WorldWideScience

Sample records for nettle ecotype weerselo

  1. Phenolic Compounds Analysis of Root, Stalk, and Leaves of Nettle

    OpenAIRE

    Otles, Semih; Yalcin, Buket

    2012-01-01

    Types of nettles (Urtica dioica) were collected from different regions to analyze phenolic compounds in this research. Nettles are specially grown in the coastal part. According to this kind of properties, nettle samples were collected from coastal part of (Mediterranean, Aegean, Black sea, and Marmara) Turkey. Phenolic profile, total phenol compounds, and antioxidant activities of nettle samples were analyzed. Nettles were separated to the part of root, stalk, and leaves. Then, these parts ...

  2. Characterization of Urtica dioica agglutinin isolectins and the encoding gene family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Does, M P; Ng, D K; Dekker, H L; Peumans, W J; Houterman, P M; Van Damme, E J; Cornelissen, B J

    1999-01-01

    Urtica dioica agglutinin (UDA) has previously been found in roots and rhizomes of stinging nettles as a mixture of UDA-isolectins. Protein and cDNA sequencing have shown that mature UDA is composed of two hevein domains and is processed from a precursor protein. The precursor contains a signal peptide, two in-tandem hevein domains, a hinge region and a carboxyl-terminal chitinase domain. Genomic fragments encoding precursors for UDA-isolectins have been amplified by five independent polymerase chain reactions on genomic DNA from stinging nettle ecotype Weerselo. One amplified gene was completely sequenced. As compared to the published cDNA sequence, the genomic sequence contains, besides two basepair substitutions, two introns located at the same positions as in other plant chitinases. By partial sequence analysis of 40 amplified genes, 16 different genes were identified which encode seven putative UDA-isolectins. The deduced amino acid sequences share 78.9-98.9% identity. In extracts of roots and rhizomes of stinging nettle ecotype Weerselo six out of these seven isolectins were detected by mass spectrometry. One of them is an acidic form, which has not been identified before. Our results demonstrate that UDA is encoded by a large gene family.

  3. Phenolic Compounds Analysis of Root, Stalk, and Leaves of Nettle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semih Otles

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Types of nettles (Urtica dioica were collected from different regions to analyze phenolic compounds in this research. Nettles are specially grown in the coastal part. According to this kind of properties, nettle samples were collected from coastal part of (Mediterranean, Aegean, Black sea, and Marmara Turkey. Phenolic profile, total phenol compounds, and antioxidant activities of nettle samples were analyzed. Nettles were separated to the part of root, stalk, and leaves. Then, these parts of nettle were analyzed to understand the difference of phenolic compounds and amount of them. Nettle (root, stalk and leaves samples were analyzed by using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography with Diode-Array Detection (HPLC-DAD to qualitative and quantitative determination of the phenolic compounds. Total phenolic components were measured by using Folin-Ciocalteu method. The antioxidant activity was measured by using DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl which is generally used for herbal samples and based on single electron transfer (SET.

  4. Phenolic compounds analysis of root, stalk, and leaves of nettle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otles, Semih; Yalcin, Buket

    2012-01-01

    Types of nettles (Urtica dioica) were collected from different regions to analyze phenolic compounds in this research. Nettles are specially grown in the coastal part. According to this kind of properties, nettle samples were collected from coastal part of (Mediterranean, Aegean, Black sea, and Marmara) Turkey. Phenolic profile, total phenol compounds, and antioxidant activities of nettle samples were analyzed. Nettles were separated to the part of root, stalk, and leaves. Then, these parts of nettle were analyzed to understand the difference of phenolic compounds and amount of them. Nettle (root, stalk and leaves) samples were analyzed by using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography with Diode-Array Detection (HPLC-DAD) to qualitative and quantitative determination of the phenolic compounds. Total phenolic components were measured by using Folin-Ciocalteu method. The antioxidant activity was measured by using DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) which is generally used for herbal samples and based on single electron transfer (SET).

  5. Dispersal of Beauveria bassiana by the activity of nettle insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyling, Nicolai V; Pell, Judith K; Eilenberg, Jørgen

    2006-10-01

    Recent studies have shown that the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana occurs naturally on the phylloplanes of several plants, including nettles. Insects could, by their activity, be contributing to this inoculum by dispersing it from other sites. The potential of nettle aphids Microlophium carnosum and their predator Anthocoris nemorum to disperse conidia of B. bassiana from soil to nettles and from sporulating cadavers in the nettle canopy was investigated in laboratory experiments. In petri dish assays, aphids showed potential to distribute B. bassiana from soil to nettle leaves. Predators dispersed inoculum from both soil and cadavers to nettle leaves in petri dishes. In microcosms, aphids did not disperse B. bassiana from the soil or from cadavers confined in the canopy, but A. nemorum were able to transfer inoculum from soil into the nettle canopy and to distribute conidia from cryptic cadavers. In some instances, infections were initiated in aphids and predators as a consequence of dispersal.

  6. Phenolic Compounds Analysis of Root, Stalk, and Leaves of Nettle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otles, Semih; Yalcin, Buket

    2012-01-01

    Types of nettles (Urtica dioica) were collected from different regions to analyze phenolic compounds in this research. Nettles are specially grown in the coastal part. According to this kind of properties, nettle samples were collected from coastal part of (Mediterranean, Aegean, Black sea, and Marmara) Turkey. Phenolic profile, total phenol compounds, and antioxidant activities of nettle samples were analyzed. Nettles were separated to the part of root, stalk, and leaves. Then, these parts of nettle were analyzed to understand the difference of phenolic compounds and amount of them. Nettle (root, stalk and leaves) samples were analyzed by using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography with Diode-Array Detection (HPLC-DAD) to qualitative and quantitative determination of the phenolic compounds. Total phenolic components were measured by using Folin-Ciocalteu method. The antioxidant activity was measured by using DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) which is generally used for herbal samples and based on single electron transfer (SET). PMID:22593694

  7. Nettle Fibers as a Potential Natural Raw Material for Textile in Latvia

    OpenAIRE

    Baltiņa, I; Lapsa, L; Jankauskiene, Z; Gruzdeviene, E

    2012-01-01

    In Europe, attention is devoted to the methods of obtaining nettle fibers for technical textiles. Several new nettle plant clones have been created. From wild nettles they differ in the higher number of fibers. The nettle can be grown for 10 – 15 years in one place without much care. The wild nettle grows in Latvia very well. Therefore, the task has been to determine the possibility of cultivating nettle in Latvia for fiber needs. It has been determined that the obtained ...

  8. INVESTIGATION OF STINGING NETTLE (URTICA DIOICA L.) IN LITHUANIA

    OpenAIRE

    Jankauskienė, Zofija; Gruzdevienė, Elvyra

    2010-01-01

    Fiber nettle is a cultivated form of the wild nettle and could become a renewable recourse of natural fibres in Lithuania. The aim of research was to investigate propagation ability (shoot rooting) of stinging nettle, investigate influence of different crop density on plant biometrical indices, productivity. The investigation was carried out at the Upytė Research Station of LIA in 2008-2009. The shoots of stinging nettle were cut into segments, the top part of the stem and the segments of the...

  9. Investigation of Mechanical Behavior of Nettle Filled Hybrid Composites of Nettle Fiber-Hazelnut Shell

    OpenAIRE

    Kenan BÜYÜKKAYA

    2017-01-01

    Polymer beam specimens produced with reinforcement of nettle fiber and fixed nut hazelnut flour at different volume ratios were opened initial notches with a / W = 0.2, 0.3 ratios after thermal curing. The volume percentage of nettle fiber in the composite is 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10 percent. The grain size of hazelnut shell flour is 0-50μ and the volume ratio in the composite is 15% in all samples. Mode I fracture behaviors of compacted specimens from single sides, compact tensile and mechanical ...

  10. Genetic variation between ecotypic populations of Chloris ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic variation between ecotypic populations of Chloris roxburghiana grass detected through RAPD analysis. ... frequency indicated that the four populations of C. roxburghiana were genetically distinct, probably as a result of variation in soil fertility, geographical isolation and socio-ecological history of the study sites.

  11. Study of stinging nettle (urtica dioica l.) Fibers reinforced green composite materials : a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agus Suryawan, I. G. P.; Suardana, N. P. G.; Suprapta Winaya, I. N.; Budiarsa Suyasa, I. W.; Tirta Nindhia, T. G.

    2017-05-01

    Stinging Nettle (Urtica dioica L., latin) is a wild plant that grows in Indonesia, Asia, and Europe. Nettle in Bali, Indonesia is called as Lateng, Jelatang. Nettle plant has a very strong fiber and high fixed carbon. Nettle plants are covered with fine hairs, especially in the leaves and stems. When it is touched, it will release chemicals, sting and trigger inflammation that causes redness, itching, bumps and irritation to the skin. Nettle plants grow in the wild, regarded as a weed in the agricultural industry, easy to grow and snatch food from the parent plant. The main objective of this paper is to review of the potential nettle fibers and then explain about the potential of local nettle plant in Indonesia. Nettle is a plant group at the end of bast. Its plant fibers taken from the bark, as reinforcement in composite materials. Nettle fibers have three main advantages such as strong, lightweight and low environmental impact.

  12. Masters of defence: biomechanics of stinging nettles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Kaare H.; Knoblauch, Jan

    2017-11-01

    The techniques employed by plants and animals to defend themselves are very varied. Some involve extremely refined armaments. Stinging nettles employ hollow needle-like stinging hairs constructed from silica, the mineral from which we make glass, and they are filled with poison. The hairs are remarkably rigid and rarely break. Yet the tip is so sharp that the slightest touch cuts human skin, and so fragile that it breaks at that touch and releases poison into the wound. How the seemingly antagonist mechanical functions of rigidity and fragility are achieved, however, is unknown. We combine experiments on real and synthetic stingers to elucidate the poison injection mechanism. The design of plant stingers is compared to other natural systems and optimal stinging strategies are discussed. This work was supported by a research Grant (13166) from VILLUM FONDEN.

  13. Specific activity of radionuclides in technological processing of nettle (urtica) for food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanova, T.N.; Odintsov, Yu.A.; Zakharchenko, G.A.; Chernikov, S.A.

    1996-01-01

    Possibility of using nettle (urtica) for food in the regions, contaminated after the Chernobyl accident, is studied. Clear dependence of 137 Cs transport from the soil into the nettle is not determined even in the regions with high density of soil contamination. It is established that nettle wetting during one hour in water completely relieves it from 137 Cs. It is recommended to use the nettle as source material of biologically active substances for nutrition purposes. 6 refs

  14. Gynaecomastia in a man and hyperoestrogenism in a woman due to ingestion of nettle (Urtica dioica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Mustafa; Yilmaz, Hamiyet; Gursoy, Alptekin; Demirel, Asli Nar; Tutuncu, Neslihan Bascil; Guvener, Nilgun Demirag

    2007-11-09

    Nettle (Urtica dioica) is commonly sold as a herbal tea in Turkey. We report a case of gynaecomastia in a man (in which the only aetiologic factor identified was nettle tea consumption) and a case of galactorrhoea in a woman (in which the only aetiologic factor identified was also nettle tea ingestion).

  15. Investigation of Mechanical Behavior of Nettle Filled Hybrid Composites of Nettle Fiber-Hazelnut Shell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenan BÜYÜKKAYA

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Polymer beam specimens produced with reinforcement of nettle fiber and fixed nut hazelnut flour at different volume ratios were opened initial notches with a / W = 0.2, 0.3 ratios after thermal curing. The volume percentage of nettle fiber in the composite is 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10 percent. The grain size of hazelnut shell flour is 0-50μ and the volume ratio in the composite is 15% in all samples. Mode I fracture behaviors of compacted specimens from single sides, compact tensile and mechanical behavior were determined by three point bending test and impact test. The amount of crack opening was determined by the high-speed camera recorder. The bending test determined bending modulus and bending stresses. The morphological structure of the fractured surfaces obtained from the impulse test was revealed by sem views. It has been observed that the added hazelnut flour enhances the flexural modulus while reducing bending stress, fracture strength and impact resistance

  16. Model of two infectious diseases in nettle caterpillar population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firdausi, F. Z.; Nuraini, N.

    2016-04-01

    Palm oil is a vital commodity to the economy of Indonesia. The area of oil palm plantations in Indonesia has increased from year to year. However, the effectiveness of palm oil production is reduced by pest infestation. One of the pest which often infests oil palm plantations is nettle caterpillar. The pest control used in this study is biological control, viz. biological agents given to oil palm trees. This paper describes a mathematical model of two infectious diseases in nettle caterpillar population. The two infectious diseases arise due to two biological agents, namely Bacillus thuringiensis bacterium and parasite which usually attack nettle caterpillars. The derivation of the model constructed in this paper is obtained from ordinary differential equations without time delay. The equilibrium points are analyzed. Two of three equilibrium points are stable if the Routh-Hurwitz criteria are fulfilled. In addition, this paper also presents the numerical simulation of the model which has been constructed.

  17. Morphological features of indigenous chicken ecotype populations of Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ngeno, K.; Waaij, van der E.H.; Kahi, A.K.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    2014-01-01

    This study characterized indigenous chicken (IC) ecotypes morphologically. Five IC ecotypes studied were Kakamega (KK), Siaya (BN), West Pokot (WP), Narok (NR) and Bomet (BM). Data on morphological features were collected from 1 580 chickens and 151 for zoometric measurements. Descriptive

  18. The evaluation of four Eragrostis curvula ecotypes with grazing sheep.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There were no significant differences in the dry matter production and chemical composition of the clipped samples of the ecotypes. Keywords: afrikaans; chemical composition; dry matter production; ecotypes; eragrostis curvula; grazing; live mass; live mass gains; open rotational grazing system; production; sheep; south ...

  19. Varied growth response of cogongrass ecotypes to elevated CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Brett Runion

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cogongrass [Imperata cylindrica (L. P. Beauv] is an invasive C4 perennial grass which is listed as one of the top ten worst weeds in the world and is a major problem in the Southeast US. Five cogongrass ecotypes (Florida, Hybrid, Louisiana, Mobile, and North Alabama collected across the Southeast and a red-tip ornamental variety were container grown for six months in open top chambers under ambient and elevated (ambient plus 200 ppm atmospheric CO2. Elevated CO2 increased average dry weight (13% which is typical for grasses. Elevated CO2 increased height growth and both nitrogen and water use efficiencies, but lowered tissue nitrogen concentration; again, these are typical plant responses to elevated CO2. The hybrid ecotype tended to exhibit the greatest growth (followed by Louisiana, North Alabama, and Florida ecotypes while the red-tip and Mobile ecotypes were smallest. Interactions of CO2 with ecotype generally showed that the hybrid, Louisiana, Florida, and/or North Alabama ecotypes showed a positive response to CO2 while the Mobile and red-tip ecotypes did not. Cogongrass is a problematic invasive weed in the southeastern U.S. and some ecotypes may become more so as atmospheric CO2 continues to rise.

  20. An experimental study of nettle feeding in captive gorillas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennie, Claudio; Hedwig, Daniela; Call, Josep; Tomasello, Michael

    2008-06-01

    Mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei) in Karisoke, Rwanda, feed on the stinging nettle Laportea alatipes by means of elaborate processing skills. Byrne [e.g. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Series B, Biological Sciences 358:529-536, 2003] has claimed that individuals acquire these skills by means of the so-called program-level imitation, in which the overall sequence of problem-solving steps (not the precise actions) is reproduced. In this study we present western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) with highly similar nettles. Twelve gorillas in three different groups (including also one nettle-naïve gorilla) used the same program-level technique as wild mountain gorillas (with differences mainly on the action level). Chimpanzees, orangutans, and bonobos did not show these program-level patterns, nor did the gorillas when presented with a plant similar in structural design but lacking stinging defenses. We conclude that although certain aspects (i.e. single actions) of this complex skill may be owing to social learning, at the program level gorilla nettle feeding derives mostly from genetic predispositions and individual learning of plant affordances. Copyright 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Genetic diversity of indigenous chicken ecotypes in Jordan

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2010-10-11

    Oct 11, 2010 ... DNA polymorphism of 4 indigenous chicken ecotypes was assessed in Jordan using random amplified ... Such technology is random amplified polymorphic DNA. (RAPD) ..... ping from genetics lab for animal and plant at MU.

  2. Effect of Nettle Root Extract on Folliculogenesis and Estrogen and Progesterone Hormones in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Hossein Kargar Jahromi; Hojatollah Karimi Jashni

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective: nettle is an herbaceous perennial plant, which has been used as a source of medicine since ancient times. It is reported that lignan, sterols, flavonoids, poly-saccharides, lectins, and fatty acids are responsible for pharmacological effects of nettle. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of hydro alcoholic extract of nettle on folliculogenesis as well as estrogen and progesterone hormones in rats. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 3...

  3. A deterministic model of nettle caterpillar life cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syukriyah, Y.; Nuraini, N.; Handayani, D.

    2018-03-01

    Palm oil is an excellent product in the plantation sector in Indonesia. The level of palm oil productivity is very potential to increase every year. However, the level of palm oil productivity is lower than its potential. Pests and diseases are the main factors that can reduce production levels by up to 40%. The existence of pests in plants can be caused by various factors, so the anticipation in controlling pest attacks should be prepared as early as possible. Caterpillars are the main pests in oil palm. The nettle caterpillars are leaf eaters that can significantly decrease palm productivity. We construct a deterministic model that describes the life cycle of the caterpillar and its mitigation by using a caterpillar predator. The equilibrium points of the model are analyzed. The numerical simulations are constructed to give a representation how the predator as the natural enemies affects the nettle caterpillar life cycle.

  4. Stinging Nettle: the Bad, the Good, the Unknown

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis J. Baumgardner

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica is native to most of the United States. It has a characteristic description and distribution in the environment. Physical contact with numerous tiny needlelike hairs present on leaves and stems of this plant may result in a contact urticarial dermatitis due to chemical and mechanical irritation triggered by skin penetration of the hairs. The manifestations are self-limited in humans and may be treated by washing the skin, topical preparations and oral antihistamines. Explanation of the natural history of these encounters to the patient is helpful in reducing the sometimes significant anxiety. Preparations and extracts of stinging nettle have been proposed for treatment of a variety of inflammatory and other disorders including osteoarthritis, benign prostatic hypertrophy, allergic rhinitis and asthma, bleeding problems and diabetes. While in vitro studies have shown that stinging nettle possesses a number of potentially beneficial anti-inflammatory and modulating properties, beneficial effects have often not been confirmed by well-designed clinical trials. Further study, perhaps with novel types of extracts, are needed to determine the clinical utility of this plant in human inflammatory-related conditions and diabetes mellitus.

  5. The distribution of macronutrients, anti-nutrients and essential elements in nettles, Laportea peduncularis susp. peduncularis (River nettle) and Urtica dioica (Stinging nettle).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahlangeni, Nomfundo T; Moodley, Roshila; Jonnalagadda, Sreekantha B

    2016-01-01

    Laportea peduncularis and Urtica dioica, which are popularly known as "Nettles" belong to the plant family Urticaceae and are consumed as green vegetables or used for their medicinal benefit in many countries in Africa, Asia, Europe and America. This study aimed at investigating the effect of cooking on the macronutrient, anti-nutrient and elemental composition of L. peduncularis and U. dioica leaves. The results showed a decrease in the crude fat, ash, carbohydrate and vitamin C content with cooking, but an increase in the vitamin E content. The anti-nutrient content (cyanides, phytates and saponins) increased slightly with cooking, while the oxalate content has decreased. The concentration of essential elements in cooked L. peduncularis leaves were found to be in decreasing order of Ca > Mg > Fe > Mn > Zn > Cu > Cr > Ni > Co. Both raw and cooked leaves of nettles were found to be rich sources of macronutrients and essential elements and may be used as alternatives to commercially available nutrient supplements. Statistical analyses (principal component analysis and correlations) indicated that certain elements taken up by these plants were from common sources. Both positive and negative relationships between nutrients, anti-nutrients and elements were observed in the plant leaves.

  6. Forecasting system predicts presence of sea nettles in Chesapeake Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Christopher W.; Hood, Raleigh R.; Li, Zhen; Decker, Mary Beth; Gross, Thomas F.; Purcell, Jennifer E.; Wang, Harry V.

    Outbreaks of noxious biota, which occur in both aquatic and terrestrial systems, can have considerable negative economic impacts. For example, an increasing frequency of harmful algal blooms worldwide has negatively affected the tourism industry in many regions. Such impacts could be mitigated if the conditions that give rise to these outbreaks were known and could be monitored. Recent advances in technology and communications allow us to continuously measure and model many environmental factors that are responsible for outbreaks of certain noxious organisms. A new prototype ecological forecasting system predicts the likelihood of occurrence of the sea nettle (Chrysaora quinquecirrha), a stinging jellyfish, in the Chesapeake Bay.

  7. Genetic structure among the local chicken ecotypes of Tanzania ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to evaluate the genetic structure of local chicken ecotypes of Tanzania using 20 polymorphic microsatellite DNA markers. A standard PCR was followed by manual genotyping (6% native polyacrylamide gel visualized by silver staining). Phylogenetic analysis of 13 individuals from each of the nine ...

  8. Asymmetric impacts of two herbivore ecotypes on similar host plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecotypes may arise following allopatric separation from source populations. The simultaneous transfer of an exotic plant to a novel environment, along with its stenophagous herbivore, may complicate more traditional patterns of divergence from the plant and insect source populations. We evaluated ...

  9. Varied growth response of cogongrass ecotypes to elevated CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogongrass [Imperata cylindrica (L.) P. Beauv] is an invasive C4 perennial grass which is listed as one of the top ten worst weeds in the world and is a major problem in the Southeast US. Five cogongrass ecotypes (Florida, Hybrid, Louisiana, Mobile, and North Alabama) collected across the Southeast ...

  10. Genetic variations between two ecotypes of Egyptian clover by inter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aghomotsegin

    2015-06-10

    Jun 10, 2015 ... Four Egyptian clover (Trifolium alexandrinum L) cultivars representing two ecotypes were used in the present study. Fahl cultivar is prevalent in whole Egypt and is good for single cut as it has poor regeneration ability, whereas Serw1, Giza6 and Gemmiza1 give 5-6 cuts of good fodder. Techniques based ...

  11. Switchgrass ecotypes alter microbial contribution to deep-soil C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roosendaal, Damaris; Stewart, Catherine E.; Denef, Karolien; Follett, Ronald F.; Pruessner, Elizabeth; Comas, Louise H.; Varvel, Gary E.; Saathoff, Aaron; Palmer, Nathan; Sarath, Gautam; Jin, Virginia L.; Schmer, Marty; Soundararajan, Madhavan

    2016-05-01

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is a C4, perennial grass that is being developed as a bioenergy crop for the United States. While aboveground biomass production is well documented for switchgrass ecotypes (lowland, upland), little is known about the impact of plant belowground productivity on microbial communities down deep in the soil profiles. Microbial dynamics in deeper soils are likely to exert considerable control on ecosystem services, including C and nutrient cycles, due to their involvement in such processes as soil formation and ecosystem biogeochemistry. Differences in root biomass and rooting characteristics of switchgrass ecotypes could lead to distinct differences in belowground microbial biomass and microbial community composition. We quantified root abundance and root architecture and the associated microbial abundance, composition, and rhizodeposit C uptake for two switchgrass ecotypes using stable-isotope probing of microbial phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) after 13CO2 pulse-chase labeling. Kanlow, a lowland ecotype with thicker roots, had greater plant biomass above- and belowground (g m-2), greater root mass density (mg cm-3), and lower specific root length (m g-1) compared to Summer, an upland ecotype with finer root architecture. The relative abundance of bacterial biomarkers dominated microbial PLFA profiles for soils under both Kanlow and Summer (55.4 and 53.5 %, respectively; P = 0.0367), with differences attributable to a greater relative abundance of Gram-negative bacteria in soils under Kanlow (18.1 %) compared to soils under Summer (16.3 %; P = 0.0455). The two ecotypes also had distinctly different microbial communities process rhizodeposit C: greater relative atom % 13C excess in Gram-negative bacteria (44.1 ± 2.3 %) under the thicker roots of Kanlow and greater relative atom % 13C excess in saprotrophic fungi under the thinner roots of Summer (48.5 ± 2.2 %). For bioenergy production systems, variation between switchgrass

  12. Mineral Properties and Dietary Value of Raw and Processed Stinging Nettle (Urtica dioica L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Rutto, Laban K.; Xu, Yixiang; Ramirez, Elizabeth; Brandt, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L.) has a long history of usage and is currently receiving attention as a source of fiber and alternative medicine. In many cultures, nettle is also eaten as a leafy vegetable. In this study, we focused on nettle yield (edible portion) and processing effects on nutritive and dietary properties. Actively growing shoots were harvested from field plots and leaves separated from stems. Leaf portions (200 g) were washed and processed by blanching (1 min at 96–98°C) o...

  13. [Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L.)--botanical characteristics, biochemical composition and health benefits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubczyk, Karolina; Janda, Katarzyna; Szkyrpan, Sylwia; Gutowska, Izabela; Wolska, Jolanta

    2015-01-01

    Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L.) belongs to the family Urticaceae. It grows in the wild form in Asia, Europe, North America and North Africa. Stinging nettle is also a widespread ruderal plant found in Poland. Urtica dioica L., as a plant rich in biologically active compounds, is considered one of the most important plants used in phytotherapy. In vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated its antioxidant, antiplatelet, hypoglycaemic and hypocholesterolemic properties. Research conducted in recent years indicates the possibility of using nettle in chemoprevention, diabetes, benign prostatic hyperplasia and urologic diseases.

  14. Effect of nettle (Urtica dioica extract on gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity in male rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Abdulkarim Salih

    2015-09-01

    Conclusions: Therefore, it can be assumed that the nephroprotective effect shown by nettle in gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity can reserve intracellular levels of biological pathways and supportively enhance excretion of toxic levels of gentamicin.

  15. Accumulation and tolerance of lead in two contrasting ecotypes of Dianthus carthusianorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wójcik, Małgorzata; Tukiendorf, Anna

    2014-04-01

    Dianthus carthusianorum is one of the dominant plant species colonising the Zn-Pb waste deposits in Bolesław, Southern Poland. It differs in terms of morphology and genetics from ecotypes inhabiting non-metal-polluted areas. The response of waste-heap (metallicolous, M) and reference (nonmetallicolous, NM) ecotypes of D. carthusianorum to Pb in hydroponics was investigated and compared in this study. The plants of the M ecotype were more tolerant to Pb than these of the NM ecotype in spite of accumulation of higher concentrations of Pb. In both ecotypes, about 70-78% of Pb was retained in roots. In non Pb-treated plants, a higher glutathione (GSH) level was found in the M ecotype. After the Pb exposure, the GSH level decreased and was similar in both ecotypes. Lead treatment induced synthesis of phytochelatins (PCs) only in the plant roots, with significantly higher concentrations thereof detected in the NM ecotype. Malate and citrate concentrations were higher in the M ecotype; however, they did not change significantly upon any Pb treatment in either ecotype. The results indicated that neither PCs nor organic acids were responsible for the enhanced Pb tolerance of the waste-heap plants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Cadmium Induced Changes of Proline in Two Ecotypes of Thlaspi Caerulescens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zemanová V.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A Thlaspi caerulescens (J. & C. PRESL was used to study the effect of cadmium on the content of free amino acids and ability accumulation of Cd in ecotypes of this plant species. In pot experiment two ecotypes T. caerulescens were used: Ganges ecotype from France and Mežica ecotype from Slovenia. The plants were grown in soil (chernozem – Suchdol spiked with NPK and three different concentration of Cd: 30, 60 and 90 mg/kg. The content of Cd was measured in the above-ground biomass and roots using ICP-OES. Accumulation of Cd was higher in the Mežica ecotype in contrast to the low Cd-accumulating the Ganges ecotype. Analyses of free amino acids contents were measured by GC-MS method. The content of free amino acids in above-ground biomass of the Mežica ecotype declined progressively with increasing concentrations of Cd. Opposite trend was observed in roots of this ecotype. The increase of free amino acids contents in above-ground biomass and roots of the Ganges ecotype were detected. The results of specific amino acids free proline showed increased content in plant biomass with increasing Cd contamination of soil. A statistically significant increase was observed between control plants (0 mg/kg Cd and variant Cd3 (90 mg/kg Cd for both ecotypes. The statistically significant decrease of free proline was observed in the Mežica ecotype roots. Opposite trend was observed in roots of Ganges ecotype - increasing trend of free proline content. These results indicate a correlation between content of Cd and content of free proline in different parts of the plant. We can speculate that the mechanism of Cd hyperaccumulation and metabolism of free proline are not identical in ecotypes of this species.

  17. Antiproliferative effect on human prostate cancer cells by a stinging nettle root (Urtica dioica) extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konrad, L; Müller, H H; Lenz, C; Laubinger, H; Aumüller, G; Lichius, J J

    2000-02-01

    In the present study the activity of a 20% methanolic extract of stinging nettle roots (Urtica dioica L., Urticaceae) on the proliferative activity of human prostatic epithelial (LNCaP) and stromal (hPCPs) cells was evaluated using a colorimetric assay. A concentration-dependent and significant (p nettle roots observed both in an in vivo model and in an in vitro system clearly indicates a biologically relevant effect of compounds present in the extract.

  18. Effect of ecological surface treatment method on friction strength properties of nettle (urtica dioica) fibre yarns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şansal, S.; Mıstık, S. I.; Fettahov, R.; Ovalı, S.; Duman, M.

    2017-10-01

    Over the last few decades, more attention is given to lignocellulose based fibres as reinforcement material in the polymer composites owing to the environmental pollution caused by the extensive usage of synthetic and inorganic fibres. Developing new natural fibre reinforced composites is the focus of many researches nowadays. They are made from renewable resources and they have less environmental effect in comparison to inorganic fibre reinforced composites. The interest of consumers in eco-friendly natural fibres and textiles has increased in recent years. Unlike inorganic fibres, natural fibres present light weight, high strength/density ratio and are readily available, environmentally friendly and biodegradable. Many different types of natural fibres are exploited for the production of biodegradable polymer composites. The nettle (Urtica dioica L.) is a well-known plant growing on rural sites of Europe, Asia, and North America. Nettle plant contains fibre similar to hemp and flax. However, similar to other natural fibres, nettle fibres are poorly compatible with the thermoplastic matrix of composites, due to their hydrophilic character which reduces mechanical properties of nettle fibre reinforced thermoplastics. In order to improve the fibrematrix adhesion of the natural fibre reinforced composites, surface treatment processes are applied to the lignocellulose fibres. In this study nettle (urtica dioica) fibre yarns were treated with NaOH by using conventional, ultrasonic and microwave energy methods. After treatment processes tensile strength, elongation, friction strength and SEM observations of the nettle fibre yarns were investigated. All treatment processes were improved the tensile strength, elongation and friction strength properties of the nettle fibre yarns. Also higher tensile strength, elongation and friction strength properties were obtained from treated nettle fibre yarns which treated by using microwave energy method.

  19. Ecotypic variation in population dynamics of reintroduced bighorn sheep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleich, Vernon C.; Sargeant, Glen A.; Wiedmann, Brett P.

    2018-01-01

    Selection of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) for translocation historically has been motivated by preservation of subspecific purity rather than by adaptation of source stocks to similar environments. Our objective was to estimate cause‐specific, annual, and age‐specific mortality of introduced bighorn sheep that originated at low elevations in southern British Columbia, Canada (BC ecotype), or in the Missouri River Breaks region of central Montana, USA (MT ecotype). In North Dakota, USA, mortality was similar and typically low for adult female bighorn sheep from Montana (0.09 ± 0.029 [SE]) and British Columbia (0.08 ± 0.017) during 2000–2016. Median life expectancy was 11 years for females that reached adulthood (2 yrs old); however, mortality accelerated with age and reached 86% by age 16. Mortalities resulted primarily from low rates of predation, disease, accidents, and unknown natural causes (<0.04 [upper 90% CI]). Similar survival rates of female bighorn sheep from female bighorn sheep from British Columbia and Montana, coupled with greater recruitment of bighorn sheep from Montana, resulted in a greater projected rate of increase for the MT ecotype (λ = 1.21) than for the BC ecotype (1.02), and a more youthful age structure. These results support translocation of bighorn sheep from areas that are environmentally similar to areas that will be stocked. Potential benefits include more rapid population growth, greater resilience to and more rapid recovery from density‐independent losses, an increased possibility that rapidly growing populations will expand into adjacent habitat, increased hunter opportunity, increased connectivity among herds, and a more complete restoration of ecosystem processes.

  20. Ecotypic variation in population dynamics of reintroduced bighorn sheep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleich, Vernon C.; Sargeant, Glen A.; Wiedmann, Brett P.

    2018-01-01

    Selection of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) for translocation historically has been motivated by preservation of subspecific purity rather than by adaptation of source stocks to similar environments. Our objective was to estimate cause‐specific, annual, and age‐specific mortality of introduced bighorn sheep that originated at low elevations in southern British Columbia, Canada (BC ecotype), or in the Missouri River Breaks region of central Montana, USA (MT ecotype). In North Dakota, USA, mortality was similar and typically low for adult female bighorn sheep from Montana (0.09 ± 0.029 [SE]) and British Columbia (0.08 ± 0.017) during 2000–2016. Median life expectancy was 11 years for females that reached adulthood (2 yrs old); however, mortality accelerated with age and reached 86% by age 16. Mortalities resulted primarily from low rates of predation, disease, accidents, and unknown natural causes (recruitment of bighorn sheep from Montana, resulted in a greater projected rate of increase for the MT ecotype (λ = 1.21) than for the BC ecotype (1.02), and a more youthful age structure. These results support translocation of bighorn sheep from areas that are environmentally similar to areas that will be stocked. Potential benefits include more rapid population growth, greater resilience to and more rapid recovery from density‐independent losses, an increased possibility that rapidly growing populations will expand into adjacent habitat, increased hunter opportunity, increased connectivity among herds, and a more complete restoration of ecosystem processes.

  1. Distribution and diversity of Prochlorococcus ecotypes in the Red Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibl, Ahmed A; Thompson, Luke R; Ngugi, David K; Stingl, Ulrich

    2014-07-01

    Photosynthetic prokaryotes of the genus Prochlorococcus play a major role in global primary production in the world's oligotrophic oceans. A recent study on pelagic bacterioplankton communities in the northern and central Red Sea indicated that the predominant cyanobacterial 16S rRNA gene sequence types were from Prochlorococcus cells belonging to a high-light-adapted ecotype (HL II). In this study, we analyzed microdiversity of Prochlorococcus sp. at multiple depths within and below the euphotic zone in the northern, central, and southern regions of the Red Sea, as well as in surface waters in the same locations, but in a different season. Prochlorococcus dominated the communities in clone libraries of the amplified 16S-23S rRNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. Almost no differences were found between samples from coastal or open-water sites, but a high diversity of Prochlorococcus ecotypes was detected at 100-meter depth in the water column. In addition, an unusual dominance of HL II-related sequences was observed in deeper waters. Our results indicate that the Red Sea harbors diverse Prochlorococcus lineages, but no novel ecotypes, despite its unusual physicochemical properties. © 2014 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Distribution and diversity of Prochlorococcus ecotypes in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Shibl, Ahmed A.

    2014-06-19

    Photosynthetic prokaryotes of the genus Prochlorococcus play a major role in global primary production in the world\\'s oligotrophic oceans. A recent study on pelagic bacterioplankton communities in the northern and central Red Sea indicated that the predominant cyanobacterial 16S rRNA gene sequence types were from Prochlorococcus cells belonging to a high-light-adapted ecotype (HL II). In this study, we analyzed microdiversity of Prochlorococcus sp. at multiple depths within and below the euphotic zone in the northern, central, and southern regions of the Red Sea, as well as in surface waters in the same locations, but in a different season. Prochlorococcus dominated the communities in clone libraries of the amplified 16S-23S rRNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. Almost no differences were found between samples from coastal or open-water sites, but a high diversity of Prochlorococcus ecotypes was detected at 100-meter depth in the water column. In addition, an unusual dominance of HL II-related sequences was observed in deeper waters. Our results indicate that the Red Sea harbors diverse Prochlorococcus lineages, but no novel ecotypes, despite its unusual physicochemical properties. © 2014 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Distribution and diversity of Prochlorococcus ecotypes in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Shibl, Ahmed A.; Thompson, Luke R.; Ngugi, David; Stingl, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    Photosynthetic prokaryotes of the genus Prochlorococcus play a major role in global primary production in the world's oligotrophic oceans. A recent study on pelagic bacterioplankton communities in the northern and central Red Sea indicated that the predominant cyanobacterial 16S rRNA gene sequence types were from Prochlorococcus cells belonging to a high-light-adapted ecotype (HL II). In this study, we analyzed microdiversity of Prochlorococcus sp. at multiple depths within and below the euphotic zone in the northern, central, and southern regions of the Red Sea, as well as in surface waters in the same locations, but in a different season. Prochlorococcus dominated the communities in clone libraries of the amplified 16S-23S rRNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. Almost no differences were found between samples from coastal or open-water sites, but a high diversity of Prochlorococcus ecotypes was detected at 100-meter depth in the water column. In addition, an unusual dominance of HL II-related sequences was observed in deeper waters. Our results indicate that the Red Sea harbors diverse Prochlorococcus lineages, but no novel ecotypes, despite its unusual physicochemical properties. © 2014 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Acclimation of Swedish and Italian ecotypes of Arabidopsis thaliana to light intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Jared J; Polutchko, Stephanie K; Adams, William W; Demmig-Adams, Barbara

    2017-11-01

    This study addressed whether ecotypes of Arabidopsis thaliana from Sweden and Italy exhibited differences in foliar acclimation to high versus low growth light intensity, and compared CO 2 uptake under growth conditions with light- and CO 2 -saturated intrinsic photosynthetic capacity and leaf morphological and vascular features. Differential responses between ecotypes occurred mainly at the scale of leaf architecture, with thicker leaves with higher intrinsic photosynthetic capacities and chlorophyll contents per leaf area, but no difference in photosynthetic capacity on a chlorophyll basis, in high light-grown leaves of the Swedish versus the Italian ecotype. Greater intrinsic photosynthetic capacity per leaf area in the Swedish ecotype was accompanied by a greater capacity of vascular infrastructure for sugar and water transport, but this was not associated with greater CO 2 uptake rates under growth conditions. The Swedish ecotype with its thick leaves is thus constructed for high intrinsic photosynthetic and vascular flux capacity even under growth chamber conditions that may not permit full utilization of this potential. Conversely, the Swedish ecotype was less tolerant of low growth light intensity than the Italian ecotype, with smaller rosette areas and lesser aboveground biomass accumulation in low light-grown plants. Foliar vein density and stomatal density were both enhanced by high growth light intensity with no significant difference between ecotypes, and the ratio of water to sugar conduits was also similar between the two ecotypes during light acclimation. These findings add to the understanding of the foliar vasculature's role in plant photosynthetic acclimation and adaptation.

  5. Comparison of the spaceflight transcriptome of four commonly used Arabidopsis thaliana ecotypes

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This experiment compared the spaceflight transcriptomes of four commonly used natural variants (ecotypes) of Arabidopsis thaliana using RNAseq. In nature Arabidopsis...

  6. A comprehensive review on the stinging nettle effect and efficacy profiles. Part II: urticae radix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrubasik, Julia E; Roufogalis, Basil D; Wagner, Hildebert; Chrubasik, Sigrun

    2007-08-01

    Nettle root is recommended for complaints associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). We therefore conducted a comprehensive review of the literature to summarise the pharmacological and clinical effects of this plant material. Only a few components of the active principle have been identified and the mechanism of action is still unclear. It seems likely that sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), aromatase, epidermal growth factor and prostate steroid membrane receptors are involved in the anti-prostatic effect, but less likely that 5alpha-reductase or androgen receptors are involved. Extract and a polysaccharide fraction were shown to exert anti-inflammatory activity. A proprietary methanolic nettle root extract and particular fractions inhibited cell proliferation. Isolated lectins (UDA) were shown to be promising immunomodulatory agents, having also anti-viral and fungistatic effects. However, despite these in vitro studies it is unclear whether the in-vitro or animal data are a surrogate for clinical effects. The clinical evidence of effectiveness for nettle root in the treatment of BPH is based on many open studies. A small number of randomised controlled studies indicate that a proprietary methanolic extract is effective in improving BPH complaints. However, the significance and magnitude of the effect remains to be established in further confirmatory studies before nettle root treatment may be accepted in the guidelines for BPH treatment. The risk for adverse events during nettle root treatment is very low, as is its toxicity. Pre-clinical safety data remain to be completed.

  7. Biochemically Investigation of the Effects of Nettle Seed Herbal Mixture on Alcohol Damaged Liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. ÇELİK

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available It was experimentally investigated in this research how protective Nettle Seed Herbal Mixture is against ethanol which causes oxidative stress in rats and causes toxic effects in the liver with chronic use. 20 4-month-old female Wistar male rats were used in the study. All rats in the study were fed with normal pellet Mouse food during the experiment. 10 week application was done by dividing the rats into four equal groups. Application method is orally drinking method. First group is the control group. The second group is the alcohol group. This group was given 30% ethanol in order to cause chronic alcoholisms. The third group was the alcohol+ Nettle Seed Herbal Mixture group and the rats in this group were given liquid, which was 30% ethanol,+ Nettle Seed Herbal Mixture extract. Fourth group was Nettle Seed Herbal Mixture extract group and the rats in this group were given liquid, which was Nettle Seed Herbal Mixture extract. At the end of ten weeks, within the first 24 hours, blood species were obtained from the animals under anesthesia using appropriate techniques. Serum ALT and AST values of the obtained blood samples were studied by enzymatic methods in "Roche Cobas 6000" device.. Biochemically ALT and AST enzyme values and statistical analysis with SPSS programe were done. No significant difference was found between these four groups at the end of the analysis because p value was bigger than 0,005.

  8. Mineral Properties and Dietary Value of Raw and Processed Stinging Nettle (Urtica dioica L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yixiang; Ramirez, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L.) has a long history of usage and is currently receiving attention as a source of fiber and alternative medicine. In many cultures, nettle is also eaten as a leafy vegetable. In this study, we focused on nettle yield (edible portion) and processing effects on nutritive and dietary properties. Actively growing shoots were harvested from field plots and leaves separated from stems. Leaf portions (200 g) were washed and processed by blanching (1 min at 96–98°C) or cooking (7 min at 98-99°C) with or without salt (5 g·L−1). Samples were cooled immediately after cooking and kept in frozen storage before analysis. Proximate composition, mineral, amino acid, and vitamin contents were determined, and nutritive value was estimated based on 100 g serving portions in a 2000 calorie diet. Results show that processed nettle can supply 90%–100% of vitamin A (including vitamin A as β-carotene) and is a good source of dietary calcium, iron, and protein. We recommend fresh or processed nettle as a high-protein, low-calorie source of essential nutrients, minerals, and vitamins particularly in vegetarian, diabetic, or other specialized diets. PMID:26904610

  9. Mineral Properties and Dietary Value of Raw and Processed Stinging Nettle (Urtica dioica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laban K. Rutto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L. has a long history of usage and is currently receiving attention as a source of fiber and alternative medicine. In many cultures, nettle is also eaten as a leafy vegetable. In this study, we focused on nettle yield (edible portion and processing effects on nutritive and dietary properties. Actively growing shoots were harvested from field plots and leaves separated from stems. Leaf portions (200 g were washed and processed by blanching (1 min at 96–98°C or cooking (7 min at 98-99°C with or without salt (5 g·. Samples were cooled immediately after cooking and kept in frozen storage before analysis. Proximate composition, mineral, amino acid, and vitamin contents were determined, and nutritive value was estimated based on 100 g serving portions in a 2000 calorie diet. Results show that processed nettle can supply 90%–100% of vitamin A (including vitamin A as β-carotene and is a good source of dietary calcium, iron, and protein. We recommend fresh or processed nettle as a high-protein, low-calorie source of essential nutrients, minerals, and vitamins particularly in vegetarian, diabetic, or other specialized diets.

  10. Mineral Properties and Dietary Value of Raw and Processed Stinging Nettle (Urtica dioica L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutto, Laban K; Xu, Yixiang; Ramirez, Elizabeth; Brandt, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L.) has a long history of usage and is currently receiving attention as a source of fiber and alternative medicine. In many cultures, nettle is also eaten as a leafy vegetable. In this study, we focused on nettle yield (edible portion) and processing effects on nutritive and dietary properties. Actively growing shoots were harvested from field plots and leaves separated from stems. Leaf portions (200 g) were washed and processed by blanching (1 min at 96-98°C) or cooking (7 min at 98-99°C) with or without salt (5 g·L(-1)). Samples were cooled immediately after cooking and kept in frozen storage before analysis. Proximate composition, mineral, amino acid, and vitamin contents were determined, and nutritive value was estimated based on 100 g serving portions in a 2000 calorie diet. Results show that processed nettle can supply 90%-100% of vitamin A (including vitamin A as β-carotene) and is a good source of dietary calcium, iron, and protein. We recommend fresh or processed nettle as a high-protein, low-calorie source of essential nutrients, minerals, and vitamins particularly in vegetarian, diabetic, or other specialized diets.

  11. Two-stage agglomeration of fine-grained herbal nettle waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obidziński, Sławomir; Joka, Magdalena; Fijoł, Olga

    2017-10-01

    This paper compares the densification work necessary for the pressure agglomeration of fine-grained dusty nettle waste, with the densification work involved in two-stage agglomeration of the same material. In the first stage, the material was pre-densified through coating with a binder material in the form of a 5% potato starch solution, and then subjected to pressure agglomeration. A number of tests were conducted to determine the effect of the moisture content in the nettle waste (15, 18 and 21%), as well as the process temperature (50, 70, 90°C) on the values of densification work and the density of the obtained pellets. For pre-densified pellets from a mixture of nettle waste and a starch solution, the conducted tests determined the effect of pellet particle size (1, 2, and 3 mm) and the process temperature (50, 70, 90°C) on the same values. On the basis of the tests, we concluded that the introduction of a binder material and the use of two-stage agglomeration in nettle waste densification resulted in increased densification work (as compared to the densification of nettle waste alone) and increased pellet density.

  12. Application of otolith shape analysis in identifying different ecotypes of Coilia ectenes in the Yangtze Basin, China

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Radhakrishnan, K.V.; Li, Y.; Jayalakshmy, K.V.; Liu, M.; Murphy, B.R.; Xie, S.

    The variability in otolith shape of the tapertail anchovy Coilia ectenes was investigated as a tool for identifying its different ecotypes. The outlines of 350 sagittal otoliths of known ecotypes collected from seven sampling areas, covering most...

  13. Differences in thermal acclimation of chloroplast functioning in two ecotypes of Valonia utricularis (Chlorophyta)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eggert, A.; van Hasselt, P.R; Breeman, Arno

    Chloroplast functioning in two temperature ecotypes of the tropical to warm-temperate green macrophyte Valonia ultricularis was monitored by measuring chlorophyll a fluorescence parameters. One ecotype from the Mediterranean Sea is, with respect to growth and survival, more cold-adapted and

  14. Biochemical and hemato-immunological parameters in juvenile beluga (Huso huso) following the diet supplemented with nettle (Urtica dioica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binaii, Mohammad; Ghiasi, Maryam; Farabi, Seyed Mohammad Vahid; Pourgholam, Reza; Fazli, Hasan; Safari, Reza; Alavi, Seyed Eshagh; Taghavi, Mohammad Javad; Bankehsaz, Zahra

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of different dietary nettle (Urtica dioica) levels on biochemical, hematological and immunological parameters in beluga (Huso huso). Fish were divided into 4 groups before being fed for 8 weeks with 0%, 3%, 6% and 12% of nettle. The blood samples were collected on week 4 and 8. The use of nettle did not significantly change the mean cell volume, mean cell haemoglobin, lymphocytes, eosinophils, albumin, glucose, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and lysozyme activity on week 4 and 8. After 4 weeks, the total red blood cell (RBC) and hematocrit (Ht) showed a significant increase in 12% nettle group compared to the 3% nettle and control groups but haemoglobin (Hb) had a significant change in 12% nettle compared to the control. At the same time was not found a significant change in the mean cell haemoglobin concentration (MCHC), total white blood cell (WBC), neutrophils, respiratory burst activity (RB), total immunoglobulin (Ig) and total protein (TP), triglyceride (Tri) and cholesterol (Chol). After 8 weeks, the fish treated with nettle exhibited significantly increase in neutrophil and Hb levels compared to the control and between treatment groups, 12% nettle group shown the highest Hb while RBC and Hct values significantly rose in fish fed by 12% compared to the control. Supplementing 6% and 12% nettle increased the WBC and MCHC compared to the other groups. The group fed 12% showed a highly significant difference in RB, TP and Ig after 8 weeks. However, Tri and Chol were significantly decreased in the juvenile beluga fed by the 6% and 12% nettle diet compared to the other groups. The results suggest that by using this herb there will be an improvement in hemato-biochemical parameters and immune function of juvenile beluga.

  15. Molecular Characterizations of Kenyan Brachiaria Grass Ecotypes with Microsatellite (SSR Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naftali Ondabu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Brachiaria grass is an emerging forage option for livestock production in Kenya. Kenya lies within the center of diversity for Brachiaria species, thus a high genetic variation in natural populations of Brachiaria is expected. Overgrazing and clearing of natural vegetation for crop production and nonagricultural uses and climate change continue to threaten the natural biodiversity. In this study, we collected 79 Brachiaria ecotypes from different parts of Kenya and examined them for genetic variations and their relatedness with 8 commercial varieties. A total of 120 different alleles were detected by 22 markers in the 79 ecotypes. Markers were highly informative in differentiating ecotypes with average diversity and polymorphic information content of 0.623 and 0.583, respectively. Five subpopulations: International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI, Kitui, Kisii, Alupe, and Kiminini differed in sample size, number of alleles, number of private alleles, diversity index, and percentage polymorphic loci. The contribution of within‐the‐individual difference to total genetic variation of Kenyan ecotype population was 81%, and the fixation index (FST = 0.021 and number of migrant per generation (Nm = 11.58 showed low genetic differentiation among the populations. The genetic distance was highest between Alupe and Kisii populations (0.510 and the lowest between ILRI and Kiminini populations (0.307. The unweighted neighborjoining (NJ tree showed test ecotypes grouped into three major clusters: ILRI ecotypes were present in all clusters; Kisii and Alupe ecotypes and improved varieties grouped in clusters I and II; and ecotypes from Kitui and Kiminini grouped in cluster I. This study confirms higher genetic diversity in Kenyan ecotypes than eight commercial varieties (Basilisk, Humidicola, Llanero, Marandú, MG4, Mulato II, Piatá and Xaraés that represent three species and one three‐way cross‐hybrid Mulato II. There is a need for further

  16. Characterization of antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of nettle leaves (Urtica dioica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kukrić Zoran Z.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Samples of stinging nettle or common nettle (Urtica dioica L. were collected from the area of Banja Luka. To measure and evaluate the content of chlorophyll (a and b, carotenoids, and soluble proteins, as well as peroxidase activity (POD, EC 1.11.1.7., fresh nettle leaves of different developmental stages were used. Dried nettle leaves were used to obtain ethanol extract. The dry residue of ethanol extract was dissolved in methanol and the obtained solution was used to determine the content of total phenols, flavonoids, flavonols, as well as non-enzymatic antioxidant activity and antimicrobial activity. The non-enzymatic antioxidant activity was determined by different methods: FRAP, DPPH, and ABTS. The results were compared to those of standard substances like vitamin C, BHT, and BHA. Antimicrobial activity was screened by using macrodilution method. The obtained results showed insignificantly higher content of chlorophyll, carotenoids, and proteins in young nettle leaves as well as an increase in the soluble peroxidase activities. Native electrophoresis of the soluble fraction showed the presence of two peroxidase isophorms in the soluble protein fraction of nettle leaves. The total phenolic content in nettle extracts amounted to 208.37 mg GAE/gdw, the content of total flavonoids was 20.29 mg QE/gdw, and the content of total flavonols was 22.83 mg QE/gdw. The antioxidant activity determined by FRAP method was 7.50 mM Fe(II/gdw, whereas the antioxidant activity measured by using DPPH and ABTS methods, with IC50 values, were 31.38 and 23.55 μg mL-1, respectively. These results showed the weak and moderate antioxidant capacity of stinging nettle. Extract of Urtica dioica L. was tested for antibacterial acivity against various Grampositive and Gram-negative bacteria: Bacillus subtilis IP 5832, Lactobacillus plantarum 299v (Lp299v, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Escherichia coli isolated from food and Escherichia coli isolated from urine samples

  17. Comparison of nutritional properties of Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) flour with wheat and barley flours

    OpenAIRE

    Adhikari, Bhaskar Mani; Bajracharya, Alina; Shrestha, Ashok K.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Stinging nettle?(Urtica dioica. L) is a wild, unique herbaceous perennial flowering plant with Stinging hairs. It has a long history of use as a food sources as a soup or curries, and also used as a fiber as well as a medicinal herb. The current aim was to analyze the composition and bioactive compounds in Nepalese Stinging nettle. Chemical analysis showed the relatively higher level of crude protein (33.8%), crude fiber (9.1%), crude fat (3.6%), total ash (16.2%), carbohydrate (37.4...

  18. Genetic Diversity Analysis of Iranian Jujube Ecotypes (Ziziphus spp. Using RAPD Molecular Marker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Abbasi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill. is a valuable medicinal plant which is important in Iranian traditional medicines. Although the regional plants such as jujube play an important role in our economy, but they are forgotten in research and technology. Considering the economic and medicinal importance of jujube, the first step in breeding programs is determination of the genetic diversity among the individuals. 34 ecotypes of jujube, which have been collected from eight provinces of Iran, were used in this study. The genetic relationships of Iranian jujube ecotypes were analyzed using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD marker. Six out of 15 random decamer primers applied for RAPD analysis, showed an informative polymorphism. According to clustering analysis using UPGMA's methods, the ecotypes were classified into two major groups at the 0.81 level of genetic similarity. The highest value of similarity coefficient (0.92 was detected between Mazandaran and Golestan ecotypes and the most genetic diversity was observed in ecotypes of Khorasan-Jonoubi. The affinity of Khorasan-Jonoubi and Esfahan ecotypes indicated a possible common origin for the variation in these areas. Results indicated that RAPD analysis could be successfully used for the estimation of genetic diversity among Ziziphus ecotypes and it can be useful for further investigations.

  19. Reproductive, morphological, and phytochemical responses of Arabidopsis thaliana ecotypes to enhanced UV-B radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trumbull, V.L.; McCloud, E.S.; Paige, K.N. (Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States))

    1994-06-01

    Two ecotypes of Arabidopsis thaliana, collected from Libya and Norway, were grown in the greenhouse under. UV-B doses of 0 and 10.5 kJ m[sup [minus]2] UV-B[sub BE]. The high UV-B dose simulated midsummer ambient conditions over Libya and a 40% reduction in stratospheric ozone over Norway. The Libyan ectotype, which originated from latitudes where solar UV-B is high, showed no UV-B induced damage to plant growth. However the Norwegian ecotype, which originated from latitudes where solar UV-B is low, showed a significant reduction in plant height, inflorescence weight, and rosette weight in response to enhanced UV-B. Although fruit and seed number for both ecotypes were unaffected by enhanced UV-B radiation the germination success of the seeds harvested from the irradiated Norwegian plants were significantly reduced. The two ecotypes also differed with respect to their accumulation of kaempferol, a putative UV-B protective filter. The Libyan ecotype increased kaempferol concentration by 38% over the 0 kJ treatment whereas the Norwegian ecotype increased by only 15%. These data suggest that, for these ecotypes, variation in UV-B sensitivity may be explained by the differential induction of UV-absorbing leaf pigments.

  20. The eastern migratory caribou: the role of genetic introgression in ecotype evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klütsch, Cornelya F C; Manseau, Micheline; Trim, Vicki; Polfus, Jean; Wilson, Paul J

    2016-02-01

    Understanding the evolutionary history of contemporary animal groups is essential for conservation and management of endangered species like caribou (Rangifer tarandus). In central Canada, the ranges of two caribou subspecies (barren-ground/woodland caribou) and two woodland caribou ecotypes (boreal/eastern migratory) overlap. Our objectives were to reconstruct the evolutionary history of the eastern migratory ecotype and to assess the potential role of introgression in ecotype evolution. STRUCTURE analyses identified five higher order groups (i.e. three boreal caribou populations, eastern migratory ecotype and barren-ground). The evolutionary history of the eastern migratory ecotype was best explained by an early genetic introgression from barren-ground into a woodland caribou lineage during the Late Pleistocene and subsequent divergence of the eastern migratory ecotype during the Holocene. These results are consistent with the retreat of the Laurentide ice sheet and the colonization of the Hudson Bay coastal areas subsequent to the establishment of forest tundra vegetation approximately 7000 years ago. This historical reconstruction of the eastern migratory ecotype further supports its current classification as a conservation unit, specifically a Designatable Unit, under Canada's Species at Risk Act. These findings have implications for other sub-specific contact zones for caribou and other North American species in conservation unit delineation.

  1. Variable but persistent coexistence of Prochlorococcus ecotypes along temperature gradients in the ocean's surface mixed layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Jeremy W; Lin, Yajuan; Gainer, P Jackson; Post, Anton F; Johnson, Zackary I; Zinser, Erik R

    2016-04-01

    The vast majority of the phytoplankton communities in surface mixed layer of the oligotrophic ocean are numerically dominated by one of two ecotypes of Prochlorococcus, eMIT9312 or eMED4. In this study, we surveyed large latitudinal transects in the Atlantic and Pacific Ocean to determine if these ecotypes discretely partition the surface mixed layer niche, or if populations exist as a continuum along key environmental gradients, particularly temperature. Transitions of dominance occurred at approximately 19-21°C, with the eMED4 ecotype dominating the colder, and eMIT9312 ecotype dominating the warmer regions. Within these zones of regional dominance, however, the minority ecotype was not competed to extinction. Rather, a robust log-linear relationship between ecotype ratio and temperature characterized this stabilized coexistence: for every 2.5°C increase in temperature, the eMIT9312:eMED4 ratio increased by an order of magnitude. This relationship was observed in both quantitative polymerase chain reaction and in pyrosequencing assays. Water column stratification also contributed to the ecotype ratio along the basin-scale transects, but to a lesser extent. Finally, instances where the ratio of the eMED4 and eMIT9312 abundances did not correlate well with temperature were identified. Such occurrences are likely due to changes in water temperatures outpacing changes in community structure. © 2016 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Evaluation of Freezing Tolerance of Three Ajowan (Trachyspermum ammi (Linn. Sprague Ecotypes in Controlled Conditions

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    Z Boroumand Rezazadeh

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Ajowan is one of the endemic plants in Khorasan province, and there is a little information on its tolerance to cold stress. In order to study freezing tolerance of ajowan, an experiment was conducted in faculty of agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, based on factorial-completely randomized design with three replications and three ecotypes of ajowan (Neishabour, Birjand and Torbat-e-Heidarieh were imposed on eight freezing temperatures (0 (control, -1.5, -3, -4.5, -6,-7.5, -9 and -10.5 °C. Plants were grown in natural environment till 4-5 leaf stage, then for freezing treatments transferred to thermo-gradient freezer. The cell membrane stability was evaluated by electrolyte leakage index (EL and temperature for killing 50% of samples according to the electrolyte leakage (LT50el was determined. Furthermore, survival percentage, leaf number and dry weight, temperature for killing 50% of samples according to survival (LT50su and reduced dry matter temperature 50 (RDMT50 were determined after three weeks recovery in the glasshouse. Response of ajowan ecotypes for electrolyte leakage was different and birjand ecotype had the lowest %EL, whereas the slope of %EL in mentioned ecotype was lower than two other ecotypes. However there were no significant differences among ajowan ecotypes on LT50su. Decreasing temperature to -7.5 °C reduced survival percentage of Neishabour and Torbat-e-Heidarieh ecotypes to lower than 20 percent, whiles in this temperature Birjand’s survival percentage was about 60 percent. It seems that Birjand ecotype with the lowest electrolyte leakage, the highest survival and dry matter and the lowest LT50su was more tolerant than two other ecotypes.

  3. Growth performance and stomatal behavior in relation to ecotypic adaptations in cynodon dactylon (L.) pers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tufail, A.; Ahmad, F.; Hameed, M.; Ahmad, R.

    2017-01-01

    Evolution has great ecological significance in terms of plant morphological and stomatal characteristics that must have been genetically fixed during the long evolutionary period. Impact of environmental conditions on growth and stomatal features of twelve ecotypes of Cynodon dactylon that were collected from ecologically different habitats in the Punjab, Pakistan were evaluated. The collected ecotypes Derawar Fort-saline desert (DF-SD), Muzaffar garh-River bank (M-RB), Khabbeki Lake-hyper saline (KL-HS), Ucchali Lake-hyper saline (UL-HS), Kalar Kahar Lake-saline (KKL-S), Treemu-saline wetland (T-SW), Sahianwala-saline wetland (S-SW), Sahianwala-hyper saline (S-HS), Pakka Anna-hyper saline (PA-HS), Pakka Anna-reclaimed field (PA-RF), Botanic Garden-non saline (BG-NS) and Gatwala-saline semiarid (G-SSA) were grown in controlled environments at University of Agriculture, Faisalabad till their acclimatization to evaluate genetically fixed characteristics. After 6-month growth in soil, the plants were transferred to half-strength Hoagland's nutrient medium. There was a huge variation in all morphological characteristics recorded during the investigation, which were due to environmental heterogeniety to which these ecotypes were originally adapted. An exclusive feature of the DF-SD ecotypes is the long and numerous roots, and tillering capacity that surpassed all other ecotypes. Leaves per plant were also exceptionally high that may improve the photosymthetic efficiency of the plant. It showed a good potential of overall growth and biomass production. The robust growth was also recorded in the KKL-S ecotypes, and this can be related to the complete dominance of these two ecotypes in their respective habitats. Small stomata were recorded in the three ecotypes (DF-SD, KL-HS and PA-HS), which are of great ecological significance. Stomatal shape, however, is different in different ecotypes, but its contribution towards stress tolerance is still to be investigated. (author)

  4. Influence of temperature and brewing time of nettle (Urtica dioica L.) infusions on vitamin C content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolska, Jolanta; Czop, Michał; Jakubczyk, Karolina; Janda, Katarzyna

    Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L.) can be found in temperate climate zones of Europe, Africa and America Nettle may be a source of nutritional ingredients, mineral salts, vitamins and antioxidants. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of temperature and brewing time Urtica dioica L. infusions from different parts of this plant on vitamin C (ascorbic acid) content. Infusions of nettle leaf, stem and root were prepared at room temperature, 50°C, 60°C, 70°C and 80°C for 10 minutes. Leaf infusions were also brewed for 5, 10, 15 and 20 minutes at initial water temperature of 60°C. The amount of vitamin C was determined by the spectrophotometric method. The best temperature of brewing nettle infusions, in terms of vitamin C concentration, is between 50 °C and 60 °C as it is sufficient to extract the substance, yet not high enough to destroy it. The optimal time of brewing appeared to be 10 minutes as the prolonged exposure to high temperature appeared to be detrimental for ascorbic acid as well.

