, 1,8-cineole (20.72%, α-pinene (14.28%, pulegone (7.81%, sabinene (7.06% and trans-caryophyllene (4.23%. The main compositions in Chadegan province were piperitenone oxide (29.13%, 1,8-cineole (28.84%, sabinene (9.05%, pulegone (8.97% and α-pinene (6.31%. The main compositions in Isfahan province were pulegone (44.75%, 1,8-cineole (13.82%, 2-cyclohexen-1-ol, 1-methyl (8.49%, isopulegone (8.07% and menthone (4.37%. In Falavarjan province the constituents were pulegone (33.39%, 1,8-cineole (29.79%, sabinene (11.23% and isopulegone (7.28%.

  4. Out of the Pacific and back again: insights into the matrilineal history of Pacific killer whale ecotypes.

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    Andrew D Foote

    Full Text Available Killer whales (Orcinus orca are the most widely distributed marine mammals and have radiated to occupy a range of ecological niches. Disparate sympatric types are found in the North Atlantic, Antarctic and North Pacific oceans, however, little is known about the underlying mechanisms driving divergence. Previous phylogeographic analysis using complete mitogenomes yielded a bifurcating tree of clades corresponding to described ecotypes. However, there was low support at two nodes at which two Pacific and two Atlantic clades diverged. Here we apply further phylogenetic and coalescent analyses to partitioned mitochondrial genome sequences to better resolve the pattern of past radiations in this species. Our phylogenetic reconstructions indicate that in the North Pacific, sympatry between the maternal lineages that make up each ecotype arises from secondary contact. Both the phylogenetic reconstructions and a clinal decrease in diversity suggest a North Pacific to North Atlantic founding event, and the later return of killer whales to the North Pacific. Therefore, ecological divergence could have occurred during the allopatric phase through drift or selection and/or may have either commenced or have been consolidated upon secondary contact due to resource competition. The estimated timing of bidirectional migration between the North Pacific and North Atlantic coincided with the previous inter-glacial when the leakage of fauna from the Indo-Pacific into the Atlantic via the Agulhas current was particularly vigorous.

  5. Stable isotopes reveal ecotypic variation of water uptake patterns in Aleppo pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrio, Juan Pedro; Lucabaugh, Devon; Chambel, Regina; Voltas, Jordi

    2014-05-01

    Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis Mill.) has a large natural distribution range that encompasses a multitude of thermal and moisture conditions found in the Mediterranean basin. We hypothesized that due to the recurrent incidences of drought stress and high temperatures that occur at varying degrees along its distribution range, populations of Aleppo pine have undergone ecotypic differentiation in soil water uptake patterns. This study analyzed stable isotopic compositions (δ18O and δ2H) of xylem water to identify adaptive divergence associated to the pattern of soil water consumption by roots of Aleppo pine populations originating from the Mediterranean region. The results from this study show that genetic diversity in the extraction pattern of soil water can be found among populations and ecological regions of Aleppo pine under common garden conditions. However, the ability to detect such differences depended on the period of the year examined. In particular, data collection in full summer (end of July) proved to be the most adequate in revealing genetic divergence among populations, while end of spring and, to a lesser extent, end of summer, were less successful for this purpose. Both water uptake patterns (as estimated by δ18O and δ2H) and above-ground growth, exhibited significant relationships with both climatic and geographical variables. This suggests that the underlying variation among populations can be explained by certain characteristics at origin. In addition, we used a bayesian mixing model (SIAR package for R) that incorporated isotopic signatures from xylem and soil water in order to determine the predominant soil layer of water source consumption at the aforementioned periods of the growing season, where water availably ranged from lowest to highest. This allowed us to gain some understanding of Aleppo pines' differential reaction to drought, at the intraspecific level, across the fluctuating conditions of the growing season by comparing the

  6. The Amazonian Floodplains, an ecotype with challenging questions on volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesselmeier, J.

    2012-12-01

    based on short-term experiments is risky being transferred to an ecotype which is governed under natural conditions by long term flooding. Furthermore, contrasting such experiments with usually young trees (saplings or a few years old) nothing is known about the emission behavior of adult trees under field conditions.

  7. Impact of nitrogen source and supply level on growth, yield and nutritional value of two contrasting ecotypes of Cichorium spinosum L. grown hydroponically.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatzigianni, Martina; Alkhaled, Bara'a; Livieratos, Ioannis; Stamatakis, Aristidis; Ntatsi, Georgia; Savvas, Dimitrios

    2018-03-01

    In the present study, two contrasting stamnagathi (Cichorium spinosum L.) ecotypes originating either from a mountainous or from a seaside habitat were grown hydroponically and supplied with a nutrient solution differing in the total-N level (4 or 16 mmol L -1 ) and the N source (NH 4 + -N/total-N: 0.05, 0.25 or 0.50). The aim was to search for genotypic differences in nitrogen nutrition. At commercial maturity, the dry weight of mountainous plants was higher than that of seaside plants. The shoot mineral concentrations were higher in seaside plants than in mountainous plants in both harvests. The leaf nitrate concentration was influenced by the levels of both total-N and NH 4 + -N/total-N at both harvests, whereas plants with a seaside origin exhibited higher nitrate concentrations than those originating from a mountainous site in all total-N and NH 4 + -N/total-N treatments. The two stamnagathi ecotypes differed considerably in their responses to nitrogen nutrition and tissue nitrate content. The mountainous ecotype was superior in terms of growth, tissue nitrate concentration and antioxidant capacity, whereas the seaside ecotype accumulated more nutrient microcations in leaves. A low total-N concentration (up to 4 mmol L -1 ) combined with a high NH 4 + -N/total-N ratio (up to 0.05) could minimize tissue NO 3 - concentrations without compromising yield. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. PHYTOTOXICITY AND FIELD EFFICACY OF EXSEROHILUM LONGIROSTRA JC/MIN THE CONTROL OF BARNYARDGRASS ECOTYPES (ECHINOCHLOA CRUS-GALLI VAR. CRUS-GALLI(L. BEAUV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUHAIMI NAPIS

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Five selected ecotypes of bamyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-gatti from several rice growing areas in Malaysia and Indonesia were tested for their susceptibility to the potentia l bioherbicide (Exserohilum longirostratum. Bamyardgrass seedlings at the 2-3-lcaf stage were treated with 2.5xl07 conidia/ml from E. longirostratum at different application frequencies (single, double and triple. In addition, aqueous extract assays were ev aluated for the presence of a phytotoxic compound responsible for the virulence of the bioherbicide. Results of the study showed that disease severity significantly increased 20 days after treatment and resulted in mortality of the seedlin gs. Ecotypes from Perak and Lampung were most susceptible to the bioherbicide upon triple applications. Percentage dry weight reductions were 86.34 and 83.14%, respectively. Other ecotypes (Melaka, Banten and South Sulawesi were observed to have a relatively similar response. Moreover, aqueous extracts of E. longirostratum increased mortality up to 92.50% of bamyardgrass seedlings. These findings suggest that regular (double and triple applications of E. longirostratum at a concentration of 2.5xl07 conidia/ml significantly increased mortality among bamyardgrass ecotypes. Mortality of the seedlings was attributed to the presence of a secondary phytotoxic metabolite.

  9. The molecular dimension of microbial species: 1. Ecological distinctions among, and homogeneity within, putative ecotypes of Synechococcus inhabiting the cyanobacterial mat of Mushroom Spring, Yellowstone National Park

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becraft, Eric D.; Wood, Jason M.; Rusch, Douglas B.

    2015-01-01

    Based on the Stable Ecotype Model, evolution leads to the divergence of ecologically distinct populations (e.g., with different niches and/or behaviors) of ecologically interchangeable membership. In this study, pyrosequencing was used to provide deep sequence coverage of Synechococcus psaA genes...

  10. Effect of short-term and long-term treatments with three ecotypes of Lepidium meyenii (MACA) on spermatogenesis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Carla; Rubio, Julio; Gasco, Manuel; Nieto, Jessica; Yucra, Sandra; Gonzales, Gustavo F

    2006-02-20

    Lepidium meyenii (Brassicaceae), known as Maca, is a Peruvian hypocotyl that grows exclusively between 4000 and 4500 m above sea level in the central Andes. Maca is traditionally employed in the Andean region for its supposed fertility-enhancing properties. The study aimed to test the hypothesis that different ecotypes of Maca (Red, Yellow and Black) after short-term (7 days) and long-term (42 days) treatment affects differentially spermatogenesis adult rats. After 7 days of treatment with Yellow and Red Maca, the length of stage VIII was increased (PMaca stages II-VI and VIII were increased (PMaca compared with control values (PMaca did not alter DSP and epididymal sperm motility was not affected by treatment with any ecotype of Maca. After 42 days of treatment, Black Maca was the only ecotype that enhanced DSP (PMaca was the only that increased epididymal sperm motility (PMaca did not affect testicular and epididymal weight nor epididymal sperm motility and sperm count; however, prostate weight was reduced (PMaca did not affect prostate weight. In conclusion, there were differences in the biological response of the three ecotypes of Maca (Yellow, Red and Black). Black Maca appeared to have more beneficial effect on sperm counts and epididymal sperm motility.

  11. The Invasion of Coastal Areas in South China by Ipomoea cairica May Be Accelerated by the Ecotype Being More Locally Adapted to Salt Stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Liu

    Full Text Available Local adaptation and phenotypic plasticity are two alternative mechanisms used by invasive plants for range expansion. We conducted a series of experiments to investigate the role of these mechanisms in the recent expansion of the invasive Ipomoea cairica from non-saline to salt-stressed coastal habitats. A comparison of the plant's photosynthetic traits and construction costs across habitats was conducted through a field survey. Meanwhile, a full factorial greenhouse experiment was conducted with two ecotypes (non-saline and coastal of I. cairica and two salinity gradients (water and 4 g L-1 NaCl solution to evaluate the roles of the two strategies by comparing their main traits. The results revealed that the construction cost and Amax of I. cairica did not change with the habitat type. The ecotype and saline treatments, however, significantly influenced the plant growth. The non-saline ecotype (NE generally showed higher or equal plasticity of biomass-allocation and functional traits compared to the coastal ecotype (CE. However, the fitness and biomass of the NE significantly decreased with salinity, whereas those aspects of the CE did not change. Our results indicate that the recent expansion of I. cairica into coastal areas may be accelerated by the local adaptation of the CE to salt stress. Additionally, in South China, the CE will most likely evolve adaptations to both saline and non-saline environments, which will further broaden the invasion range of I. cairica in the future.

  12. No effect of seed source on multiple aspects of ecosystem functioning during ecological restoration: cultivars compared to local ecotypes of dominant grasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, Sara G; Gibson, David J; Gustafson, Danny J; Benscoter, Allison M; Reed, Lewis K; Campbell, Ryan E; Klopf, Ryan P; Willand, Jason E; Wodika, Ben R

    2014-02-01

    Genetic principles underlie recommendations to use local seed, but a paucity of information exists on the genetic distinction and ecological consequences of using different seed sources in restorations. We established a field experiment to test whether cultivars and local ecotypes of dominant prairie grasses were genetically distinct and differentially influenced ecosystem functioning. Whole plots were assigned to cultivar and local ecotype grass sources. Three subplots within each whole plot were seeded to unique pools of subordinate species. The cultivar of the increasingly dominant grass, Sorghastrum nutans, was genetically different than the local ecotype, but genetic diversity was similar between the two sources. There were no differences in aboveground net primary production, soil carbon accrual, and net nitrogen mineralization rate in soil between the grass sources. Comparable productivity of the grass sources among the species pools for four years shows functional equivalence in terms of biomass production. Subordinate species comprised over half the aboveground productivity, which may have diluted the potential for documented trait differences between the grass sources to influence ecosystem processes. Regionally developed cultivars may be a suitable alternative to local ecotypes for restoration in fragmented landscapes with limited gene flow between natural and restored prairie and negligible recruitment by seed.

  13. The Invasion of Coastal Areas in South China by Ipomoea cairica May Be Accelerated by the Ecotype Being More Locally Adapted to Salt Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gang; Gao, Yang; Huang, Fang-Fang; Yuan, Ming-Yue; Peng, Shao-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Local adaptation and phenotypic plasticity are two alternative mechanisms used by invasive plants for range expansion. We conducted a series of experiments to investigate the role of these mechanisms in the recent expansion of the invasive Ipomoea cairica from non-saline to salt-stressed coastal habitats. A comparison of the plant's photosynthetic traits and construction costs across habitats was conducted through a field survey. Meanwhile, a full factorial greenhouse experiment was conducted with two ecotypes (non-saline and coastal) of I. cairica and two salinity gradients (water and 4 g L-1 NaCl solution) to evaluate the roles of the two strategies by comparing their main traits. The results revealed that the construction cost and Amax of I. cairica did not change with the habitat type. The ecotype and saline treatments, however, significantly influenced the plant growth. The non-saline ecotype (NE) generally showed higher or equal plasticity of biomass-allocation and functional traits compared to the coastal ecotype (CE). However, the fitness and biomass of the NE significantly decreased with salinity, whereas those aspects of the CE did not change. Our results indicate that the recent expansion of I. cairica into coastal areas may be accelerated by the local adaptation of the CE to salt stress. Additionally, in South China, the CE will most likely evolve adaptations to both saline and non-saline environments, which will further broaden the invasion range of I. cairica in the future.

  14. The molecular dimension of microbial species: 1. Ecological distinctions among, and homogeneity within, putative ecotypes of Synechococcus inhabiting the cyanobacterial mat of Mushroom Spring, Yellowstone National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becraft, Eric D; Wood, Jason M; Rusch, Douglas B; Kühl, Michael; Jensen, Sheila I; Bryant, Donald A; Roberts, David W; Cohan, Frederick M; Ward, David M

    2015-01-01

    Based on the Stable Ecotype Model, evolution leads to the divergence of ecologically distinct populations (e.g., with different niches and/or behaviors) of ecologically interchangeable membership. In this study, pyrosequencing was used to provide deep sequence coverage of Synechococcus psaA genes and transcripts over a large number of habitat types in the Mushroom Spring microbial mat. Putative ecological species [putative ecotypes (PEs)], which were predicted by an evolutionary simulation based on the Stable Ecotype Model (Ecotype Simulation), exhibited distinct distributions relative to temperature-defined positions in the effluent channel and vertical position in the upper 1 mm-thick mat layer. Importantly, in most cases variants predicted to belong to the same PE formed unique clusters relative to temperature and depth in the mat in canonical correspondence analysis, supporting the hypothesis that while the PEs are ecologically distinct, the members of each ecotype are ecologically homogeneous. PEs responded differently to experimental perturbations of temperature and light, but the genetic variation within each PE was maintained as the relative abundances of PEs changed, further indicating that each population responded as a set of ecologically interchangeable individuals. Compared to PEs that predominate deeper within the mat photic zone, the timing of transcript abundances for selected genes differed for PEs that predominate in microenvironments closer to upper surface of the mat with spatiotemporal differences in light and O2 concentration. All of these findings are consistent with the hypotheses that Synechococcus species in hot spring mats are sets of ecologically interchangeable individuals that are differently adapted, that these adaptations control their distributions, and that the resulting distributions constrain the activities of the species in space and time.

  15. Distribution of Prochlorococcus Ecotypes in the Red Sea Basin Based on Analyses of rpoC1 Sequences

    KAUST Repository

    Shibl, Ahmed A.

    2016-06-25

    The marine picocyanobacteria Prochlorococcus represent a significant fraction of the global pelagic bacterioplankton community. Specifically, in the surface waters of the Red Sea, they account for around 91% of the phylum Cyanobacteria. Previous work suggested a widespread presence of high-light (HL)-adapted ecotypes in the Red Sea with the occurrence of low-light (LL)-adapted ecotypes at intermediate depths in the water column. To obtain a more comprehensive dataset over a wider biogeographical scope, we used a 454-pyrosequencing approach to analyze the diversity of the Prochlorococcus rpoC1 gene from a total of 113 samples at various depths (up to 500 m) from 45 stations spanning the Red Sea basin from north to south. In addition, we analyzed 45 metagenomes from eight stations using hidden Markov models based on a set of reference Prochlorococcus genomes to (1) estimate the relative abundance of Prochlorococcus based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, and (2) identify and classify rpoC1 sequences as an assessment of the community structure of Prochlorococcus in the northern, central and southern regions of the basin without amplification bias. Analyses of metagenomic data indicated that Prochlorococcus occurs at a relative abundance of around 9% in samples from surface waters (25, 50, 75 m), 3% in intermediate waters (100 m) and around 0.5% in deep-water samples (200–500 m). Results based on rpoC1 sequences using both methods showed that HL II cells dominate surface waters and were also present in deep-water samples. Prochlorococcus communities in intermediate waters (100 m) showed a higher diversity and co-occurrence of low-light and high-light ecotypes. Prochlorococcus communities at each depth range (surface, intermediate, deep sea) did not change significantly over the sampled transects spanning most of the Saudi waters in the Red Sea. Statistical analyses of rpoC1 sequences from metagenomes indicated that the vertical distribution of Prochlorococcus in the water

  16. Giraudia sphacelarioides (Phaeophyceae) at the Canary Islands and in Danish waters: a study in ecotypic differentiation and its biogeographical implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Aase; Pedersen, Poul Møller

    2003-01-01

    Comparative culture studies on isolates from Lanzarote (Canary Islands) and from Danish waters of Giraudia sphacelarioides show that temperature plays the key role to determine its geographical distribution. Experiments show that the upper lethal temperature is the same for both isolates 26...... in relation to temperature, while the macrothalli occur only when more suitable conditions exist in nature. In the North Atlantic Ocean G. sphacelarioides is distributed over approximately 30° latitudes with severe winter temperatures especially in Danish waters. This distribution can only be explained...... by ecotypic differentiation. In Danish waters salinity decreases from c. 30 ‰ in the northern Kattegat to below 8 ‰ in the inner parts and therefore becomes an important factor for the immigration of species into the Baltic Sea. Combined salinity (30-20-10-5 ‰) and temperature (4 to 30°C) experiments show...

  17. Different NaCl-Induced Calcium Signatures in the Arabidopsis thaliana Ecotypes Col-0 and C24

    KAUST Repository

    Schmöckel, Sandra M.

    2015-02-27

    A common feature of stress signalling pathways are alterations in the concentration of cytosolic free calcium ([Ca2+]cyt), which allow the specific and rapid transmission of stress signals through a plant after exposure to a stress, such as salinity. Here, we used an aequorin based bioluminescence assay to compare the NaCl-induced changes in [Ca2+]cyt of the Arabidopsis ecotypes Col-0 and C24. We show that C24 lacks the NaCl specific component of the [Ca2+]cyt signature compared to Col-0. This phenotypic variation could be exploited as a screening methodology for the identification of yet unknown components in the early stages of the salt signalling pathway.

  18. Characterization of biochemical traits of dog rose (Rosa canina L.) ecotypes in the central part of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javanmard, Milad; Asadi-Gharneh, Hossein Ali; Nikneshan, Pejman

    2017-11-14

    Dog rose (Rosa canina L.) is a wild native species in Iran, with a significant genetic diversity. This plant serves as a rich source of vitamin C, anthocyanins, phenolic contents and carotenoids. Rose hips have been used in several food products, as well as perfumery and cosmetics industries. In this research, we investigate biochemical characteristics of five dog rose ecotypes (Kopehjamshid, Zarneh, Miyankish, Aghcheh and Sadeghiyeh), that were collected from the central part of Iran (Isfahan province). Amounts of vitamin C, total carotenoids, total phenolic contents, total anthocyanins, macro and micro minerals were measured. Seed oil are extracted by soxhlet method and analysed by gas chromatography. The macro and micro minerals levels in the fruit vary significantly among these regions. The results of this study demonstrate that dog rose have great diversity and can be used in breeding programmes in order to increase nutrient values as a food resource additive.

  19. Interplay of robustness and plasticity of life-history traits drives ecotypic differentiation in thermally distinct habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liefting, M; van Grunsven, R H A; Morrissey, M B; Timmermans, M J T N; Ellers, J

    2015-05-01

    Phenotypic plasticity describes the ability of an individual to alter its phenotype in response to the environment and is potentially adaptive when dealing with environmental variation. However, robustness in the face of a changing environment may often be beneficial for traits that are tightly linked to fitness. We hypothesized that robustness of some traits may depend on specific patterns of plasticity within and among other traits. We used a reaction norm approach to study robustness and phenotypic plasticity of three life-history traits of the collembolan Orchesella cincta in environments with different thermal regimes. We measured adult mass, age at maturity and growth rate of males and females from heath and forest habitats at two temperatures (12 and 22 °C). We found evidence for ecotype-specific robustness of female adult mass to temperature, with a higher level of robustness in the heath ecotype. This robustness is facilitated by plastic adjustments of growth rate and age at maturity. Furthermore, female fecundity is strongly influenced by female adult mass, explaining the importance of realizing a high mass across temperatures for females. These findings indicate that different predicted outcomes of life-history theory can be combined within one species' ontogeny and that models describing life-history strategies should not assume that traits like growth rate are maximized under all conditions. On a methodological note, we report a systematic inflation of variation when standard deviations and correlation coefficients are calculated from family means as opposed to individual data within a family structure. © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  20. Response to Long-Term NaHCO3-Derived Alkalinity in Model Lotus japonicus Ecotypes Gifu B-129 and Miyakojima MG-20: Transcriptomic Profiling and Physiological Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocco, Rubén; Bordenave, Cesar D.; Escaray, Francisco J.; Antonelli, Cristian; Calzadilla, Pablo; Gárriz, Andrés; Serna, Eva; Carrasco, Pedro; Menendez, Ana B.

    2014-01-01

    The current knowledge regarding transcriptomic changes induced by alkalinity on plants is scarce and limited to studies where plants were subjected to the alkaline salt for periods not longer than 48 h, so there is no information available regarding the regulation of genes involved in the generation of a new homeostatic cellular condition after long-term alkaline stress. Lotus japonicus is a model legume broadly used to study many important physiological processes including biotic interactions and biotic and abiotic stresses. In the present study, we characterized phenotipically the response to alkaline stress of the most widely used L. japonicus ecotypes, Gifu B-129 and MG-20, and analyzed global transcriptome of plants subjected to 10 mM NaHCO3 during 21 days, by using the Affymetrix Lotus japonicus GeneChip®. Plant growth assessment, gas exchange parameters, chlorophyll a fluorescence transient (OJIP) analysis and metal accumulation supported the notion that MG-20 plants displayed a higher tolerance level to alkaline stress than Gifu B-129. Overall, 407 and 459 probe sets were regulated in MG-20 and Gifu B-129, respectively. The number of probe sets differentially expressed in roots was higher than that of shoots, regardless the ecotype. Gifu B-129 and MG-20 also differed in their regulation of genes that could play important roles in the generation of a new Fe/Zn homeostatic cellular condition, synthesis of plant compounds involved in stress response, protein-degradation, damage repair and root senescence, as well as in glycolysis, gluconeogenesis and TCA. In addition, there were differences between both ecotypes in the expression patterns of putative transcription factors that could determine distinct arrangements of flavonoid and isoflavonoid compounds. Our results provided a set of selected, differentially expressed genes deserving further investigation and suggested that the L. japonicus ecotypes could constitute a useful model to search for common and

  1. Response to long-term NaHCO3-derived alkalinity in model Lotus japonicus Ecotypes Gifu B-129 and Miyakojima MG-20: transcriptomic profiling and physiological characterization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Florencia Babuin

    Full Text Available The current knowledge regarding transcriptomic changes induced by alkalinity on plants is scarce and limited to studies where plants were subjected to the alkaline salt for periods not longer than 48 h, so there is no information available regarding the regulation of genes involved in the generation of a new homeostatic cellular condition after long-term alkaline stress. Lotus japonicus is a model legume broadly used to study many important physiological processes including biotic interactions and biotic and abiotic stresses. In the present study, we characterized phenotipically the response to alkaline stress of the most widely used L. japonicus ecotypes, Gifu B-129 and MG-20, and analyzed global transcriptome of plants subjected to 10 mM NaHCO3 during 21 days, by using the Affymetrix Lotus japonicus GeneChip®. Plant growth assessment, gas exchange parameters, chlorophyll a fluorescence transient (OJIP analysis and metal accumulation supported the notion that MG-20 plants displayed a higher tolerance level to alkaline stress than Gifu B-129. Overall, 407 and 459 probe sets were regulated in MG-20 and Gifu B-129, respectively. The number of probe sets differentially expressed in roots was higher than that of shoots, regardless the ecotype. Gifu B-129 and MG-20 also differed in their regulation of genes that could play important roles in the generation of a new Fe/Zn homeostatic cellular condition, synthesis of plant compounds involved in stress response, protein-degradation, damage repair and root senescence, as well as in glycolysis, gluconeogenesis and TCA. In addition, there were differences between both ecotypes in the expression patterns of putative transcription factors that could determine distinct arrangements of flavonoid and isoflavonoid compounds. Our results provided a set of selected, differentially expressed genes deserving further investigation and suggested that the L. japonicus ecotypes could constitute a useful model to search

  2. Asymbiotic germination response to photoperiod and nutritional media in six populations of Calopogon tuberosus var. tuberosus (Orchidaceae): evidence for ecotypic differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauth, Philip J; Kane, Michael E; Vendrame, Wagner A; Reinhardt-Adams, Carrie

    2008-11-01

    Ecotypic differentiation has been explored in numerous plant species, but has been largely ignored in the Orchidaceae. Applying a specific germination protocol for widespread seed sources may be unreliable due to inherent physiological or genetic differences in localized populations. It is crucial to determine whether ecotypic differentiation exists for restoration and conservation programmes. Calopogon tuberosus var. tuberosus, a widespread terrestrial orchid of eastern North America, is a model species to explore ecotypic differences in germination requirements, as this species occupies diverse habitats spanning a wide geographical range. Mature seeds were collected from south Florida, north central Florida, three locations in South Carolina, and the upper Michigan peninsula. Effects of three photoperiods (8/16, 12/12, 16/8 h L/D) were examined on asymbiotic in vitro seed germination and seedling development of C. tuberosus. Germination and early development was monitored for 8 weeks, while advanced development was monitored for an additional 8 weeks. In an additional experiment, asymbiotic seed germination and development was monitored for 8 weeks on six culture media (BM-1 terrestrial orchid medium, Knudson C, Malmgrem, half-strength MS, P723, and Vacin and Went). A tetrazolium test for embryo viability was performed. Short days promoted the highest germination among Florida populations, but few differences among photoperiods in other seed sources existed. Different media had little effect on the germination of Michigan and Florida populations, but germination of South Carolina seeds was higher on media with higher calcium and magnesium. Tetrazolium testing confirmed that South Carolina seeds exhibited low viability while viability was higher in Florida seeds. Seed germination and corm formation was rapid in Michigan seeds across all treatments. Michigan seedlings allocated more biomass to corms compared with other seed sources. Rapid germination and corm

  3. Asymbiotic Germination Response to Photoperiod and Nutritional Media in Six Populations of Calopogon tuberosus var. tuberosus (Orchidaceae): Evidence for Ecotypic Differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauth, Philip J.; Kane, Michael E.; Vendrame, Wagner A.; Reinhardt-Adams, Carrie

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims Ecotypic differentiation has been explored in numerous plant species, but has been largely ignored in the Orchidaceae. Applying a specific germination protocol for widespread seed sources may be unreliable due to inherent physiological or genetic differences in localized populations. It is crucial to determine whether ecotypic differentiation exists for restoration and conservation programmes. Calopogon tuberosus var. tuberosus, a widespread terrestrial orchid of eastern North America, is a model species to explore ecotypic differences in germination requirements, as this species occupies diverse habitats spanning a wide geographical range. Methods Mature seeds were collected from south Florida, north central Florida, three locations in South Carolina, and the upper Michigan peninsula. Effects of three photoperiods (8/16, 12/12, 16/8 h L/D) were examined on asymbiotic in vitro seed germination and seedling development of C. tuberosus. Germination and early development was monitored for 8 weeks, while advanced development was monitored for an additional 8 weeks. In an additional experiment, asymbiotic seed germination and development was monitored for 8 weeks on six culture media (BM-1 terrestrial orchid medium, Knudson C, Malmgrem, half-strength MS, P723, and Vacin and Went). A tetrazolium test for embryo viability was performed. Key Results Short days promoted the highest germination among Florida populations, but few differences among photoperiods in other seed sources existed. Different media had little effect on the germination of Michigan and Florida populations, but germination of South Carolina seeds was higher on media with higher calcium and magnesium. Tetrazolium testing confirmed that South Carolina seeds exhibited low viability while viability was higher in Florida seeds. Seed germination and corm formation was rapid in Michigan seeds across all treatments. Michigan seedlings allocated more biomass to corms compared with other seed

  4. Effects of elevated carbon dioxide on stomatal characteristics and carbon isotope ratio of Arabidopsis thaliana ecotypes originating from an altitudinal gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldera, H Iroja U; De Costa, W A Janendra M; Woodward, F Ian; Lake, Janice A; Ranwala, Sudheera M W

    2017-01-01

    Stomatal functioning regulates the fluxes of CO2 and water vapor between vegetation and atmosphere and thereby influences plant adaptation to their habitats. Stomatal traits are controlled by external environmental and internal cellular signaling. The objective of this study was to quantify the effects of CO2 enrichment (CE) on stomatal density (SD)-related properties, guard cell length (GCL) and carbon isotope ratio (δ(13) C) of a range of Arabidopsis thaliana ecotypes originating from a wide altitudinal range [50-1260 m above sea level (asl)], and grown at 400 and 800 ppm [CO2 ], and thereby elucidate the possible adaptation and acclimation responses controlling stomatal traits and water use efficiency (WUE). There was a highly significant variation among ecotypes in the magnitude and direction of response of stomatal traits namely, SD and stomatal index (SI) and GCL, and δ(13) C to CE, which represented a short-term acclimation response. A majority of ecotypes showed increased SD and SI with CE with the response not depending on the altitude of origin. Significant ecotypic variation was shown in all stomatal traits and δ(13) C at each [CO2 ]. At 400 ppm, means of SD, SI and GCL for broad altitudinal ranges, i.e. low (400 m), increased with increasing altitude, which represented an adaptation response to decreased availability of CO2 with altitude. δ(13) C was negatively correlated to SD and SI at 800 ppm but not at 400 ppm. Our results highlight the diversity in the response of key stomatal characters to CE and altitude within the germplasm of A. thaliana and the need to consider this diversity when using A. thaliana as a model plant. © 2016 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  5. RAPD-PCR and real-time PCR HRM based genetic variation evaluations of Urtica dioica parts, ecotypes and evaluations of morphotypes in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzonur, Irem; Akdeniz, Gamze; Katmer, Zeynep; Ersoy, Seyda Karaman

    2013-01-01

    Urtica dioica is an ethnobotanically and medicinally important Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) plant worldwide and in Turkey; 90 % of herbal CAM applications depend on it in Turkey. It has a wide range of habitats in nearly all continents. It is found in all three phytogeographical regions in Turkey (Euro-Siberian, Irano-Turanian, Mediterranean) with high adaptivity to heterogeneous geographies such as climate, soil types and altitudes. This fact in relation to the assessment of chemical constituents of the plant and combining with further genetic and morphological variation data can assist and enhance the works for the utility and reliability of CAM applications in effect and activity of this plant species. In this work we have made some preliminary experiments with novel approaches to reveal the ecotypes and genetic variation of mighty ecotypes of Urtica dioica from different phytogeographical regions of Turkey (Euro-Siberian and Mediterranean). The ecotypes have heterogeneity in both its parts (leaf, stem, root) as revealed by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RAPD-PCR) using random primers and High-resolution Melt (HRM) analysis using Urtica dioica specific primers and universal chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) primers and morphological traits such as phenolic contents and antioxidant capacities of plants' leaf infusions as used in medicinal applications in Turkey. This work will contribute a lot for the development of molecular markers to detect the genetic variation and heterogeneity of Urtica dioica to further relate with expected phenotypes that are most useful and relevant in CAM applications.

  6. The response of various ecotypes of common sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia L. to the foliar application of nitrogen, iron and zinc in a cold climate of

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ali tadayon

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Common sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia L. is a forage crop belonging to the legume family. The crop is characterized by numerous favorable criteria such as the capability to fix atmospheric nitrogen symbiotically. In order to study the response of various ecotypes of common sainfoin to the foliar application of nitrogen and micronutrients, such as iron and zinc, two separate field experiments were conducted using a spilt-plot design with completely randomized block replicated three times. In the first experiment, the main plots included five different ecotypes of common sainfoin, and the sub-plots included four rates of urea application (0, 15, 30 and 45 kg N/ha. In the second experiment, the main plots included seven different ecotypes of common sainfoin, and the sub-plots included four rates of micronutrients (0, 0.04 % Fe, 0.04 % Zn and 0.04 % Fe + 0.04 % Zn. The foliar application of urea, Fe and Zn with increasing nutrient concentrations had a statistically significant (p

  7. Variation in salinity tolerance and shoot sodium accumulation in Arabidopsis ecotypes linked to differences in the natural expression levels of transporters involved in sodium transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, D; Shirley, N; Tester, M; Roy, S J

    2010-05-01

    Salinity tolerance can be attributed to three different mechanisms: Na+ exclusion from the shoot, Na+ tissue tolerance and osmotic tolerance. Although several key ion channels and transporters involved in these processes are known, the variation in expression profiles and the effects of these proteins on Na+ transport in different accessions of the same species are unknown. Here, expression profiles of the genes AtHKT1;1, AtSOS1, AtNHX1 and AtAVP1 are determined in four ecotypes of Arabidopsis thaliana. Not only are these genes differentially regulated between ecotypes, the expression levels of the genes can be linked to the concentration of Na+ in the plant. An inverse relationship was found between AtSOS1 expression in the root and total plant Na+ accumulation, supporting a role for AtSOS1 in Na+ efflux from the plant. Similarly, ecotypes with high expression levels of AtHKT1;1 in the root had lower shoot Na+ concentrations, due to the hypothesized role of AtHKT1;1 in retrieval of Na+ from the transpiration stream. The inverse relationship between shoot Na+ concentration and salinity tolerance typical of most cereal crop plants was not demonstrated, but a positive relationship was found between salt tolerance and levels of AtAVP1 expression, which may be related to tissue tolerance.

  8. Ecotypic variation in growth responses to simulated herbivory: trade-off between maximum relative growth rate and tolerance to defoliation in an annual plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, Iván D.; Tapia-López, Rosalinda; Núñez-Farfán, Juan

    2015-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that slow-growing plants are more likely to maximize above-ground biomass and fitness when defoliated by herbivores than those with an already high relative growth rate (RGR). Some populations of the annual herb Datura stramonium L. can tolerate foliar damage better than others. The physiological basis of this difference is examined here in a comparative study of two ecotypes that differ in tolerance and maximum growth rate, using a growth analytical approach. One hundred and fifty-four plants of each ecotype grown under controlled conditions were suddenly defoliated (35 % of total leaf area removed) and a similar sample size of plants remained undefoliated (control). Ontogenetic plastic changes in RGR and its growth components [net assimilation rate (NAR), specific leaf area and leaf weight ratio (LWR)] after defoliation were measured to determine whether these plastic changes maximize plant growth and fitness. Different ontogenetic phases of the response were discerned and increased RGR of defoliated plants was detected at the end of the experimental period, but brought about by a different growth component (NAR or LWR) in each ecotype. These changes in RGR are putatively related to increases in fitness in defoliated environments. At the intra-specific scale, data showed a trade-off between the ability to grow under benign environmental conditions and the ability to tolerate resource limitation due to defoliation. PMID:25725085

  9. Evaluation of genetic and geographical diversity of garlic (Allium sativum L. ecotypes of Iran using ISSR and M13 molecular markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Fakhrfeshani

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Garlic (Allium sativum L. as one of the most valuable industrial and pharmaceutical plants has been studied from many aspects because of its importance. But there is not any sufficient and reliable information about its distribution and classification. So its types are categorized according to traditional, local or geographical names or some visual traits. The most important reason is the sterility of garlic and its flowering inability. This study, as the first report of using ISSR and M13 markers on Iranian garlic ecotypes, was performed to evaluate the genetic diversity and relationship and distinguish the repetitious clones among populations from Iran. According to our results, 26 studied clones were categorized as 24 different genotypes with a possibility of classifying them into four groups coincide with their geographical gathering zone. Group one contains ecotypes from north and western North of Hamadan province and group two contains clones from west and south west of Hamadan province, central, east and south east of Iran. Sample from Ahvaz was the only member of group three and ecotypes from North and eastern north of Iran formed group four.

  10. Seed longevity of red rice ecotypes buried in soil Longevidade de sementes de arroz-vermelho enterradas no solo

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    J.A. Noldin

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Red rice is a troublesome weed in irrigated rice production and is spread through contaminated commercial rice seed and machinery. Seed dormancy is a major trait for red rice. Studies were carried out at two locations to determine red rice seed longevity in the soil of several ecotypes from four US states. Five months after burial near Beaumont, Texas only three ecotypes had viable seed (O arroz-vermelho constitui-se na principal planta daninha infestante de lavouras de arroz irrigado e a sua disseminação ocorre, principalmente, pelo uso de sementes comerciais contaminadas e equipamentos agrícolas. A ocorrência de dormência nas sementes é uma das principais características que dificultam o controle do arroz-vermelho em lavouras. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estimar a longevidade no solo de ecótipos de arroz-vermelho provenientes de diferentes áreas de produção de arroz nos Estados Unidos. O estudo foi conduzido em dois locais: Beaumont e College Station, no estado do Texas (TX. Para sementes enterradas a 5 cm de profundidade em Beaumont, apenas três ecótipos apresentaram sementes viáveis (<1%. No entanto, quando as sementes foram enterradas em maior profundidade (25 cm, nove ecótipos tinham sementes viáveis após 2 anos. Trinta e seis meses após o enterrio, cinco ecótipos apresentavam sementes com alguma viabilidade, mas todos inferiores a 1%. Sementes de arroz-vermelho produzidas e enterradas em College Station na profundidade de 12 cm, um dia após a colheita, apresentaram maior longevidade que aquelas mantidas na superfície do solo. Após 17 meses, um dos ecótipos de arroz-preto (TX 4, enterrado a 12 cm, foi o que apresentou maior percentual de viabilidade (2%. Nos dois experimentos, observou-se que os cultivares comerciais, Lemont e Mars, não apresentaram sementes viáveis após cinco meses, independentemente da localização no solo. Os resultados deste estudo sugerem que em áreas com arroz-vermelho deve-se evitar o

  11. Non-destructive flavour evaluation of red onion (Allium cepa L.) ecotypes: an electronic-nose-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Mariateresa; di Sanzo, Rosa; Cefaly, Vittoria; Carabetta, Sonia; Serra, Demetrio; Fuda, Salvatore

    2013-11-15

    This work reports preliminary results on the potential of a metal oxide sensor (MOS)-based electronic nose, as a non-destructive method to discriminate three "Tropea Red Onion" PGI ecotypes (TrT, TrMC and TrA) from each other and the common red onion (RO), which is usually used to counterfeit. The signals from the sensor array were processed using a canonical discriminant function analysis (DFA) pattern recognition technique. The DFA on onion samples showed a clear separation among the four onion groups with an overall correct classification rate (CR) of 97.5%. Onion flavour is closely linked to pungency and thus to the pyruvic acid content. The e-nose analysis results are in good agreement with pyruvic acid analysis. This work demonstrated that artificial olfactory systems have potential for use as an innovative, rapid and specific non-destructive technique, and may provide a method to protect food products against counterfeiting. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Species Diversity, Abundance, and Host Preferences of Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in Two Different Ecotypes of Madagascar With Recent RVFV Transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean Jose Nepomichene, Thiery Nirina; Elissa, Nohal; Cardinale, Eric; Boyer, Sebastien

    2015-09-01

    Mosquito diversity and abundance were examined in six Madagascan villages in either arid (Toliary II district) or humid (Mampikony district) ecotypes, each with a history of Rift Valley fever virus transmission. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention light traps without CO2 (LT) placed near ruminant parks and animal-baited net trap (NT) baited with either zebu or sheep/goat were used to sample mosquitoes, on two occasions between March 2011 and October 2011. Culex tritaeniorhynchus (Giles) was the most abundant species, followed by Culex antennatus (Becker) and Anopheles squamosus/cydippis (Theobald/de Meillon). These three species comprised more than half of all mosquitoes collected. The NT captured more mosquitoes in diversity and in abundance than the LT, and also caught more individuals of each species, except for An. squamosus/cydippis. Highest diversity and abundance were observed in the humid and warm district of Mampikony. No host preference was highlighted, except for Cx. tritaeniorhynchus presenting a blood preference for zebu baits. The description of species diversity, abundance, and host preference described herein can inform the development of control measures to reduce the risk of mosquito-borne diseases in Madagascar. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Clues about the genetic basis of adaptation emerge from comparing the proteomes of two Ostreococcus ecotypes (Chlorophyta, Prasinophyceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jancek, Séverine; Gourbière, Sébastien; Moreau, Hervé; Piganeau, Gwenaël

    2008-11-01

    We compared the proteomes of two picoplanktonic Ostreococcus unicellular green algal ecotypes to analyze the genetic basis of their adaptation with their ecological niches. We first investigated the function of the species-specific genes using Gene Ontology databases and similarity searches. Although most species-specific genes had no known function, we identified several species-specific functions involved in various cellular processes, which could be critical for environmental adaptations. Additionally, we investigated the rate of evolution of orthologous genes and its distribution across chromosomes. We show that faster evolving genes encode significantly more membrane or excreted proteins, consistent with the notion that selection acts on cell surface modifications that is driven by selection for resistance to viruses and grazers, keystone actors of phytoplankton evolution. The relationship between GC content and chromosome length also suggests that both strains have experienced recombination since their divergence and that lack of recombination on the two outlier chromosomes could explain part of their peculiar genomic features, including higher rates of evolution.

  14. Extracts from fruits of saw palmetto (Sabal serrulata) and roots of stinging nettle (Urtica dioica): viable alternatives in the medical treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia and associated lower urinary tracts symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, E

    2001-08-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and associated lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) are very common disorders in aging men. Despite the great clinical importance, many aspects of their aetiology remain uncertain although it is generally accepted that advanced age and testicular androgens are important requirements for the development of these complaints. The currently available therapeutic options include watchful waiting, changes of life style, medical treatments and invasive therapies. In many European countries the use of phytopharmaceuticals for the management of BPH and related LUTS is common and these products represent up to 80 % of all drugs prescribed for this disorder. In particularly, extracts from the fruits of saw palmetto (Sabal serrulata, syn. Serenoa repens) and the roots of stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) are popular. During the last years numerous papers have been published which elaborated on the pharmacological activities and the clinical assessment of these herbal remedies. These investigations have not only broadened the scientific basis for the rational use of phytotherapeutics but have also provided evidence for their therapeutic efficacy and favourable safety profile.

  15. Botanical Extracts from Rosehip (Rosa canina, Willow Bark (Salix alba, and Nettle Leaf (Urtica dioica Suppress IL-1β-Induced NF-κB Activation in Canine Articular Chondrocytes

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    Mehdi Shakibaei

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to characterize the anti-inflammatory mode of action of botanical extracts from rosehip (Rosa canina, willow bark (Salix alba, and nettle leaf (Urtica dioica in an in vitro model of primary canine articular chondrocytes. Methods. The biological effects of the botanical extracts were studied in chondrocytes treated with IL-1β for up to 72 h. Expression of collagen type II, cartilage-specific proteoglycan (CSPG, β1-integrin, SOX-9, COX-2, and MMP-9 and MMP-13 was examined by western blotting. Results. The botanical extracts suppressed IL-1β-induced NF-κB activation by inhibition of IκBα phosphorylation, IκBα degradation, p65 phosphorylation, and p65 nuclear translocation. These events correlated with downregulation of NF-κB targets including COX-2 and MMPs. The extracts also reversed the IL-1β-induced downregulation of collagen type II, CSPG, β1-integrin, and cartilage-specific transcription factor SOX-9 protein expression. In high-density cultures botanical extracts stimulated new cartilage formation even in the presence of IL-1β. Conclusions. Botanical extracts exerted anti-inflammatory and anabolic effects on chondrocytes. The observed reduction of IL-1β-induced NF-κB activation suggests that further studies are warranted to demonstrate the effectiveness of plant extracts in the treatment of OA and other conditions in which NF-κB plays pathophysiological roles.

  16. Botanical Extracts from Rosehip (Rosa canina), Willow Bark (Salix alba), and Nettle Leaf (Urtica dioica) Suppress IL-1β-Induced NF-κB Activation in Canine Articular Chondrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakibaei, Mehdi; Allaway, David; Nebrich, Simone; Mobasheri, Ali

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the anti-inflammatory mode of action of botanical extracts from rosehip (Rosa canina), willow bark (Salix alba), and nettle leaf (Urtica dioica) in an in vitro model of primary canine articular chondrocytes. Methods. The biological effects of the botanical extracts were studied in chondrocytes treated with IL-1β for up to 72 h. Expression of collagen type II, cartilage-specific proteoglycan (CSPG), β1-integrin, SOX-9, COX-2, and MMP-9 and MMP-13 was examined by western blotting. Results. The botanical extracts suppressed IL-1β-induced NF-κB activation by inhibition of IκBα phosphorylation, IκBα degradation, p65 phosphorylation, and p65 nuclear translocation. These events correlated with downregulation of NF-κB targets including COX-2 and MMPs. The extracts also reversed the IL-1β-induced downregulation of collagen type II, CSPG, β1-integrin, and cartilage-specific transcription factor SOX-9 protein expression. In high-density cultures botanical extracts stimulated new cartilage formation even in the presence of IL-1β. Conclusions. Botanical extracts exerted anti-inflammatory and anabolic effects on chondrocytes. The observed reduction of IL-1β-induced NF-κB activation suggests that further studies are warranted to demonstrate the effectiveness of plant extracts in the treatment of OA and other conditions in which NF-κB plays pathophysiological roles.

  17. Effects of dietary administration of stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) on the growth performance, biochemical, hematological and immunological parameters in juvenile and adult Victoria Labeo (Labeo victorianus) challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngugi, Charles C; Oyoo-Okoth, Elijah; Mugo-Bundi, James; Orina, Paul Sagwe; Chemoiwa, Emily Jepyegon; Aloo, Peninah A

    2015-06-01

    We investigated effects of dietary administration of stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) on growth performance, biochemical, hematological and immunological parameters in juvenile and adult Victoria Labeo (Labeo victorianus) against Aeromonas hydrophila. Fish were divided into 4 groups and fed for 4 and 16 weeks with 0%, 1%, 2% and 5% of U. dioica incorporated into the diet. Use of U. dioica in the diet resulted in improved biochemical, hematological and immunological parameters. Among the biochemical parameters; plasma cortisol, glucose, triglyceride and cholesterol decreased while total protein and albumin in fish increased with increasing dietary inclusion of U. dioica. Among the haematology parameters: red blood cell (RBC), white blood cell (WBC) counts, haematocrit (Htc), mean cell haemoglobin (MCH), mean cell haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) and netrophiles increased with increasing dietary inclusion levels of U. dioica, some depending on the fish age. Serum immunoglobulins, lysozyme activity and respiratory burst were the main immunological parameters in the adult and juvenile L. victorianus measured and they all increased with increasing herbal inclusion of U. dioica in the diet. Dietary incorporation of U. dioica at 5% showed significantly higher relative percentage survival (up to 95%) against A. hydrophila. The current results demonstrate that using U. dioica can stimulate fish immunity and make L. victorianus more resistant to bacterial infection (A. hydrophila). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Botanical Extracts from Rosehip (Rosa canina), Willow Bark (Salix alba), and Nettle Leaf (Urtica dioica) Suppress IL-1β-Induced NF-κB Activation in Canine Articular Chondrocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakibaei, Mehdi; Allaway, David; Nebrich, Simone; Mobasheri, Ali

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the anti-inflammatory mode of action of botanical extracts from rosehip (Rosa canina), willow bark (Salix alba), and nettle leaf (Urtica dioica) in an in vitro model of primary canine articular chondrocytes. Methods. The biological effects of the botanical extracts were studied in chondrocytes treated with IL-1β for up to 72 h. Expression of collagen type II, cartilage-specific proteoglycan (CSPG), β1-integrin, SOX-9, COX-2, and MMP-9 and MMP-13 was examined by western blotting. Results. The botanical extracts suppressed IL-1β-induced NF-κB activation by inhibition of IκBα phosphorylation, IκBα degradation, p65 phosphorylation, and p65 nuclear translocation. These events correlated with downregulation of NF-κB targets including COX-2 and MMPs. The extracts also reversed the IL-1β-induced downregulation of collagen type II, CSPG, β1-integrin, and cartilage-specific transcription factor SOX-9 protein expression. In high-density cultures botanical extracts stimulated new cartilage formation even in the presence of IL-1β. Conclusions. Botanical extracts exerted anti-inflammatory and anabolic effects on chondrocytes. The observed reduction of IL-1β-induced NF-κB activation suggests that further studies are warranted to demonstrate the effectiveness of plant extracts in the treatment of OA and other conditions in which NF-κB plays pathophysiological roles. PMID:22474508

  19. Cold-acclimation limits low temperature induced photoinhibition by promoting a higher photochemical quantum yield and a more effective PSII restoration in darkness in the Antarctic rather than the Andean ecotype of Colobanthus quitensis Kunt Bartl (Cariophyllaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bascuñán-Godoy Luisa

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ecotypes of Colobanthus quitensis Kunt Bartl (Cariophyllaceae from Andes Mountains and Maritime Antarctic grow under contrasting photoinhibitory conditions, reaching differential cold tolerance upon cold acclimation. Photoinhibition depends on the extent of photodamage and recovery capability. We propose that cold acclimation increases resistance to low-temperature-induced photoinhibition, limiting photodamage and promoting recovery under cold. Therefore, the Antarctic ecotype (cold hardiest should be less photoinhibited and have better recovery from low-temperature-induced photoinhibition than the Andean ecotype. Both ecotypes were exposed to cold induced photoinhibitory treatment (PhT. Photoinhibition and recovery of photosystem II (PSII was followed by fluorescence, CO2 exchange, and immunoblotting analyses. Results The same reduction (25% in maximum PSII efficiency (Fv/Fm was observed in both cold-acclimated (CA and non-acclimated (NA plants under PhT. A full recovery was observed in CA plants of both ecotypes under dark conditions, but CA Antarctic plants recover faster than the Andean ecotype. Under PhT, CA plants maintain their quantum yield of PSII, while NA plants reduced it strongly (50% and 73% for Andean and Antarctic plants respectively. Cold acclimation induced the maintenance of PsaA and Cyt b6/f and reduced a 41% the excitation pressure in Antarctic plants, exhibiting the lowest level under PhT. xCold acclimation decreased significantly NPQs in both ecotypes, and reduced chlorophylls and D1 degradation in Andean plants under PhT. NA and CA plants were able to fully restore their normal photosynthesis, while CA Antarctic plants reached 50% higher photosynthetic rates after recovery, which was associated to electron fluxes maintenance under photoinhibitory conditions. Conclusions Cold acclimation has a greater importance on the recovery process than on limiting photodamage. Cold acclimation determined the

  20. The Effect of Irrigation Cut-off in Flowering Stage and Foliar Application of Spermidine on Essential Oil Quantity and Quality of Three Ecotypes of Cumin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Bakhtari

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Cumin (Cuminum cyminum L. is an annual plant that commonly cultivated in arid and semiarid regions of Iran. The crop has a wide range of uses including medicinal, cosmetic and food industry. Cumin occupies about 26% of total area devoted to medicinal plants in Iran. However, cumin is seriously affected by the Fusarium wilt and blight diseases. The diseases usually increase under warm and wet conditions. Control of the diseases incidence is a crucial factor for cumin production. Limited control of the diseases is provided by seed pre-sowing with certain fungicides such as benlate. Soil fumigation with methyle bromide can provide a control measure against the disease but may be limited application value for large scale production systems in the open field. In addition, methyle bromide is considered an ozone-depleting compound and has potential risk on the living environment and human health. Considering the environmental limitations of chemical fungicides, it seems appropriate to search for a supplemental control strategy .It was demonstrated that peak of the diseases incidence is occurred at flowering stage and irrigation cut-off in this time may be reduced the diseases density. Materials and methods This experiment was conducted in a split-split-plot arrangement in randomized complete block design with three replications in research farm of Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman at 2014. The experimental treatments were irrigation (complete irrigation and cut-off the irrigation in flowering stage assigned to main plots, foliar application of spermidine (0, 1 and 2 Mm as subplot and cumin ecotypes (Kerman, Khorasan and Esfahan that was randomized in sub-subplot. The seedbed preparation was made based on common practices at the location. Plots size under the trial was 4 m×3 m so as to get 50 cm inter row spacing in six rows. The ideal density of the crops was considered as 120 plant.m-2. As soon as the seeds were sown, irrigation

  1. Ecotypic differentiation between urban and rural populations of the grasshopper Chorthippus brunneus relative to climate and habitat fragmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Martin Y Gomez, Gilles; Van Dyck, Hans

    2012-05-01

    Urbanization alters environmental conditions in multiple ways and offers an ecological or evolutionary challenge for organisms to cope with. Urban areas typically have a warmer climate and strongly fragmented herbaceous vegetation; the urban landscape matrix is often assumed to be hostile for many organisms. Here, we addressed the issue of evolutionary differentiation between urban and rural populations of an ectotherm insect, the grasshopper Chorthippus brunneus. We compared mobility-related morphology and climate-related life history traits measured on the first generation offspring of grasshoppers from urban and rural populations reared in a common garden laboratory experiment. We predicted (1) the urban phenotype to be more mobile (i.e., lower mass allocation to the abdomen, longer relative femur and wing lengths) than the rural phenotype; (2) the urban phenotype to be more warm adapted (e.g., higher female body mass); and (3) further evidence of local adaptation in the form of significant interaction effects between landscape of origin and breeding temperature. Both males and females of urban origin had significantly longer relative femur and wing lengths and lower mass allocation to the abdomen (i.e., higher investment in thorax and flight muscles) relative to individuals of rural origin. The results were overall significant but small (2-4%). Body mass and larval growth rate were much higher (+10%) in females of urban origin. For the life history traits, we did not find evidence for significant interaction effects between the landscape of origin and the two breeding temperatures. Our results point to ecotypic differentiation with urbanization for mobility-related morphology and climate-related life history traits. We argue that the warmer urban environment has an indirect effect through longer growth season rather than direct effects on the development.

  2. From prediction to function using evolutionary genomics: human-specific ecotypes of Lactobacillus reuteri have diverse probiotic functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinler, Jennifer K; Sontakke, Amrita; Hollister, Emily B; Venable, Susan F; Oh, Phaik Lyn; Balderas, Miriam A; Saulnier, Delphine M A; Mistretta, Toni-Ann; Devaraj, Sridevi; Walter, Jens; Versalovic, James; Highlander, Sarah K

    2014-06-19

    The vertebrate gut symbiont Lactobacillus reuteri has diversified into separate clades reflecting host origin. Strains show evidence of host adaptation, but how host-microbe coevolution influences microbial-derived effects on hosts is poorly understood. Emphasizing human-derived strains of L. reuteri, we combined comparative genomic analyses with functional assays to examine variations in host interaction among genetically distinct ecotypes. Within clade II or VI, the genomes of human-derived L. reuteri strains are highly conserved in gene content and at the nucleotide level. Nevertheless, they share only 70-90% of total gene content, indicating differences in functional capacity. Human-associated lineages are distinguished by genes related to bacteriophages, vitamin biosynthesis, antimicrobial production, and immunomodulation. Differential production of reuterin, histamine, and folate by 23 clade II and VI strains was demonstrated. These strains also differed with respect to their ability to modulate human cytokine production (tumor necrosis factor, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, interleukin [IL]-1β, IL-5, IL-7, IL-12, and IL-13) by myeloid cells. Microarray analysis of representative clade II and clade VI strains revealed global regulation of genes within the reuterin, vitamin B12, folate, and arginine catabolism gene clusters by the AraC family transcriptional regulator, PocR. Thus, human-derived L. reuteri clade II and VI strains are genetically distinct and their differences affect their functional repertoires and probiotic features. These findings highlight the biological impact of microbe:host coevolution and illustrate the functional significance of subspecies differences in the human microbiome. Consideration of host origin and functional differences at the subspecies level may have major impacts on probiotic strain selection and considerations of microbial ecology in mammalian species. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on

  3. Habitat use, but not gene flow, is influenced by human activities in two ecotypes of Egyptian fruit bat (Rousettus aegyptiacus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centeno-Cuadros, A; Hulva, P; Romportl, D; Santoro, S; Stříbná, T; Shohami, D; Evin, A; Tsoar, A; Benda, P; Horáček, I; Nathan, R

    2017-09-26

    Understanding the ecological, behavioural and evolutionary response of organisms to changing environments is of primary importance in a human-altered world. It is crucial to elucidate how human activities alter gene flow and what are the consequences for the genetic structure of a species. We studied two lineages of the Egyptian fruit bat (Rousettus aegyptiacus) throughout the contact zone between mesic and arid Ecozones in the Middle East to evaluate the species' response to the growing proportion of human-altered habitats in the desert. We integrated population genetics, morphometrics and movement ecology to analyse population structure, morphological variation and habitat use from GPS- or radio-tagged individuals from both desert and Mediterranean areas. We classified the spatial distribution and environmental stratification by describing physical-geographical conditions and land cover. We analysed this information to estimate patch occupancy and used an isolation-by-resistance approach to model gene flow patterns. Our results suggest that lineages from desert and Mediterranean habitats, despite their admixture, are isolated by environment and by adaptation supporting their classification as ecotypes. We found a positive effect of human-altered habitats on patch occupancy and habitat use of fruit bats by increasing the availability of roosting and foraging areas. While this commensalism promotes the distribution of fruit bats throughout the Middle East, gene flow between colonies has not been altered by human activities. This discrepancy between habitat use and gene flow patterns may, therefore, be explained by the breeding system of the species and modifications of natal dispersal patterns. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Effect of Drought Stress on Leaf Water Status, Electrolyte Leakage, Photosynthesis Parameters and Chlorophyll Fluorescence of Two Kochia Ecotypes (Kochia scoparia Irrigated With Saline Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Masoumi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Rainfall deficiency and the development of salinity in Iran are the most important factors for using new salt and drought-resistant plants instead of conventional crops. Kochia species have recently attracted the attention of researchers as a forage and fodder crop in marginal lands worldwide due to its drought and salt tolerant characteristics. This field experiment was performed at the Salinity Research Station of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran, in a split plot based on randomized complete block design with three replications in 2008. Drought stress, including four levels (control, no irrigation in vegetative stage, no irrigation at reproductive stage and no irrigation at maturity stage for four weeks, and two Kochia ecotypes (Birjand and Borujerd were allocated as main and sub plots, respectively. Relative water content, electrolyte leakage, photosynthesis parameters and chlorophyll fluorescence were assayed every two week from late vegetative stage. Results showed that drought stress decreased significantly measured parameters in plants under stress, in all stages. Plants completely recovered after eliminating stress and rewatering and recovered plants did not show significant difference with control. Electrolyte leaking and chlorophyll fluorescence showed the lowest change among the measured parameters. It can emphasize that resistant to stress conditions in this plant and cell wall is not damaged at this level of stress situation. Birjand ecotype from the arid region, revealed a better response than Borujerd ecotype to drought stress. Probably it returns to initial adaptation of Birjand. In general this plant can recover after severe drought stress well. It is possible to introduce this plant as a new fodder in arid and saline conditions.

  5. To grow or to seed: ecotypic variation in reproductive allocation and cone production by young female Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis, Pinaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climent, José; Prada, M Aránzazu; Calama, Rafael; Chambel, M Regina; de Ron, David Sánchez; Alía, Ricardo

    2008-07-01

    Age and size at the first reproduction and the reproductive allocation of plants are linked to different life history strategies. Aleppo pine only reproduces through seed, and, as such, early female reproduction confers high fitness in its infertile highly fire-prone habitats along the Mediterranean coast because life expectancy is short. We investigated the extent of ecotypic differentiation in female reproductive allocation and examined the relation between early female reproduction and vegetative growth. In a common-garden experiment, the threshold age and size at first female reproduction and female reproductive allocation at age seven differed significantly among Aleppo pine provenances of ecologically distinct origin. Significant correlations among reproductive features of the provenances and the ecological traits of origin were found using different analytical tools. In nonlinear models of cone counts vs. stem volume, medium-sized trees (not the largest trees) produced the highest cone yield, confirming that, at the individual level, early female reproduction is incompatible with fast vegetative growth. The contribution of founder effects and adaptation to contrasting fire regimes may be confounding factors. But considering all traits analyzed, the geographical patterns of resource allocation by Aleppo pine suggest ecotypic specialization for either resource-poor (favoring early reproduction) or resource-rich (favoring vegetative growth) habitats.

  6. Assessment of Qualitative and Quantitative Characters of Two Persian Clover Ecotypes Inoculated by Rhizobium leguminosarum biovartrifoli and Pesudomonas putida Bacteria

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    R Azamei

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Over the past decades, world attitude has changed towards the reduction of environmental pollutants. Harmful effects of synthetic fertilizers on environment have been identified. Bio-fertilizers are not harmful to the environment, but also they have favorable effects on plant growth processes. Soil biotechnology can be defined as the study of soil organisms and their metabolic processes which may have positive effects on plant yields. The main goal of this study is to asess the biotechnology fertilizers beneficial effects on soil organisms and their subsequently to maximize the yield. It is also our desire conside the soil quality, hygiene and environmental protection along this process. Among the strain of nitrogen-fixing bacteria, symbiotic bacteria such as rhizobium bacteria are important and essential in planning the sustainable farming systems. Several studies have shown that crop varieties which inoculated with rhizobium and pseudomonas were superior in yield production and performance. Material and Methods An experiment was designed as factorial performed in randomized complete block design (RCBD with three replications in Agricultural Research Center of Golpayegan (Isfahan during 2010 – 2011. the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of inoculation of two ecotypes of Persian clover by various strains of Rhizobium leguminosarum. Biovar trifoli bacteria accompanied with plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR Pseudomonas putida was employed to find certain qualitative and quantitative characteristics of clover yield, The main plots included two local ecotypes of Persian clover; Arak Haft Chin (V1 and Isfahan Haft Chin (V2, the subplots included inoculation by two strain of Rhizobium; Rb-3, Rb-13 and one strain of Pseudomonas; PS -168.4 cuts were performed during the experiment and 60 kg/ha seed was used for cultivation based on local knowledge. According to recommendations of the Institute of Soil and Water

  7. The molecular dimension of microbial species: 3. Comparative genomics of Synechococcus strains with different light responses and in situ diel transcription patterns of associated ecotypes in the Mushroom Spring microbial mat

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    Millie T. Olsen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Genomes were obtained for three closely related strains of Synechococcus that are representative of putative ecotypes that predominate at different depths in the 1 mm-thick, upper-green layer in the 60°C mat of Mushroom Spring, Yellowstone National Park, and exhibit different light adaptation and acclimation responses. The genomes were compared to the published genome of a previously obtained, closely related strain from a neighboring spring, and differences in both gene content and orthologous gene alleles between high-light-adapted and low-light-adapted strains were identified. Evidence of genetic differences that relate to adaptation to light intensity and/or quality, CO2 uptake, nitrogen metabolism, organic carbon metabolism, and uptake of other nutrients were found between strains of the different putative ecotypes. In situ diel transcription patterns of genes, including genes unique to either low-light-adapted or high-light-adapted strains and different alleles of an orthologous photosystem gene, revealed that expression is fine-tuned to the different light environments experienced by ecotypes prevalent at various depths in the mat. This study suggests that strains of closely related putative ecotypes have different genomic adaptations that enable them to inhabit distinct ecological niches while living in close proximity within a microbial community.

  8. The Effects of Drought Stress on Yield, Yield Components and Anti-oxidant of Two Garlic (Allium sativum L. Ecotypes with Different Planting Densities

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    shiva akbari

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Drought stress reduces plant growth by affecting various physiological and biochemical processes, such as photosynthesis, respiration, translocation, ion uptake, carbohydrates, nutrient metabolism and growth promoters. Garlic (Allium sativum L. is an annual bulb crop that has been cultivated since ancient times and was used as a spice and condiment for many centuries. Garlic is an important plant because of its pharmaceutical properties. The optimum yield of this bulb crop depends on well-managed irrigation, fertilization and cultivation practices. In the final and middle stages of growth, garlic is sensitive to water stress and low irrigation is unsuitable in these stages. This experiment was established to study the influence of drought stress and planting density on yield and its components and the non-enzymatic anti-oxidant content of two different garlic ecotypes. Materials and methods This study was conducted in 2011-2012 in a farmland at the south east of Semnan city. The experimental layout was a split-plot factorial with a randomized complete block design with three replications. The treatments were comprised of three factors: irrigation rates (60%, 80% and 100% of estimated crop evapotranspiration (ETC as the main plot and the factorial combination of three levels of planting density (30, 40 and 50 plants.m-2 and two ecotypes (Tabas and Toroud as the sub-plots. To estimate the crop water requirement, different meteorological parameters were collected from Semnan weather station and were used based on FAO-56 water irrigation calculation instructions. After harvesting, ten garlic plants were sampled randomly in each plot and bulb yield components were measured. To calculate the leaves anti-oxidant content, DPPH method was used. The statistical significances of mean values were assessed by analysis of variance and LSD tests at p≤0.05. All calculations were performed using SAS and Mstat-C softwares. Results and discussion

  9. Effect of Organic and Chemical Fertilizers on Yield and Essential Oil of Two Ecotypes of Savory (Satureja hortensis L. under Normal and Drought Stress Conditions

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    O Akrami nejad

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Savory (Satureja hortensis L. is an annual and aromatic plant from Labiatae family, which has plenty of essential oil and is important in medicinal, food, health and beauty industries (6. In comparison with chemical fertilizers, organic fertilizers especially manure have lots of organic material sources, and can be used as nutrients, especially Nitrogen, Phosphor and Potassium. Organic fertilizers also keeps more water in the soil (14. Water deficit is one of the most important boundaries of production in arid and semi-arid regions. Drought stress reduces water content, limits plant growth and changes some physiological and metabolic activities (31. This experiment was conducted as there is a global interest for production of medicinal plants with sustainable agriculture system, and with low input and shortage of information about Savory reaction to fertilization in drought stress condition. The objective of this research was to compare the effects of chemical fertilizers and different organic fertilizers on quantitative and qualitative characteristics of two ecotypes of savory under drought stress condition. Materials and Methods In order to study the effects of organic and mineral (N, P and K fertilizers on quantitative and qualitative characteristics of savory in drought stress condition, two separate split plot designs with three replications were carried out in 2012-2013 year, at the research field of Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Iran. In each design fertilizers including cow manure (30 ton per hectare, poultry manure (10 ton per hectare, chemical fertilizers (used equally with macro elements existing in both poultry and cow manure and control (no fertilizer were used as main factor. Kerman and Khuzestan ecotypes were sub-factor. One of the experiments was irrigated to 100% and the other to 50% of field capacity. Two experiments were analyzed as a combined design. The important characteristics of Savory such as plant

  10. Study on the Salini-adaptation Physiology in Different Ecotypes of Phragmites australis in the Yellow River Delta of China: Osmotica and Their Contribution to the Osmotic Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, K. F.; Feng, L. T.; Zhang, S. Q.

    1999-08-01

    In the Yellow River Delta, there are four ecotypes of Phragmites australis: freshwater swamp reed; salty-water swamp reed; lower salt-meadow reed and higher salt-meadow reed. The growth status, composition and dominance of the reed community were observed. The organic and inorganic osmotica, osmotic potential and osmotic adjustment ability of reeds were determined. The abundance, coverage, plant height, leaf water content and osmotic potential all decreased with increasing salinity of habitats. K+ and sugars are the main osmotica in lower salinity, while Na+ is the main osmoticum in higher salinity. Na+ contents and the osmotic adjustment abilities of roots are higher than those in leaves. Na/K ratios of reeds varied with salinity levels of habitats, being about 1 in higher salinity. Moreover, the contributions of osmotica to the osmotic adjustment change with salinity, the higher the salinity level, the greater the contribution of inorganic osmotica, but the smaller the contribution of organic osmotica.

  11. Nickel-tolerant ectomycorrhizal Pisolithus albus ultramafic ecotype isolated from nickel mines in New Caledonia strongly enhance growth of the host plant Eucalyptus globulus at toxic nickel concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jourand, Philippe; Ducousso, Marc; Reid, Robert; Majorel, Clarisse; Richert, Clément; Riss, Jennifer; Lebrun, Michel

    2010-10-01

    Ectomycorrhizal (ECM) Pisolithus albus (Cooke & Massee), belonging to the ultramafic ecotype isolated in nickel-rich serpentine soils from New Caledonia (a tropical hotspot of biodiversity) and showing in vitro adaptive nickel tolerance, were inoculated to Eucalyptus globulus Labill used as a Myrtaceae plant-host model to study ectomycorrhizal symbiosis. Plants were then exposed to a nickel (Ni) dose-response experiment with increased Ni treatments up to 60 mg kg( - )(1) soil as extractable Ni content in serpentine soils. Results showed that plants inoculated with ultramafic ECM P. albus were able to tolerate high and toxic concentrations of Ni (up to 60 μg g( - )(1)) while uninoculated controls were not. At the highest Ni concentration tested, root growth was more than 20-fold higher and shoot growth more than 30-fold higher in ECM plants compared with control plants. The improved growth in ECM plants was associated with a 2.4-fold reduction in root Ni concentration but a massive 60-fold reduction in transfer of Ni from root to shoots. In vitro, P. albus strains could withstand high Ni concentrations but accumulated very little Ni in its tissue. The lower Ni uptake by mycorrhizal plants could not be explained by increased release of metal-complexing chelates since these were 5- to 12-fold lower in mycorrhizal plants at high Ni concentrations. It is proposed that the fungal sheath covering the plant roots acts as an effective barrier to limit transfer of Ni from soil into the root tissue. The degree of tolerance conferred by the ultramafic P. albus isolates to growth of the host tree species is considerably greater than previously reported for other ECM. The primary mechanisms underlying this improved growth were identified as reduced Ni uptake into the roots and markedly reduced transfer from root to shoot in mycorrhizal plants. The fact that these positive responses were observed at Ni concentrations commonly observed in serpentinic soils suggests that

  12. Phenolic Composition and Antioxidant and Antiproliferative Activities of the Extracts of Twelve Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Endemic Ecotypes of Southern Italy before and after Cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ombra, Maria Neve; d'Acierno, Antonio; Nazzaro, Filomena; Riccardi, Riccardo; Spigno, Patrizia; Zaccardelli, Massimo; Pane, Catello; Maione, Mena; Fratianni, Florinda

    2016-01-01

    Beans are important dietary components with versatile health benefits. We analysed the extracts of twelve ecotypes of Phaseolus vulgaris in order to determine their phenolic profiles, antioxidant activity, and the in vitro antiproliferative activity. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector (UPLC-DAD) admitted us to detect and quantify some known polyphenols, such as gallic acid, chlorogenic acid, epicatechin, myricetin, formononetin, caffeic acid, and kaempferol. The antioxidant activity (AA) ranged from 1.568 ± 0.041 to 66.572 ± 3.197 mg necessary to inhibit the activity of the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical by 50% (EC50). The extracts, except those obtained from the nonpigmented samples, were capable of inhibiting the proliferation of the human epithelial colorectal adenocarcinoma (Caco-2) cells, human breast cancer cells MCF-7, and A549 NSCLC cell line. Cultivars differed in composition and concentration of polyphenols including anthocyanins; cooking affected the antioxidant activity only marginally. Qualitative and quantitative differences in phenolic composition between the groups of beans influenced the biological activities; on the other hand, we did not find significant differences on the biological activities within the same variety, before and after cooking.

  13. Natural selection and neutral evolution jointly drive population divergence between alpine and lowland ecotypes of the allopolyploid plant Anemone multifida (Ranunculaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwen, Jamie R; Vamosi, Jana C; Rogers, Sean M

    2013-01-01

    Population differentiation can be driven in large part by natural selection, but selectively neutral evolution can play a prominent role in shaping patters of population divergence. The decomposition of the evolutionary history of populations into the relative effects of natural selection and selectively neutral evolution enables an understanding of the causes of population divergence and adaptation. In this study, we examined heterogeneous genomic divergence between alpine and lowland ecotypes of the allopolyploid plant, Anemone multifida. Using peak height and dominant AFLP data, we quantified population differentiation at non-outlier (neutral) and outlier loci to determine the potential contribution of natural selection and selectively neutral evolution to population divergence. We found 13 candidate loci, corresponding to 2.7% of loci, with signatures of divergent natural selection between alpine and lowland populations and between alpine populations (Fst  = 0.074-0.445 at outlier loci), but neutral population differentiation was also evident between alpine populations (FST  = 0.041-0.095 at neutral loci). By examining population structure at both neutral and outlier loci, we determined that the combined effects of selection and neutral evolution are associated with the divergence of alpine populations, which may be linked to extreme abiotic conditions and isolation between alpine sites. The presence of outlier levels of genetic variation in structured populations underscores the importance of separately analyzing neutral and outlier loci to infer the relative role of divergent natural selection and neutral evolution in population divergence.

  14. Natural selection and neutral evolution jointly drive population divergence between alpine and lowland ecotypes of the allopolyploid plant Anemone multifida (Ranunculaceae.

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    Jamie R McEwen

    Full Text Available Population differentiation can be driven in large part by natural selection, but selectively neutral evolution can play a prominent role in shaping patters of population divergence. The decomposition of the evolutionary history of populations into the relative effects of natural selection and selectively neutral evolution enables an understanding of the causes of population divergence and adaptation. In this study, we examined heterogeneous genomic divergence between alpine and lowland ecotypes of the allopolyploid plant, Anemone multifida. Using peak height and dominant AFLP data, we quantified population differentiation at non-outlier (neutral and outlier loci to determine the potential contribution of natural selection and selectively neutral evolution to population divergence. We found 13 candidate loci, corresponding to 2.7% of loci, with signatures of divergent natural selection between alpine and lowland populations and between alpine populations (Fst  = 0.074-0.445 at outlier loci, but neutral population differentiation was also evident between alpine populations (FST  = 0.041-0.095 at neutral loci. By examining population structure at both neutral and outlier loci, we determined that the combined effects of selection and neutral evolution are associated with the divergence of alpine populations, which may be linked to extreme abiotic conditions and isolation between alpine sites. The presence of outlier levels of genetic variation in structured populations underscores the importance of separately analyzing neutral and outlier loci to infer the relative role of divergent natural selection and neutral evolution in population divergence.