  5. The inhibiting effects of components of stinging nettle roots on experimentally induced prostatic hyperplasia in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichius, J J; Renneberg, H; Blaschek, W; Aumüller, G; Muth, C

    1999-10-01

    Direct implanting of fetal urogenital sinus (UGS) tissue into the ventral prostate gland of adult mice led to a 4-fold weight increase of the manipulated prostatic lobe. The induced growth could be reduced by the polysaccharide fraction (POLY-M) of the 20% methanolic extract of stinging nettle roots by 33.8%.

  6. Comparison of nutritional properties of Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) flour with wheat and barley flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Bhaskar Mani; Bajracharya, Alina; Shrestha, Ashok K

    2016-01-01

    Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica. L) is a wild, unique herbaceous perennial flowering plant with Stinging hairs. It has a long history of use as a food sources as a soup or curries, and also used as a fiber as well as a medicinal herb. The current aim was to analyze the composition and bioactive compounds in Nepalese Stinging nettle. Chemical analysis showed the relatively higher level of crude protein (33.8%), crude fiber (9.1%), crude fat (3.6%), total ash (16.2%), carbohydrate (37.4%), and relatively lower energy value (307 kcal/100 g) as compared to wheat and barley flours. Analysis of nettle powder showed significantly higher level of bioactive compounds: phenolic compounds as 129 mg Gallic acid equivalent/g; carotenoid level 3497 μg/g; tannin 0.93 mg/100 g; anti-oxidant activity 66.3 DPPH inhibition (%), as compared to wheat and barley. This study further established that nettle plants as very good source of energy, proteins, high fiber, and a range of health benefitting bioactive compounds.

  7. Nettle extract (Urtica dioica) affects key receptors and enzymes associated with allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roschek, Bill; Fink, Ryan C; McMichael, Matthew; Alberte, Randall S

    2009-07-01

    A nettle (Urtica dioica) extract shows in vitro inhibition of several key inflammatory events that cause the symptoms of seasonal allergies. These include the antagonist and negative agonist activity against the Histamine-1 (H(1)) receptor and the inhibition of mast cell tryptase preventing degranulation and release of a host of pro-inflammatory mediators that cause the symptoms of hay fevers. The nettle extract also inhibits prostaglandin formation through inhibition of Cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1), Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and Hematopoietic Prostaglandin D(2) synthase (HPGDS), central enzymes in pro-inflammatory pathways. The IC(50) value for histamine receptor antagonist activity was 251 (+/-13) microg mL(-1) and for the histamine receptor negative agonist activity was 193 (+/-71) microg mL(-1). The IC(50) values for inhibition of mast cell tryptase was 172 (+/-28) microg mL(-1), for COX-1 was 160 (+/-47) microg mL(-1), for COX-2 was 275 (+/-9) microg mL(-1), and for HPGDS was 295 (+/-51) microg mL(-1). Through the use of DART TOF-MS, which yields exact masses and relative abundances of compounds present in complex mixtures, bioactives have been identified in nettle that contribute to the inhibition of pro-inflammatory pathways related to allergic rhinitis. These results provide for the first time, a mechanistic understanding of the role of nettle extracts in reducing allergic and other inflammatory responses in vitro. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Processing, Targeting, and Antifungal Activity of Stinging Nettle Agglutinin in Transgenic Tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Does, Mirjam P.; Houterman, Petra M.; Dekker, Henk L.; Cornelissen, Ben J.C.

    1999-01-01

    The gene encoding the precursor to stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L.) isolectin I was introduced into tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum). In transgenic plants this precursor was processed to mature-sized lectin. The mature isolectin is deposited intracellularly, most likely in the vacuoles. A gene construct lacking the C-terminal 25 amino acids was also introduced in tobacco to study the role of the C terminus in subcellular trafficking. In tobacco plants that expressed this construct, the mutant precursor was correctly processed and the mature isolectin was targeted to the intercellular space. These results indicate the presence of a C-terminal signal for intracellular retention of stinging nettle lectin and most likely for sorting of the lectin to the vacuoles. In addition, correct processing of this lectin did not depend on vacuolar deposition. Isolectin I purified from tobacco displayed identical biological activities as isolectin I isolated from stinging nettle. In vitro antifungal assays on germinated spores of the fungi Botrytis cinerea, Trichoderma viride, and Colletotrichum lindemuthianum revealed that growth inhibition by stinging nettle isolectin I occurs at a specific phase of fungal growth and is temporal, suggesting that the fungi had an adaptation mechanism. PMID:10364393

  9. Impact of two specialist insect herbivores on reproduction of horse nettle, Solanum carolinense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Michael J; Sacchi, Christopher F

    1996-10-01

    The frequency of coevolution as a process of strong mutual interaction between a single plant and herbivore species has been questioned in light of more commonly observed, complex relationships between a plant and a suite of herbivore species. Despite recognition of the possibility of diffuse coevolution, relatively few studies have examined ecological responses of plants to herbivores in complex associations. We studied the impact of two specialist herbivores, the horse nettle beetle, Leptinotarsa juncta, and the eggplant flea beetle, Epitrix fuscula, on reproduction of their host, Solanum carolinense. Our study involved field and controlled-environment experimental tests of the impact on sexual and potential asexual reproduction of attack by individuals of the two herbivore species, individually and in combination. Field tests demonstrated that under normal levels of phytophagous insect attack, horse nettle plants experienced a reduction in fruit production of more than 75% compared with plants from which insects were excluded. In controlled-environment experiments using enclosure-exclosure cages, the horse nettle's two principal herbivores, the flea beetle and the horse nettle beetle, caused decreases in sexual reproduction similar to those observed in the field, and a reduction in potential asexual reproduction, represented by root biomass. Attack by each herbivore reduced the numbers of fruits produced, and root growth, when feeding in isolation. When both species were feeding together, fruit production, but not root growth, was lower than when either beetle species fed alone. Ecological interactions between horse nettle and its two primary herbivores necessary for diffuse coevolution to occur were evident from an overall analysis of the statistical interactions between the two herbivores for combined assessment of fruit and vegetative traits. For either of these traits alone, the interactions necessary to promote diffuse coevolution apparently were lacking.

  10. Phenotypic plasticity in response to the social environment: effects of density and sex ratio on mating behaviour following ecotype divergence.

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    Kristina Karlsson

    Full Text Available The ability to express phenotypically plastic responses to environmental cues might be adaptive in changing environments. We studied phenotypic plasticity in mating behaviour as a response to population density and adult sex ratio in a freshwater isopod (Asellus aquaticus. A. aquaticus has recently diverged into two distinct ecotypes, inhabiting different lake habitats (reed Phragmites australis and stonewort Chara tomentosa, respectively. In field surveys, we found that these habitats differ markedly in isopod population densities and adult sex ratios. These spatially and temporally demographic differences are likely to affect mating behaviour. We performed behavioural experiments using animals from both the ancestral ecotype ("reed" isopods and from the novel ecotype ("stonewort" isopods population. We found that neither ecotype adjusted their behaviour in response to population density. However, the reed ecotype had a higher intrinsic mating propensity across densities. In contrast to the effects of density, we found ecotype differences in plasticity in response to sex ratio. The stonewort ecotype show pronounced phenotypic plasticity in mating propensity to adult sex ratio, whereas the reed ecotype showed a more canalised behaviour with respect to this demographic factor. We suggest that the lower overall mating propensity and the phenotypic plasticity in response to sex ratio have evolved in the novel stonewort ecotype following invasion of the novel habitat. Plasticity in mating behaviour may in turn have effects on the direction and intensity of sexual selection in the stonewort habitat, which may fuel further ecotype divergence.

  11. Nettle (Urtica dioica L.) extracts as functional ingredients for production of chocolates with improved bioactive composition and sensory properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belščak-Cvitanović, Ana; Komes, Draženka; Durgo, Ksenija; Vojvodić, Aleksandra; Bušić, Arijana

    2015-12-01

    Pursuant to the tendencies of producing functional foods, attractive to a wide range of consumers, in this study chocolates enriched with freeze dried (FD) and concentrated (CE) nettle extracts were formulated, and their polyphenolic and antioxidant capacity stability evaluated during 12 months of storage. A simple aqueous extraction procedure of nettle was developed, and the defined extract evaluated for its cytotoxic and antioxidant/prooxidant activity on human colon cancer cell line (SW 480). An increase in total polyphenolic content, chlorogenic acid and flavonoid derivatives (originating from nettle extract) contents was achieved in enriched chocolates. Implementation of FD extract enabled higher increase of polyphenolic content in comparison to CE extract. During storage, fluctuations of polyphenolic content were observed, but the final bioactive parameters did not differ (or increased) from the initial ones. Nettle enriched chocolates exhibited more intense bitterness and astringency, while dark chocolates were preferred over milk and semisweet ones.

  12. Potential use of the stinging nettle as an enhancer of weight gain and innate immune response in broiler chickens

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    Carmen Dana ŞANDRU

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Researches were conducted to investigate the in vivo effect of an nettle plant alcohol extract on the phagocytosis and body weight in 48 days old broiler chickens (n=34. The birds were divided into three groups: subcutaneously injected with 0.5 ml of saline (control, n = 12, with 0.5 ml of alcohol (group II, n=11 or with 0.5 ml of alcoholic nettle extract (group III, n=11. Sterile heparinized blood, sampled on days 0, 7 and 13, was processed by an in vitro carbon particle inclusion test, the phagocytosis being expressed in optical density units. The birds were weighed simultaneously with the blood sampling. We concluded that a single nettle extract treatment does not significantly influence the phagocytosis, while the second administration intensified it. The alcoholic nettle extract had a beneficial effect on the body weight of broiler chickens.

  13. Microsatellite based genetic diversity study in indigenous chicken ecotypes of Karnataka

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    B. H. Rudresh

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The current study was the first of its kind taken upon indigenous ecotypes of the Karnataka in order to unravel the diversity details at 20 chicken microsatellite regions. Materials and Methods: 210 indigenous chicken belonging to six districts of Bangalore and Mysore division formed the target sample for the present study. The genomic deoxyribonucleic acid was isolated by phenol chloroform isoamyl alcohol method. A panel of 20 microsatellite regions, including 14 recommended by FAO and six identified from published scientific literature became the targeted chicken genomic region. 27-33 samples were successfully genotyped in each of the six ecotypes through simplex or multiplex polymerase chain reactions, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and silver staining for the selected microsatellite panel. Results: The chickens of Ramanagara and Chamrajnagara were most distant with a Nei’s genetic distance value of 0.22. The chickens of Bangalore rural and Mysore were least distant with a value of 0.056. The Ramanagara and Chamrajnagara pair had Nei’s genetic identity value of 0.802, which is least among all pairs of ecotypes. There were five main nodes from which the six ecotypes evolved on the basis 20 microsatellite markers used in this study. This study indicates that the four ecotypes Ramnagara, Bangalore Rural, Chickaballapura and Mysore are genetically identical due to their common ancestral evolution while, Mandya and Chamrajnagara ecotypes formed a relatively different cluster due to a separate common ancestral chicken population and less number of generations since drifting from bifurcation node. Conclusion: Twenty microsatellite markers based genetic diversity study on six indigenous ecotypes indicated lower genetic distances as well as lower FST values compared to the distinguished breeds reported. There were two main clusters, which differentiated into six ecotypes. They may differentiate into more distinct varieties if bred in

  14. Identification and Selection for Salt Tolerance in Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. Ecotypes via Physiological Traits

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    Hassan MONIRIFAR

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Salt stress is a serious environmental problem throughout the world which may be partially relieved by breeding cultivars that can tolerate salt stress. Plant breeding may provide a relatively cost effective short-term solution to the salinity problem by producing cultivars able to remain productive at low to moderate levels of salinity. Five alfalfa cultivars, �Seyah-Roud�, �Ahar-Hourand�, �Oskou�, �Malekan� and �Sefida-Khan� were assessed for salt tolerance at mature plant stage. A greenhouse screening system was used to evaluate individual alfalfa plants grown in perlit medium, and irrigated with water containing different amounts of NaCl. Three salt levels were achieved by adding 0, 100 and 200 mM NaCl to Hoagland nutrient solution, respectively. Forage yield, sodium and potassium contents and K/Na ratio was determined. Also, leaf samples were analyzed for proline and chlorophyll contents. The ecotypes Seyha-Roud and �Sefida-Khan� had comparatively less sodium contents than �Oskou�, �Ahar-Hourand� and �Malekan� ecotypes, also potassium content increased under saline condition. Forage yield of different alfalfa ecotypes was significantly influenced by the salinity. The ecotypes �Malekan�, Ahar- Hourand and �Oskou� were successful in maintaining forage yield under salinity stress. Sodium contents increased due to salinity in all alfalfa ecotypes however ecotypes �Ahar-Hourand� and �Malekan� maintained the highest leaf Na concentration. They showed higher content of K than other ecotypes but had lower K/Na ratio. It was concluded that, two ecotypes �Malekan� and �Ahar-Hourand� were better.

  15. An abundant 'Candidatus Phytoplasma solani' tuf b strain is associated with grapevine, stinging nettle and Hyalesthes obsoletus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryan, A; Brader, G; Mörtel, J; Pastar, M; Riedle-Bauer, M

    2014-10-01

    Bois noir (BN) associated with ' Candidatus Phytoplasma solani' (Stolbur) is regularly found in Austrian vine growing regions. Investigations between 2003 and 2008 indicated sporadic presence of the confirmed disease vector Hyalesthes obsoletus and frequent infections of bindweed and grapevine. Infections of nettles were rare. In contrast present investigations revealed a mass occurrence of H. obsoletus almost exclusively on stinging nettle. The high population densities of H. obsoletus on Urtica dioica were accompanied by frequent occurrence of ' Ca. P. solani' in nettles and planthoppers. Sequence analysis of the molecular markers secY, stamp, tuf and vmp1 of stolbur revealed a single genotype named CPsM4_At1 in stinging nettles and more than 64 and 90 % abundance in grapevine and H. obsoletus , respectively. Interestingly, this genotype showed tuf b type restriction pattern previously attributed to bindweed associated ' Ca. P. solani' strains, but a different sequence assigned as tuf b2 compared to reference tuf b strains. All other marker genes of CPsM4_At1 clustered with tuf a and nettle derived genotypes verifying distinct nettle phytoplasma genotypes. Transmission experiments with H. obsoletus and Anaceratagallia ribauti resulted in successful transmission of five different strains including the major genotype to Catharanthus roseus and in transmission of the major genotype to U. dioica . Altogether, five nettle and nine bindweed associated genotypes were described. Bindweed types were verified in 34 % of grapevine samples, in few positive Reptalus panzeri , rarely in bindweeds and occasionally in Catharanthus roseus infected by H. obsoletus or A. ribauti . ' Candidatus Phytoplasma convolvuli' (bindweed yellows) was ascertained in nettle and bindweed samples.

  16. Nitrogen enrichment of host plants has mostly beneficial effects on the life-history traits of nettle-feeding butterflies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurze, Susanne; Heinken, Thilo; Fartmann, Thomas

    2017-11-01

    Butterflies rank among the most threatened animal groups throughout Europe. However, current population trends differ among species. The nettle-feeding butterflies Aglais io and Aglais urticae cope successfully with the anthropogenic land-use change. Both species are assumed to be pre-adapted to higher nitrogen contents in their host plant, stinging nettle (Urtica dioica). However, it is currently unknown, whether this pre-adaptation enables both Aglais species to cope successfully or even to benefit from the excessive nitrogen availabilities in nettles growing in modern farmlands. For this reason, this study focused on the response of both Aglais species to unfertilized nettles compared to nettles receiving 150 or 300 kg N ha-1 yr-1 (i.e., common fertilizer quantities of modern-day agriculture). Fertilized nettles were characterized by higher nitrogen concentrations and lower C:N ratios compared to the control group. In both Aglais species, the individuals feeding on fertilized nettles had higher survival rates, shorter larval periods and heavier pupae and, in A. urticae also longer forewings. All these trait shifts are beneficial for the individuals, lowering their risk to die before reproduction and increasing their reproductive potential. These responses agree with the well-accepted nitrogen-limitation hypothesis predicting a positive relationship between the nitrogen content of the diet and the performance of herbivorous insects. Furthermore, our findings suggest that the increasing abundance of both Aglais species may result not only from the increasing spread of nettles into the farmland but also from changes in their quality due to the eutrophication of the landscape during recent decades.

  17. Inter- and intra-guild interactions related to aphids in nettle (Urtica dioica L.) strips closed to field crops.

    OpenAIRE

    Alhmedi, A.; Haubruge, Eric; Bodson, Bernard; Francis, Frédéric

    2006-01-01

    A field experiment designed to assess the biodiversity related to nettle strips closed to crops, and more particularly the aphid and related beneficial populations, was established in experimental farm located in Gembloux (Belgium). Margin strips of nettle (Urtica dioica) closed to wheat (Triticum aestivum), green pea (Pisum sativum) and rape (Brassicae napus) fields were investigated. The diversity, abundance of aphids and related predators were analysed according to the plant crop species a...

  18. A comparison of the phenolic profile and antioxidant activity of different Cichorium spinosum L. ecotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petropoulos, Spyridon A; Fernandes, Ângela; Barros, Lillian; Ferreira, Isabel Cfr

    2018-01-01

    Wild greens are considered a rich source of phenolic compounds and antioxidants and an essential part of the so-called Mediterranean diet. In the present study, Cichorium spinosum L. ecotypes, cultivated or collected in situ from wild plants from the eastern Mediterranean, were evaluated regarding their phenolic composition and antioxidant activity. Significant differences were observed among the various studied ecotypes regarding their phenolic compound content and profile, especially between wild and cultivated ecotypes, as well as the phenolic acid content between commercial products and cultivated plants. The antioxidant activity also varied among the various studied ecotypes and growing conditions, with commercial products having the highest antioxidant activity, whereas wild ecotypes showed lower antioxidant activity. Cichorium spinosum leaves are a rich source of chicoric and 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid, while significant differences in total phenolic acids, flavonoids and phenolic compound content and in antioxidant activity were observed among the studied ecotypes, as well as between the tested growing conditions. According to the results of the present study, further valorization of C. spinosum species has great potential, since it could be used as a new alternative species in the food industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Quantification of caffeic acid content in 4 species of mullein (Verbascum sp. ecotypes from southwest Iran

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    F. Jamshidi kia

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: The Verbascum genus is the largest genus of Scrophulariaceae family which has extensive natural habitat in southwest of Iran. Phenolic acids are one of the most important chemical compounds that have different biological activities including anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antiviral, anti-tumor and antioxidant. Therefore, this study was conducted with the aim of caffeic acid quantification of 4 species of Verbascum sp. ecotypes from southwest Iran. Methods: Nine ecotypes of the 4 species (V. macrophyllus, V. pseudo- digitalis, V. sinatum, V. songaricum were collected from the southwest of Iran. Quantification of caffeic acid contentusing reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC with UV PDA 2800 detector, a C18 column with dimensions of 250×4.6 mm was performed. Results: The results showed that Verbascum sp. contained caffeic acid compound and there was a difference among species and ecotypes. The results showed the highest and lowest content of caffeic acid obtained from the V. sinatum species and ecotype Sepidan (7.76 μg/mg extract and V. songaricum species and ecotype Farokhshahr (0.54 μg/mg extract, respectively. Conclusion: The results revealed a high level of variation in caffeic acid among Verbascum sp. which was affected by habitat and climatic. The pattern of habitats of suitable ecotypes superior in terms of composition to should be selected and used for breeding and cropping mullein.

  20. Assessment of total flavonoid content and antioxidant activity of Mullein (Verbascum songaricum ecotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: The Mullein genus is the largest genus of Scrophulariaceae family which has extensive natural habitat in southwest of Iran. Mullein contains compounds such as phenolic compounds, mucilage, saponins and anthocyanin. The aim of this study was to evaluate the total flavonoid content and antioxidant activity of mullein ecotypes in Iran. Methods: Six ecotypes of the Verbascum songaricum were evaluated. Determination of total flavonoid content was performed bythealuminium chloride colourimetric method. The antioxidant activity of the flower extracts was measured using the DPPH method. Results: The results showed that total flavonoid content and antioxidant activity were different among ecotypes.  The highest and lowest amounts of total flavonoidwas obtained  from Shermard ecotype (13.42 mg rutin /g DW and Klar ecotypes(10.10 mg rutin /g DW, respectively. The highest amounts of antioxidant activity were obtained from the Shermard ecotype (IC50 246.35 μg/mL. The correlation analysis showed that a significant relation between flavonoid, antioxidant activity and habitat elevation. Conclusion: Total flavonoid content and antioxidant activity of the samples were affected by habitat climatic.  The present data indicated that the highest antioxidant activity may be due to higher flavonoid content and the habitat elevation was effective on the flavonoid content. Due to the high amounts of flavonoid and antioxidant activity of mullein extract, it seems to be a good herbal option as an antioxidant in complementary therapies.

  1. The role of ecotypic variation and the environment on biomass and nitrogen in a dominant prairie grass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendola, Meredith L; Baer, Sara G; Johnson, Loretta C; Maricle, Brian R

    2015-09-01

    Knowledge of the relative strength of evolution and the environment on a phenotype is required to predict species responses to environmental change and decide where to source plant material for ecological restoration. This information is critically needed for dominant species that largely determine the productivity of the central U.S. grassland. We established a reciprocal common garden experiment across a longitudinal gradient to test whether ecotypic variation interacts with the environment to affect growth and nitrogen (N) storage in a dominant grass. We predicted plant growth would increase from west to east, corresponding with increasing precipitation, but differentially among ecotypes due to local adaptation in all ecotypes and a greater range of growth response in ecotypes originating from west to east. We quantified aboveground biomass, root biomass, belowground net primary production (BNPP), root C:N ratio, and N storage in roots of three ecotypes of Andropogon gerardii collected from and reciprocally planted in central Kansas, eastern Kansas, and s6uthern Illinois. Only the ecotype from the most mesic region (southern Illinois) exhibited more growth from west to east. There was evidence for local adaptation in the southern Illinois ecotype by means of the local vs. foreign contrast within a site and the home vs. away contrast when growth in southern Illinois was compared to the most distant 'site in central Kansas. Root biomass of the eastern Kansas ecotype was higher at home than at either away site. The ecotype from the driest region, central Kansas, exhibited the least response across the environmental gradient, resulting in a positive relationship between the range of biomass response and precipitation in ecotype region of origin. Across all sites, ecotypes varied in root C:N ratio (highest in the driest-origin ecotype) and N storage in roots (highest in the most mesic-origin ecotype). The low and limited range of biomass, higher C:N ratio of roots

  2. Rapid flow cytometry analysis of antimicrobial properties of nettle powder and cranberry powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattuniemi, Maarit; Korhonen, Johanna; Jaakkola, Mari; Räty, Jarkko; Virtanen, Vesa

    2010-11-01

    Both nettle (Urtica dioica) and cranberry (Vaccinium oxycoccus) are widely known to have good influence on health. The aim of this study was to investigate antimicrobial properties of nettle powder and cranberry powder against Escherichia coli (E. coli) and monitor the growth of the bacteria by a rapid flow cytometry (FCM) method. For FCM measurements samples were stained with fluorescent dyes. The inhibitory effects of plant material on growth of E. coli were estimated by comparing the results of control sample (E. coli) to E. coli samples with plant material. FCM offers both a brilliant tool to investigate the kinetics of the growth of bacterium, since subsamples can be taken from the same liquid medium during the growing period and with fluorescent dyes a rapid method to investigate viability of the bacterium.

  3. Search for possible latitudinal ecotypes in Dumontia contorta (Rhodophyta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rietema, H.; van den Hoek, C.

    1984-09-01

    Effects of daylength and temperature on the formation of erect fronds (macrothalli) from crusts (microthalli) of Dumontia contorta (S. G. Gmel.) Rupr. from three localities in Nova Scotia and one locality in Southern Iceland were investigated and compared to such effects shown by strains from three different East Atlantic localities (Isle of Man; Zeeland, S. W. Netherlands; and Roscoff, Brittany, France). Although these strains showed small differences in their temperature-daylength responses, these could not be interpreted as latitudinal adaptations, and consequently no latitudinal ecotypes could be found for Dumontia contorta in the N. Atlantic Ocean. Upright fronds are formed at a broad temperature range of about 4°-18°C and at daylengths ≤ 13 h. Only in the southernmost part of its distribution area can high autumnal temperatures be expected to block the reappearance of upright fronds after passage of the critical daylength in September. In the larger part of the distribution area even summer temperatures are not high enough to block formation of uprights and here apparently only short daylengths initiate the reappearance of young upright fronds in autumn. The consequences of these aspects of the life history regulation for the geographic distribution are discussed.

  4. Data of furfural adsorption on nano zero valent iron (NZVI) synthesized from Nettle extract

    OpenAIRE

    Fazlzadeh, Mehdi; Ansarizadeh, Mohammad; Leili, Mostafa

    2017-01-01

    Among various water and wastewater treatment methods, adsorption techniques are widely used to remove certain classes of pollutants due to its unique features. Thus, the aim of this data article is to synthesize zero valent iron nanoparticles (NZVI) from Nettle leaf extract by green synthesis method as an environmentally friendly technique, and to evaluate it's efficiency in the removal of furfural from aqueous solutions. The data of possible adsorption mechanism and isotherm of furfural on t...

  5. Developing the technology of mayonnaise sauce with sea urchin caviar, laminaria and nettle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grokhovsky V. A.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Some aspects of consumer demand on mayonnaise production have been found due to marketing researches. The technology of mayonnaise sauce using such valuable ingredients as sea urchin caviar, laminaria and nettle has been scientifically proved and produced. The formula of the new product composition has been developed; the specimens of such mayonnaise sauce have been made; they have been explored during their storage

  6. Replaying Evolution to Test the Cause of Extinction of One Ecotype in an Experimentally Evolved Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline B Turner

    Full Text Available In a long-term evolution experiment with Escherichia coli, bacteria in one of twelve populations evolved the ability to consume citrate, a previously unexploited resource in a glucose-limited medium. This innovation led to the frequency-dependent coexistence of citrate-consuming (Cit+ and non-consuming (Cit- ecotypes, with Cit-bacteria persisting on the exogenously supplied glucose as well as other carbon molecules released by the Cit+ bacteria. After more than 10,000 generations of coexistence, however, the Cit-lineage went extinct; cells with the Cit-phenotype dropped to levels below detection, and the Cit-clade could not be detected by molecular assays based on its unique genotype. We hypothesized that this extinction was a deterministic outcome of evolutionary change within the population, specifically the appearance of a more-fit Cit+ ecotype that competitively excluded the Cit-ecotype. We tested this hypothesis by re-evolving the population from a frozen population sample taken within 500 generations of the extinction and from another sample taken several thousand generations earlier, in each case for 500 generations and with 20-fold replication. To our surprise, the Cit-type did not go extinct in any of these replays, and Cit-cells also persisted in a single replicate that was propagated for 2,500 generations. Even more unexpectedly, we showed that the Cit-ecotype could reinvade the Cit+ population after its extinction. Taken together, these results indicate that the extinction of the Cit-ecotype was not a deterministic outcome driven by competitive exclusion by the Cit+ ecotype. The extinction also cannot be explained by demographic stochasticity alone, as the population size of the Cit-ecotype should have been many thousands of cells even during the daily transfer events. Instead, we infer that the extinction must have been caused by a rare chance event in which some aspect of the experimental conditions was inadvertently perturbed.

  7. Chemical Composition and Immuno-Modulatory Effects of Urtica dioica L. (Stinging Nettle) Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francišković, Marina; Gonzalez-Pérez, Raquel; Orčić, Dejan; Sánchez de Medina, Fermín; Martínez-Augustin, Olga; Svirčev, Emilija; Simin, Nataša; Mimica-Dukić, Neda

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this work was to determine the chemical profile of stinging nettle and to provide an insight into the mechanisms by which it ameliorates the immune response. Qualitative and quantitative liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry analyses indicated that phenolic acids (5-O-caffeoylquinic acid as dominant) and flavonol glycosides (rutin, isoquercitrin, and kaempferol 3-O-glucoside) are present in the aerial parts, while lignans (secoisolariciresinol, 9,9'-bisacetyl-neo-olivil and their glucosides) were detected in the root. Herb and root extracts expressed selective inhibition toward cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase branches in human platelets: root extracts were better at inhibiting thromboxane production, while herb extracts were more specific toward inhibition of 12-lipoxygenase pathway. Stinging nettle extracts mildly increased monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and growth-related oncogene release from nonstimulated intestinal epithelial cells, stimulating MyD88/NF-κB/p38 signaling, hence preserving the epithelial integrity and enhancing intestinal steady-state defense. Additionally, root extract reduced lipopolysaccharide-induced monocyte chemoattractant protein-1/growth-related oncogene secretion and cyclooxygenase-2 expression in intestinal epithelial cells, thus showing the potential protective effect against tissue damage caused by inflammation processes. These observations suggest that stinging nettle is an interesting candidate for the development of phytopharmaceuticals or dietary supplements for cotreatment of various inflammatory diseases, particularly inflammatory bowel diseases. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Data of furfural adsorption on nano zero valent iron (NZVI synthesized from Nettle extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Fazlzadeh

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Among various water and wastewater treatment methods, adsorption techniques are widely used to remove certain classes of pollutants due to its unique features. Thus, the aim of this data article is to synthesize zero valent iron nanoparticles (NZVI from Nettle leaf extract by green synthesis method as an environmentally friendly technique, and to evaluate it's efficiency in the removal of furfural from aqueous solutions. The data of possible adsorption mechanism and isotherm of furfural on the synthesized adsorbent are depicted in this data article. The data acquired showed that the adsorption trend follows the pseudo-second order kinetic model and that the Langmuir isotherm was suitable for correlation of equilibrium data with the maximum adsorption capacity of 454.4 mg/g. The information of initial furfural concentration, pH, adsorbent dosage and contact time effects on the removal efficiency are presented. Considering the findings data, the developed nanoparticle from Nettle leaf extract, as a low cost adsorbent, could be considered as promising adsorbent for furfural and probably similar organic pollutants removal from aqueous solutions. Keywords: Green synthesis method, Furfural, Nettle zero valent iron nanoparticles (NNZVI, Low cost adsorbents

  9. Inter- and intra-guild interactions related to aphids in nettle (Urtica dioica L.) strips closed to field crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhmedi, A; Haubruge, E; Bodson, B; Francis, F

    2006-01-01

    A field experiment designed to assess the biodiversity related to nettle strips closed to crops, and more particularly the aphid and related beneficial populations, was established in experimental farm located in Gembloux (Belgium). Margin strips of nettle (Urtica dioica) closed to wheat (Triticum aestivum), green pea (Pisum sativum) and rape (Brassicae napus) fields were investigated. The diversity, abundance of aphids and related predators were analysed according to the plant crop species and the differential pesticide application (treated plot and control). Insects were visually observed every week during all the cultivation season. Two main families of aphidophagous predators were found in all field crops and nettle, the Coccinellidae and Syrphidae. The diversity of the aphidophagous predators was shown to be higher on nettle than in field crops, particularly the Chrysopidae, the Anthocoridae and the Miridae. However, a striking difference of ladybird abundance was observed according to the aphid host plant. In one side, Coccinella septempunctata was much more abundant on Acyrthosiphon pisum infested green pea than on the other host plant species. At the opposite, higher occurrence of Harmonia axyridis was observed on the aphid infested nettle plants than on the crop plants. In particular, none of H. axyridis was found in wheat crop. Also, more than only a significant positive correlation between predator and aphid abundance, specialised relations between particular aphid species and some so-called generalist predators was determined in the fields. Finally, intraguild interactions between the aphidophagous predators was assessed and shown that only a significant negative correlation between Episyrphus balteatus and H. axyridis related to the nettle aphid, Micrlophium carnosum, was observed. The relative distribution of the ladybirds, namely C. septempunctata and H. axyridis according to the host plant, nettle strips and crop plots was discussed in relation to

  10. Evaluation of Fall Planting Dates of Cumin (Cuminum cyminum L. Ecotypes in Mashhad Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Khorasani

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effects of fall planting dates on yield and yield components of six cumin (Cuminum cyminum L. ecotypes an experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design as a split-plot with three replications during 2007-08 growing season at the Agricultural Research Station of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad. Three planting dates (18 Oct. (first, 8 Nov. (second and 29 Dec. (third and six cumin ecotypes (Torbat heydarieh, Khaf, Sabzevar, Ghaen, Ghoochan and RZ19 were allocated to main and sub plots, respectively. Results showed that the effects of planting dates, ecotypes and interaction effects of planting dates and cumin ecotypes were significant for yield components (winter survival percentage, number of umbel per plant, number of seeds per umbel and 1000-seed weight and seed yield and biological yield. There was a reduction on yield components (number of umbel per plant, number of seeds per umbel and 1000-seed weight, seed yield and biological yield due to delay planting date from 18 Oct. to 29 Dec. The highest winter survival percentage was achieved on the third planting date. The highest and lowest amount for all of the traits, were achieved in Ghaen and RZ19 ecotypes, respectively. According to the useful results and for the deployment of cumin fall planting in other locations of province, continuation of this study to recommended.

  11. Effect of Irrigation Intervals on Some Morphophysiological Traits of Basil (Ocimum basilicum L. Ecotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Goldani

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine the effect of different irrigation intervals on some morphophysiological traits of basil (Ocimum basilicum L., an experiment was conducted as factorial based on randomized complete block design with three replications under greenhouse conditions during 2010. Treatments included five irrigation intervals with 4, 8, 12, 16 and 20 days intervals and two ecotypes of basil (green and purple. The results showed that by increasing irrigation interval plant height, spike number, spike weight and shoot dry weight between irrigation intervals decreased. Purple basil was more tolerant than basil green ecotype to drought stress. Interaction between irrigation intervals and ecotypes showed that the best treatment related to four days irrigation interval and purple basil ecotype. The effect of irrigation intervals on root area, root diameter mean, total length, root volume and dry weight of root was significant. In all irrigation intervals, purple basil had better performance compared to green ecotype. The results showed that by increasing in irrigation interval decreased root surface area, but increased total root length. It was concluded that increasing irrigation interval up to 12 days decreased shoot and root surface areas. Increasing irrigation interval decreased chlorophyll- a, b and increased prolin amino acid content of basil leaf.

  12. Immunological responses and disease resistance of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) juveniles following dietary administration of stinging nettle (Urtica dioica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeidi Asl, Mohammad Reza; Adel, Milad; Caipang, Christopher Marlowe A; Dawood, Mahmoud A O

    2017-12-01

    The present study investigated the effects of dietary supplementation of stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) on growth performance, skin mucus, immune response and disease resistance of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed with diets supplemented with U. dioica at 0, 1, 2 and 3%. After 8 weeks of feeding, the addition of U. dioica at 3% level resulted in improved weight gain, specific growth rate and feed conversion ratio significantly when compared to the other groups (P nettle when measured after 4 weeks; while, total red blood cells, white blood, Htc, Hb, lymphocyte and neutrophil populations significantly increased after 8 weeks in the same group (P nettle at 3% when compared to the other groups after 8 weeks; however, triglycerides decreased significantly in the same group on the 4th and 8th week (P nettle supplementation exhibited improved antagonistic activities against several bacterial pathogens (Streptococcus iniae, Yersinia ruckeri, Vibrio anguillarum and Lactococcus garviae), skin mucus enzymes activities (alkaline phosphatase, lysozyme, protease and esterase) and protein levels in 2 and 3% groups with the highest being in case of 3% group when compared to the other groups (P nettle. The present findings demonstrated that dietary administration of U. dioica enhanced growth and stimulated fish immunity; thus, enabling the fish to be more resistant against bacterial infections. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Genome-scale cold stress response regulatory networks in ten Arabidopsis thaliana ecotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barah, Pankaj; Jayavelu, Naresh Doni; Rasmussen, Simon

    2013-01-01

    available from Arabidopsis thaliana 1001 genome project, we further investigated sequence polymorphisms in the core cold stress regulon genes. Significant numbers of non-synonymous amino acid changes were observed in the coding region of the CBF regulon genes. Considering the limited knowledge about......BACKGROUND: Low temperature leads to major crop losses every year. Although several studies have been conducted focusing on diversity of cold tolerance level in multiple phenotypically divergent Arabidopsis thaliana (A. thaliana) ecotypes, genome-scale molecular understanding is still lacking....... RESULTS: In this study, we report genome-scale transcript response diversity of 10 A. thaliana ecotypes originating from different geographical locations to non-freezing cold stress (10°C). To analyze the transcriptional response diversity, we initially compared transcriptome changes in all 10 ecotypes...

  14. Preliminary Evaluation of Yield and Yield Components of Some Khorasanian Sesame Ecotypes (Sesamum indicum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Nezami

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In most region of Khorasan, sesame ecotypes have been planted for many years, but there is little information about seed yield and yield components of them. Therefore a field experimental was conducted to investigation of yield parameters of 14 sesame ecotypes (MSC1, MSC2, MSC3, MSC4, MSC5, MSC6, MSC7, MSC8, MSC9, MSC10, MSC11, MSC12, MSC13 and MSC14 in randomized complete block design with three replications at experimental station, Collage of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad during 2009. Results showed that there were significant difference (P

  15. Phytostabilization potential of two ecotypes of Vetiveria zizanioides in cadmium-contaminated soils: greenhouse and field experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phusantisampan, Theerawut; Meeinkuirt, Weeradej; Saengwilai, Patompong; Pichtel, John; Chaiyarat, Rattanawat

    2016-10-01

    Soil contamination by cadmium (Cd) poses a serious environmental and public health concern. Phytoremediation, i.e., the use of plants to remove contaminants from soil, has been proposed for treatment of Cd-contaminated ecosystems. In this study, we demonstrated the potential of Vetiveria zizanioides, commonly known as vetiver, to serve as an effective phytoremediation agent. Two ecotypes, i.e., India and Sri Lanka, were grown in greenhouse pots and in the field. Soils were amended with cow manure, pig manure, bat manure, and an organic fertilizer. Among all amendments, pig manure performed best in both greenhouse and field studies in terms of increasing total V. zizanioides biomass production in both ecotypes. In both greenhouse and in the field, tissue of the Sri Lanka ecotype had higher Cd concentrations than did the India ecotype. In the greenhouse, the presence of Cd did not affect total biomass production or root dry weight. The Sri Lanka ecotype had 2.7 times greater adventitious root numbers and 3.6 times greater Cd accumulation in roots than did the India ecotype. In the field study, the Sri Lanka ecotype offers potential as an excluder species, as it accumulated Cd primarily in roots, with translocation factor values 1 for all experiments except for the pig manure amendment. In addition, the highest Cd concentration in the Sri Lanka ecotype root (71.3 mg kg(-1)) was consistent with highest Cd uptake (10.4 mg plant(-1)) in the cow manure treatment. The India ecotype contained lower root Cd concentrations, and Cd accumulation was slightly higher in shoots compared to roots, with translocation factor (TF) values >1. The India ecotype was therefore not considered as an excluder in the Cd-contaminated soil. With the use of excluder species combined with application of organic amendments, soil contamination by Cd may be treated by alternative remediation methods such as phytostabilization.

  16. Screening of sesame ecotypes (Sesamum indicum L. for salinity tolerance under field conditions: 1-Phenological and morphological characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Fazeli Kakhki

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Salinity is one of the most restrictions in plant growth in dry and semi dry land which effects production of many crops such as sesame. In order to study the phenology and morphology characteristics of 43 ecotypes and line of sesame (Sesamum indicum L. under salinity of irrigation water (5.2 dS.m-1 a field experiment was conducted at research farm of center of excellence for special crops, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran, during growing season of 2009-2010 based on a randomized complete block design with three replications. Results showed that four sesame ecotypes could not emerge, 14 sesame ecotypes had appropriate emergence but died before reproductive stage and only 58 % of sesame ecotypes could alive until maturity. There was significant difference between sesame ecotypes for phenological stages and were varied from 64 to 81 days for vegetative and 60 to 65 days for reproductive stages. Plant height, number and length of branches also were different between sesame ecotypes. The highest and the lowest plant height were observed in MSC43 and MSC12 ecotypes, respectively. Number of branches per plant was from 1 to 8 and length of branches in 32 percent of ecotypes was more than 100 cm. There was a considerable correlation between seed weight in plant with reproductive growth (r=0.38** and plant height (r=0.25. In addition different response of sesame ecotypes to saline water and also better morphological indices in some sesame ecotypes may be show the tolerance of these accessions to salinity. More studies may be useful for selection of sesame salt tolerance resources.

  17. Urtica dioica (Stinging Nettle): A Neglected Plant With Emerging Growth Promoter/Immunostimulant Properties for Farmed Fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vico, Gionata; Guida, Vincenzo; Carella, Francesca

    2018-01-01

    Urtica dioica (stinging nettle), is a perennial plant belonging to the family of Urticaceae , genus Urtica . Despite the use of nettle in folk veterinary medicine is well documented, U. dioica is today an underestimated and frequently neglected plant, considered by the contemporary agriculture as a weed to be eliminated. This mini review focus on very recent studies on dietary administration of U. dioica , both as a single herb or in combination with other herbs, to enhance growth and stimulate farmed fish immunity, thus enabling the fish to be more resistant against bacterial infections. Such an emerging feature, together with cost-effectiveness, adequate availability, and easy processing of nettle, could make this herb an excellent, inexpensive and widely used dietary supplement on intensive fish farms.

  18. Urtica dioica (Stinging Nettle): A Neglected Plant With Emerging Growth Promoter/Immunostimulant Properties for Farmed Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vico, Gionata; Guida, Vincenzo; Carella, Francesca

    2018-01-01

    Urtica dioica (stinging nettle), is a perennial plant belonging to the family of Urticaceae, genus Urtica. Despite the use of nettle in folk veterinary medicine is well documented, U. dioica is today an underestimated and frequently neglected plant, considered by the contemporary agriculture as a weed to be eliminated. This mini review focus on very recent studies on dietary administration of U. dioica, both as a single herb or in combination with other herbs, to enhance growth and stimulate farmed fish immunity, thus enabling the fish to be more resistant against bacterial infections. Such an emerging feature, together with cost-effectiveness, adequate availability, and easy processing of nettle, could make this herb an excellent, inexpensive and widely used dietary supplement on intensive fish farms. PMID:29632497

  19. Combined HPLC-CUPRAC (cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity) assay of parsley, celery leaves, and nettle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Leyla; Başkan, Kevser Sözgen; Tütem, Esma; Apak, Reşat

    2008-10-19

    This study aims to identify the essential antioxidant compounds present in parsley (Petroselinum sativum) and celery (Apium graveolens) leaves belonging to the Umbelliferae (Apiaceae) family, and in stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) belonging to Urticaceae family, to measure the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of these compounds with CUPRAC (cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity) and ABTS spectrophotometric methods, and to correlate the TAC with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) findings. The CUPRAC spectrophotometric method of TAC assay using copper(II)-neocuproine (2,9-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline) as the chromogenic oxidant was developed in our laboratories. The individual antioxidant constituents of plant extracts were identified and quantified by HPLC on a C18 column using a modified mobile phase of gradient elution comprised of MeOH-0.2% o-phosphoric acid and UV detection for polyphenols at 280 nm. The TAC values of HPLC-quantified antioxidant constituents were found, and compared for the first time with those found by CUPRAC. The TAC of HPLC-quantified compounds accounted for a relatively high percentage of the observed CUPRAC capacities of plant extracts, namely 81% of nettle, 60-77% of parsley (in different hydrolyzates of extract and solid sample), and 41-57% of celery leaves (in different hydrolyzates). The CUPRAC total capacities of the 70% MeOH extracts of studied plants (in the units of mmol trolox g(-1)plant) were in the order: celery leaves>nettle>parsley. The TAC calculated with the aid of HPLC-spectrophotometry did not compensate for 100% of the CUPRAC total capacities, because all flavonoid glycosides subjected to hydrolysis were either not detectable with HPLC, or not converted to the corresponding aglycons (i.e., easily detectable and quantifiable with HPLC) during the hydrolysis step.

  20. Sensitivity of two ecotypes of Arabidopsis Thaliana (Cvi and Te) towards UV-B irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velichkova, M.; Stanoeva, D.; Popova, A.

    2013-01-01

    he susceptibility of Arabidopsis thaliana towards the detrimental effect of UV-B irradiation was investigated using two ecotypes, Cvi and Te. The effect of UV-B treatment on primary photosynthetic reactions - energy interaction between the main pigment-protein complexes and oxygen evolution, was evaluated at low (4 0 C) and at room (22 0 C) temperature. UV-B-induced alterations of investigated photosynthetic reactions are better expressed at 22 0 C than at 4 0 C for Cvi. For Te ecotype the energy interaction was suppressed to higher extent at 22 0 C, while oxygen evolving activity was affected similarly at both temperatures. At low and room temperature, the energy interaction in the complex PSII-core antenna is affected stronger by UV-B treatment than the energy distribution between both photosystems, as revealed by fluorescence ratios of 77 K spectra. The results presented indicate that the Arabidopsis thaliana ecotype Cvi (Cape Verde Islands) is less affected by UV-B irradiation in respect to the investigated primary photosynthetic reactions than the ecotype Te (Finland)

  1. METABOLISM OF [14C]GA19 AND [14C]GA53 BY ECOTYPES OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADMIN

    hand, metabolism of [14C]GA53 was very limited in all day-length treatments and during both, day and night periods. ... compounds which are formed by covalent coupling of GAs to .... For each ecotype day-time and night-time metabolism of ...

  2. Cross-cultural and cross-ecotype production of a killer whale `excitement' call suggests universality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehn, Nicola; Filatova, Olga A.; Durban, John W.; Foote, Andrew D.

    2011-01-01

    Facial and vocal expressions of emotion have been found in a number of social mammal species and are thought to have evolved to aid social communication. There has been much debate about whether such signals are culturally inherited or are truly biologically innate. Evidence for the innateness of such signals can come from cross-cultural studies. Previous studies have identified a vocalisation (the V4 or `excitement' call) associated with high arousal behaviours in a population of killer whales in British Columbia, Canada. In this study, we compared recordings from three different socially and reproductively isolated ecotypes of killer whales, including five vocal clans of one ecotype, each clan having discrete culturally transmitted vocal traditions. The V4 call was found in recordings of each ecotype and each vocal clan. Nine independent observers reproduced our classification of the V4 call from each population with high inter-observer agreement. Our results suggest the V4 call may be universal in Pacific killer whale populations and that transmission of this call is independent of cultural tradition or ecotype. We argue that such universality is more consistent with an innate vocalisation than one acquired through social learning and may be linked to its apparent function of motivational expression.

  3. Hybrid Sterility over Tens of Meters Between Ecotypes Adapted to Serpentine and Non-Serpentine Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonie Moyle; Levine Mia; Stanton Maureen; Jessica Wright

    2012-01-01

    The development of hybrid sterility is an important step in the process of speciation, however the role of adaptive evolution in triggering these postzygotic barriers is poorly understood. We show that, in the California endemic plant Collinsia sparsiflora ecotypic adaptation to two distinct soil types is associated with the expression of...

  4. Seasonal adaptations to day length in ecotypes of Diorhabda spp. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) inform selection of agents against saltcedars (Tamarix spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalin, Peter; Bean, Daniel W; Dudley, Tom L; Carney, Vanessa A; Eberts, Debra; Gardner, Kevin T; Hebertson, Elizabeth; Jones, Erin N; Kazmer, David J; Michels, G J; O'Meara, Scott A; Thompson, David C

    2010-10-01

    Seasonal adaptations to daylength often limit the effective range of insects used in biological control of weeds. The leaf beetle Diorhabda carinulata (Desbrochers) was introduced into North America from Fukang, China (latitude 44° N) to control saltcedars (Tamarix spp.), but failed to establish south of 38° N latitude because of a mismatched critical daylength response for diapause induction. The daylength response caused beetles to enter diapause too early in the season to survive the duration of winter at southern latitudes. Using climate chambers, we characterized the critical daylength response for diapause induction (CDL) in three ecotypes of Diorhabda beetles originating from 36, 38, and 43° N latitudes in Eurasia. In a field experiment, the timing of reproductive diapause and voltinism were compared among ecotypes by rearing the insects on plants in the field. CDL declined with latitude of origin among Diorhabda ecotypes. Moreover, CDL in southern (42° N latitude) ecotypes, however, CDL was relatively insensitive to temperature. The southern ecotypes produced up to four generations when reared on plants in the field at sites south of 38° N, whereas northern ecotypes produced only one or two generations. The study reveals latitudinal variation in how Diorhabda ecotypes respond to daylength for diapause induction and how these responses affect insect voltinism across the introduced range.

  5. Photosynthetic pigments and stomatal conductance in ecotypes of copoazu (Theobroma grandi orum Willd. Ex. Spreng K. Schum..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Suárez-Salazar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the variability of photosynthetic pigment content and daily stomatal conductance was evaluated in relation to environmental variables in Copoazú (Theobroma grandi orum ecotypes. The ecotypes used were part of the germoplasm bank of the University of the Amazon (Colombia. The study was carried out during the year 2015. Four leaves of the average stratum of four plants were collected for each ecotype, to extract and read at different levels of absorbance and determine the content of photosynthetic pigments. During the hours of 04:00 a.m. to 6:00 p.m., the stomatal conductance (gs was monitored for environmental variables (relative humidity, air temperature, radiation and vapor pressure de cit (VPD. An analysis of variance was made using the Tukey test, correlations and regressions were made between gs and environmental variables. The contents of chlorophyll a, b, total and carotenoids among ecotypes were different (P<0.0001, the ecotype UA-31 presented the highest values, contrasting with the ecotype UA-37. Concerning gs, the interaction ecotype*hour showed signi cant differences (P<0.0001 .The ecotypes that presented the highest values of gs were UA-67 and UA-039, (P<0.0001, radiation (-0.91, P<0.0001 and DPV (-0.94; P<0.0001 0.0001.The results suggest that ecotypes UA-039 and UA-31 were the most suitable in terms of gaseous exchange and content of photosynthetic pigments.

  6. Evaluation of Freeze Tolerance in Lancelot Plantain (Plantago lanceolata L. Ecotypes under Controlled Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Janalizadeh

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Lancelot Plantain (Ribwort, narrow-leaf or English plantain is a deep-rooted, short-lived perennial herb from Plantaginaceae family which has been used for various medicinal purposes for centuries, especially in Europe and only more recently has been proposed as a forage plant. The leaf of plantain is highly palatable for grazing animals, providing mineral-rich forage. Recently two productive upright cultivars of plantain have been bred and introduced, Grasslands Lancelot and the more erect winter active Ceres Tonic. Plantain grows moderately in winter but its main growth periods beings in spring and autumn with opportunistic summer growth. Although it reveals suitable winter survival in natural conditions, but there is not a lot of information about cold tolerance of this plant. So it is important to recognize the freeze tolerance of narrow leaf plantain for successful planting and utilization in cold regions such as Mashhad in Khorasan Razavi Province (Northeast of Iran. Determining LT50 point or critical temperature for survival of plant is the most reliable and simple method for evaluating cold tolerance of plants. Another reliable method for freeze tolerance of plants is estimation of temperature at which 50 % of dry matter reduces (RDMT50. This experiment was carried out to evaluate freeze tolerance of five ecotypes of Lancelot plantain according to the LT50su and RDMT50 indices. Materials and Methods In order to evaluate freeze tolerance of Lancelot plantain, a factorial experiment based on completely randomized design with three replications was carried out under controlled conditions at college of agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad. Five ecotypes of Lancelot plantain (Bojnourd, Kalat, Mashhad, Ghayen and Birjand after three months growth and hardening in natural environment were transferred to a Thermo gradient freezer on January 20th, 2012 and exposed to eight freezing temperatures (Zero, -3, -6, -9, -12, -15, -18

  7. MCPA (4-Chloro-2-ethylphenoxyacetate) resistance in hemp-nettle (Galeopsis tetrahit L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, Tsafrir; Stephenson, Gerald R; McLean, Michael D; Hall, J Christopher

    2006-11-29

    The physiological basis for MCPA resistance in a hemp-nettle (Galeopsis tetrahit L.) biotype, obtained from a MCPA-resistant field population, was investigated. Dose-response studies revealed that the resistance factor for MCPA, based on GR50 comparisons of total dry weight of resistant (R) and susceptible (S) plants, was 3.3. Resistance factors for fluroxypyr, dicamba, 2,4-D, glyphosate, and chlorsulfuron were 8.2, 1.7, 1.6, 0.7, and 0.6, respectively. MCPA resistance was not due to differences in absorption, because both R and S biotypes absorbed 54% of applied [14C]MCPA 72 h after treatment. However, R plants exported less (45 vs 58% S) recovered 14C out of treated leaves to the apical meristem (6 vs 13% S) and root (32 vs 38% S). In both biotypes, approximately 20% of the 14C recovered in planta was detected as MCPA metabolites. However, less of the 14C recovered in the roots of R plants was MCPA. Therefore, two different mechanisms protect R hemp-nettle from MCPA phytotoxicity: a lower rate of MCPA translocation and a higher rate of MCPA metabolism in the roots. In support of these results, genetic studies indicated that the inheritance of MCPA resistance is governed by at least two nuclear genes with additive effects.

  8. The antioxidant activity of kombucha fermented milk products with stinging nettle and winter savory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitas Jasmina S.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the antioxidant activity of fermented milk products obtained by kombucha fermentation. Two starter cultures were used as follows: starter obtained after kombucha fermentation on sweetened stinging nettle extract; as well as starter obtained after kombucha fermentation on sweetened winter savory extract. The starters were added to milk with 0.8, 1.6 and 2.8% milk fat. Fermentation was carried out at 37, 40 and 43oC and stopped when the pH reached 4.5. Antioxidant activity to hydroxyl and DPPH radicals was monitored using response surface methodology. Kombucha fermented milk products with stinging nettle (KSN and with winter savory (KWS showed the same antioxidant response to hydroxyl and different response to DPPH radicals. Synergetic effect of milk fat and fermentation temperature to antioxidant activity to hydroxyl radicals for both types of kombucha fermented milk products (KSN and KWS was established. Optimum processing conditions in term of antioxidant activity are: milk fat around 2.8% and process temperature around 41 and 43°C for KSN and KWS respectively.

  9. A procedure for identifying textile bast fibres using microscopy: Flax, nettle/ramie, hemp and jute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergfjord, Christian; Holst, Bodil

    2010-01-01

    Identifying and distinguishing between natural textile fibres is an important task in both archaeology and criminology. Wool, silk and cotton fibres can readily be distinguished from the textile bast fibres flax, nettle/ramie, hemp and jute. Distinguishing between the bast fibres is, however, not easily done and methods based on surface characteristics, chemical composition and cross section size and shape are not conclusive. A conclusive method based on X-ray microdiffraction exists, but as the method requires the use of a synchrotron it is not readily available. In this paper we present a simple procedure for identifying the above mentioned textile bast fibres. The procedure is based on measuring the fibrillar orientation with polarised light microscopy and detecting the presence of calcium oxalate crystals (CaC 2 O 4 ) in association with the fibres. To demonstrate the procedure, a series of fibre samples of flax, nettle, ramie, hemp and jute were investigated. The results are presented here. An advantage of the procedure is that only a small amount of fibre material is needed.

  10. A procedure for identifying textile bast fibres using microscopy: Flax, nettle/ramie, hemp and jute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergfjord, Christian, E-mail: christian.bergfjord@uib.no [Institute for Physics and Technology, University of Bergen, Allegt. 55, 5007 Bergen (Norway); Holst, Bodil, E-mail: bodil.holst@uib.no [Institute for Physics and Technology, University of Bergen, Allegt. 55, 5007 Bergen (Norway)

    2010-08-15

    Identifying and distinguishing between natural textile fibres is an important task in both archaeology and criminology. Wool, silk and cotton fibres can readily be distinguished from the textile bast fibres flax, nettle/ramie, hemp and jute. Distinguishing between the bast fibres is, however, not easily done and methods based on surface characteristics, chemical composition and cross section size and shape are not conclusive. A conclusive method based on X-ray microdiffraction exists, but as the method requires the use of a synchrotron it is not readily available. In this paper we present a simple procedure for identifying the above mentioned textile bast fibres. The procedure is based on measuring the fibrillar orientation with polarised light microscopy and detecting the presence of calcium oxalate crystals (CaC{sub 2}O{sub 4}) in association with the fibres. To demonstrate the procedure, a series of fibre samples of flax, nettle, ramie, hemp and jute were investigated. The results are presented here. An advantage of the procedure is that only a small amount of fibre material is needed.

  11. Data of furfural adsorption on nano zero valent iron (NZVI) synthesized from Nettle extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazlzadeh, Mehdi; Ansarizadeh, Mohammad; Leili, Mostafa

    2018-02-01

    Among various water and wastewater treatment methods, adsorption techniques are widely used to remove certain classes of pollutants due to its unique features. Thus, the aim of this data article is to synthesize zero valent iron nanoparticles (NZVI) from Nettle leaf extract by green synthesis method as an environmentally friendly technique, and to evaluate it's efficiency in the removal of furfural from aqueous solutions. The data of possible adsorption mechanism and isotherm of furfural on the synthesized adsorbent are depicted in this data article. The data acquired showed that the adsorption trend follows the pseudo-second order kinetic model and that the Langmuir isotherm was suitable for correlation of equilibrium data with the maximum adsorption capacity of 454.4 mg/g. The information of initial furfural concentration, pH, adsorbent dosage and contact time effects on the removal efficiency are presented. Considering the findings data, the developed nanoparticle from Nettle leaf extract, as a low cost adsorbent, could be considered as promising adsorbent for furfural and probably similar organic pollutants removal from aqueous solutions.

  12. In vitro bioaccessibility, transepithelial transport and antioxidant activity of Urtica dioica L. phenolic compounds in nettle based food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonetti, Gianpiero; Tedeschi, Paola; Meca, Giuseppe; Bertelli, Davide; Mañes, Jordi; Brandolini, Vincenzo; Maietti, Annalisa

    2016-10-12

    Nettle (Urtica dioica L.) is a well-known plant with a wide historical background use of stems, roots and leaves. Nettle leaves are an excellent source of phenolic compounds, principally 3-caffeoylquinic acid (3-CQA), caffeoylmalic acid (CMA) and rutin. The aim of this work was to evaluate the bioaccessibility (BAC), the bioavailability (BAV) and the antioxidant activity of nettle phenolic compounds present in foods and supplements. The BAC of nettle phenolics was evaluated with an in vitro dynamic digestion of real food matrices: the type of food matrix and chemical characteristic affected the kinetics of release and solubilization, with the highest BAC after duodenal digestion. A study of duodenal trans epithelial transport evidenced low bioavailability of native forms of 3-CQA, CMA and rutin. Simulation of colonic metabolism confirmed that phenolic compounds are fermented by gut microflora, confirming the need for further investigations on the impact of phenolic compounds at the large intestine level. Photochemiluminescence assay of the simulated digestion fluids demonstrated that ingestion of Urtica based foods contributes to create an antioxidant environment against superoxide anion radicals in the entire gastrointestinal tract (GIT).

  13. [The influence of stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L.) extracts on the activity of catalase in THP1 monocytes/macrophages].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolska, Jolanta; Janda, Katarzyna; Szkyrpan, Sylwia; Gutowska, Izabela

    2015-01-01

    Stinging nettle (Urtica dioicd L.) is one of the most valuable plants used in phytotherapy. The herbal raw material is a herb (Urticae herba), leaves (Urticae folium), roots (Urticae radix) and seeds (Urticae semina). This plant is a good source of vitamins, minerals, fibre, protein and biologically active compounds with antioxidant properties. The literature provides limited information about the chemical composition and properties of the seed heads. No papers are available on the effect of extracts of this plant on catalase activity in human cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L.) extracts on the antioxidant activity of catalase in THP1 macrophages. Two types of extracts: water and alcohol, at two different concentrations, were used in experiments. Nettle was collected in September and October in 2012 in the area of Szczecin. The collected plant material was frozen and lyophilized. After those procedures water and alcohol extracts of nettle were prepared and then added to THP1 cells. The antioxidant activity of catalase was established with the spectrophotometric method. The study showed that both extracts (water and alcohol) significantly increased the antioxidant activity of catalase in THP1 cells. The increase in catalase was directly proportional to the concentration of the added alcohol extract.

  14. Evaluation of antioxidant properties, elemental and phenolic contents composition of wild nettle (Urtica dioica L.) from Tunceli in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, N C; Turkoglu, S; Ince, O K; Ince, M

    2013-11-03

    Wild nettle (Urtica dioica L.) types were sampled from different geographical regions in Tunceli (Turkey) to determine their mineral, vitamin, phenolic contents and their antioxidant properties. The total phenol varied from 37.419 ± 0.380 to 19.182 ± 1.00 mg of GAEs g(-1) of dry nettle. The highest radical scavenging effect was observed in Mazgirt parting of the ways 7.5 km with 33.70 ± 0.849 mg mL(-1). The highest reducing power was observed in the nettles from Mazgirt parting of the ways 7.5 km. Among the various macronutrients estimated in the plant samples, potassium was present in the highest quantity followed by calcium and phosphate. Kaempferol and resveratrol were not determined in some nettle samples but rutin levels were determined in all samples. Vitamin A concentrations were ranged between 13.64 ± 1.90 and 5.74 ± 1.00 (mg kg(-1) dry weight). These results show that Urtica dioica L. collected from Tunceli in Turkey could be considered as a natural alternative source for food, pharmacology and medicine sectors.

  15. Efficacy of fungicide combinations, phosphoric acid, and plant extract from stinging nettle on potato late blight management and tuber yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Late blight, caused by Phytophthora infestans is a major constraint to potato production. Inadequate management of the disease has often resulted in heavy losses in various production regions. We assessed the efficacy of fungicides, phosphoric acid, and stinging nettle plant extract combinations for...

  16. Use of lupin, Lupinus perennis, mango, Mangifera indica, and stinging nettle, Urtica dioica, as feed additives to prevent Aeromonas hydrophila infection in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, E; Austin, B

    2010-05-01

    Feeding rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), with 1% lupin, Lupinus perennis, mango, Mangifera indica, or stinging nettle, Urtica dioica, for 14 days led to reductions in mortality after challenge with Aeromonas hydrophila. In addition, there was significant enhancement in serum bactericidal activity, respiratory burst and lysozyme activity in the treatment groups compared to the controls. Use of lupin and mango led to the highest number of red blood and white blood cells in recipient fish, with use of stinging nettle leading to the highest haematocrit and haemoglobin values; the highest value of mean corpuscular volume and haemoglobin was in the control groups and those fed with stinging nettle.