  15. Comparative study of growth traits and haematological parameters of Anak and Nigerian heavy ecotype chickens fed with graded levels of mango seed kernel (Mangifera indica) meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbunwen, Ndofor-Foleng Harriet; Ngongeh, Lucas Atehmengo; Okolie, Peter Nzeribe; Okoli, Emeka Linus

    2015-08-01

    One hundred fifty Anak and 120 Nigerian heavy local ecotype (NHLE) chickens were used to study the effects of feeding graded levels of mango seed kernel meal (MKM) replacing maize diet on growth traits and haematological parameters. A 2 × 5 factorial arrangement was employed: two breeds and five diets. The birds were randomly allocated to five finisher diets formulated such that MKM replaced maize at 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40% (T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5) inclusion levels, respectively. The effect of breed and dietary treatments on growth performance and blood characteristics were determined. The results showed a significant (P  0.05) when the breeds and treatments were compared. It was concluded that inclusion of dietary MKM below 30% could replace maize in the diets of Anak and NHLE growing chickens without adverse effect on growth performance and blood constituents. This work suggests that genetic differences exist in growth traits of these breeds of chickens. This advantage could be useful in breed improvement programmes and better feeding managements of the NHLE and Anak chickens.

  16. Comprehensive genomic analyses of the OM43 clade including a novel species from Red Sea indicate ecotype differentiation among marine methylotrophs

    KAUST Repository

    Jimenez Infante, Francy M.

    2015-12-11

    The OM43 clade within the family Methylophilaceae of Betaproteobacteria represents a group of methylotrophs playing important roles in the metabolism of C1 compounds in marine environments and other aquatic environments around the globe. Using dilution-to-extinction cultivation techniques, we successfully isolated a novel species of this clade (designated here as MBRS-H7) from the ultra-oligotrophic open ocean waters of the central Red Sea. Phylogenomic analyses indicate that MBRS-H7 is a novel species, which forms a distinct cluster together with isolate KB13 from Hawaii (H-RS cluster) that is separate from that represented by strain HTCC2181 (from the Oregon coast). Phylogenetic analyses using the robust 16S–23S internal transcribed spacer revealed a potential ecotype separation of the marine OM43 clade members, which was further confirmed by metagenomic fragment recruitment analyses that showed trends of higher abundance in low chlorophyll and/or high temperature provinces for the H-RS cluster, but a preference for colder, highly productive waters for the HTCC2181 cluster. This potential environmentally driven niche differentiation is also reflected in the metabolic gene inventories, which in the case of H-RS include those conferring resistance to high levels of UV irradiation, temperature, and salinity. Interestingly, we also found different energy conservation modules between these OM43 subclades, namely the existence of the NADH:quinone oxidoreductase NUO system in the H-RS and the non-homologous NQR system in HTCC2181, which might have implications on their overall energetic yields.

  17. Variation of herbivore-induced volatile terpenes among Arabidopsis ecotypes depends on allelic differences and subcellular targeting of two terpene synthases, TPS02 and TPS03.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Mengsu; Abel, Christian; Sohrabi, Reza; Petri, Jana; Haupt, Ina; Cosimano, John; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Tholl, Dorothea

    2010-07-01

    When attacked by insects, plants release mixtures of volatile compounds that are beneficial for direct or indirect defense. Natural variation of volatile emissions frequently occurs between and within plant species, but knowledge of the underlying molecular mechanisms is limited. We investigated intraspecific differences of volatile emissions induced from rosette leaves of 27 accessions of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) upon treatment with coronalon, a jasmonate mimic eliciting responses similar to those caused by insect feeding. Quantitative variation was found for the emission of the monoterpene (E)-beta-ocimene, the sesquiterpene (E,E)-alpha-farnesene, the irregular homoterpene 4,8,12-trimethyltridecatetra-1,3,7,11-ene, and the benzenoid compound methyl salicylate. Differences in the relative emissions of (E)-beta-ocimene and (E,E)-alpha-farnesene from accession Wassilewskija (Ws), a high-(E)-beta-ocimene emitter, and accession Columbia (Col-0), a trace-(E)-beta-ocimene emitter, were attributed to allelic variation of two closely related, tandem-duplicated terpene synthase genes, TPS02 and TPS03. The Ws genome contains a functional allele of TPS02 but not of TPS03, while the opposite is the case for Col-0. Recombinant proteins of the functional Ws TPS02 and Col-0 TPS03 genes both showed (E)-beta-ocimene and (E,E)-alpha-farnesene synthase activities. However, differential subcellular compartmentalization of the two enzymes in plastids and the cytosol was found to be responsible for the ecotype-specific differences in (E)-beta-ocimene/(E,E)-alpha-farnesene emission. Expression of the functional TPS02 and TPS03 alleles is induced in leaves by elicitor and insect treatment and occurs constitutively in floral tissues. Our studies show that both pseudogenization in the TPS family and subcellular segregation of functional TPS enzymes control the variation and plasticity of induced volatile emissions in wild plant species.

  18. Selection and validation of reference genes for real-time quantitative PCR in hyperaccumulating ecotype of Sedum alfredii under different heavy metals stresses.

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    Jian Sang

    Full Text Available Real-time Quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR has become an effective method for accurate analysis of gene expression in several biological systems as well as under different experimental conditions. Although with high sensitivity, specificity and broad dynamic range, this method requires suitable reference genes for transcript normalization in order to guarantee reproducible and meaningful results. In the present study, we evaluated five traditional housekeeping genes and five novel reference genes in Hyperaccumulating ecotype of Sedum alfredii, a well known hyperaccumulator for heavy metals phytoremediation, under Cd, Pb, Zn and Cu stresses of seven different durations. The expression stability of these ten candidates were determined with three programs--geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper. The results showed that all the selected reference genes except for SAND could be used for RT-qPCR normalization. Among them UBC9 and TUB were ranked as the most stable candidates across all samples by three programs together. For the least stable reference genes, however, BestKeeper produced different results compared with geNorm and NormFinder. Meanwhile, the expression profiles of PCS under Cd, Pb, Zn and Cu stresses were assessed using UBC9 and TUB respectively, and similar trends were obtained from the results of the two groups. The distinct expression patterns of PCS indicated that various strategies could be taken by plants in adaption to different heavy metals stresses. This study will provide appropriate reference genes for further gene expression quantification using RT-qPCR in Hyperaccumulator S. alfredii.

  19. Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of the volatile fraction extracted from air-dried fruits of Tunisian Eryngium maritimum L. ecotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Lajnef, Houda; Ferioli, Federico; Pasini, Federica; Politowicz, Joanna; Khaldi, Abdelhamid; Filippo D'Antuono, L; Caboni, Maria Fiorenza; Nasri, Nizar

    2018-01-01

    Eryngium maritimum L., also known as 'sea holly', is a typical dune plant species belonging to the Apiaceae family and commonly used in Tunisia for therapeutic purposes in folk medicine. In the present study, the chemical composition and antioxidant activity of the volatile fraction extracted from air-dried fruits of five Tunisian E. maritimum ecotypes were determined. The total volatile amount ranged from 0.31% to 0.93% (w d.w.-1 ). Sixty-six volatile components were identified by means of GC-MS and accounted for 77.05-86.65% of the total extracted volatile oil. The majority of the identified metabolites were hydrocarbon sesquiterpenes and oxygenated sesquiterpenes, amounting on average to 46.69% and 30.01% of total volatiles, respectively. The principal individual components were germacrene D (13.62-31.71%), 15-hydroxy-α-muurolene (12.04-18.58%), and germacrene B (6.77-15.04%). Significant differences were noticed among E. maritimum populations. The volatile profile of E. maritimum fruits was consistently different from those of the aerial parts and roots of plants of the same species reported in previous investigations. Average radical scavenging capacity of the volatile fraction, as determined by DPPH and ABTS tests, was twice higher than that of the Trolox control. This study characterised for the first time the fruits of E. maritimum for the composition and radical-scavenging capacity of their volatile fraction. The growth location confirmed as a pivotal factor in influencing the volatile profile of the fruits. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Plant response to heavy metal toxicity: comparative study between the hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens (ecotype Ganges) and nonaccumulator plants: lettuce, radish, and alfalfa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzarti, Saoussen; Mohri, Shino; Ono, Yoshiro

    2008-10-01

    Thlaspi caerulescens (alpine pennycress) is one of the best-known heavy metal (HM) hyperaccumulating plant species. It exhibits the ability to extract and accumulate various HM at extremely high concentrations. In this hydroponic study, the performance of T. caerulescens (ecotype Ganges) to accumulate Cd, Zn, and Cu was compared with that of three nonaccumulator plants: alfalfa (Medicago sativa), radish (Raphanus sativus), and lettuce (Lactuca sativa). Plants were exposed to the separately dissolved HM salts for 7 days at a wide range of increasing concentrations: 0 (control: 1/5 Hoagland nutrient solution), 0.1, 1, 10, 100, and 1000 microM. The comparative study combined chemical, physiological, and ecotoxicological assessments. Excessive concentrations of HM (100 and 1000 microM) affected plant growth, photosynthesis, and phytoaccumulation efficiency. Root exudation for all plant species was highly and significantly correlated to HM concentration in exposure solutions and proved its importance to counter effect toxicity. T. caerulescens resisted better the phytotoxic effects of Cd and Zn (at 1000 microM each), and translocated them significantly within tissues (366 and 1290 microg g(-1), respectively). At the same HM level, T. caerulescens exhibited lower performances in accumulating Cu when compared with the rest of plant species, mainly alfalfa (298 microg g(-1)). Root elongation inhibition test confirmed the selective aptitude of T. caerulescens to better cope with Cd and Zn toxicities. MetPLATE bioassay showed greater sensitivity to HM toxicity with much lower EC(50) values for beta-galactosidase activity in E. coli. Nevertheless, exaggerated HM concentrations coupled with relatively short exposure time did not allow for an efficient metal phytoextraction thus a significant reduction of ecotoxicity.

  1. Sinorhizobium meliloti-induced chitinase gene expression in Medicago truncatula ecotype R108-1: a comparison between symbiosis-specific class V and defence-related class IV chitinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzer, Peter; Feddermann, Nadja; Wiemken, Andres; Boller, Thomas; Staehelin, Christian

    2004-08-01

    The Medicago truncatula (Gaertn.) ecotypes Jemalong A17 and R108-1 differ in Sinorhizobium meliloti-induced chitinase gene expression. The pathogen-inducible class IV chitinase gene, Mtchit 4, was strongly induced during nodule formation of the ecotype Jemalong A17 with the S. meliloti wild-type strain 1021. In the ecotype R108-1, the S. meliloti wild types Sm1021 and Sm41 did not induce Mtchit 4 expression. On the other hand, expression of the putative class V chitinase gene, Mtchit 5, was found in roots of M. truncatula cv. R108-1 nodulated with either of the rhizobial strains. Mtchit 5 expression was specific for interactions with rhizobia. It was not induced in response to fungal pathogen attack, and not induced in roots colonized with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. Elevated Mtchit 5 gene expression was first detectable in roots forming nodule primordia. In contrast to Mtchit 4, expression of Mtchit 5 was stimulated by purified Nod factors. Conversely, Mtchit 4 expression was strongly elevated in nodules formed with the K-antigen-deficient mutant PP699. Expression levels of Mtchit 5 were similarly increased in nodules formed with PP699 and its parental wild-type strain Sm41. Phylogenetic analysis of the deduced amino acid sequences of Mtchit 5 (calculated molecular weight = 41,810 Da, isoelectric point pH 7.7) and Mtchit 4 (calculated molecular weight 30,527 Da, isoelectric point pH 4.9) revealed that the putative Mtchit 5 chitinase forms a separate clade within class V chitinases of plants, whereas the Mtchit 4 chitinase clusters with pathogen-induced class IV chitinases from other plants. These findings demonstrate that: (i) Rhizobium-induced chitinase gene expression in M. truncatula occurs in a plant ecotype-specific manner, (ii) Mtchit 5 is a putative chitinase gene that is specifically induced by rhizobia, and (iii) rhizobia-specific and defence-related chitinase genes are differentially influenced by rhizobial Nod factors and K antigens.

  2. The efficiency of Arabidopsis thaliana floral dip transformation is determined not only by the Agrobacterium strain used but also by the physiology and the ecotype of the dipped plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghedira, Rim; De Buck, Sylvie; Nolf, Jonah; Depicker, Ann

    2013-07-01

    To evaluate the chromosomal background of different Agrobacterium strains on floral dip transformation frequency, eight wild-type Agrobacterium strains, provided by Laboratorium voor Microbiologie Gent (LMG) and classified in different genomic groups, were compared with the commonly used Agrobacterium strains C58C1 Rif(r) (pMP90) and LBA4404 in Arabidopsis thaliana Columbia (Col-0) and C24 ecotypes. The C58C1 Rif(r) chromosomal background in combination with the pMP90 virulence plasmid showed high Col-0 floral dip transformation frequencies (0.76 to 1.57%). LMG201, which is genetically close to the Agrobacterium C58 strain, with the same virulence plasmid showed comparable or even higher transformation frequencies (1.22 to 2.28%), whereas the LBA4404 strain displayed reproducibly lower transformation frequencies (Agrobacterium chromosomal backgrounds had transformation frequencies between those of the C58C1 Rif(r) (pMP90) and LBA4404 reference strains. None of the strains could transform the C24 ecotype with a frequency higher than 0.1%. Strikingly, all Arabidopsis Col-0 floral dip transformation experiments showed a high transformation variability from plant to plant (even more than 50-fold) within and across the performed biological repeats for all analyzed Agrobacterium strains. Therefore, the physiology of the plant and, probably, the availability of competent flowers to be transformed determine, to a large extent, floral dip transformation frequencies.

  3. Caracterização morfológica de ecótipos de arroz daninho (Oryza sativa provenientes de áreas de arroz irrigado Morphological characterization of red rice (Oryza Sativa ecotypes derived from irrigated rice areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M.L. Schwanke

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se neste estudo a caracterização fenotípica de 16 ecótipos de arroz daninho provenientes de lavouras comerciais dos Estados do Rio Grande do Sul e Santa Catarina, quando comparados aos cultivares BR-IRGA 409, BR-IRGA 410, IRGA 417 e El Paso L 144, em casa de vegetação. Foram semeados 16 ecótipos de arroz daninho e os quatro cultivares de arroz irrigado. O cultivo foi realizado em vasos plásticos com capacidade para 9 litros, contendo solo, utilizando-se cinco repetições por genótipo. Foram avaliadas as seguintes variáveis: coloração das folhas, pilosidade, afilhamento efetivo, graus-dia biológico para completar o florescimento, degrane, número de afilhos férteis, área foliar da folha-bandeira, altura de planta, número de sementes por panícula e produção por planta. Os resultados obtidos evidenciam grande variabilidade morfológica entre os ecótipos estudados.Aspects related to the phenotypical characterization of red rice ecotypes collected in the states of Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina were studied and compared to those of commercial rice cultivars BR-IRGA 409, BR-IRGA 410, IRGA 417, and El Paso L 144. The sixteen red rice ecotypes plus four rice cultivars were sown with five replications in plastic pails filled with 9 liters of soil. The genotypes were described according to the traits proposed by the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI, 1980. The following plant and seed parameters were evaluated: leaf color and hairiness, effective tillering, biological day-degrees to complete the flowering period, seed shattering, number of fertile tillers, flag leaf area, plant height, number of seeds per panicle and seed production. The results showed a great morphological variability among the red rice ecotypes.

  4. Studding Arvane-Bezghi (Hymenocrater platystegius Rech.f. Different Ecotypes at Natural Habitat in Khorasan Razavi Province: Principal Component Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Sabet Teimouri

    2016-07-01

    diameter, stem, flower, leaf dry weight to shoot dry weight, number of seeds, plant density, fresh weight and dry weight and environmental requirements in the natural habitats (annual precipitation average, annual temperature average, relative humidity, climate condition, topographical features (altitude and slope were investigated. Golmakan area was determined as the base station data for evaluating and recording the phenological stages, because it had a higher plant density and diversity of topographic features. Then, collected data was analyzed using PCA and CA methods. Results and discussion In this study, the effects of environmental conditions on morphological and ecological characteristics of Hymenocerater platystegius Rech. were observed. Results showed that the natural habitats in the area were highly similar and 4 ecotypes were recognized there. Among 15 plant criteria investigated the leaf dry matter, number of stem per plant, number of nod per stems and the nodes bearing flower contributed to 97% of the variance. Topography and climate analyses showed that climate was the most important factor with +0.55 loading which had the highest impact on the main component. In general, 5 habitats were recognized with 70% similarity in topography and climatic conditions. Conclusion Finally, both Golmakan and Kalat were in one group (had closed similarity in environmental conditions including topography, precipitation, soil texture, elevation, aspects and other habitats were in 5 separate places. These results showed that the environmental factors had more effect on morphological characteristics of this species. Therefore, considering the destruction of natural habitats and extinction conditions for this species, it should have a period proportional to the regeneration period, such as grazing for conservation. As climate change has huge effects on endemic species then domestication could be the best way for their protection and conservation.

  5. Avaliação de germinação e dormência de ecótipos de arroz-vermelho Seed germination and dormancy of red rice ecotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M.L. Schwanke

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar aspectos relativos à germinação e dormência de 16 ecótipos de arroz-vermelho provenientes de lavouras comerciais dos Estados do Rio Grande do Sul e Santa Catarina. Os ecótipos foram estudados e comparados com os cultivares BR-IRGA 409, BR-IRGA 410, IRGA 417 e El Paso L 144, em condições de casa de vegetação. Os experimentos foram realizados durante o ano agrícola 2001/02, na Embrapa Clima Temperado - Estação Experimental de Terras Baixas, no município de Capão do Leão, RS. Foram avaliadas em laboratório a biometria e a massa de mil grãos, além de testes de germinação e dormência aos 30, 60, 90, 120 e 150 dias após a colheita dos genótipos. Os resultados evidenciaram grande variabilidade nas características morfofisiológicas dos ecótipos estudados. Os ecótipos de arroz-vermelho avaliados, procedentes de lavouras de arroz irrigado do RS e SC, apresentaram alta variabilidade quanto às características das sementes e à intensidade e duração da dormência. Alguns ecótipos avaliados apresentaram sementes com período de dormência maior que 150 dias após a colheita. Os resultados deste trabalho confirmam também que o êxito no manejo do arroz-vermelho em lavouras infestadas depende da recomendação e adoção por parte dos produtores não de medidas isoladas, mas de um grupo de medidas complementares que, quando adotadas conjuntamente, permitem minimizar os problemas com o arroz-vermelho.The objective of this work was to evaluate aspects related to the phenotypic characterization of red rice ecotypes collected in the states of Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina. The ecotypes were studied and compared to the commercial rice cultivars BR-IRGA 409, BR-IRGA 410, IRGA 417, and El Paso L 144. In the laboratory experiment, seed biometry, 1000 seed-weight and seed germination and dormancy 30, 60, 90, 120, and 150 days after harvesting were evaluated. The red rice ecotypes from the

  6. The molecular dimension of microbial species: 2. Synechococcus strains representative of putative ecotypes inhabiting different depths in the Mushroom Spring microbial mat exhibit different adaptive and acclimative responses to light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shane eNowack

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Closely related strains of thermophilic Synechococcus were cultivated from the microbial mats found in the effluent channels of Mushroom Spring, Yellowstone National Park (YNP. These strains have identical or nearly identical 16S rRNA sequences but are representative of separate, predicted putative ecotype populations, which were identified by using the more highly resolving psaA locus and which predominate at different vertical positions within the 1-mm-thick upper-green layer of the mat. Pyrosequencing confirmed that each strain contained a single, predominant psaA genotype. Strains differed in growth rate as a function of irradiance. A strain with a psaA genotype corresponding to a predicted putative ecotype that predominates near the mat surface grew fastest at high irradiances, whereas strains with psaA genotypes representative of predominant subsurface populations grew faster at low irradiance and exhibited greater sensitivity to abrupt shifts to high light. The high-light-adapted and low-light-adapted strains also exhibited differences in pigment content and the composition of the photosynthetic apparatus (photosystem ratio when grown under different light intensities. Cells representative of the different strains had similar morphologies under low-light conditions, but under high-light conditions, cells of low-light-adapted strains became elongated and formed short chains of cells. Collectively, the results presented here are consistent with the hypothesis that closely related, but distinct, ecological species of Synechococcus occupy different light niches in the Mushroom Spring microbial mat and acclimate differently to changing light environments.

  7. A rapid and versatile combined DNA/RNA extraction protocol and its application to the analysis of a novel DNA marker set polymorphic between Arabidopsis thaliana ecotypes Col-0 and Landsberg erecta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coupland George

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many established PCR-based approaches in plant molecular biology rely on lengthy and expensive methods for isolation of nucleic acids. Although several rapid DNA isolation protocols are available, they have not been tested for simultaneous RNA isolation for RT-PCR applications. In addition, traditional map-based cloning technologies often use ill-proportioned marker regions even when working with the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, where the availability of the full genome sequence can now be exploited for the creation of a high-density marker systems. Results We designed a high-density polymorphic marker set between two frequently used ecotypes. This new polymorphic marker set allows size separation of PCR products on agarose gels and provides an initial resolution of 10 cM in linkage mapping experiments, facilitated by a rapid plant nucleic acid extraction protocol using minimal amounts of A. thaliana tissue. Using this extraction protocol, we have also characterized segregating T-DNA insertion mutations. In addition, we have shown that our rapid nucleic acid extraction protocol can also be used for monitoring transcript levels by RT-PCR amplification. Finally we have demonstrated that our nucleic acid isolation method is also suitable for other plant species, such as tobacco and barley. Conclusion To facilitate high-throughput linkage mapping and other genomic applications, our nucleic acid isolation protocol yields sufficient quality of DNA and RNA templates for PCR and RT-PCR reactions, respectively. This new technique requires considerably less time compared to other purification methods, and in combination with a new polymorphic PCR marker set dramatically reduces the workload required for linkage mapping of mutations in A. thaliana utilizing crosses between Col-0 and Landsberg erecta (Ler ecotypes.

  8. Multi-cropping edible truffles and sweet chestnuts: production of high-quality Castanea sativa seedlings inoculated with Tuber aestivum, its ecotype T. uncinatum, T. brumale, and T. macrosporum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Lafuente, Amaya; Benito-Matías, Luis F; Peñuelas-Rubira, Juan L; Suz, Laura M

    2018-01-01

    The plantation and management of sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) orchards is a common and traditional land use system in many areas of Europe that offers the advantage of simultaneous production of nuts and timber. During the last decades, sweet chestnut has declined dramatically in many regions because of the profound social changes in rural areas coupled with pathogen attacks. Truffles, the hypogeous ascocarps of the ectomycorrhizal genus Tuber, are currently cultivated using host trees inoculated with these fungi for improving production in truffle orchards. The production of good forestry quality chestnut seedlings inoculated with European truffles in nurseries is essential for multi-cropping plantation establishment, but so far, it has not been implemented in agroforestry practices. Moreover, it is necessary to assess the physiological condition of the seedlings due to the high calcium amendment needed for the growth of Tuber spp. mycelium that can become toxic for the host plants. In this study, seedlings of C. sativa were inoculated with Tuber aestivum and its ecotypes T. uncinatum, T. brumale, and T. macrosporum and were grown in a greenhouse using culture conditions favorable for the production of high-quality plants for forestry purposes. At the end of the assay, levels of root colonization and morphological and physiological parameters of the seedlings were measured. The colonization of C. sativa with T. aestivum, its ecotype T. uncinatum, and T. brumale was successful, and the seedlings showed normal growth. Inoculation protocols with T. macrosporum need to be improved. Tuber species formed well-developed ectomycorrhizae on C. sativa in nursery conditions.

  9. Nettle as a distinct Bronze Age textile plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergfjord, C.; Mannering, Ulla; Frei, Karin Margarita

    2012-01-01

    It is generally assumed that the production of plant fibre textiles in ancient Europe, especially woven textiles for clothing, was closely linked to the development of agriculture through the use of cultivated textile plants (flax, hemp). Here we present a new investigation of the 2800 year old...

  10. Variation of Herbivore-Induced Volatile Terpenes among Arabidopsis Ecotypes Depends on Allelic Differences and Subcellular Targeting of Two Terpene Synthases, TPS02 and TPS031[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Mengsu; Abel, Christian; Sohrabi, Reza; Petri, Jana; Haupt, Ina; Cosimano, John; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Tholl, Dorothea

    2010-01-01

    When attacked by insects, plants release mixtures of volatile compounds that are beneficial for direct or indirect defense. Natural variation of volatile emissions frequently occurs between and within plant species, but knowledge of the underlying molecular mechanisms is limited. We investigated intraspecific differences of volatile emissions induced from rosette leaves of 27 accessions of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) upon treatment with coronalon, a jasmonate mimic eliciting responses similar to those caused by insect feeding. Quantitative variation was found for the emission of the monoterpene (E)-β-ocimene, the sesquiterpene (E,E)-α-farnesene, the irregular homoterpene 4,8,12-trimethyltridecatetra-1,3,7,11-ene, and the benzenoid compound methyl salicylate. Differences in the relative emissions of (E)-β-ocimene and (E,E)-α-farnesene from accession Wassilewskija (Ws), a high-(E)-β-ocimene emitter, and accession Columbia (Col-0), a trace-(E)-β-ocimene emitter, were attributed to allelic variation of two closely related, tandem-duplicated terpene synthase genes, TPS02 and TPS03. The Ws genome contains a functional allele of TPS02 but not of TPS03, while the opposite is the case for Col-0. Recombinant proteins of the functional Ws TPS02 and Col-0 TPS03 genes both showed (E)-β-ocimene and (E,E)-α-farnesene synthase activities. However, differential subcellular compartmentalization of the two enzymes in plastids and the cytosol was found to be responsible for the ecotype-specific differences in (E)-β-ocimene/(E,E)-α-farnesene emission. Expression of the functional TPS02 and TPS03 alleles is induced in leaves by elicitor and insect treatment and occurs constitutively in floral tissues. Our studies show that both pseudogenization in the TPS family and subcellular segregation of functional TPS enzymes control the variation and plasticity of induced volatile emissions in wild plant species. PMID:20463089

  11. Nutritional Aspects of Six Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. Ecotypes from three Geographical Areas of Chile Aspectos Nutricionales de Seis Ecotipos de Quínoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. de Tres Zonas Geográficas de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Miranda

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the diversity of the quinoa crop in Chile from a nutritional perspective. Nutritional properties, minerals, vitamins, and saponin content were assessed in seeds of six Chilean quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. ecotypes grown in three main production areas with distinctive climatic and edaphic conditions: Ancovinto and Cancosa in the North-Altiplano or High Plateau, Cáhuil and Faro in the central coastal area, and Regalona and Villarrica in the south of the country. There were significant differences (P La diversidad en el cultivo de la quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. de Chile fue explorada desde una perspectiva nutricional. En este contexto las propiedades nutricionales como también los contenidos de minerales, vitaminas y saponina fueron evaluados en las semillas de seis ecotipos chilenos de quínoa, cultivados en las tres principales zonas de producción con condiciones edafoclimáticas distintas: Ancovinto y Cancosa del altiplano del norte, Cáhuil y Faro de la zona costera central y, Regalona y Villarrica en el sur del país. Hubo diferencias significativas (P < 0.05 en todas las propiedades nutricionales de las semillas de todas las zonas. El ecotipo Villarrica tenia el mayor contenido de proteína (16.10 g 100 g-1 MS y de vitamina E y C (4.644 ± 0.240 y 23.065 ± 1.119 mg 100 g-1 MS, respectivamente. El mayor contenido de vitamina B1 (0.648 ± 0.006 mg 100 g-1 MS y B3 (1.569 ± 0.026 mg 100 g-1 MS fue encontrado en el ecotipo Regalona, y el mayor contenido de vitamina B2 (0.081 ± 0.002 mg 100 g-1 MS en el ecotipo Ancovinto. El K fue el mineral más abundante con un valor de 2325.56 mg 100 g-1 MS en el ecotipo Cancosa. El contenido de saponina fluctuó entre 0.84 g 100 g-1 MS en el ecotipo Villarrica y 3.91 g 100 g-1 MS en el ecotipo Cáhuil. Hubo diferencias significativas entre los ecotipos chilenos de quínoa cultivados bajo diferentes condiciones climáticas. No obstante, las semillas de quinoa de cualquier

  12. A complementary strategy for the conservation of native forest tree species: retrieval and conservation of threatened ecotypes Estratégia complementar para conservação de espécies florestais nativas: resgate e conservação de ecótipos ameaçados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarbas Yukio Shimizu

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Deforestation has become rampant in recent years in Brazil and has affected all biomes where many
    species are threatened to extinction due to destruction natural habitats. Government initiatives to hinder the
    chain of destruction include two main lines of action: to establish conservation units (parks, reserves and
    others; and programs to encourage plantation of native tree species for reclamation of degraded ecosystems, restoration of forests on permanent protection areas (riparian, and steep slope environments, and establishment of “legal reserves” (a mandatory forest reserve on at least 20% of the land area. Conservation units are effective
    in conserving natural ecosystems. However, they are of limited value for the conservation of ecotypes, since
    their effectiveness is restricted to within their physical boundaries. Since the majority of ecotypes with critical
    adaptive value are found outside the conservation units, complementary measures to encompass these variants are needed. The most promising strategy includes active participation of rural land owners, especially small land holders, since they are settled throughout the country (outside the conservation units. An important aspect of the strategy is to prevent movement of seeds and seedlings over great distances from their origins so that their adaptive traits to specific sites are preserved.A devastação das florestas brasileiras vem tomando proporções alarmantes em todos os biomas,
    colocando muitas espécies de microorganismos, animais e plantas sob risco de extinção devido à descaracterização do habitat. Medidas governamentais contra esse processo de destruição incluem o estabelecimento de unidades de conservação e os programas de plantio de espécies nativas com objetivos variados, como a recuperação de
    ecossistemas degradados e o estabelecimento de Reservas Legais, Áreas de Proteção Permanente e outros. As unidades de

  13. Tentacle Transcriptome and Venom Proteome of the Pacific Sea Nettle, Chrysaora fuscescens (Cnidaria: Scyphozoa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce, Dalia; Brinkman, Diane L.; Potriquet, Jeremy; Mulvenna, Jason

    2016-01-01

    Jellyfish venoms are rich sources of toxins designed to capture prey or deter predators, but they can also elicit harmful effects in humans. In this study, an integrated transcriptomic and proteomic approach was used to identify putative toxins and their potential role in the venom of the scyphozoan jellyfish Chrysaora fuscescens. A de novo tentacle transcriptome, containing more than 23,000 contigs, was constructed and used in proteomic analysis of C. fuscescens venom to identify potential toxins. From a total of 163 proteins identified in the venom proteome, 27 were classified as putative toxins and grouped into six protein families: proteinases, venom allergens, C-type lectins, pore-forming toxins, glycoside hydrolases and enzyme inhibitors. Other putative toxins identified in the transcriptome, but not the proteome, included additional proteinases as well as lipases and deoxyribonucleases. Sequence analysis also revealed the presence of ShKT domains in two putative venom proteins from the proteome and an additional 15 from the transcriptome, suggesting potential ion channel blockade or modulatory activities. Comparison of these potential toxins to those from other cnidarians provided insight into their possible roles in C. fuscescens venom and an overview of the diversity of potential toxin families in cnidarian venoms. PMID:27058558

  14. Pulling the sting out of nettle systematics - A comprehensive phylogeny of the genus Urtica L. (Urticaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse-Veldmann, Bernadette; Nürk, Nicolai M; Smissen, Rob; Breitwieser, Ilse; Quandt, Dietmar; Weigend, Maximilian

    2016-09-01

    The genus Urtica L. is subcosmopolitan, found on all continents (except Antarctica) and most extratropical islands and ranges from Alaska to Patagonia, Spitzbergen to the Cape and Camtschatka to the subantarctic islands. However, throughout its geographical range morphologically nearly indistinguishable species are found alongside morphologically quite disparate species, with the overall diversity of morphological characters extremely limited. The systematics of Urtica have puzzled scientists for the past 200years and no single comprehensive attempt at understanding infrageneric relationships has been published in the past, nor are species delimitations unequivocally established. We here provide the first comprehensive phylogeny of the genus including 61 of the 63 species recognized, represented by 144 ingroup accessions and 14 outgroup taxa. The markers ITS1-5.8S-ITS2, psbA-trnH intergenic spacer, trnL-trnF and trnS-trnG are used. The phylogeny is well resolved. The eastern Asian Zhengyia shennongensis T. Deng, D.G. Zhang & H. Sun is retrieved as sister to Urtica. Within Urtica, a clade comprising the western Eurasian species U. pilulifera L. and U. neubaueri Chrtek is sister to all other species of the genus. The phylogenetic analyses retrieve numerous well-supported clades, suggesting previously unsuspected relationships and implying that classically used taxonomic characters such as leaf morphology and growth habit are highly homoplasious. Species delimitation is problematical, and several accessions assigned to Urtica dioica L. (as subspecies) are retrieved in widely different places in the phylogeny. The genus seems to have undergone numerous dispersal-establishment events both between continents and onto different islands. Three recent species radiations are inferred, one in America centered in the Andes, one in New Zealand, and one in northern Eurasia which includes Urtica dioica s.str. sensu Henning et al. (2014). The present study provides the basis of a critical re-examination of species limits and taxonomy, but also of the dispersal ecology of this widespread plant group and an in-depth study of the three clades with recent radiations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The Strawberry Growth Underneath the Nettle: the emergence of entrepreneurs in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Krug (Barbara); L. Polos (Laszlo)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractChinese entrepreneurs innovatively manage organisations in the absence of strong economic institutions, under conditions of high environmental and technological uncertainty. This paper presents the findings of an empirical study designed to investigate how Chinese entrepreneurs can be

  16. Non-symbiotic Bradyrhizobium ecotypes dominate North American forest soils

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    VanInsberghe, David; Maas, Kendra R; Cardenas, Erick; Strachan, Cameron R; Hallam, Steven J; Mohn, William W

    2015-01-01

    The genus Bradyrhizobium has served as a model system for studying host-microbe symbiotic interactions and nitrogen fixation due to its importance in agricultural productivity and global nitrogen cycling...

  17. Tomato yellow leaf virus (TYLCV): The structure, ecotypes and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tomato yellow leaf virus (TYLCV) transmitted by the whitefly are a group of geminiviruses, which can cause large economic loses. The genome of TYLCV contains six partially overlapping open reading frames (ORFs) bidirectionally arranged into two transcriptional units that are separated by an intergenic region (IR).

  18. A genomic island linked to ecotype divergence in Atlantic cod

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jakob Hemmer; Eg Nielsen, Einar; Therkildsen, Nina O.

    2013-01-01

    The genomic architecture underlying ecological divergence and ecological speciation with gene flow is still largely unknown for most organisms. One central question is whether divergence is genome‐wide or localized in ‘genomic mosaics’ during early stages when gene flow is still pronounced. Empir...

  19. Ecotypic variation in the biology of Acanthaspis quinquespinosa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The development, oviposition pattern and morphometrics of the reduviid predator Acanthaspis quinquespinosa Fab. was studied in relation to the different habitats it inhabits (tropical rainforest, scrubjungle and semiarid zones). Populations inhabiting tropical rainforest were larger, had shorter developmental, ...

  20. Ecotype diversity and conversion in Photobacterium profundum strains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico M Lauro

    Full Text Available Photobacterium profundum is a cosmopolitan marine bacterium capable of growth at low temperature and high hydrostatic pressure. Multiple strains of P. profundum have been isolated from different depths of the ocean and display remarkable differences in their physiological responses to pressure. The genome sequence of the deep-sea piezopsychrophilic strain Photobacterium profundum SS9 has provided some clues regarding the genetic features required for growth in the deep sea. The sequenced genome of Photobacterium profundum strain 3TCK, a non-piezophilic strain isolated from a shallow-water environment, is now available and its analysis expands the identification of unique genomic features that correlate to environmental differences and define the Hutchinsonian niche of each strain. These differences range from variations in gene content to specific gene sequences under positive selection. Genome plasticity between Photobacterium bathytypes was investigated when strain 3TCK-specific genes involved in photorepair were introduced to SS9, demonstrating that horizontal gene transfer can provide a mechanism for rapid colonisation of new environments.

  1. Ecotypic variation in the biology of Acanthaspis quinquespinosa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    plzfg

    ﻰﯿﻨﯿﻓﻮﯾﺪﯾر ﺔﻠﯿﺼﻓ ﻦﻣ ﺔﺳﺮﺘﻔﻤﻟا ﻖﺒﻟا عاﻮﻧأ ﺪﺣﻻ ﺔﯿﺟﻮﻟﻮﻓرﻮﻤﻟا تﺎﺳﺎﯿﻘﻟا ﻰﻟا ﺔﻓﺎﺿﻻﺎﺑ ﺾﯿﺒﻟا ﻊﺿو ﺔﯿﻟآو ﻮﻤﻨﻟا ﺔﺳارد ﻢ. ) ﺎﯾﺪﯿﻨﯿﺴﯾﻮﻟﻮﻨﯿﻛ ﺲﯿﺑﻮﺜﻧﺎﻛا. ﺲﯿﺸﯾﺮﺑﺎﻓ. 1781. (. ﺎﮭﯿﻓ ﺶﯿﻌﺗ ﻰﺘﻟا ﺔﻔﻠﺘﺨﻤﻟا تﺎﺌﯿﺒﻟﺎﺑ ﺎﮭﺘﻗﻼﻋو. ) ةﺮﯿﻄﻤﻟا ﺔﯾراﺪﻤﻟا تﺎﺑﺎﻐﻟا. -. تﺎﺑﺎﻐﻟا. ا ﮫﺒﺷ ﻖﻃﺎﻨﻤﻟا و ﺔﯾﺮﯿﺠﺸﻟا. ﺔﻓﺎﺠﻟ .(. ًاداﺪﻋأ ﻊﻀﺗ ،ﺮﺼﻗأ ﻮﻤﻧ تاﺮﺘﻓ تاذ ،ﻢﺠﺤﻟا ﻰﻓ ﺮﺒﻛأ ﺖﻧﺎﻛ ﺔﯾراﺪﻤﻟا تﺎﺑﺎﻐﻟا ﻦﻄﻘﺗ ﺖﻧﺎﻛ ﻰﺘﻟا ﺮﺋﺎﺸﻌﻟا نأ ﺔﺳارﺪﻟا ﺖﺤﺿوأ. تﺰﯿﻤﺗ ﻰﺘﻟاو ﺔﺠﺿﺎﻨﻟا تاﺮﺸﺤﻟا ﺮﻤﻋ لﻮﻃ ...

  2. Standard methods for characterising subspecies and ecotypes of Apis mellifera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meixner, Marina D.; Pinto, Maria Alice; Bouga, Maria

    2013-01-01

    The natural diversity of honey bees in Europe is eroding fast. A multitude of reasons lead to a loss of both genetic diversity and specific adaptations to local conditions. To preserve locally adapted bees through breeding efforts and to maintain regional strains in conservation areas, these valu...

  3. Assessing the genetic diversity of five Tanzanian chicken ecotypes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diversity was assessed based on morphological measurements and 29 microsatellite markers recommended by ISAG/FAO advisory group on animal genetic diversity. A principal component analysis (PCA) of morphological measures distinguished individuals most by body sizes and body weight. Morogoro Medium, Pemba ...

  4. Killer whale morphology - Variation in morphology of killer whale ecotypes

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — We are using elliptic Fourier analysis to determine the patterns of variation in morphology of dorsal fin shape, saddle patch shape, and eye patch shape of resident,...

  5. AROMA PROFILE AND ANTIMICROBIAL PROPERTIES OF ALCOHOLIC AND AQUEOUS EXTRACTS FROM ROOT, LEAF AND STALK OF NETTLE (Urtica dioica L.)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Razzagh Mahmoudi; Kiumars Amini; Omid Fakhri; Mahsa Alem

    .... Results from disc diffusion assay indicated that water extract of root, leaf and stalk had the highest antimicrobial activity respectively and caused significant inhibition zones in P. vulgaris, L...

  6. Environ: E00795 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00795 Nettle Stinging nettle Medicinal herb Quercetin [CPD:C00389], Rutin [CPD:C05...ticaceae Nettle leaves Medicinal herbs [BR:br08322] Dicot plants: rosids Urticaceae (nettle family) E00795 Nettle ... ...PD:C00388] [DR:D08040], Serotonin [CPD:C00780], Choline [CPD:C00114] [DR:D07690] Urtica dioica [TAX:3501] Ur

  7. Adaptive responses reveal contemporary and future ecotypes in a desert shrub

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryce A. Richardson; Stanley G. Kitchen; Rosemary L. Pendleton; Burton K. Pendleton; Matthew J. Germino; Gerald E. Rehfeldt; Susan E. Meyer

    2014-01-01

    Interacting threats to ecosystem function, including climate change, wildfire, and invasive species necessitate native plant restoration in desert ecosystems. However, native plant restoration efforts often remain unguided by ecological genetic information. Given that many ecosystems are in flux from climate change, restoration plans need to account for both...

  8. Karyotype variation is indicative of subgenomic and ecotypic differentiation in switchgrass

    Science.gov (United States)

    A cytogenetic study was conducted on a dihaploid individual (2n'='2X'='18) of switchgrass to establish a chromosome karyotype. Size differences, condensation patterns, and arm-length ratios were used as identifying features and fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) assigned 5S and 45S rDNA loci...

  9. Is the distribution of Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus ecotypes in the Mediterranean Sea affected by global warming?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ostrowski

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Biological communities populating the Mediterranean Sea, which is situated at the northern boundary of the subtropics, are often claimed to be particularly affected by global warming. This is indicated, for instance, by the introduction of (subtropical species of fish or invertebrates that can displace local species. This raises the question of whether microbial communities are similarly affected, especially in the Levantine basin where sea surface temperatures have significantly risen over the last 25 years (0.50 ± 0.11 °C in average per decade, P Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus, was examined during two cruises through both eastern and western Mediterranean Sea basins held in September 1999 (PROSOPE cruise and in June–July 2008 (BOUM cruise. Diversity was studied using dot blot hybridization with clade-specific 16S rRNA oligonucleotide probes and/or clone libraries of the 16S-23S ribosomal DNA Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS region, with a focus on the abundance of clades that may constitute bioindicators of warm waters. During both cruises, the dominant Prochlorococcus clade in the upper mixed layer at all stations was HLI, a clade typical of temperate waters, whereas the HLII clade, the dominant group in (subtropical waters, was only present at very low concentrations. The Synechococcus community was dominated by clades I, III and IV in the northwestern waters of the Gulf of Lions and by clade III and groups genetically related to clades WPC1 and VI in the rest of the Mediterranean Sea. In contrast, only a few sequences of clade II, a group typical of warm waters, were observed. These data indicate that local cyanobacterial populations have not yet been displaced by their (subtropical counterparts.

  10. METABOLISM OF [14C]GA19 AND [14C]GA53 BY ECOTYPES OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADMIN

    When spinach (Spinacia oleracea) plants were transferred from short days (SDs) to long days (LDs), the level of endogenous GA19 decreased while the levels of GA20 and GA29 increased (Metzeger and Zeevaart, 1980). In further studies on this system, Gianfagna et al. (1983) showed that [2H]GA53 applied to spinach ...

  11. Geographic Distribution of Archaeal Ammonia Oxidizing Ecotypes in the Atlantic Ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sintes, E.; De Corte, D.; Haberleitner, E.; Herndl, G.

    2016-01-01

    In marine ecosystems, Thaumarchaeota are most likely the major ammonia oxidizers. While ammonia concentrations vary by about two orders of magnitude in the oceanic water column, archaeal ammonia oxidizers (AOA) vary by only one order of magnitude from surface to bathypelagic waters. Thus, the

  12. Ecotypic variation in Cystoclonium purpureum (Rhodophyta) synchronizes life history events in different regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molenaar, F.J; Breeman, Arno; Venekamp, L.A.H.

    Temperature and daylength responses were determined in culture for isolates of the red alga Cystoclonium purpureum (Hudson) Batters from Nova Scotia (NS, Canada), Helgoland (HE, Germany), and Roscoff (RO, France). Most isolates survived temperatures of -1.5 degrees/-2 degrees to 23 degrees C,

  13. Scaling-up permafrost thermal measurements in western Alaska using an ecotype approach

    OpenAIRE

    Cable, William L.; Romanovsky, Vladimir E.; Jorgenson, M. Torre

    2016-01-01

    Permafrost temperatures are increasing in Alaska due to climate change and in some cases permafrost is thawing and degrading. In areas where degradation has already occurred the effects can be dramatic, resulting in changing ecosystems, carbon release, and damage to infrastructure. However, in many areas we lack baseline data, such as subsurface temperatures, needed to assess future changes and potential risk areas. Besides climate, the physical properties of the vegetation ...

  14. age and growth of an ecotype cichlid “wesafu” in epe lagoon, lagos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HAMMED

    Beyond the biology of this fish is the potential use in aquaculture, which is of commercial importance since tilapia culture is almost non-existent in the country. The genetic application of this strain for possible improvement and hybridization is also of scientific interest. Nigeria needs to diversify her aquaculture industry, which ...

  15. Ecotypic variation and predatory behavior among killer whales (Orcinus orca) off the eastern Aleutian Islands, Alaska

    OpenAIRE

    Matkin, Craig O.; Barrett-Lennard, Lance G.; Yurk, Harald; Ellifrit, David; Trites, Andrew W.

    2007-01-01

    From 2001 to 2004 in the eastern Aleutian Islands, Alaska, killer whales (Orcinus orca) were encountered 250 times during 421 days of surveys that covered a total of 22,491 miles. Three killer whale groups (resident, transient, and offshore) were identified acoustically and genetically. Resident killer whales were found 12 times more frequently than transient killer whales, and offshore killer whales were encountered only once. A minimum of 901 photographically identified resident wh...

  16. Killer whale call frequency is similar across the oceans, but varies across sympatric ecotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filatova, Olga A; Miller, Patrick J O; Yurk, Harald; Samarra, Filipa I P; Hoyt, Erich; Ford, John K B; Matkin, Craig O; Barrett-Lennard, Lance G

    2015-07-01

    Killer whale populations may differ in genetics, morphology, ecology, and behavior. In the North Pacific, two sympatric populations ("resident" and "transient") specialize on different prey (fish and marine mammals) and retain reproductive isolation. In the eastern North Atlantic, whales from the same populations have been observed feeding on both fish and marine mammals. Fish-eating North Pacific "residents" are more genetically related to eastern North Atlantic killer whales than to sympatric mammal-eating "transients." In this paper, a comparison of frequency variables in killer whale calls recorded from four North Pacific resident, two North Pacific transient, and two eastern North Atlantic populations is reported to assess which factors drive the large-scale changes in call structure. Both low-frequency and high-frequency components of North Pacific transient killer whale calls have significantly lower frequencies than those of the North Pacific resident and North Atlantic populations. The difference in frequencies could be related to ecological specialization or to the phylogenetic history of these populations. North Pacific transient killer whales may have genetically inherited predisposition toward lower frequencies that may shape their learned repertoires.

  17. ECOTYPIC VARIATION IN PHYLLOPHORA PSEUDOCERANOIDES (RHODOPHYTA) ENSURES WINTER REPRODUCTION THROUGHOUT ITS GEOGRAPHIC RANGE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MOLENAAR, FJ; BREEMAN, AM

    Responses to temperature and daylength were determined in laboratory culture for isolates of the red alga Phyllophora pseudoceranoides (Gmelin) Newroth et A.R.A. Taylor from Nova Scotia, Iceland, Roscoff (France), and Helgoland (Germany). All isolates grew from 3 degrees to 25 degrees C and survived

  18. How metal-tolerant ecotypes of ectomycorrhizal fungi protect plants from heavy metal pollution.

    OpenAIRE

    COLPAERT, Jan; WEVERS, Jan; KRZNARIC, Erik; ADRIAENSEN, Kristin

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Heavy metal pollution is a strong driver of above- and belowground communities and triggers evolutionary adaptation in organisms. This review provides an overview of our knowledge on the effects of toxic concentrations of metals on ectomycorrhizal populations and communities. Discussion: Selection and adaptations within particular ectomycorrhizal species that colonise host plants in harsh environments is discussed. Among these adaptations, we focus on the metal exclusion strateg...

  19. Pasture characteristics in three different ecotypes at Khovd Aimag, Western Mongolia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jutta Beher

    Full Text Available The transition of nomadic pastoralism to more sessile forms of rangeland utilization and increased stocking rates can result in the degradation of pasture. After political changes in the 1990s in Mongolia, population growth and missing alternative livelihoods intensified the grazing pressure on pastures, and further decreased the condition of the fragile arid ecosystems. To learn more about the productivity and quality of pasture land in Khovd Aimag in the western region of Mongolia, standing biomass was measured in the alpine region, mountain steppe and semi-desert. Plant samples were analyzed for nitrogen and fiber contents by wet chemistry and Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS. Results show clear differences in distribution of biomass with reduced biomass in the vicinity of temporary settlements. From July to early September plant nitrogen contents decreased in the alpine region, remained unchanged in the mountain steppe and increased in the semi-desert. Nitrogen concentrations were elevated in vegetation close to temporary settlements. For fiber contents (ADF no clear patterns were found. Neither biomass/m(2 nor vegetation cover were appropriate indicators for food quality.

  20. Pasture characteristics in three different ecotypes at Khovd Aimag, Western Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beher, Jutta

    2014-01-01

    The transition of nomadic pastoralism to more sessile forms of rangeland utilization and increased stocking rates can result in the degradation of pasture. After political changes in the 1990s in Mongolia, population growth and missing alternative livelihoods intensified the grazing pressure on pastures, and further decreased the condition of the fragile arid ecosystems. To learn more about the productivity and quality of pasture land in Khovd Aimag in the western region of Mongolia, standing biomass was measured in the alpine region, mountain steppe and semi-desert. Plant samples were analyzed for nitrogen and fiber contents by wet chemistry and Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS). Results show clear differences in distribution of biomass with reduced biomass in the vicinity of temporary settlements. From July to early September plant nitrogen contents decreased in the alpine region, remained unchanged in the mountain steppe and increased in the semi-desert. Nitrogen concentrations were elevated in vegetation close to temporary settlements. For fiber contents (ADF) no clear patterns were found. Neither biomass/m(2) nor vegetation cover were appropriate indicators for food quality.

  1. Local adaptation: Mechanical fit between floral ecotypes of Nerine humilis (Amaryllidaceae) and pollinator communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Ethan; Manning, John; Anderson, Bruce

    2015-09-01

    Geographic variation in floral morphology is often assumed to reflect geographic variation in pollinator communities and associated divergence in selective pressures. We studied populations of Nerine humilis (Amaryllidaceae) to assess whether geographic variation in floral form is the result of local adaptation to different pollinator communities. We first tested for associations between floral traits and visitor communities, and found that populations with similar floral morphologies were visited by similar insect communities. Mean style length in each population was also closely associated with the mean body length of the local visitor community. A reciprocal translocation experiment demonstrated that native phenotypes set more seed than translocated phenotypes. Single visitation experiments showed that native flowers received more pollen, and set more seed per visit, than introduced phenotypes in both populations. This suggests that the effectiveness of pollinator visits is determined by the degree of mechanical fit between flowers and visitors. We provide strong evidence that the observed among-population variation in floral traits is an adaptive response to geographic variation in the pollinator community. © 2015 The Author(s). Evolution © 2015 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  2. The landsnail Cepaea nemoralis regulates internal Cd levels when fed on Cd-enriched stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) leaves at low, field-relevant concentrations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Notten, M.J.M.; Oosthoek, A.; Rozema, J.; Aerts, R.

    2006-01-01

    We studied Cd accumulation in Cepaea nemoralis snails at low, but field-relevant Cd concentrations in the diet (Urtica dioica leaves). Six treatments of U. dioica plants were grown, resulting in leaf Cd concentrations between 0 and 2.6 μg g

  3. Ralstonia (Pseudomonas) solanacearum race 3 (biovar 2) in surface water and natural weed hosts: First report on stinging nettle (Urtica dioica)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wenneker, M.; Verdel, M.S.W.; Groeneveld, R.M.W.; Kempenaar, C.; Beuningen, van A.R.; Janse, J.D.

    1999-01-01

    The population dynamics of the brown rot bacterium Ralstonia (Pseudomonas) solanacearum in surface water of two selected water-areas were monitored over a two-year period. In some cases during summer, high bacterial numbers (up to 106 cfu l−1) were observed. In a host plant survey a few plants of

  4. The landsnail Cepaea nemoralis regulates internal Cd levels when fed on Cd-enriched stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) leaves at low, field-relevant concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Notten, M.J.M. [Institute of Ecological Science, Department of Systems Ecology, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV, Amsterdam (Netherlands)]. E-mail: martje.notten@ecology.falw.vu.nl; Oosthoek, A.J.P. [Institute of Ecological Science, Department of Systems Ecology, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Rozema, J. [Institute of Ecological Science, Department of Systems Ecology, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Aerts, R. [Institute of Ecological Science, Department of Systems Ecology, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2006-01-15

    We studied Cd accumulation in Cepaea nemoralis snails at low, but field-relevant Cd concentrations in the diet (Urtica dioica leaves). Six treatments of U. dioica plants were grown, resulting in leaf Cd concentrations between 0 and 2.6 {mu}g g{sup -1} dw. Seven snails per treatment were fed for 38 days. Leaf Cd concentrations did not affect food consumption rates, and consequently Cd intake rates increased with increasing leaf concentrations. No differences were detected among treatments in the final soft tissue Cd concentrations and body burdens in the snails. Regression analyses showed no positive relationship between either snail Cd concentrations or body burdens and total Cd intake. This suggests a regulation of internal Cd concentrations at low food Cd concentrations. Our data suggest that Cd excretion via the mucus plays a substantial role in this regulation, in addition to Cd excretion via the faeces. Snail shells were no sinks for Cd. - Cd excretion via the mucus plays a substantial role in the regulation of C. nemoralis soft tissue Cd concentrations at low, but field-relevant Cd concentrations in the food.

  5. [Combined extract of Sabal palm and nettle in the treatment of patients with lower urinary tract symptoms in double blind, placebo-controlled trial].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopatkin, N A; Sivkov, A V; Medvedev, A A; Walter, K; Schlefke, S; Avdeĭchuk, Iu I; Golubev, G V; Mel'nik, K P; Elenberger, N A; Engelman, U

    2006-01-01

    A multicenter, prospective clinical trial was performed to study efficacy and tolerance of a compound drug PRO 160/120 in the elderly men with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) due to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). A total of 257 patients were randomized into two groups. Group 1 of 129 patients received PRO 160/120; group 2 of 128 patients received placebo. In 2-week induction blind phase of placebo the patients received for 24 weeks 1 capsule of the drug or placebo twice a day in conditions of double blind study. The double blind phase was followed by an open control period for 24 weeks when all the patients received PRO 160/120. Treatment efficacy evaluation was based on I-PSS, quality of life index, urodynamic and ultrasonography evidence. PRO 160/120 was superior to placebo by attenuating LUTS assessed by I-PSS, improved obstructive and irritative symptoms, was effective in patients with moderate and severe symptoms. Tolerance of the plant extract was good.

  6. Lack of effect of bioactive-rich extracts of pomegranate, persimmon, nettle, dill, kale and Sideritis and isolated bioactives on platelet function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollands, Wendy J; Saha, Shikha; Hayran, Osman; Boyko, Nadiya; Glibetic, Maria; Konic-Ristic, Aleksandra; Jorjadze, Mariam; Kroon, Paul A

    2013-11-01

    The health benefits of fruit and vegetable-rich diets may be partly due to modulation of platelet activity by bioactive phytochemicals. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of bioactive-rich plant extracts and isolated bioactive metabolites on platelet function. Blood samples (n =15 subjects) were treated with extracts of bioactive-rich plants consumed as traditional foods in the Black Sea region, or with human metabolites of the bioactives quercetin and sulforaphane. Platelet function was assessed using the PFA-100. None of the extracts containing various flavonoids, glucosinolates and other bioactives, or isolated bioactive metabolites of quercetin or sulforaphane, caused significant changes in PFA-100 closure time (CT). In contrast, the positive controls (aspirin and Abciximab) consistently caused significant increases in CT for the platelet agonists epinephrine and ADP, respectively. These data do not support the notion that these plant bioactives can improve human platelet function. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Sex-related differences in photoinhibition, photo-oxidative stress and photoprotection in stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L.) exposed to drought and nutrient deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simancas, Bárbara; Juvany, Marta; Cotado, Alba; Munné-Bosch, Sergi

    2016-03-01

    Dimorphic plant species can show distinct nutrient needs due to sex-related differences in nutrient allocation to reproductive structures, which can potentially affect their sensitivity to photoinhibition and photo-oxidative stress. Here, we investigated sex-related differences in the extent of photo-oxidative stress in male and female individuals of U. dioica exposed to a combination of severe drought and nutrient starvation. Male and female individuals of U. dioica subject to severe drought stress were exposed to various levels of nutrient availability. First, a set of plants grown under field conditions and exposed to summer drought was used to test the effects of nutrient supply (given as NPK fertilizer). Secondly, the effects of various phosphate concentrations in the nutrient solution were tested in drought-stressed potted plants. The Fv/Fm ratio (maximum efficiency of PSII photochemistry), photoprotection capacity (levels of carotenoids, including the xanthophyll cycle, and vitamins C and E), and the extent of lipid peroxidation (hydroperoxide levels) were measured. Results showed that an application of the NPK fertilizer to the soil had a positive effect on drought-stressed plants, reducing the extent of lipid peroxidation in both males and females. P deficiency led to residual photoinhibition, as indicated by significant reductions in the Fv/Fm ratio, and enhanced lipid peroxidation in females, but not in males. We conclude that (i) increased nutrient availability in the soil can alleviate photo-oxidative stress in drought-stressed U. dioica plants, and (ii) U. dioica plants show sexual secondary dimorphism in terms of photoinhibition and photo-oxidative stress, but this is only apparent when stress infringed on plants is very severe. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Inhibition of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus replication in a lethal SARS-CoV BALB/c mouse model by stinging nettle lectin, Urtica dioica agglutinin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumaki, Yohichi; Wandersee, Miles K; Smith, Aaron J; Zhou, Yanchen; Simmons, Graham; Nelson, Nathan M; Bailey, Kevin W; Vest, Zachary G; Li, Joseph K-K; Chan, Paul Kay-Sheung; Smee, Donald F; Barnard, Dale L

    2011-04-01

    Urtica dioica agglutinin (UDA) is a small plant monomeric lectin, 8.7 kDa in size, with an N-acetylglucosamine specificity that inhibits viruses from Nidovirales in vitro. In the current study, we first examined the efficacy of UDA on the replication of different SARS-CoV strains in Vero 76 cells. UDA inhibited virus replication in a dose-dependent manner and reduced virus yields of the Urbani strain by 90% at 1.1 ± 0.4 μg/ml in Vero 76 cells. Then, UDA was tested for efficacy in a lethal SARS-CoV-infected BALB/c mouse model. BALB/c mice were infected with two LD50 (575 PFU) of virus for 4 h before the mice were treated intraperitoneally with UDA at 20, 10, 5 or 0 mg/kg/day for 4 days. Treatment with UDA at 5 mg/kg significantly protected the mice against a lethal infection with mouse-adapted SARS-CoV (p effectively reduced lung pathology scores. At day 6 after virus exposure, all groups of mice receiving UDA had much lower lung weights than did the placebo-treated mice. Thus, our data suggest that UDA treatment of SARS infection in mice leads to a substantial therapeutic effect that protects mice against death and weight loss. Furthermore, the mode of action of UDA in vitro was further investigated using live SARS-CoV Urbani strain virus and retroviral particles pseudotyped with SARS-CoV spike (S). UDA specifically inhibited the replication of live SARS-CoV or SARS-CoV pseudotyped virus when added just before, but not after, adsorption. These data suggested that UDA likely inhibits SARS-CoV infection by targeting early stages of the replication cycle, namely, adsorption or penetration. In addition, we demonstrated that UDA neutralizes the virus infectivity, presumably by binding to the SARS-CoV spike (S) glycoprotein. Finally, the target molecule for the inhibition of virus replication was partially characterized. When UDA was exposed to N-acetylglucosamine and then UDA was added to cells just prior to adsorption, UDA did not inhibit the virus infection. These data support the conclusion that UDA might bind to N-acetylglucosamine-like residues present on the glycosylated envelope glycoproteins, thereby preventing virus attachment to cells. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Use of Herbal Supplements in Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cat's Claw Apium Graveolens Creatine Goldenrod Horsetail Huperzinea Java Tea Leaf Licorice Root Nettle, Stinging Nettle Oregon ... other health related issues. If you have a history of a bleeding disorder you are at high ...

  10. Assessment of Antidermatophytic Activities of Urtica dioica L against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    reported for decoction prepared from the leaves of the nettle [1]. In folk medicine, nettle has been used to treat iron deficiency anemia due to its high content of iron and also used to stop excessive menstrual bleeding, hematuria and nosebleeds. The root of nettle has been employed for treating asthma, rheumatism, sciatica ...

  11. Finding of No Significant Impact: SLC-4 to SLC-6 Replacement Waterline Vandenberg Air Force Base, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-07-28

    marianum). stinging nettle ( Urtica dioica ). poison hemlock (Conium maculatum). poison oak and introduced grasses dominate the understory. This site is...Hedge nettle * Toxicodendron diversi lobum Poison oak * * * Urtica dioica Stinging nettle * T’erbena californica California vervain * 1...Action. 2) the existing. environmental conditions. and 3) likely effects of the proposed and alternative actions on the natural and human environments

  12. Evidence of segregated spawning in a single marine fish stock: Sympatric divergence of ecotypes in icelandic cod?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowski, T.B.; Thorsteinsson, Vilhjalmur; McAdam, B.J.; Marteinsdottir, G.

    2011-01-01

    There is increasing recognition of intraspecific diversity and population structure within marine fish species, yet there is little direct evidence of the isolating mechanisms that maintain it or documentation of its ecological extent. We analyzed depth and temperature histories collected by electronic data storage tags retrieved from 104 Atlantic cod at liberty ???1 year to evaluate a possible isolating mechanisms maintaining population structure within the Icelandic cod stock. This stock consists of two distinct behavioral types, resident coastal cod and migratory frontal cod, each occurring within two geographically distinct populations. Despite being captured together on the same spawning grounds, we show the behavioral types seem reproductively isolated by fine-scale differences in spawning habitat selection, primarily depth. Additionally, the different groups occupied distinct seasonal thermal and bathymetric niches that generally demonstrated low levels of overlap throughout the year. Our results indicate that isolating mechanisms, such as differential habitat selection during spawning, might contribute to maintaining diversity and fine-scale population structure in broadcast-spawning marine fishes.

  13. Characterization of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) ecotype "Fagiolo occhio nero di Oliveto Citra" using agronomic, biochemical and molecular approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaccardelli, Massimo; Pentangelo, Alfonso; Tripodi, Pasquale

    2013-09-15

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) is the most important grain legume and plays a significant role in human nutrition being a major source of dietary protein and representing a rich source of minerals and certain vitamins. Several large germplasm collections have been established, which contain large amounts of genetic diversity, including wild and domesticated species. In this study agronomic, biochemical and molecular characterization of landrace bean named "Fagiolo occhio nero di Oliveto Citra" (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), is described. Seeds were obtained by local farmers and field trials were carried out during years 2009-2010, in the typical cultivation site (Oliveto Citra, Salerno Province), using two different densities of investment. During 2011, in order to evaluate the performance in different environments, field trials were conducted in three localities (Battipaglia, Oliveto Citra and Controne). Data analysis shows good adaptability across locations and similar grain yield using two spacing's of seeds. Morphological characterization and molecular analysis, using AFLP and Minisatellite molecular markers, were performed on ten "biotypes" collected from local farmers. Seeds characterization showed variability on the violet area surrounding the hilum (named as eye) while markers have provided useful information on relationships between biotypes. Biochemical analysis, which includes the contents of protein, minerals and antioxidants, shows how the composition is consistent with respect to other landraces and commercial cultivars. The landrace under study revealed genetic stability and good adaptation to cultivated environment with best performance in the native area. In addition, the bio-agronomic characteristics are in accord with studies reported in literature.

  14. How to use wind erosion to restore and maintain the inland drift-sand ecotype in the Netherlands?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riksen, M.J.P.M.; Spaan, W.P.; Stroosnijder, L.

    2008-01-01

    Dutch inland drift-sands are of great value to nature and house several Red-Listed species unique for Europe. The inland drift-sand landscape consists of three different intertwined wind erosion zones. Together they form the conditions where a mosaic of vegetation at different stages of development

  15. Effect of chemophytostabilization practices on arbuscular mycorrhiza colonization of Deschampsia cespitosa ecotype Warynski at different soil depths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gucwa-Przepiora, E.; Malkowski, E.; Sas-Nowosielska, A.; Kucharski, R.; Krzyzak, J.; Kita, A.; Romkens, P.F.A.M. [University of Silesia, Katowice (Poland)

    2007-12-15

    The effects of chemophytostabilization practices on arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) of Deschampsia cespitosa roots at different depths in soils highly contaminated with heavy metals were studied in field trials. Mycorrhizal parameters, including frequency of mycorrhization, intensity of root cortex colonization and arbuscule abundance were studied. Correlations between concentration of bioavailable Cd, Zn, Pb and Cu in soil and mycorrhizal parameters were estimated. An increase in AM colonization with increasing soil depth was observed in soils with spontaneously, growing D. cespitosa. A positive effect of chemophytostabilization amendments (calcium phosphate, lignite) on AM colonization was found in the soil layers to which the amendments were applied. Negative correlation coefficients between mycorrhizal parameters and concentration of bioavailable Cd and Zn in soil were obtained. Our results demonstrated that chemophytostabilization practices enhance AM colonization in D. cespitosa roots, even in soils fertilized with high rates of phosphorus.

  16. Salicornia as a crop plant in temperate regions: selection of genetically characterized ecotypes and optimization of their cultivation conditions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Singh, Devesh; Buhmann, Anne K; Flowers, Tim J; Seal, Charlotte E; Papenbrock, Jutta

    2014-01-01

    .... Therefore, it is important to find alternatives to grow food crops and vegetables. Halophytes are naturally evolved salt-tolerant plants that are adapted to grow in environments that inhibit the growth of most glycophytic crop plants substantially...

  17. Genetic analysis of housekeeping genes reveals a deep-sea ecotype of Alteromonas macleodii in the Mediterranean Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    López-López, A.; Bartual, S.G.; Stal, L.J.; Onyshchenko, O.; Rodríguez-Valera, F.

    2005-01-01

    The genetic diversity of 19 strains belonging to Alteromonas macleodii isolated from different geographic areas (Pacific and Indian Ocean, and different parts of the Mediterranean Sea) and at different depths (from the surface down to 3500 m) has been studied. Fragments of the 16S rRNA gene, the

  18. Screening of antioxidant activity and volatile compounds composition of Chamerion angustifolium (L.) Holub ecotypes grown in Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaškonienė, Vilma; Maruška, Audrius; Akuņeca, Ieva; Stankevičius, Mantas; Ragažinskienė, Ona; Bartkuvienė, Violeta; Kornyšova, Olga; Briedis, Vitalis; Ugenskienė, Rasa

    2016-06-01

    Since biological activity of medicinal plants is dependent on cultivation area, climatic conditions, developmental stage, genetic modifications and other factors, it is important to study flora present in different growing sites and geographical zones. This study was focused on screening of antioxidant activity of C. angustifolium harvested in six different locations in Lithuania. The total contents of phenolic compounds, flavonoids and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity were evaluated by spectrophotometric methods. A correlation between radical scavenging activity and total phenolic compounds content was observed (correlation coefficient 0.98). HPLC with online post-column DPPH radical scavenging reaction detection was used for the separation of extracts. Oenothein B, rutin and one unidentified compound were predominant. Volatile compounds were analysed using solid-phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Based on the analysis of volatiles, all samples were classified into two chemotypes: (I) with predominant α- and β-caryophyllenes and (II) with predominant anethole.

  19. Seasonal switchgrass ecotype contributions to soil organic carbon, deep soil microbial community composition and rhizodeposit uptake during an extreme drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    The importance of rhizodeposit C and associated microbial communities in deep soil C stabilization is relatively unknown. Phenotypic variability in plant root biomass could impact C cycling through belowground plant allocation, rooting architecture, and microbial community abundance and composition...

  20. Ecomorphology as a tool in fisheries: identification and ecotyping of Lake Tana barbs (Barbus intermedius complex), Ethiopia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sibbing, F.A.; Nagelkerke, L.A.J.; Osse, J.W.M.

    1994-01-01

    Fisheries development of Lake Tana, Ethiopia, urgently requires the identification of its unknown units of fish stock. A diversity of large barbs (up to 80 cm SL), lumped into one species Barbus intermedius and contributing over 35% of the annual catch, consists of at least thirteen distinct

  1. Evidence of segregated spawning in a single marine fish stock: sympatric divergence of ecotypes in Icelandic cod?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy B Grabowski

    Full Text Available There is increasing recognition of intraspecific diversity and population structure within marine fish species, yet there is little direct evidence of the isolating mechanisms that maintain it or documentation of its ecological extent. We analyzed depth and temperature histories collected by electronic data storage tags retrieved from 104 Atlantic cod at liberty ≥1 year to evaluate a possible isolating mechanisms maintaining population structure within the Icelandic cod stock. This stock consists of two distinct behavioral types, resident coastal cod and migratory frontal cod, each occurring within two geographically distinct populations. Despite being captured together on the same spawning grounds, we show the behavioral types seem reproductively isolated by fine-scale differences in spawning habitat selection, primarily depth. Additionally, the different groups occupied distinct seasonal thermal and bathymetric niches that generally demonstrated low levels of overlap throughout the year. Our results indicate that isolating mechanisms, such as differential habitat selection during spawning, might contribute to maintaining diversity and fine-scale population structure in broadcast-spawning marine fishes.

  2. Effect of chemophytostabilization practices on arbuscular mycorrhiza colonization of Deschampsia cespitosa ecotype Warynski at different soil depths

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gucwa-Przepióra, E.; Malkowski, E.; Sas-Nowosielska, A.; Kucharski, R.; Krzyzak, J.; Kita, A.; Römkens, P.F.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    The effects of chemophytostabilization practices on arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) of Deschampsia cespitosa roots at different depths in soils highly contaminated with heavy metals were studied in field trials. Mycorrhizal parameters, including frequency of mycorrhization, intensity of root cortex

  3. Whistle communication in mammal-eating killer whales (Orcinus orca): further evidence for acoustic divergence between ecotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Deecke, Volker B.; Riesch, Rüdiger

    2011-01-01

    Public signaling plays an important role in territorial and sexual displays in animals; however, in certain situations, it is advantageous to keep signaling private to prevent eavesdropping by unintended receivers. In the northeastern Pacific, two populations of killer whales (Orcinus orca), fish-eating “resident” killer whales and mammal-eating “transient” killer whales, share the same habitat. Previous studies have shown that residents use whistles as private signals during close-range comm...

  4. Salicornia as a crop plant in temperate regions: selection of genetically characterized ecotypes and optimization of their cultivation conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Devesh; Buhmann, Anne K; Flowers, Tim J; Seal, Charlotte E; Papenbrock, Jutta

    2014-11-10

    Rising sea levels and salinization of groundwater due to global climate change result in fast-dwindling sources of freshwater. Therefore, it is important to find alternatives to grow food crops and vegetables. Halophytes are naturally evolved salt-tolerant plants that are adapted to grow in environments that inhibit the growth of most glycophytic crop plants substantially. Members of the Salicornioideae are promising candidates for saline agriculture due to their high tolerance to salinity. Our aim was to develop genetically characterized lines of Salicornia and Sarcocornia for further breeding and to determine optimal cultivation conditions. To obtain a large and diverse genetic pool, seeds were collected from different countries and ecological conditions. The external transcribed spacer (ETS) sequence of 62 Salicornia and Sarcocornia accessions was analysed: ETS sequence data showed a clear distinction between the two genera and between different Salicornia taxa. However, in some cases the ETS was not sufficiently variable to resolve morphologically distinct species. For the determination of optimal cultivation conditions, experiments on germination, seedling establishment and growth to a harvestable size were performed using different accessions of Salicornia spp. Experiments revealed that the percentage germination was greatest at lower salinities and with temperatures of 20/10 °C (day/night). Salicornia spp. produced more harvestable biomass in hydroponic culture than in sand culture, but the nutrient concentration requires optimization as hydroponically grown plants showed symptoms of stress. Salicornia ramosissima produced more harvestable biomass than Salicornia dolichostachya in artificial sea water containing 257 mM NaCl. Based on preliminary tests on ease of cultivation, gain in biomass, morphology and taste, S. dolichostachya was investigated in more detail, and the optimal salinity for seedling establishment was found to be 100 mM. Harvesting of S. dolichostachya twice in a growing season was successful, but the interval between the harvests needs to be optimized to maximize biomass production. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company.

  5. Application of otolith shape analysis in identifying different ecotypes of Coilia ectenes in the Yangtze Basin, China

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Radhakrishnan, K.V.; Li, Y.; Jayalakshmy, K.V.; Liu, M.; Murphy, B.R.; Xie, S.

    of the distributional range of the species in the Yangtze Basin, were digitized and analyzed. Canonical Discriminant Analysis (CDA) of the shape indices and Fourier descriptors pooled together showed three distinct clusters of individuals representing anadromous, land...

  6. The small barbs Barbus humilis and B. trispilopleura of Lake Tana (Ethiopia): Are they ecotypes of the same species?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dejen, E.; Rutjes, H.A.; Graaf, de M.; Nagelkerke, L.A.J.; Osse, J.W.M.; Sibbing, F.A.