  17. Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activity of Kombucha Beverages Prepared using Banana Peel, Common Nettles and Black Tea Infusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ebrahimi Pure

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Backgrounds and Objective: Kombucha is a several thousand years old traditional fermented beverage originated from East. While black tea infusion is the common substrate for preparing kombucha, other herbal infusions can be applied for this reason too. Common medicinal herbs or even waste herbal materials, like banana peel, could be suitable substrates for preparing kombucha analogues. In this study, kombuchas were fermented using nettles leaf and banana peel infusions. Materials and Methods: Herbal infusions were fermented by kombucha fungi. Folin-Ciocalteu assay was performed to evaluate total phenolic contents; Free radical scavenging activity was evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl. Disk diffusion method was performed to measure inhibitory activity against testing bacteria. All data were statistically analyzed by ANOVA test at significant level of p≤0.05. Results and Conclusion: Black tea contained highest amount of phenolics (530.5 ppm gallic acid equivalent and fermentation decomposed approximately 50% of phenolic contents to 265.5 ppm while phenolic content of nettles infusion and fermented beverage were 173 gAE and 188 gAE respectively and for banana peel, 136.5 gAE and 155 gAE; it indicated increase of phenolic contents due to fermentation that may be cause of protein contents of nettles and banana peel gone under fermentation by lactic acid bacteria. Fermented beverage of three herbs had higher antioxidant potent than infusions. Kombucha from banana peel showed the highest antioxidant activity by inhibiting 94.62% of DPPH. While antioxidant activity of fermented beverages of black tea and nettles leaf were more related to their acetic acid content, it was found that a considerable part of antioxidant activity of banana peel kombucha was due to other acids and phenolics. No antibacterial activity was observed from either of samples. Banana peel, as a waste herbal material, and nettles leaf are good ingredients for being

  18. Metabolism of [ 14 C]GA 19 and [ 14 C]GA 53 by ecotypes of Betula ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Continuing with this line of research, we studied the metabolism of 14C-labelled GA19 and GA53. [14C]GA19 and [14C] A53 were applied to the apices of the northern ecotype (67º N) and to the leaves of the southern ecotype (64º N) of Betula pendula Roth. under different photoperiods and at different times in order to ...

  19. Ecotypes as a concept for exploring responses to climate change in fish assemblages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelhard, George H.; Ellis, Jim R.; Payne, Mark

    2011-01-01

    How do species-rich fish assemblages respond to climate change or to other anthropogenic or environmental drivers? To explore this, a categorization concept is presented whereby species are assigned with respect to six ecotype classifications, according to biogeography, horizontal and vertical...... or combinations of them. The post-1989 warm biological regime appears to have favoured pelagic species more than demersal species. These community-level patterns agree with the expected responses of ecotypes to climate change and also with anticipated vulnerability to fishing pressure....... habitat preference, trophic guild, trophic level, or body size. These classification schemes are termed ecotypology, and the system is applied to fish in the North Sea using International Bottom Trawl Survey data. Over the period 1977–2008, there were changes in the North Sea fish community that can...

  20. Salix transect of Europe: variation in ploidy and genome size in willow-associated common nettle, Urtica dioica L. sens. lat., from Greece to arctic Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Quentin Cronk; Oriane Hidalgo; Jaume Pellicer; Diana Percy; Ilia Leitch

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background The common stinging nettle, Urtica dioica L. sensu lato, is an invertebrate "superhost", its clonal patches maintaining large populations of insects and molluscs. It is extremely widespread in Europe and highly variable, and two ploidy levels (diploid and tetraploid) are known. However, geographical patterns in cytotype variation require further study. New information We assembled a collection of nettles in conjunction with a transect of Europe from the Aegean to Arctic No...

  1. Adaptive Epigenetic Differentiation between Upland and Lowland Rice Ecotypes Revealed by Methylation-Sensitive Amplified Polymorphism

    OpenAIRE

    Xia, Hui; Huang, Weixia; Xiong, Jie; Tao, Tao; Zheng, Xiaoguo; Wei, Haibin; Yue, Yunxia; Chen, Liang; Luo, Lijun

    2016-01-01

    The stress-induced epimutations could be inherited over generations and play important roles in plant adaption to stressful environments. Upland rice has been domesticated in water-limited environments for thousands of years and accumulated drought-induced epimutations of DNA methylation, making it epigenetically differentiated from lowland rice. To study the epigenetic differentiation between upland and lowland rice ecotypes on their drought-resistances, the epigenetic variation was investig...

  2. Effects of various doses of selenite on stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krystofova, Olga; Adam, Vojtech; Babula, Petr; Zehnalek, Josef; Beklova, Miroslava; Havel, Ladislav; Kizek, Rene

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of selenium (Se) on the growth, accumulation and possible mechanisms of Se transport in certain parts (roots, leaves, stamp and apex) of nettle (Urtica dioica L.) plants. Se was supplemented by one-shot and two repeated doses to the soil (2.0 and 4.0 mg Se per kg of substrate). Selenium content in roots increased linearly with dose and was significantly higher compared to other plant parts of interest. However, growth of the above-ground parts of plant as well as roots was slightly inhibited with increasing selenium concentration in comparison to the untreated plants. The content of phytochelatin2, a low molecular mass peptide containing a sulfhydryl group, correlated well with the Se content. This suggests a possible stimulation of synthesis of this plant peptide by Se.

  3. Effects of Various Doses of Selenite on Stinging Nettle (Urtica dioica L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krystofova, Olga; Adam, Vojtech; Babula, Petr; Zehnalek, Josef; Beklova, Miroslava; Havel, Ladislav; Kizek, Rene

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of selenium (Se) on the growth, accumulation and possible mechanisms of Se transport in certain parts (roots, leaves, stamp and apex) of nettle (Urtica dioica L.) plants. Se was supplemented by one-shot and two repeated doses to the soil (2.0 and 4.0 mg Se per kg of substrate). Selenium content in roots increased linearly with dose and was significantly higher compared to other plant parts of interest. However, growth of the above-ground parts of plant as well as roots was slightly inhibited with increasing selenium concentration in comparison to the untreated plants. The content of phytochelatin2, a low molecular mass peptide containing a sulfhydryl group, correlated well with the Se content. This suggests a possible stimulation of synthesis of this plant peptide by Se. PMID:21139861

  4. Effects of Various Doses of Selenite on Stinging Nettle (Urtica dioica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslava Beklova

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of selenium (Se on the growth, accumulation and possible mechanisms of Se transport in certain parts (roots, leaves, stamp and apex of nettle (Urtica dioica L. plants. Se was supplemented by one-shot and two repeated doses to the soil (2.0 and 4.0 mg Se per kg of substrate. Selenium content in roots increased linearly with dose and was significantly higher compared to other plant parts of interest. However, growth of the above-ground parts of plant as well as roots was slightly inhibited with increasing selenium concentration in comparison to the untreated plants. The content of phytochelatin2, a low molecular mass peptide containing a sulfhydryl group, correlated well with the Se content. This suggests a possible stimulation of synthesis of this plant peptide by Se.

  5. Scaling-up permafrost thermal measurements in western Alaska using an ecotype approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. L. Cable

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Permafrost temperatures are increasing in Alaska due to climate change and in some cases permafrost is thawing and degrading. In areas where degradation has already occurred the effects can be dramatic, resulting in changing ecosystems, carbon release, and damage to infrastructure. However, in many areas we lack baseline data, such as subsurface temperatures, needed to assess future changes and potential risk areas. Besides climate, the physical properties of the vegetation cover and subsurface material have a major influence on the thermal state of permafrost. These properties are often directly related to the type of ecosystem overlaying permafrost. In this paper we demonstrate that classifying the landscape into general ecotypes is an effective way to scale up permafrost thermal data collected from field monitoring sites. Additionally, we find that within some ecotypes the absence of a moss layer is indicative of the absence of near-surface permafrost. As a proof of concept, we used the ground temperature data collected from the field sites to recode an ecotype land cover map into a map of mean annual ground temperature ranges at 1 m depth based on analysis and clustering of observed thermal regimes. The map should be useful for decision making with respect to land use and understanding how the landscape might change under future climate scenarios.

  6. Agronomic behaviour of some Cynodon dactylon ecotypes for turfgrass use in the Mediterranean climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Viggiani

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In Italy, the expansion of turfgrasses is limited by the lack of suitable species for cultivation in the Mediterranean climate. With this view, Mi.Te.A.Med. (Turfgrass improvement in the Mediterranean climate research project was developed with the main purpose to find out and agronomically characterise native turfgrass species of Southern and Central Italy and to compare them with some commercial cultivars. During the first step of the research, 11 sites from 6 regions of Southern and Central Italy were identified. In these sites 24 ecotypes of Cynodon dactylon L. (Pers. were collected and their habitus, phenology plus some biometric parameters have been determined. During the two years of research both botanic and agronomic characterisation of the collected C. dactylon ecotypes and their comparison with 3 commercial cultivars (Panama, Transcontinental and Yukon was carried out. In the first year the colour loss interval was assessed. In the second year, colour index was measured by an electronic colorimeter, weekly growth rate was measured by a turfmeter, turf quality and ground cover percentage were assessed by visual estimate. Some native accessions showed behaviour similar to commercial cultivars while an ecotype from the Abruzzo region showed better results compared to the commercial cultivars for several quality indices.

  7. Genetic diversity among Korean bermudagrass (Cynodon spp.) ecotypes characterized by morphological, cytological and molecular approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Si-Yong; Lee, Geung-Joo; Lim, Ki Byung; Lee, Hye Jung; Park, In Sook; Chung, Sung Jin; Kim, Jin-Baek; Kim, Dong Sub; Rhee, Hye Kyung

    2008-04-30

    The genus Cynodon comprises ten species. The objective of this study was to evaluate the genetic diversity of Korean bermudagrasses at the morphological, cytological and molecular levels. Morphological parameters, the nuclear DNA content and ploidy levels were observed in 43 bermudagrass ecotypes. AFLP markers were evaluated to define the genetic diversity, and chromosome counts were made to confirm the inferred cytotypes. Nuclear DNA contents were in the ranges 1.42-1.56, 1.94-2.19, 2.54, and 2.77-2.85 pg/2C for the triploid, tetraploid, pentaploid, and hexaploid accessions, respectively. The inferred cytotypes were triploid (2n = 3x = 27), tetraploid (2n = 4x = 36), pentaploid (2n = 5x = 45), and hexaploid (2n = 6x = 54), but the majority of the collections were tetraploid (81%). Mitotic chromosome counts verified the corresponding ploidy levels. The fast growing fine-textured ecotypes had lower ploidy levels, while the pentaploids and hexaploids were coarse types. The genetic similarity ranged from 0.42 to 0.94 with an average of 0.64. UPGMA cluster analysis and principle coordinate analysis separated the ecotypes into 6 distinct groups. The genetic similarity suggests natural hybridization between the different cytotypes, which could be useful resources for future breeding and genetic studies.

  8. Texas Bull Nettle (Cnidoscolus texanus) Exposures Reported to Texas Poison Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrester, Mathias B

    2017-06-01

    Texas bull nettle (Cnidoscolus texanus) is covered in bristly hairs similar to stinging nettle. Contact with the plant may result in intense dermal pain, burning, itching, cellulitis, and allergic reaction. This study characterizes C texanus exposures reported to a large state-wide poison center system. Cases were C texanus exposures reported to Texas poison centers during 2000-2015. The distribution of cases was determined for patient demographics, exposure circumstances, and patient outcome. A total of 140 C texanus exposures were identified. Twenty percent of the patients were aged ≤5 years, 21% were 6 to 12 years, 5% were 13 to 19 years, and 51% were ≥20years; and 51% of the patients were male. Eighty-one percent of the exposures occurred at the patient's own residence, 11% in a public area, 2% at another residence, and 1% at school. Seventy-eight percent of the patients were managed on site, 13% were already at or en route to a health care facility, and 6% were referred to a health care facility. Eighty-eight percent of the exposures resulted in dermal effects: irritation or pain (56%), erythema or flushing (31%), edema (27%), pruritus (24%), rash (19%), puncture or wound (19%), and hives or welts (11%). C texanus exposures reported to Texas poison centers were most likely to be unintentional and occur at the patient's own residence. The outcomes of the exposures tended not to be serious and could be managed successfully outside of health care facilities. Copyright © 2017 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Study on homologous series of induced early mutants in Indica rice Ⅱ. the relationship between the homologous series of early mutants induced and the ecotype in Indica rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xiulan; Yang Hefeng; He Zhentian; Han Yuepeng; Liu Xueyu

    2001-01-01

    The induced mutation in light sensitivity of the Indica rice leads to induction of the homologous series of early mutants along with the variation of ecological character and the ecoclimate. The induction of mutants was closely related to the ecotype of Indica rice, the homologous series of early mutants in different level were derived from the different ecotype of the Indica rice, otherwise, the similar homologous series of early mutants were derived from the same ecotypic variety. The induction of the early ecotypic variety derived from the homologous series of early mutants provides the basis and possibility for accelerating the development of the new cultivars. (authors)

  10. Effects of environmental biomass-producing factors on Cd uptake in two Swedish ecotypes of Pinus sylvestris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekvall, Lars; Greger, Maria

    2003-03-01

    Cadmium uptake in Scots pine seedlings was mainly regulated by biomass production. - A factorial design was used to study direct effects of external biomass-producing factors such as light, temperature and photoperiod on cadmium (Cd) uptake and indirect effects, via change in biomass production in two ecotypes of Scots pine (Pinus silvestris). The aim was to find out if the external factors affect the Cd uptake directly or via change in biomass production, and if the effect differs between ecotypes. Seedlings were grown under 10 combinations of external factors, i.e. temperature (15 and 20 deg. C), light intensity (50 and 200 {mu}mol photons m{sup -2} s{sup -1}), photoperiod (18 h light/8 h darkness and continuous light) and external Cd concentration (totally 1.88 and 7.50 {mu}mol). The treatment lasted for 18 days and Cd concentrations in roots and shoots were determined by AAS. The results showed that an increased biomass production increased the total Cd uptake but had a dilution effect on the Cd concentration, especially in the root tissues. The external factors tested did not have any direct effects on the Cd uptake, only in the case of Cd translocation to the shoot did the higher temperature show a direct increase, but only in the southern ecotype. The two ecotypes reacted differently in Cd uptake and translocation to the external factors studied. The relative Cd uptake increased with increasing photoperiod in the northern but not in the southern ecotype. The southern ecotype decreased the Cd concentration in the shoot with increased light intensity caused by a dilution effect due to extensive shoot growth of this ecotype. The conclusion is that the uptake in pine seedlings is mainly regulated via biomass production, and not directly by light and temperature and that resulting plant Cd contents to a certain extent depend on plant origin.

  11. Effects of environmental biomass-producing factors on Cd uptake in two Swedish ecotypes of Pinus sylvestris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekvall, Lars; Greger, Maria

    2003-01-01

    Cadmium uptake in Scots pine seedlings was mainly regulated by biomass production. - A factorial design was used to study direct effects of external biomass-producing factors such as light, temperature and photoperiod on cadmium (Cd) uptake and indirect effects, via change in biomass production in two ecotypes of Scots pine (Pinus silvestris). The aim was to find out if the external factors affect the Cd uptake directly or via change in biomass production, and if the effect differs between ecotypes. Seedlings were grown under 10 combinations of external factors, i.e. temperature (15 and 20 deg. C), light intensity (50 and 200 μmol photons m -2 s -1 ), photoperiod (18 h light/8 h darkness and continuous light) and external Cd concentration (totally 1.88 and 7.50 μmol). The treatment lasted for 18 days and Cd concentrations in roots and shoots were determined by AAS. The results showed that an increased biomass production increased the total Cd uptake but had a dilution effect on the Cd concentration, especially in the root tissues. The external factors tested did not have any direct effects on the Cd uptake, only in the case of Cd translocation to the shoot did the higher temperature show a direct increase, but only in the southern ecotype. The two ecotypes reacted differently in Cd uptake and translocation to the external factors studied. The relative Cd uptake increased with increasing photoperiod in the northern but not in the southern ecotype. The southern ecotype decreased the Cd concentration in the shoot with increased light intensity caused by a dilution effect due to extensive shoot growth of this ecotype. The conclusion is that the uptake in pine seedlings is mainly regulated via biomass production, and not directly by light and temperature and that resulting plant Cd contents to a certain extent depend on plant origin

  12. Effects of nanoencapsulated aloe vera, dill and nettle root extract as feed antibiotic substitutes in broiler chickens

    OpenAIRE

    A. Meimandipour; A. Nouri Emamzadeh; A. Soleimani

    2017-01-01

    Aloe vera, nettle and dill are herbs that have been used in the poultry diet as feed additives to utilise their benefits in improving performance, immune response and health of broiler chickens. However, reactive and volatile properties of bioactive compounds in herbal extracts cause limitations on direct usage of them in the diet. The use of chitosan (CS) nanoparticles for the entrapment of active components has gained interest in the last few years due to its mucous adhesi...

  13. Effects of Hydroalcoholic Nettle Extract on Insulin Sensitivity and Some Inflammatory Indicator in type 2 Diabetic Patients

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    N. Namazi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Diabetes mellitus is a common disease that almost 1.5 million people in Iran are affected, Regarding to the adverse effects of chemical drugs, the tendency to use medicinal plants, among which nettle was chosen to be studied, is growing. In this research the effect of hydroalcoholic extract of nettle on insulin sensitivity and some inflammatory factors in type II diabetic patients were studied.Materials & Methods: A blind randomized clinical trial on 50 men and women with type 2 diabetes; (mean age: 52.39±13.75 was designed to determine the aforementioned effect. Patients were randomly divided into intervention and control groups who received 100 mg/kg, Nettle extract or placebo respectively three times a day for 8 weeks. Fasting Insulin and some inflammatory factors (Interleukin-6 (IL-6, Tumor Necrosis Factor-α (TNF-α, and hsCRP (High Sensitive C-Reactive Protein levels at the beginning and end of the study were measured. Results: IL-6 and hsCRP showed a significant decrease (P <0.05, TNF-α, insulin sensitivity and hsCRP showed no significant change at the end of the study in the intervention group compared to the control. Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS software version 18 and P <0.05 was considered significant for all measurements. Conclusion: The hydroalcoholic extract of nettle showed significant decrease in IL-6 and hsCRP after 2 months of intervention in patients with type 2 diabetes. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2012;18(4:10-14

  14. AROMA PROFILE AND ANTIMICROBIAL PROPERTIES OF ALCOHOLIC AND AQUEOUS EXTRACTS FROM ROOT, LEAF AND STALK OF NETTLE (Urtica dioica L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Razzagh Mahmoudi; Kiumars Amini; Omid Fakhri; Mahsa Alem

    2014-01-01

    Medicinal plant can be considered as a great source of new antimicrobial agents due to their enormous therapeutic potential and limited side effects. Nettle (Urtica dioica L.) is a widespread and common medicinal plant widely used in traditional medicine. The present study investigates the antimicrobial potency of alcoholic and aqueous extracts of Urtica dioica on some gram positive and negative bacteria and also a particular type of fungi and analyzes the extracts to find the active ingredie...

  15. Protective effects of nettle (Urtica dioica extract against acute kidney injury induced by gentamycin in the rat

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    سید پژمان مرتضوی

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Aminoglycosides are often used in combination with beta-lactam antibiotics and have a rapid bactericidal effect, are available at an affordable cost and have less incidence of resistance, making them a drug of choice for treatment of several life-threatening infections. However, the nephrotoxic effects of aminoglycosides prevent their long term use. The use of herbal extracts in order to decrease injuries of injurious materials has long been considered. The present study was conducted in order to investigate the protective effects of nettle (Urtica dioica extract against gentamicin induced kidney injuries in the rat. Forty five male Wistar rats were divided into 9 groups consisting of: 1-healthy control group, 2- negative control group that received tween 20 (extract solvent, 3- patient control group which received onlygentamicin at 100 mg/kg, experimental healthy groups 4-6 which received nettle extract at 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg and patient experimental groups 7-9 which received nettle extract along with gentamicin at 100 mg/kg. At the end of the experiment (28 days, blood samples were obtained, and the kidneys were removed for histopathologic investigations. The results showed that gentamicin alone induced renal tissue damage and significantly increased the serum levels of creatinine and urea (p

  16. Study of Ecotype and Sowing Date Interaction in Cumin (Cuminum cyminum L. using Different Univariate Stability Parameters

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    J Ghanbari

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Cumin is one of the most important medicinal plants in Iran and today, it is in the second level of popularity between spices in the world after black pepper. Cumin is an aromatic plant used as flavoring and seasoning agent in foods. Cumin seeds have been found to possess significant biological and have been used for treatment of toothache, dyspepsia, diarrhoea, epilepsy and jaundice. Knowledge of GEI is advantageous to have a cultivar that gives consistently high yield in a broad range of environments and to increase efficiency of breeding program and selection of best genotypes. A genotype that has stable trait expression across environments contributes little to GEI and its performance should be more predictable from the main several statistical methods have been proposed for stability analysis, with the aim of explaining the information contained in the GEI. Regression technique was proposed by Finlay and Wilkinson (1963 and was improved by Eberhart and Russell (1966. Generally, genotype stability was estimated by the slope of and deviation from the regression line for each of the genotypes. This is a popular method in stability analysis and has been applied in many crops. Non-parametric methods (rank mean (R, standard deviation rank (SDR and yield index ratio (YIR, environmental variance (S2i and genotypic variation coefficient (CVi Wricke's ecovalence and Shukla's stability variance (Shukla, 1972 have been used to determine genotype-by-environment interaction in many studies. This study was aimed to evaluate the ecotype × sowing date interaction in cumin and to evaluation of genotypic response of cumin to different sowing dates using univariate stability parameters. Materials and Methods In order to study of ecotype × sowing date interaction, different cumin ecotypes: Semnan, Fars, Yazd, Golestan, Khorasan-Razavi, Khorasan-Shomali, Khorasan-Jonoubi, Isfahan and Kerman in 5 different sowing dates (26th December, 10th January

  17. Variable response of three Trifolium repens ecotypes to soil flooding by seawater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Anissia C; Colmer, Timothy D; Cawthray, Greg R; Hanley, Mick E

    2014-08-01

    Despite concerns about the impact of rising sea levels and storm surge events on coastal ecosystems, there is remarkably little information on the response of terrestrial coastal plant species to seawater inundation. The aim of this study was to elucidate responses of a glycophyte (white clover, Trifolium repens) to short-duration soil flooding by seawater and recovery following leaching of salts. Using plants cultivated from parent ecotypes collected from a natural soil salinity gradient, the impact of short-duration seawater soil flooding (8 or 24 h) on short-term changes in leaf salt ion and organic solute concentrations was examined, together with longer term impacts on plant growth (stolon elongation) and flowering. There was substantial Cl(-) and Na(+) accumulation in leaves, especially for plants subjected to 24 h soil flooding with seawater, but no consistent variation linked to parent plant provenance. Proline and sucrose concentrations also increased in plants following seawater flooding of the soil. Plant growth and flowering were reduced by longer soil immersion times (seawater flooding followed by drainage and freshwater inputs), but plants originating from more saline soil responded less negatively than those from lower salinity soil. The accumulation of proline and sucrose indicates a potential for solute accumulation as a response to the osmotic imbalance caused by salt ions, while variation in growth and flowering responses between ecotypes points to a natural adaptive capacity for tolerance of short-duration seawater soil flooding in T. repens. Consequently, it is suggested that selection for tolerant ecotypes is possible should the predicted increase in frequency of storm surge flooding events occur. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Ecotype variability in growth and secondary metabolite profile in Moringa oleifera: impact of sulfur and water availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Förster, Nadja; Ulrichs, Christian; Schreiner, Monika; Arndt, Nick; Schmidt, Reinhard; Mewis, Inga

    2015-03-25

    Moringa oleifera is widely cultivated in plantations in the tropics and subtropics. Previous cultivation studies with M. oleifera focused primarily only on leaf yield. In the present study, the content of potentially health-promoting secondary metabolites (glucosinolates, phenolic acids, and flavonoids) were also investigated. Six different ecotypes were grown under similar environmental conditions to identify phenotypic differences that can be traced back to the genotype. The ecotypes TOT4880 (origin USA) and TOT7267 (origin India) were identified as having the best growth performance and highest secondary metabolite production, making them an ideal health-promoting food crop. Furthermore, optimal cultivation conditions-exemplarily on sulfur fertilization and water availability-for achieving high leaf and secondary metabolite yields were investigated for M. oleifera. In general, plant biomass and height decreased under water deficiency compared to normal cultivation conditions, whereas the glucosinolate content increased. The effects depended to a great extent on the ecotype.

  19. The Effect of Plant Density on Photosynthesis and Growth Indices of Henna (Lowsonia inermis L. Ecotypes

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    A Pasandi Pour

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction One of the most important factors to obtain the maximum performance or yield in every climatic condition and for each plant varieties is determining the optimum plant density. Henna (Lowsonia inermis L. is a perennial plant with high value in terms of having medicinal properties and industrial applications. The dye which is derived from green leaves of henna is used for decorating the body with intricate designs and the principle coloring matter is lawsone, 2-hydroxy-1, 4-naphthoqunone. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the agro-physiological reaction of different henna ecotypes to different planting densities in Kerman weather conditions. Materials and Methods The study was carried out as a factorial experiment based on complete randomized block design with three replications in Shahid Bahonar University in 2015. The experiment consisted of four plant densities (25, 33, 50 and 100 plants m-2 and three ecotypes (Shahdad, Roodbar and Bam. Due to its small seeds and germination problems the planting method used was transplanting. In this study, growth indices such as leaf area index (LAI, crop growth rate (CGR, relative growth rate (RGR, leaf area ratio (LAR, specific leaf area (SLA, specific leaf weight (SLW, leaf area duration (LAD and biomass duration (BMD were calculated. The net photosynthesis, stomatal conductance and transpiration rate were measured in the middle of growing period by photosynthesis meter (CI-340 model, CID Bio- Science companies, USA. At the end, the results were analyzed using the SAS v. 9.1 and MSTATC software’s and diagrams were drawn by Excel software. Results and Discussion The results showed that the studied ecotypes were significantly different in terms of CGR, RGR and stomatal conductance. The highest average of CGR belonged to Shahdad ecotype while there was no significant difference between Roodbar and Bam ecotypes in this case. Shahdad ecotype with the RGR of 0.018 g.g.day had the

  20. Identifying the transition to the maturation zone in three ecotypes of Arabidopsis thaliana roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cajero Sánchez, Wendy; García-Ponce, Berenice; Sánchez, María de la Paz; Álvarez-Buylla, Elena R; Garay-Arroyo, Adriana

    2018-01-01

    The Arabidopsis thaliana (hereafter Arabidopsis) root has become a useful model for studying how organ morphogenesis emerge from the coordination and balance of cell proliferation and differentiation, as both processes may be observed and quantified in the root at different stages of development. Hence, being able to objectively identify and delimit the different stages of root development has been very important. Up to now, three different zones along the longitudinal axis of the primary root of Arabidopsis, have been identified: the root apical meristematic zone (RAM) with two domains [the proliferative (PD) and the transition domain (TD)], the elongation zone (EZ) and the maturation zone (MZ). We previously reported a method to quantify the length of the cells of the meristematic and the elongation zone, as well as the boundaries or transitions between the root domains along the growing part of the Arabidopsis root. In this study, we provide a more accurate criterion to identify the MZ. Traditionally, the transition between the EZ to the MZ has been established by the emergence of the first root-hair bulge in the epidermis, because this emergence coincides with cell maturation in this cell type. But we have found here that after the emergence of the first root-hair bulge some cells continue to elongate and we have confirmed this in three different Arabidopsis ecotypes. We established the limit between the EZ and the MZ by looking for the closest cortical cell with a longer length than the average cell length of 10 cells after the cortical cell closest to the epidermal cell with the first root-hair bulge in these three ecotypes. In Col-0 and Ws this cell is four cells above the one with the root hair bulge and, in the Ler ecotype, this cell is five cells above. To unambiguously identifying the site at which cells stop elongating and attain their final length and fate at the MZ, we propose to calculate the length of completely elongated cortical cells counting 10

  1. Comparative Mapping of Seed Dormancy Loci Between Tropical and Temperate Ecotypes of Weedy Rice (Oryza sativa L.

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    Lihua Zhang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Genotypic variation at multiple loci for seed dormancy (SD contributes to plant adaptation to diverse ecosystems. Weedy rice (Oryza sativa was used as a model to address the similarity of SD genes between distinct ecotypes. A total of 12 quantitative trait loci (QTL for SD were identified in one primary and two advanced backcross (BC populations derived from a temperate ecotype of weedy rice (34.3°N Lat.. Nine (75% of the 12 loci were mapped to the same positions as those identified from a tropical ecotype of weedy rice (7.1°N Lat.. The high similarity suggested that the majority of SD genes were conserved during the ecotype differentiation. These common loci are largely those collocated/linked with the awn, hull color, pericarp color, or plant height loci. Phenotypic correlations observed in the populations support the notion that indirect selections for the wild-type morphological characteristics, together with direct selections for germination time, were major factors influencing allelic distributions of SD genes across ecotypes. Indirect selections for crop-mimic traits (e.g., plant height and flowering time could also alter allelic frequencies for some SD genes in agroecosystems. In addition, 3 of the 12 loci were collocated with segregation distortion loci, indicating that some gametophyte development genes could also influence the genetic equilibria of SD loci in hybrid populations. The SD genes with a major effect on germination across ecotypes could be used as silencing targets to develop transgene mitigation (TM strategies to reduce the risk of gene flow from genetically modified crops into weed/wild relatives.

  2. Problems with the claim of ecotype and taxon status of the wolf in the Great Lakes region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Matthew A.; Mech, L. David

    2009-01-01

    Koblmuller et al. (2009) analysed molecular genetic data of the wolf in the Great Lakes (GL) region of the USA and concluded that the animal was a unique ecotype of grey wolf and that genetic data supported the population as a discrete wolf taxon. However, some of the literature that the researchers used to support their position actually did not, and additional confusion arises from indefinite use of terminology. Herein, we discuss the problems with designation of a wolf population as a taxon or ecotype without proper definition and assessment of criteria.

  3. Plant fertilization interacts with life history: variation in stoichiometry and performance in nettle-feeding butterflies.

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    Hélène Audusseau

    Full Text Available Variation in food stoichiometry affects individual performance and population dynamics, but it is also likely that species with different life histories should differ in their sensitivity to food stoichiometry. To address this question, we investigated the ability of the three nettle-feeding butterflies (Aglais urticae, Polygonia c-album, and Aglais io to respond adaptively to induced variation in plant stoichiometry in terms of larval performance. We hypothesized that variation in larval performance between plant fertilization treatments should be functionally linked to species differences in host plant specificity. We found species-specific differences in larval performance between plant fertilization treatments that could not be explained by nutrient limitation. We showed a clear evidence of a positive correlation between food stoichiometry and development time to pupal stage and pupal mass in A. urticae. The other two species showed a more complex response. Our results partly supported our prediction that host plant specificity affects larval sensitivity to food stoichiometry. However, we suggest that most of the differences observed may instead be explained by differences in voltinism (number of generations per year. We believe that the potential of some species to respond adaptively to variation in plant nutrient content needs further attention in the face of increased eutrophication due to nutrient leakage from human activities.

  4. Ameliorative effects of stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) on testosterone-induced prostatic hyperplasia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahata, A; Dixit, V K

    2012-05-01

    The present study investigated the effects of stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L.) (UD) on benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) induced by testosterone. In vitro studies were conducted to assess the 5α-reductase inhibitory potential of UD. Two biochemical markers viz., β-sitosterol and scopoletin, were isolated and characterised in the extracts utilising High-performance thin layer chromatographic, FTIR, NMR and overlain UV spectral studies. Hyperplasia was induced in rats by subcutaneous administration of testosterone (3 mg kg(-1) s.c.) for 28 days in all the groups except the vehicle-treated group. Simultaneous administration of petroleum ether and ethanolic extracts (10, 20 and 50 mg kg(-1) p.o.) and isolated β-sitosterol (10 and 20 mg kg(-1) p.o.) was undertaken. Finasteride was used as a positive control (1 mg kg(-1) p.o.). Measurement of prostate/body weight ratio, weekly urine output and serum testosterone levels, prostate-specific antigen levels (on day 28) and histological examinations carried out on prostates from each group led us to conclude that UD can be used as an effective drug for the management of BPH. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Ecotype evolution in Glossina palpalis subspecies, major vectors of sleeping sickness.

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    Thierry De Meeûs

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The role of environmental factors in driving adaptive trajectories of living organisms is still being debated. This is even more important to understand when dealing with important neglected diseases and their vectors.In this paper, we analysed genetic divergence, computed from seven microsatellite loci, of 614 tsetse flies (Glossina palpalis gambiensis and Glossina palpalis palpalis, major vectors of animal and human trypanosomes from 28 sites of West and Central Africa. We found that the two subspecies are so divergent that they deserve the species status. Controlling for geographic and time distances that separate these samples, which have a significant effect, we found that G. p. gambiensis from different landscapes (Niayes of Senegal, savannah and coastal environments were significantly genetically different and thus represent different ecotypes or subspecies. We also confirm that G. p. palpalis from Ivory Coast, Cameroon and DRC are strongly divergent.These results provide an opportunity to examine whether new tsetse fly ecotypes might display different behaviour, dispersal patterns, host preferences and vectorial capacities. This work also urges a revision of taxonomic status of Glossina palpalis subspecies and highlights again how fast ecological divergence can be, especially in host-parasite-vector systems.

  6. Evaluation of the defensive behavior of two honeybee ecotypes using a laboratory test

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    Cecilia Andere

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Honeybee defensive behavior is a useful selection criterion, especially in areas with Africanized honeybees (Apis mellifera L. In all genetic improvement programs the selected characters must be measured with precision, and because of this we evaluated a metabolic method for testing honeybee defensive behavior in the laboratory for its usefulness in distinguishing between honeybee ecotypes and selecting honeybees based on their level of defensive responses. Ten honeybee colonies were used, five having been produced by feral queens from a subtropical region supposedly colonized by Africanized honeybees and five by queens from a temperate region apparently colonized by European honeybees. We evaluate honeybee defensive behavior using a metabolic test based on oxygen consumption after stimulation with an alarm pheromone, measuring the time to the first response, time to maximum oxygen consumption, duration of activity, oxygen consumption at first response, maximum oxygen consumption and total oxygen consumption, colonies being ranked according to the values obtained for each variable. Significant (p < 0.05 differences were detected between ecotypes for each variable but for all variables the highest rankings were obtained for colonies of subtropical origin, which had faster and more intense responses. All variables were highly associated (p < 0.05. Total oxygen consumption was the best indicator of metabolic activity for defensive behavior because it combined oxygen consumption and the length of the response. This laboratory method may be useful for evaluating the defensive behavior of honey bees in genetic programs designed to select less defensive bees.

  7. Allele-specific physical interactions regulate the heterotic traits in hybrids of Arabidopsis thaliana ecotypes

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    Babita Singh

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Heterosis is an important phenomenon for the breeding in agricultural crops as it influences yield related traits such as biomass yield, seed number and weight, adaptive and reproductive traits. However, the level of heterosis greatly varies for different traits and different genotypes. The present study focuses on identification of physical interactions between alleles and their role in transcriptional regulation in heterotic plants. Here, we used two Arabidopsis ecotypes; Col-0 and C24 as parent for crosses. We performed crossing between these ecotypes and screened the F1 hybrids on the basis of different SSR markers. Further, we used Hi-C to capture intra- and inter-chromosomal physical interactions between alleles on genome-wide level. Then, we identified allele-specific chromatin interactions and constructed genome-wide allele-specific contact maps at different resolutions for the entire chromosome. We also performed RNA-seq of hybrids and their parents. RNA-seq analysis identified several differentially expressed genes and non-additively expressed genes in hybrids with respect to their parents. Further, to understand the biological significance of these chromatin interactions, we annotated these interactions and correlated with the transcriptome data. Thus, our study provides alleles-specific chromatin interactions in genome-wide fashion which play a crucial role in regulation of different genes that may be important for heterosis.

  8. Establishment of an Indirect Genetic Transformation Method for Arabidopsis thaliana ecotype Bangladesh

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    Bulbul AHMED

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Arabidopsis thaliana is a small flowering plant belonging to the Brassicaceae family, which is adopted as a model plant for genetic research. Agrobacterium tumifaciensmediated transformation method for A. thaliana ecotype Bangladesh was established. Leaf discs of A. thaliana were incubated with A. tumefaciens strain LBA4404 containing chimeric nos. nptII. nos and intron-GUS genes. Following inoculation and co-cultivation, leaf discs were cultured on selection medium containing 50 mg/l kanamycin + 50 mg/l cefotaxime + 1.5 mg/l NAA and kanamycin resistant shoots were induced from the leaf discs after two weeks. Shoot regeneration was achieved after transferring the tissues onto fresh medium of the same combination. Finally, the shoots were rooted on MS medium containing 50 mg/l kanamycin. Incorporation and expression of the transgenes were confirmed by PCR analysis. Using this protocol, transgenic A. thaliana plants can be obtained and indicates that genomic transformation in higher plants is possible through insertion of desired gene. Although Agrobacterium mediated genetic transformation is established for A. thaliana, this study was the conducted to transform A. thaliana ecotype Bangladesh.

  9. Effect of Freezing on Spermatozoa from Tigaie Rams Belonging to the Mountain Ecotype

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    Vasile Miclea

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Our aim was to study the influence of freezing on the viability and frequency of abnormalities in frozen ram spermatozoa. Sperm was collected form 20 rams belonging to the mountain ecotype of the Tigaie breed using the artificial vagina technique and volume and motility were assessed. Afterward it was diluted with Tryladil (1:4 supplemented with 20% egg yolk and heated at 37°C. Subsequently the temperature decreased at a rate of 0.2°C/minute until reaching 4°C and an equilibration time of 2 hours followed. During this time the diluted sperm was packaged in 0.25 ml straws. After sealing these were kept 6 cm above liquid nitrogen level for 13 minutes (- 120°C and then plunged into nitrogen. Volume, motility and concentration were assessed before freezing. After thawing sperm morphology was assessed using Hancock’s method and at the same time the endurance (at 10, 30 and 60 minutes and HOST tests were performed. The highest motility (0.40 was graded at 30 minutes. It could be correlated with the increased percentage of HOST positive spermatozoa, 27.78%. The percentage of abnormal spermatozoa was also high (47.89%, 38.44% of them having acrosome flaws. Cryopreservation has a negative effect on the characteristics of sperm cells from Tigaie rams belonging to the mountain ecotype.

  10. Co-occurring Synechococcus ecotypes occupy four major oceanic regimes defined by temperature, macronutrients and iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohm, Jill A; Ahlgren, Nathan A; Thomson, Zachary J; Williams, Cheryl; Moffett, James W; Saito, Mak A; Webb, Eric A; Rocap, Gabrielle

    2016-02-01

    Marine picocyanobacteria, comprised of the genera Synechococcus and Prochlorococcus, are the most abundant and widespread primary producers in the ocean. More than 20 genetically distinct clades of marine Synechococcus have been identified, but their physiology and biogeography are not as thoroughly characterized as those of Prochlorococcus. Using clade-specific qPCR primers, we measured the abundance of 10 Synechococcus clades at 92 locations in surface waters of the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. We found that Synechococcus partition the ocean into four distinct regimes distinguished by temperature, macronutrients and iron availability. Clades I and IV were prevalent in colder, mesotrophic waters; clades II, III and X dominated in the warm, oligotrophic open ocean; clades CRD1 and CRD2 were restricted to sites with low iron availability; and clades XV and XVI were only found in transitional waters at the edges of the other biomes. Overall, clade II was the most ubiquitous clade investigated and was the dominant clade in the largest biome, the oligotrophic open ocean. Co-occurring clades that occupy the same regime belong to distinct evolutionary lineages within Synechococcus, indicating that multiple ecotypes have evolved independently to occupy similar niches and represent examples of parallel evolution. We speculate that parallel evolution of ecotypes may be a common feature of diverse marine microbial communities that contributes to functional redundancy and the potential for resiliency.

  11. In vitro regeneration of Amazonian pineapple (Ananas comosus plants ecotype Gobernadora

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    Héctor Alexander Blanco Flores

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available There are a number of pineapple (Ananas comosus cultivars and ecotypes of local commercial importance in Venezuela, among them the Amazonian ones, cultivated mainly by the aboriginal Piaroa, are of relevance. They sow the propagules, which restricts the availability of material for large-scale cultivation. This limitation was approached by plant tissue culture for in vitro propagation of Amazonian pineapple plants, Gobernadora ecotype, through somatic embryogenesis (ES and adventitious organogenesis (OA. Basal and intermediate sections of leaves were tested. Only the leaf base sections (FBS were morphogenically induced. The highest number of vitroplants (1.58 plants / explant was obtained from the embryogenic callus induced in MS medium with Picloram 10 mg.L-1 + Thidiazuron 2 mg.L-1, transferred to MS medium without hormones. In the organogenic process, the highest number of plants/explants (5 was obtained directly in MS with naphthaleneacetic acid 5 mg.L-1 + benzylaminopurine 0.25 mg.L-1, transferred to MS. The latter being the best in vitro culture system due to its productivity and for being a method that minimizes somaclonal variation.

  12. The effect of hydro alcoholic nettle (Urtica dioica) extract on oxidative stress in patients with type 2 diabetes: a randomized double-blind clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namazi, N; Tarighat, A; Bahrami, A

    2012-01-15

    Diabetes type 2 is a metabolic disorder that characterized by hyperglycemia and insulin resistance. Hyperglycemia and impairment of oxidant/antioxidant balance, can increase oxidative stress and increase risk of cardiovascular disease. In the present study, Effects of hydro alcoholic extract of Nettle on oxidative stress in type 2 diabetes were evaluated. Fifty patients (27 men, 23 women) with type 2 diabetes patients were studied. They received 100 mg kg(-1) of nettle extract of body weight hydro alcoholic for 8 weeks. At the baseline and end of 8th weeks of intervention blood levels of oxidative stress markers were measured. Data was analyzed by SPSS version 18, p nettle has increasing effects on TAC and SOD in patients with type 2 diabetes without no changes in Malondialdehyde (MDA) and Glutathione Peroxides (GPX) after eight weeks intervention.

  13. Production and processing of organically grown fiber nettle (Urtica dioica L.) and its potential use in the natural textiles industry: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Vogl, C. R.; Hartl, A.

    2003-01-01

    In Europe, the perennial stinging nettle was cultivated during the 19th century until the Second World War and has a long history as a fiber plant. Clone varieties dating back to the early 20th century are still maintained at European research institutions. The fiber content of clones ranges from 1.2 to 16% dry matter, and fiber yields range from 0.14 to 1.28 Mg/ha. Varietal purity of fiber nettle can only be achieved by planting cuttings. The harvesting of fiber starts in the second year of ...

  14. Lack of Ecotypic Differentiation: Plant Response to Elevation, Population Origin, and Wind in the Luquillo Mountains, Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ned Fetcher; Roberto A. Cordero; Janice Voltzow

    2000-01-01

    How important is ecotypic differentiation along elevational gradients in the tropics? Reciprocal transplants of two shrubs, Clibadium erosum (Asteraceae) and Psychotria berteriana (Rubiaceae), and a palm, Prestoea acuminata var. montana (Palmaceae), were used to test for the effect of environment and population origin on growth and physiology in the Luquillo...

  15. Adaptive changes in photosynthetic performance and secondary metabolites during white dead nettle micropropagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapchina-Toteva, V; Dimitrova, M A; Stefanova, M; Koleva, D; Kostov, K; Yordanova, Zh P; Stefanov, D; Zhiponova, M K

    2014-09-15

    The white dead nettle, Lamium album L., is an herb that has been successfully cultivated under in vitro conditions. The L. album micropropagation system offers a combination of factors (light intensity, temperature, carbon dioxide (CO2) level, humidity) that are limiting for plant growth and bioactive capacity. To get a better understanding of the mechanism of plant acclimation towards environmental changes, we performed a comparative investigation on primary and secondary metabolism in fully expanded L. album leaves during the consecutive growth in in situ, in vitro, and ex vitro conditions. Although the genetic identity was not affected, structural and physiological deviations were observed, and the level of bioactive compounds was modified. During in vitro cultivation, the L. album leaves became thinner with unaffected overall leaf organization, but with a reduced number of palisade mesophyll layers. Structural deviation of the thylakoid membrane system was detected. In addition, the photosystem 2 (PS2) electron transport was retarded, and the plants were more vulnerable to light damage as indicated by the decreased photoprotection ability estimated by fluorescence parameters. The related CO2 assimilation and transpiration rates were subsequently reduced, as were the content of essential oils and phenolics. Transfer of the plants ex vitro did not increase the number of palisade numbers, but the chloroplast structure and PS2 functionality were recovered. Strikingly, the rates of CO2 assimilation and transpiration were increased compared to in situ control plants. While the phenolics content reached normal levels during ex vitro growth, the essential oils remained low. Overall, our study broadens the understanding about the nature of plant responses towards environmental conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Thermal ecology of gregarious and solitary nettle-feeding nymphalid butterfly larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, S R; Thomas, C D; Bale, J S

    2000-01-01

    Group-living in animal populations has many possible ecological and evolutionary explanations, including predator evasion and feeding facilitation. In insects, the thermal balance of solitary and gregarious larvae is likely to differ and may thus have important ecological consequences. The abilities of the larvae of four species of nettle-feeding nymphalid butterflies to thermoregulate were quantified in the field. Larval surface body temperatures of the gregarious Aglais urticae (small tortoiseshell) and Inachis io (peacock) and the solitary Polygonia c-album (comma) and Vanessa atalanta (red admiral) were measured for each instar, in both sunny and overcast conditions, over a seasonal range of temperatures. The results suggested two distinct larval thermal strategies. In the presence of direct sunlight, the exposed gregarious larvae of A. urticae and I. io regulated body temperatures at 32.5 and 31.5°C, respectively, while the temperatures of concealed larvae of P. c-album and V. atalanta were largely dependent on ambient temperatures. In the sun, the range of body temperatures recorded for A. urticae and I. io larvae was fairly narrow relative to ambient temperatures. This suggests a high degree of thermal control in these species. Modal body temperatures coincided with the temperature at which development rate is maximal. Regardless of whether changes in thermoregulation are a cause or consequence of the evolution of gregariousness, the combination of behavioural thermoregulation and gregariousness in larval insects has important implications for voltinism patterns and range extension (via increased development rates). Distributional responses of gregarious and solitary larvae to climatic warming may differ as a result of changes in cloud cover as well as changes in temperature.

  17. The effect of stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) seed oil on experimental colitis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genc, Zeynep; Yarat, Aysen; Tunali-Akbay, Tugba; Sener, Goksel; Cetinel, Sule; Pisiriciler, Rabia; Caliskan-Ak, Esin; Altıntas, Ayhan; Demirci, Betul

    2011-12-01

    This study investigated the effect of Urtica dioica, known as stinging nettle, seed oil (UDO) treatment on colonic tissue and blood parameters of trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis in rats. Experimental colitis was induced with 1 mL of TNBS in 40% ethanol by intracolonic administration with a 8-cm-long cannula with rats under ether anesthesia, assigned to a colitis group and a colitis+UDO group. Rats in the control group were given saline at the same volume by intracolonic administration. UDO (2.5 mL/kg) was given to the colitis+UDO group by oral administration throughout a 3-day interval, 5 minutes later than colitis induction. Saline (2.5 mL/kg) was given to the control and colitis groups at the same volume by oral administration. At the end of the experiment macroscopic lesions were scored, and the degree of oxidant damage was evaluated by colonic total protein, sialic acid, malondialdehyde (MDA), and glutathione levels, collagen content, tissue factor activity, and superoxide dismutase and myeloperoxidase activities. Colonic tissues were also examined by histological and cytological analysis. Pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, and interleukin-6), lactate dehydrogenase activity, and triglyceride and cholesterol levels were analyzed in blood samples. We found that UDO decreased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, lactate dehydrogenase, triglyceride, and cholesterol, which were increased in colitis. UDO administration ameliorated the TNBS-induced disturbances in colonic tissue except for MDA. In conclusion, UDO, through its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant actions, merits consideration as a potential agent in ameliorating colonic inflammation.

  18. Kompetisi Antara Ekotipe Echinochloa Crus-galli Pada Beberapa Tingkat Populasi Dengan Padi Sawah (Competition of Echinochloa Crus-galli Ecotypes at Several Populations Against Lowland Rice)

    OpenAIRE

    Guntoro, Dwi; Chozin, Muhamad Achmad; Santosa, Edi; Tjitrosemito, Soekisman; Burhan, Abdul Harris

    2009-01-01

    Echinochloa crus-galli is a major weed in paddy field that reduces rice yield. The objective of the research was to study the effect of E. crus-galli ecotypes and populations on rice growth and production. The research was conducted in a green house using split plot design with three replications. The main plot consisted of three E. crus-galli ecotypes i.e ecotype from Karawang, Cikampek, and Sukabumi. E. crus-galli population as sub plot consisted of 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 E. crus-galli per po...

  19. Lipophilic stinging nettle extracts possess potent anti-inflammatory activity, are not cytotoxic and may be superior to traditional tinctures for treating inflammatory disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Tyler A; Sohn, Johann; Inman, Wayne D; Bjeldanes, Leonard F; Rayburn, Keith

    2013-01-15

    Extracts of four plant portions (roots, stems, leaves and flowers) of Urtica dioica (the stinging nettle) were prepared using accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) involving water, hexanes, methanol and dichloromethane. The extracts were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic activities in an NF-κB luciferase and MTT assay using macrophage immune (RAW264.7) cells. A standardized commercial ethanol extract of nettle leaves was also evaluated. The methanolic extract of the flowering portions displayed significant anti-inflammatory activity on par with a standard compound celastrol (1) but were moderately cytotoxic. Alternatively, the polar extracts (water, methanol, ethanol) of the roots, stems and leaves displayed moderate to weak anti-inflammatory activity, while the methanol and especially the water soluble extracts exhibited noticeable cytotoxicity. In contrast, the lipophilic dichloromethane extracts of the roots, stems and leaves exhibited potent anti-inflammatory effects greater than or equal to 1 with minimal cytotoxicity to RAW264.7 cells. Collectively these results suggest that using lipophilic extracts of stinging nettle may be more effective than traditional tinctures (water, methanol, ethanol) in clinical evaluations for the treatment of inflammatory disorders especially arthritis. A chemical investigation into the lipophilic extracts of stinging nettle to identify the bioactive compound(s) responsible for their observed anti-inflammatory activity is further warranted. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  20. Efficacy of Supportive Therapy of Allergic Rhinitis by Stinging Nettle (Urtica dioica) root extract: a Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo- Controlled, Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhshaee, Mehdi; Mohammad Pour, Amir Hooshang; Esmaeili, Majid; Jabbari Azad, Farahzad; Alipour Talesh, Ghazal; Salehi, Maryam; Noorollahian Mohajer, Morteza

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to survey the exact benefit of this herb in the management of clinical and laboratory signs and symptoms of allergic rhinitis. In a randomized double blind clinical trial, 74 patients with the signs and symptoms of allergic rhinitis and a positive skin prick test were selected and randomly divided into 2 groups who were taken Urtica dioica 150-mg, Urtidin ® F.C Tablet) or placebo for one month. Their signs and symptoms, eosinophil percentage on nasal smear, serum IgE, and interleukin IL-4, IL-5, interferon- γ) levels were recorded. Forty patients completed the trial. Based on the Sino- Nasal Outcome Test 22 SNOT-22), a significant improvement in clinical symptom severity was observed in both groups P Nettle P Nettle saw no significant changes P > .1). Intergroup pre- and post-treatment laboratory findings suggested that there was a significant difference in post-treatment changes of mean IFN γ levels between the study and placebo group P = 0.017). Although the current study showed certain positive effects of Nettle in the management of allergic rhinitis on controlling the symptoms based on the SNOT-22, similar effects were demonstrated by placebo as well. We believe that our limitations underscore the need for larger, longer term studies of Nettle for the treatment of allergic rhinitis.

  1. Anthropogenic host plant expansion leads a nettle-feeding butterfly out of the forest: consequences for larval survival and developmental plasticity in adult morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merckx, Thomas; Serruys, Mélanie; Van Dyck, Hans

    2015-04-01

    Recent anthropogenic eutrophication has meant that host plants of nettle-feeding insects became quasi-omnipresent in fertile regions of Western Europe. However, host plant resource quality - in terms of microclimate and nutritional value - may vary considerably between the 'original' forest habitat and 'recent' agricultural habitat. Here, we compared development in both environmental settings using a split-brood design, so as to explore to what extent larval survival and adult morphology in the nettle-feeding butterfly Aglais urticae are influenced by the anthropogenic environment. Nettles along field margins had higher C/N ratios and provided warmer microclimates to larvae. Larvae developed 20% faster and tended to improve their survival rates, on the agricultural land compared to woodland. Our split-brood approach indicated plastic responses within families, but also family effects in the phenotypic responses. Adult males and females had darker wing pigmentation in the drier and warmer agricultural environment, which contrasts with the thermal melanism hypothesis. Developmental plasticity in response to this microclimatically different and more variable habitat was associated with a broader phenotypic parameter space for the species. Both habitat expansion and developmental plasticity are likely contributors to the ecological and evolutionary success of these nettle-feeding insects in anthropogenic environments under high nitrogen load.

  2. Lipophilic stinging nettle extracts possess potent anti-inflammatory activity, are not cytotoxic and may be superior to traditional tinctures for treating inflammatory disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Tyler A.; Sohn, Johann; Inman, Wayne D.; Bjeldanes, Leonard F.; Rayburn, Keith

    2012-01-01

    Extracts of four plant portions (roots, stems, leaves and flowers) of Urtica dioica, (the stinging nettle) were prepared using accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) involving water, hexanes, methanol and dichloromethane. The extracts were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic activity in an NF-κB luciferase and MTT assay using macrophage immune (RAW264.7) cells. A standardized commercial ethanol extract of nettle leaves were also evaluated. The methanolic extract of the flowering portions displayed significant anti-inflammatory activity on par with the standard anti-inflammatory agent celastrol (1) but was moderately cytotoxic. Alternatively, the polar extracts (water, methanol, ethanol) of the roots, stems and leaves plant portions displayed moderate to weak anti-inflammatory activity, while the methanol and especially the water soluble extracts exhibited noticeable cytotoxicity. In contrast, the lipophilic dichloromethane extracts of the roots, stems and leaves exhibited potent anti-inflammatory effects ≥ 1 with minimal cytotoxicity to RAW264.7 cells. Collectively these results suggest that using lipophilic extracts of the roots, stems or leaves of stinging nettle may be more effective then traditional tinctures (water, methanol, ethanol) to undergo clinical evaluations for the treatment of inflammatory disorders including arthritis. A chemical investigation into the lipophillic extracts of stinging nettle to identify the bioactive compound(s) responsible for their observed anti-inflammatory activity is further warranted. PMID:23092723

  3. Association between minor loading vein architecture and light- and CO2-saturated rates of photosynthetic oxygen evolution among Arabidopsis thaliana ecotypes from different latitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher M Cohu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Through microscopic analysis of veins and assessment of light- and CO2-saturated rates of photosynthetic oxygen evolution, we investigated the relationship between minor loading vein anatomy and photosynthesis of mature leaves in three ecotypes of Arabidopsis thaliana grown under four different combinations of temperature and photon flux density (PFD. All three ecotypes exhibited greater numbers and cross-sectional area of phloem cells as well as higher photosynthesis rates in response to higher PFD and especially lower temperature. The Swedish ecotype exhibited the strongest response to these conditions, the Italian ecotype the weakest response, and the Col-0 ecotype exhibited an intermediate response. Among all three ecotypes, strong linear relationships were found between light- and CO2-saturated rates of photosynthetic oxygen evolution and the number and area of either sieve elements or of companion and phloem parenchyma cells in foliar minor loading veins, with the Swedish ecotype showing the highest number of cells in minor loading veins (and largest minor veins coupled with unprecedented high rates of photosynthesis. Linear, albeit less significant, relationships were also observed between number and cross-sectional area of tracheids per minor loading vein versus light- and CO2-saturated rates of photosynthetic oxygen evolution. We suggest that sugar distribution infrastructure in the phloem is co-regulated with other features that set the upper limit for photosynthesis. The apparent genetic differences among Arabidopsis ecotypes should allow for future identification of the gene(s involved in augmenting sugar-loading and -transporting phloem cells and maximal rates of photosynthesis.

  4. Effects of Irrigation Levels on Growth Characteristics and Yield of Four Ecotypes of Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Koocheki

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effects of irrigation levels on growth criteria, yield components and seed yield of four ecotypes of sesame (Sesamum indicum L., a field experiment was conducted as factorial based on a randomized complete block design with three replications at the Agricultural Research Station, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, during growing season 2010-2011. Three irrigation levels (2000, 3000 and 4000 m3 ha-1 and four ecotypes (Darab, Sabzevar, Kashmar and Kalat were allocated as treatments. Criteria such as leaf are index (LAI, dry matter (DM accumulation, yield components (branch number, capsule number, seed number and 1000-seed weight, biological yield and seed yield of sesame were measured, accordingly. Results indicated that the simple effects of irrigation levels and ecotypes were significant (p≤0.05 on yield and yield components of sesame. Interaction between irrigation levels and ecotypes for yield components, biological yield and seed yield were significant (p≤0.01. By increasing water level from 2000 to 4000 m3 ha-1 enhanced branch number, capsule number, seed number and 1000-seed weight up to 57, 55 and 36%, respectively. Seed yield of Kalat was higher than Darab, Sabzevar and Kashmar with 1, 7 and 11%, respectively. By enhancing irrigation from 2000 to 4000 m3.ha-1 seed yield of Darab, Sabzevar and Kashmar and Kalat increased with 15, 67T 62 and 34%, respectively. There was a positive and significant relationship between yield and yield components. The highest correlation coefficient was observed for 1000-seed weight (r=0.87**.

  5. A Proteome Translocation Response to Complex Desert Stress Environments in Perennial Phragmites Sympatric Ecotypes with Contrasting Water Availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Chen, Xiaodan; Shi, Lu; Wang, Chuanjing; Fu, Bing; Qiu, Tianhang; Cui, Suxia

    2017-01-01

    After a long-term adaptation to desert environment, the perennial aquatic plant Phragmites communis has evolved a desert-dune ecotype. The desert-dune ecotype (DR) of Phragmites communis showed significant differences in water activity and protein distribution compared to its sympatric swamp ecotype (SR). Many proteins that were located in the soluble fraction of SR translocated to the insoluble fraction of DR, suggesting that membrane-associated proteins were greatly reinforced in DR. The unknown phenomenon in plant stress physiology was defined as a proteome translocation response. Quantitative 2D-DIGE technology highlighted these 'bound' proteins in DR. Fifty-eight kinds of proteins were identified as candidates of the translocated proteome in Phragmites . The majority were chloroplast proteins. Unexpectedly, Rubisco was the most abundant protein sequestered by DR. Rubisco activase, various chaperons and 2-cysteine peroxiredoxin were major components in the translocation response. Conformational change was assumed to be the main reason for the Rubisco translocation due to no primary sequence difference between DR and SR. The addition of reductant in extraction process partially reversed the translocation response, implying that intracellular redox status plays a role in the translocation response of the proteome. The finding emphasizes the realistic significance of the membrane-association of biomolecule for plant long-term adaptation to complex stress conditions.

  6. 'Fagiolo a Formella', an Italian lima bean ecotype: biochemical and nutritional characterisation of dry and processed seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piergiovanni, Angela R; Sparvoli, Francesca; Zaccardelli, Massimo

    2012-08-30

    An ecotype of the lima bean, named 'fagiolo a Formella', which, to the best of our knowledge, is the only example of an Italian lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus L.) ecotype, is cultivated in the Campania region of southern Italy. Physical, nutritional and processing traits of dry seeds were evaluated for two consecutive growing seasons (2009 and 2010). The canning quality was also investigated, but only for the harvest of 2010. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of total seed proteins allowed the attribution of 'fagiolo a Formella' to the Mesoamerican gene pool and Sieva morphotype. Seeds have a trapezoid shape, white coat and 100-seed weight greater than 42 g. Yield, protein, trypsin inhibitor and phytic acid values were found comparable with those reported for lima bean varieties cultivated in sub-tropical areas. Moreover, we found that this ecotype is devoid of lectin. The good adaptation to growing environment is indicated by the fact that 'fagiolo a Formella' seed quality is comparable to that of lima beans grown in America. Overall the canning quality was found satisfactory and canning significantly destroys the main anti-nutritional compounds present in dry seeds. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Effects of cadmium on ultrastructure and antioxidative defense system in hyperaccumulator and non-hyperaccumulator ecotypes of Sedum alfredii Hance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Xiaofen; Yang Xiaoe; Islam, Ejazul; Liu Dan; Mahmood, Qaisar

    2008-01-01

    Plant growth, ultrastructural and antioxidant adaptations and glutathione biosynthesis in Cd-hyperaccumulating ecotype Sedum alfredii Hance (HE) countering high Cd environment were investigated and compared with its non Cd-hyperaccumulating ecotype (NHE). Cadmium exposure resulted in significant ultrastructural changes in root meristem and leaf mesophyll cells of S. alfredii, but damage was more pronounced in NHE even when Cd concentrations were one-tenth of those applied to HE. Cadmium stress damaged chloroplasts causing imbalanced lamellae formation coupled with early leaf senescence. Histochemical results revealed that glutathione (GSH) biosynthesis inhibition led to overproduction of hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) and superoxide radical (O 2 · - ) in HE but not in NHE. Differences were noted in both HE and NHE for catalase (CAT), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities under various Cd stress levels. No relationship was found between antioxidative defense capacity including activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), CAT, GPX, APX and GR as well as ascorbic acid (AsA) contents and Cd tolerance in the two ecotypes of S. alfredii. The GSH biosynthesis induction in root and shoot exposed to elevated Cd conditions may be involved in Cd tolerance and hyperaccumulation in HE of S. alfredii H

  8. [The influence of nettle and burdock extracts in combination with different diets on dyslipidemia in diabetes mellitus model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vengerovsky, A I; Yakimova, T V; Nasanova, O N

    2015-01-01

    The influence of low-fat diet, nettle (Urtica dioica) leafs and burdock (Arctium lappa) roots extracts on lipid metabolism and glycosylation reactions has been investigated in experimental diabetes mellitus. These extracts were applied in diets with both high and low fat content. The experiments were performed on 90 noninbred male albino rats (200–220 g) that were divided into 9 experimental groups. Diabetes mellitus was modeled with twice-repeated intraperitoneal streptozotocin (30 mg/kg) injections. The animals received food with increased fat content (proteins – 8%, fats – 30%, carbohydrates – 62% of total daily caloric content) during 4 weeks before streptozotocine injections and 8 weeks after its discontinuation. Simultaneously the rats were daily administered nettle leafs (100 mg/kg), burdock roots (25 mg/kg) extracts or metformin (100 mg/kg) into the stomach during 10 days. During the period of agents introduction half the animals continued to receive food with high fat content, the other half received low fat diet (proteins – 20%, fats – 8%, carbohydrates – 72% of the total daily caloric content). The forth (control) group received low fat food only without extracts or metformin administration. The levels of blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, malonic dialdehyde, lipid and lipoprotein fractions content were measured. It has been shown that after streptozotocine injections and 30% fat diet consumption the blood glucose level increased by 5.3 fold compared to that of the intact animals, the content of atherogenic lipid fractions increased by 2–8.3 fold and the protein glycosylation reactions were intensified by 1.9–2.5 fold. In animals fed with 8% fat diet the blood glucose and malonic dialdehyde content decreased by 1.8–2.3 fold. In this experiment the levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol, cholesterol of nonhigh-density lipoproteins, low-density and very low-density lipoproteins, as well as the cholesterol and protein content of

  9. [With alpha blockers, finasteride and nettle root against benign prostatic hyperplasia. Which patients are helped by conservative therapy?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahlensieck, W

    2002-04-18

    Symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), which a man has a 50% chance of developing during the course of his lifetime, should receive stage-related treatment. While Vahlensieck stage I disease requires no therapy, stages II and III are indications for medication. Established medications for the treatment of BPH in current use are alpha-blockers, finasteride, and the phytotherapeutic agents pumpkin seed (cucurbitae semen), nettle root (urticae radix), the phytosterols contained in Hypoxis rooperi, rye pollen and the fruits of saw palmetto (sabalis serrulati fructus). If the patient responds, these medicaments can be given life-long, or intermittently. The hard criterion for the rational use of drug treatment of BPH is, over the long term, the reduction in the number of prostate operations. In stage IV disease surgical measures--after prior compensation of renal function--are to the fore.