    2002-01-01

    Four species of ‘small barbs’ (Barbus, subgenus Enteromius Cope, 1869) are known from Lake Tana, isolated in the Ethiopian highlands: B. humilis, B. trispilopleura, B. pleurogramma (all Boulenger, 1902) and B. tanapelagius de Graaf, 2000. However, only three species appear valid from cluster

  7. Comparison of measured efficiencies of nine turbine designs with efficiencies predicted by two empirical methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Robert E; Cavicchi, Richard H

    1951-01-01

    Empirical methods of Ainley and Kochendorfer and Nettles were used to predict performances of nine turbine designs. Measured and predicted performances were compared. Appropriate values of blade-loss parameter were determined for the method of Kochendorfer and Nettles. The measured design-point efficiencies were lower than predicted by as much as 0.09 (Ainley and 0.07 (Kochendorfer and Nettles). For the method of Kochendorfer and Nettles, appropriate values of blade-loss parameter ranged from 0.63 to 0.87 and the off-design performance was accurately predicted.

  8. Menstruation Phytotherapy According To Iran Ethnobotanical Sources

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Faeghe Tajallaie-Asl; Mahnaz Mardani; Somayeh Shahsavari; Saber Abbaszadeh

    2017-01-01

    ... it. Based on the results of this study sage, sumac, lion's tail, marjoram, fennel, nettle, yarrow, makhlase, cumin, oregano, thyme, Peganum harmala, red clover, Asteraceae, Teucrium polium, etc...

  9. Elevated Genetic Diversity in an F2:6 Population of Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) Developed through an Inter-ecotype Cross.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benlhabib, Ouafae; Boujartani, Noura; Maughan, Peter J; Jacobsen, Sven E; Jellen, Eric N

    2016-01-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) is a seed crop of the Andean highlands and Araucanian coastal regions of South America that has recently expanded in use and production beyond its native range. This is largely due to its superb nutritional value, consisting of protein that is rich in essential amino acids along with vitamins and minerals. Quinoa also presents a remarkable degree of tolerance to saline conditions, drought, and frost. The present study involved 72 F2:6 recombinant-inbred lines and parents developed through hybridization between highland (0654) and coastal (NL-6) germplasm groups. The purpose was to characterize the quinoa germplasm developed, to assess the discriminating potential of 21 agro-morpho-phenological traits, and to evaluate the extent of genetic variability recovered through selfing. A vast amount of genetic variation was detected among the 72 lines evaluated for quantitative and qualitative traits. Impressive transgressive segregation was measured for seed yield (22.42 g/plant), while plant height and maturity had higher heritabilities (73 and 89%, respectively). Other notable characters segregating in the population included panicle and stem color, panicle form, and resistance to downy mildew. In the Principal Component analysis, the first axis explained 74% of the total variation and was correlated to plant height, panicle size, stem diameter, biomass, mildew reaction, maturation, and seed yield; those traits are relevant discriminatory characters. Yield correlated positively with panicle length and biomass. Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean-based cluster analysis identified three groups: one consisting of late, mildew-resistant, high-yielding lines; one having semi-late lines with intermediate yield and mildew susceptibility; and a third cluster consisting of early to semi-late accessions with low yield and mildew susceptibility. This study highlighted the extended diversity regenerated among the 72 accessions and helped to identify potentially adapted quinoa genotypes for production in the Moroccan coastal environment.

  10. Elevated genetic diversity in an F2:6 population of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) developed through an inter-ecotype cross

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benlhabib, Ouafae; Boujartani, Noura; Maughan, Peter J

    2016-01-01

    for quantitative and qualitative traits. Impressive transgressive segregation was measured for seed yield (22.42 g/plant), while plant height and maturity had higher heritabilities (73 and 89%, respectively). Other notable characters segregating in the population included panicle and stem color, panicle form......, and resistance to downy mildew. In the Principal Component analysis, the first axis explained 74% of the total variation and was correlated to plant height, panicle size, stem diameter, biomass, mildew reaction, maturation, and seed yield; those traits are relevant discriminatory characters. Yield correlated...... consisting of early to semi-late accessions with low yield and mildew susceptibility. This study highlighted the extended diversity regenerated among the 72 accessions and helped to identify potentially adapted quinoa genotypes for production in the Moroccan coastal environment....

  11. Analysis of Large Seeds from Three Different Medicago truncatula Ecotypes Reveals a Potential Role of Hormonal Balance in Final Size Determination of Legume Grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Kaustav; Uluçay, Orhan; Şakiroğlu, Muhammet; Udvardi, Michael K; Verdier, Jerome

    2016-09-08

    Legume seeds are important as protein and oil source for human diet. Understanding how their final seed size is determined is crucial to improve crop yield. In this study, we analyzed seed development of three accessions of the model legume, Medicago truncatula, displaying contrasted seed size. By comparing two large seed accessions to the reference accession A17, we described mechanisms associated with large seed size determination and potential factors modulating the final seed size. We observed that early events during embryogenesis had a major impact on final seed size and a delayed heart stage embryo development resulted to large seeds. We also observed that the difference in seed growth rate was mainly due to a difference in embryo cell number, implicating a role of cell division rate. Large seed accessions could be explained by an extended period of cell division due to a longer embryogenesis phase. According to our observations and recent reports, we observed that auxin (IAA) and abscisic acid (ABA) ratio could be a key determinant of cell division regulation at the end of embryogenesis. Overall, our study highlights that timing of events occurring during early seed development play decisive role for final seed size determination.

  12. Analysis of Large Seeds from Three Different Medicago truncatula Ecotypes Reveals a Potential Role of Hormonal Balance in Final Size Determination of Legume Grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaustav Bandyopadhyay

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Legume seeds are important as protein and oil source for human diet. Understanding how their final seed size is determined is crucial to improve crop yield. In this study, we analyzed seed development of three accessions of the model legume, Medicago truncatula, displaying contrasted seed size. By comparing two large seed accessions to the reference accession A17, we described mechanisms associated with large seed size determination and potential factors modulating the final seed size. We observed that early events during embryogenesis had a major impact on final seed size and a delayed heart stage embryo development resulted to large seeds. We also observed that the difference in seed growth rate was mainly due to a difference in embryo cell number, implicating a role of cell division rate. Large seed accessions could be explained by an extended period of cell division due to a longer embryogenesis phase. According to our observations and recent reports, we observed that auxin (IAA and abscisic acid (ABA ratio could be a key determinant of cell division regulation at the end of embryogenesis. Overall, our study highlights that timing of events occurring during early seed development play decisive role for final seed size determination.

  13. Growth and Metal Accumulation of an Alyssum murale Nickel Hyperaccumulator Ecotype Co-cropped with Alyssum montanum and Perennial Ryegrass in Serpentine Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Leigh Broadhurst

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The genus Alyssum (Brassicaceae contains Ni hyperaccumulators (50, many of which can achieve 30 g kg-1 Ni in dry leaf. Some Alyssum hyperaccumulators are viable candidates for commercial Ni phytoremediation and phytomining technologies. It is not known whether these species secrete organic and/or amino acids into the rhizosphere to solubilize Ni, or can make use of such acids within the soil to facilitate uptake. It has been hypothesized that in fields with mixed plant species, mobilization of metals by phytosiderophores secreted by Graminaceae plants could affect Alyssum Ni, Fe, Cu and Mn uptake.We co-cropped the Ni hyperaccumulator Alyssum murale, non-hyperaccumulator A. montanum and perennial ryegrass in a natural serpentine soil. All treatments had standard inorganic fertilization required for ryegrass growth and one treatment was compost amended. After 4 months A. murale leaves and stems contained 3600 mg kg-1 Ni which did not differ significantly with co-cropping. Overall Ni and Mn concentrations were significantly higher in A. murale than in A. montanum or L. perenne. Copper was not accumulated by either Alyssum species, but L. perenne accumulated up to 10 mg kg-1. A. montanum could not compete with either A. murale or ryegrass, and neither Alyssum species survived in the compost-amended soil. Co-cropping with ryegrass reduced Fe and Mn concentrations in A. murale but not to the extent of either increasing Ni uptake or affecting plant nutrition. The hypothesized Alyssum Ni accumulation in response to phytosiderophores secreted by co-cropped grass did not occur. Our data do not support increased mobilization of Mn by a phytosiderophore mechanism either, but the converse: mobilization of Mn by the Alyssum hyperaccumulator species significantly increased Mn levels in L. perenne. Tilling soil to maximize root penetration, adequate inorganic fertilization and appropriate plant densities are more important for developing efficient phytoremediation and phytomining approaches.

  14. Migration potential of tundra plant species in a warming Arctic: Responses of southern ecotypes of three species to experimental warming in the High Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjorkman, Anne; Henry, Greg; Vellend, Mark

    2013-04-01

    Climatic changes due to anthropogenic activity are predicted to have a profound effect on the world's biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. The response of natural communities to climate change will depend primarily on two factors: 1) the ability of species to adapt quickly to changing temperatures and precipitation trends, and 2) the ability of species and populations from southern latitudes to migrate northward and establish in new environments. The assumption is often made that species and populations will track their optimal climate northward as the earth warms, but this assumption ignores a host of other potentially important factors, including the lack of adaptation to photoperiod, soil moisture, and biotic interactions at higher latitudes. In this study, we aim to better understand the ability of southern populations to establish and grow at northern latitudes under warmer temperatures. We collected seeds or ramets of three Arctic plant species (Papaver radicatum, Oxyria digyna, and Arctagrostis latifolia) from Alexandra Fiord on Ellesmere Island, Canada and from southern populations at Cornwallis Island, Canada, Barrow, Alaska, and Latnjajaure, Sweden. These seeds were planted into experimentally warmed and control plots at Alexandra Fiord in 2011. We have tracked their survival, phenology, and growth over two growing seasons. Here, we will present the preliminary results of these experiments. In particular, we will discuss whether individuals originating from southern latitudes exhibit higher growth rates in warm plots than control plots, and whether southern populations survive and grow as well as or better than individuals from Alexandra Fiord in the warmed plots. In both cases, a positive response would indicate that a warming climate may facilitate a migration northward of more southerly species or populations, and that the lack of adaptation to local conditions (soil chemistry, microhabitat, etc.) will not limit this migration. Alternately, a negative response may indicate a need to reassess our fundamental assumptions about species migrations in response to climate change.

  15. Cyanobacterial ecotypes in different optical microenvironments of a 68 C hot spring mat community revealed by 16S-23S rRNA internal transcribed spacer region variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferris, Mike J.; Kühl, Michael; Wieland, Andrea

    2003-01-01

    We examined the population of unicellular cyanobacteria (Synechococcus) in the upper 3-mm vertical interval of a 68°C region of a microbial mat in a hot spring effluent channel (Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming). Fluorescence microscopy and microsensor measurements of O2 and oxygenic photosynth......We examined the population of unicellular cyanobacteria (Synechococcus) in the upper 3-mm vertical interval of a 68°C region of a microbial mat in a hot spring effluent channel (Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming). Fluorescence microscopy and microsensor measurements of O2 and oxygenic...

  16. Elevated genetic diversity in an F2:6 population of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa developed through an inter-ecotype cross

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ouafae Benlhabib

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa is a seed crop of the Andean highlands and Araucanian coastal regions of South America that has recently expanded in use and production beyond its native range. This is largely due its superb nutritional value, consisting of protein that is rich in essential amino acids along with vitamins and minerals. Quinoa also presents a remarkable degree of tolerance to saline conditions, drought, and frost. The present study involved 72 F2:6 recombinant inbred lines (RIL and parents developed through hybridization between highland (0654 and coastal (NL-6 germplasm groups. The purpose was to characterize the quinoa germplasm developed, to assess the discriminating potential of 21 agro-morpho phenological traits, and to evaluate the extent of genetic variability recovered through selfing. A vast amount of genetic variation was detected among the 72 lines evaluated for quantitative and qualitative traits. Impressive transgressive segregation was measured for seed yield (22.42 g/plant, while plant height and maturity had higher heritabilities (73 and 89%, respectively. Other notable characters segregating in the population included panicle and stem color, panicle form, and resistance to downy mildew. In the Principal Component analysis, the first axis explained 74% of the total variation and was correlated to plant height, panicle size, stem diameter, biomass, mildew reaction, maturation, and seed yield; those traits are relevant discriminatory characters. Yield correlated positively with panicle length and biomass. UPGMA based cluster analysis identified three groups: one consisting of late, mildew-resistant, high yielding lines; one having semi-late lines with intermediate yield and mildew susceptibility; and a third cluster consisting of early to semi-late accessions with low yield and mildew susceptibility. This study highlighted the extended diversity regenerated among the 72 accessions and helped to identify potentially adapted quinoa genotypes for production in the Moroccan coastal environment.

  17. Growth and metal accumulation of an Alyssum murale nickel hyperaccumulator ecotype co-cropped with Alyssum montanum or perennial ryegrass in serpentine soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    More than 400 plant species naturally accumulate high levels of metals such as Cd, Cu, Co, Mn, Ni, and Zn. The genus Alyssum (Brassicaceae) contains the greatest number of reported Ni hyperaccumulators (50), many of which can achieve 3 wt% Ni in dry leaves. Some Alyssum hyperaccumulators are viabl...

  18. THERMAL ECOTYPES OF AMPHI-ATLANTIC ALGAE .1. ALGAE OF ARCTIC TO COLD-TEMPERATE DISTRIBUTION (CHAETOMORPHA-MELAGONIUM, DEVALERAEA-RAMENTACEA AND PHYCODRYS-RUBENS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NOVACZEK, [No Value; LUBBERS, GW; BREEMAN, AM

    1990-01-01

    Three species of Arctic to cold-temperate amphi-Atlantic algae, all occurring also in the North Pacific, were tested for growth and/or survival at temperatures of -20 to 30-degrees-C. When isolates from both western and eastern Atlantic shores were tested side-by-side, it was found that thermal

  19. Cloning and characterization of cold, salt and drought inducible C-repeat binding factor gene from a highly cold adapted ecotype of Lepidium latifolium L.

    OpenAIRE

    Akhtar, M.; Jaiswal, A.; Jaiswal, J. P.; Qureshi, M. I.; Tufchi, M.; Singh, N. K.

    2013-01-01

    The dehydration-responsive element-binding (DREB) protein/C-Repeat Binding Factors (CBFs) belongs to APETALA2 (AP2) family transcription factors that binds to DRE/CRT cis-element in cold-responsive (COR) genes and induce COR genes. CBFs have been isolated and characterized from evolutionarily diverse plant species. CBF pathway is conserved by CBF regulon and the size or the number and kind of target genes vary among freezing sensitive and tolerant plants. Hence, cloning of CBFs from highly fr...

  20. Cloning and characterization of cold, salt and drought inducible C-repeat binding factor gene from a highly cold adapted ecotype of Lepidium latifolium L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, M; Jaiswal, A; Jaiswal, J P; Qureshi, M I; Tufchi, M; Singh, N K

    2013-04-01

    The dehydration-responsive element-binding (DREB) protein/C-Repeat Binding Factors (CBFs) belongs to APETALA2 (AP2) family transcription factors that binds to DRE/CRT cis-element in cold-responsive (COR) genes and induce COR genes. CBFs have been isolated and characterized from evolutionarily diverse plant species. CBF pathway is conserved by CBF regulon and the size or the number and kind of target genes vary among freezing sensitive and tolerant plants. Hence, cloning of CBFs from highly freezing tolerant plants such as Lepidium latifolium L. will be useful in understanding the freezing tolerance of this species. In this study, LlCBF, a CBF1 family gene from L. Latifolium L., was cloned using RT-PCR and RACE-PCR. The full length mRNA of LlCBF is 948 bp with an open reading frame of 642 bp, encoding a protein of 213 amino acids with a molecular weight of 23.92 kDa and a theoretical isoelectric point of 4.80. Amino acid sequence analysis showed that LlCBF has an AP2 DNA binding domain, a potential CBF type nuclear localization signal (NLS) and C-terminal acidic domain. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis of LlCBF revealed that this gene is up-regulated by high salt, dehydration and low temperature stresses. The investigation is therefore successful in cloning of a gene having strong homology with CBF transcription factors and responsive to low temperature, high salt and dehydration conditions.

  1. Evaluation of genetic and geographical diversity of garlic (Allium sativum L.) ecotypes of Iran using ISSR and M13 molecular markers

    OpenAIRE

    M. Fakhrfeshani; F. Shahriari

    2016-01-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum L.) as one of the most valuable industrial and pharmaceutical plants has been studied from many aspects because of its importance. But there is not any sufficient and reliable information about its distribution and classification. So its types are categorized according to traditional, local or geographical names or some visual traits. The most important reason is the sterility of garlic and its flowering inability. This study, as the first report of using ISSR and M13 m...

  2. tuku 'a' village, peddie

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Solanum nif(rum. Black nightshade. UmSobo, umSobosobo. I,F. Sonchus oleraceus. Sow thistle, wild thistle !Rhabe, iHlaba. I. Taraxacum officinale. N/A. UQudalele. I. Urtica urens. Stinging nettle !Rhawu, uRhalijane,. I. uRhalakajane. Unica dioca. Stinging nettle !Rhawurhawu,. I. uRhalakaiane. Xysmalobium undularum.

  3. KAJIAN ANATOMI KAYU PADA TIGA EKOTIPE Pinus merkusii SUMATERA DAN POTENSINYA SEBAGAI INDIKATOR PERUBAHAN IKLIM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulia Sandri

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently, climate change is the one of most important environmental issue. Climate variability can be recorded by tree growing through the growth ring. Growth ring formed by cambial activity were examined in wood anatomy. In Sumatra, there are three ecotypes Pinus merkusii, namely ecotypes Kerinci, Tapanuli, and Aceh which can be distinguished morphologically. This study aims to knowing the wood anatomical characteristics of the three ecotypes and determine the potential as climate indicator. This study was conducted in October 2014 until June 2015. Sample of Kerinci ecotype was collected in Kerinci Seblat National Park, Tapanuli ecotype in Dolok Sibualbuali Natural Reserve and Aceh ecotype in Gunung Leuser National Park on a height of 130 cm using increment borer and cut on the main stem 5×5 cm for anatomical sample. Results from this study indicate that ecotype Kerinci and Tapanuli showed earlywood and latewood boundary exposing the clear growth ring, whereas in Aceh ecotype unclear. Tapanuli ecotype have the thickest tracheid diameter than ecotype Kerinci and Aceh. Ecotypes of Kerinci, Tapanuli, and Aceh has homoceluler and uniseriate ray where Aceh ecotype have the longest ray. Furthermore, Kerinci and Tapanuli ecotype have potential as climate indicator eventhough showed negative correlation, that Tapanuli ecotype show the best result and recommended in dendrochronology study.

  4. Urtica dioica pollen allergy: Clinical, biological, and allergomics analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiotiu, Angelica; Brazdova, Andrea; Longé, Cyril; Gallet, Patrice; Morisset, Martine; Leduc, Virginie; Hilger, Christiane; Broussard, Cédric; Couderc, Rémy; Sutra, Jean-Pierre; Sénéchal, Hélène; Poncet, Pascal

    2016-11-01

    The most emblematic members of Urticaceae at allergic risk level are wall pellitories (Parietaria), whereas nettle (Urtica) pollen is considered as poorly allergenic. No allergen from nettle pollen has yet been characterized, whereas 4 are listed for Parietaria pollen by the International Union of Immunological Societies. Clinical and biological profiles of 2 adult men who developed symptoms against nettle pollen and/or leaves were studied. To characterize the allergic reaction and identify the potential nettle pollen sensitizing allergens. IgE-mediated reaction to nettle pollen extract was evaluated by skin prick test, immunoassay, nasal provocation, and basophil activation test. To characterize specific nettle pollen allergens, an allergomic (IgE immunoproteomic) analysis was performed combining 1- and 2-dimensional electrophoresis, IgE immunoblots of nettle pollen extract, identification of allergens by mass spectrometry, and database queries. The results of biological and immunochemical analyses revealed that the allergic rhinitis was due to Urtica dioica pollen in both patients. The allergomic analysis of nettle pollen extract allowed the characterization of 4 basic protein allergens: a thaumatin-like protein (osmotin) with a relative molecular mass of 27 to 29 kDa, a pectinesterase (relative molecular mass, 40 kDa), and 2 other basic proteins with relative molecular masses of 14 to 16 kDa and 43 kDa. There is no or only very weak allergen associations between pellitory and nettle pollen. Exposure to nettle pollen can be responsible of allergic symptoms, and several allergens were characterized. Unravelling the allergens of this underestimated allergy might help to improve diagnosis and care for patients, to predict cross-reactivities and design adapted specific immunotherapy. Copyright © 2016 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparative study of the UV spectra of various raw materials OF Urtica dioica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Balagozyan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L. is one of the famous and popular medicinal plants. In Russia the herbal materials are nettle’s leaves which have haemostatic effect. At the same time abroad the rhizomes and roots of nettle are the source of drugs with antitumor activity. The chemical composition of the rhizomes and roots of nettle is quite complicated and is represented by substances such as polysaccharides, lectins, sterols etc. The aim of the present study is the comparative phytochemical research of various parts of raw nettle by spectrophotometry. The study of extracts from various raw materials of nettle has shown, that the presence of flavonoids is peculiar for leaves, flowers and fruits. Sterols dominate in the rhizomes and roots of nettle. It was also noted that the UV-spectra of extracts of female inflorescences and fruits nettle have the same absorption maxima.

  6. Dicty_cDB: CHD873 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available |AJ287320.1 Arabidopsis thaliana chi gene for chalcone flavanone isomerase, exons 1-4, ecotype Yo-0. 48...|AJ287319.1 Arabidopsis thaliana chi gene for chalcone flavanone isomerase, exons 1-4, ecotype Tul-0. 48...|AJ287318.1 Arabidopsis thaliana chi gene for chalcone flavanone isomerase, exons 1-4, ecotype Ri-0. 48

  7. Anderson, S.C., Woman Gets Prison for Extensive Bank Fraud Scam and Environmental Crime Nancy Stein operated American Screw and Rivet Corporation which was also sentenced

    Science.gov (United States)

    ATLANTA - United States Attorney Bill Nettles stated late yesterday that Nancy Marie Stein, age 62, of Anderson, South Carolina , was sentenced by Senior United States District Judge Henry M. Herlong in federal court in Greenville, to a total of 73

  8. Final Stormwater Control and Devices Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-08-18

    wood nettle (Laportea canadensis), stinging nettle ( Urtica dioica ), and beggar ticks (Bidens frondosa) (Grand Forks AFB, 2003). The slopes of the...the water quality of the receiving waters. The proposed flow control structures would effectively reduce the potential impact of discharges from the...Alternative 2, and the No Action Alternative. Feasible alternatives should be low cost so they can be built with available funding; effectively control

  9. Environmental Assessment: Construct Access Road Pave Contractor’s Row Gravel SNG Plant Road Spur at Grand Forks AFB, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-08-11

    common in the under story in this area. Wood nettle (Laportea canadensis), stinging nettle ( Urtica dioica ), beggars’ ticks (Bidens frondosa), and...and the No Action Alternative were analyzed in the EA. The EA also addresses the potential cumulative effects of the associated construction activities...minor positive effect on the local economy. Secondary retail purchases would make an additional contribution to the local communities. The

  10. Environmental Assessment: Construct Miscellaneous Services Recreation Area at Grand Forks AFB, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-03-15

    woodsii) are common in the understory in this area. Wood nettle (Laportea canadensis), stinging nettle ( Urtica dioica ), beggars’ ticks (Bidens frondosa...in the EA. The EA also addresses the potential cumulative effects ofthe associated construction activities along with other concurrent actions at...Alternative were analyzed in the EA. The EA also addresses the potential cumulative effects ofthe associated construction activities along with other

  11. Environmental Assessment Deicer Recovery at Grand Forks AFB, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-12-15

    wood rose (Rosa woodsii) are common in the under story in this area. Wood nettle (Laportea canadensis), stinging nettle ( Urtica dioica ), beggars...Action, the Alternative Actions and the No Action Alternative were analyzed in the EA. The EA also addresses the potential cumulative effects of the...positive effect on the local economy. Secondary retail purchases would make an additional contribution to the local communities. The implementation of the

  12. Environmental Assessment: Building Addition Building 233 at Grand Forks AFB, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-03-22

    Rosa woodsii) are common in the understory in this area. Wood nettle (Laportea 29 canadensis), stinging nettle ( Urtica dioica ), beggars’ ticks...soil erosion, and promote the establishment of native plant species. Socioeconomic Resources - This action would have a minor positive effect on...cumulative effects of the associated construction activities along with other concurrent actions at Grand Forks AFB and the surrounding area. 15

  13. THE USING LOCAL NATURAL ORIGIN FORAGE RESOURCES IN COMPOUNDS OF BROILER CHICKENS

    OpenAIRE

    Alieva S. M.; Akhmedhanova R. R.; Astarkhanova T. S.

    2016-01-01

    Using of compound feeds in broiler feed additives of plant resources, activates body's biological functions. This increases productivity and gives an ability to make environmentally friendly products. These local plants feed additives contributing to enrich animal feed with active ingredients include flour from nettle and Caspian marine algae. This article is devoted to studying the composition of nettle from the different locations of growth in Dagestan Republic and also, to determine the ef...

  14. First aid for jellyfish envenomation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, J W; Rubinstein, H; Calton, G J

    1983-07-01

    To determine a reliable first aid topical remedy for jellyfish stings, we investigated several commonly available preparations to determine their ability to prevent nematocyst rupture from sea nettle (Chrysaora quinquecirrha) and Portuguese man-of-war (Physalia physalis) tentacles. The application of a baking soda slurry was a good inhibitor of nematocyst discharge for the nettle and vinegar was a good inhibitor for the man-of-war.

  15. Local traditions in gorilla manual skill: evidence for observational learning of behavioral organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Richard W; Hobaiter, Catherine; Klailova, Michelle

    2011-09-01

    Elaborate manual skills of food processing are known in several species of great ape; but their manner of acquisition is controversial. Local, "cultural" traditions show the influence of social learning, but it is uncertain whether this includes the ability to imitate the organization of behavior. Dispute has centered on whether program-level imitation contributes to the acquisition of feeding techniques in gorillas. Here, we show that captive western gorillas at Port Lympne, Kent, have developed a group-wide habit of feeding on nettles, using two techniques. We compare their nettle processing behavior with that of wild mountain gorillas in Rwanda. Both populations are similar in their repertoires of action elements, and in developing multi-step techniques for food processing, with coordinated asymmetric actions of the hands and iteration of parts of a process as "subroutines". Crucially, however, the two populations deal in different ways with the special challenges presented by nettle stings, with consistently different organizations of action elements. We conclude that, while an elaborate repertoire of manual actions and the ability to develop complex manual skills are natural characteristics of gorillas, the inter-site differences in nettle-eating technique are best explained as a consequence of social transmission. According to this explanation, gorillas can copy aspects of program organization from the behavior of others and they use this ability when learning how to eat nettles, resulting in consistent styles of processing by most individuals at each different site; like other great apes, gorillas have the precursor abilities for developing culture.

  16. Improved glycemic control in patients with advanced type 2 diabetes mellitus taking Urtica dioica leaf extract: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kianbakht, Saeed; Khalighi-Sigaroodi, Farahnaz; Dabaghian, Fataneh Hashem

    2013-01-01

    Advanced type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) needing insulin therapy is common. Most conventional anti-hyperglycemic drugs have limited efficacies and significant side effects, so that better anti-hyperglycemic agents are needed. Urtica dioica L. (nettle) leaves have insulin secretagogue, PPARgamma agonistic, and alpha-glucosidase inhibitory effects. Moreover, nettle leaves are used in traditional medicine as an anti-hyperglycemic agent to treat diabetes mellitus. Thus, efficacy and safety of nettle in the treatment of patients with advanced type 2 diabetes mellitus needing insulin were studied. In this randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial, we evaluated the effects of taking nettle leaf extract (one 500 mg capsule every 8 hours for 3 months) combined with the conventional oral anti-hyperglycemic drugs on the blood levels of fasting glucose, postprandial glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), creatinine and liver enzymes SGOT and SGPT, and systolic and diastolic blood pressures in 46 patients and compared with the placebo group (n = 46). At the endpoint, the extract lowered the blood levels of fasting glucose, 2 hours postprandial glucose, and HbA1c significantly (p effects on the other parameters (p > 0.05) compared with placebo. Nettle may safely improve glycemic control in type 2 diabetic patients needing insulin therapy.

  17. Effect of Urtica Dioica Extract on Histological and Histometrical Changes of Testis of Hamster after Testosteron Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Morovvati

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hyperactivity of testosterone is one cause of infertility and its incorrect use can produces reproductive disorders. Nettle (Urtica dioica has antiandrogenic effect and may antagonized effect of testosterone. In present study structure of testes of golden hamster was evaluated after testosterone and extract. Materials and Methods: In this experimental and animal modeling study, twenty male mature hamsters were divided to 4 groups, group 1 was control, group 2 received testosterone at dose 3 mg/kg subcutaneously, group 3 received nettle extract dose 30 mg/kg orally and group 4 received testosterone and nettle for 30 days daily. The hamsters were euthanized and testes were removed and detected macroscopic parameters (weight, height, wide and volume and fixed with formalin. The samples were sectioned and colored with H & E. Results: The volume, weight, length and wide of testes was at least in testosterone group and statistically was lesser than control and testosterone -nettle group (p<0.05, but did not the height epithelium of seminifer tubules, compact of spermatogenic cells and number of serotolli cells in testosterone group was lesser than control group significantly (p<0.05.Conclusion: The nettle extract decreased histological changes of testes by testosterone and improved its structure.

  18. Differentiation of free-ranging chicken using discriminant analysis of phenotypic traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raed M. Al-Atiyat

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In this study, we investigated the differentiation of five different chicken ecotypes - Center, North, South, West, and East - of Saudi Arabia using discriminate analysis. The analysis was based on nine important morphological and phenotypic traits: body color, beak color, earlobe color, eye color, shank color, comb color, comb type, comb size, and feather distribution. There was a strong significant relationship between the phenotype and effect of geographic height in terms of comb type and earlobe color in males as well as body, beak, eye, and shank color. In particular, the comb type and earlobe color differentiated the ecotypes of males. Among the females, the beak, earlobe, eye, shank color, and feather distribution had more differentiating power. Moreover, the discriminant analysis revealed that the five ecotypes were grouped into three clusters; the Center and the North in one cluster, the West and the South ecotypes in the second for males, and the East ecotype in the last cluster. The female dendogram branching was similar to the male dendrogram branching, except that the Center ecotype was grouped with the North instead of the South. The East ecotype was highly discriminated from the other ecotypes. Nevertheless, the potential of recent individual migration between ecotypes was also noted. Accordingly, the results of the utilized traits in this study might be effective in characterization and conservation of the genetic resources of the Saudi chicken.

  19. TREATMENT POLICY OF PEDIATRICIANS AGAINST ACUTE AND CHRONIC ALLERGIC PATHOLOGIES IN CHILDREN. DESLORATADINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A. Vishneva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Allergic rhinitis, bronchial asthma, chronic idiopathic nettle rash, atopic dermatitis have been characterized by a stable growth in the prevalence of the allergic pathology over the last several decades. A similar pathogenesis of allergic diseases makes it possible to regard them as different manifestations of a systemic allergic inflammation. Histamine is one of the main mediators of an allergic inflammation, therefore first-line medications (drug of choice in the treatment of an allergic pathology, first of all, rhinitis and chronic nettle rash, are second-generation blockers of Н1-receptors. The proposed article discusses the issues connected with the use of antihistamines for children.Key words: allergic rhinitis, bronchial asthma, nettle rash, atopic dermatitis, treatment, antihistamines, children.

  20. The use of olfactory and visual cues in host choice by the capsid bugs Lygus rugulipennis Poppius and Liocoris tripustulatus fabricius.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona J H Wynde

    Full Text Available Lygus rugulipennis Poppius and Liocoris tripustulatus Fabricius (Heteroptera: Miridae are pests of glasshouse cucumber and sweet pepper crops respectively. L. rugulipennis has a wide range of foodplants, but L. tripustulatus is specialised with very few food plants. We report behavioural assessments to investigate whether either species exhibits a preference for salad over wild hosts, and whether the role of olfaction and vision in response to cues from host plants can be distinguished. Olfactory responses to leaves were tested in choice chambers. L. rugulipennis was presented nettle (wild host and a salad leaf of cucumber or sweet pepper, where the salad leaves had higher nitrogen content. L. tripustulatus was tested with nettle and sweet pepper of two different nitrogen contents. Female L. rugulipennis spent more time on the cucumber salad host, and chose it first most often, but males showed no preference. Neither sex discriminated between sweet pepper or nettle leaves, but males made more first contacts with sweet pepper. Neither sex of L. tripustulatus discriminated between sweet pepper and nettle leaves when the sweet pepper had higher nitrogen. When the plant species contained equivalent nitrogen both sexes spent more time on nettle. There was no difference in first choice made by either sex. When visual stimuli were available, and leaves had equivalent nitrogen, L. rugulipennis showed no preference and L. tripustulatus preferred nettle leaves. We conclude that the generalist L. rugulipennis has the ability to use remote olfactory cues for host choice whereas the specialist L. tripustulatus relies mainly on contact chemosensory and gustatory cues.

  1. The Effect of Plant Supplements on the Development of Artificially Weaken Bee Families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu Al. Mărghitaş

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, infusions from nettle, thyme and Echinacea, fresh juice of onion and garlic, and Protofil (alcoholic extract of different plants enriched with vitamins and mineral elements, were used in supplementary feeding of artificially weaken bee families. Correlation between total phenolic content, total flavonoid content and antioxidant activity of the supplements used in honeybee feeding and uncapped, capped and total brood surface of experimental groups were established. The highest content of biologically active compounds exhibit nettle infusion, which present the most effective growth in field experiments.

  2. Relationship between egg weight, hatch weight and subsequent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three hundred (300) Fulani Ecotype (FE) chicken eggs collected from free ranged Fulani Ecotype chicken were used to study the effect of egg weight on hatch weight and subsequent body weight. Eggs were grouped into two according to their weight (small and medium) and incubated. Body weight of the chicks was ...

  3. Perception de la diversité, des choix et de l'aptitude à la ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It moreover revealed that the local ecotypes are most suited to the transformation. These results contribute to a better knowledge of the ecotypes of maize used in Benin and a better comprehension of their choice by the producers and the transformers. Keywords: Zea mays, production, quality of the grains, food products, ...

  4. Studies upon morhological and biological traits of Festuca rubra, subsp.fallax (Poaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogusław Sawicki

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Observation and measurements of some traits of Festuca rubra L., subsp. fallax (Thuill. Hack. ecotypes were made in 1995-1997 using samples selected from natural habitats and collected in Grassland Experimental Station in Sosnowica. High differentiation of traits under study and their correlations were found. Valorized ecotypes are good material for new varieties breeding.

  5. The comparative susceptibility of commercial and Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was to evaluate the possible genetic resistance of exotic and indigenous chicks to Salmonella gallinarum. A total of 72 nine weeks-old chicks were used for the study. The Fulani ecotype (Fulani smooth feathers - FSF), Yoruba ecotype (Yoruba smooth feathers - YSF), and the Exotic breed (Nera Black) chicks were ...

  6. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TTRU-01-0666 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available protein KefC [Alteromonas macleodii 'Deep ecotype'] gb|ACG66824.1| glutathione-regulated potassium-efflux s...ystem protein KefC [Alteromonas macleodii 'Deep ecotype'] YP_002126818.1 0.017 23% ...

  7. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TTRU-01-0453 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TTRU-01-0453 ref|YP_002125639.1| hypothetical protein MADE_01331 [Alteromonas macleodii 'Deep... ecotype'] gb|ACG65645.1| hypothetical protein MADE_01331 [Alteromonas macleodii 'Deep ecotype'] YP_002125639.1 0.20 24% ...

  8. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-GGAL-15-0007 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-GGAL-15-0007 ref|ZP_01109341.1| gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase [Alteromonas macleodii 'Deep... ecotype'] gb|EAR06392.1| gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase [Alteromonas macleodii 'Deep ecotype'] ZP_01109341.1 0.39 31% ...

  9. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-HSAP-05-0011 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-HSAP-05-0011 ref|ZP_01111148.1| Hypothetical enzyme of sugar metabolism [Alteromonas macleodii 'Deep... ecotype'] gb|EAR04434.1| Hypothetical enzyme of sugar metabolism [Alteromonas macleodii 'Deep ecotype'] ZP_01111148.1 3.1 24% ...

  10. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-CREM-01-1371 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-CREM-01-1371 ref|ZP_01109498.1| phosphopyruvate hydratase [Alteromonas macleodii 'Deep... ecotype'] gb|EAR06202.1| phosphopyruvate hydratase [Alteromonas macleodii 'Deep ecotype'] ZP_01109498.1 2e-88 70% ...

  11. Inferring ancestral distribution area and survival vegetation of Caragana (Fabaceae) in Tertiary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingli Zhang; Juanjuan Xue; Qiang Zhang; Stewart C. Sanderson

    2015-01-01

    Caragana, a leguminous genus mainly restricted to temperate Central and East Asia, occurs in arid, semiarid, and humid belts, and has forest, grassland, and desert ecotypes. Based on the previous molecular phylogenetic tree and dating, biogeographical analyses of extant species area and ecotype were conducted by means of four ancestral optimization approaches: S-DIVA,...

  12. Abscisic acid effects on water and photosynthetic characteristics of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Consequently the content of chlorophyll a and b decrease significantly compared to Oran ecotype which show an increase of the osmotic potential and relative water content. Osmotic adjustment to reduce dehydration and maintain a good photosynthesis seems efficient in Oran ecotype. Keywords: Phytohormone; drought ...

  13. Electrolyte ions and glutathione enzymes as stress markers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Understanding the mechanisms underlying Argania spinosa responses to drought stress is essential for its regeneration and domestication. Toward that end, an integrative study of tolerance responses to drought stress in four A. spinosa ecotypes (2 contrasting coastal ecotypes (Adm and Rab) and 2 contrasting inland ...

  14. Outlier loci detect intraspecific biodiversity amongst spring and autumn spawning herring across local scales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekkevold, Dorte; Gross, Riho; Arula, Timo

    2016-01-01

    with autumn spawning ecotypes. The abundance and exploitation of the two ecotypes have varied strongly over space and time in the Baltic Sea, where autumn spawners have faced strong depression for decades. The results therefore have practical implications by highlighting the need for specific management...

  15. 75 FR 13502 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Manette Bridge Replacement in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-22

    ... whales that vary in morphology, ecology, behavior, and genetics. Both ecotypes of killer whales are not... ubatus), transient and Southern Resident killer whales (Orcinus orca), and gray whale (Eschrichtius...'' under the ESA. 5. Killer Whale Two distinct forms, or ecotypes, of killer whales ``residents'' and...

  16. The comparative susceptibility of commercial and Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    2013-10-08

    Oct 8, 2013 ... the resistance of these ecotypes to diseases (Wales. & Davies, 2011, Ogie et al., 2012). High prevalence of ... diseases are the fowl typhoid, which is caused by. Salmonella gallinarum. Fowl typhoid is ..... ecotype is a cross between the Rhode Island Red and the indigenous. However, Rhode Island Red ...

  17. Physiological basis for allelopathic potential of different wheat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-29

    Aug 29, 2011 ... furthermore, photosynthesis system PSII would be expressed superiorly under arid press. .... photochemical quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence as qN and ... Figure 2. Partial growth parameters of four wheat ecotypes in heading period. Figure 3. Allelopathic inhibition of four wheat ecotypes in heading ...

  18. Environ: E00420 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00420 Anemone raddeana root Anemones raddeanae rhizoma Crude drug Anemone raddeana... [TAX:387928] Urticaceae (nettle family) Anemone raddeana root (dried) Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: others Ranunculaceae (buttercup family) E00420 Anemone raddeana root ...

  19. Identification and characterization of a novel legume-like lectin ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    logical research (Pinto et al. 2009). Many lectins are useful for viral inhibitors, such as N-acetylglucosamine-binding lectin extracted from the stinging nettle root of Urtica dioica, which has displayed pronounced antiviral properties (Shibuya et al. 1986). Also, mannose-binding lectins, such as cyanovirin-N derived from the ...

  20. Archaeological Inventory and Evaluation at Milford, Melvern and Pomona Lakes, Eastern Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    season species, such as groundsel (Senecio plattensis), pusseytoes ( Antennaria neglects), and pale poppy mallow (Callirhoe alcaeoides), are generally...the rains cease, large stands of nettle (Utrica dioica ) or ragweed (Ambrosia trifida) are comonplace. Mid and late season are also the times when

  1. Saw palmetto extracts potently and noncompetitively inhibit human alpha1-adrenoceptors in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goepel, M.; Hecker, U.; Krege, S.; Rübben, H.; Michel, M. C.

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We wanted to test whether phytotherapeutic agents used in the treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms have alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonistic properties in vitro. METHODS: Preparations of beta-sitosterol and extracts of stinging nettle, medicinal pumpkin, and saw palmetto were obtained

  2. Disinfection of vegetable seed by treatment with essential oils, organic acids and plant extract

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, van der J.M.; Birnbaum, Y.E.; Zouwen, van der P.S.; Groot, S.P.C.

    2008-01-01

    Various essential oils, organic acids, Biosept, (grapefruit extract), Tillecur and extracts of stinging nettle and golden rod were tested for their antimicrobial properties in order to disinfect vegetable seed. In in vitro assays, thyme oil, oregano oil, cinnamon oil, clove oil and Biosept had the

  3. Eskişehir'de Halk Arasında Kullanılan Bazı Bitkilerdeki Ağır Metal ve Besin Elementlerinin Belirlenmesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hale SEÇİLMİŞ CANBAY

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the leaves of sheep sorrel (Rumex acetosella L, nettle (Urtica dioica L, rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L. and walnut (Juglansregia L. that are used as medicinal plant and especially as food were collected from the gardens and their commercial samples were purchased from Eskişehir bazaar

  4. An Analysis of Persistence and Motivation in Public Research Institutions for Doctoral Completers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colbert, Marvette D.

    2013-01-01

    Doctoral student attrition is an issue of great concern among leaders in higher education (Gardner, 2009a). In response to concern for high attrition rates in doctoral programs, several studies (Lovitts, 2001; National Science Foundation, 2004; Nettles & Millett, 2006) investigated this issue aimed at gaining data to address this concern.…

  5. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the plant Heliotropium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Heliotropium strigosum is an important medicinal plant and belongs to the Boraginaceae family. Traditionally, this plant is used as laxative and diuretic. The juice of the plant is used to treat gum boils, sore eyes and also as a cure for stings of nettles, insects and snake bites. The current study was carried out to evaluate the ...

  6. Case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    23 sept. 2013 ... Raoult D. High prevalence of Bartonella quintana endocarditis in Sfax, Tunisia. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2005; 72(5):503-7. PubMed | Google Scholar. 4. Li JS, Sexton DJ, Mick N, Nettles R, Fowler Jr VG, Ryan T, et al. Proposed modifications to the Duke criteria for the diagnosis of infective endocarditis.

  7. Effect of a Galactagogue Herbal Tea on Breast Milk Production and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background and Objectives: Poor breast milk production is the most frequent cause of breastfeeding failure in preterm babies. The aim of our study is to evaluate the effect of herbal tea mixture containing stinging nettle (Natal, Hipp) on breast milk production and serum prolactin levels of mothers, and weight gain of preterm ...

  8. Tryptamine receptors in the rat stomach strip preparation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.L. Frankhuijzen

    1974-01-01

    textabstract5-HT (5-hydroxytryptamine, serotonin) has a widespread occurrence in numerous species of plants and animals. It is present for example in several vegetables and edible fruits, in the urticant fluid of the stinging nettle as well as in the intestine, blood platelets and nervous system of

  9. Programmatic Environmental Assessment for the Construction, Maintenance and Demolition of Communications, Wind, Water, and Camera Towers at the 45th Space Wing, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-10-01

    grass, melaleuca, mistletoe (Phoradendron serotinum), and small populations of thistles (Cirsium spp.) and nettles (Urtica spp.) are present...Fish and Wildlife Biologist Ph.D., Aquatic Ecology /Limnology, Auburn University, 1990 M.S., Biology , Jacksonville State University, 1982 B.S... Populations and Low-Income Populations ..........................................4-16 4.12 Cumulative Impacts Summary

  10. 9 CFR 311.22 - Hogs affected with urticaria, tinea tonsurans, demodex follicurlorum, or erythema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... tonsurans, demodex follicurlorum, or erythema. 311.22 Section 311.22 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY... OTHERWISE ADULTERATED CARCASSES AND PARTS § 311.22 Hogs affected with urticaria, tinea tonsurans, demodex follicurlorum, or erythema. Carcasses of hogs affected with urticaria (nettle rash), tinea tonsurans, demodex...

  11. Environmental Assessment of Construction of a Security Perimeter Road and Fence at Grand Forks AFB, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-04-01

    canadensis), stinging nettle ( Urtica dioica ), beggars-ticks (Bidens frondosa), and waterleaf (Hydrophyllum viginianum) are typical forbs (319 CES/CEV...Air Mobility Command APE Area of Potential Effect AQCR Air Quality Control Region ARPA Archeological Resources Protection Act AT/FP Anti-Terrorism...4-13 LIST OF TABLES TABLE PAGE Table 5-1. Cumulative Effects to Resources

  12. The effect of Urtica dioica extract on the number of astrocytes in the dentate gyrus of diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahanshahi, M; Golalipour, M J; Afshar, M

    2009-05-01

    Diabetes mellitus is associated with cerebral alterations in both human and animal models of the disease. These alterations include abnormal expression of hypothalamic neuropeptides and hippocampal astrogliosis. Urtica dioica (Nettle) is among several species listed for their use against diabetes in folk medicine. The aim of this study was the evaluation of the astrocyte number in the dentate gyrus of diabetic rats after treatment with nettle. A total of 21 male albino Wistar rats were used in the present study. The animals were divided into three groups: control, nettle-untreated diabetic, and nettle treated diabetic. Hyperglycaemia was induced by streptozotocin (80 mg/kg) in the animals of the diabetic and treatment groups. One week after injection of the streptozotocin, the animals in the treatment group received a hydroalcoholic extract of Urtica dioica (100 mg/kg/day) for 4 weeks intraperitoneally. After a 5-week survival period, all the rats were sacrificed and coronal sections were taken from the dorsal hippocampal formation of the right cerebral hemispheres. The area densities of the astrocytes were measured and compared between the three groups (p dioica extract helped compensate for astrocytes in the treatment rats dentate gyrus in comparison with diabetic rats.

  13. Traits and Trade-offs Are Insufficient for Evolutionary Personality Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, Kennon M.; Sheldon, Melanie S.; Nichols, Charles P.

    2007-01-01

    Comments on the article by D. Nettle, who has clearly shown that evolutionary psychologists need to focus more attention on individual differences, not just species-typical universals. Such differences are not mere "noise," and evolutionary theory will gain by understanding how they are produced and maintained. However, by focusing on personality…

  14. Efficacy Of Selected Plant Extracts Against Bean Rust Disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In vivo evaluation of the efficacy of selected plant extracts; Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) derivatives (Neem oil, Neem cake powder and Neem leaf powder) and leaf extracts of pawpaw (Carica papaya L), Tephrosia vogelii, stinging Nettle (Urtica massaica L), Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) and commercial fungicide: ...

  15. Luring effect of pheromone enhanced by adding plant aromatics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, van R.; Hennekam, M.; Yang, D.

    2017-01-01

    Plant bugs like the European tarnished plant bug and the common nettle bug are a serious problem in crops such as aubergine, cucumber and chrysanthemum. Even in small numbers they can do considerable damage: abortion of the flower in aubergines, stem and fruit damage in cucumbers and splits in

  16. Prehistory of the Little Blue River Valley, Western Missouri: Archaeological Investigations at Blue Springs Lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    readily observed (Table 4), the most common including Urtica dioica, Impatiens capensis , and Ambrosia trifida. Table 4. Plant species common to the...lupulus (hops) fall Impatiens capensis (jewellweed) summer Phytolacca americana (pokeweed) summer Urtica dioica (nettle) summer Along the banks of the river

  17. Medicinal plants used in traditional herbal medicine in the province ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: We presented ten most used species by ancestral healers of Chimborazo province to cure different illnesses and their medicinal uses. We also provided the application mode and some features of healing that should be emphasized. Conclusion: The nettle was the medicinal plant employed for more different illness ...

  18. FRUTOS DE UCHUVA (PHYSALIS PERUVIANA L. ECOTIPO ‘COLOMBIA’ MÍNIMAMENTE PROCESADOS, ADICIONADOS CON MICROORGANISMOS PROBIÓTICOS UTILIZANDO LA INGENIERÍA DE MATRICES MINIMALLY PROCESSED CAPE GOOSEBERRY FRUITS (PHYSALIS PERUVIANA L. ‘COLOMBIAN’ ECOTYPE, ADDED WITH PROBIOTIC MICROORGANISMS USING THE MATRIX ENGINEERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaira Tatiana Marin Arango

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available El consumo de alimentos con microorganismos probióticos se ha incrementado en los últimos años debido a los beneficios saludables que estos proporcionan. El desarrollo de nuevos alimentos con probióticos diferentes a los productos lácteos, representa un reto para los investigadores y la industria. El presente estudio desarrolló a nivel piloto frutos de uchuva (Physalis peruviana L. mínimamente procesados con microorganismos probióticos, combinando el efecto benéfico de la cepa comercial Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393 con la aplicación de la Ingeniería de Matrices como metodología de obtención de alimentos funcionales. Se utiliza como líquido de impregnación una solución de glucosa al 14% p/p, con concentración inicial de inóculo de 5 en la escala de McFarland (1,5 x 109 UFC/mL. Las uchuvas recién impregnadas alcanzaron conteos de células viables de 1,95 ± 0,28 x 10(9 UFC/100 g de uchuva fresca (9,28 ± 0,06 x 109 ciclos log UFC/100 g uchuva fresca y a los 15 días de almacenamiento a 4 ºC los conteos de células viables fueron de 2,20 ± 0,59 x 10(9 UFC/100 g de uchuva fresca. (9,32 ± 0,14 x 109 ciclos log UFC/100 g uchuva fresca. Estos niveles de concentración de microorganismos probióticos en la uchuva son similares a los encontrados en los productos lácteos, como el yogurt, helados, quesos, entre otros.Food consumption with probiotic microorganisms has been increased in the last years due to its healthy benefits that they provide. The development of new food with probiotics apart from dairy products represents a challenge for both researchers and industry. The present study developed at pilot level cape gooseberry fruits (Physalis peruviana L. minimally processed with microorganisms probiotics, combining the beneficent effect of the strain commercial Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393 with the application of the matrix Engineering as methodology to obtain functional foods. As liquid of impregnation a solution of glucose at 14% p/p was used, with an initial concentration of inoculum of 5 in McFarland scale (1.5 x 109 UFC/mL. The newly impregnated cape gooseberry reached counts of viable cells of 1.95 ± 0.28 x 10(9 UFC/100 g of fresh cape gooseberry (9.28 ± 0.06 x 109 cycles log UFC/100 g fresh cape gooseberry and after 15 days of storage at 4 ºC counts of viable cells were of 2.20 ± 0.59 x 10(9 UFC/100 g of fresh cape gooseberry (9.32 ± 0.14 x 109 cycles log UFC/100g fresh cape gooseberry. These level of probiotic microorganisms concentration in the cape gooseberry, were similar to those found in the dairy products as the yogurt, ice creams, cheeses, among others.

  19. Metabolite profiling of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) plants transformed with an antisense chalcone synthase gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Gall, G.; Metzdorff, Stine Broeng; Pedersen, Jan W.

    2005-01-01

    A metabolite profiling study has been carried out on Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. ecotype Wassilewskija and a series of transgenic lines of the ecotype transformed with a CHS (chalcone synthase) antisense construct. Compound identifications by LC/MS and H-1 NMR are discussed. The glucosinolate...... composition in rosette leaves was shown to vary naturally within this ecotype. Relatively modest environmental changes had a strong effect on the wild type level of flavonoids and some sinapate esters but much less effect on the glucosinolates. Potentially a reduction in the level of flavonoids could...

  20. The past, present and future genetic improvement of indigenous chicken of Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khobondo, J O; Okeno, Tobias O; Lihare, G O

    2014-01-01

    has genetically and phenotypically characterized the chicken; established reference/base population collected from different ecotypes/counties, established the breeding goals and designed breeding programmes that best suit the Kenyan takeholders. The on-station research has reported variation...

  1. Nutrients composition of calyces and seeds of three Roselle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutrients composition of calyces and seeds of three Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) ecotypes from Niger. Sanoussi Atta, Benoît Sarr, Aissa B Diallo, Yacoubou Bakasso, Issaka Lona, Mahamane Saadou ...

  2. Characterizing and predicting the distribution of Baltic Sea flounder (Platichthys flesus) during the spawning season

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orio, Alessandro; Bergström, Ulf; Casini, Michele

    2017-01-01

    Identification of essential fish habitats (EFH), such as spawning habitats, is important for nature conservation, sustainable fisheries management and marine spatial planning. Two sympatric flounder (Platichthys flesus) ecotypes are present in the Baltic Sea, pelagic and demersal spawning flounder...

  3. Walnut Creek National Wildlife 1993 planting strategy

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The following is a summary of seed and ecotypes of seed available for planting on WNT, as well as development of planting and subsequent management strategies:

  4. Variation in macro-elements and protein contents of Roselle ( Hibiscus sabdariffa l.) from Niger

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Atta, S; Diallo, A. B; Sarr, B; Bakasso, Y; Saadou, M; Glew, R. H

    2010-01-01

    ...). The contents of Ca, K, Mg, P and protein in leaves of three ecotypes (A3, A7 and A9) were determined at stages I, II and III, corresponding, respectively to vegetative, flowering and mature stages...

  5. INFLUENCE OF HERBAL EXTRACTS ON METABOLIC DISTURBANCES IN DIABETES MELLITUS AND INSULIN RESISTANCE MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Yakimova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to assess the influence on metabolic processes of herbal extracts, used in diets with different fat content, in diabetes mellitus and insulin resistance model.Material and methods. The experiments were performing on 90 noninbred male albino rats. Diabetes mellitus was modeling with twice-repeated intraperitoneal streptozotocine (30 mg/kg injections. For the insulin resistance formation animals were fad meal with 30% fat content. Against the background rats were administering into the stomach nettle leafs (Urtica dioica L., 100 mg/kg, burdock roots (Arctium lappa L., 25 mg/kg extracts or intraperitoneal insulin preparation Actrapide HM Penfill (3 mg/kg daily during 10 days. During period of agents introduction one-half of animals continued to receive food with high fat content, the other half received diet with 8% fat content. The third rats group received only food with low fat content without extracts or insulin administration. In blood was measured the glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, creatinine, urea, uric acid content, in liver homogenates – glycogen, protein content, aminotransferases and glucose-6phosphatase activity, in muscle homogenates – glycogen and protein content.Results. After streptozotocine injections and diet with 30% fat content the blood glucose level became by 4.0–5.3 fold more than level of intact animals, increased the hemoglobin glycosylation, also creatinine, urea, uric acid blood content, in liver and muscle homogenates raised glycogen content, decreased protein quantity, in liver homogenates increased aminotranferases and glucose-6-phosphatase activity. In animals only feeding with 8% fat diminished hyperglycemia, creatinine blood retention, the liver glycogen content and recovered its protein resources. The nettle or burdock extracts administrating to animals that continued to receive high fat meal decreased the blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin and creatinine content, the liver

  6. Genetic variation for clonal propagation and trait association with field performance in sainfoin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayareh Irani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Clonal plant materials with identical genotypes may be used to precisely detect environmental effects and genotype x environment interactions resulting in a more accurate estimate of genetic parameters in plant genetic analysis. In sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia, knowledge on genetic variation for clonal propagation and its association with field performance is limited. Eleven natural ecotypes of sainfoin from wide geographical areas of Iran were used to evaluate genetic variation for clonal propagation and its association with related traits. From each ecotype 11‒21 genotypes were cloned via cuttings. Then, clones of a hundred genotypes from 10 ecotypes were transplanted to the field. High genetic variation was found between ecotypes of sainfoin for producing viable clones. The mean values for viable clones varied from 50% (Borujen ecotype to 97% (Najafabad ecotype. The values of within-ecotype coefficient of variation were higher than the genetic coefficient of variation. The highest heritability estimates were obtained for sensitivity to powdery mildew, plant height and number of stems per plant. Dry matter yield (DMY in the field was significantly and positively correlated with plant height and number of stems per plant, inflorescence length and growth score. An association between DMY and percent of viable clones was found indicating the possibility of selection during the early stages of clonal propagation. According to principal component analysis, Baft and Fereydunshahr ecotypes have potential for improving production of sainfoin if introduced into breeding programs. These issues warrant further study.Keywords: Clone viability, genetic variability, Onobrychis viciifolia, phenotypic  correlation, principal component analysis.DOI: 10.17138/TGFT(438-46

  7. Complete mitochondrial genome phylogeographic analysis of killer whales (Orcinus orca) indicates multiple species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morin, Phillip A; Archer, Frederick I.; Foote, Andrew David

    2010-01-01

    Killer whales (Orcinus orca) currently comprise a single, cosmopolitan species with a diverse diet. However, studies over the last 30 yr have revealed populations of sympatric "ecotypes" with discrete prey preferences, morphology, and behaviors. Although these ecotypes avoid social interactions a...... impacts and conservation needs of these important marine predators. We predict that phylogeographic mitogenomics will become an important tool for improved statistical phylogeography and more precise estimates of divergence times....

  8. Three routes to crypsis: Stasis, convergence, and parallelism in the Mastigias species complex (Scyphozoa, Rhizostomeae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swift, H F; Gómez Daglio, L; Dawson, M N

    2016-06-01

    Evolutionary inference can be complicated by morphological crypsis, particularly in open marine systems that may rapidly dissipate signals of evolutionary processes. These complications may be alleviated by studying systems with simpler histories and clearer boundaries, such as marine lakes-small bodies of seawater entirely surrounded by land. As an example, we consider the jellyfish Mastigias spp. which occurs in two ecotypes, one in marine lakes and one in coastal oceanic habitats, throughout the Indo-West Pacific (IWP). We tested three evolutionary hypotheses to explain the current distribution of the ecotypes: (H1) the ecotypes originated from an ancient divergence; (H2) the lake ecotype was derived recently from the ocean ecotype during a single divergence event; and (H3) the lake ecotype was derived from multiple, recent, independent, divergences. We collected specimens from 21 locations throughout the IWP, reconstructed multilocus phylogenetic and intraspecific relationships, and measured variation in up to 40 morphological characters. The species tree reveals three reciprocally monophyletic regional clades, two of which contain ocean and lake ecotypes, suggesting repeated, independent evolution of coastal ancestors into marine lake ecotypes, consistent with H3; hypothesis testing and an intraspecific haplotype network analysis of samples from Palau reaffirms this result. Phylogenetic character mapping strongly correlates morphology to environment rather than lineage (r=0.7512, pparallelism between lake morphologies within species. That three evolutionary routes each result in crypsis illustrates the challenges of interpreting evolutionary processes from patterns of biogeography and diversity in the seas. Identifying cryptic species is only the first step in understanding these processes; an equally important second step is exploring and understanding the processes and patterns that create crypsis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of Different Media, Type and Concentrations of Auxin on Callus Induction and Plant Regeneration from Young Inflorescences of Yellow Bluestem (Bothriochloa ischaemum(L.) Keng)

    OpenAIRE

    CAN, Ersin

    2000-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of different media, auxin types and concentrations on callus induction and plant regeneration from young inflorescences of 15 ecotypes of yellow bluestem ( Bothriochloa ischaemum). The young inflorescences were cultured on two different basal media (LS and SH) containing different concentrations (2, 4, 6, and 8 mg/l) of two different auxins (2, 4-D and Dicamba). The results showed that the ecotypes were significantly different from each ot...

  10. Development of a New Marker System for Identification of Spirodela polyrhiza and Landoltia punctata

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Bo; Fang, Yang; Xu, Zhibin; Xiang, Chao; Zhou, Chunhong; Jiang, Fei; Wang, Tao; Zhao, Hai

    2017-01-01

    Lemnaceae (commonly called duckweed) is an aquatic plant ideal for quantitative analysis in plant sciences. Several species of this family represent the smallest and fastest growing flowering plants. Different ecotypes of the same species vary in their biochemical and physiological properties. Thus, selecting of desirable ecotypes of a species is very important. Here, we developed a simple and rapid molecular identification system for Spirodela polyrhiza and Landoltia punctata based on the se...

  11. Effects of freezing stress on electrolyte leakage of Persian shallot (Allium altissimum Regel. under controlled condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahram Rezvan beydokhti

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the effect of freezing stress on electrolyte leakage of three Mooseers’ (Allium altissimum Regel. ecotypes (Shirvan, Kalat and Tandoureh, a factorial experiment based on completely randomized design with three replications was carried out under the controlled conditions in the Faculty of Agricultural, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran, during 2009. Plants were grown in natural conditions to acclimate with the growth condition, and then at two growth stages of emergence and seedling were transferred to the thermogradiant freezer with the six freezing temperatures (0,-4, -8,-12, -16 and -20 oC. Cell membrane integrity was measured by electrolyte leakage (EL index and the lethal temperature 50% (LT50 of samples were determined based on this index. The results showed that electrolyte leakage percentage and LT50el were significantly affected by experimental treatments. As the temperature decreased, EL (% of leaf, bulb and root of all ecotypes was significantly increased. In the all freezing temperatures, the highest and the lowest electrolyte leakage was observed in the root and leaf in the emergence stage. Shirvan ecotype at two growth stage (emergence and seedling showed the highest root electrolyte leakage and hence showed the lowest freezing tolerance in comparison with Kalat and Tandoreh ecotypes. The lowest and highest LT50el due to freezing were observed in Kalat, Tandoureh ecotype and Shirvan ecotype, respectively. At seedling stage, Shirvan ecotype’s root showed the highest LT50el which was more sensitive to freezing temperatures in comparison with leaf and bulb. Among all ecotypes, Kalat and Tandoreh ecotypes showed the lowest electrolyte leakage percentage, the lowest LT50el and the most tolerance to the freezing stress.

  12. Genomics of Rapid Incipient Speciation in Sympatric Threespine Stickleback.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A Marques

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Ecological speciation is the process by which reproductively isolated populations emerge as a consequence of divergent natural or ecologically-mediated sexual selection. Most genomic studies of ecological speciation have investigated allopatric populations, making it difficult to infer reproductive isolation. The few studies on sympatric ecotypes have focused on advanced stages of the speciation process after thousands of generations of divergence. As a consequence, we still do not know what genomic signatures of the early onset of ecological speciation look like. Here, we examined genomic differentiation among migratory lake and resident stream ecotypes of threespine stickleback reproducing in sympatry in one stream, and in parapatry in another stream. Importantly, these ecotypes started diverging less than 150 years ago. We obtained 34,756 SNPs with restriction-site associated DNA sequencing and identified genomic islands of differentiation using a Hidden Markov Model approach. Consistent with incipient ecological speciation, we found significant genomic differentiation between ecotypes both in sympatry and parapatry. Of 19 islands of differentiation resisting gene flow in sympatry, all were also differentiated in parapatry and were thus likely driven by divergent selection among habitats. These islands clustered in quantitative trait loci controlling divergent traits among the ecotypes, many of them concentrated in one region with low to intermediate recombination. Our findings suggest that adaptive genomic differentiation at many genetic loci can arise and persist in sympatry at the very early stage of ecotype divergence, and that the genomic architecture of adaptation may facilitate this.

  13. [Distribution of the genetic diversity of the Siberian stone pine, Pinus sibirica Du Tour, along the latitudinal and longitudinal profiles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrova, E A; Goroshkevich, S N; Belokon', M M; Belokon', Iu S; Politov, D V

    2014-05-01

    The Siberian stone pine (Pinus sibirica Du Tour) is one of the main forest-forming coniferous species of the boreal ecosystems of Western Siberia. We used the isozyme method to analyze 11 ecotypes representing the latitudinal and longitudinal profiles within the species range, including samples from the geographic boundaries of the distribution. The genetic structure of the ecotypes is described on the basis of the variability for 26 isozyme loci encoding for 16 enzyme systems. The greatest genetic diversity was observed in the taiga ecotypes in the central part of the studied area, while the ecotypes along the species range boundaries were shown to be genetically depauperized. Approximately 8.1% of the observed genetic diversity is attributed to differences between the studied ecotypes. We detected high levels of genetic diversity for the Fest_2, Pgm_1, Sod_4, and a few otherloci, as well as a correlation between allele frequencies and geographical locations of the populations. The results of multivariate analysis of allelic frequencies as well as cluster analysis allowed us to discriminate three major groups of ecotypes: north-eastern, central and south-western. In view of our results, we compare two hypotheses: one which attributes the spatial distribution of genetic variations to the selectivity for some of the polymorphic allozyme loci, and the other based in the history of the formation of the range of the Siberian stone pine.

  14. Fine-scale distribution patterns of Synechococcus ecological diversity in microbial mats of Mushroom Spring, Yellowstone National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becraft, Eric D; Cohan, Frederick M; Kühl, Michael; Jensen, Sheila I; Ward, David M

    2011-11-01

    Past analyses of sequence diversity in high-resolution protein-encoding genes have identified putative ecological species of unicellular cyanobacteria in the genus Synechococcus, which are specialized to 60°C but not 65°C in Mushroom Spring microbial mats. Because these studies were limited to only two habitats, we studied the distribution of Synechococcus sequence variants at 1°C intervals along the effluent flow channel and at 80-μm vertical-depth intervals throughout the upper photic layer of the microbial mat. Diversity at the psaA locus, which encodes a photosynthetic reaction center protein (PsaA), was sampled by PCR amplification, cloning, and sequencing methods at 60, 63, and 65°C sites. The evolutionary simulation programs Ecotype Simulation and AdaptML were used to identify putative ecologically distinct populations (ecotypes). Ecotype Simulation predicted a higher number of putative ecotypes in cases where habitat variation was limited, while AdaptML predicted a higher number of ecologically distinct phylogenetic clades in cases where habitat variation was high. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis was used to track the distribution of dominant sequence variants of ecotype populations relative to temperature variation and to O₂, pH, and spectral irradiance variation, as measured using microsensors. Different distributions along effluent channel flow and vertical gradients, where temperature, light, and O₂ concentrations are known to vary, confirmed the ecological distinctness of putative ecotypes.

  15. Antibacterial Activity of Different Plant Extracts and Phenolic Phytochemicals Tested on Paenibacillus Larvae Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu Mărghitaş

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Paenibacillus larvae, a Gram-positive and spore-forming bacterium is responsible for American foulbrood disease inbees. The antimicrobial activity of different plant extracts and phenolic phytochemical was evaluated onPaenibacillus larvae bacteria. In addition possible correlation with antioxidant activity of the same plant extracts wasstudied. Extracts of the following plants were utilized: Achillea millefolium (yarrow, Ocimum basilicum (basil,Thymus vulgaris (thyme and Urtica dioica (nettle. The extracts that showed antimicrobial activity were later testedto determine the Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC. Although nettle present the lowest polyphenolic contentcompared with the other plant extracts, exhibit the highest antimicrobial activity, measured as the inhibition zoneusing Mueller-Hinton agar plates. Basil presented both polyphenolic content and antimicrobial activity at higherlevels, while thyme had the lowest antimicrobial activity, even it present high amount of polyphenols.

  16. Transmission of Pandora neoaphidis in the presence of co-occurring arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baverstock, J; Baverstock, K E; Clark, S J; Pell, J K

    2008-07-01

    Transmission of the entomopathogenic fungus Pandora neoaphidis to the nettle aphid Microlophium carnosum was assessed in the presence of arthropods that co-exist with the fungus within the habitat but do not compete for aphid hosts. The presence of a parasitoid significantly enhanced transmission, and transmission rates were similar for both enemy and non-enemy parasitoids. Although herbivory of nettle leaves by Peacock butterfly (Inchis io) caterpillars indirectly reduced the number of M. carnosum by >30% due to a reduction in leaf area for feeding, the addition of I. io significantly increased transmission of P. neoaphidis in the remaining aphids. It is likely that enhanced transmission in the presence of A. rhopalosiphii and I. io is due to disturbance and subsequent movement of the aphid, resulting in contact with conidia deposited on the leaf surface. The presence and impact of co-occurring arthropods should be taken into consideration when assessing the transmission of fungal entomopathogens.

  17. Helheim 2006: Integrated Geophysical Observations of Glacier Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nettles, M.; Ahlstrøm, A.; Elosegui, P.

    During the summer field season, 2006, we undertook a pilot geophysical experiment at Helheim Glacier, East Greenland, in which we deployed a network of GPS instruments on and around the glacier to measure the ice deformation field as a function of time. The experiment was motivated by the discovery...... of a new class of earthquakes occurring at glaciers in Alaska, Antarctica, and Greenland (Ekström, Nettles, and Abers, 2003). Teleseismic analysis indicates that these glacial earthquakes may result from the rapid sliding of the glacial ice over the glacier bed, and recent evidence (Ekström, Nettles...... behind the calving front during field visits in late June, late July, and late August, and we recorded the tidal stage using a pressure sensor near the end of Helheim Fjord for ~3~weeks during the experiment. Initial results show a variation in flow speed from about 25~m/day near the calving front...

  18. EPR spectra induced by gamma-irradiation of some dry medical herbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yordanov, N. D.; Lagunov, O.; Dimov, K.

    2009-04-01

    The radiation-induced EPR spectra in some medical herbs are reported. The samples studied are: (i) leaves of nettle, common balm, peppermint and thyme; (ii) stalks of common balm, thyme, milfoil, yarrow and marigold; (iii) blossoms of yarrow and marigold; (iv) blossoms and leaves of hawthorn and tutsan; and (v) roots of common valerian, nettle, elecampane (black and white), restharrows and carlina. Before irradiation all samples exhibit one weak anisotropic singlet EPR line with effective g-value of 2.0050±0.0002. The radiation-induced spectra fall into three groups. EPR spectra of irradiated blossoms of yarrow and marigold, stalks of common balm, thyme, tutsan and yarrow as well as roots of common valerian, nettle and elecampane (black and white) show "cellulose-like" EPR spectrum typical for irradiated plants. It is characterized by one intense central line with g=2.0050±0.0005 and two weak satellite lines situated ca. 30 G left and right to it. EPR spectra of gamma-irradiated restharrows and carlina are complex. They may be represented by one triplet corresponding to the "cellulose-like" EPR spectrum, one relatively intense singlet, situated in the center of the spectrum, and five weak additional satellite lines left and right to the center. The last spectrum was assigned as "carbohydrate-like" type. Only one intense EPR singlet with g=2.0048±0.0005 was recorded after irradiation of leaves of nettle and common balm. The lifetime of the radiation-induced EPR spectra was followed for a period of 3 months.

  19. EPR spectra induced by gamma-irradiation of some dry medical herbs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yordanov, N.D. [Laboratory EPR, Institute of Catalysis, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria)], E-mail: ndyepr@bas.bg; Lagunov, O. [Laboratory EPR, Institute of Catalysis, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Dimov, K. [Institute of Cryobiology and Food technology, 1162 Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2009-04-15

    The radiation-induced EPR spectra in some medical herbs are reported. The samples studied are: (i) leaves of nettle, common balm, peppermint and thyme; (ii) stalks of common balm, thyme, milfoil, yarrow and marigold; (iii) blossoms of yarrow and marigold; (iv) blossoms and leaves of hawthorn and tutsan; and (v) roots of common valerian, nettle, elecampane (black and white), restharrows and carlina. Before irradiation all samples exhibit one weak anisotropic singlet EPR line with effective g-value of 2.0050{+-}0.0002. The radiation-induced spectra fall into three groups. EPR spectra of irradiated blossoms of yarrow and marigold, stalks of common balm, thyme, tutsan and yarrow as well as roots of common valerian, nettle and elecampane (black and white) show 'cellulose-like' EPR spectrum typical for irradiated plants. It is characterized by one intense central line with g=2.0050{+-}0.0005 and two weak satellite lines situated ca. 30 G left and right to it. EPR spectra of gamma-irradiated restharrows and carlina are complex. They may be represented by one triplet corresponding to the 'cellulose-like' EPR spectrum, one relatively intense singlet, situated in the center of the spectrum, and five weak additional satellite lines left and right to the center. The last spectrum was assigned as 'carbohydrate-like' type. Only one intense EPR singlet with g=2.0048{+-}0.0005 was recorded after irradiation of leaves of nettle and common balm. The lifetime of the radiation-induced EPR spectra was followed for a period of 3 months.