  10. A scanning proton microprobe study of stinging emergences from the leaf of the common stinging nettle urtica dioica l.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, N. P.; Perry, C. C.; Williams, R. J. P.; Watt, F.; Grime, G. W.

    1988-03-01

    Proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) combined with the Oxford scanning proton microprobe (SPM) was used to investigate the abundance and spatial distribution of inorganic elements in mineralising stinging emergences from the leaf of the Common Stinging Nettle, Urtica dioica L. Elemental maps and point analytical data were collected for emergences at two stages of maturity. In all emergences calcium and silicon were spatially organised and present at high concentration. The inorganic elements K, P, S and Mn were also spatially organised during mineralisation, but at maturity these elements were present only at background levels and then showed no specific localisation. The observed changes in the inorganic content of the emergences are obviously related to the mineralisation processes. The possible biochemical significance of the distribution of the elements is discussed.

  11. Switchgrass Cultivar/Ecotype Selection and Management for Biofuels in the Upper Southeast USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrish, David J.; Wolf, Dale D.

    2014-01-01

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), a perennial warm-season grass indigenous to the eastern USA, has potential as a biofuels feedstock. The objective of this study was to investigate the performance of upland and lowland switchgrass cultivars under different environments and management treatments. Four cultivars of switchgrass were evaluated from 2000 to 2001 under two management regimes in plots established in 1992 at eight locations in the upper southeastern USA. Two management treatments included 1) a single annual harvest (in late October to early November) and a single application of 50 kg N/ha/yr and 2) two annual harvests (in midsummer and November) and a split application of 100 kg N/ha/yr. Biomass yields averaged 15 Mg/ha/yr and ranged from 10 to 22 Mg/ha/yr across cultivars, managements, locations, and years. There was no yield advantage in taking two harvests of the lowland cultivars (Alamo and Kanlow). When harvested twice, upland cultivars (Cave-in-Rock and Shelter) provided yields equivalent to the lowland ecotypes. Tiller density was 36% lower in stands cutting only once per year, but the stands appeared vigorous after nine years of such management. Lowland cultivars and a one-cutting management (after the tops have senesced) using low rates of applied N (50 kg/ha) are recommended. PMID:25105170

  12. Identification of ecotype-specific marker genes for categorization of beer-spoiling Lactobacillus brevis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behr, Jürgen; Geissler, Andreas J; Preissler, Patrick; Ehrenreich, Armin; Angelov, Angel; Vogel, Rudi F

    2015-10-01

    The tolerance to hop compounds, which is mainly associated with inhibition of bacterial growth in beer, is a multi-factorial trait. Any approaches to predict the physiological differences between beer-spoiling and non-spoiling strains on the basis of a single marker gene are limited. We identified ecotype-specific genes related to the ability to grow in Pilsner beer via comparative genome sequencing. The genome sequences of four different strains of Lactobacillus brevis were compared, including newly established genomes of two highly hop tolerant beer isolates, one strain isolated from faeces and one published genome of a silage isolate. Gene fragments exclusively occurring in beer-spoiling strains as well as sequences only occurring in non-spoiling strains were identified. Comparative genomic arrays were established and hybridized with a set of L. brevis strains, which are characterized by their ability to spoil beer. As result, a set of 33 and 4 oligonucleotide probes could be established specifically detecting beer-spoilers and non-spoilers, respectively. The detection of more than one of these marker sequences according to a genetic barcode enables scoring of L. brevis for their beer-spoiling potential and can thus assist in risk evaluation in brewing industry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Induction of cell death by graphene in Arabidopsis thaliana (Columbia ecotype) T87 cell suspensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Begum, Parvin; Fugetsu, Bunshi

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • This study was set up to explore potential influence of graphene on T87 cells. • Fragmented nuclei, membrane damage, mitochondrial dysfunction were observed. • ROS increased, ROS are key mediators in the cell death signaling pathway. • Translocation of graphene into cells and an endocytosis-like structure was observed. • Graphene entering into the cells by endocytosis. -- Abstract: The toxicity of graphene on suspensions of Arabidopsis thaliana (Columbia ecotype) T87 cells was investigated by examining the morphology, mitochondrial dysfunction, reactive oxygen species generation (ROS), and translocation of graphene as the toxicological endpoints. The cells were grown in Jouanneau and Péaud-Lenoel (JPL) media and exposed to graphene at concentrations 0–80 mg/L. Morphological changes were observed by scanning electron microscope and the adverse effects such as fragmented nuclei, membrane damage, mitochondrial dysfunction was observed with fluorescence microscopy by staining with Hoechst 33342/propidium iodide and succinate dehydrogenase (mitochondrial bioenergetic enzyme). Analysis of intracellular ROS by 2′,7′-dichlorofluorescein diacetate demonstrated that graphene induced a 3.3-fold increase in ROS, suggesting that ROS are key mediators in the cell death signaling pathway. Transmission electron microscopy verified the translocation of graphene into cells and an endocytosis-like structure was observed which suggested graphene entering into the cells by endocytosis. In conclusion, our results show that graphene induced cell death in T87 cells through mitochondrial damage mediated by ROS

  14. Resistance of a Local Ecotype of Castanea sativa to Dryocosmus kuriphilus (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae in Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Nugnes

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The cynipid Dryocosmus kuriphilus is the most impactful invasive pest of Castanea sativa copse woods and orchards currently reported from many European countries. A low impact solution for the containment of this pest could be the use of resistant trees. We examined the resistance of the red salernitan ecotype (RSE of C. sativa to D. kuriphilus and carried out a morphological characterization of this ecotype’s plants and fruits. From November 2015 to May 2017 we observed and recorded the percentage of infested buds, healthy leaves and shoots on about 50 chestnut trees, together with the number, size, and position of galls, and the number of eggs laid by the gall wasps into the buds and the number of larvae inside the galls. We showed a progressive mortality of cynipid larvae up to the starting point of galls development when almost total larval mortality was recorded. This suggests that RSE trees have a moderate resistance to D. kuriphilus; however, resistance acts at different levels, resulting in fewer eggs being deposited, a low number of larvae reaching the complete development, and a low number of galls on the branches. Moreover, the galls on resistant trees are smaller than the susceptible ones, so the larvae are more exposed to parasitization.

  15. Identifying Differences in Abiotic Stress Gene Networks between Lowland and Upland Ecotypes of Switchgrass (DE-SC0008338)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Childs, Kevin [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Buell, Robin [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Zhao, Bingyu [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Zhang, Xunzhong [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    2016-11-10

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) is a warm-season C4 grass that is a target lignocellulosic biofuel species for use in the United States due to its local adaption capabilities and high biomass accumulation. Two ecotypes of switchgrass have been described. Members of the lowland ecotype are taller, have narrower leaf blades and generate more biomass compared to individuals from the upland ecotype. Additionally, lowland plants are generally found in the southern United States while upland switchgrass is more typically present in the northern United States. These differences are important as it is envisioned that switchgrass for biofuel production will typically be grown on marginal lands in the northern United States to supplement and diversify farmers' traditional crop incomes. While lowland switchgrass is more productive, it has poor winter survivability in northern latitudes where upland switchgrass is expected to be grown for biofuel use. Abiotic stresses likely to be encountered by switchgrass include drought and salinity. Despite initially being described as preferring wetter environments, members of the lowland ecotype have been characterized as being more drought tolerant than plants of the upland ecotype. Nonetheless, direct trials have indicated that variation for drought tolerance exists in both ecotypes, but prior to this project, only a relatively small number of switchgrass lines had been tested for drought responses. Similarly, switchgrass cultivars have not been widely tested for salt tolerance, but a few studies have shown that even mild salt stress can inhibit growth. The effects of drought and salt stress on plant growth are complex. Both drought and salinity affect the osmotic potential of plant cells and negatively affect plant growth due to reduced water potential and reduced photosynthesis that results from lower stomatal conductance of CO2. Plants respond to drought and salt stress by activating genes that directly attempt to

  16. Mugwort (Artemisia L., nettle (Urtica L. and plantain (Plantago L. pollen in the atmosphere of Wrocław in the years 2002-2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Malkiewicz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper includes the results of pollen season analysis of the selected plants (mugwort, nettle, plantain regarded as the most allergenic in Wrocław in 2002-2004. The studies were carried out using volumetric method (Burkard trap. The results show strong variation in pollen seasons. The average duration of the pollen season of Artemisia was 82 days. The highest pollen concentration of mugwort was recorded in 2004 (156 grains × m-3. The start of nettle pollen seasons varied in studied period on average by 24 days, on average, but its end was almost the same. The pollen season of Urtica was the earliest in 2004. It started on 5th May and lasted 136 days. The annual pollen total of Plantago was relatively low, on average 0.2-0.4% in annual pollen totals.

  17. Antifungal activity of nettle (Urtica dioica L.), colocynth (Citrullus colocynthis L. Schrad), oleander (Nerium oleander L.) and konar (Ziziphus spina-christi L.) extracts on plants pathogenic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadizadeh, I; Peivastegan, B; Kolahi, M

    2009-01-01

    Anti-mycotic activity of the ethanol extracts from Nettle (Urtica dioica L.), Colocynth (Citrullus colocynthis L. Schrad), Konar (Ziziphus spina-christi L.) and Oleander (Nerium oleander L.) floral parts were screened in vitro against four important plant pathogenic fungi viz.; Alternaria alternate, Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium solani and Rizoctonia solani using agar dilution bioassay. Extracts showed antifungal activity against all the tested fungi. Among the plants, Nettle and Colocynth were the most effective against A. alternate and R. solani while Oleander possesses the best inhibition on F. oxysporum and F. solani. Konar was the most effective extract by reducing the growth of Rizoctonia solani than other fungi. These results showed that extracts could be considered suitable alternatives to chemical additives for the control of fungal diseases in plants.

  18. Anthropogenic host plant expansion leads a nettle-feeding butterfly out of the forest: consequences for larval survival and developmental plasticity in adult morphology

    OpenAIRE

    Merckx, Thomas; Serruys, Mélanie; Van Dyck, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Recent anthropogenic eutrophication has meant that host plants of nettle-feeding insects became quasi-omnipresent in fertile regions of Western Europe. However, host plant resource quality – in terms of microclimate and nutritional value – may vary considerably between the ‘original’ forest habitat and ‘recent’ agricul- tural habitat. Here, we compared development in both environmental settings using a split-brood design, so as to explore to what extent larval survival and adult morphology in...

  19. Effects of stinging nettle root extracts and their steroidal components on the Na+,K(+)-ATPase of the benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, T; Homma, M; Oka, K

    1994-02-01

    The effects of organic-solvent extracts of Urtica dioica (Urticaceae) on the Na+,K(+)-ATPase of the tissue of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) were investigated. The membrane Na+,K(+)-ATPase fraction was prepared from a patient with BPH by a differential centrifugation of the tissue homogenate. The enzyme activity was inhibited by 10(-4)-10(-5) M of ouabain. The hexane extract, the ether extract, the ethyl acetate extract, and the butanol extract of the roots caused 27.6-81.5% inhibition of the enzyme activity at 0.1 mg/ml. In addition, a column extraction of stinging nettle roots using benzene as an eluent afforded efficient enzyme inhibiting activity. Steroidal components in stinging nettle roots, such as stigmast-4-en-3-one, stigmasterol, and campesterol inhibited the enzyme activity by 23.0-67.0% at concentrations ranging from 10(-3)-10(-6) M. These results suggest that some hydrophobic constituents such as steroids in the stinging nettle roots inhibited the membrane Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity of the prostate, which may subsequently suppress prostate-cell metabolism and growth.

  20. The Effect of 8 Weeks of Aerobic Training and Consumption of Hydro-alcoholic Extract of Nettle on Apelin and hs-CRP plasma Levels of Overweight and Obese Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Madadi Jaberi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and aim: The use of exercise along with herbal supplements is one method proposed for controlling obesity and its complications. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of 8 weeks aerobic training and use of hydro-alcoholic extract of nettle on levels apelin and hs-CRP plasma in overweight and obese women. Methods: The present quasi-experimental study was conducted with blind randomized clinical trial. 46 overweight and obese women (body mass index greater than 25 kilograms per square millimeter two, aged 25-45 years were selected purposefully and randomly divided into four groups of: aerobic training + hydro alcoholic extract of nettle, aerobic exercise + placebo extract of nettle and placebo. The intervention group and placebo received 8 mg of hydro alcoholic extract of nettle 8 ml of water-soluble daily for 8 weeks respectively. Aerobic exercise ergometer for 8 weeks, 3 sessions of 16 to 30 minutes with the intensity of 60-75% heart rate was reserved. In two pre and post-test after 14 hours of fasting at the same conditions, blood samples were collected. The ELISA method was use to assess levels of plasma apelin and hs-CRP d. Data obtained were analyzed using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, ANOVA, t-test and LSD test. Results: The results showed that the levels of hs-CRP were significantly different in comparison among the groups as well as in groups of aerobic exercise + hydro alcoholic extract of nettle, nettle and hydro-alcholic aerobic exercise + placebo significant reduction was observed (p>0.05. Conclusion: It seems that consumption of Nettle extract along with aerobic exercise through Weight loss, body fat percentage and BMI, play an effective role in control of obesity and reducing of inflammatory Apelin markers and hs-CRP in obese women

  1. Adaptive Epigenetic Differentiation between Upland and Lowland Rice Ecotypes Revealed by Methylation-Sensitive Amplified Polymorphism.

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    Hui Xia

    Full Text Available The stress-induced epimutations could be inherited over generations and play important roles in plant adaption to stressful environments. Upland rice has been domesticated in water-limited environments for thousands of years and accumulated drought-induced epimutations of DNA methylation, making it epigenetically differentiated from lowland rice. To study the epigenetic differentiation between upland and lowland rice ecotypes on their drought-resistances, the epigenetic variation was investigated in 180 rice landraces under both normal and osmotic conditions via methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP technique. Great alterations (52.9~54.3% of total individual-locus combinations of DNA methylation are recorded when rice encountering the osmotic stress. Although the general level of epigenetic differentiation was very low, considerable level of ΦST (0.134~0.187 was detected on the highly divergent epiloci (HDE. The HDE detected in normal condition tended to stay at low levels in upland rice, particularly the ones de-methylated in responses to osmotic stress. Three out of four selected HDE genes differentially expressed between upland and lowland rice under normal or stressed conditions. Moreover, once a gene at HDE was up-/down-regulated in responses to the osmotic stress, its expression under the normal condition was higher/lower in upland rice. This result suggested expressions of genes at the HDE in upland rice might be more adaptive to the osmotic stress. The epigenetic divergence and its influence on the gene expression should contribute to the higher drought-resistance in upland rice as it is domesticated in the water-limited environment.

  2. Adaptive Epigenetic Differentiation between Upland and Lowland Rice Ecotypes Revealed by Methylation-Sensitive Amplified Polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Hui; Huang, Weixia; Xiong, Jie; Tao, Tao; Zheng, Xiaoguo; Wei, Haibin; Yue, Yunxia; Chen, Liang; Luo, Lijun

    2016-01-01

    The stress-induced epimutations could be inherited over generations and play important roles in plant adaption to stressful environments. Upland rice has been domesticated in water-limited environments for thousands of years and accumulated drought-induced epimutations of DNA methylation, making it epigenetically differentiated from lowland rice. To study the epigenetic differentiation between upland and lowland rice ecotypes on their drought-resistances, the epigenetic variation was investigated in 180 rice landraces under both normal and osmotic conditions via methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) technique. Great alterations (52.9~54.3% of total individual-locus combinations) of DNA methylation are recorded when rice encountering the osmotic stress. Although the general level of epigenetic differentiation was very low, considerable level of ΦST (0.134~0.187) was detected on the highly divergent epiloci (HDE). The HDE detected in normal condition tended to stay at low levels in upland rice, particularly the ones de-methylated in responses to osmotic stress. Three out of four selected HDE genes differentially expressed between upland and lowland rice under normal or stressed conditions. Moreover, once a gene at HDE was up-/down-regulated in responses to the osmotic stress, its expression under the normal condition was higher/lower in upland rice. This result suggested expressions of genes at the HDE in upland rice might be more adaptive to the osmotic stress. The epigenetic divergence and its influence on the gene expression should contribute to the higher drought-resistance in upland rice as it is domesticated in the water-limited environment.

  3. Backcasting the decline of a vulnerable Great Plains reproductive ecotype: identifying threats and conservation priorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthington, Thomas A.; Brewer, Shannon K.; Grabowski, Timothy B.; Mueller, Julia

    2014-01-01

    Conservation efforts for threatened or endangered species are challenging because the multi-scale factors that relate to their decline or inhibit their recovery are often unknown. To further exacerbate matters, the perceptions associated with the mechanisms of species decline are often viewed myopically rather than across the entire species range. We used over 80 years of fish presence data collected from the Great Plains and associated ecoregions of the United States, to investigate the relative influence of changing environmental factors on the historic and current truncated distributions of the Arkansas River shiner Notropis girardi. Arkansas River shiner represent a threatened reproductive ecotype considered especially well adapted to the harsh environmental extremes of the Great Plains. Historic (n = 163 records) and current (n = 47 records) species distribution models were constructed using a vector-based approach in MaxEnt by splitting the available data at a time when Arkansas River shiner dramatically declined. Discharge and stream order were significant predictors in both models; however, the shape of the relationship between the predictors and species presence varied between time periods. Drift distance (river fragment length available for ichthyoplankton downstream drift before meeting a barrier) was a more important predictor in the current model and indicated river segments 375–780 km had the highest probability of species presence. Performance for the historic and current models was high (area under the curve; AUC > 0.95); however, forecasting and backcasting to alternative time periods suggested less predictive power. Our results identify fragments that could be considered refuges for endemic plains fish species and we highlight significant environmental factors (e.g., discharge) that could be manipulated to aid recovery.

  4. Genetic and Developmental Basis for Increased Leaf Thickness in the Arabidopsis Cvi Ecotype

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    Viktoriya Coneva

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Leaf thickness is a quantitative trait that is associated with the ability of plants to occupy dry, high irradiance environments. Despite its importance, leaf thickness has been difficult to measure reproducibly, which has impeded progress in understanding its genetic basis, and the associated anatomical mechanisms that pattern it. Here, we used a custom-built dual confocal profilometer device to measure leaf thickness in the Arabidopsis Ler × Cvi recombinant inbred line population and found statistical support for four quantitative trait loci (QTL associated with this trait. We used publically available data for a suite of traits relating to flowering time and growth responses to light quality and show that three of the four leaf thickness QTL coincide with QTL for at least one of these traits. Using time course photography, we quantified the relative growth rate and the pace of rosette leaf initiation in the Ler and Cvi ecotypes. We found that Cvi rosettes grow slower than Ler, both in terms of the rate of leaf initiation and the overall rate of biomass accumulation. Collectively, these data suggest that leaf thickness is tightly linked with physiological status and may present a tradeoff between the ability to withstand stress and rapid vegetative growth. To understand the anatomical basis of leaf thickness, we compared cross-sections of Cvi and Ler leaves and show that Cvi palisade mesophyll cells elongate anisotropically contributing to leaf thickness. Flow cytometry of whole leaves show that endopolyploidy accompanies thicker leaves in Cvi. Overall, our data suggest that mechanistically, an altered schedule of cellular events affecting endopolyploidy and increasing palisade mesophyll cell length contribute to increase of leaf thickness in Cvi. Ultimately, knowledge of the genetic basis and developmental trajectory leaf thickness will inform the mechanisms by which natural selection acts to produce variation in this adaptive trait.

  5. Effect of Drought Stress on Growth and Morphological Characteristics of Two Garlic (Allium sativum L. Ecotypes in Different Planting Densities

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    shiva akbari

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Plants may be exposed to various stresses and water deficit is the most important limiting factor of growth and yield in many parts of the world and Iran. Stress induced growth decrement can be because of cell development decrease due to decrement of turgor pressure and meiosis and photosynthesis decrease due to stomata closure. Determination of desired planting density is one of the success factors of plant growth and production. Garlic (Allium sativum has been an important medicinal plant over centuries in human life. According to the importance of medicinal plants and studying the effects of drought stress on them, the goal of this research is to investigate the effect of drought stress and planting density on growth and morphological characteristics of two ecotypes of garlic and determining the preferable ecotype and density from the perspective of these traits. Materials and methods This experiment was performed in 2012 in a farm in south east of Semnan. It was conducted on a split-plot factorial arrangement based on randomized complete blocks design with three replications. Three levels of drought stress with 60, 80 and 100 percent of crop evapotranspiration (ETc were the main plot factors and factorial combination of three planting density (30, 40 and 50 plants.m-2 and two ecotypes of Tabas and Toroud were the levels of sub plot factors. To estimate water requirement of garlic, daily measured meteorology parameters of Semnan synoptic station were used and water requirement was calculated based on FAO-56 instructions. From mid-January, the sampling of leaf area, bulb and leaf fresh and dry weight was started with destructive method every other week and continued until middle of Jun. three plant were selected randomly from each plot in each turn. From middle of May, height and number of leaves were measured. Leaf area measurement was done by leaf area meter (Delta-T. To estimate growth indices, dry weight of aerial and

  6. Description of some characteristics of flowers and seeds of Arabidopsis thaliana - ecotype landsberg erecta and mutant NW4

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    Leszek Trząski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Flowers and seeds of Landsberg erecta (Ler ecotype and NW4 mutant were studied by light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy to reveal characteristic features of their structure. The NW4 mutant flowers differ from Ler mainly in presence of two bract-like sepals with complicated vasculature and a variable number of secondary flowers. In the two outer whorls of NW4 flower, variable number of transformed stamen-, petal-, sepal- and style-like elements also occur. The NW4 mutant seeds are characterized by the absence of mucilage around the surface and a deviating seed coat morphology.

  7. Which plant trait explains the variations in relative growth rate and its response to elevated carbon dioxide concentration among Arabidopsis thaliana ecotypes derived from a variety of habitats?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguchi, Riichi; Ozaki, Hiroshi; Hanada, Kousuke; Hikosaka, Kouki

    2016-03-01

    Elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration ([CO2]) enhances plant growth, but this enhancement varies considerably. It is still uncertain which plant traits are quantitatively related to the variation in plant growth. To identify the traits responsible, we developed a growth analysis model that included primary parameters associated with morphology, nitrogen (N) use, and leaf and root activities. We analysed the vegetative growth of 44 ecotypes of Arabidopsis thaliana L. grown at ambient and elevated [CO2] (800 μmol mol(-1)). The 44 ecotypes were selected such that they were derived from various altitudes and latitudes. Relative growth rate (RGR; growth rate per unit plant mass) and its response to [CO2] varied by 1.5- and 1.7-fold among ecotypes, respectively. The variation in RGR at both [CO2]s was mainly explained by the variation in leaf N productivity (LNP; growth rate per leaf N),which was strongly related to photosynthetic N use efficiency (PNUE). The variation in the response of RGR to [CO2] was also explained by the variation in the response of LNP to [CO2]. Genomic analyses indicated that there was no phylogenetic constraint on inter-ecotype variation in the CO2 response of RGR or LNP. We conclude that the significant variation in plant growth and its response to [CO2] among ecotypes reflects the variation in N use for photosynthesis among ecotypes, and that the response of PNUE to CO2 is an important target for predicting and/or breeding plants that have high growth rates at elevated [CO2].

  8. Evaluation of Effect of Chemical and Organic Fertilizers on Growth Characteristics, Yield and Yield components of three Sesame Ecotypes (Sesamum indicum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Goldani

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Using organic fertilizers is cause increase soil fertility, improving crop growth and production. For this purpose a greenhouse experiment was carried out in factorial arrangement based on a completely randomized design with three replications during 2011 year. First factor included: three sesame ecotype (MSC3, MSC6, MSC7 and second factor was 6 fertilizer treatments that included: Incorporation manure and chemical fertilizer (216 g manure and 1 gram chemical fertilizer NPK, Chemical fertilizer (2 g NPK, Vermicompost (192 g, Manure ( 228 g, Compost Sulfur granules (192 g per vase and Control (without any manure or fertilizer. Results indicated that different manure treatments had significant effect on morphological and yield components traits, as the most number and length branch per plant was obtained from incorporation manure and chemical fertilizer treatment. Appling incorporation manure and chemical fertilizer treatment had the most biomass in MSC3 ecotype that in comparison of control treatment was increased almost 73 percent. Consuming incorporation manure and chemical fertilizer treatment in MSC3 ecotype was also obtained the most capsule per plant (21.2, number seed per capsule (54.4, 100-seed weight (0.257 g and seed per plant with (1.95 g. The least seed weight per plant with 0.450 g was observed in MSC7 ecotype from application of control treatment. Response of three sesame ecotype (MSC3, MSC6, MSC7 to applied vermin-compost manure was similar; as the amount of seed weight per plant was increased more than 1 g per plant in all these ecotypes and in others fertilizer treatments was not observed this trend. There was significant positive correlation between seed weight per plant and number of capsule per plant (r=0.83**, height (r=0.68** and biomass (r=0.51**. The results showed that incorporation manure and chemical fertilizer was improved on growth and yield characteristics of sesame plant.

  9. Investigating the effects of using Nettle (Urtica dioica , Menta pulagum (Oreganum valgare and Zizaphora (Thymyus valgaris medicinal plants on performance, carcass quality, blood biochemical parameters and blood cells of broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Heydari

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of using Nettle,Menta pulagum and ‌‌Zizaphora medicinal plants on performance, carcass quality, blood biochemical parameters and blood cells of broilers. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design with 288 broilers (Ross-308 in 8 treatments and 3 replicates (with 12 birds in each replicate from 1 to 42 days and included: 1 control group without using any medicinal plants, 2 1.5% of ‌‌Nettle, 3 1.5% of Menta pulagum, 4 1.5% of Zizaphora, 5 1.5% of Nettle and Menta pulagum, 6 1.5% of  Nettle and Zizaphora, 7 1.5% of Menta pulagum and ‌‌Zizaphora, 8 1.5% of Nettle,Menta pulagum and ‌‌Zizaphora. The results showed that using these medicinal plants and their mixtures had significant effects on performance, carcass traits and blood biochemical parameters of broilers (p

  10. AROMA PROFILE AND ANTIMICROBIAL PROPERTIES OF ALCOHOLIC AND AQUEOUS EXTRACTS FROM ROOT, LEAF AND STALK OF NETTLE (Urtica dioica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razzagh Mahmoudi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plant can be considered as a great source of new antimicrobial agents due to their enormous therapeutic potential and limited side effects. Nettle (Urtica dioica L. is a widespread and common medicinal plant widely used in traditional medicine. The present study investigates the antimicrobial potency of alcoholic and aqueous extracts of Urtica dioica on some gram positive and negative bacteria and also a particular type of fungi and analyzes the extracts to find the active ingredients by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS method. Results from disc diffusion assay indicated that water extract of root, leaf and stalk had the highest antimicrobial activity respectively and caused significant inhibition zones in P. vulgaris, L. monocytogenes and K. pneumoniae cultures. Antimicrobial efficacy of ethanol extracts was higher in root extract which caused high growth inhibition zones in P. vulgaris, K. pneumoniae and S. aureus cultures. MBC and MIC experiments of the ethanol extract illustrated that the most powerful antimicrobial effect was related to the stem organ extract on K. pnuomonae and S. aureus bacteria. Highest level of antibacterial effects in root can be due to its higher concentration of contents compared to other organs. Based on these results it can be suggested that Urtica dioica and its water and ethanol extracts have noticeable antimicrobial effects against gram negative, positive and Candida albicans fungi that may be applicable as a prophylactic or therpeutic antimicrobial agent in both human and animals.

  11. Chitosan films incorporated with nettle (Urtica Dioica L.) extract-loaded nanoliposomes: II. Antioxidant activity and release properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almasi, Hadi; Zandi, Mohsen; Beigzadeh, Sara; Haghju, Sara; Mehrnow, Nazila

    2016-07-14

    Chitosan films were loaded with NE nettle (Urtica dioica L.) extract (NE) at concentrations of 0, 0.5, 1 and 1.5%w/w in the free or nanoliposomal form to obtain active and nanoactive films, respectively. The antioxidant potential of the films containing NE-loaded nanoliposomes was decreased in comparison of free NE incorporated films. Diffusion of NE to soybean oil was enough to delay the induction of the oxidation of soybean oil stored for 60 days in contact with chitosan based films. Release studies indicated that the release rate of NE in 95% ethanol simulant significantly decreased by the nanoencapsulation of NE. The diffusion coefficient (D) for chitosan films containing 1.5%w/w of free and encapsulated NE at 25 °C was 18.80 and 3.68 × 10 -7 cm 2  s -1 , respectively. Moreover, the formation of nanoliposomes diminished the increasing effect of temperature on the release rate as when storage temperature increased from 4 °C to 40 °C.

  12. Chitosan films incorporated with nettle (Urtica dioica L.) extract-loaded nanoliposomes: I. Physicochemical characterisation and antimicrobial properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghju, Sara; Beigzadeh, Sara; Almasi, Hadi; Hamishehkar, Hamed

    2016-07-17

    The objective of this study was to characterise and compare physical, mechanical and antimicrobial properties of chitosan-based films, containing free or nanoencapsulated nettle (Urtica dioica L.) extract (NE) at concentrations of 0, 0.5, 1 and 1.5% w/w. Nanoliposomes were prepared using soy-lecithin by thin-film hydration and sonication method to generate an average size of 107-136 nm with 70% encapsulation efficiency. The information on FT-IR reflected that some new interaction have occurred between chitosan and nanoliposomes. Despite the increasing yellowness and decreasing whiteness indexes, the nanoliposomes incorporation improved the thermal properties and mechanical stiffness and caused to decrease water vapour permeability (WVP), moisture uptake and water solubility. The possible antimicrobial activity of the films containing NE-loaded nanoliposomes against Staphylococcus aureus was decreased in comparison to free NE-incorporated films, which could be due to the inhibition effect of the encapsulation that prevents the release of NE from the matrix.

  13. Morphological and physiological divergences within Quercus ilex support the existence of different ecotypes depending on climatic dryness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peguero-Pina, José Javier; Sancho-Knapik, Domingo; Barrón, Eduardo; Camarero, Julio Jesús; Vilagrosa, Alberto; Gil-Pelegrín, Eustaquio

    2014-08-01

    Several studies show apparently contradictory findings about the functional convergence within the Mediterranean woody flora. In this context, this study evaluates the variability of functional traits within holm oak (Quercus ilex) to elucidate whether provenances corresponding to different morphotypes represent different ecotypes locally adapted to the prevaling stress levels. Several morphological and physiological traits were measured at leaf and shoot levels in 9-year-old seedlings of seven Q. ilex provenances including all recognized morphotypes. Plants were grown in a common garden for 9 years under the same environmental conditions to avoid possible biases due to site-specific characteristics. Leaf morphometry clearly separates holm oak provenances into 'ilex' (more elongated leaves with low vein density) and 'rotundifolia' (short and rounded leaves with high vein density) morphotypes. Moreover, these morphotypes represent two consistent and very contrasting functional types in response to dry climates, mainly in terms of leaf area, major vein density, leaf specific conductivity, resistance to drought-induced cavitation and turgor loss point. The 'ilex' and 'rotundifolia' morphotypes correspond to different ecotypes as inferred from their contrasting functional traits. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that the combined use of morphological and physiological traits has provided support for the concept of these two holm oak morphotypes being regarded as two different species. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Corticosterone and pace of life in two life-history ecotypes of the garter snake Thamnophis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, Maria G; Sparkman, Amanda M; Bronikowski, Anne M

    2012-02-01

    Glucocorticoids are main candidates for mediating life-history trade-offs by regulating the balance between current reproduction and survival. It has been proposed that slow-living organisms should show higher stress-induced glucocorticoid levels that favor self-maintenance rather than current reproduction when compared to fast-living organisms. We tested this hypothesis in replicate populations of two ecotypes of the garter snake (Thamnophis elegans) that exhibit slow and fast pace of life strategies. We subjected free-ranging snakes to a capture-restraint protocol and compared the stress-induced corticosterone levels between slow- and fast-living snakes. We also used a five-year dataset to assess whether baseline corticosterone levels followed the same pattern as stress-induced levels in relation to pace of life. In accordance with the hypothesis, slow-living snakes showed higher stress-induced corticosterone levels than fast-living snakes. Baseline corticosterone levels showed a similar pattern with ecotype, although differences depended on the year of study. Overall, however, levels of glucocorticoids are higher in slow-living than fast-living snakes, which should favor self-maintenance and survival at the expense of current reproduction. The results of the present study are the first to relate glucocorticoid levels and pace of life in a reptilian system and contribute to our understanding of the physiological mechanisms involved in life-history evolution. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The Amazonian Floodplains, an ecotype with challenging questions on volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesselmeier, J.

    2012-12-01

    based on short-term experiments is risky being transferred to an ecotype which is governed under natural conditions by long term flooding. Furthermore, contrasting such experiments with usually young trees (saplings or a few years old) nothing is known about the emission behavior of adult trees under field conditions.

  16. Factors influencing elk recruitment across ecotypes in the Western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukacs, Paul M.; Mitchell, Michael S.; Hebblewhite, Mark; Johnson, Bruce K.; Johnson, Heather; Kauffman, Matthew J.; Proffitt, Kelly M.; Zager, Peter; Brodie, Jedediah; Hersey, Kent R.; Holland, A. Andrew; Hurley, Mark; McCorquodale, Scott; Middleton, Arthur; Nordhagen, Matthew; Nowak, J. Joshua; Walsh, Daniel P.; White, P.J.

    2018-01-01

    Ungulates are key components in ecosystems and economically important for sport and subsistence harvest. Yet the relative importance of the effects of weather conditions, forage productivity, and carnivores on ungulates are not well understood. We examined changes in elk (Cervus canadensis) recruitment (indexed as age ratios) across 7 states and 3 ecotypes in the northwestern United States during 1989–2010, while considering the effects of predator richness, forage productivity, and precipitation. We found a broad‐scale, long‐term decrease in elk recruitment of 0.48 juveniles/100 adult females/year. Weather conditions (indexed as summer and winter precipitation) showed small, but measurable, influences on recruitment. Forage productivity on summer and winter ranges (indexed by normalized difference vegetation index [NDVI] metrics) had the strongest effect on elk recruitment relative to other factors. Relationships between forage productivity and recruitment varied seasonally and regionally. The productivity of winter habitat was more important in southern parts of the study area, whereas annual variation in productivity of summer habitat had more influence on recruitment in northern areas. Elk recruitment varied by up to 15 juveniles/100 adult females across the range of variation in forage productivity. Areas with more species of large carnivores had relatively low elk recruitment, presumably because of increased predation. Wolves (Canis lupus) were associated with a decrease of 5 juveniles/100 adult females, whereas grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) were associated with an additional decrease of 7 juveniles/100 adult females. Carnivore species can have a critical influence on ungulate recruitment because their influence rivals large ranges of variation in environmental conditions. A more pressing concern, however, stems from persistent broad‐scale decreases in recruitment across the distribution of elk in the northwestern United States, irrespective of

  17. Evaluation of Genetic Diversity in Collection from Iranian Jujube Ecotypes (Ziziphus spp. using ISSR-molecular Marker

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    hajar shayesteh

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Jujube (Zizyphus jujuba Mill. as a valuable medicinal plant and adapted to different climatic conditions is widespread in many parts of Iran. Nowadays, beside the export of its fruit, jujube is also used as an herbal medicine to treat the diseases, so it has a high economic value. Study on genetic diversity is the first step to identify and preservation of germplasm. It is also considered as the basic principles of plant breeding. DNA markers seem to be the best way in determination of the genetic diversity. Inter simple sequence repeats (ISSR markers are highly polymorphic and combine most benefits of Simple Sequence Repeats (SSRs and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP to the generality of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD. Materials and Methods In order to study of the genetic diversity among 31 ecotypes collected from eight Jujube-rich provinces, including South Khorasan, Razavi Khorasan, Mazandaran, Golestan, Qom, Isfahan, Lorestan and Fars. Genomic DNA was extracted by CTAB method and polymerase chain reaction (PCR was performed with 13 ISSR primers in which six most efficient primers were selected. Cluster analysis based on Dice similarity coefficient and Unweighed Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean (UPGMA was carried out and POPGENe.3.2 software was used to determine the similarity of populations with each other. Results and Discussion 84 loci were amplified and 70 of them (83% revealed a proper polymorphism with the size between 200 and 2000 base pair. The average number of amplified and polymorphic bands per primer was 14 and 11.6 respectively. Primers with di-nucleotide repeats produced more polymorphic bands than ones with tri-nucleotide repeats. It seems that this is due to a higher frequency of sequences containing di-nucleotide repeats in intergenic regions and higher possibility of mutation revealed in more diversity in comparison to gene coding regions. Anchored primers with 1 or 2 nucleotides at

  18. Impact of nitrogen source and supply level on growth, yield and nutritional value of two contrasting ecotypes of Cichorium spinosum L. grown hydroponically.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatzigianni, Martina; Alkhaled, Bara'a; Livieratos, Ioannis; Stamatakis, Aristidis; Ntatsi, Georgia; Savvas, Dimitrios

    2018-03-01

    In the present study, two contrasting stamnagathi (Cichorium spinosum L.) ecotypes originating either from a mountainous or from a seaside habitat were grown hydroponically and supplied with a nutrient solution differing in the total-N level (4 or 16 mmol L -1 ) and the N source (NH 4 + -N/total-N: 0.05, 0.25 or 0.50). The aim was to search for genotypic differences in nitrogen nutrition. At commercial maturity, the dry weight of mountainous plants was higher than that of seaside plants. The shoot mineral concentrations were higher in seaside plants than in mountainous plants in both harvests. The leaf nitrate concentration was influenced by the levels of both total-N and NH 4 + -N/total-N at both harvests, whereas plants with a seaside origin exhibited higher nitrate concentrations than those originating from a mountainous site in all total-N and NH 4 + -N/total-N treatments. The two stamnagathi ecotypes differed considerably in their responses to nitrogen nutrition and tissue nitrate content. The mountainous ecotype was superior in terms of growth, tissue nitrate concentration and antioxidant capacity, whereas the seaside ecotype accumulated more nutrient microcations in leaves. A low total-N concentration (up to 4 mmol L -1 ) combined with a high NH 4 + -N/total-N ratio (up to 0.05) could minimize tissue NO 3 - concentrations without compromising yield. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Distribution of Prochlorococcus Ecotypes in the Red Sea Basin Based on Analyses of rpoC1 Sequences

    KAUST Repository

    Shibl, Ahmed A.; Haroon, Mohamed; Ngugi, David; Thompson, Luke R.; Stingl, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    The marine picocyanobacteria Prochlorococcus represent a significant fraction of the global pelagic bacterioplankton community. Specifically, in the surface waters of the Red Sea, they account for around 91% of the phylum Cyanobacteria. Previous work suggested a widespread presence of high-light (HL)-adapted ecotypes in the Red Sea with the occurrence of low-light (LL)-adapted ecotypes at intermediate depths in the water column. To obtain a more comprehensive dataset over a wider biogeographical scope, we used a 454-pyrosequencing approach to analyze the diversity of the Prochlorococcus rpoC1 gene from a total of 113 samples at various depths (up to 500 m) from 45 stations spanning the Red Sea basin from north to south. In addition, we analyzed 45 metagenomes from eight stations using hidden Markov models based on a set of reference Prochlorococcus genomes to (1) estimate the relative abundance of Prochlorococcus based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, and (2) identify and classify rpoC1 sequences as an assessment of the community structure of Prochlorococcus in the northern, central and southern regions of the basin without amplification bias. Analyses of metagenomic data indicated that Prochlorococcus occurs at a relative abundance of around 9% in samples from surface waters (25, 50, 75 m), 3% in intermediate waters (100 m) and around 0.5% in deep-water samples (200–500 m). Results based on rpoC1 sequences using both methods showed that HL II cells dominate surface waters and were also present in deep-water samples. Prochlorococcus communities in intermediate waters (100 m) showed a higher diversity and co-occurrence of low-light and high-light ecotypes. Prochlorococcus communities at each depth range (surface, intermediate, deep sea) did not change significantly over the sampled transects spanning most of the Saudi waters in the Red Sea. Statistical analyses of rpoC1 sequences from metagenomes indicated that the vertical distribution of Prochlorococcus in the water

  20. Distribution of Prochlorococcus Ecotypes in the Red Sea Basin Based on Analyses of rpoC1 Sequences

    KAUST Repository

    Shibl, Ahmed A.

    2016-06-25

    The marine picocyanobacteria Prochlorococcus represent a significant fraction of the global pelagic bacterioplankton community. Specifically, in the surface waters of the Red Sea, they account for around 91% of the phylum Cyanobacteria. Previous work suggested a widespread presence of high-light (HL)-adapted ecotypes in the Red Sea with the occurrence of low-light (LL)-adapted ecotypes at intermediate depths in the water column. To obtain a more comprehensive dataset over a wider biogeographical scope, we used a 454-pyrosequencing approach to analyze the diversity of the Prochlorococcus rpoC1 gene from a total of 113 samples at various depths (up to 500 m) from 45 stations spanning the Red Sea basin from north to south. In addition, we analyzed 45 metagenomes from eight stations using hidden Markov models based on a set of reference Prochlorococcus genomes to (1) estimate the relative abundance of Prochlorococcus based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, and (2) identify and classify rpoC1 sequences as an assessment of the community structure of Prochlorococcus in the northern, central and southern regions of the basin without amplification bias. Analyses of metagenomic data indicated that Prochlorococcus occurs at a relative abundance of around 9% in samples from surface waters (25, 50, 75 m), 3% in intermediate waters (100 m) and around 0.5% in deep-water samples (200–500 m). Results based on rpoC1 sequences using both methods showed that HL II cells dominate surface waters and were also present in deep-water samples. Prochlorococcus communities in intermediate waters (100 m) showed a higher diversity and co-occurrence of low-light and high-light ecotypes. Prochlorococcus communities at each depth range (surface, intermediate, deep sea) did not change significantly over the sampled transects spanning most of the Saudi waters in the Red Sea. Statistical analyses of rpoC1 sequences from metagenomes indicated that the vertical distribution of Prochlorococcus in the water

  1. The Effect of Drought Stress and Plant Density on Biochemical and Physiological Characteristics of Two Garlic (Allium sativum L. Ecotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh Akbari

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Drought stress is the most important growth limiting factor for crop production. Sugar accumulation under drought stress strengthens and stabilizes cell membranes and maintains the water absorption and turgid property. Under stress conditions, proline will also maintain the turgor pressure and decreased the damages caused to plant membrane. Although proline concentrations may have undesirable effects on plant growth, because of deflecting photosynthetic resources to the processes that are not involved in plant growth. Chloroplasts and its pigments are also affected by drought stress. Density is one of the factors that has a significant impact on plant growth. Garlic is one of the edible plants which has generated considerable interest throughout human history because of its pharmaceutical properties. This study aimed to determine the effects of drought stress and plant density on some biochemical and physiological treats of two garlic ecotypes and determining the more resistant ecotype. Materials and Methods The study was carried out in 2011-2012 in a farm land at the south east of Semnan city. The experimental layout was a split-plot factorial with a randomized complete block design in three replications. The treatments were comprised of three factors: irrigation regimes (60%, 80% and 100% of estimated crop evapotranspiration (ETC that were assigned as the main plot and the factorial combination of 3 levels of planting density (30, 40 and 50 plants. m-2 and two ecotypes (Tabas and Toroud made up the sub-plots. The water requirement was calculated based on FAO-56 crop water requirements instruction. FAO-56 Penman-Monteith equation was used to calculate evapotranspiration. To calculate the content of soluble sugar, proline and leaves pigment, the samples were collected in a random way from the youngest fully expended leaves one month before the final harvest. Relative water content was estimated by measuring dry weight, fresh weight

  2. A study on possible use of Urtica dioica (common nettle) plants as uranium (234U, 238U) contamination bioindicator near phosphogypsum stockpile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olszewski, Grzegorz; Boryło, Alicja; Skwarzec, Bogdan

    The aim of this study was to determine uranium concentrations in common nettle ( Urtica dioica ) plants and corresponding soils samples which were collected from the area of phosphogypsum stockpile in Wiślinka (northern Poland). The uranium concentrations in roots depended on its concentrations in soils. Calculated BCF and TF values showed that soils characteristics and air deposition affect uranium absorption and that different uranium species have different affinities to U . dioica plants. The values of 234 U/ 238 U activity ratio indicate natural origin of these radioisotopes in analyzed plants. Uranium concentration in plants roots is negatively weakly correlated with distance from phosphogypsum stockpile.

  3. A study on possible use of Urtica dioica (common nettle) plants as uranium (234U, 238U) contamination bioindicator near phosphogypsum stockpile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olszewski, Grzegorz; Borylo, Alicja; Skwarzec, Bogdan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine uranium concentrations in common nettle (Urtica dioica) plants and corresponding soils samples which were collected from the area of phosphogypsum stockpile in Wislinka (northern Poland). The uranium concentrations in roots depended on its concentrations in soils. Calculated BCF and TF values showed that soils characteristics and air deposition affect uranium absorption and that different uranium species have different affinities to U. dioica plants. The values of 234 U/ 238 U activity ratio indicate natural origin of these radioisotopes in analyzed plants. Uranium concentration in plants roots is negatively weakly correlated with distance from phosphogypsum stockpile. (author)

  4. Transforming the Lives of Mountain Women Through the Himalayan Nettle Value Chain: A Case Study From Darchula, Far West Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lipy Adhikari

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Naugad is a remote rural municipality in the mountains of far west Nepal with poor accessibility and limited economic opportunities, especially for women and marginalized communities. Promotion of the natural resource-based value chain for allo (the Himalayan nettle, Girardinia diversifolia was identified as an innovative livelihood strategy by the local community. Value chain development started in 2014. The project was designed to focus on women and include participation by the private sector. This paper analyzes the impact of the project, especially on women's lives, using primary and secondary data. A community-owned enterprise was established with private-sector support from the South Asian Association of Regional Cooperation's Business Association of Home Based Workers (SABAH Nepal. The enterprise now has 82 members (69 of them women, with 150 households benefiting directly and indirectly. SABAH Nepal provided training in sustainable harvesting and processing techniques and promotes the products in high-end international markets. A buyback guarantee scheme provides security to local artisans. The quality and range of allo products have increased markedly, as has the share in benefits for local people. Skills training and visits to trade fairs have helped women build their capacity and take a leading role in the value chain process. The community-owned enterprise members have earned up to NPR 4000 per month from sewing, more than the local rate for day labor and sufficient to cover general household expenses. More than 25 women entrepreneurs have started microbusinesses related to allo. Allo has become an important economic asset, transforming the lives of mountain women in this village area. The approach has potential for scaling up across the subtropical to temperate areas of the Himalayan region in Bhutan, China, India, Myanmar, and Nepal.

  5. Does stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) have an effect on bone formation in the expanded inter-premaxillary suture?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irgin, Celal; Çörekçi, Bayram; Ozan, Fatih; Halicioğlu, Koray; Toptaş, Orçun; Birinci Yildirim, Arzu; Türker, Arzu; Yilmaz, Fahri

    2016-09-01

    To determine whether systemically given stinging nettle (SN) has an effect on bone formation in response to expansion of the rat inter-premaxillary suture. A total of 28 male Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into 4 equal groups: control (C), only expansion (OE), SN extract given only during the expansion and retention periods (SN group; a total of 17days), and SN extract given during the nursery phase before expansion (a period of 40days) and during the expansion and retention periods (N+SN group; a total of 57days). After the 5-day expansion period was completed, the rats in the OE, SN, and N+SN groups underwent 12days of mechanical retention, after which they were sacrificed, and their premaxilla were dissected and fixed. A histologic evaluation was done to determine the number of osteoblasts, osteoclasts, and capillaries, as well as the number and intensity of inflammatory cells and new bone formation. Statistically significant differences were found between the groups in all histologic parameters except the ratio of intensities of inflammatory cells. New bone formation and the number of capillaries were significantly higher in the SN groups than in the other groups. The statistical analysis also showed that the numbers of osteoblasts, osteoclasts, and capillaries were highest in the N+SN group. Systemic administration of SN may be effective in accelerating new bone formation and reducing inflammation in the maxillary expansion procedure. It may also be beneficial in preventing relapse after the expansion procedure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Characterization of biochemical traits of dog rose (Rosa canina L.) ecotypes in the central part of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javanmard, Milad; Asadi-Gharneh, Hossein Ali; Nikneshan, Pejman

    2018-07-01

    Dog rose (Rosa canina L.) is a wild native species in Iran, with a significant genetic diversity. This plant serves as a rich source of vitamin C, anthocyanins, phenolic contents and carotenoids. Rose hips have been used in several food products, as well as perfumery and cosmetics industries. In this research, we investigate biochemical characteristics of five dog rose ecotypes (Kopehjamshid, Zarneh, Miyankish, Aghcheh and Sadeghiyeh), that were collected from the central part of Iran (Isfahan province). Amounts of vitamin C, total carotenoids, total phenolic contents, total anthocyanins, macro and micro minerals were measured. Seed oil are extracted by soxhlet method and analysed by gas chromatography. The macro and micro minerals levels in the fruit vary significantly among these regions. The results of this study demonstrate that dog rose have great diversity and can be used in breeding programmes in order to increase nutrient values as a food resource additive.

  7. Different NaCl-Induced Calcium Signatures in the Arabidopsis thaliana Ecotypes Col-0 and C24

    KAUST Repository

    Schmö ckel, Sandra M.; Garcia, Alexandre F.; Berger, Bettina; Tester, Mark A.; Webb, Alex A. R.; Roy, Stuart J.

    2015-01-01

    A common feature of stress signalling pathways are alterations in the concentration of cytosolic free calcium ([Ca2+]cyt), which allow the specific and rapid transmission of stress signals through a plant after exposure to a stress, such as salinity. Here, we used an aequorin based bioluminescence assay to compare the NaCl-induced changes in [Ca2+]cyt of the Arabidopsis ecotypes Col-0 and C24. We show that C24 lacks the NaCl specific component of the [Ca2+]cyt signature compared to Col-0. This phenotypic variation could be exploited as a screening methodology for the identification of yet unknown components in the early stages of the salt signalling pathway.

  8. Different NaCl-Induced Calcium Signatures in the Arabidopsis thaliana Ecotypes Col-0 and C24

    KAUST Repository

    Schmöckel, Sandra M.

    2015-02-27

    A common feature of stress signalling pathways are alterations in the concentration of cytosolic free calcium ([Ca2+]cyt), which allow the specific and rapid transmission of stress signals through a plant after exposure to a stress, such as salinity. Here, we used an aequorin based bioluminescence assay to compare the NaCl-induced changes in [Ca2+]cyt of the Arabidopsis ecotypes Col-0 and C24. We show that C24 lacks the NaCl specific component of the [Ca2+]cyt signature compared to Col-0. This phenotypic variation could be exploited as a screening methodology for the identification of yet unknown components in the early stages of the salt signalling pathway.

  9. A compatible interaction of Alternaria brassicicola with Arabidopsis thaliana ecotype DiG: evidence for a specific transcriptional signature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gepstein Shimon

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The interaction of Arabidopsis with Alternaria brassicicola provides a model for disease caused by necrotrophs, but a drawback has been the lack of a compatible pathosystem. Infection of most ecotypes, including the widely-studied line Col-0, with this pathogen generally leads to a lesion that does not expand beyond the inoculated area. This study examines an ecotype, Dijon G (DiG, which is considered sensitive to A. brassicicola. Results We show that the interaction has the characteristics of a compatible one, with expanding rather than limited lesions. To ask whether DiG is merely more sensitive to the pathogen or, rather, interacts in distinct manner, we identified genes whose regulation differs between Col-0 and DiG challenged with A. brassicicola. Suppression subtractive hybridization was used to identify differentially expressed genes, and their expression was verified using semi-quantitative PCR. We also tested a set of known defense-related genes for differential regulation in the two plant-pathogen interactions. Several known pathogenesis-related (PR genes are up-regulated in both interactions. PR1, and a monooxygenase gene identified in this study, MO1, are preferentially up-regulated in the compatible interaction. In contrast, GLIP1, which encodes a secreted lipase, and DIOX1, a pathogen-response related dioxygenase, are preferentially up-regulated in the incompatible interaction. Conclusion The results show that DiG is not only more susceptible, but demonstrate that its interaction with A. brassicicola has a specific transcriptional signature.

  10. Tissue-Specific Accumulation of Sulfur Compounds and Saponins in Different Parts of Garlic Cloves from Purple and White Ecotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diretto, Gianfranco; Rubio-Moraga, Angela; Argandoña, Javier; Castillo, Purificación; Gómez-Gómez, Lourdes; Ahrazem, Oussama

    2017-08-20

    This study set out to determine the distribution of sulfur compounds and saponin metabolites in different parts of garlic cloves. Three fractions from purple and white garlic ecotypes were obtained: the tunic (SS), internal (IS) and external (ES) parts of the clove. Liquid Chromatography coupled to High Resolution Mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS), together with bioinformatics including Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Hierarchical Clustering (HCL) and correlation network analyses were carried out. Results showed that the distribution of these metabolites in the different parts of garlic bulbs was different for the purple and the white ecotypes, with the main difference being a slightly higher number of sulfur compounds in purple garlic. The SS fraction in purple garlic had a higher content of sulfur metabolites, while the ES in white garlic was more enriched by these compounds. The correlation network indicated that diallyl disulfide was the most relevant metabolite with regards to sulfur compound metabolism in garlic. The total number of saponins was almost 40-fold higher in purple garlic than in the white variety, with ES having the highest content. Interestingly, five saponins including desgalactotigonin-rhamnose, proto-desgalactotigonin, proto-desgalactotigonin-rhamnose, voghieroside D1, sativoside B1-rhamnose and sativoside R1 were exclusive to the purple variety. Data obtained from saponin analyses revealed a very different network between white and purple garlic, thus suggesting a very robust and tight coregulation of saponin metabolism in garlic. Findings in this study point to the possibility of using tunics from purple garlic in the food and medical industries, since it contains many functional compounds which can be exploited as ingredients.

  11. Antioxidant capacity changes and phenolic profile of Echinacea purpurea, nettle (Urtica dioica L.), and dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) after application of polyamine and phenolic biosynthesis regulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudec, Jozef; Burdová, Mária; Kobida, L'ubomír; Komora, Ladislav; Macho, Vendelín; Kogan, Grigorij; Turianica, Ivan; Kochanová, Radka; Lozek, Otto; Habán, Miroslav; Chlebo, Peter

    2007-07-11

    The changes of the antioxidant (AOA) and antiradical activities (ARA) and the total contents of phenolics, anthocyanins, flavonols, and hydroxybenzoic acid in roots and different aerial sections of Echinacea purpurea, nettle, and dandelion, after treatment with ornithine decarboxylase inhibitor, a polyamine inhibitor (O-phosphoethanolamine, KF), and a phenol biosynthesis stimulator (carboxymethyl chitin glucan, CCHG) were analyzed spectrophotometrically; hydroxycinnamic acids content was analyzed by RP-HPLC with UV detection. Both regulators increased the AOA measured as inhibition of peroxidation (IP) in all herb sections, with the exception of Echinacea stems after treatment with KF. In root tissues IP was dramatically elevated mainly after CCHG application: 8.5-fold in Echinacea, 4.14-fold in nettle, and 2.08-fold in dandelion. ARA decrease of Echinacea leaves treated with regulators was in direct relation only with cichoric acid and caftaric acid contents. Both regulators uphold the formation of cinnamic acid conjugates, the most expressive being that of cichoric acid after treatment with CCHG in Echinacea roots from 2.71 to 20.92 mg g(-1). There was a strong relationship between increase of the total phenolics in all sections of Echinacea, as well as in the studied sections of dandelion, and the anthocyanin content.

  12. Salix transect of Europe: structured genetic variation and isolation-by-distance in the nettle psyllid, Trioza urticae (Psylloidea, Hemiptera), from Greece to Arctic Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wonglersak, Rungtip; Cronk, Quentin; Percy, Diana

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background The common nettle (Urtica dioica L.) is co-associated with willows (Salix spp.) in riparian habitats across Europe. We sampled the widespread nettle psyllid, Trioza urticae (Linné, 1758), from Urtica in willow habitats on a megatransect of Europe from the Aegean to the Arctic Ocean. The aim of this study was to use an unusually widespread insect to assess the influence of geographic distances and natural geographic barriers on patterns of genetic variation and haplotype distribution. New information Phylogeographic analysis using DNA sequences of two mtDNA regions, COI and cytB, shows that T. urticae specimens are organized into four regional groups (southern, central, northern and arctic). These groups are supported by both phylogenetic analysis (four geographically-based clades) and network analysis (four major haplotype groups). The boundary between southern and central groups corresponds to the Carpathian Mountains and the boundary between the central and northern groups corresponds to the Gulf of Finland. Overall these groups form a latitudinal cline in genetic diversity, which decreases with increasing latitude. PMID:28325977

  13. Salix transect of Europe: variation in ploidy and genome size in willow-associated common nettle, Urtica dioica L. sens. lat., from Greece to arctic Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronk, Quentin; Hidalgo, Oriane; Pellicer, Jaume; Percy, Diana; Leitch, Ilia J

    2016-01-01

    The common stinging nettle, Urtica dioica L. sensu lato, is an invertebrate "superhost", its clonal patches maintaining large populations of insects and molluscs. It is extremely widespread in Europe and highly variable, and two ploidy levels (diploid and tetraploid) are known. However, geographical patterns in cytotype variation require further study. We assembled a collection of nettles in conjunction with a transect of Europe from the Aegean to Arctic Norway (primarily conducted to examine the diversity of Salix and Salix -associated insects). Using flow cytometry to measure genome size, our sample of 29 plants reveals 5 diploids and 24 tetraploids. Two diploids were found in SE Europe (Bulgaria and Romania) and three diploids in S. Finland. More detailed cytotype surveys in these regions are suggested. The tetraploid genome size (2C value) varied between accessions from 2.36 to 2.59 pg. The diploids varied from 1.31 to 1.35 pg per 2C nucleus, equivalent to a haploid genome size of c. 650 Mbp. Within the tetraploids, we find that the most northerly samples (from N. Finland and arctic Norway) have a generally higher genome size. This is possibly indicative of a distinct population in this region.

  14. Modeling the accumulation of As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in grasses (Agrotis sp. and Poa sp. and stinging nettle (Urtica dioica on selected sites taking into account soil physico-chemical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boshoff M.C.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of soil properties on the accumulation of metals in two vegetation types was evaluated at 10 sites with a wide variation in soil physicochemical properties pH, organic carbon, clay percentage , total soil metal concentration and exchangeable soil metal content. Accumulation modeling was conducted for grasses (Agrostis sp. and Poa sp. and stinging nettle (Urtica dioica.

  15. Modeling the accumulation of As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in grasses (Agrotis sp. and Poa sp. and stinging nettle (Urtica dioica on selected sites taking into account soil physico-chemical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boshoff M. C.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The effect of soil properties on the accumulation of metals in two vegetation types was evaluated at 10 sites with a wide variation in soil physicochemical properties pH, organic carbon, clay percentage , total soil metal concentration and exchangeable soil metal content. Accumulation modeling was conducted for grasses (Agrostis sp. and Poa sp. and stinging nettle (Urtica dioica.

  16. A Catskill Flora and Economic Botany, III: Apetalae. Including the Poplars, Willows, Hickories, Birches, Beeches, Oaks, Elms, Nettles, Sorrels, Docks, and Smartweeds. Bulletin No. 443, New York State Museum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Karl L.

    This compendium deals with the ecology and economic importance of the poplars, willows, hickories, birches, beeches, oaks, elms, nettles, sorrels, docks, and smartweeds growing in New York's Catskills. Provided are keys for identifying each plant to species by flowers, foliage, or winter buds. A line drawing accompanies a summary of basic data…

  17. Effect of Irrigation CutOff on Flowering Stage and Foliar Application of Spermidine on Some Quantitative and Qualitative Characteristics of Various Ecotypes of Cumin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Bakhtari

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Medicinal plants play major roles in human health. . Cumin (Cuminum cyminum L. is an annual plant that commonly cultivated in arid and semiarid regions of Iran. The crop has a wide range of uses including medicinal, cosmetic and food industry. Cumin occupies about 26% of the total area devoted to medicinal plants in Iran. However, cumin is seriously affected by the Fusarium wilt and blight diseases. The diseases usually increase under warm and wet conditions. It was demonstrated that the peak of the disease incidence is occurring at the flowering stage and irrigation cutoff at this time may be reduced the diseases density. Materials and methods: In order to evaluate the effects of irrigation cutoff in flowering stage and foliar application of spermidine on some characteristics of various ecotype of cumin, an experiment was conducted in a split-split-plot arrangement in randomized complete block design with three replications at the research farm of Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman at 2014. The experimental treatments were irrigation in two levels (complete irrigation and cutoff the irrigation in flowering stage assigned to main plots, foliar application of spermidine in three levels (0, 1 and 2 Mm as a subplot and cumin ecotypes in three levels (Kerman, Khorasan and Esfahan that was randomized in sub-subplot. Plots size under the trial was 4 m × 3 m so as to get 50 cm inter row spacing in six rows. The ideal density of the crops was considered as 120 plant m-2. As soon as the seeds were sown, irrigation was applied every 10 days. Foliar application of spermidine was done at three stages (after thinning, before flowering stage and in the middle of flowering stage. No herbicides and chemical fertilizers were applied during the expriments. Results and discussion: In this study the number of branches, umbels per plant, 1000-seed weight, seed yield per plant and hectare, harvest index, essential oil percentage and yield, infected

  18. Comparison of synthetic chelators and low molecular weight organic acids in enhancing phytoextraction of heavy metals by two ecotypes of Sedum alfredii Hance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dan; Islam, Ejazul; Li, Tingqiang; Yang, Xiaoe; Jin, Xiaofen; Mahmood, Qaisar

    2008-05-01

    Lab scale and pot experiments were conducted to compare the effects of synthetic chelators and low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOA) on the phytoextraction of multi-contaminated soils by two ecotypes of Sedum alfredii Hance. Through lab scale experiments, the treatment dosage of 5 and 10 mM for synthetic chelators and LMWOA, respectively, and the treatment time of 10 days were selected for pot experiment. In pot experiment, the hyperaccumulating ecotype (HE) was found more tolerant to the metal toxicity compared with the non-hyperaccumulating ecotype (NHE). EDTA for Pb, EDDS for Cu, and DTPA for Cu and Cd were found more effective to enhance heavy metal accumulation in the shoots of S. alfredii Hance. Compared with synthetic chelators, the phytoextraction ability of LMWOA was lesser. Considering the strong post-harvest effects of synthetic chelators, it is suggested that higher dosage of LMWOA could be practiced during phytoextraction, and some additional measures could also be taken to lower the potential environmental risks of synthetic chelators in the future studies.