  20. The North Atlantic Engineers: A History of the North Atlantic Division and its Predecessors in the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers 1775 - 1975

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    less than half a dozen persons, it changed almost overnight into a larger, more emergency- oriented and higher- budgeted agency requiring a staff of...of many areas of Chesapeake Bay to shelIfishing and swim - mmg. Despite these harmful results , several positive environmental effects stemmed from...fungal parasite of oysters, Large numbers of sea nettles, commonly known as stinging jellyfish , and the polyps which produce them were similarly

  1. Environmental Impact Study of The Northern Section of the Upper Mississippi River, Minnesota River Pool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-11-01

    COMPOSITAE (Continued) IGrindelia qurrs Curlycup-gumweed Helianthus occidentczlisI Wes tern sunflower Heli- anthus petiolarus Petioled sunflower P He iopsis he...dichotomiftorm Spreading witch grass P Pania= virgatwn Switch grass P Phalaris arundinacea Canary grass Poa palustris Fowl meadow-grass P Poa pratensis Blue grass...Herbs Yellow jewelweed. Impatiens pillida Kentucky bluegrass Poa Nettle Urtica procera pratensis Sweet cicely 03z:ohiza sp. I A-44 Table 3. Vegetation of

  2. Wetlands Research Program. Corps of Engineers Wetlands Delineation Manual. Appendix C. Sections 1 and 2. Region 7 - Southwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    Plantain kittentails FACW- BetuZa occideneais Hook. Water birch FACW 3 de’zs czurea (Ait.) Sherff. Bidens OBL 3. biqeovii Gray Bidenq OBL 3. -irrara L...etocerhll Sherff. Bidens FAC 3. ri’s2 L. Spanishneedles FACW 3. terucsecta Gray Biders FACW 3oehmeria ctuL;_rrca (L.) Sw. Smallspike false-nettle OBL...x..,... .:W. Indicator Scientifir Name Coon Name Status 1rizvu~art (Dougl.).Greene Wild hollyhock FACW :pomea pubeecens Lam. Hairy morningglory

  3. Environmental Impact Study of the Northern Section of the Upper Mississippi River. Pool 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-11-01

    arvensis American wild mint P P Nepeta cataria Cat;.Ip P Physostegia virginiana Obedient plant Prunella vulgaris Mad-dog skullcap ScuteZiaria Zaterifiora...East) (Wes t) Quad 11 Species Area Area (Spit) Gramineae spp. * Grasses P** Laportea canadensis Wood nettle P Lactuca sp. Wild lettuce P Nepeta ... cataria Catnip P Rosa blanda Smooth wild rose P Acer negundo. Box elder P Juniperus virginiana Red cedar P j Prunus serotina Black cherry P Compositae

  4. Impact of vector dispersal and host-plant fidelity on the dissemination of an emerging plant pathogen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jes Johannesen

    Full Text Available Dissemination of vector-transmitted pathogens depend on the survival and dispersal of the vector and the vector's ability to transmit the pathogen, while the host range of vector and pathogen determine the breath of transmission possibilities. In this study, we address how the interaction between dispersal and plant fidelities of a pathogen (stolbur phytoplasma tuf-a and its vector (Hyalesthes obsoletus: Cixiidae affect the emergence of the pathogen. Using genetic markers, we analysed the geographic origin and range expansion of both organisms in Western Europe and, specifically, whether the pathogen's dissemination in the northern range is caused by resident vectors widening their host-plant use from field bindweed to stinging nettle, and subsequent host specialisation. We found evidence for common origins of pathogen and vector south of the European Alps. Genetic patterns in vector populations show signals of secondary range expansion in Western Europe leading to dissemination of tuf-a pathogens, which might be newly acquired and of hybrid origin. Hence, the emergence of stolbur tuf-a in the northern range was explained by secondary immigration of vectors carrying stinging nettle-specialised tuf-a, not by widening the host-plant spectrum of resident vectors with pathogen transmission from field bindweed to stinging nettle nor by primary co-migration from the resident vector's historical area of origin. The introduction of tuf-a to stinging nettle in the northern range was therefore independent of vector's host-plant specialisation but the rapid pathogen dissemination depended on the vector's host shift, whereas the general dissemination elsewhere was linked to plant specialisation of the pathogen but not of the vector.

  5. Are Adult Crambid Snout Moths (Crambinae) and Larval Stages of Lepidoptera Suitable Tools for an Environmental Monitoring of Transgenic Crops? - Implications of a Field Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Andreas; Dolek, Matthias; Theißen, Bernhard; Zapp, Andreas

    2011-08-10

    Butterflies and moths (Lepidoptera) have been suggested for the environmental monitoring of genetically modified (GM) crops due to their suitability as ecological indicators, and because of the possible adverse impact of the cultivation of current transgenic crops. The German Association of Engineers (VDI) has developed guidelines for the standardized monitoring of Lepidoptera describing the use of light traps for adult moths, transect counts for adult butterflies, and visual search for larvae. The guidelines suggest recording adults of Crambid Snout Moths during transect counts in addition to butterflies, and present detailed protocols for the visual search of larvae. In a field survey in three regions of Germany, we tested the practicability and effort-benefit ratio of the latter two VDI approaches. Crambid Snout Moths turned out to be suitable and practical indicators, which can easily be recorded during transect counts. They were present in 57% of the studied field margins, contributing a substantial part to the overall Lepidoptera count, thus providing valuable additional information to the monitoring results. Visual search of larvae generated results in an adequate effort-benefit ratio when searching for lepidopteran larvae of common species feeding on nettles. Visual search for larvae living on host plants other than nettles was time-consuming and yielded much lower numbers of recorded larvae. Beating samples of bushes and trees yielded a higher number of species and individuals. This method is especially appropriate when hedgerows are sampled, and was judged to perform intermediate concerning the relationship between invested sampling effort and obtained results for lepidopteran larvae. In conclusion, transect counts of adult Crambid Moths and recording of lepidopteran larvae feeding on nettles are feasible additional modules for an environmental monitoring of GM crops. Monitoring larvae living on host plants other than nettles and beating samples of bushes

  6. Are Adult Crambid Snout Moths (Crambinae) and Larval Stages of Lepidoptera Suitable Tools for an Environmental Monitoring of Transgenic Crops? — Implications of a Field Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Andreas; Dolek, Matthias; Theißen, Bernhard; Zapp, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Butterflies and moths (Lepidoptera) have been suggested for the environmental monitoring of genetically modified (GM) crops due to their suitability as ecological indicators, and because of the possible adverse impact of the cultivation of current transgenic crops. The German Association of Engineers (VDI) has developed guidelines for the standardized monitoring of Lepidoptera describing the use of light traps for adult moths, transect counts for adult butterflies, and visual search for larvae. The guidelines suggest recording adults of Crambid Snout Moths during transect counts in addition to butterflies, and present detailed protocols for the visual search of larvae. In a field survey in three regions of Germany, we tested the practicability and effort-benefit ratio of the latter two VDI approaches. Crambid Snout Moths turned out to be suitable and practical indicators, which can easily be recorded during transect counts. They were present in 57% of the studied field margins, contributing a substantial part to the overall Lepidoptera count, thus providing valuable additional information to the monitoring results. Visual search of larvae generated results in an adequate effort-benefit ratio when searching for lepidopteran larvae of common species feeding on nettles. Visual search for larvae living on host plants other than nettles was time-consuming and yielded much lower numbers of recorded larvae. Beating samples of bushes and trees yielded a higher number of species and individuals. This method is especially appropriate when hedgerows are sampled, and was judged to perform intermediate concerning the relationship between invested sampling effort and obtained results for lepidopteran larvae. In conclusion, transect counts of adult Crambid Moths and recording of lepidopteran larvae feeding on nettles are feasible additional modules for an environmental monitoring of GM crops. Monitoring larvae living on host plants other than nettles and beating samples of bushes

  7. Use of the radioallergosorbent test for the study of coelenterate toxin-specific immunoglobulin E.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, K R; Calton, G J; Burnett, J W

    1980-01-01

    The radioallergosorbent test (RAST) was adapted for use to screen the immune response to sea nettle (Chrysaora quinquecirrha) and Protuguese man-o'-war (Physalia physalis) toxins. The results of a preliminary screening of serum from patients varying in their reaction to envenomations indicate the potential of these toxin proteins to induce an allergic state in humans and illustrate the use of the RAST as a screening device to detect persons sensitive to coelenterate stings.

  8. Are Adult Crambid Snout Moths (Crambinae and Larval Stages of Lepidoptera Suitable Tools for an Environmental Monitoring of Transgenic Crops? — Implications of a Field Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Lang

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Butterflies and moths (Lepidoptera have been suggested for the environmental monitoring of genetically modified (GM crops due to their suitability as ecological indicators, and because of the possible adverse impact of the cultivation of current transgenic crops. The German Association of Engineers (VDI has developed guidelines for the standardized monitoring of Lepidoptera describing the use of light traps for adult moths, transect counts for adult butterflies, and visual search for larvae. The guidelines suggest recording adults of Crambid Snout Moths during transect counts in addition to butterflies, and present detailed protocols for the visual search of larvae. In a field survey in three regions of Germany, we tested the practicability and effort-benefit ratio of the latter two VDI approaches. Crambid Snout Moths turned out to be suitable and practical indicators, which can easily be recorded during transect counts. They were present in 57% of the studied field margins, contributing a substantial part to the overall Lepidoptera count, thus providing valuable additional information to the monitoring results. Visual search of larvae generated results in an adequate effort-benefit ratio when searching for lepidopteran larvae of common species feeding on nettles. Visual search for larvae living on host plants other than nettles was time-consuming and yielded much lower numbers of recorded larvae. Beating samples of bushes and trees yielded a higher number of species and individuals. This method is especially appropriate when hedgerows are sampled, and was judged to perform intermediate concerning the relationship between invested sampling effort and obtained results for lepidopteran larvae. In conclusion, transect counts of adult Crambid Moths and recording of lepidopteran larvae feeding on nettles are feasible additional modules for an environmental monitoring of GM crops. Monitoring larvae living on host plants other than nettles and beating

  9. Organic parasite control for poultry and rabbits in British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Plants used for treating endo- and ectoparasites of rabbits and poultry in British Columbia included Arctium lappa (burdock), Artemisia sp. (wormwood), Chenopodium album (lambsquarters) and C. ambrosioides (epazote), Cirsium arvense (Canada thistle), Juniperus spp. (juniper), Mentha piperita (peppermint), Nicotiana sp. (tobacco), Papaver somniferum (opium poppy), Rubus spp. (blackberry and raspberry relatives), Symphytum officinale (comfrey), Taraxacum officinale (common dandelion), Thuja plicata (western redcedar) and Urtica dioica (stinging nettle). PMID:21756341

  10. Organic parasite control for poultry and rabbits in British Columbia, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turner Nancy

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Plants used for treating endo- and ectoparasites of rabbits and poultry in British Columbia included Arctium lappa (burdock, Artemisia sp. (wormwood, Chenopodium album (lambsquarters and C. ambrosioides (epazote, Cirsium arvense (Canada thistle, Juniperus spp. (juniper, Mentha piperita (peppermint, Nicotiana sp. (tobacco, Papaver somniferum (opium poppy, Rubus spp. (blackberry and raspberry relatives, Symphytum officinale (comfrey, Taraxacum officinale (common dandelion, Thuja plicata (western redcedar and Urtica dioica (stinging nettle.

  11. New Orleans to Venice, Louisiana, Hurricane Protection Project: Draft Fish and Wildlife Coordination Act Report on Reach C and Barrier Features. Supplement 2. Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement. Appendixes,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-08-01

    peppervine, poison ivy, bull thistle, blackberry , goldenrod, elephant ear, and false nettle; water hyacinth and arrowhead are present in the wetter...occasionally live oak. Understory species include rough leaf dogwood, wax myrtle, elderberry, peppervine, trumpet creeper, 12 5, o . . honeysuckle...poison ivy, wild grape, shield fern, blackberry , and elephant ear. The understory is generally sparse due to the dense canopy, although ground cover is

  12. Programmatic Environmental Assessment, 2007 General Plan for the Main Cantonment and the South Base Cantonment at Vandenberg Air Force Base, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-05

    a dense, low, closed-canopy, broad- leafed , winter-deciduous riparian forest dominated by arroyo willow (Salix lasiolepis), which can grow as a tree...Wild blackberry (Rubus ursinus), mugwort (Artemisia douglasiana), and stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) are common understory components of...effusus), and toad rush (Juncus bufonius). Sword-leaved rush (Juncus ensifolius), and sickle- leaf rush (Juncus falcatus) may dominate where moisture

  13. Chemical composition and herbicidal potent of cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) and cabbage turnip (Brassica oleracea var. gongylodes). Saad, I., Rinez, I., Ghezal, N., and Haouala, R. (Tunisia)

    OpenAIRE

    Inès Saad; Imen Rinez; Nadia Ghezal; Rabiaa Haouala

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the phytochemical content and allelopathic potential of two cabbages botanical varieties leaves, ie. cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) and cabbage turnip (B. oleracea var. gongylodes). Their aqueous and organic extracts were evaluated on lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and one of the most dominant weeds in Tunisia, nettle-leaf goosefoot (Chenopodium murale). Field experiments were conducted to evaluate the smothering potential of the two v...

  14. Environmental Assessment Beddown of NASA DC-8 at Grand Forks Air Force Base, Grand Forks, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-09-01

    stinging nettle ( Urtica dioica ), and beggar ticks (Bidens frondosa) (Grand Forks AFB 2003). Final Environmental Assessment September 2004 3-5...Environmental Assessment describes alternatives and impacts to the environment. The FONSI describes why the project would not have a significant effect on the...anticipated direct and indirect effects were assessed, considering both short- and long-tenn project impacts. The following paragraph summarizes the

  15. Detailed Project Report for Section 205 Flood Control Project. Dry Run Creek, Fayette County, Oelwein, Iowa with Environmental Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-06-01

    stinging nettle ( Urtica dioica ), ragweed (Ambrosia sp.), common and swamp milkweed (Asclepias syriaca and Asclepias incarnata), and goldenrod (Solidago...the 5- and 10-year flood events, a backwater effect is created by the twin box culvert under the C&NW Railroad tracks near Second Avenue SW. This...backwater effect extends upstream to a commercial business parking lot located between First Avenue NW. and North Frederick Avenue. Modification of this

  16. Report on Flood Control Alternatives, Crow River at Rockford, Minnesota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-09-01

    millefolium. FF,M A Nettle Urtica dioica H C Cord grass Spartina pectinata FF C RegasElymus canadensis M C Burdock Arctium. minus FH, EF C -Cocklebur...measure the effectiveness of the other alternative solutions. The alternative solutions investigated included the following: Nonstructural No action...the Prenaration of an appropriate floodplain zoning ordinance. This ordinance should be effective in meeting the oblective of reducing the potential

  17. An Assessment of Water Quality Impacts of Maintenance Dredging on the Upper Mississippi River in 1978.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    nigra). The understory vege- tation is typical of floodplain islands. The sparse ground cover is dominated by nettle ( Urtica dioica ) and poison ivy...the Upper Mississippi River. DREDGING STUDIES ON THE UPPER MISSISSIPPI RIVER A very limited number of studies are available on the effects of...produced no measurable effects on any of these variables. However, the author did speculate about the reasons for the negligible impacts: the small dredging

  18. Determination of Presence and Habitat Suitability for the Indiana Bat (Myotis sodalis) and Gray Bat (Myotis grisescens) for the Pine Ford Study Area, Jefferson, Washington, St. Louis and Franklin Counties, Missouri,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    of poison ivy (Rhus radicans) and stinging nettle ( Urtica dioica ). All permanently flowing tributaries within the study area, as well as several...located that were narrow in width and shallow in depth. 4 J,0 When possible, areas of the stream were also chosen where trees created a tunnel-like effect ...to approximate 100 percent cover between riparian canopies in order to create a tunnel-like effect so that virtually all bats passing through the fly

  19. Screening antimicrobial activity of various extracts of Urtica dioica

    OpenAIRE

    Amir Modarresi-Chahardehi; Darah Ibrahim; Shaida Fariza-Sulaiman; Leila Mousavi

    2012-01-01

    Urtica dioica or stinging nettle is traditionally used as an herbal medicine in Western Asia. The current study represents the investigation of antimicrobial activity of U. dioica from nine crude extracts that were prepared using different organic solvents, obtained from two extraction methods: the Soxhlet extractor (Method I), which included the use of four solvents with ethyl acetate and hexane, or the sequential partitions (Method II) with a five solvent system (butanol). The antibacterial...

  20. MISTY CASTLE Series. MILL RACE Event. Sanitized.1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-12-18

    that were allowed to run loose. REMEMBER - a wild animal that can be approached by a human is likely to be sick. Leave it alone. The rabies virus is...smartweed, nettle, and cowhage. Keep plants like the oleander bush, poinsetta, hyacinth, narcissus , daffodil, rosary pea, castor bean, and mistletoe...Symptoms Wild and cultivated Twigs, Foliage Fatal. Contains a compound that releases cherries cyanide when eaten. Gasping, excitement, and prostration

  1. Organic parasite control for poultry and rabbits in British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lans, Cheryl; Turner, Nancy

    2011-07-14

    Plants used for treating endo- and ectoparasites of rabbits and poultry in British Columbia included Arctium lappa (burdock), Artemisia sp. (wormwood), Chenopodium album (lambsquarters) and C. ambrosioides (epazote), Cirsium arvense (Canada thistle), Juniperus spp. (juniper), Mentha piperita (peppermint), Nicotiana sp. (tobacco), Papaver somniferum (opium poppy), Rubus spp. (blackberry and raspberry relatives), Symphytum officinale (comfrey), Taraxacum officinale (common dandelion), Thuja plicata (western redcedar) and Urtica dioica (stinging nettle). © 2011 Lans and Turner; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  2. Variability of needle structure in Siberian stone pine in provenance plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Bender

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Siberian stone pine (Pinus sibirica Du Tour is one of the most common trees in Siberia. Its natural range is from the Ural Mountains to the Aldan river and from the Arctic Circle to northern Mongolia. The climate in natural Siberian stone pine sites influences the whole plant organism, particularly its needle structure, and the response to thisoccurs at specific morphological and anatomical levels. The genotypical and environmental effects on needle structure in different Siberianstone pine ecotypes are very little known. One effective way to examine and to separate genotypical effects from environmental ones is byusing a common garden experiment. The purpose is to analyze morphological and anatomical needle variability in Siberian stone pinemarginal populations that have been grown in provenance plantations in southern West Siberia, Russia. The needle samples were collectedin the provenance plantation located 30 km south of Tomsk (the southeastern West Siberian Plain, southern limit of the taiga zone,optimum site conditions for Siberian stone pine. We investigated the grafts of mother trees taken from natural sites. Four ecotypeswere selected for the study. Three ecotypes originated from northern (Urengoy, western (Neviyansk, and eastern (Severobaikalskmarginal populations. The fourth, the Tomsk ecotype, was a local control. The local Tomsk ecotype grows on a site where natural conditions are worse due to reduction of mean annual temperature and increase of the humid factor northward, humidity reduction eastward and its rise westward. Variability of 10 needle morphologicaland anatomical characteristics was studied. The northern ecotype had smaller needle length (28%, leaf cross-section area (21%, mesophyll area (29%, mesophyll cell size (27%, and conducting bundle area (16% but the number of stomata per unit leaf area increased by 16% over the local Tomsk ecotype. The resin canal area, epidermal andhypodermal

  3. Native Phytoremediation Potential of Urtica dioica for Removal of PCBs and Heavy Metals Can Be Improved by Genetic Manipulations Using Constitutive CaMV 35S Promoter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitka Viktorova

    Full Text Available Although stinging nettle (Urtica dioica has been shown to reduce HM (heavy metal content in soil, its wider phytoremediation potential has been neglected. Urtica dioica was cultivated in soils contaminated with HMs or polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs. After four months, up to 33% of the less chlorinated biphenyls and 8% of HMs (Zn, Pb, Cd had been removed. Bacteria were isolated from the plant tissue, with the endophytic bacteria Bacillus shackletonii and Streptomyces badius shown to have the most significant effect. These bacteria demonstrated not only benefits for plant growth, but also extreme tolerance to As, Zn and Pb. Despite these results, the native phytoremediation potential of nettles could be improved by biotechnologies. Transient expression was used to investigate the functionality of the most common constitutive promoter, CaMV 35S in Urtica dioica. This showed the expression of the CUP and bphC transgenes. Collectively, our findings suggest that remediation by stinging nettle could have a much wider range of applications than previously thought.

  4. Feeding Behaviour on Host Plants May Influence Potential Exposure to Bt Maize Pollen of Aglais Urticae Larvae (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Lang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Non-target butterfly larvae may be harmed by feeding on host plants dusted with Bt maize pollen. Feeding patterns of larvae and their utilization of host plants can affect the adverse Bt impact because the maize pollen is distributed unequally on the plant. In a field study, we investigated the feeding of larvae of the Small Tortoiseshell, Aglais urticae, on nettles, Urtica dioica. Young larvae used smaller host plants than older larvae. In general, the position of the larvae was in the top part of the host plant, but older larvae showed a broader vertical distribution on the nettles. Leaf blades and leaf tips were the plant parts most often consumed. Leaf veins were consumed but midribs were fed on to a lesser extent than other plant veins, particularly by young larvae. The feeding behavior of the larvae may increase possible exposure to Bt maize pollen because pollen densities are expected to be higher on the top parts and along leaf veins of nettles.

  5. Habitats and traditional uses of species of Urtica l. in the high basin of Rio Ambato, Tungurahua-Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pomboza-Tamaquiza Pablo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available For hundreds of years the people of peasant and indigenous communities in the Andes have used nettle in the treatment of biological and spiritual diseases, nevertheless their uses are little documented in this particular region. The aim of the study was to register the main species of the genus Urtica L. (nettles, in villages in the upper basin of the river Ambato, Tungurahua Province, Ecuador, their uses and the local knowledge around them. Key informants (natural therapists were selected to perform individual and group interviews. Plant samples were collected at specific places well known by the informants. The samples were preserved, soil samples were taken for analysis of pH and organic matter. Traditional uses of each species and the characteristics of the informants were documented. The results show that there are four species of nettles, three natives (U. flabellata, U. leptophylla and U. magellanica and one introduced (U. dioica, growing on soils with pH ranges between 6.16 y 7.68 with a mean percentage of organic matter at 12.37%. Each has a preferential use, the permanence and contribution to the local knowledge is discussed.

  6. The relationship of the possible allergic response to jellyfish envenomation and serum antibody titers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, A J; Calton, G J; Burnett, J W

    1983-01-01

    The sera of patients envenomated by the sea nettle (Chrysaora quinquecirrha) or the Portuguese man-o'war (Physalia physalis) were investigated for immune specific and cross-reacting antibodies. Crude or partially purified (SP-Sephadex column chromatography) nematocyst venom was used as antigen in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) designed to detect IgG and IgE antibodies. The sera of 66 patients who exhibited strictly cutaneous, extracutaneous or anaphylactoid reactions to envenomation were studied. Most of the subjects developed an IgG antibody and many developed an IgE antibody to the venom of the offending animal. The titer of both immunoglobulins correlated directly with the severity of symptoms. Cross-reacting antibodies to these two jellyfish were apparent in a significant number of patients, but detectable cross-reacting IgE antibodies were rare in patients severely stung by the sea nettle. The titer of specific IgG antibody was higher against the partially purified lethal sea nettle venom than fractions lacking lethal activity. These results may support the hypothesis that some of the visible response to jellyfish envenomation may be allergic in nature and that cross-reactivity to these venoms may be clinically important.

  7. THE PROSPECTS OF THE USE OF DRUGS BASED ON RHIZOMES AND ROOTS OF URTICA DIOICA L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Balagozyan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L. from the Urticaceae family is one of the popular medicinal plants. The leaves of Urtica doica L. are used in our country as a hemostatic agent. The rhizomes and roots are the base for the drugs for prostatic adenoma treatment in foreign countries. Earlier we studied acute toxicity, and diuretic activity of an extract of the rootstock with roots of Urtica doica L. We have conducted a study of antimicrobial activity of water and alcohol-water extracts from the rhizomes and roots of Urtica dioica L. The determination of a minimal inhibiting concentration was conducted by using a method of double series broth dilution. Bacillus cereus, Candida albicans, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus microorganisms were used as testing cultures. The study showed that the broth and liquid extract of the nettle, obtained on the basis of 70% ethanol do not stop the growth of microorganisms. The liquid nettle extract obtained by 40% ethanol is characterized by the weak antimicrobial activity.

  8. The histological and histometrical effects of Urtica dioica extract on rat's prostate hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Hamid Reza; Erfani Majd, Naeem; Esmaeilzadeh, Saleh; Fatemi Tabatabaei, Sayed Reza

    2015-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a common disease in human that gradual overgrowth of the prostate gland leads to impinge on the urethra with impairment in urinary function. Numerous plants improve uncontrolled growth of the prostate gland and improve urinary tract symptoms associated with BPH. In this study, 25 healthy adult male Wistar rats were divided randomly in five groups: G1 (Control group) received ordinary feed without any treatment, G2 received 10 mg kg(-1) testosterone subcutaneously, G3 received 50 mg kg(-1) nettle root extract orally, G4 received 50 mg kg(-1) nettle root extract orally and 10 mg kg(-1) testosterone, G5 received 10 mg kg(-1) almond oil (Almond oil was used as testosterone solvent) subcutaneously. After six weeks, volume and weight of each lobe were measured and samples were taken. The 5 to 6 µm thickness sections were made using paraffin embedding method and stained by hematoxylin and eosin and periodic acid-Schiff. The results showed that prostate volume and ratio of prostate to body weight were increased significantly in the testosterone. Histological and histometrical results showed that dorsal and lateral type 1 and 2 lobes were not changed significantly but the ventral and anterior lobes have changed significantly. Over all, the nettle root could prevent from some of prostatic hyperplasia effects, so that percentage of folded alveoli in ventral lobe reduced insignificantly.

  9. Native Phytoremediation Potential of Urtica dioica for Removal of PCBs and Heavy Metals Can Be Improved by Genetic Manipulations Using Constitutive CaMV 35S Promoter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viktorova, Jitka; Jandova, Zuzana; Madlenakova, Michaela; Prouzova, Petra; Bartunek, Vilem; Vrchotova, Blanka; Lovecka, Petra; Musilova, Lucie; Macek, Tomas

    2016-01-01

    Although stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) has been shown to reduce HM (heavy metal) content in soil, its wider phytoremediation potential has been neglected. Urtica dioica was cultivated in soils contaminated with HMs or polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). After four months, up to 33% of the less chlorinated biphenyls and 8% of HMs (Zn, Pb, Cd) had been removed. Bacteria were isolated from the plant tissue, with the endophytic bacteria Bacillus shackletonii and Streptomyces badius shown to have the most significant effect. These bacteria demonstrated not only benefits for plant growth, but also extreme tolerance to As, Zn and Pb. Despite these results, the native phytoremediation potential of nettles could be improved by biotechnologies. Transient expression was used to investigate the functionality of the most common constitutive promoter, CaMV 35S in Urtica dioica. This showed the expression of the CUP and bphC transgenes. Collectively, our findings suggest that remediation by stinging nettle could have a much wider range of applications than previously thought. PMID:27930707

  10. Correlates between feeding ecology and mercury levels in historical and modern arctic foxes (Vulpes lagopus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Bocharova

    Full Text Available Changes in concentration of pollutants and pathogen distribution can vary among ecotypes (e.g. marine versus terrestrial food resources. This may have important implications for the animals that reside within them. We examined 1 canid pathogen presence in an endangered arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus population and 2 relative total mercury (THg level as a function of ecotype ('coastal' or 'inland' for arctic foxes to test whether the presence of pathogens or heavy metal concentration correlate with population health. The Bering Sea populations on Bering and Mednyi Islands were compared to Icelandic arctic fox populations with respect to inland and coastal ecotypes. Serological and DNA based pathogen screening techniques were used to examine arctic foxes for pathogens. THg was measured by atomic absorption spectrometry from hair samples of historical and modern collected arctic foxes and samples from their prey species (hair and internal organs. Presence of pathogens did not correlate with population decline from Mednyi Island. However, THg concentration correlated strongly with ecotype and was reflected in the THg concentrations detected in available food sources in each ecotype. The highest concentration of THg was found in ecotypes where foxes depended on marine vertebrates for food. Exclusively inland ecotypes had low THg concentrations. The results suggest that absolute exposure to heavy metals may be less important than the feeding ecology and feeding opportunities of top predators such as arctic foxes which may in turn influence population health and stability. A higher risk to wildlife of heavy metal exposure correlates with feeding strategies that rely primarily on a marine based diet.

  11. Archaeal amoA gene diversity points to distinct biogeography of ammonia-oxidizing Crenarchaeota in the ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sintes, Eva; Bergauer, Kristin; De Corte, Daniele; Yokokawa, Taichi; Herndl, Gerhard J

    2013-05-01

    Mesophilic ammonia-oxidizing Archaea (AOA) are abundant in a diverse range of marine environments, including the deep ocean, as revealed by the quantification of the archaeal amoA gene encoding the alpha-subunit of the ammonia monooxygenase. Using two different amoA primer sets, two distinct ecotypes of marine Crenarchaeota Group I (MCGI) were detected in the waters of the tropical Atlantic and the coastal Arctic. The HAC-AOA ecotype (high ammonia concentration AOA) was ≈ 8000 times and 15 times more abundant in the coastal Arctic and the top 300 m layer of the open equatorial Atlantic, respectively, than the LAC-AOA (low ammonia concentration AOA) ecotype. In contrast, the LAC-AOA ecotype dominated the lower meso- and bathypelagic waters of the tropical Atlantic (≈ 50 times more abundant than the HAC-AOA) where ammonia concentrations are well below the detection limit using conventional spectrophotometric or fluorometric methods. Cluster analysis of the sequences from the clone libraries obtained by the two amoA primer sets revealed two phylogenetically distinct clusters. Taken together, our results suggest the presence of two ecotypes of archaeal ammonia oxidizers corresponding to the medium (1.24 µM on average in the coastal Arctic) and low ammonia concentration (deep waters respectively. © 2012 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Studies on the yield and quality characteristics of Myrtle (Myrtus communis L. grown in two different ecologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halil İbrahim UZUN

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Myrtle is a typical Mediterranean plant. Myrtles plants with white colored and large fruit sized are cultivated in southern coasts of Turkey and named as Hambeles. Black myrtles are naturally grown in the forests and they have smaller fruit size when compared to Hambeles. Main objective of this study was to investigate the yield and quality parameters of some newly selected 3 black myrtle ecotypes (Yakup, Yumaklar, Islangıc and one white myrtle cultivar (Hambeles in upland and lowland ecological conditions in Antalya. Yields, physical and chemical characters of fruits and essential oil composition of leaves were recorded for all plants. Two experimental orchards were established in coastal and highland conditions in Antalya. Highest fruit weight of black myrtles was measured as 0.76 g fruit-1 in Yakup ecotypes in highland and as 0.92 g fruit-1 in Yumaklar ecotypes in lowland. There were no differences among ecotypes in terms of fruit removal force. Fruit yield per tree increased up to 9.2 kg in black myrtle in lowland. Highest perfect seed numbers in myrtle plants were measured in Hambeles ecotype as 19.83 seeds fruit-1. Fruit juice yield ranged from 29.6 to 35.0%. Amount of malic acid in fruit was higher than that of other organic acids. α-pinene and 1,8-cineole were main essential oil components of myrtle leaves.

  13. Interactions entre la variabilité des écotypes de l'oignon (Allium cepa L. et les facteurs agro-climatiques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boukary, H.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Interaction between Onion Ecotypes Variability and Agroclimatics Factors in Niger. The onion is the most important vegetable crop grown in Niger. Annual production is estimated at 561,000 tons, ranking the country at the second place of onion producers of the West Africa behind Nigeria. A collection of local cultivars of onion of Niger was conducted in 2008. This survey was followed by a study of their interaction with the agro-climatic factors. Conventional methods of collection of plant material (mentioning of the location of collection sites on the map, identification and description of samples, history of ecotypes, growing conditions, etc. were used. The varietal aspect of different collection was highlighted. Twenty-one local ecotypes including the "Violet de Galmi" were collected. The results also revealed interaction between some varietal characteristics such as bulb color, life cycle and agro-climatic and geomorphological factors of the collection sites.

  14. Does ozone exposure alter growth and carbon allocation of mycorrhizal plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, L.C.; Gamon, J.A. (California State Univ., Los Angeles, CA (United States)); Andersen, C.P. (Environmental Protection Agency, Corvallis, OR (United States))

    1994-06-01

    Ozone is known to adversely affect plant growth. However, it is less clear how ozone affects belowground processes. This study tests the hypothesis that ozone alters growth and carbon allocation of vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) plants. Two ecotypes of Elymus glaucus (blue wild rye) were exposed to mycorrhizal inoculation and episodic ozone exposures simulating atmospheric conditions in the Los Angeles Basin. Preliminary results show that effects of ozone on growth were subtle. In both ecotypes, growth of aboveground biomass was not affected by ozone while root growth was decreased. In most treatments, mycorrhizal inoculation decreased growth of leaves and stems, but had no significant effect on root growth. Three-way ANOVA tests indicated interactive effects between ecotype, mycorrhiza and ozone. Further experimental work is needed to reveal the biological processes governing these responses.

  15. Bacterial flora of the conjunctival sac of healthy Makni and Ghezel sheep in Urmia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2010-08-01

    Microbiological studies of diseased eyes are difficult to interpret unless they can be compared with similar studies performed on clinically normal eyes. The purpose of this study was to determine the normal eye bacterial flora of sheep in Urmia, Iran.The study was carried out in summer 2009 at slaughterhouse of Urmia. One hundred swabs were taken from the inferior conjunctival sac of 50 normal sheep (78 male, 11 female. All animals were of two makui (64% and ghezel (36% ecotypes, and divided into three age groups - yearlings (12%, 2-3 years (66% and more than 4 years (22%. The samples were inoculated on blood and EMB agar, and examined for aerobic bacteria. One hundred fifty six isolates were identified in all 100 eyes. Single bacteria were isolated in 46 eyes. Two bacteria were isolated in 52 eyes; 3 bacteria were isolated in 2 eyes. There was no positive correlation between the number of isolates from each eye and age (p>0.05. The isolates included Bacillus cereus (47.74%, Enterobacter aerogenes (12.9%, Staphylococcus epidermidis (8.91%, Escherichia coli (8.91%, Dermatophilus congolensis (7%, Klebsiella spp. (5.8%, Streptococcus spp. (4.5% and Staphylococcus aureus (4.5%. There was no significant difference in the number of bacterial isolates between sexes, age groups and ecotypes (p>0.05. Bacillus cereus was the most frequent isolate in both sexes, ecotypes and all age groups,  and  Enterobacter aerogenes was the second frequent isolate in both sexes, all age groups and  makui ecotype, but in ghezel ecotype, Klebsiella spp. was the second frequent isolate. Regarding the frequency of each of isolates, there was no significant difference between the two sexes, three age groups and  two ecotypes (p>0.05. Gram-positive aerobes were most commonly cultured from the conjunctival sac of normal sheep (72.43%, with Bacillus cereus predominating.

  16. Specialization of Bacillus in the Geochemically Challenged Environment of Death Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopac, S.

    2014-04-01

    Death Valley is the hottest, driest place in North America, a desert with soils containing toxic elements such as boron and lead. While most organisms are unable to survive under these conditions, a diverse community of bacteria survives here. What has enabled bacteria to adapt and thrive in a plethora of extreme and stressful environments where other organisms are unable to grow? The unique environmental adaptations that distinguish ecologically distinct bacterial groups (ecotypes) remain a mystery, in contrast to many animal species (perhaps most notably Darwin's ecologically distinct finch species). We resolve the ecological factors associated with recently diverged ecotypes of the soil bacteria Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus licheniformis, isolated from the dry, geochemically challenging soils of Death Valley, CA. To investigate speciation associated with challenging environmental parameters, we sampled soil transects along a 400m stretch that parallels a decrease in salinity adjacent to a salt flat; transects also encompass gradients in soil B, Cu, Fe, NO3, and P, all of which were quantified in our soil samples. We demarcated strains using Ecotype Simulation, a sequence-based algorithm. Each ecotype's habitat associations were determined with respect to salinity, B, Cu, Fe, NO3, and P. In addition, our sample strains were tested for tolerance of copper, boron and salinity (all known to inhibit growth at high concentrations) by comparing their growth over a 20 hour period. Ecotypes differed in their habitat associations with salinity, boron, copper, iron, and other ecological factors; these environmental dimensions are likely causing speciation of B. subtilis-licheniformis ecotypes at our sample site. Strains also differed in tolerance of boron and copper, providing evidence that our sequence-based demarcations reflect real differences in metabolism. By better understanding the relationship between bacterial speciation and the environment, we can begin to

  17. Reference: 228 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available is thaliana show both semi-dwarf and wavy leaf phenotypes due to defects in the elongation of the stem internodes and leaves. More...over, these abnormalities cannot be recovered by exogenous ...phytohormones. ssm was originally identified as a single recessive mutant of the ecotype Columbia (Col-0), b...ut genetic crossing experiments have revealed that this mutant phenotype is restored by another gene that is... functional in the ecotype Landsberg erecta (Ler) and not in Col-0. Map-based clo

  18. Reference: 490 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tration. The heterologous expression in yeast was utilized to verify that the AtP...TR3 protein transports di-and tripeptides. The T-DNA insert in the Atptr3-1 mutant in the Arabidopsis ecotype C24 re...tr3-2 mutant of the Col-0 ecotype. The AtPTR3 expression was shown to be regulated by several signalling com...d in the SA and JA signalling mutants. The Atptr3 mutant plants had increased susceptibility to virulent pat...hogenic bacteria Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato, and produced more re

  19. Wetlands Research Program. Corps of Engineers Wetlands Delineation Manual. Appendix C. Sections 1 and 2. Region 2 - Southeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    Common sneezeweed FACW H. revi ’ OiU7 (Nutt.) Wood Shortleaf sneezeweed O8L c-ar’reatre Snail Sneezeweed FAG dr’errondii H. Rock Fringed sneezeweed OBL *i...Aea~euca quinquenervia (Cay.) Blake Punk tree FAC ’-.ean thera anqustifoZia A. Rich. Melanthera FACW- lc.eZ-rtP-w’m virginic’ze L. Common bunchf...FAC :,. thomasii Sarg. Rock elm FAC "rechites lzutea (L.) Britton Rubber-vine OBL Urtica dic’ica L. Slimsting nettle FAC+ "tricularia =’ethystina Salzm

  20. Venomous pelagic coelenterates: chemistry, toxicology, immunology and treatment of their stings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, J W; Calton, G J

    1987-01-01

    Ten years have elapsed since our last review article on the toxicology of venomous pelagic coelenterates was published (Burnett and Calton, 1977). Investigation on important medusae and the chemistry of their nematocyst venoms have been expanding. The venomous jellyfish discussed here include the Portuguese man-o'war, (Physalia physalis), the sea nettle (Chrysaora quinquecirrha), the box jellyfish (Chironex fleckeri and/or Chiropsalmus quadrigatus), the cabbage head jellyfish (Stomolophus meleagris), the lion's mane jellyfish (Cyanea capillata), the Irukandji jellyfish (Carukia barnesi), the Moreton Bay Carybdeid medusa (Morbakka), and the mauve blubber (Pelagia noctiluca).