  19. RAPD-PCR and real-time PCR HRM based genetic variation evaluations of Urtica dioica parts, ecotypes and evaluations of morphotypes in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzonur, Irem; Akdeniz, Gamze; Katmer, Zeynep; Ersoy, Seyda Karaman

    2013-01-01

    Urtica dioica is an ethnobotanically and medicinally important Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) plant worldwide and in Turkey; 90 % of herbal CAM applications depend on it in Turkey. It has a wide range of habitats in nearly all continents. It is found in all three phytogeographical regions in Turkey (Euro-Siberian, Irano-Turanian, Mediterranean) with high adaptivity to heterogeneous geographies such as climate, soil types and altitudes. This fact in relation to the assessment of chemical constituents of the plant and combining with further genetic and morphological variation data can assist and enhance the works for the utility and reliability of CAM applications in effect and activity of this plant species. In this work we have made some preliminary experiments with novel approaches to reveal the ecotypes and genetic variation of mighty ecotypes of Urtica dioica from different phytogeographical regions of Turkey (Euro-Siberian and Mediterranean). The ecotypes have heterogeneity in both its parts (leaf, stem, root) as revealed by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RAPD-PCR) using random primers and High-resolution Melt (HRM) analysis using Urtica dioica specific primers and universal chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) primers and morphological traits such as phenolic contents and antioxidant capacities of plants' leaf infusions as used in medicinal applications in Turkey. This work will contribute a lot for the development of molecular markers to detect the genetic variation and heterogeneity of Urtica dioica to further relate with expected phenotypes that are most useful and relevant in CAM applications.

  20. Oxidative stability of the meat of broilers supplemented with rosemary leaves, rosehip fruits, chokeberry pomace, and entire nettle, and effects on performance and meat quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loetscher, Y; Kreuzer, M; Messikommer, R E

    2013-11-01

    Prevention of lipid oxidation needs special attention because a high proportion of fatty acids in broiler meat are unsaturated. A feeding experiment was conducted to evaluate the antioxidant effect of dietary addition of rosemary, chokeberry pomace, rosehip, or nettle in comparison with vitamin E. Male Ross PM3 broilers caged in groups of 6 (4 replicated cages per treatment) were fed a balanced diet supplemented with 25 g/kg of herbal additive, 200 IU of α-tocopheryl acetate/kg, or without supplementation from d 7 to 35. Intake, performance, and with the help of excreta samples, apparent fiber digestibility, ME content, and metabolizability of nitrogen and energy were recorded per cage. Feed was analyzed for total phenols and tocopherols. In each bird (n = 24 per treatment), carcass weight and relative organ weights were recorded, and skin and liver color were assessed. Abdominal fat was analyzed for induction time (h) of lipid oxidation (Rancimat). Breast meat was analyzed for total tocopherol content (mg/kg) and development of TBA reactive substances (TBARS; μg of MDA/kg) over 9 d of storage. Data were subjected to ANOVA considering treatment and, where applicable, storage time. Rosemary supplementation reduced oxidation (TBARS d 9: 201; induction time: 2.48) and elevated tocopherol content (5.72) of the meat compared with control (470, 1.87, and 3.53, respectively). Rosemary-treated birds had a slightly lower carcass weight and a reduced nitrogen and energy metabolizability. Rosehip addition numerically decreased TBARS (319) and enhanced carcass weight (1.71 kg) compared with rosemary-treated birds (1.54 kg). Only a trend in antioxidant activity could be ascribed to chokeberry pomace, although dietary phenolic content was highest. Nettle did not improve oxidative stability (TBARS: 506; induction time: 1.91), although tocopherol content was elevated (6.51). Nettle treatment strongly intensified skin yellowness (b* of 20.6) compared with the control treatment

  1. Seed longevity of red rice ecotypes buried in soil Longevidade de sementes de arroz-vermelho enterradas no solo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A. Noldin

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Red rice is a troublesome weed in irrigated rice production and is spread through contaminated commercial rice seed and machinery. Seed dormancy is a major trait for red rice. Studies were carried out at two locations to determine red rice seed longevity in the soil of several ecotypes from four US states. Five months after burial near Beaumont, Texas only three ecotypes had viable seed (O arroz-vermelho constitui-se na principal planta daninha infestante de lavouras de arroz irrigado e a sua disseminação ocorre, principalmente, pelo uso de sementes comerciais contaminadas e equipamentos agrícolas. A ocorrência de dormência nas sementes é uma das principais características que dificultam o controle do arroz-vermelho em lavouras. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estimar a longevidade no solo de ecótipos de arroz-vermelho provenientes de diferentes áreas de produção de arroz nos Estados Unidos. O estudo foi conduzido em dois locais: Beaumont e College Station, no estado do Texas (TX. Para sementes enterradas a 5 cm de profundidade em Beaumont, apenas três ecótipos apresentaram sementes viáveis (<1%. No entanto, quando as sementes foram enterradas em maior profundidade (25 cm, nove ecótipos tinham sementes viáveis após 2 anos. Trinta e seis meses após o enterrio, cinco ecótipos apresentavam sementes com alguma viabilidade, mas todos inferiores a 1%. Sementes de arroz-vermelho produzidas e enterradas em College Station na profundidade de 12 cm, um dia após a colheita, apresentaram maior longevidade que aquelas mantidas na superfície do solo. Após 17 meses, um dos ecótipos de arroz-preto (TX 4, enterrado a 12 cm, foi o que apresentou maior percentual de viabilidade (2%. Nos dois experimentos, observou-se que os cultivares comerciais, Lemont e Mars, não apresentaram sementes viáveis após cinco meses, independentemente da localização no solo. Os resultados deste estudo sugerem que em áreas com arroz-vermelho deve-se evitar o

  2. The effect of extracts of the roots of the stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) on the interaction of SHBG with its receptor on human prostatic membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hryb, D J; Khan, M S; Romas, N A; Rosner, W

    1995-02-01

    Extracts from the roots of the stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) are used in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia. The mechanisms underlying this treatment have not been elucidated. We set out to determine whether specific extracts from U. dioica had the ability to modulate the binding of sex hormone-binding globulin to its receptor on human prostatic membranes. Four substances contained in U. dioica were examined: an aqueous extract; an alcoholic extract; U. dioica agglutinin, and stigmasta-4-en-3-one. Of these, only the aqueous extract was active. It inhibited the binding of 125I-SHBG to its receptor. The inhibition was dose related, starting at about 0.6 mg/ml and completely inhibited binding at 10 mg/ml.

  3. Multigene phylogeny of the scyphozoan jellyfish family Pelagiidae reveals that the common U.S. Atlantic sea nettle comprises two distinct species (Chrysaora quinquecirrha and C. chesapeakei

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    Keith M. Bayha

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Species of the scyphozoan family Pelagiidae (e.g., Pelagia noctiluca, Chrysaora quinquecirrha are well-known for impacting fisheries, aquaculture, and tourism, especially for the painful sting they can inflict on swimmers. However, historical taxonomic uncertainty at the genus (e.g., new genus Mawia and species levels hinders progress in studying their biology and evolutionary adaptations that make them nuisance species, as well as ability to understand and/or mitigate their ecological and economic impacts. Methods We collected nuclear (28S rDNA and mitochondrial (cytochrome c oxidase I and 16S rDNA sequence data from individuals of all four pelagiid genera, including 11 of 13 currently recognized species of Chrysaora. To examine species boundaries in the U.S. Atlantic sea nettle Chrysaora quinquecirrha, specimens were included from its entire range along the U.S. Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico coasts, with representatives also examined morphologically (macromorphology and cnidome. Results Phylogenetic analyses show that the genus Chrysaora is paraphyletic with respect to other pelagiid genera. In combined analyses, Mawia, sampled from the coast of Senegal, is most closely related to Sanderia malayensis, and Pelagia forms a close relationship to a clade of Pacific Chrysaora species (Chrysaora achlyos, Chrysaora colorata, Chrysaora fuscescens, and Chrysaora melanaster. Chrysaora quinquecirrha is polyphyletic, with one clade from the U.S. coastal Atlantic and another in U.S. Atlantic estuaries and Gulf of Mexico. These genetic differences are reflected in morphology, e.g., tentacle and lappet number, oral arm length, and nematocyst dimensions. Caribbean sea nettles (Jamaica and Panama are genetically similar to the U.S. Atlantic estuaries and Gulf of Mexico clade of Chrysaora quinquecirrha. Discussion Our phylogenetic hypothesis for Pelagiidae contradicts current generic definitions, revealing major disagreements between DNA-based and

  4. Non-destructive flavour evaluation of red onion (Allium cepa L.) ecotypes: an electronic-nose-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Mariateresa; di Sanzo, Rosa; Cefaly, Vittoria; Carabetta, Sonia; Serra, Demetrio; Fuda, Salvatore

    2013-11-15

    This work reports preliminary results on the potential of a metal oxide sensor (MOS)-based electronic nose, as a non-destructive method to discriminate three "Tropea Red Onion" PGI ecotypes (TrT, TrMC and TrA) from each other and the common red onion (RO), which is usually used to counterfeit. The signals from the sensor array were processed using a canonical discriminant function analysis (DFA) pattern recognition technique. The DFA on onion samples showed a clear separation among the four onion groups with an overall correct classification rate (CR) of 97.5%. Onion flavour is closely linked to pungency and thus to the pyruvic acid content. The e-nose analysis results are in good agreement with pyruvic acid analysis. This work demonstrated that artificial olfactory systems have potential for use as an innovative, rapid and specific non-destructive technique, and may provide a method to protect food products against counterfeiting. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Otolith morphology and hearing abilities in cave- and surface-dwelling ecotypes of the Atlantic molly, Poecilia mexicana (Teleostei: Poeciliidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz-Mirbach, Tanja; Ladich, Friedrich; Riesch, Rüdiger; Plath, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Cave fish have rarely been investigated with regard to their inner ear morphology, hearing abilities, and acoustic communication. Based on a previous study that revealed morphological differences in the saccular otolith between a cave and two surface populations of Poecilia mexicana, we checked for additional differences in utricular and lagenar otoliths and tested whether different populations have similar hearing sensitivities. We found pronounced differences in the shape of all three otoliths. Otoliths of the saccule and lagena from cave fish differed from those of surface fish in the features of the face oriented towards the sensory epithelium. In addition, otoliths of the utricle and lagena were significantly heavier in cave fish. Auditory sensitivities were measured between 100 and 1500 Hz, utilizing the auditory evoked potential recording technique. We found similar hearing abilities in cave and surface fish, with greatest sensitivity between 200 and 300 Hz. An acoustic survey revealed that neither ecotype produced species-specific sounds. Our data indicate that cave dwelling altered the otolith morphology in Atlantic mollies, probably due to metabolic differences. Different otolith morphology, however, did not affect general auditory sensitivity or acoustic behavior. PMID:20430090

  6. Cold-acclimation limits low temperature induced photoinhibition by promoting a higher photochemical quantum yield and a more effective PSII restoration in darkness in the Antarctic rather than the Andean ecotype of Colobanthus quitensis Kunt Bartl (Cariophyllaceae

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    Bascuñán-Godoy Luisa

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ecotypes of Colobanthus quitensis Kunt Bartl (Cariophyllaceae from Andes Mountains and Maritime Antarctic grow under contrasting photoinhibitory conditions, reaching differential cold tolerance upon cold acclimation. Photoinhibition depends on the extent of photodamage and recovery capability. We propose that cold acclimation increases resistance to low-temperature-induced photoinhibition, limiting photodamage and promoting recovery under cold. Therefore, the Antarctic ecotype (cold hardiest should be less photoinhibited and have better recovery from low-temperature-induced photoinhibition than the Andean ecotype. Both ecotypes were exposed to cold induced photoinhibitory treatment (PhT. Photoinhibition and recovery of photosystem II (PSII was followed by fluorescence, CO2 exchange, and immunoblotting analyses. Results The same reduction (25% in maximum PSII efficiency (Fv/Fm was observed in both cold-acclimated (CA and non-acclimated (NA plants under PhT. A full recovery was observed in CA plants of both ecotypes under dark conditions, but CA Antarctic plants recover faster than the Andean ecotype. Under PhT, CA plants maintain their quantum yield of PSII, while NA plants reduced it strongly (50% and 73% for Andean and Antarctic plants respectively. Cold acclimation induced the maintenance of PsaA and Cyt b6/f and reduced a 41% the excitation pressure in Antarctic plants, exhibiting the lowest level under PhT. xCold acclimation decreased significantly NPQs in both ecotypes, and reduced chlorophylls and D1 degradation in Andean plants under PhT. NA and CA plants were able to fully restore their normal photosynthesis, while CA Antarctic plants reached 50% higher photosynthetic rates after recovery, which was associated to electron fluxes maintenance under photoinhibitory conditions. Conclusions Cold acclimation has a greater importance on the recovery process than on limiting photodamage. Cold acclimation determined the

  7. The Effect of Irrigation Cut-off in Flowering Stage and Foliar Application of Spermidine on Essential Oil Quantity and Quality of Three Ecotypes of Cumin

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    Sarah Bakhtari

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Cumin (Cuminum cyminum L. is an annual plant that commonly cultivated in arid and semiarid regions of Iran. The crop has a wide range of uses including medicinal, cosmetic and food industry. Cumin occupies about 26% of total area devoted to medicinal plants in Iran. However, cumin is seriously affected by the Fusarium wilt and blight diseases. The diseases usually increase under warm and wet conditions. Control of the diseases incidence is a crucial factor for cumin production. Limited control of the diseases is provided by seed pre-sowing with certain fungicides such as benlate. Soil fumigation with methyle bromide can provide a control measure against the disease but may be limited application value for large scale production systems in the open field. In addition, methyle bromide is considered an ozone-depleting compound and has potential risk on the living environment and human health. Considering the environmental limitations of chemical fungicides, it seems appropriate to search for a supplemental control strategy .It was demonstrated that peak of the diseases incidence is occurred at flowering stage and irrigation cut-off in this time may be reduced the diseases density. Materials and methods This experiment was conducted in a split-split-plot arrangement in randomized complete block design with three replications in research farm of Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman at 2014. The experimental treatments were irrigation (complete irrigation and cut-off the irrigation in flowering stage assigned to main plots, foliar application of spermidine (0, 1 and 2 Mm as subplot and cumin ecotypes (Kerman, Khorasan and Esfahan that was randomized in sub-subplot. The seedbed preparation was made based on common practices at the location. Plots size under the trial was 4 m×3 m so as to get 50 cm inter row spacing in six rows. The ideal density of the crops was considered as 120 plant.m-2. As soon as the seeds were sown, irrigation

  8. Ecotypic differentiation between urban and rural populations of the grasshopper Chorthippus brunneus relative to climate and habitat fragmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Martin Y Gomez, Gilles; Van Dyck, Hans

    2012-05-01

    Urbanization alters environmental conditions in multiple ways and offers an ecological or evolutionary challenge for organisms to cope with. Urban areas typically have a warmer climate and strongly fragmented herbaceous vegetation; the urban landscape matrix is often assumed to be hostile for many organisms. Here, we addressed the issue of evolutionary differentiation between urban and rural populations of an ectotherm insect, the grasshopper Chorthippus brunneus. We compared mobility-related morphology and climate-related life history traits measured on the first generation offspring of grasshoppers from urban and rural populations reared in a common garden laboratory experiment. We predicted (1) the urban phenotype to be more mobile (i.e., lower mass allocation to the abdomen, longer relative femur and wing lengths) than the rural phenotype; (2) the urban phenotype to be more warm adapted (e.g., higher female body mass); and (3) further evidence of local adaptation in the form of significant interaction effects between landscape of origin and breeding temperature. Both males and females of urban origin had significantly longer relative femur and wing lengths and lower mass allocation to the abdomen (i.e., higher investment in thorax and flight muscles) relative to individuals of rural origin. The results were overall significant but small (2-4%). Body mass and larval growth rate were much higher (+10%) in females of urban origin. For the life history traits, we did not find evidence for significant interaction effects between the landscape of origin and the two breeding temperatures. Our results point to ecotypic differentiation with urbanization for mobility-related morphology and climate-related life history traits. We argue that the warmer urban environment has an indirect effect through longer growth season rather than direct effects on the development.

  9. From prediction to function using evolutionary genomics: human-specific ecotypes of Lactobacillus reuteri have diverse probiotic functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinler, Jennifer K; Sontakke, Amrita; Hollister, Emily B; Venable, Susan F; Oh, Phaik Lyn; Balderas, Miriam A; Saulnier, Delphine M A; Mistretta, Toni-Ann; Devaraj, Sridevi; Walter, Jens; Versalovic, James; Highlander, Sarah K

    2014-06-19

    The vertebrate gut symbiont Lactobacillus reuteri has diversified into separate clades reflecting host origin. Strains show evidence of host adaptation, but how host-microbe coevolution influences microbial-derived effects on hosts is poorly understood. Emphasizing human-derived strains of L. reuteri, we combined comparative genomic analyses with functional assays to examine variations in host interaction among genetically distinct ecotypes. Within clade II or VI, the genomes of human-derived L. reuteri strains are highly conserved in gene content and at the nucleotide level. Nevertheless, they share only 70-90% of total gene content, indicating differences in functional capacity. Human-associated lineages are distinguished by genes related to bacteriophages, vitamin biosynthesis, antimicrobial production, and immunomodulation. Differential production of reuterin, histamine, and folate by 23 clade II and VI strains was demonstrated. These strains also differed with respect to their ability to modulate human cytokine production (tumor necrosis factor, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, interleukin [IL]-1β, IL-5, IL-7, IL-12, and IL-13) by myeloid cells. Microarray analysis of representative clade II and clade VI strains revealed global regulation of genes within the reuterin, vitamin B12, folate, and arginine catabolism gene clusters by the AraC family transcriptional regulator, PocR. Thus, human-derived L. reuteri clade II and VI strains are genetically distinct and their differences affect their functional repertoires and probiotic features. These findings highlight the biological impact of microbe:host coevolution and illustrate the functional significance of subspecies differences in the human microbiome. Consideration of host origin and functional differences at the subspecies level may have major impacts on probiotic strain selection and considerations of microbial ecology in mammalian species. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on

  10. Effect of Drought Stress on Leaf Water Status, Electrolyte Leakage, Photosynthesis Parameters and Chlorophyll Fluorescence of Two Kochia Ecotypes (Kochia scoparia Irrigated With Saline Water

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    A Masoumi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Rainfall deficiency and the development of salinity in Iran are the most important factors for using new salt and drought-resistant plants instead of conventional crops. Kochia species have recently attracted the attention of researchers as a forage and fodder crop in marginal lands worldwide due to its drought and salt tolerant characteristics. This field experiment was performed at the Salinity Research Station of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran, in a split plot based on randomized complete block design with three replications in 2008. Drought stress, including four levels (control, no irrigation in vegetative stage, no irrigation at reproductive stage and no irrigation at maturity stage for four weeks, and two Kochia ecotypes (Birjand and Borujerd were allocated as main and sub plots, respectively. Relative water content, electrolyte leakage, photosynthesis parameters and chlorophyll fluorescence were assayed every two week from late vegetative stage. Results showed that drought stress decreased significantly measured parameters in plants under stress, in all stages. Plants completely recovered after eliminating stress and rewatering and recovered plants did not show significant difference with control. Electrolyte leaking and chlorophyll fluorescence showed the lowest change among the measured parameters. It can emphasize that resistant to stress conditions in this plant and cell wall is not damaged at this level of stress situation. Birjand ecotype from the arid region, revealed a better response than Borujerd ecotype to drought stress. Probably it returns to initial adaptation of Birjand. In general this plant can recover after severe drought stress well. It is possible to introduce this plant as a new fodder in arid and saline conditions.

  11. Microbiome and ecotypic adaption of Holcus lanatus (L.) to extremes of its soil pH range, investigated through transcriptome sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Ellen; Carey, Manus; Meharg, Andrew A; Meharg, Caroline

    2018-03-20

    Plants can adapt to edaphic stress, such as nutrient deficiency, toxicity and biotic challenges, by controlled transcriptomic responses, including microbiome interactions. Traditionally studied in model plant species with controlled microbiota inoculation treatments, molecular plant-microbiome interactions can be functionally investigated via RNA-Seq. Complex, natural plant-microbiome studies are limited, typically focusing on microbial rRNA and omitting functional microbiome investigations, presenting a fundamental knowledge gap. Here, root and shoot meta-transcriptome analyses, in tandem with shoot elemental content and root staining, were employed to investigate transcriptome responses in the wild grass Holcus lanatus and its associated natural multi-species eukaryotic microbiome. A full factorial reciprocal soil transplant experiment was employed, using plant ecotypes from two widely contrasting natural habitats, acid bog and limestone quarry soil, to investigate naturally occurring, and ecologically meaningful, edaphically driven molecular plant-microbiome interactions. Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) and non-AM fungal colonization was detected in roots in both soils. Staining showed greater levels of non-AM fungi, and transcriptomics indicated a predominance of Ascomycota-annotated genes. Roots in acid bog soil were dominated by Phialocephala-annotated transcripts, a putative growth-promoting endophyte, potentially involved in N nutrition and ion homeostasis. Limestone roots in acid bog soil had greater expression of other Ascomycete genera and Oomycetes and lower expression of Phialocephala-annotated transcripts compared to acid ecotype roots, which corresponded with reduced induction of pathogen defense processes, particularly lignin biosynthesis in limestone ecotypes. Ascomycota dominated in shoots and limestone soil roots, but Phialocephala-annotated transcripts were insignificant, and no single Ascomycete genus dominated. Fusarium-annotated transcripts were

  12. The molecular dimension of microbial species: 1. Ecological distinctions among, and homogeneity within, putative ecotypes of Synechococcus inhabiting the cyanobacterial mat of Mushroom Spring, Yellowstone National Park

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becraft, Eric D.; Wood, Jason M.; Rusch, Douglas B.

    2015-01-01

    Based on the Stable Ecotype Model, evolution leads to the divergence of ecologically distinct populations (e.g., with different niches and/or behaviors) of ecologically interchangeable membership. In this study, pyrosequencing was used to provide deep sequence coverage of Synechococcus psaA genes...... the PEs are ecologically distinct, the members of each ecotype are ecologically homogeneous. PEs responded differently to experimental perturbations of temperature and light, but the genetic variation within each PE was maintained as the relative abundances of PEs changed, further indicating that each...

  13. Carbon source utilization patterns of Bacillus simplex ecotypes do not reflect their adaptation to ecologically divergent slopes in 'Evolution Canyon', Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikorski, Johannes; Pukall, Rüdiger; Stackebrandt, Erko

    2008-10-01

    The 'Evolution Canyons' I and II in Israel are model habitats to study adaptation and speciation of bacteria in the environment. These canyons represent similar ecological replicates, separated by 40 km, with a strongly sun-exposed and hot 'African' south-facing slope (SFS) vs. a cooler and mesic-lush 'European' north-facing slope (NFS). Previously, among 131 Bacillus simplex isolates, distinct genetic lineages (ecotypes), each specific for either SFS or NFS, were identified, suggesting a temperature-driven slope-specific adaptation. Here, we asked whether the ecological heterogeneity of SFS vs. NFS also affected carbon utilization abilities, as determined using the Biolog assay. Contrary to expectation, a correlation between substrate utilization patterns and the ecological origin of strains was not found. Rather, the patterns split according to the two major phylogenetic lineages each of which contain SFS and NFS ecotypes. We conclude that traits related to the general energy metabolism, as far as assessed here, are neither shaped by the major abiotic features of 'Evolution Canyon', namely solar radiation, temperature, and drought, nor by the soil characteristics. We further conclude that some traits diverge rather neutrally from each other, whereas other, more environmentally related traits are shaped by natural selection and show evolutionary convergence.

  14. A study on possible use of Urtica dioica (common nettle) plant as polonium (210)Po and lead (210)Pb contamination biomonitor in the area of phosphogypsum stockpile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olszewski, Grzegorz; Boryło, Alicja; Skwarzec, Bogdan

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to test a possible use of Urtica dioica (common nettle) plant as a biomonitor of polonium (210)Po and lead (210)Pb contamination near phosphogypsum stacks by determining concentrations of these radionuclides in samples collected from the area of phosphogypsum stockpile in Wiślinka (northern Poland). The (210)Po and (210)Pb contents in roots depended on their concentrations in soils. Bioconcentration factor values from soil to root of the plant did not depend on (210)Po and (210)Pb contents in soils that leads to the conclusion that different polonium and lead species have different affinities to U. dioica plants. The main sources of both analyzed radionuclides in green parts of plants are wet and dry air deposition and transportation from soil. The values of (210)Po/(210)Pb activity ratio indicate natural origin of these radioisotopes in analyzed plants. (210)Po and (210)Pb concentration in U. dioica roots is negatively weakly correlated with distance from phosphogypsum stockpile.

  15. Antiproliferative effect of a polysaccharide fraction of a 20% methanolic extract of stinging nettle roots upon epithelial cells of the human prostate (LNCaP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichius, J J; Lenz, C; Lindemann, P; Müller, H H; Aumüller, G; Konrad, L

    1999-10-01

    In Germany, plant extracts are often used in the treatment of early stages of benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH). The effects of different concentrations of the polysaccharide fraction of the 20% methanolic extract of stinging nettle roots (POLY-M) on the cellular proliferation of lymph node carcinoma of the prostate (LNCaP) cells were determined by measurement of the genomic DNA content of the samples. All concentrations of POLY-M showed an inhibitory effect on the growth of the LNCaP cells during 7 days except the two lowest concentrations. The reduced proliferation of POLY-M treated LNCaP cells was significantly (p < 0.05) different from the untreated control. The inhibition was time- and concentration-dependent with the maximum suppression (50%) on day 6 and at concentrations of 1.0E-9 and 1.0E-11 mg/ml. No cytotoxic effect of POLY-M on cell proliferation was observed. The in vitro results show for the first time an antiproliferative effect of Urtica compounds on human prostatic epithelium and confirm our previous in vivo findings.

  16. Molecular cloning and tissue-specific transcriptional regulation of the first peroxidase family member, Udp1, in stinging nettle (Urtica dioica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douroupi, Triantafyllia G; Papassideri, Issidora S; Stravopodis, Dimitrios J; Margaritis, Lukas H

    2005-12-05

    A full-length cDNA clone, designated Udp1, was isolated from Urtica dioica (stinging nettle), using a polymerase chain reaction based strategy. The putative Udp1 protein is characterized by a cleavable N-terminal signal sequence, likely responsible for the rough endoplasmic reticulum entry and a 310 amino acids mature protein, containing all the important residues, which are evolutionary conserved among different members of the plant peroxidase family. A unique structural feature of the Udp1 peroxidase is defined into the short carboxyl-terminal extension, which could be associated with the vacuolar targeting process. Udp1 peroxidase is differentially regulated at the transcriptional level and is specifically expressed in the roots. Interestingly, wounding and ultraviolet radiation stress cause an ectopic induction of the Udp1 gene expression in the aerial parts of the plant. A genomic DNA fragment encoding the Udp1 peroxidase was also cloned and fully sequenced, revealing a structural organization of three exons and two introns. The phylogenetic relationships of the Udp1 protein to the Arabidopsis thaliana peroxidase family members were also examined and, in combination with the homology modelling approach, dictated the presence of distinct structural elements, which could be specifically involved in the determination of substrate recognition and subcellular localization of the Udp1 peroxidase.

  17. Effect of novel bioactive edible coatings based on jujube gum and nettle oil-loaded nanoemulsions on the shelf-life of Beluga sturgeon fillets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharibzahedi, Seyed Mohammad Taghi; Mohammadnabi, Sara

    2017-02-01

    Effect of jujube gum (JG; 4, 8 and 12% wt)-based nanoemulsions (NEs) containing nettle essential oil (NEO; 2, 3.5 and 5% wt) as new edible coatings was investigated to preserve Beluga sturgeon fillets (BSFs) during 15 day-refrigerated storage at 4°C. Physical (weight loss, cooking loss, color and texture), chemical (pH, FFA, PV, TBARS and TVB-N), microbiological (total and psychrotrophic bacterial counts), and sensorial characteristics of BSFs were kinetically analyzed. Preliminary studies showed that the NEs formulated with NEO lower than 5% at all JG concentrations were able to form stable coating solutions owing to the highest short-term stability (>90%) and entrapment efficiency (94.4-98.3%). Edible NE coating formulated with 12% JG and 3.5% NEO as a novel antimicrobial and antioxidant biomaterial exhibited the lowest weight and cooking losses, pH changes, textural and color deterioration, lipid oxidation and microbial growth in BSFs refrigerated over a period of 15days (P<0.05). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Assessment of Qualitative and Quantitative Characters of Two Persian Clover Ecotypes Inoculated by Rhizobium leguminosarum biovartrifoli and Pesudomonas putida Bacteria

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    R Azamei

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Over the past decades, world attitude has changed towards the reduction of environmental pollutants. Harmful effects of synthetic fertilizers on environment have been identified. Bio-fertilizers are not harmful to the environment, but also they have favorable effects on plant growth processes. Soil biotechnology can be defined as the study of soil organisms and their metabolic processes which may have positive effects on plant yields. The main goal of this study is to asess the biotechnology fertilizers beneficial effects on soil organisms and their subsequently to maximize the yield. It is also our desire conside the soil quality, hygiene and environmental protection along this process. Among the strain of nitrogen-fixing bacteria, symbiotic bacteria such as rhizobium bacteria are important and essential in planning the sustainable farming systems. Several studies have shown that crop varieties which inoculated with rhizobium and pseudomonas were superior in yield production and performance. Material and Methods An experiment was designed as factorial performed in randomized complete block design (RCBD with three replications in Agricultural Research Center of Golpayegan (Isfahan during 2010 – 2011. the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of inoculation of two ecotypes of Persian clover by various strains of Rhizobium leguminosarum. Biovar trifoli bacteria accompanied with plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR Pseudomonas putida was employed to find certain qualitative and quantitative characteristics of clover yield, The main plots included two local ecotypes of Persian clover; Arak Haft Chin (V1 and Isfahan Haft Chin (V2, the subplots included inoculation by two strain of Rhizobium; Rb-3, Rb-13 and one strain of Pseudomonas; PS -168.4 cuts were performed during the experiment and 60 kg/ha seed was used for cultivation based on local knowledge. According to recommendations of the Institute of Soil and Water

  19. The molecular dimension of microbial species: 3. Comparative genomics of Synechococcus strains with different light responses and in situ diel transcription patterns of associated ecotypes in the Mushroom Spring microbial mat

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    Millie T. Olsen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Genomes were obtained for three closely related strains of Synechococcus that are representative of putative ecotypes that predominate at different depths in the 1 mm-thick, upper-green layer in the 60°C mat of Mushroom Spring, Yellowstone National Park, and exhibit different light adaptation and acclimation responses. The genomes were compared to the published genome of a previously obtained, closely related strain from a neighboring spring, and differences in both gene content and orthologous gene alleles between high-light-adapted and low-light-adapted strains were identified. Evidence of genetic differences that relate to adaptation to light intensity and/or quality, CO2 uptake, nitrogen metabolism, organic carbon metabolism, and uptake of other nutrients were found between strains of the different putative ecotypes. In situ diel transcription patterns of genes, including genes unique to either low-light-adapted or high-light-adapted strains and different alleles of an orthologous photosystem gene, revealed that expression is fine-tuned to the different light environments experienced by ecotypes prevalent at various depths in the mat. This study suggests that strains of closely related putative ecotypes have different genomic adaptations that enable them to inhabit distinct ecological niches while living in close proximity within a microbial community.

  20. The Effects of Drought Stress on Yield, Yield Components and Anti-oxidant of Two Garlic (Allium sativum L. Ecotypes with Different Planting Densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    shiva akbari

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Drought stress reduces plant growth by affecting various physiological and biochemical processes, such as photosynthesis, respiration, translocation, ion uptake, carbohydrates, nutrient metabolism and growth promoters. Garlic (Allium sativum L. is an annual bulb crop that has been cultivated since ancient times and was used as a spice and condiment for many centuries. Garlic is an important plant because of its pharmaceutical properties. The optimum yield of this bulb crop depends on well-managed irrigation, fertilization and cultivation practices. In the final and middle stages of growth, garlic is sensitive to water stress and low irrigation is unsuitable in these stages. This experiment was established to study the influence of drought stress and planting density on yield and its components and the non-enzymatic anti-oxidant content of two different garlic ecotypes. Materials and methods This study was conducted in 2011-2012 in a farmland at the south east of Semnan city. The experimental layout was a split-plot factorial with a randomized complete block design with three replications. The treatments were comprised of three factors: irrigation rates (60%, 80% and 100% of estimated crop evapotranspiration (ETC as the main plot and the factorial combination of three levels of planting density (30, 40 and 50 plants.m-2 and two ecotypes (Tabas and Toroud as the sub-plots. To estimate the crop water requirement, different meteorological parameters were collected from Semnan weather station and were used based on FAO-56 water irrigation calculation instructions. After harvesting, ten garlic plants were sampled randomly in each plot and bulb yield components were measured. To calculate the leaves anti-oxidant content, DPPH method was used. The statistical significances of mean values were assessed by analysis of variance and LSD tests at p≤0.05. All calculations were performed using SAS and Mstat-C softwares. Results and discussion

  1. Effect of Organic and Chemical Fertilizers on Yield and Essential Oil of Two Ecotypes of Savory (Satureja hortensis L. under Normal and Drought Stress Conditions

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    O Akrami nejad

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Savory (Satureja hortensis L. is an annual and aromatic plant from Labiatae family, which has plenty of essential oil and is important in medicinal, food, health and beauty industries (6. In comparison with chemical fertilizers, organic fertilizers especially manure have lots of organic material sources, and can be used as nutrients, especially Nitrogen, Phosphor and Potassium. Organic fertilizers also keeps more water in the soil (14. Water deficit is one of the most important boundaries of production in arid and semi-arid regions. Drought stress reduces water content, limits plant growth and changes some physiological and metabolic activities (31. This experiment was conducted as there is a global interest for production of medicinal plants with sustainable agriculture system, and with low input and shortage of information about Savory reaction to fertilization in drought stress condition. The objective of this research was to compare the effects of chemical fertilizers and different organic fertilizers on quantitative and qualitative characteristics of two ecotypes of savory under drought stress condition. Materials and Methods In order to study the effects of organic and mineral (N, P and K fertilizers on quantitative and qualitative characteristics of savory in drought stress condition, two separate split plot designs with three replications were carried out in 2012-2013 year, at the research field of Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Iran. In each design fertilizers including cow manure (30 ton per hectare, poultry manure (10 ton per hectare, chemical fertilizers (used equally with macro elements existing in both poultry and cow manure and control (no fertilizer were used as main factor. Kerman and Khuzestan ecotypes were sub-factor. One of the experiments was irrigated to 100% and the other to 50% of field capacity. Two experiments were analyzed as a combined design. The important characteristics of Savory such as plant

  2. Differences in gorilla nettle-feeding between captivity and the wild: local traditions, species typical behaviors or merely the result of nutritional deficiencies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masi, Shelly

    2011-11-01

    Behavioral and cognitive studies on captive apes often pay little attention to the specific environmental conditions of their study subjects. A recent report form Byrne et al. (Anim Cogn doi: 10.1007/s10071-011-0403-8, 2011), comparing nettle-feeding techniques between captive and wild gorillas, claimed to document "the strongest evidence yet to come from any great ape that observational learning of a skilled conspecific" can allow social learning and culture in gorillas. An earlier study with similar findings placed emphasis instead on the many similarities and claims for species typical behavior, thus a genetic hypothesis instead of a cultural hypothesis. This commentary aims at formulating a third environmental hypothesis based on path-dependent behavioral differences owing to different diet and availability of nutritional resources of wild and captive gorillas. Captive diet provides gorillas with a much lower concentration of fibers. Gorillas are hindgut fermenters, and this deficit of natural fermentation of fibers may impact their health and their behavior in zoos. Results of Byrne et al.'s study will be discussed comparing feeding choice and availability of nutritional resources of wild and captive gorillas, showing that in captivity gorilla, motivation to consume certain food or certain plant parts may differ drastically from that of wild gorillas. This view does not intend to deny that social learning and culture may exist in gorillas, but to guide and encourage future works investigating social learning in great apes to take more accurately into account the living conditions and, when comparing populations, the possible environmental differences. © Springer-Verlag 2011

  3. Stinging Nettle (Urtica dioica L. Attenuates FFA Induced Ceramide Accumulation in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes in an Adiponectin Dependent Manner.

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    Diana N Obanda

    Full Text Available Excess dietary lipids result in the accumulation of lipid metabolites including ceramides that can attenuate insulin signaling. There is evidence that a botanical extract of Urtica dioica L. (stinging nettle improves insulin action, yet the precise mechanism(s are not known. Hence, we examined the effects of Urtica dioica L. (UT on adipocytes.We investigated the effects of an ethanolic extract of UT on free fatty acid (palmitic acid induced inhibition of insulin-stimulated Akt serine phosphorylation and modulation of ceramidase expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Adipocytes were exposed to excess FFAs in the presence or absence of UT. Effects on adiponectin expression, ceramidase expression, ceramidase activity, ceramide accumulation and insulin signaling were determined.As expected, FFAs reduced adiponectin expression and increased the expression of ceramidase enzymes but not their activity. FFA also induced the accumulation of ceramides and reduced insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of Akt in adipocytes. The effects of FFA were partially reversed by UT. UT enhanced adiponectin expression and ceramidase activity in the presence of excess FFAs. UT abated ceramide accumulation and increased insulin sensitivity via enhanced Akt phosphorylation. A siRNA knockdown of adiponectin expression prevented UT from exerting positive effects on ceramidase activity but not Akt phosphorylation.In adipocytes, the ability of UT to antagonize the negative effects of FFA by modulating ceramidase activity and ceramide accumulation is dependent on the presence of adiponectin. However, the ability of UT to enhance Akt phosphorylation is independent of adiponectin expression. These studies demonstrate direct effects of UT on adipocytes and suggest this botanical extract is metabolically beneficial.

  4. Stinging Nettle (Urtica dioica L.) Attenuates FFA Induced Ceramide Accumulation in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes in an Adiponectin Dependent Manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obanda, Diana N; Zhao, Peng; Richard, Allison J; Ribnicky, David; Cefalu, William T; Stephens, Jacqueline M

    2016-01-01

    Excess dietary lipids result in the accumulation of lipid metabolites including ceramides that can attenuate insulin signaling. There is evidence that a botanical extract of Urtica dioica L. (stinging nettle) improves insulin action, yet the precise mechanism(s) are not known. Hence, we examined the effects of Urtica dioica L. (UT) on adipocytes. We investigated the effects of an ethanolic extract of UT on free fatty acid (palmitic acid) induced inhibition of insulin-stimulated Akt serine phosphorylation and modulation of ceramidase expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Adipocytes were exposed to excess FFAs in the presence or absence of UT. Effects on adiponectin expression, ceramidase expression, ceramidase activity, ceramide accumulation and insulin signaling were determined. As expected, FFAs reduced adiponectin expression and increased the expression of ceramidase enzymes but not their activity. FFA also induced the accumulation of ceramides and reduced insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of Akt in adipocytes. The effects of FFA were partially reversed by UT. UT enhanced adiponectin expression and ceramidase activity in the presence of excess FFAs. UT abated ceramide accumulation and increased insulin sensitivity via enhanced Akt phosphorylation. A siRNA knockdown of adiponectin expression prevented UT from exerting positive effects on ceramidase activity but not Akt phosphorylation. In adipocytes, the ability of UT to antagonize the negative effects of FFA by modulating ceramidase activity and ceramide accumulation is dependent on the presence of adiponectin. However, the ability of UT to enhance Akt phosphorylation is independent of adiponectin expression. These studies demonstrate direct effects of UT on adipocytes and suggest this botanical extract is metabolically beneficial.

  5. [Stinging nettle root extract (Bazoton-uno) in long term treatment of benign prostatic syndrome (BPS). Results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled multicenter study after 12 months].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, T; Rübben, H

    2004-03-01

    Phytotherapy of BPS has a long tradition in Germany; nevertheless, data referring to single phytotherapeutic agents are rare. We therefore performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled multicenter study for 1 year with Bazoton uno (459 mg dry extract of stinging nettle roots) with 246 patients. The IPSS decreased on average from 18.7+/-0.3 to 13.0+/-0.5 with a statistically significant difference compared to placebo (18.5+/-0.3 to 13.8+/-0.5; p=0.0233). The median Q(max) increased by 3.0+/-0.4 ml/s in comparison to 2.9+/-0.4 ml/s (placebo), thus not statistically significantly different, as well as the median volume of residual urine, which changed from 35.5+/-3.4 ml before therapy to 20.0+/-2.8 ml and from 40.0+/-4.0 ml to 21.0+/-2.9 ml under placebo application. The number of adverse events (29/38) as well as urinary infections etc. (3/10 events) was smaller under Bazoton uno therapy compared to placebo. Treatment with Bazoton uno can therefore be considered a safe therapeutic option for BPS, especially for reducing irritative symptoms and BPS-associated complications due to the postulated antiphlogistic and antiproliferative effects of the stinging nettle extract. A strong increase of Q(max) or reduction of residual urine are not to be expected.

  6. The effect of hydro alcoholic Nettle (Urtica dioica) extracts on insulin sensitivity and some inflammatory indicators in patients with type 2 diabetes: a randomized double-blind control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namazi, N; Esfanjani, A T; Heshmati, J; Bahrami, A

    2011-08-01

    Type 2 diabetes is a metabolic disorder that is strongly associated with cardiovascular risk. Inflammation is a potential risk factor for cardiovascular disease. In this study, hydro alcoholic extract of Nettle (Urtica dioica) on insulin sensitivity and some inflammatory indicators in type 2 diabetic patients were studied. A randomized double-blind clinical trial on 50 men and women with type 2 diabetes was done for 8 weeks. Patients were adjusted by age, sex and duration of diabetes, then randomly divided into two groups, an intervention and control group. They received, 100 mg kg-1nettle extract or placebo in three portions a day for 8 weeks. Interleukin 6 (IL-6), Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), High Sensitive C-Reactive protein (hs-CRP) and Fasting Insulin concentration were measured. Insulin Sensitivity was calculated, at the beginning and the end of the study. The data were analyzed by SPSS version 18, pnettle has decreasing effects on IL-6 and hs-CRP in patients with type 2 diabetes after eight weeks intervention.

  7. Nickel-tolerant ectomycorrhizal Pisolithus albus ultramafic ecotype isolated from nickel mines in New Caledonia strongly enhance growth of the host plant Eucalyptus globulus at toxic nickel concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jourand, Philippe; Ducousso, Marc; Reid, Robert; Majorel, Clarisse; Richert, Clément; Riss, Jennifer; Lebrun, Michel

    2010-10-01

    Ectomycorrhizal (ECM) Pisolithus albus (Cooke & Massee), belonging to the ultramafic ecotype isolated in nickel-rich serpentine soils from New Caledonia (a tropical hotspot of biodiversity) and showing in vitro adaptive nickel tolerance, were inoculated to Eucalyptus globulus Labill used as a Myrtaceae plant-host model to study ectomycorrhizal symbiosis. Plants were then exposed to a nickel (Ni) dose-response experiment with increased Ni treatments up to 60 mg kg( - )(1) soil as extractable Ni content in serpentine soils. Results showed that plants inoculated with ultramafic ECM P. albus were able to tolerate high and toxic concentrations of Ni (up to 60 μg g( - )(1)) while uninoculated controls were not. At the highest Ni concentration tested, root growth was more than 20-fold higher and shoot growth more than 30-fold higher in ECM plants compared with control plants. The improved growth in ECM plants was associated with a 2.4-fold reduction in root Ni concentration but a massive 60-fold reduction in transfer of Ni from root to shoots. In vitro, P. albus strains could withstand high Ni concentrations but accumulated very little Ni in its tissue. The lower Ni uptake by mycorrhizal plants could not be explained by increased release of metal-complexing chelates since these were 5- to 12-fold lower in mycorrhizal plants at high Ni concentrations. It is proposed that the fungal sheath covering the plant roots acts as an effective barrier to limit transfer of Ni from soil into the root tissue. The degree of tolerance conferred by the ultramafic P. albus isolates to growth of the host tree species is considerably greater than previously reported for other ECM. The primary mechanisms underlying this improved growth were identified as reduced Ni uptake into the roots and markedly reduced transfer from root to shoot in mycorrhizal plants. The fact that these positive responses were observed at Ni concentrations commonly observed in serpentinic soils suggests that

  8. Diversity of Mat-Forming Fungi in Relation to Soil Properties, Disturbance, and Forest Ecotype at Crater Lake National Park, Oregon, USA

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    James M. Trappe

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In forest ecosystems, fungal mats are functionally important in nutrient and water uptake in litter and wood decomposition processes, in carbon resource allocation, soil weathering and in cycling of soil resources. Fungal mats can occur abundantly in forests and are widely distributed globally. We sampled ponderosa pine/white fir and mountain hemlock/noble fir communities at Crater Lake National Park for mat-forming soil fungi. Fungus collections were identified by DNA sequencing. Thirty-eight mat-forming genotypes were identified; members of the five most common genera (Gautieria, Lepiota, Piloderma, Ramaria, and Rhizopogon comprised 67% of all collections. The mycorrhizal genera Alpova and Lactarius are newly identified as ectomycorrhizal mat-forming taxa, as are the saprotrophic genera Flavoscypha, Gastropila, Lepiota and Xenasmatella. Twelve typical mat forms are illustrated, representing both ectomycorrhizal and saprotrophic fungi that were found. Abundance of fungal mats was correlated with higher soil carbon to nitrogen ratios, fine woody debris and needle litter mass in both forest ecotypes. Definitions of fungal mats are discussed, along with some of the challenges in defining what comprises a fungal “mat”.

  9. A field reciprocal transplant experiment reveals asymmetric costs of migration between lake and river ecotypes of three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, J; Lenz, T L; Kalbe, M; Milinski, M; Eizaguirre, C

    2017-05-01

    Theory of local adaptation predicts that nonadapted migrants will suffer increased costs compared to local residents. Ultimately this process can result in the reduction of gene flow and culminate in speciation. Here, we experimentally investigated the relative fitness of migrants in foreign habitats, focusing on diverging lake and river ecotypes of three-spined sticklebacks. A reciprocal transplant experiment performed in the field revealed asymmetric costs of migration: whereas mortality of river fish was increased under lake conditions, lake migrants suffered from reduced growth relative to river residents. Selection against migrants thus involved different traits in each habitat but generally contributed to bidirectional reduction in gene flow. Focusing particularly on the parasitic environments, migrant fish differed from resident fish in the parasite community they harboured. This pattern correlated with both cellular phenotypes of innate immunity as well as with allelic variation at the genes of the major histocompatibility complex. In addition to showing the costs of migration in three-spined sticklebacks, this study highlights the role of asymmetric selection particularly from parasitism in genotype sorting and in the emergence of local adaptation. © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  10. Comparative study of growth traits and haematological parameters of Anak and Nigerian heavy ecotype chickens fed with graded levels of mango seed kernel (Mangifera indica) meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbunwen, Ndofor-Foleng Harriet; Ngongeh, Lucas Atehmengo; Okolie, Peter Nzeribe; Okoli, Emeka Linus

    2015-08-01

    One hundred fifty Anak and 120 Nigerian heavy local ecotype (NHLE) chickens were used to study the effects of feeding graded levels of mango seed kernel meal (MKM) replacing maize diet on growth traits and haematological parameters. A 2 × 5 factorial arrangement was employed: two breeds and five diets. The birds were randomly allocated to five finisher diets formulated such that MKM replaced maize at 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40% (T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5) inclusion levels, respectively. The effect of breed and dietary treatments on growth performance and blood characteristics were determined. The results showed a significant (P  0.05) when the breeds and treatments were compared. It was concluded that inclusion of dietary MKM below 30% could replace maize in the diets of Anak and NHLE growing chickens without adverse effect on growth performance and blood constituents. This work suggests that genetic differences exist in growth traits of these breeds of chickens. This advantage could be useful in breed improvement programmes and better feeding managements of the NHLE and Anak chickens.

  11. Comparative efficacy of pour-on and subcutaneous injection of ivermectin on Melophagus ovinus (L.) in Darab ecotype goats of Southern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari Shoorijeh, S; Noori, A; Tamadon, A

    2007-09-01

    The efficacy of ivermectin was evaluated against Melophagus ovinus in Darab ecotype goats of Iran. Twenty-four healthy Iranian crossbreed male goats were randomly divided into three equal groups (n = 8). An experimental infestation was induced in all animals of the three groups with 100 M. ovinus on the body of each animal. Groups 1 and 2 were treated with 1% ivermectin solution at a dosage of 0.5 mg/kg of body weight applied as a pour-on along the dorsal midline and 0.2 mg/kg subcutaneously, respectively; while group 3 was kept as control group. Seven days after infestation ivermectin was administered then the goats were observed for a period of 7 days. Body surface of each goat of three groups was inspected daily and decreases in M. ovinus were recorded. The rate of elimination in keds was assessed on the basis of decrease in keds count on the skin and hairs. The results revealed that complete absence of keds were observed in 6 and 7 days post-treatment with injection and pour-on routes, respectively. The results of present study showed that subcutaneous injection of ivermectin more rapidly eliminated M. ovinus than pour-on route. Both routes were 100% effective against this parasite in the goats. Ivermectin can be a drug of choice against M. ovinus in long-hair Iranian goats due to its high efficacy, easy applicability and wide safety margin.

  12. Comprehensive genomic analyses of the OM43 clade including a novel species from Red Sea indicate ecotype differentiation among marine methylotrophs

    KAUST Repository

    Jimenez Infante, Francy M.

    2015-12-11

    The OM43 clade within the family Methylophilaceae of Betaproteobacteria represents a group of methylotrophs playing important roles in the metabolism of C1 compounds in marine environments and other aquatic environments around the globe. Using dilution-to-extinction cultivation techniques, we successfully isolated a novel species of this clade (designated here as MBRS-H7) from the ultra-oligotrophic open ocean waters of the central Red Sea. Phylogenomic analyses indicate that MBRS-H7 is a novel species, which forms a distinct cluster together with isolate KB13 from Hawaii (H-RS cluster) that is separate from that represented by strain HTCC2181 (from the Oregon coast). Phylogenetic analyses using the robust 16S–23S internal transcribed spacer revealed a potential ecotype separation of the marine OM43 clade members, which was further confirmed by metagenomic fragment recruitment analyses that showed trends of higher abundance in low chlorophyll and/or high temperature provinces for the H-RS cluster, but a preference for colder, highly productive waters for the HTCC2181 cluster. This potential environmentally driven niche differentiation is also reflected in the metabolic gene inventories, which in the case of H-RS include those conferring resistance to high levels of UV irradiation, temperature, and salinity. Interestingly, we also found different energy conservation modules between these OM43 subclades, namely the existence of the NADH:quinone oxidoreductase NUO system in the H-RS and the non-homologous NQR system in HTCC2181, which might have implications on their overall energetic yields.

  13. Comprehensive genomic analyses of the OM43 clade including a novel species from Red Sea indicate ecotype differentiation among marine methylotrophs

    KAUST Repository

    Jimenez Infante, Francy M.; Ngugi, David; Vinu, Manikandan; Alam, Intikhab; Kamau, Allan; Blom, Jochen; Bajic, Vladimir B.; Stingl, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    The OM43 clade within the family Methylophilaceae of Betaproteobacteria represents a group of methylotrophs playing important roles in the metabolism of C1 compounds in marine environments and other aquatic environments around the globe. Using dilution-to-extinction cultivation techniques, we successfully isolated a novel species of this clade (designated here as MBRS-H7) from the ultra-oligotrophic open ocean waters of the central Red Sea. Phylogenomic analyses indicate that MBRS-H7 is a novel species, which forms a distinct cluster together with isolate KB13 from Hawaii (H-RS cluster) that is separate from that represented by strain HTCC2181 (from the Oregon coast). Phylogenetic analyses using the robust 16S–23S internal transcribed spacer revealed a potential ecotype separation of the marine OM43 clade members, which was further confirmed by metagenomic fragment recruitment analyses that showed trends of higher abundance in low chlorophyll and/or high temperature provinces for the H-RS cluster, but a preference for colder, highly productive waters for the HTCC2181 cluster. This potential environmentally driven niche differentiation is also reflected in the metabolic gene inventories, which in the case of H-RS include those conferring resistance to high levels of UV irradiation, temperature, and salinity. Interestingly, we also found different energy conservation modules between these OM43 subclades, namely the existence of the NADH:quinone oxidoreductase NUO system in the H-RS and the non-homologous NQR system in HTCC2181, which might have implications on their overall energetic yields.

  14. Comprehensive Genomic Analyses of the OM43 Clade, Including a Novel Species from the Red Sea, Indicate Ecotype Differentiation among Marine Methylotrophs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez-Infante, Francy; Ngugi, David Kamanda; Vinu, Manikandan; Alam, Intikhab; Kamau, Allan Anthony; Blom, Jochen; Bajic, Vladimir B.

    2015-01-01

    The OM43 clade within the family Methylophilaceae of Betaproteobacteria represents a group of methylotrophs that play important roles in the metabolism of C1 compounds in marine environments and other aquatic environments around the globe. Using dilution-to-extinction cultivation techniques, we successfully isolated a novel species of this clade (here designated MBRS-H7) from the ultraoligotrophic open ocean waters of the central Red Sea. Phylogenomic analyses indicate that MBRS-H7 is a novel species that forms a distinct cluster together with isolate KB13 from Hawaii (Hawaii-Red Sea [H-RS] cluster) that is separate from the cluster represented by strain HTCC2181 (from the Oregon coast). Phylogenetic analyses using the robust 16S-23S internal transcribed spacer revealed a potential ecotype separation of the marine OM43 clade members, which was further confirmed by metagenomic fragment recruitment analyses that showed trends of higher abundance in low-chlorophyll and/or high-temperature provinces for the H-RS cluster but a preference for colder, highly productive waters for the HTCC2181 cluster. This potential environmentally driven niche differentiation is also reflected in the metabolic gene inventories, which in the case of the H-RS cluster include those conferring resistance to high levels of UV irradiation, temperature, and salinity. Interestingly, we also found different energy conservation modules between these OM43 subclades, namely, the existence of the NADH:quinone oxidoreductase complex I (NUO) system in the H-RS cluster and the nonhomologous NADH:quinone oxidoreductase (NQR) system in the HTCC2181 cluster, which might have implications for their overall energetic yields. PMID:26655752

  15. The efficiency of Arabidopsis thaliana floral dip transformation is determined not only by the Agrobacterium strain used but also by the physiology and the ecotype of the dipped plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghedira, Rim; De Buck, Sylvie; Nolf, Jonah; Depicker, Ann

    2013-07-01

    To evaluate the chromosomal background of different Agrobacterium strains on floral dip transformation frequency, eight wild-type Agrobacterium strains, provided by Laboratorium voor Microbiologie Gent (LMG) and classified in different genomic groups, were compared with the commonly used Agrobacterium strains C58C1 Rif(r) (pMP90) and LBA4404 in Arabidopsis thaliana Columbia (Col-0) and C24 ecotypes. The C58C1 Rif(r) chromosomal background in combination with the pMP90 virulence plasmid showed high Col-0 floral dip transformation frequencies (0.76 to 1.57%). LMG201, which is genetically close to the Agrobacterium C58 strain, with the same virulence plasmid showed comparable or even higher transformation frequencies (1.22 to 2.28%), whereas the LBA4404 strain displayed reproducibly lower transformation frequencies (Agrobacterium chromosomal backgrounds had transformation frequencies between those of the C58C1 Rif(r) (pMP90) and LBA4404 reference strains. None of the strains could transform the C24 ecotype with a frequency higher than 0.1%. Strikingly, all Arabidopsis Col-0 floral dip transformation experiments showed a high transformation variability from plant to plant (even more than 50-fold) within and across the performed biological repeats for all analyzed Agrobacterium strains. Therefore, the physiology of the plant and, probably, the availability of competent flowers to be transformed determine, to a large extent, floral dip transformation frequencies.

  16. Changes in endogenous abscisic acid levels during dormancy release and maintenance of mature seeds: studies with the Cape Verde Islands ecotype, the dormant model of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali-Rachedi, Sonia; Bouinot, Denise; Wagner, Marie-Hélène; Bonnet, Magda; Sotta, Bruno; Grappin, Philippe; Jullien, Marc

    2004-07-01

    Mature seeds of the Cape Verde Islands (Cvi) ecotype of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. show a very marked dormancy. Dormant (D) seeds completely fail to germinate in conditions that are favourable for germination whereas non-dormant (ND) seeds germinate easily. Cvi seed dormancy is alleviated by after-ripening, stratification, and also by nitrate or fluridone treatment. Addition of gibberellins to D seeds does not suppress dormancy efficiently, suggesting that gibberellins are not directly involved in the breaking of dormancy. Dormancy expression of Cvi seeds is strongly dependent on temperature: D seeds do not germinate at warm temperatures (20-27 degrees C) but do so easily at a low temperature (13 degrees C) or when a fluridone treatment is given to D seeds sown at high temperature. To investigate the role of abscisic acid (ABA) in dormancy release and maintenance, we measured the ABA content in both ND and D seeds imbibed using various dormancy-breaking conditions. It was found that dry D seeds contained higher amounts of ABA than dry ND after-ripened seeds. During early imbibition in standard conditions, there was a decrease in ABA content in both seeds, the rate of which was slower in D seeds. Three days after sowing, the ABA content in D seeds increased specifically and then remained at a high level. When imbibed with fluridone, nitrate or stratified, the ABA content of D seeds decreased and reached a level very near to that of ND seeds. In contrast, gibberellic acid (GA3) treatment caused a transient increase in ABA content. When D seeds were sown at low optimal temperature their ABA content also decreased to the level observed in ND seeds. The present study indicates that Cvi D and ND seeds can be easily distinguished by their ability to synthesize ABA following imbibition. Treatments used here to break dormancy reduced the ABA level in imbibed D seeds to the level observed in ND seeds, with the exception of GA3 treatment, which was active in promoting

  17. Ecotypic and allozyme variation of Capsella bursa-pastoris and C. rubella (Brassicaceae along latitude and altitude gradients on the Iberian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoffrogge, Raimund

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Life-history traits (onset of flowering, leaf number, rosette diameter, plant height, branching number, fruit dimensions, seed number of Capsella species from the Iberian Península associated with colotúzing ability were compared in a random block field experiment. Data were evaluated by a principal component analysis. Allozymes (AAT, LAP, GDH and leaf types were recorded. C. bursa-pastoris plants originating from low and high elevations of the summer dry Mediterranean climatic zone (Sierra Nevada were early flowering, whereas those originating from the Pyrenees with an alpine climate were late. In C. bursa-pastoris the "rhomboidea" leaf type was very frequent, whereas in C. rubella it was the "heteris" leaf type. There was a change of leaf type frequencies along geographical clines which is explained by adaptive components of the leaf shape. The allozymes displayed a geographical distribuüon pattem and in C. bursa-pastoris a certain multilocus genotype appeared to be a molecular marker for an early flowering ecotype(inicio de la floración, número de hojas, diámetro de la roseta, altura de la planta, número de ramas, dimensiones del fruto y número de semillas de plantas de Capsella procedentes de la Península Ibérica mediante un experimento de bloques aleatorios en el campo. Los datos se evaluaron con un análisis de componentes principales. También se registraron el tipo de hojas y el perfil aloenzimático de las plantas. Las plantas de Capsella bursa-pastoris procedentes de altitudes altas y bajas de la zona climática Mediterránea de verano seco (Sierra Nevada mostraron ser de floración temprana, mientras que las plantas de los Pirineos, con un clima alpino, presentaron una floración tardía. En C. bursa-pastoris el tipo de hoja "rhomboidea" resultó ser el más frecuente, en tanto que en C. rubella lo fue el tipo "heteris". Se observó un cambio en las frecuencias de los tipos de hojas a lo largo de una clina geográfica, lo

  18. Extracts from fruits of saw palmetto (Sabal serrulata) and roots of stinging nettle (Urtica dioica): viable alternatives in the medical treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia and associated lower urinary tracts symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, E

    2001-08-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and associated lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) are very common disorders in aging men. Despite the great clinical importance, many aspects of their aetiology remain uncertain although it is generally accepted that advanced age and testicular androgens are important requirements for the development of these complaints. The currently available therapeutic options include watchful waiting, changes of life style, medical treatments and invasive therapies. In many European countries the use of phytopharmaceuticals for the management of BPH and related LUTS is common and these products represent up to 80 % of all drugs prescribed for this disorder. In particularly, extracts from the fruits of saw palmetto (Sabal serrulata, syn. Serenoa repens) and the roots of stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) are popular. During the last years numerous papers have been published which elaborated on the pharmacological activities and the clinical assessment of these herbal remedies. These investigations have not only broadened the scientific basis for the rational use of phytotherapeutics but have also provided evidence for their therapeutic efficacy and favourable safety profile.

  19. Botanical Extracts from Rosehip (Rosa canina), Willow Bark (Salix alba), and Nettle Leaf (Urtica dioica) Suppress IL-1β-Induced NF-κB Activation in Canine Articular Chondrocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakibaei, Mehdi; Allaway, David; Nebrich, Simone; Mobasheri, Ali

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the anti-inflammatory mode of action of botanical extracts from rosehip (Rosa canina), willow bark (Salix alba), and nettle leaf (Urtica dioica) in an in vitro model of primary canine articular chondrocytes. Methods. The biological effects of the botanical extracts were studied in chondrocytes treated with IL-1β for up to 72 h. Expression of collagen type II, cartilage-specific proteoglycan (CSPG), β1-integrin, SOX-9, COX-2, and MMP-9 and MMP-13 was examined by western blotting. Results. The botanical extracts suppressed IL-1β-induced NF-κB activation by inhibition of IκBα phosphorylation, IκBα degradation, p65 phosphorylation, and p65 nuclear translocation. These events correlated with downregulation of NF-κB targets including COX-2 and MMPs. The extracts also reversed the IL-1β-induced downregulation of collagen type II, CSPG, β1-integrin, and cartilage-specific transcription factor SOX-9 protein expression. In high-density cultures botanical extracts stimulated new cartilage formation even in the presence of IL-1β. Conclusions. Botanical extracts exerted anti-inflammatory and anabolic effects on chondrocytes. The observed reduction of IL-1β-induced NF-κB activation suggests that further studies are warranted to demonstrate the effectiveness of plant extracts in the treatment of OA and other conditions in which NF-κB plays pathophysiological roles. PMID:22474508

  20. Botanical Extracts from Rosehip (Rosa canina), Willow Bark (Salix alba), and Nettle Leaf (Urtica dioica) Suppress IL-1β-Induced NF-κB Activation in Canine Articular Chondrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakibaei, Mehdi; Allaway, David; Nebrich, Simone; Mobasheri, Ali

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the anti-inflammatory mode of action of botanical extracts from rosehip (Rosa canina), willow bark (Salix alba), and nettle leaf (Urtica dioica) in an in vitro model of primary canine articular chondrocytes. Methods. The biological effects of the botanical extracts were studied in chondrocytes treated with IL-1β for up to 72 h. Expression of collagen type II, cartilage-specific proteoglycan (CSPG), β1-integrin, SOX-9, COX-2, and MMP-9 and MMP-13 was examined by western blotting. Results. The botanical extracts suppressed IL-1β-induced NF-κB activation by inhibition of IκBα phosphorylation, IκBα degradation, p65 phosphorylation, and p65 nuclear translocation. These events correlated with downregulation of NF-κB targets including COX-2 and MMPs. The extracts also reversed the IL-1β-induced downregulation of collagen type II, CSPG, β1-integrin, and cartilage-specific transcription factor SOX-9 protein expression. In high-density cultures botanical extracts stimulated new cartilage formation even in the presence of IL-1β. Conclusions. Botanical extracts exerted anti-inflammatory and anabolic effects on chondrocytes. The observed reduction of IL-1β-induced NF-κB activation suggests that further studies are warranted to demonstrate the effectiveness of plant extracts in the treatment of OA and other conditions in which NF-κB plays pathophysiological roles.

  1. Botanical Extracts from Rosehip (Rosa canina, Willow Bark (Salix alba, and Nettle Leaf (Urtica dioica Suppress IL-1β-Induced NF-κB Activation in Canine Articular Chondrocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Shakibaei

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to characterize the anti-inflammatory mode of action of botanical extracts from rosehip (Rosa canina, willow bark (Salix alba, and nettle leaf (Urtica dioica in an in vitro model of primary canine articular chondrocytes. Methods. The biological effects of the botanical extracts were studied in chondrocytes treated with IL-1β for up to 72 h. Expression of collagen type II, cartilage-specific proteoglycan (CSPG, β1-integrin, SOX-9, COX-2, and MMP-9 and MMP-13 was examined by western blotting. Results. The botanical extracts suppressed IL-1β-induced NF-κB activation by inhibition of IκBα phosphorylation, IκBα degradation, p65 phosphorylation, and p65 nuclear translocation. These events correlated with downregulation of NF-κB targets including COX-2 and MMPs. The extracts also reversed the IL-1β-induced downregulation of collagen type II, CSPG, β1-integrin, and cartilage-specific transcription factor SOX-9 protein expression. In high-density cultures botanical extracts stimulated new cartilage formation even in the presence of IL-1β. Conclusions. Botanical extracts exerted anti-inflammatory and anabolic effects on chondrocytes. The observed reduction of IL-1β-induced NF-κB activation suggests that further studies are warranted to demonstrate the effectiveness of plant extracts in the treatment of OA and other conditions in which NF-κB plays pathophysiological roles.

  2. Effects of dietary administration of stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) on the growth performance, biochemical, hematological and immunological parameters in juvenile and adult Victoria Labeo (Labeo victorianus) challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngugi, Charles C; Oyoo-Okoth, Elijah; Mugo-Bundi, James; Orina, Paul Sagwe; Chemoiwa, Emily Jepyegon; Aloo, Peninah A

    2015-06-01

    We investigated effects of dietary administration of stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) on growth performance, biochemical, hematological and immunological parameters in juvenile and adult Victoria Labeo (Labeo victorianus) against Aeromonas hydrophila. Fish were divided into 4 groups and fed for 4 and 16 weeks with 0%, 1%, 2% and 5% of U. dioica incorporated into the diet. Use of U. dioica in the diet resulted in improved biochemical, hematological and immunological parameters. Among the biochemical parameters; plasma cortisol, glucose, triglyceride and cholesterol decreased while total protein and albumin in fish increased with increasing dietary inclusion of U. dioica. Among the haematology parameters: red blood cell (RBC), white blood cell (WBC) counts, haematocrit (Htc), mean cell haemoglobin (MCH), mean cell haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) and netrophiles increased with increasing dietary inclusion levels of U. dioica, some depending on the fish age. Serum immunoglobulins, lysozyme activity and respiratory burst were the main immunological parameters in the adult and juvenile L. victorianus measured and they all increased with increasing herbal inclusion of U. dioica in the diet. Dietary incorporation of U. dioica at 5% showed significantly higher relative percentage survival (up to 95%) against A. hydrophila. The current results demonstrate that using U. dioica can stimulate fish immunity and make L. victorianus more resistant to bacterial infection (A. hydrophila). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The Methodological Nettle: ICT and Student Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Vinesh; Lloyd, Margaret

    2008-01-01

    A major challenge for researchers and educators has been to discern the effect of ICT use on student learning outcomes. This paper maps the achievements in Year 10 Science of two cohorts of students over two years where students in the first year studied in a traditional environment while students in the second took part in a blended or e-learning…

  4. Ecotype diversification of an abundant Roseobacter lineage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ying; Zhang, Yao; Hollibaugh, James T; Luo, Haiwei

    2017-04-01

    The Roseobacter DC5-80-3 cluster (also known as the RCA clade) is among the most abundant bacterial lineages in temperate and polar oceans. Previous studies revealed two phylotypes within this cluster that are distinctly distributed in the Antarctic and other ocean provinces. Here, we report a nearly complete genome co-assembly of three closely related single cells co-occurring in the Antarctic, and compare it to the available genomes of the other phylotype from ocean regions where iron is more accessible but phosphorus and nitrogen are less. The Antarctic phylotype exclusively contains an operon structure consisting of a dicitrate transporter fecBCDE and an upstream regulator likely for iron uptake, whereas the other phylotype consistently carry a high-affinity phosphate pst transporter and the phoB-phoR regulatory system, a high-affinity ammonium amtB transporter, urea and taurine utilization systems. Moreover, the Antarctic phylotype uses proteorhodopsin to acquire light, whereas the other uses bacteriochlorophyll-a and the sulfur-oxidizing sox cluster for energy acquisition. This is potentially an iron-saving strategy for the Antarctic phylotype because only the latter two pathways have iron-requiring cytochromes. Therefore, the two DC5-80-3 phylotypes, while diverging by only 1.1% in their 16S rRNA genes, have evolved systematic differences in metabolism to support their distinct ecologies. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Nutritional Aspects of Six Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. Ecotypes from three Geographical Areas of Chile Aspectos Nutricionales de Seis Ecotipos de Quínoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. de Tres Zonas Geográficas de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Miranda

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the diversity of the quinoa crop in Chile from a nutritional perspective. Nutritional properties, minerals, vitamins, and saponin content were assessed in seeds of six Chilean quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. ecotypes grown in three main production areas with distinctive climatic and edaphic conditions: Ancovinto and Cancosa in the North-Altiplano or High Plateau, Cáhuil and Faro in the central coastal area, and Regalona and Villarrica in the south of the country. There were significant differences (P La diversidad en el cultivo de la quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. de Chile fue explorada desde una perspectiva nutricional. En este contexto las propiedades nutricionales como también los contenidos de minerales, vitaminas y saponina fueron evaluados en las semillas de seis ecotipos chilenos de quínoa, cultivados en las tres principales zonas de producción con condiciones edafoclimáticas distintas: Ancovinto y Cancosa del altiplano del norte, Cáhuil y Faro de la zona costera central y, Regalona y Villarrica en el sur del país. Hubo diferencias significativas (P < 0.05 en todas las propiedades nutricionales de las semillas de todas las zonas. El ecotipo Villarrica tenia el mayor contenido de proteína (16.10 g 100 g-1 MS y de vitamina E y C (4.644 ± 0.240 y 23.065 ± 1.119 mg 100 g-1 MS, respectivamente. El mayor contenido de vitamina B1 (0.648 ± 0.006 mg 100 g-1 MS y B3 (1.569 ± 0.026 mg 100 g-1 MS fue encontrado en el ecotipo Regalona, y el mayor contenido de vitamina B2 (0.081 ± 0.002 mg 100 g-1 MS en el ecotipo Ancovinto. El K fue el mineral más abundante con un valor de 2325.56 mg 100 g-1 MS en el ecotipo Cancosa. El contenido de saponina fluctuó entre 0.84 g 100 g-1 MS en el ecotipo Villarrica y 3.91 g 100 g-1 MS en el ecotipo Cáhuil. Hubo diferencias significativas entre los ecotipos chilenos de quínoa cultivados bajo diferentes condiciones climáticas. No obstante, las semillas de quinoa de cualquier

  6. A complementary strategy for the conservation of native forest tree species: retrieval and conservation of threatened ecotypes Estratégia complementar para conservação de espécies florestais nativas: resgate e conservação de ecótipos ameaçados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarbas Yukio Shimizu

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Deforestation has become rampant in recent years in Brazil and has affected all biomes where many
    species are threatened to extinction due to destruction natural habitats. Government initiatives to hinder the
    chain of destruction include two main lines of action: to establish conservation units (parks, reserves and
    others; and programs to encourage plantation of native tree species for reclamation of degraded ecosystems, restoration of forests on permanent protection areas (riparian, and steep slope environments, and establishment of “legal reserves” (a mandatory forest reserve on at least 20% of the land area. Conservation units are effective
    in conserving natural ecosystems. However, they are of limited value for the conservation of ecotypes, since
    their effectiveness is restricted to within their physical boundaries. Since the majority of ecotypes with critical
    adaptive value are found outside the conservation units, complementary measures to encompass these variants are needed. The most promising strategy includes active participation of rural land owners, especially small land holders, since they are settled throughout the country (outside the conservation units. An important aspect of the strategy is to prevent movement of seeds and seedlings over great distances from their origins so that their adaptive traits to specific sites are preserved.A devastação das florestas brasileiras vem tomando proporções alarmantes em todos os biomas,
    colocando muitas espécies de microorganismos, animais e plantas sob risco de extinção devido à descaracterização do habitat. Medidas governamentais contra esse processo de destruição incluem o estabelecimento de unidades de conservação e os programas de plantio de espécies nativas com objetivos variados, como a recuperação de
    ecossistemas degradados e o estabelecimento de Reservas Legais, Áreas de Proteção Permanente e outros. As unidades de

  7. Nettle as a distinct Bronze Age textile plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergfjord, C.; Mannering, Ulla; Frei, Karin Margarita

    2012-01-01

    It is generally assumed that the production of plant fibre textiles in ancient Europe, especially woven textiles for clothing, was closely linked to the development of agriculture through the use of cultivated textile plants (flax, hemp). Here we present a new investigation of the 2800 year old...

  8. Energy - Britain must grasp at the nuclear nettle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, P.

    1976-01-01

    The need for a decision, without delay, by the Government concerning the choice of a reactor for Britain's nuclear industry is stressed. The ten points contained in a statement sent to the Department of Industry, representing the views of the British Nuclear Forum are summarised. Amongst the problems which are discussed are the need for a reorganisation of the industry, with a suggestion of scaling down the role of the UKAEA. Further criticisms of the lack of a positive image on safety and the importance of informing the public of the safety and cost advantages of nuclear power are stressed. Some tables are produced comparing generating costs for nuclear and coal fired stations. (U.K.)

  9. Killer whale morphology - Variation in morphology of killer whale ecotypes

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — We are using elliptic Fourier analysis to determine the patterns of variation in morphology of dorsal fin shape, saddle patch shape, and eye patch shape of resident,...

  10. Standard methods for characterising subspecies and ecotypes of Apis mellifera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meixner, Marina D.; Pinto, Maria Alice; Bouga, Maria

    2013-01-01

    The natural diversity of honey bees in Europe is eroding fast. A multitude of reasons lead to a loss of both genetic diversity and specific adaptations to local conditions. To preserve locally adapted bees through breeding efforts and to maintain regional strains in conservation areas, these valu...

  11. Assessing the genetic diversity of five Tanzanian chicken ecotypes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Charles Moses Lyimo

    2013-12-21

    Dec 21, 2013 ... Tanzanian human population (Swai et al., 2007; Lwelamira et al., 2008). .... Least square means of phenotypic measurements of ulna length, shank ... (2005) was applied from K = 1 to K = 5 to determine the optimal .... Genetic distance estimates between Tanzanian indigenous chicken populations was ...

  12. Eco-epidemiologia de Haemonchus contortus bahienses, ecotipo presente en ovinos de zonas aridas de Venezuela Eco-epidemiologia de Haemonchus contortus bahiensis, ecotipo presente em ovinos de zonas áridas da Venezuela Ecoepidemiology of Haemonchus contortus bahiensis: ecotype present in sheep of Venezuelan arid zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Morales

    1987-09-01

    calculated for these forms with similarities in the general size, egg-size and in the number of the longitudinal cuticular ridges. An aggregated kind of distribution in the host population according to the K parameter of a negative binomial distribution was recorded for male and female worms. A complicated interaction was observed between the abundance, aggregation and prevalence of this ecotype and the importance of these findings is discussed with regard to host-parasite relationships.

  13. Search for the antiprostatic principle of stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, H; Willer, F; Samtleben, R; Boos, G

    1994-12-01

    While searching for the antiprostatic active principle of the roots of Urtica dioica we ethanol-precipitated a polysaccharide mixture from an aqueous root extract and obtained chemically defined acidic polysaccharides with molecular masses of 15-210kDa. The chemical structures of these compounds have been determined. Some polysaccharides stimulated T lymphocytes in vitro while others influenced the complement system or triggered the release of TNF-α. The crude polysaccharide extract showed a prolonged antiinflammatory activity in the rat paw edema test for 22 hr, which is comparable to the pharmacological efficacy of indometacin. We have reisolated the isolectin mixture (UDA) originally detected in Urtica roots by Peumans et al. (1984). This mixture displayed immunomodulatory effects on T lymphocytes in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, UDA also directly inhibited cell proliferation and blocked binding of epidermal growth factor to its receptor on a tumor cell line, as determined by a [(125)I]-EGF binding assay. These investigations suggest that Urtica polysaccharides and also the N-acetyl-glucosamine specific lectin UDA play a major role in the antiprostatic activity of the drug and phytopreparations containing it. Copyright © 1994 Gustav Fischer Verlag, Stuttgart · Jena · New York. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  14. Occurrence of horse nettle (Solanum carolinense L.) in North Rhine-Westphalia

    OpenAIRE

    Klingenhagen, Günter; Wirth, Martin; Wiesmann, Bernd; Ahaus, Hermann

    2012-01-01

    In autumn 2008 during corn harvest (Zea mays L.), the driver of the combine harvester spotted an unfamiliar plant species in the field. It turned out that Solanum carolinense L. was the unknown weed species. The species had overgrown 40 % of the corn field which had a size of 10.2 ha. The farmer who usually effectively controls all weeds on his field had so far not noticed the dominance of the solanaceous herb species. From his point of view, the weed must have germinated after the corn had c...

  15. Tentacle Transcriptome and Venom Proteome of the Pacific Sea Nettle, Chrysaora fuscescens (Cnidaria: Scyphozoa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce, Dalia; Brinkman, Diane L.; Potriquet, Jeremy; Mulvenna, Jason

    2016-01-01

    Jellyfish venoms are rich sources of toxins designed to capture prey or deter predators, but they can also elicit harmful effects in humans. In this study, an integrated transcriptomic and proteomic approach was used to identify putative toxins and their potential role in the venom of the scyphozoan jellyfish Chrysaora fuscescens. A de novo tentacle transcriptome, containing more than 23,000 contigs, was constructed and used in proteomic analysis of C. fuscescens venom to identify potential toxins. From a total of 163 proteins identified in the venom proteome, 27 were classified as putative toxins and grouped into six protein families: proteinases, venom allergens, C-type lectins, pore-forming toxins, glycoside hydrolases and enzyme inhibitors. Other putative toxins identified in the transcriptome, but not the proteome, included additional proteinases as well as lipases and deoxyribonucleases. Sequence analysis also revealed the presence of ShKT domains in two putative venom proteins from the proteome and an additional 15 from the transcriptome, suggesting potential ion channel blockade or modulatory activities. Comparison of these potential toxins to those from other cnidarians provided insight into their possible roles in C. fuscescens venom and an overview of the diversity of potential toxin families in cnidarian venoms. PMID:27058558

  16. Grasping the nettle: A bacterial invasin that targets immunoglobulin variable domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Paul

    2018-06-01

    In a new paper, the protein InvD from Yersinia pseudotuberculosis , a zoonotic pathogen, is shown to assist late-stage invasion of intestinal epithelia. Remarkably, InvD acts by binding the Fab region of IgG or IgA. It straddles adjacent light-chain and heavy-chain variable domains, but its binding is different from that of antigens in that complementarity-determining regions do not participate. Structure determination revealed that its Fab-interacting domain adopts an immunoglobulin-like fold, fused to the preceding immunoglobulin-like domain and carried on a long stalk anchored to the bacterial outer membrane. Possible roles of this unusual host-pathogen interaction include avoidance of clearance from the intestine by secretory IgA. © 2018 Barlow.

  17. Tentacle Transcriptome and Venom Proteome of the Pacific Sea Nettle, Chrysaora fuscescens (Cnidaria: Scyphozoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalia Ponce

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Jellyfish venoms are rich sources of toxins designed to capture prey or deter predators, but they can also elicit harmful effects in humans. In this study, an integrated transcriptomic and proteomic approach was used to identify putative toxins and their potential role in the venom of the scyphozoan jellyfish Chrysaora fuscescens. A de novo tentacle transcriptome, containing more than 23,000 contigs, was constructed and used in proteomic analysis of C. fuscescens venom to identify potential toxins. From a total of 163 proteins identified in the venom proteome, 27 were classified as putative toxins and grouped into six protein families: proteinases, venom allergens, C-type lectins, pore-forming toxins, glycoside hydrolases and enzyme inhibitors. Other putative toxins identified in the transcriptome, but not the proteome, included additional proteinases as well as lipases and deoxyribonucleases. Sequence analysis also revealed the presence of ShKT domains in two putative venom proteins from the proteome and an additional 15 from the transcriptome, suggesting potential ion channel blockade or modulatory activities. Comparison of these potential toxins to those from other cnidarians provided insight into their possible roles in C. fuscescens venom and an overview of the diversity of potential toxin families in cnidarian venoms.

  18. The Strawberry Growth Underneath the Nettle: the emergence of entrepreneurs in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Krug (Barbara); L. Polos (Laszlo)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractChinese entrepreneurs innovatively manage organisations in the absence of strong economic institutions, under conditions of high environmental and technological uncertainty. This paper presents the findings of an empirical study designed to investigate how Chinese entrepreneurs can be

  19. Parachuting behavior and predation by ants in the nettle caterpillar, Scopelodes contracta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Kazuo

    2010-01-01

    This paper documents the bizarre descending behavior from the tree crown to the ground of the larvae of the moth, Scopelodes contracta Walker (Lepidoptera: Limacodidae) and the interaction of the larva with predatory ants. S. contracta larvae infest leaves of many tree species in urban areas and orchards in Japan. Mature larvae and leaves without basal leaf parts were found under trees of four species infested with S. contracta larvae in Osaka, Japan. Individual larvae riding on leaves were observed falling from tree crowns to the ground. Many S. contracta cocoons were found in the soil below the trees two weeks after the observed parachuting. These observations indicate that S. contracta larvae parachuted to the ground where they spin their cocoons in the soil. When a larva that had just parachuted down was returned to an arboreal twig, the larva repeated the parachuting behavior. This parachuting behavior appears to be adaptive, because larvae can descend to the ground safely and with low energy cost. Worker ants of Tetramorium tsushimae Emery (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and Pristomyrmex punctatus Mayr (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) occasionally attacked larvae on the ground before they had a chance to burrow in the soil.

  20. Near-Critical Extraction of ß-Sitosterol and Scopoletin from Stinging Nettle Roots

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sajfrtová, Marie; Sovová, Helena; Opletal, L.; Bártlová, Milena

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 35, č. 2 (2005), s. 111-118 ISSN 0896-8446 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA203/01/0550; GA ČR(CZ) GD203/03/H140; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA4072102 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : carbon dioxide * ß-sitosterol * scopoletin Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 2.144, year: 2005

  1. Pulling the sting out of nettle systematics - A comprehensive phylogeny of the genus Urtica L. (Urticaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse-Veldmann, Bernadette; Nürk, Nicolai M; Smissen, Rob; Breitwieser, Ilse; Quandt, Dietmar; Weigend, Maximilian

    2016-09-01

    The genus Urtica L. is subcosmopolitan, found on all continents (except Antarctica) and most extratropical islands and ranges from Alaska to Patagonia, Spitzbergen to the Cape and Camtschatka to the subantarctic islands. However, throughout its geographical range morphologically nearly indistinguishable species are found alongside morphologically quite disparate species, with the overall diversity of morphological characters extremely limited. The systematics of Urtica have puzzled scientists for the past 200years and no single comprehensive attempt at understanding infrageneric relationships has been published in the past, nor are species delimitations unequivocally established. We here provide the first comprehensive phylogeny of the genus including 61 of the 63 species recognized, represented by 144 ingroup accessions and 14 outgroup taxa. The markers ITS1-5.8S-ITS2, psbA-trnH intergenic spacer, trnL-trnF and trnS-trnG are used. The phylogeny is well resolved. The eastern Asian Zhengyia shennongensis T. Deng, D.G. Zhang & H. Sun is retrieved as sister to Urtica. Within Urtica, a clade comprising the western Eurasian species U. pilulifera L. and U. neubaueri Chrtek is sister to all other species of the genus. The phylogenetic analyses retrieve numerous well-supported clades, suggesting previously unsuspected relationships and implying that classically used taxonomic characters such as leaf morphology and growth habit are highly homoplasious. Species delimitation is problematical, and several accessions assigned to Urtica dioica L. (as subspecies) are retrieved in widely different places in the phylogeny. The genus seems to have undergone numerous dispersal-establishment events both between continents and onto different islands. Three recent species radiations are inferred, one in America centered in the Andes, one in New Zealand, and one in northern Eurasia which includes Urtica dioica s.str. sensu Henning et al. (2014). The present study provides the basis of a critical re-examination of species limits and taxonomy, but also of the dispersal ecology of this widespread plant group and an in-depth study of the three clades with recent radiations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Near-Critical Extraction of Pigments and Oleoresin from Stinging Nettle Leaves

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sovová, Helena; Sajfrtová, Marie; Bártlová, Milena; Opletal, L.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 2 (2004), s. 213-224 ISSN 0896-8446 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/01/0550 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4072921 Keywords : Urtica dioica leaves * carbon dioxide * carotenoids Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 2.275, year: 2004

  3. Love, Loss, and Everything in between: The Artwork of Bea Nettles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cress, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    For many artists, visual representation begins with the creative exploration of real and personal experiences. The primary challenge in creating such introspective works is maintaining the ability to connect with a broader audience. For high school students specifically, tremendous pride manifests in the creation of artistic works that represent…

  4. Grasping the Nettle: The Evolution of Australian Archives Electronic Records Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea, Greg

    1997-01-01

    Examines issues in electronic records management from an archival perspective and illustrates points by referring to policy development at the Australian Archives. Describes the Australian Archives; outlines its strategy for managing electronic records; discusses policy response; preservation of format versus virtual records; and records creation,…

  5. Distance-dependent shifts in net effects by an unpalatable nettle on a palatable plant species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Satoshi N.; Suzuki, Ryo O.

    2011-07-01

    We examined whether the relative importance of facilitation and competition effects by an unpalatable perennial ( Urtica thunbergiana) on a palatable annual ( Persicaria longiseta) change with the spatial distance between them in a long-term deer-grazing habitat. Survivorship, growth, size, and fecundity of Persicaria were recorded at 1-2-month intervals during growing seasons in 2 successive years and were compared among individuals located in different positions relative to the canopy of Urtica: at the centre, internal edge, external edge, and far from the canopy. Survivorship of Persicaria was significantly higher at the centre of the Urtica canopy than outside the canopy early in the growing season in both years. No significant differences in Persicaria growth were observed among the four positions in most periods, except in one when growth was significantly higher at the centre, internal, and external edges of the canopy compared to outside the canopy. We found spatial shifts in the net effects of Urtica on Persicaria fecundity, from positive effects under the canopy centre to negative effects under the external edge of the canopy in the first year, and from negative effects under the centre to positive effects under the external edge in the second year. These results demonstrate that the relative importance of positive and negative effects of Urtica on Persicaria vary temporally within and among years and spatially around a single Urtica plant. Spatiotemporal variation in plant interactions may be attributable to annual and seasonal variation in vegetation productivity and grazing pressure.

  6. The Empowerment Principle: Casualties of Two Schools' Failure to Grasp the Nettle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Jacki; Turner, Katrina M.

    2004-01-01

    Pupil autonomy, empowerment, and clarity of school rules are factors underpinning school effectiveness in terms of supporting pupil health and education. This paper considers data collected from 27 one-to-one staff interviews conducted in two secondary schools. Analysis indicated that the schools subscribed to different philosophies regarding…

  7. Grasping the Nettle? South African Higher Education and Its Transformative Imperatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soudien, C.

    2010-01-01

    The rationale for this article is that the actors in the South African higher education system, and particularly those with the responsibility for leading it, need to be clear about the arguments in the transformation debate and in particular about how these get at what is actually happening within it, and to be-consciously and self-critically…

  8. Coal in Spain: grasping the political nettle might open up imports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    Coal is still a major item on Spain`s economic and political agenda. The government sought, and found, a stronger ally - the electricity generating companies, the consumers of 90% of all coal burnt in Spain. Josep Pique, the Industry Minister, told the generating companies that they would have to make across-the-board price reductions per kilowatt hour sold in 1997. The figure aimed at is 3% in 1997: industrial users get the lion`s share of the reductions. At the same the operating companies were called upon to sign an agreement, dubbed a protocol, which would allow them to recover so-called `write-off` costs (coal subsidies, cancelled investments in nuclear power, etc.) via tariff surcharges. At one level, the government is trying to place all the operators, Endesa, Iberdrola, Fesca, Sevillana, Union Fenosa and Hidrocantabrico under starter`s orders for the free-competition race, when large and medium-sized electricity users will be able to negotiate individual supply contracts from rival operators, who will also have to bid for the right to supply the national grid. However, there is a lot of bucking and rearing as the bigger companies, Endesa and Iberdrola particularly, come up to the stalls. One of the Endesa`s main complaints is that because of its state-owned status, it has been compelled to retain a much larger proportion of coal-fired plant than its rivals and that it can only compete on equal terms if it can replace its domestic coal quota with coal imports. The article presents the latest position of the government which promises no immediate changes to coal subsidies and separating rules for free-market electricity generation from any commitment to a gradual closure of Spanish mines, in an attempt to pacify mine owners, (following a bid by Endesa to control Fesca and Sevillinana). 3 photos.

  9. Grasping the TLRP Nettle: Preliminary Analysis and Some Enduring Issues Surrounding the Improvement of Learning Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Mary; Brown, Sally

    2005-01-01

    The ESRC Teaching and Learning Research Programme is the largest ever programme of educational research in the UK. This article reports the purposes, processes, outcomes and issues arising from cross-programme thematic work on the conceptualization of, and research into, 'enhancing learning outcomes' which is a key aim of the programme. Early…

  10. Toxicity and Anxiolytic Property of Nettle in Mice in Light/Dark Test

    OpenAIRE

    Doukkali Z; Taghzouti K; Bouidida El H; Kamal R; El Jemeli M; Bahia B; Zellou A; Cherrah Y; Alaoui K

    2016-01-01

    Background: Anxiety is an unpleasant state of inner turmoil often accompanied by cognitive, somatic, emotional, and behavioral components. There is some evidence in traditional medicine for the effectiveness of Urtica urens in the treatment of anxiety in humans. The present study was designed to study anxiolytic property of aqueous extracts of Urtica urens; an important and commonly used for its medicinal properties belongs to urticaceae family. Methods: The anxiolytic activity was evaluated ...

  11. Morphology and AFLP markers suggest three Hordeum chilense ecotypes that differ in avoidance to rust fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaz Patto, M.C.; Aardse, A.; Buntjer, J.; Rubiales, D.; Martin, A.; Niks, R.E.

    2001-01-01

    In Hordeum chilense Roem. & Schult., a high variation in the level of avoidance to infection of barley leaf rust (Puccinia hordei Otth) occurs. Probably resulting from the properties of the stomata, the rust germ tube overgrows stomata, and the infection process fails in an early stage. In the

  12. Stable coexistence of genetically divergent Atlantic cod ecotypes at multiple spatial scales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knutsen, Halvor; Jorde, Per Erik; Hutchings, Jeffrey A.

    2018-01-01

    Coexistence in the same habitat of closely related yet genetically different populations is a phenomenon that challenges our understanding of local population structure and adaptation. Identifying the underlying mechanisms for such coexistence can yield new insight into adaptive evolution...

  13. Is the distribution of Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus ecotypes in the Mediterranean Sea affected by global warming?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ostrowski

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Biological communities populating the Mediterranean Sea, which is situated at the northern boundary of the subtropics, are often claimed to be particularly affected by global warming. This is indicated, for instance, by the introduction of (subtropical species of fish or invertebrates that can displace local species. This raises the question of whether microbial communities are similarly affected, especially in the Levantine basin where sea surface temperatures have significantly risen over the last 25 years (0.50 ± 0.11 °C in average per decade, P Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus, was examined during two cruises through both eastern and western Mediterranean Sea basins held in September 1999 (PROSOPE cruise and in June–July 2008 (BOUM cruise. Diversity was studied using dot blot hybridization with clade-specific 16S rRNA oligonucleotide probes and/or clone libraries of the 16S-23S ribosomal DNA Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS region, with a focus on the abundance of clades that may constitute bioindicators of warm waters. During both cruises, the dominant Prochlorococcus clade in the upper mixed layer at all stations was HLI, a clade typical of temperate waters, whereas the HLII clade, the dominant group in (subtropical waters, was only present at very low concentrations. The Synechococcus community was dominated by clades I, III and IV in the northwestern waters of the Gulf of Lions and by clade III and groups genetically related to clades WPC1 and VI in the rest of the Mediterranean Sea. In contrast, only a few sequences of clade II, a group typical of warm waters, were observed. These data indicate that local cyanobacterial populations have not yet been displaced by their (subtropical counterparts.

  14. One particular Anaplasma phagocytophilum ecotype infects cattle in the Camargue, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugat, Thibaud; Leblond, Agnès; Keck, Nicolas; Lagrée, Anne-Claire; Desjardins, Isabelle; Joulié, Aurélien; Pradier, Sophie; Durand, Benoit; Boulouis, Henri-Jean; Haddad, Nadia

    2017-08-02

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum is a zoonotic tick-borne pathogen responsible for granulocytic anaplasmosis, a mild to a severe febrile disease that affects man and several animal species, including cows and horses. In Europe, I. ricinus is the only proven vector for this pathogen, but studies suggest that other tick genera and species could be involved in its transmission. Our objective was to assess the presence and genetic diversity of A. phagocytophilum in domestic animals and different tick species from the Camargue region, located in the south of France. A total of 140 ticks and blood samples from 998 cattle and 337 horses were collected in Camargue and tested for the presence of A. phagocytophilum DNA by msp2 quantitative real-time PCR. Molecular typing with four markers was performed on positive samples. Anaplasma phagocytophilum DNA was detected in 6/993 (0.6%) cows, 1/20 (5%) Haemaphysalis punctata, 1/57 (1.75%) Rhipicephalus pusillus, and was absent in horses (0%). All cattle A. phagocytophilum presented a profile identical to an A. phagocytophilum variant previously detected in Dermacentor marginatus, Hyalomma marginatum, and Rhipicephalus spp. in Camargue. Our results demonstrate that one particular A. phagocytophilum variant infects cattle in Camargue, where I. ricinus is supposed to be rare or even absent. Dermacentor marginatus, Rhipicephalus spp. and Hyalomma spp., and possibly other tick species could be involved in the transmission of this variant in this region.

  15. Gene Expression in the Three-Spined Stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) of Marine and Freshwater Ecotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastorguev, S M; Nedoluzhko, A V; Gruzdeva, N M; Boulygina, E S; Tsygankova, S V; Oshchepkov, D Y; Mazur, A M; Prokhortchouk, E B; Skryabin, K G

    2018-01-01

    Three-spine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) is a well-known model organism that is routinely used to explore microevolution processes and speciation, and the number of studies related to this fish has been growing recently. The main reason for the increased interest is the processes of freshwater adaptation taking place in natural populations of this species. Freshwater three-spined stickleback populations form when marine water three-spined sticklebacks fish start spending their entire lifecycle in freshwater lakes and streams. To boot, these freshwater populations acquire novel biological traits during their adaptation to a freshwater environment. The processes taking place in these populations are of great interest to evolutionary biologists. Here, we present differential gene expression profiling in G. aculeatus gills, which was performed in marine and freshwater populations of sticklebacks. In total, 2,982 differentially expressed genes between marine and freshwater populations were discovered. We assumed that differentially expressed genes were distributed not randomly along stickleback chromosomes and that they are regularly observed in the "divergence islands" that are responsible for stickleback freshwater adaptation.

  16. Hybridization between ecotypes in a phenotypically and ecologically heterogeneous population of Iris savannarum (Iridaceae) in Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iris series Hexagonae is a small, monophyletic complex of 5 species and associated hybrid populations, popularly known as the “Louisiana irises.” The Hexagonae alliance of Iris have been recognized as a textbook case of introgressive hybridization based on numerous studies in Louisiana. We previou...

  17. Diversity and relative abundance of the bacterial pathogen, Flavobacterium spp., infecting reproductive ecotypes of kokanee salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemay, Matthew A; Russello, Michael A

    2014-11-04

    Understanding the distribution and abundance of pathogens can provide insight into the evolution and ecology of their host species. Previous research in kokanee, the freshwater form of sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka), found evidence that populations spawning in streams may experience a greater pathogen load compared with populations that spawn on beaches. In this study we tested for differences in the abundance and diversity of the gram-negative bacteria, Flavobacterium spp., infecting tissues of kokanee in both of these spawning habitats (streams and beaches). Molecular assays were carried out using primers designed to amplify a ~200 nucleotide region of the gene encoding the ATP synthase alpha subunit (AtpA) within the genus Flavobacterium. Using a combination of DNA sequencing and quantitative PCR (qPCR) we compared the diversity and relative abundance of Flavobacterium AtpA amplicons present in DNA extracted from tissue samples of kokanee collected from each spawning habitat. We identified 10 Flavobacterium AtpA haplotypes among the tissues of stream-spawning kokanee and seven haplotypes among the tissues of beach-spawning kokanee, with only two haplotypes shared between spawning habitats. Haplotypes occurring in the same clade as F. psychrophilum were the most prevalent (92% of all reads, 60% of all haplotypes), and occurred in kokanee from both spawning habitats (streams and beaches). Subsequent qPCR assays did not find any significant difference in the relative abundance of Flavobacterium AtpA amplicons between samples from the different spawning habitats. We confirmed the presence of Flavobacterium spp. in both spawning habitats and found weak evidence for increased Flavobacterium diversity in kokanee sampled from stream-spawning sites. However, the quantity of Flavobacterium DNA did not differ between spawning habitats. We recommend further study aimed at quantifying pathogen diversity and abundance in population-level samples of kokanee combined with environmental sampling to better understand the ecology of pathogen infection in this species.

  18. Gene expression differences between Noccaea caerulescens ecotypes help to identify candidate genes for metal phytoremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halimaa, Pauliina; Lin, Ya-Fen; Ahonen, Viivi H; Blande, Daniel; Clemens, Stephan; Gyenesei, Attila; Häikiö, Elina; Kärenlampi, Sirpa O; Laiho, Asta; Aarts, Mark G M; Pursiheimo, Juha-Pekka; Schat, Henk; Schmidt, Holger; Tuomainen, Marjo H; Tervahauta, Arja I

    2014-03-18

    Populations of Noccaea caerulescens show tremendous differences in their capacity to hyperaccumulate and hypertolerate metals. To explore the differences that could contribute to these traits, we undertook SOLiD high-throughput sequencing of the root transcriptomes of three phenotypically well-characterized N. caerulescens accessions, i.e., Ganges, La Calamine, and Monte Prinzera. Genes with possible contribution to zinc, cadmium, and nickel hyperaccumulation and hypertolerance were predicted. The most significant differences between the accessions were related to metal ion (di-, trivalent inorganic cation) transmembrane transporter activity, iron and calcium ion binding, (inorganic) anion transmembrane transporter activity, and antioxidant activity. Analysis of correlation between the expression profile of each gene and the metal-related characteristics of the accessions disclosed both previously characterized (HMA4, HMA3) and new candidate genes (e.g., for nickel IRT1, ZIP10, and PDF2.3) as possible contributors to the hyperaccumulation/tolerance phenotype. A number of unknown Noccaea-specific transcripts also showed correlation with Zn(2+), Cd(2+), or Ni(2+) hyperaccumulation/tolerance. This study shows that N. caerulescens populations have evolved great diversity in the expression of metal-related genes, facilitating adaptation to various metalliferous soils. The information will be helpful in the development of improved plants for metal phytoremediation.

  19. Effect of fruit set on fructification of coconut tall ecotypes for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To assess the effect of coconut fruit set on the variation expression of the number of nuts yielded at the end of the fructification, a modelling approach was used. Four female parents namely Kar Kar Tall (KKT), Kappadam Tall (KPD), Sri Lanka Tall (SLT) and Vanuatu Tall (VTT) as well as four male parents known as Panama ...

  20. Molecular characterization of the submergence response of Arabidopsis thaliana ecotype Columbia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, S.C.; Mustroph, A.; Sasidaharan, R.

    2011-01-01

    partial pressure of the petiole and root had stabilized at c. 6 and 0.1 kPa, respectively. As controls, plants were untreated or exposed to darkness. Following quantitative profiling of cellular mRNAs with the Affymetrix ATH1 platform, changes in the transcriptome in response to submergence, early...... darkness, and O2-deprivation were evaluated by fuzzy k-means clustering. This identified genes co-regulated at the conditional, developmental or organ-specific level. Mutants for 10 differentially expressed HYPOXIA-RESPONSIVE UNKNOWN PROTEIN (HUP) genes were screened for altered submergence tolerance....... • The analysis identified 34 genes that were ubiquitously co-regulated by submergence and O2 deprivation. The biological functions of these include signaling, transcription, and anaerobic energy metabolism. HUPs comprised 40% of the co-regulated transcripts and mutants of seven of these genes were significantly...

  1. Gene Expression Differences between Noccaea caerulescens Ecotypes Help to Identify Candidate Genes for Metal Phytoremediation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halimaa, P.; Lin, Y.F.; Ahonen, V.H.; Blande, D.; Clemens, S.; Gyenesei, A.; Haikio, E.; Karenlampi, S.O.; Laiho, A.; Aarts, M.G.M.; Pursiheimo, J.P.; Schat, H.; Schmidt, H.; Tuomainen, M.H.; Tervahauta, A.I.

    2014-01-01

    Populations of Noccaea caerulescens show tremendous differences in their capacity to hyperaccumulate and hypertolerate metals. To explore the differences that could contribute to these traits, we undertook SOLiD high-throughput sequencing of the root transcriptomes of three phenotypically

  2. Is the distribution of Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus ecotypes in the Mediterranean Sea affected by global warming?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mella-Flores, D.; Mazard, S.; Humily, F.; Partensky, F.; Mahé, F.; Bariat, L.; Courties, C.; Marie, D.; Ras, J.; Mauriac, R.; Jeanthon, C.; Bendif, E. M.; Ostrowski, M.; Scanlan, D. J.; Garczarek, L.

    2011-05-01

    Biological communities populating the Mediterranean Sea, which is situated at the northern boundary of the subtropics, are often claimed to be particularly affected by global warming. This is indicated, for instance, by the introduction of (sub)tropical species of fish or invertebrates that can displace local species. This raises the question of whether microbial communities are similarly affected, especially in the Levantine basin where sea surface temperatures have risen in recent years. In this paper, the genetic diversity of the two most abundant members of the phytoplankton community, the picocyanobacteria Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus, was examined on a transect from the South coast of France to Cyprus in the summer of 2008 (BOUM cruise). Diversity was studied using dot blot hybridization with clade-specific 16S rRNA oligonucleotide probes and clone libraries of the 16S-23S ribosomal DNA Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) region. Data were compared with those obtained during the PROSOPE cruise held almost a decade earlier, with a focus on the abundance of clades that may constitute bioindicators of warm waters. During both cruises, the dominant Prochlorococcus clade in the upper mixed layer at all stations was HLI, a clade typical of temperate waters, whereas the HLII clade, the dominant group in (sub)tropical waters, was only present at very low concentrations. The Synechococcus community was dominated by clades I, III and IV in the northwestern waters of the Gulf of Lions and by clade III and groups genetically related to clades WPC1 and VI in the rest of the Mediterranean Sea. In contrast, only a few sequences of clade II, a group typical of warm waters, were observed. These data indicate that local cyanobacterial populations have not yet been displaced by their (sub)tropical counterparts. This is discussed in the context of the low phosphorus concentrations found in surface waters in the eastern Mediterranean basin, as this may constitute a barrier to the colonization of these waters by alien picocyanobacterial groups.

  3. Nutritional value of Opuntia ficus-indica cladodes from Portuguese ecotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, A.M.; Pitacas, F.I.; Reis, C.M.G.; Blasco, M.

    2016-01-01

    The use of Opuntia ficus-indica cladodes as a forage for ruminants has been very important in the semi-arid and arid regions of the world. O. ficus-indica cladodes can be fed to small ruminants especially in periods of the year when there is low quality and quantity of pasture. In Mediterranean regions like South of Portugal during the rainy season the availability of pasture is quantitatively and qualitatively satisfactory, but in critical times of the year the shortage and low nutr...

  4. Fatty acid profiles of ecotypes of hyperaccumulator Noccaea caerulescens growing under cadmium stress

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zemanová, V.; Pavlík, Milan; Kyjaková, Pavlína; Pavlíková, D.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 180, MAY 15 (2015), s. 27-34 ISSN 0176-1617 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 ; RVO:61388963 Keywords : Heavy metals stress * Thlaspi caerulescens (J. & C. Presl) * 9,12-Octadecadienoic acid Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry; CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation (UOCHB-X) Impact factor: 2.971, year: 2015

  5. Is the distribution of Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus ecotypes in the Mediterranean Sea affected by global warming?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mella-Flores, D.; Mazard, S.; Humily, F.; Partensky, F.; Mahé, F.; Bariat, L.; Courties, C.; Marie, D.; Ras, J.; Mauriac, R.; Jeanthon, C.; Mahdi Bendif, E.; Ostrowski, M.; Scanlan, D. J.; Garczarek, L.

    2011-09-01

    Biological communities populating the Mediterranean Sea, which is situated at the northern boundary of the subtropics, are often claimed to be particularly affected by global warming. This is indicated, for instance, by the introduction of (sub)tropical species of fish or invertebrates that can displace local species. This raises the question of whether microbial communities are similarly affected, especially in the Levantine basin where sea surface temperatures have significantly risen over the last 25 years (0.50 ± 0.11 °C in average per decade, P Lions and by clade III and groups genetically related to clades WPC1 and VI in the rest of the Mediterranean Sea. In contrast, only a few sequences of clade II, a group typical of warm waters, were observed. These data indicate that local cyanobacterial populations have not yet been displaced by their (sub)tropical counterparts.

  6. Ecotype variability and edaphic characteristics for cogongrass (Imperata cylindrica) populations in Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogongrass (Imperata cylindrica) is a highly invasive perennial grass in the southeastern United States and is found on all continents except Antartica. It has been reported from a wide array of habitats; however, soils from cogongrass populations have never been characterized. Live cogongrass pla...

  7. Expression response of duplicated metallothionein 3 gene to copper stress in Silene vulgaris ecotypes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nevrtalová, Eva; Baloun, Jiří; Hudzieczek, Vojtěch; Čegan, Radim; Vyskot, Boris; Doležel, Jaroslav; Šafář, Jan; Milde, D.; Hobza, Roman

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 251, č. 6 (2014), s. 1427-1439 ISSN 0033-183X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP501/12/2220; GA ČR(CZ) GBP501/12/G090; GA ČR(CZ) GP13-34962P; GA ČR(CZ) GA522/09/0083 Institutional support: RVO:68081707 Keywords : Copper * Gene duplication * Metallothionein Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics; EF - Botanics (UEB-Q) Impact factor: 2.651, year: 2014

  8. Effect of climate and land use on niche utilization and distribution of nettle-feeding  butterflies

    OpenAIRE

    Audusseau, Hélène

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic changes in climate and land use are causing a dramatic erosion of biodiversity. To understand this erosion, and predict future transformations of biodiversity, we need to understand better species’ response to these changes at different spatial and temporal scales. Modeling studies have identified correlations between physical parameters of the environment and species’ distribution at large spatial scales. However, this does not accurately characterize the response of a specific...

  9. Out of This Nettle, Drop-Out, We Pluck This Flower, Opportunity: Re-Thinking the School Foreign Language Apprenticeship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Eric

    2005-01-01

    The assumption that the "purpose" of school foreign language teaching is to serve "instrumental" ends may largely underlie the present adolescent dropout. In this article the author proposes a two-stage foreign language apprenticeship. A two-stage apprenticeship would include a carefully planned diagnostic element, preparing…

  10. Changes in the functional characteristics of tumor and normal cells after treatment with extracts of white dead-nettle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veleva, Ralitsa; Petkova, Bela; Moskova-Doumanova, Veselina; Doumanov, Jordan; Dimitrova, Milena; Koleva, Petya; Mladenova, Kirilka; Petrova, Svetla; Yordanova, Zhenya; Kapchina-Toteva, Veneta; Topouzova-Hristova, Tanya

    2015-01-02

    Lamium album L. is a perennial herb widely used in folk medicine. It possesses a wide spectrum of therapeutic activities (anti-inflammatory, astringent, antiseptic, antibiotic, antispasmodic, antioxidant and anti-proliferative). Preservation of medicinal plant could be done by in vitro propagation to avoid depletion from their natural habitat. It is important to know whether extracts from L. album plants grown in vitro possess similar properties as extracts from plants grown in vivo . For these reasons, it is important to examine changes in the composition of secondary metabolites during in vitro cultivation of the plant and how they affect the biological activity. We used A549 human cancer cell line and normal kidney epithelial cells MDCKII (Madin-Darby canine kidney cells II) as controls in assessing the anti-cancer effect of plant extracts. To elucidate changes in some key functional characteristics, adhesion test, MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2-5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide), transepithelial resistance (TER), immunofluorescence staining and trypan blue exclusion test were performed. Methanol and chloroform extracts of in vivo and in vitro propagated plants affected differently cancerous and non-cancerous cells. The most pronounced differences were observed in the morphological analysis and in the cell adhesive properties. We also detected suppressed epithelial transmembrane electrical resistance of MDCK II cells, by treatment with plant extracts, compared to non-treated MDCK II cells. A549 cells did not polarize under the same conditions. Altered organization of actin filaments in both cell types were noticed suggesting that extracts from L. album L. change TER and actin filaments, and somehow may block cell mechanisms, leading to the polarization of MDCK II cells.

  11. Region-wide and ecotype-specific differences in demographic histories of threespine stickleback populations, estimated from whole genome sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shenglin; Hansen, Michael M; Jacobsen, Magnus W

    2016-10-01

    We analysed 81 whole genome sequences of threespine sticklebacks from Pacific North America, Greenland and Northern Europe, representing 16 populations. Principal component analysis of nuclear SNPs grouped populations according to geographical location, with Pacific populations being more divergent from each other relative to European and Greenlandic populations. Analysis of mitogenome sequences showed Northern European populations to represent a single phylogeographical lineage, whereas Greenlandic and particularly Pacific populations showed admixture between lineages. We estimated demographic history using a genomewide coalescence with recombination approach. The Pacific populations showed gradual population expansion starting >100 Kya, possibly reflecting persistence in cryptic refuges near the present distributional range, although we do not rule out possible influence of ancient admixture. Sharp population declines ca. 14-15 Kya were suggested to reflect founding of freshwater populations by marine ancestors. In Greenland and Northern Europe, demographic expansion started ca. 20-25 Kya coinciding with the end of the Last Glacial Maximum. In both regions, marine and freshwater populations started to show different demographic trajectories ca. 8-9 Kya, suggesting that this was the time of recolonization. In Northern Europe, this estimate was surprisingly late, but found support in subfossil evidence for presence of several freshwater fish species but not sticklebacks 12 Kya. The results demonstrate distinctly different demographic histories across geographical regions with potential consequences for adaptive processes. They also provide empirical support for previous assumptions about freshwater populations being founded independently from large, coherent marine populations, a key element in the Transporter Hypothesis invoked to explain the widespread occurrence of parallel evolution across freshwater stickleback populations. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Giraudia sphacelarioides (Phaeophyceae) at the Canary Islands and in Danish waters: a study in ecotypic differentiation and its biogeographical implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Aase; Pedersen, Poul Møller

    2003-01-01

    Comparative culture studies on isolates from Lanzarote (Canary Islands) and from Danish waters of Giraudia sphacelarioides show that temperature plays the key role to determine its geographical distribution. Experiments show that the upper lethal temperature is the same for both isolates 26.5--31...

  13. Ecomorphology as a tool in fisheries: identification and ecotyping of Lake Tana barbs (Barbus intermedius complex), Ethiopia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sibbing, F.A.; Nagelkerke, L.A.J.; Osse, J.W.M.

    1994-01-01

    Fisheries development of Lake Tana, Ethiopia, urgently requires the identification of its unknown units of fish stock. A diversity of large barbs (up to 80 cm SL), lumped into one species Barbus intermedius and contributing over 35% of the annual catch, consists of at least thirteen distinct

  14. Identification of novel microRNA genes in freshwater and marine ecotypes of the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastorguev, S M; Nedoluzhko, A V; Sharko, F S; Boulygina, E S; Sokolov, A S; Gruzdeva, N M; Skryabin, K G; Prokhortchouk, E B

    2016-11-01

    The three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus L.) is an important model organism for studying the molecular mechanisms of speciation and adaptation to salinity. Despite increased interest to microRNA discovery and recent publication on microRNA prediction in the three-spined stickleback using bioinformatics approaches, there is still a lack of experimental support for these data. In this paper, high-throughput sequencing technology was applied to identify microRNA genes in gills of the three-spined stickleback. In total, 595 miRNA genes were discovered; half of them were predicted in previous computational studies and were confirmed here as microRNAs expressed in gill tissue. Moreover, 298 novel microRNA genes were identified. The presence of miRNA genes in selected 'divergence islands' was analysed and 10 miRNA genes were identified as not randomly located in 'divergence islands'. Regulatory regions of miRNA genes were found enriched with selective SNPs that may play a role in freshwater adaptation. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Postglacial climate changes and rise of three ecotypes of harbour porpoises, Phocoena phocoena, in western Palearctic waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fontaine, Michaël C; Roland, Kathleen; Calves, Isabelle; Austerlitz, Frederic; Palstra, Friso P; Tolley, Krystal A; Ryan, Sean; Ferreira, Marisa; Jauniaux, Thierry; Llavona, Angela; Öztürk, Bayram; Öztürk, Ayaka A; Ridoux, Vincent; Rogan, Emer; Sequeira, Marina; Siebert, Ursula; Vikingsson, Gísli A; Borrell, Asunción; Michaux, Johan R; Aguilar, Alex

    Despite no obvious barriers to gene flow in the marine realm, environmental variation and ecological specializations can lead to genetic differentiation in highly mobile predators. Here, we investigated the genetic structure of the harbour porpoise over the entire species distribution range in

  16. Effect of chemophytostabilization practices on arbuscular mycorrhiza colonization of Deschampsia cespitosa ecotype Warynski at different soil depths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gucwa-Przepiora, Ewa; Malkowski, Eugeniusz; Sas-Nowosielska, Aleksandra; Kucharski, Rafal; Krzyzak, Jacek; Kita, Andrzej; Roemkens, Paul F.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    The effects of chemophytostabilization practices on arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) of Deschampsia cespitosa roots at different depths in soils highly contaminated with heavy metals were studied in field trials. Mycorrhizal parameters, including frequency of mycorrhization, intensity of root cortex colonization and arbuscule abundance were studied. Correlations between concentration of bioavailable Cd, Zn, Pb and Cu in soil and mycorrhizal parameters were estimated. An increase in AM colonization with increasing soil depth was observed in soils with spontaneously growing D. cespitosa. A positive effect of chemophytostabilization amendments (calcium phosphate, lignite) on AM colonization was found in the soil layers to which the amendments were applied. Negative correlation coefficients between mycorrhizal parameters and concentration of bioavailable Cd and Zn in soil were obtained. Our results demonstrated that chemophytostabilization practices enhance AM colonization in D. cespitosa roots, even in soils fertilized with high rates of phosphorus. - Addition of phosphorus and lignite in chemophytostabilization increased arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization of Deschampsia cespitosa roots

  17. Characterization of the HMA7 gene and transcriptomic analysis of candidate genes for copper tolerance in two Silene vulgaris ecotypes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Baloun, Jiří; Nevrtalová, Eva; Kováčová, Viera; Hudzieczek, Vojtěch; Čegan, Radim; Vyskot, Boris; Hobza, Roman

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 171, č. 13 (2014), s. 1188-1196 ISSN 0176-1617 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP501/12/G090; GA MŠk LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:68081707 Keywords : Copper * Genes coding ROS-eliminating and Cu-transporting proteins * RNA-Seq database Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.557, year: 2014

  18. Characterization of the HMA7 gene and transcriptomic analysis of candidate genes for copper tolerance in two Silene vulgaris ecotypes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Baloun, J.; Nevrtalová, E.; Kováčová, V.; Hudzieczek, V.; Čegan, R.; Vyskot, B.; Hobza, Roman

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 171, č. 13 (2014), s. 1188-1196 ISSN 0176-1617 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP501/12/G090 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Copper * Genes coding ROS-eliminating and Cu-transporting proteins * RNA-Seq database Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.557, year: 2014

  19. Salicornia as a crop plant in temperate regions: selection of genetically characterized ecotypes and optimization of their cultivation conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Devesh; Buhmann, Anne K; Flowers, Tim J; Seal, Charlotte E; Papenbrock, Jutta

    2014-11-10

    Rising sea levels and salinization of groundwater due to global climate change result in fast-dwindling sources of freshwater. Therefore, it is important to find alternatives to grow food crops and vegetables. Halophytes are naturally evolved salt-tolerant plants that are adapted to grow in environments that inhibit the growth of most glycophytic crop plants substantially. Members of the Salicornioideae are promising candidates for saline agriculture due to their high tolerance to salinity. Our aim was to develop genetically characterized lines of Salicornia and Sarcocornia for further breeding and to determine optimal cultivation conditions. To obtain a large and diverse genetic pool, seeds were collected from different countries and ecological conditions. The external transcribed spacer (ETS) sequence of 62 Salicornia and Sarcocornia accessions was analysed: ETS sequence data showed a clear distinction between the two genera and between different Salicornia taxa. However, in some cases the ETS was not sufficiently variable to resolve morphologically distinct species. For the determination of optimal cultivation conditions, experiments on germination, seedling establishment and growth to a harvestable size were performed using different accessions of Salicornia spp. Experiments revealed that the percentage germination was greatest at lower salinities and with temperatures of 20/10 °C (day/night). Salicornia spp. produced more harvestable biomass in hydroponic culture than in sand culture, but the nutrient concentration requires optimization as hydroponically grown plants showed symptoms of stress. Salicornia ramosissima produced more harvestable biomass than Salicornia dolichostachya in artificial sea water containing 257 mM NaCl. Based on preliminary tests on ease of cultivation, gain in biomass, morphology and taste, S. dolichostachya was investigated in more detail, and the optimal salinity for seedling establishment was found to be 100 mM. Harvesting of S. dolichostachya twice in a growing season was successful, but the interval between the harvests needs to be optimized to maximize biomass production. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company.

  20. The small barbs Barbus humilis and B. trispilopleura of Lake Tana (Ethiopia): Are they ecotypes of the same species?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dejen, E.; Rutjes, H.A.; Graaf, de M.; Nagelkerke, L.A.J.; Osse, J.W.M.; Sibbing, F.A.

    2002-01-01

    Four species of ‘small barbs’ (Barbus, subgenus Enteromius Cope, 1869) are known from Lake Tana, isolated in the Ethiopian highlands: B. humilis, B. trispilopleura, B. pleurogramma (all Boulenger, 1902) and B. tanapelagius de Graaf, 2000. However, only three species appear valid from cluster

  1. Arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis on serpentine soils: the effect of native fungal communities on different Knautia arvensis ecotypes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Doubková, Pavla; Suda, Jan; Sudová, Radka

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 345, 1-2 (2011), s. 325-338 ISSN 0032-079X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB600050812 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : arbuscular mycorrhiza * serpentine soils * edaphic stress Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.733, year: 2011

  2. The landsnail Cepaea nemoralis regulates internal Cd levels when fed on Cd-enriched stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) leaves at low, field-relevant concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Notten, M.J.M.; Oosthoek, A.J.P.; Rozema, J.; Aerts, R.

    2006-01-01

    We studied Cd accumulation in Cepaea nemoralis snails at low, but field-relevant Cd concentrations in the diet (Urtica dioica leaves). Six treatments of U. dioica plants were grown, resulting in leaf Cd concentrations between 0 and 2.6 μg g -1 dw. Seven snails per treatment were fed for 38 days. Leaf Cd concentrations did not affect food consumption rates, and consequently Cd intake rates increased with increasing leaf concentrations. No differences were detected among treatments in the final soft tissue Cd concentrations and body burdens in the snails. Regression analyses showed no positive relationship between either snail Cd concentrations or body burdens and total Cd intake. This suggests a regulation of internal Cd concentrations at low food Cd concentrations. Our data suggest that Cd excretion via the mucus plays a substantial role in this regulation, in addition to Cd excretion via the faeces. Snail shells were no sinks for Cd. - Cd excretion via the mucus plays a substantial role in the regulation of C. nemoralis soft tissue Cd concentrations at low, but field-relevant Cd concentrations in the food

  3. Inhibition of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus replication in a lethal SARS-CoV BALB/c mouse model by stinging nettle lectin, Urtica dioica agglutinin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumaki, Yohichi; Wandersee, Miles K.; Smith, Aaron J.; Zhou, Yanchen; Simmons, Graham; Nelson, Nathan M.; Bailey, Kevin W.; Vest, Zachary G.; Li, Joseph K.-K.; Chan, Paul Kay-Sheung; Smee, Donald F.; Barnard, Dale L.

    2011-01-01

    Urtica dioica agglutinin (UDA) is a small plant monomeric lectin, 8.7 kDa in size, with an N-acetylglucosamine specificity that inhibits viruses from Nidovirales in vitro. In the current study, we first examined the efficacy of UDA on the replication of different SARS-CoV strains in Vero 76 cells. UDA inhibited virus replication in a dose-dependent manner and reduced virus yields of the Urbani strain by 90% at 1.1 ± 0.4 µg/ml in Vero 76 cells. Then, UDA was tested for efficacy in a lethal SARS-CoV-infected BALB/c mouse model. BALB/c mice were infected with two LD50 (575 PFU) of virus for 4 hours before the mice were treated intraperitoneally with UDA at 20, 10, 5 or 0 mg/kg/day for 4 days. Treatment with UDA at 5 mg/kg significantly protected the mice against a lethal infection with mouse-adapted SARS-CoV (p<0.001), but did not significantly reduce virus lung titers. All virus-infected mice receiving UDA treatments were also significantly protected against weight loss (p<0.001). UDA also effectively reduced lung pathology scores. At day 6 after virus exposure, all groups of mice receiving UDA had much lower lung weights than did the placebo-treated mice. Thus, our data suggest that UDA treatment of SARS infection in mice leads to a substantial therapeutic effect that protects mice against death and weight loss. Furthermore, the mode of action of UDA in vitro was further investigated using live SARS-CoV Urbani strain virus and retroviral particles pseudotyped with SARS-CoV spike (S). UDA specifically inhibited the replication of live SARS-CoV or SARS-CoV pseudotyped virus when added just before, but not after, adsorption. These data suggested that UDA likely inhibits SARS-CoV infection by targeting early stages of the replication cycle, namely, adsorption or penetration. In addition, we demonstrated that UDA neutralizes the virus infectivity, presumably by binding to the SARS-CoV spike (S) glycoprotein. Finally, the target molecule for inhibition of virus replication was partially characterized. When UDA was exposed to N-acetylglucosamine and then UDA was added to cells just prior to adsorption, UDA did not inhibit the virus infection. These data support the conclusion that UDA might bind to N-acetylglucosamine-like residues present on the glycosylated envelope glycoproteins, thereby preventing virus attachment to cells. PMID:21338626

  4. Inhibition of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus replication in a lethal SARS-CoV BALB/c mouse model by stinging nettle lectin, Urtica dioica agglutinin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumaki, Yohichi; Wandersee, Miles K; Smith, Aaron J; Zhou, Yanchen; Simmons, Graham; Nelson, Nathan M; Bailey, Kevin W; Vest, Zachary G; Li, Joseph K-K; Chan, Paul Kay-Sheung; Smee, Donald F; Barnard, Dale L

    2011-04-01

    Urtica dioica agglutinin (UDA) is a small plant monomeric lectin, 8.7 kDa in size, with an N-acetylglucosamine specificity that inhibits viruses from Nidovirales in vitro. In the current study, we first examined the efficacy of UDA on the replication of different SARS-CoV strains in Vero 76 cells. UDA inhibited virus replication in a dose-dependent manner and reduced virus yields of the Urbani strain by 90% at 1.1 ± 0.4 μg/ml in Vero 76 cells. Then, UDA was tested for efficacy in a lethal SARS-CoV-infected BALB/c mouse model. BALB/c mice were infected with two LD50 (575 PFU) of virus for 4 h before the mice were treated intraperitoneally with UDA at 20, 10, 5 or 0 mg/kg/day for 4 days. Treatment with UDA at 5 mg/kg significantly protected the mice against a lethal infection with mouse-adapted SARS-CoV (p < 0.001), but did not significantly reduce virus lung titers. All virus-infected mice receiving UDA treatments were also significantly protected against weight loss (p < 0.001). UDA also effectively reduced lung pathology scores. At day 6 after virus exposure, all groups of mice receiving UDA had much lower lung weights than did the placebo-treated mice. Thus, our data suggest that UDA treatment of SARS infection in mice leads to a substantial therapeutic effect that protects mice against death and weight loss. Furthermore, the mode of action of UDA in vitro was further investigated using live SARS-CoV Urbani strain virus and retroviral particles pseudotyped with SARS-CoV spike (S). UDA specifically inhibited the replication of live SARS-CoV or SARS-CoV pseudotyped virus when added just before, but not after, adsorption. These data suggested that UDA likely inhibits SARS-CoV infection by targeting early stages of the replication cycle, namely, adsorption or penetration. In addition, we demonstrated that UDA neutralizes the virus infectivity, presumably by binding to the SARS-CoV spike (S) glycoprotein. Finally, the target molecule for the inhibition of virus replication was partially characterized. When UDA was exposed to N-acetylglucosamine and then UDA was added to cells just prior to adsorption, UDA did not inhibit the virus infection. These data support the conclusion that UDA might bind to N-acetylglucosamine-like residues present on the glycosylated envelope glycoproteins, thereby preventing virus attachment to cells. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The landsnail Cepaea nemoralis regulates internal Cd levels when fed on Cd-enriched stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) leaves at low, field-relevant concentrations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Notten, M.J.M.; Oosthoek, A.; Rozema, J.; Aerts, R.