  1. Green Fairy Dusts: Three natural proposals to confront the nutrition and environment emergency

    OpenAIRE

    Marinella Correggia

    2014-01-01

    In response to widespread malnutrition, under-nutrition and rampant obesity, and in the context of climate change, a wise nutrition path for the whole world should include locally produced traditional/innovative food supplements to accompany the recovery and adaptation of traditional and indigenous diets. The three ‘bright greens’ discussed here – among others – are spirulina algae, nettle leaves and the moringa tree’s many gifts. Easily powdered for a wide and versatile use, these ‘fairy dus...

  2. Influence of fermentation temperature on the content of fatty acids in low energy milk-based kombucha products

    OpenAIRE

    Malbaša, Radomir V.; Vitas, Jasmina S.; Lončar, Eva S.; Kravić, Snežana Ž.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of fermentation temperature on the fatty acids content in low energy milk-based products obtained by kombucha inoculums with herbal teas. In this investigation low energy milk-based kombucha products were produced from milk with 0.8% milk fat using 10% (v/v) kombucha inoculums cultivated on winter savory, peppermint, stinging nettle and wild thyme. The process of fermentation was conducted at two temperatures: 40°C and 43°C. Ferment...

  3. Albino Farelerde Paraben Toksisitesine Karşı Urtica Dioica L. (Urticaceae Özütünün Koruyucu Rolünün Araştırılması

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine YALÇIN

    2016-09-01

    . Nettle extract selected as protective agent against the toxic effects of HBA and the Nettle extract applied to all treatment groups in two dosage. In this scope, mice were  divided into six groups, each containing 6 mice (Mus musculus, 12–14 week, 25–30 g. In experimental period, group I treated with tap water, group II treated with 125 mg/kg.bw nettle extract, group III treated with 250 mg/kg.bw nettle extract, group IV treated with 150 mg/kg.bw HBA, group V treated with 125 mg/kg.bw nettle extract+ 150 mg/kg.bw HBA, group VI treated with 250 mg/kg.bw nettle extract+ 150 mg/kg.bw HBA. At the end of the experiment, blood samples were collected and then the serum samples were obtained. Alanine transaminase (ALT, Aspartate transaminase (AST, Blood urea nitrogen (BUN and creatinine parameters were investigated in serum samples. Liver and kidney tissues were isolated and then MDA, GSH analysis were performed. As a result of the study, important alterations were observed in ALT, AST, BUN and creatinine levels of HBA treated group. These changes can be explained by potential toxic effects of HBA on cells. MDA levels of HBA treated group were increased and GSH levels were decreased. Some ameliorations were observed in all tested parameters in nettle extract and HBA treated groups compared to HBA treated group. These results demonstrate the protective effect of nettle extract against the toxicity of HBA.Keyword: Paraben, Nettle extract, AST, ALT

  4. Identification and characterization of tsunami deposits off southeast coast of India from the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami: Rock magnetic and geochemical approach.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Veerasingam, S.; Venkatachalapathy, R.; Basavaiah, N.; Ramkumar, T.; Venkatramanan, S.; Deenadayalan, K.

    , Nichol S, Jaffe B and Dominey- Howes D 2012 Progress in palaeotsunami research; Sedim. Geol. 243 70–88. Goff J, Dudley W C, deMaintenon M J, Cain G and Coney J P 2006 The largest local tsunami in 20th century Hawaii; Marine Geol. 226 65–79. Goff J R..., Nettles M, Ward S N, Aster R C, Beck S L, Bilek S L, Brudzinski M R, Butler R, DeShon H R, Ekstrom G, Satake K and Sipkin S 2005 The great Sumatra–Andaman earthquake of 26 December 2004; Science 308 1127–1132. Maher B A 1988 Magnetic properties of some...

  5. Step-wise changes in glacier flow speed coincide with calving and glacial earthquakes at Helheim Glacier, Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nettles, M.; Larsen, T. B.; Elósegui, P.

    2008-01-01

    Geodetic observations show several large, sudden increases in flow speed at Helheim Glacier, one of Greenland's largest outlet glaciers, during summer, 2007. These step-like accelerations, detected along the length of the glacier, coincide with teleseismically detected glacial earthquakes and major...... at Greenland's largest outlet glaciers, on timescales as short as minutes to hours, and clarify the mechanism by which glacial earthquakes occur. Citation: Nettles, M., et al. (2008), Step-wise changes in glacier flow speed coincide with calving and glacial earthquakes at Helheim Glacier, Greenland....

  6. Effectiveness on urinary symptoms and erectile function of Prostamev Plus® vs only extract Serenoa repens

    OpenAIRE

    Raffaele Marzano; Nicola Dinelli; Valeria Ales; Maria Antonella Bertozzi

    2015-01-01

    Prostatic inflammation is widespread in the male population. Two groups of 50 patients each with symptoms of prostatic inflammation and ecocolorDoppler indicative of prostatitis were identified. Both groups were further subdivided into two subgroups (respectively A1, A2, B1, and B2). Group A1 underwent therapy with oral levofloxacin 500 mg daily for 10 days plus co-treatment with oral Serenoa repens (320 mg) plus Bromeline plus Nettle (Prostamev Plus®) daily for two months; Group A2 with oral...

  7. Njv Magazine 3 final

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    En-Joy

    (Oluyemi and Roberts 2000). The Differential Susceptibility of Yoruba Ecotype. Nigerian Indigenous Chicken Varieties. To Newcastle Disease. 1. 1. 2. 1. 1. AKINOLUWA, P.O. , SALAKO, A.E. , EMIKPE, B.O. , ADEYEMO S.A. and OGIE, A. J.. Departments of 1. 2. Animal Science, Veterinary Pathology, University of Ibadan, ...

  8. Projected changes in diverse ecosystems from climate warming and biophysical drivers in northwest Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark Torre Jorgenson; Bruce G. Marcot; David K. Swanson; Janet C. Jorgenson; Anthony R. DeGange

    2015-01-01

    Climate warming affects arctic and boreal ecosystems by interacting with numerous biophysical factors across heterogeneous landscapes. To assess potential effects of warming on diverse local-scale ecosystems (ecotypes) across northwest Alaska, we compiled data on historical areal changes over the last 25–50 years. Based on historical rates of change relative to time...

  9. Seeding big sagebrush successfully on Intermountain rangelands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan E. Meyer; Thomas W. Warren

    2015-01-01

    Big sagebrush can be seeded successfully on climatically suitable sites in the Great Basin using the proper seeding guidelines. These guidelines include using sufficient quantities of high-quality seed of the correct subspecies and ecotype, seeding in late fall to mid-winter, making sure that the seed is not planted too deeply, and seeding into an environment...

  10. Genetic diversity in two populations of Limicolaria aurora (Jay, 1839 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tuoyo Aghomotsegin

    2016-06-22

    Jun 22, 2016 ... 1993; Madec et al., 1998). Genetic drift and natural selection are the two primary evolutionary mechanisms that cause population differen- tiation (Hufford and Mazer, 2003). Natural selection by ecological factors will result in development of ecological adaptation or ecotypes. It remains to be determined.

  11. Genetic structure and variability within and among populations of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lalouta

    2014-01-01

    Jan 1, 2014 ... DTL distance estimates grouped the BAR ecotypes together showing the close relationship among them. APP appeared at the end of the longest branch confirming its use as an out-group. Clustering obtained by STRUCTURE revealed the high homogeneity of the. BAR breed since no clear subdivision in ...

  12. Evaluation of genetic diversity in Sulla coronaria from different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Five oligonucleotides generating 116 markers complementary to simple sequence repeats were used in order to characterize wild and cultivated ecotypes of Sulla coronaria and assess genetic diversity suitable in breeding programs. While analysing populations, a large genetic variability was revealed and supported by ...

  13. Growth differentiation factor 9 gene variants in Sudanese desert ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Certain variants in the growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9) gene have major effects on the ovulation rate in sheep. The aim of this study was to analyse GDF9 variability in the Sudanese desert sheep ecotypes Ashgar, Dubasi and Watish, and to test identified variants for association with litter size. For this purpose, ewes of ...

  14. Chloroplast genome variation in upland and lowland switchgrass.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugh A Young

    Full Text Available Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L. exists at multiple ploidies and two phenotypically distinct ecotypes. To facilitate interploidal comparisons and to understand the extent of sequence variation within existing breeding pools, two complete switchgrass chloroplast genomes were sequenced from individuals representative of the upland and lowland ecotypes. The results demonstrated a very high degree of conservation in gene content and order with other sequenced plastid genomes. The lowland ecotype reference sequence (Kanlow Lin1 was 139,677 base pairs while the upland sequence (Summer Lin2 was 139,619 base pairs. Alignments between the lowland reference sequence and short-read sequence data from existing sequence datasets identified as either upland or lowland confirmed known polymorphisms and indicated the presence of other differences. Insertions and deletions principally occurred near stretches of homopolymer simple sequence repeats in intergenic regions while most Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs occurred in intergenic regions and introns within the single copy portions of the genome. The polymorphism rate between upland and lowland switchgrass ecotypes was found to be similar to rates reported between chloroplast genomes of indica and japonica subspecies of rice which were believed to have diverged 0.2-0.4 million years ago.

  15. The effect of geographical region of birth on the reproductive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to assess the effect of place of birth on the reproductive performance of two Nguni ecotypes (Nguni and Landim) raised in a sub-tropical environment to enhance strategies for livestock development and restocking programmes within the southern African region. Reproduction data collected ...

  16. Herbivores and edaphic factors constrain the realized niche of a native plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.A. Lau; A McCall; K Davies; J McKay; J Wright

    2008-01-01

    Biotic interactions, such as competition and herbivory, can limit plant species ranges to a subset of edaphically suitable habitats, termed the realized niche. Here we explored the role that herbivores play in restricting the niche of serpentine ecotypes of the native California annual Collinsia sparsiflora...

  17. Relationships between carcass traits and offal components in local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2013-09-30

    Sep 30, 2013 ... ABSTRACT. Objectives: The current work was carried out to determine the relationships between live weight, carcass traits and the offal components traits in Holli, Fulani, Sahoue, North and South indigenous chicken ecotypes of Benin. Methodology and results: 260 indigenous chickens of which 52 ...

  18. Development of a New Marker System for Identification of Spirodela polyrhiza and Landoltia punctata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Feng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Lemnaceae (commonly called duckweed is an aquatic plant ideal for quantitative analysis in plant sciences. Several species of this family represent the smallest and fastest growing flowering plants. Different ecotypes of the same species vary in their biochemical and physiological properties. Thus, selecting of desirable ecotypes of a species is very important. Here, we developed a simple and rapid molecular identification system for Spirodela polyrhiza and Landoltia punctata based on the sequence polymorphism. First, several pairs of primers were designed and three markers were selected as good for identification. After PCR amplification, DNA fragments (the combination of three PCR products in different duckweeds were detected using capillary electrophoresis. The high-resolution capillary electrophoresis displayed high identity to the sequencing results. The combination of the PCR products containing several DNA fragments highly improved the identification frequency. These results indicate that this method is not only good for interspecies identification but also ideal for intraspecies distinguishing. Meanwhile, 11 haplotypes were found in both the S. polyrhiza and L. punctata ecotypes. The results suggest that this marker system is useful for large-scale identification of duckweed and for the screening of desirable ecotypes to improve the diverse usage in duckweed utilization.

  19. The genetic basis of adaptive population differentiation: A quantitative trait locus analysis of fitness traits in two wild barley populations from contrasting habitats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, K.J.F.; Vanhala, T.K.; Biere, A.; Nevo, E.; Damme, van J.M.M.

    2004-01-01

    We used a quantitative trait locus (QTL) approach to study the genetic basis of population differentiation in wild barley, Hordeum spontaneum. Several ecotypes are recognized in this model species, and population genetic studies and reciprocal transplant experiments have indicated the role of local

  20. Relationships between technological and nutritional meat quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The current work aims at determining relationships between technological and nutritional meat quality parameters in Holli, Fulani, Sahoue, North and South indigenous chicken ecotypes of Benin. Color parameters (L*, a*, b*, hue and chroma), pH, texture, dry matter content, protein content, fat content, and ash content were ...

  1. Cuticular features as indicators of environmental pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    G. K. Sharma

    1976-01-01

    Several leaf cuticular features such as stomatal frequency, stomatal size, trichome length, type, and frequency, and subsidiary cell complex respond to environmental pollution in different ways and hence can be used as indicators of environmental pollution in an area. Several modifications in cuticular features under polluted environments seem to indicate ecotypic or...

  2. AcEST: BP919289 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available efinition tr|B4RTV5|B4RTV5_ALTMD BatD protein OS=Alteromonas macleodii (strain DSM 17117 / Deep ecotype) Ali...rotein OS=Coprinopsis cinerea ... 33 8.1 >tr|B4RTV5|B4RTV5_ALTMD BatD protein OS=Alteromonas macleodii (strain DSM 17117 / Deep

  3. AcEST: BP916200 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available rEMBL tr_hit_id B4RTV5 Definition tr|B4RTV5|B4RTV5_ALTMD BatD protein OS=Alteromonas macleodii (strain DSM 17117 / Deep...eromonas macleodii (strain DSM 17117 / Deep ecotype) GN=MADE_02707 PE=4 SV=1 Length = 586 Score = 35.0 bits

  4. Seed germination and seedling establishment of some wild almond ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the last experiment, the establishment and vigor of 14 accessions from eight almond species have been evaluated in plastic bags in outdoor conditions. Two ecotypes of Prunus spp. had the highest stem diameter and length at all growing stages. Keywords: Amygdalus, germination percentage, index vigor, root initiation, ...

  5. A rearrangement of the Z chromosome topology influences the sex-linked gene display in the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    The sex determination system of Lepidoptera is comprised of heterogametic females (ZW) and homogametic males (ZZ), where voltinism (Volt) and the male pheromone response traits (Resp) are controlled by genes housed on the Z-chromosome. Volt and Resp determine traits that lead to ecotype differentia...

  6. Genetic diversity of Cameroon native goat populations revealed by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of seventeen caprine microsatellite markers were used on 169 goats to investigate genetic diversity of eight Cameroon native goats and to assess genetic differentiation with the east African small goat. All microsatellites showed a high polymorphic content (PIC) of more than 0.5 in almost all ecotypes.

  7. Upshot of the ripening time on biological activities, phenol content ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Total phenol content and the antioxidant activities of three cultivars of Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill. were evaluated. The results show that the ecotypes were significantly different according to their fatty acid composition, antioxidant and antibacterial activity, as well as their polyphenol profiles. Rossa fruit collected in August ...

  8. Original Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    home

    2014-12-18

    Dec 18, 2014 ... pests (especially fruit fly and anthracnose), postharvest loss and poor marketing were the major problems specified by the growers. Therefore, focus should be given in improving the production, productivity and marketing of the crop in order to utilize the available and adaptable mango eco-types which are ...

  9. Wetland harvesting systems -- developing alternatives for sustainable operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert B. Rummer; Bryce J. Stokes; Alvin Schilling

    1997-01-01

    Wetland forests represent some of the most productive forest lands in the Southeast. They are also an environmentally sensitive ecotype which presents unique problems for forest operations. Sustaining active management in these areas will require systems which can operate on weak soil conditions without adversely affecting soil properties or stand regeneration. The...

  10. Phenol-oxidizing peroxidases contribute to the protection of plants from ultraviolet radiation stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, M.A.K.; Noort, van den R.E.; Tan, M.Y.A.; Prinsen, E.; Lagrimini, L.M.; Thorneley, R.N.F.

    2001-01-01

    We have studied the mechanism of UV protection in two duckweed species (Lemnaceae) by exploiting the UV sensitivity of photosystem II as an in situ sensor for radiation stress. A UV-tolerant Spirodela punctata G.F.W. Meyer ecotype had significantly higher indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) levels than a

  11. Callus induction and plant regeneration in the metallophyte Silene vulgaris (Caryophyllaceae).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jack, E.M.; Atanasova, S; Verkley, J.A.C.

    2005-01-01

    Zinc tolerant and non-tolerant ecotypes of Silene vulgaris (Moench) Garcke were examined for their suitability to provide an efficient and reproducible callus formation and regeneration system. Successful and rapid regeneration of adventitious shoots from callus was achieved in leaf tissue but not

  12. Oil and Azadirachtin contents of neem ( Azadirachta indica A. Juss ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed to quantify and evaluate the level of Azadirachtin in neem seed kernel from ten ecotypes in Sudan over two seasons and establish relationship to the agro-ecological attributes. Extraction was done in two replicates using 12 g. After extraction, separation and concentration to 10 ml the samples quantified ...

  13. The optimization extraction of exopolysacchrides and its antioxidant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lenovo

    2012-03-13

    Mar 13, 2012 ... propolis from Erzurum, Turkey. Food Chem. Toxicol. 48: 2227-2238. Gülçin İ, Topal F, Çakmakçı R, Bilsel M, Gören AC, Erdogan U (2011). Pomological features, nutritional quality, polyphenol content analysis and antioxidant properties of domesticated and three wild ecotype forms of raspberries (Rubus ...

  14. Association of LEI0258 microsatellite alleles with antibody response ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-03-18

    Mar 18, 2008 ... improving primary antibody response against Newcastle disease virus (NDV) vaccine and body weight in two Tanzania chicken ecotypes, .... The chicks were vaccinated with Newcastle disease virus vaccine. (La Sota) according to ..... Heller ED, Uni Z, Bacon LD (1991). Serological evidence for Major.

  15. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toye, AA. Vol 12, No 1 (2012) - Articles Effects of Heterosis and Direction of Crossing on Production Performance of F 1 Offspring of Dominant Black Strain and Fulani Ecotype Chickens. Abstract PDF · Vol 12, No 2 (2012) - Articles The Effects of Early Feeding of Moringa Oleifera Leaf Meal on Performance of Broiler and ...

  16. 12th North American Caribou Workshop, 2-5 November 2008, Happy Valley – Goose Bay, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Egil Haugerud (editor in chief

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The 12th NACW was arranged at Happy Valley - Goose Bay 4-6 November 2008 with the theme "Integrating Understanding across Ecotypes". Approximately 140 people attended from Canada, United States, Norway, and Greenland. The 12th NACW included more than 70 oral and poster presentations.

  17. An Ecological Land Survey for Fort Greely, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-02-01

    signifies >60% frequency within ecotype.) a. Alpine. Diapensia lapponica 0 1 Trisetum spicatum 0 0 0 Artemisia arctica 0 1 1 Saxifraga tricuspidata 1 0 0...Racomitrium lanuginosum 3 1 1 Rhytidium rugosum 1 1 1 Calamagrostis purpurascens 3 1 Stereocaulon spp. 1 4 2 Saxifraga punctata 0 0 Oxytropis nigrescens

  18. Development of a New Marker System for Identification ofSpirodela polyrhizaandLandoltia punctata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Bo; Fang, Yang; Xu, Zhibin; Xiang, Chao; Zhou, Chunhong; Jiang, Fei; Wang, Tao; Zhao, Hai

    2017-01-01

    Lemnaceae (commonly called duckweed) is an aquatic plant ideal for quantitative analysis in plant sciences. Several species of this family represent the smallest and fastest growing flowering plants. Different ecotypes of the same species vary in their biochemical and physiological properties. Thus, selecting of desirable ecotypes of a species is very important. Here, we developed a simple and rapid molecular identification system for Spirodela polyrhiza and Landoltia punctata based on the sequence polymorphism. First, several pairs of primers were designed and three markers were selected as good for identification. After PCR amplification, DNA fragments (the combination of three PCR products) in different duckweeds were detected using capillary electrophoresis. The high-resolution capillary electrophoresis displayed high identity to the sequencing results. The combination of the PCR products containing several DNA fragments highly improved the identification frequency. These results indicate that this method is not only good for interspecies identification but also ideal for intraspecies distinguishing. Meanwhile, 11 haplotypes were found in both the S. polyrhiza and L. punctata ecotypes. The results suggest that this marker system is useful for large-scale identification of duckweed and for the screening of desirable ecotypes to improve the diverse usage in duckweed utilization.

  19. Development of a New Marker System for Identification of Spirodela polyrhiza and Landoltia punctata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Bo; Fang, Yang; Xu, Zhibin; Xiang, Chao; Zhou, Chunhong; Jiang, Fei; Wang, Tao

    2017-01-01

    Lemnaceae (commonly called duckweed) is an aquatic plant ideal for quantitative analysis in plant sciences. Several species of this family represent the smallest and fastest growing flowering plants. Different ecotypes of the same species vary in their biochemical and physiological properties. Thus, selecting of desirable ecotypes of a species is very important. Here, we developed a simple and rapid molecular identification system for Spirodela polyrhiza and Landoltia punctata based on the sequence polymorphism. First, several pairs of primers were designed and three markers were selected as good for identification. After PCR amplification, DNA fragments (the combination of three PCR products) in different duckweeds were detected using capillary electrophoresis. The high-resolution capillary electrophoresis displayed high identity to the sequencing results. The combination of the PCR products containing several DNA fragments highly improved the identification frequency. These results indicate that this method is not only good for interspecies identification but also ideal for intraspecies distinguishing. Meanwhile, 11 haplotypes were found in both the S. polyrhiza and L. punctata ecotypes. The results suggest that this marker system is useful for large-scale identification of duckweed and for the screening of desirable ecotypes to improve the diverse usage in duckweed utilization. PMID:28168191

  20. Upshot of the ripening time on biological activities, phenol content ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anis

    2013-10-02

    Oct 2, 2013 ... 2050 Hammam-lif, Tunisia. Accepted 9 January, 2013. Total phenol content and the antioxidant activities of three cultivars of Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill. were evaluated. The results show that the ecotypes were significantly different according to their fatty acid composition, antioxidant and antibacterial ...

  1. Evidence of heterosis in Okra ( Abelmoschus esculentus ) landraces ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In our study, 24 hybrids obtained by diallel cross between ecotypes of okra were subjected to analysis of their combining ability effects and hybrid vigor for different important traits for producers and consumers. Parents and hybrids differed significantly for gca effect. UAE 3 and UAE 20 were found to be the best general ...

  2. The determination of ecological quality in shallow lakes - a tested system (EcoFrame) for implementation of the European Water Framework Directive

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moss, B.; Stephen, D.; Alvarez, C.; Becares, E.; Bunt, van de W.; Collings, S.E.; Donk, van E.; Eyto, de E.; Feldmann, T.; Fernandez-Alaez, C.; Fernandez-Alaez, M.; Franken, R.J.M.; Carcia-Criado, F.; Gross, E.M.; Gyllstrom, M.; Hansson, L.; Irvine, K.; Jarvalt, A.; Jenssen, J.P.; Jeppesen, E.; Kairesalo, T.; Kornijow, R.; Krause, T.; Kunnap, H.; Laas, A.; Lill, E.; Lorens, B.; Luup, H.; Miracle, M.; Noges, P.; Noges, T.; Nykannen, M.; Ott, I.; Peczula, W.; Peeters, E.T.H.M.; Phillips, G.; Romo, S.; Russell, V.; Salujoe, J.; Scheffer, M.; Siewertsen, K.; Smal, H.; Tesch, C.; Timm, H.; Tuvikene, L.; Tonno, I.; Virro, T.; Vicente, E.; Wilson, D.

    2003-01-01

    1. The European Water Framework Directive requires the determination of ecological status in European fresh and saline waters. This is to be through the establishment of a typology of surface water bodies, the determination of reference (high status) conditions in each element (ecotype) of the

  3. Development and growth of several strains of Arabidopsis seedlings in microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, J. Z.; Brinckmann, E.; Brillouet, C.

    2000-01-01

    Growth and development of dark-grown Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings were studied in microgravity during space shuttle mission STS-84. The major purpose of this project was to determine if there were developmental differences among the four ecotypes studied--Wassilewskija (Ws), Columbia (Col), Landsberg erecta (Ler), and C24--and to evaluate whether particular ecotypes are better suited for spaceflight experimentation compared with others. A secondary goal was to study the growth of three starch-deficient strains of Arabidopsis by extending the observations made in a previously published report. For all strains, seed germination was not affected by microgravity, but seedlings were smaller in the spaceflight samples compared with the ground controls. The starch-deficient strains continued to exhibit vigorous growth until the termination of the experiment at 121 h after imbibition of seeds. However, ethylene effects, i.e., reduced growth and exaggerated hypocotyl hooks, were observed in all strains studied. Nevertheless, the Ler and C24 ecotypes seem to be more suitable for spaceflight research, compared with the other two ecotypes, based on measurements of their relative and absolute growth. This type of information should aid in the design of plant experiments for the International Space Station.

  4. Production Performance of Indigenous Chicken under Semi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study to evaluate four indigenous chicken – namely: Horasi, Kuchi, Naked neck and Frizzled in order to obtain grand-parent and parent stocks was carried out at Tanzania Livestock Research Institute, Mpwapwa district of Dodoma, Tanzania. The perfomance of the ecotypes were compared so as to come out with the best ...

  5. PCR bias in ecological analysis: A case study for quantitative Taq nuclease assays in analyses of microbial communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becker, S.; Boger, P.; Oehlmann, R.; Ernst, A.

    2000-01-01

    Succession of ecotypes, physiologically diverse strains with negligible rRNA sequence divergence, may explain the dominance of small, red-pigmented (phycoerythrin-rich) cyanobacteria in the autotrophic picoplankton of deep lakes (C, Postius and A. Ernst, Arch. Microbiol, 172:69-75, 1999), In order

  6. A comparative transcriptomic analysis of the extremely boron tolerant plant Puccinellia distans with the moderately boron tolerant Gypsophila arrostil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmanabhan, Priya; Babaoğlu, Mehmet; Terry, Norman

    2012-08-01

    The Turkish ecotype of Puccinellia distans displays exceptional boron (B) tolerance, >1,250 mg B L⁻¹, compared to toxicity stress. The molecular basis of boron tolerance of two plant species (Puccinellia distans and Gypsophila arrostil) that differ greatly in their boron tolerance was studied in this manuscript.

  7. Antioxidant activities of chestnut nut of Castanea sativa Mill. (cultivar 'Judia') as function of origin ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinis, Lia-Tânia; Oliveira, Maria Manuela; Almeida, José; Costa, Rita; Gomes-Laranjo, José; Peixoto, Francisco

    2012-05-01

    The antioxidant properties of different ecotypes of chestnut nut (cv. Judia) were studied. Total phenolics and flavonoids were also determinated. Total phenolics amount ranged from 9.6mg/g of GAE (hottest ecotype, Murça) to 19.4mg/g of GAE (coldest ecotype, Valpaços). Gallic and ellagic acid were the predominant compounds and Valpaços had the highest values while, Murça had the lowest ones. The antioxidant capacity of ethanolic extracts were evaluated through several biochemical essays: ABTS (2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid)) and DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical-scavenging activity, FRAP (ferric reducing/antioxidant power) and inhibition of oxidative haemolysis in erythrocytes. In order to evaluate the antioxidant efficiency of each ecotype, the EC50 values were calculated. Once again Valpaços revealed the best antioxidant properties, presenting much lower EC50 values. Climatic conditions influence seems to be a limiting factor for production of phenolic compounds and consequently for the antioxidant properties of chestnut nuts. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Propagation, taxonomy and ecophysiological characteristics of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Each microsporangium consists of 4 massula, each characterized by the presence of anchor-like multiseptate glochidia covering the whole surface of the massula. This ecotype probably belongs to Azolla caroliniana on the basis of vegetative and reproductive characteristics. Growth (biomass yield) is seasonal, with higher ...

  9. Lectin receptor kinase LecRK-b2 localizes to plasma membrane and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-07-20

    Jul 20, 2009 ... LecRK-b2:GFP construction through LR reaction. Gateway clone system was ordered from Invitrogen. 35S-GW-GFP (Kan) was a gift from F. Turck (Max-Planck Institute for Plant Breeding Research,. Cologne, Germany). 35S:LecRK-b2:GFP was transformed into the. Arabidopsis thaliana ecotype Columbia, ...

  10. 1888-IJBCS-Article-Youssao Issaka

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    The current work aims at determining relationships between technological and nutritional meat quality parameters in Holli, Fulani, Sahoue, North and South indigenous chicken ecotypes of Benin. Color parameters. (L*, a*, b*, hue and chroma), pH, texture, dry matter content, protein content, fat content, and ash content were.

  11. Variability Studies as Inferred from Leaf Morpho-Stomatal Features ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The increasing demand for the Moringa oleifera product needs to be complimented with new improved cultivars with high performance to meet the supply chain of the country. To achieve this, the present study was aimed at studying the variability among 21 ecotype of M. oleifera based on morphology and leaf anatomy to ...

  12. Complete mitochondrial genome phylogeographic analysis of killer whales (Orcinus orca) indicates multiple species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Phillip A; Archer, Frederick I; Foote, Andrew D; Vilstrup, Julia; Allen, Eric E; Wade, Paul; Durban, John; Parsons, Kim; Pitman, Robert; Li, Lewyn; Bouffard, Pascal; Abel Nielsen, Sandra C; Rasmussen, Morten; Willerslev, Eske; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Harkins, Timothy

    2010-07-01

    Killer whales (Orcinus orca) currently comprise a single, cosmopolitan species with a diverse diet. However, studies over the last 30 yr have revealed populations of sympatric "ecotypes" with discrete prey preferences, morphology, and behaviors. Although these ecotypes avoid social interactions and are not known to interbreed, genetic studies to date have found extremely low levels of diversity in the mitochondrial control region, and few clear phylogeographic patterns worldwide. This low level of diversity is likely due to low mitochondrial mutation rates that are common to cetaceans. Using killer whales as a case study, we have developed a method to readily sequence, assemble, and analyze complete mitochondrial genomes from large numbers of samples to more accurately assess phylogeography and estimate divergence times. This represents an important tool for wildlife management, not only for killer whales but for many marine taxa. We used high-throughput sequencing to survey whole mitochondrial genome variation of 139 samples from the North Pacific, North Atlantic, and southern oceans. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that each of the known ecotypes represents a strongly supported clade with divergence times ranging from approximately 150,000 to 700,000 yr ago. We recommend that three named ecotypes be elevated to full species, and that the remaining types be recognized as subspecies pending additional data. Establishing appropriate taxonomic designations will greatly aid in understanding the ecological impacts and conservation needs of these important marine predators. We predict that phylogeographic mitogenomics will become an important tool for improved statistical phylogeography and more precise estimates of divergence times.

  13. Gene-culture coevolution in whales and dolphins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Hal

    2017-07-24

    Whales and dolphins (Cetacea) have excellent social learning skills as well as a long and strong mother-calf bond. These features produce stable cultures, and, in some species, sympatric groups with different cultures. There is evidence and speculation that this cultural transmission of behavior has affected gene distributions. Culture seems to have driven killer whales into distinct ecotypes, which may be incipient species or subspecies. There are ecotype-specific signals of selection in functional genes that correspond to cultural foraging behavior and habitat use by the different ecotypes. The five species of whale with matrilineal social systems have remarkably low diversity of mtDNA. Cultural hitchhiking, the transmission of functionally neutral genes in parallel with selective cultural traits, is a plausible hypothesis for this low diversity, especially in sperm whales. In killer whales the ecotype divisions, together with founding bottlenecks, selection, and cultural hitchhiking, likely explain the low mtDNA diversity. Several cetacean species show habitat-specific distributions of mtDNA haplotypes, probably the result of mother-offspring cultural transmission of migration routes or destinations. In bottlenose dolphins, remarkable small-scale differences in haplotype distribution result from maternal cultural transmission of foraging methods, and large-scale redistributions of sperm whale cultural clans in the Pacific have likely changed mitochondrial genetic geography. With the acceleration of genomics new results should come fast, but understanding gene-culture coevolution will be hampered by the measured pace of research on the socio-cultural side of cetacean biology.

  14. Gene–culture coevolution in whales and dolphins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Hal

    2017-01-01

    Whales and dolphins (Cetacea) have excellent social learning skills as well as a long and strong mother–calf bond. These features produce stable cultures, and, in some species, sympatric groups with different cultures. There is evidence and speculation that this cultural transmission of behavior has affected gene distributions. Culture seems to have driven killer whales into distinct ecotypes, which may be incipient species or subspecies. There are ecotype-specific signals of selection in functional genes that correspond to cultural foraging behavior and habitat use by the different ecotypes. The five species of whale with matrilineal social systems have remarkably low diversity of mtDNA. Cultural hitchhiking, the transmission of functionally neutral genes in parallel with selective cultural traits, is a plausible hypothesis for this low diversity, especially in sperm whales. In killer whales the ecotype divisions, together with founding bottlenecks, selection, and cultural hitchhiking, likely explain the low mtDNA diversity. Several cetacean species show habitat-specific distributions of mtDNA haplotypes, probably the result of mother–offspring cultural transmission of migration routes or destinations. In bottlenose dolphins, remarkable small-scale differences in haplotype distribution result from maternal cultural transmission of foraging methods, and large-scale redistributions of sperm whale cultural clans in the Pacific have likely changed mitochondrial genetic geography. With the acceleration of genomics new results should come fast, but understanding gene–culture coevolution will be hampered by the measured pace of research on the socio-cultural side of cetacean biology. PMID:28739936

  15. Nutritional characterization of Moringa (Moringa oleifera Lam.) leaves

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-10-05

    Oct 5, 2011 ... Moringa (Moringa oleifera Lam. moringaceae) is a highly valued plant that is mostly cultivated in the tropics and subtropics. It is used for food, medication and industrial purposes. The objective of the study was to assess the nutritional value of Moringa leaves of the South African ecotype. Proximate and.

  16. Effects of plant growth promoting bacteria and mycorrhizal on Capsicum annuum L. var. aviculare ([Dierbach] D'Arcy and Eshbaugh) germination under stressing abiotic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueda-Puente, Edgar Omar; Murillo-Amador, Bernardo; Castellanos-Cervantes, T; García-Hernández, José Luís; Tarazòn-Herrera, Mario Antonio; Moreno Medina, Salomòn; Gerlach Barrera, Luis Ernesto

    2010-08-01

    Capsicum annuum var. aviculare to Tarahumara and Papago Indians and farmers of Sonora desert is a promising biological and commercial value as a natural resource from arid and semiarid coastal zones. Traditionally, apply synthetic fertilizers to compensate for soil nitrogen deficiency. However, indiscriminate use of these fertilizers might increase salinity. The inoculation by plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB) and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) represents an alternative as potential bio fertilizer resources for salty areas. Seeds ecotypes from four areas of Sonora desert (Mazocahui, Baviacora, Arizpe, La Tortuga), in order to inoculate them with one species of PGPB and AMF. Two germination tests were carried out to study the effect of salinity, temperature regime (night/day) and inoculation with PGPB and AMF growth factors measured on germination (percentage and rate), plant height, root length, and produced biomass (fresh and dry matter). The results indicated that from four studied ecotypes, Mazocahui was the most outstanding of all, showing the highest germination under saline and non-saline conditions. However, the PGPB and AMF influenced the others variables evaluated. This study is the first step to obtain an ideal ecotype of C. a. var. aviculare, which grows in the northwest of México and promoting this type of microorganisms as an efficient and reliable biological product. Studies of the association of PGPB and AMF with the C. a. var. aviculare-Mazocahui ecotype are recommended to determine the extent to which these observations can be reproduced under field conditions. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Natural genetic resources of Arabidopsis thaliana reveal a high prevalence and unexpected phenotypic plasticity of RPW8-mediated powdery mildew resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gollner, K.; Schweizer, P.; Bai, Y.; Panstruga, R.

    2008-01-01

    Here, an approach based on natural genetic variation was adopted to analyse powdery mildew resistance in Arabidopsis thaliana. ¿ Accessions resistant to multiple powdery mildew species were crossed with the susceptible Col-0 ecotype and inheritance of resistance was analysed. Histochemical staining

  18. Physiological basis for allelopathic potential of different wheat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The relationship between fluorescence kinetics and allelopathic expression of four winter-wheat ecotypes in heading period was discussed. With the breeding history from No. 1 Bima, No. 3 Fengchan, No. 1 Ningdong to No 22 Xiaoyan and agronomic properties of winter wheat like thousand seed weight and yield, etc ...

  19. Sodium nitroprusside (SNP) alleviates the oxidative stress induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-04-03

    Apr 3, 2012 ... and antioxidant properties of domesticated and 3 wild ecotype forms of raspberries (Rubus idaeus L.). J. Food Sci. 76: 585-593. Hao G, Du X, Zho F, Shi R, Wang J (2009). Role of nitric oxide in UV-B- induced activation of PAL and stimulation of flavonoid biosynthesis in. Ginkgo biloba callus. Plant Cell Tiss.

  20. Reference: 113 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available opsis (ecotype C24), named sto1 (salt tolerant), that results in enhanced germination on both ionic (NaCl) and nonion...is at least partially independent of signals that mediate nonionic osmotic responses. Uncoupling the effects