    2006-01-01

    We studied Cd accumulation in Cepaea nemoralis snails at low, but field-relevant Cd concentrations in the diet (Urtica dioica leaves). Six treatments of U. dioica plants were grown, resulting in leaf Cd concentrations between 0 and 2.6 μg g

  6. Phytochemical, phylogenetic, and anti-inflammatory evaluation of 43 Urtica accessions (stinging nettle) based on UPLC-Q-TOF-MS metabolomic profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farag, Mohamed A; Weigend, Maximilian; Luebert, Federico; Brokamp, Grischa; Wessjohann, Ludger A

    2013-12-01

    Several species of the genus Urtica (especially Urtica dioica, Urticaceae), are used medicinally to treat a variety of ailments. To better understand the chemical diversity of the genus and to compare different accessions and different taxa of Urtica, 63 leaf samples representing a broad geographical, taxonomical and morphological diversity were evaluated under controlled conditions. A molecular phylogeny for all taxa investigated was prepared to compare phytochemical similarity with phylogenetic relatedness. Metabolites were analyzed via UPLC-PDA-MS and multivariate data analyses. In total, 43 metabolites were identified, with phenolic compounds and hydroxy fatty acids as the dominant substance groups. Principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA) provides a first structured chemotaxonomy of the genus. The molecular data present a highly resolved phylogeny with well-supported clades and subclades. U. dioica is retrieved as both para- and polyphyletic. European members of the U. dioica group and the North American subspecies share a rather similar metabolite profile and were largely retrieved as one, nearly exclusive cluster by metabolite data. This latter cluster also includes - remotely related - Urtica urens, which is pharmaceutically used in the same way as U. dioica. However, most highly supported phylogenetic clades were not retrieved in the metabolite cluster analyses. Overall, metabolite profiles indicate considerable phytochemical diversity in the genus, which largely falls into a group characterized by high contents of hydroxy fatty acids (e.g., most Andean-American taxa) and another group characterized by high contents of phenolic acids (especially the U. dioica-clade). Anti-inflammatory in vitro COX1 enzyme inhibition assays suggest that bioactivity may be predicted by gross metabolic profiling in Urtica. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Ralstonia (Pseudomonas) solanacearum race 3 (biovar 2) in surface water and natural weed hosts: First report on stinging nettle (Urtica dioica)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wenneker, M.; Verdel, M.S.W.; Groeneveld, R.M.W.; Kempenaar, C.; Beuningen, van A.R.; Janse, J.D.

    1999-01-01

    The population dynamics of the brown rot bacterium Ralstonia (Pseudomonas) solanacearum in surface water of two selected water-areas were monitored over a two-year period. In some cases during summer, high bacterial numbers (up to 106 cfu l−1) were observed. In a host plant survey a few plants of

  8. Sex-related differences in photoinhibition, photo-oxidative stress and photoprotection in stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L.) exposed to drought and nutrient deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simancas, Bárbara; Juvany, Marta; Cotado, Alba; Munné-Bosch, Sergi

    2016-03-01

    Dimorphic plant species can show distinct nutrient needs due to sex-related differences in nutrient allocation to reproductive structures, which can potentially affect their sensitivity to photoinhibition and photo-oxidative stress. Here, we investigated sex-related differences in the extent of photo-oxidative stress in male and female individuals of U. dioica exposed to a combination of severe drought and nutrient starvation. Male and female individuals of U. dioica subject to severe drought stress were exposed to various levels of nutrient availability. First, a set of plants grown under field conditions and exposed to summer drought was used to test the effects of nutrient supply (given as NPK fertilizer). Secondly, the effects of various phosphate concentrations in the nutrient solution were tested in drought-stressed potted plants. The Fv/Fm ratio (maximum efficiency of PSII photochemistry), photoprotection capacity (levels of carotenoids, including the xanthophyll cycle, and vitamins C and E), and the extent of lipid peroxidation (hydroperoxide levels) were measured. Results showed that an application of the NPK fertilizer to the soil had a positive effect on drought-stressed plants, reducing the extent of lipid peroxidation in both males and females. P deficiency led to residual photoinhibition, as indicated by significant reductions in the Fv/Fm ratio, and enhanced lipid peroxidation in females, but not in males. We conclude that (i) increased nutrient availability in the soil can alleviate photo-oxidative stress in drought-stressed U. dioica plants, and (ii) U. dioica plants show sexual secondary dimorphism in terms of photoinhibition and photo-oxidative stress, but this is only apparent when stress infringed on plants is very severe. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The landsnail Cepaea nemoralis regulates internal Cd levels when fed on Cd-enriched stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) leaves at low, field-relevant concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Notten, M.J.M. [Institute of Ecological Science, Department of Systems Ecology, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV, Amsterdam (Netherlands)]. E-mail: martje.notten@ecology.falw.vu.nl; Oosthoek, A.J.P. [Institute of Ecological Science, Department of Systems Ecology, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Rozema, J. [Institute of Ecological Science, Department of Systems Ecology, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Aerts, R. [Institute of Ecological Science, Department of Systems Ecology, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2006-01-15

    We studied Cd accumulation in Cepaea nemoralis snails at low, but field-relevant Cd concentrations in the diet (Urtica dioica leaves). Six treatments of U. dioica plants were grown, resulting in leaf Cd concentrations between 0 and 2.6 {mu}g g{sup -1} dw. Seven snails per treatment were fed for 38 days. Leaf Cd concentrations did not affect food consumption rates, and consequently Cd intake rates increased with increasing leaf concentrations. No differences were detected among treatments in the final soft tissue Cd concentrations and body burdens in the snails. Regression analyses showed no positive relationship between either snail Cd concentrations or body burdens and total Cd intake. This suggests a regulation of internal Cd concentrations at low food Cd concentrations. Our data suggest that Cd excretion via the mucus plays a substantial role in this regulation, in addition to Cd excretion via the faeces. Snail shells were no sinks for Cd. - Cd excretion via the mucus plays a substantial role in the regulation of C. nemoralis soft tissue Cd concentrations at low, but field-relevant Cd concentrations in the food.

  10. Use of Herbal Supplements in Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Licorice Root Nettle, Stinging Nettle Oregon Grape Root Parsley Root Pennyroyal Ruta Graveolens Uva Ursi Yohimbe What ... bucha leaves and juniper berries. Uva Ursi and parsley capsules may also have bad side effects. Can ...

  11. Environmental Assessment Tent City at Grand Forks AFB, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-11-15

    animals such as sponges, flatworms, nematode worms, segmented worms, snails, clams, and immature and adult insects , fish, amphibians, turtles, and... nettle (Laportea canadensis), stinging nettle (Urtica dioica), beggars’ ticks (Bidens frondosa), and waterleaf (Hydrophyllum viginianum) are

  12. Jellyfish stings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Atlantic and Physalia utriculus in the Pacific). Sea nettle ( Chrysaora quinquecirrha ), one of the most common jellyfish ... nose and watery eyes Swallowing difficulty Sweating SEA NETTLE Mild skin rash (with mild stings) Muscle cramps ...

  13. Integrated Natural Resources Management Plan Grand Forks Air Force Base, North Dakota. 2004-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-12-01

    Populations. The management of noxious plants would be in full compliance with the Federal Insecticide , Fungicide, and rodenticide Act (FIFRA...species), chokecherry, and wood rose (Rosa woodsii) are common in the understory in this area. Wood nettle (Laportea canadensis), stinging nettle ...aparine), shrubby cinquefoil (Potentilla fruticosa), and Canadian wood- nettle (Laportea canadensis). The bottomland hardwood community is one of the

  14. Life-cycle phases of a zinc- and cadmium-resistant ecotype of Silene vulgaris in risk assessment of polymetallic mine soils.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ernst, W.H.O.; Nelissen, H.J.M.

    2000-01-01

    Short-term exposure of plants to heavy metals is often used for risk assessment of metal-enriched soils (OECD guideline 208) without considering the reliability of the assessment for long-term exposure, i.e. for the completion of a plant's life-cycle. In the present study with 15 orogenic soils

  15. Adaptive genomic divergence under high gene flow between freshwater and brackish-water ecotypes of prickly sculpin (Cottus asper) revealed by Pool-Seq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennenmoser, Stefan; Vamosi, Steven M; Nolte, Arne W; Rogers, Sean M

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the genomic basis of adaptive divergence in the presence of gene flow remains a major challenge in evolutionary biology. In prickly sculpin (Cottus asper), an abundant euryhaline fish in northwestern North America, high genetic connectivity among brackish-water (estuarine) and freshwater (tributary) habitats of coastal rivers does not preclude the build-up of neutral genetic differentiation and emergence of different life history strategies. Because these two habitats present different osmotic niches, we predicted high genetic differentiation at known teleost candidate genes underlying salinity tolerance and osmoregulation. We applied whole-genome sequencing of pooled DNA samples (Pool-Seq) to explore adaptive divergence between two estuarine and two tributary habitats. Paired-end sequence reads were mapped against genomic contigs of European Cottus, and the gene content of candidate regions was explored based on comparisons with the threespine stickleback genome. Genes showing signals of repeated differentiation among brackish-water and freshwater habitats included functions such as ion transport and structural permeability in freshwater gills, which suggests that local adaptation to different osmotic niches might contribute to genomic divergence among habitats. Overall, the presence of both repeated and unique signatures of differentiation across many loci scattered throughout the genome is consistent with polygenic adaptation from standing genetic variation and locally variable selection pressures in the early stages of life history divergence. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Analysis of Large Seeds from Three Different Medicago truncatula Ecotypes Reveals a Potential Role of Hormonal Balance in Final Size Determination of Legume Grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaustav Bandyopadhyay

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Legume seeds are important as protein and oil source for human diet. Understanding how their final seed size is determined is crucial to improve crop yield. In this study, we analyzed seed development of three accessions of the model legume, Medicago truncatula, displaying contrasted seed size. By comparing two large seed accessions to the reference accession A17, we described mechanisms associated with large seed size determination and potential factors modulating the final seed size. We observed that early events during embryogenesis had a major impact on final seed size and a delayed heart stage embryo development resulted to large seeds. We also observed that the difference in seed growth rate was mainly due to a difference in embryo cell number, implicating a role of cell division rate. Large seed accessions could be explained by an extended period of cell division due to a longer embryogenesis phase. According to our observations and recent reports, we observed that auxin (IAA and abscisic acid (ABA ratio could be a key determinant of cell division regulation at the end of embryogenesis. Overall, our study highlights that timing of events occurring during early seed development play decisive role for final seed size determination.

  17. Growth and Metal Accumulation of an Alyssum murale Nickel Hyperaccumulator Ecotype Co-cropped with Alyssum montanum and Perennial Ryegrass in Serpentine Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Leigh Broadhurst

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The genus Alyssum (Brassicaceae contains Ni hyperaccumulators (50, many of which can achieve 30 g kg-1 Ni in dry leaf. Some Alyssum hyperaccumulators are viable candidates for commercial Ni phytoremediation and phytomining technologies. It is not known whether these species secrete organic and/or amino acids into the rhizosphere to solubilize Ni, or can make use of such acids within the soil to facilitate uptake. It has been hypothesized that in fields with mixed plant species, mobilization of metals by phytosiderophores secreted by Graminaceae plants could affect Alyssum Ni, Fe, Cu and Mn uptake.We co-cropped the Ni hyperaccumulator Alyssum murale, non-hyperaccumulator A. montanum and perennial ryegrass in a natural serpentine soil. All treatments had standard inorganic fertilization required for ryegrass growth and one treatment was compost amended. After 4 months A. murale leaves and stems contained 3600 mg kg-1 Ni which did not differ significantly with co-cropping. Overall Ni and Mn concentrations were significantly higher in A. murale than in A. montanum or L. perenne. Copper was not accumulated by either Alyssum species, but L. perenne accumulated up to 10 mg kg-1. A. montanum could not compete with either A. murale or ryegrass, and neither Alyssum species survived in the compost-amended soil. Co-cropping with ryegrass reduced Fe and Mn concentrations in A. murale but not to the extent of either increasing Ni uptake or affecting plant nutrition. The hypothesized Alyssum Ni accumulation in response to phytosiderophores secreted by co-cropped grass did not occur. Our data do not support increased mobilization of Mn by a phytosiderophore mechanism either, but the converse: mobilization of Mn by the Alyssum hyperaccumulator species significantly increased Mn levels in L. perenne. Tilling soil to maximize root penetration, adequate inorganic fertilization and appropriate plant densities are more important for developing efficient phytoremediation and phytomining approaches.

  18. Elevated genetic diversity in an F2:6 population of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) developed through an inter-ecotype cross

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benlhabib, Ouafae; Boujartani, Noura; Maughan, Peter J

    2016-01-01

    for quantitative and qualitative traits. Impressive transgressive segregation was measured for seed yield (22.42 g/plant), while plant height and maturity had higher heritabilities (73 and 89%, respectively). Other notable characters segregating in the population included panicle and stem color, panicle form......, and resistance to downy mildew. In the Principal Component analysis, the first axis explained 74% of the total variation and was correlated to plant height, panicle size, stem diameter, biomass, mildew reaction, maturation, and seed yield; those traits are relevant discriminatory characters. Yield correlated...

  19. Cyanobacterial ecotypes in different optical microenvironments of a 68 C hot spring mat community revealed by 16S-23S rRNA internal transcribed spacer region variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferris, Mike J.; Kühl, Michael; Wieland, Andrea

    2003-01-01

    We examined the population of unicellular cyanobacteria (Synechococcus) in the upper 3-mm vertical interval of a 68°C region of a microbial mat in a hot spring effluent channel (Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming). Fluorescence microscopy and microsensor measurements of O2 and oxygenic photosynth...

  20. The Effect of Irrigation Cut-off in Flowering Stage and Foliar Application of Spermidine on Essential Oil Quantity and Quality of Three Ecotypes of Cumin

    OpenAIRE

    Sarah Bakhtari; Gholam Reza Khajoei Nejad; Ghasem Mohamadi Nejad

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) is an annual plant that commonly cultivated in arid and semiarid regions of Iran. The crop has a wide range of uses including medicinal, cosmetic and food industry. Cumin occupies about 26% of total area devoted to medicinal plants in Iran. However, cumin is seriously affected by the Fusarium wilt and blight diseases. The diseases usually increase under warm and wet conditions. Control of the diseases incidence is a crucial factor for cumin produ...

  1. Elevated genetic diversity in an F2:6 population of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa developed through an inter-ecotype cross

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ouafae Benlhabib

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa is a seed crop of the Andean highlands and Araucanian coastal regions of South America that has recently expanded in use and production beyond its native range. This is largely due its superb nutritional value, consisting of protein that is rich in essential amino acids along with vitamins and minerals. Quinoa also presents a remarkable degree of tolerance to saline conditions, drought, and frost. The present study involved 72 F2:6 recombinant inbred lines (RIL and parents developed through hybridization between highland (0654 and coastal (NL-6 germplasm groups. The purpose was to characterize the quinoa germplasm developed, to assess the discriminating potential of 21 agro-morpho phenological traits, and to evaluate the extent of genetic variability recovered through selfing. A vast amount of genetic variation was detected among the 72 lines evaluated for quantitative and qualitative traits. Impressive transgressive segregation was measured for seed yield (22.42 g/plant, while plant height and maturity had higher heritabilities (73 and 89%, respectively. Other notable characters segregating in the population included panicle and stem color, panicle form, and resistance to downy mildew. In the Principal Component analysis, the first axis explained 74% of the total variation and was correlated to plant height, panicle size, stem diameter, biomass, mildew reaction, maturation, and seed yield; those traits are relevant discriminatory characters. Yield correlated positively with panicle length and biomass. UPGMA based cluster analysis identified three groups: one consisting of late, mildew-resistant, high yielding lines; one having semi-late lines with intermediate yield and mildew susceptibility; and a third cluster consisting of early to semi-late accessions with low yield and mildew susceptibility. This study highlighted the extended diversity regenerated among the 72 accessions and helped to identify potentially adapted quinoa genotypes for production in the Moroccan coastal environment.

  2. Elevated Genetic Diversity in an F2:6 Population of Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) Developed through an Inter-ecotype Cross.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benlhabib, Ouafae; Boujartani, Noura; Maughan, Peter J; Jacobsen, Sven E; Jellen, Eric N

    2016-01-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) is a seed crop of the Andean highlands and Araucanian coastal regions of South America that has recently expanded in use and production beyond its native range. This is largely due to its superb nutritional value, consisting of protein that is rich in essential amino acids along with vitamins and minerals. Quinoa also presents a remarkable degree of tolerance to saline conditions, drought, and frost. The present study involved 72 F2:6 recombinant-inbred lines and parents developed through hybridization between highland (0654) and coastal (NL-6) germplasm groups. The purpose was to characterize the quinoa germplasm developed, to assess the discriminating potential of 21 agro-morpho-phenological traits, and to evaluate the extent of genetic variability recovered through selfing. A vast amount of genetic variation was detected among the 72 lines evaluated for quantitative and qualitative traits. Impressive transgressive segregation was measured for seed yield (22.42 g/plant), while plant height and maturity had higher heritabilities (73 and 89%, respectively). Other notable characters segregating in the population included panicle and stem color, panicle form, and resistance to downy mildew. In the Principal Component analysis, the first axis explained 74% of the total variation and was correlated to plant height, panicle size, stem diameter, biomass, mildew reaction, maturation, and seed yield; those traits are relevant discriminatory characters. Yield correlated positively with panicle length and biomass. Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean-based cluster analysis identified three groups: one consisting of late, mildew-resistant, high-yielding lines; one having semi-late lines with intermediate yield and mildew susceptibility; and a third cluster consisting of early to semi-late accessions with low yield and mildew susceptibility. This study highlighted the extended diversity regenerated among the 72 accessions and helped to identify potentially adapted quinoa genotypes for production in the Moroccan coastal environment.

  3. Trophic gradients of two minnow species with similar eco-type and their relations to water chemistry and multimetric biological integrity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seoyun Choi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to determine tolerance ranges and trophic gradients of two fish populations of Zacco koreanus (Zk and Zacco platypus (Zp in relation to chemical water quality and ecological stream health, based on the biological integrity metric (BIM model. Seventy-six streams and rivers were sampled for the analysis. The population of Zk had a narrow chemical tolerance with a low phosphorus limit (< 300 μg/L as total phosphorus, whereas the Zp population occurred within a high limit (up to 1,100 μg/L. Similar patterns in the two populations were shown in nitrogen, biological oxygen demand, suspended solids, and other parameters. The population of Zp had significantly (t=5.25, p<0.001 greater chemical tolerance than the population of Zk. The population of Zk had a positive functional relation (R2=0.43, p<0.001 with insectivore species, but the Zp population had negative linear function (R2=0.50, p<0.001, indicating a trophic difference in the food chain of two populations. Application of the biological integrity model indicated that the values of BIM, as an index of ecological health, were significantly greater (t=13.67, p<0.001 in the population of Zk than the population of Zp.

  4. KAJIAN ANATOMI KAYU PADA TIGA EKOTIPE Pinus merkusii SUMATERA DAN POTENSINYA SEBAGAI INDIKATOR PERUBAHAN IKLIM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulia Sandri

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently, climate change is the one of most important environmental issue. Climate variability can be recorded by tree growing through the growth ring. Growth ring formed by cambial activity were examined in wood anatomy. In Sumatra, there are three ecotypes Pinus merkusii, namely ecotypes Kerinci, Tapanuli, and Aceh which can be distinguished morphologically. This study aims to knowing the wood anatomical characteristics of the three ecotypes and determine the potential as climate indicator. This study was conducted in October 2014 until June 2015. Sample of Kerinci ecotype was collected in Kerinci Seblat National Park, Tapanuli ecotype in Dolok Sibualbuali Natural Reserve and Aceh ecotype in Gunung Leuser National Park on a height of 130 cm using increment borer and cut on the main stem 5×5 cm for anatomical sample. Results from this study indicate that ecotype Kerinci and Tapanuli showed earlywood and latewood boundary exposing the clear growth ring, whereas in Aceh ecotype unclear. Tapanuli ecotype have the thickest tracheid diameter than ecotype Kerinci and Aceh. Ecotypes of Kerinci, Tapanuli, and Aceh has homoceluler and uniseriate ray where Aceh ecotype have the longest ray. Furthermore, Kerinci and Tapanuli ecotype have potential as climate indicator eventhough showed negative correlation, that Tapanuli ecotype show the best result and recommended in dendrochronology study.

  5. DETERMINATION ON THE AGRICULTURAL AND QUALITY PROPERTIES OF URTICA PILULIFERA L. (ISIRGAN) UNDER BORNOVA ECOLOGICAL CONDITIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Sancaktaroğlu, Sezgin; Bayram, Emine

    2011-01-01

    Five species of nettle (Urtica sp.) are found in Turkey. Stinging Nettle (Urtica pilulifera L.), is naturally distributed in the temperate zone of the world. It contains proteins, flavonoids, fatty acids, vitamins and minerals. So, its leaves, roots and seeds are used for food, fiber, herbal medicine, colour agent and cosmetic industry. U. pilulifera is an annual plant and its seeds are locally called ‘'black nettle seed''. The species hasn't been cultivated yet in agriculture. The aim ...

  6. Inhibitory effects of Urtica dioica L. root on electrophysiological properties of isolated rabbit atrioventricular node

    OpenAIRE

    A. Enayati; V. Khori*; M. Azadbakhat; M. Zahedi

    2017-01-01

    Background and objectives: The ideal drug for treatment of a wide range of supraventricular arrhythmia hasn't yet been developed. Previous studies have shown antihypertensive and negative inotropic effects of the Urtica dioica L. (nettle). Therefore, the aim of present study is to determine the rate dependent inhibitory effects of ethanol extract of nettle root and investigate the role of adrenoceptors in the anti-arrhythmic mechanism of nettle on the isolated rabbit atrio-ventricular node. M...

  7. Environmental Assessment: 13th Street Bridge Emergency Repair and Retrofit Vandenberg Air Force Base California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-06-23

    project site. • Biological hazards, including vegetation (i.e., poison oak and stinging nettle ), animals (i.e., insects , spiders, and snakes), and 4-18...channel, and in dryer areas of the site. Herbaceous species in the understory include stinging nettle (Urtica dioica), California blackberry (Rubus...Nightshade FAC/FACU Poison oak Nightshade FAC/FACU Stinging nettle FACW Cockle-bur FAC+ COMMENTS Likely C. Canadensis Most E/eocharis spp

  8. Terrestrial Biological Inventory Hartwell Drainage and Levee District Greene County, Illinois.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    E. Herbicides, insecticides , and fertilizers used for agricultural purposes may have detrimental effects on wildlife and plants in the District and...Species in Four Bottomland Forest Sample Plots Percent Cover Species 1 2 3 4 Clearweed ə 10 ə ɝ Wood nettle -- 20 35 25 Buttercup -- ə 15 ɝ...Family) Red Mulberry Morus rubra Urticaceae ( Nettle Family) W’od nettle Laportea canadensis Clearweed Pilea pumila Polygonaceae (Buckwheat family) Dock

  9. Uji Aktivitas Antibakteri Ekstrak Daun Mayana Jantan (Coleus Atropurpureus Benth) Terhadap Pertumbuhan Bakteri Streptococcus SP. Dan Pseudomonas SP.

    OpenAIRE

    Muljono, Patrick; Fatimawali; Manampiring, Aaltje E

    2016-01-01

    : The painted nettle (Coleus atropurpureus benth) is a plant that is known to have medicinal properties, especially the leaf. The active compounds that are contained in the leafs are thought to work as an antibacterial. This study aims to measure the inhibitory strength of painted nettle leaf (Coleus atropurpureus benth) extract against the growth of Streptococcus sp. and Pseudomonas sp. This was an experimental laboratory study. The polar extract of painted nettle leaf (Coleus atropurpureus ...

  10. Constraints to growth of annual nettle (Urtica urens) in an elevated CO{sub 2} atmosphere: Decreased leaf area ratio and tissue N cannot be explained by ontogenetic drift or mineral N supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marriott, D.J. [Univ. of Wales, Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Gwynedd (United Kingdom); Stirling, C.M. [Univ. of Wales, School of Agricultural and Forest Sciences, Gwynedd (United Kingdom); Farrar, J. [Univ. of Wales, School of Biological Science, Gwynedd (United Kingdom)

    2001-07-01

    The current literature indicates that the stimulation of relative growth rate (RGR) by an elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration is transient. Urtica urens L. was exposed to an elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration for 26 days to better understand the factors involved in this constraint to growth. Plants were grown hydroponically without nutrient limitation in controlled-environment cabinets. Consistent with studies of other C{sub 3} species, the initial CO{sub 2} stimulation of RGR of U. urens was not sustained and declined in the early stages of exposure. Whilst the decline in RGR was most strongly linked to a reduction in the CO{sub 2} stimulation of net assimilation rate (NAR), its initial increase was constrained by an early and persistent reduction in leaf area ratio (LAR) due to a decreased specific leaf area (SLA). The decline in NAR could not be linked to any down-regulation of photosynthetic capacity of individual leaves, despite an accumulation of soluble sugars in them. The reductions in LAR and SLA reflected an accumulation of structural weight in addition to an accumulation of total non-structural carbohydrate (TNC). To account for the impact of ontogenetic drift on the partitioning of weight and leaf area, this study extends the usual allometric approach to include an analysis of effects on the vertical placement of regression lines (i.e their elevations). Using this approach, we argue that CO{sub 2}-induced reductions in LAR and SLA cannot be explained by ontogenetic drift. By monitoring the tissue N concentration, external N supply was shown unambiguously to be non-limiting for growth at any plant size. Nevertheless, tissue N was consistently lower in elevated CO{sub 2}, independent of both ontogeny and TNC accumulation, raising the possibility that the reductions in NAR, LAR and SLA are related to some internal constraint on N utilization. (au)

  11. Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) Finding of No Practicable Alternative (FONPA): Construct of a New Fire Station, Demolition of Buildings 530 and 606 and Relocation of the Hazardous Cargo Area at Grand Forks Air Force Base, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-18

    vegetated (grass) buffer with a perimeter filter strip. Palustrine emergent marsh (PEM) wetlands are characterized by erect, rooted , herbaceous...Rosa woodsii) are common in the under story in this area. Wood nettle (Laportea canadensis), stinging nettle (Urtica dioica), beggars’ ticks (Bidens

  12. Construction of a New Fire Station, Demolition of Buildings 530 and 606 and Relocation of the Hazardous Cargo Area at Grand Forks Air Force Base, North Dakota. Finding of No Significant Impact (FOSNI). Finding of No Practical Alternative(FONPA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-23

    wetlands are characterized by erect, rooted , herbaceous hydrophytes, excluding mosses and lichens. This vegetation is present for most of the growing...highly invasive exotic species), chokecherry and wood rose (Rosa woodsii) are common in the under story in this area. Wood nettle (Laportea canadensis...stinging nettle (Urtica dioica), beggars’ ticks (Bidens frondosa) and waterleaf (Hydrophyllum viginianum) are typical forbes. A prairie

  13. Final Environmental Assessment of Installation Development at Grand Forks Air Force Base, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    buckthorn (a highly invasive exotic species), chokecherry (Prunus virginiana), and wood rose (Rosa woodsii) are common understory species. Wood nettle ...Laportea canadensis), stinging nettle (Urtica dioica), beggars-ticks (Bidens frondosa), and waterleaf (Hydrophyllum viginianum) are typical forbs...fertility, good water-holding capacity, and deep or thick effective rooting zones, and that are not subject to periodic flooding. Under the Farmland

  14. Final Natural Resource Actions Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-06-22

    sites – Vegetation management of roost sites would control black- bird and starling roosts where possible. Trees would be pruned to reduce the number...angustifolia), common chokecherry (Promos virginiana ), and wood rose (Rosa woodsii). Common forbs include wood nettle (Laportea canadensis), stinging nettle

  15. Interim Regional Supplement to the Corps of Engineers Wetland Delineation Manual: Eastern Mountains and Piedmont Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    wetland species, whereas the higher zones can be very diverse with smallspike false nettle (Boehmeria cylindrica), Canadian woodnettle (Laportea...grasses (e.g., Chasmanthium laxum, Glyceria spp., and Cinna arundinacea), rushes (Juncus spp.), smallspike false nettle , lizard’s tail, skunk cabbage...Aquatic fauna Category: Primary General Description: Presence of live individuals, diapausing insect eggs or crustacean cysts, or dead remains of

  16. Environmental Assessment: Demolish Buildings 212, 218, 819, 820 at Grand Forks Air Force Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-31

    worms, snails, clams, and immature and adult insects , fish, amphibians, turtles, and aquatic birds and mammals. Dominant trees in the Lowland...chokecherry, and wood rose (Rosa woodsii) are common in the under story in this area. Wood nettle (Laportea canadensis), stinging nettle (Urtica

  17. Regional Supplement to the Corps of Engineers Wetland Delineation Manual: Eastern Mountains and Piedmont Region (Version 2.0)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    nettle (Boehmeria cylindrica), Canadian woodnettle (Laportea canaden- sis), white panicle aster (Symphyotrichum lanceolatum = Aster simplex...spp.), smallspike false nettle , lizard’s tail, skunk cabbage (Symplocarpus foetidus), cardinal flower, jewelweed (Impatiens capensis), tearthumbs...Presence of live individuals, diapausing insect eggs or crustacean cysts, or dead remains of aquatic fauna, such as, but not limited to, sponges, bivalves

  18. 78 FR 26540 - Importation of Jackfruit, Pineapple, and Starfruit From Malaysia Into the Continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-07

    ... insect pests, inspected, and imported in commercial consignments. There would also be additional.... viridis, green scale. Darna trima, a nettle caterpillar. D. neobrevipes Beardsley, gray pineapple mealybug... phytopathogenic fungus. Melanitis leda, evening brown butterfly. Parasa lepida, blue-striped nettle grub. P. minor...

  19. Environmental Assessment: Construct Airfield Lighting Vault and Demolish Building 531 at Grand Forks Air Force Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-08-01

    worms, segmented worms, snails, clams, and immature and adult insects , fish, amphibians, turtles, and aquatic birds and mammals. Dominant trees in...exotic species), chokecherry, and wood rose (Rosa woodsii) are common in the under story in this area. Wood nettle (Laportea canadensis), stinging... nettle (Urtica dioica), beggars’ ticks (Bidens frondosa), and waterleaf (Hydrophyllum viginianum) are typical forbes. A prairie restoration project

  20. Environmental Assessment - Construct a Ground-to-Air Transmitter and Receiver (GATR) Facility at Grand Forks Air Force Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-06

    sponges, flatworms, nematode worms, segmented worms, snails, clams, and immature and adult insects , fish, amphibians, turtles, and aquatic birds and...buckthorn (a highly invasive exotic species), chokecherry, and wood rose (Rosa woodsii) are common in the under story in this area. Wood nettle ...Laportea canadensis), stinging nettle (Urtica dioica), beggars’ ticks (Bidens frondosa), and waterleaf (Hydrophyllum viginianum) are typical forbes. A

  1. Lamium album or Urtica dioica? Which is more effective in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: Diabetes mellitus, the most common endocrine disorder, is defined by hyperglycaemia. Urtica dioica or stinging nettle is known to have antidiabetic effects. Lamium album or non stinging nettle is shown to have some beneficial effects such as antioxidant, and cytoprotective properties. The purpose of this study ...

  2. Lamium album or urtica dioica?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proff.Adewunmi

    Objectives: Diabetes mellitus, the most common endocrine disorder, is defined by hyperglycaemia. Urtica dioica or stinging nettle is known to have antidiabetic effects. Lamium album or non stinging nettle is shown to have some beneficial effects such as antioxidant, and cytoprotective properties. The purpose of this study ...

  3. Urtica dioica pollen allergy: Clinical, biological, and allergomics analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiotiu, Angelica; Brazdova, Andrea; Longé, Cyril; Gallet, Patrice; Morisset, Martine; Leduc, Virginie; Hilger, Christiane; Broussard, Cédric; Couderc, Rémy; Sutra, Jean-Pierre; Sénéchal, Hélène; Poncet, Pascal

    2016-11-01

    The most emblematic members of Urticaceae at allergic risk level are wall pellitories (Parietaria), whereas nettle (Urtica) pollen is considered as poorly allergenic. No allergen from nettle pollen has yet been characterized, whereas 4 are listed for Parietaria pollen by the International Union of Immunological Societies. Clinical and biological profiles of 2 adult men who developed symptoms against nettle pollen and/or leaves were studied. To characterize the allergic reaction and identify the potential nettle pollen sensitizing allergens. IgE-mediated reaction to nettle pollen extract was evaluated by skin prick test, immunoassay, nasal provocation, and basophil activation test. To characterize specific nettle pollen allergens, an allergomic (IgE immunoproteomic) analysis was performed combining 1- and 2-dimensional electrophoresis, IgE immunoblots of nettle pollen extract, identification of allergens by mass spectrometry, and database queries. The results of biological and immunochemical analyses revealed that the allergic rhinitis was due to Urtica dioica pollen in both patients. The allergomic analysis of nettle pollen extract allowed the characterization of 4 basic protein allergens: a thaumatin-like protein (osmotin) with a relative molecular mass of 27 to 29 kDa, a pectinesterase (relative molecular mass, 40 kDa), and 2 other basic proteins with relative molecular masses of 14 to 16 kDa and 43 kDa. There is no or only very weak allergen associations between pellitory and nettle pollen. Exposure to nettle pollen can be responsible of allergic symptoms, and several allergens were characterized. Unravelling the allergens of this underestimated allergy might help to improve diagnosis and care for patients, to predict cross-reactivities and design adapted specific immunotherapy. Copyright © 2016 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Comparative study of the UV spectra of various raw materials OF Urtica dioica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Balagozyan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L. is one of the famous and popular medicinal plants. In Russia the herbal materials are nettle’s leaves which have haemostatic effect. At the same time abroad the rhizomes and roots of nettle are the source of drugs with antitumor activity. The chemical composition of the rhizomes and roots of nettle is quite complicated and is represented by substances such as polysaccharides, lectins, sterols etc. The aim of the present study is the comparative phytochemical research of various parts of raw nettle by spectrophotometry. The study of extracts from various raw materials of nettle has shown, that the presence of flavonoids is peculiar for leaves, flowers and fruits. Sterols dominate in the rhizomes and roots of nettle. It was also noted that the UV-spectra of extracts of female inflorescences and fruits nettle have the same absorption maxima.

  5. Differentiation of free-ranging chicken using discriminant analysis of phenotypic traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raed M. Al-Atiyat

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In this study, we investigated the differentiation of five different chicken ecotypes - Center, North, South, West, and East - of Saudi Arabia using discriminate analysis. The analysis was based on nine important morphological and phenotypic traits: body color, beak color, earlobe color, eye color, shank color, comb color, comb type, comb size, and feather distribution. There was a strong significant relationship between the phenotype and effect of geographic height in terms of comb type and earlobe color in males as well as body, beak, eye, and shank color. In particular, the comb type and earlobe color differentiated the ecotypes of males. Among the females, the beak, earlobe, eye, shank color, and feather distribution had more differentiating power. Moreover, the discriminant analysis revealed that the five ecotypes were grouped into three clusters; the Center and the North in one cluster, the West and the South ecotypes in the second for males, and the East ecotype in the last cluster. The female dendogram branching was similar to the male dendrogram branching, except that the Center ecotype was grouped with the North instead of the South. The East ecotype was highly discriminated from the other ecotypes. Nevertheless, the potential of recent individual migration between ecotypes was also noted. Accordingly, the results of the utilized traits in this study might be effective in characterization and conservation of the genetic resources of the Saudi chicken.

  6. South African Medical Journal - Vol 104, No 6 (2014)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAMA grasps the racial nettle, winning huge majority vote · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. C Bateman, 394-395. http://dx.doi.org/10.7196/SAMJ.8436 ...

  7. Planthopper pests of grapevine (in French)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the French vineyards occur two main insect pests belonging to Fulgoromorpha, Hyalesthes obsoletus Signoret (Cixiidae) and Metcalfa pruinosa (Say) (Flatidae). Hyalesthes obsoletus is inducing economic losses by transmitting a phytoplasma, called Stolbur, from wild plants (bindweed, nettle, etc.) t...

  8. In vitro antioxidant activity of Vetiveria zizanioides root extract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... possess antioxidant properties capable of scavenging free radicals in vivo. ..... H., Sahu, A. & Bora, U. (2008) Indian medicinal herbs as sources of antioxidants. ... analgesic activities of nettle (Urtica dioica L.) Journal of Ethnopharmacology ...

  9. The inhibiting effects of Urtica dioica root extracts on experimentally induced prostatic hyperplasia in the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichius, J J; Muth, C

    1997-08-01

    Extracts of stinging nettle roots (Urtica dioica L. Urticaceae) are used in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). We established a BPH-model by directly implanting an urogenital sinus (UGS) into the ventral prostate gland of an adult mouse. Five differently prepared stinging nettle root extracts were tested in this model. The 20% methanolic extract was the most effective with a 51.4% inhibition of induced growth.

  10. Theoretical and Experimental Analysis of an Evolutionary Social-Learning Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-13

    Nettle outlines the circumstances in which verbal communication is evolutionarily adaptive, and why few species have developed the ability to use...language despite its apparent advantages [28]. Nettle uses a significantly simpler model than the Cultaptation game, but provides insight that may be useful...provided by Kearns et al. was designed as an online algorithm, so it only returns the near-optimal action for the state at the root of the search tree

  11. Environmental Assessment: Replace Sanitary Sewer from Building 801 to Lagoons at Grand Forks AFB, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    emergent marsh (PEM) wetlands are characterized by erect, rooted , herbaceous hydrophytes, excluding mosses and lichens. This vegetation is present...species), chokecherry and wood rose (Rosa woodsii) are common in the under story in this area. Wood nettle (Laportea canadensis), stinging nettle ...minimized. In areas where excavation is not proposed but vegetation removal is necessary, vegetation should be cut at the ground level, leaving roots

  12. Exploring Polypharmacology Using a ROCS-Based Target Fishing Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Daylight topological fingerprints were used as the descriptors for the similarity search.17 Nettles et al. have used feature point pharmacophores...conforma- tions (nconfs) = 400, root -mean-square distance (RMS) = 0.5 Å, and Ewindow = 10 kcal/mol. Ewindow is the value used to discard high-energy...Edwards, D. D.; Shoichet, B. K.; Roth, B. L. Predicting new molecular targets for known drugs. Nature 2009, 462 (7270), 175−81. (18) Nettles , J. H

  13. Upper Mississippi River Land Use Allocation Plan. Master Plan for Public Use Development and Resource Management. Parts 1 and 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-09-01

    most common understo wood nettle , poison ivy, wild grape, Dominant overstory species in better-di BIOLOGICAL RESOURCES are American elm, silver maple...aquatic vegetation associated with er of commonness. The most backwater areas are examples of such low-capability es are woodbine, wood nettle , class...and of aquatic invertebrates. Benthic organisms, partic- River) in the river’s side chani ularly aquatic insects and freshwater mussels, are border

  14. Environmental Assessment: Eagle Heights Housing Area Revitalization Dover Air Force Base, Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-07-01

    tidal species. Butterflies were the only insects surveyed, and nine were found on base. Approximately 51 species of birds were recorded on base...Jones River adjacent to the northern border of the housing area, the fro-fruit (Phyla lanceolata) and the hyssop-leaf hedge- nettle (Stachys...other sites in Delaware that this species is found. The hyssop-leaf hedge- nettle thrives in moist sandy soil along the coast and shoreline and occurs

  15. Proceedings of the Workshop on Aquatic Ecosystem Modeling and Assessment Techniques for Application within the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-04-01

    endangered birds, plants, mammals, insects , reptiles, and fish. We can successfully model much of the physical, some of the chemical, and a small part of the...in Chesapeake Bay The third example is based on a model that predicts larval fish survival exposed to juvenile fish and sea nettle predators under...predators simulated are sea nettles , and a fish predator sensitive to low DO and tolerant to low DO. The water column is divided into 3 layers (surface

  16. Environmental Assessment: Combat Information Transport System Upgrade Vandenberg Air Force Base, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-07-21

    impacted by general construction hazards. Biological hazards, including vegetation (i.e., poison oak and stinging nettle ), animals (i.e., insects ...or protruding objects, slippery soils or mud, and unstable ground. Bi?logical hazards such as animals ( insects , spiders, and snakes), and disease...Region Interagency Archeological Services Branch, San Francisco. Hamilton, M. Colleen, Wendy Nettles , and Clayton G. Lebow 2004 SLC-4 to SLC-6

  17. Water Resources and Related Land Management, Buffalo Metropolitan Area, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-04-01

    nettle , Queen Ann’s lace, aster (New England, bushy), beggarstick, cocklebur, chickory, tickseed-sunflower, timothy, teasel, and grasses (quake, orchard...in leaf litter and falling insects off such overhanging trees, that contribute to the fish food chain in the creek. Channelization would disrupt and...alder and eastern cottonwood. Goldenrod, stinging nettle and various grasses are abundant to common. Aquatic vegetation is limited, although spikerush

  18. Environmental Assessment: San Antonio Creek Restoration at Vandenberg Air Force Base, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-08

    biological hazards including vegetation (i.e. poison oak and stinging nettle ), animals (i.e. insects , spiders, and snakes), and disease vectors (i.e...acre. Native grasses and herbs such as giant wild rye (Leymus condensatus), and stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) dominate this vegetation type...mud, and unstable ground. Biological hazards such as animals ( insects , spiders, and snakes), and disease vectors (ticks and rodents). 3.6.3

  19. Final Environmental Assessment Addressing Riparian Restoration and Stabilization at Grand Forks Air Force Base, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    trail ATV use, paintball use, and cutting of young, healthy trees; unmanaged grazing and wildfires; monitoring for insects and disease such as Dutch Elm...maximillianii), jack-in-the-pulpit (Arisaema triphyllum), white violet (Viola canadensis), wood nettle (Laportea canadensis), stinging nettle (Urtica dioica...for insects and disease such as Dutch Elm disease, gypsy moths, tent worms, or other pathogens that could damage the forest health. During

  20. Ecological Survey Data for Environmental Considerations on the Trinity River and Tributaries, Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-07-01

    cardinalis Carolina clover Trifolium carolinianum Michx. Carolina geranium Geranium carolinianum L. Carolina horse- nettle Solanum carolinense L. Carolina...MiI~y~ic~zuhl. 1 .,Ats-bekir cagillitIs (L.) Wali. Eh!iteai gitle Urticn chamaedryoides Pursh Heartleaf nettle Urtica chamaedryoides var. Runyonli...the bridge on Interstate Highway 10, contained only two insecticides , Lindane (0.2 micrograms per kilogram of sediment) and Chlordane (less than 1.0

  1. JPRS Report, Nuclear Developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-07-14

    a million inhabitants is daily when it is flowering next to nettles growing in the ashes generating greater and greater alarm. Still greater alarm of...1989). saw large vacant lots covered with stinging nettle where Recently, this group completed the first stage of its at one time large villages used to...the Germans to the FRG must be approved by the Eschborn Federal plan a factory for insecticides . Fearing that the factory Economic Office; the reason

  2. Flood Control, Roseau River, Roseau and Kittson Counties, Minnesota. Final Environmental Impact Statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-12-01

    can be inferred from an accident which occurred in August 1970, in which an insecticide dumping resulted in a fish kill that extended for a 3 1/2... nettle (Laportea canadensis), which almost blankets the understory and bloodroot (Sanguinaria canadensis), which was restricted to this community type...Crataegus rotundifolia), stinging nettle (Urtica divica) and thimbleweed. d. Green Ash-Elm Community This type is common on the old dredge disposal sites of

  3. Final Programmatic Environmental Assessment: Demolition and Abandonment of Atlas and Titan Facilities Vandenberg Air Force Base, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-09-13

    compliance with Federal Insecticide , Fungicide and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) and 40 CFR 159-189 Pesticide Programs. AFI 32-7020 The Environmental...oak and stinging nettle ), animals (i.e., insects, spiders, and snakes), and disease vectors (i.e., ticks, rodents), exist at and around the...Francisco. Hamilton, M. Colleen, Wendy Nettles , and Clayton G. Lebow 2004 SLC-4 to SLC-6 Waterline Replacement Project, CA-SBA-1145/H Treatment Plan

  4. Chesapeake Bay Study. Supplement A. Problem Identification. Supplement B. Public Involvement. Supplement C. The Chesapeake Bay Hydraulic Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-09-01

    Amphipod (5 genera) Canvasback Sand flea Lesser scaup Cnidaria 4’ Grass shrimp 4’ Bufflehead 4 Sand shrimp ** Osprey " Stinging nettle 4’ Xanthid crab (2...thereby decreasing the amounts of available oxygen in the water and, in extreme cases, causing fish kills. In addition, the use of insecticides in...where demands are the greatest. The stinging sea nettle and the closely related comb A-79 f. . . . . . • _ . . ... . .. jellies or ctenophores which

  5. Minnesota River at Chaska, Minnesota. Technical Appendixes. Limited Reevaluation Report and Final Supplement to the Final Environmental Impact Statement for Flood Control and Related Purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-08-01

    June 12, 1980. 0 rganochlorine and organophosphorus insecticides , PC B’s, and PC N’s were not detected in the sample. 2,4-D was the only chlorinated...within the floodplain of the Minnesota River and is vegetated with silver maple, cottonwood, willow and elm with scattered nettle , jewelweed and grasses...generally leaf litter and plant debris with heavy growth of nettle . The location of the Chaska Lake Unit is ideal for wildlife interpretation. Wildlife

  6. Naturally evolved enhanced Cd tolerance of Dianthus carthusianorum L. is not related to accumulation of thiol peptides and organic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wójcik, Małgorzata; Dresler, Sławomir; Plak, Andrzej; Tukiendorf, Anna

    2015-05-01

    Two contrasting ecotypes of Dianthus carthusianorum L., metallicolous (M) and nonmetallicolous (NM), were cultivated in hydroponics at 0-50 μM Cd for 14 days to compare their Cd accumulation, sensitivity and tolerance mechanisms. While both ecotypes contained similar concentrations of Cd in the shoots and roots, the M ecotype was more Cd-tolerant (as measured by fresh weight production and root and leaf viability). Both ecotypes accumulated phytochelatins (PCs) in response to Cd with a higher amount thereof found in the NM ecotype. Concentrations of PCs remained unchanged with increasing Cd concentrations in the root tissues, but their content in the shoots increased. The addition of L-buthionine-sulfoximine (BSO) diminished glutathione (GSH) accumulation and arrested PC production, which increased the sensitivity to Cd of the NM, but not M ecotype. Organic acids (malate and citrate) as well as proline accumulation did not change significantly after Cd exposition and was at the same level in both ecotypes. The enhanced Cd tolerance of the M ecotype of D. carthusianorum cannot be explained in terms of restricted Cd uptake and differential production of PCs, organic acids or proline; some other mechanisms must be involved in its adaptation to the high Cd content in the environment.

  7. Outlier loci detect intraspecific biodiversity amongst spring and autumn spawning herring across local scales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekkevold, Dorte; Gross, Riho; Arula, Timo

    2016-01-01

    Herring, Clupea harengus, is one of the ecologically and commercially most important species in European northern seas, where two distinct ecotypes have been described based on spawning time; spring and autumn. To date, it is unknown if these spring and autumn spawning herring constitute genetica...... of these co-occurring ecotypes to meet requirements for sustainable exploitation and ensure optimal livelihood for coastal communities....

  8. QTL analysis of seed dormancy in Arabidopsis using recombinant inbred lines and MQM mapping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaar, Wybe van der; Alonso-Blanco, Carlos; Léon-Kloosterziel, Karen M.; Jansen, Ritsert C.; Ooijen, Johan W. van; Koornneef, Maarten

    1997-01-01

    The genetic differences for seed germination between two commonly used Arabidopsis thaliana ecotypes Ler and Col, both showing a low level of seed dormancy, were investigated. The analysis was performed with 98 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from the cross between the two ecotypes, and

  9. Inferring ancestral distribution area and survival vegetation of Caragana (Fabaceae) in Tertiary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingli Zhang; Juanjuan Xue; Qiang Zhang; Stewart C. Sanderson

    2015-01-01

    Caragana, a leguminous genus mainly restricted to temperate Central and East Asia, occurs in arid, semiarid, and humid belts, and has forest, grassland, and desert ecotypes. Based on the previous molecular phylogenetic tree and dating, biogeographical analyses of extant species area and ecotype were conducted by means of four ancestral optimization approaches: S-DIVA,...

  10. Metabolite profiling of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) plants transformed with an antisense chalcone synthase gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Gall, G.; Metzdorff, Stine Broeng; Pedersen, Jan W.

    2005-01-01

    A metabolite profiling study has been carried out on Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. ecotype Wassilewskija and a series of transgenic lines of the ecotype transformed with a CHS (chalcone synthase) antisense construct. Compound identifications by LC/MS and H-1 NMR are discussed. The glucosinolate...

  11. "Towards practical cadmium phytoextraction with Thlaspi caerulescens"

    Science.gov (United States)

    During 2005-2007, a series of field trials were conducted to investigate the potential of Thlapsi caerulescens ecotypes derived from southern France to phytoextract localized Cd/Zn contamination in Thailand. Soil treatments included pH variation and fertilization level. T. caerulescens ecotypes w...

  12. Studies upon morhological and biological traits of Festuca rubra, subsp.fallax (Poaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogusław Sawicki

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Observation and measurements of some traits of Festuca rubra L., subsp. fallax (Thuill. Hack. ecotypes were made in 1995-1997 using samples selected from natural habitats and collected in Grassland Experimental Station in Sosnowica. High differentiation of traits under study and their correlations were found. Valorized ecotypes are good material for new varieties breeding.

  13. FRUTOS DE UCHUVA (PHYSALIS PERUVIANA L. ECOTIPO ‘COLOMBIA’ MÍNIMAMENTE PROCESADOS, ADICIONADOS CON MICROORGANISMOS PROBIÓTICOS UTILIZANDO LA INGENIERÍA DE MATRICES MINIMALLY PROCESSED CAPE GOOSEBERRY FRUITS (PHYSALIS PERUVIANA L. ‘COLOMBIAN’ ECOTYPE, ADDED WITH PROBIOTIC MICROORGANISMS USING THE MATRIX ENGINEERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaira Tatiana Marin Arango

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available El consumo de alimentos con microorganismos probióticos se ha incrementado en los últimos años debido a los beneficios saludables que estos proporcionan. El desarrollo de nuevos alimentos con probióticos diferentes a los productos lácteos, representa un reto para los investigadores y la industria. El presente estudio desarrolló a nivel piloto frutos de uchuva (Physalis peruviana L. mínimamente procesados con microorganismos probióticos, combinando el efecto benéfico de la cepa comercial Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393 con la aplicación de la Ingeniería de Matrices como metodología de obtención de alimentos funcionales. Se utiliza como líquido de impregnación una solución de glucosa al 14% p/p, con concentración inicial de inóculo de 5 en la escala de McFarland (1,5 x 109 UFC/mL. Las uchuvas recién impregnadas alcanzaron conteos de células viables de 1,95 ± 0,28 x 10(9 UFC/100 g de uchuva fresca (9,28 ± 0,06 x 109 ciclos log UFC/100 g uchuva fresca y a los 15 días de almacenamiento a 4 ºC los conteos de células viables fueron de 2,20 ± 0,59 x 10(9 UFC/100 g de uchuva fresca. (9,32 ± 0,14 x 109 ciclos log UFC/100 g uchuva fresca. Estos niveles de concentración de microorganismos probióticos en la uchuva son similares a los encontrados en los productos lácteos, como el yogurt, helados, quesos, entre otros.Food consumption with probiotic microorganisms has been increased in the last years due to its healthy benefits that they provide. The development of new food with probiotics apart from dairy products represents a challenge for both researchers and industry. The present study developed at pilot level cape gooseberry fruits (Physalis peruviana L. minimally processed with microorganisms probiotics, combining the beneficent effect of the strain commercial Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393 with the application of the matrix Engineering as methodology to obtain functional foods. As liquid of impregnation a solution of glucose at 14% p/p was used, with an initial concentration of inoculum of 5 in McFarland scale (1.5 x 109 UFC/mL. The newly impregnated cape gooseberry reached counts of viable cells of 1.95 ± 0.28 x 10(9 UFC/100 g of fresh cape gooseberry (9.28 ± 0.06 x 109 cycles log UFC/100 g fresh cape gooseberry and after 15 days of storage at 4 ºC counts of viable cells were of 2.20 ± 0.59 x 10(9 UFC/100 g of fresh cape gooseberry (9.32 ± 0.14 x 109 cycles log UFC/100g fresh cape gooseberry. These level of probiotic microorganisms concentration in the cape gooseberry, were similar to those found in the dairy products as the yogurt, ice creams, cheeses, among others.

  14. Tolerância ao cobre em ecótipos de Schinus lentiscifolius March (Anacardiaceae de áreas de mineração no Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Copper tolerance in ecotypes of Schinus lentiscifolius March (Anacardiaceae in mining regions of Rio Grande do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luiza Porto

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available Sementes de Schinus lentiscifolius March, provenientes de duas áreas de mineração do Rio Grande do Sul, foram submetidas a testes de exposição ao CuSO4, visando comprovar a tolerância ao cobre na germinação e no desenvolvimento de plántulas. Os testes demonstraram que os dois clones reagem diferentemente ao cobre, porém ambos apresentaram mecanismos de tolerância. Plántulas provenientes de sementes da área de maior concentração de cobre no solo (minas do Seival apresentam sintomas de toxidez mais tardios do que plántulas provenientes de sementes da área de menor concentração deste íon (mina Sanga Negra.Seeds from Schinus lentiscifolius March collected in two mining areas in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, were submitted to CuSO4 exposure tests to confirm copper tolerance during germination .and plantule development. The results showed that the two distinct clones respond differently to copper, but both presented tolerance mechanisms. Plantules originated from seeds collected in the area with higher soil copper concentration (minas do Seival presented toxicity symptoms later as compared to those plantules originated from seeds collected in the area with lower CU² + concentration (mina Sanga Negra.

  15. Effect of Urtica Dioica Extract on Histological and Histometrical Changes of Testis of Hamster after Testosteron Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Morovvati

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hyperactivity of testosterone is one cause of infertility and its incorrect use can produces reproductive disorders. Nettle (Urtica dioica has antiandrogenic effect and may antagonized effect of testosterone. In present study structure of testes of golden hamster was evaluated after testosterone and extract. Materials and Methods: In this experimental and animal modeling study, twenty male mature hamsters were divided to 4 groups, group 1 was control, group 2 received testosterone at dose 3 mg/kg subcutaneously, group 3 received nettle extract dose 30 mg/kg orally and group 4 received testosterone and nettle for 30 days daily. The hamsters were euthanized and testes were removed and detected macroscopic parameters (weight, height, wide and volume and fixed with formalin. The samples were sectioned and colored with H & E. Results: The volume, weight, length and wide of testes was at least in testosterone group and statistically was lesser than control and testosterone -nettle group (p<0.05, but did not the height epithelium of seminifer tubules, compact of spermatogenic cells and number of serotolli cells in testosterone group was lesser than control group significantly (p<0.05.Conclusion: The nettle extract decreased histological changes of testes by testosterone and improved its structure.

  16. Improved glycemic control in patients with advanced type 2 diabetes mellitus taking Urtica dioica leaf extract: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kianbakht, Saeed; Khalighi-Sigaroodi, Farahnaz; Dabaghian, Fataneh Hashem

    2013-01-01

    Advanced type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) needing insulin therapy is common. Most conventional anti-hyperglycemic drugs have limited efficacies and significant side effects, so that better anti-hyperglycemic agents are needed. Urtica dioica L. (nettle) leaves have insulin secretagogue, PPARgamma agonistic, and alpha-glucosidase inhibitory effects. Moreover, nettle leaves are used in traditional medicine as an anti-hyperglycemic agent to treat diabetes mellitus. Thus, efficacy and safety of nettle in the treatment of patients with advanced type 2 diabetes mellitus needing insulin were studied. In this randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial, we evaluated the effects of taking nettle leaf extract (one 500 mg capsule every 8 hours for 3 months) combined with the conventional oral anti-hyperglycemic drugs on the blood levels of fasting glucose, postprandial glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), creatinine and liver enzymes SGOT and SGPT, and systolic and diastolic blood pressures in 46 patients and compared with the placebo group (n = 46). At the endpoint, the extract lowered the blood levels of fasting glucose, 2 hours postprandial glucose, and HbA1c significantly (p 0.05) compared with placebo. Nettle may safely improve glycemic control in type 2 diabetic patients needing insulin therapy.

  17. The comparative susceptibility of commercial and Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    2013-10-08

    Oct 8, 2013 ... indigenous chicken ecotypes to Salmonella gallinarum infection ... This study was to evaluate the possible genetic resistance of exotic and indigenous chicks to Salmonella ... diseases are the fowl typhoid, which is caused by.

  18. Ecological and morphological patterns in communities of land snails of the genus Mandarina from the Bonin Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiba, Satoshi

    2004-01-01

    The land snail genus Mandarina has undergone extensive radiation within the Bonin Islands in the west Pacific. The preferred above-ground vegetation heights of sympatric species were clearly different. They separated into arboreal, semi-arboreal, exposed ground and sheltered ground ecotypes. Shells of species with different ecotypes differ markedly, but shells of species with the same ecotype are very similar to each other. Shell morphologies of some phylogenetically distantly related species with the same ecotype were indistinguishable. Character evolution estimated parsimoniously using a phylogenetic tree suggests that the speciation among sympatric species is accompanied by ecological and morphological diversification. In addition, species coexistence of Mandarina is related to niche differentiation. The above findings suggest that ecological interactions among species contribute to the ecological and morphological diversification and radiation of these land snails in this depauperate environment.

  19. Untitled Document

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The Theory of Evolution before and after Bateson - J.B.S. Haldane ... commelinaceae with special reference to the role of polyploidy and the origin of ecotypes. ... Sex-limited inheritance of longevity in Drosophila subobscura-J. Maynard Smith.

  20. Plants' responses to drought and shade environments

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    전병기

    factors affect plants' growth, morphology, physiology and biochemistry. Many research works .... Hardwood and Conifer tree species n central Wisconsin: Influence of light regime and .... Ecotypic variation in response to light spectra in Scots ...

  1. Prosopis for planting in arid zones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raina, A.K.

    1984-01-01

    Brief notes are given on the performance at age seven years of seven provenances of Prosopis juliflora at two sites in Rajasthan and on the distribution, habit and possible uses of ecotypes of Prosopis cineraria.

  2. TREATMENT POLICY OF PEDIATRICIANS AGAINST ACUTE AND CHRONIC ALLERGIC PATHOLOGIES IN CHILDREN. DESLORATADINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A. Vishneva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Allergic rhinitis, bronchial asthma, chronic idiopathic nettle rash, atopic dermatitis have been characterized by a stable growth in the prevalence of the allergic pathology over the last several decades. A similar pathogenesis of allergic diseases makes it possible to regard them as different manifestations of a systemic allergic inflammation. Histamine is one of the main mediators of an allergic inflammation, therefore first-line medications (drug of choice in the treatment of an allergic pathology, first of all, rhinitis and chronic nettle rash, are second-generation blockers of Н1-receptors. The proposed article discusses the issues connected with the use of antihistamines for children.Key words: allergic rhinitis, bronchial asthma, nettle rash, atopic dermatitis, treatment, antihistamines, children.

  3. Growth of plants on soils from two metalliferous sites in Rhodesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiltshire, G H

    1974-07-01

    A study to determine whether species and ecotypes from metalliferous areas (copper-lead and nickel-chromium sites) have a greater tolerance of metalliferous soils than species and ecotypes from non-metalliferous sites is reported. Populations from metalliferous sites usually appeared to grow better in the copper-lead and nickel-chromium test soils than populations from non-metalliferous sites but the differences were statistically significant in only a few cases.

  4. Inhibitory effects of Urtica dioica L. root on electrophysiological properties of isolated rabbit atrioventricular node

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Enayati

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: The ideal drug for treatment of a wide range of supraventricular arrhythmia hasn't yet been developed. Previous studies have shown antihypertensive and negative inotropic effects of the Urtica dioica L. (nettle. Therefore, the aim of present study is to determine the rate dependent inhibitory effects of ethanol extract of nettle root and investigate the role of adrenoceptors in the anti-arrhythmic mechanism of nettle on the isolated rabbit atrio-ventricular node. Methods: Urtica dioica roots were collected from Gorgan (Golestan, Iran. Male New Zealand rabbits (n=7 were used in all of the experiments. Experimental stimulation protocols (WBCL; Recovery, Facilitation, Fatigue were applied to assess electrophysiological properties of Node. All protocols were repeated in the presence and absence (control of different concentration (0.25-0.5 w/v % of nettle and 1 μM nadolol. Data were shown as Mean±SE, difference between groups statistically were assessed by SPSS software. Results: Nettle (0.5 w/v significantly decreased basic and functional properties of node as WBCL, ERP, FRP, AVCT and magnitude of fatigue (∆AH significantly increased but ∆FRP significantly decreased. In the presence of nadolol (1μM as a nonselective β-blocker, nettle (0.3 mg/L could not repeat its effects on electrophysiological properties of AV-node. Conclusion: The results showed the modifying properties of Urtica dioica root extract. It may be considered as a candidate for the treatment of supraventicular arrhythmias.

  5. Genomics of Rapid Incipient Speciation in Sympatric Threespine Stickleback.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A Marques

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Ecological speciation is the process by which reproductively isolated populations emerge as a consequence of divergent natural or ecologically-mediated sexual selection. Most genomic studies of ecological speciation have investigated allopatric populations, making it difficult to infer reproductive isolation. The few studies on sympatric ecotypes have focused on advanced stages of the speciation process after thousands of generations of divergence. As a consequence, we still do not know what genomic signatures of the early onset of ecological speciation look like. Here, we examined genomic differentiation among migratory lake and resident stream ecotypes of threespine stickleback reproducing in sympatry in one stream, and in parapatry in another stream. Importantly, these ecotypes started diverging less than 150 years ago. We obtained 34,756 SNPs with restriction-site associated DNA sequencing and identified genomic islands of differentiation using a Hidden Markov Model approach. Consistent with incipient ecological speciation, we found significant genomic differentiation between ecotypes both in sympatry and parapatry. Of 19 islands of differentiation resisting gene flow in sympatry, all were also differentiated in parapatry and were thus likely driven by divergent selection among habitats. These islands clustered in quantitative trait loci controlling divergent traits among the ecotypes, many of them concentrated in one region with low to intermediate recombination. Our findings suggest that adaptive genomic differentiation at many genetic loci can arise and persist in sympatry at the very early stage of ecotype divergence, and that the genomic architecture of adaptation may facilitate this.

  6. An empirical test of evolutionary theories for reproductive senescence and reproductive effort in the garter snake Thamnophis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparkman, Amanda M; Arnold, Stevan J; Bronikowski, Anne M

    2007-04-07

    Evolutionary theory predicts that differential reproductive effort and rate of reproductive senescence will evolve under different rates of external mortality. We examine the evolutionary divergence of age-specific reproduction in two life-history ecotypes of the western terrestrial garter snake, Thamnophis elegans. We test for the signature of reproductive senescence (decreasing fecundity with age) and increasing reproductive effort with age (increasing reproductive productivity per gram female) in replicate populations of two life-history ecotypes: snakes that grow fast, mature young and have shorter lifespans, and snakes that grow slow, mature late and have long lives. The difference between life-history ecotypes is due to genetic divergence in growth rate. We find (i) reproductive success (live litter mass) increases with age in both ecotypes, but does so more rapidly in the fast-growth ecotype, (ii) reproductive failure increases with age in both ecotypes, but the proportion of reproductive failure to total reproductive output remains invariant, and (iii) reproductive effort remains constant in fast-growth individuals with age, but declines in slow-growth individuals. This illustration of increasing fecundity with age, even at the latest ages, deviates from standard expectations for reproductive senescence, as does the lack of increases in reproductive effort. We discuss our findings in light of recent theories regarding the phenomenon of increased reproduction throughout life in organisms with indeterminate growth and its potential to offset theoretical expectations for the ubiquity of senescence.

  7. Variation in plastic responses of a globally distributed picoplankton species to ocean acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaum, Elisa; Rost, Björn; Millar, Andrew J.; Collins, Sinéad

    2013-03-01

    Phytoplankton are the basis of marine food webs, and affect biogeochemical cycles. As CO2 levels increase, shifts in the frequencies and physiology of ecotypes within phytoplankton groups will affect their nutritional value and biogeochemical function. However, studies so far are based on a few representative genotypes from key species. Here, we measure changes in cellular function and growth rate at atmospheric CO2 concentrations predicted for the year 2100 in 16 ecotypes of the marine picoplankton Ostreococcus. We find that variation in plastic responses among ecotypes is on par with published between-genera variation, so the responses of one or a few ecotypes cannot estimate changes to the physiology or composition of a species under CO2 enrichment. We show that ecotypes best at taking advantage of CO2 enrichment by changing their photosynthesis rates most should increase in relative fitness, and so in frequency in a high-CO2 environment. Finally, information on sampling location, and not phylogenetic relatedness, is a good predictor of ecotypes likely to increase in frequency in this system.

  8. [Effect of medicinal plant extracts on the growth of microorganisms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baronets, N G; Adlova, G P; Mel'nikova, V A

    2001-01-01

    Extracts obtained from sweatweed and licorice roots, flax seeds, milfoil, bur-marigold, plantain, coltsfoot, nettle, Indian corn stigmas, laminaria produced a stimulating effect on the growth of Candida albicans test strain and Streptococcus pyogenes test strain Dick 1. Sweatweed, licorice, Aerva lanata and violet extracts influenced the growth of Corynebacterium xerosis 1911, while sweatweed, violet, horse-tail, bur-marigold, camomile, plantain, and nettle extracts influenced the growth of shigellae. The stimulating effect could be supposedly produced by biologically active substances contained in medicinal plants (organic acids, alkaloids, carotinoids, vitamins, microelements). Further studies aimed at the identification of substances producing the stimulating effect are planned.

  9. The Effect of Plant Supplements on the Development of Artificially Weaken Bee Families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu Al. Mărghitaş

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, infusions from nettle, thyme and Echinacea, fresh juice of onion and garlic, and Protofil (alcoholic extract of different plants enriched with vitamins and mineral elements, were used in supplementary feeding of artificially weaken bee families. Correlation between total phenolic content, total flavonoid content and antioxidant activity of the supplements used in honeybee feeding and uncapped, capped and total brood surface of experimental groups were established. The highest content of biologically active compounds exhibit nettle infusion, which present the most effective growth in field experiments.

  10. Dredging Operations Technical Support Program. Long-Term Monitoring of Habitat Development at Upland and Wetland Dredged Material Disposal Sites 1974-1982.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-07-01

    and insecticides , and the chlorinated hydrocarbon, Kepone, from an industrial site at Hopewell. 34. The area averages 112.3 cm of rainfall per year and...aster X X X X X . False indigo-bush X False nettle X X X - " Field mint X Flowering spiderwort X . Foxta.1l grass X Giant cutgrass X X X . %. Goose grass...Grape X x Green ash X X ’ Greenbriar X " Groundnut X X Halberd-leaved tearthuinb X Hedge bindweed X X Horse nettle X X , Indian hemp X Ironweed X Ivy

  11. Correlates between feeding ecology and mercury levels in historical and modern arctic foxes (Vulpes lagopus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Bocharova

    Full Text Available Changes in concentration of pollutants and pathogen distribution can vary among ecotypes (e.g. marine versus terrestrial food resources. This may have important implications for the animals that reside within them. We examined 1 canid pathogen presence in an endangered arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus population and 2 relative total mercury (THg level as a function of ecotype ('coastal' or 'inland' for arctic foxes to test whether the presence of pathogens or heavy metal concentration correlate with population health. The Bering Sea populations on Bering and Mednyi Islands were compared to Icelandic arctic fox populations with respect to inland and coastal ecotypes. Serological and DNA based pathogen screening techniques were used to examine arctic foxes for pathogens. THg was measured by atomic absorption spectrometry from hair samples of historical and modern collected arctic foxes and samples from their prey species (hair and internal organs. Presence of pathogens did not correlate with population decline from Mednyi Island. However, THg concentration correlated strongly with ecotype and was reflected in the THg concentrations detected in available food sources in each ecotype. The highest concentration of THg was found in ecotypes where foxes depended on marine vertebrates for food. Exclusively inland ecotypes had low THg concentrations. The results suggest that absolute exposure to heavy metals may be less important than the feeding ecology and feeding opportunities of top predators such as arctic foxes which may in turn influence population health and stability. A higher risk to wildlife of heavy metal exposure correlates with feeding strategies that rely primarily on a marine based diet.

  12. Correlates between feeding ecology and mercury levels in historical and modern arctic foxes (Vulpes lagopus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocharova, Natalia; Treu, Gabriele; Czirják, Gábor Árpád; Krone, Oliver; Stefanski, Volker; Wibbelt, Gudrun; Unnsteinsdóttir, Ester Rut; Hersteinsson, Páll; Schares, Gereon; Doronina, Lilia; Goltsman, Mikhail; Greenwood, Alex D

    2013-01-01

    Changes in concentration of pollutants and pathogen distribution can vary among ecotypes (e.g. marine versus terrestrial food resources). This may have important implications for the animals that reside within them. We examined 1) canid pathogen presence in an endangered arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus) population and 2) relative total mercury (THg) level as a function of ecotype ('coastal' or 'inland') for arctic foxes to test whether the presence of pathogens or heavy metal concentration correlate with population health. The Bering Sea populations on Bering and Mednyi Islands were compared to Icelandic arctic fox populations with respect to inland and coastal ecotypes. Serological and DNA based pathogen screening techniques were used to examine arctic foxes for pathogens. THg was measured by atomic absorption spectrometry from hair samples of historical and modern collected arctic foxes and samples from their prey species (hair and internal organs). Presence of pathogens did not correlate with population decline from Mednyi Island. However, THg concentration correlated strongly with ecotype and was reflected in the THg concentrations detected in available food sources in each ecotype. The highest concentration of THg was found in ecotypes where foxes depended on marine vertebrates for food. Exclusively inland ecotypes had low THg concentrations. The results suggest that absolute exposure to heavy metals may be less important than the feeding ecology and feeding opportunities of top predators such as arctic foxes which may in turn influence population health and stability. A higher risk to wildlife of heavy metal exposure correlates with feeding strategies that rely primarily on a marine based diet.

  13. Improving Marine Corps Assignment of SDAP Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Nettles , Colonel, USMC, M&RA (MPO). 15 Information Paper SDAP. 17 for a job or being able to fill the position at all, in addition to the potential to...Total 7850672.93 60132 130.557323 Root MSE = 6.2241... Root MSE = .26638 Adj R-squared = 0.0097 Residual 4577.29534 64507 .070958118

  14. 78 FR 47109 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Endangered Status for Physaria globosa (Short's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-02

    .... (dead nettle), Phacelia bipinnatifida (forest phacelia), Polygonatum biflorum (Solomon's seal), Sedum...-thickened roots with slender rhizomes. The stems are slender, erect, and up to 2 meters (m) (6 feet (ft... and root-tip chromosome counts by Matthews et al. (2002, pp. 17-23) validated this taxon's status as a...

  15. Multi-Domain Assembly of Nuclear Estrogen Receptors: Structural Insights into ER-Positive Breast Cancer Therapeutics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Nettles , K. W., Katzenellenbogen, B. S., Katzenellenbogen, J. A., Agard, D. A., and Greene, G. L. Structural characterization of a subtype-selective...lowest E12 within each cluster were chosen and used in the next clustering step. In the second root mean-square deviation (RMSD) clustering step, these

  16. American Resistance to Establishing a Standing Stability Operations Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    reaching impetuously for too many objectives at once... especially when a firm hold on the nettle looked like involving more casualties and a long... root out terrorism and to establish strong, sovereign governments.145 However, as American activities in Afghanistan and Iraq have made clear

  17. Photoinduced Partial Unfolding of Tubulin Bound to Meso-tetrakis(sulfonatophenyl) Porphyrin Leads to Inhibition of Microtubule Formation In Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-30

    Bio- chemistry 44, 524–536 (2005). [4] M. Loweneck, A. G. Milbradt, C. Root , H. Satzger, W. Zinth, L. Moroder, and C. Renner, Biophys. J. 90, 2099–2108...H. Nettles , B. Cornett, K. H. Downing, and E. Nogales, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 98, 5312–5316 (2001). B. McMicken et al.: Photoinduced unfolding of

  18. Final Environmental Assessment, Construct Antenna Parts Storage Facility, Upgrade Perimeter Security Fence and Demolish Camera Shed, Red River Air Force Space Surveillance Station (AFSSS), Lewisville, Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    root plowed for construction of the Installation. Now the Installation consists mostly of short grasses which are routinely mowed. Woods border...aristata* bracted plantain Rumex crispus* curly dock Setaria parviflora yellow bristlegrass Solanum carolinense* Carolina horse nettle Sorghum...the land was covered with a hardwood forest. The land was cleared and root plowed dur- ing construction of the Installation. Earthen platforms were

  19. Ashwagandha

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Q-10, fish oil, L-arginine, lyceum, stinging nettle, theanine, and others.Herbs/supplements with sleep-promoting ( ... BY MOUTH: For stress: Ashwagandha root extract (KSM66, Ixoreal Biomed, Hyderabad, India) 300 mg twice daily after food for 60 days.

  20. Phragmites Management at Times Beach, Buffalo, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    nettle Urtica dioica L. ssp dioica N RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Baseline data collected in summer 2012 was used to characterize the site (Table 3...because eighty percent of phragmites biomass is produced underground in the roots and rhizomes (Holm et al. 1977), and rhizomes can live for three to six

  1. Multiple-Optimizing Dynamic Sensor Networks with MIMO Technology (PREPRINT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    cluster edge is always d and never changes. A backbone is a rooted tree formed by cluster heads. The transmission distance for a backbone-edge...optimization considerations and algorithms,” IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, 2004. 15. T. Tang, M. Park, R. W. Heath, Jr. and Scott M. Nettles , “A

  2. Programmatic Environmental Assessment, 2007 General Plan for the Main Cantonment and the South Base Cantonment at Vandenberg Air Force Base, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-05

    cunicularia) and mountain plover (Charadrius montanus). Central Coast Scrub This vegetation type is characterized by shallow- rooted , mesophylic plant...Wild blackberry (Rubus ursinus), mugwort (Artemisia douglasiana), and stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) are common understory components of...feed until maturation. Upon maturation, larvae burrow into the soil and pupate, usually within the root and debris zone of the host plant (Mattoni

  3. Service-Oriented Access Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    root bridge for each VLAN, all such that traffic cost is minimized. Sung et al. define this cost as the sum of broadcast traffic, inter-VLAN data...Merlin,” in Proc. 12th ACM Workshop on Hot Topics in Networks, College Park, MD, 2013, pp. 24:1–24:7. [10] A. Voellmy and P. Hudak, “ Nettle : Taking the

  4. Scoping Report: AI-Driven Wargame Replicator

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    Connectionist Learning with Adaptive Rule Induction On-line (CLARION) CLARION, with its root in neural networks, is a hybrid architecture that incorporates...www.dsto.defence.gov.au/publications/2655/DSTO-TN-0534.pdf. [257] Stokes, A.E. and Kite, K. (2000). Op grasping a nettle and becoming emotional. In Peter A

  5. Using Active Networking to Detect and Troubleshoot Issues in Tactical Data Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    networking (SDN) paradigm, which has gained popularity in recent years, has its roots in the idea of programmable networks [6]. By extending the...278–289, Aug. 2011. 67 [13] M. Hicks, P. Kakkar, J. T. Moore, C. A. Gunter, and S. Nettles , “Plan: A programming language for active networks,” ACM

  6. The Experimental Study of Cultural Transmission: A Pilot Study on When and Who People Copy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    rooted in the formal evolutionary theory described above (Mesoudi, 2009). Thus while social psychology can provide immediate descriptions of the way... Nettle D, Roberts G. 2006. Cues of being watched enhance cooperation in a real-world setting. Biology Letters 2: 412-414. Bond R. 2005. Group Size

  7. The elusive constellations of poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breugelmans, Seger M; Plantinga, Arnoud; Zeelenberg, Marcel; Poluektova, Olga; Efremova, Maria

    2017-01-01

    Pepper & Nettle describe possible processes underlying what they call a behavioral constellation of deprivation (BCD). Although we are certain about the application of evolutionary models to our understanding of poverty, we are less certain about the utility of behavioral constellations. The empirical record on poverty-related behaviors is much more divergent and broad than such constellations suggest.

  8. Saw palmetto extracts potently and noncompetitively inhibit human alpha1-adrenoceptors in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goepel, M.; Hecker, U.; Krege, S.; Rübben, H.; Michel, M. C.

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We wanted to test whether phytotherapeutic agents used in the treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms have alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonistic properties in vitro. METHODS: Preparations of beta-sitosterol and extracts of stinging nettle, medicinal pumpkin, and saw palmetto were obtained

  9. Effect of a Galactagogue Herbal Tea on Breast Milk Production and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-02-07

    Feb 7, 2018 ... Background and Objectives: Poor breast milk production is the most frequent cause of breastfeeding failure in preterm babies. The aim of our study is to evaluate the effect of herbal tea mixture containing stinging nettle (Natal, Hipp) on breast milk production and serum prolactin levels of mothers, and ...

  10. Preliminary Feasibility Report (Stage 2), Review of Reports on Lorain Harbor, Ohio. Volume 2. Appendices. Revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-05-01

    casts for iron ore within the GL/SLS region. A recent downturn in the economic health of the domestic steel industry has probably deferred any major...emergents: Swamp rose mallow Hibiscus palustris Nettle Urtica sp. Nightshade Solanum dulcamara Hedge bindweed Convolvulus sepium Peppermint Mentha arvensis

  11. Finding of No Significant Impact: SLC-4 to SLC-6 Replacement Waterline Vandenberg Air Force Base, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-07-28

    marianum). stinging nettle (Urtica dioica). poison hemlock ( Conium maculatum ). poison oak and introduced grasses dominate the understory. This site is...thistle * Coni cos a pugioniformis Slender leaved iceplant * * C ’onium maculatum Poison hemlock * Coreopsis gigantean Giant coreopsis * * C ’ortaderia

  12. Effect of a Galactagogue Herbal Tea on Breast Milk Production and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background and Objectives: Poor breast milk production is the most frequent cause of breastfeeding failure in preterm babies. The aim of our study is to evaluate the effect of herbal tea mixture containing stinging nettle (Natal, Hipp) on breast milk production and serum prolactin levels of mothers, and weight gain of preterm ...

  13. The elusive constellations of poverty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breugelmans, S.M.; Plantinga, A.; Zeelenberg, M.; Poluektova, Olga; Efremova, Maria

    2018-01-01

    Pepper & Nettle describe possible processes underlying what they call a behavioral constellation of deprivation (BCD). Although we are certain about the application of evolutionary models to our understanding of poverty, we are less certain about the utility of behavioral constellations. The

  14. Environmental Assessment: Western Range Instrumentation Modernization Program Vandenberg Air Force Base, Santa Barbara County, and Pillar Point Air Force Station, San Mateo County California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-03

    Biological hazards, including vegetation (i.e., poison oak and stinging nettle ), animals (i.e., insects , spiders, and snakes), and disease vectors (i.e...such as animals ( insects , spiders, and snakes), and disease vectors (ticks and rodents). The Noise Control Act (NCA; 42 U.S.C. 4901 et seq

  15. Installation Development Environmental Assessment at Scott Air Force Base, Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-01

    canopy that is approximately 30 to 40 percent open. The understory of the Riparian Forest is relatively sparse; however, stinging nettle and white...forests. The species forages for insects along stream corridors, within the canopy of f1oodplain and upland forests, over clearings with early

  16. Environmental Impact Analysis Process. Environmental Assessment Air Force Small Launch Vehicle, Vandenberg Air Force Base, Edwards Air Force Base, and San Nicolas Island, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-05-01

    abundant throughout the Monterey Formation (Dibblee, 1950). Monterey rocks can also yield whale bones, fish fragments, insects , crabs, algae imprints...Carpobrotus edulis), rosilla (Helenium puberulum), coyote bush, and giant creek nettle (Urtica holosericea) (USAF, 1980). The existence of M. crispa...habitat for wildlife in Spring Canyon. Eucalyptus flowers produce large quantities of nectar, which is utilized by numerous insects and birds

  17. Sympatric diversification vs. immigration: deciphering host-plant specialization in a polyphagous insect, the stolbur phytoplasma vector Hyalesthes obsoletus (Cixiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imo, Miriam; Maixner, Michael; Johannesen, Jes

    2013-04-01

    The epidemiology of vector transmitted plant diseases is highly influenced by dispersal and the host-plant range of the vector. Widening the vector's host range may increase transmission potential, whereas specialization may induce specific disease cycles. The process leading to a vector's host shift and its epidemiological outcome is therefore embedded in the frameworks of sympatric evolution vs. immigration of preadapted populations. In this study, we analyse whether a host shift of the stolbur phytoplasma vector, Hyalesthes obsoletus from field bindweed to stinging nettle in its northern distribution range evolved sympatrically or by immigration. The exploitation of stinging nettle has led to outbreaks of the grapevine disease bois noir caused by a stinging nettle-specific phytoplasma strain. Microsatellite data from populations from northern and ancestral ranges provide strong evidence for sympatric host-race evolution in the northern range: Host-plant associated populations were significantly differentiated among syntopic sites (0.054 nettle-specific phytoplasma strain by plant-unspecific vectors. The evolution of host races in the northern range has led to specific vector-based bois noir disease cycles. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Reconnaissance Waccamaw River Basin North Carolina and South Carolina. Flood Control and Related Purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-01

    carota), horseweed (Erigeron canadensis), plantain (Plantago lanceolata, P. virginica, P. aristata), horse nettle (Solanum carolinense), dog fennel... insects that are used for food by the red-eyed vireo, scarlet tanager, tufted titmouse, common flicker, and various warblers. The abundant birds and...Detritivores, including immature stages of aquatic insects , small arthropods, and annelid worms, which thrive in this wetland community are consumed

  19. Rim of the Pacific (RIMPAC). Programmatic Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-06-01

    Honohono) E Hedyotis coriacea Leather leaf sweet ear (Kio’ele) E Melicope hawiaiensis (Alani) SOC Neraudia ovata Spotted nettle bush (Ma’aloa...taro, lotus, shrimp, and fish ponds) supplement existing habitat and provide important feeding habitat. Hawaiian ducks eat mollusks, insects , and

  20. Environmental Assessment for the Implementation of the Integrated Natural Resources Management Plan for 45th Space Wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-01

    melaleuca (Melaleuca quinquenervia), mistletoe (Phoradendron serotinum), and small populations of thistles (Cirsium spp.) and nettles (Urtica spp.) are...mainland properties depending on other seasonal base applications such as at the golf course or general base application for pest weeds/ insects

  1. Disinfection of vegetable seed by treatment with essential oils, organic acids and plant extract

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, van der J.M.; Birnbaum, Y.E.; Zouwen, van der P.S.; Groot, S.P.C.

    2008-01-01

    Various essential oils, organic acids, Biosept, (grapefruit extract), Tillecur and extracts of stinging nettle and golden rod were tested for their antimicrobial properties in order to disinfect vegetable seed. In in vitro assays, thyme oil, oregano oil, cinnamon oil, clove oil and Biosept had the

  2. Growing Backyard Textiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Eleanor Hall

    1975-01-01

    For those involved in creative work with textiles, the degree of control possible in texture, finish, and color of fiber by growing and processing one's own (perhaps with students' help) can make the experience rewarding. The author describes the processes for flax and nettles and gives tips on necessary equipment. (Author/AJ)

  3. Extraction and HPLC analysis of phenolic compounds in leaves, stalks, and textile fibers of Urtica dioica L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, Patrizia; Ieri, Francesca; Vignolini, Pamela; Bacci, Laura; Baronti, Silvia; Romani, Annalisa

    2008-10-08

    In the present study the phenolic composition of leaves, stalks, and textile fiber extracts from Urtica dioica L. is described. Taking into account the increasing demand for textile products made from natural fibers and the necessity to create sustainable "local" processing chains, an Italian project was funded to evaluate the cultivation of nettle fibers in the region of Tuscany. The leaves of two nettle samples, cultivated and wild (C and W), contain large amounts of chlorogenic and 2- O-caffeoylmalic acid, which represent 71.5 and 76.5% of total phenolics, respectively. Flavonoids are the main class in the stalks: 54.4% of total phenolics in C and 31.2% in W samples. Anthocyanins are second in quantitative importance and are present only in nettle stalks: 28.6% of total phenolics in C and 24.4% in W extracts. Characterization of phenolic compounds in nettle extracts is an important result with regard to the biological properties (antioxidant and antiradical) of these metabolites for their possible applications in various industrial activities, such as food/feed, cosmetics, phytomedicine, and textiles.

  4. Screening of autochthonous Lactobacillus species from Algerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJB2

    2012-03-08

    Mar 8, 2012 ... for increasing self-life storage and enhancing safety of food by using ... manufacturing of fermented food (Fitzsimmons et al.,. 1999; Badis et al., ...... Class IIa bacteriocins: biosynthesis, structure and activity. Microbiol. Rev. 24: .... World. J. Dairy Food. Sci. 1: 12-18. Nettles CG, Barefoot SF (1993). Biochemic ...

  5. Lower Mississippi River Environmental Program. Report 2. A Physical Description of Main Stem Levee Borrow Pits along the Lower Mississippi River

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-02-01

    Eastern cottonwood, green ash, sugarberry. box elder, bald cypress, willow honey locust, slippery elm , overcup oak and bitter pecan. Principle...vines and understory. Woody vegetation surrounds the borrow pit and consists of American and slippery elms , silver maple, black willow, cottonwood, pin...aquatica Water elm Ulmus rubra Slippery elm Urtica dioica Stinging nettle Vaccinium sp. Blueberry Vaccinium spp. Vaccinum Vernonia altissima Ironweed

  6. Evaluation of a root extract gel from Urtica dioica (Urticaceae) as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To develop and characterize an herbal gel prepared from methanol root extract of Urtica dioica (Urticaceae) (Stinging nettle) for the treatment of arthritis in mice. Methods: A methanol root extract from Urtica dioica was prepared, and a gel was then prepared using Carbopol 934. The prepared gel was subjected to ...

  7. The Medical NBC Battlebook

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-05-01

    Management of Chemical Casualties. 2. Introduction. Nerve agents are primarily organophosphorus esters similar to insecticides . Although some have...The action on the skin is immediate: phosgene oxime provokes irritation resembling that caused by a stinging nettle . CHEMICAL 5-37 5.11. Blood Agents

  8. Guide to Technical Documents. Volume I. May 1949 through December 1972

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-12-01

    tt t Nettl Pretervat ive, Oct 1960, I. S. Ztblodil, 1. I. Joerding. AD 2A«»2 A fill of Teflon «at applied to aott corrodibl...organotin coapounda protected aatchaiicka froa aarine borera for a long time, but mercury coapounda, organic dye!, organic insecticide !, ailver

  9. Remedial Investigation Report for Lake City Army Ammunition Plant. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-06-01

    4.2.l8 4,-Dichlorobenzene 1,4-Dichlorobenzene is a solid used as an air deodorant and as an insecticide . EPA (1987) reports that 100% of an oral dose...sumac, and wild grapevine are also found within the woodlands. Common weed species include blackeyed susan, bull thistle, Carolina horse nettle , chickweed

  10. Purchase of Microwave Reactors for Implementation of Small-scale Microwave-accelerated Organic Chemistry Laboratory Program in Undergraduate Curriculum and Synthetic Chemistry Research at HU

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-16

    and S. Shaun Murphree Journal of Chemical Education 2009 86 (2), 227 19. Microwave-Assisted Synthesis of a Natural Insecticide on Basic...NMR Spectroscopy and Molecular Modeling Roosevelt Shaw, Ashika Severin, Miguel Balfour, and Columbus Nettles Journal of Chemical Education 2005 82

  11. Environmental Compliance Assessment System (ECAS). Kentucky Supplement (Revised)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-02-01

    FEDERAL INSECTICIDE , FUNGICIDE, AND RODENTICIDE ACT (FIFRA) Kentucky Supplement Derfmitions The following definitions are taken from the Kentucky...Hedge- nettle s Stellaria 1ongifolia Switchwort s Streptopus roseus Twisted Stalk e Styrax grandifolia Storax s Sullivantia sullivantii Sullivant’s

  12. co-seismic grace gravity based 11-layered 3-d thrust fault model for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    30

    It honours co-seismic deformation of ocean surface, ocean ... has caused great damage (Sumatra earthquake 2004 Wikipedia) when the Indian Plate ..... Gokula, A P, Sastry R G (2015a) Gravitational attraction of a vertical pyramid model of flat ... Journal. 14, 1-21. Lay T, Kanamori H, Ammon CJ, Nettles M, Ward SN, Aster ...

  13. Use of a Whole-Cell Biosensor and Flow Cytometry to Detect AHL Production by an Indigenous Soil Community During Decomposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burmølle, Mette; Hansen, Lars Hestbjerg; Sørensen, Søren Johannes

    2005-01-01

    originating from Vibrio fischeri. This resulted in a whole-cell biosensor, responding to the presence of AHL compounds. The biosensor was introduced to compost soil microcosms amended with nettle leaves. After 3 days of incubation, cells were extracted and analyzed by flow cytometry. All microcosms contained...

  14. Measured deposition velocities and rainout coefficients after the Chernobyl accident compared with theoretical models and experimental data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonka, H.; Horn, H.G.; Maqua, M.

    1988-01-01

    The determination of different radioecological parameters for the calculation of the transport of radionuclides in the environment was, besides radiation protection measurements, an important aim of the post Chernobyl measurements in Aachen. As the growth had just begun, the only vegetations which allowed extensive deposition measurements during the first days were grass and stinging nettles

  15. Disruption of Darna pallivitta (Lepidoptera:Limacodidae) by conventional and mobile pheromone deployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettle caterpillar, Darna pallivitta (Moore) (Lepidoptera: Limacodidae), is an invasive pest with established populations on three Hawai’ian islands. Indigenous to Southeast Asia, D. pallivitta caterpillars defoliate ornamentals and pose a human health hazard due to urticating hairs that can cause p...

  16. The effect of L-carnitine on carbonic anhydrase level in rats exposed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-07-06

    Jul 6, 2009 ... effects of dantrolene on carbonic anhydrase enzyme activities. Biol. Pharm. Bull. 27: 613-616. Gülçin I, Küfrevioğlu Öİ, Oktay M (2005). Purification and characterization of polyphenol oxidase from nettle (Urtica dioica L.) and inhibition effects of some chemicals on the enzyme activity. J. Enzym. Inhib. Med.

  17. PLANT DERMATITIS IN THE SOUTHERN TRANSVAAL*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    le bush stinging-nettle may be encountered in bush ps in Southern Transvaal veld. vo patients with seasonal rashes of the face suggestive lant dermatitis were seen in this series, but no definite es were found. MANAGEMENT. ~rential Diagnosis mditions seen in the survey period which could be used with plant dermatitis ...

  18. Determination of Fe and Zn in healing plants by radionuclide X-ray fluorescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harangozo, M.; Toelgyessy, J.; Tomecek, O.; Ruzicka, I.; Cejpek, K.

    1999-01-01

    Radionuclide X-ray fluorescence method was used for the determination of Fe and Zn in healing plants (Sage, Peppermint, Stinging, Common Agrimony, Milfoil, Ribwort, Tansy, White Dead-Nettle). 238 Pu exciting source and Si/Li semiconductor detector were used for the determination. (author)

  19. Tickle with a feather

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dip a handful of fresh stinging nettle leaves in water, pound in a mortar, squeeze in a wringing cloth, and squirt the liquid up the nostril with a small syringe. Does a member of your family suffer from knock-knees? Well, Mr Beeton has a recorded testimony from a satisfied correspondent who was once badly knock-kneed and ...

  20. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract PDF · Vol 104, No 7 (2014) - Articles Certificate of Need: Legal nightmare in the making? Abstract PDF · Vol 104, No 6 (2014) - Articles E Cape illegal immune-booster given 'false' approval – officials suspended. Abstract PDF · Vol 104, No 6 (2014) - Articles SAMA grasps the racial nettle, winning huge majority vote

  1. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arzu

    Antioxidant, antimicrobial, antiulcer and analgesic activities of nettle (Urtica dioica L.). J. Ethnopharmacol. 90: 205-215. 15. Hao, G., Yuan, Y.M., Hu, C.M., Ge, X.J. and Zhao, N.X. (2004). Molecular phylogeny of Lysimachia (Myrsinaceae) based on chloroplast. trnL-F and nuclear ribosomal ITS sequences. Mol. Phylogenet.

  2. Urticaria due to Urtica dioica in a neonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uslu, Sinan; Bulbul, Ali; Diler, Betul; Bas, Evrim Kiray; Nuhoglu, Asiye

    2011-03-01

    Urticaria is one of the most common dermatoses during the childhood, but it is very rare in the neonates. A 17-day-old infant with a generalized urticaria was admitted to our pediatric emergency unit. The mother of the infant reported having applied water boiled with stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) onto her nipples twice a day (before and after each breastfeeding) for 2 days in order to heal her nipple cracks. Serum total immunoglobulin E (IgE) and specific IgE levels for stinging nettle were high in the infant and the mother. The rashes began to regress within the first day of the hospitalization and disappeared completely on the second day without treatment. The skin prick test with the water boiled with stinging nettle was positive for the infant with significant induration, but not for the mother. Conclusion Reporting the first urticaria case in newborns due to stinging nettle, the authors suggest that breastfeeding mothers should always consult a physician before using skincare products.

  3. Language, Epistemology, and Cultural Identity: "Hopiqatsit Aw Unangvakiwyungwa" ("They Have Their Heart in the Hopi Way of Life")

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, Sheilah E.

    2010-01-01

    Daniel Nettle and Suzanne Romaine in "Vanishing Voices: The Extinction of the World's Languages" state that indigenous peoples represent about 4 percent of the world's population but speak at least 60 percent of the world's languages. They point out the reality of an ominous linguistic crisis of global proportions--languages die and continue to…

  4. Seismicity pattern in north Sumatra– Great Nicobar region: In search ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Eguchi T, Uyeda S and Maki T 1979 Seismotectonics and tectonic history of Andaman sea; Tectonophys. 57 35–51. Gupta H 2005 Mega-Tsunami of 26th December 2004: Indian initiative for early warning system and mitigation of oceanogenic hazards; Episode 28 1–5. Lay T, Kanamori H, Ammon C J, Nettles M, Ward S N,.

  5. A demonstration of mobile phone deployment to support the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A demonstration of mobile phone deployment to support the treatment of acutely ill children under five in Bushenyi district, Uganda. Jerome Kabakyenga, Celestine Barigye, Jennifer Brenner, Samuel Maling, Denise Buchner, Alberto Nettle-Aquirre, Nalini Singhal, Teddy Kyomuhangi, David Tumusiime, Janet Finch, Stuart ...

  6. Study on antioxidant activity of Echinacea purpurea L. extracts and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-10-05

    Oct 5, 2009 ... capacity changes and phenolic profile of Echinacea purpurea, nettle. (Urtica dioica L.), and dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) after application of polyamine and phenolic biosynthesis regulators. J. Agric. Food Chem. 55: 5689-5696. Kaiser MG, Cheeseman JH, Kaiser P, Lamont SJ (2006). Cytokine.

  7. Japanese electric utilities call for IPP capacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffs, E.

    1997-03-01

    Japan`s ten power utilities have finally grasped the nettle, and called in IPPs to supply at least 3 GW of new capacity in each of the next ten years. The first twenty schemes awarded last year are all based on existing industrial energy producers, and consist mainly of coal- or oil-fired plants of 150 MW or less. 1 tab.

  8. Medicinal plants used in traditional herbal medicine in the province ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: The nettle was the medicinal plant employed for more different illness and the chamomile was the one with higher prevalence. We could confirm that the Native Ecuadorians have a vast variety of traditions and popular medicinal practices that have great value and are needed to be researched and studied ...

  9. Eskişehir'de Halk Arasında Kullanılan Bazı Bitkilerdeki Ağır Metal ve Besin Elementlerinin Belirlenmesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hale SEÇİLMİŞ CANBAY

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the leaves of sheep sorrel (Rumex acetosella L, nettle (Urtica dioica L, rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L. and walnut (Juglansregia L. that are used as medicinal plant and especially as food were collected from the gardens and their commercial samples were purchased from Eskişehir bazaar

  10. Biological and technological effects of some mulberry varieties and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    egyptian hak

    elder, elm, rose, blackberry, nettle, willow-herb, and hogweed, and in August two new aphids. (apple and dock) were added to the list of hosts of this syrphid. Peak abundances were on willow-herb aphids in July and hogweed aphids in August. No E. balteatus larvae were collected from any aphid in September or October.

  11. Genetic Variability of Stolbur Phytoplasma in Hyalesthes obsoletus (Hemiptera: Cixiidae) and its Main Host Plants in Vineyard Agroecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landi, Lucia; Riolo, Paola; Murolo, Sergio; Romanazzi, Gianfranco; Nardi, Sandro; Isidoro, Nunzio

    2015-08-01

    Bois noir is an economically important grapevine yellows that is induced by 'Candidatus Phytoplasma solani' and principally vectored by the planthopper Hyalesthes obsoletus Signoret (Hemiptera: Cixiidae). This study explores the 'Ca. P. solani' genetic variability associated to the nettle-H. obsoletus and bindweed-H. obsoletus systems in vineyard agroecosystems of the central-eastern Italy. Molecular characterization of 'Ca. P. solani' isolates was carried out using polymerase chain reaction/restriction fragment length polymorphism to investigate the nonribosomal vmp1 gene. Seven phytoplasma vmp-types were detected among the host plants- and insect-associated field-collected samples. The vmp1 gene showed the highest polymorphism in the bindweed-H. obsoletus system, according to restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis, which is in agreement with nucleotide sequence analysis. Five vmp-types were associated with H. obsoletus from bindweed, of which one was solely restricted to planthoppers, with one genotype also in planthoppers from nettle. Type V12 was the most prevalent in both planthoppers and bindweed. H. obsoletus from nettle harbored three vmp-types, of which V3 was predominant. V3 was the only type detected for nettle. Our data demonstrate that planthoppers might have acquired some 'Ca. P. solani' profiles from other plant hosts before landing on nettle or bindweed. Overall, the different vmp1 gene rearrangements observed in these two plant hosts-H. obsoletus systems might represent different adaptations of the pathogen to the two host plants. Molecular information about the complex of vmp-types provides useful data for better understanding of Bois noir epidemiology in vineyard agroecosystem. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Salinity stress and some physiological relationships in Kochia (Kochia scoparia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafar Nabati

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Soil salinity is one of the major abiotic stresses affecting plant growth and production. It is estimated that approximately half of the irrigated lands of Iran are affected by salinity and much of the agricultural lands of Iran especially in the central regions are susceptible to salinity. According to the development of saline soils and water resources, utilization of halophytes as alternatives for cultivation in saline conditions could be a suitable strategy to crop production. In addition to understanding the physiological salinity tolerance pathways, studying such crops could help to plant breeding and transferring these useful traits to crop species and also domestication of these plants. Materials and methods This experiment was conducted in 2009-2010 in Salinity Research Station of faculty of agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad as split-plot based on Complete Randomized Block Design with three replications. Salinity as the main plot had two levels of 5.2 and 16.5 dSm-1 and five kochia ecotypes including Birjand, Urmia, Borujerd, Esfahan and Sabzevar were allocated as sub-plot. Seedlings were irrigated with saline water having electrical conductivity (EC of 5.2 dSm-1 until the full establishment and thereafter salinity stress was imposed with saline water having EC=16.5 dSm-1. Physiological and biochemical traits were measured in the youngest fully expanded leaf at the beginning of the anthesis and shoot biomass at the end of the growth season. Data analysis was performed using Minitab 16 and means were compared by LSD test at a significance level of 0.05. Results and Discussion Results indicated that biomass was increased in Birjand, Isfahan and Urmia ecotypes as salinity level increased while it was decreased in Sabzevar and Boroujerd ecotypes. A reduction of 34, 31, 11 and 29 percentage and an increase of 4 percentage in seed yield was seen in Sabzevar, Birjand, Boroujerd, Urmia and Isfahan, respectively. Harvest

  13. Analysis of DNA methylation in Arabidopsis thaliana based on methylation-sensitive AFLP markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervera, M T; Ruiz-García, L; Martínez-Zapater, J M

    2002-12-01

    AFLP analysis using restriction enzyme isoschizomers that differ in their sensitivity to methylation of their recognition sites has been used to analyse the methylation state of anonymous CCGG sequences in Arabidopsis thaliana. The technique was modified to improve the quality of fingerprints and to visualise larger numbers of scorable fragments. Sequencing of amplified fragments indicated that detection was generally associated with non-methylation of the cytosine to which the isoschizomer is sensitive. Comparison of EcoRI/ HpaII and EcoRI/ MspI patterns in different ecotypes revealed that 35-43% of CCGG sites were differentially digested by the isoschizomers. Interestingly, the pattern of digestion among different plants belonging to the same ecotype is highly conserved, with the rate of intra-ecotype methylation-sensitive polymorphisms being less than 1%. However, pairwise comparisons of methylation patterns between samples belonging to different ecotypes revealed differences in up to 34% of the methylation-sensitive polymorphisms. The lack of correlation between inter-ecotype similarity matrices based on methylation-insensitive or methylation-sensitive polymorphisms suggests that whatever the mechanisms regulating methylation may be, they are not related to nucleotide sequence variation.

  14. Outlier Loci Detect Intraspecific Biodiversity amongst Spring and Autumn Spawning Herring across Local Scales.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorte Bekkevold

    Full Text Available Herring, Clupea harengus, is one of the ecologically and commercially most important species in European northern seas, where two distinct ecotypes have been described based on spawning time; spring and autumn. To date, it is unknown if these spring and autumn spawning herring constitute genetically distinct units. We assessed levels of genetic divergence between spring and autumn spawning herring in the Baltic Sea using two types of DNA markers, microsatellites and Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms, and compared the results with data for autumn spawning North Sea herring. Temporally replicated analyses reveal clear genetic differences between ecotypes and hence support reproductive isolation. Loci showing non-neutral behaviour, so-called outlier loci, show convergence between autumn spawning herring from demographically disjoint populations, potentially reflecting selective processes associated with autumn spawning ecotypes. The abundance and exploitation of the two ecotypes have varied strongly over space and time in the Baltic Sea, where autumn spawners have faced strong depression for decades. The results therefore have practical implications by highlighting the need for specific management of these co-occurring ecotypes to meet requirements for sustainable exploitation and ensure optimal livelihood for coastal communities.

  15. Reduction of sexual dimorphism in stream-resident forms of three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitano, J.; Mori, S.; Peichel, C. L.

    2013-01-01

    Sexual dimorphism in geometric body shape and external morphology was compared between marine and stream-resident forms of three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus collected from North America and Japan. Some aspects of sexual dimorphism were shared between ecotypes: males had larger heads than females with no significant effect of ecotype on the magnitude of sexual dimorphism. By contrast, a significant sex-by-ecotype interaction was found for body depth. Males tended to have deeper bodies than females in both forms, but the magnitude of sexual dimorphism was reduced in stream-resident forms. Although females were generally larger in standard length and had larger pelvic girdles, significant sexual dimorphism in these traits was not consistently found across populations or ecotypes. These results suggest that some aspects of sexual dimorphism were shared between ecotypes, while others were unique to each population. The results further suggest that ecology may influence the evolution of sexual dimorphism in some external morphological traits, such as body depth. PMID:22220894

  16. Genetic relatedness among indigenous rice varieties in the Eastern Himalayan region based on nucleotide sequences of the Waxy gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Baharul I; Khan, Mohammed L; Dayanandan, Selvadurai

    2014-12-29

    Indigenous rice varieties in the Eastern Himalayan region of Northeast India are traditionally classified into sali, boro and jum ecotypes based on geographical locality and the season of cultivation. In this study, we used DNA sequence data from the Waxy (Wx) gene to infer the genetic relatedness among indigenous rice varieties in Northeast India and to assess the genetic distinctiveness of ecotypes. The results of all three analyses (Bayesian, Maximum Parsimony and Neighbor Joining) were congruent and revealed two genetically distinct clusters of rice varieties in the region. The large group comprised several varieties of sali and boro ecotypes, and all agronomically improved varieties. The small group consisted of only traditionally cultivated indigenous rice varieties, which included one boro, few sali and all jum varieties. The fixation index analysis revealed a very low level of differentiation between sali and boro (F(ST) = 0.005), moderate differentiation between sali and jum (F(ST) = 0.108) and high differentiation between jum and boro (F(ST) = 0.230) ecotypes. The genetic relatedness analyses revealed that sali, boro and jum ecotypes are genetically heterogeneous, and the current classification based on cultivation type is not congruent with the genetic background of rice varieties. Indigenous rice varieties chosen from genetically distinct clusters could be used in breeding programs to improve genetic gain through heterosis, while maintaining high genetic diversity.

  17. The contribution of post-copulatory mechanisms to incipient ecological speciation in sticklebacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, Joshka; Eizaguirre, Christophe; Milinski, Manfred; Lenz, Tobias L

    2015-01-01

    Ecology can play a major role in species diversification. As individuals are adapting to contrasting habitats, reproductive barriers may evolve at multiple levels. While pre-mating barriers have been extensively studied, the evolution of post-mating reproductive isolation during early stages of ecological speciation remains poorly understood. In diverging three-spined stickleback ecotypes from two lakes and two rivers, we observed differences in sperm traits between lake and river males. Interestingly, these differences did not translate into ecotype-specific gamete precedence for sympatric males in competitive in vitro fertilization experiments, potentially owing to antagonistic compensatory effects. However, we observed indirect evidence for impeded development of inter-ecotype zygotes, possibly suggesting an early stage of genetic incompatibility between ecotypes. Our results show that pre-zygotic post-copulatory mechanisms play a minor role during this first stage of ecotype divergence, but suggest that genetic incompatibilities may arise at early stages of ecological speciation. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  18. Studies on the yield and quality characteristics of Myrtle (Myrtus communis L. grown in two different ecologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halil İbrahim UZUN

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Myrtle is a typical Mediterranean plant. Myrtles plants with white colored and large fruit sized are cultivated in southern coasts of Turkey and named as Hambeles. Black myrtles are naturally grown in the forests and they have smaller fruit size when compared to Hambeles. Main objective of this study was to investigate the yield and quality parameters of some newly selected 3 black myrtle ecotypes (Yakup, Yumaklar, Islangıc and one white myrtle cultivar (Hambeles in upland and lowland ecological conditions in Antalya. Yields, physical and chemical characters of fruits and essential oil composition of leaves were recorded for all plants. Two experimental orchards were established in coastal and highland conditions in Antalya. Highest fruit weight of black myrtles was measured as 0.76 g fruit-1 in Yakup ecotypes in highland and as 0.92 g fruit-1 in Yumaklar ecotypes in lowland. There were no differences among ecotypes in terms of fruit removal force. Fruit yield per tree increased up to 9.2 kg in black myrtle in lowland. Highest perfect seed numbers in myrtle plants were measured in Hambeles ecotype as 19.83 seeds fruit-1. Fruit juice yield ranged from 29.6 to 35.0%. Amount of malic acid in fruit was higher than that of other organic acids. α-pinene and 1,8-cineole were main essential oil components of myrtle leaves.

  19. ANÁLISIS DE LA DIVERSIDAD GENÉTICA DE LA MORA (Rubus spp. EN EL DEPARTAMENTO DE BOYACÁ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MÓNICA YADIRA DOTOR ROBAYO

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A simple of 21 Rubus spp genetic ecotypes were characterized using markers Random Microsatellite RAMs. The seven primers produced a total of 160 polymorphic bands with molecular weights between 350 and 1500 Kb. RAMs analysis at a level of 55% similarity distinguished the population into five groups generally agree to the site where the ecotypes were collected. The number of polymorphic loci ranged from 16 (ACA to 27 (CGA. For the total population the percentage of polymorphic loci and the expected average heterozygosity (He were 88% and 0,29, respectively, much lower than values found in other genetic diversity studies in the genus Rubus. Therefore, strategies must be found to increase genetic variability. The coefficient of genetic differentiation (Fst obtained in evaluating ecotypes Rubus, with seven RAMs microsatellite markers was 0,29 with a standard deviation of 0,03, values showing high genetic differentiation, which is associated with the level of population structure it tends to stabilize

  20. Specialization of Bacillus in the Geochemically Challenged Environment of Death Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopac, S.

    2014-04-01

    Death Valley is the hottest, driest place in North America, a desert with soils containing toxic elements such as boron and lead. While most organisms are unable to survive under these conditions, a diverse community of bacteria survives here. What has enabled bacteria to adapt and thrive in a plethora of extreme and stressful environments where other organisms are unable to grow? The unique environmental adaptations that distinguish ecologically distinct bacterial groups (ecotypes) remain a mystery, in contrast to many animal species (perhaps most notably Darwin's ecologically distinct finch species). We resolve the ecological factors associated with recently diverged ecotypes of the soil bacteria Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus licheniformis, isolated from the dry, geochemically challenging soils of Death Valley, CA. To investigate speciation associated with challenging environmental parameters, we sampled soil transects along a 400m stretch that parallels a decrease in salinity adjacent to a salt flat; transects also encompass gradients in soil B, Cu, Fe, NO3, and P, all of which were quantified in our soil samples. We demarcated strains using Ecotype Simulation, a sequence-based algorithm. Each ecotype's habitat associations were determined with respect to salinity, B, Cu, Fe, NO3, and P. In addition, our sample strains were tested for tolerance of copper, boron and salinity (all known to inhibit growth at high concentrations) by comparing their growth over a 20 hour period. Ecotypes differed in their habitat associations with salinity, boron, copper, iron, and other ecological factors; these environmental dimensions are likely causing speciation of B. subtilis-licheniformis ecotypes at our sample site. Strains also differed in tolerance of boron and copper, providing evidence that our sequence-based demarcations reflect real differences in metabolism. By better understanding the relationship between bacterial speciation and the environment, we can begin to

  1. Genetic and histological studies on the delayed systemic movement of Tobacco Mosaic Virus in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matus José

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Viral infections and their spread throughout a plant require numerous interactions between the host and the virus. While new functions of viral proteins involved in these processes have been revealed, current knowledge of host factors involved in the spread of a viral infection is still insufficient. In Arabidopsis thaliana, different ecotypes present varying susceptibilities to Tobacco mosaic virus strain U1 (TMV-U1. The rate of TMV-U1 systemic movement is delayed in ecotype Col-0 when compared with other 13 ecotypes. We followed viral movement through vascular tissue in Col-0 plants by electronic microscopy studies. In addition, the delay in systemic movement of TMV-U1 was genetically studied. Results TMV-U1 reaches apical leaves only after 18 days post rosette inoculation (dpi in Col-0, whereas it is detected at 9 dpi in the Uk-4 ecotype. Genetic crosses between Col-0 and Uk-4 ecotypes, followed by analysis of viral movement in F1 and F2 populations, revealed that this delayed movement correlates with a recessive, monogenic and nuclear locus. The use of selected polymorphic markers showed that this locus, denoted DSTM1 (Delayed Systemic Tobamovirus Movement 1, is positioned on the large arm of chromosome II. Electron microscopy studies following the virion's route in stems of Col-0 infected plants showed the presence of curved structures, instead of the typical rigid rods of TMV-U1. This was not observed in the case of TMV-U1 infection in Uk-4, where the observed virions have the typical rigid rod morphology. Conclusion The presence of defectively assembled virions observed by electron microscopy in vascular tissue of Col-0 infected plants correlates with a recessive delayed systemic movement trait of TMV-U1 in this ecotype.

  2. Insulin-like signaling (IIS) responses to temperature, genetic background, and growth variation in garter snakes with divergent life histories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reding, Dawn M; Addis, Elizabeth A; Palacios, Maria G; Schwartz, Tonia S; Bronikowski, Anne M

    2016-07-01

    The insulin/insulin-like signaling pathway (IIS) has been shown to mediate life history trade-offs in mammalian model organisms, but the function of this pathway in wild and non-mammalian organisms is understudied. Populations of western terrestrial garter snakes (Thamnophis elegans) around Eagle Lake, California, have evolved variation in growth and maturation rates, mortality senescence rates, and annual reproductive output that partition into two ecotypes: "fast-living" and "slow-living". Thus, genes associated with the IIS network are good candidates for investigating the mechanisms underlying ecological divergence in this system. We reared neonates from each ecotype for 1.5years under two thermal treatments. We then used qPCR to compare mRNA expression levels in three tissue types (brain, liver, skeletal muscle) for four genes (igf1, igf2, igf1r, igf2r), and we used radioimmunoassay to measure plasma IGF-1 and IGF-2 protein levels. Our results show that, in contrast to most mammalian model systems, igf2 mRNA and protein levels exceed those of igf1 and suggest an important role for igf2 in postnatal growth in reptiles. Thermal rearing treatment and recent growth had greater impacts on IGF levels than genetic background (i.e., ecotype), and the two ecotypes responded similarly. This suggests that observed ecotypic differences in field measures of IGFs may more strongly reflect plastic responses in different environments than evolutionary divergence. Future analyses of additional components of the IIS pathway and sequence divergence between the ecotypes will further illuminate how environmental and genetic factors influence the endocrine system and its role in mediating life history trade-offs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Population variability of triple symbiotic system: Paramecium bursaria-zoochlorella-and algophages

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    Konstantin V Kvitko

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The triple symbiotic system (TSS: P. bursaria-Chlorella-Chlorovirus, was studied. In Eurasia we found only 2 forms TSS, named N, northern and S, southern ecotypes. Each ecotype manifested at 32°C ts (N-or tr (S-phenotypes. In northeren parts of P. bursaria areals, from Karelia up to Kamchatka, near Baikal and in Armenia highlands, we find only ts-viruses, in Central Asia - only tr-types. Two types of genome characters were shown by PCR of 18 S RNA-genes. According all this characters populations of zoochlorella in P. bursaria - 2 clones of obligate symbionts

  4. The influence of ecology on sociality in the killer whale (Orcinus orca)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck, Suzanne; Kuningas, Sanna; Esteban, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    a population under different ecological conditions can identify the relative influence of ecological selection on group formation. Here, we compare the size and persistence of social groups within a community of Atlantic killer whales, comparing between data collected from an area around Scotland where......-eating ecotype than the more phylogenetically distant Pacific mammal-eating ecotype. Our study suggests that sociality in killer whales is to some extent plastic and can be adapted to the local ecological conditions. Key words: ecology, killer whale, orca, orcinus, sociality....

  5. ORANG MADURA: SUATU TINJAUAN ANTROPOLOGIS

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    Totok Rochana

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Ecologically, Madura Island has dry ecotype in a tropical weather, limy land, low rainfall, and low soil productivity. This condition contributes to shaping Maduraneses’ unique characters, not only in social relations but also moral economy. The Madura habitation pattern of tanean lanjang is a form of social unit creating self-confident individuals and community relations based on individualistic spirit. Ecological limitations makes Maduraneses trust not land ethics but labour ethics. The individualistic and self-confident characters result in Madura’s social and moral economic relations with simple, hardworking, deligent, thrifty, and religious individuals. Key words: dry ecotype, habitation pattern, social relations, moral economy

  6. INFLUENCE OF HERBAL EXTRACTS ON METABOLIC DISTURBANCES IN DIABETES MELLITUS AND INSULIN RESISTANCE MODEL

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    T. V. Yakimova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to assess the influence on metabolic processes of herbal extracts, used in diets with different fat content, in diabetes mellitus and insulin resistance model.Material and methods. The experiments were performing on 90 noninbred male albino rats. Diabetes mellitus was modeling with twice-repeated intraperitoneal streptozotocine (30 mg/kg injections. For the insulin resistance formation animals were fad meal with 30% fat content. Against the background rats were administering into the stomach nettle leafs (Urtica dioica L., 100 mg/kg, burdock roots (Arctium lappa L., 25 mg/kg extracts or intraperitoneal insulin preparation Actrapide HM Penfill (3 mg/kg daily during 10 days. During period of agents introduction one-half of animals continued to receive food with high fat content, the other half received diet with 8% fat content. The third rats group received only food with low fat content without extracts or insulin administration. In blood was measured the glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, creatinine, urea, uric acid content, in liver homogenates – glycogen, protein content, aminotransferases and glucose-6phosphatase activity, in muscle homogenates – glycogen and protein content.Results. After streptozotocine injections and diet with 30% fat content the blood glucose level became by 4.0–5.3 fold more than level of intact animals, increased the hemoglobin glycosylation, also creatinine, urea, uric acid blood content, in liver and muscle homogenates raised glycogen content, decreased protein quantity, in liver homogenates increased aminotranferases and glucose-6-phosphatase activity. In animals only feeding with 8% fat diminished hyperglycemia, creatinine blood retention, the liver glycogen content and recovered its protein resources. The nettle or burdock extracts administrating to animals that continued to receive high fat meal decreased the blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin and creatinine content, the liver

  7. Antibacterial Activity of Different Plant Extracts and Phenolic Phytochemicals Tested on Paenibacillus Larvae Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu Mărghitaş

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Paenibacillus larvae, a Gram-positive and spore-forming bacterium is responsible for American foulbrood disease inbees. The antimicrobial activity of different plant extracts and phenolic phytochemical was evaluated onPaenibacillus larvae bacteria. In addition possible correlation with antioxidant activity of the same plant extracts wasstudied. Extracts of the following plants were utilized: Achillea millefolium (yarrow, Ocimum basilicum (basil,Thymus vulgaris (thyme and Urtica dioica (nettle. The extracts that showed antimicrobial activity were later testedto determine the Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC. Although nettle present the lowest polyphenolic contentcompared with the other plant extracts, exhibit the highest antimicrobial activity, measured as the inhibition zoneusing Mueller-Hinton agar plates. Basil presented both polyphenolic content and antimicrobial activity at higherlevels, while thyme had the lowest antimicrobial activity, even it present high amount of polyphenols.

  8. Effects of Construction of the Digital Multipurpose Range Complex (DMPRC) on Riparian and Stream Ecosystems at Fort Benning, Georgia. Addendum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    root dynamics in riparian forests. Soil Science Society of America 69(3):729-737. Houser, J. N., P. J. Mulholland, and K. O. Maloney. 2006. Upland...Forested Wetlands, D. M. Amatya and J. Nettles (eds). New Bern, NC. American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers, St. Joseph, MI...primary productivity, vegetation composition, structure, and fine root dynamics in riparian forests. Kelly O. Maloney, Ph.D. in Biological Sciences

  9. EPR spectra induced by gamma-irradiation of some dry medical herbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yordanov, N. D.; Lagunov, O.; Dimov, K.

    2009-04-01

    The radiation-induced EPR spectra in some medical herbs are reported. The samples studied are: (i) leaves of nettle, common balm, peppermint and thyme; (ii) stalks of common balm, thyme, milfoil, yarrow and marigold; (iii) blossoms of yarrow and marigold; (iv) blossoms and leaves of hawthorn and tutsan; and (v) roots of common valerian, nettle, elecampane (black and white), restharrows and carlina. Before irradiation all samples exhibit one weak anisotropic singlet EPR line with effective g-value of 2.0050±0.0002. The radiation-induced spectra fall into three groups. EPR spectra of irradiated blossoms of yarrow and marigold, stalks of common balm, thyme, tutsan and yarrow as well as roots of common valerian, nettle and elecampane (black and white) show "cellulose-like" EPR spectrum typical for irradiated plants. It is characterized by one intense central line with g=2.0050±0.0005 and two weak satellite lines situated ca. 30 G left and right to it. EPR spectra of gamma-irradiated restharrows and carlina are complex. They may be represented by one triplet corresponding to the "cellulose-like" EPR spectrum, one relatively intense singlet, situated in the center of the spectrum, and five weak additional satellite lines left and right to the center. The last spectrum was assigned as "carbohydrate-like" type. Only one intense EPR singlet with g=2.0048±0.0005 was recorded after irradiation of leaves of nettle and common balm. The lifetime of the radiation-induced EPR spectra was followed for a period of 3 months.

  10. Modeling the Combined Effects of Deterministic and Statistical Structure for Optimization of Regional Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-30

    e.g., MDAC, Taylor et al., 2002). Many examples, however, have been collected in which sharp gradients in the Moho depth, mountain roots , and deep...Lateral variations in crustal thickness, basin depths, mountain roots , and lateral tectonic transitions significantly affect the phases used for...seismic stations and networks. Sykes and Nettles (2009) found that more than half of the earthquakes in the Reviewed Event Bulletin (REB) of the IMS

  11. PROVIDING MORALE, WELFARE, AND RECREATION FUNDS AS INCENTIVES TO SAVE - ENDING THE END OF YEAR SPENDING FRENZY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-25

    budget law as it applies to the Air Force. The issue of wasteful year end spending is rooted in the very laws originally passed to reduce abuses of...statutes, each layered upon the prior one… [t]his incremental growth has created something of a legal nettle .”21 7 One-year Incremental Budget...attitudes toward spending versus saving. 29 CONCLUSION In order to reach its conclusion, this research paper began by examining the roots of the

  12. [Biologically active compounds from the aqueous extract of Urtica dioica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, H; Willer, F; Kreher, B

    1989-10-01

    From the water extract of the roots of Urtica dioica (stinging nettle) a polysaccharide fraction was isolated which revealed activity in the carrageenan rat paw edema model and lymphocyte transformation test. Ion exchange chromatography and gel filtration of this fraction afforded 4 different polysaccharides, one of which reduced dose dependent hemolysis in the classical pathway of the complement test. The Urtica dioica lectin (UDA) was reisolated and found to stimulate the proliferation of human lymphocytes.

  13. The Role of Culture in Conflict Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    Grasping the Nettle ; Analyzing Cases of Intractable, Chester A. Crocker, Fen Osler Hampson, and Pamela Aall eds., United States Institute of Peace...considerations in his model.44 Many enduring conflicts are rooted in culturally engrained prejudices and biases against “the other.” Bercovitch makes...Fisher argues that conflicting beliefs, morals and methods of communication, all rooted in culture, influence negotiations in various ways.57 Some

  14. Environmental Assessment for Repairs and Replacement of Overhead Electrical Line, Feeders N1, N3, and N6 Vandenberg Air Force Base, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-22

    along almost the entire coast of California. Shallow- rooted , mesophyllic plant species that are often drought-deciduous and summer-dormant... root and debris zone of the host plant (Mattoni 1992). Pupae remain in diapause until at least the following flight season. The number of adult...Maschner et al. 1991; Snethkamp and Munns 1991; Lebow 2001; Nettles and Hamilton 2008. 1149/H Location/ lithic scatter/ historic ranch N1, N3 Unevaluated

  15. Plants as biomarkers for monitoring heavy metal contaminants on landfill sites using sequential extraction and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrophotometry (ICP-AES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, A P; Coudert, M; Barker, J

    2000-12-01

    There have been a number of studies investigating metal uptake in plants on contaminated landfill sites, but little on their role as biomarkers to identify metal mobility for continuous monitoring purposes. Vegetation can be used as a biomonitor of site pollution, by identifying the mobilisation of heavy metals and by providing an understanding of their bioavailability. Plants selected were the common nettle (Uritica Dioica), bramble (Rubus Fruticosa) and sycamore (Acer Pseudoplatanus). A study of the soil fractionation was made to investigate the soil properties that are likely to influence metal mobility and a correlation exercise was undertaken to investigate if variations in concentration of metals in vegetation can reflect variations in concentration of the metals in soil. The soil was digested using aqua regia in a microwave closed vessel. The vegetation was digested using both microwave and a hydrogen peroxide-nitric acid mixture, refluxed on a heating block and a comparison made. The certified reference materials (CRMs) used were Standard Reference Material (SRM) 1547, peach leaves for vegetation (NIST) and for soil CRM 143R, sewage sludge-amended soil (BCR). The relative standard deviations (RSDs) were 2-6% for the analyses. Our findings show evidence of phytoextraction by some plants, (especially bramble and nettle), with certain plants, (sycamore) exhibiting signs of phytostabilisation. The evidence suggests that there is a degree of selectivity in metal uptake and partitioning within the plant compartments. It was also possible to correlate mobility phases of certain metals (Pb, Cu and Zn) using the soil and plant record. Zn and Cu exhibited the greatest potential to migrate from the roots to the leaves, with Pb found principally in the roots of ground vegetation. Our results suggest that analysis of bramble leaves, nettle leaves and roots can be used to monitor the mobility of Pb in the soil with nettle, bramble and sycamore leaves to monitor Cu and Zn.

  16. Final Environmental Assessment: Falcon 9 and Falcon 9 Heavy Launch Vehicle Programs from Space Launch Complex 4 East at Vandenberg Air Force Base, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    Central Coast Scrub Central coast scrub (CCS) is characterized by shallow- rooted , mesophylic plant species that are often drought-deciduous and summer...maturation larvae burrow into the soil and pupate, usually within the root and debris zone of the host plant (Mattoni 1992; Pratt and Ballmer, pers. obs...sharp or protruding objects, slippery soils or mud, and biological hazards including vegetation (i.e. poison oak and stinging nettle ), animals (i.e

  17. Final Environmental Assessment for the California Space Center at Vandenberg Air Force Base, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-02

    rooted , mesophylic plant species that Chapter 3. Affected Environment Final Environmental Assessment - California Space Center, Vandenberg Air...Chapter 3. Affected Environment 3-12 Final Environmental Assessment - California Space Center, Vandenberg Air Force Base the root and debris zone of the...protruding objects, slippery soils or mud, and biological hazards including vegetation (i.e. poison oak and stinging nettle ), animals (i.e. insects

  18. Environmental Assessment:Security and Safety Upgrades to Entry Control Facilities Vandenberg Air Force Base, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-08

    vegetation (i.e., poison oak and stinging nettle ), animals (i.e., insects, spiders, and snakes), and disease vectors (i.e., ticks, rodents), exist...processing pulpy roots or tubers (Glassow 1997). Along the Santa Barbara Channel coastline, use of shellfish declined as other animal foods became more...for temporary camps where they gathered grasses, roots , tubers, and bulbs. Hunting marine mammals became important during times when seals and sea

  19. Environmental Assessment of Installation Development at Scott Air Force Base, Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    during the historical period, tribes with cultural roots in an area might not currently reside in the region where the undertaking is to occur...perimeter roots to a depth between 6 and 12 inches below existing grade and removing excessive wood chips. Ground within a radius of 10 feet...stinging nettle (Laportea canadensis) and white heath aster (Symphyotrichum sp.) dominate a dense herbaceous layer in this community (SAFB 2010c

  20. Environmental Assessment for the California Space Center at Vandenberg Air Force Base, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-08

    shallow- rooted , mesophylic plant species that Chapter 3. Affected Environment Final Draft Environmental Assessment - California Space Center...buckwheat flowers and buds where the larvae feed until maturation. Upon maturation larvae burrow into the soil and pupate, usually within the root and...terrain, sharp or protruding objects, slippery soils or mud, and biological hazards including vegetation (i.e. poison oak and stinging nettle